WHEREIN Is set forth the gracious administration of Gods Co­venant with Man-kind, at all times, from the begin­ning of the World unto the End.

Historically digested into three Books. The first setteth down the History from Adam to the blessed Incarnation of Christ: The second continueth it to the end of the fourth year after his Baptisme, which was the three and thirtieth year of his age: The third, from thence till his glorious comming to Judgement.


Gen. 3.15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed, it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heele.
St. Joh. 3.16. For God so loved the world, that he gave his onely begotten Son, that whosoever be­lieveth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.
St. Joh. 19.30. It is finished.

LONDON, Printed by William Wilson, for the Author, Anno Dom. 1657.



IT is not unusuall to those who write bookes, to make choice of some noble friends to whom to dedi­cate them. My ambition is to present you with the Dedication of this. The great respects which I had from your dear Father to the last gasp of his breath, continu­ed and augmented by you, have put me forwards to retribute (to his memory, to your owne merits) in such a way as I am able.

Sr. There is great profit in reading of books, if a good choice be made of them. Historicall books will accomplish a gentleman: for an history is not improperly defined to be [...], a commemoration containing an exposition of some matter or thing, which hath been acted or done upon the stage of the world. So that by history [Page] we do as it were live, and have lived at all times, and in all places, conversing with all sorts of peo­ple, knowing the manners and severall constitu­tions of all nations, and are present in all the oc­currences of times by-past, as if they were now in action. But a Christian hath his unum necessa­rium, and that is to know Christ, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his suffe­rings, being made conformable unto his death. No historicall knowledge therefore more perti­nent unto him then that whereby, according to the Scriptures of the Divine canon, he shall know the gratious administration of Gods covenant with mankinde; shall see Christ in the Originall promise, and in all the promises, sacraments, sacri­fices, and sacred ceremonies, visibly set forth and represented in the legall worship, and by persons ordained to minister in the same, together with sa­cred places and functions till his coming in the flesh, to fulfill all that which was promised, and mystically shewed concerning himselfe. And then shall behold him in the flesh, as he was by divine dispensation: shall hear his heavenly doctrine, see his wonderfull works and miracles; and how he abolished the old testament, instituted the great and mysterious sacraments of the new. And how (having done all those things which were first re­quisite for him to do) he suffered, was buried, de­scended into hell, rose again the third day from the [Page] dead; and having been conversant with his dis­ciples for the space of forty daies after his resur­rection, he transferred the keyes of the kingdome of heaven from the Legall to the Evangelicall priesthood, giving ample commission to his Apostles to go into all the world, and to teach and baptize all nations; and then ascended into hea­ven, where he sitteth on the right hand of God, and maketh intercession for his Church.

A sound faith requireth a right understan­ding: for the things which we do not rightly under­stand, we cannot rightly believe. Therefore though to believe and to apply the great and most mysterious work of mans redemption to our selves effectually that we may be saved, is the gift of God by the holy Ghost through faith; yet to inform the understanding, the history o­pened and cleared according to the Scriptures, is most necessary. This is that which I have endea­voured to do, in such a method as I conceive most proper for the subject so transcendently myste­rious and divine, carefully observing the periods of the times, and with what brevity and perspicu­ity I could: to remember the learned of those things which they know, and to teach the un­learned some things which they do not know; a­voyding in all things curiosity and ostentation of language. Ʋpon the principall matters concur­ring with the history, (the explication whereof [Page] is more requisite) I have insisted more largely. And as for those things which cannot positively be defined or stated, (because not clearly evidenced in the Scriptures) Ut potui, explicavi; nec ta­men ut Pythius Apollo, certa ut sint & fixa quae dixi: sed, ut homunculus, probabilia conjecturâ sequens. Therefore must I apologize with the author of the Macchabaean history; for, If I have done well, and as is fitting the story, it is that which I desired; but if slen­derly and meanly, it is that which I could at­tain unto. 2 Mac. 15.38.

you have the devotions of Your much obliged and most observant friend, MATTH. BROOKES.

IT cannot be but thou shalt meet with some faults in this Impression, which I beseech thee to correct upon thine own observation; principally these following. fol. 17. Sect. 28. for invisible Church, read visible Church. f. 54. sect. 78. for vessells r. ves [...]'s. fol. 54. 79. for Scuttetus, r. Scultetus. f. 73. 10. for had paid it, r. hath paid it. f. 135. 75. for verietie r. verity. f. 223. 24. for ingregrity, integrity. and in the same sect. for St Peter Lombard, saith Peter Lombard. f. 225. 26. for emptitius, emptitias. every where for Sanhedrim, Sanhedrin f. 240. 43. for degisereris, dejicereris, & for stanti standi. f. 244. 48. for Num, Nunc. f. 249. 53. Quadripartitae, Quadripartita. f. 261. 67. for pdrmits, permits. f. 264. 69. [...], r. [...]. and in the same section, for, wherewith he was buried was chre, r. where with he was bu­ried were left in the Sepulchre. f. 168. and 169. for Not to them as to St Thomas, Not to say unto them as to St Thomas. f. 271. 74. for [...] r. [...]. Vale.


GOD made Man in his Image, after his likenesse. 1 And Man being made in the Image and Si­militude of God, had free-will,Man made in the Image of God. which made him capeable of a speciall positive law; ac­cording to which hee should live in all due obedience to his Creator, preserving him­selfe, and all his posterity, in that good con­dition in which he was created; as well thereby to avoid both sin and death, as also to render himselfe by his obedience a fit subject of a more cleare and perfect vision, and fruition of God, Aug. Enchir. cap. 25.Gen. 2.16. The law which God gave unto him was delivered in terminis; Of every tree of the Garden, thou maiest freely eate: But of the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eate of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die.

This was the primordiall law;The primor­diall Law. and (as Tertullian saith) in this 2 law given unto Adam we acknowledge to be laid up all those precepts which afterwards, delivered by Moses, sprouted forth young. That is to say, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all soule: and thou shalt love thy Neighbour as thy selfe. And Thou shalt not kill, and Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steale, Honour thy father, and thy mother, and Thou shalt not covet that which is another mans. For (saith he) the primordiall law was given to Adam and Eve in Paradise, as the wombe of all the com­mandements of God. Advers. Judaeos cap. 2. He had no need of fur­ther grace, for the observation of this law; because hee might (if he would) have kept it, by the liberty and freedome of his owne will left unto him in the custody of pure nature. For which cause the breach thereof made him a transgressor to all the commandements (if, as Saint Augustine saith,Adam's sin. it be divided into its severall members,) For pride is there (saith he), for as much as man delighted to be rather in his owne power, then in the [Page 2] power of God. And Sacriledge [or Infidelity], because he did not give credence to God. And murther, because he killed himselfe. And Spi­rituall fornication, because the virginity of the humane minde was de­flowred by the Serpents perswasion. And theft, because hee usurped that foode which was prohibited. And covetousnesse, because he desired more then ought to have sufficed him. And whatsoever else by diligent consi­deration, may be found to be in this one act of his transgression; Where­fore, by one man sinne entred into the world, and death by sinne, and death passed upon all men [ [...]] for that or in whom, (namely, in that one man) all have sinned. Thus was the deadly wound given by Adam, The propa­gation of A­dams sinne. through the abuse of his free will, to himselfe, and unto all his posterity, who were then in him tanquam in radice, as in the root of mankind, Aug. Enchir. cap. 26. whereby both hee and they who were to descend of, and from him, by ordinary generation, were the same day made obnoxious, or subject both to the Spirituall or supernaturall, and to the bodily or naturall death, with all the dreadfull precedents, concomitants, and conse­quents of them both.

3 For this, (and to the end that hee might restore that creature whom he had made to immortality) God by his infinite wise­dome, and of his great mercy, manifested unto man that expe­dient which he had foreseen, and determined from eternity; that he would redeeme and save him,Gods Cove­nant of grace. by the seede of the woman whom the Serpent had seduced; which seede should breake the Ser­pents head; that is to say, overthrow the Devill and all his pow­er. And therefore after Adam had sinned, and in him all his po­sterity, God maketh his covenant with him, and with them: and requireth both of him, and them, that they should on their parts, performe the conditions of it, by beleeving and applying it eve­ry one of them particularly to himselfe; and to know no other Redeemer, by whom to be redeemed from sinne and death, brought upon them all by Adams transgression, but onely that blessed seede. The first saving grace therefore that man received after his Fall (whereby he might rise againe from sinne and death, into which he was fallen) was faith, even faith in Christ: for the promised seede was Christ. Here therefore siste gradum, for the order of this our historie doth require that I should adnote some thing by the way concerning that first, and most necessary grace.

4 The old Romans held and worshipped faith for a goddesse; and Numa Pompilius is first said to have dedicated a Temple to Faith; Concerning Faith. whether because in all the actions of life, and more specially in contracts, bargaines, and covenants, there is an urgent use, and necessity of faith: Or, whether because traditions streaming down even from Adam unto those dayes, had greatly manifested a­mong the heathen themselves, that faith which is towards God, as that onely thing whereby God is moved to grant all the re­quests [Page 3] of men; and by which every man may, and must attaine unto true happiness; it is more then I will take upon me to deter­mine. Probable it is that Numa was not altogether ignorant of that which was taught in the Church concerning faith: for the Temples which he built are said to be without Images, and his Bookes upon Livies report being found a long time after his death [viz. Anno Urb. Cond. 573. Genebr. Chron. lib. 2. p. 411.] were burnt, as not holding correspondence with the heathenish superstition of those Idolatrous times.

There is faith towards Men; and there is faith towards God; 5 for so speakes the Scripture. I will restore thy Judges as at the first, and thy Counsellors as at the beginning; Isa. 1.26. afterwards thou shalt be called the city of Righteousness, the faithfull city. Faithfull towards God in believing all his promises; faithfull towards God in keeping all his commandments. Faithfull towards Men, in all distribu­tive, and commutative justice. But concerning that faith which is towards men,Faith to­wards men. and is nothing else but a certaine veracitie or truth of mind, whereby men approve themselves constant in their words, in their promises, and in all their contracts, bar­gaines, and covenants, to performe them, and is politicall, active or mercatorious; it pertaineth not to this our History to discourse at large.

Faith towards God, Faith to­wards God. is that faith whereby a man doth believe 6 in God, and apprehend and apply the Covenant of Grace, first made with Adam, and his posterity; and all the promises of God thereupon depending; to the saving of his soule. So that how­soever the name or word faith, be copiously, and variously ac­cepted in the Scriptures; yet as now we are to speak of Faith,S. Mat. 13.20, 21. Heb. 6.4, 5, 6. Jac. 8.13. Act. 2.19. S. Mat. 17.20 1 Cor. 13.2. Tit. 1.1. we do not intend either the externall profession of Christian Re­ligion onely. Or any temporall assent or bare knowledge of the grace of God. Nor yet any certaine perswasion conceived by Re­velation, or by particular promise concerning the working of mi­racles. But it intends that faith which is properly and theological­ly styled Faith; which pertaineth onely to Gods Elect, and to all of them; which is passive, and is called by Divines, the justifying or saving faith; because that thereby a man is justified, [...], in the sight of God, or with God, as the Scripture speaketh.Gal. 3.11. It is a gift of God, or an holy habit wrought by the Holy Ghost, whereby the believer giveth his assent or credence unto Gods ho­ly word, and doth apprehend and apply to himselfe, in particular; as well the Originall promise, as also all other promises, of the saving good will, and grace of God, in Christ the promised seed, to his glory, and to the salvation of his own soul.

The efficient cause of which justifying faith primarily is God 7 himself,The efficient of justifying faith. who is one divine essence distinguished into three per­sons, the Father, the Sonne, and the Holy Ghost: for faith is the gift [Page 4] of God, as St. Paul saith; Unto you it is given in the behalfe of Christ, not onely to believe on him, Phil. 1.29. but also to suffer for his sake. Yet so as that instrumentally it is either internall or externall. The internall is the Holy Ghost by his speciall working (the shining of God in our hearts) whereby faith is begotten in us;2 Cor. 4.6. while that he doth dispose our understanding to the saving knowledge of Christ: and moveth our will to give assent, and adhere thereunto. The externall is the administration of the Gospell, in the dispensation of the Word and Sacraments, whereby the Holy Ghost doth ordina­rily forme, and confirm the work of faith in us: although it must not be denyed that for the liberty of the power of his will, God without the use of this ordinary meanes, when, and where he shall so please, doth beget, and work, faith in the hearts of men.Rom. 1.16. I am not ashamed of the Gospell of Christ, for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth, to the Jew first, and also to the Greeke. 17. For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith, as it is written, The just shall live by faith.

8 The matter of faith The matter of Faith. if considered subjectively, the proper subject thereof is the understanding and will of man, so farre forth as each faculty is regenerate by the supernaturall grace, and power of the Holy Ghost, whereby the understanding discerneth those supernaturall benefits of faith, offered in Christ to be true; and the will applyeth them assuredly, as good and saving. O fooles and slow of heart, (of understanding, and of will) to believe all that the Prophets have spoken. Luc. 24.25. But the matter of faith considered objectively; in respect of the understanding, is divine verity: and in respect of the Will, the sole singular grace of God, promised in Jesus Christ; both which are contained and circumscribed in the written word of God: all which, and onely which, faith re­specteth, and embraceth, as its adequate object, and therein Christ crucified, as its principall, first, and proper object. Let us draw neare with a true heart, in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evill conscience, Heb. 10.22, 23. and our bodies washed with pure water. Let us hold fast the profession of our faith without wavering (for he is faithfull that promised.)

9 The matter of faith in respect of the parts of it, The matter of faith in respect of the parts thereof. are diversly considered, as well in regard of the subject, as of the object. For in respect of the understanding, and divine will, it is knowledge and assent: knowledge, whereby a man understandeth the whole word of God, according to the principall heads thereof, for the measure of grace revealed. Assent, whereby a man taketh it for granted, and is firmly perswaded in his heart, that all those things which he knoweth out of the Law, and the Gospell are so certainly true, that in them, as in divine truths, is setled rest to be found.Rom. 7.16. I consent (saith the Apostle) unto the Law that it is good. In respect of the will of man, the principall and primary part of [Page 5] faith, is confidence; which is a most firm perswasion of the heart, whereby all the faithfull doe appropriate the generall promise of Grace, to themselves in particular. Which confidence produceth a two-fold effect: whereof the first is a sure ground or foundation upon which a mans faith standeth in opposition of all dangers internall and externall. The second is a full trust in God, S. Mat. 7.25. whereby a man doth depend on him, that he may be saved. It is the testi­mony of the Spirit, which (as St. Paul saith) beareth witnesse with our spirit, that we are the children of God. Rom. 8.16.

The forme of faith The form of faith. consisteth in Relation, whereby the believer 10 doth apply unto himselfe the word of truth, and the divine promises of the grace of God in particular. So that look what the Scripture promiseth, and propoundeth generally, the believer appropriateth to himselfe by a firme perswasion. As for exam­ple, God so loved the world, that he gave his onely begotten Son: S. Joh. 3.16. that whosoever believeth in him should not perish but have everlasting life: And this is it which the Scripture speaketh in generall termes: and was first spoken to Adam after his fall, and is further spoken in all the old and new Testament, which yet the believer appro­priateth to himselfe. God so loved me, that he hath given his onely begotten Sonne, that I believing in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

The finall cause of faith, for the first and principall end of it,The finall cause of faith. is 11 the glory of God, the Author of our faith, and the Redeemer of our Souls. But the next or secundary end is out owne salvation, which the scripture therefore calleth the end of our faith, and the reward of it, as the Apostle St. Peter sayeth,1 Pet. 1.9. Receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your soules. Here note by the way,Observation. that faith towards God is one, and yet divers. One, in the species; for though there are many sorts of Christians, yet there is but one Catholique faith: for faith is species specialissima. One, in regard of the object; for the thing believed is one and the same: upon which ground, St. Athanasius in his Creed, doth conclude peremptori­ly, This is the Catholique faith, which except a man believe faithfully, he cannot be saved. And the scripture accordingly, One Lord, one Faith, one Baptism; Divers; both in number, and in degree. Eph. 4.5. In num­ber. Every believer hath his own faith, proper and peculiar to himself, which is his own faith, and is not the faith of any o­ther. In degree; for faith is in some more, in others lesse, accord­ing to the measure of the divine grace of God. There is [...], and there is [...]. If God so cloth the grass of the field which to day is, and to morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more cloth you, O ye of little faith? But the woman of Canaan had a great faith, S. Mat. 15.28 O woman great is thy faith; be it unto thee even as thou wilt. 12

Now this which hath been said concerning faith, The Cove­nant diversly administred. bringeth us directly into the way of our sacred History. For that Covenant [Page 6] which God made with Adam, and with all his posterity, was di­versly administred. At this time thus, at that time so, at divers times in divers manners, according as God was pleased to speak unto the fathers [...] at sundry times, Heb. 1.1. and in di­vers maners, saith the Apostle. And according as God was plea­sed to invest it, as it were with divers Robes, excellently set forth in the type,Gen. 37.31. by Josephs coat of many colours, dipped in the blood of the Kid which his brethren had killed. The times are distinguished into two Periods; The times d [...] ­stinguished into two Pe­riod [...]. the first is of the promised seed to be exhibited when the fulness of time should come: The second is of that promised seed exhibited, when that fulness of time was come: for so St. Paul himselfe distinguisheth the Periods of the times,Gal. 4.4. saying, When the fulness of time was come, God sent forth his Sonne.

13 Concerning that first period of time, the Covenant was admi­nistredConcerning the first Pe­riod of time, how the Co­venant was administred. Geneb. Chr. lib. 2. p. 447. in divers manners. For the space of two thousand forty and six yeares or thereabouts (for I scuffle not with Chronolo­gers concerning the exact Computation of yeares, seeing that of Genebrard is very true, that as touching the number of the yeares of the world, a man shall finde as many opinions as writers. Neither will I have to doe with that vast difference betwixt the Greeke and the Latine writers, occasioned by the corrupted Septuagint, ut­terly inconsistent with the Hebrew verity. I follow those Latine writers and Chronologers, among whom I finde but little diffe­rence, and they who differ but a little, seem no tto differ at all) I say, for the space of two thousand forty and six yeares, or there­abouts, from Adam to Abraham, and to the ninety ninth yeare of Abrahams age, the Covenant came forth naked, and was admini­stred under the forme of that blessed promise, which God made unto man after his transgression in these words, saying unto the serpent in whom the Devill was, I will put enmitie betweene thee and the woman, and betweene thy seed and her seed, it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heele. This was the Originall promise, the Covenant of Grace, Gen. 3.15. the sum and substance of the Gospel: which promise all the righteous faithfull, from Adam to Abraham (though they knew no more of Christ) did believe, that they might be saved. For, as learned St Augustine saith, None of all the righteous faithfull could attaine salvation, but onely by the faith of Christ: to them Christ was knowne, and had he not been knowne to them (saith he) they could not have prophesied Christ to us, some­times more darkly, and obscurely, as did the former; sometimes more plainly, and perspicuously, as did the latter Prophets. Enchir. 14 Cap. 118.

The faith of the ancient righteous Fathers,The faith of the ancient righteous Fathers. was the Catholike faith, even the same which we have, though otherwise dispen­sed, and revealed to them more obscurely, to us more plainly: [Page 7] They were Christians as well as we, for they did believe in Christ: and Eusebius proveth by invincible arguments, that the very names of Jesus, and of Christ, were known from the begin­ning of the world, and had in honour by all the Prophets of God, Ec. Hist. Lib. 1. Chap. 1. And in the Revelation of Saint John, Christ is plainly said to be slain from the foundation of the world. It is, because by vertue of his death which was to come,Rev. 13.8. they were saved, even as we. I know not, whether it were more impiously, or ignorantly averred, by the Servetani, that the Fathers of old time, and before the comming of Christ, did want both true faith, and spirituall life. Sure I am, it is against the truth; for those righteous Fathers, who had nothing more but the originall Promise, had thereby the true justifying and sa­ving Faith, according to all that, which hath been laid down before concerning faith; for, they gave assent or credence unto that promise, and did apprehend and apply it to themselves in particular, to Gods glory, and to the salvation of their owne soules. The efficient causeThe efficient cause. of it primarily, was God himselfe, whose gift it was; instrumentally and internally the Holy Ghost, by his speciall working, while that he did dispose their under­standing to the saving knowledge of Christ, and did move their wills to assent and adhere thereunto. Instrumentally and exter­nally, it was the Gospell it selfe, administred by Tradition, before they had the Word written, or any Sacrament for the obsigna­tion of that Promise; whereby the Holy Ghost, as by the then ordinary means, did form and confirm the work of faith in them.

The matter The matter. of their faith considered subjectively, was the un­derstanding 15 and the will, so far forth, as each faculty was re­generate, by the supernaturall power and grace of the Holy Ghost, whereby the understanding did discern those supernatu­rall benefits of faith, offered in that promised Seed, to be true; and the will did apply them assuredly to be good and saving. But the matter of their faith, considered objectively, in respect of the understanding, was divine verity; and in respect of the will, it was the sole singular grace of God, promised in that seed, both which were contained and circumscribed in the originall pro­mise; all which, and only which, their faith respected and em­braced, as its adequate object, and therein that Seed, as its first, next, and proper object. The matter of their faith, in respect of the understanding and divine will, it was knowledge and assent; knowledge, whereby they understood the promise, for the mea­sure of grace revealed: Assent, whereby they took it for gran­ted, and were firmly perswaded in their hearts, that the pro­mise was true, and therein found setled rest. In respect of their will, the principall and primary part of their faith was confidence, [Page 8] whereby they did appropriate the generall promise of grace to themselves in particular, which also produced a two-fold effect, whereof the first was a sure ground or foundation, upon which their faith stood, in opposition of all dangers, internall and ex­ternall. The second was, a sure trust in God, to depend upon him, that they might be saved; which sure trust in God, was the testimony of his Spirit, Heb. 11.4. whereby, as the Scripture saith, Abel offe­red unto God a more excellent sacrifice then Cain.

16 The forme The forme. of their faith likewise did consist in relation, whereby that promise or covenant of grace, which was made unto Adam, and to all his posterity, every believer did apply and appropriate unto himself, by a firme perswasion: viz. that that Seed should come; and for him, and for his redemption, should break the Serpents head, should overthrow the Devill and all his power; purchasing for him salvation and everlasting life. Finally, the finall cause The finall cause. of their faith, for the first and principall end of it, was the glory of God, the Author of their faith, and the Redeemer of their soules. But the next, or secundary end, was their own salvation, which they, even as we, did work out with fear and trembling. And in this manner was the Covenant barely administred, under the form of that blessed promise, from Adam to Abraham, as hath been said before.

17 But, God reneweth his Covenant with Abraham, The Cove­nant renewed with Abra­ham, &c. Rom. 4.16 Gal. 3.9. and with his Seed, generally with all the Faithfull, (for Abraham is set forth, to be the Father of us all; that is, of all us that believe: Abraham was blessed by Faith in Christ: And all they which be of faith, are blessed with faithfull Abraham) for they are the spiritu­all Seed: Specially with the People and Nation of the Jews, the carnall Seed. He draweth his Covenant into Articles, indenteth it,Gen. 17.11, 12, 13, 14, and setteth his Signe or Seal unto it, the Signe or Seal of Cir­cumcision: Ye shall circumcise (saith God) the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be a token of the Covenant between me and you. He setteth downe, what he will do on his part, and what he expecteth, that his People should do on their part; and he sealeth it with his Seal, Circumcision. And of all this, you may read at large, Gen. 17.

18 Circumcision Concerning Circumcision was a sacred action, wherein the fore-skin of the flesh of the Male kinde, was cut off, according to Gods Ordi­nance, for the obsignation of his divine Covenant with men. Who it was, that was deputed to that Office, the Scripture makes no mention; probable, it is the most antient or honoura­ble of that House or Family, of which the party to be Circum­cised was descended, especially, before the Law given: for, God commanded Abraham to do it, and Abraham, at Gods com­mandement,Gen. 17.23. Exod. 4.25. circumcised Ishmael his Son, and his whole House. Zipporah, the Wife of Moses, (although we have but that one [Page 9] precedent) did circumcise her Son. When the People of Israel were arrived in the Land of Canaan, then did Joshua Josh. 5.3. circumcise them. It is likely, that under the Law, that Office was to be performed by the Priests, as being by their Function sacred to God, and therefore the fittest persons to perform so divine a Ceremony. The Day appointed for Circumcision was the eighth day; for so did God ordain: He that is eight daies old, Gen. 17.12. shall be cir­cumcised among you. And it is plain, that our Saviour Christ himself, as being under the Law, and Saint John the Baptist, were circumcised the eighth day, according to the Law. But, if a man had not been circumcised upon the eighth day, according as God had appointed, he might then be circumcised at any other time; for, it is never too late for a man, to submit himself to the holy Ordinances of God. And therefore the Children of Israel, who travelled in the Wildernesse by the space of forty years, were (notwithstanding their age) circumcised in the Land of Canaan. Likely it is, that they did not circumcise with Knives, but with sharp Stones; for Zipporah, the Wife of Moses, circumcised her Son with a sharp Stone: Then Zipporah took a sharp stone, Exod. 4.25. (a sharp knife of stone) and cut off the foreskin of her Son, saith the story. And God commanded Joshua, saying, Make thee sharp knives, Josh. 5.2. (or knives of flints) and circumcise again the children of Israel the second time. Circumcision was not without the shedding of some blood, and much pain: For, when Moses's Wife had cut off the fore-skin of her Son, she cast it at his feet, saying,Exod. 4.26. Surely a bloody husband art thou to me. She said, a bloody Husband thou art, because of the Circumcision. And when the Shechemites were Circumcised, it is said, that the third day, when they were sore, (sore of the wound of Circumcision) Simeon and Levi took each man his sword, Gen. 34.25 and came upon the City boldly, and slew all the Males. They were sore, sore of the wound of Circumcision, sore the third day after; and so sore, that they were not able to make resistance, no, not for their lives.

Circumcision was a great and venerable Sacrament, it was 19 the Sacrament of initiation, or reception into the Covenant; The mystery of Circumci­sion. and the mystery of it was great: For first, whereas Circumcision was ordained to be made in that part or member of the body of Man, which God would to be for the propagation of Seed; it did fitly intimate man's uncleannesse by Nature, and the propaga­tion of Originall sin. Every father stands in the place of Adam, and conveigheth unto his Child, besides the nature of Man, the very guilt and corruption of Nature:Eph. 2.13. We are by nature the children of wrath. That naturall uncleannesse of ours must be taken a­way, or we cannot be saved. This is a second birth, as Christ said to Nichodemus, Marvell not that Isaid to thee, Ye must be born again. S. Joh. 3.7. 2ly It did fitly give them to understand, that that Seed, in whom [Page 10] they believed (Christ the Messiah) should come of the circum­cised seed of Abraham, according to the flesh, as God had pro­mised,Gen. 22.18. Lact. Instit. lib. 4. cap. 17. saying, In thy seed shall all the Nations of the earth be blessed, 3ly The making bare of that part or member, did (as Lactantius observeth) signifie, in the mystery, the true circumcision which is of the heart; that the breast must be laid bare, and that the spiritual Seed must be circumcised in heart, to have their conver­sation with an open and simple heart. I say nothing of that si­militude which some have observed, betwixt the heart and the prolifick member.Rom. 2.28. He is not a Jew which is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh; but he is a Jew which is one inwardly, 29. and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, not in the letter, whose praise is not of men, but of God. 4ly That piece of skin which was cut off, did signifie the uncleannesse of Na­ture, in a state of sin: And like as they cast the prepuce, or piece of skin, upon the ground, at the feet of him that was circum­cised,Exod. 4.25. as may be conjectured by what Zipporah did when she circumcised her Son: So, that all uncleannesse of heart and action, must be circumcised and cut off, it must be cast away, as the prepuce throwne upon the ground, never to be reassumed. 5ly The circumcision-knife was a type of Christ; for, that knife was of stone, and did intimate Christ the Rock, the foundation Stone, the Stone of Sion, elect and pretious; the corner stone, who by his Spi­rit, doth circumcise the hearts of men, according to that of Mo­ses, Deut. 30.6. The Lord thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy Seed, to love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou maist live. 6ly The drops of blood that were shed in circumcision, did give them to understand the blood of the Messiah, who was to be of the circumcised Seed, and that his blood it was, which should be shed for the remission of sins. 7ly The great paines and forenesse of circumcision, did represent as well the sufferings of Christ for us, as also, that they who will be his servants, must be nothing curious to suffer all paines and persecutions; and, if need be, to shed their blood for the name of Christ. 8ly The day of circumcision, which was the eighth day, did set forth in a mystery the Resurrection of Christ; for, like as Christ rose again from the dead upon the eighth day, according to the Jewes account, who begin to reckon their week upon the Sunday; even so, that they who were circumcised, had an eight day to look for, the day of his Resurrection, by ver­tue whereof, they should rise again from the dead, being first risen with him unto newnesse of life; that is to say, from a death of sin, to a new and spirituall life. Lastly, that same opprobri­um circumcisionis, that shame and disgrace which the Jew had, by reason of his circumcision, among the Gentiles, (for which he was mocked, despised, reproached, and scornfully termed [Page 11] [...] Apella, Verpus, &c.) did set forth the shame and scan­dall of the Crosse, giving the People of God to understand there­by, that the way to Heaven is not a way of popularity and ho­nour, but rather of ignominy, reproach, and worldly contempt. Moses had learned that lesson by his circumcision, Esteeming (saith the Scripture) the reproach of Christ greater riches, Heb. 11.26. then the treasures in Egypt. So great and excellent was the Mystery.

Most important was the use of this great Sacrament: For, 20 The use of Circumcisi­on. first, it was sigillum foederis, the seal of the Covenant, which God had renewed unto Abraham, and to his Seed, and did therefore serve greatly to confirm their faith; for, in that God had set to such a seal, they needed not to doubt the performance thereof on his part. Once God did make his covenant with Mankinde, and with all his creatures, that he would no more destroy them from off the face of the Earth by the Waters of a flood; for confirmation whereof, he placed his Rain-bow in the cloud, as the seal of that covenant; concerning which seal, he speaketh and promiseth, saying: It shall come to passe, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the Bow shall be seen in the cloud; Gen. 9.14.15. and I will remember my covenant which is between me and you, and every living creature of all flesh, that the waters shall no more become a flood to de­stroy all flesh. Such was the use of Circumcision, when God should see the circumcision in the flesh of the fore-skin, then would he remember the covenant that he had made with Abraham, and with Abraham's seed, to be the God of Abraham, and of his seed after him. And so was circumcision, signum confirmationis, Circumcisi­on, signum confirmatio­nis. a signe or seal of confirmation, as well of the covenant it selfe on God's part, as also of their faith in that covenant, on their part.

2ly It served to admonish them of their duties all their lives, to the end, that as often as they should look down upon them 21 selves, and see the signe or mark of circumcision, in the flesh of their foreskin, they might remember their covenant with God, to be an holy and a peculiar people unto him, and to serve him in holinesse and righteousnesse all the daies of their life. They did wear Gods badge or mark in their flesh, whereby he had set his stamp or mark upon them, for his own people, to give them to understand, that they must not defile themselves, or suffer themselves to be defiled, according to all the abominations of the wicked Heathen; nor lead an unclean life, according to the fleshly lusts of their owne heart. And for this cause, God was pleased, that they should receive names in circumcision; so when Abraham was circumcised,Gen. 17.5. his name was changed from Abram into Ahraham; And Saint John the Baptist, S. Luc. 1.63. S. Luc. 2.21. (though sancti­fied from his Mothers wombe) and our blessed Lord himselfe; (because he would fulfill all righteousnesse) had their names in their circumcision. It was a note of that subjection and perfect [Page 12] obedience, which they did owe unto the whole Law; and so it was signum admonitionis, Circumcision Signum ad­monitionis. Jer. 4.4. a sign of admonition, giving them al­waies to understand their duty, and that they must, on their part, performe the conditions of the Covenant to God-ward. Circumcise your selves to the Lord, and take away the fore-skins of your heart.

22 3ly It was a meanes ordained by God, wherein, and whereby to conferre his grace upon them, and to conveigh his grace unto them. For God doth not jest, or toy with men in the outward signes, but like as he doth make a sure performance of all that which he promiseth in his vocall word, the Scriptures; even so doth he make a sure performance, of all that which he promi­seth, and setteth before the eyes of men in his visible word, the sa­cred, Rom. 4.11. and mysterious Sacraments. And therefore St. Paul saith, That Abraham received the signe of circumcision, a seale of the righteous­ness of faith, which he had yet being uncircumcised, (to what pur­pose) that he might be the Father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised, Circumcision Signum prae­bitionis. that righteousness might be imputed to them al­so. And thus it was signum praebitionis, a signe of praebition, wherein he performed that which he had promised.

23 Lastly, Circumcision, was an externall signe of the visible Church, and made that outward distinction, whereby the ser­vants of God were to be known and distinguished from the ido­latrous Heathen; so that they who were not circumcised, had not the visible character, nor were to be reputed as visible mem­bers of the visible Church. And unto this alludeth St. Paul, when he saith,Phil. 3.2. Beware of Dogs, beware of evill workers, beware of the con­cision. The Dogs were the unbelieving Heathen, the evill workers were the miss-living Christians, the concision were those Iewes, who after the abolition of circumcision, by some instrument which they had, did draw up the prepuce, as men ashamed of their circumcision; But the true circumcision is of the Christian. For (saith the Apostle) We are the circumcision, which worship God in spirit, and rejoyce in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh. And thus was it signum distinctionis, 3. Circumcision Signum di­stinctionis. a sign of distinction, as being that outward character or marke, whereby the Church of God was vi­sibly to be knowne, and distinguished, upon which the Jewes were so elated, that the uncircumcised they utterly disdained, reputing them as Dogs, Swine, or other uncleane beasts. Thy servant slew both the Lyon and the Bear, 1 Sam. 17.36 and this uncircumcised Phi­listine shall be as one of them. And in this manner the Covenant went forth, and was administred, from the ninety ninth year of Abra­hams age, untill Moses time, and to the departure of the people of Israel out of Egypt, for the space of about four hundred and two years more, till the people were departed, and the Law was given.

And here the peruser of this our sacred History, hath to ob­serve, 24 that there was a time when circumcision was not,Periods of times to be observed. and therefore could not be used; so was it from Adam to Abraham, and to the ninety ninth yeare of Abrahams age. There was a time when circumcision was; and therefore must be used. So was it from the ninety ninth yeare of Abraham, till the Resurrection of Christ; during all which time it was sub praecepto, under the law and commandment of God; it was a necessary Sacrament, or seale of Gods Covenant, and was therefore necessaria & uti­lis, necessary and profitable: Necessarie to be done for the Law sake, whereby it was ordained, and profitable by divine Institution, to them that were circumcised. There was a time when it might indifferently be used, or not used; which was, from the Resur­rection of Christ, to the destruction of the Temple, which was the Ward-robe of Ceremonies. In which period it was lawfull, but it was not profitable, and was permitted (as Luther saith) not as a necessary Sacrament or seal of the Covenant, Luther com in Galat. cap. 2. v. 3. but for reverence of the Fathers, and for charitie sake, lest the weak should take of­fence, untill they should be confirmed in the faith. There was a time, and now is, wherein circumcision is altogether unlawfull, and this time is from the destruction of the Temple by Titus and the Romans, unto the end of the world. So then, there are foure periods. The first from Adam to Abraham, wherein circumcision was not borne. The second from the ninety ninth year of Abra­ham, till the Resurrection of Christ; wherein it lived, but yet had its infancy, its manly age, and its old age. Its infancy from Abraham, till the departure of the people out of Egypt, and till the Law given. Its manly age, from the Law given to the birth of Christ. Its old age, from Christ his birth to his Resurrection; du­ring which time it is not improper to say, that it lay sick upon its death bed; and when Christ rose from the dead, then circum­cision expired. The third Period, from the Resurrection of Christ, till the destruction of the Temple, during all which time though it were dead, yet it was not buried, but lay, as it were, upon its Herse, in expectation of an honourable buriall. The fourth and last Period, from the destruction of the Temple, which was the funerall burning of circumcision, to the end of the world; where­in it is not onely dead, but buried too; and if any man shall now rake it out of its grave, Christ shall profit him nothing. Behold I Paul say unto you, that if you be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing. Gal. 5.2.

In or about the yeare of the world, two thousand four hun­dred 25 forty and seaven,Concerning the paschall Lambe. Gen. 15.13, 14. when the time came that God would bring forth the people of Israel out of Egypt, according to his word, and promise made to Abraham, Gen. 15. He setteth ano­ther seal to his Covenant, by instituting another Sacrament, the [Page 14] Sacrament of the passover or paschall Lamb, (it was the Sacrament of their continuation in the covenant) which he commanded to be observed. It was a sacred action of divine Institution, in the killing and eating of a Lambe, to perpetuate the memoriall of Israels deliverance out of the land of Egypt, and from the servi­tude and bondage of the Egyptians, to testifie unto them the grace and favour of God, to be a type of Christ, to conserve them in the unity of the Church, and to teach them true grati­tude in the thankfull acknowledgement of so great a benefit. To him that made the world, it belongeth to make the Sacra­ment; therefore this Sacrament was of divine institution: for Moses delivered to the people that which he received from God. The Time. 1. He changeth the beginning of the year: For whereas the Jewes ever before, began the year at the aequinoctiall, in the moneth of September; God commanded Moses that it should begin from that moneth, wherein the people departed out of Egypt, that was the moneth Nisan, which correspondeth with the moneth of March, wherein is the Vernall aequinoctiall. At this aequino­ctiall, this great Sacrament was to be celebrated; for upon the tenth day of that moneth, they made choice of the Lambe; upon the fourteenth day at evening (that is to say before the Sun went downe) they killed it; and in the evening following, which was the evening of the fifteenth day (for the Jewes began their day at evening when the Sunne went downe) they did eat it accord­ing to the Law. Where I would request the Reader of this our History to take notice, that it came to pass in process of time, that the Jewes by the tradition or law of their Sanhedrin,Carol. Sigon. de Rep. Heb. lib. 3. cap. 9. did forbeare to eat the Passover, upon the second, the fourth, or sixth dayes of the weeke; that is, upon our Monday, Wednesday, and Friday: so that if the fifteenth day of the moneth fell upon ei­ther of those dayes, the Passover was deferred to the next day. It is said to fall out so, the yeare that Christ suffered; and this was the reason why the Passover was killed for him upon the Thursday, and eaten at even, that is to say upon the Friday, which began at Sunset, which day to the Jewes, following their traditi­on, was the parasceue or day of preparation, on which they kil­led the Passover, to eat it after Sun-set, which was the evening of the Saturday or Iewish Sabbath. But our Lord, who was made under the Law, would not eat it, but according to the Law.

26 2ly The place The place. of the Passover was certaine and appointed; for although at first they did eat it in the land of Egypt, according to their families in severall houses: Yet when they arrived in the land of promise, it was utterly forbidden to be celebrated, in any other place but onely in that which the Lord should choose to put his name there: Deut 16.6. that was first in Shilo, afterwards at Ieru­salem, whither the tribes went up at that solemne feast and be­ing [Page 15] dispersed all the City over, did by severall companies, in severall houses, eat the Passover: The persons The Persons. that were to eat it, were all the congregation of Israel, even every one that was cir­cumcised, of whom such a number was to meet together in one house, as might suffice to eat a whole Lambe at one meal. No fo­reyner or hired servant, nor slave might eat of it; but yet, if they were first circumcised, they might come unto this Sacrament; nei­ther was any difference at all to be made betwixt them,Exo. 12.49. and the native circumcised seed. 3ly The ceremonies The Cere­monies. were stated; that they must choose a Lambe, it must be taken out from the Sheepe, or from the Goats. This choice must be made upon the tenth day, upon the fourteenth day in the evening they must kill it: they must take the blood in a Bason: they must take a bunch of Hysop, and dip it in that blood, and strike the lintell, and the two side-posts of the doore of the house where it was eaten, neither must they go forth untill the morning. The Lambe it selfe must not be eaten raw, nor sodden, but rosted; it must be all rosted whole, with the head, the legs, and purtenance. It must be eaten with bitter herbs, and with unleavened bread; it must be all eaten, no­thing of it must remaine until the morning, and if any part of it should remaine untill the morning, it must be burnt with fire. It must be all eaten in one house, none of it must be carried out, neither must a bone of it be broken. All the while that they did eat it, they must stand upon their feet, for they must eat it with their loyns girded, their shooes on their feet, and their staffe in their hand, and they must eat it in haste. And all this is luculent­ly prescribed, Exod. 12.

By all this, God would perpetuate the memorial of that great 27 deliverance wrought for his people,The Mean­ing. when he brought them out of the land of Egypt, and from the cruelty and oppression of Pharoah, and of the Egyptians. It was not enough that such a deliverance should be preached, but he will have it to be visibly represented in his Church, by the anniversarie celebration of a so­lemne Sacrament; of which the parents must carefully teach the meaning unto their Children. And it shall come to passe when your children shall say unto you, what meane you by this service? That ye shall say, it is the sacrifice of the Lords passover, Exo. 12.26. who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. 27.

But by all this a further and greater mysterie The Myste­rie. was meant and 28 intended: For their deliverance out of the land of Egypt, was a type of that deliverance which all the Israel of God hath by the redemption of Iesus Christ. That was a deliverance out of a tem­porall bondage, this is a deliverance out of an eternall bondage; that was a deliverance of the body, this is a deliverance of body and soule; that was a deliverance from Egypt, and from the heavy [Page 16] burthens of it; this a deliverance from hell it selfe, and from the eternall torments of it. By that deliverance, the carnall seed were brought into the land of Canaan; by this deliverance, the spirituall seed are brought into the kingdome of heaven. That lamb was Christ; it was Christ in mysterie and signification, for Saint Paul affirmeth it in plain termes,1 Cor. 5.7. Christ our passeover is sa­crificed (or slaine, [...]) for us. That lamb was without ble­mish, and a male of the first year, or of a year old: to signifie Christ conceived by the Holy Ghost, and born of a pure Virgin, in whom there was not the least blemish or spot of sin, either originall or actuall; and to signifie Christ sacrificed, in the full perfection of the human nature. That lamb was taken out from the sheep or from the goats, to signifie Christ according to the flesh, descended both of righteous and unrighteous parentage, as is to be seen in his genealogy, St. Mat. 1. & St. Luc. 3. That blood of the lamb which was shed, and was with a bunch of hysope stricken upon the lintell, and upon the two side-postes, which God looked upon, to the end, that he might not suffer the destroyer to destroy them; did signifie the blood of Christ, who, like as the hysope, which is a low and contemptible herbe, should come in a low and contemptible condition; that he would look upon his blood, and for that blood-sake, spare his whole Church, by delivering it from the destruction of the wicked world. That lamb is eaten for sustentation of the body, when Christ crucified is believed for the nutriment of the soul; for,S. Joh. 6.51. to eat Christ is a work of faith. That lamb, rosted whole up­on the spit, did signifie, whole Christ, made a sacrifice upon the crosse. That lamb wholly eaten, did signifie Christ wholly to be believed, the divinity, the humanity, the hypostaticall union. A bone of that lamb was not to be broken; and that St John saith plainly to be meant of Christ, S. Joh. 19.36. that not a bone of him should be broken; wherein also is to be observed, that although this lamb of God did suffer, according to all that wherein it was possible for him to suffer in the flesh, and was broken; yet his Divinity could not suffer. That lamb was to be eaten in haste, because it was the Lords passover; to signifie, that all they who eat the true passe­over, which is Christ the Lord, by faith, must use no procrastina­tion or delay, but must make all the haste they can to come to a full fruition of him. That lamb was to be eaten with unleavened bread, and with bitter herbes, to signifie, that they who eat the true passeover, must purge out the old leaven of malice and wicked­nesse, and keep the feast with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth, nothing abhorring poverty and all manner of afflictions, which attend them in this present world for that lamb's sake. That lamb was eaten standing, with their loines girt, their shooes on their feet, and their staves in their hands; to signifie, that [Page 17] in this world, we are pilgrims and strangers; here we have no abiding place, we must go forth to seek another and a better Country, whose builder and founder is God.

Finally, the useThe use. of this Sacrament was, to admonish them of 28 repentance, and [...]o teach them to amend their lives; therefore the beginning of the year was changed, to teach them, to live no more after the old year, in their former conversation, but to be­come new creatures in Christ: No uncircumcised person was to eat of it, for this was a Sacrament of the [...]visible Church, and ser­ved to congregate the members of the same into communion, and into one and the same visible profession of the true Religion; and was therefore a distinctive signe, whereby the professors of the true Religion might be knowne and distinguished. In one house it must be eaten, neither must any part of it be carried out of the house: to teach them to know, that the Church, which is that house in which the Lamb is, is but one; they must therefore keep themselves in the unity of that Church, and not go forth of it, nor think to finde the true Lamb of God, in the fraternities of Hereticks, Schismaticks, and Sectaries, who depart from the communion of the Church; for, among such, he will not be found, neither will he be eaten there.

This great Sacrament being thus instituted & ordained, then 29 God proceedeth, for he disposeth, expoundeth, The Cove­nant disposed into the form of a testa­ment. The legal part. Levit. 18.5. Gal. 3.19. and confirmeth his cove­nant into the forme of a Testament, having two parts; the one legal & conditionall, requiring perfect obedience, and under that condition promising eternall life: Ye shall therefore keep my statutes and my judgments; which if a man do, he shall live in them. And that legall part of the covenant was added, that is to say, further expounded, put into a better method, and written (as Saint Paul saith) because of transgressions. How so? Why, first, to dis­cover sins and transgressions; for, by the law is the knowledge of sin, Rom. 3.20. Rom. 7.7. I had not knowne sin but by the law; for I had not knowne lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet. 2ly To punish sins and transgressions, for the punishment is prescribed by the law; the punishment prescribed by the law, is the curse of the law: Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the words of this law, Deut. 27.26. to do them. 3ly To smite the conscience, and to make a man to condemn him­selfe, for the sins and transgressions which he hath done; as Saint Paul saith, We know, that what things soever the law saith, Rom. 3.9. it saith to them that are under the law, that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. In the confession of sins, saith Saint Jerome upon the place. 4ly To shew unto the people, by whom sins and transgressions are to be expiated, viz. not by those Leviticall Ordinances, but by him who was set forth in the Leviticall Priesthood, and by all the sacrifices of the Law, that is, Jesus Christ: Eph. 1.7 In whom we have redemption through his [Page 18] blood, the forgivenesse of sins, according to the riches of his grace. For the law (saith the Apostle) having a shadow of good things to come, Heb. 10.1. and not the very image of the things, can never with those sa­crifices which they offered year by year continually, make the commers thereunto perfect.

30 The other part of that Testament was Evangelicall, The Evan­gelicall part. setting be­fore their eyes the Redemption of Jesus Christ, and giving them to understand, that man should be reconciled unto God, and de­livered out of all miser [...] by his death. Upon which part of the testament, he putteth a most rich and sumptuous robe, where­unto belonged, 1st that Tabernacle, or portable Temple, which Moses at Gods commandment made in the Wildernesse, the pattern whereof was shewed unto him in the Mount, Exod. 25.40. Act. 7.44. Heb. 8.5. with all the sacred utensills thereunto belonging; the Arke of the cove­nant, the golden table, the shew-bread, the golden candlestick, the altar of incense, the altar of burnt offerings, the brasen laver; all which are to the life set forth, as God commanded, and as Mo­ses made them, in the book of Exodus, Cap. 25, 26, 27, 30, 36, 37, 38, 40.

31 The Tabernacle, The mystery of the Taber­nacle. as it was the house of divine worship, did represent the Church; for in his Church, and only in his Church, is the true worship of God. The Pillars were types of the Apostles, Bishops, and other Ministers of the new Testament, by whose faith and function, the Church is upheld. Their sockets of brasse, the faith of Christ, in which they stand strongly groun­ded and rooted, immoveable as pillars in their sockets. The gol­den boords, with their sockets and bars, did represent the faith­full, far more pretious then gold, who, like gold, do shine and glister in all holy conversation. The curtains of fine twined linnen, and blew, and purple, and scarlet, with cherubims of cunning work, coupled together with loops and taches of gold, did signifie, that the members of the Church, adorned with the severall graces of the Holy Ghost, are knit and joyned together in the unity of one and the same Spirit, by the bond of peace. The Rams skins died red, and the Badgers skins for the covering aloft, did mean the Gentiles, made partakers of the same redeeming blood, and their faith and fortitude in withstanding the violent stormes of persecution. The other vailes, namely, that of the outward court, and that which was betwixt the outward court and the holy place, did shew forth the humility of Christ, where­with the Divinity, as with a vail, was shaddowed, and through which the Godhead entred in to be sacrificed, and to make an attonement for the sins of men. But the inward vail, which was hung up before the holy of holies, or the holiest of all, which was inaccessable to all, and a type of heaven, into which only the high Priest entred, and that but once a year, upon the great [Page 19] day of expiation, according to our accompt the tenth day of September, did import, that the way into the Holiest of all, was not made manifest, while the first Tabernacle was yet standing. Heb. 9.8. The High Priest must go in, making the attonement, that so heaven gates may be opened unto the sons of Adam, who were shut out by sin: When thou hadst overcome the sharpnesse of death, (singeth the Church) thou didst open the kingdome of heaven to all believers. But who is sufficient to declare the mysterie of all these things?

The matter and form of the Ark, The Ark. is luculently set forth in 32 the book of Exodus, Cap. 25. & 37. It was placed in the most holy place, impervious unto all, save only to the high Priest, called in the Scripture, the Arke of the covenant of the Lord, Num. 10.33. Josh. 3.6. because the tables of the covenant were laid up there, together with the golden pot of Manna, and Aaron's budding Rod. It was a visible te­stification of Gods divine presence, from whence he gave An­swers, where God did, as it were, make his habitation, and therefore called also the Arke of the Lord God of hosts, 1 Sam. 4.4. that dwelleth between the Cherubims. It was a type of Christ, for the gold of the Ark did signifie the Divinity of Christ; the wood of the Ark did signifie the humanity of Christ; & the crown environing, did signifie the hypostatical union, whereby was shewed what Christ must be in his own person, viz. God & man, hypostatically united in one person. It was a symbol of Religion; for what else meant the tables of the ten commandements, which were laid up there, the pot of Manna, with Aaron's rod? What else meant those two Che­rubims, which were placed face to face, and did face one ano­ther; yet so, as both of them did look down upon the propitia­tory, or mercy seat: But the old Testament, and the new, having mutuall respect to Christ, answering to, and interpreting one another? It was an Emblem of Regality; for there might you see the crowne of gold, and the flourishing rod or scepter, ensignes of regality.

Without the Vail, which was betwixt the Holy place and 33 the Holiest of all, in the holy place, stood the golden table, The golden table. an am­ple description whereof is made Exod. 25. To this table be­longed dishes, and spoons, and covers, and bowles, to cover or powre out withall. And upon this table were set forth the cakes of shew-bread, in number twelve, made of fine flower, and set in two rowes, having franckincense put upon each row. This was the bread of memoriall, and must be renewed every Sabbath day, that it might be before the Lord continually. See Levit. 24. The table was Christ, in a mystery; there might they see his divinity, his humanity, the hypostaticall union, by the gold, the wood, and the crowne environing. From him, as from a table, do all his people receive the spirituall nutriment. His Ministers supply the office of dishes, spoones, covers, and bowles, to cover and poure [Page 20] out withall; for by them, and by their ministry, is the heaven y nutriment given and dispensed unto men. These must be all of pure gold, sacred by their functions, and holy in their lives and conversations. The twelve cakes did signifie the Church, the two rowes the Church of the nevv Testament, consisting both of Jewes and Gentiles. The name or title of shew-bread, did intimate the visibility of his Church: the franckincense that was upon those rowes of the shew-bread, the prayers, supplications, and praises of his Church. And as that bread was renewed, and was con­tinually before the Lord for a memoriall: Even so, that he will for ever accept the prayers, supplications, and praises that are made unto him in his Church, have it alwaies in remembrance, and preserve it unto the worlds end. And what is this, but that which Christ saith unto his Apostle Saint Peter, S. Mat. 16.18. Upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. Upon this table have I placed my shew-bread, [my Church] I have placed it in two rowes of Jewes and Gentiles; I have pla­ced it for a memoriall, and to be continually before me, that I may have it alwaies, in despight of all opposition, even unto the end of the world.

34 The golden candlestick The golden Candlestick. S. Joh. 1 9. S. Joh. 8.12. hath likewise its description, Exod. 25. It had his shaft, his branches, his bowles, his knops, and his flowers, all of pure beaten gold. It was Christ, that true light, which lighteth every man that commeth into the world. I am (saith he) the light of the world: he that followeth me, shall not walk in dark­nesse, but shall have the light of life. His branches, his bowles, and his knops, are his Apostles, his Bishops, and Priests; and his flowers are all good christians, that believe in him. The candlestick is made for the light of the house: Christ came into the world for the light of his Church. The branches, the bowles, the flowers be­long unto the candlestick: The Apostles, the Bishops, the Priests, and all good christians, belong unto Christ. The light which is held forth by the branches, is the light of the candlestick: the doctrine of the Gospell, by which the world is enlightned, is the word of Christ. All the branches, bowles, knops, and flowers, must be of pure gold: All his Apostles, Bishops, Priests, and all good christians, must be of like holinesse with him. Because it is writ­ten,1 Pet. 1.16. Be ye holy, for I am holy. The lamps, snuffers, and snuffe-di­shes, must be of pure gold; and all they who have any place or degree in his Church, must be of like purity.

35 The Altar of incense The Altar of incense. was made of Shittim-wood, foure square, a cubit long, and a cubit broad, two cubits high; it had foure hornes, it was covered over with gold, and had a crowne of gold round about. It was placed in the Holy place, before the vail, which divided the Holy place from the Holy of Holies. Once every year, upon the day of Expiation, (according to our ac­compt [Page 21] count the tenth day of September, the high Priest entred into the Sanctum Sanctorum, and then he made an attonement, upon the horns of the Altar, with the blood of the sinne offering of attone­ments: that is, he put the blood of the Goat, and of the Calfe, offered for the sins of the people, upon the hornes of that Altar; by which religious Ceremony the attonement was made, and a recon­ciliation of God with the people. Upon this Altar was offered the sacred incense, The sacred incense. which was a most sweet perfume, composed and confected of four most sweet and odoriferous simples. Stacte (Myrh dryed and beaten to ashes). Onycha (the shell of a little fish, wonderfully sweet, much like the nail of a mans hand, whence it is so called; [...] signifieth a nail: if not rather, as Pa­pias thinketh, a kind of spice, bearing that name). Galbanum (it was the juyce or gum, of a certain sweet smelling herb, white as milk, whence it hath the name; for [...] signifieth milk). And pure Frankincense, that is to say, franckincense not mixed with ro­sen. A like quantity of all these Simples were confected into a sweet perfume, for the service of God, and this was called incense pure and holy. Now the Altar was Christ, Exod. 30.35 for it figured and set forth Christ to come: the Incense were the prayers of the Church, The Myste­rie. and of all her members: And the Priest who offered incense, did in the type bear the person of Christ, untill his coming in the flesh. The gold (as was said before concerning the Ark and the golden Table) did signifie the Divinity, the Wood the Humanity; and the Crownen vironing, the Hypostatical union: that the wood of Shit­tim not corruptible as other wood, was covered with gold, it did signifie Christ his body, which God would not to see corrupti­on, clothed upon, with eternall glory. Like as the sacred incense composed of four most sweet and odoriferous simples, was of­fered by the Priest, both morning and evening upon that golden Altar: so that the prayers and supplications of the faithful, com­posed and confected of faith, hope, charity, and the sweet eja­culations of Gods most holy and most blessed Spirit, are by Christ the true and eternall Priest, offered unto God upon the golden Altar which is himself, as a sweet perfume, with the good sa­vour whereof he is well pleased, at morning and at evening, à principio ad finem, from the beginning of the world unto the end.

The brazen Altar, The brazen Altar. which was the Altar of burnt-offerings, with 36 the vessels thereof, is sufficiently described Exod. 28. It did sig­nifie Christ. For like as that Altar was but one, and was for all the burnt-offerings of all the people offered upon all occasions: even so Christ is that sole, singular, catholick, generall, and uni­versall Altar, in and upon whom all the sacrifices of the Church which are spirituall, are by faith to be offered up unto God the Father. This Altar was placed in the court without, to signifie [Page 22] Christ (as old Simeon saith in his Song) prepared before the face of all people,S. Luk. 2.31. and tendred unto all the world by the ministry of the Gospel. I might here say, that the Brass did signifie the forti­tude and patience of Christ,Heb. 12 2. who endured the cross, despising the shame. And whereas all the Vessels thereof were to be of Brass, it was to give them to understand, that all his servants must be of the like fortitude and patience. An appendix to this Altar was the brazen laver The brazen Laver. described, Exod. 30. It was for the Priests to wash their hands and their feet, when they went into the Taber­nacle, and when they approached the Altar to offer sacrifice; they were to wash their hands and their feet lest they should dye. It was to give them to understand, that all they who will minister to the Lord in holy things, must cleanse their hands from every evill work, and their feet from every evill way, they must be holy by the sanctification of his spirit, for he that is not so wa­shed, is obnoxious or subject unto death eternall every moment. The Mysterie of which ordinance, extendeth to that holy priest­hood which now in the time of the Gospell, doth offer up spiritual sacrifices, 1 Pet. 2.5. acceptable to God by Jesus Christ. And such was the Ta­bernacle, and the sacred utensils of the same, all which were to be found in the Temple which Solomon built, but with greater splendor, meaning thereby that when Christ the true Solomon should establish the Church, which is now in the New Testament, then should all the mysteries of Christian Religion appear in far greater beauty and glory.

37 But here before we proceed further, our sacred History bids us to enquire what became of that Tabernacle and Ark which Moses made, after that God had his fixed Temple built by Solo­mon. At first the Tabernacle and Arke, during the peregrination of the people of Israel in the wilderness,The History of the Taber­nacle, and of the Arke. were carried from place to place; at length they passed through the River Jordan, being alwaies born by the Priests, and Levites, whose office was to take down the Tabernacle, that so it might be born, and to set it up again, when there should be occasion. When they had pas­sed over Jordan, they were of them brought to the camp at Gil­gal, Josh. 4.19. which was nigh to Jericho, in the East border; and there they abode together for a certain space, till the people whom Joshua had circumcised were whole,Josh. 5.8.10. and till they had kept the passeover: And then the Ark was taken by the Priests, and carried about Jericho seven dayes together, but was every night brought back againe into the campe, Josh. 6.11. where it lodged. The City being ta­ken and destroyed, after the walls thereof were fallen downe, both the Tabernacle and the Ark were brought to Shiloh, Josh. 18.1. a towne in the tribe of Ephraim, and set up there; of which tribe Joshua was.Jud. 2.9. There was the land divided by lot, for an inheritance unto the severall tribes, by Eleazar the Priest, and Joshua the Son of [Page 23] Nun, at the door of the Tabernacle which was there then. And thus the house of God,Josh. 19.51. and the seat of Religion (the Tabernacle and the Ark) were placed in Shiloh, and thither the tribes went up at the three solemn Feasts,Exod. 34.23 Jud. 18.31. 1 Sam. 1.9. 1 Sam. 3.2. as unto the place which the Lord had chosen to put his name there, according as it was provided in the Law. In that place the Tabernacle and Ark remained during all the government of the Iudges, untill the time and govern­ment of Eli the high Priest, and untill a little before his death.

At what time there was War between the Israelites and the 38 Philistines, and the Israelites were over-come by the Philistines at Eben Ezer: wherefore to find protection from the Ark they went to Shiloh, and took it out of the Tabernacle, and brought it into the field; and so were the Tabernacle and the Ark separated,The Taber­nacle, and Ark sepa­rated. the one from the other. But the battel being joyned, the Israelites were defeated, thirty thousand of their footmen slain upon the turfe, the Ark of God was taken, and Hophni and Phinehas the sonnes of Eli were both slain. At the newes whereof (and when he heard that the Ark of God was taken) old Eli fainted, fell off from his seat, and brake his neck. The Philistines (the Ark of God being thus gotten into their possession) brought it from Eben Ezer where the battel was fought,1 Sam. 4.18. unto Ashdod or Azotus where was the Temple of Dagon their god, and set it up by Da­gon; but it was he that was figured by the Arke, and whose di­vine presence was there, that would by his comming into the world, overthrow all the false gods of the Gentiles, and destroy and abolish their idolatrous worship and service; and therefore Dagon could not stand before the Ark of the Lord, but fell flat upon his face to the earth, which when the men of Ashdod saw, they set him up in his place again.1 Sam. 5.3, 4. But Dagon was thrown down again, and his head, and both the palms of his hands were cut off; thereby shewing that the Devill, whose idol Dagon was, and all his power and wicked workes, should be overthrown and cut off, by that true Arke, who is the power and strength of God. The hand of the Lord also (saith the Text) was heavy up­on them of Ashdod, and he destroyed them, and smote them with Emrods, even Ashdod and the coasts thereof. Therefore they con­vened all the Lords of the Philistines, 1 Sam. 5.6. to consult and determine what should be done with it (for they were not insensible that the plague which was come upon them, was because of the Ark) who ordered it to be sent to Gath. But they also being destroyed,8. and plagued with Emrods, as the men of Ashdod had been, they sent it away to Ekron; so loath and unwilling are men to render back unto God his rights, having once seized on them with sacrilegious hands.10. Notwithstanding the Ekronites were grievously plagued also, as those of Ashdod and Gath had been; their destruction was great and mortal, and the hand of God was [Page 24] heavy upon them. They therefore being sensible of the cause of it, by common consent of all the Lords of the Philistines, after seaven moneths captivity, sent it back again unto the Israelites; and in this maner did they send it. They sent, for a trespasse-offer­ing, (by the counsell of their Priests, and Diviners) five golden Emrods, and five golden Mice, thereby acknowledging the divine power and justice of God, whereby they were justly plagued, and their Land marred, and put them in a Coffer by the side of the Arke. Then they put it upon a new cart, whereunto they yo­ked two milch kine to draw it, shutting up their calves at home. But the Kine forgetting their Calves, went directly to Bethshe­mesh, which was in the borders of the Israelites; there was it en­tertained with exceeding great joy, taken down from the Cart by the Levites, who clave the wood of the Cart, and offered therewith the Kine for a burnt-offering, placing the Ark upon that great stone which was in the field of Joshua the Bethshemite, whither the Kine had brought it. That stone therefore was a type of Christ, the rock and sure foundation whereupon his Church is builded.

39 Notwithstanding when the Bethshemites had looked into the Ark, then were they also plagued, and no less then fifty thou­sand and threescore and ten men of them perished of the plague. This gave them occasion to send to the inhabitants of Kiria [...]h­jearim to take the Arke unto them; who came upon that invita­tion, and fetcht it away, and brought it into the house of Abina­dab in the hill, 1 Sam. 7.1, 2. and sanctified Eleazar his sonne to keep it; there it remained for the term of twenty yeares, kept by Eliazar, till Samuel made that Oration to all the people which is intimated, v. 3. and till the people put away their false gods, served the Lord, assembled in Mizpeh, and obtained that great victory a­gainst the Philistines, in memory whereof Samuel set up that stone between Mizpeh and Shen, which he called Eben Ezer; that is, the stone of help;v. 12. a type of Christ the deliverer: How be it the Arke remained there after the expiration of those twenty years till Davids reign (although there be some who bear us in hand that it peregrinated to divers other places, as Mizpeh, Gilgal, Nob, without sufficient warrant) during which time the Ta­bernacle without the Ark, was translated to Gibeon, as the Scrip­ture witnesseth; and rested there. But David went to fetch the Ark out of the house of Abinadab in Gibeah, 1 Chr. 16.39 2 Chr. 1.3. or the hill (so cal­led, because it was scituate in a lofty place) and as he was bringing it upon a new Cart with great joy, Uzzah was smitten by God for his rashness, and dyed: wherefore David being in a great fear,2 Sam. 6.7. brought it not up to Jerusalem, but turned aside out of the way, and disposed it in the house of Obed-Edom the Git­tite, where it continued by the space of three moneths, with the [Page 25] blessing of God upon Obed-Edom, and upon all his houshold:v. 11. which when David perceived, he went and brought it to Hie­rusalem, where it was entertained with the greatest gratulati­ons and applause that might be; and set it upon mount Sion, in a new tabernacle; which he had made for the entertainment of it. And so the old tabernacle which Moses made, remained still in Gibeon, where we finde it in the reigne of Solomon, 2 Chron. 1.3 neither do vve finde after that time any further mention of it in the Scriptures.

But when Solomon had built the temple, and finished the san­ctuary, 40 he brought the ark, with the tabernacle of David, and all the sacred vessells which were in that tabernacle, into the tem­ple which he had built; and placed the ark in the most holy place, under the wings of the cherubims, in which at that time there was nothing,1 King. 8.9. save the two tables of stone which Moses put there, at Horeb. Howsoever, I think it fit to admonish the reader, that there be some who think the tabernacle to have been erected sometime at Gilgal, because it is said, that the people made Saul King before the Lord in Gilgal. And sometimes at Nob, 1 Sam. 11.15 be­cause David there obtained of Abimelech hallowed bread. And that Solomon translated the old tabernacle, 1 Sam. 21.6. and all the sacred ves­sels thereunto belonging, from Gibeon, to his temple at Hieru­salem; because it is said expresly, that they brought up the ark of the Lord, and the tabernacle of the congregation, 1 King. 8.4. 2 Chron. 5.5 and all the holy ves­sels that were in the tabernacle. Which yet I cannot understand to be spoken of any other tabernacle or vessells, but of that tabernacle, and those vessells which David made. And so the taber­nacle of Moses, which had stood by the space of about foure hun­dred seventy, and eight years, ceased. And (the time being come, wherein God would have as it were, a fixed habitation, by a fixed place of worship) the temple succeeded in place there­of, in which also the ark of God found rest, and had its habita­tion there, till that temple was destroyed by the Chaldeans. In which confusion of things, the perpetuall fire of the burnt offe­rings was hidden by the priests; and the tabernacle of David, which was in the temple, together with the ark and the altar of incense, by the prophet Hieremiah. The matter is reported in a letter, which the Jewes that were at Jerusalem and in Judea, wrote unto the Jewes in Egypt, thus: When our fathers were led into Persia, the priests that were then devout, took the fire of the altar pri­vily, and hid it in a hollow place of a pit without water, where they kept it sure, so that the place was unknowne to all men. And this (saith the story) was done at the commandment of Hieremiah, 2 Mac. 1.19. 2 Mac. 2.1. concerning whose hiding of the tabernacle, the ark, and the altar of incense, it is thus added. It was also contained in the same writing (or records) that the prophet being warned of God, comman­ded [Page 26] the tabernacle and the Ark to go with him, as he went forth into the mountain, where Moses climbed up, and saw the heritage of God. And when Jeremie came thither, 2 Mac. 2.4, he found an hollow cave, wherein he laid the Tabernacle, and the Ark, and the Altar of incense, and so stopped the dore. 5, And some of those that followed him, came to mark the way, but they could not finde it. Which when Jeremie perceived, he blamed them, 6, saying, As for that place, it shall be unknown, untill the time that God gather his people again together, and receive them unto mercy. 7, Then shall the Lord shew them these things, and the glory of the Lord shall appear, and the cloud also, as it was shewed unto Moses, 8. and as when Solomon desired, that the place might be honourably sanctified.

41 Now when the Jewes returned out of captivity, after three­score and ten years, they built the second temple; but they found neither the fire, nor the tabernacle, nor the altar of incense; till ma­ny years after the fire was found, by the care and counsell of Nehemiah. 2 Mac. 1.20, For thus saith the story: Now after many years, when it pleased God, Neemias being sent from the King of Persia, did send of the posterity of those priests, that had hid it, to the fire; but when they told us, 21, they found no fire, but thick water: Then commanded he them to draw it up and to bring it: and when the sacrifices were laid on, Ne­emias commanded the priest to sprinkle the wood, and the things laid thereupon with water. 22. When this was done, and the time came that the sun shone, which afore was hid in the cloud, there was a great fire kind­led, 31, 32. so that every man marvelled. Now when the sacrifice was con­sumed, Neemias commanded the water that was left, to be poured on the great stones. When this was done, there was kindled a flame: but it was consumed by the light that shined from the Altar. Thus the fire was found, but the tabernacle, the ark, and the altar of incense, were never found. Wherefore some do say, that the Jewes did make and dedicate another Ark, like unto the former: But others do affirme, that they had no ark at all in the second temple, but in stead thereof, they had in the Sanctuary a stone pitch'd, of the height of three fingers, having a censer upon the top of it. But that all other the utensills of the tabernacle, as occasion ser­ved, were made and renewed for the use of the second temple. But we return to our sacred history.

42 To the Evangelicall part of the Testament belonged, 2ly the Leviticall priesthood. The Leviti­call priest­hood. And although all the priests were typicall persons, and were annointed and consecrated with the oyle of holy oyntment: yet in the person of the High Priest, The high priest his garments. they had Christ visibly set forth before their eyes. To him belonged eight seve­rall vests, (some will have nine, some ten; but I follow Saint Hierome, Epist. 128.) whereof foure were common to the other priests, the other foure peculiar to himselfe; giving them there­by to understand, that in all the proprieties of his manhood, [Page 27] he would be like unto his brethren, and take part with them; but that the divine proprieties of his Godhead might not be communicated. 1st The feminalls, The feminals or linnen breeches, which were straitly tyed about their middle, under the navill, above the hip; it was to conceal their secret parts, in case they should slip or fall, as they sacrificed, or were otherwise busie in the works of their ministery; and this descended to the thighes. 2ly The strait linnen coat, The linnen coat. which was of fine linnen embroidered, and came down unto the thighes; it was made to sit close unto the body, and vvithout any foldings or wrinkles, that so it might be no hinderance to them in their ministrie, in manner like a close shirt or wastecoat. 3ly The girdle of needle work, The girdle. the materials whereof were purple, and scarlet, and blew, and fine linnen; it is said to be made round, in fashion like a long purse, and to be about the breadth of foure fingers, and it hung downe to the knees. With this girdle, the priests were girded under the pappes; and if at any time it hapned to be trouble­some to them in their ministrations, they cast it back upon the left shoulder. 4ly The cap or mitre, The cap or mitre. which was of fine linnen close to the head, in forme like to a semi-circle, and was tyed behinde with a ribband or fillet, to keep it from falling off; it came not downe far upon the head, but covered the uppermost, and hin­dermost part of it, almost (it seemes) as low as the ears. And these were the garments which the High Priest had in com­mon with the other priests: where I think it fitting to admonish the reader, of the linnen Ephod, The linnen Ephod. frequently mentioned in the Scriptures, (although no mention be made of it, Exod. 28. where the Sacerdotall vestments are set forth and described) which was the common garment of the priests. It seemes to be no other, but a linnen robe, in fashion like unto a serplice, yet so, that it might with conveniency be girt about them, that so it might be no trouble to them in their ministrations.1 Sam. 2.18. For Samuel ministred before the Lord being a child, girded with a linnen Ephod. And David when he brought up the Ark into Zion, 2 Sam. 5.14. he danced before it, girded with a linnen Ephod.

But the peculiar garments of the High priest, were 1st The 43 robe of the Ephod, The robe of the Ephod. being all of blew, it had a hole upon the top, for the putting of it on, which was bound about with woven work, to strengthen it; this robe was large and long, reaching to the feet, upon the hem whereof were pomgranates, of blew, and of purple, and of scarlet, and bells of gold interchangeably set (seventy two of each) round about. It was to the end, that the sound of the high priest might be heard at his going in, and at his comming out of the holy place. 2ly The Ephod, The Ephod of the high priest. or super­humerall, a peculiar garment of the high priest, made of gold, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linnen cunningly [Page 28] or skilfully wrought, this was put upon him, and fastned with a girdle of the same materialls and like curious workmanship; it is said to extend from the neck unto the hipps, upon the two shoulders vvhereof, were two onyx stones, having on them en­graven the names of the children of Israel, six on the one stone, and six on the other: these were stones of memoriall unto the children of Israel, to the end that the high priest going in to the sanctum sanctorum, might bear the names of that people upon his shoulders, for whom he made his supplications. 3ly The breast-plate of judgment, The breast-plate of judgment. or Rationall, of the same materialls and curious workmanship of the Ephod; it was double, and foure square, a span in breadth, and a span in length, it had twelve pretious pearles, in foure distinct rowes, set in it, having the names of the children of Israel engraven severally, every one in its par­ticular stone; this was put in a place of the breast of the Ephod, left for that purpose, and was made fast with chains and rings in such manner as is expressed, Exod. 28. It was to the end, that the high priest should bear the names of the children of Israel in the breast-plate of judgment upon his heart, when he went in­to the holy place, for a memoriall before the Lord continually. In this breast-plate of judgment they put the Urim and Thummim, The Urim & Thummim. which what it was, the Scripture mentioneth not, how be it, the words signifie splendors and perfections; vvhich thing hath given occasion to some to think, that by the urim and thummim nothing else was meant but the forementioned rowes of preti­ous stones in the breast of the High priest, they being the most splendent bright and perfect of all other. But I rather think the Urim and Thummim (vvhatsoever they were) to be inserted within the pectorall, which therefore (and not to keep it from rending) was duplicate, and that they were placed in the pecto­rall, over against the heart of the high priest; for hitherto make the words of the text,Exod. 28.30. Thou shalt put in the breast-plate of judg­ment the Urim and the Thummim, and they shall be upon Aarons heart, when he goeth in before the Lord. 4ly The plate of gold, The plate of gold. vvhere­upon was engraven, Holinesse to the Lord, (Saint Hierom thinks, that nomen tetragrammaton, which was ineffable to the Jewes, to be graven upon that plate, Epist. 128.) this was put upon a blew lace, whereby it vvas made fast unto the mitre or cap, upon the fore-front of the same. So that although the mitre or cap were common to all the Priests, yet was it the peculiar ornament of the High priest to be mitred, with that mitre, upon whose front was fastned by the blevv lace, the golden plate, with that mysterious inscription.

44 All the sacerdotall garments vvere made for glory and for beau­ty; Exod. 28.2. namely, to adorn and beautifie his priests in glorious, splen­dent, and beautious habit, that so the people might have a [Page 29] more reverent regard of their persons whom God had honoured with so many peculiar vestes so rich, so precious: and think with themselves in vvhat Veneration they ought to have those holy things about vvhich their ministry vvas conversant. But the mysterie was Christ, The Mysterie of the gar­ments of the high Priest. there might they see him habited as his bre­thren, in the same feminalls, linnen coat, girdle, and cap, and girded about with the same linnen Ephod. All vvhich things did foretell him to be a proper or particular man, and a perfect or very man. They did preach Christ, and that he should not take unto him the generall form or Idea of mans nature conceived in the minde; nor the common nature of man, as it is existing in every man: but that he should assume the whole nature of man, viz. a reasonable soul, and human flesh, subsisting in one particular subject: that he should be a true and perfect man, in every thing that concern­eth mans nature like unto his brethren: that he should have the substance of a true body, and of a reasonable soule: that he should have all the proprieties of body and soul. In body length, breadth, thickness, circumscription, dimensions: in soul the understand­ing, the will, the affections: also the faculties of seeing, hear­ing, smelling, tasting, feeling: likewise of moving, growing, eating, digesting, sleeping: all which was meant and intended by the parability of those garments, whereby the Priest was nothing at all hindred from doing the duties of his function. That such a Priest should come, who should offer up the eternall sacrifice; a full perfect and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world, That like as the Priests were girded about with the white linnen Ephod, even so t [...]at such a priest should be girded about with the generall infirmities of mans nature, yet without the least spot of sinne. And this with much more Mysterie was preached by those garments which the High priest had in com­mon with the other priests.

But his peculiar Ornaments did set forth Christ in a more pecu­liar 45 manner. The rich and glorious robe of the Ephod, did set forth Christ enrobed in the riches of all graces, and of all ver­tues, pomegranates and the bels, the sweet sound of his Gospell, and the precious fruit thereof. The Ephod or superhumerall, girt about him with the curious girdle, and the two onyx stones upon his shoulders; that it is he who is girt about with power, that the government is upon his shoulder, that he is able to save his people to the uttermost, who are elect and precious as the precious onyxstones; that he would bear them upon his shoulders, and pre­sent them to his Father, by making an eternall, a gracious and efficacious intercession for them: The rationall or breast-plate of judgement, that it is he to whom it belongeth to give the righ­teous judgement: the twelve precious pearls, set in four distinct rows, that he should be the God of order, who would bear all [Page 30] his people in his breast, and have the names of them there, to re­member every one of them, to love and to cherish them as his own heart, and to judge, and avenge them in righteousnesse: that like as the Urim and Thummim was put into the duplicate, and thereby hidden, so that it could not be seen; Even so, that the brightness, and perfection of his Deitie, should not be discerned by human eye, being over-shadowed and obscured by his huma­nity. And because inquisition was made at God by the Urim and Thummim, thereby was most excellently set forth his propheticall office. Finally, the plate of gold, whereupon was graven holinesse to the Lord, did set forth his Kingly office, and that such a one should be made of God both Lord and Christ; that in his person the kingly and the priestly offices should be so consistent, as to be bound together with such a bond of mediatorship betwixt God and Man, as might never be dissolved.

46 3ly Therefore to the Evangelical part of the Testament, belong­ed all the Leviticall consecrations, especially that of the High Priest, Consecration of the high Priest. who was annointed and consecrated with the holy an­nointing oyl, and thereby set apart to his office and function. The oyl was a most sweet confection of divers principall spices, pure Myrrhe, sweet Cinamon, sweet Calamus, Cassia, and oyl Olive, all pure and sweet; it was reserved onely for Consecrations, it was not lavvfull for any man to poure it out after the manner of other oyl, upon his ovvn flesh in his frequent unctions, neither might any one make or compound the like. With this holy annointing oyl, were the Tabernacle of the Congregation, and the Arke of the Testimony, and the Table and all his Vessels, and the Candlestick and his Vessels, and the Altar of incense, and the Altar of burnt-offerings, vvith all his Vessels, and the Laver and his foot an­nointed, and thereby consecrated, to the end that after such an annointing, they might be vvholly set apart to Gods worship, and never return any more to common or ordinary use. With the same oyl were Aarons Sons, the Priests, and Aaron himself the high priest annointed and consecrated, as is fusely set down, Exod. 29. & 30. Levit. cap. 8. But Aarons consecration (and therefore the consecrations of all the high priests in their several successions) was in a more excellent manner; for, having on all the forementioned Vests and Ornaments, with the mitre and holy crown upon his head, the holy annointing oyl was so powred upon his head, Psal. 133.2. that it ran down upon his beard, and descended to the skirts of his garments.

47 Now the reason why God would have his consecrations to be done by Oyl, may be rendred from the excellent proprieties thereof:The Mystery all which, in a spirituall, and Evangelicall sense and meaning will relate to Christ. Oyl hath an excellent vertue in seasoning of meats, as well for the preservation of health, as also [Page 31] to give them a sweet and delightsome relish to the palate. Therefore did they dress their flovvre vvith Oyl: 1 Kin. 17.10 Levit. 2. and vvith Oyl God vvould have his offerings to be seasoned. The Oyl in the meat-offering did shevv forth Christ the condiment, vvithout vvhom nothing is svveet, nothing is savory. It is he that season­eth all our sacrifices, and whatsoever we shall aske the father in his name, he will give it us. Joh. 16.23 Oyl hath an excellent vertue in healing of wounds, and to asswage the pains of them:Luc. 10.34. It is Christ who speaks peace unto the soul by the word of the Gospel, and was annointed, and sent to heal the broken hearted. Oyl doth exhilarate and make glad him that is annointed with it:Luc. 4.18. Psal. 104.15. all true joy and gladnesse is from Christ, through the sweet influence of his most holy, and most blessed spirit, who is the oyl of gladness. Psal. 45.7. Oyl doth pierce into the bones, doth diminish the pains of bodily exercises, doth make a man strong, and able to perform his work. Livie telleth of Hannibal, that he being to skirmish immediately with the ene­my (but the weather being extream cold, and his Souldiers weary and weak) distributed Oyl unto them, to the end that be­ing annointed therewith, they might be refreshed, and enabled to the battel. It is Christ who by his grace enableth us unto that whereunto of our selves we have no sufficiency.2 Cor. 12.9. Ezec. 36.26. Oyl doth mollifie and soften: It is the peculiar work of Christ by his Spirit to mol­lifie and soften the hard hearts of men. Oyl hath a sweet and odori­ferous smell, Cant. 1.3. and his name (saith the Spouse in the Canticles) is as oyntment powred forth. Oyl doth illuminate and lighten: and He is the true light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. Joh. 1.9. When the High Priest was annointed, Christ was annointed in the type; He was the annointed, and he was the annointer, and he himself was the holy annointing oyl. Notwithstanding the oyl wherewith he was annointed, was not of the essence of his God-head, but the fulness of all graces, and of all vertues, where­with the man-hood of Christ was as it were filled up to the brim, (created graces and vertues) infused into the man-hood by the divine operation of the Holy Ghost. Therefore the holy annointing oyl, howsoever it was Gods oyl, neither was it lawfull for any one to make the like; yet was it confected of no other simples, but such as are to be found in nature. That holy annointing oyl was powred forth upon the High Priest, having on, together with all the rest of the sacerdotall ornaments, the Urim and Thummim, to­gether with the golden Plate or holy Crown, that so they might in the type, and by the spirtuall eyes of faith, see Christ by his unction, with that oyl which was materiall, annointed and con­secrated to be that true King, that true Priest, that true Prophet, of whose fulness all Kings, Priests, and Prophets do pertake; and yet he hath made all his elect and chosen, Kings and Priests unto God and his father, as St. John saith in his Revelation. Rev. 1.6. That the [Page 32] High priest was so annointed, that the holy annointing oyl pow­red upon his head went down unto his beard, and descended to the skirts of his clothing; it did mysteriously give them to know, that the graces of the Holy Ghost, whereof the man-hood of Christ is the rich treasure house, do descend down from him the head of his Church, (who received them not by measure) into all the members of his mysticall body, who all receive them from him in such a measure and proportion as is convenient for every one of them. Lastly, by the different habit of the High Priest, and his superabundant unction, they were shewed the dif­ference that must be betwixt the type, and the antitype: for Kings, Priests, and Prophets, were typicall persons, and they all were annointed by men; but that He must be annointed by the Fa­ther, through the Holy Ghost. They were annointed with the ho­ly anointing oyl: but he must be annointed with all spirituall gra­ces, meant and intended by it. They were annointed in measure; but he must be annointed above measure. They were annointed as men; but he must be annointed as God and man. They were annointed to offices temporall; but he must be annointed to offices eternall. They by their unction were Christi Domini, the Lord's Christs: But he by his unction, must be Christus Dominus, the Lord Christ, Act. 2.36.

48 4ly To the Evangelicall part of the Testament belonged all the Leviticall offerings. The Leviti­cal offerings. The Holocaust or whole burnt-offeringThe whole burnt offer­ing. so cal­led, because it was all burnt. It was a sacrifice wherein to the end that God might be honoured and pleased, the whole host which was offered, was consumed with the holy fire, and as it were sent up from earth to heaven for an odour of a sweet savour to God. It was of the Herds, of the Flocks, or of the Fouls: and the whole rite thereof is amply set forth, Levit. cap. 1. The continu­all or daily burnt-offering, The continu­all burnt-offering. so called because it vvas offered unto God tvvice every day at morning and at evening. It did consist of two Lambs of the first year, vvhereof the one vvas offered in the morning, and the other at even, and the rite thereof is set dovvn, Exod. cap. 29. The meat-offering, The meat-offering. vvhich vvas either fine flovvre, and oyl, seasoned vvith salt, and frankincense put upon it, and that either ravv bak't or fryed, or green ears of corn dryed, ha­ving in like manner, oyl, salt, and frankincense, and the rite thereof is to be read, Levit. cap. 2. The drink-offering The drink-offering. vvas strong Wine, the fourth part of an Hin for one Lambe, as a proporti­onable quantity for such an offering povvred unto the Lord, Exod. 29. Numb. 28. The sin-offering The sin-of­fering. so called, because it vvas made for the expiation of sin committed, either ignorantly or vvittingly, vvhether greater or less, by the priest, the vvhole congregation, the Ruler, or any of the people, set forth and pre­scribed at large, Levit. cap. 4. & 5, & 6, & 7. The peace-offer­ring [Page 33] was either of the herd or of the flock, male or female; The peace of­fering. it, was made in thankfulnesse of some benefit received, or for preven­tion of some eminent danger; and the rite thereof is prescribed, Levit. cap. 3. There were many other offerings which the law had to be made upon all occasions, all which were either pro­pitiatory, which were to reconcile God, and to satisfie for sin; or Eucharisticall, for praise and thanksgiving; and were either ordinary or extraordinary. But our sacred history shall crave par­don of the reader, not to enlarge it selfe too far. Only this it hath to observe in generall, concerning the Leviticall offerings. General Ob­servations concerning the Levitical offerings. 1. That they were not offered (except by speciall dispensation) but only in one place, that was 1st where the tabernacle was. 2ly where the temple was. 2. That they were all offered accor­ding to a prescript form of liturgie. 3. That they were to be offered with no other fire, but with the holy fire, the fire which came out from before the Lord, which he ordained to be kept upon the Altar continually-burning, so that it might never go out. Levit. 6.4. That no beast or bird of prey, or any unclean thing, must be brought unto him for sacrifice. 5. That his offe­rings must be of the best, and finest of all kinds; nothing blinde, lame, torn, deformed: the sweetest oyle, the finest flower, the strongest wine, the purest franckincense, and of every thing that which was most choise. Lastly, that hony and leaven were utterly banished from all his sacrifices.

All the Leviticall offerings did relate to Christ, and did set forth 49 the redemption of mankind by him.The mystery. The holocaust or whol burnt-offering, did signifie Christ, our holocaust or whole burnt offe­ring, who in the fire of his love hath offered himselfe up whol­ly unto God the father, and hath shed his blood for the remission of sins. The continuall or daily burnt offering, S. Joh. 1.29. did set forth Christ the lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. The offering of that sacrifice in the morning and at even, did set forth the effi­cacy of his death, for remission of sins to all them that believe, from the beginning of the world unto the end. That to all the righteous faithfull, whether in the morning or in the evening of the world, there is no other lamb, but that lamb which was slain from the foundation of the world. Rev. 13.8. The meat offering did set forth Christ, that bread of life, the bread which commeth down from heaven, that a man may eat thereof and not die. That the bread which he would give is his flesh, S. Joh. 5.50, 51. which he would give for the life of the world. The drink offering did set forth Christ, that true wine which maketh glad the heart of man, without whom, there is no true joy or gladnesse to be had; that wine poured out was his blood shed for the remission of sins. The sacrament of which meat and drink offering he hath instituted to be in the elements of bread and wine. The sin offering did set forth Christ, an expia­tory [Page 34] sacrifice for sin, and did preach unto them no other do­ctrine, but that of the blessed Apostle and Evangelist Saint John, If any man sin, 1 Joh. 2. [...]1.2. we have an Advocate with the father, Jesus Christ the righteous. And he is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world. The peace-offering did preach peace unto the world by Christ who is our peace, and that it is he that delivereth us from the wrath to come. So that there is now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus. Rom. 8.1.

50 That whereas all the offerings were made in that place where first the Tabernacle, afterwards the Temple was; it intended Christ the great sacrifice to be offered up at Hierusalem. That they were all offered according to a prescript form or liturgy; it intended the orderly worship of God, which Christ would e­stablish in his Church in the new Testament. That they were offe­red with no other fire but the holy fire; it meant, that all the spi­rituall sacrifices of his Church, should be sent up to the Father by the fire of his blessed Spirit; and that his spirit should remain in his Church perpetually to sanctifie and clense it. That no unclean thing must be offered for sacrifice; it did set forth the pu­rity of Christ his sacrifice, who is clean of himselfe, and the cleanser of all that are clean. Who is offered up unto God by all the faithfull, who crave remission of sins for his sake, and offer unto God his sacrifice, as a full satisfaction for all their trans­gressions, having nothing of themselves worthily to offer. That his offerings must be of the best and finest of all kinds, nothing blinde, lame, torn, deformed; the sweetest oyle, the finest flower, the strongest wine, the purest franckincense; It signi­fied, that God would accept him only for that sacrifice, for the dignity and worthinesse of whom, and in whom, as in the all-sufficient sacrifice, he is well pleased; in whom only should be found the integrity and perfection of the human nature. And that hony and leaven were utterly banished from all his sacrifices: It was to shew, that in Christ should be found neither leaven of hypocrisy, nor hony of voluptuousnesse; and that they who will sacrifice unto the Father by him, must utterly put away spirituall pride, which is the leaven of hypocrisie, and all sensuall lusts, which are the hony of voluptuousnesse. By all which things we may ob­serve, that all the sacred rites of the sacrifices and oblations, as well those that we have mentioned, as those also which for brevities sake our sacred history must omit, were no other, but as it were visible homilies, divinity lectures, and catechisms, whereby the faithfull were shewed, taught to know, and to understand the mystery of the redemption of mankind by Jesus Christ.

51 5ly To the Evangelicall part of the Testament belonged those Concerning those dayes, and months, and times, & years, which the Jews had. [Page 35] daies, and months, and times, and years, which the Jewes had, and were commanded to observe; these are distinguished into pro­fests and feasts. The profests were minor holy daies, wherein it was permitted unto them to work, the offering up of the mor­ning and evening sacrifice notwithstanding. But the feasts, or ma­jor holy daies were such, as upon which it was not permitted unto them to work at all. Every day the sacrifice vvas to be of­fered morning and evening, as before is said. But a peculiar sa­crifice was ordained to be made, the first day of every month, as you may read, Numb. 28. The profests therefore were the new moones, The new moones. that is to say, the first day of every month, upon which daies they were not forbidden to labour in their ordinary pro­fessions, although a peculiar sacrifice vvas appointed for those daies. It is said, that they were solemnized in memory of the creation of light, and in acknowledgment of Time, that it belongs to God. Their feasts or holy daies (major holy daies) they called Sabbaths, that is to say, daies of rest; and every sabbath they kept by the space of a whole day, to wit, from sun-set, to sun-set again, the full space of twenty foure houres, for so measured they their day, and that is Gods measure of a day. Gen. 1.5. Of these sab­baths, some were of divine institution, and some by positive hu­man law; those of divine institution were 1. the Sabbath of the se­venth day; 2. the feast of Easter; 3. the feast of Penticost; 4. the feast of Trumpets; 5. the day of Attonement; 6. the feast of Tabernacles; 7. the sabbatary seventh year; 8. the Jubile of the fiftieth year. Observation. Con­cerning all which sabbaths our Sacred History must observe, that although the observation of them were morall, yet the daies themselves were not morall by nature, (for had they so been, the observation of them could never have ceased in the Church, no more then of those spirituall and evangelicall duties, which were prefigured in them, and commended and commanded by them) but they were made morall by divine positive law.

Those that were by positive human law, were 1st The sabbaths of dedication; for there were foure dedications, which were kept 52 at foure severall times of the year. The first was the dedication of Solomon's temple, in the month of September. The second was the dedication of the temple of Zorobabel, in the month of February. The third was the dedication of the Altar by Judas Machabaeus, in the month of November. The fourth was the dedication of the temple re-edified by King Herod, not without great solemnity, as Josephus saith. 2ly They had the feast of the lamentation of the daughter of Jeptha mentioned Judg. cap. 11. 3ly They had the feast called Naphthar or cleansing, (Josephus calleth it the feast of lights) instituted by Nehemiah, in memoriall of the holy fire found in the pit, with which he purified the sacrifices; and was [Page 36] celebrated upon the twentieth day of November, 2 Mac. 1. 4ly They had the feast purim or lots, instituted by Mordochaeus, in memory of their deliverance from the bloody intentions of Haman, which was kept yearly with great solemnity upon the fourteenth and fifteenth daies of the month of February, Hest. cap. 9. which fourteenth day of February, is remembred to have been a double holy-day; for then also they did commemorate a great victory obtained against Nicanor, one of the Captains of Deme­trius King of Syria. But our sacred history must supersede all these festivalls, as being of human institution. Yet from the hi­story it selfe,Observation. the reader hath to observe, that the clause of the commandment, Six daies shalt thou labour, &c. was no warrant to the Jewes to rest from labour onely upon the Sabbath of the seventh day; for besides that day, our history hath observed how many sabbaths God himselfe ordained, and how many were or­dained by their governours, upon many of which, they were not onely commanded to rest from labour; but if any man had presumed to work, it was ordained that he should be put to death. How then shall that clause now warrant the observation of the Sunday or Lords day onely, if other daies and times be set apart by lawfull authority? Truly it will be somewhat too peremptory to tie up the Almighty God to the bare allowance of a seventh day, for his publick external worship; seeing that the morall equity of the commandement is, that not a seventh day onely, but that a sufficient quantity of time should be set apart, and dedicated to his service.

53 The Sabbath of the seventh day The sabbath of the se­venth day. was commanded to the people and nation of the Jews to be kept holy in memory of the creation, that day did forbid all manner of labour: so that it was not lawfull so much as to kindle a fire upon that day. Notwithstan­ding (as was said before) it had not its morality by nature, Gen. 2.3. Exod. 35.3. (for then it had been for ever indispensable) but it was made mo­rall by a divine positive law, and was temporary, and was com­mended only to the circumcision, the Jewes and Proselytes, untill the time of reformation. And therefore upon urgent necessity might be omitted, and the Jewes themselves might labour, and war, and fight in battle, and carry burthens, and perform la­borious works upon the sabbath day. Josh. 6. Joshua besieged Hiericho, and compassed it seven times upon the sabbath day. They took the city on that day, and slew all that were therein, man, wo­man, young, old, oxe, sheep, and asse, with the edge of the sword, and burnt the city with fire, on the sabbath day. The Israelites fought with the Syrians on that day,1 King 20. and slew of them an hundred thousand footmen.S. Joh. 5.10. And Christ himselfe comman­ded a certain man whom he had cured to carry his bed on the sabbath day, which else by the law ought not to be don, neither [Page 37] might he have commanded him so to do, if the Sabbath had been morall by nature, and indispensable.

The feast of Easter, The feast of Easter. called also the feast of unleavened bread, was 54 kept every year from the fourteenth day of the month of March at even, till the one and twentieth day of the same moneth at even. During all which time they were to eat no leavened bread, neither were they to have any leaven found in their houses: and if any man were found to eat leaven within that space, he was to be put to death. This feast was kept in memory of the de­liverance of the people of Israel out of Egypt. And at this feast,Exod. 12.15 all the tribes were to appear in the place which the Lord should choose to put his name there: that was, first in Shiloh, where the Tabernacle of Moses was: afterwards, in Jerusalem where Solo­mon built his most sumptuous, and most magnificent Tem­ple.

The feast of Pentecost, The feast of Pentecost. otherwise called the feast of Weeks, or of 55 the first fruits, was celebrated on the sixth day of May, in me­mory of the law given upon mount Sinai. Upon the second day after the eating of the passeover, which was the second day of sweet bread, (which was before harvest began, and upon the sixteenth day of March) the Law commanded that they should offer a Sheaf of new corne, before the Lord: Levit. 23.10 it was to crave his blessing upon their harvest. But fifty dayes after, (which was seaven whole weeks): and upon the fiftieth day, (at what time they had gathered in their harvest) they were all to appear before the Lord againe, and to offer new bread before him, in thankfull acknowledgement of the harvest which they had received by his gift. The feast of Trumpets, The feast of Trumpets. was solemnized upon the first day of the seaventh moneth, that is to say, upon the first day of Sep­tember: upon which day they were to blow Trumpets. But for what cause this feast was instituted, (whether in memory of that Trumpet which sounded upon mount Sinai when the Law was given: or of the deliverance of Isaac, when Abraham would have offered him up upon the mount Moriah, and he was ex­changed for a Ram, caught by his hornes in a thicket; the me­mory whereof was renewed by blowing up those Trumpets of Rams horns: or rather, in memory of those great and memora­ble Victories which the people of Israel valiantly atchieved be­fore they were setled peaceably in the land of promise) it is more then we can now determine. It was a solemn feast, and ho­norable mention is made of it in the book of Psalms. Blow up the Trumpet in the new moon; in the time appointed, Psal. 81.3. on our solemne feast day.

The day of attonement The day of Attonement. was upon the tenth day of the same moneth, so called, because by such solemn ceremonies, and sacri­fices, as are set forth, Levit. cap. 16. & 23, the Priest did make an [Page 38] attonement for the people, did expiate their sins, and reconcile them to God. It was kept in memory of that reconciliation which was made betwixt God and the people, after they had sinned a­gainst him in the matter of the golden Calfe. Jer. 36.6. It was dies jejunii, the fasting day: For upon that day they were commanded to fast, and to afflict their soules. And Josephus saith, that all the people did fast upon that day, and that whosoever did not upon that day fast and afflict his soul, he was to be put to death. And that if any man should work upon that day, he was to be put to death. Such, and so severe was the Law on that behalf. For whatsoever soul it be (said the Law) that shall not be afflicted in that same day, Levit. 23, 29, 30. he shall be cut off from among his people; And whatsoever soule it be that doth any work in that same day, the same soul will I destroy from among his people.

57 Upon the fifteenth day of the same moneth also, began the feast of Tabernacles, The feast of Tabernacles. which was to put them in remembrance that they dwelt in Tents, and Tabernacles, in the wilderness by the space of forty years. At which Feast, all the tribes were to go up to that place where he should fix his worship; and upon the first day of this feast they did rest from labour; and did take the boughes of goodly trees, the branches of Palm trees, and the boughes of thick trees, and Willows of the brook; and they did go forth, and dwell in Tabernacles, seaven dayes, with great joy, and rejoycing. They say that at this feast, they did sing the eighty fourth Psalme, How amiable are thy Tabernacles O Lord of hosts, &c. Concerning which feast, they that will know more, let them read Levit. cap. 23. Num. cap. 29. Nehem. cap. 8. and likewise Josephus in the third book of his Antiquities, cap. 10. On the day following, which was the eighth day, and the two and twentieth day of the moneth, there was another feast or solemn assembly, an holy convocation, on which they might do no work; and then the tribes being at Jerusalem, they brought in the revenue for repair of the Temple, to defrey the charge of the sacrifices, and for the maintenance of the Priests and Levites.

58 The Sabbatary seventh year, The sabbath of the seventh year. or sabbath of the seventh year, was a Sabbath for the whole year. And that year they dismissed all their bondmen, and bondwomen, which were Hebrews; and the earth it selfe had rest for that year. For they might neither ear nor sow, nor reap nor mow, nor carry any thing into their barns, for that whole year. And the fruits which the earth it self brought of its own accord,Exod. 23. Levit. 25. Deut. 15. were common to all those that would make use thereof, as well to those of the country, as to strangers, without forbidding or reservation. The Jubile of the fif­tieth year, The Jubile of the fiftieth year. was proclaimed by blowing up of Trumpets of Rams hornes; and then the earth must rest for the space of a whole year, even from the tenth day of September, (upon which day the [Page 39] Trumpet was to proclaim the Jubilee) till the tenth day of Sep­tember in the next year. During all which time they might nei­ther ear, nor sow, nor reap, nor mow, nor gather that which grew of it self. It was a year of liberty, for in that year all servants went forth perpetually free; and every one that had sold his possession, did in that year return unto it again, Levit. 25. It was called Jubile, from the Trumpets of Rams hornes, wherewith it was proclaimed, which the Hebrews call Jobelins,

But of all these things, the Mysterie The Myste­rie. was most excellent; for the 59 quotidian profeast and daily sacrifice, did (as is said before) in the Mysterie set forth,S. Joh. 1.29 Christ that lambe of God which taketh away the sin of the world. For he is the perpetuall sacrifice; he was the sacrifice before the Law, offered up in the mysterie by Abel, Seth, Noah, Sem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and by all the Fathers, who by their sacrifices, testified that they expected no other sacrifice but that promised seed who should be sacrificed for the sinnes of the whole world. He was the sacrifice under the Law; he is an eter­nall sacrifice. Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever. Heb. 13.8. The new moons, or monthly Sabbaths, did set forth Christ the light of the World, who being sent into the World, hath enlightned it by his preaching, by his miracles, and by his most holy, and most blessed spirit. I am (saith he) the light of the world, he that followeth me, shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life. Before he came in the flesh, the faithfull,S. Joh. 8.12. by the spirituall eyes of faith, did look on him as on the light to come: for so the Prophet Isaiah did look upon him, and did fore-know and fore-tell of him by the spirit of prophesie. The people (said he) that walked in darkness, have seen a great light; they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined. Jsai. 9.2. Luc. 2.29.30, 31, 32. And when he was come, then did they welcome that light. Lord, (said old Simeon in his song) now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word. For mine eyes have seene thy salvation, which thou hast prepared before the face of all people. A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel.

The sabbath of the seaventh day, did signifie Jesus Christ who is 60 the true rest, in whom and upon whom all the faithfull do rest: for he is that true sabbath, who giveth true spirituall rest unto the world, and without whom there is no true rest to be had. Therefore when Christ the sabbath signified was come, the sab­bath of the seventh day, which was the sabbath signifying, must vanish away. That Sabbath of the seventh day, did therefore teach the people of God to expect the true sabbath in whom all must cease from the unclean works of sin, and every one must submit himself to him, and suffer him to have, and sanctifie a sabbath in him, by his most holy and most blessed spirit: so to cease from their own works, (not doing thine own waies, nor finding [Page 40] thine own pleasure, Isai. 58.13. nor speaking thine own words (saith the Prophet Isaiah) as to do all the workes of his law by faith. For he that is entred into his rest (which is Christ the true sabbath) He also hath ceased from his own workes, Heb. 4.10.11. as God did from his. Let us labor therefore to enter into that rest, lest any man fall after the same example of unbe­liefe.

61 The feast of Easter did set forth Christ the true paschall Lambe, who should be killed, that so he might be made the food of the faithfull unto everlasting life; who so eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, S. Joh. 6.54 hath eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. And because that Christ is that feast, and is our passeover, that therefore we must purge out the old leaven: for so S. Paul himself sets forth the Mysterie. Purge out therefore (saith he) the old leaven, that ye may be a new lumpe, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our Pass­over is sacrificed for us. 1 Cor, 5.7. Therefore let us keep the feast, not with the old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickednesse; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. The feast of Pentecost did set forth Christ, conferring the gifts of the Holy Ghost upon his Church: and was a type of that day wherein the Holy Ghost was sent, under the outward visible signes of fierie cloven tongues, Act. 2. The feast of Trumpets did signifie Christ publishing his Go­spell by the mouthes of his Apostles and Disciples, whose sound went into all the earth, Rom. 10.18 and their words unto the ends of the world.

62 The day of attonement, or yearly feast of the expiations, did set forth the expiation of sins by Jesus Christ, whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteous­nesse, Rom. 3.25. for the remission of sins. Upon which day the passion and death of Christ, and mans Redemption by him was so plainly shewed, that nothing could be more lively acted, or represent­ed. The day it selfe was a day of a general and universal expiati­on of sins by sacrifice; wherein the attonement was made for the holy Sanctuary, and for the tabernacle of the congregation, & for the Altar, for the Priests, and for all the people of the congregati­on. Therefore the great expiatory sacrifice, (Christ crucified upon the Cross) must be offered up for all the sins of all man-kind, as well for the most holy, who may be compared to the Sanctuary, to the Tabernacle, to the Altar, to the Priests, all consecrated unto God by his mysterious Sacraments; as also for all sorts of sin­ners, to be understood by all the people of the congregation. For what other thing is the world, but a congregation of all sorts of people, all sinners; all standing in need of the generall and universall expiation? That generall and universall expiation, must be made by no other person, but by the High Priest; there­fore an High Priest must be expected who must make the great attonement for the sins of the whole world. The High Priest did make an attonement for himself, and it was needfull for him so [Page 41] to do, because he was a sinner: therefore he was not the true high priest, but a type of him, who had no need to make an at­tonement for himselfe, because he had no sin. That high priest did make the attonement every year, and did admit of a suc­cessor by reason of death; therefore he was not the true high priest, but a type of him who should make the attonement once for all, made an high priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec. Heb. 6.20. That high priest had none to accompany him when he made the attonement; therefore this high priest must himselfe be the propi­tiation for the sins of the whole world. That high priest did put on those garments which were common to the other priests, to wit, the linnen coat, the linnen breeches, the linnen gir­dle, and the linnen mitre; he did also bring his own sacrifice, a young bullock, for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt offering, and did receive of the congregation two kids for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt-offering: therefore this high priest should put on the whole human nature, and should receive that of us, which he would sacrifice for us, as namely, the substance of our flesh. But as those garments are said to be holy, so must they understand the humanity of Christ to be without sin. The young bullock which the high priest brought for a sin offe­ring, and the ram which he brought for a burnt offering, was his humble acknowledgment that he was not that High priest, but a type of him that should make the great attonement for all mankinde.Heb. 7.26, Seeing (as the Apostle saith) such an high priest became us who is holy, blamlesse, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher then the heavens. Who needeth not daily as those high priests, 27. to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the peoples: for this he did once, when he offered up himselfe. Such a one therefore were they admonished by that his sacrifice to look for. The two goats upon which the high priest cast lots, did signifie Christ in two natures, and that in one of those natures, namely, the humanity, he should be killed and die; but yet by the determinate counsell and foreknowledge of God, for that was signified by the lots that were cast; seeing as Solomon saith in the book of Pro­verbs, The lot is cast into the lap, Prov. 16.33. but the whole disposing thereof is of the Lord. The blood of the bullock and the blood of the goat which the high priest brought successively within the vail, and did with his finger sprinckle the mercy seat, and before the mer­cy seat seven times; did in the mystery instruct them to know, that not by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood, should Christ the true high priest, enter in once into the holy place, having obtained eternall redemption for us. Heb. 9.12. And that seven-fold aspersion made by the finger of the high priest, did signifie the fulnesse and perfection of the propitiation to be made by Christ. The incense which was offered by the high priest within the vail [Page 42] in the most holy place, the cloud whereof did arise and cover the mercy seat; did shew forth the prayers and supplications, with strong crying and tears, which Christ made in the daies of his flesh, unto him that was able to save him from death, and the efficacy of the same,Heb. 5.7. that he was heard in that he feared; or [...], for has piety. That he made an attonement upon the hornes of the altar of incense, which was placed before the vail, which divided the holy place from the holy of holies, with the blood of the sin offering of the attonements, Exod. 30.10. by putting of the blood of the goat and of the bullock upon the hornes of that al­tar round about; and that he did sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven times, (which he did, after that he came forth from within the vail): It was to admonish them in the my­stery, that the prayers and supplications of the Church are no otherwise made clean, so as to be accepted with the Father, but by the innocent blood of the Redeemer. That when he had made the attonement for the holy place and for the tabernacle, he then brought the live-goat, and did lay both his hands upon the head of it, and confesse over him all the iniquities of the chil­dren of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, put­ting them upon the head of the goat, and did send him away by the hand of a fit man into the wildernesse, that the goat might bear all their iniquities unto a land not inhabited: It was to teach them to know, that Christ must be made sin for us, and a curse for us, 2 Cor. 5.21. Gal. 3.13. Isa. 53.6. and that the Lord should lay on him the iniquity of us all, as the prophet Isaiah saith; that so we might be made the righ­teousnesse of God in him; and that all nations might be blessed in him: and that his righteousnesse might be made ours to justi­fication, that so our sins might not be imputed. For the scape-goat did but bear all their iniquities to a land not inhabited; shewing them thereby, that Christ should so bear our sin, not that it should not be at all, but that it should not be imputed. That same fit man, or man of opportunity, was also a type of Christ: for like as that fit man, or man of opportunity, was only fit to have away the scape goat into the wildernesse, and did watch and stay his opportunity so to do: even so was there no other fit man to bear away our sins by his death, nor any other man of opportunity, but he that stayed the opportunity to bear them away when his houre was come. That after the scape goat so sent away, the high priest came into the Tabernacle, and there put off those linnen garments which were common to him with the other priests, and that he left them there; and that he did wash his flesh with water in the holy place, and having so done, that then he put on the pontificall ornaments, in which garments he did come forth, and offer his burnt offerings for himselfe and for the people, and make the attonement for himselfe and for the [Page 43] people, and having burnt the fat of the offering upon the altar, the bullock and the goat whose blood was brought in, to make the attonement in the holy place, were carried forth without the camp and wholly burnt there; It did teach them, that the true high priest, after that he had suffered for our sins, would then deposite his body to the grave, and that afterwards he would put on robes of glory; and that although enrobed in everlasting glory, he would evermore make intercession both for priest and people; and that he would sanctifie us with his own blood by suffering without the gate. Heb. 13.12. For the better understanding of all which things, the reader is to be admonished judiciously to compare that which he shall read fusely set forth in the Epistle to the Hebrewes, to that which God ordained to be done by the high priest, Levit. cap. 16. And also to excuse this our prolixity, seeing that it could not but be most pertinent to this our sacred history, that we should shew how excellently the Gospell was preached by divine and mysterious ceremonies, which were appointed to be solemnly performed by the high priest upon that day.

The feast of Tabernacles did set forth Christ our Tabernacle, 63 in whom all his people, who belong unto that tabernacle which he hath pitched, shall finde shelter from all the winds and storms of temptation, and adversity, and persecution. It did also set forth the brevity and uncertainty of this present life, giving them to un­derstand, that in this world the people of God are strangers and pilgrims, who like Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, heires of the promise, do sojourne here as in tabernacles, looking for a citie which hath a foundation, whose builder and maker is God.

Finally, the Sabbath of the seventh year, and the Jubile of the 64 fiftieth year, did signifie that true liberty which Christ the son of God would proclaim unto the world in the time of the Gospell. That the worship of God should then be more plain, more gene­rall, and more free. More plain, as being no longer to be involved in those legall obscurities, more generall, as being extended all the world over; more free, as being not tyed to any particular place. And that all distinctions should then be taken away, not in re­spect of that relation which is betwixt man and man in the world; but in respect of that relation which is betwixt Christ and his Church. For like as the redeemer would buy them all with the same price, and would shed no more nor no other blood for the Jew, then for the Gentile; for the bond, then for the free; for the male, then for the female; even so that they should be all saved by the same grace, justified by the same faith, have the same word, the same sacraments, the same worship, an equall interest in Christ. So saith Saint Paul to the Galatians, Gal. 3.28. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor fe­male: [Page 44] for ye are all one in Christ Jesus. Col. 3.11. And so to the Colossians, There is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bond nor free; but Christ is all, and in all.

65 6ly To the Evangelicall part of the Testament belonged the ho­ly citie, Mat. 4.5. Mat. 27.53. History of the holy city Hierusalem. for so is Jerusalem styled in the scripture. It was ancient­ly a Fort of the Jebusites upon mount Sion, and was not conque­red till David's time; it was then so impregnable, that when David assailed it, they bragged, that their lame, and blinde, and impotent people should defend it. Yet David took it, and built thereon the city, which from thence obtained to be called the city of David. 2 Sam. 5.6 7. Nigh whereunto adjoyned the mount Moriah, up­on which mountain, Abraham in obedience to Gods commande­ment offered up Isaac his son for a burnt offering.Gen. 22. In the same place David having purchased the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite, 2 Sam. 24. built an Altar, for the pacifying of Gods wrath, when he had slain, in three daies space, from Dan to Beersheba, no lesse then seventy thousand with the plague of pestilence. There al­so King Solomon built his most sumptuous and most magnificent Temple. This city was first built (as it is most probably affirmed) by Melchisedec (supposed by divers of the ancients to have been Sem the son of Noah) not long after the flood; and was by him called Salem. But afterwards the Jebusites had it in possession, and called it Jebus after their own name;Josh. 18.28. Jud. 19.10. which name it held a long time, as it may be seen in the bookes of Ioshua and Iudges. But when that King David had gotten it, he expelled the Iebu­sites from thence, and called it Ierusalem. Salem signifieth peace, and Ierusalem doth signifie a sight or vision of peace. It hath other names in the Scripture, for the prophet Isaiah (peradven­ture therein respecting the scituation, and strong habitation of the same, peradventure the vertue and valour of the inhabi­tants thereof) calleth it Ariel, Isa. 29.1, 17. that is to say, the lion of God. And Lebanon, because it was much built of Cedar trees brought from mount Libanus. And the valley of vision, because there the prophets prophesyed.Isa. 21.1. Ezech. 23.4. The prophet Ezechiel calleth it Aholibah, My fixed tent or pavilion; because God had chosen it before all the nations and places of the earth, to put his name there. In that city stood the throne of David, called in the book of Psalmes, the thrones of the house of David, Ps, 122.5. through the succession of one and twenty Kings of himselfe and his sons. It was often assailed before the finall surprisall of it.

66 Neither is it altogether impertinent to this our sacred history, to continue a briefe and succinct narration of it. 1st Therefore it was assailed by Shishack King of Egypt, in the fifth year of the raigne of Rehoboam, who took away the treasures of the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the Kings house, (viz. all the riches of Solomon, and all those spoiles which David had gotten [Page 45] from Hadadezer, the Moabites, the Ammonites, and other nati­ons,2 Sam. 8.11, 12. 1 King. 14.26. together with the presents of Toi which David had dedi­cated to God) and all the shields of gold which Solomon had made. 2ly By Iehoash King of Israel in Amaziah's raigne; who being provoked by Amaziah king of Iudah, came up against him, and took him prisoner at Bethshemesh, and then went to Hierusa­lem, and brake down foure hundr [...]d cubits of the wall, & having taken away all the gold and silver, and all the vessells that were found in the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the Kings house, he received hostages, and then returned to Samaria. 3ly It was besieged by Rezin king of Syria, and Pekah the son of Remaliah king of Israel, in the raigne of king Ahaz, 2 King. 14.14. 2 King. 16.5. Isa. 7.1. but God kept it, so that they could not prevail against it. 4ly By Zenacherib king of Assyria, in the fourteenth year of the raigne of king He­zechiah: but the Lord kept it, and sent his Angel, who made a great slaughter in the camp of the Assyrians. 2 King. 19.34. 5ly By Pharaoh Ne­cho, who carried away Iehoahaz prisoner into Egypt, and con­demned the land in an hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold. Finally by Nebuchadonozer, king of the Caldees, 2 Chron. 36.4. who made a great slaughter of the people, carried away all the treasures and vessells of the temple, all the treasures of the king and of the princes, burnt the Temple and the city, brake down the wall, and carried away the people captive into Babylon; 2 Chron. 36.18, 19, 20. where they remained in exile for the space of threescore and ten years. And having first caused the sons of Zedechiah to be slain before his face, he put out his eyes and bound him with fetters of brasse, and carried him to Babylon. A just reward for a perjur'd rebell,2 King. 25.7. 2 Chron. 36.13. which the Scripture observeth expresly, saying, He rebelled against king Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by God.

After the return of the people, both the city and the temple 67 were re-built by the people that returned. But the state of it was various: For first, Ptolemeus the son of Lagus took it by a stra­tagem, which was this. He entred the city upon a sabbath day, pretending to offer sacrifice, and while the Iewes suspected nothing, but spent the day in idlenesse and quiet, he surprised the city without resistance, and oppressed the citizens with hate­full captivity. 2ly Antiochus being brought thither by a faction, received it by surrender, where he committed great slaughters; robbed the temple of all the pretious things thereof, closed it up with high walls and towers, planted a garrison therein, caused swines flesh to be offered upon the altar, interdicted Circumcisi­on, and the observation of the law; and raised most grievious per­secution against those that stuck fast to the religion of their country. 3ly It was conquered by Pompey, and made tributary to the Romans, from whom Herod received the kingdome: and then was Christ to come, for then was the scepter departed [Page 46] from Judah, according to the prophecy of Jacob, Gen. 49.10.

When Christ came, he found it rather to be (as the prophets said) the valley of slaughter, Jer. 19.6. Jer. 7.11. and a den of robbers, than the royall seat of the King, or the place of holy worship: guilty of all the righteous blood shed upon the whole earth, from the blood of the righteous Abel, S. Mat. 23, 35 to the blood of Zacharias the son of Barachias (sup­posed to be the father of St. John the Baptist) whom they slew between the temple and the altar, (for asserting, it is said, the perpetuall virginity of Christs blessed mother) who also filled up the mea­sure of their iniquity, in the blood of the great one, even Jesus the Lord of life, who by his death, therein suffered, sealed the redemption of the world, and put an end to the ceremonies and glory of the place,Dan. 9.27. according to the prophecy of Daniel.

69 But it was that which the Iewes most wickedly imprecated upon themselves,S. Mat. 27.25 saying, His blood be on us, and on our children. Which wicked imprecation of theirs, was neither forgotten, nor forgiven, in Gods most righteous judgment. Therefore it came to passe that their city, by their own seditions, and by the Caesars cruelties was made so desolate, that a stone was not left standing upon a stone, but were all cast down, as in the destruction of Sodom, the walls removed, mount Sion excluded, and Calvary taken in; the name of Jerusalem changed into Aelia, an unclean swine set over the chief gate of entrance, and the Iewes forbid­den upon pain of death to look back upon the city. In this state the Romans had it, and held it, till the year of God six hundred and fifteen. From whose Empire the Persian wan it, and kept it the space of two and twenty years, and then the Saracens got it, in the year six hundred thirty and seven, and possessed it for the space of three hundred seventy and two years. But in the year nine hundred and nine, the Turks wan it, and immediately lost it to the Sultan of Egypt: And so the Egyptians were Lords over it by the space of ninety years: untill the christian Godfrey Bul­loign conquered it, in the year of our Lord, one thousand ninty and nine: and in possession of Christian Princes was it kept by the space of eighty and eight years, till in the year one thousand one hundred eighty and seven, it was surprised by Saladine Sul­tan of Egypt, and by them was it held three hundred and thirty years, though not without much variety of fortune, being in or about the year one thousand two hundred twenty and eight regained by the Emperour Frederick the second; and in the year one thousand two hundred forty and six, won by Cas­sanus king of the Tartars; then destroyed by Tamerlane; and then by Mahomet the second. When finally in the year one thousand five hundred and seventeen, it was invaded and obtained by Selim the Turkish Emperour, who conquered Capson and Tomom­beus successive Sultans of Egypt, where to this day (I will not [Page 47] say to the shame of all Christian princes) the abhomination of wicked Mahomet is set up.

Now this City was not without great mystery, The mystery. and such a 70 city would God have for the administration of his covenant, and principally of the Evangelicall part of the testament. For Abraham had two wives, Hagar and Sarah, the one a bond woman, the other a free woman. And two sons, Ishmael the son of the bond­woman, born according to the flesh; and Isaac the son of the free woman, born by promise. And two seeds, a carnall seed, the seed of the bond woman; and a spirituall seed, the seed of the free woman. There be also two mountains, mount Sinai in Arabia, and mount Sion in the land of Canaan. And two testaments, the old testament and the new testament: the old testament the law, delivered by Moses from mount Sinai: the new testament the gospell, published by Christ from mount Sion. And two people, the Iewes and the Christians: the Iewes seeking to be made righte­ous by the law, the Christians by Christ. And two states, a state of spirituall bondage to fear: and a state of spirituall liberty to believe, And two mediatours, Moses a human mediatour, and Christ the divine mediatour. And two cities, Ierusalem the type, and Ieru­salem typed. To the legall part of the testament belonged the bond woman, and the son of the bond woman, and the carnall seed, and the mount Sinai, and the old testament, and the Iewes, and the spirituall bondage, and the human mediator, and Ierusalem the type. To the Evangelicall part of the testament, belongeth the free woman, and the son of the free woman, and the spirituall seed, and mount Sion, and the new testament, and the Christians, and the spirituall liberty, and the divine mediatour, and Ierusalem ty­ped. Ierusalem which was the type, did visibly represent the Church of the new testament, teaching them to look for another Ierusalem, that Ierusalem which is above, and is free, and is (as Saint Paul saith) the mother of us all, of which,Gal. 4.26. those things which are spoken of Ierusalem in the best sense, are to be affirmed in a spirituall and evangelicall sense and meaning. This city is founded by Melchisedec indeed,Heb. 7, 2. Iesus Christ the true king of righteousnesse and peace. Her foundations are upon the holy hills, not mount Sion and mount Moriah; but Iesus Christ is the foundation of this Je­rusalem, this foundation is a sure rock; 1 Cor. 3.11. S. Mat. 16.18 Eph. 1.20. and the Apostles and Pro­phets are foundations strongly built and laid upon that founda­tion. These foundations are in the holy mountaines, the publick places of his worship where Christ is preached, the scriptures read, the prayers made, the sacraments administred; unto those mountains hath the Christian to lift up his eyes from whence commeth his help;Psal. 121.1. for upon those mountains shall he finde the sure foundations. Glorious things were spoken of that Ierusa­lem which was the type; far more glorious things are spoken of [Page 48] this Jerusalem which was typed. S. Mat. 4.5. Psal. 76.2. Isa. 22.1. S. Mat. 5.35. This Jerusalem is indeed the holy city, the true Salem, the valley of vision, the city of the great king, wherein Christ doth raigne and rule by his word, and by his holy spirit. That was the city of David from which he cast out the Jebusites; this is the city of Christ from which he hath cast out the devills. There Abraham offered up Isaac for a burnt-offering; here is Christ offered up for the sins of the whole world. There Solomon built his temple; here Christ hath his worship. That was Gods Aholibah for a time; this is his Aholibah for ever, (Thy walles are continually before me). Isa. 49.16. There was the throne of Da­vid for a time; here is the throne of Christ for ever and ever. That was often assailed, and finally surprised; this is often assailed, but shall never be surprised: for the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. S. Mat. 16.18. And all this was mysteriously signified and shewed by that city.

71 7ly To the Evangelicall part of the testament, belongeth the holy temple. History of the Temple. Deut. 12.4, 5. & 13, 14. 1 King. 8.29. 2 Chron. 7.12. And, that such a temple should be built, an habitati­on to the Lord, Moses had sufficiently premonished them in the book of Deuteronomy, cap. 12. David therefore having obtained rest from his enemies, thought that this duty might concern him, and consulted with Nathan the prophet about it. But God by the mouth of Nathan expresly forbiddeth him to do it, giving him to understand, that he would accept such a work, not at his,2 Sam 7. 1. Chron. 17. & 22. but at his sons hands. David thereupon having purchased the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite upon mount Moriah, ma­keth ample provision for the building of it, and leaveth the work to be performed by Solomon his son. Solomon in the fourth year of his raigne begins the work upon mount Moriah, 1 Chron. 22.14. 2 Chron. 3.1. com­passeth and endeth it in the terme of seven years; and having also made all the ornaments and utensills of the same, in form and matter like unto those of the Tabernacle, he brought the Ark with the Tabernacle of David, and all the sacred vessells which were in that tabernacle, into the temple which he had built, (concerning which stately structure, the magnificence and dimensions of it, let him that pleaseth read 1 King. 6. 2 Chron. 3.) and placed the Ark in the most holy place, under the wings of the Cherubims, in which at that time there, was nothing, save the two tables of stone which Moses put there at Horeb, as hath been said before. And when he had prayed and blessed the people, he offered his most rich and royall offerings, dedicating the temple, 1 King. 8.63, 64. 2 Chron. 7.7. and hallowing the middle court, for the offering sake which he offered there. Three times a year, namely at Easter, Whitsontide, and at the feast of Tabernacles, did Solomon offer his offerings upon that Altar, which he had built in the middle court which he had sanctified, for that the brazen altar was not large enough to contain his offering.

But when the ten tribes made defection from Rehoboam the 72 son of Solomon their lawfull King,2 Chro. 8.12, 13. and followed Jeroboam the son of Nebat in his rebellion; then did Jeroboam (fearing lest if the tribes should go up to Jerusalem at the three solemn feasts, according to the law, they would return again to their allegi­ance) erect two calves, the one at Bethel, the other in Dan, which he made of gold, and under pretence that it would be too tedi­ous and laborious for them to go up to Jerusalem, he drew a­way the people from the worship of God, to commit idolatry, and to worship those calves with sacrifices, rejecting the tribe of Le­vi, and making Priests of the lowest of the people. 1 Kin. 12. Which state-policy all the kings of Israel his successors followed, and for­sook the Temple, till in the end all the people together with Ho­shea their king were carried away captive by Salmaneser king of Assyria, and were by him disposed in Assyria, and in cities of the Medes, from whence they never obtained to returne.2 Kin. 17.6. All this while the Temple at Ierusalem was held in great Veneration by the other tribes, who adhered to the house of David; saving that it was once expiled by Shishack king of Egypt, in the fifth year of the raign of Rehoboam. 1 Kin. 14.26 2 Kin. 14.14 2 Kin. 11.18 2 Chr. 28.24 2 Kin. 16.15 And at another time by Iehoash king of Israel in Amaziah's raign. And was sometimes neglected out of impiety, as by Athaliah, who had in or nigh the Temple, an house dedicated to Baal. Sometimes violenced and closed up, as by king Ahaz; who also caused a strange Altar to be placed there. Notwithstanding God had still a care of it, and raised up good Kings who repaired it, and restored his worship; such were king Jehoash, king Hezechiah, and king Josiah, kings of Judah: 2 Kin. 12. 2 Kin. 18. 2 Kin. 22. till in the end for the wickedness of Zedechiah, (and because the priests and people also committed idolatry and polluted it) Nebuchad­nezzar king of the Caldees, being raised up by God as a scourge for their impieties, took away all the treasures and vessels there­of, and burnt it with fire, after that it had stood by the space of four hundred and forty years,2 Kin. 25. 2 Chro. 36. from the time that Solomon had founded it. And so the people being carried captive into Baby­lon, they abode many dayes (threescore and ten years) without a King, and without a Prince, and without a Sacrifice, and without an Image, and without an Ephod, and without Teraphim, Hos. 3.4. as the Pro­phet Hoseah prophesied.

But when the time determined upon them was ended, by the 73 permission of Cyrus king of Persia, they returned out of the land of their captivity, and came unto Jerusalem, where Joshuah or Je­sus the son of Iozadak the high Priest, & Zerubbabel, or Zorobabel the son of Shealtiel, or Salathiel the Prince,Ezr. 3.2. first builded the Al­tar whereon they offered Sacrifices; and two years after they began to build the Temple, v. 8. in the second month of the second year current. But this great and good work was interrupted by [Page 50] the Samaritans, and other idolatrous nations adjoyning, and by the commandment of Cambyses, Ezr. 4.5. first in the life of Cyrus his fa­ther, and during the term of his whole life; afterwards by him­self,Ezr. 4. 1 Esd. 2 Ezr. 5. Ezr. 6.15. when he obtained the kingdom (yet upon false and malici­ous suggestions) till by the concession of Darius in the 2d year of his raign (which was Darius the son of Histaspis king of Persia) the work went forward, and was finished on the third day of the moneth Adar (or February) in the sixth year of his raign, which was forty and six years, computed from the first year of the raign of Cyrus king of Persia (according to that which was said to Christ by the Jews in the Gospel by St. John) which they dedicated with great solemnity,S. Joh. 2.20 Ezr. 6.20. and afterwards kept the pass­over according to the Law. But that Temple is said to be much inferiour to Solomons Temple, and the Thalmudists do observe five things which that Temple wanted of the former; for first it had not the divine presence of God, which gave answers and Oracles by lively and audible voyce, from above the mercy-seat between the two Cherubims: in which manner God communed with Moses, Num. 7.89 and Moses directed his voyce thither, and did speak to God. 2ly The spirit of prophesie, for from Malachi to St. John the Baptist, Levit. 6.13. there arose no Prophet among them. 3ly The holy fire, concerning which it was provided in the Law, that it should never go out.2 Mal. 1.20 For this was hidden in a pit, to the end that it might not be surprized by the Babylonians, and was found con­gealed to water. 4ly The Urim and Thummim a mute Oracle; they say, it was certain precious stones in the pectorall of the high Priest, by the radiancy whereof God was pleased to signifie his approbation of that which they desired; which was, if they ap­peared more radiant then at other times, that then he approved their requests. Lastly, the Ark with the propiciatory and Cheru­bims, 2 Mal. 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. which together with the Tabernacle of David, were hidden by the prophet Ieremiah, but could never be found again.

74 In that state was the Temple, till it was dispoyled by Antio­chus, sirnamed Epiphanes, for he being brought to Jerusalem by a faction, (for he was sent for out of Egypt by the sons of Tobias, whom Onias the High Priest had by sedition cast out of the city) received it by surrender,1 Mac. 1.21, 22 and entred proudly into the Sanctuary, and robbed it of all the precious things thereof; closed it up vvith high vvalls and Tovvers, planted a Garrison therein, caused svvines flesh to be offered upon the Altar, upon vvhich he set up the abomination of desolation, v. 54. by dedicating it (as Jose­phus saith) to Jupiter Olympius. And having slain Onias the high Priest, he gave the Priest-hood to Alcimus, vvho vvas not of the pontificall blood. But tvvo years after, Judas sirnamed Machabe­us, having received the City, cleansed and dedicated the Temple a nevv, vvhich the Gentiles had prophaned, taking avvay the [Page 51] abomination, and reducing every thing to its former state, as is to be seen at large, 1 Mac. 4. In vvhich state it continued till king Herod most sumptuously repaired and enlarged it, to the admiration of all men, vvithin the space of one year and six months, Joseph. lib. 15. cap. 14. And so it stood in its glory to the passion of Christ; S. Mat. 27.51 at what time the vaile of the Temple rent in twain, from the top to the bottom. Afterwards Caligula the Em­perour affecting Deity, reduced the Synagogue of the Jews to his own worship, adorning them with his own statues, and the Temple it self which to that day had been kept inviolate, he dedicated to his own name. Whereby it appeared (saith mine Author) that the speech which the Jews unadvisedly had spoken before Pilate, when they said they would have no other king but Caesar, to have deservedly fallen upon their own heads. After this the Iews rebelling against Caesar their King, Titus Caesar in the raign of Vespasian took the City, and whether willingly or unwillingly, that is not here to be disputed, burnt the Temple, upon the same day that it had been burnt by the Babylonians be­fore. And that which made the judgement the more remark­able, was, that after the Souldiers had kindled the fire, no hu­mane industry was able to extinguish it. Even so doth God by man bring things to pass, which no human power can prevent. But it was Adrian the Emperour who caused the abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel the Prophet,Dan. 9.27. to stand in the holy place. For he set up his own Statue, and an image of Iupiter in the place of the Temple, and when the Iewes rebelled, he subdued them, laid the City levell to the ground, burnt that which re­mained of the Temple; and because he would utterly take away the Iewes Religion, he overwhelmed it with earth, and dedicated a Temple to Venus in place of it.

Like as the Temple had the same utensils which the Tabernacle 75 had; so had it also the same mysterie. The Myste­rie. Foras much as the Taber­nacle was no other but a portable Temple, neither was the Temple any other thing but a fixed, and immoveable Tabernacle. Yet be­cause the Temple did in many things excell the Tabernacle, therefore the mysterie must not go unobserved. The Temple did succeed the Tabernacle, which was to give them to understand, that the Evangelical Church, (figured by the Temple) should succeed the legall Tabernacle, or Iewish Synagogue. The Tabernacle was built by Moses, and was so made that it might be dis-joynt­ed and taken down; but the Temple was built by Solomon, and was made to stand and remain: signifying that the Iewish Syna­gogue, and legall worship given by Moses, should be dissolved, but the Christian Church, and Evangelicall worship, founded and built by Christ should stand, and remain unto the end of the world. The Tabernacle had no foundation, but the Temple was [Page 52] surely founded upon a strong Rock, signifying the weakness of the legall, if compared with the Evangelicall worship founded upon Christ the Rock. The Temple was more great and glorious then the Tabernacle; and all the utensils that Solomon made, did excell those that Moses made for the use of the Tabernacle: teaching them to know that the Evangelicall Church should be more great, and that farre more glorious things should be spo­ken of it in the time of the new Testament, then could be spoken of the Iewish Synagogue, or legall worship in the time of the old Testament. That it should be both of Iewes, and Gentiles. That it should be extended all the world over: that it should be adorned with gifts more rare and admirable, in the persons of the Apo­stles, and Prophets, and Evangelists, and Teachers; that it should be enlightned with a more plentifull measure of Gods most holy, and most blessed spirit. That it should be directed by the Evangelicall word. That it should be confirmed by miracles greater, and more abundant. That it should have Sacraments more venerable; a worship more plain and easie; a more glorious, and victorious army of Martyrs, and Confessors. That Kings, and Princes, and Magistrates, and all worldly Rulers, should cast down their Crowns and Scepters, and all engines of honour and greatness, descend from their Thrones, do homage unto Christ, bend and bow their knees, at or in the blessed name of Jesus, weare the vene­rable sign of his Cross in their foreheads, fight under his Banner, and account it their chiefest happiness to be Christs his ser­vants.

76 And therefore it was not without mystery, that when Solo­mon dedicated the Temple, he also the same day hallowed the midle Court, that was before the house of the Lord; and there he offered burnt-offerings, and meat-offerings, and the fat of the peace-offerings, (two and twenty thousand Oxen, and an hundred and twenty thousand sheep) because the brazen Altar that vvas before the Lord, 1 Kin. 8.63.64. 2 Chro. 7.7. vvas too little to receive the burnt-offerings, and meat-offerings, and the fat of the peace-offerings. The Holy Ghost thereby signifying the fulness of the Gentiles, to be brought unto the father by Christ his son, who should present their bodies a living sacrifice, holy, and acceptable unto God. For which cause when Christ suffered his passion and dyed, the vaile of the Temple rent in twain, from the top to the bottom, shewing un­to all those that looked upon these things with spirituall eyes, 77 that then the midle wall of partition was by him broken down, that so the fulness of the Gentiles might come in,Concerning those who are to admi­nister in, or attend up [...]n holy things. as St. Paul shew­eth, Eph. 2.

Lastly, to the Evangelicall part of the Testament, belonged all those who by their place and office, were to administer in, or give their attendance upon holy things. These were first the [Page 53] Priests who were of the sons of Aaron, whom God who is the God of order, distributed into two orders. The first was the Ponti­ficall order; of which order there was alwaies one, and but one, who had it, (or ought to have had it) from Aaron by succes­sion, and birth-right, if he were in capability of it: that is to say, if he had no blemish, if he were not blind, nor lame, nor had a flat nose, nor had any thing superfluous, nor were broken footed, or broken hand­ed, or crook-backt, or a dwarfe, or had a blemish in his eye, or scurvie, or scabbed, or had his stones broken, &c. For every blemish made him uncapable of the pontificall function. Then again he must not uncover his head, nor rend his clothes, nor go into any dead body, nor defile himselfe for his father or for his mother, nor go out of the sanctu­ary, nor prophane it; and might onely take a virgin to wife of his own people, and might not prophane his seed among his people; for these are the conditions required, Levit. cap. 21. His office was to order the lamps upon the pure candlestick before the Lord con­tinually. To offer upon the Altar, to burn incense,Levit. 24.4. 1 Sam. 2.28. Levit. 24.8. Levit. cap. 16 to weare the Ephod. To make and set forth in order the shew-bread before the Lord every Sabbath. To go within the vaile, and to make the solemn attonement once a year, in such manner and form as is prescribed, Levit. cap. 16. Under these conditions Aaron first had it, then Eleazer his son, then Phinees the sonne of Eleazar, &c.

The Priests of the second order, The priests of the second order. Levit. 21.21. were all the sons of Aaron 78 successively in their generations, who were capable of the Priest-hood, that is to say, if they had no blemish, nor were blinde or lame, &c. for the Law was, No man that hath a blemish of the seed of Aaron the Priest, shall come nigh to offer the offerings of the Lord made by fire; he hath a blemish, he shall not come nigh to offer the bread of his God. These were consecrated as the High Priests were, and with the same oyl, though not to the same measure, as hath been said before. They might not defile themselves for the dead; yet for their near kindred, their Mothers, their Fa­thers, their Sons, their Daughters, their Brethren, and their Sisters which were Virgins, and had not been married, they might defile themselves by going in unto them when they were dead. They might uncover their head, but they might not make baldness upon it, by shaving the hair quite off, neither might they shave all the corners of their beards, nor make any cuttings in their flesh. It was not forbidden unto them to marry with widows, though they might not take to wife a Whore, a pro­phane woman, or her that had been divorced:Num. 4.16. S. Luc. 1.9. Levit. 17.6. 2 Chron. 29.21, 22, 23, 24. & v. 34. for these condi­tions are required, Levit. 21. Their office was to conserve the oyl, to oversee all the sacred Vessels, to offer incense every day, to offer ordinary, and extraordinary sacrifices, to flay or take off the skin of the burnt-offerings. They were in order, degree, and [Page 54] dignity, inferiour to the high priest, and therefore though they had vessels befitting their order and degree which the high priest also had in common together with them, as the feminalls or lin­nen breeches, the strait linnen coat, the girdle of needle work, the cap or mitre of fine linnen, the linnen Ephod, as hath been said before: yet the peculiar robes and ornaments of the high priest, as the robe of the Ephod, the Ephod or superhumerall, the breast-plate of judgement, the Urim and Thummim, and the plate of gold upon the Mitre or Cap, it was not lawfull for them to weare.

79 Aaron had four sons, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar; and these four were first consecrated, Priests first consecrated. being apparrelled with the sacerdotall garments. But Nadab and Abihu, did rashly presume to offer incense with common and ordinary fire, and not with that sacred fire which God commanded; therefore there went out fire from the Lord, and devoured them, and they dyed before the Lord; Levit. 10.1, 2 1 Chro. 24.2 and left none to succeed them in the priesthood. Wherefore the priesthood was continued by Eleazar and Ithamar, and in their stock and progeny, unto the dayes of David. But David in his time, finding that there were sixteen families which descended from Eleazar, and eight from Ithamar, distributed them into four and twenty rancks or orders, according to the heads of the severall families by lot: that so they might orderly, and in their course (and not altogether) give attendance upon the Temple. And these were called the first, second, third, and fourth lots, &c. as is to be seen 1 Chron. cap. 24. This being done by David, Solomon having builded and consecrated the Temple, appointed according to the order of David his Father,2 Chr. 8.14. the courses of the Priests to their service. The severall Orders served their several weekes, and then others succeeded in their places. For Zacharias the priest, the Father of St John the Baptist, executed the Priests office before God, S. Luc. 1.8. [...], in the order of his course, saith the Translation. But [...] courses, as Theo­philact saith, and after him, Scuttetus and Beza, were Hebdomadae, weeks. It seemeth also, that when they were met together, they cast lots what every man should do, and what service he should perform; for it is said of the same Zacharias, that accord­ing to the custom of the Priests office [...], his lot was, (or he obtained by lot) to burn incense. v. 9. And by this the Reader may take notice, who those [...], those high priests, or chief priests were,S. Mat. 2.4. with whom Herod consulted; and who they were who so often in the new Testament have obtained to be styled high Priests, or chiefe Priests. There was but one high priest who was the high or chief Priest of all, as was Jehoiada the chief. But there were high priests or chief Priests,2 Chr. 24.6. four and twenty in num­ber, who were the highest or chiefest of the severall courses, orders or lots, the heads of the severall families. These upon [Page 55] all occasions assisted the high priest, and were of his counsell, as is to be seen, Acts 4.6.Act. 4.6. And because they were the heads of the severall families of the priests, and the chiefest of the severall courses, orders, or lots, therefore called the high priests, or chiefe priests.

The Levites, under which name and notion I comprehend 80 the whole tribe of Levi, Concerning the Levites. (the stock and progeny of Eleazer and Ithamar, from whom the high priest and all the priests of the second order did descend, only excepted) were by divine insti­tution first set apart to the service of the Tabernacle. Their office was to take care of the Tabernacle, and of all the vessells thereof, Num. 1.50. & cap. 3.6, 7, 8.9. 1 Chron. 23.28. and of all things that did belong to it, to bear it, and all the vessells of it, to minister unto it, and to encamp about it, and to minister to the priests. All which things they performed during the peregrina­tion of the Tabernacle, and to the daies of David. But David re­duced them into another forme; for the care of the Tabernacle being ceased, and the Temple to succeed,Levites pro­perly or spe­cially. Ezr. 8.16. 1 Chron. 23.27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32. he appointed some of them to attend the temple, and to minister to the priests: these were twenty and foure thousand, divided into foure and twen­ty orders, courses, or lots, according as their lot fell, who had also their chiefe Levites as the priests had, and did give their attendance in their turnes, and were called the Levites. Con­cerning whose office and age, read 1 Chron. cap. 23. Giving also the Nethinims The Nethi­nims. Ezr. 8.20. to minister unto them, and to do service for the levites, as the levites also ministred unto the priests. Which Nethinims were the stock and progeny of the Gibeonites, whom Ioshuah and the Princes spared, because of the oath which they had sworn; but yet condemned to perpetuall bondage,Josh. 9.21, 23, 27. 2 Chron. 8.14. and to be hewers of wood, and drawers of water for the congregation, and for the house of God for ever. Solomon therefore according to the order of David, appointed the levites to their charges.

Again, David appointed foure thousand of the tribe of Levi 81 to be Singers, The Singers. distinguishing them by lots into foure and twenty orders, courses, or lots, according as their lot fell, and to give attendance in their severall courses. 1 Chron. 23.5, 6. & cap. 25.1. Their office was to praise the Lord with the instruments which David made for the service and praise of God, and to prophesy with harps, with psalteries, and with cymballs, and with lively and audible voice to praise and glorifie God, and to lift up their voice in their divine songs, saying, For he is good, for his mercy endureth for ever. They were arrayed in white linnen,2 Chron. 5.13. but Solomon (as Josephus saith) made for them two hundred thousand robes of silk or bysse, whereby they were distingui­shed from the priests who ware a linnen Ephod. The Porters. He appointed likewise foure thousand of the tribe of Levi to be porters, distin­guishing them by lot into foure and twenty orders, courses, or lots, and assigning unto them the gates by lot. 1 Chron. cap. 26. Their office was [Page 56] to watch, 1 Chron. 9.26, 27, 28, 29. and to have the oversight of the gates of the temple, to take care of the chambers and treasures, to lodge round about it, and to open and shut the gates morning and evening, to have the charge of the ministring vessells, to bring them in and out by tale. Also to over­see the vessells, and all the instruments of the Sanctuary, and the fine flower, the wine, and the oile, and the franckincense, and the spices. To stand at the gates, 2 King. 22.4. Philo de prae­miis sacerdo­tum. and to prohibit all that were unclean in any thing to enter in. To gather the mony which the people were to pay toward the reparation of the temple. To sweep the porches and the court, to carry out the dust and dirt, and to keep it sweet and clean every way.

82 Lastly, he appointed of the tribe of Levi six thousand to be officers and judges. 1 Chron. 23 4. Who these officers and judgesThe officers and judges. were, the Scripture makes no mention; yet forasmuch as the Greek inter­preter renders the place [...]. I conceive them to be such as were appointed to read the law, to expound the same, and to judge in controversies of religion, 2 Sam. 8.17. 2 King. 18.18. 2 King. 12.10. if any should arise. For there were three sorts of scribes, the first were the Kings secretaries. So Da­vid had Seraiah for his scribe, and Hezekiah had Shebna for his scribe. And such a one is expresly called the kings scribe. The second sort of scribes were scriveners or publick notaries, who wrote instruments, and drew publick and private contracts; I should think those scribes to be such, of whom mention is made 1 Chron. 2.1 Chron. 2.55. Jer. 32.10. Psal. 45.1. Such were the evidences subscribed and sea­led with witnesses by Ieremiah. To whose dexterity and quick­nesse in writing, David alludeth in the book of Psalmes, My tongue is the pen of a ready writer. The third sort of scribes were not scribae à scribendo, but scribae à scripturis sacris; they had not their name from writing, but from the holy scriptures which they read and expounded, and because it was their office [...] to dijudicate, and to distinguish, therefore called [...] judges:Ezr. 1.6. Nehem 8.4, 8. S. Mat. 2.4. S. Luc. 7.30. S. Luc. 11.46 Act. 5.34. Act. 22.3. Such a one was Ezra, a ready scribe in the law of Mo­ses, He read the law standing in a pulpit of wood, gave the sense, and caused the people to understand the reading. Such were the scribes whom Herod consulted with, demanding where Christ should be born. They are called in the gospell lawyers, and doctors of law. Such a one was Gamaliel, at whose feet Saint Paul was brought up. These therefore had the care of religion, to examine do­ctrines, and to know by what authority any one should take upon him to teach, And therefore Saint Luke telleth us, that when Christ taught the people in the temple, and preached the Gospell, they came upon him to examine him, and to demand his authority, saying,S. Luc. 20.2. Tell us, by what authority dost thou these things, or who is he that gave thee this authority? which was, because he had no au­thority from them. When Christ came, their doctrines and ex­positions were very corrupt, and through their traditions, they had made the law of God of none effect. Yet he acknowledgeth [Page 57] them to sit in Moses seat, (that they had a lawfull institution,S. Mat. 23.2. and were bound in duty to read and to expound the law), And every Scribe (saith he) which is instructed unto the king­dome of heaven, is like unto a man that is an housholder, which bring­eth forth out of his treasure things new and old. Yet for their pride,S. Mat. 13.53. hypocrisie, and because they seduced the people, he denoun­ceth eight woes against them, as it is to be seen, Saint Mat. cap. 8.

But we will now come unto the mysteriesThe mystery. to be understood. 83 The high priest in his person, and by his consecration, and in his place and office, and in all his robes and ornaments, and in eve­ry office of his function, was a type of Christ. The conditions of his capability did most excellently set forth the fulnesse of Christ his perfections every way; for had there been any imper­fections in him; he could not have redeemed mankind, made imperfect by reason of sin. That he might only take a virgin to wife of his own people, it did give them to understand, that Christ would be betrothed to his own Church (the Christian Church) as to a pure virgin. His offices, (namely, the offices of the high priest in the Temple) did mystically set forth the offices of, Christs priesthood in his Church, his sacrifice, intercession, expia­tion, and doctrine, whereby the Church is enlightned, as the temple was by the lamps ordered by the high priest, and spiritu­ally fed and nourished, as by that shew-bread, or bread of pro­position, which is set forth to be received and believed all the world over.

The priests of the second order, as they were typicall persons and types of Christ upon some respects; even so upon other re­spects 84 they did signifie, and figuratively set forth the Evangeli­call priesthood; that although they have a true and a reall priest­hood, convenient to the new testament, yet inferiour, and of a second order to the priesthood of Christ. That by their office and function they descend, and derive a spirituall and evangelicall pedigree from Christ, the first, and the great high priest. The conditions of their capability, (to wit, of the priests of the second order) did mystically shew what manner of men the evangelicall priests ought to be, that they must be without all blemish, not in respect of sin as Christ was, for that is impossible; but of scan­dall, for that is requisite. Therefore some things were permit­ted to the priests of the second order, which were absolutely for­bidden to the high priest. The office of the priests of the second or­der, to whom it was appointed, that they should conserve the oyle, oversee the vessells, offer incense and sacrifices, yet might they not go within the vail, nor make the expiation; did mean, that although the evangelicall priests should be ordained to preach the gospell, to offer up spirituall sacrifices, and to inter­cede [Page 58] for the people as priests or ministers; yet that it is Christ alone, who by his own blood should enter once into the holy place, having obtained eternall redemption for us. To his superiority therefore belonged all that which was meant, and intended by the peculiar robes and ornaments of the high priest; and to their ministrie, all that which was meant and intended by the other vestes. The feminalls or linnen breeches, and the strait linnen coat, that they must be expedite and diligent to do the duties of their calling; the girdle of needle work, that they must be bound about with verity and truth; the cap or mitre of fine linnen, that they must in all things save and preserve their head, which is Christ; and the linnen Ephod, that they must be of a pure and un­spotted conversation. That whereas the priests of the second order were distinguished into their classes, and appointed to their offi­ces by lot: it gave them to understand, that the priesthood of the new testament should be of divine providence, and allotted unto his Church by Christ.

85 The Levites, the Nethinims, the Singers, and the Porters, did signifie the inferiour clergie of the new testament, and all others employed in the Church to glorifie God, to promote and set forth religion with decency and order. And whereas the officers and judges were of the tribe of Levi, it gave them to understand, that in the Church of Christ, the scriptures must be expounded, and questions and controversies of religion decided by those onely, who in respect of their office and function do properly per­tain to the Leviticall tribe. By the distinct orders and offices of the high priest, the priests of the second order, the levites, the singers, the porters,, the officers and judges, was signified, that Christ in his Church would have distinct orders and officers, to attend seve­rally upon their severall offices, and not to clash or interfere one with another, Let the layicks (or lay-officers) be subject to the Dea­cons; the Deacons to the Priests; the Priests to the Bishop; the Bishop to Christ; as Christ himselfe is subject to the Father, saith Saint Ignatius, Epist. ad Smyrnens.

86 There were yet others, who by their office and function did give their attendance upon holy things,Concerning the Prophets. and were organs or instruments, in, or by whom the word came; in whom God was, by his most holy and most blessed spirit, and did regulate their mouths and pens so, that look what they delivered to the Church either by preaching or by writing, it was none of their word, but the word of God in and by them delivered. For God spake unto the fathers of old time [...],Heb. 1.1. in or by the Prophets, as the Apostle saith. And these Prophets, whether they obtained to be called [...], Prophets, from the word [...], which signifieth to predict, because they did predict and fore­tell things to come, especially concerning Christ and his king­dome. [Page 59] Or else [...], which signifieth to shew, because they did shew forth future events, but more especially, because they did shew Christ to come, and were themselves typicall persons of Christ. Or else [...], because they did interpret obscure oracles, and declare deep and profound mysteries, especially such as lay hidden in the sacrifices and ceremonies of the law: Certain it is, that they were more anciently by the Hebrewes called Seers, because they had their prophecies and predictions by divine visions and revelation from God, and because by them men did enquire of God. 1 Sam. 9.9. Definition of Prophets. These Prophets therefore must be defined to be holy men, who being inspired by Gods most holy and most blessed Spirit, did see, and had divine visions and revelations from God, and did interpret obscure oracles, and declare great mysteries, and did prophesy and foretell things to come, specially concerning Christ and his kingdome, seeking only the glory of God, and the good of his Church.

Of these Prophets there was no continued succession, neither 87 did the son succeed the father in the office of a Prophet as the Priests did; yet we finde them almost from the beginning of the world. For although I shall make no doubt, but that Adam himselfe had the gift of prophecie, and was able to prophesy and predict things to come, (especially concerning that blessed seed, whom God had promised to break the serpents head); and that his sons also had the same gift.Jud. v. 14, 15. Yet Enoch the seventh from Adam is expresly noted a prophet, and that he did see, and did pro­phesy and predict things to come concerning Christ, so far off as his second comming. Neither were these Prophets all of the Jewes, but there were prophets also of other nations, as Balaam, Job, and the Sibylls, whose fatidick verses are well known and remembered by the Fathers in their learned Writings. But our definition holdeth good, specially of those Prophets, in and by whom the word of God came unto his people the Jewes, and which were raised up among them, and of their own nation, although they were not all of them of the tribe of Levi. Of these, some were before the law, as Abraham, and Isaac, and Ja­cob, and Joseph, whose prophecies are extant in the Scripture:Gen. 20.7. and Abraham is affirmed to be a Prophet by God himselfe. Some of them were under the law, first and principally Moses, to whom God spake, not in visions and dreams, as to other pro­phets; but mouth to mouth apparently, and not in dark spee­ches, and to whom it was given to behold the similitude of the Lord. Then the seventy Elders, Num. 12.7, 8. who had the same spirit of pro­phecy put upon them (though not to the same measure) that Moses had. In the time of the Judges, there was Deborah a pro­phetesse, the wife of Lapidoth, who judged Israel. Num. 11.25. Judg. 4.4. Judg. 6.8. And one more, of whom mention is made, Judg. 6. In the daies of Eli [Page 60] the high priest, the word of the Lord was pretious; there was no open vision: and then the Lord spake unto Samuel, and appea­red again in Shiloh, (where the Tabernacle and the Ark at that time were) and revealed himselfe unto him; And all Israel from Dan even to Beersheba knew,1 Sam. 3.20, 21. that Samuel was established to be a prophet of the Lord.

88 But Samuel taught the art of prophesying by the appointment of God, for which cause many had recourse unto him, and by him were taught to prophesie; 1 Sam. 19.20. 2 King. 2.3, 5. so that from that time forth, there were not only prophets in Israel, but houses and Seminaries of the Prophets, at Naioh, at Bethel, at Jericho; and so wonderfully were the sons of the prophets multiplyed, that their Seminaries or Colledges became in time too strait and little for them.2 King. 6.1. A­mong whom were most famous the Prophets, Gad, Nathan, A­saph, Iduthum, Ahias, Samaias, Jad, Azarias, Hanani, Jehu, Jazi­el, Eliezer, Zecharias, in the raign of Uzziah, whose prophesies and predictions were not written, and if written, not extant. But above all,1 King 17.14. 1 King. 18.38. 2 King. 1.10.12 1 King. 17.1. 2 King. 2.11. 2 King. 4.34. 2 King. 13.21. 2 King. 6.17. the prophet Elijah, who continued the oyl from wa­sting in the cruse, brought down fire three times from heaven, carried the rain in his tongue, raised the dead, and was carried up into heaven [...], in a whirle-wind of fire, saith S Epiphanius. And Elisha upon whom rested a double portion of the spirit of Elijah, who raised two from the dead, one while he lived, and another by his dead bones, multiplyed the widows oyl, to fill up all the vessels to the brim, and brought horses and horsemen [and Chariots] of fire from heaven for the defence of Israel, saith Justine Martyr, or whosoever else is the Author of those questions and answers ad Orthodox. 85. Prophets whose writings are extant, and received in the Church as authenticall, are the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezechiel, and Daniel, who are called the greater Prophets, because they wrote the greater volume. Also the Prophets, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micha, Nahum, Habbakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, the son of Barachiah, and Malachi, who are called the lesser Pro­phets, because they wrote the lesser books. All these testified of Christ, and preached the redemption of mankind by him, as the Apostle St. Peter sheweth in the Acts of the Apostles, Act 3 18, 21, 22, 24. Mal. 3.1. S. Mar. 1.2. S. Joh. 1.29. cap. 3. Now Malachi was the last of all the Prophets, and by the spirit of pro­phesie, he foretold the coming of St. John the Baptist, a messenger sent immediately before Christ to prepare his way, by his prea­ching, and by his baptism, and to point him out saying, Behold the lambe of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. So that from Malachi to St John the Baptist, St. John the Baptist. they had no Prophet. But St. John the Baptist was a Prophet, [...]uc. 1.17. and more then a Prophet: he was a Pro­phet, for the spirit and power of Elias was upon him. He was more then a Prophet, for he was an Apostle too, extraordinarly called, and sent forth by Christ to preach, and to baptize, to [Page 61] prepare his way, and to point him out: He was of greater holi­ness then any that were before him; for though the Prophet Jeremiah were sanctified in his mothers wombe,Jer. 1.5. S. Luk. 1.15. yet St. John the Baptist was filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mothers wombe. He received greater grace then any that were before him: for the mysterie of the blessed Trinity was never so plainly revealed unto any as unto him, in that he baptized Christ, saw the Holy Ghost descend upon him in a bodily shape like a Dove, and heard the sweet voice of the Father from heaven saying,S. Mat. 3.17. This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased.

Here the Reader may please to take notice, that God in time 89 past, was pleased to be consulted with,How God was consult­ed with. and to give answers to his people the Jewes in four divers manners. First by Oracle, for so long as the Tabernacle and the first Temple were standing, they came unto the Oracle, that is to say, to the Holy of Holies, where the Ark of the Covenant was, and the propitiatory or mercy seat thereupon, covered aloft with the wings of Cherubims, and al­though they might not enter in, yet they stood before it without the vaile, and enquired, and God answered by voyce, for they heard the voyce of one speaking unto them, from off the mercy-seat that was upon the Ark of the testimony, from between the two Cherubims. Exo. 25.22. Num. 7.89. But the second Temple had not the Ark and Oracle as the Talmudists do say, but only that stone and censer of which mention hath been made before; notwithstanding they talk of answers by Bath-kol, which was, that sometimes there came a small still voyce from heaven, such a voyce as St. John the Baptist did hear, after that Christ was baptized:S. Mat. 3.17. such as the Disciples heard at the transfiguration of Christ. Which voyce came unto him (as the Apostle St. Peter saith) from the excellent glory. S. Mat. 17.5. 2 Pet. 1.17. And which Bath-kol, or small still voyce the people once heard, but knew not what it was. 2ly By his Prophets, before time in Israel, S. Joh. 12.28 29. when a man went to enquire of God, thus he spake, Come, and let us go to the seer; for he that is now called a Prophet, was before time cal­led a seer. Neither did they diffide the answers which the Pro­phets of the Lord should give: For when king Ahab consulted with his false Prophets, 1 Sam. 9.9. about the expedition that he intended to make unto Ramoth Gilead, and was counselled by them, as from God, to undertake it; king Jehosaphat not satisfied with their an­swer, required to know what God would have to be done, by the mouth of one of his own Prophets. Is there not here a Prophet of the Lord besides, that we might enquire of him? saith he.

But these Prophets ceased, after the return of the people 90 from Babylon, and were not under the second Temple, the Pro­phet Malachi being the last, as was intimated before. 3ly By the Priest, that is to say, by the high Priest, who when he asked counsell of God, had on his Ephod or superhumerall, and the Ra­tionall [Page 62] or breast-plate of judgement, wherein was the Urim and Thummim, a mute Oracle placed within the duplicate, over a­gainst his heart, whereby when he enquired he understood the will of God. But how, that is not known, because it is not re­vealed in the Scriptures what the Urim and Thummim were. But they say, that when God was propitious to the sacrifice, then that onyx stone which was upon the right shoulder of the Ephod, which before was dim, did shine with a wonderfull lustre, so that they who stood afar off might discerne it. And that the twelve stones in the Rationall, by their more then usuall radian­cy, before the battle was joyned, were sure tokens of victory. Howsoever it were, sure it is, that God was consulted with, and did give answers by the priests; for it is said expresly, that Saul enquired of the Lord, and the Lord answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by Urim, nor by prophets. And when the Amalekites had spoiled Zicklag, 1 Sam. 28.6. David said to Abiathar the priest, Abimelechs son, I pray thee bring me hither the Ephod, and Abiathar brought thi­ther the Ephod to David. 1 Sam. 30.7, And David enquired of the Lord, saying, Shall I pursue after this troop, shall I overtake them? And he [Abi­athar who had on the Ephod, and made enquiry for David] an­swered him, 8. Pursue, for thou shalt surely overtake them, and without fail recover all. But the second temple had not the Urim and Thum­mim, as before is mentioned. And Josephus saith, that about two hundred years before he wrote his History, the Onyx stone of the Ephod, and the stones of the Rationall, left off their former di­vinatory splendency, God being offended with his people for the transgression of his law, Antiqu. lib. 3. cap. 9. 4ly God was en­quired of, and did give his answers by visions, and by divine dreams, (visions are the representations of things, to the out­ward senses of men being awake; and dreames are the represen­tation of things by the phantasie, in sleep) and the interpreta­tion of such dreams and visions was a peculiar gift of God.Gen. 41.16. Such dreams had Abimelech, and Jacob, and Joseph, and Gideon; and such visions had Jacob, and Samuel, and Nathan, and the Pro­phets. And this kind ceased not under the second temple, and is frequently found in the new testament; for Joseph in his dream was commanded to flee into Egypt with Christ, and with his blessed mother; and in his dream he was commanded to re­turn again.S. Mat. 1.12.20. The Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul had divine dreams and visions, and Saint John had his revelation by visions; and visions and dreams [divine visions and dreams] were pro­mised to the new testament. Joel 2.28.

91 All the Prophets were typicall persons and types of Christ that great Prophet, The mystery. Deut. 18.15. of whom Moses prophesyed, saying what God had said unto him, I will raise them up a prophet from among their bre­thren like unto thee, &c. Which prophecy is no lesse then three [Page 63] times cited in the new testament. S. Joh. 1.45. Act. 3.22. Act. 7.37. Their immediate mission from God did signifie Christ, to be sent from the bosome of the Father. The unction which they had with materiall oyle, did signifie Christ immaterially annointed by the Holy Ghost. That they brought the word of God unto the people; it did signifie, that the word himselfe should come, who should fully reveal unto men the Father and his will. That it was given unto them to work miracles, and to raise the dead; it did bid them expect that great Prophet, who by his own power should work all manner of miracles, and raise the dead, and raise himselfe from death to life again. There was nothing which the Prophets had, or did, but in a spirituall and evangelicall sense and meaning, it must relate to Christ. That David and Solomon were kings and pro­phets of the tribe of Judah, it signified Christ the true king, of whose gift it is, that all the kings of the earth have their crownes and scepters, to be and descend according to his hu­man nature of the kingly tribe.1 King. 18.37. The fire which Elijah brought from heaven to consume the sacrifice, did represent the Holy Ghost, (oftentimes in the Scriptures compared to fire, and meant and understood by fire) to be sent from heaven by Christ, to help our infirmities, and to offer up our spirituall sacrifices, acceptable unto God through Jesus Christ. 2 King. 1.10, 12. 2 King. 2.11. 2 King 4.34. The fire which Elijah brought from heaven to consume the captains of the fifties; did set forth Christ comming to judgment, whose comming shall be with fire, to burn up the world of the ungodly. The ascention of Elijah into heaven in a whirle-winde, did prefigure the ascenti­on of Christ into heaven. That a double portion of the spirit of Elijah rested on Elisha; it signified that double portion of his spirit which Christ would give to his Euangelicall ministers. That Elijah raised the Shunamites son by applying himselfe unto him, by putting his mouth unto his mouth, and his eyes upon his eyes, and his hands unto his hands, and by stretch­ing himselfe upon him; it did premonstrate, that Christ by ap­plying himselfe unto us in the human nature, would raise us up unto a new and spirituall life.

The multiplying of the widowes oile did foretell the powring 92 forth of his Spirit, 2 King. 4 6. and the multiplying of his graces in the new testament. The raising of the man that was dead by the touch of his dead bones; 2 King. 13.21. did prefigure a quickening vertue in the dead body of Christ, by the power of his Godhead, not only to raise him­selfe from the dead again, but to raise all true believers, who are buried with him by baptisme, and touch him in his grave by faith unto newnesse of life.2 King. 6.17 Those horses and chariots of fire which he shewed unto his servant, was the mystery of Christs divine pro­tection of his Church for ever, to defend it against the gates of hell. That the Prophets were Seers, 1 Sam. 9.9. and that God did speak by [Page 64] them, and that the people enquired of them: it did direct them unto Christ who is the true Seer, in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdome and knowledge, stored up in him as in a treasure-house: he being the word it selfe, the coeternall, coessen­tiall, and consubstantiall word; who spake unto the Partriarks, and inspired the Prophets with his most holy and most blessed Spirit. Thus there is a wonderfull profundity (as Saint Augu­stine also saith) of the divine oracles of God; and to use the words of Justine Martyr, Unlesse that a man by the great grace of God, shall obtain to understand the sayings and deeds of the Prophets, it is to little purpose that he can repeat their words and works, [...], If he have not obtained [by unfolding the great mysteries contained in them] to ren­der a sufficient reason of them. Dialog. cum Tryphon. Jud.

93 Hitherto I have endeavoured in some part to unfold these deep and profound mysteries; To do it fully, and according to the latitude and extent of them, it would need a colledge of El­ders, nay Moses himselfe, who had the patterne shewed unto him in the mount, (if yet either he or they had the interpreta­tion of them revealed, to the perfection of all that which the holy Ghost intended.) Here is Jacob's ladder, it reacheth from earth to heaven, God standeth upon the top of it: by these rounds and spokes [the forementioned mysteries] God sent down his son to be known and believed in such a manner, as was most conve­nient to the old testament: and by these rounds and spokes, they ascended unto God that stood at the top of the ladder; and had a saving knowledge of Christ, sufficient for them to salvation and everlasting life, till the whole earth should be filled with a more clear and perfect knowledge of the Lord, by his comming in the flesh. Divina eloquia tanto quis (que) altiùs intelligit, quanto altiùs in eis intendit, saith Saint Gregory. They therefore that are better studied in the Scriptures, will finde out farther mysteries. But if any one shall differ from me in judgment, I envy not unto him a greater soundnesse and perspicuity. In eo quippe numero sumus, ut non dedignemur etiam nobis dictum ab Apostolo accipere, Et si quid aliter sapitis, id quoque Deus vobis revelavit: forasmuch as we rank our selves in the number of those, who disdain not to take unto us that which was spoken by the Apostles, And if in any thing ye be otherwise minded, God also hath revealed that un­to you; to apply the words of Saint Augustine to my selfe. Ad Vincent. Donatist. Epist. 48.

94 Here then we will put an end to the first book of this our sa­cred and mysterious History, The Recapi­tulation. having shewed how, and in what manner, that covenant which God made with Adam, and with all his posterity, during the first period of time, for the space of about three thousand and nine hundred, threescore and ten [Page 65] years, was administred, (till the promised seed did come, the son of God, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons, Gal. 4.4, 5.) By covenanting grace. By conferring faith. By administring the covenant barely inform of a promise, from Adam to Abraham. By renewing the covenant with Abraham. By adding circumcision a seal of the covenant. By instituting the paschall lamb, another seal of the same covenant. By disposing it into the form of a Testament. By the legall, and by the evangelicall parts of it. Which evangelicall part of it was invested with the Tabernacle: The Ark: the golden Table: The golden Candlestick: The Altar of incense: The Sacred incense: The brazen Altar. The brazen Laver: The Leviticall priesthood: The garments of the high Priest: The consecration of the high Priest: The Leviticall offerings: The daies, and months, and times and years: The holy City: The holy Temple: The holy persons. All which things were typicall and mysterious, relating to Christ; to the new testament, confirmed by his blood; to the Evangelicall Church.


1 NOw was the second period of time The second period of time come, where­in that promised Seed should abolish the old Testament, first by his coming in the flesh, 2ly By his administration of the Covenant in the flesh: and 3ly by his death. He would abolish the old Testament, and he hath aboli­shed it, by not urging or exacting perfect obe­dience to the Law, in a double purity; a purity of nature, and a purity of workes. He would abolish the old Testament, and he hath abolished it, by unvailing the Evangelicall part of it, in that he hath put away the shadows by the body it self: the figures by the truth it self: the temporall priesthood of Aaron, by an eternall priesthood of Melchisedec: and all those sacrifices which were offered year by year continually, by that sole singular sacrifice of himself offered once for all. He would abolish, and he hath abo­lished the old Testament, by taking off the two old seales, Circum­cision, and the Paschal lambe, and by annexing in place thereof, two new seales proper to the new Testament, Baptism, and the sacrament of his Supper. He would abolish, and he hath abolish­ed the old Testament, by transferring the keyes of the kingdom of heaven from the legall to the Evangelicall priesthood. After which manner God will have his Covenant to be administred with men, unto the end of the world.

2 Therefore it came to pass, not without the speciall provi­dence of Almighty God, The Empe­rour Augu­stus his De­cree. that the Emperour Augustus, having com­pleatly raigned one and forty years, and the two and fortieth being then current, there being peace all the world over; (to the end that he might know his own strength in his Empire, the number of those who had the priviledge to be Citizens of Rome, what people were then subject to the Roman Empire in e­very place, how disposed to peace or war; of what power and wealth, what contracts, consanguinities, affinities, they had among [...]hemselves; to the end that he might know how to impose [Page 67] tributes, how to make wars, in whom he might confide, whom he had to distrust, whom to fear;) set forth an edict or decree, that all the world, that is to say, his whole Emperiall Dominion, in all the parts and provinces subject to the same all the world over, should be taxed, described, inventaried or inrolled, by ap­pearing personally before such persons as he had then deputed, for that service, and by giving in their names, surnames, paren­tage, alliances, estates, arts, trades, and conditions of life, what chil­dren, what families, &c. to the end that all these things might remain upon Record to be made use of, as occasion should serve. For, all this is meant by the word [...], and [...] (although our late Translation render it [should be taxed,] and taxing, but in the Margin have noted, [inrolled] Luc. 2.S. Luc. 2.1, 2) For this cause Publius Sulpitius Quirinius, called by the Evangelist Cyrenius, was sent with commission into Syria, (Judea being comprehended as a part thereof) And because that Palestina was divided unto the tribes by lot, and the severall tribes into severall families, who had also in their severall families the Ci­ties of the heads of their families; therefore David being the head of his family, and Bethlehem the city of David; holy Ioseph with the blessed Virgin St Mary his espoused wife being great with childe, (both of them being of the tribe of Iudah, and of the house and linage of David) in obedience to the Emperiall decree, went up from Nazareth the place of their habitation,Nazareth. S. Luc. 4.29. which was a little city of Galilee the lower, built upon an hill, in the tribe of Zebulon, unto Beth-lehem Ephratah another city,Mic. 5.2. Bethlehem Ephratah. distant from Ierusalem, about six miles toward the South, and was scituate upon an hill, threescore and twelve miles from Nazareth Southward; there to be taxed or enrolled, and to give in before the Commissioner himself, or such as were ap­pointed by him, their names, surnames, parentage, alliances, e­state, and condition of life, or what else should be demanded of them, that so they might be taxed or inrolled accordingly.

And being come thither, they find themselves prevented of lodging and entertainment in the Inne, wherefore they turn 3 into a certain Cave, (as all antiquity affirmeth) where was a Stable and a Manger cut out of a Rock, and in that Cave they made their present abode, which Cave (as Beda in the descrip­tion of Beth-lehem lib. de locis sanct. cap. 8. saith) was at the East end of the Town, seeming to be naturall and in the form of a Semi-center, which of all likelyhood was without the city walls, the providence of God so disposing it, to the end that the shep­heards to whom the glad tydings should first be made known, might easily have access thither by night, though the city gates were shut, and see the truth of all that which the Angel had told them. And it was so, that while they were there, S. Luc. 2.6. the dayes were [Page 68] accomplished that she should be delivered. 7. And she brought forth her first born sonne, and wrapped him in swadling clothes, and laid him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the Inne.

4 It was upon the five and twentieth day of the moneth of December (according to the account which the Church maketh,Christ his nativity. which al­so celebrateth the blessed nativity yearly upon that day) that the blessed virgin St. Mary the daughter of Eliachim and Hanna, espoused to Joseph, did, in the night bring forth that holy thing which vvas called, and vvas indeed the sonne of God. The time appointed, and praedetermined of God for that vvonderful birth, being in, or about, the year of the vvorld, three thousand nine hundred threescore and ten; and in the tvvo and fortieth year of the raign of the Emperour Augustus; at vvhat time the Scep­ter vvas departed from Judah according to the prophecie of Ja­cob, Gen 49.10. and Herod, in the three and thirtieth year of his raign. The place also preordained for that purpose, being no other but the city of Beth-lehem, and there also that Cave and Stable, vvhere such a Manger vvas provided for his Cradle. Nihilominus fulget etiam novus ille conceptionis modus, ut non in iniquitate, quemadmo­dum caeterae omnes, sed superveniente Spiritu Sancto, sola, & de solâ sanctificatione, Maria conciperet; Yet notwithstanding that nevv manner of conception shineth, that Mary alone conc [...]ived, not in iniquity as all other vvomen, but by the Holy Ghost vvho came upon her, and by sole sanctification, saith St. Bernard, ser. de beata Maria. For the scripture affirmeth, and the Church be­lieveth and confesseth that blessed conception to be, not of hu­man seed and geniture, but by the power and vertue of the Holy Ghost, who sanctified the Virgins wombe for such a birth. A Childe is borne unto us (saith St. Gregory Nyssen) by the Holy Ghost, and by the power of the highest, neither hath the Virgin suffered any thing at all, neither hath the spirit been diminished, nor hath the power of the highest been dissected into parts. For the spirit is whole, and the power of the highest remained entire without any manner of immutation. And a whole sonne is born unto us, neither hath he im­paired the integrity of his mother. [...]. moreover flesh was procreated of flesh, but yet without per­pession. Cont. Eunom. Orat. 2.

5 The Gospell is the glad tydings of the word made flesh, for the redemption of man-kind.The Gospell first preach­ed by Ange [...]s upon Christ­mas day. Christ therefore being born, God would that the Gospell should be immediately preached; I say imme­diately, the same night, which was the night of the day follow­ing, (for the Jews did reckon their day to begin when the sun went down) and was the first part of that day, which we com­monly call Christmas day. Opus diet in die suo. The work of the day upon its own proper day. No day more proper to preach and publish the glad tydings then that day. The fittest Ministers [Page 69] for the work of the day, were the blessed Angells. For like as Christ was sent out of the Father's bosome, to be incarnate in the Virgin's wombe, and by divine dispensation to be born upon that day: Even so were the blessed Angells sent forth from the Fathers glorious presence, by divine dispensation, to preach and publish the glad tidings of his birth upon that day. I should think that great and glorious Angell, who by way of excellency is styled [...], the angell of the Lord, to be no other then the Angell Gabriel himselfe, who first brought the glad tidings of so great a mystery and grace of God to the blessed Virgin. But be­cause neither the Angell, nor the place, nor the shepheards, are either numbred nor named, it will be sufficient to deliver the story thus. Not far from Beth-lehem about a mile, (as is said) there were fair and fruitfull pastures, convenient for the fee­ding, depasturing, and folding of sheep; where David also fed the sheep of Jesse his father: It was on the east of Beth-lehem, 1 Sam. 12.15 where was that tower which of antient times was called the tower of Edar, that is to say, the tower of the flock, where Jacob sometimes dwelt, and not far from which place he buried Ra­chel his wife; and retained the name still,Gen. 35.20, 21. for that many flocks of sheep resorted thither. At that time there were certain shepheards, (three shepheards, saith the tradition; whether the owners of the sheep, or their servants, or hirelings, that makes no question) who abode in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night, in that very place. Where they were [...], keeping their watches, whether under the shelter of the tower, in the sheep-coats, or in the open aire, that differs not.

Peradventure (because that [...]) being a word which 6 may not unaptly be compounded of [...] and [...]) the holy Ghost thereby also intimating what they were doing at that time, while they did [...], sing and pipe with flutes and pipes in the field, (an usuall recreation of shepheards in the night, to keep themselves awake, and to beguile the time) the Angel Gabriel, or some other great and glorious Angell, came upon them, [...] stood over them and nigh unto them, in glory and great brightness. At which great glorious and unusuall ap­parition, (and for that the Jewes also retained an opinion, that if at any time they should see those divine and heavenly spirits, they should die) the shepheards being in a great fear;Jud. 6.22.23 & 13, 22. the An­gel first dehorteth them from fear, and then telleth them what his message was, and what God had given him commission to do, it was to preach unto them the Gospell, by bringing unto them good tidings of great joy which should be to all people; for that which they had long expected was that day brought to passe, Unto you (said he, speaking with a lively and audible voyce) is born this day in the city of David, a Saviour which is Christ [Page 70] the Lord: And this shall be a signe unto you, ye shall finde the babe wrapped in swadling clothes, lying in a manger. Then immediately appear in the like glory and brightnesse, and with the divine glory of him that was born, shining round about them, a mul­tude of other Angels, not seen to the shepheards at the first, by the like lively and audible voice, pronouncing the doxologie, and declaring the fruits of the Gospell. That God would by this wonderfull incarnation procure his owne glory, and give peace to the earth, making by that Saviour so born, peace between heaven and earth, peace betwixt God and man, peace betwixt men and angells, peace betwixt man and man, peace betwixt men and the creatures, and peace of men with themselves. And finally that from hence is that [...], that good pleasure of the will of God, that good will towards men, whereby the Father is well pleased with them in Christ his son For so saith the Evan­gelist, Saint Luke, S. Luc. 2.8, 9, And there were in the same country, shepheards abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. And lo the Angell of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them, 10, and they were sore afraid. And the Angel said unto them, Fear not; for behold I bring you good tidings of great joy which shall be to all people. 11, 12, For unto you is born this day in the city of David, a Saviour which is Christ the Lord. And this shall be a signe unto you, ye shall finde the babe wrapped in swadling clothes, lying in a manger. And suddenly there was with the Angell a multitude of the heavenly hoste, 13, 14. praising God and saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good-will towards men.

7 He that was born, was [...], a shepheard; [...], the good shepheard, Why the Gos­pel first prea­ched to the shepheards. 1 Pet. 5.4. St Joh. 10.14. he was the great shepheard of the sheep, Heb. 13.20. [...] the chiefe shepheard; it was he who had honoured the shepheards life, in the persons of the righteous Abel, of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and especially of David himself, the head of his family, who had fed & kept the sheep of Jesse his father in the same place. The pastoritial life was simple, innocent, and harmlesse, such were the shepheards usually; therefore the shepheards, according to the divine wisdome, which reacheth from one end to another mightily, and doth order all things sweetly, were the fittest persons to be brought first of all to the chiefe shepheard, Wisd. 8.1. by the preaching of the Gospell. But this is not all, for he had promised to his Church, pastours according to his own heart, which should feed them with knowledge and understanding. Now he shewes what he will do with those pastours or shepheards, and what the shepheards themselves must do.Jer. 3.15. For it was not without great mystery, The mystery. that the shepheards were Evangelized by an angell from heaven; to teach us to know, that the divine re­velations are first made manifest to the shepheards of the Church. It was not without great mystery, that the shepheards, so soon as [Page 71] the Angells were gone up into heaven, consulted what was best to be done, and then went unanimously to Bethlehem; to teach us to know, that the affairs of the Church and of religion, must be managed by the shepheards of the Church, who being led by one and the same spirit, must go hand in hand for the preser­vation of truth, peace, and unity. It was not without great mystery, that they went thither with haste: for this was to teach the shepheards of the Church, to use no delay when there shall be cause to enquire about matters of religion. It was not without great mystery, that the shepheards made known abroad every where the things wherewith they were Evangelized: for this was to teach the shepheards of the Church, to hide nothing from the people which shall be necessary for them to know, that they may be saved; and to teach the people also in matters of religi­on, to hearken to the shepheards of the Church. Therefore the blessed Virgin, who had read the Scriptures diligently, and was not ignorant of what was figured in the law and foretold by the prophets concerning Christ, conferred, and compared the things which she had seen and heard to be done and said concerning that blessed Babe, with those things which she had learned out of the law and the prophets, and pondered them in her heart, for the confirmation of her faith upon every respect.S. Luc. 2.15, And it came to passe as the Angells were gone away from them into heaven, the shepheards said one to another, Let us now go even unto Beth-lehem, and see this thing which is come to passe, which the Lord hath made known unto us. And they came with haste, and found Mary, 16.17, and Jo­seph, and the babe lying in a manger: And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this childe. And all they that heard it, 18, 19. wondered at those things which were told them by the shepheards. But Mary kept all these things and pondered them in her heart, as the text saith.

Christ was factus sub lege, made under the law, as Saint Paul saith, 8 therefore was it necessary for him to receive the signe or mark of Circumcision in the flesh of his fore-skin.Gal. 4.4. Christ cir­cumcised, and why. S. Joh. 7.22. For although that circumcision according to the primary institution of it, was not of Moses but of the Fathers, as Christ saith in the Gospell; yet the law required circumcision, that so the circumcised party might become a debtor to do the whole law.Levit. 12.3. Gal. 5.3. What hath been already declared in the former book of this our Sacred History concern­ing circumcision, the mystery, and the use of it, may suffice for that matter: the question now is, concerning Christ his obedience to the law, whereunto he was obliged by his circumcision, wherein I suppose, the reader will desire to be satisfied in two things, viz. 1st Why he was made under the law, subject or obedient to the law, and therefore a debtor to it by his circumcision. 2ly In what manner he became obedient to it, and was therefore circumcised.

9 Great and weighty are the reasons of Christ his subjection and obedience to the Law. Why Christ was made subject or o­bedient to the Law. For first, He was obedient to the Law, that so he might give approbation thereunto. For how shall it be known that the Law was holy, and just, and good, and necessa­ry for those times, and for that people? Was it so because that Abraham, and his seed who had need of circumcision, and were bound in duty to keep the Law, were circumiised, and did keep the Law? Or was it because the word made flesh, who had no need of circumcision, nor was obliged by any duty, to be circumcised, and to keep the Law; was yet circumcised and did keep the law? Certainly a man cannot but rationally conclude, that Law in e­very part thereof to be holy, and just, and good, and most ne­cessary for those to whom it was commanded, whereunto the sonne of God himself by voluntary dispensation became obedi­ent. 2ly He became obedient to it, that by the observation of it, he might consummate, S. Mat. 5.17. and finish it in himselfe: for the whole law was ordinated unto him. 3ly That by his voluntary obedience, he might remove all occasion of scandall from the Jewes, to the end that they might neither complain of the hardness of their own condition, as being obliged to bear the yoke and burthen of the Law: nor yet refuse to be saved by that Messiah, who submitted himself to the like condition with them. And finally, that by his obedience to the law, Gal. 4.5, 6. In what ma­ner Christ became obe­dient to the Law he might purchase true liberty, and an e­ternall redemption to them that were under the law. Therefore his obedience to the law was double: active and passive. His active obedience was his full absolute and perfect fulfilling of the law to the least jot or tittle of the same; so that look what obedience soever the law required, Christ performed. Three things there were which did require of Christ such a perfect obedience to the works of the law. 1. The justice of God, and that whether we look upon the nature of God himself who is infinitely just: For how can it stand vvith the infinite justice of God to save a man, but by such a justice, either proper to himself, or imputed to him by some other? or if peradventure we look upon the will of God revealed in his lavv, an everlasting rule of righteousness; for vvhat other vvay hath God opened to everlasting life by that everlasting rule,Exo. 20.6. but obedience? I shew mercy unto thousands (saith he) of them that love me, and keepe my commandements. It vvas Gods justice vvhich exacted Christ his active obedience in fulfilling the lavv for mans redemption. Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth. Rom. 10.4. 2ly His mediator­ship, vvhereby he became our surety or pledge, therefore of his ovvn free vvill must he do and suffer for us men,Heb. 7.22. and for our salvati­on, all those things vvhich all mankind vvere necessarily obliged both to do, and to suffer. For vvhich cause it vvas not only ne­cessary that he should die for all mankind, but that he should also [Page 73] fulfill the vvhole lavv for them: for both these things vvere laid as a due debt upon all the sonnes of Adam, Gal. 4.4, 5. namely to fulfill the law: to die because they had not fulfilled it. 3ly The salvation of all mankind, by a deliverance from death, by a donation of life; both vvhich can no othervvise be obtained but by his active obedience. The first, by the expiation of sin; the second,Rom. 3.24, 25. by the gift of righteousness. And such vvas the active obedience of Christ.

His passive obedience was his sacrifice or passion, whereby he 10 suffered in his own person all those punishments and indignities, which God in his wisdom had decreed to be laid upon his per­son for satisfaction to divine justice. Which passive obedience was necessary upon three respects. 1. In respect of God, for his law was transgressed, and therefore his justice would not be satisfied but by punishments answerable to the same: the blood of the Redeemer therefore must be had for satisfaction to divine ju­stice. For it is not possible that the blood of bulls, and of goates, Heb. 10.4. should take away sinnes. 2ly In respect of Christ, for he being our surety and pledge did suffer for us:Isa. 53.4. so that look what we should have suffered for our sins, the same according to an absolute quan­tity was laid upon him. Lastly, In respect of our selves, Rom. 4.25. who by death were to be delivered from death. This was shewed by all those beasts that were killed by the Leviticall law; and ex­presly affirmed by the Apostle St. Peter, 1 Pet. 1.19. that out redemption is by the precious blood of Christ. So then there is a double debt of all mankind, that they should fulfill the law every moment from their first beginning in a double puritie; a purity of nature, and a purity of workes: which debt was primordially imposed upon mankind in the creation, and is exacted by the law of God. The second debt is due satisfaction for the transgression of it. For this double debt Christ was the surety; and because none of the sons of Adam could pay it for themselves, Christ hath paid it for them all, and God accepteth his obedience, as a full satisfaction according to the tenour of his own law, effectuall unto all those who by a true justifying and saving faith, do render him up un­to the Father for their surety, having onely to plead the satis­faction made by him.

Upon this respect, that neither God in the first institution of 11 it,By whom it was that Christ was probably cir­cumcised. nor the law which afterward confirmed and required the use of it, to the end that the party circumcised might become a deb­tor to the whole law ordained, or said any thing concerning the minister of circumcision, by whom, and by whose hand the pre­puce should be cut off: although I should think it convenient, and answerable to the dignity of that Sacrament, that such an of­fice should be performed by the Priests or Levites, as by sacred persons: yet because I find no such thing by divine institution, [Page 74] or legall precept, and do find that not only Zipporah the wife of Moses did circumcise her son:Exod. 4.25. but that in all probability, those callimartyrs who were put to death for doing contrary to the E­dict of Antiochus, 1 Mac. 1.6. had circumcised their children with their own hands: I shall easily be induced to assent unto those who think that office to be most probably performed by the holy hands of the most blessed virgin, but because it is no matter of faith, I shall not be positive in defining of it. I find nothing ordained, neither by divine institution, nor by legall injunction, nor yet from the ex­ample of Joshuah, who circumcised the people in Gilgal, Jos. 5. for imposing of names in circumcision. The custom no doubt vvas most ancient and commendable, having its originall from Abra­ham, who had his name changed the day that he was circumcised, Gen. 17. That Christ therefore should have his name imposed in his circumcision, it did not pertain to his legall obedience properly, but because it became him to fulfill all righteousness, therefore it became him in his own person to give approbation to such an ancient, just, and laudable custome. His name was sent from heaven to the blessed Virgin his mother, to Joseph his supposed fa­ther; both of them commanded so to name him: neither of them must fear to impose that name, for in imposing of it, they did both of them do the will of God. Feare not Mary, for thou hast found favour with God. S Luc. 1.30. And behold thou shalt conceive in thy wombe, and bring forth a sonne, and shalt call his name Jesus, saith the An­gell to her.31. Joseph thou sonne of David, feare not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her, is of the holy Ghost. And she shall bring forth a sonne, S. Mat. 1.20.21. and thou shalt call his name Jesus: saith the Angel to him.

12 It was Joseph and Mary, who according to the good pleasure of the will of God,Concerning the blessed name of Je­sus. signified unto them by his Angell, imposed upon him, the blessed name of Jesus in his circumcision. A new name, and that new name foretold by the Prophet Isaiah, say­ing, The Gentiles shall see thy righteousness, and all kings thy glory, and thou shalt be called by a new name, which the mouth of the Lord shall name. Isai. 62.2. For although the name of Jesus be the same with Jehosuah, and signifieth a Saviour; for so the Angell himself ex­poundeth it:S. Mat. 1.21. Thou shalt call his name Jesus, for he shall save his peo­ple from their sinnes. And although it cannot be denyed, but that divers persons in the old Testament had that name also im­posed on them in circumcision, Hag. 2.2. or otherwise, as Joshuah, or Jesus the son of Josedec the high Priest; And Joshuah, or Jesus the son of Nun, Moses's minister and successor: yet was the name a new name:Jos. 1.1, 1. In respect of him that was so named; for never such a person was named by that name before; they were men, he was God and man, the word made flesh, novum in terris, a new [...]hing in the earth, Emmanuel, God with us, by assuming the [Page 75] whole human nature into the unity of his own most sacred per­son. 2ly A new name, a name newly and most highly honoured; the name of him whom God hath highly exalted, a name above every name, That at the name of Iesus every knee should bow, Phil. 2.10. of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth: thereby worshipping, and acknowledging him that was named by that name, not only to be called, but to be indeed the sonne of God. None of all those that were named with that name, had it in that new manner, and to that new end; not Jesus the son of Josedec, or Jesus the son of Nun, howbeit most excellent persons, and types of Christ. 3ly A new name, wherein is newly shewed to the be­lievers; that which never was shewed before, even the great mysterie of godliness, in him that is named with that name; God manifested in the flesh, justified by the spirit, seen of Angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory. 1 Tim. 3.16. And when the eight dayes were accomplished, for the circumcising of the childe, his name was called Jesus, which was so named of the Angell, S. Luc. 1.21. be­fore he was conceived in the wombe.

Our blessed Lord being named in his circumcision, and circum­cised as hath been said, the [...], the taxing description or 13 inrolement being not then ended, was himself taxed, Christ taxed or inrolled; described or enrolled; had his name recorded in the censuall Tables. For al­though there be no mention made of it in the Evangelicall Histo­ry, yet because it is sufficiently testified by the ancient Fathers, and Ecclesiasticall Writers, it must not be denyed. Wherein the providence of God ought highly to be admired, who by this means brought to pass, that they who little regarded the au­thority of the Scriptures, might receive satisfaction from the publique records of the Empire, while they should find in re­cords, safely deposited into the Capitol, that Sentius Saturninus being then Governour of Syria, ordinarily sent for the govern­ment of that Province, and for the administration of justice there: Publius Sulpitius Quirinius, called by the Evangelist Cyre­nius, was extraordinarily sent, and by speciall commission, to de­scribe and inrolle the same Province whereunto Judea pertain­ed as a part or member. At that time were described at Beth­lehem, Joseph the son of Iacob Carpenter, and Mary his wife, the daughter of Eliachim and Hanna, of Nazareth, both of them of the house and family of David, with Jesus their son born at Bethlehem, upon the five and twentieth day of the month of De­cember, in the two and fortieth year of the raign of the Empe­rour Augustus. And how apposite such a record was to stop the mouthes of those impious Heretiques, who denyed the verity and truth of his Incarnation, Tertullian who had to do with Mar­cion the Heretique, and the Marcionites who denyed it, very well knew. lib. 4. cont. Marcion: cap. 9.

14 But when the daies of her purification according to the law of Moses (who ordained,Christ pre­sented in the Temple. that the woman who had conceived seed, and born a man childe, should be unclean seven daies, according to the daies of the separation for her infirmity; her menstruous infir­mity, Levit. 15.19. And that she should continue in the blood of her purifying three and thirty daies more, during all which time she should touch no hallowed thing, nor come into the Sanctuary) were accomplished: Levit. 12.2, 4 the blessed Virgin, whom this law nothing at all concerned, as neither having conceived human seed, nor violenced her virginity by such a birth; yet to the end that all righteousnesse might be fulfilled, and that she might give example unto others of obedience and humility, she with Joseph her husband, brought the child Jesus to Hierusalem, to present him to the Lord, to whom the first-born did belong by speciall reservation, Exod. 13.2. Levit. 12.6. & to offer that sacrifice which was appointed by the law to be offered by women after child-birth. This presen­tation of his in the temple did belong specially to that obedience, whereby he became obedient to the law actively, to fulfill all the righteousnesse of the same. At what time old Simeon, to whom it was revealed by the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord's Christ, came by divine instinct into the tem­ple, took him up in his armes, blessed God, and then desired to be dissolved, because his [...]yes, according to the divine revelation which he had received of the Holy Ghost, had seen Christ the sal­vation of God, a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of Isra­el his people. Finally having blessed them, if not as a priest accor­ding to the set form of the sacerdotall benediction prescribed in the law,Num. 6.24, 25, 26. (for it is not said, whether he were a priest or no, and as well they who affirm it, as they who deny it, have no ground at all either for the affirmation or negation of it) yet with a chri­stian benediction he did pray to God to bless them, by multiplying his blessings upon them in body, in soul, in goods, and fortune, blessings temporall, eternall blessings. Prophesying of Christ, and foretelling to the Virgin her selfe, that which Saint Bernard cal­leth her martyrdome, a martyrdome by the sword, that sword which should pierce through her soul; a sword of bitter griefe and anguish, when she should see him hanging upon the cross, and hear him calling unto her and saying, Woman, behold thy son, S. Joh. 19.26 Ser. de bea [...]a virg. Maria. At the same time also, Anna, a prophetesse, a woman of great piety and devotion, who had lived a long and a vertuous life, came into the temple, into that place where it was permitted the women to be, and she also gave thanks to God, and spake of him to all them that looked for redemption in Hierusalem. For so saith the history, observing eve­ry circumstance according to the effect and substance of that which hath been related,S Luc. 2.22. thus. And when the daies of her purifi­cation, [Page 77] according to the law of Moses, were accomplished, they brought him to Hierusalem to present him to the Lord, (As it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the wombe shall be called holy to the Lord.) And to offer a sacrifice, 23, according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, a pair of turtle doves, or two young pige­ons. And behold there was a man in Hierusalem, 24, whose name was Si­meon, and the same man was just and devout, waiting for the consola­tion of Israel; and the holy Ghost was upon him. 25, And it was revealed unto him by the holy Ghost, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord's Christ. And he came by the spirit into the temple; 26, and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him after the custome of the law, Then took he him up in his armes, 27, and blessed God, and said, Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, ac­cording to thy word, For mine eyes have seen thy salvation, Which thou hast prepared before the face of all people. A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel. And Joseph and his Mo­ther marvelled at those things which were spoken of him. And Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this childe is set for [...]he fall, and rising again of many in Israel: and for a signe which shall be spoken against, 34, (yea a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also) that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed. 35, And there was one Anna, a Prophetesse, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asser, she was of a great age, and had lived with an husband seven years from her virginity. 36, 37, And she was a widow of about fourescore and foure years, which depar [...]d not from the Temple, but served God with fasting and prayer night and day. And she comming in at that instant, 38. gave thanks likewise unto the Lord, and spake of him to all that looked for redemption in Hierusalem. Such was the wonderfull birth of Christ, his circumcision, and presentation in the temple; and so was the first year of his age transacted.

Whether his parents returned back immediately from Hie­rusalem 15 to Bethlehem, and there abode either in the Inne,H [...]story con­cerning the comming of the wise men. where they had lodgings, after the taxing ended, and the great con­course of those of their tribe and family, who came up to be inrolled, was dissolved: Or else in some house which they hi­red, or otherwise obtained, where they continued till the com­ming of the wise men: Or whether they did not go presently, so soon as they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, from Hierusalem into Galilee, and to their own city Nazareth; returning from thence to Hierusalem, at the feast of the Passeover, and then went when that feast was ended, to Bethlehem again, and there abode either in the Inne, or in some other house, where they made their habitation till the wise­men came; our sacred history will not determine. Certain it is, that when they dwelt in Nazareth, they went up yearly to Hierusalem, as Saint Luke saith, at the feast of the passeover.S. Luc. 2.41. And [Page 78] certain it is, that when the wise men came, they went not to Nazareth, but to Bethlehem, & came unto him [...], not into the cave where the stable and manger was, but into the house, where they saw the young childe with Mary his mother, and fell down and worshipped him, S. Mat. 2.11. as Saint Matthew saith. Most likely it is, that they dwelt not in Nazareth till after their return out of Egypt; although Saint Luke (who was a gentile by birth, a proselyte of Antioch, thought himselfe more specially concern­ed, to make narration of those things which pertained to the law, and to the Jewes) omitteth the story wholly of the wise men, and of his slight into Egypt, and respecting only the time that they dwelt in Nazareth, (which was after their return out of Egypt) saith, (not saying what passed in the mean time) that when they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, S. Luc. 2.39. they returned into Galilee, to their own City Nazareth. Yet Saint Matthew, who was a Jew born, thought himselfe more properly engaged to narrate those things, which set forth in a more pe­culiar manner Gods great grace and mercy to the Gentiles; and therefore declareth both the history of the wise men, and Christ his flight into Egypt.

16 Much adoe there is concerning the time of the arrivallThe time of their arrival. of these wise men at Bethlehem. Also concerning their persons what they were, from whence they came, how they came thither, upon whose motion, and finally as touching the star it self, what it was. It will be sufficient to our History, omitting all disputes, to set down the truth of our opinion, as plainly and briefly as we can. First therefore, we cannot assent unto those, who think the ac­cesse of those wise men to be the twelfth day after the blessed nativity, within six daies after the circumcision, and therefore antecedaneus to his presentation in the temple; this had been too great a festination, they had need of wings to have fled, especi­ally if they came from the extreamest parts of the East, as some have lightly believed, and fabulously reported. We cannot assent unto them, who think them to be two years a comming, and that the star appeared at the day of the nativity, which so soon as they had seen, they forthwith set forwards on their journey towards Judea, but by reason of the remotenesse of the place, they travelled two whole years, having in the mean time their clothes, victualls, and shooes, miracu­lously kept from wearing and consuming, by God. The argu­ment which Saint Epiphanius brings from the Scripture, to prove their comming to be at the expiration of two whole years, St Mat. 2.16, doth not necessarily conclude. What is it then that we say? We say, that all circumstances being taken into consideration, it was upon the sixth day of the month of Janu­ary, upon which day the Church celebrateth the feast of the [Page 79] Epiphany, (but not within twelve daies after the blessed nativity, but a year and twelve daies after, that is to say, in the second year of his age, he being then a year and twelve daies old) that these wise men came unto Bethlehem, and worshipped him there. And this doth excellently reconcile Saint Luke and Saint Mat­thew, the series of the story being, that Christ was born at Beth­lehem, as is confessed by both, and upon the five and twentieth day of December, as the tradition of the Church is: that he was circumcised upon the eighth day, which was the first day of Janu­ary, and presented in the temple upon the fortieth day, which was the second day of February next following, according to the law; which Saint Luke saith, but not Saint Matthew. That being still at Bethlehem, he was there adored by the wise men, and then fled into Egypt, as Saint Matthew saith, but not Saint Luke. That after his return thence, he was had to Nazareth by his parents, who came up yearly to Hierusalem at the passeover, as Saint Luke saith.

The word [...] rendred in our English translation wise men, 17 is said Originally to be a Persick word, and is, as if you should say,What these wise men were. Saints, or holy men; indeed not the Persians only, but almost all the nations of the Gentiles, in time past had their Saints or holy men, their Philosophers, wise men, lovers of wisdome. The thing professed by them all was that which is to be understood by the name and notion of Philosophy, [...], it flourished nationally, saith Clemens Alex. Strom. 1. In severall nations they obtained severall names; by the Egyptians they were called Pro­phets; among the Babylonians they had the name of Caldeans; the Indians called them Gymnosophists; the Gaules or French styled them Druids; and the Persians comprehended them under the name of Magi, Magicians. These did profess to live an austere life, they were famous for their learning in their severall nati­ons, and were had in high esteem. So highly were the Egyptian Prophets accounted of, that Licurgus of Lacedemonia, Plato of Athens, Pythagoras of Samos, Democritus of Abderita; nay almost all the Grecians that were famous for wisdome and learning, went into Egypt to hear those Prophets, and to be instructed by them. The Caldeans or Babylonian Philosophers, are said to tran­scend all others, in the knowledge of the stars and celestiall bo­dies, they were most skilfull in the worship of their gods, making it their profession to teach, and speak wisdome all their life long. The Gymnosophists of the Indians were had in such admi­ration, that Alexander the great did both seek to them for coun­sell, wondred at their wisdome, and rewarded them with gifts. The Druids had that opinion for their wisdome among the Galli or French, that the determination of all controversies was to them committed; they were held able to interpret their re­ligion, [Page 80] to discourse of the immortality of the soul, of the stars, and of their motions, of the world, and of the magnitude of the same; also of the power and strength of their gods: and what them­selves understood, they imparted unto others.

18 Such and so esteemed and honoured among the Persians were their Magi, to whom was committed the priesthood: they or­dained sacred ceremonies, they had the care of sacred things and places, and in particular to guard and keep the Sepulchre of Cyrus, Cyprus his Sepulchre. upon which was inscrived this ensuing Epitaph, O thou man whosoever thou art, or whence soever thou comest; for I was not ignorant that thou shouldest come: I am Cyrus that founded the Persi­an an Empire, do not envy unto me this litle earth, with which my body is covered. Strab. lib. 15. Which Sepulchre whether it were robbed, either by the keepers themselves, or by others, I have not to say. Quintus Curtius telleth us, that Alexander the great, (whe­ther upon hope of treasure supposed to have been buried with him; or else upon desire to honour his dead body with certain solemn ceremonies) caused it to be opened, and found nothing there, saving an old rotten target, two Scythian bowes, and a sword. Whereupon he caused the coffine wherein his body lay, to be covered with his owne garment, and a crowne of gold to be set upon it. Therefore if it had been true that any gold had been laid up there, it was robb'd before. These Magi were counsellers to their Princes, and had the highest honours; but withall they taught a transmigration of the soul, a plurality of gods, and other detestable things. They were most superstitiously addicted to curious arts, from whence the word magick and ma­gician, which primarily meant no other thing but philosophy and philosopher, became to be taken in the worser sense, and to be understood of those illicite arts which the Scripture condem­neth, and of those that did professe them. They did not abhor incestuous copulations, Deut. 18.10, 11, 12. no not with their own sisters and mothers. Now whether these magi were magicians in the worser sense, (as many learned men suppose, and I should think, that the worse they were, the greater glory was brought to God and to Christ his son by their conversion; It is the argument which Saint Paul useth concerning himselfe,Gal. 1.23, 24. They heard only, saith he, that he which persecuted us in times past, now preacheth the faith which once he destroyed. And they glorified God in me.) Or whether they were no more but Philosophers, who had the knowledge of the liberall sciences, and of the motions of the heavenly bodies, and were able to judge and discern such an unusuall star, and were peradventure in expectation of such a star to be seen, when that star of Jacob should come to enlighten the whole world, either from some hint taken from Balaams prophecy, Num. 24.17. or from some old tradition, (as some others do conjecture, for as much as it is no [Page 81] matter of faith, nor yet revealed in the Scriptures, it is not per­tinaciously to be stood upon. Which way soever we shall take the word, the Translation is sufficiently significant,S. Mat. 2.1. There came wise men from the East to Ierusalem.

It may probably be true also, that they were Kings, accord­ing 19 to the old received opinion; not kings because Magi, That proba­bly they were Kings. al­though many kings especially of the Persians were Magi, Magi­tians, or Philosophers, by knowledge, not by profession. And once it came to pass, that Patizites and Smerdis, who were Magi by profession, had that advantage that they possest themselves of that kingdom, and that the magi had an usurped royalty, which was overthrown by those seven great Princes, who chose among themselves Darius the son of Hystaspes, King. Nor kings of Persia magi by science; for at that time the Parthians had the Empire; the Persians had no mornarch of their own; and yet peradventure many Toparchs, who because they exercised kingly power in the places which they governed, according to the orientall custom, had obtained the name of kings. Not [...] properly, but [...], who supplyed the office of kings in the places of their severall governments: many such there were at that time, who had both the Scepter and the Diademe, yet were but Toparchs governors of Cities, or small countries, and were themselves subject to the supream Monarch. Some were not subject, but hereditary, or elective governors of small jurisdicti­ons or cities cum imperio with dominion and power of the sword. Such as were those kings conquered by Ioshuah in the land of Ca­naan, and such there are at this day in many places, free Princes or Governors, which by an orientalism may be styled Kings. Neither is it necessary, saith Genebrard, Chron. lib. 2. that these Magi should be great kings (indeed it is the judgement of many of the ancient Fathers, that they were Kings, though they do not say them to be great Kings) for as much as God doth often chuse the weaker things of the world to confound the mightier; For after the ma­ner of the East (saith he) they were all called kings, who for the set­ting forth of their dignity did weare the diademe, and sway the Scep­ter; whether they were of themselves, or were subordinate unto others; and so were they distinguished from Dukes, as Kimhi often noteth. Lastly, this opinion seemeth to be confirmed by the Scripture, and the comming of these Kings to Christ, to be foretold by the Pro­phets in the old Testament. Indeed it were strange if none of all the Prophets, who prophesied so diligently concerning Christ, and concerning the calling and conversion of the Gentiles, should neither foresee, nor foretell the comming of these magi by the spirit of Prophesie, who yet were the first fruits of the Gentiles. Therefore it is said in the prophet Isaiah, Kings shall see & arise, Princes also shall worship because of the Lord. Jsa. 49.7. The Gentiles shall come to [Page 82] thy light, Isa. 60.3. and Kings to the brightness of thy rising. The kings of Tarshish,Psal. 72.10 and of the Isles, shall bring presents; the kings of Sheba, and Saba shall offer gifts. Now if this be not the direct meaning of the Prophets, yet for as much as it cannot be denyed, but that these prophecies had respect to Christ, and were to be understood concerning him: and because these magi did come to his light, and to the brightness of his rising, and did see, and did arise, and did worship, and did bring presents, and offer gifts: (all which the Prophets did say that Kings should do) why might not the spirit of Prophecie look also upon the comming of these magi to Christ? and why might not these magi also be Kings, considering that else these things were never literally fulfilled by any other, but onely by the magi in the person of Christ?

20 These magi whether Kings or not, were oriental, for so saith the text in express terms, [...], From the East. For [...] is the rising,From whence it was that they cam [...]. and properly of the Sun, which climate is the East, therefore their coming was from the Eastern parts. We must therefore enquire from what Eastern parts, they might probably come, seeing that some places in respect of Judea, were more, some lesse remotely Orientall. Wherein there is a seem­ing difference among the learned Fathers, while that some of them do say, that these magi came out of Arabia; others that they came out of Persia, Caldea, Mesopotamia. But this diffe­rence will aptly be reconciled, if we remember that these coun­tries in time past were deputed to Arabia, as parts or members thereof, Arabia being spoken of in the larger sense, and com­prehending Syria, Assyria, Persia, Media, all the Orientall regi­ons. Out of Arabia therefore they came as Justin Martyr, Dialog. cum Tryph. saith; and yet peradventure out of Persia, Caldea, or Mesopotamia. Whencesoever it was that they did come, I do verily think that besides their knowledge in Astrology, they had among them many Judaicall traditions, concerning the Messiah, whom they looked for in the nature of a great Prince of the house of David, to be born unto them, their king, whom all na­tions should worship; which traditions they attain'd unto by commerce and conversation with the Jewes brought into those countries, first by Salmaneser; afterwards by Nebuchodonozer. Neither is it unlikely, but that they had also seen and perused the writings & prophesies of Daniel, who himself was brought up in all the Arts of the Caldeans, and was famous to posterity amongst the Babylonians, and had in honour and high esteem by the Magi themselves, for that he had revealed and interpreted Nebuchodonozers dream, and by his wisdom had delivered the Magitians, Dan. 2. Caldeans, and Astrologers from death. Nor yet could they be ignorant of Balaams prediction, who himself was an Ori­entall of Mesopotamia, famous all the East over, though he retur­ned [Page 83] not again into his own country, but went and inhabited a­mong the Midianites, Num. 31.8. amongst whom also he was slain by the Israelites, as it is to be seen in the book of Numbers.

Hereupon the Star appearing unto them as they were in their 21 own country, they concluded as touching the signification of it,They go into Judea by di­vine impul­sion. and being stirred up by divine impulsion, three of them (for that is the ancient tradition concerning the number of those that came, and correspondeth best with the number of the shepheards, who according to the old tradition were likewise three) resolved to take the expedition upon them, and to go into Judea, to find out the king that was born, to worship him, and to honour him with gifts; the Starre it should seem by what is intimated in the text ( [...].S. Mat. 2.2. For we have seen his Star in the East) having not otherwise been seen of them, but only in their own country, and before they came forth: the time of the first apparition of it to them there, being in all pro­bability the day of his blessed nativity, and not before, as some grave Authors have thought; whereby they knew that such a King was born indeed, not that he should be born.Concerning the Star it selfe. Which Starre, if it were a starre, and not rather an Angell in form of a starre (for Angels are sometimes in the Scripture, meant by the name of starres, as it is in Job, when the morning starres sang toge­ther, and all the sonnes of God shouted for joy. Job 38.7. And in the Prophe­cie of Isaiah, The Devill before his fall,Isa. 14.12. obtaineth the name of Lucifer, or day-star) I say, if it were a Star, it is to be differenced from all other starres. By Creation; they were created in the be­ginning of the world: this was not, till the instant of time that Christ was born, By Matter; the matter of those stars, was their own proper certain caelestiall matter; The matter of this was Aereall or Angelicall. By Place; those stars have their place, and were placed in the firmament of heaven; there they shine and glister; from thence they have their influences upon sub­lunary bodies; this Star had no place, nor was placed in the firmament of heaven, but was nigh unto the earth, and in the lower region of the aire. By Motion; the motion of those stars is circular: the motion of this star was not circular, but straight. By splendency; those stars shine and glister by night: this star had its fulgour and brightness also by day. By Duration; those stars are perpetuall: this Star was temporary. By Magnitude: those stars are said to exceed the earth, and the moon in great­ness; this Star was far less then either. Lastly by Office: the of­fice of those stars is to adorn the heavens, to give light by night, to be seen of all, to distinguish the times and seasons of the year to be for direction alike to them that travell by land and by water, to have their influences severally upon sublunary things, and to incline the mind also by mediation of the sensitive appetite. The [Page 84] office of this star was to give them to understand, that in Judea was then risen by his birth, that starre, that bright morning star, that star of Jacob, that star by whom all the stars of heaven, and every luminary, were made and created, whose glory should be known unto all Nations, whose saving light should shine all the world over. When therefore they saw the Star, and knew it by their Art to be such a star which was different from all the o­ther stars by creation, by matter, by place, by motion, by splen­dency, by duration, by magnitude, and by office, they under­stood the meaning of it by divine revelation, and having made due preparation for their journey, they come into Judea, not to worship the stars, as many of the Gentiles did, but the Lord of the stars, then born into the world, to whom they would prostrate their bodies,S. Mat. 2.1. and present their gifts: and so it came to pass that When Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, in the dayes of Herod the king, behold there came wise men from the East to Jerusalem, saying, where is he that is born king of the Jewes? 2. for we have seen his starre in the East, and are come to worship him.

22 Jerusalem was the Metropolis of the whole Land, it was the royall seat of the King, The magi come to Je­rusalem. it was the peculiar place of divine wor­ship: there were the Scribes, there were the Priests, there were the Doctors, and interpreters of the Law, and of the Prophets: with confidence therefore might the Magi come unto Jerusalem, nothing doubting but that there they should be fully instructed in all things concerning this great King, the time, the place, the manner of his birth, his present abode, or whatsoever else curi­osity or devotion should have a desire to pry into. Neither could they think but that they should find the people in great joy, and the city triumphing in such a birth. Wherefore being entred in­to the city, they make enquiry every where, shew the causes of their comming, and relate the wonderfull apparition of the starre which they had seen in their own country. Kings do see with many eyes, and hear with many ears; the news flies presently to the Court; and when Herod heard of it, he was troubled, [...] vehemently troubled, terrified, and perplexed: (for such is the force and signification of the word,Herod hear­eth the newes and is troub­led. which is proper­ly spoken of water when it is mudded and stirred) and all Ierusa­lem with him. Perhaps also they might go unto the Court, de­mand him there, and even of Herod himself. Herod could not be altogether ignorant of that great expectation which the Iewes had of their Messiah, at that time wherein the Scepter was depar­ted from Iudah in his perso [...], and the seventy weeks of Daniel al­most expired. He knew well enough what a great Prince the Iewes conceited their Messiah to be, a great King who should sit for ever upon the throne of David, who should deliver them from all their enemies, destroy all their oppressors, and make [Page 85] them happie above all nations. He also well knew the manners of the Jewes, and what they were, a rigid, obstinate, stubborn, generation of people, apt to rebell and to betake themselves to armes upon every occasion. He considered, that the kingdome descended not upon him by inheritance, but that he was set over them by the Romans, as over a conquered nation; that he had cruelly, proudly, and ambitiously governed, and that he had by his many tyrannies incurred the generall hatred of all the people. He was most ambitious and jealous of his crowne (as is most apparent unto them who read his life and acts, set forth at large by J [...]sephus) above all others: and therefore his serious cogitations were, what would become of him, and of his house. For such a king (if permitted to grow up) would undoubtedly be followed by all the people, destroy him and his whole fami­ly, and transfer the Scepter again to the house of David.

Hierusalem also not seeing what cause she had to rejoyce in 23 the birth of the Messiah, was no lesse troubled, what to do; whose part they should take, whether Herods or the young King's; what would become of the city and of the temple, in so great a confusi­on of things, as they fancyed to themselves through their own blindnesse, unbeliefe, and hardnesse of heart. For Herod, there was but one way (as he thought) to secure himselfe, and his kingdome to himselfe, and that was to cut off the young Plant be­fore he was grown up, and by his death to rid himselfe of fur­ther fears and jealousies. Wherefore he calls to councill the chiefe priests, who were (as hath been said before) the highest, or the chiefest of the severall courses, orders, or lots, the heads of the se­verall families, [...], all the chiefe priests, foure and twenty in number; and scribes of the people, whose office was to read the law unto the people, to expound the same, and to judge in controversies of religion if any should arise; these were also called Lawyers, or Doctors of law. And pretending to give sa­tisfaction to the magi or wise men, he demanded of them where Christ must be born. For, (saith the text) When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Hierusalem with him. S. Mat. 2.3, And when he had gathered all the chiefe priests and scribes of the peo­ple together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born. 4, 5, And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judea, for thus it is written by the prophet. And thou Bethlehem in the land of Juda, 6. art not the least among the princes of Judah. For out of thee shall come a governour, that shall rule my people Israel.

But Herod called not the magi to the councill; wherefore the 24 councill being dismissed, he sent for them privily,The Magi sent to Beth­lehem. enquired of them diligently what time the star appeared unto them, at home in their country; told them the result of the councill, who had unanimously resolved, that the king of the Jewes, whose star [Page 86] they had seen in the East, must be born not in Hierusalem but in Bethlehem. Wherefore (said he) go ye thither first privately, im­parting to none whither it is that you go, or that you go any whither to such a purpose, (for Herod knew well, that if the going of the wise men to Bethlehem should have been divulged, much people would have gone thither with them, to see the young King, to behold the adoration of the Magi, and to worship him themselves) but go forth of the city with all secresie, di­rectly to Bethlehem, search there diligently for the young childe, and when ye have found him, adore and worship him your selves first, and then return back hither to me, letting me to know where it is that I shall finde him, and then I also will go and worship him as you have done before. The magi who suspected no evill, believed him, departed out of the city privately, with­out company, or any one to attend or guide them upon the way. And the Star which they had only seen in the East, was now their guide upon the way, and when it had brought them to the place, it stood over the house where the young childe was. Where­fore they went on with great joy till the star stood still, and then entring the house over which the star stood, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, (Joseph it should seem being then absent) in a mean condition, at which they take no offence, be­ing shewed him by the star, and being strong in faith they fell down and worshipped him, and according to the custome of those Orientall countries, which was alwaies to present the King with gifts, so often as they should approach his presence, they present him with their gifts, and (which was not without di­vine dispensation and providence) they present him with such gifts, whereby they both professed what they believed him to be, and also abundantly relieved the poverty and meanness of his present condition. By the gold which they offered, they my­steriously testifie him to be that king, on whom the Gentiles should trust; by the franckincense, to be that God, to whom all people should make their prayers; by the myrrhe, that it was he who should die as man, and be buried after the manner of men, for all mankinde.

25 So did he receive-in the first fruits of the Gentiles, The first fruits of the Gentiles. these magi; accepted their persons, and for their faiths-sake, the gifts also which they presented; and so was he manifested (as Saint Augustine observeth) iis qui prope sunt, & iis qui longè: to them that were nigh at hand, and to them that were afar off; to the Jewes in the propinquity of the shepheards, (the first fruits of the Jewes) to the Gentiles in the remotenesse of these magi, (the first fruits of the Gentiles.) Which magi, how long they stayed with him after they had seen, worshipped, and offered their gifts, our sacred history cannot determine. Probable it is, for some short time, till [Page 87] St Mary his mother had throughly instructed them concerning the manner of his conception, and of his wonderfull birth. And then, they knowing nothing of Herods mischievous intendments, thought to return back, and to make relation of all that which they had seen and heard. But being warned of God in a dream, they let fall that resolution, and departed to their owne coun­try another way.S. Mat. 2.7 Then Herod when he had privily called the wise men, enquired of them diligently what time the star appeared. 8, And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go, and search diligently for the young childe, and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also. When they had heard the king, they departed, and loe, the Star which they had seen in the East, 9, went be­fore them, till it came and stood over where the young child was. 10, 11. When they saw the star, they rejoyced with exceeding great joy. And when they were come into the house, they saw the young childe with Mary his mother, and fell down and worshipped him: And when they had opened their treasures they presented unto him gifts, gold, and franckincense, and myrrh. And being warned of God in a dream, 12. that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their owne country another way.

The magi being departed, and as it should seem by the text,The flight of Christ into Egypt. communicating nothing with holy Joseph and Mary concerning what had passed betwixt God and them, in the dream, (which dream, whether one of them onely, and not rather all of them had, it cannot be determined) God who knew Herods heart, to the end that he might deliver his son from his intended cruelty: And that Christ by his example might teach the practice of his owne doctrine, When they persecu [...]e you in this city, S. Mat. 10.23 Hos. 11.1. flee ye into ano­ther: And that the prophecy might be fulfilled, whereby it was foretold of Christ, that he should be brought down into Egypt, and be called out from thence again: sent his holy Angell to Joseph, to appear unto him in a dream, and to command him to arise, and to take the young childe and his mother, and to be gone in all haste into E [...]ypt, and to be and remain there, til that he should bring him word to return, because that by this means God would have him to be safe out of Herods bloody hands. God in times past so often as he pleased, spake unto men in dreams, ad­vising them what they should do, and what they should not do. And such divine dreames ceased not under the second temple, and were frequent in the new testament. Joseph who was an holy man, and acquainted with divine dreams, easily discerned this dream to be from God, and therefore yielded ready obedience to that which was commanded him by the Angell. He was commanded to arise; And he arose, (peradventure immediately) and he took the young childe and his mother by night, (perad­venture the same night, not regarding to dispose of any thing [Page 88] which he had in Bethlehem, but being amply provided & enabled for such an expedition, by those rich presents which the magi had presented) he departed into Egypt. It was the same night (say some, upon what grounds I know not) that Herod caused the infants to be slain. Most likely: for it is Gods time to frustrate the mischievous imaginations of tyrants and other wicked persons, when they have even almost reduced them into act, and to reach forth a saving hand unto his servants at the pits brinck.

26 The place of his habitation and abodeThe place of his habitati­on or abode. in the land of Egypt, is said to be Hermopolis, a city of Thebais, which is a country in Egypt bounding upon Ethiopia, distant from Bethlehem about two hundred ninety and six miles. The report was, that then, when he was brought unto the gate of that city, a certain great tree called Persis which stood there, worshipped him, by bending it selfe to the ground, the fruites, leaves, and bark of which tree had vertue curative, if applyed to the sick, Sozom. Ec. hist. lib. 5. cap. 20. His journey thither was not without great difficulty and danger, for his way was through Arabia the stony, a land for the most part barren and unfruitfull, full of sands, rocks, and mountains, destitute of water in many places, frequented with thieves and wilde beasts. Such a journey must Joseph, an old man, fourescore years old, undertake in his old age, together with the blessed virgin, and the childe Jesus, in the depth of winter, in danger of thieves, subject to be smoothered by the sands, over high hills, craggy rocks, and desert moun­tains, in perill every houre to be rent and torn in sunder by wilde beasts. Thus did it stand with the meeknesse and clemency of Christ to give way unto Herods cruelty, and not rather to de­stroy him, which was in his power to do: but by the provi­dence of his divinity to preserve the humane nature, and that among the idolaters of Egypt, that it might afterwards be offe­red up upon the crosse, a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, obla­tion, S. Mat. 2.13, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world. And (therefore) when they were departed, behold the Angell of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young childe and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there untill I bring thee word; for Herod will seek the young childe to destroy him. 14, When he arose, he took the young childe and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt, 15. and was there untill the death of Herod, that it might be ful­filled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.

27 There was no cause (as Hilarius Arelatensis hath well obser­ved) why Herod should be jealous of his kingdome:The infants sla n by He­rod. For Christ (saith he) came not to invade another mans glory, but to bestow his owne freely: not to take by violence an earthly kingdome, but to confer an heavenly kingdome: he came not by strong hand to acquire digni­ties, [Page 89] but to suffer injuries: not to prepare his head to a diademe embel­lished with Pearls, but to a crowne of thornes: not in pomp to sway the Scepter, but in derision to be crucified upon the cross. But this was more then Herod knew: therefore when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, he was exceeding wroth, [...], saith the text. [...] is excandescentia, an affection as Philosophers do say, mixed and compounded of sorrow, and desire of revenge; they do say, that when a man is angry, at the first his heart doth shrink together, at the apprehension of some present evill; and labouring to beat it away, it doth dilate it self. Now this motion stirreth up heat; for the blood hath recourse from the heart, into the exterior parts, which heat being accompanied with a bilious, or chollerick humour, fumeth up into the braine, whereby it comes to pass, that in their excandescencie, men have little wit, or judgement, and some are furious, and mad, beasts rather in condition then men. In which excandescency Baalam smote his Ass with a staffe, Num. 22.29. and wished that he had had a sword in his hand to kill him. Xerxes threatned both Sea and Land; A­jax drew his sword to fight with a flock of sheep. And in such an excandescency, Herod sent forth and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently enquired of the wise men. For when he perceived and had cer­tain intelligence that the magi were indeed gone, and that he was deluded by them, in that they kept not promise with him, nor returned to Jerusalem according to their words, to give him a full relation and account of what they had seen, heard, and done concerning the new born king: and because he knew not which way the magi were gone, nor had hopes to recall them: his heart shranck together at the apprehension of the present evill: he made no delay, nor stood to unty the knot, he sent forth and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem it self, and in all the Castles, Villages, and Hamlets of the circumjacent region, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently enquired of the wise men.

Concerning the number of the children slain, and how they 28 slew them there is no mention made by the Evangelist, some say fourteen thousand; Liturg. Aethiop. & Calend. Graecor. But how many soever, it is most likely that under some specious pretence or other, to prevent the diligence of the mothers in hi­ding them, they first gathered them altogether, and then slew them at once. Which horrid and most cruell murther being re­lated with detestation in all places, was in the end known at Rome, and reported to the Emperour Augustus himself, who hearing thereof, and that among those children Herods own sonne (a lit­tle child under the age of two years noursed it should seem, [Page 90] in or nigh to Bethlehem) was one of them that were killed; he replyed, saying, It is better to be Herods hogge then his sonne. Ma­crob, lib. Saturnal. 2. Cap. 4. reporteth the story, which because he had it not from the Scripture, and was himself an heathen, it may easily be granted, that either it came to his ear by tradi­tion, or else that he took it upon the authority of some Roman Author whose works are long since lost. There be three sorts of Martyrs in the Church:Three sorts of Martyrs in the Church Some are Martyrs both in Will, and Act: so was the blessed martyr St. Stephen, a martyr in Will, for he was willing to lay down his life, and a martyr in Act, for he was stoned. Some are Martyrs in Will, but not in Act: so was the blessed Apostle and Evangelist St. John, a Martyr in Will, for being eighty and six years old, he was cast into a vessell of boyling oyl, and was willing to have laid down his life,Deu. 3.27. but by the providence of God was preserved, as the three children in the midst of the fiery fornace, and came forth with­out hurt. Some are Martyrs in Act, but not in Will: and such were these Innocents, who dyed for Christ and his cause, though they had not the will to do it; because by reason of their ten­der age they knew not what they did. Iesus Christ was the great Marty [...], 1 Tim. 6.13 the Lord and Prince of the Martyrs, who before Ponti­us Pilate witnessed a good confession. The martyr St. Stephen was the first Martyr of the new Testament, who after Christ was a Martyr both in Will and Act. St. Iohn the first Martyr like­wise of the new Testament, who was a martyr in Will but not in Act. These Innocents, the first Martyrs of the new Testament, who were Martyrs in act but not in will. Upon which considera­tions it is probable that the Church, thereby approving this distin­ction, would that the festivall dayes for the commemoration of their severall martyrdoms, should in order next follow the bles­sed day of Christs nativity, for whom they were martyred. So by the death and martyrdom of these Innocents, was fulfilled the prophecie of Ieremiah. Jer. 31.15. Then Herod when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old, and under, according to the time which he had diligent­ly enquired of the wise men. S. Mat. 2.16 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Ieremy the Prophet, saying, In Rama was there a voice heard, la­mentation, 17, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children, 18. and would not be comforted, because they are not.

29 Thus was the Covenant administred by him in the two first years of his age,The Recapi­tulation. for the abolishing of the old Testament; By be­ing born of a pure Virgin, by being born at Bethlehem Ephrata. By taking in the first fruits of the Iewes, the shepheards, the same day. By being circumcised upon the eighth day. By being presented in the tem­ple upon the fortieth day. By receiving in the first fruits of the Gentiles, [Page 91] the magi, upon the twelfth day of the second yeare of his age. By his flight into Egypt for the preservation of the humane nature, and to fulfill the scriptures. By taking in the first fruits of his martyrs in the persons of the Innocents. It became him in his infancy, not to abhor the virgins wombe, to accept the manger, the doxology of Angels, the visitation of the shepheards, the seal of the Covenant, the presentation of the law, the testimony of Simeon, the gratulation of Anna, the presents of the Magi, the providence of his Father, the premonition of his Angell, the security of his flight, and the blood of his Martyrs. And thus our sacred History doth put an end to the second year of his age.

How long it was that Herod lived, after that Christ was gone 30 into Egypt, Christ his re­turn out of Egypt. and the young children most inhumanely slaughter­ed: forasmuch as there is nothing noted in the Scripture by the Evangelist; and other Authors (whereof some will have it to be four years, some two years, some but three months, some less) cannot be accorded, it is hard to determine. Venerable Bede, with others, who [...]t i [...] likely either follow therein the old tradition of the Church, or perchance had read it in some of the writings of the ancient Fathers now lost, refer his return out of Egypt, to the seventh day of the month of January, which is al­so generally assented to; w [...]ch generall opinion, seeing it ought not to be denyed, unless any one were able to bring good rea­son or authority to the contrary, makes me to think that our blessed Lord made his abode in Egypt, by the space of two whole years, till he was fully four years old, and made his return from thence, in the beginning of the fifth year of his age. And this I think to be most consentaneous to truth. For Herod dyed some­what before Easter; but the slaughter of the Infants was divul­ged far and neer, and was come to Rome, and to the ears of Au­gustus as was said before; therefore not before Easter next and immediately following. Probably before the second Easter, when his funeralls being first most sumptuously solemnized, Arche­laus went to Rome for confirmation of his Kingdom, (as is ob­served by Josephus) was there at the feast of Pentecost, and was not suddenly dispatched, for there he found his brother Anti­pas a competitor for the Kingdom, and had there also to answer to the accusation of Antipater the son of Salome, who was He­rods sister. Which when he had cleared before the councill, yet Caesar himself took time to deliberate as touching the affairs, and how to settle Herods kingdome. Mean while came fifty am­bassadors out of Judea, sent by the Iewes, to make complaint un­to Caesar against Archelaus and his brother, and humbly to peti­tion that they might no more be governed by Kings, but by his Presidents in Syria. To which Ambassadours comming from the whole nation, adjoyned themselves eight thousand Iewes which [Page 92] dwelt at Rome, and these obtained audience of Caesar in the Temple of Apollo, who that day determined nothing. Not long after he made Archelaus, Archelaus made king or Ethnarch of Judea and Samaria. not King of his Fathers whole king­dom, but Ethnarch or king of Judea, and Samaria; and Herod Antipas he made Tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip Te­trarch of Iturea, and of the region of Trachonitis: so dividing He­rods Kingdom into four parts, for a tetrarchie is the fourth part of a Kingdom, and he that obtaineth the fourth part of a King­dom is called a Tetrarch. The fourth Tetrarchie was that of Abi­lene, whereof Lysanias another brother (as some say, but not truly) the son of Herod; others (but with as little truth) his nephew, the son of Ptolomaeus and Alexandra the said Herods si­ster, was, we know not whether by Augustus or Tiberius, made Tetrarch, neither have we to say whose son he was. These things being thus ordered at Rome, Archelaus betaketh himself to his jour­ney towards the beginning of winter, and arriveth in Iudea.

31 Now after that Herod was dead, and before that Ioseph had otherwise heard of it; the Angell of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, told him of the death of Herod, commanded him to return into his country, which Joseph readily performed; and upon the seventh day of Ianuary returned. But when he heard what was done at Rome, and that Archelaus had obtained the Ethnarchie of Iudea, he went not to Bethlehem, for fear least his return being known, the life of the young child might be sought for; but by divine admonition turned aside into the parts of Galilee, and dwelt in Nazareth, and so was fulfilled the pre­diction of the Prophets, (but what Prophets we have not to say,Isa. 11.1. & 60, 21. Zech. 3.8. & 6.12. for though both the Prophets Isaiah, and Zechariah, do style him Netzer, a branch, yet none of all the Prophets which we now have, doe style him a Nazarene) doubtless some of those Prophets whose prophesies are not come to our hands, who had said that he should be called a Nazarene. But when Herod was dead, behold an Angell of the Lord appeared in a dream to Ioseph in Egypt, S. Mat. 2.19 saying; Arise, and take the young childe, and his mother, and go into the land of Israel: for they are dead which sought the young childes life. 20, And he arose, and tooke the young childe and his mother, and came into the land of Israel. But when he heard that Archelaus did raigne in Iudea,21, in the roome of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither: Notwithstanding being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee: And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth,22, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Prophets, 23. He shall be called a Nazarene.

32 Being returned out of Egypt, and brought to Nazareth there to inhabit with his parents,Christ grew. the childe Jesus grew, having been nourished it seemes before by his mothers milk, as other chil­dren in their infancy;S. Luc. 11 27 and more especially as Isaac was, who [Page 93] was a type of Christ: Gen. 21.7. he was in time convenient taken from his mothers breasts, and accustomed to stronger meats, as the pro­phet Isaias before had prophesyed, Butter and hony shall he eat. Isa 7.15. As if he should say, The ordinary food of the land; for the land Canaan was a land flowing with milk and honey. Exod. 3.8. Being so fed and nourished in his infancy, and in his childehood, [...], he grew aetate, & corporis quantitate, saith Stella, in age, and in quantity of body, quatenus homo, as being man; the solid parts of his body as he grew in age were ampliated in longitude, la­titude, and profundity. This will prove the verity of his body, therefore his flesh was not fantasticall, nor made of the stars and celestiall bodies, it was humane flesh, [...]. He waxed strong in spirit, his soul as he grew in body, did more and more exert and manifest the powers and faculties of the same; therefore he had a soule, not the divinity in stead of a soule, nor a soul converted into flesh, nor yet mixed and mingled with his divinity, but a distinct soul, a reasonable soul. He was true man consisting of body and soul, for he was filled with all wis­dome, therefore with acquisite or experimentall wisdom, where­by nothing was wanting to him, which might conduce to the perfection of the humane nature. And the grace of God was up­on him, for all his words and actions were gracious, no inordi­nate childish mirth, or foolish pastimes were seen in him; by all that he said, by all that he did, every man had to observe the grace of God. If he had no liberall education and at the schooles,S. Joh. 7.15, (for he needed not to be taught by man) according to that which is objected, St Joh. 7.15. How knoweth this man letters, ha­ving never learned? Yet no question but he had religious educa­tion by his parents, (which he accepted by divine dispensation) who instructed him privately and at home in the mysteries of religion,Christ brought up to Hierusalem when he was twelve years old. brought him unto the Synagogues upon the Sabbath­daies; and when he was twelve years old, they brought him up to Hierusalem to the temple, to the end that he might behold the worship of God in his Sanctuary; that he might worship in that place which God had chosen to put his name there; that he might hear the learned doctrines and expositions of the Scribes, who taught and expounded the law; that he might bring his gift unto God, according as it was required by the law; and finally that he might manifest his obedience to the law, which re­quired, that all the males should appear before the Lord, ter in anno, thrice every year.

According to which law (Three times in the year all thy males 33 shall appear before the Lord God) Joseph peradventure,Exod. 23.17. S. Mat. 1.19. Phil. 3.6. who was a just man, and, as Saint Paul saith of himselfe, touching the righ­teousnesse which is in the law, blamelesse: after his return out of Egypt, and when he dwelt in Nazareth, went up to Hierusalem [Page 94] three times a year. Although they say, that there was an in­dulgence granted to them that dwelt more remotely, and that it was sufficient for them if they went up once a year, at the feast of the Passeover, from which none might be excused, but only by invalidity of body. The law concerned Joseph, not the blessed virgin Saint Mary, Omne masculinum tuum, all thy males. The Evangelist therefore doth commend the piety and fervent zeal of the blessed virgin, in that she also took the paines to go up to Hierusalem with Joseph her husband at the feast of the passe­over sixty foure miles, whereas by the law she might have stay­ed at home.

34 Christ being twelve years old, went up with his parents for the causes before expressed.Why Christ went up to Hierusalem being twelve years old. Whether he had been there before or not, the Evangelist doth not determine. I do rather think that he had not been brought up before, for fear of Archelaus, and that this was the first time that he came up from Nazareth to Hierusalem; his parents who before were afraid to return vvith him to Bethlehem, because they heard that Archelaus did raigne in Judea, being then confident to bring him up thither, because they heard, that Archelaus had now lost his Ethnarchie, being also exiled to Vienna in France. When the solemnity of the feast was ended, his parents departed, but Jesus himselfe tarried behinde in Hierusalem. He tarried behinde that he might be about the businesse of his heavenly Father, in yielding obedi­ence to his divine will, and that by hearing of the Doctours, and asking them questions, he might manifest his divine wisdome for the honour of God, shew the zeal of Gods glory, which he had even in his childhood, and give example unto others. And it was not without mystery, that he would be pleased so to do, being twelve years old; for it was he that would send forth his twelve Apostles to preach his Gospell all the world over. Again, the age of twelve years, saith Stella, is intelligendi & percipiendi aetas, the age or time wherein children come to a ripe under­standing or perception: therefore not before, because he would do nothing in his childhood which should be accounted a miracle; and yet then (because he would lose no time to do the businesse of his Father) would he begin to evidence his divine wisedome. It was to avoid the importunity of his parents, who in all likelyhood would have urged or commanded his de­parture, at least-wise have disswaded him from disputing vvith the Doctours, as one that was but a childe in years, nor had ever frequented the Schooles; and withall to give them to understand, that he had another Father, vvhose vvill he ought to prefer; vvhich prevailed vvith him not to acquaint them vvith his stay, and to conceal his resolution. The Galileans returning by com­panies, his parents vvho knew nothing of his subduction and [Page 95] abobe in Hierusalem, went on their journey the first day, toge­ther with their neighbours, friends, and kindred; but missing him at night, they carefully enquired after him, and when they could not finde him, and saw that he was not in the com­pany that came forth together with them, they returned to Hierusalem, and with heavy hearts, as fearing what had befallen him, sought him three daies together, going and enquiring from place to place, in all places where they thought probably that he might be. What he did during those three daies of his absence from his parents, where he vvas, in what place, and with vvhom he abode, how and by what means he got food to su­stain himself, it is curious to enquire, and rash to define.

After three daies, which may also be understood upon the 35 third day, Mat. 27.63. Mar. 8.31. they found him in the Tem­ple, in that place of the temple where the Scribes and Doctours of the law did teach and expound the law and the prophets. Sit­ting in the midst of the Doctours, not in the Doctours high seats I suppose, but in place convenient, and appointed for the younger sort to sit, both to hear the Doctours, and to ask them questions, there was he together with others of the younger sort, both hea­ring them, and asking them questions. What he heard from them, we cannot say; doubtlesse the questions which he asked of them were touching the Messiah who was expected, Of what tribe he should come; Whose son he should be; what redemption he should procure to Israel; by what means, and such like. That so he might in some sort manifest himselfe to be that Messiah, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets did write; which properly was the busi­nesse of his Father. Whereupon as well his parents, as also all others that heard him, even the Doctours themselves, were astonished, [...], they admired above measure, and were ravished in minde, as men besides themselves. Never heard they such acute questions, never such exact answers. The disputa­tion being ended first, (as is piously to be supposed, for it is al­together unlikely that she would by any importune or unseasona­ble question interrupt him, while he was asking and answering the Doctours) his mother desirous to know upon what motives he had so absented himself, demanded of him privatly why he had dealt so with them, admonishing him of the care and sorrow which they had by reason of his absence. They were both of them carefull to finde him, and did both of them sorrow for the present losse of him, but more especially the blessed virgin, whom it more neerly touched, whose motherly love and affe­ction was more tender and compassionate. The answer which he makes is no reprehension, but a divine instruction. As if he should have said, I acknowledge you my mother according to my hu­manity, of you it was that I took flesh, in your wombe was I [Page 96] conceived by the holy Ghost. I do likewise acknowledge you to be my reputed father, a father according to the law: and that upon both respects, as man I owe unto you both honour and obe­dience. But as it is true, that, as made of the substance of you my dear mother, I am the naturall and consubstantiall son of man. Even so, being begotten of God and of his substance, I am the naturall and consubstantiall son of God. By him am I sent to do his will, this temple is his house. How then is it that ye sought me? did you not perswade your selves that I would not other­wise absent my selfe from you, but to be about the businesse of my holy and heavenly Father? This was the meaning of his answer, which at that time they understood not.

36 Thus they departed out of the temple, and from Hierusalem, and went down to Nazareth, Christ, sbu­ject to his pa­rents, and how, where he dwelt with them, and was subject to them, working without doubt at his fathers trade, partly to avoid idlenesse in himselfe, and to condemn it in others, as the mother of all mischiefe; for, nihil agendo homines male agere discunt, in doing nothing men learn to do ill: partly to get his owne living vvith the labour of his hands, and to relieve his parents in their mean condition. It was that which his coun­try men had observed, and at which they stumbled, Is not this the carpenter (say they),S. Mar. 6.3. the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? And they were offended at him. That he disposed himselfe to prayers, fastings, and divine meditations, that must not be de­nyed, yet that he vvrought carpenters work, and made plowes and yokes for oxen, seeing that Justine Martyr saith it more then once, (Dialog. cum Tryph. Jud.) who no doubt had it from good hands, and that such a condition might well stand vvith divine dispensation, and with the forme of a servant, it may easily be granted. All these words which she had heard in the temple, and which elsewhere were spoken of him, and by him, the blessed virgin his mother, kept in her heart as the richest and greatest treasure. And Jesus himselfe, who is the fountain of all wisdome, S. Joh. 1.16. and of all grace, of whose fulness have all we received, and grace for grace, as Saint John saith. Who had not his wis­dome by measure or degrees, but above measure altogether, and from the very moment of his conception, who was the wis­dome of the Father, and to whom no wisdome could be added by increase of age or stature; yet as he increased in age, and grew up to the full stature and proportion of a man, so did he more and more dispence his wisdome, whereby he was well knowne and observed to be in favour with God, and was highly estee­med of men. Being in the full perfection of the human nature, in whose body there was no spot or blemish,Psal. 45.3. fairer then the children of men, vvhose lips vvere full of grace, because that God [Page 97] by the hypostaticall union, had beyond all the sons of Adam, bles­sed him for ever. Concerning whose stature, feature, and pro­portion, let the Reader if he please, see Niceph. Callist. Ec. Hist. lib. 1. cap. 40. And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, fil­led with wisdom, and the grace of God was upon him. S. Luc. 2.40 41. Now his parents went to Hierusalem every yeare at the feast of the Passeover. And when he was twelve yeares old, they went up to Hierusalem after the custome of the feast. And when they had fulfilled the dayes, 42, as they re­turned, the childe Jesus tarried behind in Hierusalem, and Joseph and his mother knew not of it. 43, But they supposing him to have been in the company, went a dayes journey, and they sought him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance. And when they found him not, 44, they turned back againe to Hierusalem seeking him. And it came to pass that after three days, they found him in the Temple, 45, sitting in the midst of the Doctors both hearing them, and asking them questions. And all that heard him, were astonished at his understanding and answers. 46, 47, And when they saw him, they were amazed: and his mother said unto him, Sonne, why hast thou thus dealt with us? Behold, thy Father and I, 48, have sought thee sorrowing. And he said unto them, How is it that ye sought me? wist ye not that I must be about my Fathers business? And they understood not the saying which he spake unto them. And he went downe with them, 49, 50 51, 52, and came to Nazareth, and was subject unto them; But his mother kept all these sayings in her heart. And Jesus increased in wisdom, and stature, and in favour with God and man.

Thus abode he at Nazareth with his parents for the space of 37 eighteen yeares almost, which was from the time of their return from Hierusalem, after that he had disputed with the Doctors, (he being then compleatly twelve years old, and going on in the thirteenth year) to the thirtieth yeare of his age current. For du­ring all that time, no further mention is made of him then hath been made before. Then began that acceptable yeare of the Lord, The accepta­ble year of the Lord be­gun. prophesied by the Prophet Isaiah, to be proclaimed and preach­ed unto all the world, by Christ the Fathers eternall word. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord hath annointed me to preach good tydings unto the meeke, Isa. 61.1, 2. he hath sent me to binde up the broken hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound: To proclaim the acceptable yeare of the Lord. Which prophecie is repeated by the Evangelist in these words. The spirit of the Lord is upon me, S. Luc. 4.18, 19. because he hath annointed me to preach the Gospel to the poore, he hath sent me to heal the broken hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised. To preach the ac­ceptable yeare of the Lord. This year was annus placabilis Domino, a year placable to the Lord; a year in which the Lord was easi­ly pleased with all those things which were performed by Christ, for the redemption of all mankind. This year was Annus Do­mini [Page 98] acceptus, the accepted year of the Lord; a year in which the Lord was pleased to accept the merits of his son, a full and sufficient price, satisfaction, and redemption for the sins of the whole world. There were other types of this year which the law had; but this year was specially figured by the great Jubile of the fiftieth yeare. That year was proclaimed by blowing up of trumpets of rammes hornes: this year was proclaimed by the Ram himselfe, figured by that Ram which Abraham offered up in stead of Isaac his son, and by all those Rams which were offered up in sacrifices according to the Law. That year brought with it a temporall rest unto the land of Canaan. This year brought with it a spirituall rest unto the whole world. That year pro­claimed liberty, and in that year all servants went forth perpe­tually free from corporall bondage, and every one that had sold his possession, did in that year return unto it again, Levit. 25. This year proclaimed liberty, and in this year all that were ser­vants to sin and Sathan, had a perpetuall liberty obtained, and an eternal redemption, so that now there is no let, but that all the sons of Adam who shall by a lively faith and true repentance accept the liberty of this year, may return again to that holy, and heavenly inheritance which Adam lost by reason of sinne. That year took away the distinction of master and servant: This year took away all distinctions, not in respect of that relation which is between man and man in the world; but in respect of that relation which is betwixt Christ and his Church. For like as the Redeemer would buy them all with the same price, and would shed no more, nor no other blood for the Jew then for the Gentile; for the bond then for the free; for the male, then for the female; Even so the freedom of this year, brought to pass that they should be all saved by the same grace, justified by the same faith, have the same word, the same sacraments, the same worship, an equall interest in Christ; according to that of St. Paul. Gal. 3.28. There is neither Jew nor Greeke, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus. And in another place,Col. 3.11. There is neither Greeke nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bond nor free: but Christ is all, and in all. Weeks in the scriptures are not alwaies weeks of dayes, nor years are not alwaies years of months: Though that acceptable yeare is properly said to begin then, yet must we not think to terminate it in twelve months. It is (saith that ancient Father Irenaeus) the time, in which they are called of him, that do believe in him, that is, all the time from his comming, to the con­summation, in which he doth acquire as fruits, those that are saved, lib. 2. cap. 38. It is indeed, and according to St. Paul, the whole time of Grace (Behold now is the accepted time, 2 Cor. 6.2. behold now is the day of salvation) in the largest sense. But strictly and properly to [Page 99] his Ascention into heaven: in which year he compleated all those things which God accepted at his hands to be done for the redemption of mankind, by his Baptisme, by his preaching, by his miracles, by his passion, death, buriall, descent into hell; as also by his resurrection, and ascension. We have therefore now to see how he did administer the covenant during that year.

It was the fifteenth year of the raign of Tiberius Caesar, Ponti­us Pilate being then governour of Judea, and Herod being Te­trarch 38 of Galilee &c. as is noted by the Evangelist,S. Luc. 3.1. which was the thir [...]ieth year of his age current. Then began the Gospel of Christ to be published, for then John the son of Zacharias and Elizabeth, S. Mar. 1.1. who had made his abode [...], in the deserts, or desert places; [places of his own selection and choosing,S. John the Baptist. for a solitary and contemplative life]; being immediately thereunto called by God, actually, and externally, (for without an actuall exter­nall mission, no man must presume to preach,Rom. 10.15. or take upon him to administer divine things) [...], in the wilderness, be­gan that his ministery, unto which he was before appointed of God, foretold by the Prophets, and at his circumcision designed by his father: which was that he should be that Prophet, which should go before the face of the Lord to prepare his waies. Isa. 40.3. Mal. 3.1. He therefore began first to preach, and to baptize in the wilderness, or hill countrie of Judea, where he had a great confluence of people from Hierusalem and Judea; and from those hill countries or desert and less frequented places, he went forth and came into the plain or champian, countries more peopled and inhabi­ted nigh unto Jordan, and there he preached and baptized. His habit and food were answerable to his austere life, His habit and food. and peniten­tiall Doctrine; for he had his raiment of Camells haire, and a lea­thern girdle about his loyns, and his meat was locusts, and wilde honey. He was of noble descent, for as Josephus saith,S. Mat. 3.3. The marke of true Nobility was, if a man could derive his pedegree from the priest­hood. He was born to the priesthood; but being immediately cal­led by God to go before the face of Christ, and to prepare his waies by preaching repentance unto the people, and by baptizing of them; he assumes an habit answerable to the work that he went about, and yet not without example of the former Pro­phets, a rough hairie garment: and food or dyet answerable to them both; for his meat was locusts and wild honey. 1 Sam. 28.24 2 King. 1 8. 2 Kin. 2.13, 14. Zech. 13.4. His immedi­ate calling was a dispensation for his attendance upon the Tem­ple in his course or lot, from the priestly vests, and food indul­ged by the law. His doctrine, habit, and food were penitentiall, and by his habit and food, he commended unto the people the doctrine which he preached; as if he should say with Demosthenes [...], [Page 100] in Epist. Look unto what things I exhort others, it is fitting that I should first do them my self.

39 His raiment, whatsoever he ware as rayment, was of Camels haire; Raiment of Camels hair. hirsute, rigid, sharp, pungent upon his bare soft and ten­der skin, not hanging down loose, but bound close to his body with a leathern girdle. S. Mat. 11.9 A girdle of leather. He was a Prophet, and more then a Pro­phet; therefore his habit was propheticall, and more then pro­pheticall. We find the Prophets in rough garments, and in sack­cloth often; but, in a garment of Camels haire, the rough, hard, pungent bristles of the Camel, we find none but S. John the Baptist onely.S. Luc. 1.17. S. Mat. 11.14 He came in the spirit and power of Elias; nay himself was Elias, that Elias which was for to come; therefore he assumed the habit of Elias, and was girt about his loyns with a leathern girdle (a badge of mortality, fit for him to wear that would preach the doctrine of Pennance, fit for them to behold who would receive and embrace his penitentiall doctrine and baptism) as Elias was.2 King. 1.8. S. Mat. 11.18 He came neither eating nor drinking, but was most abstemious in his dyet; he did not eat and drink as other men did, and in company, but more sparingly, to a less quantity, not so fre­quently, and alone: and is therefore said (not absolutely, but upon these respects) not to eat and drink. Besides he came not eating and drinking the common food and drink of the people of the Land, for he drank neither wine nor strong drink; and his meat was locusts, S. Luc. 1.15. and wild honey. Such food as the wilderness did plentiful­ly afford,S. Mat. 3.4 What the lo­custs were. and easily supply. And because the Evangelist saith expresly, that his food was locusts and wild honey, neither were locusts forbidden to the people of Israel, but permitted to be ea­ten by the Levit [...]cal law; The locust after his kind, and the bald lo­cust after his kind, Levit. 11.21, and the beetle after his kind, and the Grashopper af­ter his kind, as having leggs above their feet, to leap withall upon the earth. And because the land of Canaan abounded with honey, every where to be found in the deserts, in and upon the trees, and in the holes of the rocks; the honey dropped in the woods: as we read in the story of Saul, 1 Sam. 14.26 and Jonathan. And the Psalmist beareth witness to the honey in the Rock; Therefore I affirm his meat to be such locusts permitted by the law to be eaten,Psal. 81.16 and ea­ten also in other nations. Nor shall I think those locusts to have been the wild apples of the desert, nor the tender tops of herbs, or shrubs, nor any herbs so called, but locusts indeed. The wild honey was hony of unhived Bees,What the wild honey was. which bred and swarmed in the wilderness, and in other places, making their hony and hony combs, and disposing them in the trees, rocks, and in holes of the ground: not the sweet leaves of any trees, or hony found in Canes, much less that manna wherewith God fed the people of Israel in the wilderness, by the space of forty years. So, in those dayes, namely in the fifteenth year of the raign of Tiberius Caesar, [Page 101] Pontius Pilate being governour of Iudea, and Herod being Te­trarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip Tetrarch of Iturea, and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the Tetrarch of Abile­ne, Annas and Caiphas being the high priests, [viz. Annas vvho had been high priest, obtained still to be so called, and Caiphas, as being the present high priest] the vvord of God came unto Iohn the son of Zacharias in the vvilderness. In the vvilderness of Iudea, And saying, Repent ye, for the kingdome of heaven is at hand. This vvas according to the prediction of the prophets, Isaiah and Malachi, Isai. 40.3. Mal. 3.1. And he did baptize in the wildernesse, and preached the baptisme of repentance for the re­mission of sins. And he came into all the country about Iordan, prea­ching the baptisme of repentance for the remission of sins, S. Mat. 3.1, 2, 3, 4. S. Mar. 1.1, 2, 3, 4. S. Luc. 3.1, 2, 3, 4. and did baptize there also. And the same Iohn had his raiment of camells hair, and a leathern girdle about his loyns, and his meat was locusts and wilde hony, as is to be found by Saint Matthew, Saint Mark, and Saint Luke, compared together. And this vvas the be­ginning of the Gospell of Iesus Christ, vvhich began so to be published.

Thus came he by divine mission, that according to the prophe­cies 40 of Isaias and Malachias, by the preaching of repentance,Concerning Saint Iohn's Preaching and Baptism. and by the baptism of water, he might prepare the waies of the Lord, by disposing the hearts of men to receive Christ, who was pre­sently to be manifested to the world. Such a preparation was to be made two manner of waies, by preaching repentance for the remission of sins; and by baptizing with water, for the seal and con­firmation of his doctrine. Such as his preaching was, such was his baptisme; but his preaching was but a preparation to re­ceive and entertain Christ, therefore his baptisme was no other. It was not a seal of the covenant, therefore it was not a sacra­ment properly; and for that cause it could not confer the grace of regeneration. Yet was it preached for the remission of sins, and was the Baptism of repentance, because whom he baptized, he taught to repent, disposed and prepared them to receive Christ and his baptisme, that so their sins might be remitted. Saint John's baptisme was from heaven, and therefore had its perfection, for Saint John came not of himselfe, but was sent of God to baptize: S. Joh. 1.33. But Saint John was the institutor of his own Baptisme, there­fore his Baptisme was no Sacrament properly, neither was grace conferred thereby: for sacraments were not instituted by ser­vants, but by the Lord himselfe; to him that made the world, to him it belongeth to make the sacraments. Saint John's Bap­tisme did not oblige to the participation, but only from con­tempt: all men were not necessarily to receive it, though no man might contemn it, quia contemnens consilium, contemnit con­siliantem; he that contemneth the counsell, contemneth him that [Page 102] giveth it; therefore it was not a sacrament with promise of grace, for such sacraments are generally necessary to salvation. Finally, it had not the form of words, for Saint John did not baptise those whom he baptised, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Ghost, forasmuch as some of them who were baptised by him, had not so much as heard whether there be any holy Ghost; It was personall to Saint John only while he lived, neither had he any successour to baptize in that manner after he was dead. Therefore it was not the Baptisme of Christ begun in his person, howsoever necessary for the present time, and that the waies of the Lord might be prepared by him. And this which hath been laid down thus plainly and briefly con­cerning the Baptisme of Saint John, Act. 19.2. is consonant to the doctrine of the learned fathers, and school Divines.

41 S. Luc. 3.4, 5,As Saint John was seriously employed crying out unto the people, and saying in his doctrine, Prepare the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. Every valley shall be filled, and every moun­tain and hill shall be brought low, and the crooked shall be made straight,6.and the rough waies shall be made smooth. And all flesh shall see the salvation of God. And therefore exhorting and perswa­ding them to fill up the lovv vallies and concavities of their hearts, with all vertues; to pull down the high mountains and hills of pride, by humility; to make straight the crooked waies of injustice, by righteousness; and to make smooth the rough waies of unjust and immoderate anger, by meeknesse: For that now (said he) Christ who is the salvation of God, and bringeth salvation unto all the world, is presently to shew himselfe: that therefore they would hearken unto his doctrine, and come unto his Baptisme, that so they might be worthy to receive and entertain him. I say, as Saint Iohn was thus busied,Saint John seeth the Pharisees and Saddu­ces at his baptisme. and preach­ing and baptising, he espied among the promiscuous multitude certain Sectaries, called Pharisees and Sadduces; the reader perad­venture would know what they vvere.

The Pharisees professed themselves to be very skilfull of the law, whereof they were great professours; they had their name 42 from the word Phares, which signifieth Division, for they had separated themselves from others,The Phari­sees. for certain voluntary super­fluities in religion, which they had undertaken to hold. The ma­ster of that sect is said to be one Aciba, or Bar-Aciba. They did not believe a Trinity of persons in the Unity of one Godhead. They acknovvledged but one nature in the person of the Messiah. They supposed the kingdome of the Messiah to be an earthly or world­ly kingdome, and of this world. They knew nothing of inter­nall obedience. They held justification by legall works only. And besides the vvritten lavv, they had many unvvritten traditions of their ovvn, vvhich they obtruded to the people for true god­liness. [Page 103] The Sadduces, The Sadduces named themselves Sadduces, à justitia, from their justice, for Sadoc signifieth a just man. They held the same opinion vvith the Samaritans touching the resurrection, and denyed it. They did not believe that there be any Angells or Spirits. They knevv nothing of the holy Ghost; and being Iewes, they complied vvith the Samaritans. When therefore he savv these, and knevv them to be such (proud fastuous hypocrites, vvho came thither out of pride and curiosity, to deride his doctrine, to despise his ministry, and to question his authority, S. Luc. 7.30. having no intention to be baptized by him, as indeed they vvere not bap­tized) he breakes out into this bitter commination,S. Mat. 3.7, 8, 9, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come. Bring forth therefore fruits meet for rep [...]ntance. And think not to say within your selves, we have Abraham to our father, for I say unto you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham.10,And now also the ax is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewen down and cast into the fire.11,I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance: but he that commeth after me is mightier then I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear, he shall baptize you with the holy Ghost and with fire. Whose fan is in his hand, and he will thorowly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into the garner; but will burn up the chaffe with unquenchable fire. Which commination taking a deep impression in the hearts of the peo­ple, (but not of the Pharisees and Sadduces) they, that is to say, all the people, crying out with one voyce, asking him, saying, [...], What shall we do then? He answereth,S. Luc. 3.10, and saith unto them, He that hath two coats, let him impart to him that hath none, and he that hath meat, let him do likewise. 11, The Publicans The Publi­cans. or customers, who farmed and exacted the Roman imposts or cu­stomes, who came not subtilly and in hypocrisie, as the Pharisees and Sadduces did, but to be baptized indeed, thought them­selves more particularly concerned, and therefore demanded for themselves and for those of their own profession, [...], Master, what shall we do? And he said unto them, Exact no more then that which is appointed you. 13, The soldiers also hearing his answer to the publicans, desired the like particular instructi­on for themselves, and for their commilitants, and therefore de­manded, saying, [...], And what shall we do? And he said unto them, Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely, and be content with your wages. 14, His preaching and baptisme were had in great admiration by all the people, and much talk went concerning him, they mused in their hearts, and reasoned and disputed one with another concerning him, whether he were the Christ or not, whom all men then expected. This gave him occasion to put them out of doubt concerning both his person and Baptisme, and to inculcate that which he had said before [Page 104] to the Pharisees and Sadduces in his commination, observed by Saint Matthew. 15, For saith the text, The people were in expectation, and all men mused in their hearts of John, whether he were the Christ or not.16,John answered saying unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water, but one mightier then I commeth, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose, he shall baptize you with the holy Ghost and with fire.17,Whose fan is in his hand, and he will thorowly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his garner, but the chaffe he will burne with fire unquenchable.18,And many other things in his exhortation preached he unto the people, passed over by the Evangelists for that brevities sake, which the Scripture every where affecteth.

43 Christ bap­tized by St. John the Baptist Bethabara.While these things were thus transacted by Saint John at Jordan, (a fair river in Judea, which divideth Galilee from the residue of Judea, & falleth into the dead Sea) Jesus himself upon the sixth day of the month of January, in the beginning of the thirtieth year of his age, came from Nazareth the place of his education and abode with his parents, unto Bethabara where Saint John baptized. It was a town scituated upon the east-side of the river Iordan, sixteen miles from Ierusalem, and as they say, fiftie and two miles from Nazareth, where it seems was some bridge or ferry to passe over the river, from whence the place had its name Bethabara; for Beth signifieth an house, and Abbara is transitus a passage; as if you should say, the house of the pas­sage. Thither came he who had no need of Baptisme, to be bap­tized of his servant. It was, because it became him to fulfill all righteousnesse. How? in fulfilling the types: for the Ark which was a type of Christ passed through Iordan, and Elijah and Elisha, who were typicall persons and types of Christ, passed through Iordan, prefiguring his Baptisme. And not only to fulfill the types, but to sanctifie Iordan it self, and all other waters (in a lawfull sacramentall use) to the mysticall washing away of sin, (for so the Church of England, with consent of the primitive Church be­lieveth and confesseth) as Saint Ambrose saith, Cum salvator ab­luitur, jam tum in nostrum baptismum tota aqua mundatur. Serm. 18. in Epiphan. When the Saviour is baptized, then is all the water made clean for our Baptisme. And no marvell, for if the temple sanctified the gold, and the Altar sanctified the gift, sure­ly Christ the Lord of the temple, and the true altar, must needs sanctifie; and who shall doubt but that by his baptisme, he sanctified the whole element of water for the sacrament of Baptisme. It is Christs own prerogative to institute his sacra­ments, by sanctification of the Elements. Therefore it is fond and frivolous to object, that Christ sanctified not all those things that he touched, and therefore not the river Iordan by being bap­tized in it, seeing that he hath instituted this great sacrament in the element of water: for sanctifications are ex consilio destinato, [Page 105] to the end that being taken off from common and ordinary uses by divine institution, they may serve for that purpose to the which they are sanctified. Therefore though he descended into hell, he sanctified not hell, nor yet the Palace of the high priest, nor all or any of those places in the land of Palestina into which he came. In a word, he would be baptized of his servant for instruction, to teach us neither to despise the Sacrament for the weakness of the Element, nor for the unworthiness of the Mi­nister: and withall to give us to understand, that like as he in old time brought the people of Israel, the carnall seed, into the earthly Canaan through the river of Iordan: Even so in these last dayes, doth he bring the spirituall seed into the heavenly Canaan through the sacrament of Baptisme. For therein are we made members of Christ, children of God, and inheritors of the kingdom of heaven. Except a man be born of water,S. Joh. 3.5.and of the spi­rit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

Now when he was come, and tendred himself to be baptized 44 of him, St. John who knew him in his mothers wombe superna­turally, and by such a knowledge as was never given to any o­ther, and leaped for joy; and yet never knew him, nor had seen him in all his life till that instant of time, knew him then by di­vine inspiration, S. Luc. 1.44 S. Joh. 1.31. and therefore thought himself altogether un­worthy to baptize his Lord, and for that cause forbad him, say­ing, I have need to be baptized of thee (I who am a sinner, and born in sinne, of thee, who art no sinner, nor born in sin; I who am thy servant, of thee who art my Lord) and comest thou to me? Thou the immaculate lambe of God, thou the eternall word of God, thou the eternall God, comest thou to me? to me a servant, to me a sinner? O wonderfull and mysterious!

Christ submonisheth him of his dispensation, and that he came 45 to fulfill all righteousnesse; wherefore being presently admitted without further contradiction or delay, he descended into the water and was baptized. [...] and straight way,He went up straight way out of the water. presently without delay, he went up out of the water: for he made all possible speed to pray unto the Father; and that the Holy Ghost might descend upon him, and that he might receive the Fathers testimony from heaven. And therefore St. Luke saith, That when all the people were baptized, and that Jesus also being baptized, and praying the heaven was opened: And the holy Ghost descended in a bo­dily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved sonne, in thee I am well pleased. I shall not doubt but that he did pray for the holy Ghost, and that the element of water which he had sanctified, in the lawfull use of it might become a Sacrament, the first sacrament of the new Testament, for the mysticall washing away of sin. I shall not doubt but that he did pray, that those who are baptized, might in [Page 106] that Sacrament receive the holy Ghost. Therefore as he was pray­ing, the holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him. That Dove was not the holy Ghost himself, it was but a vi­sible testification of the speciall presence of the holy Ghost. But it descended to bear witness unto Christ, and to his Baptisme, a baptism not of water onely, as St. Johns was, but of water and of the holy Ghost. It descended upon him,S. Joh. 1.33. to the end that St John himself might know him to be that Baptizer. And it descend­ed upon him as he was praying, to the end that his Church may know that his prayers were heard, and that by his prayers he obtained, that in his baptism we may receive the holy Ghost, as St. Augustine saith, Water exhibiting the Sacrament of grace without, and the spirit working the benefit of grace within, loosing the bond of sin, reconciling the good of nature, doe regenerate a man in one Christ, that was generated of one Adam. ad Bonifac. Epist. 23. I will not dispute what grace it is which is conferred in Baptisme; it suf­ficeth me to know that it is the grace of regeneration, whereby we are born again, and do rise again with Christ unto newness of life, Rom. 6.3. Gal. 3.27. and of justification whereby we put on Christ. It sufficeth me to know, that it is the grace of sanctification, whereby those that are baptized are purged and cleansed, and made holy to the Lord. And therefore, Faelix sacramentum aquae nostrae, saith Tertullian, Eph. 6.23. A happy Sacrament of our water, because the sins of our pristine blindness being washt away, we are made free to everlasting life. De Bapt. cap. 1. And Jesus when he was baptized, went up straight way out of the water; and loe the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him.S. Mat. 3.16, 17.And loe a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased.

46 Christ goeth into the wil­derness to be tempted.Having ended his prayers, after that the holy Ghost had de­scended upon him visibly, and his Father had proclaimed him his beloved son, (and therefore the Messiah) from heaven, wherein the sacred und undivided Trinity was most apparently manifested; for the Father spake from heaven, the son was there presently baptized, the holy Ghost visibly descended (a mystery not observed by the multitude) he was directly and immedi­ately led or driven by the Spirit into the wilderness; that is to say, he went thither by divine impulsion, and by the motion and instinct of the holy Ghost, that he might there be tempted of the Devill. What wilderness that was, it is not mentioned, fur­ther then that St Mark saith, that he was there [...], with the wild beasts. And therefore in all probability, that great wilderness (the wilderness of Arabia Petraea) through which he led the wandering Israelites by the space of forty years,S. Mar. 1.13 Wilderness of Arabia Pe­traea. a wilderness incult, dry, barren, without inhabitants, fre­quented by wild beasts. A great and terrib [...]e wilderness (saith [Page 107] Moses) wherein were fiery Serpents, and Scorpions, and drought, where there was no water. Such there were none in Judea, Deut. 8.15. or in all the land of Canaan, though yet we read of many deserts there; it is consequent therefore that this was that wilderness into which he went, where he might be [...], with the wild beasts. For this wilderness extendeth it self from the borders of Egypt, and the red sea, to Jordan, and to the place where St. Iohn bap­tized; and from thence by the country of Trachonitis, to the mountain of Libanus. Itinerar: Scrip. 432. And in this wilder­ness were the mountains Sinai and Horeb, two tops of one and the same mountain, where Moses and Elias types of Christ, fast­ed by the space of forty dayes. Into this wilderness he came, and there fasted forty dayes, and forty nights, abstaining total­ly from all manner of sustenance, and during all that time he did eat nothing, as St. Luke saith. By fasting, he fitted and pre­pared himself to the conflict which he was to have with the [...], the tempter. S. Luc. 4.2. S. Mat. 4.3. And by compleating the number of forty dayes, he answered the Types. Therefore went he fasting from Jordan, in all likelihood towards mount Horeb, one hundred thirty and six miles, that so he might terminate his fast in that place where Moses and Elias, the one being the law-giver, the other the renewer of the law suppressed, had terminated theirs.

The forty dayes being expired, and he remaining in the same place, the tempter, the Devill, the Prince of Devils, who 47 no doubt had tempted him before at severall times, in his child­hood, and in his youth, and in the wilderness for the whole for­ty dayes of his abode there, (as St. Mark, S. Mar. 1.13. Luc. 4.2. and St. Luke do both of them expresly say) came unto him thither to tempt him in a new manner, and with stronger temptations then ever before, the strongest of all that he could devise. He saw that it was in vain for him to suggest sinfull thoughts, or otherwise to attempt which way to creep into his heart by unlawfull desires; by those waies he had alwaies received the repulse, and fallen off with loss. He must batter this fort with other manner of Engines if he mean to take it. Wherefore he assumes a visible shape, and temp­eth him face to face, comming unto him with the greater confi­dence in such a desolate place. Christ did not provoke the Devill to this combat, he sent him no challenge, he was led or driven to it by the spirit, when the Devill came he gave not the onset; but the Devill assailed him, and then he received him, with di­vine resolution, and fortitude, threw him prostrate, and trode upon him. It was fore-seen and fore-told by the Prophet in the spirit of prophecie. Thou shalt tread upon the Lyon and Adder:Psal. 91.13.the young Lyon and the Dragon shalt thou trample under feet. That therefore he might trample under foot this Lyon, this Adder, [Page 108] this young Lyon, this Dragon, Then was Jesus led up of the spirit in [...]o the wilderness,S. Mat. be tempted of the devill.

48 Never was the like combat, never were the like combatants, never such a brabium or reward fought for. The combat was not corporall, but spirituall: The combatants, the prince of Devils and chief captain of all the hellish army; and the captain of the host of the Lord. The first temptation. The prize or reward for which the combat was, the precious souls of all mankind. The Devill gives the onset, for knowing him to be hungry, he first tempteth him, by divine power to turn all those stones which were there in that stony place of the desert (likely the mount Horeb) where he was, in­to bread; or at least one of them if he were able; shewing him, and pointing at, as well all the stones as that particular stone. Command that these stones be made bread. S. Mat. 4.3. S. Luc. 4.3. Command this stone that it be made bread. Christ replyeth, that there was no necessity to command either the stones in generall, or that stone in parti­cular to be made bread, for that God was able to feed and nou­rish him by other food, by other waies and means; and although he should never eat or drink, by his own word and power onely: intimating thereby, that he had been nourished and sustained without any manner of food, by the space of forty dayes, through the word and power of God, as Moses and Elias had been before. And when the tempter came to him, he said,S. Mat. 4.3,If thou be the son of God, command that these stones be made bread. But he answered, and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. 4.

49 Dcut. 8.3.And when he had cited that scripture, so written in Deuterono­mie, to put him in mind also, how that God fed the people of Israel in the wilderness by the space of forty years without bread,The second temptation. the Devill betakes himself to another engine, and seeing that he could not tempt him to diffide, he tempteth him to pre­sume. He brought him to Hierusalem, [...], the holy city, so called, because the Temple, and divine worship were fixed there, as in that place which the Lord had chosen to put his name there; though otherwise (as hath been observed be­fore) Hierusalem at that time was rather the valley of slaugh­ter, and a den of thieves, then the royall seat of the King, or the place of holy worship, guilty of all the righteous blood shed upon the whole earth, from the blood of the righteous Abel, to the blood of Zacharias the son of Barachias, whom they slew between the Temple and the Altar. S. Mat. 23.35 He brought him not thither by violence, but freely, voluntarily, and by his own consent: he did as it were lead him thither by the hand, and transferred him, as one that had submitted himself to be led, and transferred by him. For so much I collect from the word [...] used by St. Luke, and from the word [...] used by St. Matthew. He brought [Page 109] him not thither in a vision, neither did he delude his senses: for the temptations of Christ were not visions or phantasies, but re­alities, therefore though we cannot tell how he brought him thither, whether by a terrestriall journy, or by swift motion through the aire, yet sure it is, he brought him thither really, actually, substantially, locally; but whether visibly to any, or invisibly to all, we have not to say. Having brought him thither, he setteth him upon a pinacle of the temple, an exceeding high pinacle, said to be six hundred foot from the bottom to the top; biddeth him to declare himselfe to be the Son of God, by casting himselfe downe, for if that he were so indeed, he should receive no hurt, for as much as God had commanded the care over him to his Angels, who would readily hold him up in their hands. And because that Christ had repelled the former temptation by the sacred authority of Scripture, he thought to prevail in this by the same authority.Psal. 91.11, 12. He quoteth a place out of the book of Psalmes, but not truly; for how could he who is the father of lies? The prophet doth not say, In their hands they shall bear thee up; but that they shall keep thee in all thy waies. Christ repelleth the temptation by authority of Scripture, rightly and truly al­ledged out of the book of Deuteronomy; Deut. 6.16. telleth him that his waies are not waies of presumption but of providence, for it is written, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. This was the second temp­tation reckoned in the third place by Saint Luke the Evangelist, respecting more the verity of history, then the exactness of order. Then the devill taketh him up into the holy city,S. Mat. 4.5,and se [...]teth him on a pinacle of the temple, and saith unto him, If thou be the son of God, cast thy selfe down; for it is written,6,He shall give his Angells charge concerning thee, and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.7,Iesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.

Being repelled in this second temptation, and seeing he could 50 not prevail with him for the manifestation of his divinity to do miracles, either in diffidency or presumption:The third temptation. he gives the onset once more, tempting him to abjure his divinity by the sin of ido­latry. He taketh him as before, not by violence, but freely, vo­luntarily, and by his own consent, not in a vision or by phan­tasie, and transferreth him, really, actually, substantially, local­ly, but whether visibly to any, or invisibly to all, we cannot say; and bringeth him up into an exceeding high mountain, perad­venture to the top of mount Horeb, where Moses and Elias fasted; if not rather to the top of Pisgah, from whence Moses took a view of the land of promise. And there, in such a manner as was possible for him to shew them, and for Christ to see and discern them, (for he did shew them, and Christ did see and discern them) he shewed him all the kingdomes of the world, and the [Page 110] glory of them. [...]. We must not question how this could be done. This word [...], how, or in what manner, is a manifest argument of incredulity, saith Iustine Martyr. Cer­tain it is, the one did shew them, and the other see them, [...], in a moment of time. And then the devill takes up his old trade of lying, tells him that all those things are delivered unto him to give and to dispose at his pleasure; if therefore he would fall down and worship him, S. Luc. 2.7. all should be his. By covetous­nesse and ambition, as by his greatest engine, battering this im­pregnable fort. Idolatry, as Aquinas saith, is gravissimum pecca­tum, the greatest or most grievous sin. It presupposeth infidelity, it addeth an undue externall worship, a pernicious ly, great blas­phemy against God, and impugnation of the faith. Therefore when he tempted him to idolatry, our blessed Lord would endure his pride and insolency no longer, (having thus far by divine per­mission submitted himselfe to be tempted by him) but useth his authority, commandeth him to depart, and telleth him by au­thority of Scripture, Deut. 10.20. S. Mat. 4.8, who it is that is to be worshipped with divine honour. Again the devill taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdomes of the world, and the glory of them:9, 10.And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan; for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

51 The devill departeth for a season.Then the devill leaveth him, being driven away from him by the power of his most mighty word; but he went from him, animo revertendi, with a full purpose and resolution to return again as he should finde opportunity. For Saint Luke saith, that when the devill had ended all the temptation,S. Luc. 4.13.he departed from him for a season. He tempted him no more in that manner, but he temp­ted him by his agents and instruments upon every occasion, and most probably came again in his own person, to tempt him at his passion. Which thing Christ seemeth to intimate by those words, This is your houre, S. Luc. 22.53. S. Joh. 14.30 and the power of darknesse. And again in Saint John, The prince of this world commeth, and hath nothing in me. He came in Judas who betrayed him, in Pilat who condemned him, in the Iewes that crucified him; but this was not temptatio pro­priè dicta, properly temptation, which is the suggestion of the devill, whereby he prompteth a man to do evill, but rather open persecution, whereby he stirred up his enemies to kill him. There­fore ge came again to tempt him in his own person. The temp­ter being departed from him, the Angels, who are ministring spirits,Heb 1.14. and, as the Apostle saith, sent forth to minister for them, who shall be heirs of salvation, having beheld all this conflict, but came not unto him before, lest they should seem to assist him by their presence, came and ministred unto him, who is the au­thor and prince of our salvation. By comforting him, by coun­selling [Page 111] him, by rejoycing with him, by administring food to flake and satisfie his hunger, and what else might be requisite to, and consisting with, his present condition.

So he departed out of the desart, and from the place of his last temptation, but whither he went, or what he did during the remainder of that year, it is not said. It is but conjectured by some, that probably he returned to Nazareth, to his former habi­tation and abode with his mother, remained there, and wrought at his fathers trade as before; yet so, as that he also taught and preached privately. By which means he began to be knowne and famed in Nazareth, and in the adjacent places, though for the present he wrought no miracles. Which conjecture may not inaptly consist with that of Saint Luke, where he saith, that the devill being departed from him for a season,S. Luc. 4.14 Iesus returned in the power of the spirit into Galilee, and there went out a fame of him thorow all the region round about. It is less consisting with the truth which is affirmed by others, that after the devill had left him, and the angells also had ministred unto him; he came down from the top of Pisgah, and went to Bethabara, where Saint Iohn was baptizing, eight miles; and then Saint Iohn seeing him comming unto him, said to his disciples, Behold the lamb of God,S. Joh 1.29.which taketh away the sins of the world. But how well this will stand with the consequence and connexion of things, our sacred history will shew hereafter.

In the mean time we have to take notice how the covenant was administred by him for the space of these twenty and eight years, for the abolishing of the old testament: that is to say, from the expiration of the second year, to the expiration of the thirti­eth year of his age. By his return out of Egypt. By his habitation in Nazareth. By growing up in age and quantity of body. The Recapi­tulation. By waxing strong in spirit. By manifesting his obedience in going up to Hieru­salem at the passeover, according to the law. By doing his Fathers bu­sinesse there at twelve years old. By returning with his parents, and by being subject to them in his great humility. By proclaiming the accepta­ble year of the Lord. By sending his messenger before his face in the spirit and power of Elias, and to be that Elias which was for to come. By the preparatory Baptisme of Saint Iohn. By being himself baptized by Saint Iohn. By praying, and by being testified from heaven by the Fa­ther, and by the holy Ghost. By going into the wildernesse, and by fasting there forty daies and forty nights. By submitting himselfe to be tempted by divine dispensation. By vanquishing the prince of devills. By ac­cepting the ministery of his Angells. It became him who humbled himselfe, and was made man for the redemption of all man­kinde, to be brought again out of Egypt; to dwell in Nazareth with his parents; to grow up in age and quantity of body; to wax strong in spirit; to manifest his obedience, by going up to [Page 112] Hierusalem at the passeover according to the law; to do his Fa­thers businesse there at twelve years old; to return with his pa­rents, and to be subject to them in his great humility; to pro­claim the acceptable year of the Lord; to send his messenger before his face in the spirit and power of Elias, who was also that Elias which was for to come; to prepare the people to entertain him, by the preparatory Baptisme of Saint Iohn; to be himselfe bap­tized by Saint Iohn; to sanctifie the element of water; and to be testified from heaven by the Father and by the holy Ghost; to go into the wilderness, and to fast there forty daies and forty nights; to submit himselfe to be tempted by divine dispensation; to vanquish the prince of devills, to accept the ministery of his Angells. And thus our sacred history doth put an end to his baptismall year, which was the thirtieth year of his age.

54 54. The Jewes send Priests and Levites to St. John. After that Saint Iohn had preached and baptized by the space of a year, and was had in great admiration among the people, for the severity of his life, the excellency of his doctrine, and the rarity of his Baptisme; and with great success in his ministry, had brought great numbers of people to repentance, and to his baptisme: The supream councill at Hierusalem, to whom it be­longed to take the care of religion, and things pertaining there­unto, and that nothing should be innovated, sent unto him priests and Levites, who were of the sect of the Pharisees, with commission to examine his doctrine and authority, to inform themselves who he was that took upon him so to do, without the approbation of their Synedrion. They being come, declare their commission, they first examine what he was, [...], Who art thou? It was the principall cause of their comming, to know who he was. And because the people were in expectation of the Messiah then to come, and all mused in their hearts of Iohn, S. Luc. 3.15 whe­ther he were the Christ or not; to examine him strictly whether he would profess himselfe to be the Christ. Which when Saint Iohn had absolutely and flatly denyed, then they ask him a se­cond question, [...]; what then; art thou Elias? an impertinent question, for how could he be Elias, whom they knew to be the son of Zacharias and Elizabeth, whose birth was so famous? But it seemes by this, that they held a [...] of the soul passing out of one body into another; a doctrine fetch'd out of the school of Pythagoras, and so thought, that the soul of Elias being entred into him, he might be the Elias, who according to the doctrine of the Scribes, should personally pre­cede the Messiah. Saint Iohn therefore who was Elias, S. Mat. 17.10 S. Mat. 11.14 S. Luc. 1.17 that Elias which was for to come, who went before him in the spirit and power of Elias, denyed himselfe to be Elias, and answered, I am not; because he was not Elias in the sense of their question and opinion. This begat a third question, for they were likewise in [Page 113] expectation of a great Prophet to be raised up among them, like unto Moses, Deut. 18.15. to whom they should all hearken: therefore they enquire concerning that Prophet. [...]; Art thou that Prophet? And when St. John who was a Prophet,S. Mat. 11.9. and more then a Prophet, had denyed himself to be that Prophet (for that Prophet was Christ); They persist to demand who he was, to the end that they might give an answer unto them by whom they were sent, and desire to know from his own mouth, whom he would set forth himself to be. He tells them who by person, even he whose comming was prophesied by the Prophet Isaiah. Isa. 40.3. And when they demanded further, why he took upon him to Baptize, seeing he had confessed himself to be none of those, who only, as they thought, might take upon them to Baptize by their own authority; he setteth forth his office and baptism, preach­ing Christ, and that he had been present among them, at his baptism (for I collect that these Pharisees were of those that came before unto his baptism, when Christ was baptised) and had been baptized by him, though then they did not know him. And this is the record of John, when the Jewes sent Priests and Levites from Hierusalem, to ask him, who art thou?S. Joh. 1.19. 20,And he confessed and de­nyed not: but confessed, I am not the Christ. And they asked him, what then? art thou Elias? and he saith, I am not. Art thou that Prophet and he answered, No. Then said they unto him, Who art thou, 21, that we may give an answer to them that sent us? what sayest thou of thy selfe? He said, I am the voyce of one crying in the wildernesse, 232, 23, 24, make straight the way of the Lord, as said the Prophet Esaias. And they which were sent, were of the Pharisees. And they aked him, and said unto him, why baptizest thou then, if thou be not that Christ, nor Elias, neither that Prophet? John answered them, saying, I baptize with water, but there standeth (an incogitancie of the Translators, the word in the Greek is [...], and accordingly the vulgar Latine medius autem vestrûm stetit, there stood one among you) whom ye know not: He it is, who comming after me, is preferred before me, whose shooes latchet I am not worthy to unloose. This memorable occur­rence was at Bethabara; for saith the text; These things were done in Bethabara, beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing.

55 Chirst com­eth to Jordan the secod time to re­ceive the te­stimony of St. Jhon.The messengers being so answered, and departed; the next day St. John seeth Jesus himself comming unto him, not from the wilderness, but rather from Nazareth, Chirst com­eth to Jordan the secod time to re­ceive the te­stimony of St. Jhon. where he had con­tained himself privately with his mother, from the time of his temptation, to the end and expiration of his baptismall yeare: not doing any miracles, nor teaching, unless privately. And then at the latter end of December, which was the beginning of the one and thirtieth year of his age, he commeth to Bethabara a­gain, where St. John remained all this time and baptized, that so having received the testimony of his servant before all the [Page 114] people, he might begin to make himself more publiquely known, and by his divine doctrine and miracles, manifest himself to be the son of God, and the promised Messiah. St. John no sooner seeth him comming, but he cryed out in the audience of all the peo­ple, bidding them to see and observe, that [...] (demonstra­tively) that lambe of God that taketh away, or beareth ( [...], demonstratively again, as if he should say, who onely beareth) the sin of the world: the whole body of sin, as well originall sins as also all actuall sins, of the whole world, and of every particu­lar person, descending from Adam: for he is the Redeemer of all mankind. It is not that lambe which is offered twice every day at morning and at evening; it is not the paschall lambe so­lemnly eaten by all the congregation of Israel once a year, that can take away or bear the sinne of the world: but this is that lambe of God slain from the foundation of the world, who ta­keth away (saith he) or beareth the sin of the world. By lay­ing it on himself to bear it in his own person, by taking away the dominion of sin, to the end that it should not raign in our mortal bodies in this life; by taking away the imputation of sin, to the end that it should not condemn us in the life to come. And to the end that all the people should the better understand who he was, he recollecteth what he had told them before concerning him, adding withall, that he knew him not then, according to his bodily presence, notwithstanding that his preaching and bap­tisme, had no other end but to manifest him. But now, that he could confidently averre that this is he, because he had seen the holy Ghost to descend upon him; and because that he who sent him to baptize, had given it unto him for a token whereby he should know him.S. Joh. 1.29, 30, The next day John seeth Jesus comming unto him, and saith, Behold, the lambe of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. This is he of whom I said, After me commeth a man which is preferred before me; for he was before me. And I knew him not; but that he should be made manifest unto Israel; therefore am I come bapti­zing with water. 31, And Iohn bare record, saying, I saw the spirit descen­ding from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him. And I knew him not: 32, but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, upon whom thou shalt see the spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the holy Ghost. And having such infallible assurance, 33, he gave testimony to his divinity, teaching them to know Christ, [...] God and man; for saith he, I saw, and bear record, 34. that this is the son of God.

56 Thus began he to be manifested to the people by the ministery of St. John the Baptist; St. John te­stifieth Christ to two of his Disciples. and the next day after, Jesus walking that way, to the end that he might receive another testimony from him; St. John stood and two of his Disciples with him, to whom he said, Behold the lambe of God. Whereupon the two dis­ciples [Page 115] went after him. Which when Jesus perceived, he turned towards them, and demanded of them what it was that they sought. They intimate unto him, that their desire was to be his Schollars, and to hear his divine Doctrine. Wherefore they call him Master, and desire to know the place of his present a­bode. Iesus inviteth them home with him, and they went, and abode with him that day, for it was too late for them to return back, it being then about two hours before night. One of these two Disciples who followed Iesus, but not with intent to desert their master the Baptist (as indeed they did not at that time, nei­ther did Christ then call them to be his Disciples) was Andrew the brother of Simon Peter; the other not improbably conjectu­red to be St. John himself who wrote the story. They departing from him, after they had for that day been entertained by him; Andrew carefully seeks his brother Simon, finds him, tells him where and with whom he had been, assuring him by the testi­mony of St. Iohn, and by the gracious words which they had heard, that he whom they had found was indeed the Messiah. Upon his invitation Simon goes with him, whom when Jesus saw, he entertained him with the promise of a future benefit, told him that he was Simon the son of Iona, but that he should hereafter have another name, and should be called Peter. Which promise in time convenient he performed. And so we return a­gain to our Evangelist. Again, the next day after, Iohn stood, S. Joh. 1.35. and two of his Disciples; and looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Be­hold the lambe of God. And the two Disciples heard him speake, 36, and they followed Jesus. Then Jesus turned and saw them following, and saith unto them, What seek ye? they said unto him, 37, Rabbi (which is to say being interpreted, Master) where dwellest thou? He saith unto them, Come and see: they came and saw where he dwelt, 38, and abode with him that day: for it was about the tenth hour. One of the two which heard Iohn speake, and followed him, 39, 40, was Andrew Simon Peters brother. He first findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messias, which is being interpreted, the Christ. 41, And he brought him to Iesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, Thou art Simon the son of Iona, thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by in­terpretation, a stone. 42.

[...], The day following, that is to say, the day next 57 following after that St. Peter, had been so brought unto Christ by St. Andrew his brother; and been entertained with such a pro­mise, which was on the fourth day after that he came to his servant St. Iohn, and had been first proclaimed by him to be the lambe of God which taketh away the sin of the world: Christ goeth into Galilee. Jesus purposed to go forth into Galilee, and whether there, or upon the way, whether casually or because he sought him, that is not deter­mined: he found Philip a Citizen of Bethsaida, whom he called [Page 116] to be his disciple,Saint Phi ip first called to be Christs disciple. Bethsaida. saying, Follow me. Bethsaida was a town scitu­ated upon the west-side of the Galilean sea, in the tribe of Issachar, fiftie six miles from Hierusalem towards the north, which was at that time built into a fair city by Philip tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis; of which city were also Saint Andrew and Saint Pe­ter, who had been with Christ, but were not yet called by him to be his disciples. Saint Andrew was the disciple of Saint John, so was Saint Peter too in all probability, whom Saint Andrew found so readily in or nigh unto Bethabara, and brought him un­to Christ, neither of whom he then commanded to follow him as disciples, although he entertained them at the place of his abode, where they heard such gracious words, as it ravished Saint Augustine to think what it was that they might hear. What a blessed day did they passe? what a blessed night (said he)? who is able to tell us what things they were which they heard of the Lord? In Iohan. Tract. 8. Saint Philip therefore had the honour and prerogative to be first called by Christs own mouth immediately to be his disciple:The history of Nathani­el. he diligently sought and found Nathaniel, whose name by interpretation is donum Dei, the gift of God. And because there is no further mention made of him under that name in the new Testament, but only here, and in St. Ioh. 21.2. where it is said, that he was of Cana in Galilee; it is diversly con­jectured who he might be, whether Simon called also the Cana­nite: Act. 7.56. or Saint Stephen the protomartyr, because that Christ promi­sed that he should see heaven open, which Saint Stephen did in the act of his Martyrdome: or some master in Israel, such a one as Nichodemus was, learned in the law and in the prophets, who being a Rabbi was not chosen an Apostle, (although he alwaies continued a disciple) because that he would not make choice of the learned, but of the unlearned, to convert the world, as Aqui­nus saith:S. Mat. 10.3. S. Mar. 3.18. S. Luc. 6.14. or not rather Saint Bartholomew, because that Saint Philip and Saint Bartholomew are coupled together, so often as the Apostles are recited by name. Whatsoever he was, it seemes he was not altogether ignorant of the Scriptures, as neither was Saint Philip himselfe. And therefore he told him, that they had found him (the Messiah) of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets did write, and that the same was Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.

58 No doubt but they were both of them in expectation of the Messiah, and had often reasoned together concerning him, con­sulting the law and the prophets. Nathaniel denies not that the Messiah was then to be found, and might then also be found ac­cording to Moses and the prophets: but he diffideth the person of him whom they had found. Not in respect of his condition, whom it is likely that he knew; but of his person, that Jesus of Nazareth could not be He, for that no prophet, and therefore not [Page 117] that great prophet, was ever promised to come out of Nazareth. Besides that the place of his birth was evidently foretold to be Bethlehem in the land of Judah, by the prophet M cah. Mic. 5.2. He had not read, (I believe) or else had forgotten at that time, that which was spoken by the prophets,S. Mat. 2.23. that he should be called a Nazaren. This made him to demand, saying, Can any good thing come out of Nazareth? He did not believe that any prophet, and much lesse that great prophet, should come out from thence. Saint Philip inviteth him to come, and to see, namely to trust his owne eyes by seeing, and his own ears by hearing him. Na­thaniel readily obeyed him, and comming towards Jesus recei­ved this elogium or illustrious commendation from his owne mouth, Behold an Israelite indeed, an Israelite not in shew and appearance, but in deed and in truth: the carnall seed, the spi­rituall seed of Abraham; in whom there is no guile; he doth not say, in whom there is no sin, but in whom there is no guile: who hath spoken plainly, sincerely, and from his heart, what he hath doubted and disputed concerning me. Nathaniel per­ceived by this that Jesus knew him, outwardly, inwardly, by his face externally, and much more by his heart internally; and therefore demanded saying, [...]; whence knowest thou me? whence hast thou that knowledge of me, that thou canst know my heart? Christ told him, that he had it of himselfe, and that he had observed him before that Saint Philip called him, when he was under the fig-tree, (reading the Scriptures, it is likely, or at his prayers and devotions.) Nathaniel is here­upon convinced, acknowledgeth him to be the son of God, and the promised Messiah. Christ accepteth his confession, promiseth him a more full and perfect knowledge of himself, and that he should see greater things then these, in time convenient, for that he together with others should see heaven open, and the Angels of God ascending and descending upon him. Intimating thereby his resurrection, and ascention into heaven, with the ministry and attendance of Angells. The day following, S. Joh. 1.43, 44, 45, Jesus would go forth into Galilee, and findeth Philip, and saith unto him, Follow me. Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. Philip findeth Nathaniel, and saith unto him, We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. And Nathaniel said unto him, 46 Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth? Philip saith unto him, Come and see. Iesus saw Na­thaniel comming to him, and saith of him, Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile. Nathaniel saith unto him, 47, Whence knowest thou me? Iesus answered and said unto him, Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig-tree, I saw thee. 48, Nathaniel answered and saith unto him, Rabbi, thou art the son of God, thou art the king of Israel. Iesus answered and saith unto him, Because I said unto thee, 49, [Page 118] I saw thee under the fig-tree, 50, 51. believest thou? thou shalt see greater things then these. And he saith unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the son of man.

59 He was no sooner arrived in Galilee, but upon the third day following,Christ pre­sent at the mariage in Cana. which was the sixt day of the month of January, there was a mariage in Cana of Galilee; a city of Galilee, distant from Hierusalem sixty eight miles towards the north, called Ca­na of Galilee, for distinctions sake, because there was another Cana which stood upon the borders of Tyrus and Sidon in the tribe of Asser; S. Mat. 15.22. S. Mar. 7.24. of which the Syrophenician woman was, whose daughter Christ healed. Who they were who were then cou­pled together in wedlock, is not said. The bridegroom, or bride, or both, were doubtless of the acquaintance or kindred of the blessed virgin, and, if any of her kindred, then allied unto Jesus too, according to the flesh. At this mariage the mother of Iesus was, & that by solemn invitation, according to Saint Chrysostome, and by the like invitation Jesus himselfe and his disciples, those few disci­ples who made him their Master, and did adhere unto him; especially those foure which are named, Saint Andrew, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, and Nathanael, with him that is not named. Although at that time, Saint Philip only was properly his dis­ciple,S. Joh. 1.43. as being only called to the discipleship, sequere me, follow me. Ecce inter caetera filius virginis venit ad nuptias, qui cum apud patrem esset, instituit nuptias. Behold among other things the son of the virgin commeth unto the marriage, who when he was with the Father instituted marriage, saith Saint Augustine. He had honoured mariage, 1st By divine institution, having made it his owne ordinance. 2ly By the place of primary solemnization, the garden of paradise. 3ly By the parties first joyned together in wedlock, Adam and Eve in the state of innocency. 4ly By his own incarnation; for he was pleased to be born in wedlock. Now finally he would honour it by his own most gracious pre­sence, and the miracle that he would do, to the end that he might manifest his own glory, and that his disciples might be­lieve on him.

60 Whether they who were then married were rich or poor, it is needless to dispute. When the wine began to fail, and the blessed virgin perceived the defect, and that it would not be suf­ficient for the feast, she then told him of it, (for she that ponde­red all things in her heart ever since the first moment of his con­ception, thought it not fit to conceal from him that which she believed he could and would remedy, by his divine power and providence) vinum non habent, they have no wine, saith she, pri­vately, and that others might not be conscious to what she said. Iesus replyed, that he had no need to be told by her, for that he [Page 119] had designed a time for the doing of that which should be con­venient to be done. The blessed virgin did not sin by interce­ding in the behalfe of the new married couple, nor did she ask any thing that was unlawfull for her to aske, God forbid. Therefore he did neither reprehend her, nor reject her; The virgin neither re­prehended nor rejected. but told her, that although it did nothing concern either him or her to take care of the wine: although he had nothing to do with her as touching her care for the bridegroom, and for the guests, (for the words [...], will excellently carry both senses, What is that to me and to thee? what have I to do with thee?) yet that he had a time of his owne prefixing, which when it should come, he would then do that which should be fittest to be done. Upon which answer she conceives good hope, & therefore saith unto the servants, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it. The Iewes had many washings and purifications by water, according to the tradition of the elders, for which use at that time there were set there six water pots of stone, after the manner of the puri­fying of the Jewes, containing two or three (some two, some three) metretae measures, or firkins a piece, in the whole accor­ding to some, one hundred sixty and eight gallons and three quarts or thereabouts, (but these men seem to be too punctuall, unlesse they would say how many of those water pots held two metretae, and how many three) others do cast up the recko­ning at foure hundred and fifty gallons. But to dispute the quantity, will be more difficult I suppose then profitable. Iesus commanded the servants to fil those water pots with water, and they in obedience to his command filled them up to the brim. By this he would declare the verity and truth of his miracle, and take away all cavills. They were water pots, not wine ves­sels, lest any one should think, that the wine dregs or lees left in the bottom, might give both taste and tincture to the water. They were water pots of stone, set or fixed in their places, made and placed there, for no other use but to contain water. There­fore [...], he saith unto them, he commandeth the same servants that filled them, and that immediately, to draw out and bear to the Architriclinus or ruler of the feast,Architricli­nus. a steward chosen of purpose for the present time and occasion, to whom it belonged to take care of the wine, and to proportionate what wine, and how much should be spent, also to praetaste the same, to the end that only good and wholsome wine might be set before the guests; to command the servants, and to order the feast every way. Therefore when the servants brought this wine, and told him that it had not been given unto the guests before; the steward according to his office tasteth it, and not knowing the miracle, called the bridegroom, praising and commending the wine, and telling him, that he had kept the best wine till [Page 120] the last, a course not usually taken by other men. And this was the first of his miracles publiquely wrought,Christ his first miracle. and before the peo­ple, to manifest his glory, and that his Disciples might believe on him; although peradventure secretly, privately, and out of the sight of men, he had done some miracles before, for divine ends, and had fasted forty dayes, and forty nights, which quoad substanti­am operis, in as much as concerneth the substance of the work done, was a miracle, and not the least. And the third day (saith the text) there was a marriage in Cana,S. Joh. 2.1.2, 3, a towne of Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there. And both Jesus was ca led, and his Dis­ciples to the marriage. And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, 4 they have no wine. Jesus saith unto her, Woman what have I to do with thee? mine houre is not yet come. His mother saith unto the servants, 5, whatsoever he saith unto you, do it. And there were set there six water pots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Iewes, 6, containing two or three firkins a piece. Jesus saith unto them, fill the water pots with water, and they filled them up to the brim. And he saith unto them, 7, 8, Draw out now, and beare unto the governour of the feast, and they bare it. When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was (but the servants which drew the water knew) the governour of the feast called the bride­groome, 9, and saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine, and when men have well drunke, then that which is worse: hut thou hast kept the good wine untill now. 10, This beginning of miracles did Iesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory, and his disciples believed on him. 11.

61 Here it is expedient that we should observe something con­cerning miracles, and the causes of them; for so much as the miracles of Christ do belong to his administration of the covenant in the flesh.Concerning miracles what they are. Miracles are [...] admirations, because they strike the hearts of men with wonder and amazement. They are [...], portents or prodigies. They are [...] signs and significa­tions of Gods divine power and presence. They are [...]. virtues, powers: the effects of divine vertue and power. They are [...] violent and efficacious effects besides, above, or a­gainst nature. There be in art many wonderfull and admirable things, which yet have been done by art, and seem incredible! the Babylonian Gardens, the Egyptian Pyramides, the lake of My­ris, the stately tombe of Mausolus, the temple of Ephesus, the inventions of Archimedes, and such like. But for as much as they did not utterly and absolutely exceed all humane power and skill, nor yet were besides, above, or against nature, they were great and wonderfull workes indeed: they were not miracles. There be many strange portents, and prodigies in nature, mon­strous births, dreadfull comets and apparitions in the air, which though wonderfull in our sight, yet because they do not utterly [Page 121] and absolutely transcend nature, and because that some Philoso­phicall cause or reason may be assigned for them, quoad rem & substantiam rei, in as much as concerneth the thing it self, and the substance of it, they are not miracles. Miracles therefore which are miracles indeed, quoad rem & substantiam rei, are ei­ther besides nature, which is when there is an immutation of that order which nature observeth by a perpetuall law, for the producing of the miracle. For so the sun and moon stood still at the word of Josuah at one time; and at another time the sunne went back ten degrees, for a sign to Hezechia. Or else secondly,Jos. 10.13. Isa. 38.8. S. Joh. 9▪ 7. they are above nature, which is when such an effect is immedi­ately produced which nature cannot bring forth, as when a blind man is immediately (though born blind) made to see. Or when he that is lame from his mothers wombe, is presently,Act. 3.7. and with­out the application of any external means made to go. Or third­ly, contrary to nature, as when the fire which yet had its naturall disposition to burn, could neither burn nor cinge the garments of the three children, though it had slain those that took them up.Dan. 3.27. Nor the Lyons rend or devour Daniel, which had the mastery of his accusers, and brake all their bones in pieces,Dan. 6.24. or ever they came at the bottome of the den. The Devils, and by their instigati­on wicked men, have their [...], and quoad rem, & substan­tiam rei, they have done, and can do miracles. The enchanters of Egypt did the same things that Moses and Aaron did;Exod. 7 12, 22. for they cast down their rods, and they became Serpents. They turned the Rivers into blood. They caused the frogs to come up, and to cover the land of Egypt. Exod. 8.7. [...] 2 Thes. 2.9. And the comming of Antichrist must be (as St. Paul saith) after the working of Satan, with all power and signes, and lying wonders. With true miracles, if the thing it self or substance of the thing be respected, not in appearance only, and by imposture, (he shall work miracles, saith Hippolytus, by cleansing the leapers, by raising the paralytick, by casting out Devils, and it may be so) but yet lying wonders, because directed to an undue end, and to av cuchlies.

Miracles therefore, which are true miracles, omnibus suis nu­meris 62 & partibus perfecta, perfect in all parts and numbers,True mira­cles, and the causes of them. The efficient cause. and which are contradistinguished to lying miracles, must be known and distinguished by the true and proper causes of them. For first the efficient cause is God himself. And God doth miracles two man­ner of wayes; mediately or immediately. Mediately by his ser­vants, the Prophets and Apostles, and others also to whom the power of working miracles hath been concredited. Hitherto re­fer all those miracles which Moses did in the land of Egypt, in the red Sea, and in the wilderness. That Josuah divided the ri­ver Jordan, to open a passage for the people of Israel into the land of promise. That at the sound of the trumpets of rams hornes, [Page 122] the walls of Hiericho fell flat to the ground. That at his com­mand the sun, and the moon stood still, for the space of a day. That Elijah and Elisha raised the dead to life again. Hitherto al­so are to be referred all those miracles which were done by the Apostles, and primitive believers. A gift which Christ gave unto his Church to serve for a time. These signes shall follow them that be­lieve. S. Mar. 16.17 In my name they shall cast out Devils, they shall speake with new tongues: They shall take up Serpents, and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them: they shall lay their hands on the sick, and they shall recover. 18. His immediate miracles are properly said to be the creation of the world: the divine and wonderfull preservation of it: but above all, the redemption of all mankind by Christ. In which work there are three sorts of miracles. Some, in persona mediatoris, in the person of the mediator himself, such is that u­nion of natures which is not naturall,S. Joh. 1.14. the word made flesh: God and man hypostatically united in one person; the hypostaticall union. Some, propter personam mediatoris, for the person of the media­tors sake. Such was that wonderfull birth which was of a wo­man,Isa. 7.14. without a man, and she a pure virgin too. Some, ab ipsa persona mediatoris, from the person of the mediator himself: and such were all those miracles which Christ did, comming in the flesh by divine dispensation, S. Joh. 20.30, 31. which are written by the Evangelists, and many more then are written of him.

63 The matter of Christ his miracles, in qua, in which they were, it was the divers miseries and calamities of men,The matter of Christs miracles. sickness, blind­ness, lameness, hunger, death, and such like, for the amoving whereof miracles were done, by curing the sick, by giving sight to the blind, by restoring limbs to the lame, by feeding the hun­grie, by raising the dead. The matter of his miracles, ex qua, from which they did proceed, it was his own divine power, the true and proper cause whereby all his divine miracles were effected.S. Luc. 11.20 The matter of his miracles, circa quam, about which they were wrought, it was the kingdom of Satan which he would destroy, and the sins of men which he would remit. Satan like a strong man armed, kept his palace, and his goods were in peace; till Christ a stronger then he came upon him, and took from him all his armour wherein he trusted, even all his [...], and all his [...], his lying wonders and miracles, by his own miracles, whereby he was declared mightily to be the son of God, and so di­vided his spoils,S. Luc. 11.22 as to deliver the sinfull souls of men out of his captivity.

64 The formall cause of his divine miracles, quoad modum operan­di, The formal cause. in as much as concerneth the manner of operation, is very va­rious. Sometimes he wrought his miracles by curing diseases only by his word, S. Mat. 9.2. S. Mat. 8.13 if the party were present, as the paralytick man. Or if the party were absent, as the Centurions servant. Some­times [Page 123] he wrought his miracles by curing diseases by his word, together with a touch of his hand, as in the leper: S. Mat. 8.13. and some­times by permitting the sick, and diseased to touch him, as once he did the woman who was diseased of an issue of blood twelve years. Sometimes he maketh use of means, and things naturall, S. Mat. 9.22. for effecting of his divine miracles above nature. For once with five loaves and two fishes only, he fed above five thousand men, besides women and children, so that they did all eat, and were filled. Once also with seven loaves, and a few little fishes,S. Mat. 14.20 he fed about four thousand men, besides women and children, so that they did all eat and were filled. S. Mat. 15.37 If it were naturall to be fed and satisfied with bread and fish, as by means and things naturall, the miracle was in the proportion: it was miraculous to feed and satisfie so great a multitude with so small a quantity. Sometimes he maketh use of means, and things not naturall or proper, it was when he made clay, and annointed the eyes of him that was born blind, who having washed in the pool of Si­loam, receiv'd his sight.S. Joh. 9.7.

Christ his miracles in respect of the finall cause, or ends for the 65 which they were wrought, were for two purposes: The finall cause. for the glory of God; and for the utility and profit of men. I say, first for the glo­ry of God. For we read in the Gospell, that when he had cured him that was sick of the palsie, and had also remitted his sins, saying, Thy sins be forgiven thee. Howsoever some of the Scribes said within themselves, This man blasphemeth: (because he at­tributed that unto himself, being but a mere man, as they suppo­sed, which belongeth only unto God: namely to forgive sin, ac­cording to that of the Prophet, I, Isa. 43.25. even I am he that blotteth out thy transgressions for my own sake) yet when the multitude saw it, they marvelled, and glorified God,S. Mat. 9.8. which had given such power unto men. Certainly Maldonats note upon the place is not amiss:Observation. That like as the divinity of Christ, communicated to his huma­nity, the power of doing miracles; Even so the power is dirived from Christ the head, unto the ministers of his Church to forgive sins. Christ is the Lord, he as God hath the key of authority; to re­mit sins, tum quod culpam, tum quod poenam, as well in respect of the fault and guiltiness of sin, as also of the consequent punish­ment due unto the same, as God and man he hath the key of excellency to remit sins upon his own merit. His ministers have a ministeriall key, to remit sins in the name, and by the power of Christ. For, was this spoken by Christ, and written by St. Mat­thew for our Instruction? Hath God given such power unto men, as to pronounce the pardon of sin to the sick man in his bed? Is the doctrine of confession and absolution, agreeable as well to the Scriptures, as also to the practice of the Church both present, and primitive? then may every one who is a minister of the word [Page 124] and sacraments, (a priest in sacred orders) rightly and duly or­dained to his office and function, (upon good information of faith and repentance) say to the sick sinner in his bed, thy sins are forgiven thee. Or, by his authority committed unto me, I ab­solve thee from all thy sins in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Ghost. For absolution as well private as publick, belongeth principally, yea properly, and by vertue of his office, to the minister, as Christ his Ambassadour in his ministeriall fun­ction. But of this we dispute no farther, but return again to the 66 matter.

Christs his miracles for the glory of God upon three respects Christ his miracles were wrought for the glory of God, more particularly upon three respects: 1st Because that Christ is there­by mightily declared to be the son of God, and the promised Messiah. Saint John the Baptist did no miracles: therefore when he sent two of his disciples unto Christ to aske him this question, saying,S. Mat. 11.3. Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another? he pleadeth his miracles in evidence of his divinity, The blind (saith he) receive their sight, and the lame walk, the lepers are clensed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the Gospell prea­ched unto them. As if he should say, I who do all these things, and am preached to be him; who else am I but the son of God, and the promised Messiah? 2ly Because the doctrine of the gospell is thereby confirmed. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me; S. Joh. 14.11 or else believe me for the very works sake. We read, that when God offered a signe or miracle unto king Ahaz, to the end that he might believe the words which were spoken unto him by the mouth of the prophet Isaias, he refused, saying, I will not ask, Isa. 7.12. Judg. 6.17.37, 39. S. Mat. 16.4. neither will I tempt the Lord. Gideon required a signe or miracle, and he had it more then once or twice. The Phari­sees required a signe, and are sharply reproved, and the signe de­nyed. Thus their actions agreed not unto their ends. Ahaz out of pride,2 King. 16. or peradventure out of that trust and confidence which he reposed in the strength and power of Tiglath Pileser king of Assyria, refused the miracle; and to contemn or refuse a signe or miracle when God shall offer it, is a sin. The Pharisees were a generation of proud hypocrites, who had before hand set up a resolution not to believe on him, whatsoever he should say, or whatsoever he should do: therefore when they require a miracle, out of pride and curiosity, they are condemned and re­jected. But Gideon in his humility did aske a signe, for the con­firmation of his faith in the promise of God. It is no example for us now; for the gospell is sufficiently confirmed by miracles, we must believe, and have recourse unto the ordinary signes: the sacred and mysterious sacraments. To refuse or contemn them is the sin of Ahaz. Lastly they make for the glory of God, because thereby he breaks the serpents head, and destroyes his kingdom. [Page 125] Sathan erecteth his kingdome among men by his works. When the Jewes boasted that they were the seed of Abraham, and the sons of God, Christ told them, that the devill was their father,S. Joh. 8.48. 1 Joh. 3.8. because they did their father's lusts. The lusts of the devill are his works, but Christ hath destroyed them. He destroyed them by his miracles, for he cast out devills, he purified the minds of men, he remitted sins, he raised the dead; nay he himselfe dy­ed and rose again,Rom. 6.9, 10, 11. to the end that we also should die unto sin by vertue of his death, and rise again unto newnesse of life, by ver­tue of his most blessed and glorious resurrection. So the glory of God was the primary, and more principall end of his Divine miracles.

But the Secundary and lesse principall end was the utility 67 and profit of men: 1st and more specially of those men,The secun­dary or lesse principall end. who had the present benefit, & were healed, and cured, and were raised from the dead; for sicknesse and death being the effects of sin, they were hereby taught to believe, and to hope for greater mer­cies. The wages of sin is death, the bodily death, the spirituall death, with all manner of sicknesses and diseases of the body, tending to the bodily death; and with all manner of sicknesses and diseases of the soule, as griefe, anger, anguish, horrour, dread, presumption, desperation, tending to the spirituall death. Adde here, all those evills in the city which the Lord hath done; by war, by pestilence, by famine; also all private crosses and losses, in the particular goods and estates of men. But the gift of God is eternall life through Jesus Christ our Lord. 2ly For the Church, Rom. 6.23. and for all her members generally, and that first, to the end that if any man be sick or diseased, he may look up unto Christ the true physician. He that hath wrought all his Divine miracles, im­mediately and mediately; He that hath wrought his miracles in all the miseries and calamities of men; He that hath wrought all his miracles by his own divine power and vertue; He that wrought his miracles to destroy the kingdome of Sathan, and did remit the sins of men; He that wrought his miracles by his word only, to them that were present, to them that were ab­sent: He that wrought his miracles by his word, together with a touch of his hand, or by permitting the sick and diseased to touch him: He that wrought his miracles, sometimes by means and things naturall, sometimes by means and things not naturall or proper; It is he who forgiveth all thine iniquities, Psal. 103.3. who healeth all thy diseases. 2ly To the end that if any man would have a strong faith, not to faint or waver in the day of temptation; if he would believe all the articles of the faith, and all the mysteries of christian religion faithfully; he should then come to the miracles of Christ. He hath wrought all his miracles for the glory of God. By these he was manifested to be the son of God and the pro­mised [Page 126] Messiah. By these the doctrine of the gospell is confirmed. By these the kingdome of Sathan is destroyed. Who shall doubt? who shall waver? who shall faint, having his faith confirmed by so many wonderfull miracles? 3ly To the end that if any man would clense his waies (as holy David counselleth his young man to do) by taking heed thereto according to the word of God; he should then have before his eyes the miracles of Christ. To pray to him that opened the blinde eyes, that he would open the eyes of his understanding, to behold the wonderfull things of his law; that he may see his own sinfull condition which is by nature, the mercie of God, and the merits of Christ, to the end that he may know him, Phil. 3.10. and the power of his resurrection, and the fellow­ship of his sufferings, being made conformable to his death. For the excellency of which knowledge-sake, Saint Paul accounted all things but losse. To pray to him that restored feet to the lame, that he would turn his feet out of every evill way, lest he walk in the counsell of the ungodly, to tread in the paths of pride with the proud, of covetousnesse and voluptuousnesse with the co­vetous and voluptuous. To pray to him that opened the deafe ears, thar he would open his ears, so as that he may hear, and be obedient unto his most holy and most blessed word: Seeing not the hearers only, Rom. 2.13. but they that hear it and do it, shall be justified. To pray to him that cast out devills, that he would cast out the sug­gestions and first motions of sin, whereby the devill is in every one of us, for that all they who receive those first motions and suggestions with delight and consent unto them, and reduce them into act, and persevere in the act without repentance, have fulfilled the lusts of the flesh, having nothing else to expect in their hardness and impenitent heart, but that dreadfull doom denounced by Saint Paul, Gal. 5.21. They which do such things shall not inhe­rit the kingdome of God. Finally to pray to him that raised the dead to life again,S. Joh. 11.43. and called Lazarus out of his grave, saying, Lazarus come forth: that he would so raise him from the death of sin, unto a life of righteousness in this world; that when the trump shall blow, and the graves shall open, and the earth sur­render, and the vast and huge seas yield forth those whom they have devoured, he may then see God in the land of the living, being raised to life immortall by him,S. Joh. 11.25. who is the resurrection and the life,

68 This great miracle so wrought in Cana of Galilee, and the nuptiall solemnities being ended; Jesus went directly to Caper­naum. Jesus goeth to Caperna­um. It was a great mart town, pleasantly scituated by the sea of Tiberias, and was the metropolis of Galilee, having com­merce with Tyrus and Zidon, which were distant from it about forty and foure miles; and Capernaum it selfe was from Hieru­salem about fifty and six miles, in the tribe of Issachar, being [Page 127] supposed to be the meditullium of the twelve tribes,S. Mat. 9.1. and is said to be his owne city, because he came often thither, preached, and did many great works there. Hither he came, accompanyed with his mother, his brethren, and his disciples. And because the feast of the passeover drew near, and he himselfe intended to go up to Hierusalem, and to be there at that feast, to the end that he might manifest himselfe there, by his divine doctrine, and by his miracles; he stayed not many daies in Capernaum at that time, but departed from thence with his disciples. They were yet his disciples but by agnition and familiarity, he intended to have them to be his disciples by vocation and by adhaesion, A three-fold adm [...]ssion of the disciples. and then to go up to Hierusalem attended by them. The order of the Evan­gelists therefore must be observed. Saint John saith, After this, (this his first miracle so wrought, and the nuptiall solemnities ended) he went down to Capernaum, he and his mother, and his bre­thren, and his disciples, (who were admitted to be his disciples by knowledge of him, and by acquaintance and familiarity with him) and they continued there not many daies. And the Jewes passeover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Hierusalem. S. Joh. 2.12, 13. But first his disciples were gone to employ themselves in their own professi­on, for they were fishers. S. Mar. 1.16, 17, 18, 19, 20. S. Mat. 1.18, 19, 20, 21, Therefore Jesus (as Saint Matthew saith, and with him Saint Mark almost totidem verbis) walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and An­drew his brother, casting a net into the sea, (for they were fishers.) And he saith unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men. And they straight-way left their nets and followed him. And going on from thence, he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets: and he called them. And they immediately left the ship, 22. and their father, and followed him. They followed him, yet not so, but that they returned again to their ships and nets to fish, and to ac­quire a livelyhood for themselves and for their families, though he had called them to be his disciples.S. Luc. 5 1, And it came to passe (after this) that as the people pressed upon him to hear the word of God, he stood by the lake of Genezareth. 2 And saw two ships standing by the lake, but the fishermen were gone out of them, and were washing their nets. 3, And he entred into one of the ships which was Simons (whom before he had called to the discipleship) and prayed him that he would thrust out a little from the land: and he sat downe and taught the people out of the ship. Now when he had left speaking, 4, he said unto Simon, Lanch out into the deep, and let down your nets for a draught. And Simon answering, said unto him, Master, 5, we have toiled all the night, and have taken nothing; neverthelesse at thy word I will let down the net. And when they had this done, they inclosed a great multitude of fishes, and their net brake. 6, And they beckoned unto their partners which were in the other ship, that they should come and help [Page 128] them. 7, 8, And they came and filled both the ships, so that they began to sink. When Simon Peter saw it, he fell down at Jesus feet, saying, De­part from me, 9, for I am a sinfull man, O Lord. For he was astonished and all that were with him, at the draught of the fishes which they had taken. 10, And so was also James and John, the sons of Zebedee, which were partners with Simon. And Jesus said unto Simon, Fear not, from hence­forth thou shalt catch men. 11. And when they had brought their ships to land, they forsook all, and followed him.

69 By the custome of the Hebrew tongue (as venerable Bede ob­serveth) every gathering together of waters is called a Sea, be they sweet or salt. Hence the sea of Galilee, The sea of Galilee. which was little more then foure miles broad, and in length from the north to the south not above twelve miles, obtaineth the name of a sea. The sea of Galilee, because it bordered upon Galilee. The sea of Tiberias, from the city Tiberias that stood upon the shore of it. The lake of Genezareth, whether so called, à crispantibus aquis, because the waters of that sea or lake, are continually moved, and as it were curled by the winde; if not rather from the plea­santness and fruitfulness of the soile, lying upon the north side of it. The water of this sea is said to be very sweet and pleasant, abounding with fish, for which cause many fishers inhabited thereabouts, had boats, and caught great store of fish. These things therefore being thus transacted at the sea of Galilee, and when the disciples who were called before, seeing the miracu­lous draught of fishes, and receiving his promise that from thence­forth they should catch men, had forsaken all to be his disciples by adhesion: Then Jesus goeth up to Hierusalem Christ goeth up to Hieru­salem. to the passeover. It was the second passeover after his baptisme, and in the one and thirtieth year of his age. And being come thither, he first of all visiteth his Fathers House, He visiteth the temple. findeth it sacrilegiously pol­luted and profaned, a market was kept there, sheep, oxen, and doves were sold, and money was exchanged in the temple. This market was not kept in the temple it selfe, if by the temple you understand the sanctuary and other sacred places, where divine offices were performed; nor in Solomons porch, which was the court of those that were clean; nor in that spacious and beauti­full court built by Herod, into which the Gentiles might come to do their devotions; therefore called vestibulum gentium, the porch or outward court of the gentiles. But yet, within the sept or verge of the temple, upon holy ground, within the outer­most enclosure; for the temple is the sanctuary, and all that which is enclosed with it. Nor was this market weekly or monthly, but once a year, and at the passeover; nor yet were the oxen, and sheep, and doves, bought or sold for common and ordinary, but only for sacred and religious uses.

70 The occasion of which market was this, the Jewes were bound [Page 129] to feast before the Lord in the place which he should choose to put his name there; thither therefore must they bring the tithe of their corn, of their wine, and of their oyle, and the firstlings of their herds and flocks. But because this could not be done by those that came from far, it was indulged unto them to bring up money, and to bestow it there on those things which they should have brought up by the law, as is plain to be seen, Deut. 14.Deut. 14.23, 24, 25, 26. Now to the end that they might have these things at hand, and no other but such as had been first inspected by the priests, and had obtained approbation and allowance from them, to be such as were warranted by the law to be brought and offered to God; And to the end that they who came out of for­raigne parts, might not be destitute of current coin, therefore the mony-changers had their tables, and did sit there. And this was the occasion of that market in the temple, (which when it began first so to be profaned we do not finde.) A thing doubtless both good and necessary, had it not been in the temple: but God who is jealous of his worship, is no less jealous of the place of his worship. He will not hold him guiltless that shal profane his name, neither will he hold him guiltless, who shall profane the place which is dedicated to the honour of his name. Therefore when he had driven them all out of the temple with a scourge of small cords, and the sheep and the oxen, and poured out the changers money, and overthrowne the tables; thereby manifesting his divine power and pleasure which no creature is able to resist, (for we need not think that it was the fame of that miracle which he wrought in Cana, or any other miracle, or the opini­on which they had of him for that miracles sake; or any extra­ordinary, fyery, or sidereous brightness or sparkeling in his eyes or face, that made them not to lift up a hand against him) and thereby given occasion unto his disciples,Psal 69.9. either then or at some other time, most likely after his resurrection, to remember that it was written of him in the book of Psalmes, The zeal of thine house hath ea [...]en me up. I say then he commanded them to be on­ly taken away, not condemning the market nor the merchandize, but only the holding of the market in that place [...] make not my fathers house an house of merchandize. S. Joh. 2.13, 14, And the Jewes passeover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Hieru­salem. And found in the temple those that sold oxen, and sheep, 15, and doves, and the changers of mony fitting. And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the Temple, 16, 17. and the sheep and the oxen, and poured out the changers mony, and overthrew the tables, And said unto them that sold doves, Take these things hence, make not my Fathers house an house of merchandize. And his disciples remembred that it was written, The zeal of thine hous hath eaten me up. 71

This which Christ did, sorely startled the Jewes, principally [Page 130] the chief priests and scribes who were of the Synedrion, and had the care of religion, The Jewes offended, re­quire a sign. and were by their office to see that nothing should be innovated in the Church, therefore they require him to manifest his authority and extraordinary mission, by some mi­racle visibly, and before their eyes; for so came Moses and the Pro­phets. Neither is it tolerable that any private person, by his own private authority should innovate any received rite or cu­stom in the Church. Therefore if his commission were immedi­ately from God, it was altogether necessary that he should mani­fest it by some present miracle. It was that which he had done, he came with commission from God to purge his temple, and he manifested that his commission by the miracle which he did. For what greater miracle, then that one man with a little whip, should drive out so great a multitude, with the sheep and the oxen, poure out the changers money, and overthrow the Ta­bles? A greater miracle it was (saith Origen) then that where­by the water was turned into wine, for so much as the matter of that miracle was inanimate,Christ promi­seth a sign. but here the wits of many thou­sands are subdued by miracle. But seeing they would not see that which was done before their eyes, he tells them that he would shew them the greatest signe; namely that when they should dissolve that Temple, in three days he would raise it up. Which when the Jewes heard, and thinking that he had spoken of the inanimate temple, they derided him as Theophylact observes; telling him that the Temple, having respect unto that very Tem­ple in which they then were (yet not as it was lately raised into that magnificent structure by Herod, but as builded, and in buil­ding by Zorobabel,) was forty and six years in building. Herod indeed finished his wotk almost in three years, nay in a year and six months, saith Josephus, having provided the materialls in six years and an half before. But the Temple of Zorobabel was forty and six years in building,2 Chr. 36.22 Ezr. 1.1. or thereabouts, if you compute from the first year of Cyrus, when he began first to raign over the Persians, (although he could then decree nothing concern­ing the Jewes): but not, if you compute from the one & twentieth year, which was the first year of his raign over the whole king­dome, he having then taken in Babylon, and added it to his own kingdom (when he made the proclamation;) for so you shall find but twenty four years, from the going forth of the decree in that one and twentieth year, and the Jewes licensed to return, (who presently in the seventh moneth, set the Altar upon his ba­ses, and offered thereon the daily sacrifices) to the sixth year of the raign of Darius, in which year notwithstanding the seventeen years interruption by Cambyses, it was fully finished. But he spake not of that Temple, the matter whereof was wood and stone, but of his own body which properly is that temple in which [Page 131] the divinity it self dwelleth by the hypostaticall union; a figure whereof was that materiall temple which the Jewes had. And in­deed had they dissolved that temple, he could have raised it up in less then three dayes; he could have raised it in a moment only by his word. But because they dissolved this Temple, the temple of his body, he could not by divine dispensation raise it, but in three days: For the types, and prophecies of the scripture must be fulfilled in him. It was a parable which the Disciples themselves, to whom he did not then, nor afterwards expound it, understood not till after his resurrection. 72

How be it at that feast he did many miracles, and for those mi­racles sake many believed on him; to whom being perswaded but only by his miracles, he did not commit himself, because he knew their hearts, and that they were not firmly rooted, and would peradventure fall off again. Then answered the Jewes, S. Joh. 2.18, 19, and said unto him, what signe showest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things? Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this tem­ple, and in three dayes I will raise it up. Then said the Jewes, forty and six years was this temple in building, 20, 21, and wilt thou reare it up in three dayes? But he spake of the temple of his body. When therefore he was risen from the dead, his Disciples remembred that he had said this un­to them: and they believed the Scripture, 22, and the word which Jesus had said. Now when he was in Hierusalem, at the passeover in the feast day, many believed in his name, 23, 24, 25. Nichodemus when they saw the miracles which he did. But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men; and needed not that any should testifie of man: for he knew what was in man. Among these, Nichodemus a Ruler of the Jewes, and a Master in Israel, being attracted by those miracles (which yet are not written) was one, but was desirous to be further con­firmed by his heavenly doctrine: for, as St. Chrysostome saith; They who are more gross, are drawne by signes, but they who are more rationall by prophecies or by doctrine, Apud Aquin. in Ca­tena. He therefore came unto Jesus by night, acknowledgeth him to be a master, and his master, and that he had by his miracles approved himself to be a teacher come from God. Him Christ in­structeth wonderfully concerning the necessity of regeneration; of faith in his death; concerning the love of God towards the world, & condemnation for unbelief. As it is in the third chap­ter of the Gospell by Saint Iohn, from the beginning of the chapter to v. 21. But our sacred History leaveth those things to expositers.

The paschall solemnities being ended, Iesus came from Hieru­salem 73 into Iudea, Christ com­eth from Je­rusalem into Iudea, and baptizeth. together with his Disciples, [...], and staying there some time with them, but how long it is not men­tioned, he baptized, saith the text; as if it should say, he bapti­zed them. For it is congruous, that they who were to admini­ster that great and venerable Sacrament unto others, should first [Page 132] receive it themselves; and how could they receive it but of Christ his own hands? They being baptized by him, baptized o­thers for him, and as his ministers, in no other manner then they themselves had been baptized by him, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Ghost. This indeed is not expressed in the Scripture, and I know that many grave and learned Au­thors both ancient and modern do dissent from this; some thinking that he baptized none with his own hands; some, that he baptized only the Apostle St. Peter, and by him the other Di­sciples; some, that he baptized all the Apostles, but most pro­bably after his resurrection: our History is not to dispute these things severally. I think it rightly deduced from the text, that he baptized with his own hands his Disciples, at that time in Judea where he then was, though it be not literally expressed that he did baptize them, no more then it is said particularly where, whom, or how he did baptize. And this I thought good for the order of our History, to premonish the Reader: The Apostles themselves (or as many of them as were called to be his Dis­ciples (for as yet they were not made his Apostles) being first baptized; then did he dispence his Baptism by their ministery un­to others, baptizing them also in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Ghost. Whereupon much people came and were baptized of them in this manner. And because the people magnified his baptism, some of the Disciples of St. John, zealously affected in their masters cause, stood up for his baptisme, (which they feared would by means of this new bap isme be totally neg­lected) and disputed with the Jewes about purifying; They con­tending (as St. Chrysostome saith) that the baptism of their ma­ster ought to be preferred before the baptisme of Christs Disciples, as if it had some greater thing: these (as St. Augustine saith) affirming Christ to be the greater, and that therefore men ought to come unto his baptisme. At that time St. Iohn who was not yet cast into prison, being gone from Bethabara, was baptizing in Aenon, Aenon. which was a certain town scituate on the west side of the river of Jordan, forty and two miles from Hierusalem northward, at the distance of two miles from Salim, another town lying to­wards the east side of Jordan forty miles off Hierusalem towards the north,Gen. 33.18. a place of note, because that Iacob sometimes dwelt there. He went thither to have the better opportunity of water, for as yet much people came unto his baptisme. To end the con­troversie, they appeal unto St. John himself, telling him that the same person who had been with him beyond Jordan at Bethabara, whom he had baptized, and to whom he bare witness, that he had now separated himself, instituted a new baptisme, and that his Disciples did baptize, and that men preferred that baptism of theirs before his, and resorted unto him to be baptized in far [Page 133] greater numbers. For saith the text, After these things, S. Joh. 3.22, came Je­sus and his disciples into the land of Judea, and there he tarried with them, and baptized. And John also was baptizing in Aenon, 23, neer to Salim, because there was much water there: and they came and were baptized. For Iohn was not yet cast into prison. 24, 25, Then there arose a que­stion between some of Iohns disciples and the Iewes about purifying. And they came unto Iohn, and said unto him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond Iordan, to whom thou barest witnesse, 26. behold the same bap­tizeth, and all men come to him. Whereupon Saint Iohn taketh occasion to preach unto them that most excellent Sermon, con­cerning the person, merits, and office of Christ, the sum and substance of all the Evangelicall doctrine, from v. 27. to the end of that third chapter.

And here to the end that our history be not lame, we must lay 74 down something briefly concerning Christ his baptisme, Concerning Christ his baptisme. and that as well concerning the name, as also touching the thing it selfe. The word Baptisme is derived from the verb [...], or [...], which is to plunge or dip into the water; as they do that wash any garment, or themselves. So that baptisme The word Baptism. according to the meaning of the word, is plunging, dipping, or washing in wa­ter. In the Scripture it is taken sometimes in a common sense, for all manner of washing and purifying by water: but more espe­cially such as the Iewes had, either by Mosaicall institution,S. Mar. 7.3, 4. or by Pharisaicall tradition. Sometimes it is taken in a singular or spe­ciall sense, and that either metaphorically, so that by baptisme is meant the cross, affliction, martyrdome,S. Mat. 20.22 which is Baptismus sanguinis, the baptisme of blood. Or Synecdochically, so that by baptisme is meant the effusion of the visible gifts of God, and the graces of the holy Ghost, powred forth upon the Apostles; which is baptismus flaminis, the baptisme of the spirit. Some­times in a most proper and theologicall sense and meaning,Act. 1.5. so that by baptisme is meant that great and venerable sacrament of the new testament, whereby we are initiated in Christ, and conse­crated to him: and wherein we are made members of Christ, children of God, and inheritors of the kingdome of heaven; which is baptismus fluminis, the baptisme of water;S. Mat. 28.19 Baptisme de­fined. Christ his bap­tisme. It must be defined to be the sacrament of our purgation, whereby we are received into the Church of God, that we may be numbered with, and have our inheritance among the children of God. An happy sacrament of our water, saith Tertullian, because the sin of our pristine blindenesse being washed off, we are enlarged to everlasting life, lib. de Bapt. cap: 1. The Iewes had their purgati­ons and purifications by water; so had the Gentiles too, as in the solemnities of Isis or Mithra: but Christ his baptisme is the peculiar washing of us that are christians. Those Leviticall wa­shings which the Iewes had, could not make him clean that was [Page 134] washed,Heb. 9.10. as touching sin; for so much as they were but carnall ordinances imposed on them untill the time of reformation. The priests of Isis washed foure times a day, and the priests of Me­thra they washed often; and the more they washed, the fouler they were. But baptisme saveth us, (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, 1 Pet. 3.21. but the answer of a good conscience towards God) by the resurrection of Iesus Christ.

75 The parts of it are two; there is the externall part, and there is the internall part;The parts of Baptisme. that is to say, the outward visible signe, and the inward spirituall grace; the signum, the signe or seal, and the res signi, the thing of the signe. The externall part, which is the outward visible signe, is applyed visibly by the priest or minister to the party baptized: the internall part, which is the inward spi­rituall grace, the thing of the signe, is wrought invisibly in the party baptized by the holy Ghost. As Saint Austin most excellently to Bonifacius, Water exhibiting the sacrament of grace without, and the spirit working the benefit of grace within, loosing the bond of sin, re­conciling the good of nature, doe regenerate man in one Christ, genera­ted of one Adam. Epist. 23. That externall part,The external part. or outward visible signe is water; wherein the person baptized is dipped or sprin­kled with it, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Ghost. So that the externall part or outward visible signe comprehendeth two things. 1st The elementary signe, which is water, and nothing else but water. For, nihil habet rationem sa­cramenti extra usum à Deo institutum. Sacramentall signes are by divine institution only.Act. 10.47. Eph. 5.26. Water is by divine institution, therefore this sacrament cannot be administred in wine, or any other li­quor. 2ly The ceremoniall signe, which is either immersion, aspersion, or pouring forth the water upon the party baptized; as they say Saint Lawrence did. Those things which are by accident, varie not the substance of the sacrament, saith Aquinas. Of that na­ture is dipping, sprinkling, poureing forth water, in that no­thing is prescribed to the contrary. If it be likely that Saint Iohn the Baptist dipped or plunged those whom he baptized in the river of Jordan, S. Mat. 3.6. Act. 8.38. and that Saint Philip baptized the Eunuch in the same manner: it is altogether as probable, that those three thousand who were baptized by Saint Peter and the other A­postles in one day,Act. 2 41. and that at Hierusalem, were not dipped, but sprinkled with water. If any will object, against the use of our Church which baptizeth by aspersion, the custome of other Churches which baptize only by immersion, let him learn to know that which Saint Gregory to Leander a bishop, layeth downe as a rule, In una fide nihil officit sanctae ecclesiae consuetudo diversa. So long as the faith be one and the same, a different custome brin­geth to the holy Church no detriment at all. The internall part,The internal part. or thing of the signe, communiter is Christ, for he is res sacramenti, [Page 135] the thing exhibited in that sacrament, and in every sacrament, and that upon three principall respects: 1st. In respect of his person, for Christus [...], Christ God and man is exhibited, as well in regard of his divinity, as of his human nature. 2ly In respect of his merit, in that the variety and utility of the death of Christ, whereby he purchased life for us, is propounded and confirmed. 3ly In respect of his benefits, for look what Christ had, and what Christ did, he setteth forth by his sacraments, testify­ing by the visible signes, that he had them, and did them for us, which benefits Saint Paul reduceth to foure heads, wisdome, 1 Cor. 1.30. righ­teousnesse, sanctification, and redemption. But the internall part, or thing of the signe properly, is, 1st. The precious blood of Christ, shed for the remission of sins, whereby our souls and bodies are so clean washed from originall, and all actuall sins, that they shal never be imputed. It is that blood of sprinckling, Heb. 12.24. that speaketh better things than that of Abel. Abels blood was vox sanguinum, the voice of blood, and it cryed aloud, but it cryed for vengeance,Eph. 1.7. not for remission of sins; but the voice of Christ his blood, is remission of sins. 2ly The spirituall efficacy of the same blood, whereby we are regenerate and born again, by the morti­fication of the flesh, and by the vivification or quickening of the spirit. For these things doth God require by the very text and tenour of his covenant, of all those who are initiated to Christ, and consecrated, and by the signe or seal of the covenant,Rom. 6.3, 4. do give their names to him. 3ly That neer union and conjunction betwixt Christ and us, whereby we are so joyned unto Christ, and Christ to us, that we have put him on,Gal. 3.27. and are verily and indeed made partakers of his person, of his merit, and of all his benefits.

The analogicall and sacramentall relation The analogi­call or sa­cramentall re ation. betwixt the signes and 76 the things signified, consisteth in three things. 1st In signification, for by a most convenient proportion or similitude, the water of Baptisme doth signifie the blood of Christ; and the dipping of the person baptized into that water, or the sprinckling of that water upon him, the death of the old man, by mortification of the flesh; and the life of the new man, by the vivification of the spirit. And the communion of the Baptisme of the faithfull with Christ, doth fitly set forth that neer conjunction which is betwixt Christ and them, in that he also was baptized. This is a new birth, if we die unto sin, (which is signified and represented when we are dipped into the water, or when the water is sprinckled upon us; for then we are as it were laid into the grave, and are given to understand, that we die unto sin by vertue of Christ his death, who was buried in the grave.) And if we live unto righteousnesse, which is signified and represented, when we are taken up from the water; for then we do as it were rise out of the grave, and are given to understand again, that we live unto God, by vertue of [Page 136] Christ his resurrection, Hos. 6.2. who was raised again from the dead upon the third day. 2ly This analogicall or sacramentall relation consist­eth in obsignation: And that because as well the verity of that similitude, which is betwixt the signe, and the thing of the signe, is confirmed; as also because that the power and efficacy of them both, (in the lawfull use of that sacrament) is assured by the seal. For when the Eunuch said unto St. Philip, See here is water, what doth hinder me to he baptized? Act. 8.36, to receive a full assurance by the seal? St. Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest? 37. 3ly In Praebition. For the things signified and represent­ed in Baptisme, the same by baptisme, are made good unto the person baptized, not by virtue of the outward act of baptisme, ex opere operato, but sacramentally, and by faith. 1. Because by that sacrament he doth exhibit them to the minds of those that be­lieve, as if they were visibly present. And again, because he doth thereby, as by his own seale, assure them that those things are certainly made good in the soule, which are shewed and promi­sed by the visible signe. When they cryed out to the Apostle St. Peter, and to the rest of the Apostles, saying, Men, and bre­thren, what shall we do? St. Peter sends them away to the Sacra­ment of baptisme, saying, Repent, and be baptized every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the holy Ghost. Act. 2.38. Rebecca (who was a type of the Church) found Abrahams servant at the well of water, and the Church it self (as St Augustine saith) found Christ at the sacra­ment of Baptisme.

77 The ends for which the sacrament of Baptisme was instituted and ordained,For what causes Bap­tisme was ordained. are either primary and antecedent, or secundary and consequent. The first respect our faith towards God; the se­cond, our confession before men. Upon the first respect the end of baptism is, to signifie, to seal, & to deliver in a sacramental manner the remission of our sinnes, the benefit of our regeneration, and our union with Christ. I say first, the remission of our sins: for howsoever it must be affirmed that sinne, for so the state of na­ture doth remain in those that have received remission of sinnes in baptisme, as touching the matter, the root, and disease of sin; (like the head of an arrow sticking still in the flesh, though the deadly wound be cured) yet for the state of the person baptized it is taken away, in as much as concerneth the guilt or forme of sin, Act. 2.38. which is not imputed to the believer. For baptisme is given for the remission of sinnes. And is (as Tertullian saith) The ablution of sins which faith obtaineth, sealed up in the Father, the Son, and the holy Ghost. The benefit of our regeneration. For being ingraffed into Christ by baptisme, 2 Pet. 1.4. we are made pertakers of the divine nature: (not the divine essence, but divine qualities, those supernaturall graces lost by the fall of Adam, being resto­red [Page 137] in us) and we are born again of water, and of the holy Ghost, that so we may enter into the kingdom of God. S. Joh 3.5. Gal. 3.27. S. Mat. 28.19 2 Cor. 1.12 13. Rom. 6.3, 4. Our union with Christ. For we are baptized into Christ, and into the name of Christ; and by baptism are buried with Christ: and are baptized into the death & resurrection of Christ, as the Scripture speaketh. 2ly The Sacrament of baptisme was instituted and ordained se­cundarily and consequently; To be a testimony of our piety and 1 obedience due to God, together with the greatest gratitude for his mercy communicated to us, in and by that Sacrament. To 2 be a distinctive signe whereby the Church in all her members may be visibly distinguished from the idolatrous heathen and unbelieving Jewes; and (as Tertullian saith) the fishes, from the Vipers, Apes, and Serpents. De Bapt. cap. 1. Finally, to be a 3 strong bond of that communion and fellowship which the Church hath: and of that mutuall love and charity which all the mem­bers of the same, spirituall brethren and sisters by baptisme, are obliged to conserve among themselves.1 Cor. 12.13 But having observed thus much briefly concerning baptisme, we will now proceed with our Sacred History.

Christ having baptized his Disciples, did then baptize others 78 by their ministery,St. Iohn the Baptist goeth into Galilee. and great multitudes resorting unto his bap­tisme, this was reported to St. John the Baptist in such manner and upon such occasion as hath been said before: whereupon St. John, when that he had given ample testimony to the person, merits, and office of Christ, did then presently, or not long after, leave off to baptize any longer at Aenon, (for it became him to give place to his Lord) and departed into Galilee, where he was imprisoned by Herod the Tetrarch, as shall be shewed more at large, when the order of the History shall lead us to his decolla­tion. But Jesus abode still in Judea, and his Disciples baptized. He abode there till within four months before harvest: and then to decline the malice of the Pharisees who maligned his baptism, and the Disciples which he made and baptized; S. Joh. 4.35 in the month of November he departed to go into Galilee. For saith the text, When therefore the Lord knew how the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made and baptized mee Disciples then John. (Though Iesus himselfe baptized not, but his Disciples) He left Iudea, S. Joh. 4.1, 2, 3. Christs de­parture out of Iudea in­to Galilee. and departed againe in o Galilee. But his way lay directly thorow the country of Sa­maria. Now the Samaritans were not Iewes, nor did they wor­ship or consent in religion with the Iewes, but were the stock and off-spring of those whom Salmaneser king of Assyria (having caried away the old inhabitants captive, which were Iewes) brought from Babylon, and from Cutha, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel. In this Province was the anci­ent town of Sichem, then corruptly called Sichar, 2 Kin. 17.24 which name [Page 138] it got as some think, from the drunkenness and deboistness of the inhabitants; for Sichar being derived of Schachar, signifieth to be drunk. Nigh to this place was that parcell of ground, which Iacob gave unto Ioseph his son,Gen. 48.22 Jos. 24.32. a portion above his brethren: there was Ioseph himself buried. And nigh to this place was Iacobs well, a well which Iacob made and left to the inhabitants of the place. To that Well the people of Sichar resorted for wa­ter, and Christ being wearied with his journey, comes thither and sate upon the well about noon tide, the usuall time of refection, his Disciples being gone into the city to buy meat for their din­ners.

79 Mean while a certain woman comes from the city thither to draw water;The History of the Sam [...] ­ritan woman. of her, he asketh water to drink. She perceiving him to be a Iew, demanded of him why he would aske drink of her that was a Samaritane, seeing that the Iewes and Samaritanes had no converse. Christ hereupon taketh occasion expresly to preach himself to be the Messiah: For said he, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith unto thee, Give me to drink, thou wouldst have asked of him, S. Joh. 4.10 and he would have given thee living wa­ter. The woman objected, (not knowing what it was that he thirsted, namely her faith: nor what water it was that he had to give, namely his Spirit; but knowing that the Jewes did not, would not, use the same vessells with the Samaritans) that he had nothing of his own to draw the water with, and that the well was deep, from whence then could he have that living water? 11, That the water of any other fountain could not be bet­ter, nor more abundant, seeing that for the goodness of it, Jacob himself, and his children drank thereof, and were well content therewith; and for the abundance, he had enough there for all his cattel. From whence she inferreth, that he who will pretend to have any such living water, must make himself to be greater then Jacob. Christ did not say in express terms, that he was grea­ter then Jacob, 12, but infers it from the womans own argument, because he had better water to give. For, saith he, whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst againe; But whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him, 13, shall never thirst: but the water that I shall give him, shall be in him a well of water springing up into ever­lasting life. 14, The woman thinking that he had spoken of some materiall water which he had to give, doth now her self thirst for that water,15, 16, saying, Sir, give me this water that I thirst not, nei­ther come hither to draw. Jesus saith unto her, Go, call thy husband, and come hither: as if he should say, that I may give it unto you both.17, The woman told him, that she had no husband. He tells her; that she said truly, for she had five husbands before, but this with whom she did now cohabit,18, 19, was not her husband. The woman thereupon affirms him to be a Prophet, Sir, I perceive that [Page 139] thou art a Prophet: questions him concerning divine things; and first of all, concerning the peculiar place of divine worship, whe­ther the temple at Hierusalem, where the Iews still worshipped, or the Anti-temple which had been upon mount Garizim, where the Samaritans worshipped in times past, before that temple was destroyed by Iohn called Hircanus, high Priest of Hierusalem (Vid. Ioseph. antiq. lib. 11.20.) were that proper place where men ought to worship. He answered the question aenigmatically, re­proveth the ignorance of the Samaritan-worship, tells her, that sal­vation is of the Iewes, and what is the true Evangelicall wor­ship. The woman telleth him,v. 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, v. 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37 that the things concerning Gods worship, shall be fully regulated by the Messiah. Christ telleth her plainly, that he is the Messiah. Then came the Disciples, and they marvelled that he talked with a woman. The woman leaves her water pot, and goes into the city to call her neigh­bours to come forth, and to see the Messiah; mean while the Di­sciples pray him to eat: he eateth not, but declareth unto them his zeal to Gods glory. The woman made relation to the Samari­tans of what Christ had told her,38, 39. and many of them believed on him before they saw him. But when they were come unto him, they besought him that he would tarry with them, and he abode with them two dayes. And many more believed because of his own word, commended the woman highly, v. 40 41, 42 and make a lively confession of their faith. A most remarkable History, wherein the learned Fathers do find many excellent, and most profound myste­ries.

Christ was not sent, but unto the lost sheep of the house of Isra­el, 80 S. Mat. 15.24 therefore might he not abide altogether among the Samari­tans: it was his great grace that he vouchsafed to abide with them two days; which being expired, he left them by his bodily, but not by his spirituall presence, and went into Galilee, Iesus cometh into Galilee. but not to Nazareth at that time: for he had testified,S. Mat. 4.13. S. Joh. 4.44, that a Prophet hath no honour in his own country. Then when he was come into Galilee, the Galileans received him, having seen all the things that he did at Hierusalem, at the feast: for they also went unto the feast. And first he goeth directly to Cana of Galilee, 45, where he made the water wine. During the time of his abode there, [...],46. Healeth the Rulers son by his word. St. Luc. 8.3. a certain noble man, ruler, or courtier (probably Chuza Herods steward, whose wife Joanna was one of those believing women, who ministred unto him of their substance) when he heard that Jesus was come out of Iudea in to Galilee, came unto him, and invited him to come unto Capernaum, and to heal his son, who was sick there, and at the point of death. He went not present­ly down with him, but cured his son who was dangerously sick of a feaver, by the power of his word; whereupon the ruler be­lieved, and his whole house, as the story is reported at large by [Page 140] St. Iohn cap. 4. which was not the second miracle that he did, but the second miracle which he did in Galilee, and was done when he was come thither out of Iudea. Shortly after he went down to Capernaum, v. 54. and dwelt, or made some longer abode there, as St. Matthew saith, who makes no mention of his going to Cana first: in the mean time preaching the Gospell whereso­ever he came, he went first to Nazareth (which was but eight miles from Cana), in which city he had been brought up. And as his custom was, went into the Synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up to read.S Luc. 4.16 And there was delivered unto him the book of the Prophet Isaias, out of which he read a Text, expounding the same to the admiration of all that heard him; and although they could not deny the verity of his doctrine, but bare witness to it, wondring at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth; yet hecause he did not speak placentious things, they were all filled with wrath, and thrust him out of the city, and would have brake his neck, as St. Luke saith, cap. 4.

81 The Synagogues therefore were publique Congregations, and places consecrated for religion, and for the publique worship and service of God, whither the people resorted every sabbath day, to hear the law and the Prophets read and expounded; and the Rector or Ruler of the Synagogue was called [...].Act. 15.21. S. Mar. 5 22 Christ therefore being come from Nazareth into Capernaum, straight way on the sabbath day entred into the Synagogue and taught.S. Mar. 1.21, And they were astonished at his doctrine, for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the Scribes. And there was in their Synagogue, 22, a man with an unclean spirit, who hearing him to teach with authority as being the Lord of Moses, and of all the Prophets,23, Christ known of the Devils to be the Messiah. 24, and he who put his word into their mouth, cryed out, saying, let us alone, what have we to do with thee, thou Iesus of Nazareth, art thou cone to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, The holy one of God. The Devills therefore knew him to be the Messiah, though not certainly and without doubting; the know­ledge which they had of him, they had from him. Tantum verò iis innotuit, quantum voluit; tantum autem voluit, quantum oportuit: saith St. Augustine. Civit. Dei, lib. 9. cap. 22. He was so much known of them as he pleased, and he was pleased to be known by them, so much as it was fit for them to know him. That is, to testifie of him so far as he pleased that they should, and to obey his word.25, And Iesus rebuked him, saying, hold thy peace, and come out of him. And when the unclean spirit had torne him, and cryed with a loud voice, 26, he came out of him. And they were all amazed, in­somuch that they questioned among themselves, saying, What thing is this? what new doctrine is this? for with authority commandeth he e­ven the unclean spirits, 27, and they do obey him. And immediately his fame spread abroad (therefore would he that they should obey [Page 141] his word) throughout all the region round about Galilee.

As soon as he had wrought the miracle upon the daemoniak 82 man, and was come forth of the Synagogue: Saint Peters wives mother healed. to the end that he might refresh himselfe, he entred into a certain house, which was the house of Saint Peter and Saint Andrew, who dwelt to­gether at Capernaum, and had with him his disciples Saint James and Saint John. There Saint Peters wives mother lay sick of a feavour, and anon they tell him of her, (and besought him for her, saith Saint Luke) And he came and stood by (or over) her, S. Luc. 4.38. and took her by the hand, and lift her up, and immediately the fea­vour left her, and she ministred unto them. S. Mar. 1.31, She did wash their feet, and served at supper. And at even when the sun did set, they brought unto him all that were diseased, and them that were possessed with devills. And all the city was gathered toge­ther at the dore, 32, 33, (for then the sabbath was ended when the sun was set, and then it was lawfull for them to flock together to behold his miracles) And he healed many that were sick, (for ma­ny there were which were brought unto him) and cast out ma­ny devills, and suffered not the devills to speak, 34, because they knew him; or to say that they knew him. For the devills, though they knew not his divinity, yet as Saint Augustine saith, they knew him to be Christ, because they saw in him all those signes which were foretold by the Prophets. But he would not receive the devills testimony, because he would manifest himselfe to be the Messiah by his owne works. Having lodged (as is evident by the circumstances) that night in Saint Peters house; in the morning he rose up a great while before day, and went out and departed into a solitary place, a [...]d there prayed. He needed not to pray,35, faith Saint Chrysostome, for it was he who received the prayers of men; but this he did by dispensation, and to give good exam­ple unto u [...]. And Simon and they that were with him, namely, 36, Saint Andrew, Saint James, and Saint John, when it was day, and the sun was up, followed after him. And when they had found him, 37. they said un [...]o him, All men seek for thee, praying him, as it should seem, that he would return again to Capernaum. S. Luc. 4.42. The people al­so sought him, and found him, and stayed him that he should not depart from them. And he said unto them, Let us go into the next townes, that I may preach there also, for therefore came I forth. Or, as Saint Luke hath it,S. Mar. 1.38. I must preach the kingdome of God to other cities also; for therefore am I sent. S. Luc. 4.43. So he did not return with them to Capernaum, but went about, and preached in their Sy­nagogues, thorow out all Galilee, and cast out devills.

Now when Jesus saw great multitudes about him, he gave 83 commandement to depart to the other side.S. Mat. 8.18. A Scribe would follow Christ. And as they went towards the sea to take shipping, a certain man who was a scribe, a lawyer, or an interpreter of the law, taking occasion [Page 142] by the present command, (whether out of hope of gain, out of ambition, or out of good affection, we cannot determine) offe­red his attendance, and professed to follow him, and to be his disciple whithersoever he should go. But Christ mindeth him of his present condition,20, saying, The foxes have holes, and the birds of the aire have nests, but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head. Whereby he did not repell him, but gave him to understand rather, that his disciples must be content to follow him in po­verty, and not to expect any worldly gain by being his disciples, as Saint Hierom conceiveth this scribe did. Having made this an­swer to the scribe, he calleth one to be his disciple, and saith un­to him,S. Mar. 8.21. Another cal­led interpo­seth delay. Follow me, therefore Saint Matthew saith, that he was his disciple, because he was then made his disciple by vocation. But he desired first to bury his father, who was then either new­ly dead, or whom he expected that he could not live long, by reason of his present weaknesse or great age. But Christ who did not discommend his piety towards his father, gives him to un­derstand, that his disciples must set nothing in competition with the businesse of their Lord, S. Luc. 9.60. saying, Let the dead bury their dead, but go thou and preach the kingdome of God. There was yet a third that would willingly follow him, but cannot presently; he would first go home and take leave of his friends there.The request of a third man. S. Luc. 9.61, Lord (said he) I will follow thee; but let me first go bid them farewell which are at home in my house. To whom he replyed, that his disciples must plow in the field of God, and to the end that they may make straight furrowes, they must have a care to look alwaies forwards;62. for, No man having put his hand to the plow, and looking back, is fit for the kingdome of God. Ille aspicit retro, qui à bono in­choato deficiens, mente ad saecularia redit. He looks backwards, who revolting from the good which he hath begun, doth re­turn in minde to worldly things; saith Stella, upon the same place.

84 These occurrences being upon the way, they come unto the sea, and having dismissed the multitude, he entred into a ship which was provided for him: there being also other little ships. and when he had given command, they hoyse sailes, and make over the lake all together: and as they sailed he was in the hin­der part of the ship, and slept upon a pillow. He being asleep, (yet not unwitting of their present distress,He stilleth the sea. S. Mar 4.37. nor of the miracle that he would do) There arose a great storm of winde, and the waves beat into the ship, so that it was now full. It was no ordinary storme of winde, but extraordinary, and unusuall, sufficient to put them in fear and jeopardy; wherefore they came to him, and awoke him, saying, Master, master, we perish: Carest thou not that we perish? S. Luc. 8.24. S. Mar. 4.38. But he reproves the weakness of their faith, Why are ye fearfull, O ye of little faith? And then he arose and rebuked the [Page 143] winde, and said unto the sea, Be still, [...],S. Mat. 8.26. S. Mar. 4.39, be thou bridled or muzzeled, a metaphor taken from dogs and wilde beasts, whose mouths are wont to be tyed up and muzzeled to keep them from biting. And the winde ceased, and there was a great calm. And they feared exceedingly, and said one to another; What manner of man is this, that even the winde and the sea obey him? 41. They might well fear and wonder too, for they had seen two miracles in one, both of them above nature; for the winde cea­sed, and the sea was presently calm. And this may well be supposed to have been the subject of their talk, and as well of these who were in the same ship with him, as of those also who sailed by him in the other ships, till they arrived in the coun­try of the Gergesens or Gadarens, which the vulgar translation calleth regionem Gerasenorum, a country lying over against Ga­lilee. Gadara, Gadara. was a city of the Jewes, in the tribe of Gad, or as some say, of Manasses, scituate in a very high mountain upon the east side of the sea of Galilee, beyond Jordan, from whence the country had its name.

Being arrived there, immediately there met him two daemo­niack 85 men, Two demoni­ack men cu­red. S. Mat. 8.28, 29. S. Luc. 8.27, which came out of the tombs, very fierce, so that no man might passe by that way. And they both cryed out, What have we to do with thee, Jesus thou son of God? Art thou come hither to torment us before the time? But one of them, whose narration is particularly prosecuted by Saint Luke, had many devils, and a long time he ware no cloths, neither abode in any house, but in the tombs; When he saw Jesus, he cryed out, and fell downe before him, 28, and with a loud voyce said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus thou son of God most high? I beseech thee torment me not. The reason why he so fell down and besought him, was, because he had commanded the unclean spirit to come out of him, which did so much afflict him, that often­times it had caught him, and he was kept bound with chains and in fetters: and he brake the bands, and was driven of the devill into the wilderness.29, Jesus therefore demanded the name of that devill, and he said, Legion, (not telling his name but their number) because many devills were entred into him.30, He asked his name, not because he knew it not, but that his divine vertue might be the more conspicuous. He asked one devill, the chiefe of those devills with which he was possessed, and one an­swered for all, and said, Legion. A legion is said to be six thou­sand six hundred sixty and six; some say but six thousand; some double the number for foot soldiers; some compute but seven hundred thirty and two horsemen for a legion. Howsoever it be computed, for it appeareth in Livy, that the number of a legion is not alwaies certain: yet certain it is, that a legion of devills did possess that miserable man. And all the devills besought him that he would not command them to go out into the deep, 31, [Page 144] to go down into hell, so as never to return again. But if he would needs cast them out, that then he would suffer them to go away into the heard of swine; for there was an heard of many swine feeding on the mountain; which when he had permitted, then vvent the devills out of the men, and entred into those swine. And the whole heard possessed with the devills ran violent­ly down a steep place into the lake, and were choaked, being about two thousand, as Saint Mark saith, cap. 5. v. 13. Where­at the heardmen fled, and made relation of it, both in the city and in the country, and they came out to see what was done, and came to Jesus, and found the man out of whom the devills were departed sitting at the feet of Jesus, (hearing his heavenly doctrine, and acknow­ledging the benefit which he had received) clothed, and in his right minde: 35, 36, and they were afraid. They also which saw it, told them by what means he that was possessed of the devills, was healed. Then the whole multitude of the country of the Gadarens round about, besought him to depart from them, for they were taken with great fear; and he went into the ship and returned back again. 37, Now the man out of whom the devills were departed, besought him that he might be with him. But Jesus sent him away, 38, 39. saying, Return to thine house, and shew how great things God hath done unto thee. And he went his way, and pub­lished thorow out the whole city, how great things Jesus had done unto him. He would not have him to be with him, because he would not seem to boast of what he had done; for if he should have led about with him those whom he had cured, he might have been thought to have sought glory of men. Neither would he have him with him, because he might do more good by prea­ching Christ, and what he had done for him, then by following of him in person. He was not commanded to preach what great things Christ had done unto him, but what great things God had done unto him, and yet he preached how great things Jesus had done unto him; for being illuminated from above, he be­lieved him to be God. And being healed both in minde and body, he knew Jesus to be God, and by preaching him so to be, he ful­filled his commandement.

86 It seemes by the requests vvhich they made, the devills had found a great harvest among the Gadarens. The devills petition three things. S Luc. 8.31. S. Mar. 5.10. Three petitions they had to Christ. That he vvould not command them to go [...]; into the deep, into hell. That he vvould not send them avvay [...], out of the country. That if he vvould needs cast them out, that then he vvould send, or suffer them to go, [...], into the heard of svvine. Hell they feared and abhorred for the torments-sake. S. Mat. 8 31. The country they liked for the success vvhich they found there. But vvhy into the swine? They knevv the nature of the people, and that they vvere cove­tous: this present loss vvould either enrage them against him, [Page 145] or put them in fear of further and greater losses to be sustained by him. Therefore that which Christ fore-knew, and which the Devills aimed at, came to pass, the Gadarens besought him that he would depart out of their coasts; And he entred into a ship, S Mat. 9.1. and passed over and came into his own city. That was Capernaum, for there he dwelt, and in that place he left his mother, while he went about all the cities preaching the Gospell of God, and doing good by the miracles which he wrought; having left Na­zareth, as is said before. Now as he was preaching upon a cer­tain day in some house of that city, (most likely his own where he dwelt) there being present Pharisees, Scribes, and Doctors of law, which were come out of every town of Galilee, and from Judea, and from Hierusalem, being brought thither by the fame that went of him; A certain man sick of the Palsie, The paraly­tick man cu­red. who was not able to rise out of his bed, was brought, carryed in his bed by four men, who finding no means to bring him in, by reason of the multitude of the people, thronging in the house, and about the doors; they ascend the house withall, and having uncovered the roofe, they let him down together with his couch into the midst before him. Iesus seeing the faith as well of the sick man, as also of those that brought him, forgave him his sins, saying, Thy sins are forgiven thee. This when the Scribes and Pharisees heard, they reasoned secretly, and in their hearts, saying, Who is this that speaketh blasphemies? Who can forgive sins but God alone? They thought him to be no other but a mere man, but he will convince them of this divinity. 1. By discovering the secrets of their hearts, which none can do but God that made the heart. They reasoned in their hearts, and he replyed, Why reason ye these things in your hearts. S. Mar. 2.8. 2ly By evidencing his power and authori­ty to forgive sins. For that they might know that he had power and authority to forgive sins, He saith to the sick of the Palsie, I say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy bed, and go thy way unto thine house. For to heal the body imperativè, 11. and by command of his own word only, is of equall power as to forgive sins, which none can do but only God. Therefore when he rose up immediately before them all, took up his bed, and went forth, they were all amazed and glorified God, and were filled with reverentiall fear,S. Luc. 5.26. S. Mar. 2.20: saying, We have seen strange things to day. We never saw it on this fa­shion, viz. In the curation both of mind, and of body.

After this two-fold mercy done to this Paralytick man, he 87 took occasion to go forth and to teach the people by the sea side, S. Mar. 2.13. and going by the place where the customs were received, he saw St. Matthew St. Matthew called from the receipt of custome whose name also was Levi the son of Alpheus, one of the Publicans, sitting there to receive customs; for Capernaum was a sea town, and there the merchants did pay the customes into the hands of the Publicans. He went not that way by for­tune [Page 146] or chance, but that according to the good pleasure of his will (then to be manifested in the vocation of this blessed Apo­stle) he might find him there, and call him from thence. Who being called in these words,S. Luc. 5.28, 29. Follow me, he left all, rose up, and followed him. Yet not so, but that he went home to his house, where he made a great entertainment for him. St. Luke saith, [...], a great feast, Splendidum convivium, a sumptuous banquet. For the word [...] doth not onely signifie a feast or banquet, but as Erasmus observeth out of Athenaeus, a rich or sumptuous feast, by which name the learned Fathers are wont to style the sacred Eucharist. He would spare no cost to enter­tain his Lord, who in great favour had called him to be his Di­sciple. At this feast was a great company of guests, Publicans, and others who were criminous and scandalous persons, with whom he vouchsafed to sit down, and to eat and drink. Where­at the Scribes and Pharisees, (proud hypocrites) murmur, and obrayd him, and his Disciples. But he defendeth both himself and them by a Proverbiall: S. Mat. 9.12 The whole need not a Physitian, but they that are sick; biddeth them to go and learn the meaning of the Prophet,Hos. 6.6. I will have mercy and not sacrifice: for he came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. Inferring that he would open heaven gates unto such upon their true repentance, when such proud hypocrites as they, righteous in their own eyes, shall be utterly excluded for their unbelief and hardness of heart.Question proposed by St. Iohns di­sciples. Now the Disciples of St. John, and of the Pharisees, used to fast oft, and to pray much; therefore some of the Disciples of St. John, (by the instigation of the Pharisees, as it should seem) came unto him and said, Why do we, and the Pharisees [...]ast oft, but thy Disciples fast not?S. Mat 9.14. S. Mar. 2.18, 19, 20, 21, 22 S. Mat. 9.14, 15, 16, 17. S. Luc. 5.33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39. his answer is not direct, but by simili­tudes, the children of the marriage chamber must not fast in pre­sence of the Bridegroome; a piece of new cloth must not be put into an old garment: new wine must not be put into old bottles: No man having drank old wine, straight way desireth new; by all which he defendeth his Disciples for not fasting, shewing that it was not seasonable for them as yet to fast.

88 While he yet spake these things unto them, there came a cer­tain Ruler, S. Mat. 9.18 S. Mar. 5.22 S. Luc. 8.41 one of the rulers of the Synagogue, Jairus by name, saith St. Marke, and with him St. Luke. Genebrard in his Chrono­logie, telleth us out of the Rabbines, that the Prophets ceasing (which was under the second temple) the Iews had that which they called the great Synagogue, The history of Iair [...]s, and of his daughter cured. consisting of an hundred and twenty men, whereof some were Nobles, some Plebeians; those did amend the Scriptures where they had been depraved, and did constitute the canon, of which great Synagogue were Princes, Ezra, Nehemiah, Mardochai, Zorobabel, Joshuah, the son of Josodec, also Daniel, Ananias, Azarias, Misael, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. ad an. [Page 147] 3638. But the Synagogues so often mentioned in the new Testa­ment, were places of conveening, where the people assembled to pray, and to hear the law and the Prophets. Their antiqui­tie seems to have been from the captivity of Babylon, to supply the place of the Temple; and after their return were built, and the use of them retained in their own countrey; and after their example in Asia, Egypt, and Europe, whither the Iewes were di­spersed. So that finally their number so encreased, (especially in Iudea) that in Hierusalem it self are reported to have been, in the latter times of it, no less then four hundred and eighty Synagogues, the rulers whereof were called [...], Princes or Praefects. And such a one was this Iairus, [...] saith St. Mat­thew, [...], saith St. Luke, a Prince or Ruler of the Synagogue. To this man there was one only daughter, at that time dangerously sick, and even at the point of death; he therefore came to Iesus, worshipped him, and fell down at his feet, instantly beseeching him that he would come to his house, and lay his hands upon her, that she might be healed and live. Christ took compassion upon him, went presently with him, be­ing attended by his Disciples, and much people, who followed, and thronged him. And as he went,S. Mat. 9.19 S. Mar. 5.24 S. Luc. 8.42 S. Mar. 5.25 The woman cured of a bloody issue [...] 26, 27, 28, 29, 30. A certaine woman which had an issue of blood twelve years. And had suffered many things of many Physitians, and had spent all that she had, and was nothing bettered, but rather grew worse, whe she had heard of Iesus, came in the presse behinde, and touched his garment (the hemme, or border of his garment) For she said (within her self) If I may touch but his clothes, I sh [...] be whole. And straight way the fountaine of her blood was dryed up, and she felt in her body, that she was healed of that plague. Iesus immediately knowing in himself that vertue had gone out of him, turned him about, in the press, and said, Who touched my clothes? when all denyed; his Disciples, St. Peter, and the o­ther Disciples, thinking that to be a frivolous question, replyed, that the multitude pressed, and thronged him, and would he then ask, Who it was that touched him? Indeed, the Disciples knew not to what end that question tended. He did not ask this question, because he knew not who it was; but that upon the confession of the woman, the miracle might be manifested, God al­so glorified, the people edified, and the Ruler of the Synagogue confirmed as touching the cure of his daughter. And Iesus said, S. Luc. 8.46 S Mar. 5.32 some body hath touched me; for I perceive that vertue is gone out of me. And he looked round about to see her that had done this thing. And when the woman saw that she was not hid, she came trembling, and falling downe before him, and declared unto him before all the people, S Luc. 8.47 for what cause she had touched him, S Luc. 8.48 S Mar. 5.34 and how she was healed immediate­ly. And he said unto her, daughter be of good comfort, thy faith hath made thee whole, go in peace, and be whole of thy plague. This woman [Page 148] it seems was not a Iewess, but a woman of the Gentiles, who had her habitation at Caesarea Philippi, which city was first called Laish, but when the Danites had wan it, they called it Dan, af­ter the name of Dan the son of Jacob, Jud. 18.29. the father of their tribe. But Philip Tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis, in favour of Augustus Caesar, from whom he had his Tetrarchie, beautified that city, and called it Caesarea Philippi, Caesarea Phi­lippi. after both their names. But the Greeks afterwards called it Paneas, because the image of their false God Pan, was erected there. It was scituated nigh the moun­tain Antilibanus, an hundred and four miles from Hierusalem to­ward the north, not far from the mountains Jor and Dan, which joyning and running together on the east side of this city, give the name to the river Jordan. She being cured in such manner as hath been said, returned home to her house. And because it was the maner of the Gentiles, to honour their Benefactors with statues, She erected a statue. she, to the end that she might express her gratitude for the benefit which she had received, set up nigh to the door of her house a pillar of stone, and thereupon a statue of brass, in form of a man, and at the feet of that, another in form of a woman kneeling, and making supplication, as the image of Christ, and of her selfe when she touched the hemme of his garment; which statue remained there a long time. And we have it out of Nice­phorus Callistus, that when Julian the Apostata, to despight our Saviour, caused it to be broken down, and contumeliously used, commanding his own statue to be set up in place of it, his sta­tue was destroyed by fire from heaven, which smote through the breasts of it, and having broken off the head [...] the neck, threw it with the face to the ground. Lib. 10. cap. 30. If images be superstitiously abused, I deny not but it is lawfull for those that are in place, to take them away, (even the images and sta­tues of Christ, and of his Saints,) so that it be done orderly, and without contumely to those whom they do represent; at no hand by a furious rable of Iconoclasts, under pretence of refor­mation. And thus much concerning this Haemorrhous wo­man.

89 While he yet spake, there came from the Rulers house, some who brought him sad tydings of the death of his daughter, which said,S. Mar. 5.35. S. Luc. 8.49. Thy daughter is dead, why troublest thou the master any further: Trouble not the Master. They would not have him to be put to the pains of any further travell, and wearied with the journey; for the child being dead,He goeth to Jairus house and raiseth up his daughter there. there was nothing further to be ex­pected. But they knew not his counsells; for therefore (as St. Gregory Nyssen observeth) did he stay upon the way, and spend some time in the cure of that woman, that in the mean time the damsel might dye. De opificio hom. cap. 25. This message being told unto him by Iairus himself, He answered him, saying, Fear not, [Page 149] believe only, and she shall be made whole. 50. And so proceedes on the journey, & goes with him, till they come to his house. There they finde all the people weeping and bewailing her untimely death, a great tumult and concourse of people, with whom were the minstrells, pipeing, and playing upon pipes and flutes, in mournfull and lugubrious modulations, as the manner of the Jewes then was at funeralls, and in the houses where the dead were: a cu­stome which they had learned of the Romans. So he goeth into the house, permitting none to follow him, saving Saint Peter, Saint Iames, and Saint Iohn the brother of Saint Iames. And be­ing come in, he rebuked the people for tumulting in that manner, telling them that there was no occasion for such their weeping, and wailing, and mourning, and pipeing,S. Mat. 9.24. S. Mar. 5.39. S. Luc 8.52, and therefore bidding them to give place; why did they make so much ado and weep? Weep not, she is not dead, but sleepeth. Hereupon they all left wee­ping, and burst out into laughter, laughing him to scorn, know­ing that she was dead. But he put them all out,53. and then he taketh the father and mother of the damosell, and those three disciples whom he had with him, and entereth into the place where she lay dead, and took her by the hand and said unto her, Talitha cumi, which is being interpreted,S. Mar. 5.41. Damosell (I say unto thee) arise. So he took her by the hand, and her spirit came again, and she arose straight way, and they were astonished with a great astonishment. For now they understood in what sense he had spoken it, when he said that she was not dead but slept: she did but sleep to him, to whom it was as easie to raise her from the dead, as to wake her out of a naturall sleep. S. Luc. 8.56. S. Mar. 5.42. And he charged them straitly (to wit her parents) that no man should know it: and commanded that something should be given her to eat, that so by eating, which is a vitall operation, they might know that she was made alive indeed. But such a miracle could not be hidden, for Saint Matthew saith,S. Mat. 9.26, that the fame thereof went a­broad into all that land.

How long he stayed with Jairus and in his house, after that 90 he had done this miracle upon his daughter, it is not mentioned; probably till he had accepted his entertainment, and had re­freshed himselfe and his disciples, with some food after their tra­vell. And then as they went out, and were departed thence,Two blinde men restored to sight. two blinde men, (who it is likely had given their attendance about the dore, and watched the opportunity) followed him, crying and saying, Thou son of David have mercy on us. He stood not still,27, nor conferred the cure presently, but after he was come into an house, the blinde men came to him: And Jesus said unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this? They said unto him, Yea Lord. 28, 29, Then touched he their eyes, saying, According to your faith be it unto you. And their eyes were opened. And Jesus straitly charged them, saying, 30, [Page 150] See that no man know it. Observation. It was because he would decline the envy of the Pharisees, whom he knew that they would slander him, and deprave his miracles. They could not endure to hear with patience the report of his lesser miracles, much lesse would they have the patience to hear that he had raised the dead, and given sight unto the blinde. For concerning these two sorts of miracles, he interdicted the reporting of them. But these two blinde men, notwithstanding the interdiction, when they were departed,31, A dumbe man dispos­sessed of a devill. 32, 33, 34. spread abroad his fame in all that country. Now as they went out of that house, where he had wrought the former miracle, Behold they brought to him a dumbe man possessed with a de­vill. And when the devill was cast out (by the power of his word) the dumbe spake, and the multitude marvelled, saying, It was never so seen in Israel. But the Pharisees said, he casteth out the devills through the prince of the devills. Of which miracle, because there is no more set down, I have no more to say.

91 That which we have next to take notice of, is, how the co­venant was administred by him the year past, for the breaking of the serpents head, and for the abolishing of the old testa­ment. The Recapi­tulation. By the record of Saint John at Bethabara, to the priests and le­vites that were sent. By comming to Jordan himselfe the second time to receive the testimonies of Saint John, before all the people, and to his two disciples. By calling Saint Philip first to be his disciple. By being present at the marriage in Cana, and by his first miracle there. By do­ing all his miracles for the glory of God, and for the utility and profit of men. By calling disciples to be his disciples by adhaesion. By going up with them to Hierusalem, at the second passeover, after his baptisme. By visiting the temple. By promising to raise the temple of his body. By baptizing his disciples, and by dispensing his baptisme by their mini­stery. By converting the Samaritans. By healing the rulers son by his word. By being known of the devills to be the Messiah. By casting them out by his word. By healing Saint Peters wives mother. By rebuking and by stilling the winds and the sea. By casting out a legion of devills at once. By remitting his sins to the paralytick man, and by curing his disease. By calling Saint Matthew from the receipt of custome. By healing the haemorrhous woman. By raising up Jairus daughter. By restoring sight to two blinde men. By dispossessing a dumb man. It be­came him who humbled himselfe, and was made man for the redemption of all mankinde, to be recorded by Saint John; to re­ceive his testimonies; to call Saint Philip first; to be present at the mariage in Cana, and to do his first miracle there; to do all his miracles for the glory of God, and for the utility and profit of men; to call disciples to be his disciples by adhaesion; to go to Hierusalem; to visit the temple; to promise the resurrection of his bodily temple; to baptize his disciples, and to dispense his baptisme by their ministery; to convert the Samaritans; to heal [Page 151] the rulers son by his word; to be known of the devills to be the Messiah; to cast them out by his word; to heal Saint Peters wives mother; to rebuke and still the winds and the sea; to cast out a legion of devills at once; to remit the sins, and to cure the disease of the paralytick man; to call Saint Matthew from the receipt of custome; to heal the haemorrhous woman; to raise up Jairus daughter; to restore to sight two blinde men; to dispossess a dumb man. And thus our sacred history doth put an end to the second year after his Baptisme, which was the one and thirtieth year of his age.

In the month of November, in that one and thirtieth year of 92 his age, the year preceding this which we now begin, (which was four months before harvest,S. Joh. 4.35. as is expresly observed by Saint John) Jesus, to decline the malice of the Pharisees, who maligned his baptisme, and the number of his disciples, departed out of Judea to go into Galilee. And Saint John makes relation of his going through Samaria, and giveth us the history of the Sama­ritan woman, which none other of the Evangelists doth: but saith almost nothing of his acts for those foure months, neither was it needfull, for he writing his gospell last of all, regarded not to make repetition of those things which had been sufficiently commemorated by the other, seeing that his drift was chiefly to observe those things which had been pretermitted by them. The four months therefore being expired,Christ goeth up to the passeover at Hierusalem. Levit. 23.10. there was a feast of the Jewes. It was the feast of the passeover; for then came har­vest, and upon the second day after the eating of the passeover, which was the second day of sweet-bread, the law commanded that they should offer a sheaf of new corn before the Lord, to crave his blessing upon their harvest. This was the third passe­over after his baptisme, and to this passeover went Jesus, as well to fulfill the righteousnesse of the law, as also to do the work for the which he was sent. Now there was at Hierusalem, Neh. 3.1, 32. The pool of Bethesda. nigh to the sheep-gate, or market, [...], a pond or poole, [...], a sheep pond or pool: a pond or pool where sheep and other cattle were watered or washed, and wherein specially the carcasses of sheep and other beasts to be sacrificed were washed. That pool was called Bethesda, which signifieth the house of pas­sage, effluxion or effusion of water: which pool had five porches. In these lay a great multitude of impotent folk, of blinde, halt, S. Joh. 5.1, withe­red, waiting for the moving of the water. 2, For an Angell went down at a certain season into the pool, and troubled the water; whosoever then first after the troubling of the water stepped in, 3. was made whole of what­soever disease he had. This was miraculous; but what angel it was that troubled the water, hovv long that water had been so troubled, at hovv many times of the year, vvhether at all the so­lemne feasts, vvhether only at the feast of pentecost, or at the [Page 152] passeover, whether once only or at more times in the year, whether at times certain or uncertain, it is not mentioned.

93 It is also marvellous, that none of the other Evangelists, nor any other Scripture-writers, either canonicall or apocryphall, vvhich vvere before Saint Iohn, no nor Philo nor Iosephus, vvho vvere after Saint Iohn, ever made mention of such a miracle there. It makes me to conclude vvith my most learned author, and late reverend Diocesan, that therefore it may seem nec anti­quum fuisse, nec multum temporis perdurâsse, not to have been of an­tiquity, nor to have lasted long, Episcop. Norwic. [...]. Tom. 1. par. post. f. 112. The miracle vvas ceased before Tertullians time, and as it should seem, so soon as they had filled up the mea­sure of their iniquities in the death of the just one, adver. Iud. cap. 13. It vvas not only a miracle, but a great mystery: and so do the learned fathers understand it, though they diversly apply it. Most of them to the sacrament of Baptisme, vvherein a man is made vvhole of all spirituall diseases by the holy Ghost. Among that multitude of impotent folk, lay a certain man vvhich had an infirmity (conjectured to be the palsie, a disease vvherein either all the body,The impotent man cured, who had been diseased 38 years. or some one or more of the members, be mortified, and deprived of feeling and moving, as the hands, the eyes, &c.) thirty and eight years. His disease had made him im­potent, his poverty had made him unable to hire any one to at­tend upon him, and to put him into the water when it should be moved, and the long continuance of his impotency had made him miserable. A fit object was he for Christ his mercy. There­fore said he unto him, Wilt thou be made whole? not be [...]use he did doubt of it; for what impotent man vvould not be made vvhole? But he vvould have him to behold the true physician, whose comming was to cure those that are willing. The man telleth him the cause why he had not been cured. He was poor, and had no man when the water was troubled, to put him into the pool: he was also more impotent then others, so that alwaies while he was comming, (who could make no haste by reason of his impotency) some one or other stepped down before him. Christ therefore cureth him by his word, commandeth him to arise, to take up his bed and walk, which he did immediately. For so is the history delivered by Saint John. S. Joh. 5.1, And there was a feast of the Iewes, 2, and Iesus went up to Hierusalem. Now there is at Hieru­salem by the sheep market, a pool, which is called in the Hebrew tongue Bethesda, 3, having five porches. In these lay a great multitude of impo­tent folk, of blinde, halt, withered, waiting for the moving of the wa­ter. 4, For an angell went down at a certain season into the pool, and trou­bled the water; whosoever then first after the troubling of the water stepped in, 5, was made whole of whatsoever disease he had. And a cer­tain man was there, which had an infirmity thirty and eight years. [Page 153] When Jesus saw him lie, and knew that he had been now a long time in that case, he saith unto him, wilt thou be made whole? 6, The impotent man answered him, Sir, I have no man, when the water is troubled, to put me into the poole; but while I am comming, 7, 8, 9. another steppeth down be­fore me. Jesus saith unto him, Rise, take up thy bed, and walke. And immediately the man was made whole, and took up his bed, and walked; and the same day was the sabbath.

By occasion of the Sabbath day, (and it seems that it was that 94 Sabbath which St. Iohn calleth an high day, S. Joh. 19.31 namely the first or great day of the feast, in which they did eat the passeover, and had eaten it the evening before) the Iewes take upon them to quarrell the poor man that was made whole, objecting to him the breach of the law. It is the sabbath day, The poorman qua [...]elled by the Jewes. v. 10. it is not lawfull for thee to car­rie thy bed. It was indeed unto the Jewes a breach of the law, and a great offence to bear any burthen upon the sabbath day; for thus saith the Prophet Jeremiah. Thus saith the Lord; take heed to your selves, and bear no burden on the sabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Hierusalem. Jer. 17.21, Neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the sabbath day, neither do ye any worke, but hallow ye the sab­bath day, as I commanded your fathers. 22, The charge therefore a­gainst him was great that he violated the sabbath, nay the grea­test of all the sabbaths, the great day of the feast, the high day. Neither doth he deny the violation of the sabbath to be a great offence, nor doth he seek to extenuate his fault, but justifieth the bearing of that burden, by the authority of him that had commanded him so to do: and that was he by whom he was made whole. He that made me whole, the same said unto me, Take up thy bed and walke. Hereat the Jewes enraged,11. demand not the cure, nor who it vvas that had healed him, nor hovv, or in what manner he had done it: but vvho it vvas that had given him commission to carry a burthen upon the sabbath day. What man is that which said unto thee, Take up thy bed and walke? 12, They enquire vvhat man it vvas, to the end that they might persequute him. But he that vvas healed, could give no satisfactory ansvver, for he knevv not vvho it vvas, And Jesus had conveyed himselfe away, a multitude being in that place. 13, Then having first disposed his bur­then, he comes to the Temple, to vvorship, and to praise God; Ie­sus findeth him there, putteth him in mind of the benefit vvhich he had received, to the end that he should be thankfull, ac­knovvledge him the author, and look more carefully to his vvaies hereafter. Behold thou art made whole, sin no more, lest a worse thing come unto thee. The man departed at that saying,14, vvent boldly to the Jewes, and (to the end that he might give God the glory, and testifie of Christ) told them that it vvas Jesus vvhich had made him vvhole. And therefore did the Iewes persecute Jesus, and sought to slay him,15. because he had done these things on [Page 154] the sabbath day. Because he had healed the man, and had also commanded him to carry his bed.Christ a­voucheth his authority. But vvhen he told them by vvhat authority, namely, that God vvas his Father, and that he vvas equall vvith him, then vvere they the more enrag'd, and sought the more to kill him. Yet he maintains his vvord, affirm­ing the Fathers operation & his, to be all one in every thing, and that he vvould do greater things then those miraculous cures; for he would quicken the dead in soule by sin, as being appointed judge of all, and quicken the dead in body also, judging all with righteous judgement. And to the end that they might perceive that he is God, and the son of God, he produceth the testimony of St. Iohn the Baptist, his own miraculous works, the witness of his Father from heaven at his Baptisme, and the scriptures them­selves which testifie of him. And these are the things which we read to have been done by him at that feast in Hierusa­lem.

95 Our blessed Lord did his miracles more sparingly at Hierusa­lem, then in other places; in Galilee he healed all manner of sick­ness,S. Mat. 4.23. S. Mat. 8.16. and all manner of disease among the people. In Capernaum he healed all that were sick. At the pool of Bethesda, lay a great multitude of impotent folk, and he healed but one of them, al­though it must not be denyed, but that he could have healed them all with a word of his mouth. The reason was known on­ly to himself:S. Mat. 13.58 but where they would not believe, there he did not many mighty works. The solemnity of the feast being ended, he went into Galilee, and went into a Synagogue, and there cured a man that had a withered hand: but the story is diversly repor­ted by the Evangelists. The history of the man that had the withered hand. For although all of them do say that his enemies the Scribes, and the Pharisees sought occasion against him to accuse him; (of cruelty or imbecillity, as S. Hierome ob­serveth, if he should not cure him; of breach and violation of the sabbath, S. Mat. 12.10 if he should cure him:) yet St. Matthew saith, that they asked him, saying,, Is it lawfull to heale on the sabbath dayes? But St. Marke and St. Luke do say,S. Mar. 3 4 S. Luc. 6.9. that he asked them, Is it lawfull to do good on the sabbath dayes, or to do evill? to save life, or to kill? In this there is no contrariety: if, as St. Augustine saith, it be understood, that they first asked him, and that he understan­ding their thoughts, and that they sought matter of accusation against him, commanded the man to stand forth, and then he asked them; and when they held their peace, that then he pro­posed the similitude of the sheep fallen into a pit on the sabbath day. De cons. Evang.

96 It is very pertinent to the story, and likely to be true which St. Hierome hath observed out of that apocryphal Gospel which the Nazarites, a sect of Heretiques among the Iewes, and the Ebio­ni [...]es, a judaizing sect among the Christians, did use, called by [Page 155] them the authentick Gospel of St. Matthew. Wherein it is written, that this man whose right hand was withered, was a Playsterer, or rough Mason, who got his living by his painfull la­bour, and that he made supplication unto Christ in this manner; I was a Playsterer, I got my living with my hands, I beseech thee Iesus to make me whole, that I may not shamefully begge my food: Not un­likely; and then the story must be thus. And he entred again into the Synagogue, and there was a man there which had a wi­thered hand; whose right hand was withered. S. Mar. 3.1. S. Luc. 6.6, And the Scribes and Pharisees watched him, whether he would heal [him, Mar. 3.2.] on the sabbath day; that they might find an accusation against him. And they asked him, saying, Is it lawfull to heale on the sab­bath day? that they might accuse him. And he said unto them, 7. What man shall there be among you, that shall have one sheep, S. Mat. 12 10 and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it, and lift it out? How much then is a man bet er then a sheepe? Wherefore it is law­full to do well on the sabbath dayes. He stateth the question,11, and condemneth them also of covetousness, as St. Hierome rightly observeth, If you,12. (saith he) upon the sabbath day make all haste; to pull out a sheep, or some other beast fallen into a pit, yet not for the beast's sake, but therein serving your own cove­tousness, and least you should sustain the loss of the beast; by how much more ought I to cure a man upon the sabbath day, who is much better then a sheep? The man hearing this, pro­bably cryeth out, saying, I was a Playsterer, I got my living with my hands, I beseech thee, O Jesus, to make me whole, that I may not shame­fully begge my food. But he knew their thoughts, and said to the man which had the withered hand, Rise up, S. Luc. 6.8. and stand forth in the midst. And he arose and stood forth. Then said Jesus unto them, I will aske you one thing, Is it lawfull on the sabbath dayes, to do good, or to do evill? to save life, or to destroy it? but they held their peace, as Saint Marke saith. And when he had looked round about on them, 9. with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their hearts, he saith un­to the man, stretch forth thine hand, and he stretched it out, S. Mar. 3.5, and his hand was restored whole as the other. And the Pharisees wen [...] forth, and straight way took counsell with the Herodians against him, 6. how they might destroy him,

But he withdrew himself with his Disciples, from their rage 97 and fury, being attended with great multitudes, who followed him, and came unto him, for his miracles sake, and as many as had infirmities, and were all healed. And it came to pass in those dayes, while he went about attended with such great mul­titudes, doing all sorts of miracles; and having a small ship which waited on him,S. Mar. 3.9. S. Luc. 6.12, 13. because of the multitude lest they should throng him; That he went into a mountaine to pray, and continued all night in prayer to God. And when it was day, he called unto him his Disciples, [Page 156] and of them he chose twelve, whom also he named Apostles. He ordai­ned twelve (saith St. Marke) that they should be with him; S. Mar. 3.14, and that he might send them forth to preach. And to have power to heale sicknes­ses, 15. and to cast out Devils. He called them Apostles, because he made them his legates or Ambassadors, The Apostles ordained, and why so called whom he would present­ly send to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, and after his as­cension to preach the Gospell unto all nations: for the verbe [...] signifieth to send. And the word [...], is amandatus one sent away with commission, or command, generally in any bu­siness, and with any ones commission or command. But Christ his Apostles were sent by his commission and command imme­diately; and therefore by the Evangelists, and Ecclesiasticall Writers,Heb. 3.1. S. Joh. 20.21 are understood specially by that name. Christ him­self was an Apostle, and as he was sent by the Father, even so sent he his Apostles. He sent them even so, but their Sicut doth infer no more but similitude in legation, not parity or equality; they were not therefore equall and one with him, as he was equall and one with the Father. He was sent by the Father, in that he was made of a woman, and made under the law to redeem them that were under the law. They were not sent in such a le­gation; howsoever they were sent in the greatest trust that ever was committed to mortall men, and were sent forth by him im­mediately, even as the Father had sent him. They were the Pa­triarks of the spirituall seed,The number of the Apo­stles. which is the Israel of God: therefore fitly according to the number of the sons of Iacob, twelve. They were the pillars of religion, and of divine worship; therefore fitly according to the number of those pillars,Gen. 35.22. Exod. 24.4. which supported the Altar built by Moses, twelve. They were wells to supply the world with the spiritual water of divine doctrin; therefore fitly according to the number of the wells in Elim, Exo. 25.27. twelve. They were radiant pearles in the Church which is the robe of Christ: therefore fitly according to the number of those precious stones, which were in the Rationall, or breast-plate of judgement, twelve. They did communicate the spiritual food, Exod. 39.14 that bread which came down from heaven unto all nations; therefore fitly according to the number of the proposition cakes, twelve. They were Princes of Israel in a spirituall and Evangelicall sense and meaning;Exod. 24.5. therefore fitly according to the number of the Princes of Israel, twelve. Num. 1.44. They were officers to whom pertained the stewardship of the mysteries of God; therefore fitly according to the number of Solomons officers,1 King 4.7. twelve. They were sent all the world over to baptize all nations; Therefore fitly according to the number of the oxen which supported that sea which Solomon made, where­of three looked toward the North, and three toward the West, and three toward the South,1 King. 7.25. and three toward the East, twelve. They did support the kingdom of Christ, by their doctrin, by [Page 157] their miracles, by their sufferings; therefore fitly, according to the number of the lyons that stood upon the steps of Solomons throne, twelve. 1 King. 10.20. Upon them the fire of Gods Spirit came down from heaven; therefore fitly according to the number of those stones, with which Elijah built the altar,1 King. 18.38. upon which the fire of the Lord fell, twelve. Whatsoever the reason was, why he made choice of twelve only to be his Apostles, Adeò numerus iste sacra­tus est, ut in locum unius, qui exciderat, non posset nisi alter nomi­nari, saith Saint Augustine divinely. In Psal. 103. So sacred is this number, that into the place of one who had fallen away, it could not be, but that another must be named.S. Mar. 3.13. And he goeth up into a mountain, and calleth unto him whom he would; and they came to him. And he ordained twelve that they should be with him; 14, 15, and that he might send them forth to preach: And to have power to heal sick­nesses, and to cast out devills.

All the Apostles were Israelites, descended from Abraham, 98 and Isaac, and Jacob, and the patriarchs; none of them strangers,The Apostles what they were. Idumeans or Samaritans. Nor yet were any of them born in Iu­dea or at Hierusalem, but all of them Galileans by birth: and therefore [...], men of Galilee. Act. 1.11. Act. 2.7. Are not all these which speak, Galileans? But although none of them were born in Iudea, yet were some of them of the tribe of Iuda, as the brethren of our Lord, and the sons of Zebedaeus, Saint Iames and Saint Iohn, the rest probably supposed to be of the tribes of Zabulon and Nephthali; unlesse peradventure Iudas the traitour were of Issa­char, which hath been thought by some. Search and look (said the chiefe Priests and Pharisees to Nichodemus) for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet. S. Joh. 7.52. But it was that transcendent honour that he would do unto Galilee to make it his owne country, to be in­carnate in the wombe there, to dwell there, to do his most mighty works there, and that all his Apostles should be of Ga­lilee. The names of which twelve Apostles according to Saint Matthew are set down thus; The first Simon, who is called Peter, S. Mat. 10.2, and Andrew his brother, Iames the son of Zebedee, and Iohn his bro­ther: Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew the publican, 3, 4. Iames the son of Alpheus, and Lebbeus whose surname was Thaddeus; Simon the Canaanite, and Iudas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. But this order is not kept neithrr in the Evangelists Saint Mark and Saint Luke; neither doth Saint Luke in the acts of the Apostles, S. Mar. 3.16. S. Luc. 16.14. Act. 1.13. nominate them in the same order as in his gospell; notwithstan­ding in every one of these, Saint Peter is named first; to him therefore is given priority, but not majority. Simon the Cana­anite was he who is also called Zelotes, and Lebbeus whose surname was Thaddeus, he whom Saint Luke calleth Iudas the brother of Iames. With these he came down from the mountain, and stood in the plain, there being much people assembled from ma­ny [Page 158] places to hear, and to be healed; in the presence of whom, (having first cured the diseased) he preacheth to his disciples of blessings, and curses. How we must love our enemies, and do them all the good that we can. Not to judge rashly or unchari­tably. That the masters must first mend themselves. That we must joyne the obedience of good works to the hearing of the word,S. Luc. from v. 17. to v. 49. lest in the evill day of temptation we fall, like an house built upon the face of the earth, without any foundation at all.

99 He did not presently send forth his Apostles to preach, so soon as they were elected, but so soon as he had sufficiently prepared and instructed them by his divine doctrine and precepts,Christ his Sermon upon the mount. whereunto pertaineth that famous Sermon of his preached unto his Apostles after their election, before the multitude upon the mount, repeated by the Evangelist Saint Matthew, Cap. 5.6.7. There were some bre­thren in Saint Hieroms time, who were of those that vvere more simple, who thought that Sermon to have been preached by Christ to his disciples before the multitude upon mount olivet: but they were merely deceived, for all circumstances both antece­dent and subsequent, do plainly evince it to have been prea­ched in Galilee, upon mount Thabor, (saith Saint Hierom) or upon some other mountain there.Mount Tha­bor. Thabor was a round high hill in Galilee, upon the borders of Issachar and Zebulon, fifty and six miles they say from Hierusalem towards the north, of a pure aire, and wonderfully fertile; and I am easily induced to think, that his concio ad clerum to have been preached to his elected Apostles, and other disciples upon that mountain. It was not the former sermon mentioned by Saint Luke to have been preached in the plain standing, but rather that sermon enlarged, and preached at another time to his Apostles upon a mountain sitting: which posture of sitting, as Saint Augustine saith, did pertain ad dignitatem magistri, to the dignity of the Master. For he taught them as one having authority, (as one who had the re­seration and understanding of all the scriptures, and of all the prophets, by whose power (saith Bede) the secrets of the divine law of God, panduntur fidelibus, clauduntur infidelibus, are opened to the faithfull, are shut up unto the unbelievers. In Apoc. cap. 2.S. Mat. 7.29,) and not as the Scribes. 1st He promiseth blessednesse, as his own reward to them that follow him in true piety, and a virtuous life. 2ly He admonisheth his Apostles what he had made them, [...], the salt of the earth, and [...], the light of the world. That therefore they must diligently preach the word of God, and abound in good works. 3ly He tells them, he came to fulfill the law: and from thence takes occasion to ex­pound divers precepts of the law, perverted and obscured by the impious glosses, and traditions of the scribes and pharisees, [Page 159] as touching murther, adultery, divorce, swearing, revenge, and then setteth down divers practick rules of charity, and commendeth perfection, with which that Chapter is conclu­ded. In the sixth Chapter he goeth on, condemning the feigned righteousness of the scribes and pharisees, who did play the hy­pocrites in their almes, prayers, and fastings; instructing them now to give their almes, to pray, and to fast. And because the pharisees were covetous, envious, and distrustfull of the provi­dence of God; that therefore they must beware of covetousness, an evill eye, and not to be solicitous of things pertaining to this present life. In the seventh chapter, because the pharisees were uncharitable judgers of others; therefore they must take heed that they judge not any rashly or uncharitably. And because they were contumaciously wicked, and would surely persecute them, that therefore they should not expose the holy things of religion to their scorn and contempt. But because that they are not able to performe these things of themselves; that therefore they must be instant in prayer; for God will give them either the things which they pray for, or some other things which shall be better, and more convenient for them. Then gives he a generall rule of righteousnesse, as well distributivè as commu­tativè, which is the law and the prophets: admonishing them of the way to heaven, and premonishing them of false prophets who would seek to divert them from it. Finally not to be hea­rers of the word only, but doers of it, like houses builded on a rock, and not on the sand. And so concludeth his Sermon to the admiration and astonishment of all the hearers.

Having ended his Sermon he came down from the mountain, 100 The leper cu­red. S. Mat. 8.2. S. Mar. 1.40. S. Luc. 5.12. followed by great multitudes of people. And behold there came a leper and worshipped him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. Saint Mark saith, that he came beseeching him, and kneeling downe to him; Saint Luke, that he was full of leprosie, and that seeing Jesus he fell on his face. And both Saint Matthew, Saint Mark, and Saint Luke do say, that he made his supplication, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. Therefore have we to note the humility of this leper, [...], he worshipped him, he worshipped him with bowing of his body, and holding up his hands to make supplication. But this was not a posture low enough, for bodily reverence, and for supplication to him that could cure him at his pleasure; there­fore he came down upon his knees, [...], kneeling down to him, saith Saint Mark: and yet was he not low enough; before he would tender his petition, he would go as low as possibly he could, even to the earth, to manifest his humility by the lowest deportment, [...], falling down on his face, as Saint Luke saith. 2ly We have to observe his faith, [Page 160] whereby he maketh a good confession, acknowledgeth the power of Christ, and consequently his Godhead, that he was able to make him clean by the power of his word; and, with due submission unto his will, he desired cure, yet not abso­lutely, but according to the good pleasure of his will. Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. It was that which Christ willed, And Jesus put forth his hand and touched him, S. Mat. 8.3. saying, I will, be thou clean; and immediately his leprosy was cleansed. And Jesus saith un­to him, See thou tell no man, but go thy way, shew thy selfe to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them. The gift commanded by Moses was to be offered by him that was to be cleansed, and in the day of his cleansing, Levit. 14. But Christ would have him that was cleansed to offer the gift, for a testimony unto them, that he came not to destroy, but to fulfill the law, as Tertullian observeth, Lib. 4. cont. Mar­cion. cap. 9. That the priest also might pronounce him clean, and testifie against themselves, in that they would not believe in him, who testified his Divinity by all the miracles that he did. But he went out, S. Mar. 1.45. and began to publish it much, and to blaze abroad the matter; insomuch that Jesus could no more openly enter into the city, but was without in desart places; and they came to him from every quarter. He published that which he was forbidden, but not in that sense in which he was forbidden to publish it: he was for­bidden to publish it for his owne sake, for he must not boast of the benefit which he had received. He was forbidden to publish it for Christ his sake, so as to procure to him the vain praise of man which he sought not for: but he was not forbidden to publish it for the glory of God. And therefore he did publish it, although he had been commanded to say nothing to any man, and did blaze it abroad, as Saint Mark saith.

101 Being departed from that city, he came to Capernaum, where he healed the Centurions servant who was sick of a palsey,The Centu­rions servant cured of a palsey. and ready to die. The story is diversly reported by the Evangelists Saint Matthew and Saint Luke, and must be reconciled thus. This Centurion (a foot-captain or commander of an hundred foot­men, but not an Israelite) hearing of Jesus, made means unto him on the behalfe of his servant, by the Elders of the Jewes, who ha­ving interceded effectually for him,S. Luc. 7.2, 3, 4, 5. v. 6, 7, 8, Christ went with them, as Saint Luke saith. But when he was not far from the house, he sent friends to him with such a message, as Saint Luke also delivers. Which when Iesus heard, he marvelled at him, and turned him about, and said unto the people that followed him, I say unto you,9, 10. I have not found so great faith, no not in Israel. And they that were sent returning to the house, found the servant whole that had been sick. In the mean while the Centurion, for the love he bare unto his servant, came unto him in his own person, and [Page 161] made supplication unto him, saying, Lord, my servant lyeth at home sick of the Palsie, grievously tormented. And Jesus said unto him, S. Mat. 8.6, 7, v. 8, 9. I will come and heale him. (For he was then going to heal him.) The Centurion replyed, as it is in the two verses next following. When Jesus heard it he marvelled, and said, (the second time) to them that followed, (averring the truth of it by his usuall asseveration which he had not done before, and enlarging himself further) Verely I say unto you, I have not found so great faith, no not in Israel. And I say unto you, 10, that many shall come from the East and West, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdome of heaven. 11. But the children of the kingdome shall be cast out into outer darknesse: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. And then said he to the Centurion, Go thy way, 12, and as thou hast be­lieved so be it done unto thee; and his servant was healed in the selfe same hour.

Having so cured the Centurions servant, the next day after he 102 went into a certain city called Naim (it was scituated in the north side of mount Hermon the lesser, in the tribe of Issachar, The widows son raised from the dead two miles off the mount Thabor, or there about) And when he came nigh to the gate of the city, behold, there was a dead man carried out, the onely sonne of his mother, and she was a widow; and much peo­ple of the city was with her. All which circumstances are diligent­ly observed by St. Gregory Nyssen; he was a young man, S. Luc. 7.12. therefore his death the more deplorable; he was the son of a widow, there­fore the loss irreparable; he was her onely sonne, therefore the stock of the family, that branch by which posterity should have been propagated, the prop also of her old age in him extin­guished. These were the causes of her griefe, and of Christs com­passion, whom first he comforted by counsell, Weep not. Then rai­sed him from the dead by the power of his word, so turning her grief into joy, and her mourning into gladness. And he came and touched the beere, (and they that bare him stood still.) And he said, 14, young man, I say unto thee, arise. And he that was dead sate up, and began to speak: and he delivered him to his mother: 15. Now the Di­sciples of St. John the Baptist, hearing of this, and of other mira­cles which he did, came unto him in the prison, and told him of them. Whereupon St. John, who before had testified of him,The legation of St. John the Baptist to Christ. S Joh. 1.29.33. saying, Behold the lambe of God, which taketh away the sin of the world; and came to the knowledge of him by the holy Ghost; And had stated the former controversie betwixt some of his Disciples and the Iewes, and had preached unto them that most excellent Sermon, concerning the person, merits, and office of Christ, the Gospell epitomized (as it is repeated by St. John cap. 3. from the 27. v. to the end) he, to take away all occasion of doubting from his Disciples, [and because he would surrender his Disciples to Christ, having prepared them for him by his preaching and [Page 162] baptism] delegated two of them to go unto Christ, to ask him this question, saying, Art thou he that should come, or look we for a­nother? They come and deliver unto him their ambassage accor­dingly. John Baptist (said they) hath sent us unto thee, saying, Art thou he that should come, or look we for another? But Christ (who knew of their legation,S. Luc. 2 19 S. Mat. 11.3 and understood St. Johns mind) did in the same hour cure many of their infirmities and plagues, and of evill spirits, and to many, that were blind, he gave sight. It was to the end that he might answer them rather by his workes, then by his words. Therefore said he, Go your way, and tell John what things ye have seen, and heard; how that the blind see, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deafe heare, the dead are raised, to the poore the Gospell is preached. S. Luc. 7.22 23. And blessed is he whosoever shall not be offend­ed in me. They being gone, Christ giveth his testimony concern­ing St. John, Simon the Pharisee in­viteth Christ to his house. 36. as it followeth in both the Evangelists, St. Matthew, and St. Luke. At that time, as it should seem by the story, a cer­tain Pharisee whose name was Simon, invited him to take an entertainment in his house, where, by occasion of St. Mary Mag­dalen, who came with an Alabaster box of oyntment, and stood behind at his feet weeping, and did wash them with her teares, and wipe them with the hairs of her head, and kissed them, and annointed them with oyntment; he declared himself to be a friend to sinners, yet not to maintain them in sin, but to forgive them their sins,S. Luc. 7.44, 45, 46, 47.48, 49.50, upon their faith and true repentance. St. Mary Magdalen was a true penitent; and as St. Bernard saith, by compunction and tears she obtained that Christ should say unto her, Thy sins are forgiven thee. De compunct. cord. ser. 10.

These occurrences were probably at Naim; and when he was 103 departed thence, the multitude commeth together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread. S. Mar. 3 20 Then was brought unto him one possessed with a Devill blind and dumbe, and he healed him, in so much that the blind and dumbe both spake and saw. S. Mat. 12 22 A blind and dumbe devil dispossessed. 23. By occasion whereof he incurs a fourfold censure; for first, the multitude was amazed, and by the miracle that he had wrought, they con­cluded for certain that he was the son of David. 2ly His friends and kindred being well affected towards him, and considering the great concourse of people that came unto him, and that he neglected to take his food, thought him not well advised, and went out and sought to lay hold on him, not to bind him as a demoniak, but to bring him home to refresh himself, and that he might take his food; for said they, [...], he is beside himselfe, non est apud se, He is not in a right mind, that he should thus macerate himself.S. Mar. 3 21 3ly The proud Scribes could not but per­ceive the power of his Divinity, by the words that he spake, by the works that he wrought, and yet through pride and envy, they condemned him as one that wrought by the Devil. The Scribes [Page 163] which came from Hierusalem, said, he hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of Devills, casteth he out Devills. 4ly The Pharisees, willful­ly blind and willingly ignorant,S. Mat 3.22 notwithstanding the conviction of their own consciences, assented to the vote of the Scribes, and said even as they did, This fellow doth not cast out Devils, but by Beelzebub the prince of Devils. Hereupon others of their consorts, S. Mat. 12.24 seeing that the Scribes and Pharisees had condemned this signe to be from hell, tempted him, and sought of him a signe from heaven. They would have had him peradventure (as St. Hierome also saith) to have brought fire from heaven as Elijah did;2 King. 1.10 1 Sam. 12.18. or to have caused it suddainly to thunder and rain, as the prophet Samuel did. But he apologizeth, and recriminateth. By the apologie he maintaineth his divine power, whereby that, and all other his divine miracles were effected. By the recrimination he convict­eth them of that irremissible sin which is against the holy Ghost, The Scribes and Phari­sees convin­ced of the ir­remissible sin. in that they saw and knew his divine power in the works which he did, and yet blasphemed. The apologie is grounded upon two arguments, whereof the first is taken from the absurdity of the consequence, as if he should say, how irrationall is this? How doth Sathan cast out Sathan? is his kingdom divided? or doth he himself seek the ruine of his own kingdom? or must it not needs be so, if he will cast himself out where he hath once got­ten quiet possession? This is true of every kingdom,S. Mat. 12.25 26 27, 28. S. Mar. 3.23, 24, 25, 26. S. Luc. 11.17 18, 19, 20. and of eve­ry house, therefore of Sathans kingdom, and of Sathans house: how then do I by Sathan cast out Devills? or by whom doe your children cast them out? The second is taken from the manner of ejection, which is the necessity of the consequence. How can I cast out Sathan against his will, were I not stronger then he? can any man enter into a strong mans house, and spoil his goods, if he be not stronger then that strong man, first to bind him, and then to spoil his goods? If I therefore have entred into Sathans house: If I have bound him;S Mat. 12.29 30. S Mar. 3.27 S Luc. 11.21, 22, 23. S Mat. 12.31 32. S Mar. 3.28, 29, 30. The irremis­sible sin a­gainst the holy Ghost. if I have cast him quite out of his house, and despoyled him of his goods, as you may see in this demoniak, am I not then stronger then Sathan? And if stronger then Sathan, who else but God, and the son of God? The recrimina­tion followeth, and is this; therefore you Scribes and Pharisees, because you have said that I have an unclean spirit, and do cast out Devils by the Prince of Devils, have sinned against the Ho­ly Ghost to your own damnation. The irremissible sin therefore is not blasphemy against the nature or person of the holy Ghost, if a man shall deny that there is an holy Ghost, or third person, as did the Photinians; or if he shall deny him to be God, or more then a creature, as did the Macedonians. Quid ergo fiet de his, quos lu­crari cupit ecclesia? saith St. Augustine. What shall then become of those whom the Church desireth to acquire? De verb. Dom. Ser. 11. cap. 4. The Church desireth to gaine, and hath gained [Page 164] such. But that irremissible sin is blasphemy against the works of the holy Ghost, and is when he that is illuminated, shall against his own knowledge and conscience slander, and blaspheme the ho­ly Ghost in his works, by a malicious obtrectation, by a wilfull re­pudiation, and by an envious persecution of those that work them. So the Scribes and Pharisees blasphemed the holy Ghost, by affirm­ing those works to be done by Beelzebub, which they saw, and knew to be done by the finger of God, and by persecuting Christ for his works sake.

104 Saint Matthew and St. Luke proceed in the recrimination, and both of them do say,S Mat. 12.39 40. S Luc. 11.29 30. The signe of the Prophet Ionah that he denyed them a signe from heaven: that is to say, such a signe, and in such a manner as they desi­red: But yet promised the signe of the Prophet Ionas, by the re­surrection of his body upon the third day. Indeed Jonah was an excellent type of the resurrection of Christ, and of his resurrecti­on upon the third day. For like as Jonah for three dayes was in the Whales belly, and during that time no better then dead: but then the fish could hold him no longer, for then the Lord spake unto the fish, Jon. 2.10. and it vomited out Jonah upon the dry land. And Jonah is sent a Prophet to preach to Nineveh, that they should repent. Piscis qui Ionam devoravit in pelago, significat mortem quam Christus passus est in mundo, saith one of the Fathers. The fish which devoured Jonah in the sea, signifieth the death which Christ suffered in the world. For even so was Christ in the grave, as Jonah in the Whales belly, till the third day: but then the earth could hold him no longer, God speaks unto the grave, and the grave must surrender his blessed body, and he ariseth and preacheth to the Ninevites, for he sendeth his Apostles with ample commission,Rom. 10.18 And their sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world. In amplifying of which recrimi­nation, while he insisteth more sharply, he telleth them that the Queene of the south, and the Ninevites, shall rise up in judgement against them for their unbelief, and hardness of heart, to their condemnation,S Mat. 12.43 44, 45. S. Luc. 11.24 25, 26. which he affirmeth to be just, for as much as the Devill whom he would cast out of the world by the power of his Gospell, should in a worse manner than ever, enter again into their nation.

105 And as he insisted upon these things, a certain woman that heard him, and was in the company, (be it Marcella, or whoso­ever it were,Blessedness of Christs mother.) cryed out as in a divine rapture, Blessed is the wombe that bare thee, and the paps which thou hast sucked. Indeed the wombe was blessed, the paps were blessed, the body was blessed, the soul was blessed;S. Luc. 1.48 yea, and all generations shall call her blessed; but that blessedness came not to her by bearing of Christ, but by be­lieving in Christ; S. Luc. 11.28 and therefore he replyeth, saying, yea, rather blessed are they that heare the word of God and keep it. So having [Page 165] pronounced his mother blessed, blessed in bearing, more blessed in believing, she together with his brethren arriveth there,S. Luc. 8.19. de­siring to speak with him; and because they could not come at him for the preass, they sent unto him, calling him as Saint Mark saith.The cause of her comming to Christ as he was prea­ching. No doubt but the cause of their comming was good, and (as they thought) at that time necessary: peradventure to perswade him to take some pitty upon himselfe, considering his long fasting and continuall pains; which also is the judg­ment of Theophilact. Which compassion of theirs proceeded meerly out of humane affection, but was not sinfull. Whatsoever the cause was, he knew it, and being about the businesse of his holy and heavenly Father, he did not intermit it, nor yet con­demne his mother and brethren of importunity: but from thence takes occasion to tell them of other mothers and brethren which he had by the adoption of God. For,S Mat. 12.50 S. Mar. 3.35. (saith he) Whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my bro­ther, and sister, and mother. So when he had made an end, he went to dinner with a certain Pharisee, where he reprehended the outward shew, and simulate sanctity of the pharisees, scribes, and lawyers, as it followeth in Saint Luke, cap. 11. from v. 37. to the end.

The same day (as Saint Matthew saith) Jesus went out of the 106 house; (the pharisees house where he had dined;Christ tea­cheth the people in pa­rables. S. Luc. 11.53, 54. S. Mat. 13.1, for the scribes and pharisees did not patiently bear his reprehensions, but be­gan to urge him vehemently, and to provoke him to speak of many things: laying wait for him, and seeking to catch something out of his mouth, that they might accuse him) and sate by the sea-side. And great multitudes were gathered together unto him, among whom were Saint Mary Magdalen, and Joanna the wife of Chuza, and Susanna, Luc. 8.2.3. so that he went into a ship and sate,2. and the whole multitude stood on the shore. In that posture he taught them many things by parables, Psal. 49.4. & 78.2. (for so the Scriptures had foretold of him) whereof Saint Matthew observeth seven. Of the sower and of the seed. Of the tares. Of the mustard-seed. Of the leaven. Of the hidden treasure. Of the pearl. Of the draw-net. Concerning all which, the Rhemists gives this briefe account. He sheweth (say they) by the parable of the sower, The account which the Rhemists give of his parables. that in the la­bours of the Church, three parts of foure do perish through the fault of the hearers. And yet by the parable of good seed and coc­kle, (as also of the net) that his servants must not for all that, never while the world lasteth, make any schisme or separation. And by the parable of the little mustard-seed, and leaven, that notwithstanding the three parts perishing, and over-sowing of cockles, yet that fourth part of the good seed shall spread over all the world; And withall what a treasure, and pearl it is. Now when he had spoken unto them all these his parables, he depar­ted [Page 166] thence and came into his owne country,He commeth to Nazareth he second time. namely to Naza­reth, together with his disciples, and went into the Synagogue upon the sabbath day and taught, but with no successe; for they were offended at him, and reproached him, saying, Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? Therefore when he had testified against them,S. Mat. 13, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58. S. Mar. 6.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. S. Mar. 3.7. saying, A prophet is not with­out honour, but in his own country, and among his own kin, and in his own house: he departed, doing no mighty works there, but only that he laid his hands upon a few sick folk and healed them; marvel­ling at their unbeliefe who had thus rejected him the second time. And he went round about the cities and villages teaching and preaching in their Synagogues, and working cures every where. But when he saw the multitudes, he was moved with compassion on them, because they fainted, and were scattered abroad as sheep having no shepheard. S. Mat. 9.36. The Apostles sent forth two and two. Hereupon he called toge­ther those twelve disciples whom he had ordained and named Apostles, to the end that they should be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach; and sendeth them forth by couples,S. Mar. 6.7. S. Luc. 9.2. [...], two and two, to preach the kingdome of God, and to heal the sick, by casting out devills, and by curing all manner of sicknesses and diseases. These he sendeth to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, S. Mat. 10.6. with instructions accordingly, which Saint Mat­thew, who himselfe was one of them, setteth down at large. 1st He gives them a charge concerning the execution of his commission,S. Mat. 10.7, 8, by doctrine, by works. How they must go forth, not as the Embassadours of Princes, with much preparation; but as legats of Divine providence without provision. For the workman is worthy of his meat. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, How they must deport themselves where they shall come. And concludeth with a commination against those who shall not receive them as his Ambassadours. 2ly He tells them how he sends them forth, and that they must expect persecution in the world. 3ly He comforteth them as touching persecution, and exhorteth them to perseverance for the reward sake. 4ly He gives them leave to flie from citie to citie, yet not to be disheartned nor to fear, but to speak his word boldly. 5ly He assureth them of divine providence, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, and that there shall be no cause for them to fear, but to persevere, and to expect the re­ward if they faint not. 6ly That the cause of his comming was not to send peace to the wicked world, to the end that men should conclude and keep an inviolable peace with their sins and vices, but the sword of persecution accidentally by the gospell. 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43. Lastly, He sheweth who are worthy of him; and promiseth a blessing to those that shall receive them, or any other whom he shall send forth with his commission to preach the gospell in his name. So the Apostles went forth as they were commanded, throughly [Page 167] instructed, with an undaunted spirit and resolution.S. Mar. 6.30. S. Luc. 9.10. And when they were returned, they gave an account to him (which all his ministers must also do) of all things both what they had done, and what they had taught.

How long it was that the Apostles were absent from Christ in 107 this legation before they returned, it is not mentioned.The decolla­tion of Saint John the Baptist. How­beit, so neer as I can collect by all circumstances, in the time of their absence it was, and while they went about two and two, preaching the gospell and doing miracles in his name, that Herod took off the head of Saint John the Baptist, whose impri­sonment by him we mentioned before, but reserved the history to this place. Herod the King, the first and greatest of that name, who persecuted Christ in his cradle, and caused the poor infants to be massacred for his sake; had a sister named Salome, maried to Alexas; and two wives, Malthace a Samaritan, and Mariamne who was niece to Hercanus by Alexandra his daughter, and of the Assamonaean family. By Malthace he had three sons, Arche­laus who raigned after him in Judea, of whom St. Mat. 2.22. and Herod Antipas Tetrarch of Galilee, and Philip Tetrarch of Itu­rea, and of the region of Trachonitis, of whom St. Luc. 3.1. By Mariamne the Assamonaean he had two sons, Aristobulus and Alexander. Aristobulus had to wife Bernice the daughter of Sa­lome his fathers sister, and of her he had a daughter whose name was Herodias. But these were not all the wives that Herod had, for he had also to wife another Mariamne, the daughter of Si­mon Boethus the high priest, born in Alexandria, by whom he had also a son whose name was Herod; this Herod married He­rodias, and had by her a daughter whose name was Salome, and then he dyed. After whose death Herodias married Philip Te­trarch of Iturea, a second husband, the brother of Herod Antipas by father and mother, and both of them brethren to Herod de­ceased, by the fathers side. Herod Antipas falls in love with He­rodias his brother Philips wife, and she consenteth to forsake Philip her husband, and did so. Herod Antipas (for so it was agreed betwixt them) repuding his lawfull wife, who was the daughter of Aretas king of Arabia, took unto him this Herodias, who was the wife of Philip his owne brother both by father and mother, as is said before, and had her home to his house, to­gether with Salome her daughter: but Philip whom she had for­saken lived still, and died not till in the twentieth year of Tibe­rius the Emperour, after that he had governed his Province thirty and seven years, as Josephus saith; a good and quiet man, ready to do justice to all men at all times; he obtained a sump­tuous funerall, and was laid into a monument which himselfe had builded. Antiq. lib. 18. cap. 6. Such were the incestuous marriages of the Herodian family. But, hinc illae lachrymae. For [Page 168] Saint John the Baptist comming out of Judea into Galilee, (as be­fore is said) and having accesse unto Herods court, was had in esteem by Herod himselfe,S. Mar. 6.20. who observed him; and when he heard him, he did many things, and heard him gladly. But Saint Iohn knew not how to daube with untempered morter; he could not dis­semble the sins and vices of the court, nor would he permit a sin so hainous to be unreproved, but told Herod plainly, It is not lawfull for thee to have her. S. Mat. 14.4. Levit. 18.16. Levit. 20.21. Saint Iohn spake law; for the law of God saith, Thou shalt not uncover the nakednesse of thy brothers wife; it is thy brothers nakednesse. And if a man shall take his brothers wife, it is an unclean thing; he hath uncovered his brothers nakednesse; they shall be childlesse. Herodias the cause of her hatred against Saint John. Hence sprung the hatred of Herodias against Saint John, who for that cause had a quarrell against him, and would have killed him if she could. She was impudent, and was not ashamed of her uncleannesse; she was proud and obstinate, so that she would not endure reproof. Besides it is well obser­ved by venerable Bede, she did fear, lest that Herod should at length repent, or be reconciled to his brother, whereby it would come to passe, that this her incestuous mariage should be dissolved. Therefore watched she all opportunities to de­stroy him, and no doubt had counselled her daughter to do the like; having by her importunity so far prevailed with Herod, that he had laid hold on him, and laid him a prisoner in bonds in the castle of Machaerun, which was a frontire town betwixt his and Aretas king of Arabia Petraeaes country. Herod also him­selfe (I suppose) was not difficultly induced to imprison him, whom he knew to be a just man, and an holy, justum quoad homines, sanctum quoad Deum; S. Mar. 6, 20. just to men-ward, holy to God-ward, as the Glosse saith; such is the rage of unlawfull lust. He was vvil­ling, but durst not put him to death, and when he would have done it, [...], he feared the multitude, lest they should make insurrection, and revolt from his government, because they counted him as a prophet. S. Mat. 14.5.

108 But Herodias did neither fear nor care what would come af­ter, so that she might have her will, to wash away her present fear in the innocent blood of the Baptist. Therefore attending all seasons, at length there came a convenient day. It was the birth-day of this Herod Antipas, which of custome he did so­lemnize anniversarily, (an old custome in the courts of princes, especially pagan) for the solemnity whereof, he made a supper to his Lords, high captains, and chiefe estates of Galilee; and then the foresaid Salome the daughter of Herodias by her first husband Herod, came into the presence, and danced before Herod Anti­pas, and before all his guests. Wherewith he was so much ta­ken, that he bad her to ask whatsoever she would, swearing that whatsoever she should ask, he would give it her to the halfe of [Page 169] his kingdom. She who had been pre-instructed by her mother He­rodias, S. Mat 14.8. upon all occasions to work the destruction of St. John the Baptist, went in presently and acquainted her mother how mat­ters had passed betwixt the king and her, demanding her ad­vice what she should ask. She counselleth, that setting all other demands aside, she should ask the head of the Baptist, as being of more consequence to them both, then any thing else which the Tetrarch could give. And so it followeth in the Evangelist, that she came in straight way with haste unto the King, and asked, saying, I will that thou give me by and by in a charger, S. Mar. 6.25 the head of John the Baptist. And the King was exceeding sorry, yet for his oath's sake, and for their sakes which sate with him, he would not reject her. 26, And immediately the King sent, (not to the castle of Maehaerun, which was in the confines of his countrey, remote; but to some neerer place whither he had removed him to another prison, 27, and from whence he might presently send for his head) an executi­oner, and he went, and beheaded him in prison. 28. S. Mat. 14.9, 10, 11. And brought his head in a Charger, and gave it to the damosell, and the damosell gave it to her mother.

Thus was the blood of that righteous man most unjustly spilt, 109 but his body, (whether at Samaria, then called Sebast, The body bu­ried by his Disciples. in honour of Augustus Caesar; or in what other place, it is not mentioned) was buried by his Disciples, who so soon as they heard of it, took it up and buried it, and went and told Jesus. But his head remain­ed in the power of wicked Herodias, S. Mat. 14.12 S. Mar. 6.29 by whom they say it was secretly buried, [...], in an obscure corner or place of the palace, Niceph. lib. 1. cap. 19, after that it had been by her contumeliously used, and his tongue pulled out and stricken through with a Bodkin, as Saint Hierome saith. Now wickedness condemned by its own witness is very timerous, Wisd. 17.11 and being expressed with conscience, alwaies forecasteth grievous things. This appeared in this Herod Antipas, the guilt of whose consci­ence after this facinorus act,The guilty conscience of Herod An­tipas. drove him into a doating suspition of St. John, and that he was risen from the dead, no doubt (as he thought) to do him some mischief. He could not but hear of the fame of Jesus, and of his miracles done all over Galilee, and at his gates, for almost two years together: yet now, when a greater report was made of them then ever before, and his mira­cles were multiplyed every where, and that he was highly mag­nified in the mouthes of all men, and that it was known that his Disciples had been sent forth by him, and done great things in his name, and that men began to think and speak variously of him at the court, that Elias had appeared, or that one of the old Pro­phets were risen again; And because that it was said of some, that St. John was risen from the dead; therefore Herod, there­unto deluded by his own guilty conscience, was perplexed, and [Page 170] could not be removed from that fond conceit.S Mat. 14.1.2 S. M [...]r. 6.14.15, 16. S. Luc. 9.7, 8 9. It is Iohn (said he) whom I beheaded, he is risen from the dead. And St. Luke saith, that he desired to see him; but to what end, he saith not. So was that verified in this Herod, which St. Chrysostome observeth, Sinners, whether they do know, or whether they do not know, do feare every noise; sin doth bewray him whom no man reproveth, it condemeneth him whom no man accuseth.

110 The Apostles being returned, he taketh them and departeth thence by ship into a desert place,Christ take [...]h his Apostles to a desert place. S. Mar. 6.31 belonging to the city of Beth­saida. It was not for fear of Herod, but to give unto his Apostles some rest after their travell. Come ye your selves apart, into a desert place, and rest awhile. For the place where they were, was not convenient; there were many comming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat: therefore went they thither in a ship privately. That desert place, though it did belong to Beth­saida, The desert belonging to Bethsaida. yet was it not far from Capernaum, and is said to be an ex­ceeding high hill standing upon the shore of the Galilean sea, beautified with many herbs and flowers of divers kinds, very fruitfull and pleasant, and extendeth it selfe in length almost two bows shoot, and one in breadth. From whence a man might take a view of the whole sea of Galilee, and of the countries of Iturea and Trachonitis, whereof Philip was Tetrarch, even to the mount Libanus; also the mountains Sanir and Hermon, and of a great part of the upper and lower Galilee. Itinerar Scrip. p. 446. Now when the multitude had true intelligence of his going thi­ther,He feeds 500 men with 5 loaves and two fishes. and of his being there, they followed him on foot out of the cities, which they might do by those bridges which were over Iordan, and at Tiberias. There (as the story is set down at large by the Evangelists) with five loaves and two fishes, he fed about five thousand men, besides women and children, who did all eat and were filled,S. Mat. 14. S. Mar. 6. S. Luc. 9. and they took up of the fragments that remained, twelve baskets full. From which miracle so wrought there, they call that mountain, the table of Christ, and of his Apo­stles. Then those men, when they had seen the miracle that Iesus did, said, This is of a truth that Prophet that should come into the world. Therefore they set up an unanimous resolution to make him a King. S Joh. 6.14. For it was the common opinion of the Jewes, that the Messiah should come to take upon him an earthly kingdom. Which opinion the Disciples themselves held after his resurrection. When they therefore were come together, they asked of him, Act. 1.6. saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdome to Israel?

111 And straightway Jesus constrained his Disciples to get into a ship,S. Mat. 14.22 S. Mar. 6.45. and to go before him unto the other side, while he sent the multitudes away. It was to Bethsaida that he would have them to go. They being dismissed, he went up into a mountain apart to [Page 171] pray. It should seem to be the same mountain from which he descended to dismiss the people, and St. John observes the oc­casion of his going up by himself alone, it was because he per­ceived that they would come, and take him by force to make him a King.S. Joh. 6.15. Worldly honours and preferments are great temp­tations, a kingdom the greatest of all; he would pray, that which he hath taught us to pray (and for our example, so often as temptation shall betide us) Lead us not into temptation.He walketh on the sea to his Disciples But there was an other end, for he would confirm the faith of his Apostles by another miracle; therefore he stayed behind in the mountain, but the ship was in the midst of the sea, about five and twenty, or thirty furlongs off the land, tossed with waves; and hindred by a contrary wind. In the fourth watch of the night he came unto them walking on the sea, and would have passed by them; S. Mat. 14.25 S. Mar. 6.48. This put them all into a great fear, so that they cryed out, say­ing, it is a spirit; but he told them that it was no phantasm, it was himself. Whereupon (the rest being silent) St. Peter reply­ed, saying, Lord if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water; Christ bad him, and he went; but being like to drown he was afraid, and cryed out; but Christ saved him.S Mat. 14.32 And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased. Then they that were in the ship, came and worshipped him, saying, of a truth thou art the son of God. 33. And immediately (which was also miraculous) they were at the land, and went on shore in the region of Genesareth, He ariveth in the land of Genezareth. a country bordering upon the sea of Galilee, wherein stood Capernaum and Bethsaida, a land pleasant and fruitfull, abounding with many sorts of excellent fruits, fair and goodly to the eye. And when they were come out of the ship, straight way they knew him. And ran through that whole region round about, S. Mar. 6.54, 55, and began to carry about in beds those that were sick, where they heard he was. And whithersoever he en­tred, into villages, or cities, or country, they layed the sick in the streets, and besought him, that they might touch, if it were but the borders of his garment; and as many as touched him were made whole. All which in effect, is also reported by Saint Matthew. 56. S. Mat. 14.34 35, 36. But Saint Iohn pro­ceeds in the story, cap. 6. setting down at large that Sermon of his, wherein he reproveth the people flocking after him, and all the fleshly hearers of his word, preacheth unto them the bread which he will give; telling that he is come from heaven, and therefore that he is able to give such bread as can quicken the world, even his own flesh, and that himself is the bread of life to all that believe. At which doctrin many of his Disciples were offended, revolted from him, and walked no more with him, though he had told them that they should see by his ascension into heaven, that he came down from heaven. Yet the twelve would not forsake him, because he had the words of eternal life; and because they did believe and were sure, that he is [Page 172] Christ the son of the living God. Upon which confession of theirs, made by St. Peter, he intimateth the treason of Judas, whom he saith to be a devill, knowing that the devill would enter into him, and put it into his heart that he should betray him.

112 About that time there came from Hierusalem into Galilee, Pharisees, and certain Scribes, who observing the demeanour of Christs Disciples,The Disci­ples eat with unwashen hands. S. Mat. 15.2. and that some of them did sit down to meat, and did eat with unwashen hands; they took occasion from thence to fly upon Christ himself, saying, Why do thy Disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread. The Pharisees, and all the Jewes had many washings and purifications by water, superadded to those which Moses or­dained, as the washing of cups, and pots, and brazen vessels, and tables, to wash when they came from the market, and to wash their hands before they did eat, and such like: they called these the traditions of the elders, and did carefully observe them as ne­cessary duties,Traditions of the Phari­ses reproved and the neglect of them they utterly condemned. Christ therefore defendeth his Disciples, by reproving their hypo­crisie, whereby they laid aside the commandements of God for their traditions sake. And by shewing wherein they did so. For Mo­ses said, Honour thy father and thy mother, and who so curseth father or mother, S. Mar. 7.10 11. let him dye the death. But ye say, if a man shall say to his fa­ther or mother Corban, that is to say, a gift, (a gift devoted to the sacred treasury) by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me: Corban what it was. he shall be free. We read in the book of Kings, that when Iehoash would repair the Temple which was then in decay,2 King. 12.9. Iehoiada the Priest took a chest, and bored an hole in the lid of it, and set it beside the Altar; That chest the Iewes called Corban, a gift, from the office which it had, or use whereto it was put, which was to keep and contain the money given towards the reparation of the Temple; but the Greeks called it Gazophylacium, [...], because the treasure was kept there. Howbeit, under the second temple, it was no more a single chest, but a capacious building, called the Treasury. The tradition of the Pharisees therefore was,S. Mar. 12 41 S. Luc. 21.1. that they who would give to the Corban, and put in their gifts there, should not be obliged to any other charity, no not to the reliefe of their own parents; by which tradition of theirs, they made the commandment of God of none effect. This offended the Pharisees, but he regardeth not the offence which they took, seeing they were justly reproved, and were the blinde leaders of the blinde, S. Mat. 15.13, 14. v. 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. S. Mar. 7.18, 19, 20, 21, 22 23. who should fall into the ditch with those that were led by them. And to the people he yeelded the reason of that which they reproved, and again to his Disciples, shewing the ground of the Pharisaicall washing (to wit, that meats otherwise defile the soul) to be false. Having thus shaken off the cavilling Scribes and Pharisees, he went into [Page 173] the borders of Tyre and Sidon cities of Phoenicia, in the tribe of Nepthali; yet never subdued, but alwaies inhabited by Gentiles. He went thither to obscure himselfe for a time: for Saint Mark saith, that he entred into an house, and would have no man know it, but he could not be hid.S. Mar. 7.24. The dau [...]h­ter of the Ca­naanitish wo­man healed. For a certain woman who was a Greek or Gentile, of the stock and progeny of the Canaanites, came to supplicate him on the behalfe of her daughter grie­vously vexed with a devill; the faith of which woman was no­table, for she came and fell at his feet, freely acknowledging him the Messiah, Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou son of David. At first he seemed altogether to neglect her, for he gave her no an­swer. Then to reject her, for his disciples besought him to send her away. 3ly To excuse himselfe, as being sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. And when she would not be so an­swered, but still persisted to worship him and to cry unto him; then fourthly he reproached her, calls her dog, and that it is not meet to take the childrens bread, and to cast it to dogs. That when she acknowledged to be true, and yet beg'd the crumbes of his mercy, then obtained she her petition,S Mat. 15 28 S. Mar. 7.29. with that singular Elogium: O woman, great is thy faith, be it unto thee, even as thou wilt. For this saying, go thy way, the devill is gone out of thy daughter.

Being departed from the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, he came 113 unto the sea of Galilee, S. Mar. 7.31. Concerning Decapolis. through the midst of the coasts of Deca­polis. Which country took its name from those ten principall cities which were scituated in it That country I take it to be, which the Scripture calleth Gilead, and was a part of Galilee ly­ing beyond Jordan towards the East, and was so named of that heap of stones which Laban and Iacob made,Gen. 31.47, 48, Num. 32.26. Deut. 3, 10.12. Josh. 3.8. for a witnesse be­twixt them, and was given to the Reubenites and Gadites for their inheritance, together with the halfe tribe of Manasseh. Which those ten cities were, from which that region took its name, I will not contend; there were many fair cities in that land. At the request of the people of that place, he healed a man that was deafe, and had an impediment in his speech; One cured that was deaf, and had an impedi­ment in his speech. S Mar. 7.33, 34, he was [...], one that could not speak but with great difficulty. He cured him with greater ceremonie then any: for, He took him aside from the multitude, and put his fingers into his ears, and he spit and touched his tongue. And looking up to heaven he sighed, and saith unto him, Epphata, that is, Be opened. And why he did all this, that is only knowne to him that did it. And he charged them (lest he should incense the Iewes through envy to kill him be­fore the time, saith Saint Chrysostome) that they should tell no man; but the more he charged them, so much the more a great deal they published it, And were beyond measure astonished, saying, 36, He hath don all things well; he maketh both the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak. 37.

114 Then departed he thence, and came nigh unto the sea of Ga­lilee, S. Mat. 15.29 and went up into a mountain, and sat down there. And great multitudes came unto him, having with them those that were lame, 30. blinde, dumbe, maimed, and many others, and cast them down at Iesus feet, and he healed them. And upon the third day, he fed about foure thousand men, Foure thou­sand fed with seven loaves and a few little fishes. besides women and children, with seven loaves, and a few little fishes, and they took up of the broken meat that was left seven baskets full. What the [...], and what the [...] did contain, I know not; but when he fed the five thousand with five loaves and two fishes, they took up of the fragments that remained [...].S. Mar. 8.8. S. Mat. 14.20. S Mar. 6 43. But now that he fed foure thousand with seven loaves and a few little fishes, [...]. The vulgar Latine keepes the distinction, twelve cophi­ni, seven spor [...]ae; I cannot think them to be baskets of equall measure; and some say that the sportae did contain two cophini; and it is probable, for Saint Paul was let down out of a window by the wall [...], in a sporta, which was a basket so called. But if any man will think this no better then a nicety, so let it passe.S Mat. 15.39. S. Mar. 8.10. Magdala and Dalma­nutha. And he sent away the multitude, and took ship, and came into the coasts of Magdala. Dalmanutha, saith Saint Mark. There is no dissonancy betwixt the two Evangelists: for Magda­la (as I read) was a city scituated upon the Galilean sea, the town of Saint Mary Magdalen; and Dalmanutha a spacious plain thereunto adjoyning. There the Pharisees and Sadduces came unto him, tempting him, and requiring of him a signe from heaven;The Phari­sees and Sad­duces re­proved. but he sharply reproveth their hypocrisie, who required that signe out of pride and curiosity, having seen so many won­derfull miracles, and having set up their resolution before hand not to believe in him, whatsoever he should say, or what­soever he should do;S. Mat. 16.1, 2, 3, 4. S. Mar. 8, 11, 12, 13, 14. flatly denying to shew them any other signe from heaven, but only the signe of the prophet Jonah, which signe he made good by his death and blessed resurrecti­on. And he left them, and entring into the ship again, departed to the other side. Now the disciples had forgotten to take bread, neither had they in the ship with them any more then one loaf. While they were in the ship together, he charged them to bevvare of the leaven of the Pharisees, and of the leaven of Herod. They being con­scious to themselves of their ovvn neglect missunderstood him, thinking he had taxed them of negligence, in not having made such provision of bread as they ought to have done, and that they should at no hand either buy or borrovv it of the Pharisees or Herodians. This errour was both gross and childish, and yet utterly a fault in them, vvho it seemes had forgotten to take vvith them those seven baskets full of fragments that vvere left. But it vvas by dispensation, saith Theophilact, to the end that being reprehended, they might be amended, and might [Page 175] come to the knovvledge of the divine power of Christ. The disciples reprehended, and why. And in­deed he never reproved them so sharply as now he did; for he condemnes them for making such construction of his words, he told them, that they did neither perceive nor understand, that their hearts were hardened, S. Mar. 8.17, 18, 19, 20, 21. S. Mat. 16.8, 9, 10, 11, that they had eyes but they did not see, that they had ears but they did not hear, that they had for­gotten his tvvo late miraculous feedings, of the five thousand vvith five loaves, when they took up tvvelve baskets, and of the foure thousand vvith seven loaves, vvhen they took up seven baskets full of fragments; and that therefore they did not un­derstand concerning vvhat bread he spake.12. Then understood they how that he bad them not beware of the leaven of bread; but of the do­ctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadduces. Then commeth he to Bethsaida, He healeth a blinde man. vvhere some of the inhabitants of that place besought him to restore a blinde man to his sight by a touch of his hand. The ceremony vvhich he used in this cure vvas singular; for he led him out of the tovvn, (because of the infidelity of those that dwelt in it, saith Bede) he spit in his eyes, and put his hands upon him, and asked him if he savv ought. The man looked up and said, that he saw men as trees walking. He did not perfectly see, because he did not perfectly believe; neither vvas he cured perfectly at first, because of the unbeliefe of those that brought him, and for his ovvn imperfect faith: fidem sequitur medela, he vvould dis­pense his cures according to the faith of those that vvere to be cured by him. Therefore vvhen his faith vvas confirmed, he put his hands upon him again, made him to look up, and he saw every man clearly. S. Mar. 8.22, 23, 24, 25, 26 And that he might vvell knovv that he did it not for the praise and commendations of men, he permits him not to go into the tovvn to publish it there, but commandeth him to go avvay presently to his own house.

And now have we likewise to take notice how the covenant 115 was further administred by him the year past, for the brea­king of the serpents head, and for the abolishing of the old testa­ment. The Recapi­tulation. By going up to Hierusalem at the third passeover after his bap­tisme. By curing the impotent man there, who had been diseased thirty and eight years. By avouching his authority, By curing the man that had a withered hand. By ordaining his twelve Apostles. By preparing and instructing them to be sent forth, by his divine doctrine and pre­cepts. By curing the leper. By curing the Centurions servant of a palsie. By raising the widowes son from the dead. By accepting a legation from Saint John the Baptist. By accepting the invitation of Simon the Pha­risee. By dispossessing a blinde and dumbe devill, By convincing the scribes and pharisees of the irremissible sin. By promising the signe of the prophet Jonas. By teaching the people in parables. By sending forth his Apostles two and two. By feeding five thousand men with five loaves and two fishes. By walking upon the sea to his disciples. By reproving [Page 176] the traditions of the pharisees. By healing the daughter of the Canaa­nitish woman. By healing him that was deaf, and had an impediment in his speech. By feeding foure thousand with seven loaves and a few little fishes. By reproving the pharisees and sadduces. By reprehending his disciples. By healing the blinde man. It became him who hum­bled himselfe, and was made man for the redemption of all mankinde, to do all these things. And thus (following herein my learned author, & late right Reverend Diocesan, in his learned The­anthropicon) our sacred history doth put an end to the third year af­ter his Baptism, which was the two and thirtieth year of his age.

The first occurrence of the next year is, that Jesus with his dis­ciples 116 came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, not into Caesarea Philippi it selfe,S. Mar. 8.27. S. Luc. 9.18. S. Mat. 16 13 Christ inter­rogateth his disciples. but into the townes of Cesarea Philippi, as St. Mark saith, and in the way having prayed alone, he asked his disci­ples, saying, Whom do men say that I the son of man am? This que­stion was propounded to them by the way as they went, not out of ignorance, as if he had not known what it was that the people said of him: nor out of curiosity, as if he were delighted to hear the rumours of the vulgar concerning himselfe; but docendi gratiâ, because he meant to teach and instruct them more perfectly. He did not aske whom the Pharisees and Scribes did say him to be, that was publickly and notoriously known; for in the blindeness of their own minds, and in the hardness of their hearts, [...], saith Saint Epiphanius. They knew not his Godhead, and they supposed that he was no other but a meer man. Lib. Anchor. cap. 27. They knew nothing of his wonderfull conception, which was by the holy Ghost; nor of his wonderfull birth, which was of a pure virgin; nor of his speciall priviledge, which was that he was without all sin; nor of the hypostaticall union, whereby the word was made flesh; not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh, but by taking of the manhood into God. They did therefore notoriously defame him,S. Joh 8.44. S. Joh. 10.20 said that he was a Samaritan, and that he had a devill; That he had a devill, and was mad. And because he came eating and drinking,S. Mat. 11.19 they said, Behold a man gluttonous, and a wine-bib­ber, a friend to publicans and sinners. They undervalued all his miracles, and look what they saw and knew to be done by the divine power and vertue of the holy Ghost, they affirmed of the devill,S. Mar. 3.22. saying, He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of devills casteth he out devills. Therefore he did not ask what they said him to be, but whom do men (the people, the vulgar) say that I the Son of man am? The opinion of the people concerning Christ. They told him, (according to the common opi­nion of the people of the Jewes in those dayes, whereby it was believed, that the souls of the defunct, according to the merits of each person, did commigrate into other bodies) that some said that he was Saint John the Baptist, some Elias, others Jeremias [Page 177] or one of the prophets; that is to say, of the old Prophets, and that he was such by [...], for that the soul of Saint John the Baptist, Elias, or Jeremias, or of one of the Prophets, was trans­migrated into him, and that this was the vulgar errour con­cerning him. Whereupon he demanded of them, saying, But whom say ye that I am? Simon Peter the mouth of the Apostles, re­plyeth both for himselfe and for all the rest, Thou art Christ, Saint Peters confession. the son of the living God. He pronounceth him blessed for his faiths-sake, whereby he so believed, affirming that this his answer was by divine revelation, For flesh and blood (saith he) hath not revea­led it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven. And then admo­nisheth him of the retribution for his confession sake. Thou art Peter, and upon this rock will I build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. Promising also unto him the keyes of the kingdome of heaven, to the end that whatsoever he should binde on earth, should be bound in heaven, and whatsoever he should loose upon earth, should be loosed in heaven. His prero­gative. 1st He confers upon him this prerogative, That he is Peter, that is to say, a stone, for the word [...] in the greek signifieth a stone. And it was his prerogative that he was made a stone, not by conversion of his na­ture into stone, but by the gift of grace; by his faith, & by his functi­on. For in this was Christ as good as his word, and performeth that promise which he made, when first he was presented to him by his brother Saint Andrew, Thou art Simon the son of Jona, S. Joh. 1.42. thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by interpretation, a stone. And he did re­serve the confirmation of his promise, till Saint Peter had made this good confession.

The Church of God, which is the whole number of those whom 117 God hath elected to eternall life,The Church compared to a materiall temple. S. Mat. 21.13 1 Pet. 5.2. is often in the Scriptures re­sembled to a materiall temple; and in particular to the temple of Hierusalem. So that like as that temple was called an house, the house of prayer: in like manner is this called an house, a spirituall house, for distinction sake. The materiall house was built of stones laid one upon another; the spirituall house is likewise said to be builded; but the edification is not of naturall and inanimate,1 Cor. 12.26 1 Pet. 2.5. but of spirituall and living stones. The naturall stones of the mate­riall temple were joyned and cimented one unto another, that so the building might rise to perfection; Eph. 2.21. and the spirituall stones are in like manner fitly framed together, that the building might grow unto an holy temple of the Lord. The materiall temple had a strong foundation, that foundation was a rock, upon which were superstructed great and mighty stones to support the whole fa­brick, which stones might not improperly be called the founda­tion, and were indeed a second foundation most necessary for so great a structure; which afterwards was raised with costly and curious stones, such as Solomon made ready,1 King. 6.7. and brought thi­ther; [Page 178] or such as those stones which the disciples did marvell at in the temple, S. Mar. 13.1. S. Mat. 24.1. saying, Master, see wha [...] manner of stones, and what buildings are here! (Which stones, as Josephus faith, were tvventy and five cubits long, eight cubits high, and tvvelve cubits broad).Isa. 28.16. In like manner this spirituall structure is built on Christ, vvho is the rock, the strong and sure foundation; the prophets and Apostles, great and mighty stones, a second foundation, necessary for the spirituall structure, upon vvhom the members of the Church as fair stones are built, for an habitation of God through the spirit, Eph. 2.22. Saint Peter a stone of the spirituall building, and how. as Saint Paul saith. Of this spirituall building vvas Saint Peter, a stone by his faith and by his function. By his faith he vvas made an elect and pretious stone: by his function he vvas made a great and mighty stone, a second foundation, a necessary foundation stone. By his faith he vvas laid into the building; by his function he vvas laid into the foundation of the building. By his faith he had fellovvship vvith the Saints; by his function he had equality and copartnership vvith the Apostles. His function what it was. His function vvas the office of his Apostleship, vvhereby he vvas made a strong foundation stone, upon whom other stones in the building are fitly placed.Eph. 4.11, For Christ gave some Apostles, and some Prophets, and some Evangelists,12.and some Pastours and teachers; For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ. The Apostles, the Prophets, the Evangelists, the Pastours and Teachers therefore, are necessary stones for the building of the Church, that it might be raised. But the greatest of all these were the Apostles, whose function none could attain unto, but those twelve elected first by Christ, and after his resurrection Saint Matthias, Act. 1.6. Act. 9.15. who succeeded in the place of Judas the traitor. And Saint Paul that chosen and elect vessell, the Apostle of the gentiles, last called.

118 These are great foundation stones of the Church which is now in the time of the new testament; sure foundations upon Christ the rock or first foundation. Of whom they obtained commission to teach all nations, S. Mat. 28.19 and to baptize them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Ghost. Which commission of theirs they faithfully executed;Rom. 10.18. for their sound went out into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world. They had gifts and graces answerable to such a function, and by their ministry, The Lord added to the Church dayly such as should be saved. These great stones upon divers respects are said to lie,Acts. 2.47. The Apostles how laid into the foundat [...] ­on. and to be laid, in the founda­tion of the building, for the supportation of other stones, lesse in graces, and lesse in office. 1st Because they were called to that office and function, not by the ministry of man, but immediately by God, [...], not of men, neither by man, as Saint Paul saith of himselfe. 2ly Because they first of all had commission to preach Christ crucified unto the gentiles, & to joyne [Page 179] both Jewes and Gentiles into one people, that so the root of Jesse might stand for an Ensigne of the people, Isa. 11.10. and the Gentiles might seek unto it. 3ly Because that other great officers in the Church, Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, were ordained by their ministery, and consecrated by the hand of their Apostleship; Act. 6.6. but they them­selves were not so ordained, but were chosen immediately by God, and received their commission from Christ his owne mouth. Lastly, they ordained none to succeed in the fullnesse of their office and Apostleship: viz. To go unto all nations,S. Mar. 16.16. and to preach the Gospell unto every creature, (which was their immediate commission Apostolicall) but they ordained proper Pastours unto particular Churches, to whose care they recommended the flock of Christ, in those places where they themselves had preached and prevailed; reserving the oversight even of the Bishops and priests unto themselves. And hence it is that Saint Paul directeth Timothy and Titus how to behave themselves in their function. And that Saint Peter taketh upon him to instruct the elders of the Church. And that Saint John counselleth, reproveth, and com­mendeth the Angells or Bishops of the seven Churches of Asia; these things being branches of the Apostolicall dignity. It was no small matter therfore that Christ performed unto Simon the son of Jona upon his confession, Thou art Peter a stone, a great foun­dation stone, the chiefe and principall of all the foundation stones; and as such a stone, [...], as Saint Basil hath it; For the eminency of his faith such a stone, as should receive upon himselfe the whole fabrick of the Church.

But if the house be built upon the sand, or in a marish 119 ground, the foundation stones will not, cannot assure the building from falling or sincking; therefore 2ly having told him what he had made him to his Church, a stone; he proceedes to tell him what he himselfe is to his Church, a rock, for the supportation of all the foundation stones, and of the whole superstructed building. Upon this rock I will build my Church. The Church built upon Christ the rock. This rock which thou hast con­fessed, (saith Saint Augustine) Upon this rock which thou hast known, (saying thou art Christ the son of the living God) will I build my Church. I will build thee upon me, not me upon thee. For men inten­ding to build upon men, said, I hold of Paul, I of Apollo, I of Ce­phas, (that is Peter) and others who would not be builded upon Peter, but upon the rock, said, I hold of Christ. For the rock was Christ, upon which foundation Peter himselfe was builded. (De verb. Dom. ser. 13.) sith no man can lay another foundation besides that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. And in the same sense have Saint Gregory Nyssen, Saint Cyril, Saint Chrysostome, Saint Ambrose, Saint Hilarie, vene­rable Bede, and many other holy Fathers, and learned Divines, understood this place; for against the Church so built, the gates of hell shall not prevail.

120 Upon this reason that the gates of cities are most strongly fortified,The gates of hell. and firmly bar'd and bolted; by gates is to be under­stood (as saith the new glosse) omne robur, & omne munimentum, every strength, and every muniment. And by hell, omnem vim contrariam, & Satanicam, omnem hostis impetum, all contrary and Sathanicall power, every incursion of the enemy. viz. The devil himselfe, and all his angells, all the power that they have: the wicked world, all tyrants and seducers, who are the devills in­struments. For the state of the faithfull and chosen of God in this present life, is as it were a warfare, whereof the Church is called militant. The adversaies and enemies whom we must fight against, our Saviour speaketh of them as of a strong kingdome, which he calleth hell, because it warreth all for hell, and the devill is the prince of it.Eph. 6.11. 2 Cor. 10.4. The gates of hell therefore do signifie those [...], those fortresses, munitions, and strong holds, which the powers of hell do hold against the Church, and from whence they assault it in all her members, by force or fraud. All which is meant by gates, because the gates of castles and of strong holds, are wont to have the best munition, and to be most strongly fenced. So that the gates of hell are not only heresies, (al­though heresies are of them, as Saint Epiphanius, lib. Anchor. and Saint Augustine. De symb. ad Catechum. do note) but also persecutions, in name, in goods, in liberty, or in life, and specially sins, with all manner of evills which seek to subdue us to ever­lasting death. As is well observed by Origen, Saint Chrysostome, Saint Gregory, and others. The gates of hell therefore may as­sault, but they shall not prevail against the Church catholick, utterly to extinguish it, nor against any sound member of the same, who is an homogeniall part of the whole, rightly built and abiding upon the rock.Psal. 139.1, 2, 3, 4. Many a time have they afflicted me from my youth, may Israel now say. Many a time have they afflicted me from my youth; yet they have not prevailed against me. The plowers plowed upon my back, they made long furrowes. The Lord is righteous, he hath cut assunder the cords of the wicked. And this is the first part of that retribution which the Apostle Saint Peter received from his Lord,S. Mat. 16.18 upon his good confession, Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.

121 A second part of his retribution was in expectance, and to be made good in the future;The keyes of the kingdom of heaven promised, and given. that was, the keyes of the kingdome of heaven, then to be given when he shall be risen from the dead, and shall have fully accomplished the work of mans redemption. Saint Peter for the present was not in capacity; and Christ him­selfe was not yet fully manifested to be the Saviour and redee­mer of all mankinde. That promise therefore must be performed in its season, after his resurrection; and he performes it the [Page 181] same day. The same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut, S. Joh 20.19 where the Disciples were assembled for fear of the Jewes, came Jesus and stood in the middest, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. And when he had so said he shewed unto them his hands, and his side. Then were the Disciples glad when they saw the Lord. 20, Then said Jesus unto them again, Peace be unto you: As my Father sent me, even so send I you. And when he had said this, he breathed on them, 21, 22, and saith unto them, Receive ye the holy Ghost. Whosesoever sins ye re­mit, they are remitted unto them, and whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained. 23. The power of Christ to give the keyes of the kingdome of heaven, is three-fold. 1. The power of the Creator, By what po­wer Christ gave the keyes. S. Joh. 1.3. Eph. 1.7. All things were made by him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. Heaven it self was his creature: how shall he not dispose the work of his own hands? 2ly The power of the Redeemer, in whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace. Is he the redeemer of that Church of his, part whereof singeth the songs of victory in hea­ven, and is called the triumphant Church: part whereof lyeth in the camp of warfare upon earth, and is called the militant Church; and must not then the keyes be his, to open the doors of heaven, by himself, and by his ministers unto whom he shall commit them? 3ly He is the head of his Church, Eph. 5.23. as the husband is the wives head. Is that head of his Church the Lord of heaven? and hath he not the keyes to open the doors of heaven, to that mysticall body whereof he is the head? To that little flock of his, who are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones. 30, The keyes of the kingdom of heaven were his to give, and he gave them according to his word and promise; he did not delay to give them, but being risen from the dead, he gave them the same day.

The kingdom of heaven in the scriptures, is compared to a city, 122 therefore called the holy Hierusalem, Reu. 21.10, 12, having a great and high wall, and twelve gates. Man was a citizen of that city till he sinned, but by sinne he lost his freedom there, in as much as there shall in no wise enter into it any thing that defileth, neither whatsoever worketh abomination, or maketh a lye. 27, For his sinne he was banished this city, and the gates fast lockt and shut against him. He was cast out of Paradise, and God placed cherubims and a flaming sword, which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life. Gen. 3.24. So that there was found no way to return back into the city, or into Paradise, from whence man was ex­pulsed. But God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son that whosoever believeth in him, should not perish, but have everlasting life. Him therefore did God give to open the gates of heaven, which were shut and lock't by sinne, and by the guilt thereof; to bring in man, and to open them to the faithfull,S. Joh. 3.10. and to shut [Page 182] them against the unbelievers.What keyes Christ had, and what keys he gave to the Apo­stles. Rev. 3.7. S. Mar. 2.7. S. Joh. 1.29. Who because he is the great King of this city, he is said to have the key of David, and openeth and no man shutteth, and shutteth and no man openeth. By a two-fold possession he is Lord of the keyes. For 1ly As he is one God with the Father, he hath the same keyes which the Father hath, even the key of authority to forgive sinnes. Who can forgive sins but God onely? 2ly As he is the Son of the Father made man, and, by the merit of his death and passion, is that very lambe of God which taketh away the sin of the world; he hath the key of excellency, and by a speciall prerogative doth open and shut the gates of heaven. Neither of these keyes gave Christ to his Apostles: the keyes which they had by his Donation, were ministeriall keyes; to the end that not by themselves, but by the power of God, and by the virtue of Christ his passion, they might open and shut the gates of heaven. These keyes as St. Chrysostome saith, are the knowledge of the scriptures; according to Tertullian, the inter­pretation of the law; and as Eusebius saith, the word of God. The matter of them is a double act,Keyes of two sorts. of knowledge, and of executi­on: from whence also the keyes are of two sorts, the key of know­ledge, whereby the man of God doth judge rightly, to whom the gates of heaven are to be opened, and against whom they are to be shut; like a wise door-keeper in the Lords temple, well knowing whom to admit, and whom to repell. And the key of power, whereby accordingly he putteth the matter in ex­ecution, opening the doors of heaven to those that are worthy, and shutting them against those that are unworthy. This judge­ment of discerning the worthy from the unworthy, had the A­postle Saint Peter, Act. 8.23. for he perceived and affirmed Simon the Sorcerer to be in the gall of bitterness, and in the bond of iniquity. And there­fore he did not open the gates of heaven unto him; but shut him out,Act. 10.48. How the keys are to be ad­ministred. and bound him as an unclean thing. But when Corneli­us the Centurion had sent for him, he found him worthy; and therefore opened the gates of heaven unto him, and baptized him. The manner also how these keyes are to be administred, is to be respected. For the ministerial function, is either common to the whole priesthood, 1 Cor. 4.1. so far forth as all the priests are ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God. And are by their function obliged to preach the word, to administer the Sacraments of the Church,2 Tim. 4.2. to be instant in season, out of season, to reprove, rebuke, ex­hort, with all long suffering and doctrine. Or else it is peculiar to the Bishops, and goverours of the Church, who because they are or­dained not only to administer in holy things, but to bear rule in the Church of Christ, S. Mat. 18.17 and to preside; therefore the keyes are again to be distinguished. For there is the key of Order which doth be­long to the inward court of conscience, and by the ministery of the Gospell, doth immediately open and shut the gates of heaven, and is the common key of every priest, rightly and lawfully or­dained [Page 183] to his office and function by imposition of sacred ha [...]s, of what degree or title soever he be, by that authority which is delivered unto him to preach the Gospell, and to administer the Sacraments. And there is the key of jurisdiction, whereby Ecclesi­asticall censures (as publick pennance for publick crimes, ad­monitions, suspensions, excommunications, and such like) are enjoyned, and inflicted, which is not the common key of every priest, but doth belong only to the Bishops and governours of the Church, to whom it belongeth to bear rule, and to preside as be­fore is said. Nor yet is this key admin [...]stred in the inner court of conscience, but in the outward court of jurisdiction. Neither doth it open and shut heaven gates immediately, but before the militant Church. And hence it is that the Apostle Saint Paul in­structeth Timothy, not only as a Priest, how to administer his key of order in the inward court, and to open and shut the gates of heaven immediately, by administration of the Gospell: but also as a Bishop, how to administer his key of jurisdiction as a Bishop, in the outward court, and to open and shut heaven gates in the consistory, and before the militant Church, as is plainly to be seen 1 Tim. 5.

But these keyes were not promised unto Saint Peter only, and 123 excusively as to the other Apostles, but omnibus cum Petro, quia Petrus pro omnibus loquutus est Apostolis; To whom the keys were prom sed and given. to all the rest with Saint Peter, (because that like as Christ demanded of them all, saying, Whom say ye that I am? even so by the revelation of the father) Saint Peter answered for them all, saying, Thou art Christ the son of the living God. Like as he demanded, so was he answered; as he was answered, so did he promise; as he promised, so did he perform; for between these four things, a question, an answer, a promise, and the performance, there is mutuall reference. Christ demanded of them all, saying, Whom say ye that I am? They all answered by the mouth of Saint Peter, as a jurie of sworn men, giving up their verdict by their foreman, Thou art Christ the son of the li [...]ing God. Like as the tongue speaketh on the behalf of all the body: [...]. Even so was Saint Peter the tongue of the Apo­stles, and he alone made the answer for them all. Christ therefore maketh his promise to all, by replying to St. Peter only, because only St. Peter had spoken for them all, and given up their an­swer. And finally, as the truth it self, what he had promised to all, he performed to all. For he gave them all his peace. He breathed on them all the Holy Ghost. S. Joh. 20.19 20, 21, 22, 23 S. Mat. 28.19, 20. S. Mar. 16.15 He gave them all the same power of remitting, and of retaining sins, that is to say, the power of the keyes promised before. He sendeth them all forth with one and the same commission, to preach and to baptize all the world over. And this is the doctrine of the catholique Fathers, and was [Page 184] of the Bishops of Rome themselves in purer times; for said Leo, The jurisdiction of this power passed over unto all the Apostles, Ser. de Apost. And when Christ (saith he) said unto Peter, I will give unto thee the keyes of the kingdome of heaven, the right of this power pas­sed over unto others, and that which is commended in express termes unto one, is intimated unto all, and Christ said it unto Peter singularly, because the form of Peter is prop [...]sed to all the governors of the Church. And so Pope Anacletus also, The rest of the Apostles (saith he) to­gether with the like fellowship, received both honour, and power. Ad Epis. Ital. Ep. 2. Saint Cyprian, The other Apostles were the same thing that Peter was, endowed wi [...]h the like, (or equall fellowship, pari consortio) both of honour and power. Lib. de unit. eccles. And finally, among many other, St. Augustine, who speaking of the keyes, and of the power of binding and loosing, saith plainly thus, Hoc Petrus pro omnibus, tanquam personam unitatis accepit. This hath Peter received for all, as it were the person of unity. Ser. 10.The use of the keyes. super Johan. The use of the keyes was from the beginning of the world; And God himself did then first administer them by his own authority, by making unto Adam the original promise. It succeeded in all ages before the resurrection of Christ, Gen. 3.15. in that ministery which God gave unto his Church. But Christ would a­bolish the old Testament and legall worship; therefore must he transfer the keyes to another priest-hood. And this was it which he promised St. Peter to do, and performed it after his resur­rection, as before is said. Blessed art thou Simon Bar-Jona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, S. Mat. 16.17 but my Father which is in hea­ven. And I say also unto thee, that thou art Peter. And upon this rock I will build my Church; and the gates of hell shall not prevaile against it. 18, And I will give unto thee the keyes of the kingdome of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven; whatso­ever thou shall loose on earth, 19. shall be loosed in heaven.

124 No doubt but the Apostles did highly rejoyce, and were ex­ceedingly glad to receive such a promise fr [...]m Christ, and began also to think of the performance of it,The keyes to be transfer'd from the le­gall to the Evangelical priesthood, and when. and when it should be that such keyes, with such power, should be confer'd upon them. But they must not expect the accomplishment, till after his re­surrection; for till then he might not by divine dispensation, trans­fer the keys of the kingdom of heaven with that power of bind­ing and loosing, from the legall, to the Evangelicall priesthood. Therefore saith St. Matthew, [...], From that time forth, when he had first straightly charged them that they should tell no man that he was Jesus the Christ (least his passion should be hindred, for had they known him to have been Jesus Christ in­deed, they would not have crucified him) he began to shew un­to his Disciples, how that he must go to Hierusalem, and suffer many things of the Elders, 1 Cor. 2.8. and chiefe priests, and Scribes, and be [Page 185] killed, and be raised again the third day. As if he should say,He foretel­leth his pas­sion, death, and resurre­ction. when I I have been at Hierusalem, and when I have suffered, and when I shall be risen again from the dead upon the third day, then will I make good my promise, by giving unto you the keys of the k [...]ngdom of heaven. At this all the Apostles being over-charged with sorrow, and because he spoke it openly, so that the people also too no­tice of his words, Saint Peter the mouth of the Apostles the second time came unto him privately, and began to rebuke him, saying, Be it far from thee, Lord, this shall not be unto thee. At this he is offended, reproves him sharply, calleth him Satan, commands him to get behinde him, for that by giving him such counsell, he savoured not the things that be of God, but those that be of men. For what, if the counsell that Saint Peter gave proceeded from that love and affection that he did bear unto his Lord, who knew also that he did love him? yet by giving him such counsell, which was against the determinate counsell and fore-knowledge of God for the redemption of all mankinde by his death upon the crosse, he was Satan and an adversary, who must get behinde him, viz. cease to withstand the will of God by carnall counsell, From thence therefore he taketh oc­casion to admonish his disciples and the people, how to follow him in persecutions, and to bear his cross,S. Mat. 16, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. S. Mar. 8.34, 35, 36, 37, 38. S. Luc. 9.23, 24, 25, 26, 27. valuing their precious souls above their temporall lives, or the whole world; telling them also that there were some standing amongst them, who should not taste of death, till they should see the son of man com­ming in his kingdom [...]; intimating thereby that glimpse of his glo­ry vvhich he would shew unto some of them by his transfigurati­on; if not rather the destruction of Hierusalem, which Saint John lived to see.

And after six daies, saith Saint Matthew, and with him Saint 125 Mark; but Saint Luke, About an eight daies after these sayings.S. Mat. 17.1. S. Mar. 9.1. S. Luc. 9.28. (That is to say, six compleat daies after he had so said, not ac­counting the day that he spake, nor the day that he ascended into the mount,The transfi­guration of Christ. but only the six intervening daies) Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into an high mountain apart; supposed to be the mount Thabor, a mountain in Galilee, of which something hath been said before; where also it is thought (as hath been before observed) that he preached that famous Sermon unto his Apostles before the multitude, re­peated by the Evangelist Saint Matthew, cap. 5.6.7. And was transfigured before them. But why these three and none but these? I can give no reason but the speciall favour and familia­rity which they had with their Lord above the rest; and why that, he only knoweth. But his speciall favourites he had in every degree. He had many disciples, multitudes of disciples; but out of the whole number he made a more speciall choice [Page 186] of seventy, that they might be more conversant with him than the rest.S. Luc. 10.1. And them he sent two and two before his face, into every city and place whither he himselfe would come. There was a more speciall choice of twelve Apostles, S. Mar. 3.14. that they should be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach. Of which twelve also he admitted three to a more intimate familiarity, these were Saint Peter, Saint James, and Saint John his brother. These only were permitted to be present when he went in,S. Mar. 5.37. and raised up Jairus his daughter; and these only he taketh with him into the mountain, and was transfigured before them. Not presently so soon as he had ascended, but as he prayed, or was praying. He did not change the nature of his body, but only the externall forme into a greater glory; for his face did shine as the Sun, and his raiment was white as the light; white and glistering, saith Saint Luke, exceeding white as snow, so as no fuller upon earth can white them, saith Saint Mark. And so each Evangelist hath his owne expression. It was for his disciples sake to whom he would shew a glimpse of his glory, to the end that the humility of his passion might not offend them. And it was for his servants Moses and Elias sake,S. Mat. 17.4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. S. Mar. 9.5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. S. Luc. 9.32, 33, 34, 35, 36. whom he would entertain in robes of glo­ry. For Moses and Elias talked with him, appearing in glory, and speaking of his decease which he should accomplish at Hierusalem. And so the other passages follow as they are set down by the Evangelists. Of the motion made by Saint Peter, as touching three tabernacles to be built there. Of the Fathers testimony from heaven. Of the disciples question concerning the comming of Elias; and of Christ his answer thereunto. And that first as he came down from the mountain, he charged them to conceal the vision till after his resurrection, which also they did, questioning one with another what the rising from the dead should mean.

126 He abode with his three Apostles all night upon the mount, and the next day he came down with them,S. Luc. 9.37. and when he came unto his disciples he found a great multitude about them, and the Scribes questioning with them. And straight-way (saith Saint Mark) all the people when they beheld him were greatly ama­zed,S. Mar. 9.15, (for it is likely that his face shone as Moses's did, when he came down from the mount) and running to him they saluted him.16. And he asked the Scribes, What question ye with them? But a certain man came unto him,S. Luc. 9.38. kneeling down, and supplicating on the behalfe of his son, who was his only childe, who at certain seasons of the moon (and therefore said by Saint Mat­thew to be Lunatick) was grievously vexed with a dumb and deafe spirit, S. Mat. 17.15. A dumb and deafe spirit dispossessed. which wheresoever he took him, did throw him down, and teare him, so that he fomed, and gnashed with his teeth, and pined away; telling him also that he had brought him to [Page 187] his disciples, (those nine which did not ascend with him) and they could not dispossesse him. Christ having blamed the people for their unbeliefe and hardnesse of heart, commanded him to be brought. And when he was brought, straightway the spirit tare him, and he fell on the ground and wallowed foming. These are the symptomes of an Epilepsie, but it was not natura­rall, [...], the spirit tare him. He demanded of his father (not because he knew it not, but because he would have the multitude to know it) how long he had been in that case? He told him, Of a childe, and that oftentimes it had cast him into the fire and into the water to destroy him, desiring him to help both him and his childe by his divine power. Christ requireth his faith; of which having received a good confession, he cured him by his word, saying, Thou dumbe and deafe spirit, I charge thee come out of him, and enter no more into him. The disciples deman­ded of him privately and when he was come into an house, why they could not cast him out. He tells them, because of their unbeliefe, (magnifying the power of faith) and for that they had not disposed themselves thereunto by prayer and fasting. And so while he passed to and fro in Galilee, S. Mat. 17.22, 23. S. Mar. 9.30, 31, 32. S. Luc. 9.44, 45. before he went up to Hierusalem, he renewed unto them that doctrine which he had taught them before, concerning his passion, death, and re­surrection upon the third day. But they understood it not, and were afraid to ask him, being exceeding sorry. About this time also it was (as I think) that he visited the house of Martha and Mary, as is to be seen, St. Luc. 10.38. they then having their habitation in Galilee. And afterwards, as he was praying in a certain place, (likely upon one of the mountains upon which he ascended to pray) his disciples came unto him, desiring him to teach them to pray (in publick, and when they came toge­ther, according to a set form, & conceptis verbis) as Saint John the Baptist also taught his disciples. Whereupon he prescribed to them his own prayer, directing and requiring of them to use it, totidem verbis, teaching them to pray instantly, and with full assurance to obtain. St. Suc. 11. from v. 1. to 14.

Then came he to Capernaum where he dwelt, and where his 127 Apostle Saint Peter also dwelt, together with Saint Andrew his brother, as hath been said before. And being come thither, the collectors of the tribute mony called didrachma, came unto Saint Peter, Christ payed the didrach­ma. demanding of him whether his Master did pay the tribute, or piece of mony so called, who answered, Yes, (it seemes therefore that he had formerly paid it, and Saint Peter did know that he did pay it so often as it was due.) That piece of money called Didrachma was halfe a stater, and the stater was halfe an ounce of silver, Epiph. lib. de mens. & pond. So that at the rate of five shillings the ounce, the didrachma came to fifteen [Page 188] pence of our English sterling mony, Exod. 30.12, 13, 14, 15, 16. and the stater which was two didrachmaes two shillings and six pence. Some think it to be that sacred tribute imposed by the law, which was paid of every man by the pole, and was for the service of the tabernacle first, of the temple afterwards; which tribute was to be paid for ever, a memoriall unto the children of Israel before the Lord, to make attonement for your souls, said the law, and was for the repair of the temple and other sacred uses. And was paid in to the gazophylacium, being an anniversary payment, which con­tinued to the utter desolation of the temple, and dissolution of the Mosaical policy; and was then (as I read) transferred to the Capitol, in Vespasians time. But this was some other tribute, not sacred, but politicall, imposed not by the law of God, but by the secular power, and paid anniversarily by the pole in the severall cities, of all the inhabitants, and was required of Christ as an inhabitant or citizen of Capernaum. This the circumstances do plainly evince; for first, this tribute was demanded and paid at Capernaum to the collectors there; but the sacred tribute before mentioned, was brought to Hierusalem and paid in the temple, 2 King. 12.4. 2ly The words of Christ to Saint Peter import so much, For when he was come into the house, Jesus prevented him, saying, What thinkest thou Simon? of whom do the kings of the earth take custome or tribute? of their owne children or of strangers? A question at no hand to have been demanded, had it been a divine or sa­cred, and not a humane or politicall tribute. Finally, Christ paid it but to avoid scandall, [...], lest we should offend them, having otherwise a sufficient exemption, had he been pleased to have used it: It was not therefore enjoyned by the law of God, against which (in that he came to fulfill all the righ­teousnesse thereof) he would have pleaded no immunity. By whom this tribute was imposed, whether by Caesar, by Herod, or peradventure by Pompey, who first put them under tribute to the Romans, I have not to say: it appears not to be a sacred but a civill tribute, paid by Christ both for himselfe and for his Apostle Saint Peter, as inhabitants of Capernaum, who sent him to the sea to fish and to finde a stater, (which was two didrach­maes) that he might pay it for them both. And when they were come to Capernaum, they that received tribute mony ( [...], the didrachmaes) came to Peter, and said; Doth not your Master pay tribute? [ [...], the didrachmaes.] He saith, Yes. And when he was come into the house, S. Mat. 17.24, Jesus prevented him, saying, What thinkest thou Simon, of whom do the kings of the earth take custome or tribute? of their owne children or of strangers? Peter saith unto him, Of strangers. 25, 26, Jesus saith unto him, Then are the children free. Notwith­standing lest we should offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast an hook and take up the fish that first commeth up: and when thou hast opened [Page 189] his mouth, thou shalt finde a piece of money [...], a (stater which was two didrachmaes) that take and give them for me and thee. 27.

Saint Peter having taken the fish, paid the tribute money, and 128 being returned, he demanded of them what it was, that they disputed among themselves by the way, and before they came to Capernaum. But they held their peace, being ashamed it seems to say what it was;S. Mar. 9.33, 34. S, Luc. 9.46. for by the way they had disputed among them­selves who should be the greatest. They disputed which of them should be the greatest, as St. Luke saith: but being loath to say it in plain terms, they came unto him as St. Matthew saith, and asked him, saying, Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven? S. Mat. 18 1. But he perceived the thought of their heart; and therefore having answered the question briefly, The most humble: If any man de­sire to be first, the same shall be last of all, and servant of all; He teacheth hit Apostles humility. he brings forth and presents unto them a pattern of true humility, a little child (said to be St. Ignatius, being then a little child) whom he called unto him, set him in the middest, took him in his arms, and as it were making him his text (for as St. Chrysostome saith, a little childe is void of envie, and vain glory, S. Mat. 18.3, 4, 5, 6. S. Mar. 9.37. S. Luc. 9.48. nor doth it desire the primacy) he preacheth unto them against ambition the mother of Schism, warning them to be humble and harmless. And when he had answered St. John, who told him that they had forbid­den one who cast out devils in his name, because he followed not him together with them, as a Disciple, bidding them not to prohibite such as be not against them.He prohibi­teth scandal. He denounceth a woe un­to them that give scandall justly, amplifying the greatness of the sin, by the greatness of the punishment; It were better for him that a milstone were hanged about his neck, and that he were drowned in the depth of the sea. Teaching also how scandall must be avoided, and enforcing the duty by divers arguments, persued at large by Saint Matthew, and by Saint Marke. Tutelary Angels. Whereof this is one which comes with a caveat, Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, that in heaven their Angels do alwaies behold the face of my father which is in heaven. S. Mat. 18.19 From whence though it cannot be concluded, that every one hath his tutelary Angell as­signed unto him in particular; from the hour of his birth, to the day of his death; yet this will be inferred, that his little ones, who are his little ones by the grace of regeneration, are not de­stitute of the care and custody of the good Angels, from the first moment of their regeneration, to the day of their death, who al­so when they do dye, are ready at hand to carry their souls up with them into heaven. As it is plainly said of Lazarus, that when he was dead,S Luc. 16.22 he was carried by the Angels into Abra­hams bosome.

But then the question is, what we must do to them that of­fend 129 [Page 190] us,Concerning brotherly correption and remission. Levit. 19.17. S. Luc. 17.3. and sin against us. 1. We must admonish them privately according to the law (for it is written, Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thine heart; thou shalt in any wise rebuke thy neighbour, and not suffer sin upon him) if they acknowledge the wrong and re­pent, then must we forgive them. 2ly If they will not acknow­ledge the wrong nor repent, then must the injury be expostulated before one or two witnesses, that so it may be made appear to be a sin, and a wrong, as the Gloss saith. And before one or two wit­nesses, because it is written in the law, One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth; at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnes­ses, Deut. 19.15. shall the matter be established. 3ly If they be obstinate, and will not so be convinced, then must we tell it to those who have the government of the Church, and the keys of the kingdome of hea­ven, to the end that they may be admonished by them, and in case that they contumaciously persist, be excommunicated. By which sentence of excommunication, The power of excommuni­cation. justly and lawfully inflicted, they are bound in heaven: and, so long as they shall lie under that sentence perversly, and of obstinate malice, are to be unto us as heathen men, or as publicans were unto the Jews. A great and grievous sentence, and, as St. Augustine saith, a greater punish­ment then if a man were executed by sword, fire, or wild beasts. Wherein a man is more sharply,S. Mat. 18.15 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. and pitifully bound, then with any iron, or adamantine manicles, or fetters in the world. Cont. adver. leg. lib. 1. cap. 17.

But Christ had not said how often it is that we must forgive 130 our brother; and that was it which St. Peter would know, fear­ing (it should seem) lest too much lenity and gentleness should give occasion and liberty unto others to offend us.Remission, how often it is to be done. Therefore he came unto him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? till seaven times? he proposeth largely, as he thought,S. Mat. 18.21 neither did he imagine that beyond seaven times he should be bound to forgive. Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee untill seaven times; but untill seaventy times seaven. So he answer­eth both negatively, and affirmatively: negatively, I say not un­to thee,22, untill seaven times: affirmatively, untill seventy times seaven. Which is numerus certus pro incerto, finitus pro infinito, a certain number for an uncertain, a finite for an infinite; and therefore his answer is, So often as he shall sin against thee. This he illustrateth by a similitude, shewing thereby how the case standeth betwixt God and man. Therefore is the kingdom of hea­ven likened unto a certaine king, 23, which would take account of his ser­vants. One of them was deeply indebted, and did owe unto him ten thousand talents. He had nothing to pay, therefore is commanded to be sold with his wife and children, and all that he had.24 25, He beseecheth patience; his Lord is compassionate and [Page 191] remitteth the debt.26, 27, 28, 29, 30. The same servant useth a fellow servant with extremity for a small debt, and casteth him into prison. The fellow servants report this to their lord, who expostulateth his cruelty, and because he had forgiven him that great debt, but upon condition that he should shew the like mercy to his fellow servant (which because he had not shewed) he cast him into prison till he should pay it.31, 32, 33, 34, 35. Such is the case betwixt God and us; So likewise shall my heavenly Father doe also unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother their trespas­ses.

When Jesus had finished these sayings, he departed from Ga­lilee, 131 and came into the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan. And he preached to the people who followed him in great multitudes, and healed the sick.S. Mat. 19.1. S. Mar. 10.1. Concerning divorcement. S. Mat. 19.3. S. Mar. 10.2. So go on St. Matthew and St. Marke with the story. Thither came the Pharisees tempting him with a que­stion which they moved, concerning the solubility or insolubili­ty of marriage. Is it lawfull (said they) for a man to put away his wife for every cause? or to put her away at all? Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? Christ his answer is negative, and for this cause he alledgeth the originall institution, and conclud­eth with an Epiphonema, What God hath joyned together, let not man put asunder: As if he should say,S. Mat. 19.6. because that God made them at the beginning male & female, because he said that a man shall leave Father and Mother, and cleave to his wife, and they twain shall be one flesh; and because they are no more twain, but one flesh, therfore that it is not lawful for a man to put away his wife. They interrogate, why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away? Moses indeed did permit the men to put away their wives for uncleanness, and the woman divorced to be married to another man; this was but a temporall permission to them only,Deut. 24.1, 2. and for the hardness of their hearts: it must not be so now, for from the beginning it was not so. S. Mat. 19.8, 9. S. Mar. 10.11, 12. That therefore now neither must the man divorce his wife, nor the wife her husband, but for fornication onely. This seemed to his Disciples an hard saying; If the case be so of the man with his wife, (said they) it is not good to mary. He tells them, that continency, is a peculiar gift of God, rarely given; and that there be three sorts of Eunuches or continent men, for that some are born Eunuches, and are without natural ability; some castra­ted, and made Eunuches by men (the antiquity of which injury done to nature, Ammianus Marcellinus, lib. 14. refers to Semira­mis the wife of Ninus, Queen of the Assyrians, who did first of all, as he saith, cause it to be done:) others who have made them­selves Eunuches, (to live chastly and unmarried, the better to serve God in a chast and single life, by the grace of God, S. Mat. 19.11 12. subdu­ing the flesh with the affections and lusts) for the kingdom of [Page 192] heavens sake. This last is the expetible gift, and He that is able to receive it, let him receive it.

132 The time approaching that he should be received up, he sted­fastly set his face to go up to Hierusalem; and his way from Ga­lilee was through the country of Samaria. He is denyed entertain­ment by the Samaritans. Wherefore he sent certain messengers before him to one of the villages of the Sama­ritans to provide for his comming; but they hating the Jewes, as the Jews also did them, & declining to have commerce one with another, refused to entertain him, upon no other reason, but be­cause his face was as though he would go up to Hierusalem. Whereupon two of his Disciples, S. James and S. John, would, by his leave, have called fire from heaven to consume them, as Elias did those two captains of the fifties, with their fifties, who were sent by king Ahaziah to apprehend him, 2 King. 1. But Christ re­buked them,S. Luc. 9.51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56. told them that they did not know what spirit they were of, for that his comming was not to destroy any, but to save all. And so they went into another village which enter­tained them.Ten lepers cleansed. At that time (it should seem) as he went to Hie­rusalem, passing through the midst of Samaria and Galilee, as he entred into a certain village, there met him ten men that were lepers which stood afar off, and cryed out unto him, to heal them of their leprosie, Jesus, master, have mercy on us. The leprosie was a foul disease, pertinacissimae scabiei genus, a kind of scab most hard and difficult to be cured. Some think it to be that disease which the Greeks call [...], because it breaketh out in hard scabs or scales white and black, making the skin harsh and rugged like the Elephants. Of all other diseases it was most in­fectious, for it did infect the apparell; and the walls of the house were sometimes infected with leprosie. Therefore were the lepers to be put apart lest they should infect others, and to give war­ning of their uncleanness, by wearing a covering upon their upper lippe, and by crying out, and saying, uncleane, uncleane; having also their clothes rent, Levit. 13.45. and their head bare. This was the reason why he found these lepers without the village, and why also they stood afar off. And when he saw them, he said unto them, go shew your selves unto the priests; namely, that the priests might see and pronounce the cure, which part of their office he would not anticipate,S. Mat. 8.4. S. Mar. 1.44 S. Luc. 5.14. neither did he at all cure any of that disease (that we read of) but he sent them to the priests. And it came to passe that as they went, they were cleansed. Whereupon one of them who was a Samaritane, returned back to express his gratitude for the cure which he had received, which he did, most humbly giving glory to God. A duty which he rightly judged meet to be perfor­med in the first place, approved, accepted, and rewarded with a further benefit, the spirituall sanitie of his soule; for when he lay prostrate at his feet; ex procubitu, & supplicatione fidem suam [Page 193] simul cum benevolentia pandens, by prostration and supplication laying open his faith and devotion. He bad him to arise, saying, Arise, go thy way, thy faith hath made thee whole. S. Luc. 17.14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. As for the other nine, although they did hold on their way to go to the Priest, as they were commanded, yet because they did not first return to give glory to God, they were justly blamed.

So he comes to the feast of Tabernacles, of which feast, and for 133 what cause it was instituted, we have spoken before.He goeth to the feast of Tabernacles. Howbeit he came not up till the midst of the feast, which continued for the space of eight daies; he went not up sooner, because he would not comply with the ambition and boldnesse of his kinsmen, who did not yet believe in him; but having sent them up first, himselfe came after, S. Joh. cap. 7. from v. 1. to 14. as is set forth by Saint John in his seventh chapter. At this feast he taught openly in the temple, though they sought to kill him, and converted many. The pharisees and chiefe priests sent officers to apprehend him, whom they reprehend and revile because they had not brought him, and also quarel Nichodemus for taking his part in the council.S. Joh. 7.50, 51, 52. The woman absolved that was taken in adultery. At this feast also he absolved the woman taken in adultery, preached him­selfe the light of the world, justified his doctrine, exhorting the believers to perseverance, confoundeth his adversaries, proving them neither to be free, nor of Abraham, nor of God, but of the devill; proving himselfe to be God, greater and an­cienter then Abraham. S. Joh. 8.58, 59. Wherefore when they would have stoned him, he passed through the midst of them, and so went his way.

Being departed out of the temple, as he passed by, (with 134 strange ceremonies, shewing thereby that by his Baptisme, A man cu­red that was born blinde. which is the sacrament of illumina [...]ion or faith, he openeth the eyes of t [...]ose that are spiritually blinde) he cured a man that was borne blinde; when he had spit upon the ground, made clay, an­nointed his eyes, and sent him to wash in the pool of Siloam. S. Joh. 9.6, 7. By the miracle it selfe, the attestation of the party and of his parents, both the neighbours and the pharisees are plainly convinced. But the pharisees condemn him because he had wrought the mira­cle upon the sabbath day; and after much altercation with the poor man, they cast him out of the synagogue. Christ findeth him, telleth him who he is; the man believeth, and worshippeth;v. 39, 40, 41. he foretelleth the gentiles to be illuminated through faith in his name, and the Jewes to be blinded through unbeliefe. And so proceedeth as it is [...] the next chapter to declare both his office and person in a parable, wherein he compareth Gods chosen to sheep, and himselfe to a shepheard;Christ the good shep­heard. admonishing them of three sorts of men, who medle with the sheep. The first is the shepheard who hath right unto the sheep, careth for them, and defendeth them against the wolfe, with the hazard of his owne life. The [Page 194] second is the hireling, who though he come into the sheep-fold by the dore as the shepheard doth, yet when the wolfe commeth he leaveth the sheep and fleeth, and then the wolfe catcheth and scattereth them. The third are thieves and robbers, who break into the sheep-fold, and come to steal, to kill, and to destroy. That he himselfe is the good shepheard, who will lay downe his life for his sheep, he will not lay it downe by constraint, but voluntarily, and at his owne pleasure will rise again. That he will bring the gentiles also into his fold, that so there may be one flock, consisting both of Jewes and Gentiles under Him the good shepheard. For which divine sayings of his, a contention arose among the people,S. Joh. 10.15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. Parable of the labou­rers. S. Mat. 20.10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. Seventy dis­ciples sent forth. S. Luc. 10.8, 9, 10, 11, 12. some condemning, some defending him. Du­ring also the time of his abode there, he proposed the parable of the labourers, hired by the housholder to work in his vine­yard for a penny a day; shewing thereby that God is no mans debtor, and to shew that the gentiles also who are called last shall be equall in reward with the Jewes who are his ancient people. Likewise at that time he sent out his seventy disciples (seventy two, saith the vulgar latine, and the Rhemists; but the greek hath seventy) to work miracles, and to preach; giving them ample instructions how to demean themselves, as well to­wards those that should receive them, as also towards those that would reject them. These were Christs inferiour clergie; for like as the Apostles were his higher clergie, and did represent the superiour clergie, who are the Bishops; even so were the seventy disciples his inferiour clergie, and did represent the inferiour clergy called Priests. The one figured by the twelve wells of Elim, the other by the threescore and ten palme trees there, where the people of Israel in their peregrination (a type of the Church militant) encamped,Exod. 15.27. but not without a further mystery. He did then also state the question concerning the greatest commande­ment. S. Mat. 20.36, 37, 38, 39, 40. Taught the lawyer how to attain eternall life, and to take every one for his neighbour that needeth his mercy, by the pa­rable of that poor traveller that fell among the thieves,S. Luc. 10.36, 37. and the courteous Samaritan who shewed mercy on him. With many other divine doctrins scatteringly set down by the blessed Evan­gelists, who as they professed to writ either annals or diaries, so was it sufficient for them to enform the Church concerning his do­ctrines and miracles, as the holy Ghost gave them to write, though they observe not the same order of time, place, or occasion, in all things which they wrote.

135 And it was at Hierusalem the feast of the dedication, and it was winter, therefore he departed not out of Hierusalem till af­ter that feast.S Joh. 10.22 The feast of dedication. 1 King. 8.63 There were three solemn dedications of the tem­ple, the first was the dedication of Solomons temple, in the month of September. The second was the dedication of Zorobabels tem­ple [Page 195] in the month of February. 2 Chron. 7.10. Ezr. 6.15, 16. 1. Mac. 4.56, 57. The third was the dedication of the temple repurged, and the Altar repaired by Judas Macha­baeus, after that it had been profaned by Antiochus, in the month of November, decreed to be solemnly kept from year to year by the space of eight daies. It appears also by Josephus, that there was a fourth dedication of the temple, built and enlarged by Herod, solemnly kept upon the day of his inauguration to the kingdome, which Herod observed during his life,S. Joh. 10.23. Solomons porch. to condupli­cate the publick joy upon that day. Lib. 15. cap. 14. And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomons porch. Solomons porch is also called Atrium mundorum, the Court of the clean, because none might enter into it but they only that were clean according to the law; neither might any heathen man be permitted to come in thither. And I read, that upon certain pillars of marble which stood before the entry thereinto, it was ingraven in the Hebrew, Greek, Latine, and the Idumaean languages, that if a stranger should presume to go in thither, he should be put to death. And that Herod also caused to be hanged over the eastern gate, by which they came into this court, a golden sword, whereon was enscri­ved, If a stranger go in, let him die. This court was not without a great concourse of people, because thither they resorted to pray, and did pray there, both men and women; the men on the south side, the women on the north, a wall being betwixt them. It was not altogether unlawfull for men at some times to walk there. For at the feast of the Dedication, which was in winter, namely in November, (that of the temple repurged, and the Altar repaired by Judas Macchabaeus) Iesus walked there; And the Iewes came round about him, and said unto him, v. 24, How long dost thou make us to doubt? If thou be the Christ, tell us plainly. He appealed to his works, and had that contest with them which followeth to the fortieth verse. The feast being ended, he de­parted from Hierusalem, but did not go presently into Galilee, but first went to the place beyond Iordan, v. 40, 41, 42. (that was Bethabara) where Saint Iohn at first baptized. As he abode there some little time, and much people resorted unto him; there came some who brought newes of a most horrid murther, perpetrated by Pilate upon certain Galileans, The Galile­ans slain by Pilate. whom he had caused to be slain in the temple, while their sacrifices were offering; by this means prophaning the house of God, and mingling their blood with their sacrifices. So I understand the story. But who they were, and for what cause they were so slain, it is not mentioned. How­soever the common opinion is, that they were certain sectaries, who held the opinions of Iudas of Galilee, Act. 5.37. and denyed to sacri­fice for the Emperour and people of Rome, whereupon Pilate caused them to be throwne upon their own sacrifices and slain,He prea­cheth repen­tance. and so their blood was mingled with them. Whatsoever they were, [Page 196] he taketh occasion from thence to exhort them to repentance, proposing the parable of the barren fig-tree, S. Luc. 13.6, 7, 8, 9. intimating thereby the utter destruction of the Iewish nation, (to whom he had al­ready preached three years without effect) in case they would not repent.

136 Being come into Galilee, as his custome was, he preached in the Synagogues upon the sabbath daies. A crooked woman cu­red. S. Luc. 13.11. And upon a certain sab­bath in a synagogue where he taught, there was a woman which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and was bowed together, and could in no wise lift up her selfe. This her infirmity therefore was not from any na [...]urall cause, but from the devill; therefore said to be a spirit of infirmity, because he kept her bow'd together, depriving her of all strength to lift up her selfe. At which cure, (for he healed her by his word, with imposition of his hands) the ruler of the synagogue being offended, reproves the people for comming to be healed upon the sabbath day, whose hypocrisie he sharply reprehendeth,v. 14, 15, 16, 17, and so appositely by similitude of an ox or asse loosed from the stall, and led to the watering on the sab­bath, that all the people rejoyced, and all his adversaries were ashamed. Then he preached unto them concerning the kingdome of heaven, 18, 19, 20, 21. which he compareth to a grain of mustard-seed, and to leaven, shewing thereby the powerfull working of the word in the hearts of his chosen, and the propagation of his kingdome, by the ministery of the gospell, all the world over. The same day some of the Pharisees (whether it were so indeed, or whe­ther it were but their ovvne surmise, or peradventure to terri­fie him that he might desist) came unto him, bidding him to be gone, for that Herod would kill him. But he sleighted the admo­nition,31, 32, 33, 34, 35. designing Hierusalem for the place of his passion, and re­proving both Herod and Hierusalem. And upon the same day, or upon some other sabbath day, as he went to dine with one of the chiefe Pharisees, He cureth an hydropick man. S. Luc. 14.1, 2, 3, 4 5, 6. he cured an hydropick man; and knowing their hypocrisie, and that they watched him, defended the fact and stopped their mouths by asking them this question; Which of you shall have an an asse, or an oxe fallen into a pit, and will not straight-way pull him out on the sabbath day? Saint Augustine obser­veth the aptnesse of his similitudes, in that he compared the hy­dropick man, whose disease was too much moysture, or watry humour, to a beast fallen into a pit, as also he had compa­red the crooked woman to a beast loosed from the stall to be led to the water. De cons. Evang. And observing the pride and ambi­tion of the guests,v. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. striving for the chiefest rooms, he put forth a pararable, thereby teaching them humility. And to him that bad him he gave counsell to feast the poor, not for a recompence here,v. 12, 13, 14. but for a reward in heaven. Which when one of the guests heard, being ravished with his words, he cryed out, saying, [Page 197] Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of God. Which speech of his ushered in that parable of the great Supper, 15. v. 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 2 [...], 23, 24. whereby was shewed that worldly minded men who contemn the word of God, shall be shut out of heaven; and that the Jews who made world­ly excuses should be shut out, and the Gentiles admitted in their room and stead.

And there went great multitudes with him: that is to say, after 137 he came forth out of the Pharisees house.S. Luc. 14.25 To these he preacheth by the way, giving them to understand, that it is no light thing for any man to take upon him the profession of religion, Christs Di­sciples must bear their cross. for that his Disciples must bear their Cross, to whom it must be nothing grievous to forsake their parents, and wives and children, friends and kindred, and to lay down their lives too, when there shall be good occasion, for a testimony unto him. They therefore that will be his Disciples, must have a fixt resolution, having first counted the cost, like him that would build a tower; v. 28 29, 30. 31, 32, 33, 34, 35. and also carefully considered their strength of grace and christian forti­tude, as a King that is to war with another King, taketh counsel concerning his forces; for they that apostatize, will be altoge­ther unprofitable, like salt that hath lost his savour. At that time also (it should seem) or not long after, drew near unto him all the publicans and sinners, for to hear him.S. Luc. 15.1, 2, And the Pharisees and Scribes murmured, saying, This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with them. Those whom they call sinners, were those who then were, or formerly had been of a scandalous conversation, either truly, or in their opinion; with whom they alwaies coupled the publicans, who were no less scandalous unto them for their of­fice sake. But by the parable of the lost sheep, The parables of the lost sheep, and of the lost drachma. and of the lost drachma, he sheweth that there shall be joy in heaven, and in the presence of the Angels of God, over one publican or sinner that re­penteth, more then over ninety and nine proud hypocrites, such as Pharisees were, just in their own eyes, who would find no sins in themselves to be repented of. And so likewise for the younger son, the prodigal Gentiles; the elder, to wit, the Jews disdaining,v. 7. & 10. Parable of the prodigall son. v. 28, 29, 30, 31, 32. Of the unjust steward. and refusing to come into the Church, notwithstanding his loving invitations. Then by the parable of the unjust steward, directing his speech unto his Disciples, but in the presence and hearing of the Pharisees; he instructeth them to be faithfull stewards of the goods of their Lord, whether spirituall graces, or temporall blessings, and by the Mammon of unrighteousness (the goods of the world, for mammon is a Syriack word, and signifieth riches) to acquire many fri [...] for the kingdom of heavens sake, and that by the dispensation of this unrighteous Mammon, the servant will approve himself to be just or unjust.S. Luc. 16. from v. 1. to v. 13. The Pharisees who could not conceive in what sense worldly riches lawfully ac­quired might be called unrighteous, the mammon of un­righteousnesse, [Page 198] being themselves covetous, and knowing that tem­porall riches are promised by the letter of the law, they derided him; shewing by outward actions, and gestures, that they had him in scorn and derision; [...]. But he reproveth their hypocrisie, shewing that the Law and the G [...]spell are not contrary, if the law be understood in its right sense, for that as long as heaven and earth shall stand, one title of the law (ac­cording to the spirituall, v. 14.15, 16, 17, 18. and Evangelicall sense and meaning) shall not be frustrate. Foretelling them further, that the covetous Jews shall be denyed of their father Abraham, when the poor pe­nitent Gentiles shall rest in his bosom. Which he insinuateth by a narration of a certain unmerciful rich man, justly damned in hell, and of a certain poor beggar, mercifully saved. Which nar­ration,Narration concerning the rich man and Lazarus S. Luc. 16.19 20, 21, 22, 23. S. Luc. 16.24 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31. whether it be historical or parabolicall, and not rather in part historicall, so far as concerneth the persons, their conditions here, and their severall estates after death; but parabolicall as concerning other things, as the lifting up of his eyes in hell, where he saw Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom; and also his petition as well for himself, that Lazarus might be sent to dip the tip of his finger in water and to cool his tongue; as also on the behalf of his brethren, that he might be sent to testi­fie unto them; together with Abrahams reply to both; I take not upon me to define.

138 Then follows the petition of the Apostles for augmentation of Faith,The Apostles petition for encrease of faith. saying, Lord, increase our faith. Whereupon he setteth forth, and magnifieth the power of faith, and that we must be fervent, and labour to be strong in faith, but humble withall, waiting upon Gods commandments to do them, and expecting a reward hereafter; like the good servant who doth first make ready for his master, S. Luc. 17.5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. and give his attendance upon him, and af­terwards sitteth down to his own supper; knowing that we are bound to God, and not he to us. And either then immediately, or not long after,The Phari­sees question. when the Pharisees moved a question concer­ning the kingdom of God (of the approach whereof they had heard so much) when it should come; he answereth, that they must seek the kingdom of God within themselves; S. Luc. 17.21 for the kingdom of God is, that God raign within us. But to his Disciples he dis­courseth otherwise concerning the kingdome of God. Warning them after his passion, to expect his second comming in glory: tel­ling them in what manner he will come, willing them to be al­waies prepared, for that many will be suddainly surprized, like the old world, and the men of Sodom. A [...] [...]en there shall be no respect of persons, for that all persons, men and women, as they shall be found meet or unmeet for his kingdom,v. 34 35, 36. so shall they be accepted or rejected. These things when they understood not, by reason of that carnall opinion concerning the worldly kingdome [Page 199] of the Messiah, they reply, [...]; Where, Lord? in what place shall it be, where they shall be thus accepted or rejected? His answer is aenigmaticall, intimating, that they shall be gathered unto him from all places of the world,37. like as the Eagles flye from all quarters to the dead carcass. Then followeth the para­ble of the importunate widow, Parable of the importu­nate widow. who by her importunity obtained justice of an unjust judge; which he spake to this end, that men ought alwaies to pray, and not to faint: assuring them thereby, that God will avenge his own elect which cry day and night unto him, and that he will do it speedily, though for the present he forbear with patience. And though he be so zealous on the be­half of his elect, yet that wickedness shall so abound upon earth, Luc. 18. from v. 1. to v. 9. The Parable of the phari­see and of the Publican. that when the Son of man shall come to judgement, the true believers shall be but few. Hereunto he annexeth the parable of the Pharisee, and of the Publican, both of them praying in the temple in the same posture of body, but to divers ends: the Pha­risee to justifie himself, the Publican to crave pardon for his sins: the Pharisees prayer was Eucharistical in opinion of his own righ­teousness: the Publicans was deprecatory in a true sense and fee­ling of his own wretchedness. This was not directed to his Dis­ciples as the former, but to the Scribes and Pharisees, and such as they were, who trusted in themselves that they were righteous, S. Luc. 18.9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. and despised others; therefore if not spoken at the same time, and in the same place, yet fitly to follow for the subjects sake. For they that will pray continually, must pray with humility; because if they cannot say with the Pharisee, that they be just; yet they can say with the Publican, that they be sinners. Nor must any man presume to justifie himself to God; For every one that exalteth himselfe shall be abased: and he that humbleth himselfe shall be ex­alted.

And now we must again take notice, how the covenant was 139 further administred by him this year, for the breaking of the Serpents head, and for the abolishing of the old testament. The Recapi­tulation. By inter­rogating the Disciples concerning himselfe. By making good his pro­mise to Saint Peter. By being himselfe the rock of the Church, upon which the Apostles were to be laid as sure foundation stones. By promi­sing to assure his Church against the gates of hell. By promising the keyes of the kingdom of heaven, to be transferred to the Evangelicall priesthood. By foretelling his passion, death, and resurrection. By his Transfiguration. By dispossessing a dumbe and deafe spirit. By paying the Didrachma. By teaching his Apostles humility. By prohibiting scandall, and laying down the doctrine of brotherly correption and re­mission. By stating the question concerning Divorcement. By pas­sing by the injury done to him by the Samaritans. By cleansing ten le­pers. By going up to the feast of Tabernacles. By absolving the woman taken in adultery. By curing the man that was born blind. By setting [Page 200] himselfe forth to be the good shepheard. By proposing the parable of the labourers. By sending out his seventy Disciples. By other things which he said, and did there at that feast. By abiding at Hierusalem the feast of dedication. By preaching repentance. By curing a crooked woman. By curing an hydropick man. By teaching his Disciples to beare their cross. By proposing the parables of the lost sheepe, of the lost drachma, and of the prodigall son. By proposing the parable of the unjust steward, and the parable of the rich man, and Lazarus. By replying to his Apo­stles petition for augmentation of faith; and to the Pharisees question concerning the kingdom of God. By the parables of the importunate widow, and of the Pharisee and publican. It became him who hum­bled himself, and was made man for the redemption of all man­kinde, to do all these things. And thus, with my late learned Dio­cesan, our sacred History doth put an end to the fourth year after his Baptisme, which was the three and thirtieth year of his age. And this also shall be an end to the second booke of this our sa­cred History.


NOW the great day of Attonement draweth 1 nigh, and Christ the high Priest will by the sacrifice of himselfe once offered, make the attonement for all the people, expiate all their sins, and reconcile them to God. Therefore went he through the cities and villages;He journy­eth towards Jerusalem. S. Luc. 13.22 23. Exhorteth to enter in at the strait gate. tea­c [...]ing and journeying towards Hierusalem. And as he went, one demanded this question, saying, Domine, si pauci sunt qui salvantur? Lord, are there few that be saved? He tells him not whether many or few, but that the gate of heaven is a strait ga [...]e, into which none can enter but they that strive as champions; that it is yet open, but it will be shut, and then it will be too late for them to strive. This will be when he shall come to judg­ment. At which day it will wound their hearts to see Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, and all the Prophets in the kingdome of God, the Gentiles also from all parts and quarters of the world,v. 28, 29, 30. and themselves thrust out for their unbeliefe. Proceeding on­wards in his journey,S. Mat. 19.13 S. Mar. 10.13 S. Luc. 18.15 there were some who brought unto him [...], saith Saint Matthew, and with him Saint Mark; little children, [...], infants, saith Saint Luke, children lately born from their mothers vvombe, to the end that he should put his hands upon them, pray for them, and blesse them. B [...]esseth the little chil­dren. S. Mat. 9.18. S. Mar. 8.22. It vvas not unusuall vvith him to cure the diseased, and to confer other graces by imposition of his blessed hands; it vvas that vvhich the ruler petitioned for, in behalfe of his daughter: vvith the same ceremony he gave sight to the blinde man. And vvhen they brought unto him many sick and diseased,S. Luc. 4.40. he laid his hands on every one of them, and healed them. These things it is likely they had observed in him; besides,S. Mat. 19.13, 14, 15. S. Mar. 10.14, 15, 16. S. Luc. 18.15, 16, 17. they could not be ignorant that the patriarcks, priests, and Prophets, did blesse and consecrate by imposition of hands. Upon these grounds they brought their chil­dren to him that he should blesse them, pray for them, and con­secrate them to God by imposition of his hands. This offended the [Page 202] Apostles, vvho therefore rebuked those that brought them, but Christ approving the fact, deferred nothing to satisfie their de­sires.

2 And they vvere in the vvay going up to Hierusalem, and Jesus vvent before them, and they vvere amazed, and as they follovv­ed they vvere afraid. S. Mar. 10.32 For he had divers times before told them of his sufferings at Hierusalem, being novv to go up thither; they were amazed, and afraid, Ne vel ipsi cum eo occiderentur; vel saltem, ille cujus vi â & magisterio gaudebant, inimicorum manibus occumberet, lest either they should be killed with him, or he himselfe, in whose life and magistery they rejoyced, should die by the hands of his enemies, as Bede observeth. Therefore he took them to him privately, and to the end that he might prepare and fit them for the temptation to come, telleth them that he goes up voluntarily to Hierusalem, well knowing what should befall him there. He enumerates particularly what he will suffer, that he shall be betrayed unto the chief Priests and Scribes, that they shall condemn him to death,S. Mat. 20.17, 18, 19. S. Mar. 10.32, 33, 34. S. Luc. 18.31, 32, 33. they shall deliver him to the gentiles, to be mocked and scourged, spit upon and crucified; but yet that they should not have their wills of him, for the third day he would rise again; that these things were foretold of him by the prophets, and must be accomplished accordingly. To all this the Apostles replyed nothing, and Origen thinks it was, lest he should make the like reply unto them as he had done unto Saint Peter before: but Saint Luke setteth down the reason plain­ly to be,v. 34. that they understood none of these things, and this saying was hid from them, neither knew they the things which were spoken. They heard them indeed, and understood the words, but the true sense and meaning of them was hidden from their under­standing. The petition of Salome and her sons. Whence it came that the two sons of Zebedaeus, ta­king Salome their mother also with them, she for them, they for themselves, petitioned that they might sit the one on his right hand, S. Mat. 20.20.21. S. Mar. 10.35, 36, 37. the other on his left hand in his kingdome; in that earthly king­dome, into which they thought he would presently enter, so soon as he should be risen again upon the third day. The reason of this petition, as Saint Chrysostome hath observed, was, because they saw themselves honoured above others, and had heard him also to say, that his Apostles should sit upon twelve thrones, in the kingdome of his glory,S. Mat. 19.28. judging the twelve tribes of Israel, they feared also that Saint Peter should be prefer'd before them. And I shall add, that in respec [...] [...]hat they did concern him by affinity, they might peradventure think themselves more worthy then any other. It was an ambitious petition, therefore he told them plainly,S. Mat. 20.22, 23. S. Mar. 10.38, 39, 40. that they did ask they knew not what: for could they drink of that cup that he should drink of? could they be baptized with his Baptisme? They said, they could. He told them, [Page 203] they should; and so they were, for Saint James was slain with the sword and so was a blessed Martyr both in will and act; Saint John was cast into a vessell of boyling oyle, and though he did not die, yet was he an holy Martyr in will, though not in act. When the ten heard his answer, S. Mat. 20.24 25, 26, 27, 28 S. Mar. 10.41 42, 43 44, 45 (for they also had their ambitious thoughts) they began to be much displeased at them; but he do­ctrinateth them all with precepts of lowlynesse and humi­lity.

Holding on his journey he approached Jericho, a city plea­santly 3 scituated in the tribe of Benjamin, Concerning Hiericho, and the blind man cured. Deut. 34.3. distant from Jerusa­lem an hundreth and fifty stades, saith Josephus, the whole space betwixt both [...], desert and stony, which desert is now called Quarentena. It is called in the Scripture, the city of palme trees, because there were those excellent palmes, which being trodden or pressed did send forth honey. It was first de­stroyed by Josuah, Jos. 6.26. and a curse denounced by him against the re­builder of it. Which curse long after fell upon the head of Hiel the Bethelite, as we read in the book of Kings. 1 Kin. 1634 As he came nigh to that city, he gave sight to a certain blinde man, as Saint Luke saith, who sat by the way side begging. And as he departed thence,S. Luc. 18.35 he restored two blinde men to their sight, who also sat by the way side, as Saint Matthew saith;S. Mat. 20.30 S. Mar. 10.46 one of which was Bartimeus the son of Timeus, named by Saint Mark, for that it seemes he was well knowne in the city, and it is likely, had fallen from some good estate, not only to be blinde, but also to be a beggar. So do I reconcile the place with Saint Augustine; De cons. Evang. lib. 2. cap. 62. Utrumque factum, sed non utrumque ab utroque dictum. He did both, though both the Evangelists do not say both. And Jesus entred and passed through Iericho, S. Luc. 19.1. The history of Zacheus. therefore he made no stay there, and as he went forwards upon the vvay, a certain man named Zacheus, [...], a chief publican or farmour of the tribute money, having a great desire to see him, (and be­cause he could not for the preasse, and vvas little of stature) he ran before, and climbed up into a sycamor tree, that so he might take a vievv of him from thence. When he came to the place, he call'd him dovvn,v. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. and told him that he vvould dine at his house that day. He came dovvn hastily, and entertained him joyfully. He did not therefore dvvell in Iericho, but either in the road or neer unto it, vvhither he might easily go vvith some small diversion. At this the people murmured, saying, that he vvas gone in to be a guest with a sinner; for such they accounted the publicans, vvhom they hated mortally. But Zacheus (vvho vvas rich as the text observeth) vvould no longer be unjust, but he vvould break off his sins by righteousnesse, and his iniquities by shewing mercy to the poor, (it vvas the counsell vvhich the prophet Daniel gave to Nebuchadnezzar, Dan. 4.27.) therefore vvithout delay he [Page 204] makes a present restitution, as well for unknown, as for known injuries. For unknowne injuries, which peradventure he had committed in exacting of tribute, he gave the halfe of his goods to the poor; and for known wrongs, if any man could accuse him, he tenders a fourefold restitution; that is, a perfect restitution ac­cording to the law. That day salvation came unto his house, that day was he made a son of Abraham, and of his spirituall seed. Christ also defendeth his going in thither from the end of his mission:v. 7, 8, 9, 10. The son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost. And because they were nigh unto Hierusalem, and the people that went with him thought that he would presently declare himselfe to be Messiah, and erect the throne of a temporall king­dome in that place;The parable of the pounds he put forth the parable of the pounds, shew­ing thereby what he will do at his second comming, as well to the servants, as also to those his spitefull citizens the Jewes, who would not that he should raigne over them.from v. to v. 27. For he is that no­ble man who by his ascention must go into heaven to receive the kingdome, and will return again in his bodily presence when he shall come to Judgment.

4 Bethany was a village or towne distant from Hierusalem about fifteen furlongs, Bethany. The history of Lazarus raised from the dead. which is almost two miles, towards the south-east. In that place dwelt Mary, Martha, and Laza [...]us their brother; which Mary probably was Saint Mary Magdalen, who being born at Magdala, a city scituated upon the west side of the Gali­lean sea about fifty and two miles from Jerusalem, was from the place of her nativity and former habitation called Magdalen. She is particularly described to be that Mary which annoynted the Lord with oyntment, and wiped his feet with her hair. And we finde that Christ was three times anoynted: 1st In the house of Simon the Pharisee, at what time she came be­hinde him as he sat at meat, brought an alabaster box of oynt­ment, and did wash his feet with tears, and wiped them with the hairs of her head,S. Luc. 7.37, 38. and kissed them, and annoynted them with the oyntment. 2ly In her owne house at Bethany, six daies before the passeover as he sat at supper, at what time she took a pound of oyntment of spiknard, very costly, annointed his feet, and wi­ped them with her hair. S. Joh. 12.3. 3ly In the house of Simon the leper, who dwelt also at Bethany, two daies before the passeover; at what time she brought an alabaster box of oyntment of spikenard ve­ry precious, brake the box, and powred the oyntment on his head.S. Mar. 14.3. Now Lazarus the brother of this Mary was sick: she un­derstanding where Jesus was, gave him notice of it by some messenger which she sent, not requiring him to come, nor yet to speak the word that he might be healed, but only to plead unto him his love.S. Joh. 11.1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Lord, behold he whom thou lovest is sick. She thought it sufficient for him to know it, she concluded with [Page 205] her self, that he would at no hand forsake him whom he loved. Upon this message he abode two dayes still in the place where he was; and then told his Disciples that he would go into Judea again, meaning Hierusalem, and the parts adjacent, for he was not then in Galilee, (though Saint Gregory Nyssen thinks so, De hom. opif. cap. 25.) but had passed through Jericho, and was then in Judea as is said before.

The Disciples admonish him of the danger, the Jews had 5 lately sought to stone him, it would be dangerous for him to go thither. He tells them that he is the day, they the hours; the hours are enlightned by the day, and do follow the day, and not the day the hours; even so must they follow him, and walk in his light, not he them to be guided by their counsell.v. 6.7, 8, 9, 10. Aug. Tract. 49. in Johan. Having in this manner meekly reproved them, he told them of the death of Lazarus, but having said before, that that sickness was not unto death, (Quia ipsa mors non erat ad mor­tem, sed potius ad miraculum, because he would miraculously raise him from the dead) he said now that he slept, and that he went to awake him. They understand the natural rest in sleep. Where­fore he told them plainly that he was dead; Lazarus is dead. That he was glad that he was not there, to the intent that they might believe, ut amplius robustius (que) credatis, that your faith may be greater and stronger, saith St. Augustine. Therefore exhorting them to accompany him;v. 11.12, 13, 14, 15, 16. St. Thomas also stirs up his fellow A­postes to go along with their Lord, not to forsake him, but to dye with him. Being come to Bethany, Martha first meeteth him, with whom he entertaineth speech concerning her brother, promi­seth to raise him up. She understandeth his promise of the ge­nerall resurrection: he confirmeth her by divine doctrine:v. 21.22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. she makes a most excellent confession of her faith, and then goes away to call her sister. Mary comes with haste, findeth him in that place where Martha left him, she falls down at his feet, and said as Martha had said before. They bring him to the grave; he wept and was troubled, but voluntarily, because he would weep and be troubled; it was in his own power to be so affected or not. v. 32.33, 34, 35. He causeth the stone to be taken away from the mouth of the cave, giveth thanks to the Father, then cryed with a loud voyce, Lazarus, come forth.v. 39.40.41 42, 43. And so Lazarus [...], saith Saint Gregory Nyssen, leaps out of the Grave per­fect and safe, being nothing hindred by those bands with which his hands and feet were bound, from comming forth.v. 44. De hom. opific. cap. 25. But this miracle did so incense the chief priests and pharisees through their blindness and malice, that they consult to kill him; how be it the high Priest prophesieth unawares of the salvation of the world by his death; and he also absented [Page 206] himselfe by going to a certain city named Ephraim, v. 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54. (eight miles distant from Hierusalem, towards Jericho, in the wilder­ness of Quarentena, as some say) and continued there with his Disciples.

6 So left he the Priests and Pharisees to consult his death, who having first taken counsell together with Caiaphas the high Priest more clancularly;He left the Priests and Pharisees to consult his death. did afterwards (it seems) impart it to the councill, the great Councill, called the Sanhedrim; by the authority whereof they set forth a mandate, or gave command­ment,S. Joh 11.57 [...], that if any man knew where he were, he should shew it, that they might take him. They also consulted to put Lazarus to death;S. Joh. 12.11 Because that by reason of him, many of the Jewes went away, and believed on Jesus. For much people flocked out of the city, not only to see Jesus, when they understood that he was there, but Lazarus also whom he had raised from the dead.He commeth to Bethany six dayes be­fore the passe­over, and is first annoint­ed to his bu­rying. Six dayes before the passeover he comes from Ephraim to Bethany, there the sisters made him a supper, Martha served, Lazarus sate at table, Mary annointed his feet with costly ointment of Spikenard, which filled the house with the sweet odour of it, being in quantity a pound, as before is said. This pound of oyntment was worth three hundred pence, every penny at the value of seven pence half-peny, of our english sterling mony, the whole amoun­teth to nine pounds seven shillings and six pence. At this Judas who bare the bag, and was a thiefe murmured because it was not sold, and the mony put into the bag for the use of the poor; not because he cared for the poor, but in that he missed an opportu­nity of theft. But he defendeth her, significat se moriturum, & ad sepeliendum aromatibus esse ungendum: ideo Mariae, cui ad unctionem mortui corporis multum desideranti pervenire non liceret, donatum sit viventi adhuc impendere obsequium, quod post mortem celeri resur­rectione praeventa nequiret, saith Alcuinus. He signifieth that he must die, and be annointed with sweet odours for his buriall; and therefore it was granted unto Mary to annoint his living body,S. Joh. 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. who would much desire to do that office towards his dead body, but should not, because she could not, in that she would be prevented by his speedy resurrection.

7 The day following, which was the fifth day before the passe­over, The History of his trium­phant riding into Hieru­salem. not regarding the consultations of the Priests and Phari­sees, nor the mandate which was given forth for his apprehen­sion, because his hour was now almost come that he should dye; he entred Hierusalem triumphantly in this manner. He went from Bethany to Bethphage, which was a little village of the Priests, sci­tuated upon the side of the mount Olivet, one mile distant from Je­rusalem; from thence he sent two of his Disciples, to a village that was over against them, to bring unto him an Ass and a Colt, which were tyed in a place where two waies met; they went, loos­ed [Page 207] them and brought them. And when they had presented them unto him, they cast their garments upon both, to the end that he might take his choice upon which he would ride: so he mounted the Colt; upon which no man had ever sate before, and rode up the mount of Olives, much people being with him, whereof some went before, some followed after him. They that went before, some of them spread their garments in the way, others cut down branches from the trees, and strewed them in the way, much people also came out of the city, when they heard that he was comming, took branches of Palm trees, and went forth to meet him; all of them, they that went before, they that followed after, they that met him, with joyfull acclamations crying out, and saying, Hosanna to the son of David; Blessed is he that commeth in the name of the Lord, Hosanna in the highest. Bles­sed be the kingdome of our father David, that commeth in the name of the Lord, Hosanna in the highest. S. Mat. 21.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. S. Mar. 11, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Blessed be the king that commeth in the name of the Lord, peace in heaven, and glory in the highest. Hosan­na, Blessed is the king of Israel, that commeth in the name of the Lord. All this was done, that the prophecie of Zechariah might be ful­filled, but his Disciples understood it not at the first.

As he came down from the mount of Olives with these tri­umphes, 8 he had a full sight of the city, wept over it,S. Luc. 19. from v. 29. to v. 45. S. Joh. 12.12 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. S. Mat. 21.10, 11. and fore­told the destruction of it. And being brought into the city with these joyfull acclamations, the people of all sorts young and old, strangers and others, flocked together, demanding who it was that entred the city in that manner; to whom the multitude that came with him, replyed, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee. Now as he came down from the mountain, some of the Pharisees (who peradventure were not of the number of those who consulted his death,) not well pleased with the things which they heard and saw, bad him to rebuke the peo­ple; but he replyed, saying, I tell you, S. Luc. 19.40 if these should hold their peace, the stones would immediately cry out. But being entred the city, his enemies despaired, and whispered among themselves, Perceive ye how ye prevaile nothing? Behold, S. Joh. 12.19 the world is gone af [...]er him. In this manner all the people attended him to the t [...]m [...]le, which he found at that time also sacrilegiously polluted by the forementioned market, and having purged it, he then cured the sick and diseased that came unto him.S. Mat. 21.12 13, 14. Whereupon certaine strangers, Jewes, who came out of Graecia to worship at the feast, desirous to see him, obtained their request by the mediation of his Apostles, Saint Andrew and Saint Philip. S. Joh. 12.20 21, 22. v. 23. to 36, v. 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43. To whom he fore­told the conversion of the whole world to be now at hand as the effect of his death, receiving the testimony of his father from heaven for their sakes. But he preached to an unbelieving people, as the Prophet Isaiah had said before, Neverthelesse among the [Page 208] chiefe rulers also, from v. 44 to 50. many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees, they did not confesse him, lest they should be put out of the Synagogue. Therefore calleth he earnestly for confession of faith. So that day was brought to an end, and he departed out of the temple at even, and hid himself from them, Saint John saith. He left them and went out of the city to Bethany, S. Mat. 21.17 and lodged there.

9 The next morning which was the fourth day before the passe­over, He curseth the fruitless fig-tree. he came early from Bethany, and being hungry, he sought fruit of a fruitless fig-tree which stood by the way; but finding nothing but leaves only,S. Mat. 21.19 he cursed it, saying, Let no fruit grow on thee henceforward for ever. He never cursed any thing that we read of, but only that fig-tree, and it seems the more strange, be­cause Saint Marke saith,S. Mar. 11.13 that it was not then the time of figs. It was not the time of ripe figs, but this tree had not so much as any young green figs; and he did condemn it to perpetuall ste­rility, Ut ostenderet plebem Judaeorum propter folia, id est, verba justi­tiae quae habebat sine fructu, id est bono opere, non posse salvari, sed scindi & in ignem mitti, saith Bede, To shew that the people of the Jewes for the leaves sake, that is, for the words of righ­teousness which they had without fruit of good works, could not be saved, but must be cut down, and cast into the fire. And when he was come into the Temple, He refuseth to shew his authority to the chiefe priests. the chiefe Priests, and the Elders of the people came unto him, as he was teaching, and said, By what authority dost thou these things? and who gave thee this authority? But he could have avouched his authority by the testimony of Saint John the Baptist, S. Mat. 21.23, 24, 25 26, 27. S. Mar. 11.28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33. S. Luc. 20.1.2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. concerning whose Baptisme, seeing they would not say plainly whence it was, whether from heaven or of men; he would not tell them by what authority he had purged the temple, and did also teach the people there. Then put he forth unto them divers parables; one concerning the two sons, commanded by their Father to go and to work in his vineyard; whereof the first denyed, yet went; the second promi­sed, yet went not. A second, concerning the husband men, who slew such as were sent unto them;Parables sig­nifying the reprobation of the Jewes and vocation of the Gen­tiles. and last of all, the Son himself. A third, concerning the king that made a marriage for his son, the invited guest, setting light of their invitation, and neglecting to come. In all which he sheweth the most deserved reprobation of the Iewes, and the gracious vocation of the Gentiles in their place. With these parables they were sorely galled, wherefore they took counsell how they might intangle him in his talk,S. Mat. 21. & 22. S. Mar. 12. S. Luc. 20. and so to bring him either into dislike of the people, or within com­pass of treason. To this end they sent unto him the Disciples of the Pharisees with the Herodians, He avoideth the snare of the Pharisees (a sect of Heretiques among the Iewes, who said that Herod was the promised Messiah) to know his opinion, whether it were lawfull to pay tribute to Caesar. To this question they thought he would answer either [Page 209] negatively or affirmatively. If affirmatively, then the people who abhorred tribute, and the Publicans for the tribute sake, would abhor him, and put him into their hands to do with him what they pleased. If negatively, then they had him fast enough, they would deliver him to the Roman magistrate to be put to death for his treason.S. Mat. 22.21 S. Mar. 12.17 S. Luc. 20.25 He avoideth the snare by calling for the tribute-mony, demanding whose was the image and superscription; and then bidding them to render to Caesar the things which are Caesars; and unto God the things that are Gods. He confuteth the Sadduces. The Pharisees being de­parted from him, the Sadduces, another sect among the Iewes, who denyed the resurrection, to overthrow the doctrine of it, (as they thought) propose an absurd question concerning a wo­man married unto seven brethren, S. Mat. 22.32 S. Mar. 12.26, 27. S. Luc. 20.37, 38. and which of them should have her to wife at the resurrection. He confuteth the errour, stateth the question, and proveth the resurrection by such a ne­cessary consequence of Scripture, as was undeniable.

And when the multitude heard this, they were astonished at 10 his doctrine. And certain of the scribes answering, said, Master, S. Mat. 22.33 S. Luc. 22.39 thou hast well said. But the Pharisees would not so be satisfied, and one of them to tempt him, demanded to know of him the first or great commandement of the law. To which question when he had made a short analysis of the first and second tables of the mo­rall law, that same pharisee, who was a scribe and a lawyer, He analy­seth the law. S. Mat. 22.36, 37, 38, 39, 40. S. Mar. 12. v. 8. to 34. S. Luc. 20.40. ap­proved his answer, and Christ also told him that he was not far from the kingdome of God. And no man after that durst aske him any question. This gave him opportunity to question them; wherefore, while the pharisees were gathered together, he put­teth forth a question concerning Christ whose son he must be; whereunto when they had readily answered, The son of David; He questio­neth them concerning Christ. he objecteth out of the hundred and tenth psalme, David cal­led him Lord, how is he then his son? Unto which objection being not able to reply,S. Mat. 22.46 S. Mar. 12.37 S. Luc. 20.44. S. Mar. 12.38, 39, 40. S. Luc. 20.46, 47. he taketh occasion of that bitter invective against the scribes and pharisees, (which being but a little tou­ched by the other Evangelists, Saint Mark and Saint Luke, is set down at large by Saint Matthew, cap. 23.) representing to the multitude and to his disciples, that the scribes and pharisees, after all that he had said and done continuing still incorrigible, although he will have the doctrine of their chair (eatenus qua­tenus, sitting in the chair of Moses they taught Moses doctrine) to be obeyed, yet against their works, (and namely their am­bition) he openly inveigheth, crying to them eight woes for their eightfold hypocrisie and blindenesse: and so concluding with the most worthy reprobation of that persecuting generation, and their mother city Hierusalem, he prophesieth the destruction of it.

At that time he sate over against the treasury teaching in the 11 [Page 210] temple, where he saw how the people cast in their mony; they that were rich cast in much, to pious uses, and for the repara­tion of the temple; and a poor widow cast in two mites; which gift of hers,S. Mar. 12.41, 42, 43, 44. S. Luc. 21.3, 4 in that it was all that she had, he preferrs before the great gifts of all those who cast in of their abundance largely. So de­parted he out of the temple. And as he went out, some of his disciples among themselves,He foretel­leth the de­struction of the Temple. S. Mat. 24.1, 2. S. Mar. 13.1, 2. S. Luc. 2.5, 6. and to him, spake of the temple, the stones, the buildings, and gifts vvherevvith it was adorned. But he replyed that the dayes vvould come, that there should not be one stone left upon another that should not be throwne downe. So they vvent forvvards speaking (it should seem) of these things, till he ascended the mount of Olives, vvhere in a convenient place, over against the Temple, and having the vvhole sight and prospect of it, he sat dovvn. There his Apostles, Saint Peter, Saint James, Saint Iohn, and Saint Andrew came unto him privately, desiring him to tell them vvhen that desolation of the temple should be, and by vvhat signe it should be knovvne, and vvhat should be the signe of his second comming and of the end of the world. He foretel­leth persecu­tions to the Gospell, ca­lamities to the Jewes, and sheweth the signes of his second comming. In all which he satisfied their desires, as well for their instruction, as also for the information of all the rest of his Apo­stles; bidding them to beware of deceivers to come; also to ex­pect persecutions, and that great calamities the forerunners of that desolation, should be to the people and nation of the Jewes; sheweth them the signes of his comming to judgment, and the manner of it. And because that day and houre is unknown, that therefore they must watch, like good servants expecting every moment the comming of their Lord. So continuing his sermon he enforceth that duty of watching by two parables, of the Virgins, and of the Talents, thereby to shew how it shall be at the day of judgment with the faithfull who shall be found prepared, and with the unfaithfull who shall not be fitted for his comming. Also that then he will call all men to account, and reward or punish according to divine justice. Finally with­out a parable he describeth the last judgment, shewing that such faithfull as do the works of mercy shall have life everlasting, but the unfaithfull who do them not, shall be sent away into ever­lasting fire. All which things Saint Matthew sets down largely and plainly, Cap. 25.

12 That night therefore he abode in the mount of Olives, as Saint Luke saith,S. Luc. 21.37, 38. and went not to Bethany, but returned early in the morning into the temple, whither the people resorted to hear him; and this was the third day before the passeover. Con­cerning the transactions of which day we finde, that as they passed by,S. Mar. 11.20 they saw the fig tree which he had cursed, to be dried up from the roots. And Saint Peter shewing it unto him, he ex­horted them to stedfastnesse of faith, shewing the power of it, [Page 211] and to forgive one another and their enemies when they pray. That day also (it seemes as he returned from the Temple to Bethany) he foretold unto his disciples that after two daies, at the passeover, he should be betrayed and crucified;S. Mat. 26.2. of which his death he had often times premonished them. And so he came to Bethany, where he was invited to supper in the house of Simon the leper, the chiefe priests, the scribes, and the elders of the people in the mean time consulting his death in the house of Caiphas the high priest; yet not to put him to death, for that was agreed upon before;S. Mat. 26.4. S. Mar. 14.1. S. Luc. 22.2. He suppeth in the house of Simon the leper, and is annointed the second time to his buriall. but how to single him out from the people, and by some stratagem or subtle device to get him into their power that they might kill him. Now as he sate at meat in the house of that Simon who formerly had been a leper, and had received cure from Christ, nomine pristino permanente, ut virtus curantis appareat, called still Simon the leper, that the power of him that cured him may appear, as saith Saint Hierom. Mary the sister of Lazarus, who before in her own house had annointed his feet with a pound of oyntment of spiknard (pure or liquid, nard or oyntment) very costly, and wiped them with her hair, came now also and brought an alabaster box of the same oyntment, no lesse costly, and of no lesse value, and having broken the box, she poured the oyntment upon his head. At this, some of the disciples, but specially Judas had indigna­tion, and murmured against her; and both they and he said, that it was a waste, and that it might have been sold for more then three hundred pence (more then nine pounds, seven shillings and six pence) and have been given to the poor. Both they and he murmured, but they and he were not alike affected: they, be­cause they were pi [...]tifull and cared for the poor, whom they would have had to have been relieved with the price of it; he, because he was a thiefe and would have stollen a good part of it, had it come into his bag for the poors use. But our Lord de­fends her; she did a good work, she did what she could,S. Mat. 26.6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. S. Luc. 14.3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 9. Judas agre­eth to betray him for 30 pieces of sil­ver. S. Mat. 26.14.15, 16. S. Mar. 14.10, 11. S. Luc. 22.4, 5, 6. she did come aforehand (by divine instinct) to annoynt his body to the burying. He did also greatly reward her, in that he made the gospell to be a generall and an eternall trumpet to sound forth this fact of hers all the world over, to her praise. Verily I say unto you, wheresoever this gospell shall be preached thorough the whole world, this also that she hath done, shall be spoken for a memoriall of her. Hereupon Judas went presently away from Bethany to Hi­erusalem, to the chiefe priests then sitting in consultation in the house of Caiaphas the high priest, and agreeth to betray him unto them for thirty pieces of silver. And from that time forth he sought opportunity to betray him, (to deliver him into their hands privately) without concourse, tumult, or sedition. Like­ly it is (which the glosse also hath observed) that he was offen­ded [Page 212] that the oyntment was not sold, that so he might have stol­len part of the price, and therefore he would recompense this losse by prodition of his Master. What those pieces of silver were, it is not determined; most probably they were shekells, of which there were two sorts, the common shekell, being halfe an ounce of silver in weight, and according to our money two shillings and six pence, and the shekel of the Sanctuary which the priests had for sacred uses, being double so much. So then if they were common shekells, the price which Judas had for his treason was three pounds and fifteen shillings: but if shekells of the Sanctuary, (which I rather think) seven pounds and ten shillings. Some will have them to be Roman pieces, and of a far greater value, every piece being a pound, that is to say, twelve ounces of silver; but the reasons which they alledge do not induce me to think so. For the prophet Zechariah derideth the price, A goodly price that I was prized at of them; Zech. 11.13. therefore it seemes not to have been so great a sum.

13 The first day of the feast of unleavened bread, (which was the Thursday, and the second day before the passeover, inclusively reckoning the day it selfe for one, (which is usuall in the Scrip­ture) the disciples came to Jesus, The history of Christ his last Passo­ver. saying unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the passeover? This was upon the fourteenth day of the first month, upon which day the passeover was to be killed, that it might be eaten according to the law, upon the evening of the fifteenth day; for the Jewes be­gan their day at Even, and when the sun went down. I say according to the law; for the Jewes by their tradition, or law of their Sanhedrim, did forbear to eat the passeover upon the se­cond, the fourth, or sixth daies of the week; that is to say, upon our monday, wednesday, or friday. So that if the fifteenth day of the month fell upon either of those daies, the passeover was deferred till the next day; Carol. Sigon. De Rep. Hebr. lib. 3. cap. 9. It is said to have fallen out so that year. And that this was the reason why the passeover was killed for him upon the thursday, and eaten by him and by his disciples at Even, that is to say, upon the friday; for the friday began when the sun went down. But that friday to the Jewes who followed the foremen­tion tradition, or law of their Sanhedrim, was the day of prepa­ration, upon which they killed the passeover, to eat it after the sun was gone down, which was the evening of the sabbath. Christ was factus sub lege, Gal. 4.4. made under the law; and the disciples knew well, that he would eat the passeover according to the law; they had also heard him to say, that they should take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadduces. S. Mat. 16.6. Therefore when the day of unleavened bread was come, namely the fourteenth day of the first month, upon which day they must [Page 213] purge their houses of leaven, and kill the lambe according to the law; the Disciples came unto him (probably all the Disciples, Judas Iscariot being also with him) to know his pleasure, where, and in what place they should prepare for him to eat the passeover. Whereupon he sendeth two of his Disciples, by name, Saint Peter and Saint Iohn, bidding them to go to Hierusalem and to prepare it. They say unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare? in what part of the city? in whose house? He directs them [...], ad quendam, to a certain man, or to such a man; whe­ther he named him, or did not name him, it makes no matter, he had prepared a guide for them, to bring them to the house. Behold, when ye are entred into the city, there shall a man meet you bearing a pitcher of water, follow him into the house where he entreth in. And ye shall say to the good man of the house, the master saith unto thee, where is the guest-chamber, where I shall eat the passeover with my Disciples? The master saith, my time is at hand, I will keepe the passe­over at thy house with my Disciples. And he will shew you a large upper roome furnished and prepared, there make ready for us. He would go not only to eat the Passeover, but to abolish the bodily eating of it for the time to come, and to institute another Sacrament instead thereof, more proper to the new Testament. Mystery of the pitcher of water. It is not therefore without mystery, that he will have them directed into the house, by the pitcher of water. Paschae celebrandae locum de signo aquae ostendit, sath Tertullian. He sheweth the place where he would celebrate the passeover, by the sign of water. De Bap. cap. 19. For in one house (his Church) he will have both these great and ve­nerable Sacraments, even the Sacrament of water, and the Sacra­ment of his most blessed body and blood. The Sacrament of wa­ter must bring us in;S. Mat. 26.17, 18, 19. S. Mar. 14.12 13, 14, 15, 16 S. Luc. 22.7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. the Sacrament of his body and blood must feed and nourish us when we are there. That Sacrament is meat for the houshold, none must eat of it, but they that are brought into the house by the pitcher of water; the holy Sacrament of bap­tism. The Disciples went forth in the morning, because the passe­over must be killed that day, that it might be eaten in the even­ning, and found as he had said unto them, and they made ready the passeover.

Now when the even was come, he cometh with the twelve; 14 and when the hour was come (the hour of the night, wherein they accustomed to eat the passeover) he sate down and the twelve together with him. I will not dispute concerning the manner of their sitting. Theodoret moves the question, How is it (saith he) that the Lord is said to sit downe, when as the Jewes did stand when they did eat the passeover? The Jewes indeed did eat the passeover standing, in great haste, having their loyns girt, their shooes on their feet, and their staves in their hands: for so God ordained it to be eaten. No question therefore to be made,,Exod. 12.11 but [Page 214] that Christ and his Disciples did eat it in that manner. But after the passeover was eaten, it was no where forbidden in the law to feed upon other meats: and it is said to be in common use a­mong the Jewes, after the passeover was eaten, to have the table plentifully furnished with other foods. Christ therefore did first eat the passeover with his Disciples standing, having his loyns girded, his shooes on his feet, and his staffe in his hand, and he did eat it hastily; and having so eaten it, he then sate down to feed upon other meats, wherewith the table was furnished, either then, or presently after. And from that supper which was then upon the table, he arose, washed his Disciples feet, and preached unto them humility, in such manner as is set downe more at large, St. Joh. 13. v. 2. to 21. This being done, he sate down a­gain to eat, and to finish his supper. Then was he troubled in spirit, as Saint John saith; It was for Judas Iscariot, (as Saint Augustine judgeth) whom he did pitty, and for whom he was sorry, as he was also sorry for Hierusalem, and wept over it; in Johan. tract. 60. He foresaw his eternall perdition, did inwardly bewaile him. He told them that one of them should betray him, they are exceeding sorrowfull,S. Mat. 26.21 22, 23, 24, 25 S. Mar. 14.18 19, 20, 21. S. Joh. 13.21 22, 23, 24, 25, 26. they demand who it should be, and every one for himself, saying, Lord, Is it I? He giveth them a sign, and curseth the traytor, then did he institute the Sacra­ment of his supper; and when Iudas had unworthily eaten of that bread, and drank of that cup, then was he fit for the devill, and then he gave him the sop, and after the sop Satan entred into him, as St. Iohn saith.

15 And as they were eating (that is to say, the supper) Iesus tooke bread and blessed it. Christ insti­tuteth the sa­crament of his supper. So the Evangelists go on, setting down the di­vine institution of that great and mysterious Sacrament, which is the Sacrament of his body and blood, from the time, called the Lords supper, because it was instituted at supper time, and while they were eating the forementioned supper. In the Historicall narration whereof they relate both what he did, and what he said. That he did three things. 1. That he blessed and gave thanks. 2ly That he brake the bread, and took the cup. 3ly That he did give and distribute unto them the bread which he had bro­ken, and the cup which he had taken. That he likewise said three things, That he gave a commandment; That he made a pro­mise; That he explicated them both. The commandment is two-fold, as well concerning the administration of it to those that are to administer it; as also concerning the participation of it to those that are to receive it. The words of promise are [...], defini­tive or indicative, they define or declare the thing, they set forth the inward matter or thing signified, affirming it either of the bread, or of the cup sacramentally. Of the bread, This is my body which is given, and is broken for you. Of the cup, This is my blood of [Page 215] the new Testament, which is shed for you, and for many for the remis­sion of sins. The explication of them both, is,S Mat. 26.27 28, 29, 30. S. Mar 14.22 23 24.25. S. Luc. 22.19, 20. [...] in remembrance of me. Whereunto is added the attestation, Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of the Vine, untill the day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God. Our sacred History doth require that we should insist upon these things particu­larly.

He blessed and he gave thanks; that is to say, he designed, 16 prepared,He blessed and he gave thanks. and consecrated the bread and the wine by prayers and benedictions to become a Sacrament, the blessed Sacrament of his body and blood, not of their own nature, but by divine in­stitution. Benè, antequam tantum & tam magnum sacramentum insti­tueret, gratias egit, saith Stella; well did he give thanks before he would institute such, and so great a Sacrament, in Luc. cap. 22. For if when he would raise up Lazarus from the dead, he gave thanks, saying, Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me: S Joh. 11.41 how much more now ought he to give thanks, in that by this wonderfull Sacrament he would raise up from the dead, not one man out of his grave to the bodily life, for a short time upon earth, but in­numerable souls, from the death of sin to everlasting life? we must not descant upon the words [...], and [...]; that when he took the bread he blessed it, and that when he took the cup, he gave thanks, as if it were one thing to bless, and another thing to give thanks. As if he did somewhat else, or somewhat less, or somewhat more, when he took the bread, than when he took the cup: for these two words [...] and [...], are in the meaning & signification, oft times in the scriptures, (more especially in the divine institution of this Sacrament) one & the same thing. S. Paul putteth it out of doubt; for, saith he, The Lord Jesus, 1 Cor. 11 123 the same night in which he was betrayd took bread, [ [...]] And when he had given thanks, he brake it. Saint Matthew saith,24. S. Mat 26.26 S. Mar. 14.22 S Luc. 22.19. 1 Cor. 11.24 that he bles­sed; Saint Paul, that he gave thanks. Again, Saint Mark saith, that he blessed; Saint Luke, that he gave thanks. Therefore ac­cording to St. Matthew, St. Mark, S. Luke, and S. Paul, it was one and the same thing that he did to the bread, and to the cup, and neither more, less, or otherwise to either.

But the question is, What blessing or thanksgiving,What was the blessing or thanksgi­ving. by which 17 he blessed or gave thanks, he then used. Some think it to have been some peculiar blessing or thanksgiving extemporarily concei­ved upon the present occasion, and work in hand. I rather think it to be his ordinary blessing or thanksgiving, if not that very bles­sing or thansgiving which was in use among the Iewes. They say, that at every solemn feast, the Father or Master of the family sitting down at the table, took the cup in his right hand, saying these words: Blessed be thou, O Lord, our God, the king of the world, who createst the fruit of the Vine. Then he drank, and gave it to the [Page 216] guests. Afterwards he took the bread, pronouncing these words; Blessed be thou, O Lord our God, which brings bread out of the earth. Stella in Luc. 22.19. Then he brake the bread, and gave it also to the guests sitting at the table together with him. Christ was the feast-maker, his Disciples were the guests; and that he used no extraordinary form of blessing, thereby to bless the bread and the cup, I shew by these reasons following. 1. The Evangelists speak of it,S. Mat. 14.19 and 15.36. as of the common and ordinary blessing, which they do call [...], and [...]; Blessing and thanksgiving. 2ly If it had been any extraordinary blessing which he had not been accustomed to use, all the Evangelists doubtless would not have pretermitted it. Saint Matthew and Saint Luke do both of them record that prayer which he left unto his Church; St. Matthew as a rule or direction according to which all prayers, publick or private must be composed, After this manner therefore pray ye. Saint Luke, S. Mat. 6.9. S. Luc. 11.2. as a prayer to be used publickly in the Church, and totidem verbis. When we pray, say, Our father which art in heaven. It was twice taught upon divers occasions, and to divers ends. Saint John setteth down the prayer verbatim, which he made un­to his father before he passed over the brook Cedron, Joh. 17. It is therefore utterly improbable that they would all of them have omitted this benediction or thanksgiving, had it been extra­ordinary and peculiar. Lastly, he did not dictate unto his Dis­ciples any new Hymne, but the hymne which they sung was that which was in use; either the great Hallelujah, viz. the hundred and thirteenth Psalm, Praise ye the Lord. Praise, O ye servants of the Lord, &c. with the five Psalms next following, (as Paulus Burgensis, and with him Theodore Beza, do tell us) or some o­ther. Whatsoever it were, it was the common and ordinary hymne accustomed to be sung at that feast;S Mat. 26.30 S. Mar. 14.26 which thing i