Vannus Divinus OR A FANNE To separate the CHAFF from the WHEAT, AND Distinguish Pure, and True, FROM Impure and False RELIGION.

Very usefull to inform the Ignorant, Settle the wavering, Reduce the straying, and Confirm the sincerely Orthodox Professors:

By C. B. M. A.

Brevitas mater est Memoriae, perspicuitas [...]utrix Intelligentiae.

LONDON Printed by S. G. and B. G. for Francis Egles­field at the Signe of the Marygold in St. Pauls Church Yard 16 [...]

The Publisher to the Reader.

Courteous Reader,

THou art here presented with a Treatise more to be prized than Homers Iliads, and yet, like that, comprised in a Nutshel, A small Enchiridion that comprehends more than many large Tomes and Volumes in Folio: The Subject matter is the most im­portant in the world, the method and man­ner of handling it new and accurate, never was Brevity better matcht with plainness, that neither thy memory might be overcharg­ed, nor thy understanding put on the Rack; That thou mayst Read heedful, Meditate seri­ously, Practice duely, and Increase as well in Grace as knowledge continually, Is the earnest desire of

Thy Friend F. E.

EXERCITATIONS Concerning The Pure, and True; And the Impure, and False Religion.

Of Religion in General. There is a Religion, And that necessarily.

1. ALl the Ancient men agree fully, That there ought to be a Religion among all Men.

2. As indeed there is not a Thing that doth more necessarily follow,

  • 1. Than a God, a Man, and a Religion.
  • 2. A Father, a Son, and an Obedience.
  • 3. A Master, a Servant, and a Service.
  • 4. A Giver, a Receiver and a Reward.
  • 5. Or rather a Lender, a Debter, and a Bond.

3. And therefore full well doth one say, The Phi­losophers ought to have been the first Divines.

For in as much as we make toward God with two wings,

That is to say

With Wit,

And with Will.

Wit can no sooner conceive that God is our Fa­ther,

But by, and by, will inferre thereupon, That therefore we ought to Obey him, and to Serve him.

Yea and it proceedeth yet further;

That sith he is our Father, and we his Children,

It is for our most behoof to return unto him.

4. This thing, even the Navigations of our Time doe shew to be imprinted in all the Climates of the World,

And in all the kinds of Men,

As which have discovered Nations that wander in Woods,

Without Law,

Without Magistrate,

Without King;

But none without some kind of Serving of God,

None without some shadow of Religion.

Of the Distinction of Religion.

REligion is distinguished in this Manner,

  • 1. There is the True Religion,
  • 2. There are Heretical Religions,
  • 3. There are Schismatical Assemblies, and Religions,
  • 4. There are False Religions.

Concerning the True Religion In General.

THat is the true Religion which hath its Ori­gine from God.

The true Religion can be but one,
That is to say sufficient to Salvation.
And there cannot be Divers true Religions.

1. THat doth appear,

  • 1. By that which Religion requireth of us,
  • 2. And by that which Religion is to get for us.

2. Concerning the First.

Religion, as the Men of old time themselves have taught us, requireth of us in effect,

That we should yield full obedience unto God.

Full obedience requireth that we dedicate unto the Glory of God

Our Thoughts,

Our Words,

And our Deeds,

In such sort

That our selves

And All that ever is in us should be referred to his Honour.

If Religion requires this,

How can it be any other then one?

Or what Diversity can it admit?

And if any require lesse of us, contented perad­venture with the outward Man,

Which is all one as if they would rob God of one half of a Man:

What is their doing but Hypocrisie,

Or High Treason against God?

3. Concerning the Second.

That which Religion is to get for us is Salvation;

For to speak properly, what is Religion?

An Art, or skill, if I may so term it, how to save Men,

And wherein consisteth this Art?

  • 1. It consists in shewing Men their Disease,
  • 2. In shewing them that it is Deadly:
  • 3. And finally in teaching the fit, and conve­nient Remedy.

4. Indeed the very Law of Nature leadeth us well to the first Point.

For who is he which even of Nature accuseth not himself?

And whose Conscience nippeth him not when he hath sinned?

5. Reason also leadeth us to the Second Point.

For who is he that concludeth not with himself.

That the Creature which offendeth his Creator deserveth to be rooted out?

That is to say that Sin ingendreth Death.

6. And thus far may all Religions come,

And all Ceremonies ordained by Man,

As Prayers,




And such others;

But what is all this but a bringing of us to Hell gate?

Or rather a shewing of Paradise unto us a far off?

But there is an horrible, and infinite Gulph be­tween us, and it,

Which Man,

And all the whole World can neither fill up.

Nor Passe over.

7. Yet must there needs be a Passage,

For the end of Man is to be united unto God,

And the end is not in vain.

8. The Mean to be united Above

Is to be reconciled here Beneath.

9. And the Mean to be reconciled here Beneath is but onely one,

Which is that God himself acquit us of the Debt which we owe unto him.

10. That Religion then, and none other, which leadeth us straight to the said Passage,

And by the Following whereof we find it

Is the true Religion,

As that which alone attaineth to the end of Re­ligion,

Which is the Saving of Man.

Of Antiquity concerning Religion • 1. The Distinction thereof. , and • 2. The true Ground of true Antiquity, or the true Rule thereof. 

1. IT is to be observed, that there is a double Antiquity,

One is Primary

And the other is Secondary.

2. Primary Antiquity is that which was from the beginning, though discontinued, and inter­rupted by the corruption of Times.

3. Secondary Antiquity is that, which indeed is aged, and gray-headed, but yet reacheth not to the Spring-head.

Thus our Saviour Christ controlleth the Law of Divorce Matth. 19.8. Though it was aged, and of long continuance; Even two thousand years old: Yet non sic fuit ab initio. It was not so in the beginning.

4. In regard of this it is truly said of Tertullian verum quod primum, falsum quod posterius. That which is first is alwayes true, and that which cometh later is false.

5. Concerning Antiquity it is to be observed, that no Antiquity, be it never so ancient and hoare-headed, is to be reverenced or regarded, if it be not grounded upon the truth of the Scriptures.

6. And that which seemeth Novelty, if it bring [Page 7]Scripture for its warrant is truly Ancient: and hath true, certain, and unresistable Authority.

The reason is given by Aquinas 2. part. q. 97. Art. 3. Because the Law of God proceedeth from the will of God; and therefore may not be altered by Custome proceeding from the will of Man.

7. In that regard very well doth S. Cyprian write lib. 2. Epist. 3. ad Caecilium. If only Christ is to be heard, we ought not to regard what any be­fore us hath thought fit to be done, but what Christ who is before all hath first done. For we must not follow the Custome of Man, but the truth of God.

And in another place: Custome without truth is nothing but Antiquity of Error. Idem. ad Pomp. cont. Epist. Steph. Papae.

Nothing must be ordained concerning the Things which belong to Religion, God alone is the Law­giver of his Church. without the Word of God.

1. THe Reason of that is because God alone is the Law-giver of his Church,

And the onely Author of the Doctrine

Concerning Faith or Belief,

And Religious Worship.

That God is the onely Authour of the Doctrine con­cerning Faith, or Belief; we prove it by the following Arguments.

1. THe 1. is taken from the Nature of Faith.

For all the Doctrines of Faith, in regard of the matter which is to be believed must have a certain, infallible, and undoubted Truth:

Now it is the property of God alone to be infal­libly true of his own nature. Let God be true, but every man a lyar, saith S. Paul, Rom. 3.4.

And therefore God alone is the Author of the Doctrine of Faith.

2. The 2. Argument is taken from the Quality of the Articles of Faith;

For the proper documents and Doctrines of Faith do exceed the capacity, and apprehension of the Creature. And therefore they could not be revealed but onely by the Creator.

Such is the Doctrine of the Trinity of the Per­sons in the unity of an Essence. Such is the Do­ctrine of the Eternal Birth of the Son of God. Such that of the Procession of the Holy Ghost. And such that of the hypostaticall union of the two Natures of Christ, Divine and Humane.

And such are all other Articles concerning Faith properly, and strictly taken, which in that they are above the naturall knowledge of the Creature, cannot be known by us, but by the supernaturall Revelation of the Creator.

Of all them this of Christ may be said, Flesh and Bloud hath not revealed these things unto mankind; but God the Father which is in Heaven. Matth. 16.17.

3. The 3. Argument is taken from the reward of Faith, and the punishment propunded to un­belief, and infidelity,

Which doe manifestly argue that it belongeth to God alone, to frame and prescribe to Men, Articles, and dogmes, concerning beliefe and Faith. For the reward propounded to Faith, is Eternall Life. Iohn 3.36. And that is the gift of God through Jesus Christ our Lord. Rom. 6.23. And the punishment denounced against infideli­ty is Eternall Death; Which punishment God alone is able to inflict. Christ teacheth it Matt. 10.28. in these words Fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul. But ra­ther, fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. He teacheth it also, John 3.36. when he sayes, that he that believeth not the Son, shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him.

2. That God is the onely Author of the Doctrine con­cerning Religious Worship. We prove it by the following Arguments.

1. THe 1. Argument is taken from the Rela­tion which is between God, And the Church.

God alone in the Spiritual Government of the Soul, is Soveraign Monarch.

Is the Housholder,

Is the Husband.

In regard of his Church.

This Church in regard of her Relation to God

Is Called

The City of God,

The House of God,

The Spouse of God.

Now who should be so Impudent

As to prescribe Laws to a Foreign City?

Concerning her Duties to her King,

Or to Another Mans Family,

Or to Another Mans Wife,

Concerning the Manner

Of Obeying,

And Rendring Service

To her Master,

Or to her Husband.

2. The 2. Argument is taken From the Re­ward, And Punishment, Annexed to the Works of Divine Worship.

For the Works of Divine Worship Piously ob­served, have from the Munificence of God, a Promise of Eternal Reward:

But being Neglected, or Contemned, a Commi­nation of Eternal Death.

From whence it may be Gathered,

That God Alone, who is the Lord of Life and

Death, Hath the Power

To Ordain such Works,

And to Injoin Them

By the Empire of a Law-giver.

3. The 3. Argument is drawn from the Pro­hibition of God.

For God himself by an Expresse Law hath at­tributed to Himself Alone

The Authority to Ordain his Service, Deut. 12.32. What thing soever I command you, observe to do it, Thou shalt not adde thereto, nor diminish from it.

From whence also is that of our Saviour, Matth. 15.9. But in vain they do worship me, Teaching for Doctrines, the Commandements of men.

4. The 4. Argument is,

Because the Works of Worship depend from the Will of God, who is to be Worshipped:

Therefore God is not Worshipped at all by those Works, By which he did not declare whe­ther he would be Worshipped, or Not.

But in This, None can know the Will of God, unlesse he doth reveal it, and Injoines it,

For who hath known the Mind of the Lord, Or who hath been his Counsellour.

That is Confirmed by This;

That all whosoever did think to Worship God with their own Invented Works;

Did provoke him to Anger, rather than ho­nour him:

Nay they are found, To have worshipped the [Page 12]Devil, Or the Idols of their own heart, rather than God:

They went a whoring with their own Inventi­ons, Therefore was the wrath of God-kindled a­gainst his People, Psal. 106.39, 40.

§. The onely Ground, and Rule of Faith,

And Divine Worship,

Is the Holy Scripture.

1. NO Mortal Creature can Teach Religion:

2. Nor Carnal Man can attain true know­ledge, unlesse God Instructs Him,

And his Spirit lead Him to the Truth.

3. The Phrophets Agree to the Truth of this Doctrine,

Esa. 8.20. To the Law, and to the Testimony.

4. So doth Christ, Joh. 5.39. Search the Scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal Life, and they are they which testifie of me.

5. And so do the Apostles, calling the Scri­ptures a Rule,

As S. Paul doth, Gal. 6.16. And as many as walk according to this Rule.

And Philip. 3.16. Let us walk by the same Rule.

6. And so do the Ancient Fathers, and Doctors; Sequi Divinas Literas, De side ad Reginas. &c. To follow this Rule, saith Cyrill, is the Path un­to Heaven:

And to be led by this Canon is the way to Sal­vation.

And S. Irene, Non per alios Dispositionem Salutis cognovimus. By the Scriptures we Learn to be saved.

§. Also,

The Holy Scripture ought to be among us,

the Supream Interpreter of Scriptures,

And the Judge of Controversies.

1. FOr Confirmation of That, this Language of the Reformed is to be noted, and observed. How better, say They, would it stand with wis­dome, That as Augustine sometime wrote of Counsels, August. contra Maximian. lib. 3. cap. 14. Neither the Pa­pists should object Jerome against the Reformed;

Nor the Reformed Augustine against the Papists.

Thereby to Prejudice each Side;

But that Matter might be tried with Matter,

Cause with Cause,

And Reason with Reason;

By the Authority of Scriptures.

2. For indeed as the same Augustine hath taught us, Epist. 111. Ad Fortunatum.

We must not have any Mens Disputations (Howsoever They be Men of sound Judgement, and worthy Praise,) In like Estimation as the Ca­nonical Scriptures.

3. Such an understander (saith the same Augu­stine) Am. 7. In Reading other Mens Writings, Such would I have other Men to be of Mine.

§. Consequently This Power and Authority is not to be Attributed to any Creature.

1. NOt to the Ancient Fathers, And Their Writings.

2. Not to the Church.

3. Not to the Counsels.

4. Not to The Pope A Part, or Joined with a General Council.

3. Because They have not the Conditions of a Supreame Interpreter of the Scriptures, And Judge of Controversies.

3. Which Conditions are the following,

1. It is required of a Supreame Interpreter, and Judge of Controversies,

That It sayes Infalliblie the Truth,

And Cannot Erre.

2. It is Required that It be not Partial.

3. It is Required That no Appeale, or Provoca­tion may be made from it.

4. It is Required That it might produce a cer­tain knowledge, and Belief in the Minds of Men.

And by a Certain Spiritual Power so bind in some manner the Dissenting Parties,

That They willingly obey unto the Truth,

And give Assent unto it.

§. What Force have in Matters of Religion, Arguments taken from Reason.


1. THe Argument that is Grounded only up­on Reason, In Matters of Religion, And Faith, we Reformed grant most unfeignedly to be no lawful weapon to fight the Lords war­fare.

2. And therefore, whatsoever any of the Chri­stians have said against Philosophy, and Reason, when Philosophy and Reason did disagree, and doth from the Faith,

Which in the Scripture we Learn,

All That we Reformed do Allow with all our Hearts.

3. And never used thus any Argument taken from Natural Reason, In Matters of Religion a­gainst Any Adversary.

4. For Reason must submit it self to Faith, we know.

Faith must not be Restrained, or stitched accor­ding to Reason.


But when Reason is not Controlled of Faith, Then we think, That no Adversary in Points of Belief will Deny, but that an Argument Builded upon Reason

Maketh a necessary Proofe.

The Controversies Concerning Religion,
In Disputations,
Either Publick,
Or Private;
Most be Devided only by the Holy Scriptures,
According to the Doctrine of the Reformed.


1. THe Popish Doctors do Reject this Doctrine, For They will not enter in Combate with the Reformed onely with the Scriptures;

They Account themselves Disarmed,

If they must fight with Them only with this weapon.

2. For this is their Language to the Reformed Doctors.

You Boast much of your valour,

But whether, think you, is he valorous, or Fearful who dare not otherwise buckle with his Adversary, But upon Condition he may for­bid Him what Weapons he List,

And choose for Himself what he List.

Now say They to Them, Here is your valour,

You forbid us the Weapons

Of the Church,

Of the Counsels,

And of the Fathers;

And you onely leave us the Weapons of the Scriptures.

Answer of the Reformed Doctors,

To this Language of the Popish.

1. HE that will overcome in the Case of Re­ligion, must only use those Weapons which are Allowed in this kind of Fight:

For it is not lawful here, As it is in War, to take any weapon by which you can wound your Enemy;

But weapons must be fetched out of the Armory of the Scriptures,

And of the Spirit of God.

Or Else, There will be no foiling of an Adver­sary.

2. And, This is That which the Scriptures do warrant.

3. And the Emperour Constantine command­ed the Fathers of the Nicene Council to use a­gainst the Arrians.

And to end Controversies,

The Books of the Evangelists, And of the Apo­stles, And of the Oracles of the old Prophets: Theodoret. Lib. 1. Cap. 6.

4. And the like teacheth Hilarie, De Trinit. Lib. 7.

And Augustine, Epist. 3.

And Contra Liter. Petil. Donat. Lib. 3. Cap. 6.

And in Divers others Places.

The Supreame Authority of Establishing, Con­serving, and Reforming Religion doth belong to the Prince and Soveraign Magistrate.

1. VVHich we say, and maintain against the Doctors of the Church of Rome, who leaves to the Prince only to defend that Religion, which hath been established and approved by the Clergy.

2. But more belongeth to the Prince, and all that which is propunded in the Head.

3. Which we prove 1. By the Right of Pagan Princes;

For among all the Pagans, and Gentiles, al­though the solemn administration did belong to their Priests; yet the Supream Authority of set­ling, reforming, and defending Religion did ever belong to the Magistrate.

4. And that 2. we should not think that the Pagan Princes did erre in that we are to know That the Supream Magistrate among the Israe­lites, and among the Christians did assume to themselves the same Right.

God himself would have the Ceremonies con­cerning Religion to be setled and established by Moses the Civil Magistrate. And not by Aaron the High Priest.

And after the Death of Moses, the Care con­cerning Religion was devoled to Joshua the Go­vernour [Page 19]and Magistrate, And not to the Priest.

During the Government of the said Joshua,

The Ark was removed,

The Idolls were pulled down,

And by him was renewed the Religious Cove­vant between God, and the People.

It is manifest also that David and Solomon, and Josiah, And Hezekiah did exercise their Royal Power, in establishing, and Reforming Religion, And in overthrowing, and rooting out Supersti­tion, and Idolatry.

If any one doubts of the exercise of the Power of Christian Emperours about the matter of Religion, let him read the Code,

And the Novell Constitutions, And there he shall find Laws made by them,

Concerning the Catholick Faith,

Concerning Sacraments,

Concerning the Churches,

Concerning Synods,

Concerning the Pastors of the Church,

Concerning Hereticks,

And in a word, concerning the whole matter of Religion.

5. And it is an Errour to teach that the Care of things doth not belong to the Office of the Supream Magistrate,

For, as sayes very well S. Augustine, Princes do serve God in this, August. contra. Crescon. lib. [...]. cap. 51. as they are Princes, If they Injoin good things in their States, and Dominions, And [Page 20]forbid that which is Evil; Not only in regard of that which belongeth to Divine Religion.

6. To the two former Arguments let us join a third one to prove that the Supream Authority concerning Religion, doth belong to the Prince, and Soveraign Magistrate.

This Argument is taken from the necessity, or at least from the convenience of the Thing.

It is a thing very necessary that there be one to whom the Supream authority doth belong to Injoin that which belongeth to Religion, To forbid the Things that are hurtful and contrary to Religion, And to punish those that are Re­bellious; For the outward worship of God shall vanish away, Heresies will rise, and Increase, as also Blasphemies, unlesse there be one armed with the Sword, who may by fear, and by a coactive power, restrain the perverse, and wicked.

This cannot be done by Ecclesiastical Persons;

For their Office is to preach, to exhort, to re­buke, and by Spiritual Censures to Correct.

But they bear not the Sword; And they are deprived of that Supream Power, which by the fear of punishment may contain the Impious, and wicked in their Duty.

Therefore the very outward face of a Chri­stian Commonwealth shall not be retained, if we exclude the Civil Magistrate from the Supream Authority concerning Religion.

• 1. The Prince, And Soveraign Magistrate, must order, and settle nothing Concerning Reli­gion, without Consulting the Book of Holy Scriptures. , and • 2. And Assembling Learned, and Godly Divines whose Charge is to expound them. 


1. THe Grecians never undertook any matter of great consequence before they received Answer from their Oracles.

2. Neither the Jews before they consulted with God by the Ephod.

3. Nor the Romans before they had the Ap­probation of their Sooth-sayers.

4. And therefore doubtlesse all Christian Princes, and Estates, are to expect either a Com­mand, Or at least a Warrant from Holy Scri­pture before they proceed in matter so nearly concerning God, and his Service.

5. Otherwise they goe about to set the Sun-Dial by their Watch, and not their Watch by their Sun-Dial.

6. Whether all wise Governours, like good Pilates have Manum ad Clavum, oculos ad Astra; The eye upon the Starres, And their hand upon the Helm, Steering their Course below, by di­rection from above.


1. THough Soveraigns are Supreame Com­manders for the Truth, yet they are not the Supream, or sole directors unto Truth.

For in Scruples of Conscience, And perplexed Controversies of Religion, they are to require the Law from the mouth of the Priest; That is, they are to ask Counsel of the Prophets, And gene­rally in all matters appertaining to God, to hear the Ministers of God, declaring to them the will of God out of his Word.

2. Symmachus was bold to tell Anastasius the Emperour, that as Bishops owe Subjection to Gods Sword in Princes hands; So Princes owe obedience to Gods Word in Bishops mouthes. Defer Deo in nobis, nos deferemus Deo in te; O Emperour hear God speaking by us, and we will fear God ruling by thee.

The same God who hath put a mate­rial Sword in thy hands to smite malefactors in their body, hath put a Spiritual Sword in our mouth to slay sin in the Soul.

3. The Magistrate is the hand of God, but the Preacher is his mouth.

And for this cause all wise and Religious Kings have given them their ears, And taken some of them in their bosome, As David did Nathan, to receive Instruction, and direction from them how to sway the Royal Scepter with­in the walls of the Church.

In what regard a Soveraign Prince is said to be the Head of the Church, which is within his States, and Dominions.

1. IT is not in the same sense that Christ is called the Head of the Church, which is Mysti­cally. For this honour is proper onely unto him, And cannot, without an horrible blasphemy, be attributed to any Creature.

2. Neither also is it in the same sen [...] that the Popes of Rome do call themselves Ministerial Heads of the Universal Church, Pretending thereby to have an Universal, and a Supreame Power in Spiritual things belonging to Religion, and Conscience; As also an Universal Jurisdi­ction over all Ecclesiastical Persons. For this Title belongeth not unto them, neither by Di­vine, nor Humane Right, But they assume it by a meer Antichristian Usurpation.

3. The Soveraign then is called Head of the Church of his States, and Countries in the same sense that in Gods Word King Saul is called the Head of the Nations; That is to say, not only as he is the first, & the Noblest member of the Church of his States and Countries, but because he is her Defendor, her Nursing Father, and Supream Inspector; and who is bound by the virtue of his Supream Authority to establish therein, de­fend and maintain Religion, and the Divine truth, As also a good, and a lawful Government.

Of the Marks of the True Religion, By which it is distinguished from the False Religion of Pagans, &c.

1. THe First Mark of the True Religion is This; That it direct us, And all our Re­ligious Service unto the true God, Creator of Heaven and Earth, The onely Searcher of Mens Hearts, Of which chiefly he will be served.

By this first Mark true Religion is distinguish­ed from all Idolatrous Religions, which seek unto Wood, to Stone, to the Sun, to the Moon, to Men, to Angels, and to all the Creatures that are in Heaven, and in Earth.

2. The second Mark of the true Religion is, That the Service of God which Religion is to teach us, must be grounded upon his word, And Revealed unto us by his own self.

This Second Mark will serve us to discern the True Religion from the Inventions of Men.

And to reject as untruth whatsoever is not grounded upon Gods word.

3. The Third Mark of the True Religion is, That True Religion must put into our Hands a Mean to satisfie Gods Justice.

Without the which not only all other Religi­ons, but also even that which concerneth the true serving of the true God were utterly vain, and unprofitable.

By this third Mark True Religion is distin­guished from all False Religions.

Man's Reason hath well perceived that some such Mean was needful in Religion.

But to know what that Mean is, was too high a Thing for man's Reason to attain unto.

4. The True Religion then, And which de­serveth the Name of Religion is only that

Which hath God for her Scope,

His Word for warrant of her worshipping,

And a Mean appointed by him to pacifie him to­wards us.

And in that Religion onely, and in none other, resteth Salvation.

The Ancient Judaical Religion hath been a True Religion.

The Jews having had the knowledge of the true God;

And having served, and worshipped him alone.

1. AMong the great Nations

Of the Assyrians,

Of the Persians,

Of the Greeks,

Of the Aegyptians,

And of the Romans,

Whose Religions did not bear the Livery of one onely true God,

But of Many.

There was discovered a little Nation called the People of Israel,

Which worshipped the Creator of the World,

Acknowledged him for their Father,

Did call upon him alone in their need;

And for all the small Account that others made of them,

Did abhorre all the glistering gloriousnesse of the Great Monarchies, and Kingdomes that were out of the way.

The first Christian Religion was Pure, and True.

1. FOr it was wholly According to the Will of God, Declared by the Prophets, by Jesus Christ, And, By his Apostles.

2. It was a Pure and a True Religion, Be­cause It Had All the Marks, and Parts of the True Religion:

1. Teaching to know one onely God,

Creator of Heaven and Earth,

And who Conserves, And Governs All Things By his Providence.

2. It Discovers to the sinful Man the true

Mean to be Reconciled with God,

Namely By the Mercy of Jesus Christ our Re­deemer;

By whom Alone,

Having Satisfied the Justice of God his Father,

His wrath may be Appeased towards Sinners, who Repent, And Believe.

3. It Prescribes in what Manner the true God is to be Served, And Honoured,

Namely in Spirit, and in Truth;

Refers All to the Glory of God,

And the Salvation of Men;

And Admits Nothing

Either Absurd,

Or unjust.

Of the Agreements,

And of the Differences,

Between the Religion of the Ancient Jewes,

And the true Christian Religion, which we

Christians doe imbrace.

1. Of the Agreements between both the said Religions.

1. GOd is the Authour, and the Efficient Cause of both.

2. Christ is the foundation of both, By whose onely merit all the Faithful since the first sin of our first Parents have been, and are reconciled unto God: See Heb. 13.8. Rev. 13.8.

3. As Christian Religion, so the Religion of the Ancient Jewes did aim to stirre up a desire of the blessed Immortality, and to confirm the hope of the same.

4. Both the Religions did bring, and doth bring Justification, and Sanctification to the Faithful of the Old, and of the New Testament: See John 8.56.

5. Both the Religions have been sealed and confirmed to the Faithful of the Old and of the New Testament by the self-same Holy Spirit.

2. Of the Differences between both the said Religions.

1. THe Religion of the Ancient Jews did be­long onely to one Nation and People; The Christian Religion belongs to all People.

2. The Religion of the Ancient Jews by many Ceremonies did shadow and represent Christ which was to come. The Christian Religion doth teach and clearly publish that he is come.

3. In the Religion of the Ancient Jews, the Lord under some earthly benefits did represent the fruition of the heavenly Inheritance:

But in the Christian Religion directly he doth di­rect our minds to the Meditation of Eternal Life;

Omitting those earthly means, and helps which he did use towards the Ancient Jewes.

4. The Religion of the Ancient Jewes was darker, But the Christian Religion is Clearer.

5. In the Religion of the Ancient Jews the Rites of their Sacraments were bloody, And diffi­cult; Namely, the Rites of Circumcision, and of the Paschall Lamb.

But in the Christian Religion they are without blood, and Easy.


1. FRom the abovesaid Things it appears,

That since the first Sin of Adam there hath been but one way to attain to the fruition of Sal­vation. [Page 29]And this way hath been the Faith in Je­sus Christ the Mediator. See thereof Gen. 3.17. and Chapt. 22.18. Act. 15.11. and 10.43.

2. Therefore the doctrine of those is to be re­jected, who teach a three-fold way to attain unto Salvation; Namely,

1. One to those who did live before the written Law, by the observation of the Law of Nature.

2. The second to those who did live under the written Law, by the fulfilling of the same.

3. And the third to those who did, and do live under the grace of the Gospel by the Faith in Je­sus Christ.

3. The Reason why such Doctrine is to be reje­cted, and exploded, is because the Faithful, and Believers, under the Old Testament, have had Redemption in Christ, by his blood, which was to be shed, As we have by his Bloud which is shed. For the Expiatory Sacrifice of Christ hath had a saving vertue, not onely since it was offered unto God upon the Cross, But even from the Eternal Decree of God.

And the Efficacy thereof hath been as well before, as after it was exhibited:

In which regard it is said of Christ, Heb. 13.8. That he is the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever.

And Rev. 13.8. Christ is called the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.

4. Therefore all the Faithful, and Believers under the Law have had Redemption by Faith [Page 30]in Christ the Redeemer as we have under the Gospel.

Abraham did see the day of Christ, and was glad; as it is said John 8.56.

He did see it by the eyes of Faith, and not of the flesh.

Of the Mutation which happened to the First Christian Religion.

In the Great Prosperity, and Pomp, which hap­pened to the Church under the Empire Con­stantine.

The First Christian Religion Suddenly Changed, By the Introduction in It.

Of the Ceremonies, and Superstitions of the Pa­gans Converted To the said Christian Re­ligion.

And in Borrowing the Words,

And the Ceremonies of the Jewes.


1. THe Church before this Empire had been bred In the Hills, and Wildernesses.

2. It came out of them clothed with Camels Haires:

That is to say, Clothed with all Sobriety, with all Simplicity, And with all Innocencie.

3. The Bishops for the most Part, manifesting Her to the World,

Were ashamed to Present Her such to the Cen­tiles:

That is to say, to Those who Newly came out,

Or would come out from Paganism.

4. The Good Emperours Likewise,

Who were Desirous, that the Christian Religion should be Received by Their People,

More Curious of the Outward, then of the Inward

Of the Appearance then of the Truth,

Of the Ceremony then of the Substance.

5. They make then no Conscience to clothe the said Church after the Fashion of the Pagans, And to Adorn Her with the Ornaments of the Gentiles,

To Fit the Christians Services, and Ceremonies to those of the Pagans:

As far as without wrong to the Faith, They did think They could do it.

6. And this Proceeding was called Among Them

Zeal, and Prudence;

Which Tertullian would have called Sacriledge,

Being a Severe Observation of the first Simplicity

And Purity as long as he Lived in the Church.


1. IN which Besides, the said Bishops, were to keep this Temperament.

That in the same Time, being to give content to the Jews, who did Imbrace the Christianism, which for the most part did believe that their should be a Greatnesse under the Kingdom of the Messias.

They were very Glad to shew unto Them the Fulfilling Thereof in the outward Splendour of the Christian Church.

2. And where They did Conceive, that They should Adorn the Simplicity of the Christian Religion,

They willingly borrowed as much as they could,

The Terms, or Words,

And the Ceremonies

Of the Jewes.

Of the Terms, or Words;

And of the Ceremonies


From the Jewes,

And the Pagans,

When the Christian Church

Ʋnder the Empire of Constantine,

Did Passe From Persecution to Peace,

And from Thraldome, To the Domination.

1. AS All the Outward Service of the Jewes,

And of the Gentiles, did chiefly Consist in Sacrifices;

Those of the Gentiles without a certain Scope,

And those of the Jewes aiming All at One onely,

Jesus Christ;

It did seem hard and scandalous unto Them,

To Abolish all Sacrifices,

Because Those New Converts believed,

That Religion could not be without such Sa­crifices.

Not Concerning that All Sacrifices are Nothing.

But in as much as they are Referred to the only Sacrifices of the Son of God Accomplished in the Crosse.

Therefore to the End, That Neither the one

Nor the others should be Frighted.

The Christians used Themselves to Speak

Of Altars,

And of Sacrifices;

And as much as the Apostles had taken Pains

To Teach That All Sacrifices had Ended in Christ,

They did Delight to call their Sacrifices, Immo­lations, Oblations, Sacrifices;

They call The Lords Table His Altar;

The Commemoration of his Death in the Sa­crament,

The Sacrifice of the Altar.

A Holy Host,

They call the Bishops, and Ministers Priests;

The Deacons Levites, &c.

Manners of Speech among Them well understood

Which in those Ages were not Hurtful;

But in the Following, More Ignorant, And far­ther off from the Light, have notwithstand­ing been the Cause of great Abuses,

Because they are Passed from the Figure, to the Thing,

And from an Improperty of Words in an Error of Doctrine.

2. The Gentiles Also had a Multitude of Gods To them All;

They Had Builded Temples,

Founded Altars, and Sacrifices,

Suddenly, and at a clap, To Restrain Them

To the Service of one God, which is all Spirit,

And his Service all Spiritual;

They who were Carnal,

Besotted after Pomps, and Ceremonies,

And after the Wood, And Stones,

Was found by Humane Prudence Both Scanda­lous and Impudent.

In Regard That these Gentiles were to be Edi­fied, And not Destroyed,

Fed, said They, with milk, Before They were Fed with Solid Meat. For Thus this Place of Scripture was Abused.

Whereas, Then the First Antiquity had blunt­ly contested, That to have Many Gods, was to have None;

That to Serve Any Creature was to forsake the Creator:

It was found sweet by Succession of Times,

To Transform Their Gods into Saints,

Their Goddesses into She Saints,

To put our Apostles, and our Martyrs in

Their Place,

To Dedicate unto Them Their Temples, And

Their Altars,

To Give them some Priests,

And some High Priests,

To Appoint To Them Holy Dayes,

And Honours, And Services.

3. Now As Humane Wit is Blind in the Things of God,

It Happened, That under the Shadow

To Draw to Christ The Jewes, and the Gentiles,

Those Good Folks by a Laps of some Ages, did

Introduce mildly in the Church

Both The Judaisme, And the Paganisme

We understand Their Ceremonies,

And their Outward Pomps,

Their Superstitions, And Vanities,

And which is worse,

Many of their Presumptions, And Anticipated opinions in the Doctrine it self.

The Religion, And Church of Rome

Is not Now

What it was in the Beginning.

1. TO Judge aright of the Roman Church, we say that there is great difference between that which is now, And that which was in the time of the Apostles, And some Ages after their Death.

2. That which was in the Time of the Apo­stles, was Pure and Orthodox, So that her Faith, was spoken of throughout the whole world, Rom. 1.8.

3. After the Death of the Apostles, during some Ages, she hath been also a true Church; But not the onely True Church. Not the Catho­lick, or Universal Church, But a Part of the same; [Page 36]As was the Church of Greece, of Syria, of Egypt, And of other Places; She hath been a True Church, but not so Pure as in the Apostles time; Errors betimes, having begun to creep in her.

4. But the Roman Church which is now, is an Impure and Heretical Church, And more Here­tical than any one that ever was before; Since the Plague of Antichristianisme have sticked un­to her, it is no more the Chaste Spouse of Christ, but an Harlot, And an Adulteresse. It is no more a sound and vigorous body, but a body full of ulcers, and soars. In a word, she is no more Pure and Orthodox, as she was before, but Impure, and Heterodox.

5. Which we prove by two strong, and Irre­fragable Arguments;

The 1. is, because the greater part of her Faith, and belief is contary to holy Scriptures;

And consequently is meer Heresie.

The 2. is, because a great part of the Ancient Heresies which have been condemned by the Ancient, and Orthodox Church, are received in her, and approved by her.

6. I have said, 1. That the now Church of Rome is Impure, & Heretical because the greater part of her Faith, and belief is contrary to holy Scriptures.

1. Scriptures forbids the use of Images in matter of Religion, and Divine Worship. The Church of Rome receives, and maintains them.

2. The Scripture teacheth us, that the bloud of [Page 37]Christ doth cleanse us from all sin, The Church of Rome doth establish another Purgatory.

3. The Scripture teacheth us, that of our selves we are not able to think any good Thing, but but that all our sufficiencie is from God.

The Church of Rome will, that by the strength of our Free-will we may do good works, And make the said strength to cooperate with the Grace of God.

4. The Scripture will, that we pray, and speak in the Church in a known Tongue, All the Ser­vice of the Church of Rome is in an unknown Language.

5. The Scripture doth ordain, that in the Sa­crament of the Lords Supper all drink of the Cup:

The Church of Rome hath forbid it to the Laity.

6. The Scripture presents us Jesus Christ as the only Mediator between God and Men:

The Church of Rome doth forge a great num­ber of Mediatours, who are to help us with their Merits, and with their Suffrages.

7. The Scripture doth warn us concerning Christ, Acts 3.21. That the Heaven must receive him until the time of restitution of all things:

The Church of Rome will in some sort make him to come down every day from Heaven in a million of Places; And moreover, exposes him under the accidents of bread to divers igno­minies.

8. In a word, there is no Proposition mentioned against us in the Church of Rome, whereof we may not be able to find the Antithesis in the Word of God.

In that regard there are many to be found in the said Church of Rome, which are asham'd of the abovesaid Errors:

And except the brainlesse Spirits, and resolved to maintain even the grosest Abuses, few Per­sons will there be found who entirely keep their Religion, And in some Points thereof do not find something wanting.

7. I have said, 2. that the now Church of Rome is Impure and Heretical, because a great part of the Ancient Heresies, which have been con­demned by the Ancient and Orthodox Church, are received in her, and approved by her.

Those Heresies meet in her, and do compound a part of Popery, As all the Waters of Rivers and Springs do meet in the Sea.

The Devil hath made them to rise up again upon the stage in the Roman Church with some small disguising.

Her so insolent contempt, and debasing of Ho­ly Scriptures she hath common with all kinds of Hereticks, to whom such a thing is usual.

She doth borrow from the Pharisees the non­writton Traditions, And the Merit of Works.

She borroweth from the Basilidians, and the Carpoeratians the worshipping of Images.

She hath from the Marcosians, of whom Epi­phanius [Page 39]doth speak, And from the Eutichians, against whom Theodoret and Vigilius doe so ex­cellently dispute the Error of Transubstantia­tion.

She hath from the Messalians, & the Euchetes, her vain repetitions of Prayers by number.

She hath from the Manichees, the Montanists, the Marcionites, the Tatianites, the Eucratites, the Priscilianists, and Eustachians her Fastings, her Abstinences, her Vow of Poverty, Her Di­stinction of Meats, And her Law of Celibat, or Single Life:

By all which is accomplished the Prophecie of S. Paul, which we have 1 Tim. 4.1. &c.

With the Marcionites, and Pepusians, she per­mits Women to Baptise.

With the Pelagians, and Semipelagians, she doth establish Free-will, The Merit of Works, The Perfection of Holinesse, whereof the Monks do principally boast, Adding thereunto of their own the Works of Supererogation as a mark of a Supream arrogancie.

With the Manichees, though under another consideration in the Eucharist, she hath cut off the use of the Cup.

It were a thing too tedious to particularise more upon this matter.

8. From the abovesaid, it manifestly appears that the Church of Rome is Heretical, yea above all others who ever have been Heretical.

Because she is not infected onely with two [Page 40]or three Heresies, but with a great number and multitude of them.

And because her maladies are not small and slight, but the poison of Heresie hath thrust it self through her whole body, having almost corrupt­ed all the Articles of Faith;

Which causeth us to say with the Prophet Isaiah c. 1.21, 22. How is the faithful City become an harlot? it was full of judgement, righteous­nesse lodged in it, but now murderers; Thy silver is become drosse, thy wine mixt with water.

8. The same also causes us to acknowledge that the Church of Rome hath onely an outward shew;

Her fairest is the frontispiece and fore front, all covered with magnificent Titles, But within it is nothing else but falsehood, and Corruption.

She is like unto the Temples of the Egyptians of old, which outwardly were fair and magni­ficent; But within nothing was to be found but Cats, and Crocodiles, and Serpents, and such o­ther Beasts; fitter for a Den, then for such a Temple.

9. If so many fair Churches in the East, plant­ed by the sacred hands of the Apostles, and wa­tered with their bloud are now changed in Mosquies of Mahumetans, or in lodgings of He­reticks; why then shall we find strange that such a change be happened in the West?

Since the thousand years ended of the bind­ing in Chains of Satan by Jesus Christ, in the [Page 41]preaching of the Gospel he hath been loosed, ac­cording to the Prophesie of S. John, Rev. 20.1, 2, 3. to work again a little season about the se­duction of the Inhabitants of the Earth.

§. Antithesis of the Popish Doctors.

1. Objection.

Against the Above Exercitations, they object
1. That By Testimonies of Stories,
No Heresie was brought into the Romane Church,
Or any Change of Doctrine was ever made in the same.

Answer to that Objection.

1. VVE Answer to that Objection,

That the Papists Histories, written in the Time of Antichrists Tyranny,

Ought not, And do not Deserve to be regarded by us Reformed;

Because the Authors of Them were Infected with the Errors of the Pope;

And did not Dare write for the most Part other­wise, then might well stand with his Ho­nour.

2. And to All Histories, That since the De­fection have commended the Faith of that Church,

We Oppose the Word of God,

Which plainly convinceth it of manifold, And Damnable Heresies.

3. Besides, we could alledge Sundry Writers in all Ages, That openly have reproved the Same:

To Instance in one,

Doth not Sigisbertus the Monk, An Historiogra­pher, mentioned by the Papists,

Expressely Charge Gregory the Seventh

And his Successours,

For maintaining and practising,

Not only an Error, But an Heresie Also,

In taking upon Them Authority to Excommu­nicate the Emperour,

And other Civil Princes:

This Heresie hath ever since continued in that See,

And is at this Time, by the Pope, And his Pope­lings Avouched.

And therefore by the Confession of the Popish owns Historiographers,

Some Heresles hath taken Place in the Church of Rome,

Which is contrary to the Obiection before pro­pounded.

2. Objection.

2. Against the Above Exercitation,
The Popish Writers demand
At what Time,
Ʋnder what Bishop,
By what way,
[Page 43]
And By what Proceeding,
Was a New Religion Spread
Over the City of Rome
And over tho whole World?

Answer to that Objection.

1. IT is hard for us to Answer

At what Time;

Neither is it Necessary to set down the very In­stant of Time:

All Things were not at once overturned in the Church of Rome;


And Error,

Came to their Height by Degrees,

And by Leisure to Ripenesse;

The Hairs of our Head are not all Gray of a Sudden,

Neither doth any thing suddenly come to his Maturity,

And the Growth of every Thing appeareth long after.

This is manifest in such Things as having small beginning, go on forward unto a greater Quantity,

Until they come to Perfection.

2. But doth it follow, that the Church of Rome is not Corrupt,

Because we cannot tell the Moment of Time When it began to be Corrupt?

But being so manifest as it is,

What need we search the Histories to

Shew the Beginning?

What we Pray?

If you see a Man sick of the Pestilence,

If you see a City corrupt with Riots, and wick­ednesse,

If you see a House Ruinous, And Ready to Fall,

If you see a Ship Sinking,

Will you deny all These,

Unlesse one can tell you the Time

When that Man began to be Sick,

The Means how the City grew Corrupt,

Who was Owner, And in what Year

The House grew Ruinous,

And in what Day the Ship began first to Leak?

And what is the Force of the Papists Reason, and

Demand, other then This?

3. But do not their own Histories Tell When,

And By whom

Innovations and Corruptions Entred;

Let Them See a Few of Them;

1. He that first usurped Authority over other Churches, was Pope Victor,

After Him Zozimus,

And Boniface the Third,

And Celestine,

And their Successours.

2. Pope Syricius first forbad Priests


3. The Manichees first Denied the Cup to the People.

4. The 2. Council of Nice first ordained Wor­shipping of Images.

5. Pope Nicholas the Second, first taught, the Body of Christ must Carnally be handled, broken, and Eaten.

6. Pope Innocent the Third, first established the Doctrine of Transubstantiation.

7. Boniface the Third, first Declared

That the Pope was the Head of all Churches.

8. Gregory the Great, taught first Purgatory, for a certain Truth.

9. The Florentine Council, first taught, And Declared that the Pope was above Councils.

10. Innocent the Third, brought in Auricular Confession.

If these were not Sufficient,

We could produce the Rest, of the Popish Errors.

3. Objection.

3. Against the above Exercitation,
The Popish Writers take an Objection
From the Perpetuity, and Continuance of Christs Ʋniversal Church;
And demand of the Reformed Doctors
With what face they durst accuse of Corruption the Present Church of Rome,
If they Remember how Christ promised his Spouse Perpetual Preservation.
[Page 46]

Hos. 2.19. I will even betroth thee unto me for ever.

Isa. 59.21. As for me, This is my Covenant with Them, saith the Lord, My Spirit that is upon thee, And my words which I have put in thy Mouth, shall not Depart out of thy Mouth, Nor out of the Mouth of thy Seed, Nor out of the Mouth of thy Seeds Seed, saith the Lord, from henceforth, and for ever.

And Such Like.

Answer to this Third Objection.

1. TO what Purpose doth this Objection serve the Popish Writers?

Or what Argument may the Perpetuity

Of Christs Universal Church afford Them against our former Assertion?

2. We Believe, and Confesse, to the Comfort of our Souls,

That Christs Church hath continued,

And shall never fail so long as the world en­dureth.

3. And we account it a prophane Heresie to teach that Christs Universal Church hath Perish­ed from the Earth at any Time;

For this Assertion shaketh the Foundation of all Faith, and Religion.

4. But the Popish Writers who makes this Objection,

Should prove by invincible evidence of Scripture

That the Catholick Universal Church of Christ is nothing Else,

But the Outward Succession of the Roman See:

If They can Prove This,

They should Prove their Objection Soundly,

And should confute our Opinion Truely.

5. But it is a Thing which They cannot Doe,

They cannot bring us

Either Texts of Scriptures, or Reasons,

To shew that Christs Church

Either is the Popes Succession,

Or Else dependeth upon the same See.

6. For as Touching External Shew,

And Succession of Churches,

The Scriptures have foretold,

Apoc. 12. and 13.16.

That Antichrist shall Seduce

Great, and Small,

Rich, and Poor,

Free, and Bond;

And that the Church shall flie into the Wil­dernesse,

And there Remain:

Of all which no word could be true,

If the Catholick Church were tied

To the Popes Chaire,

And the Popes Chaire were the Rock

That cannot be removed.

7. And yet notwithstanding this General Dispersion,

And the Flight of the Church under Antichrist,

The Catholick Church shall for all That


8. Although not in that outward strength,

And Glory,

In which sometimes it hath appeared,

And Flourished.

4. Objection.

Of the Popish Writers
Against the above Exercitations,
That the Now Church of Rome is Changed,
And is not Now what it was in the Beginning.
What Impudence is This, say the said Writers;
There was never Heresie that Assaulted the Church of Rome,
Of which it carried not the Victory, As
Over the Donatists,
Over Jovinian,
Over Pelagius the Britain,
And over Others.

Answer to this Fourth Objection.

1. THe Triumphs of which the Popish Writers do boast of,

Are no more proper to the Now, or Latter Church of Rome,

Then the Triumphs of old Rome

Over Pyrrhus,

Over Annibal,

Over Perses,

Over Antiochus, are to be esteemed the Tri­umphs of Rome, Now Being.

2. And for the pretended Victory over Pela­gius the Britain, we say that he Triumphed o­ver the Popish Kingdome.

For did he not Teach, That Grace was imbred in Nature? And the Popish Crew of Jesuites Defendeth the same.

Who seeth not then Pelagius sitting in the Popish Triumphant Chariot?

Popery is not of the first, and Primary Antiquity; That is many of the present Doctrines of the Church of Rome; And in what Time Errors were received in it.

1. PApists are not able to produce any Record, Expresse and direct testimony, Canon of Council, or Ecclesiastical constitution, For their burning Lights in the Church at noon day be­fore the Decree of Pope Sabinianus, in the year of our Lord 605.

2. Nor for Rome to be the Head of all Church­es, before Pope Boniface the Third, in the year 606.

3. Nor for the Invocation of Saints in their Publick Lithurgy, before Boniface the Fifth, in the year 618.

4. Nor for their Latine Service, thrust upon [Page 50]all Churches before Pope Vitalian, in the year 666, which is the very number of the name of the Beast.

5. Nor for the Cutting of the Host into three parts, and offering one part for the Souls in Pur­gatory, before Pope Sergius in the year, 688.

6. Nor for setting up Images in Churches Generally, and worshipping them before Pope Adrian the First, and the Second Council of Nice, in the year, 787.

7. Nor for Canonization of Saints departed, before Leo the Third, about the year 800.

8. Nor for the Orall Manducation of Christs Body in the Sacrament, before Pope Nicholas the Second, in the year, 1053.

9. Nor for the entire number of seven Sacra­ments, before Peter Lombard, in the year 1140.

10. Nor for Indulgences, before Engenius the third, in the year 1145.

11. Nor for Transubstantiation of the Bread into Christs body, before the Fourth Council of Lateran, in the year 1215.

12. Nor for the Elevation of the Host, that the People might adore it, before Honorius the Third, in the year 1216.

13. Nor for any Jubilee, before Pope Boniface the Eighth, in the yeer 1300.

14. Nor for the Carrying the Sacrament in Procession under a Canopy, before Pope Ʋrban the Fifth, In the year 1262.

15. Nor for the Day and half Communion, [Page 51]before the Council at Constance, in the year 1416.

16. Nor for the suspending the Efficacy of Sa­cramental Consecration upon the Priests Inten­tion before the Council at Florence in the year 1439.

17. Nor for the Popes Superiority to General Councils, before the Sixt Council at Lateran, under Leo the Tenth, in the year 1517.

18. Nor the vulgar Latine Translation to be held for Authentical, And upon no pretended Cause whatsoever to be reiected, before the fourth Session of the Council of Trent, in the year 1546.

19. Nor for the Second book of the Maccha­bees, and the Apocryphal Additions to Hester and Daniel, with the History of Bell and the Dragon, which S. Jerome termeth a Fable, to be­received for Canonical Scripture, before the said Session, in the year above named.

1. Frande.
1. These be the Principles, and Grounds of Faith, and Worship, that the Church of Rome doth Produce.

  • 1. Scriptures.
  • 2. Traditions of the Apostles.
  • 3. The Catholick Church.
  • 4. General Councils.
  • 5. The Ancient Fathers.
  • 6. The Pope, which she calls the Supream Pa­stour of the Church.

2. • These be the Fraudes of the Church of Rome, Con­cerning all the Principles, and Rules above Produced. , and • The 1. of those Fraudes is, That the Church of Rome careth indeed for none of Them, but for the last, which is, The Determination of her Pope. 

1. THe Scripture must not be Scripture in any other Sense, then as the Pope will Ex­pound.

So that the Scripture being the Meaning of the Scripture, And the Meaing of the Scripture being the Popes Exposition;

Hereof it followeth, That the Scripture is no­thing else but the Popes Interpretation.

2. So Likewise,

In Traditions,

In Doctors,

In Councils,

In Churches,

If any Thing Dissent from the Popes under­standing, and Determination;

It is Rejected, Abolished, Condemned.

3. And Finally, all Faith, all Religion, all Divinity of the Church of Rome, is only the Popes Sacred will, and pleasure.

Papists give the Churches Authority to the Pope, And take all Authority quoad nos from the Scripture. , and • So that by the Church, they understand the Pope. 

1. THe Papists 1. take all Authority from the Scripture. 2. They give it to the Church. And 3. They give the Churches Authority to the Pope.

2. I say 1. That the Papists take all Autho­rity (quoad nos) from the Scripture, which ap­pears in that they teach, that it is not the ground or pillar of truth; Nor properly, and of it self any Cause, or Means of Belief, or of Charity; And that God doth not immediately speak by it; Neither is the Holy Ghost joined with the wri­ting of the Scripture; And that the Church is not subject to the Scripture. And that put case any person living out of the Communion of the Roman Church do read, or study the Scripture, it is not the word of God to them, or of greater Authority then Aesops Fables.

3. I have said 2. That the Papists give all Authority to the present Roman Church.

This appears in that they make it the onely External ground and pillar of Truth, The sole Judge of Controversies, The principle, or first ground, and foundation from whence the Scri­pture, in regard of men, receiveth all Authority.

4. I have said, 3. That the Papists give the [Page 54]Churches Authority to the Pope; And no Papist in these daies, can, or will deny This.

For 1. the Positive Speeches of their greatest Doctors thereupon manifestly confirms it. Ec­elesiae nomine, saith Gregorius de Valentia intelli­gimur ejus Caput, Romanum Pontisicem, Tom. 3. Dist. 1. q. 1. part. 1. pag, 30.

And Bannes 9.2. q. 1. Ar. 10. Animadverten­dum est cum Cajetano, &c. quod apud Thomam pro eodem omnino reputatur Authoritas Ecclesiae universalis, & Authoritas Concilii, Et Autho­ritas Summi Pontisicis.

2. The same Assertion followeth upon the main principles of their Doctrine; which are,

That the Pope is the prime subject of Eccle­siastical Authority.

And that the whole Authority of all the Body, and of all the Members thereof is derived by, and from him.

And that the promise of the perpetual Assi­stance of the Holy Ghost, And the Infallible judgement, and the Supream Authority, And o­ther Priviledges are intailed upon his Tribunal.

The 2. of those Fraudes, is That, The Pope also is Taught by the Papists, To be the true and Lawful Interpreter of the Sense of the Scri­ptures, And the Supream Judge of Controver­sies Concerning Faith, and Divine Worship.

1. IT is most clear, that the Jesuites make both the Scripture it self, and the Interpretation [Page 55]of it, to Depend upon the Authority of the Church.

2. And the Church they call not the whole Multitude of Christians, and Faithful Men:

3. But they Restrain both the Name, and the Nature of the Church, 1. unto their Bishops; 2. If Thereupon we Reformed object, That their Bishops may Differ touching the Sense of the Scriptures: so shall we be uncertain, and shall not resolve which of them to Believe, but they help this, and Answer, That General Councils must Decide, and Determine all Questions, and Controversies.

3. Shall we then Rest in them?

No more then in then the other.

For the Pope must be Judge over the Councils.

4. So in the Conclusion, The whole Interpre­tation of Holy Scriptures is transferred to the Pope, and must be fetched out of his Breast, yea, and as a proper Right, he so challengeth the Power of Interpreting of the Scripture;

That whatsoever he thinketh, That must be accounted the Sense and Meaning of them.

Refutation of this Doctrine of the Jesuits, by the Reformed Doctors.

1. THat which hath been said above, is the Jesuites constant, and perpetual property, and disposition in interpreting the Scriptures.

2. Which is full of Dotage, Error, and False­hood [Page 56]void of Advise, Knowledge, and Wis­dome.

3. For what an Absurd, and horrible Thing is it, that the Sense, and Meaning of the Holy Scripture should depend upon one mans Judge­ment, and Voice.

4. Specially being such a one, as commonly the Bishops of Rome have been Unlearned, Wicked, Heretical.

5. And hence have proceeded all the follow­ing goodly Interpretations,

1. Take, Eate,

That is, you Priests say Private Masses.

2. Drink ye all of This,

That is onely the Priests must Drink.

3. Be ye Holy, for I am Holy,

Therefore it is unlawful for the Ministers of the Word to marry a Wife.

Exception of the Jesuites.

Which of the Popes, or what Catholick Writer ever concluded this out of that place.

Answer to this Exception.

Pope Syricius did first of all so Collect;

And after him Pope Innocent;

As it may be read in Gratian, Dist. 31. cap. Te­nere and Dist. 82. cap. Proposuisti cap. Plurimos.

4. This is another like Interpretation:

Give not holy things unto Doggs,

Therefore the people must be forbidden to read the Scriptures.

5. What should we number up Innumerable [Page 57]more of the Popes, and Papists Interpretations, By which they do nothing but pervert, and wrest the Scriptures.

In Particular, These be the Frauds of the Church of Rome Concerning Her first Principle, Which is the Scripture.

1. Fraud. The Papists making Shew to Receive the Scriptures for Ground, and Rule of Faith, Do Disgrace Them in Joyning Traditions with Them.

1. FOr as the Scriptures are Grounds And Rule of true Doctrine. So are They onely Grounds, And Rule.

2. And as in Matters of Faith, Arguments ought principally to be drawn from Them, so such Arguments onely conclude necessarily, As even the Schoolman Thomas Aquinas doth Dire­ctly confesse, 1. Part. 1. Quaest. Artic. 8. Ad. 2.

2. Fraud. The Church of Rome which Produceth Scriptures for one of Her Principles, And Rules, hath in­deed no sufficient Scriptures.

FOr in making an old rotten Translation (which we may boldly call so, being compared with the Original Word of Scripture) to be the Au­thentical Word of God: and denying the Origi­nal [Page 58]Faithful Texts which Moses, the Prophets, the Apostles, the Evangelists did write, to be the Word of God.

What doth she else, but plainly, as it were with one dash of a Penne Cancel the whole Scri­ptures?

2. This Homely Latin Translation, is the Pa­pists Scripture.

3. Coined and Canonized of late in the Coun­cel of Trent, And never before.

4. And other Scripture have They none.

§. Of the Corruption of the vulgar Latine Trans­lation more Fully.

1. THe Reader of the vulgar Latin Transla­tion, may manifestly perceive, That in it are manifold, and almost infinite Faults of all sorts;

1. By Adding,

2. By O [...]ing,

3. By Mis [...]ing,

Of Letters.

Of Points,

Of [...].

And [...].

4. By wrong interpreting the Original Text.

2. Wh [...] [...]lts, The Popish Doctors shall never [...] [...]prove, or Justifie; Though They [...] th [...]selves never so much with Traveling and [...]ing, and seeking some De­fence.

3. When They have said what They can say, for Maintenance of These Corruptions, it shall for all that Appear, By all Learning, and Evi­dence of Reason, that They have, Neither the Old, nor the New Testament, in the Entire, and Original Truth thereof.

Refutation of the Excessive Praises, that the Semi­minarie Priests of Rhemes gives to the English Rhemish Translation.


1. LEt the Seminarie Priests of Rhemes give what Commendation they will to their English Translation.

2. We Reformed say against it, That that Translation is the worst of all the Translations that hath been set forth of the New Testament.

3. And we prove our Assertion, because that translation hath such examples of unaccustomed and monstrous novelties of words, as the like in no other can be found.

4. So as a man may justly call it a new fangled and ridiculous Translation: Devised rather to amaze the Readers, and make the word of God a laughing stock; then to Edisie the Church of Christ.

5. For who hath ever heard or read such words, and Phrases as they have used, and affe­cted in their Translation?

6. Whereas They might have retained, as [Page 60]well the common, and known manner of speaking.

That their Translation set forth in English, might have been understood of English men.

7. But they of purpose have so framed the same, that the English is in many places as ob­scure in words, as the Latin.

8. Which thing is in all Translations a foul fault: But in Translating of Holy Scripture Into­lerable.

9. And what Reason should be hereof, but that Men either should contemn or not under­stand the Scripture, which yet they will seem to Translate, for the benefit of the Church?


10. If the Reader require Examples, let him take but the Book, and read a little, and soon shall he see strange Affectation of Novelties in words, and speeches throughout their whole Translation.

11. There shall he sind The Transmigration of Babylon, Matth. 1. v. 17. The Enemie Man, Matt. 13. v. 28. Ʋnlesse you have Penance, Luk. 13. v. 3. Give us to day our supersubstantial Bread, Matt. 6. v. 11. Whatsoever thou shalt supererogate, Luk. 10. v. 36. Not in Chamberings, and Impudicites, Rom. 13.13. An Emulator of the Traditions of my Fathers, Gal. 1.14.24. I Expugned the Faith. They Emulate you not well, Gal. 4.17. That you might Emulate Them, 1 Pet. 2.5. Be ye also your selves superedified, Ephe. 4. v. 10. Once at length [Page]you have reflorished to care for me, denying the onely Dominator, and our Lord, Jud. 4. To the Redemption of Acquisition, Ephes. 1. v. 14. Against the Spirituals of wickedness in the Celestials, Ephes. 6. v. 12. The Archisynagogue, Mark 6. v. 22. Ebrieties, Commessations, Gal. 5. v. 21. The Do­minical day, Apoc. 1. v. 10. But they are written to our Correption, 1 Cor. 10. v. 11. That in the Name of Jesus every knee bow of the Celestials, Terrestrials, and Infernals, Philip. 2. v. 10. But he Exinanited himself, Philip. 2.7. For with such hostes God is promerited. Hebr. 13. v. 16. Let the Charity of the Fraternity abide in you, Heb. 13. v. 1. O Timothy keep the Depositum, 1 Tim. 6.20. That he might repropriate the sins of the people, Heb. 2.17. Wrapt it in Sindon, and laid it in a Monument, Matt. 27.59. All shall be docible of God, John 6. v. 45. Ʋpon probatica a Pond, John 5. v. 2. Which of you shall argue me of Sin, John 8. v. 46. They hated me gratis, John 15. v. 26. Be­yond the Torrent Cedron, John 18. v. 1. It was the Parasceve of Pasche, John 19.14.


1. These, and such like, are the goodly flowers of the Rhemists English Translation.


2. Besides the obscurity and ambiguity of Sen­tences, by Reason of leaving out the Verbs, and other words in the English Translation, which may in Latine more easily be understood.


Hereby the Reader may judge, but better by Reading the Translation it self; whether we have not Truely said of it, That it is a strange Translation indeed; And such an one, as hard it were to find the Like.


1. But one of the Rhemist Priests doth Answer That we Reformed rather Delight in such No­velty, then They, seeing they Retain the An­cient words, Mass, Priests, &c. And we Refor­med refuse them.

2. Of these words, shall be spoken in our parti­cular handling of Controversies between the Re­formed Churches, and the Roman.

3. And as for certain Names of persons, and of places, which some of our Interpreters do re­duce to the Hebrew Sound.

They cannot much trouble the Reader, And they are rather used in Books, then in Speech.

EXERCITATION. Condemnation of the Annotations joined with the Rhemist Translation of the New Testament, By the Seminary Priests of Rhemes.

1. WHosoever shall consider with himself ad­visedly the Rhemists Manner of Colle­ction,

Their Argument,

Their Application of Scripture;

And shall Examine a little how their Conclusion followeth upon their Proofs, without all Cohe­rence or consequence of Reason, must needs greatly mislike their whole Religion, that is foun­ded upon so weak, so tickle, and so ruinous a Foundation.

2. For unless it be granted, That of every Thing, may be concluded any Thing; and that the Word of God may be made applicable to all purposes, opinions, and Doctrines; it is impossible that these, and such like arguments of Theirs, as they have in their Annotations gathered upon the words of Scripture, should have in them such strength, and Truth, as Divinity and Religion re­quireth.

These be the Frauds of the Church of Rome, Concerning another of their Principles, Which is the Ancient Fathers.

1. Fraud. The Church of Rome doth Discover an abominable Fraud in this, That putting the Ancient Fathers to be one of the Principles of their Doctrine of Faith and Religious Worship, by an Expurgato­ry Index they cause to be blotted out of the Books of the Ancient Fathers, all that is displeasing un­to them. Or else they falsifie them, and alter their Sense and Meaning.

1. THis is true in Regard of the most Ancient Fathers, and particularly of the Books of [Page 64]S. Cyprian, S. Chrysostome, S. Augustine, S. Cyril of Alexandria, and of others.

They make them say the contrary to that which they will, and take out from them, not onely some Clauses, but also whole Leafes.

2. We know well, that to cover this Sacri­ledge Sixtus of Sienna doth adde, That those Writings of the Fathers had been soiled, and infected by the Malice, and Venome of the He­reticks of our Age; But it is a False Cover.

For if by Hereticks he doth understand those of the Reformed Religion, we maintain that which they cause to be blotted out of the Writings of the Fathers was in Them before the Reforma­tion. And That it cannot be Justified that any of the Reformed have Corrupted or Altered any Writings of the Fathers.

2. Fraud. The Church of Rome acknowledgeth, That there are many Faults, and Errors in the Books of the Ancient Fathers, which are not to be Ap­proved. And notwithstanding That, The Po­pish Religion, is as it were, a Body consisting for the most part of Rottennesse, and Corruption, Namely of Ancient, and New Errors.


1. THe Popish Writers can as soon prove out of the Scriptures, the following Points of their false Doctrine, As they can draw a Foun­tain of water out of a flint.

2. These Points of the Popish false Doctrines are

  • 1. Thir Doctrine of Free will.
  • 2. Their Doctrine of the Merit of Works.
  • 3. Their Doctrine of Purgatory.
  • 4. Their Doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Masse, for the sins of Quick and Dead.
  • 5. Their Transubstantiation.
  • 6. Their Popes Supremacy.
  • 7. Their Superstitious Fasts.
  • 8. Their Worshipping of Images.
  • 9. Their praying unto Saints.
  • 10. Their praying for the Dead.
  • 11. Their Satisfaction.
  • 12. Their Forgivenesse by Works of Penance.
  • 13. And for many more the like Points of their false Doctrine.


1. And therefore they will be rather Tried, and Judged by the Writings of the Fathers, then by Scriptures.

2. Although for a Fashion in Defence of some of the Points above propounded, they pretend Scriptures.

Yet being easily beaten from them, they fall at last to Rail on Them as not containing sufficient Doctrine; and rather will be Tried, and Judged, as we have said, By the Writings of Fathers.

3. At whose Hands albeit they find not such Relief, as they would make Men to Believe in no one Point of Controversie between us, and them; [Page 66]As hath been oftentimes plainly proved by many Doctors of the Reformed Church, And by Bi­shop Jewel notably.

4. 1, Notwithstanding by Reason of the Fa­thers manifold oversights, and slips.

2. And the Corruption that daily increased in the Church; They may bring somewhat, such as it is for their Maintenance.

5. Wherefore in That we Reformed will not admit the Fathers for Judges in Matters of Reli­gion, but hold them hard to the Trial of the Scriptures.

6. Which the Papists cannot abide; This puts them out of patience, and driveth them in­to vehement passions.

7. But let them mend themselves where they can, They shall never get more at our Hands Then that which we have said before concerning the Scriptures, and the Fathers.

8. This is then a very true saying, that our Adversaries Doctrine cannot stand, unlesse we Reformed will allow for Good those Things, That in the writings of the Fathers are most Faulty.

§. Again of this Matter more briefly.

1. IT is a peculiar Thing to the Popish Doctors that they, even greedily hunt after, and pur­sue whatsoever is Faulty in any Ancient Author. As if all the Fathers Errors served to make up the Body, and Faith of their Religion.

2. They rake up even out of the Fathers over­sights watsoever seemeth to favour their Errors.

Papists suck Errors from the Fathers unsound Speeches, And of a small Error of the Fathers do occasionally procreate a great one.

1. AS Horseleaches suck the naughtie blood out of the veins, So Papists excerpt that which is most imperfect, and unsound from the Fathers.

2. And thus Popery according to D. Whitaker, is a patcht Coverlet, framed of the Fathers Er­rors, and sewed together.

3. Moreover, the Papists of a small error of the Fathers, may occasionally procreate a great one.

As from praying for the dead used in one respect by the Fathers, The grosse praying for the dead, with a reference to purgatory.

4. And so we have great cause to tax the slipperie dealing of Popish Hucksters in abusing the Fathers.

Frauds concerning Councils, Another Principle of the Church of Rome.

1. Fraud. Of many Frauds, and Slights committed in the last Councils of the Church of Rome.

1. THat before they were Assembled, their Decisions were Debated, And concluded at Rome.

2. That notwithstanding all Disputations, And Proof done on the contrarie, they passed by absolute Authority.

3. That the Holy Ghost, or rather the Spirit of Satan was brought there from Rome weekly by the Post.

4. That the Presidents in them, and those who did Dispute in them, and those who Concluded in them, did Respire nothing but the good will of the Popes. And did Aime onely at this, to obey, and please Them.

5. By that it evidently appears, That it is not much needful to produce Proofs, that such Assemblies might have erred.

6. On the contrarie it should be found strange if they could have concluded any thing without Error.

2. Fraud. This is a great slight of the Popes in these last Times, to oppose themselves to the holding of Councels; believing that they would Decree against them; Against the Roman Clergie, And against the Court of Rome.

CLement the 7th. Pope of Rome, very much versed in Affairs of State, even during the Life of his Predecessor Adrian the 6th, had still maintained, That in the Occurrences of that Time, the Councel, to make use of the Mean of Councels, was most pernitious.

2. And commonly did say, That Councels were profitable whensoever any other thing [Page 69]should be Handled then the Popes Autho­ritie.

But when it came to be Debated, That then there was nothing more pernicious.

3. For as in former times, the Popes weapons were to have Recourse unto the Councels. So in those Times the Safety of the Papacy did consist to shun, and avoid them.

4. And so much the more that Leo the 10. his predecessors, having already condemned Luthers Doctrine; This same matter could no more be referred to a Councel to Examine it, And De­liberate upon it without wronging the Authority of the Holy See.

3. Fraud. Observation. This was a great Fraud and Sleight in the Court of Rome, to endeavour as much as could be done to suppresse the Relation of what was passed in the Councel of Trent.

1. MAny clear sighted persons have done what they were able to do, to suppresse the Historie and Relation of that which did passe in the Councel of Trent.

2. Whereupon we say, That it is true, That the Great Things deserves to be held in some Mysterious Secret: But it is when the publick Good requires that it should be so.

3. But when the Ignorance of the whole is notably wrongful to one of the parties, and Ad­vantagious [Page 70]to the other, It is no marvel, if in Contrarie Intentions and Ends, it is proceeded also by opposite, and contrarie waies.

4. And here it is true, and received, the Com­mon and Famous Sentence, That with more Reason it is endeavoured to avoid Losse, then to get profit.

Addition. Of the History of the Council of Trent, written by Patre Paulo.

1. AS the Council of Trent holds the first Ranck among the Affairs happened in Christen­dome in the former Age, and which also may happen in the following Times.

2. So may it be said in very Truth, That the History which we have of the said Council by Patre Paulo, is the most Excellent of the Hi­stories that have been written in that time, and perhaps surpassing the others which had been written afore.

3. For if we have a Regard to the Matter which it contains, we shall find there, those of the Religion, and of the State, and if exactly we consider the Form of it, we shall find that no­thing is wanting in it.

4. He that shall Read it carefully, shall not be ashamed to confesse that he hath received much profit by the Reading of it; For in the Dis­courses which by Digression are made in it, by its Author concerning Religion, and the Church:

There is a Depth of Learning,

A Clearnesse of Wit,

And a Solidity of Judgement most Admirable.

As also a true, free, and bold Decision of many Points of Importance which are in Controversies between the Reformed Churches, and the Ro­mane.

Fraud. The Acts of the Councels have been falsified for the most part, And things have been supposed, which never were.

1. FOr they have been during a long time shut in the Convents. And for the most part did passe by the Hands of the Monks, who have cut off them, and added unto them, whatsoever they would.

2. And in that Regard, the Greeks do com­plain, That the Latins have corrupted, and fal­sified the Councels. And the Latins frame the same accusation against the Greeks. To whom shall we Hold?

3. The Frauds in this Matter are so Auncient, That from the sixth Councel of Carthage, the Bishops of Romes Legates did produce the Acts of the first Councel of Nice, falsisied in an hor­rible Manner. And although that Falsification was even then solemnly Discovered: yet Rome, which hath Drunk all Shame, is often relapsed in the same Crime, that was Repreached in full [Page 72]Councel of Florence to the Popes Legates, But they were not much astonished thereby.

4. The whole Code of the Ecclesiastical Ca­nons hath been not long since set out by one De­nis Petit;

But we find that this Author hath Ecclipsed from the Laodicean Council the Enumeration of the Canonical Books which was to be in the last Canon: And it cannot be said that he hath done that for brevity sake.

For the same Author in the same Code hath inserted the Enumeration made by one Synod of Carthage, because, without doubt, he did like it better then the other.

5. And so every one give us that which his passion, or affection doth approve, And an In­discreet Zeal doth hide, and suppresse from us That which is Best, and of greatest Edification.

It is with Just Causes that the Council of Trent is Rejected and Condemned by the Reformed, because it may be rightly called the Iliade of our Age.

1. FOr this Council greatly desired, and pro­cured by Good Persons to Reunite the Church which did begin to Devise it self, did so bend and harden the Parties, that it hath Ren­dered the Differences Irreconcileable.

2. And the said Council negotiated by the Princes to Reform the Ecclesiastical Order hath [Page 73]caused the greatest Deformity which ever was since the Christian Name is in Being.

3. Besides, the said Council hoped by the Bi­shops to Recover the Episcopal Authority, which in a great part was faln to the alone Pope of Rome, hath been the cause that they wholly have lost it, Reducing them to a greater Bondage.

4. On the contrary, the said Council having been feared, and shun by the Court of Rome as a powerful Mean to temper the excessive Power, which from small beginnings was mounted by degrees to an extremity without bound, and limit, hath so confirmed and propped to Her over the Party which is remained subject unto Her, That is, was never so Great, nor so well setled.

Concerning the Council of Trent.

1. The Rhetorical, Commendations of it by the Jesuites.

1. THe Councel of Trent, saith a Jesuite, The Elder it waxeth, By so much more it shall flourish daily, And continually.

2. O with what Diversitie of People out of all Countries!

With what Choice of Bishops throughout all Christendom.

With what Excellence of Kings, and Common­weales.

With what Profound Divines.

With what Devotion,

With what Lamentations,

With what Abstinence, and Fasting,

With what Flowers of Universities,

With what knowledge of Strange Tongues,

With what Sharp Wits,

With what Studie,

With what Endlesse Reading,

With what Stores of Virtues, And Exercises,

Was that Sacred Place Replenished!

2. The Reformed say, That it is without Cause, that such Commendations are given to this Council.

1. FOr they know very well, The Notable Cariage, and Behaviour of that Synod, so much Extolled by the Jesuite.

2. And besides they say, That every one knoweth thus much, That it was not to be Estee­med a Council of the whole Christian State, But rather a Conventicle of few Men, Running toge­ther into the same Place.

3. There was there present a sort of silly Fri­ers, which did sustain the greatest part of the Burthen, By Disputings, Writing, And playing the Orators.

4. For as for the Bishops, and the Chief Cardi­nals, They busied their Heads about other Mat­ters, for which They were specially Assembled.

5. No more will we say of this Council.

6. Others have spoken of it those things, that are most True.

Both how it was Called,

How Handled,

And how it was Dismissed.

7. Among Them chiefly is considerable Patre Paulo, in his Admirable History of the Council of Trent.

3. Of the Decrees of the Council of Trent.

THe Tridentine Decrees, which the Jesuites, and other Popish Doctors Commend being set forth, as They write, by so many Excellent, godly, and Learned men, and say, That it were Impiety to compare with them: All the scatter­ed Synagogues of Lutherans, have been Tried, and Examined by more Godly, and Learned Men, then ever were in that Synagogue Assem­bled, wherein prevailed neither Godlinesse, nor Learning, but Antichristian Tyranny.

4. • Of the Examen of the Council of Trent, by Kemnitius. Jesuites. , and • Kemnitius, saith a Jesuite, gained but Infamy by his Examen of the Council of Trent. 
Answer to That by the Reformed.

1. IF Kemnitius have not the Jesuites good word, it is no great wonder:

For he hath Atchieved that by his Learning, Vertue, and Industry, that he may seem worthy of Envie, and Hatred from such as the Jesuites are.

2. But if true, and deserved Praise be due to good Deeds, he hath obtained an honourable Reward, even the everlasting glory of a good Name.

5. For what Reasons the Protestants made no great haste to goe to the Council of Trent.


VVHy, say the Jesuites, did not the Prote­stants. 1. Called to the Synode of Trent, And secured by the Caution of publick Promise, make all haste to come unto it?

Answer of the Reformed.

VVHat should they have done there? Or to what end should they have underta­ken so long a Journey?

1. Either that having been mocked, and abused, they might have returned home again,

2. Or having been burned in the Council, the Protestants should have been paid for their Rash­nesse.

1. For in Regard of the First, What place of Disputation was left among those who had every man plighted their faith to the Pope, and had Re­ligiously bound themselves by Oath, That they [Page 77]would never, either do, or say, any thing against his dignitie, and pleasure.

What therefore might have been hoped for from those, which might have drawn any to Dispu­tation?

2. And in Regard of the second; Did not the Calamitie of John Husse of Bohemia, and of Hierome of Prague, who were burned in the Council of Constance, give just cause of fear?

And yet Husse came to the Council, trusting in the protection of a publick promise.

Of the Historie of the Councel of Trent, Written by Patre Paulo. See the Addition. , and • Concerning this Question, Whether the Pope be above the Councils, Or otherwise. 


THe Jesuites puts the Pope above the Councils,

And they alleadge this Reason,

Because no Council is of any Authoritie, which was not Confirmed by the Pope.

Answer of the Reformed to that Reason.

That is false:

1. For the Sixth African Council, and the Chalcedon Council had their Authoritie without the Pope.

2. And Emperours, Patriarchs, and Bishops have Confirmed Councils.

3. And the Council of Constantinople, by Let­ters, [Page 78]desired the Confirmation of the Decrees from Theodosius the Emperour.


This is a Fraud of the Church of Rome in Regard of another of her Principles, That is the Catho­lick Church. That because the Scripture maketh Honorable Mention of the Church, The Roman Church is that true Church of Christ, of which the Scripture speaketh so often.


VVE Reformed acknowledge, That both in the Old, and New Testament, there is every where honorable mention made of the Church: And that it is called

A Holy City,

A Fruitful Vineyard,

An High Hill,

A Direct Path,

The onely Dove,

The Kingdom of Heaven,

The Spouse, and Bodie of Christ,

The Pillar of Truth,

The Multitude unto which the Holy Ghost be­ing promised, poureth all things needful to Sal­vation.

The Congregation against which the Gates of Hell shall never so prevail, That they shall utterly extinguish the same.

The Congregation, which who so Repugneth, [Page 79]though he confesse Christ with his mouth, yet hath he no more to do with Christ, then hath a Publican, and a heathen man.

2. The above-said Titles do not belong to the now Church of Rome.

1. FOr on the contrary,

It is the Babylonish Whore,

A Branch cut off from the true Vine,

A Den of Thieves,

A broad way leading to Destruction,

The Kingdom of Hell,

The body of Antichrist,

A Sink of Errors,

A great Mother of Fornication,

The Church of the wicked, out of which every Christian ought to depart, which Christ shall one day fearfully destroy, and give her the just Recompence of all her sins.

2. In vain then do the Popish Writers reckon up the praises of the Church, unlesse they can demonstrate that they are proper to the Church of Rome.

3. Which they shall never be able to do so long as Rome standeth.

As the Church of Rome is Fraudulous in regard of the Principles of Faith and Worship, that she doth produce.

So is her Doctrine false concerning these Prin­ciples.

1. Concerning the Traditions that she calleth Apostolical.

2. Concerning the Church.

3. Concerning General Councils.

4. Concerning the Ancient Fathers.

5. Concerning the Pope.

And therefore such Principles are justly excluded by the Reformed, from the Rule of Faith.

1. The Reformed justly exclude from the Rule of Faith, the Traditions, called Apostolical, by the Papists.

1. FOr the Popish Apostolical Traditions are but forged, and devised Things, and there­fore no stay for a man to settle his Conscience upon.

2. That they are not such as the Papists sayes. Let them tell us if they can, which be the Apo­stles Traditions; how many, and where they may be found?

If they cannot satisfie this Demand, as they cannot indeed, How may they then make any Reckoning of that whereof they have no certain knoledge?

How can They, without falling, Build their Faith upon Fantasies, such as they are.

3. The Apostles Doctrine we have in Writing. [Page 81]The Apostles Doctrine we have in writing.

4. Other Traditions of the Apostles we receive none for our belief.

The Scripture is the onely Rule of Faith, and not Traditions a part of the Rule of Faith; that is, That Scripture is a perfect Rule.

1. THat I prove in this manner, 2 Timoth. 3.15. Apoc. 22.18. 1 Cor. 4.6. John 20.31.

2. That is the onely Rule whereunto the chiefest properties of a rule do solely belong. But the properties of a true, and certain rule do onely belong to the holy Scriptures in matters of Faith. The rule of Catholick Faith, saith Bellar­mine, must be certain, and known, De verb. Dei libr. 1. cap. 2. Now there is nothing better known, or more certain then the Scripture; which appears, Because Traditions are far more uncertain than the written word, and because many of them are false, and uncertain.

3. The written word is a Rule of Traditions. From whence it follows, that it is the onely rule. That the written word is a rule of Tradition, appeareth by the Doctrine of our Adversaries, who acknowledge that no Traditions must be admitted, but such as agree with the Scripture, Bellarm. de verb. Dei libr. 4. cap. 3. And which are derived from the Scripture, and the writings of the Primitive Fathers, Bellarm. de Script. libr. 4. cap. 3.

But those Traditions which are derived from the Scriptures, have the same to be their rule. And there is nothing more common in the Primitive Fathers, then to subject all their writings to be Regulate by the holy Scriptures. Therefore such Traditions as are found in the works of the holy Fathers have the holy Scripture to be their rule: from whence it followeth, that the Scrip­ture is the onely primitive rule of Faith.

4. It is that which is acknowledged by some of our Adversaries, Gabr. Biel, Can. Miss. Lect. 71. whereof Ferus saith expresly, The holy Scripture is the sole rule of veritie; and whatso­ever differs, or contradicteth the same, it is error, and cokle, with whatsoever shew it come forth, Ferus in Matth. lib. 2. in cap. 13. pag. 248. col. 1.

And another saith, The Doctrine of the books of the Prophets and Apostles is alone the founda­tion of truth, and the rule, &c. Villavincen. de formand. Concion. lib. 2. cap. 2.

2. The Reformed justly exclude from the Rule of Faith, the Catholick Church.

1. VVE Reformed do Reverence, and Love The Catholick Church as the Spouse of Christ.

2. But we know that her duty is to hearken only to the voice of Christ her Husband; And [Page 83]that she hath no Authority to adde so much as one iota in his Word, or any waies to dissent from it.

3. And further we know, That the Romish Synagogue is not that Catholick Church of Christ, whereof we speak.

3. The Reformed justly exclude from the Rule of Faith, General Councils.

1. VVE Reformed doe esteem, and regard General Councils in their place.

We thank God for them; We Read, Allow, and Commend them, so far forth as they agree with Gods Word.

2. Let therefore their Decrees be examined by Gods Word.

3. And if they agree, let them be received for that Agreement.

4. If not, let them be rejected for the con­trary.

5. But the Argument holdeth not in this Form, such a Council decreed so, and therefore so must we believe.

6. If this Principle were set down for certain, and perpetual in Divinity, we should have strange Beliefs enow, yea surely, scarcely should we retain any one true Belief.

7. Two famous General Councils have been held in Nice;

The First,

And the Second.

In the First is condemned the Popes Supremacie, Can. 6.

In the Second is established the Idolatrous Wor­ship of Images.

The First Belief the Papists will not allow.

The Second is detested by us Reformed.

8. Let Councils therefore be esteemed as they deserve.

9. And let them be tried as hath been said.

§ Objection of the Popish Writers against our Re­jection from the rule of Faith, the Catholick Church, and General Councils.

IF the Church, say they, and general Councils, be not Grounds, and Rules of Faith? Why then did the Ancient Fathers draw an Argument from them, to Refute the Errors of the Antient Hereticks.

Answer of the Reformed to that Objection.

1. VVE know, say the Reformed, That the Ancient Godly Fathers, in Confuting all Hereticks, used onely Arguments drawn out of the Scriptures: and plainly taught, That by no other Weapons an Heretick can be put to flight.

2. The same Reformed do know, That the Ancient Fathers did charge the Hereticks some­times

With the Judgment of Churches,

With Determination of Councils,

With Succession of Bishops,

With the Name of Catholicks.

Not as though this were a necessary Conviction of it self, but thereby the rather to induce them to believe the Doctrine to be true, which they did see from the first planting thereof in the Church to have remained.

3. The case of the Papists drawing Arguments of Conviction from the Doctrine of their Popish Church, is nothing like, seeing they have onely the bare Title of the Church without the Thing; and, as it were, the empty Casket without the Treasure.

4. The Reformed justly exclude from the Rule of Faith, The Ancient Fathers.

1. VVE Reformed, as hath been said of Ge­neral Councils, do esteem, and regard them in their place;

We thank God God for them,

We Read, Allow, and Commend them,

So far forth as they agree with Gods word.

2. For it cannot be truely said, that they ne­ver disagree from it.

3. We grant, that they were Learned, and Godly Men, but yet were they Men, having their Infirmities, and Imperfections.

4. Their Learning,

Their Zeal,

Their Ages,

Were not Priviledge unto them, but that not­withstanding, they might be deceived in their Writings, and in their Expositions of Scripture.

5. And let the Popish Doctors take this for a sure Conclusion, That in the Sayings of Those who are all of them subject to Error, there is no stable, and stedy Ground to build our Faith up­on, least perhaps we build upon Error in stead of Truth.

6. So that without Tryal, and Examination no Sentence of a Father, nor of all Fathers, may safely be Received.

§ Objection of the Popish Writers against our Rejection from the Rule of Faith, the Ancient Fathers.

SInce the Reformed Exclude the Ancient Fa­thers from the Rule of Faith.

Why, say the Popish Writers, do they make use of them, and alledge them?

Answer to this Objection.

1. THe Reformed do read the Ancient Fathers, And oftentimes they rehearse their Sen­tences, and their Expositions of the Scripture.

2. But not as Proofs in Doctrines of themselves, For they do not acknowledge them as Rule, and Ground of the Faith,

3. It is to stop the Papists Mouthes, that cry so loud in the ears of the simple, that all the Fa­thers are against them.

4. It being most true, That they are notably, and generally for them.

§ How the Reformed carry themselves, in regard of the Scriptures, & in regard of the Ancient Fathers.

1. This is their Carriage in regard of the Scriptures.

1. THey receive that which the Scripture de­livereth.

2. They reject that which the Scripture re­proveth.

2. This is Their Carriage in regard of the Ancient Fathers.

1. THey read the Fathers with Indifferent and Free Judgement.

2. Weighing all their Doctrine in the Balance of Gods Word, and thereby either allowing, or refusing the same.

3. This they must do, or else of Fathers they make Gods of Mens Writings; They make Ca­nonical Scriptures. Of Doctors Opinions, they make Articles of Faith.

4. And herein they do no otherwise, then they are taught, both by Scriptures, and by Fathers, to do.

5. They declare to the Popish Writers, That concerning these two Heads, they shall never get at their hands more than this.

§ Of Bishop Jewels Challenge to the Fathers that flourished 600 years after Christ.

The Popish Writers.

IOhn Jewel, say they, challenged the Catholicks, calling upon, and desiring the help of the Fa­thers, as many as flourished 600 years after Christ.

Answer of the Reformed to that Relation.

1. They Answer this.

THat Bishop Jewel proved, all the Ancient Fathers to be against the Church of Rome in Disputing with Doctor Harding, as he had af­firmed at Paul's Crosse.

2. They Answer this.

1. THat the present Popish Writers may be ashamed to make mention of that Chal­lenge, which they have so long ago given over as a Desperate Cause.

2. Wherein Doctor Harding, the chiefest Ad­versarie could not make shew of Proof without using the Testimonies of forged, and Counterfeit Writers, As





And such Others, of which no more Account is to be made, then of Fables, and shamelesse Forgeries; Such were the Chiefest Proofs which Dr. Harding was able to bring.

2. And whatsoever he brought hath been ful­ly Answered in the Reply, by the Bishop himself; Which Book as yet, though it hath been in some parts nipped at by Divers, yet throughly con­futed was it never: what the present Popish Wri­ters can do in this Case may easily be guessed.

3. They Answer This.

1. THat what, which Bishop Jewel promised to give over, and to subscribe, If any of the 27. Articles of Controversies propounded by him could be proved by Scriptures, Councils, or Doctors, within 660. years after Christ, was not because he meant ever to subscribe to the Popish Doctrine, or was unstayed in his Religion; but it was of a most assured knowledge, and resolute perswasion, That the Popish Doctors were utter­ly destitute in this behalf of all Truth and Anti­quity, as indeed they are.

2. Otherwise the Popish Doctors may remem­ber, That our Religion is grounded onely upon the Holy Scriptures of God.

3. And therefore, though the said Doctors brought against us Reformed, Writers, and Fa­thers [Page 90]never so many for these Matters, as they can bring not one of Credit, and Age. Yet will we never subscribe unto them, having once sub­scribed to the certain Truth of God, revealed unto us in his holy, perfect, and written word.

4. By which all Sentences, Opinions and Wri­tings of Men whatsoever, must be examined.

§ Notwithstanding some Errors of the Ancient Fathers, we Reformed esteem them as Gods Saints, and holy Men, and holy Fathers.


THe Ancient Fathers holding the Ground, and Foundation of Doctrine, did oftentimes build thereon Stubble and Straw; partly by some Su­perstitious Opinions which themselves conceived of such Inventions, and partly by the sway, and violence of Custome, whereby they were carried to a liking of those Things which they saw com­mended, and practised by others.


And yet, God forbid, that because of some Errors which they held, we Reformed should raze their Names out of the Calender of Gods Saints, or think otherwise then Reverently of them.

§ Objection of the Popish Writers against this Declaration of the Reformed.

HOw, say they, can we esteem them to be Holy, teaching that they did Erre?

Answer to that Objection.

1. VVE Reformed do Answer, That the An­cient Fathers are not in such Assertions contrary to themselves.

2. Were not the Apostles Holy Men when they dreamed of an Earthly Kingdom in this World? Yet this Opinion is contrarie to a prin­cipal Article of our Faith.

Were They void of Holiness, when they belie­ved that the Gospel was to be preached to the Jews onely? Which is greatly Derogatory to the Grace of God, and Salvation of his people. Then every Error doth not overthrow all holiness in the servants of God.

3. In the Primitive Church many Holy Fa­thers were infected with the Error of Christs Reigning a thousand years on earth; who not­withstanding are worthily accounted Saints of God.

4. Cyprian, and many Godly Bishops with him, erred about the Baptism Ministred by Here­ticks. Yet lost they not, for all that, the Opinion and Name of Holy Bishops and Fathers.

5. All such errors mentioned, were such as in [Page 92]the before named Fathers, did not raze the Foun­dation of the Gospel.

§ There is great difference between the Errors of the Antient Fathers, And those of the present Church of Rome, And Popish Doctors.

1. THe Fathers slipt a little, The Popish Do­ctors, and Papists, are fallen headlong into the pit.

2. The Fathers were overseen through infir­mitle.

The Popish Doctors and Papists are blind of Malice.

5. The Fathers scattered some Darnel in the Lords Field.

The Popish Doctors, and Papists have plucked up by the Roots the good Corn.

4. The Fathers have suffered losse of this building, being not agreeable to the foundation, yet are saved.

The Popish Doctors, and Papists overthrow in­directly, and by good consequence, the founda­tion it self; And therefore, continuing in these opinions, what hope can they have to be saved?

§ Examination of these words of Luther, repro­ved by the Popish Writers, That he was not moved, though a thousand Austins, Cy­prians, Churches, be against him.

The Popish Writers.

BY these words, say the Popish Writers, Luther did shew that he was unmeasurable Arrogant, and wilful.

Answer to that Accusation, and Presumption.

1. LƲther's Spirit was far from this Insolent, and Immoderate Presumption, as may by his own words appear Contra Regem An­gliae.: For he saith not that he more setteth by his own pri­vate judgment, then he doth by all the Fathers and Doctors.

But he saith, That he setteth against the sayings of the Fathers, of Men, of Angels, of Devils, the Word of the onely Eternal Majestie, the Gospel. And again immediately he saith, The Word of God is above all, The Majestie of God maketh with me, That I care not, though a thousand Augustines, and Cyprians stood against we.

2. Is this to set his private judgment against

All the Fathers?

Is this Pride?

Is this Presumption?

Must Gods word, and Majesty, and Gospel, yield to the judgment of Fathers, be they never so many.

3. Luther did not think so, but meant this, by the words alledged against him.

If Augustine, or Gyprian, or any other Father maintain any thing against Gods Word, Luther, or any other Minister of Christ, may in such Case preferre his Judgement warranted by the word of God before theirs.

4. If the Popish Doctors deny this, they are not worthy to be called Christians.

5. And yet closely They doe deny it, in that they reprove Luther, and condemn him for say­ing the same.

§. Objections against this Answer of the Reformed, by the Popish Writers.

1. Objection.

YOu Reformed, say the said Writers can bring no Instance that ever the Ancient Fathers did so.

Answer of the Reformed to that Objection.

1. HAve the Popish Writers forgotten what fell out in the first Council of Nice, when the Fathers agreeing to dissolve the Marriage of Mi­nisters, were withstood by Paphnutius, and yield­ed in the end.

Here one Paphnutius Judgement was prefer­red before all the other three hundreds of Fa­thers.

2. And so oftentimes the Judgement of many hath been corrected by one. S. An­gustine saith, whether of Christ, Contra Petil. lib. 3. cap. 6. or of his Church, or of any other thing that appertaineth to our Faith, and Life.

I will not say We, not to be compared to him, that said Though we; But as he added, If an An­gel from Heaven shall Preach any thing besides that ye have received in the Legal, and Evangelical Scriptures, let him be accursed. If we may accurse them, how many and whosoever they be, that Teach contrary to the Prophetical, and Aposto­lical Scriptures, then may we prefer our Judge­ment in such Cases before them.

3. In another place S. Augustine saith, August. Epist. 19. For all these, (namely Fathers) yea a­bove all these, the Apostle Paul offereth himself, I flie to Him, I appeal to Him from all Writers that think otherwise.

Thus was S. Augustine bold to write, even to S. Jerome, and feared not any suspicion, either of Arrogancy, or of Heresie, for the same.

4. Such Account then must we make of the Truth, that we must stand with it against all the world, and not for the Reverence of mens Persons give it over, or betray it, or be afraid to defend it.

2. Objection.

THough the Fathers in the Councils of Nice, of Ephesus, of Chalcedon, had alledged no direct, and evident Place against Arius, and Nestorius [Page 96]and Eutiches; yet the Christian People was bound to believe them, grounding themselves onely upon the Catholick and Universal Faith of the Churches before them.

Answer of the Reformed to that Objection.

1. THis is boldly, and bluntly spoken.

2. These Godly and Catholick Fathers Assembled in Council against these Hereticks, Confuted them by the Authority of Gods Word, and as it were did cut the throat of their Here­sies, with the Sword of the Spirit.

This is onely the Weapon then used, And with this they prevailed.

3. As likewise have all other godly Councils ever done against the Hereticks, and enemies of the Church.

The Fathers have Errors, and the Doctors of the Roman Church do acknowledge it.

1. IT is confessed by our Adversaries that the Fathers had their Errors.

2. And themselves in divers cases challenge and censure them.

3. There is none of the Fathers, saith Staple­ton, in which something erroneous may not be observed.

And Anselm saith, in the books of those holy Do­ctors, which the Church readeth as Authentical, some things are found wicked and heretical. [Page 97]And Mulhusinus the Jesuite, We know the Fathers were men, and erred sometimes.

4. Before the Pelagian Heresie arose, Augu­stine was deceived in the matter of divine grace, and freewill. And although the same Father is many times Orthodox in the Question of Purgatory, yet at other times he varieth, (at least doubtfully) from his own sounder judgment.

The Reformed justly exclude from the rule of Faith, the Determinations of the Pope.

1. WE have said before, That the Determi­nations of the Pope is the onely Rule of Faith in the Roman Church.

2. Now then this being the Papists own cer­tain Rule, and Ground, and Resolution, We Reformed would gladly be Enformed, How by the same a man may be assured of any Faith.

It being further also agreed, and confessed a­mong themselves, That the Pope may fall into Heresie.

3. Then who seeth not, That their Ground being shaken, and their Staie failing; All that is Builded, and upohlden thereon, is clean over­thrown.

The Popes may fall into Heresie, and have erred in great Articles of the Faith.

1. MArtinus sacrifice to Idols.

Liberius subscribe to Arianism.

John the 24. an hererick, oppressor, persecutor, fornicator, Simmonist, did deny the immortality of the Soul, and the resurrection of the body.

Leo the seventh was not much behind for the Life to come.

And Clement the 7th doubted of the immor­tality.

Answer to an Objection of the Jesuites.

4. IF the Jesuites say, That the Pope falling into Heresie, forthwith ceaseth to be a Pope: We demand who they are that must judge the Popes Cause, and give Sentence against Him?

4. And if the Pope be obstinate, and teach­ing Heresie, and therewith infecting the World, will notwithstanding stoutly stand in defence of his Doctrine, and will keep his Chaire.

What shift have the Papists then, And what can they do against him, seeing he is their Pope, their Head, their Author, and Founder of all their Faith?

6. Thus a man going with the Papists along, and coming to the end of all, findeth no stay, but must wander still, as in an endless Labyrinth, wherein he shall at last languish, and perish everlastingly.

Besides, The Reformed say of the Pope, That he is not the Rule of Faith, and Judge of Contro­versies, because he is the great Antichrist, foretold in the Scriptures.

1. IN the Bishops of Rome after Boniface the third, and Hildebrand, we find, The Name, [Page 99]the Seat, the Apparel, the Time, the Pride, the Cru­elty, the Idolatry, the Coveteousnesse, the Impo­sture, the Power, and the fortune of Antichrist, which are the Marks whereby S. Paul, and S. John describes that man of sin, and son of perdition.

2. The Name of Antichrist containeth in it the number 666, which Irenaeus findeth in the word Latinus, [...].

3. The Seat of Antichrist is a City built upon seven Hills, that ruleth over the whole world. This City Propertius tells us to be Rome, Septem urbs clara jugis, toti quae praesidet orbi.

4. The Apparel and Ornaments of Antichrist are Scarlet, and Purple, Gold, Jewels, and preci­ous stones, which the Popes wear, especially on high daies.

5. The Time of Antichrist his rising is foretold to be after the Division of the Roman Empire; after whch it appears by all stories, that the Pope grew to his greatnesse.

6. The vices of Antichrist are these especially,


Idolatry, or Spiritual Fornication,



Covetousnesse, who are to be found in the Popes, as hath been represented above, under the Title of the Popes vices.

7. The Beast is said to have horns like a Lamb, and to speak like a Dragon, and to exercise all the power of the first Beast, Apoc. 18.11.

This agreeth to the Papacy and Pope, who resembleth Christ, whose Vicar he calleth him­self, and arrogateth to himself Christs double power, both Kingly and Priestly. He exerciseth also the power of the first Beast, to wit, the Ro­man Empire, described by seven Heads and ten Horns; because as the first Beast the Roman Empire by power, and temporal Authority: So the Pope, by policy, and Spiritual Jurisdiction, ruleth over a great part of the world.

8. It is written of the Whore of Babylon, that the Kings of the earth should give their power to her for a time, but that in the end they should hate her, and make her desolate, Apoc. 17.13.16. which we find daily more and more fulfil­led in the Papacy.

9. From all which we do justly argue in this manner, He in whom all, or the principal Marks of Antichrist are found, he is the Antichrist. But in the Pope all or the principal marks of Anti­christ are to be found, Ergo the Pope is the Anti­christ.

Of the divers Ages of Antichrist.

1. THe First Age of Antichrist was when Bo­nifacius the third, Bishop of Rome, was declared Head of the Church, and the Bishop of Bishops, by Phocas, who killed the Emperour Mauritius his Master, and did usurp the Empire: which Phocas, to get the good will of the Romans, drew to himself, That Bonifacius the third giving him the abovesaid Title.

2. The Second Age of Antichrist was when he was put in possession of the City of Rome, and of the Exarchat.

3, The Third Age of Antichrist was when he raised himself above the Emperours, their Sove­raigns, and Lords.

The Pope being the foretold Antichrist, and demon­strating it, What Horrour is it to submit to him.

1. ALthough the Pope be the foretold Anti­christ, yet people do Adore this Monster. and Princes do Applaude him; and very often ruine their Kingdoms at his desire and appetite: and daily yet do offer their poor Subjects in a Sacrifice of good Odour to this Antichrists feet.

2. Who would believe it, if Gods Spirit had not foretold it?

3. And who shall believe it after us, when he is consumed by this same Spirit?

An Appendix concerning Cardinals, the Popes Counsellours.

1. WHen Cardinals have been raised up, this is the Language of the Archbishop of Bragantia, among many Prelates of the Coun­cil of Trent.

That, in the Church had been established an Order Superiour to the Bishops, in times past un­known of the Church, namely that of Cardinals.

2. Who in the first times were reputed to be of the number of other Priests, and Deacons.

3. And onely after the tenth Age had raised themselves above their Degree.

4. Yet not so much that they durst make themselves equals unto Bishops, unto whom they were held to be inferiours, until the year of Grace, a thousand and two hundred.

5. But from that time; Not onely have they esteemed themselves to be Equals unto Bishops, but moreover have raised themselves above them. So that now they hold them for servants in their Houses.

6. He concluded, That the Church should never be reformed, untill Bishops, and Cardinals were brought again to the Rank due unto each of them.

Of Cardinals more particularly.

1. NOt one word can be found in the Antient Church concerning Cardinals, save in this signification, That Cardinal Priest did signifie the Parson, or Rector of one of the Parishes of the Bishoprick.

Then Cardinal Priest was as much as principal Priest, even as some virtues are called Cardinal virtues. And some winds Cardinal winds, that is to say, First, and Principal.

2. And this Title was used, not onely in Rome, but also in other great Archiepiscopal Cities, principally at Milan, where Sigonius reporteth, [Page 103]that there were 22. Cardinals, about the end of the seventh book.

3. And there being many Priests in one Parish, he that was the first in Order, and the Rector of the Parish, as hath been said, was called the prin­cipal, or Cardinal Priest. For that comes to one, as Pandulphus Pisanus doth teach, and after him Onuphrius.

4. And at this time all Cardinals are Priests or Deacons of some of the parishes of Rome.

5. In that regard they sate at the last in Coun­cils; As namely in the sixth Council of Carthage, And in the Council of Gregory the first, And the Gallicane Church in her Remonstrances to the Council of Canstance saies these words: Cardinals are the Rectors, or Parsons of the Parochial Churches at Rome.

They have their Dignities in their parishes; and their First, and principal Office is, To hear Con­fessions, To preach, and to Baptize, &c.

6. But Onuphrius saith in Libro de Cardinali­bus, That when Pope Clement the 2. about the year 1046. had strengthened the Papal Majesty. Leo the 9. about the year 1049. did begin to raise up the State of Cardinals at Rome.

7. Unto whom afterwards Innocent the 4. about the year 1244. gave the priviledge of the Red Hat, Of the Scarlet Gown, And to go on Horseback through the Citie.

8. And in the year 1470. Paul the 2. did con­firm it.

9. And since Clement the 5. went so far in his Clementines, as to make them march before all the Princes of the earth.

10. But that the beginning of Cardinals had been such, as hath been represented: Besides the consent of the whole History, it doth appear by the following things.

1. It doth appear by this; That Antiently there were onely 28 of them, That is to say, as many as of Titles, and of the parishes at Rome.

2. That doth appear by this, That as the Popes were willing to make a great number of Cardi­nals, they did also increase the number of the Parishes of Rome.

3. That doth appear by this, That above a thousand years lasting, the least Bishop had the precedence of a Cardinal; how Ancient soever he might be: And even the Dean likewise.

4. That doth appear by this, That the Car­dinalat was a Degree to become Bishop; And that he who of a Cardinal was made Bishop, did cease to be Cardinal, which was not altered but about the year 1190, by Pope Clement the third.

5. That doth appear by this, That among the Cardinal Bishops, the Precedence was taken from the Promotion to the Bishoprick, and not to the Cardinalship. The Cardinals being esteemed inferiours to Bishops, and onely more then simple Priests. Alexander the 3. did change that, after he had troden under feet the Emperor Frederick, about the year 1180. making thenceforth the [Page 105]Cardinals Bishops, and the Cardinals not Bishops, to have the precedence of Bishops, Archbishops, Primates, Patriarchs, &c.

6. That doth appear by this, That the Church of Ravenna in Italy had her Cardinals, and kept them a long time; which also in the time of Charles the Great did maintain, That she held nothing of Rome.

11. Concerning Cardinal Deacons, the books of the Church of Rome do teach us, That there was but one there in the beginning; which was called so, because he was the Principal Deacon, (called by us Arch-Deacon) of the seven Dea­cons that were in that City: that is to say, one for two Regions, which were called Regionarie Deacons, having the care of the Alms.

Since they were 14, one for a Region, and afterwards 18. To give 4 of them to Latran. and at last they were all Cardinals, and that without Number.

12. It must not be wondred at, Then if the Canonists do Dispute, that the Cardinals have no Rank in the Church, and that they are neither Instituted by Christ, nor by his Apostles, &c.

13 Neither also must we wonder, if even the Cardinal of Alliaco, among the Articles which he presented to the Council of Constance, Libr. de Reform. at the Request of the Emperour Sigismond, did give counsel to extinguish them, as superfluous, and added without cause.

This is an Observation greatly to be considered, namely, That the Arguments used in the Church of Rome, for Defence of their Erroneous Do­ctrines, before the coming in of the Jesuites, are declared by the Jesuites themselves, to have been but sleight and weak Arguments.


OUr Ancestors, saies one of the Jesuites, other­wise most wise men, having not alwaies to Debate with wilful Spirits, did not strictly stand upon exact Form of Teaching.

Answer to that by the Reformed.

1. THe cause is the more desperate, when such wise men could find no better Arguments to maintain it, but such as even the Jesuites themselves confesse to be but weak.

2. And both their Heresies were then too cre­dulous to believe. And the Jesuites are now ridiculous to defend such loose Arguments as they do.

§ By the above observation it doth manifestly ap­pear, That the Jesuites, that now have taken upon them to defend the Doctrine Erroneous of the Church of Rome, of all the Sophisters of that Church, are the greatest.

1. THe Jesuites puts now down all the Ancient Sophisters of the Church of Rome, for de­ceipt, [Page 107]and fraud; themselves being yet but up­starts.

2. For if there were ever any kingdom of poor blind men over the stark blind, questionless it is now wholy descended unto the Jesuites.

3. To whom the former Popish Doctors, as also the Ancienter Orders of Monks and Friars, do willingly yeild the Garland, because they think that they see something.

Of all the Sophisters, Jesuites, Bellarmine, a Jesu­ite, is the greatest, and most Ʋniversal; as appears by the Representation and Observation of his Faults.

1. REading the Controversies of Cardinal Bellarmine, concerning Religion, we find two kinds of Faults in them, Some are General, And the others are Particular.

2. These be some of his General Faults.

1. To make shew and parade of his Learning, he propounds, and moves Questions too curious, as also unprofitable.

2. He refutes the Antient Errors with too great prolixitie, and labour, which were not to be drawn out of Hell; wherein, in times past, truth had made them fall.

3. He unjustly reproves the Reformed Doctors, and slanders them, being beholding unto them for many matters that he hath taken from them; though he doth not vouchsafe to acknowledg it.

4. When he loses all hope to be helped by holy Scriptures, he doth strengthen himself by the Authority of the Fathers, and of the Councils, and of Miracles.

5. Against all right, and reason, to maintain, and uphold his Capitolin god, which is the Pope, he alleadges unto us the Popes in their own Cause as Judges, or witnesses.

6. Also to prove his Assertions, he alleadges and produce that which hath been done by the Pope: Whereas it was to be known, in regard of Right, whether they ought to do such things.

7. To procure glory and fame unto himself, and being stirred by Ambition, he blames, and re­bukes every kind of persons, even his own Do­ctors; and moreover the holy Scriptures.

8. Having undertaken to uphold an Error, he hoth sink in the mud the more when he goes on.

4. Concerning the particular Faults of the said Cardinal, they appear in every point of con­troversie, which he handles against the Reformed Churches. Which particular Faults are clearly discovered, and solidly refuted by the Doctors of the said Churches, who did undertake the An­swer to the said Controversie.

§. An Observation very considerable, concerning the Society of Jesus, and the Name of Jesuite.

1. THe Societie of the Jesuites have separated Christ; Else why have they separated Jesus from Christ?

2. And leaving the Ancient ordinary Name of Christians, which they scorn, as too common, they desiring rather to be called Jesuites, (a new Name of their own framing) then to be called Christians.

3. As though there were some society of Jesus priated to one kind of men, separated from other Christians.

4. If there be, then is Christ divided.

5. If not, then you Jesuites are too Impudent to devise a new Society.

§. Exception of the Jesuites.

YOu Reformed set upon our Society, and say we have divided Christ; because certain men have chosen unto them this Name above all others, to be accounted of the Society of Jesus; because they have consecrated themselves wholy to advance this Name: Must they therefore of necessity divide Christ? Have not the English Christ Colledge in Oxford?

Answer of the Reformed to this Exception.

1. WE will not strive much with you Jesu­ites about your Society: of which we reformed make very small account.

2. If you have for some special consideration Dedicated your selves unto Christ, What is that consideration? Why do not you tell us what [Page 110]Jesus requireth of you, which all other Christians are not bound to do?

3. If the Order of your profession require, that you propagate the honour, and magnifie the Name Jesus. If for this all Christians ought not to labour, at least Bishops, and specially the Pope of Rome. And if they be Jesuites who do this, Why are not your Divines, Bishops, Cardinals, and Popes Jesuites?

4. It may be this care is far from them.

5. Whereas then Names are for distinguishing of things: they be needlesse, and vain, when there is no difference of the thing.

6. Either shew us what is the proper, and pe­culiar duties of Jesuites: Or confesse that with­out any cause you have appropriated such a Name unto them.

7. In Cambridge, as well as in Oxford, there are both Christ, and Jesus Colledges: but they that live in those Colledges, are called onely Christians.

8. Think you, That because there are many Colledges different in Names, there are many different Orders, and Professions of men?

9. In places, distinctions of Names are necessa­ry, and without danger; unlesse some Schism may happen betwixt the wals.

10. Have you Jesuites no other thing to say for your Sect, and Society?

Concerning the Conversion of Countries made by Papists. What judgment is to be made of such Conversions.

1. IT may happen that a corrupt Church which holdeth not the faith intirely throughout, but erreth in some parcels thereof, may convert Heathens.

2. Such a conversion shall be mixed: In some things it shall be to the true Faith: In others it shall be to erroneous beleeving.

3. Like as diseased Parents when they pro­create Children, do, together with their nature and kind, propagate hereditarie sicknesse.

4. And that the Ecclesiastical story reporteth, That the Arrians converted the Goths to Chri­stianity.

5. And such is the conversion of Heathens made by Papists.

Again, Of the Conversion of the Americans by the Jesuites.

1. The Jesuites which have assayed to make new kingdoms among the Indians, did not serve Christ, but the Pope.

2. Nor did they enlarge the Kingdome of Christ; but they did prepare for the Pope a Kingdom, far from the Reformed, where he may reign, after he shall be banished from these coun­tries.

3. Which newly could easily have been effe­cted by Lewis the 14, King of France, if he had been willing to chastise, or rather so far to punish Alexander now Pope, as to take from him the Temporal Dominions, of which the Popes are become Princes, by the liberalitie of the Kings of France his predecessors.

Of the different Sects that are in the Church of Rome, namely, Thomists, Scotists, Domi­nicans, Franciscans.


COncerning these different Sects, the Jesuites, for Defense of them, produce this Reason.

That all these did ever consent in Faith, and differed onely in such things which might be di­sputed without any hazard of Faith.

Answer to that by the Reformed.

1. BE it granted they did agree in matters of Faith, Why then do they not follow all one Rule?

3. For S. Paul reproved the Corinthians agreeing in Faith, because they attributed to their Ministers more then was meet, whilest one had Devoted himself to S. Paul, another to S. Peter, and another to Apollo. What then shall be done to the Scotists, to the Thomists, and to others?

Are the Names of Scotus, of Thomas, of Francis, more holy, and lawful Names, in their Disciples, then the names of S. Peter, S. Paul, and of Apollo?

3. Besides the difference is very great, not in the name onely, but in things also.

4. As thus, Let the Question be whether the Crosse of Christ, and the Image of Christ, be to be worshipped with the same kind of worship, that Christ is Adored withal; Doth not this appertain to Faith?

But Error in this will be plain Idolatry. And yet the Jesuites know some of the Schoolmen stand for it, Some against it.

5. What of that Question which hath exer­cised all Churches, and all Schools so long, Whe­ther the Virgin Mary had Original sin, Or was ever pure, and without spot?

6. And infinite such Differences the Reformed do omit, being matter of Faith.

§ From hence I infer, That the Ʋnitie pretended by the Popish Doctors to be in the Church of Rome, is not so Intire, and General, as they would have it thought.

1. BUt although it be not so, yet if it proceeded of knowledge of the Truth, and of faithful submission, with the heartie obedience to the same truth, it should deserve great Commen­dation.

2. But springing from this Fountain, That all men must obey the Pope, whatsoever he teach, and command without Examination, or Resistance, upon pain of Eternal Damnation: It is altogether unworthie of commendation, and praise: because it is an easie matter upon this Foundation, to raise up, and maintain any unitie whatsoever.

3. In that regard such unity is Tyrannical, and Devilish.

4. And in other Regards it is Carnal: For in the chiefest Members of the Church of Rome, it doth proceed from vain Ambition, from world­ly Pleasures, and from filthy Covetousnesse.

5. In another regard besides, It is Brutish, and also carnal; proceeding in the most Members of Brutish Ignorance, and of Fear.

Of the Seduction of People by the Popes, and the Roman Church, by their False Doctrine in General.

1. IT is one of the Sinnes of the Popes, and of the Church of Rome, to seduce People by their False, and Corrupted Doctrine.

2. Which is a crying, and an abominable Sin, for it is thereby to poison People, and to put them in the way which leadeth unto Death.

3. Of this Seduction is spoken, 2 Thess. 9, 10. in these words, Even him, (namely the wicked mentioned before) whose coming is after the [Page 115]working of Satan, with all Power, and Signes, and lying Wonders, and with all deceivablenesse of unrighteousnesse in them that perish, because they received not the love of the Truth, that they might be saved: Of the same also is spoken, Apoc. 13.12. where it is said of the Second Beast, That he causeth the Earth, and Them which dwell therein to worship the first Beast, whose deadly wound was healed, And a little after, namely vers. 14. That this Second Beast deceiveth them that dwell on the Earth, by the means of those Miracles which he had Power to do in the sight of the Beast: And that he causeth all both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads; And that no man might buy, or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the Beast, or the number of his Name: And Chap. 13.7, 8. It is said, That it was given unto him to make war with the Saints, and to overcome them: And power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations: And all that dwell upon the Earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the Book of Life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. And Chapt. 17.2. It is said, That with the great Whore the Kings of the Earth have committed Fornication; and the Inhabiters of the Earth have been made drunk with the Wine of her Fornication.

4. All That hath been seen before the last Re­formation of the Church.


NOw as Satan (to the end he may tempt the better) doth often transform himself in an Angel of Light: So Antichrist and his Followers to seduce better the world, and to spread with greater fruit, and successe, the venome of his False Doctrine, in corrupting that of Christ, and of his Apostles, hath made use of four Means the fittest for the fulfilling of his designe.

1. The first of these Means consisteth in My­steries, and Secrets.

2. The second of these Means consisteth in Frauds, and Impostures.

3. The third of these Means consisteth in Signes, and Miracles.

4. And the Fourth of these Signs consisteth in Persecution, and Crueltie.

1. I have said, That the First of the Means used by the Popes, and the Church of Rome, to seduce People, consisteth in Mysteries, and Secrets.

1. FOr Poperie having not found convenient, openly to propound her false Doctrines, hath cloathed them with Mysteries, that so they may be more easily received. In this regard it is said of the great Whore, Apoc. 17.5. That upon her forehead was a Name written Mysterie, Baby­lon the Great, the Mother of Harlots, and Abomi­nations of the Earth.

2. Let the Rationals be read, and the book of Ceremonies of the Church of Rome, and no piece, or part of the Divine Service, thereof shall be found, which containeth not some Mysteries, even to the Priests Garments, and to the Lamps alwaies burning.

3. The Doctrine of an Oecumenical and Universal Bishop and Head, was softly introdu­ced under this Mysterie, That thereby the Unitie of the Church was represented.

4. Marriage hath been prohibited to the Ro­man Clergie, permitting unto them, under this colour to keep Concubines. And under this My­stery, That Virginity is far more excellent then Marriage.

5. The Life, and the Monastical Vowes have been introduced under this Mystery. That the Contemplative Life, is by much to be preferred to the Active. And that thereby Grace, and Glory are merited. And moreover, that there­by more is done, then God commandeth in his Law.

6. The use of Holy Scripture in an unknown Tongue, hath been introduced under this Myste­ry, To avoid and hinder the contempt of Her Mysteries; And to entertain an Union in all the Churches.

7. How many Mysteries are found out in the Masse, to the end that it may be received?

2. I have said, That the Second of the Means used by the Popes, and the Church of Rome, to seduce People, consisteth in Impostures.

1. IN that they are like to False Coyners, and to Jugglers. Like again to the Serpent, who by Imposture, and Fraud, did deceive our Mo­ther Eve, and by the same Means did indeavour to seduce Jesus Christ our Saviour, but was not able to do it.

2. Which Impostures and Frauds, have been shewed, and continue to be shewed, by the Popes, and by the Roman Clergie, in divers manners.

3. We will produce in particular, those divers Manners, after we have set down the other Means used by the Popes, and the Church of Rome to seduce People.

2. I have said, That the Third of the Means used by the Popes, and the Church of Rome, to seduce People, consisteth in Signs, and Miracles.

1. OF them doth Christ our Saviour speak, Matth. 24.24. in these words, For there shall arise false Christs, and false Prophets, and shall shew great signs, and wonders, insomuch, that (if it were possible) they shall deceive the very Elect. [Page 119]Of them also doth S. Paul speak, 2 Thess. 2.9. in these words, Even him, (namely Antichrist) whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all power, and signs, and lying wonders. Of them likewise doth S. John speak, Apoc. 13.14. in these words, And them that dwell on the earth, (meaning Antichrist) by the means of those Mi­racles which he had power to do in the sight of the Beast.

2. The Popes, which are that Antichrist, boast­ing of this Gift of Miracles, hath noised more of them then any other Religion; Either the True, Or the False Religion.

More then Simon the Magician did.

More then Mahomet hath done.

More then Moses, and the other Prophets have done.

Nay more then Christ hath done, and his Apo­stles, although they have made of them in great Number.

3. Is it not the most ordinarie Subject of the Legends of the Saints: by which, in time past, the Preachers of the Church of Rome, did so beat the ears of their Auditors.

It is true, That since the Reformation of the Christians, those Legends are not so much estee­med, but still Citations are made out of them, although not so commonly.

4. But these Miracles, boasted by those of the Church of Rome, were not true, but lying Miracles. And that in regard of all manners and kinds of Causes.

1. False in regard of the efficient Cause, Be­cause they were wrought by Satan, who is the father of Lyes.

2. False in regard of the final Cause, Because they were done to introduce a false Doctrine, and full of Lyes.

3. False in regard of the Material Cause, Be­cause most of them are but Illusions, and Impo­stures. Not true Resurrections of some Dead, as they are pretended to be. Neither also curing of some Diseases.

4. False in regard of the Formal Cause, For if some of these Miracles are true, in respect of the Matter, they shall not be so in regard of the Form, because they shall not be above the strength of Nature, as are all the true Miracles, but shall be wrought by Natural Causes, Either Manifest, or Hidden.

Satan applying Active Things to Passives, They may be wondrous things, but not Miracles, which are wrought onely by the Omnipotencie of God.

5. And notwithstanding that, God having so permitted it, those false Miracles did serve to In­troduce, and settle many Errors.

1. By this Means the Popes, and their Clergie did endeavour to establish the Doctrine of Tran­substantiation; Sometimes saying, that Beasts did leave their Food to worship the Host. Some­times, That the Host being pricked, some blood came out of it. That a part thereof being fallen [Page 121]in the water, when the Priest washed his hands, all the water had been changed into blood.

2. By this Means also the Pope, and his Clergy did establish, The Intercession, Adoration, and Invocation of the departed Saints. And upon that, How many Miracles have been boasted of. Namely That many blind do recover their sight, Many lame do go, That many sick do recover health.

If any Mineral Waters be found in a Country that have some virtue, there a Chappel of some Saint is builded, unto whom the virtue of these waters is attributed, which is called by the Name of Miracle.

3. By this Means likewise hath been established the Adoration of Images; being said, that in certain places the Crucifix being ill used by the Jewes, did render Bloud. Also, that in another place, a Child without Feet having vowed him­self to the Virgin Mary, whose Image was wor­shipped in the place where he was Born, did see in sleeping his two Feet be given unto him. That in some other Places some Images did render Oyle like unto Sweat, which did serve for the Cure of many Diseases.

4. By this Means besides hath been established the veneration of Relicks.

5. And for the Admiration of the Dignity of Popes, this Means hath been also used.

4. I have said, That the Fourth of the Means used by the Popes, and the Church of Rome, to seduce People, Consisteth in Persecution, and Cruelty.

1. IT is that which is represented in the Apoca­lypse chap. 17.6. In these words, And I saw the woman drunken with the bloud of the Saints, and with the Bloud of the Martyrs of Jesus. And in the 12. Chapter all along Particularly, and Expressely in the verses, 13, 15, and 17. of that Chapter.

2. In that the Church of Rome is gone farre above the Cruelty of the Pagan Emperours, and that of the most wild and Barbarous of them.

3. This Cruelty, and Persecution hath been exercised, and tried by the Popes, & the Church of Rome in all the places where the Reformed Religion was Imbraced.

4. And if at this Time it doth not appear so violent, as in time past; It is because the strength of Antichrist weakenth, and not his will.

The Popes do hold, That no other waies are to be used towards the Reformed, then that of Punishments, and of warre.

1. BEcause, say they, there is but small hope of their Conversion; Hereticks being very ob­stinate, and whatsoever is done to exhort them [Page 123]to Repentance, being by them attributed to the want of strength to force them.

2. That there was not any Remembrance that ever Moderation had done any good.

3. But that Experience had shewed, that the sooner it is proceeded against them by the Justice and the Executions thereof, it fareth the better.

4. And where this way doth not suffice, to proceed against them by warre.

Again, Of the Cruelty of the Popes, and of the Church of Rome, and of the Popish Inquisition.

1. THe Reformed call to witnesse, all the peo­ple of the Christian World, who have yet any sense of Humanitie, and Equitie remaining in them, Whether the Cruelty of the Church of Rome, hath not been of all Cruelties the greatest.

2. Thereupon let Italy speak, also Germany, Spain, France, the Low Countries, besides our Kingdom of England.

3. It were tedious to recite the Horrible Mur­ders, The Fearful Burnings, and the Exquisite Punishments that the Papists have exercised in those States.

4. The Sword, The Rack, The Gallows, and the Fire, have been the Instruments of their Cruelty.

5. And had it not been for these, the Church of Rome had been overthrown long ago. For by [Page 124]these Weapons it was first Founded, after in­creased, and now maintained.

6. If once these faile, the Roman Church questionlesse cannot long continue.

§ Of the Popish Inquisition.

1. THe Horrors of this Popish Inquisition, are above all that the Devil did ever invent.

2. The Tortures thereof are so cruel, and bar­barous, that that justifies all the Torments of Phalaris.

3. It is to speak of it too softly to call it the Image of Hell.

4. A man is laid in prison, not knowing for what cause.

5. After the Darknesse, and Solitarinesse of a year, he is questioned upon some certain deeds.

6. If he declares himself to be a good Catho­lick, and Abjures Heresie, then he is put to death more mildly. For there to be guilty of death, it sufficeth to have been accused.

7. If he persevere in the defence of the Truth which he did professe, and resolves himself to martyrdom; after infinite Torments, he is pro­duced in publick, his head covered with a hor­rible cover, which they call S. Benedict, with a mouth and a tail of the Devil.

8. And so he is burned with a slow fire, at sun­drie times, that so he may feel himself dying.

9. Which is an horror to the Turks and Ma­hometans, [Page 125]although they be mortal Enemies to the Christian Name: For they never did any thing to Christians, which came near to this Cru­eltie.

Of the Perfidiousnesse, and Cruelty Exercised by the Council of Constance upon John Husse, and Hierome of Prague,


1. IOhn Husse of Bohemia, and Hierome of Prague, came to the Council of Constance, trusting in the protection of a publick promise, namely of Sigismund the Emperour, who gave his publick warrant.

2. And yet they were burned in that Council.

3. Was it not fit that the Council should have given credit to the publick warrant of the Em­perour.

Exception of the Jesuites.

BUt say the Jesuites, John Husse was not called by the Council of Constance, neither did he receive from it any publick promise.

Answer of the Reformed to that Exception.

1. THe Emperour Sigismund gave him his pub­lick Warrant; which the Council most dishonorablie infringed.

2. And after they had put Husse to Death, contrary to publick promise, they Enacted a Law, That a promise made unto Hereticks, by [Page 126]the Emperour, or by any King, or Secular Prince, should not hinder any Ecclesiastical Judges from proceeding against them According to Law; Concil. Constant. Sess. 19.


HIerom of Prague likewise came to the Council of his own accord, and making publick pro­fession of his Faith, was burned.


SO that the Case of these Two, than the which all Christendome at that time, had not any more Holy, or Learned.

1. Shall remain as a perpetual Monument of the Papists Treachery, and most horrible Cruelty.

2. And also as a notable Caveat unto all the Godly, to beware of them for the Time to come.

§. The Doctrine of the Church of Rome is false, Concerning the Faith given to Hereticks.

1. AFter that the Council of Constance had most Dishonourably infringed the safe Conduct in Writing given to John Husse, 1. By the Emperour Sigismund, and had put the said Husse to death, contrary to publick Promise, They Enacted a Law, as we have said before, That a Promise made unto Hereticks, by the Emperour, or by any King, or Secular Prince, should not hinder any Ecclesiastical Judges from [Page 127]proceeding against them according to the Law; Concil. Constant. Sess. 19.


IN the Regard of this Expression, a Jesuite saith this, That whereas the Reformed Doctors commonly say, that it was decreed in this Coun­cil of Constance, That Faith is not to be kept with Hereticks; That such a thing is false.


BUt let this Decree be understood in the Ex­pression propounded, We Reformed ask of the Jesuites, How can we be safe going to Coun­cils Assembled by the Popes, who are mortal Enemies to Protestants; If the Emperours, more reasonable to them bear no sway in such Coun­cils?

Other Frauds. The pretended Donation of Constantine the Empe­rour to the Roman Church, in person of the Pope Sylvester of the City of Rome, and of a great part of Italy, is not onely a Fable, but moreo­ver a notorious Fraud.

1. BEcause all Historie is contrarie to it.

2. Because the fourth Consulate of Con­stantine the Son, and of Gallicanus, which is in the Date of it, is not found.

3. Because Damasus, Pope of Rome, in the very Life of Sylvester, which is to particular, [Page 128]makes no mention thereof, Neither also Ana­statius.

4. Because this pretended Donation was afterwards divided among the sons of the Empe­rour Constantine, even Rome it self; as it is rela­ted by Eusebius Zosimus, and Zonara.

5. Because Isidorus, Burchardus, and Yvo, judging it to be Apocriphal, did not insert it in their Decrees.

6. Because even the Pope Agathon, writing many Ages after to Constantine Pogonat, calleth Rome, Ʋrbem Imperatoris Servilem, The Servile Town of the Emperour.

7. Because this pretended Donation hath been confuted by some of the most famous men of the Church of Rome. As

By Antonine Archbishop of Florence.

By Raphael Volateranus.

By Hierom Catalan Chamberlain to Pope Alex­ander the 6.

By Otho, Bishop of Frisinghen.

By Cardinal Cusan.

By Laurence Valla, a Roman Patrician.

By Francis Guicciardin: every one of these men famous in their times.

By Aeneas Sylvius himself, who afterwards was Pope Pius the second.

By an expresse book cited by Catalan.

8. Because Platine, the Popes Historiographer hath been ashamed to speak of it.

9. Because finally, That in the pretended Ori­ginal, [Page 129]which is kept of it in the Vatican in Golden. Letters, the Writer himself hath added to the end thereof in this Latine, Quam Fabulam longi Temporis Mendacia finxit; It is a Fable which the Ancient Lye did forge.

10. And notwithstanding, Let us here admire the Impudency of Baronius, who passeth upon this Donation, as upon Fire; And will give it us as a thing already judged; We speak not of it, saith he, because we could not say other thing thereof, Then that which hath been said by so many others, and which should be burthensome, and needlesse to re­peat: Volum. 3. Ann. 324. Art. 117.

11. And wretched man that he is, how many other things doth he repeat of lesser Importance? handled by many others, and what else are all his Annales?

Fraud. Of the pretended Donation of Constantine, in General.

1. THat Constantines Donation is a base and witlesse forgery, is of old by Laurentius Valla, and since that by divers of our Learned Writers so fully demonstrated, that scarce ought can be added unto their Labours.

2. Nor would we so much as once endeavour to treat thereof, but that many of the Popes late flatterers do most pertinaciously, and shame­ [...]essely continue still the claim thereof.

3. And it must not seem strange to any, nor [Page 130]be thought unfit, that we should reiterate our just defence of the Truth. So long as they rei­terate their Cavils, and vain Objections against the Truth.

Three Reasons by which we prove that Constan­stine never made any such Donation as the Doctors of the Church of Rome doe pre­tend, either by Word, or by Writing.

1. THe first Reason is the Testament of Con­stantine, wherein he disposed the whole Empire, and divided it among his three Sonnes; To Constantine, and Constans, was attributed, (saith Zonaras,) Italy, and Rome it self, Africk, Sicily, the Cottian Alpes, Cum Galliis with the Countries of the Galles: To Constantius was At­tributed that which was in the East.

2. It is credible, that if Constantine had for­merly made, either by Word, or Writing, an Ab­solute Donation of Rome, Italy, and the Western Provinces to the Pope, and that so solemnly, That as Leo the 9. saith, He Decreed that Dona­tion to abide firm, and inviolable, in finem mun­di, unto the end of the world. It is credible we say, that so pious, and prudent an Emperour would within twelve years after, do contrary to his own Act, especially in his last Will and Te­stament, wherein he would rather have testified his Religious affection, and love to the Church, by an Addition of some other gift, then leave so eternal a blemish upon his Name.

Of Inconstancy,

Of Injustice.

Of Impietie.

Of Sacriledge.

And of making his own children inheritors of that which he knew was neither his to give: Nor which they, without open Injustice, Impiety, and Sacriledge, might accept, hold, or possesse.

2. The second reason is, the perpetual posses­sion and dominion, which the Emperours had of Rome and of Italy, with the Government there­of; which Continued still in them. Nor onely after Constantines time, but even while he lived, until it was unjusty taken from them.

First by Popes, and then confirmed by Pipin, by Charles the Great, and by others.

3. The third proof, that Constantine made no such Donation, is the Testimonie of their own Writers.

Whereof, though it were easie to produce a long Catalogue, yet we heer cite but a few.

4. The first is Bishop Canus, who thus writes. Eusebius, Ruffinus, Theodoret, Socrates, Sozomen, Eutropius, Victor, and other Authors of good credit, who have most diligently written all the Acts of Constantine, not onely do make men­tion of this Donation; But further they declare, That he so divided the Roman Empire among his three Sons. Ʋt Italia uni corum tota contige­rit, That all Italy was allotted to one of them. So Canus.

5. And to him accords, one of their latter, and most earnest Defenders of the Popes Regalities, Alex. Carerius, who thus saith, of this Donation of Constantine, Compertum est. It is certain, That nothing is read in any approved Historian; speci­ally in those who writ in that, or in the next age. Eusebius doth not mention it,

Nor Hierom,

Nor Augustine,

Nor Ambrose,

Nor Basil,

Nor Chrysostom,

Nor Ammianus,

Nor the Tripartite Historie,

Nor Damasus,

Nor Bede,

Nor Orosius. So Carerius.

The Charter, or Edict of Constantines Donation, is a base, and improbable Fiction.

1. ALL that which is proved by Reformed Writers, of the supposed Leprosie, Perse­cution, and Baptism of Constantine, by Pope Sylvester, are undoubted Demonstrations of the Forgerie of this Edict of Donation.

2. For in the Charter are all these, Not onely related as certain truths, but they are made the very ground and occasion why Constantine made this Charter.

3. Seeing then there is neither truth nor rea­lity [Page 133]in the foundation; Certainly there is no truth at all in the Charter it self.

4. But leaving these we will propose a few other Considerations in this Cause.

1. In this Edict is mentioned the See of Con­stantinople, as one of the Patriarchal Sees. Where­as, neither it had Patriarchal Dignitie, before the Second General Council, (that is more then fiftie years after the Donation is supposed to be made) Nor was there at that time so much as the name of Constantinople: For this City was then called Byzantium. And divers years after, when Constantine had much enlarged it, and made it, as Socrates saith, Parem, & aequalem Romae, equal to Rome, choosing it for the Imperial Seat.

It was then first called by his Name Constanti­nople. And this was done, as Baronius himself acknowledgeth, a little after the Nicene Council was ended.

But as Sigonius more truely teacheth, five years after that Nicene Council, when Gallicanus and Symachus were Consuls.

So very stupid was the forgerer, that to gain to the Pope, & to the See of Rome principality over Constantinople, he makes Constantine write of that City which was not; no nor the name of it so much as extant in the World at that time.

2. Had Constantine given principality to the Roman See, above all Churches in the World, as the Charter saith he did, What folly was it in John, Bishop of Constantinople, in Cyriacus, and [Page 134]in others, to strive for that Preheminence? What meant Boniface the third, that he would never shew this Charter, and grant of principalitie made by Constantine.

Why did he use so much intreaty and means to Phocas a murtherer, that the Church of Rome might be called the first of all Churches; when the same was long, almost 300. years before gi­ven by a fair Charter to the Roman See, by Con­stantine so Worthy, and Renowned an Empe­rour.

3. In this Edict Constantine is made solemnly to give unto Pope Sylvester the Lateran Palace; whereas, not only Sigonius witnesseth that this was given long before to Pope Meltiades: Augu­stale Palatium in Laterano impertiit; Constantine gave to Meltiades the Lateran Palace: but Baro­nius and Binnius avouch the same for a certainty, and say, that no wise body will doubt thereof.

Those Augustissimae Lateranenses Aedes, say they, That most princely Palace of the Lateran was given by the same Constantine to Pope Mil­tiades, the Predecessor of Sylvester, and to his Successors; and that in the Seventh year of Con­stantine, which was twelve years before he was either Baptized, or made this Charter of Do­nation.

Is not this now a piece of great munificence in the Emperour, to give that, which it is not his own to give; or to give that to Sylvester, which many years before that gift was Sylvesters own, and his Successours for ever.

4. To the above said considerations, let us add the Testimony of their great Cardinal Baronius, to whom accords Gretser, who hath written an Apologie for him in this very point. He by many Reasons, and at large, proves the Edict to be Commentitium, prorsusque falsum, A meer Fig­ment, and Forgerie. And as Gretser saith, Com­mentis accensendum docuit. He hath taught, that it is a Counterfeit. One Reason is, That this Edict was not in the Ancient Acts of Sylvester, but was by forgerie inserted into them.

The time when this was done, he defines to have been after the 1000 year of Christ. The Parties by whom this forged Edict was made, and published, he also declares. It was fained by some Grecian, under the name of Eusebius, and set forth by Theodorus Balsamon: whereas a nullo Graecorum hactenus in lucem editum, until then no Grecian had published it. And from the Greci­ans it came to the Latins and Western Church. Leo the 9. being the first Pope, who makes men­tion thereof. Thus the Cardinal.

By whose acknowledgment it may be seen, what truth there is in the Popes; specially in Pope Leo, who in his Decretal Epistle, most so­lemnly commends this Edict, for an Ancient, and undoubted Evidence. Such as he knew by sight, and sense to be the true deed of Constantine. Which yet their great Cardinal after long sifting of Monuments, and Records, testifieth to be a Forgerie; and that of the Grecians. First of [Page 136]all devised, as he saith about 700. years, and published 800. years after the Death of Con­stantine.

Fraud. Of the Fraud, and Imposture of the Popes, and of the Church of Rome, in regard of pretended Revelations, both by Dreams, and by Extraordinary Visions, and Ap­paritions of the Dead.

1. THe Pope, and the Church of Rome make use of these pretended Revelations, to lead the poor People by the Nose, and to make him believe some Doctrines which the word of God doth condemn.

2. So was it said, that some were Appeared, who had said, That to come out of Purgatory, such and such things were to be done: so Sing Masses, and by some certain kind of persons, that by such forged Impostures, the Fable of Purgatory should be established.

3. Likewise was it said, that some were Ap­peared, who said, That they had seen some Tor­mented in Hell Fire, who told them, That they were there for sundry Sinnes, but particularly, for having Stolne a Chalice from the Convent of the Benedictine Monks.

4. Others who being Tormented, did say, That it was because they had Taken and Appro­priated to themselves some Possessions belonging to the Church.

5. Besides others said, That some certain Priests godly persons, singing Masse, did see an Angel which did accompany them.

6. In the Times of the deepest ignorance, there was nothing more common then the speech of such Visions, and Apparitions, either Imagina­ries, and Phantastical, or proceeding from the Devil, to abuse the poor people, and to esta­blish his False Doctrine.

Fraud. It is a Fraud, and a meere Cavillation, for the Refutation of the Falshood of a Religion, and also for the Proofe of the Truth of a Religion, to demand only Formal Places of Holy Scripture contained word by word in it. Which Fraud and Cavillation is used by many Doctors of the Church of Rome disputing with the Reformed, but wrongfully.

BEcause, if all that which is not opposed by Formal Texts, cannot be said to be grounded in the Word of God. Then there are none so abominable Heresies, nor any so monstrous opi­nion, which may not boast, although wrongfully, to have the word of God for its Ground. So for Example.

1. The Heretick Arrians could say, That they were grounded upon the Word of God, because there is no passage, which formally saith, That the Son is consubstantial to the Father; and that it is not a Created God.

2. The Nestoreans also could say, That they were grounded upon the Word of God, because there is no formal place which saies, That in Jesus Christ there are not two Persons.

3. So much could say the Eutichians, For there are no places which formally saies, That the two Natures of Christ be not confused: and that the Human Nature hath not swallowed up by the Divine Nature.

4. Likewise the Jews, who reject Jesus Christ, with a prodigious obstinacie, could say, That they were grounded upon the Word of God, because that in Moses, and in all the Prophets, there is not any place which saith formally, That Jesus, the Son of Mary, born in Bethlehem, under the Empire of Caesar Augustus, is the Messias.

5. In a word, the Religion of the Mahometans could be said to be grounded upon the Word of God; For there is no Text in the Bible, which saith that Mahomet is a false Prophet, and that his Religion is impious, and abominable; and that the Paradise which God promiseth to his children, is not a carnal Paradise.

§ The necessarie consequences that are drawn out of the Scriptures, are as valuable to prove the falshood of a Belief, as the formal Texts are: as also to prove the Truth of a Belief.

ANd so whensoever we are to confirm the Truth, and to confute Errors, and Untruths, [Page 139]it is lawful to make use of two kind of Argu­ments drawn out of the Canonical Books of Scri­pture; Namely, 1. of those who expressely, and as in as many words are drawn out of the Holy Scriptures. Secondly, of those which are drawn out of them by good, and lawfull Consequence.

1. Certainly those that would reject Conse­quences drawn out of the Reason of Holy Scri­ptures, should condemn Jesus Christ, who made use of Consequences, to prove the Resurrection against the Sadducees.

For after he had produced the place of Moses, Exod. 3.6. where God calleth himself the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. He inferres by a good Consequence for proofe of the Resurrection, God is not the God of the Dead, but of the Living.

2. Truely, whosoever is against the drawing out of any Consequence, doth abolish all the common sense, and all use of Reason, which con­sists onely in that.

3. We acknowledge, That Faith proceeds a­nother way, then Humane Sciences do, for Faith drawes all her Proofs from the Divine Au­thority: but as the most famous School-men do observe the Sacred Divinity is Argumentative, that is to say, That it doth not abolish, but on the contrary makes more Noble the use of Argumen­tation, and Discourse.

We allow besides, That the Rules of Legick are not Articles of Faith: But notwithstanding, [Page 140]we say, that they are Tools, and Instruments; to handle all knowledge with order, and certainty. And Consequently the Theological Matters.

Fraud. This is a Fraud of some Jesuites, that in Dispu­tations concerning Religion, they will ever Question, and never Answer.

1. FOr it belongs to him that Affirmeth a Thing to prove it; otherwise one might Affirm all things impudently.

2. According to this Rule, It belongeth then unto those who maintain, That every day Christ is to be offered in a Propitiatory Sacrifice, who maintain The Prayers unto the Dead, to Justifie their Belief by the Word of God; And to make us see, That it hath been written, and set down in clear and formal words, or that it is drawn from it by a Necessary Consequence.

This is another of the Frauds of the Church of Rome.

  • 1. That the taking away of the Cup from the Sacrament of the Lords Supper.
  • 2. Forbidding Marriage to Priests.
  • 3. And Divine Service being in an unknown Tongue to the People, are onely grounded upon worldly Interest.

1. This is true in Regard of the taking away the Cup from the Communion.

COncerning the taking away the Cup from the Sacrament, This is the language of the Doctors of the Church of Rome, That if it were possible to grant to the people the use of the Cup, without doing any wrong to the Faith, it should be a thing of small importance: but that could not be, because by the grant of the said use of the Cup, a gate should be opened to require, that all the Ordinances which are of positive right, should be broken. And yet, say they, They are they by which alone the Prero­gative, given by Christ to the Curch of Rome is conserved.

2. This is true in regard of the Prohibition of Marriage to Clergie Men.

FOr, say the said Doctors, from the Marriage of Clergie men, if it were granted, it should hap­pen, that they having a Family, Wives and Chil­dren, should no more depend from the Pope, but from their natural Prince; and their assecrions to­wards their issue, would make them agree to all things wrongful unto the Church, that they should indeavour to render Livings Hereditarie: And in a short time the Holy Sea [...] should [...] [Page 142]in the onely City of Rome. That before the Coeliba, or Single Life had been decreed.

The Roman See drew no thing at all from other Towns, and Countries: but by it was be­come Master of such a great number of Benefits: Of whom by the Marriage of Clergie men, it should be deprived in a short time.

3. This is true in regard of Divine Service in a Tongue unknown to the people.

FOr, say the said Doctors, from the use of the vulgar Tongue in the Celebration of Divine Service, it should follow, that every one should esteem themselves Divines. That the Prelates Authoritie should be vilified, and that Heresie should creep in All.

Of a most considerable Contradiction of the Prin­cipal Doctors of the Church of Rome, in regard of their Doctrine, That the Kingdom of Heaven, And Eternal Life, is due as a Debt to our good works.


WE Reformed do Teach, That he that sin­neth hath deserved death worthily, in respect of the sin committed, which is a Trans­gression of Gods will, and Commandement. And for which, without Remission, there is no hope to Escape eternal Condemnation.


But can he that worketh well, for one, or two, or for more good Works, claim unto himself, as a due Debt, the Kingdome of Heaven for the same.


The Reformed Doctors do deny it, for many strong Reasons.


The Popish Doctors in the Schooles, and in handling Controversies of Religion, that are be­tween the Reformed, and the Church of Rome do openly affirm it, maintaining, that the King­dome of Heaven and Eternal Life is due as a due Debt, to our good works.


1. But howsoever it is now for a Fashion with great Countenance, and vehement Disputation, avouched by some Doctors of the Roman Church that we merit Heaven by our good works.

2. Yet we are perswaded that no Adversary of Conscience can otherwise think or dare in peril of Death otherwise say, but that he hath deserved for his sinnes punishment, and death everlasting; and cannot avoid the same if God will render to his works the reward that of due belongeth unto them.

3. And therefore casting away all trust in his works, will ask pardon, and mercy, not claim any debt, or due reward of the Lord.

4. So though in their life time many of such [Page 144]Doctors be obstinately bent, and have in their mouth nothing so much as good works, Merits, Reward, Due, Debt, Recompence for their well doing. Yet the time drawing neer, when they must hold up their Hands at the Bar of the Lords Judgment Seat, and there must make answer for themselves, and their works must be tried by the Law of God. They give over their former con­fidence, They have no joy in themselves, yea they distrust their own works, They tremble and quake inwardly, They are in fearful heavinesse, and perplexity of mind, They know not whither to turn themselves.

5. And if God give such grace unto them, that they see, and forsake their Error of deser­ving Heaven, then they confesse they are sinners, and therefore guilty of Death.

6. And then learn that Lesson in their end, which afore in their life time they would not understand.

The Burden of Ceremonies which are now laid upon the Members of the Roman Church, Is an Intolerable Burden.


1. SOme of the Fathers, after the 300 years, that they might more easily draw the Gentiles to Christianism, did Tolerate, and Ad­mit, with an alteration of the end, and manner, some Ceremonies of the Gentiles in Chiristian Religion.

2. Wherein no doubt their intention was godly, to wit. 1. To use their Christian liber­tie in matters Adiaphorous, and not Morallie evil, according to the Apostles rule, Tit. 1. v. 15. Ʋnto the pure, all things are pure, Rom. 14. v. 14. There is nothing unclean of it self, but to him that esteemeth any thing to be unclean, to him it is so.

2. And to amove a present offence and oc­casion which hindred Gentiles from receiving the Christian faith; to wit, the difference of outward Ceremonies and Customes.


But in succeeding Ages when the Gentiles were converted, and when the Church needed not further to accommodate it self to the weak­ness of the Heathen; And that things at first ad­mitted by way of toleration, should rather have now been removed and worn out.

Superstitious persons contrary to this, make daily addition and increase, borrowing more and more from the superstition of Jews and of Gen­tiles, until at length they overwhelmed Christia­nity with an intolerable burthen of ceremonies.


1. Making the easie yoak of Christs Gospel heavier then the state of Jews and of Gentiles.

2. And by this means they obscured Gods truth, and only made people ceremonious, where­as they should have been made pious.

Of the false Worship of the Church of Rome.

1. IN the Church of Rome there is a Religious worship, and the devotion of many mem­bers of the same doth eat up their time and their estates too.

2. But the Divine worship of the Church of Rome is not a true, but a false worship.

3. For the Papists devotion is not emploied and exercised in the true worship of God accor­ding to his word, but according to mans will and invention.

4. That is to say, in praying to Saints,

In worshipping Images,

In suffrages for the dead,

In seeing Masses,

And adoring the Hoste,

And telling out a set number of Pater Nosters and of Ave Maries upon hallowed Beads,

In making superstitious Vows,

And going to Pilgrimage,

And abstaining from certain Meats,

And wearing Hair-cloth,

And whipping themselves,

And creeping on all four to a Crucifix, and the like.

5. Of all which, we demand as God doth of the Jews by the Prophet Fsay, chap. 1. v. 12. Who required these things?

The Church of Rome is guilty of abominable Idolatry: And in what it doth consist.

1. VVHatsoever Church attributeth Divine honour to a creature is guilty of abo­minable Idolatry. But the Church of Rome at­tributeth Divine honour to divers creatures, as appeareth in the instances following.

1. Do they not devote themselves, dedicate Temples, consecrate Altars, appoint Offices, make daily Prayers, vow Pilgrimages, and pre­sent Offerings to the blessed Virgin, and do all such outward Acts as properly appertain to La­tria? Is not this to equalize her with her Son? The same is also true in regard of the other Saints.

2. Do they not make an Idol of the Cross of Christ, when they profess that they worship it Cultu Latriae?

Gretser the Jesuit in his Book of the Cross saith, we affirm according to the more common and received opinion in the Schools, That the Cross of Christ is to be worshipped with Latry, that is Divine worship.

3. Do they not make an Idol of the Sacra­mental bread, or the Host, as they call it? to which they pray and confess; before which they fall down when it is carried in solemn Procession on Corpus Christi day.

4. Lastly, do they not make Idols of their Images, [Page 148]and of the Relicks of Saints, before which they burn Incense, and bow down when they pray, directing their prayers towards them, and fa­stening their eyes on them?

2. This Conclusion then justly, and Rightly follows, That the Church of Rome is guilty of A­bominable Idolatry.

The Church of Rome is guilty of Idolatry.

IN six things the Church of Rome doth commit Idolatry.

1. In worshipping the Host which the Priest holds, and calling God that which is not God.

2. In attributing to Saints the honour which belongeth onely to God.

  • 1. Praying to them.
  • 2. Calling them Mediators.
  • 3. Asking salvation of God by their merits.
  • 4. Believing that they know the hearts and thoughts of men.

3. Particularly in calling the Virgin Mary In­ventrix of Grace.

The Queen of Heaven,

The Lady of the World.

For Kingdome, and Empire over all creatures, belongeth onely to God.

4. In the adoration and worship of Images.

5. In the adoration of the Cross.

6. In the adoration and worship of Bones, of Rags, and other relicks of the dead.

• 1. The Papists do commit many things which the Heathen Idolaters did do, and so are like unto them in those regards. , and • 2. In particular, they put the Saints in the place of the Gods and Goddesses of the Pagans. 

THough we forbear to fasten the name of Heathenish Idolaters upon Papists, yet sure­ly they do the same things as they did.

1. The Heathen carried their Gods of Gold and Silver upon their shoulders, Baruch 6.4. So do the Papists bear out their images and relicks, inclosed in chasses of gold and silver in their so­lemn Processions on high dayes.

2. The Heathen decked their images as if they were men and women, with apparel; and who knoweth not that Papists put costly apparel on their images? Almost every Saint among them hath his Holy-day and his Working-day suit.

3. The Heathen lighted Candles before their images, though the image seeth not one of them: And do not the Papists set Tapers before theirs?

4. The faces of the Heathen Idols were bla­cked with smoak, Baruch v. 11. So are the Pa­pists Images with the fume of the incense they burn to them.

5. The Heathen spake to their Idols as if they [Page 150]were able to understand them, Baruch v. 41. So do the Papists to the wood of the Cross, saying, Ave lignum spes unica.

6. The Heathenish Priests beards and heads were shaven, Baruch v. 31. And so are our Popish Priests Crownes.

7. The Heathens about the Calends of February visited all their Temples with Lights. A like Ce­remony the Papists use at Candlemasse.

8. The Heathen commended every City and Village, to the protection of some god, or god­desse. Juno was Lady Guardian of Carthage, Ve­nus of Cyprus, Diana of Ephesus, Pallas of Athens, &c.

And have not our Papists likewise multiplyed their Saints according to the number of their Ci­ties. And do they not share the Patronages of them between them?

Doth not Venice fall to S. Marks Lot?

Paris to S. Genouiefs?

Spain to S. James?

France to S. Dennis?

Scotland to Andrews?

Ireland to S. Patricks?

England to S. Georges?

9. The Heathen assigned several offices to seve­ral Gods;

Calling upon Ceres for Corn,

Upon Bacchus for Wine,

Upon Aesculapius for Health,

Upon Mercury for Wealth,

Upon Apollo for Wisdome, &c.

In like manner the Papists address themselves to particular Saints upon particular and special occasions.

To St. Genovief for Rain,

To St. Marceau for fair weather,

To St. Michael in Battle,

To St. Nicholas in a Sea Tempest,

To St. Eustace in Hunting,

To St. Roch and Sebastian for remedies against the Plague,

To St. Raphael against Catarrhs,

To St. Apollonia against the Tooth-ache,

To St. Anthony against Inflammations,

To St. Margaret for safe Delivery in Child-birth.

And to other Saints upon other occasions, as if God had granted a kind of monopolie to the several Commodities of this Life to several Saints.

10. Will you have yet more?

Hercules hath left his Club to St. Christo­pher.

Janus hath resigned up his Keyes to St. Peter.

Lucina hath resigned her Office of Midwife to St. Margaret.

The Muses have resigned their instruments of Musick to Cecilia.

And Jupiter Hamun hath resigned his Horns to Moses.

Concerning worshipping of Saints departed: thereupon the Church of Rome doth commit a great Idolatry.

1. VEneration and honour of Saints departed the Protestant Churches do maintain and practice.

1. We worthily esteem of their persons, and re­cognize their excellency and glory.

2. We give them honour by commemoration, and by imitation of their faith and vertues.

3. When they depart this life, we afford their bodies a decent Burial, Psalm 112. v. 6. Jos. 1. v. 2. Prov. 10. v. 7. John 8. v. 39. James 5. v. 10. Acts 8. v. 2.

4. And some of our learned Adversaries seem to require no other Veneration of Saints but this, Peres. de Tradit. p. 3.

2. But the Jesuits maintain the adoration of Saints departed with sacred and Religious wor­ship.

  • 1. Erecting Altars,
  • 2. Building Temples,
  • 3. Placing their Images in Churches to be ado­red.
  • 4. Inclosing their relicks in Caskets, and propo­sing them to be worshipped.
  • 5. Offering up Masses in the honour of them,
  • 6. And worshipping them by Church service, and by Canonical hours.

3. And they teach that the adoration belong­ing to them is after a sort divine, approaching so near to divine worship, as that it is exercised by the same materials and sacred rites.

4. We acknowledge then on both parts that Saints are to be honoured. We differ in the man­ner. To wit, whether they be to be honoured with adoration, or such a kind of worship as is in a manner divine, or with sacred rites apper­taining to Gods religion, and above rehearsed.

5. St. Hierom is so far from the practise here­of, that he affirmeth, we do not worship and a­dore the relicks of Saints, nor the Sun, Moon, Archangels, or any other name spoken of in this World, or in the next; but we honour the re­licks of Martyrs, and adore him whose Martyrs they be. And against Vigilantius, who at any time adored Martyrs.

6. And with him consent the faithful Christi­ans of the Primitive Church, who being tradu­ced of superstition for adoring Martyrs deceased, affirm, that they adored Christ Jesus onely, and exhibited no more to martyrs, but the honour of love, Euseb. Histor. Eccles. lib. 4. cap. 15.

7. Some of our Adversaries would patronise the Popish superstition of worshipping of Saints departed, with the sentence of Hierom, saying, That he honoureth Paula deceased, Cultoris tui, that is to say, that worshippeth thee. But to them we answer, That every honour and wor­ship is not such as Papists require; and therefore [Page 154]to reason from honour in general to a certain kind thereof, is to mock the Readers.

Fraud. This is a great Fraud and Imposture of the Church of Rome, that the members of it do not one­ly worship Saints against the word of God; but besides, worship Imagi­nary Saints, which never were in the World.

AS one St. Longis, who pierced, as it is said, our Saviours side. As one St. Martial, St. Peters Cozen, who as it is said did serve at the Table when Jesus Christ did administer the holy Sacrament. And also that he had in the time of the Gotes, driven Paganism out of the Gaules, when there were no Gotes in the Gauls. As likewise one Saint Ʋrsula, which is said to have been daughter of a King of England, Captain of an Army of twelve thousand Virgins, when there was no King in England. Item, one St. Katherine, which is said to have been the daugh­ter of Castor King of Alexandria. And in the time of the Emperour Maxentius to have con­verted the Queen Faustina, and fifty Philoso­phers.

All the above-said Saints were here indeed in the World, as easie it may be proved; and whose life by Baronius confession in his Martyro­logie [Page 155]is full of Fables. Not one good ancient Author that hath lived five hundred years after the time in which these imaginary Saints are set up, doth speak of these Saints, and yet prayers are made unto them: It is the same of St. Mar­garite, of which it is said that the Devil did swallow her, who also bursted by that, which is a kind of Child-birth; from whence is the cu­stome to read her Legend to the women that are delivered.

The adoration of the Virgin Mary is unlawful: Thereupon the Church of Rome doth com­mit a great Idolatry.

1. VVE say with Epiphanius, Let Mary have honour, and let the Lord our God be adored.

2. But the Papists instead of honour, exhibite errour to the blessed Virgin, as the same Father speaketh, and their manner of worshipping her according to the said Father, is Heresie and do­tage.

3. For some part of that worship which Pa­pists give to the Virgin Mary, are the actions of Divine adoration.

Namely Invocation, Rom. 10. v. 14.

Vows, Psalm 50. v. 14.

Oaths, Deut. 6. v. 13.

And yet Tursellin the Jesuit commendeth Paul an Hermit, and saith, He adored God and his mother.

4. Epiphanius had another Belief; for by ma­ny of his Speeches he condemneth in general all Religious Adorations of the Virgin Mary: Although, saith he, Epiphan. Haeref. 72. in fine v. 79. she is glo­rious, holy, and honourable, yet she is not ap­pointed to be Adored. Again, the Lord in the Gospel speaketh to the Virgin his Mother, What have I to do with thee woman? In which Speech, to the end that none should think her over ex­cellent, he calleth her woman; Prophesying as it were aforehand of the Heresies which should arise; And premonishing that none in admira­tion of her Sanctity, should fall into this Heresie of Adoration.

5. Of which doting Heresie of Adoration of the Virgin, the Papists are guilty in a high degree. For in the Countries subject to the See of Rome, all men and women, wheresoever they are, in the City, or in the Field, thrice a day, when the Ave Mary Bell rings, send up their united devotions to her; and where one professeth himself a de­vote to our Saviour, whole Towns devote them­selves to her; where one prayeth at a Crucifix, ten pray at her Image; where one fasteth on Friday, which they account our Lords day, Ma­ny fast on Saturday, which they count our La­daies day.

To conclude, they conclude all their prayers with an Ave Maria, As we do with our Lords Prayer; and most of their Treatises with Laus Deiparae Virgini, Praise be to the Virgin Mother [Page 157]of God: And in the Psalter called Bonaventures, they have Intituled all the 150. Psalms of David to her, and where he saith Lord, they put Lady.

Touching Adoration of Relicks: It is Idolatry the Church of Rome is very much guilty thereof: What office is to be rendred to the Bodies of those that are deceased, by those that are alive: It is not to worship them, but to bury them.

1. THis the Protestants reproves concerning Relicks of Saints.

1. Such Adoration of Relicks as S. Hierome him­self, and S. Augustine condemned.

2. The attributing of Supernatural Effects to Mo­numents and Relicks, which they have not by any ordinance of God.

3. To place confidence and merit in these things without any divine authority, and to cause people to gad, and wander to this or that place, that they may receive benefit by them.

4. We most of all condemn the Impostures, and covetousnesse of the Romanists, who in stead of true Reliks brought in counterfeits; The Lance is found wherewith Christs side was pierced; A Brazen Serpent made of the same Brass which Moses his Serpent was, at Milan in S. Ambrose his Church, Tunica Inconsutilis Domini nostri, &c.

5. And consequently for filthy lucre bartered and made Portsale of these Relicks, abusing herein the Ignorance and Superstition of fond people.

2. And on the side, the said Protestants de­clare, That the office which is to be rendred to the Bodies of Saints Deceased by those that are alive, is not to Worship them, but to bury them. In that regard Eusebius writeth thus concerning Polycarp; After we had gathered his Bones, being more precious than Pearls, and Gold, we buried them where it was fit.

Of Miracles wrought by Dead Bones and Car­casses of Saints.

1. VVHen it pleaseth the Lord to shew his Power and to work Miracles in any place, or by any means, as seemeth Good unto himself, we admire his power, and praise his goodness.

2. And we are not Ignorant how God hath used dead bones as an Instrument of Life, 2 King. 13. v. 21.

3. And concerning these things Bishop Jewel hath written in this manner, Reply Art. 1. p. 39. Almighty God, for the Testimony of his Do­ctrine, and Truth, hath oftentimes wrought great Miracles, even by the dead carkasses of his Saints, In witness that they had been his Messengers, and the Instruments of his Will. But as they were godly Inducements at the first to lead people un­to the Truth, So afterwards they became snares to lead the same People into Errors.

We Protestants must not frequent Exercises of Po­pish Worship, nor assist to the Mass.

1. VVE cannot be present there, but either we must give great offence, or commit a Greater.

2. Give great offence if we do not as the Pa­pists do, and joyn not with them, in Censing Images, bowing before them, offering unto them, and kissing: In calling upon Saints; and pray­ing for the releasing of Souls out of Purgatory.

3. Or commit a greater if we joyn with them in their superstitious Rites, and Idolatries. In so doing we give greater offence to the Church of God. And not onely receive a mark from the Beast, but a grievous Wound.

4. Constantine the Emperour thought himself defiled if he had but seen an Heathenish Altar; Ambros. Epist. 31. David, if he had but made mention of an Idol, Psal. 16. v. 4. Their Offerings of Blood I will not offer, nor take their names into my mouth.

5. The Corinthians might not be partakers of such meats as were offered to Idols; May we be partakers of such Prayers as are offered unto them? It was unlawful for them to fit at the same Table with Idolaters when they kept their Solemn Feasts; Can it be lawful for us to stand at the same Altar with them?

6. Let us think again and again upon those [Page 160]fearful menaces Apoc. 14. v. 9. If any man wor­ship the Beast, and his Image, and receive the mark in his forehead, or in his hand, the same shall drink of the Wine of the Wrath of God; and he shall be tormented in fire and brimstone before the holy An­gels, and before the Lamb: And the smoake of their torments shall ascend for ever: And they shall have no rest, day nor night, which worship the Beast, and his Image, and whosoever receiveth the Print of his Name.

7. We have not received any print of the Beast, we are free from the least suspition of Fa­miliarity with the Whore of Babylon; we have kept our selves unspotted of Popery: Therefore as we tender not onely our Honour and Reputa­tion, but chiefly the salvation of our Bodies and Souls, let us keep our selves still from Idols: Let us be zealous for Gods honour, and he will be zealous for our safety; Let us abstain from all appearance of that evil which the Spirit of God ranketh with Sorcery and Witchcraft.

As the Church of Rome became corrupted by De­grees, in Regard of the Doctrine of Faith, since the Apostles Times, So did she in regard of Man­ners.

1. This is True in regard of the Pope her Head.

1. THe Common Opinion which Men did con­ceive of the Time in which Gregory the Great lived, was, that Gregory the Great was the [Page 161]last good and the first ill Bishop of Rome.

2. He was no better then should be.

3. And all the other Bishops that suceeded him were stark nought. Every one striving to goe beyond his Predecessor in all leudnesse.

4. So that now a Sink of all wickednesse hath hath violently burst into the Church.

2. This is true in respect of the Popish Clergy, and in respect of other Members of the said Roman Church.

1. A Sink of all wickednesse doth now possesse all the Parts of the Roman Church.

2. The Adversaries do force us Reformed to open the Sores of their Church which we had rather not touch; But they are so unreasonable that they neither spared us, nor themselves.

1. Bernard who was the onely Religious Man the Church of Rome had for many years.

How often, and how grievously doth he be­waile the most desperate Estate of the Roman Church. In Cant. Serm. 33. De Conver­sione Pauli; Thus he writeth. A shameful Con­tagion spreadeth spreadeth over the Body of the wicked Church: The Servants of Christ serve Antichrist; from the Sole of the Foot to the Crown of the Head nothing is sound. With these and the like Speeches used Bernard to be­waile, and complain of the Intolerable wicked­nesse [Page 162]of the Church of Rome, which he would never have done without sufficient Reason mo­ving thereunto.

2. Aeneas Sylvius, afterward Pope, writeth that Charitie was waxed cold, and Faith utter­ly gone. And what manner of Church shall we judge this to have been when she had lost both Faith, and Charity.

3. What shall we further Recite? Petrarch, Mantuan, and other Poets, both Learned, and Famous, which feared not with Satyrical Verses to Inveigh against the Pope, and against the Cardinals, and against the whole Clergy.

4. All things were then so out of order, that all sins might without controlement, both be practised, and openly blamed.

3. This is true in regard of the Popes Court.

ST. Bernard doth not fear to describe it, Ad Eu­genium Papam, Lib. 4. In these words, a­mongst these, You Eugenius being their Pastor, walk decked with much Pretious Apparel: If I durst speak it, These are rather Pastors for De­vils, then for Christs sheep. Your Court usually receiveth good Men, but maketh few good; there the wicked are not made better, but the good far worse: A number of such places could we alledge out of him.

Of the great and scandalous Incontinency of the Roman Clergie, by reason of their Single Life.

1. THere was never generally, or in regard of the greater number, any true Chastity in the Popish Clergy. And ever since the Law of Sin­gle Life was obtruded, Whoredome and Baude­ry so shamefully distained them, that they be­came a by word to the Christian world.

2. Bernard complaineth in this sort, If accor­ding to Ezekiel his Prophesie, we dig through the wall, we shall find in the house of God an horrible abomination. For after, and besides fornication, Adultery, and Incest, the very passions of Ignominy, and works of filthiness, Rom. 1.27. are not want­ing, for which the Cities of Sodom, and Gomorrha, the very nurses of filthinesse were predamned: Some of the Priests of the Church are besprin­kled with the lothesome and mattery filth of this uncleannesse, and abstaining from the remedy of Wedlock, they brake out into all flagitious wickednesse.

3. Aventine in the Story of Pope Gregory the 7. the Author of this compelled Eunuchisme, speak­eth in this manner, And thou O vigilant Gregory, what wouldest thou have done, if fortune had re­served thee until our daies; In which to dally with women, to whore, to drink, to ravish and deflowre Virgins, to adulterate Wives, is become the principal study of Priests. In so much that [Page 164] Cauda salax Sacrificulorum in proverbium abiit.

4. Whereas the Papists in specious words re­jected Wedlock in their Clergie, yet indeed they did practise and admit it.

For although their Bishops and Priests kept no Women under the Title of Wives, yet they ge­nerally maintained Lemans, and Concubines, which were an inferiour kinde of Wives.

5. The Gloss upon the Legate Otho con­tains these words, If a Priest keep his Concu­bine privately within his own or his friends house, he incurreth not the penalty of this Constitution. Peter Ravennas, and Michael Lochmaine living about the Year 1490. report, That many Clerks in their dayes kept Concubines as their Wives, and brought up Children. And Clemanger, The Priests being at a Fee with the Prelates, do commonly and openly keep their Concubines.

6. That which we have said of Bishops and Priests, is also true in regard of the Popes.

For, Onuphrius saith in the Life of Pope Alex­ander the VI. That if this Pope at any time were not oppressed with business, he devoted himself to all sorts of pleasure without respect; Being especially addicted to Women; of which he begate four Sons and Daughters. The chief of his Lemmans was Vannocia a Roman, which by reason of her Beauty, and amorous Dalliance, and marvellous fruitful­ness in his meaner Fortunes, he detained in a man­ner as a lawful Wife.

Pope Hildebrand the Father of the General [Page 165]Decree of single Life in the Clergie, was report­ed to have lulled night and day, without any shame in the Armes and Embracings of the great Coun­tess Maud. And that she being surprized with the stolne Dalliance of this Pope, regarded not se­cond Marriage after the death of her first Husband. Read Antonine reporting the like of Pope Cle­ment the fift.

Nay Pope Leo the tenth was defamed for So­domitical filthiness with his Pages and Chamber­lains, saith Joacus a Romish Bishop.

In what Regard the Names of Catholiques is given to the Members of the Church of Rome by some of the Reformed.

1. THe Papists ought not to Triumph much for the Name of Catholiques which is given them by some of the Reformed.

2. For their Meaning is to give it them no otherwise then usually the Name of Man is given to one Deadly sick, or in whose Body there is no­thing but skin and bone.

3. He is a Catholique, not who followeth the Popish Apostasie, but that professeth the Do­ctrine of Christ.

God from Time to Time hath raised Godly Men, that have cryed against the Errors of the Ro­man Religion, and Church, and have Disco­vered them.

1. COncerning the Errors and Idolatries of the Roman Church, when they Established themselves, and chiefly when Endeavour was made to make them pass in Form of Law, and to oblige to the reception of them as of Articles of Faith, God did raise many godly Men who couragiously did oppose themselves to that.

2. Thereupon let the Catalogue of the wit­ness of Truth composed by Flaccus Illyricus be read, and the Mysterie of Iniquity, or the History of Papacy, written by the most Famous and Learn­ed Philip de Mornay.

3, And not onely from among those who openly have shaken off the Popes Yoke; but moreover even among those that are remaining in his Outward Communion; God hath given the Grace to Acknowledge, and to some of them even to Deplore, and Detest publiquely great Number of Abuses, and Corruptions that are in the Church of Rome.

Concerning the Greek Churches.


1. THe Greek Church could never yet be brought to joyn it self to the Church of Rome, and it is as opposite to Her, as ever the Reformed Church was.

Exception of the Jesuites.

1. THis is very false, say the Jesuites, for in the Florentine Council the Emperour Paleo­lus, together with the Grecians and Armenians, freely acknowledged the Pope to be the Vicar of Christ, and embraced the Roman Faith.

2. Yea, and at this day they dissent from us in few things, as Jeremy the Patriarch of Constan­tinople hath plainly written.

Answer of the Reformed to that Exception.

THe Reformed do answer to this Exception.

1. That if that be true, why are they then of the Papists accounted Schismaticks? Or why do they not Obey the Pope? Why came they not to the Council of Trent? The Pope by all means hath sought to have them subject to Him, but they still contemn him, to his no small grief.

2. It is true, the Emperour, the Patriarch, and a multitude of Bishops came to the Floren­tine [Page 168]Council, they agreed with them in many Things, in others they dissented, the Popish Transubstantiation they utterly renounced.

3. At that time Josephus their Patriarch sud­denly died; Eugenius the Pope instantly urged a new Election, they denied to make any, till they came to Constantinople.

4. Do not the Papists see how well they agree? We have a Book of Cyril Patriarch of Constan­tinople, in which is set down the Confession of their present Faith, whereby it appeareth ma­nifestly, that they are farre nearer to the Re­formed Churches in Beleif, then they are to the Roman.

1. The Turks are beholding to none more then to the Pope, for their Possession of Greece, and the Eastern Empire, which hath caused the Mise­rable Slavery of the Greek Churches.

1. IF, As our Saviour Christ saith, A Kingdome divided against it self cannot stand, then the breaking of the strength of the Empire, and weakning the power of the Christians, and con­sequently strengthning the Turks, must all be inputed to him, which did rent and divide the Roman Christian Empires, and of one Empire made two.

2. As long as the Province, and Dominions of the Empire were united, We were strong e­nough against the Turks.

3. But After Pope Leo the 10. divided the Empire, the Empire of Constantinople, which before had much adoe to resist the Turk, was now no longer able to sustain the Burthen, wanting the greatest part of the Empire.


O Christian Princes, and States, unite your selves, and consequently join your Forces toge­ther, to pluck off from that Infidell the Turk the Empire of Greece, and to join it with that of the West, that so both, as in Times past, make but one Empire.

THESIS. Of the Reformation of the Church in general.

1. VVHen the Church is infected with Errors in the Doctrine, or loaded with un­lawful Ceremonies, or Governed by an evil Ec­clesiastical Policie, the Reformation thereof is not permitted to the People without the con­sent of the Prince, and Soveraign Magistrate.

2. But such a Reformation is to be made by the Prince and Soveraign, as being a Right which belongeth unto him, and which belong­eth unto him by Divine and Humane Right.

3. Neither also is it lawful to a Minister of a particular Church to change at his will the Ce­remonies of his Church, but if they are not to be tolerated, he must with his Church make his [Page 170]Addresses to the Supream Magistrate to obtain from him the necessary Reformation of the same.

4. The Prince being to imploy himself about the Reformation of the Church when she hath need of a Reformation, ought to that effect to consult the Divines of his Countrey, the most Learned, the most Prudent, and the most Godly, and to convoke a National Synod composed of such Men.

5. It will be well done also by him to join unto his own Divines the Divines of other Re­formed Churches, that by that Means greater weight may be given to the Reformation which he will effect.

6. The Divines assembled must carefully seek out the Truth, and when they have found it, the Prince ought to ordain and injoin the obser­vation thereof.

7. The said National Synod, or Assembly of Divines, ought to extend the Reformation of the Church to four Heads, namely,

1. To the Doctrine concerning Faith.

2. To the Divine Worship, and Service.

3. To Ceremonies, and outward things.

4. To the Ecclesiastical Policy, and Govern­ment of the Church.

8. And in regard of the abovesaid four Heads, the said Synod or Assembly of Divines ought to Reform the Church according to the best Form of all.

9. Now a better Form of the Church cannot [Page 171]be conceived, nor found than that according to which Jesus Christ by himself, and by his A­postles did in the beginning establish, and con­firm the Church.

10. Which hath been the Form of the Church in the Times of Christ, and of his Apostles, we learn it clearly out of the Books of the Evange­lists, and of the Acts of the Apostles, and pro­bably out of the Writings of the Doctors of the Church who lived immediately after the death of the Apostles.

11. According to this Form the Church ought to be Reformed in regard of the above named four Heads, bringing them back to the first be­ginning, and to the first Springs; Thas is to say, to the first Antiquity.

12, If it happens that between some National Reformed Churches there be a difference in re­gard of Ceremonies, and outward things, agree­ing well together in regard of the Doctrine; for such a difference in Ceremonies the said Churches must not be enemies one to the others. But they ought to bear one another Charitably, and pro­fitably.

Of the 1. Reformators, Luther, Calvin, &c.

What Esteem the Protestants make of the last Re­formers, Luther, Calvin, and their Associates;

And how far it doth extend.

1. THe Protestants, especially we of the Church of England, acknowledge not any factious [Page 172]names of Lutherans, Zwinglians, or Calvinists, with which we are injuriously nick-named by our Adversaries.

As of old, good Orthodox Christians were called Cornelians and Cyrillians by the seditious followers of Novatus, and Nestorius; Phot. Cod. 280. in Excerptis Eulogii, ad finem Libri. Act. Conciliab. Ephes. in Epist. Legat. Schism. ad suos in Epheso. pag. 281. Edit. Bin. 1618.

2. With Pacianus we professe, Christian is our Name, and Catholick our Sur-name.

3. We esteem of Luther, Zwinglius, and Cal­vin, as worthy men, but we esteem them not worthy to be Lords, or Authours of our Faith, or to lead our understanding captive; both them­selves were far from affecting such Divine Ho­nour, and we far from bestowing it. We re­member who said of Christ, Hear him, not hear them.

4. And therefore, though these mens reasons may gain our Assent, their Testimony is at the best but probable; we believe not what they say, but what the prove.

5. Much lesse can we endure, being once ba­ptized in the name of Christ to be marked with the name of any man, as with a note of our ser­vitude. We disclaim the name of Calvinists, we owe no service, we have no dependance upon Calvin, nor upon any other man, as Doctor, or Master of our Faith.

6. We owe him and the rest of the first Re­formers [Page 173]many thanks for their painful labours, which shall remain of honourable account in all posterity: We cannot bless God sufficiently for such Instruments of his glory. Yet we do not Idolize their persons, or adore their Dictates and Opinions, as if they were Divine Oracles.

That Doctor who hath the command of our Conscience hath his Chair in Heaven; we love, and honour such persons as our Friends, yet so that we honour Truth, and love it above all Friendship.

Which Churches and Assemblies we comprehend Properly under the Appellation of Reformed Churches.

1. THey are the Churches which are entirely Reformed; of which by Gods Grace we are Members.

2. That is to say, those Churches who having the true Marks of the Church, have them also with all the Purity which is required, in regard of the Doctrine of Faith, and in regard of the Worship of God.

1. • 1. The Socinians. , • 2. The Anabaptists. , and • Are not comprehended by the Protestants under the Appellation of Reformed and True Chur­ches; Because in their Assemblies the very Notes of the True Church do not appear. 

1. FOr we do not comprehend under that Ap­pellation those Assemblies, who having for­saken [Page 174]Idolatry, Superstitions, and some Errors of the Roman Church, are fallen into others very great and most pernicious: Such are the Assem­blies of the Socinians, or the New Samosateni­ans: And such also are the Assemblies of the A­nabaptists: In which Assemblies the very Notes and Marks of the true Church do not appear.

The Reformed Religion is True and Orthodox.

1. THe Reformed Churches Faith is sound. That appears in their Belief of God the Father, Of his onely Son Jesus Christ, Of the Holy Ghost, Of the Church, Of the Sacraments. Of the Ministery, Of the Scriptures, Of Cere­monies. And of every part of Christian Belief.

2. They abandon and detest as plagues and poysons all those old Heresies which either the Sacred Scriptures or the Ancient Councils have utterly condemned.

3. They call home again, as much as in them lieth, the right Discipline of the Church, which our Adversaries have quite brought into a poor and weak case.

4. They punish all licentiousness of Life, and unruliness of Manners, by the Old and long con­tinued Laws. And with as much sharpness, as is convenient, and lieth in their power.

They maintain still the state of Kingdomes in the same Condition and State of Honour wherein [Page 175]they have found them, without any diminution or alteration: Reserving unto their Princes their Majesty and Worldly Preheminence safe, and without impairing, to their possible power.

6. They have so gotten themselves away from that Popish Church, which the Popes had made a Den of Thieves, and wherein nothing was in good frame, or like to the Church of God, as Lot in times past gat him out of Sodome, or Abra­ham out of Chalde: Not upon a desire of Con­tention, but by the warning of God himself.

7. They have searched out of the holy Bible, which they are sure cannot deceive them, their sure Form of Religion; and have returned again unto the Primitive Church of the Apostles, and of the Ancient Fathers: that is to say, to the ground and beginning of things, unto the very foundations and head-springs of Christs Church.

The Reformed Churches are the same in kinde with all the good Churches which were before them.

1. THe Reformed Churches are the same with all Good Churches that had been in the World before them; and do succeed the sound and firm Members of the General Visible Church, in whom was the Life of true Religion in the sub­stantial matter of Faith and Godliness.

2. But they having shaken off their former Errors, they differ from them in manner and qua­lity. [Page 176]As a man who was deceived in sundry things, when he becomes wiser, differs from himself as he was Ignorant.

3. And as a sick body when it is healed, and a Commonwealth after it hath reformed disor­ders, are in substance the same, but differ in in Quality and in Goodness, so the Protestant Churches have purged sundry corruptions, and perfected that which was defective; But are the same in kinde with all the good Churches and Christians that were before them: And succeeds them of the General Visible Church, in whom was the Life of Faith, and of Religion.

Concerning the Antiquity of the Reformed Religion.


THe Jesuites say, That the Reformed for fif­teen hundred Years could not spy out one Town, one Village, one House seasoned with the Doctrine that they follow Now.

Answer of the Reformed.

1. THe Reformed do answer, That such an Accusation is very false; for in the Apo­stles time, all Churches, all Cities, and Towns, every Family embraced the same Faith and Re­ligion which now they profess.

2. Antichrist that Man of Sin, could never [Page 177]prevail so much, nor so far in corrupting the Christian Religion and Church, but a great mul­titude of the Saints remained; and those whose Names were written in the Book of Life, did ut­terly abhor all those filthy and wicked Supersti­tions of Antichrist: For in the Church of Rome it self, even in the worst times of it, many were ever found who worshipped the God of their Fathers, and kept themselves unpolluted with that horrible Idolatry.

And this can Histories of all Times witness, which we could now Recite, Vide Catalog. Testium veritatis. if it were needful; and reckon up to the Jesuites, many Houses, Villages, Towns, Cities, and Countries, where Christ had many, and populous Churches.

3. We add, That the Greek Church could never yet be brought to joyn it self to the Roman Church, and it is now as opposite to Her, as ever the Reformed was and is.

4. Furthermore we answer to this Question of the Jesuites, Where was your Church for so many years before Luther? That it did never lie so hid, but it was discerned by their Pope, unless for so many years he persecuted shaddows.

§ Another Answer of the Reformed to the Question of the Jesuites, Where was the Reformed Religion before the Reformation made by Luther, and other Divines?

1. THey answer, That the Apostles, and the Primitive Church, for almost six hundred years after Christ taught as they do.

2. They answer, That ever since that time, there have been some that have contended for the maintenance of the Faith which they profess.

For Example;

1. In matter of Supremacy, they taught as the Reformed do, till after Gregories time, which was six hundred years after Christ: yea Gregory himself writing against them of Constantinople, held this Language, If any shall call himself Ʋni­versal Bishop, I say it confidently that he is Anti­christ.

3. In matter of the Sacrament, for a thousand years together, that the People received the Wine as vvell as the Bread, Aquinas cannot deny.

3. In the point of Images, at first the Church admitted no Images at all; as Erasmus and Gre­gory sheweth; yea Polydore Virgil confesseth, That the Fathers condemned Images for fear of Idolatry; and this continued till the second Ni­cene Council: But now of late the Trent Council and Bellarmine have given unto them Divine ho­nour.

4. Bristow, a Popish Doctor confesseth this, The Truth is, saith he, that some have been in all Ages of the Protestants Opinion.

5. And Illiricus Flaccus doth remember one Reynerius, who discoursing of the Waldenses, a People for substance of the Protestants Religion, saith in these termes, They are in all the Cities of Lombardy, and of Provence. No Sect hath conti­nued so long. Some say it hath been since Pope Syl­vesters time; Some since the Apostles. These Wal­denses believe all Articles concerning God, but they hate the Church of Rome.

3. So that the Reformed have had a Church, and their Religion before Luther.

A Refutation of this shift of the Jesuites, That because Luther was in Error in Regard of his doctrine of Consubstantiation, Therefore his Refutations of their Opinions and Do­ctrines is not to be considerable.

1. THis is a strange shift indeed; for is it not a miserable perverseness in the Jesuites, and others Popish Doctors and Writers, that be­ing not able to maintain their own Heresies against Luther, they will think to escape in the Judgement of Men from being condemned; because Luther himself in one point of Doctrine erred?

2. May no man convince Error, but such an one as is free from Error at all Himself?

3. The Scriptures are left unto us to be our Rule of Truth, by them must all Doctrine be squared and directed; they sit in the highest Seat of Judgement, to give Sentence in every Cause.

4. With Them did Luther cut down the Po­pish Errors.

5. But one Error of Luther cannot serve to excuse infinite Errors in the Popish Church.

The Reformed of England, France, Holland, &c. do not Believe whatsoever the late Wri­ters have said.

1. WE are not so addicted in these Reform­ed Churches, as to Believe whatsoever the late Writers have said.

2. We are no more partial unto them in this behalf, then we are unto the Ancient Fathers.

3. Our Religion and Faith hangeth not upon the sayings of Men, be they old or young, but onely upon the Canonical Scriptures of God.

4. And if they be against us, so long as Scri­pture is for us, our Cause is good, and we will not be ashamed thereof.

5. From hence it followeth, That therefore most false is it that the Papists say, That our Di­vity resteth upon these late Writers, and young Fathers, whom the Jesuites and other Popish Doctors do so scornfully compare with the Old Fathers.

6. We use not to alledge for proofs authenti­cal [Page 181]of any Doctrine, and as the Rule of our Faith, Calvin, Bucer, or others.

7. But our Traditive and Use is this,

Thus saith the Lord,

Thus say the Prophets,

Thus say the Apostles,

Thus the Evangelists,

Thus it is written in the Scriptures,

Thus we read in some Book of the Old, or of the New Testament.


If Luther, or any other Learned Man among the Protestants, or of the Reformed in the Chur­ches above mentioned have either Interpreted the Scripture in somthing amiss, or have doubt­ed of some one Book of Scripture, whereof doubt also hath been made of old in the Church of Christ, we are not to defend their Expositions, or to approve their Judgement.

Again, The particular Opinions of Luther and Luthe­rans, are not to be objected by the Papists against the Reformation of England, France, the United Provinces, &c.

1. FOr these Reformed Churches are not bound to justifie all Luthers sayings, and the Lu­therans, and their private Opinions, no more then the Papists will be content to avouch what­soever hath been spoken or published by any [Page 182]one, or other famous man of their Sect.

2. Which thing if they will take upon them to perform, then let them profess it, or else they offer us the more injury, that object still against us a saying which was never either uttered or al­lowed by us.

3. This might suffice men of indifferent Rea­son.

§ Of Luthers Error concerning the Bodily Pre­sence in the Sacrament.

LƲther retained this Error of his old leaven, wherewith in time of Papistry his Judgement was corrupted.

§ Another Answer of the Reformed to the Ob­jection made by the Jesuites against Lu­ther in regard of his Error of Consubstan­tiation, That therefore his Refutation of their Doctrine is not to be considerable.

THe Reformed again return this answer to that Objection.

1. That although Luther therein somthing swarved from the Truth, yet that he might bring in other Causes, assured thereof out of the Word of God, reject the Opinions of such as dissent from the same word.

2. Otherwise no Man in Defence of Gods Truth may challenge, or bid Defiance to the [Page 183]Adversaries thereof, seeing they have no Privi­ledge or Charter granted to them, but that them­selves also may be deceived.

§ Again, Concerning Luther.

1. LƲther say the Reformed was an excellent Man, and a worthy servant of Christ.

2. Whose Ministery especially it pleased God to use, in revealing to these Times the Son of Perdition, who fitteth in the Temple of God, and advanceth himself above God.

3. Yet Luther was a Man.

4. And therefore no marvel if he were not exempted altogether, as from Ignorance, so also from Infirmities.

§ Concerning the Contention between Luther and Zuinglius about the Sacrament of the Lords Supper.


1. THis Contention and Dissention was a very hard one, hotly debated in many Books.

2. And the same hath continued since, to the great hinderance of the Gospel, and offence of many.

3. In which contrary Writings and Discourses are found oftentimes harder speeches of either against other then were to be wished.

4. Now do come in the Popish Writers like [Page 184]crafty enemies, and gathering a heap of such speeches out of sundry of their Books, do insert the same in their Books, to make their Readers acquainted therewith; that seeing such earnest contention among the chiefest Professors of the Gospel, they may be further withdrawn in alie­nation of mind from the love and liking thereof.

2. Examination of that matter.

1. THose speeches of either against other, which are harder oftentimes then were to be wished, are yet such as the godly Servants of the Lord in contention about the Truth som­times are moved to utter against their Brethren.

1. S. Paul openly and sharply reprehended S. Peter to his face; whereat wicked Porphyrie catched a like occasion to rail at Christian Reli­gion long since; as our Adversaries do at these dayes.

2. What a violent and troublesome contenti­on was there between Theophilus of Alexandria, and good Chrysostome of Constantinople?

3. Who knoweth not how sharply Cyrillus, a learned and wise Bishop of Alexandria hath written against Theodoretus, a good and Catho­lick Bishop, in a Controversie touching the Ca­tholique Faith; both Bishops, both Catholiques, both Learned, both Godly, both Excellent Pil­lars of the Church.

And yet he that readeth both their Writings, would think that both were dangerous Enemies of the Church, and of the Faith of Christ, and to be avoided of all Christians.

2. So in the Books of Luther, and of Zuinglius and of those that maintain either part, appeareth (we grant) great sharpness and bitterness of Dis­sention, who all notwithstanding, if we set the heat of Dissention aside, were as godly, as learn­ed, as zealous Christians as the World had any.

The Reformed Religion and Church are not Heretical.

1. WHat if the Romish Church condemned Luther, Shall we say therefore that Luther is an Heretick?

2. The Church of Jerusalem condemned Christ, and Him, and his they would have deny­ed to be the true Church, but for all their De­nial, it was not less the true Church.

3. The Accusation of being Heretical, nothing touches our Reformed Religion and Church. For, by Gods Grace we are far from all kinde of He­resie, and hold no other Doctrine then that which the Prophets, and the Apostles, and Jesus Christ himself have taught us, and which is plainly contained in the Books of Canonical Scripture.

§ The Jesuites maintain the contrary, but by a Falfe Ground, which is one of their great slights.


1. THe Doctrine of the Jesuites is, That for not to be an Heretick, one must have Communion with the Church of Rome, and ac­knowledge the Pope to be Vicar of Christ, and Successor of S. Peter in the Quality of Head, and Monarch of the Church; which Church of Rome they presuppose to be the Catholique Church.

Answer of the Reformed.

1. THe Reformed do answer to that Doctrine of the Jesuites, That it must first appear that the Now Church of Rome is the Catholique Church, before he that is separated from his Com­munion can be justly convicted of Heresie, which is also to be said concerning the Pope; It must appear that he is S. Peters Successor, and the Head and Monarch of the Church.

2. Which the Jesuites shall never be able to do, and yet never have done; for since the time that the Ancient Fathers of the Church did call the Church of Rome Catholick Church, the course of that Church is turned, and the See of Rome hath declined and degenerated from her sincere Faith to detestable falshood.

3. Let the Jesuites restore unto us the old Church of Rome, and we will never separate our selves from her Communion.

4. But of that Church they have nothing left but the Walls, and old Rubbish.

5. And yet still they brag of the Name of the Catholique Church.

Exception of the Jesuites.

SO indeed Calvin answereth, say the Jesuites, But it shall not serve the Reformeds turn, for Optatus say they, proveth himself to be in the Catholique Church, because he joyned himself to S. Peters Chair.

Answer of the Reformed to that Exception.

ANd what do the Jesuites call S. Peters Chair?

1. Is it the external Seat, or the Successi­on of the Bishops? They shall never prove it.

2. And the contrary, say the Reformed, we can easily object out of Optatus himself, Optatus calleth Syricus Bishop of Rome his Fellow, and the companion of other Bishops who held a sound and Catholique Judgement, with all those Syri­cus agreed in one Society and Fellowship; By their Letters sent one to another, as Witnesses of their consenting in Doctrine, and lawful Ordina­tion.

Optatus then proveth that he was a Catholique, [Page 188]because he kept the Catholique confession and conjunction with Syricius, and with others Bi­shops.

2. Secondly the Reformed do answer, that Optatus Argument was good against the Dona­tists, who did separate themselves from the Com­munion of the Catholique Church, while they consented not with these Churches where the Doctrine of the Apostles, and a lawful Ordina­tion of Bishops did ever flourish.

3. But that is nothing to us Reformed, and specially to the Reformed of the Church of England.

It is not a sound Argument to convince the Re­formed of Schisme, because they have separa­ted themselves from the Church of Rome.

The Jesuites do maintain the contrary.

1. ANd in that regard, thinking to touch the Reformed, who have separated them­selves from the Church of Rome, they produce the Authority of Optatus, who did reprove the Separation of the Donatists, and did argue them to be Schismatical, because they had separated from the communion of the Catholique Church.

Answer to the Jesuites, and Refutation of their Argument.

1. A Very good Argument indeed, and Augu­stine observed the same course; and it was a good Argument, That the communion of the Church should be objected to the Schisma­tical Donatists, which seditiously without cause separated themselves from the Church.

2. But this Argument employed by Optatus against the Donatists, makes nothing against the Reformed, who have separated Themselves from the Church of Rome. For the said Refor­med deny the Church of Rome to be the Catho­lique Church.

3. And therefore the Jesuites cannot by this Argument of Optatus convince us of Schisme, although Optatus might thereby confute the Do­natists.

4. It must first appear that the Church of Rome be the Catholique Church, otherwise the Reformed cannot be convicted of Schisme.

5. In the time of Optatus the Church of Rome was the Preserver of Religion, the Maintain­er of the True Faith, and she shined like a Star in the sight of all other Churches.

6. No marvel then if the most holy Fathers esteemed much, and reverenced this Church, and urged the Schismaticks with the example of it, and also the Hereticks of their time, as a great prejudice unto them.

7. But since that time the course of that Church is turned, and the See of Rome hath de­clined and degenerated from her sincere Faith, to detestable Falshood.

8. Let the Papists, as we have said before, re­store us the old Church of Rome, and we will never separate our selves from Her.

9. But of that old Church of Rome they have nothing left but the Walls and old Rubbish.

10. And yet they still brag of the Name of the Catholique Church.

Of the Differences in Religion between the Calvi­nists and the Lutherans.

1. THe Jars and Dissentions between the Lu­therans and Calvinists are neither many, nor so material, as to shake or touch the Foun­dation; easily reconcileable, if men of any mo­deration had them in handling.

2. The bitter speeches of Luther none can ex­cuse, and much less the virulent Pamphlets, and Proscriptions of some of his Disciples, who in a preposterous imitation of his Zeal, are little less then furious; But the consequence of Opinions must not be measured by the Passions or Outra­ges of opiniate men. Two Brothers in their cho­ler may renounce each other, and disclaim their amity, yet that heat cannot dissolve their inward and essential Relation.

3. The Divisions of the Lutherans and Calvi­nists, [Page 191]namely of the moderate of either side, are rather in formes, and phrases of Speech, then in substance of Doctrine.

4. The first, and main Controversie between them, is that about Consubstantiation, which after occasioned that other of Ubiquity.

5. In both these Controversies the main Truth on both sides is out of Controversie, That Christ is really and truly exhibited to each faith­ful Communicant, and that in his whole person he is every where. The doubt is only in the man­ner how he is in the Symboles, and how in Hea­ven and Earth; which being no part of Faith, but a curious nicity, inscrutable to the Wit of Man, we should all here believe where we can­not understand; and not fall a quarrelling about that which we cannot conceive. How, or why are saucy Questions in Divine Mysteries, Just. Mart. in Expos. Fid.

6. I omit the Questions of Predestination, be­ing no less debated in the Roman Schools, then in the Reformed.

7. Their other Differences in Ceremony or Discipline, are diversities without Discord.

8. All wise men in the World have ever thought that in such things each several Church is left to her own Judgement and Liberty, so as she keep her self to the general Apostolique Rule of Order and Edification, and to the gene­ral Judgement and Practise of the Church Uni­versal, See Tertull. de virg. vetand. cap. 1. Fermit. [Page 192]apud Cyprian. Epist. 75. August. Epist. so Socrat. Hist. lib. 5. cap. 21. &c.

9. Though the Body of Religion in divers Reformed Churches and Countries be clothed in divers Suits, and Fashions, yet for substance it may be one in all.

In all these contestations, as it commonly falls out, blessed be God, they that are for Truth, have ever been for Charity, and mutual Tolera­tion, as appears by their published Writings, all tending to Pacification. Vide Junii & Parae. scri­pta Irenica.

10. Luther himself, though of a rough and vehement Spirit, yet before his death, being tempered by milde Melanchton, that honour of Germany, did much relent, and remit of his ri­gour against Zuinglius, and began to approve the good Counsels of Peace. Admonit. Neustad. de Libro Concord. cap. 6. p. 236.


11. Among the Lutherans all are not of the same intractable Disposition: As they in Polonia for instance, where the followers of Luther and Calvin have long lived together in a fair and brotherly concord and communion, notwith­standing their several Opinions, which they still retain, vide Corpu. Confess. Et ibi Poloniae con­sensum.

12. Since then our Discords are of no higher Degree, we say as Prudentius, a Christian Poet, of the Unity of his Times; It hath been a little [Page 193]violated, but is defended by Faith her Sister, in whose company being safely come off, she laugheth at her wounds, as being easily curable.

Fraud. A Discovery, and Refutation of a New Way, and Subtle Cunnings of a Seminary Priest of Rhemes against the Reformed Religion.


THis Way and Cunning is to bring continual Allegations of Testimonies out of the Refor­med own Writers craftily brought in their Books to shew a dissention of Judgement among the said Reformed Writers, that so the Readers of the Books of those Popish Writers, may be Induced to think the worse of the Reformed Religion.

2. A Refutation of this New Slight, and Device.

THis Device is full of Fraud, Dishonesty, and Malice, taking Advantage of Mens Infirmi­ties and Imperfections against the Eternal Truth of God, which the said Popish Doctors cannot by ordinary and lawful kind of Reasoning Re­fute.

Concerning the Acknowledgement of a Seminary Priest of Rhemes, That three Articles of the Controversies which were propounded by Bishop Jewell in this Sermon at Paul's Cross, in which he made his Callange were, and are of weight; • 1. The Supremacy of the Pope, , • 2. The Corporal Presence, , and • 3. And the Sacrifice of the Mass. 
Examination of this Acknowledgement of the Se­minary Priest by the Reformed Doctors.


1. IN that acknowledgement the Seminary Priest hath uttered his Judgement of the rest of the Articles that are in Controversie, that they are not of such weight as his Church would have them to be esteemed.

2. And of these three Articles he might with as good Reason have excepted the two latter, and so make the first only a matter of weight.

3. For that Article indeed is the substantial Point; in maintenance whereof all the Popish Writers Labours are bestowed, otherwise were it not for defence of their Popes wicked, unrea­sonable, Antichristian Monarchy, they could easily agree with us for these two, and for all the rest, we doubt not.


But what did the Priest in his Acknowledge­ment think then,

1. Of Private Mass;

Is it a thing of no weight, as there he would have it accounted? There is not we suppose any thing in the Rome Church more used, or better liked

2. What he did think of the half Communion?

3. What he did think of the Latine Service?

4. What he did think of Images?

5. What did he think of the keeping of the Scri­ptures in a Tongue unknown to the People?

6. And what did he think of other such Heads of the Romish Religion?


1. Are they of no weight?

Are they Trifles?

Are they not worth the striving for?

2. Then let the Popish Writers give over all defence of them.

1. Let Private Masses be abolished.

2. Let the Communion be administred in both kinds, according to Christs institution.

3. Let the publick prayers be said in the Tongue that every Countrey useth.

4. Let Images be burned.

5. And all Idolatry forbidden.

6. Let it be lawful for the People of all Coun­tries [Page 196]to read the Scripture in their own Lan­guage.

7. Let there be no controversie about the other Articles.

3. For while they stand so stifly in mainte­nance of all these, and others, They cannot tru­ly say, and bear us in hand; That they are not of weight in their Account.

The Reformed Churches truly, and properly so called, are Pure, and Orthodox Churches; And their Faith is sound and not Hereticall, as falsly they are termed by the Church of Rome.

1. IT is that which must be acknowledged by some certain Notes and Marks.

For as we judge of Coine by the pair of Gold Weights, and of Metals by the Touch-stone, and of Glassen and Earthen Pots by the sound, so ought we to judge of the Church by her Marks.

2. The true Touch-stone of the Church is the Truth. It is the Scripture. It is the Word of God.

For the true Sheep of Christ are those who hear the voice, who know him, and follow him, John 10.27. It is the Lords Camp, who marcheth after this Pillar. And the Apostles Church is builded upon the Foundation of [Page 197]the Apostles, and Prophets, Jesus Christ him­self being the chief Corner-stone, Ephes. 2.20.

We hear saith St. Augustine, found Christ in the Scriptures, let us also seek there the Church. And if they have the Church on their side, let them show it onely by the Canonical Books of the Divine Scriptures.

As to know whether a Line be strait, a strait Rule is applied unto it. Even also to discern a pure Church from an impure, there is no other means than to see and observe whether it doth agree with the Rule of Practice, which is the Word of God.

3. Under which Word of God the pure Ad­ministration of the Sacraments of the Church is also to be comprehended; Because the right use of them is prescribed in the Word of God.

4. Now by this true and certain mark of the Church, we prove that the truly Reformed Churches are pure, and Orthodox Churches, because from point to point they follow it.

The Articles of their Doctrine as the generous young Eagle do fixly behold the Sun, and with­out at all feeling the Eye-lids.

5. If it were true, as it is pretended by our Adversaries of the Church of Rome, that the Religion of the said Churches should be false, and that they were deceived, then it should fol­low, that Christ, the Prophets, and the Apo­stles [Page 198]should have deceived them; Because they defend their Institutions, and imbrace their Do­ctrine, which to think onely were blasphemie, and yet more to say it.

The Reformed Churches are not Schismatical.
For having separated from the Romish Church. As falsly they are accused thereof, by the said Roman Church.

1. HAving sufficiently shewed that the truly Reformed Churches are not Heretical, we must pass further. And shew also that they are not Schismatical, because they have sepa­rated themselves from the Roman Church.

2. For that cause they are not Schismatick, because they have had just causes of their Se­paration; Which we demonstrate in this man­ner.

3. For not to be Schismatick, in making se­paration from the Communion of a Church, that Church must be corrupted and impure.

And this corruption and Impurity must be in the Doctrine, and not simply in the manners. And the said Separation must be for a Do­ctrine contrary to the Word of God, which o­ver throweth the grounds of Salvation, and an­nihilate the Faith.

And besides which Erroneous Doctrine be publickly authorized, and maintained by armes, and the fire.

4. When that doth meet and happen in a Church, and that there are other Churches that God hath delivered, and freed from Error, then there is a necessity to withdraw, and separate from such a corrupted and defiled Church for not to be partakers of her sins, and not to receive the plagues of which she is threatned of God, Rev. 18.4.

5. And yet before that all endeavours must be done to procure Remedies to the evil, after the example of the Children of Israel who before they did retire themselves from Babylon did carry their hands to her wounds to cure them, but seeing that it was in vain they resolved to forsake her to go in Jerusalem, there to serve God according to his word, Jerem. 51.9, 10. These be their words, We would have healed Babylon, but she is not healed, forsake her, and let us go every one into his own Countrey: So the Apostles did not separate themselves from the Jews to turn towards the Gentiles but after that they had rejected their word, and made them­selves unworthy thereof.

6. It hath been for that, and after the same proceeding, that our Fathers by thousands did separate themselves from the Roman Church.

7. For which Retreat and Separation we are wrongfully accused of Schism, for it is the Church of Rome which is Schismatick, and not our Churches, because she hath given the Cause, and the necessity to our Separation.

Now it is the Cause and not the Separation which maketh the Schism, as the Canonists do teach.

8. So the Apostles were not Schismaticks in separating themselves from the Pharises. But it were the Pharises that were such.

9. The Roman Church hath given cause to our separation.

1. By her false and Erroneous Doctrines.

2. By the Domination of Antichrist.

And, 3. By the strange cruelties which she did exercise against us, when we did endeavour to repurge the Temple from the corruptions which the Devil had sowed therein, during the dark­ness of Ignorance. As antiently the Samaritans did pollute the Temple of Jerusalem in shedding therein Dead-mens Bones during the darkness of the night.

10. Having been so dealt with; who can law­fully revoke in doubt, that our separation hath not onely been most necessary, but also most just.

11. The Reformed Churches for the above­said Reasons separating themselves from the Ro­man Church, did not thereby separate them­selves from the Communion of the Catholick Church, Rather they are entered in it. Such a separation hath not been a forsaking of the Church of Christ, but a going forth from Babylon. An escape from Sodom. A quitting of a Pestiferous House, and which threatneth of ruine.

12. In a word, by such a Separation the Re­formed Churches did separate themselves only from a particular corrupted Church.

1. For when the Roman Church was in her greatest purity, she was not the Catholick Church but onely a member, or a part thereof, besides which part, there were many others even more ancient than the Roman Church, the Church of Antioch, and the Church of Alexan­dria, and the Church of Greece were also; as the Roman Church, parts of the Catholick, or Universal Church.

2. And the said Roman Church such as it is now, and hath been in these last Ages, ought not to bear the Name of a Church without adding unto it, that it is an Impure, Idolatrous, Here­tical, and Antichristian Church.

• 1. Rejection of the Injurious Names Given unto the Reformed by the Jesuites and other Popish Writers. , and • 2. Representation of the Laudable Names which the said Reformed do approve and make use. 

SOme of the Popish Writers do talk much, and Dispute to, and fro, by what Name they may call the Reformed,

Either Christians,

Or Catholicks,

Or Hereticks,

Or Protestants,

Or Zuinglians, Lutherans, and Calvinists,

Or Sacramentaries.

Answer in General to the giving of those Names.

THe Papists do call indeed the Reformed at their pleasure by such Names as their mali­cious and railing Spirits can invent, sometime by one, and sometime by another.

Of the Names, Christians and Catholicks.

1. CHristians, and Catholicks, the Papists will not have the Reformed to be called.

2. They reserve that Denomination to them­selves.

3. And yet notwithstanding to them of all Professors of Christian Religion; the same doth least appertain.

The Reformed do not deserve the Injurious Name of Hereticks, and do slight such a Name.

1. THe Reformed for their part so long as they are sure that the Doctrine which they follow is the eternal word of God, and the Gospel of his Son Christ: as they are by Gods Grace most sure, seeing it is plainly set down in the Holy Scripture of the Old, and New Te­stament, they care not what the Papists do [Page 203]think of them, or what they spake of them, or by what Name they reproach them.

7. If they blaspheme the Doctrine of Christ, and call it Heresie; not fearing or sparing the Lord himself; it is no wonder if they revile them with all opprobrious names that can possible be devised.

The Reformed reject the names of Lutherans, Zuin­glians, and Calvinists.

1. THey do Declare, that they are not Lu­therans, nor Zuinglians, nor Calvinists, be­cause they maintain not any private or proper Doctrine of Luther, or of Zuinglius, or of Calvin.

2. No more then the Faithful in the Primi­tive Church to have been called Paulines, or Petrines, or Athanasians, or by the name of any other such Minister of Christ.

What the Reformed say of the Name of Protestants

1. IF the Papists think it belongeth not to us Re­formed of England and France, &c. let them give it to those whose it is.

2. Being not a Name of Schism, or of Sect; it may as well be used as the Name of Catho­licks, and for Distinction sake only.

3. Having begun first at the Diet of Ausbourg. we are enforced to use it.

The Reformed are truely Christians and Catholicks.

1. VVE Reformed tell the Papists, notwith­standing their Opprobrious Names, that if a Christian be he that believeth in Christ, according to his word; and if Catholicks be they that professe the universal Faith of Christ, we are truely Christians, and Catholicks, be­lieving so, and professing so.

2. And are content with these Names, and desire no other.

§. Let the Papists be called as they will, the Re­formed who Reprove and Confute the multitude of their Namss will not be grieved at them.

1. LEt the Papists be called Diversly,




And whatsoever other Title they can take up; the Reformed are not grieved at the multitude and variety of their Names.

2, Who being in Truth almost any thing ra­ther then Christians, delight in any Name, ra­ther then in the Name of Christians.

Against the Reconcilement, and Reunion of the two Religions, the Reformed, and the Roman.

1. BEing true that the Roman Church is Here­tikcal, and Impure. And on the con­trary the Reformed Churches, Orthodox, and Pure.

It follows manifestly that there can be none well grounded hope to agree, and reunite Po­pery with the Reformed Churches. And there­fore that the labour of those who would think upon such a thing were not a seasonable labour.

1. Because that in the differences which are a­mongst us, we are so contrary one to the other, that the one do clearly maintain the Negative, and the others the Affirmative.

Now it must necessarily be that one of the Propositions be true, and the other false; Be­cause two contradictories cannot be together true.

And it is not possible to soulder them by the mastick of some distinctions, having no ground in the Word of God.

2. The Errors of the Church of Rome have been solemnly ratified and confirmed by the Council of Trent, upon pain of Anathema; And there­fore since that Ratification, and confirmation, there is no way nor mean left of reconcilement, and Agreement.

For if there were, the said Church should be bound to acknowledge her Errors to the end that they may be reformed. And to disanul, and abrogate concerning them the Canons of the said Council of Trent, which is not to be ex­pected from her as long as she shall maintain this poin, as she doth vehemently, that she cannot Erre.

And that she layes down, and propounds no other Principle of Faith than her belief.

Against Toleration of false Religions, with the pure, and Reformed, when they differ in Fun­damental grounds.

1. IT is not onely evil to do, but also to suffer evil, when it is in our power to hinder it. Therefore Religion differing in Fundamental Grounds, are not to be Tolerated together.

2. This is proved by many Arguments; Drawn, 1. From the Law, forbidding to plow with an Ox, and an Asse. And punishing Idolaters with Death, Deut. 22.10, 11. and Deut. 19.6.8, 9.

2. From the Gospel denying the service of two Masters, Mat. 6.24. And interdicting all fel­lowship, and communion of light with dark­ness, or Christ with Belial, 2 Cor. 6.14, 15, 16.

3. From the Spirits Bill of enditement framed against the Angels of Pergamos, and Thyatira, for tollerating the Nicolaitans, Rev. 2.15. & 20.

4. From Gods threatning to cut off all such as swear by him, and by Malcham, Zeph. 1.5.

5. From the Imputation which is laid by the Spirit upon many Kings of Israel, and Judah, for not taking away the High places, 1 King. 15.14.

6. From the Examples of Asa, Josiah, Ezekiah, Constantine, Jovian, Theodosius, and other Re­ligious Princes, who by severe Laws restrained Heresie, and Idolatry, and constrained the true worship of God.

7. From the great danger of Heresie, which like a Canker soon spreads over the whole body of the Church; and if it be not look­ed into, killeth and that eternally thousands of souls breaketh the bands of Nature, and cutteth in sunder all sinews of human Society. Putteth enmity, variance and implacable discords in families; Soweth seeds of Sediti­on in the State, and Rebellion against the Prince.

Refutation of this Slander of the Popish Doctors. That the Reformed are Enemies to Scriptures.

1. THe Reformed say that this is indeed a ve­ry impudent Slander.

2. For who ever thought, and spoke more Honourablie, Reverently, and with more due Regard of the Scriptures, then they. Who have received, and imbraced all Scripture [Page 208]given by Inspiration as the very voice of God himself; Holding it for the onely Ground, and Rule of their Faith, and Religion. And so resting in it, as that they desire no other help as necessary to Salvation. Which if they had not with more diligence, and devotion de­fended, then the Romanists ever did, long ere this the glory of it had perished; and it had been counted as a dead Letter.

3. For what have the Reformed done for these many years with more endeavour and di­ligence, then to maintain the Majesty and Ex­cellencie of the Scriptures.

4. Which the Romanists have so unworthily violated.

5. And yet they blush not to match the Re­formed with the Manichees, and Ebionites, who have violently laid villanous hands upon those Sacred Books.

Of the Apocryphal Books excluded from the Ca­non by the Reformed Churches.


THe Jesuites and other Papists do demand of the Reformed, by what Authority they Maime, and Rob the Corps of the Bible.

Answer of the Reformed to that Demand.

1. WE offer no violence to this Body, nei­ther do we cut off any which do ap­pertain to the substance and perfection of it, we pull away no Member.

2. For we do not cut out any true Canonical Scriptures, but cull out such as are not Cano­nical, but foisted in and Counterfeit.

3. Herein we do the Canonical Scriptures no injury, dividing them from such Books as are not of that absolute Authority. That they which are in truth Canonical may remain intire, and whole together; no more then the Shep­heard doth injury to the Sheep, in sorting the Goats, and other Cattel from them.

The Doctrine of the Reformed Churches, and par­ticularly of the Church of England, that the Ministers of God hath power to Forgive Sins, if the Sinner repent and believe the Gospel; ma­keth not the English Reformed Ministers to be Priests as they are called in the Church of Rome.

1. WE Reformed say, that the Ministers of God hath power to forgive sins, not in some Cases only, but in all whatsoever, if the sinner repent and believe the Gospel.

2. This Authority is given unto him by Christ.

3. This in the State and Church of England, the Parliament, and the Communion Book confesse.


1. NEvertheless a Popish Writer is far from his purpose, to prove thereby the Popish Order of Priesthood.

2. For this maketh not the English Reformed Ministers to be Priests, as they are called in the Church of Rome; but Preachers of Repentance, which bring the glad Tidings of the Gospel to all those that be heavie laden, and desire to be refreshed.


1. NEither have they power themselves to for­give sins; but God alone forgiveth sins, Mark 1.7.

2. But having the word of Reconciliation, committed unto them from God, they offer pardon, and in his Name pronounce pardon to the sinner that believeth, and that turneth from his wickednesse and sinnes unto the Lord.

Refutation of this Accusation of the Jesuites, and other Popish Writers, that in the Religion, and Doctrine of the Reformed, their is no Stay or Certainty.

1. WHat greater stedfastnesse in Religion can be required, then to hold Gods Word, which we Reformed profess to be the Ground we build our Faith?

2. If the Popish Doctors can shew wherein we swarve from it, we will not refuse their In­struction.

3. But that they cannot do, for we plant not our Religion in mans Judgement, and in the un­certainty of Traditions in vain Ceremonies and Devices, as the Papists do.

4. But in matters of Faith, and Religion, we depend upon God; who in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, hath delivered to his Church one certain, Uniform, and perfect Doctrine; to which we add nothing, from which we take nothing away, in which we settle, and ground our selves.

§. In matter of Points of Religion, the private Judgement of some few, is not to be objected by the Popish Doctors against the consent of a whole Reformed Church; And therefore conclude, that in our Reformed Religion, we have no certain staie.

1. FOr then may we Reformed, in like man­ner, and by as good reason argue against the Papists for a thousand such matters, wherein hath been no small dissention among the Popish Divines; That the Papists have no certain ground of their Faith.

2. That appears by the following Examples. 1, A Cardinal of Rome hath openly defended and taught, that the Apostle S. Paul permitteth [Page 212]one Wife to Priests, and to others more; And that plurality of Wives is not forbidden, either by the Law of God, or by the Law of Nature; This Cardinal was Caietan, the Popes Legate in Germany, and the great Adversary of Luther, Katherine, hath noted this among his manifold Errors.

2. And another Popes Legate writ, and pub­lished in print a Treatise in commendation of a foul sin, for which he was greatly and grievous­ly punished by the Pope, being preferred to a great Archbishoprick.

3. Pighus saith, that Justice in us is a Relation, wherein he hath exceedingly offended the other Popish Doctors, and Writers.

3. May we Reformed Now by the Papists Example hereof conclude, that this is the Do­ctrine of the Roman Church; That thus the Papists do believe generally; or else that there is no stay in their Religion.

Refutation of this Accusation of the Jesuites, and others Popish Doctors, that in the Reformed Churches; There is no Ʋnity, but great Dif­ferences.

1. WE Reformed say, that greater Differ­ence shall not the Popish Doctors find among the true Professors of the Gospel, and Reformed Churches, then may be amongst the children of God.

2. When such bitter Dissention was between the East and the West Churches, about the day of Passeover, and the same continued so ma­ny years with great offence, and Alienation a­mong the Faithful; yet they ceased not for all that to be the Churches of Christ.

3. Neither is it ever to be hoped for, that such perfect concord shall be among the Pro­fessors of Christs Religion, that they shall agree most joynly together in the Truth, or in every particular point thereof.

4. Yet let us add; That although the Ty­rannical, and the worldly, and the carnal pro­visions for keeping of Unity above Represented, be not amongst the Reformed Churches, not­withstanding through Gods grace and blessing, all Churches Reformed agree soundly in all Ar­ticles of Faith that are substantial, and necessa­ry to Salvation, and shall so do unto the end.

Refutation of this Accusation of the Jesuites, and other Popish Doctors; that in the Doctrine and Religion of the Reformed Churches, many Paradoxes are to be found, and that in Ge­neral.

1. HIerome said, that he would not have any man to be patient, if he were suspected of Heresie.

2. And therefore in so much the worser part do we Reformed take it, that so many Para­doxes, [Page 214]false and horrible, be by the Jesuites and other Popish Doctors objected against us.

3. And indeed those Jesuites, and others of the Popish Clergy that do object them to us, do in this place manifest an horrible Impudence and audaciousnesse; for unlesse they had quite and clean put off both all Religion of God, and Re­verence towards Men, they would never have admitted so much Impudencie into themselves, as to upbraid us with these monstrous Opi­nions.

4, But we perceive what they intend, for they hope that by slandering boldly, somewhat would alwaies cleave fast, which one of them was wont to say.

5. For sith they lack true Imputations where­by they might oppugn our Churches, it remain­ed, that either they should leave off writing, which were their honestest way; or at least, de­vise some slanders, which they would cast like venomed darts upon us.

6. Which thing is both in it self, very filthy, and also a sure Argument of their desperate­nesse.

7. When we handle in particular the Con­troversies that are between us, by Gods grace we shall so wipe away these their Paradoxes and Impossibilities, that all men shall perceive that they are ascribed to us by them most falsly and most impudently.

8. In the mean time we intreat the Reader [Page 215]to observe this, That those pretended Para­doxes are either such things as that nothing can be truer then they, or else, that they are crafti­ly and treacherously wrested by them in a per­verse meaning.

§. It is the Doctrines, and Religion of the Church of Rome, that many Paradoxes are to be found.


THe Jesuites publish, that there are Paradoxes in great number in the Reformed Religion and Doctrine, and do endeavour to manifest it by many Instances, which they propose.

But although they have stirred this Puddle to the bottome with all their diligence, yet they have found so much as one Paradox, or a piece of a Paradox of the Reformed.


1. BUt now if the said Reformed should but a little make search into the most filthy Pud­dles of the Popish Writers, as to reckon up what they have affirmed,

Of God,

Of the actual Providence of God,

Of Predestination,

Of the Person, and of the Offices of Christ,

Of Original Sin,

Of the Law,

Of Righteousnesse, and Justification,

Of Purgatory,

Of the Pope of Rome,

Of the Sacraments,

And of the rest of the greatest Matters in Reli­ligion; how many Carts should they fill with Paradoxes, horrible to be spoken or thought.

2. We forbear at this present, handling but general Observations, to stirre this common Sewer: but we will do it hereafter, by Gods grace, when we take in hand the particular Con­troversies about the said common places that have been mentioned.

The Renowned Doctors of the Reformed Churches are impudently accused of Ignorance, by the Jesuites, and others of the Roman Clergie.

1. FOr we Reformed do ask of these Jesuites, and their fellows, and demand to know of them what Learning is, wherein it consisteth, and how it may be gotten.

2. Unlesse they have some special means, and as it were some secret way to attain unto it which others have not.

The said Reformed see not why the Jesuites and others such like Popish Doctors, should think that they have gotten a greater Measure of Learning and Wisdome, then others who have used as great indeavour as themselves.

3. And therefore the said Reformed Doctors [Page 217]may think that it is some spice of Pride in the Jesuites and their fellows, to object Ignorance unto them.

4. Who for any thing that appeareth, have no cause to bragge of such knowledge, or to challenge more to themselves then they may safely grant to another.

5. Besides, there are none of the Reformed Doctors, how unlearned soever the Jesuites, and others their fellows think they are, but by the grace of God, and the Light of his Word, can easily discover the Falshood and Corruption of the Religion of the Church of Rome.

There is an unity in the Protestants Faith, and Concord among the Protestants: And how Considerable against the Slanders of Papists.

1. WE acknowledge that there be diffe­rences and jarres among the Prote­stants.

2. But we deny that there is any such discord or difference among them as dissolveth the uni­ty of Faith Essential to the true Church.

3. The difference among the Protestants is no other then such as hath formerly been in the true Church of Christ, since the Apostles age, which is represented in the end of this Thesis.

4. It is not in point of Faith, or Primitive Ar­ticles of Faith, or about things Essential in the object of Faith.

1. But the difference is either in accidental, pro­bable and secondary points.

2. Or touching things difficult in Religion, for the searching out of the verity whereof it is pro­fitable, that Learned men proceeding modestly, do dispute pro, and contra.

3. Or else the disagreement is personal, either among private men, or raised by private men, Schismatically, and Factiously against the Church.

5. Now if our Adversaries, who object Divi­sion unto the Protestant Churches, dispute the question of Unity in it self, the Scripture, and the Fathers, and the History of the Church will convince them; That Unity in the substance of Faith, and of Religion, observed by the firmest Members of the Church, is simply necessary, and an essential property of the Church.

And other Unity is of the perfection and well being of the Church, and yet contingent and variable, sometimes greater, sometimes less, and at no time absolute in all the parts; And the same many times is greatly wanting, by rea­son of the Malice of wicked Imps.

6. In the dayes of Constantine, wherein it is acknowledged by all men, that the visible so­ciety of Christians was a true Church. There hapned so grievous and unseemly contentions among the Bishops, and Pastours, that the dis­cord of Christians was brought upon the Stage. And Religion was derided, and traduced by In­fidels.

7. Saint Augustine acknowledgeth, that the concord of Godly men in this Life, wherein they are not perfect but proficient, is sometimes interrupted with discord, and dissention ariseth even among Brethren and Saints. And there be divers things saith he, wherein the best learned, and most worthy defender of the Catholick rule, without prejudice to the Body of Faith do not accord; And one of them speaketh more truly then another of the same thing.

8. If it be objected that Luther saith, that the differences between him and Zuinglius, and Calvin, are not in small points of Government and Ceremonie, &c. The Answer to that is, that Luthers personal and fretful speech proceed­ing from passion, against such as were contrary minded to him, prove that godly men have insir­mities, and are sometimes over-bitter one against another. Like as Cyprian was against Pope Stephen, calling him proud, ignorant, and of a blind and wicked mind; and as Epiphanius was against Chrysostome.

But they are not sufficient to demonstrate that Protestant Churches want the Note of Unity, neither doth condemning, and Anathematising one another, imply dissension in profound points of Religion, but may proceed from affection, and from want of charity. This appeareth by Pope Victor, proclaiming Anathema against the East Churches, about an Adiapherous Cere­mony. It appeareth also by Pope Stephen, and [Page 220]by Sergius, condemning their predecessor For­mosus, and raking him, being defunct, out of his Grave, &c.


1. IF our Adversaries of the Church of Rome will proceed substantially, and prove that there is discord of Faith, and of Doctrine a­mong the Protestants, they must perform these two things.

1. They must produce the principal part of Do­ctrine belonging to the main object of Faith, and demonstate that the Protestant Churches, which are reputed Orthodox, are divided in these; For we have nothing to do with Ana­baptists, Arians, &c.

2. They must also give instance in such persons as are reputed sound Members, and what parts of the several Churches wherein they live. Not of Novellists, Incendiaries, and Extrava­gants, which are condemned, and resisted by the sound and best parts of the Church, Rom. 16.17.

A Representation of good Magistrates, and truly Christians towards the Reformed Religion.

1. SUch Magistrates are those who have been alwayes zealous lovers of Christs Gospel, and who by their godly Wisdom, have done their endeavour to advance greatly the Lords cause from time to time; And to hinder the practices of the Adversaries.

2. True Religious men ought to beseech the Lord to increase in those Godly Magistrates all those Christian vertues, to the benefit of Christs Church, and of the Common-wealth of all the Estates where the Reformed Churches are ga­thered and tollerated.

Concerning the Church and Religion of England, touching the Conversion of England by Augu­stine the Monk.

1. GAlfridus Monumetensis writeth, that be­fore Augustine the Monk came in Eng­land, in the time of Gregory the Great, Truth was preached there, and sincere Doctrine deli­vered. Vide Godofri. Mon. de Orig. & gest. Bri­tan. Libr. 8. cap. 4.

2. Augustines pretended conversion of Eng­land, was onely the planting of some trifling Ceremonies.

Of the shaking off of the Popes yoak by Henry the Eight King of England.

1. IT is a thing much to be admired that Henry the Eight King of England, having writ­ten against Luther, in the Popes behalf, and for a reward of his affection and pains, having re­ceived the glorious Title of Defendor of the Faith, yet shortly after withdrew himself from the Popes Jurisdiction, and became his open and profest Enemy.

2. Which Act did seem to many to have pro­ceeded from a cause very little commendable; as if it had been onely in revenge, that the Pope crossed him in the fruition of his pleasures.

3. But it is most certain that the exquisite consideration, both of the Kings, and of the Popes proceedings thereupon, doth cause us to lift up our minds to an higher cause, and obli­ges us to confess that Gods providence hath been manifested therein, in a particular, and extra­ordinary manner.

4. And that for the fulfilling in part of S. Johns prophesie, Rev. 17.13, 16. In these words, that those Kings which had one mind, and who had given their power, and strength, unto the Beast, shall be them that shall hate the Whore, and shall make her desolate, and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire.

5. O that other Kings for the fulfilling of this Prophesie, would follow the example of this King, and dispose themselves to serve God in a work so important and high.

Of the Demolishing of Monasteries in England, by King Henry the Eight.

1. KIng Henry the Eight separating himself from Rome, consequently did very wise­ly to demolish the Monasteries that were in En­gland, and to cause the Fryars of them to change Habit and Vest of their Order.

2. For besides that such men by their Errors, Superstitions, Idolatries, and most of them by their foul and corrupt manners, are utterly hurt­ful to the Church, which they wast and corrupt more and more. They are also greatly preju­dicial to the State.

3. Because 1. inclosing themselves in their Monasteries; by that means they withdraw them­selves from the Civil Jurisdiction, both in regard of their goods, and of their Persons.

4. From whence often doth follow the Ruine of States; that which remains to bear Arms, be­ing not in sufficient number to conserve and maintain them against their Enemies.

5. 2. Because also, that such persons are as ma­ny Creatures, ready for the Popes Service; to rise and rebel against their Prince, if the said Pope gives them command so to do, by the Su­periour of their Orders; the reason whereof is, because they do not acknowledge themselves to be Subjects of the Soveraign of the State, in which they live, and are settled, but onely of the Pope.

6. Which thing well known and considered of the Popes, they have not been contented of the Orders formerly established, but moreo­ver have erected new ones, which they have spread every where to Preach their obedience. The number of them in certain States is come to that greatnesse, In France. that they may compose ten good Armies.

7. Among these last Orders of Fryars, that of the Jesuits holds the first and principal Rank, which leaves to the others the honour of the vows of Povertie and Chastitie, and sticks alto­gether to that of Obedience, being particular­ly sworn to the Romish See, to which they swear to obey in all things by a blind obedi­ence, so called, by the which they execute the commands of their Superiours without any In­quisition of the Cause.

8. Which having been well observed by some States, they did judge to be able to re­main in quietness and peace, unless they did cast out of their Dominious such dangerous per­sons, and by Authentical Edicts have declared Anathema's all such that should dare to pro­pound the reestablishment of them in the same.

Of the Reformation of the Church of England, be­gun by King Henry the Eight.

1. ALthough King Henry the Eight had shaken off the Popes yoke, demolished the Mo­nasteries, and beaten down the Images, yet not­withstanding all that he retained to the end of his life, the other Errors of the Romish Church, and did greatly persecute those who did not em­brace them.

2. From whence we may perceive that often­times great and marvellous works are not begun and ended altogether. And by those who have been the beginners of them.

3. Asa did not fully Reform the Church, nei­ther also Jehosaphat; But that which was be­gun by them, was perfected afterwards by the good Kings, Ezekiah, and Josias.

4. The same thing is apparent in the last Re­formation of the Church. It was first begun by Martin Luther in Germany, and perfected afterwards by John Calvin, and other famous Divines raised by Gods Grace to that end.

5. The Reformation of the Church of Eng­land having been begun by K. Henry the Eight, was consummated by his most Worthy Children, King Edward the Sixt, and Queen Elizabeth of blessed Memory.

6. The Father begun the said Reformation at the Root, and his Children did cut the Bran­ches. Yea we must say that King Henry did cut off the very Head of the Romish Beast, and his Children the Fingers, and the Nailes.

For what Cause we may separate one from another, in regard of publick Assemblys and Exercises of Religion, onely for corrupt Doctrines, and not alone for corrupt Manners.
Against Independants.

1. WHich is to be noted against Anabaptists, and Separatists; They will not com­municate with the wicked, for they pollute all, say they.

2. Yet did not the Prophets flie the Congre­gation, [Page 226] Hagg. 2.4. Nor did Christ abhor the Publicans, Luke 5.30.

3. Then there is a double communicating; one with the exercises of Religion, and another with the works of Darkness. The first is law­ful, but the second forbidden.

4. Again, there is a two-fold departure; one with our Bodies, another with our Minds. One from the Evil, and another from the Per­son.

The first must be followed, 1 Cor. 5.10. The other cannot be avoided without departing the world. For onely God is Just, and giver of Righteousness.

The Militant Church prays for forgiveness of sins, Mat. 6.12. And is assured when she shall Triumph, to be blameless without spot, when Death shall lose his sting, and Hell forgoe the Victory, 1 Cor. 15.55.

5. Therefore I know not what to say of such Anabaptists, and Separatists, but as Constantine said to Acesius a Novation Bishop; Set up a Lad­der for thy self, O Acesius, that thou alone mayest ascend up to Heaven.

If they leave us because we have faults, by the same reason they must needs flie into Hea­ven, for there is no place on Earth for them.

6. Attendis zizania, triticum non attendis; Thou lookest to the Cockle, and the Wheat thouregardest not.

7. When thou dividest thy self from Hypo­crites [Page 227]which are in the Church, thou dividest thy self from the Church, Et membrum in Hete­rogeneis perit abscissum: In Heterogeneal bo­dies a member cut off, perisheth.

8. O then forsake not the green pastures be­cause of the Goats. Nor forsake Gods House because of the Vessels of dishonour. Nor Gods Wheat because of the Tares. Nor Gods Net because of the bad fishes that are in it.

9. Rather follow the Rule of S. Augustine against the Letters of Petilianus; bear with the mixture of evil because of the good, lest thou violate the charity of the good because of the evil; neither let us forsake the good because of the evil, but suffer the evil because of the good.

The Separatists of England have no just cause to separate themselves from the Communion of their Parish Churches, for the evil Life and corrupt Manners of some Members of the same.

1. FOr was not the Church of Corinth more corrupted in Doctrine, and Manners, than they pretend ours to be? Yet S. Paul calleth it a Church.

2. Doth not Christ call it his Field, where there grew many Tares?

3. Did not Christ suffer Judas, whom he knew to be a Thief and a Traytor, to partake of the Sacrament with his Disciples?

4. Yet these pure Sectaries will none of our [Page 228]communion, for that some unclean persons pre­sume to come thither.

5. To whom we answer as S. Augustine doth to Cresconius; Lib. 3. c. 50. Et Epist. 48. These evils are displea­sing to the good, we forbid, and re­strain them what we can, what we cannot we suffer.

6. But we do not for the Tares sake forsake the Field; For the Chaffe leave the Floor of Christ.

For the evil Fish break the Net.

For the Goats sake refuse the Fold of Christ.

7. When Religion was partly corrupted, partly contemned in Israel, and the Prophets cried go out from them, and touch no unclean thing; Did they then sever themselves from them? In Evang. Serm. 8. I find no such thing, saith Augustine, yet doubtless they did them­selves what their Prophets willed others to do.

8. Hoc ergo est exire ore, non Parcere, hoc Immundum non tangere voluntate non consentire.

9. Liber in conspectu Dei est, cui nec Deus sua peccata imputat quae non fecit.

Neque aliena quae non approbavit.

Neque negligentiam, quia non tacuit.

Neque Superbiam quia ab unitate Ecclesiae non necessit.

There is a necessity to have a certain Form of Li­turgie, for the publick Administration of all the Parts of Divine Worship in the Christian Church.

1. THis certain and set Form of Publick Li­turgie, is necessary to entertain Unifor­mity in a National Church.

2. There was such an one in the Eastern and Western Churches, as it appears by their Litur­gies which are in our hands.

3. There is such an one in all the Reformed National Churches. As in the National Refor­med Church of France. And in that of the Low-countries. And in the Church of Geneva. And in the Reformed Churches of Germany, &c.

4. By such a certain and set Form of publick Liturgie, no wrong or injurie is done to the Ho­ly Ghost, as if one would undertake to inclose him within the Bars of certain Words. For if that were true, Christ should have committed such a fault, because he hath given to his Apo­stles, and with them to the whole Church an express and set Form of Prayer.

David also should have committed the like fault, having given us in his Psalms, so many Forms of Prayer, of Thanksgiving, and of con­fession of Sins. Rather let us say that the set Form of Prayer of our Lord Jesus Christ, and [Page 230]the Forms mentioned of the Prophet David, being proceeded from the Holy Ghost, the Will of God is, that we make use of them, to call upon him by prayer, and to render thanks unto him by the very words of his Holy Spirit.

5. And concerning the Ecclesiastical set Form which we require and commend, by it we do not pretend to prescribe any thing to the Holy Ghost; But besides the benefit of a Nati­onal Uniformity, our scope is to succour our common Infirmitie, which is done when the Mi­nister in the Administration of the parts of pub­lick Divine Worship, doth make use of the help of the Church thereupon, and esteems it better to perform it in certain and set words, then to let out from his mouth impertinent, and ill digested conceptions, and words.

6. It is left to the liberty of every National Church, to frame such a set Form of Liturgie.

§. The Reformed State and Church of England, do condemn utterly and publickly Anabaptists, Atheists, the Family of Love, and also the Separatists.

1. ANd if notwithstanding that condemnati­on, there be such in the State of Eng­land, and secretly in the Church thereof; so have there been alwayes Hereticles, and wicked persons in the Church.

2. And in respect of them, the Reformed [Page 231]Religion of the Church of England, is no more to be accused, then the good Corn may justly be condemned, because together with it many Tares and Weeds spring up, and cannot be avoided.

§. From the time of the Reformation of the State, and Church of England, the Jesuites and Priests did never cease to trouble them, and assault them.


1. IT is not unknown to the Soveraign Prince, and also to the subordinate Magistrates of England, how since the Reformation of the Re­ligion, and Church of that Kingdom, the Ad­versaries, Popes, Jesuites, and Priests, have ne­ver ceased to trouble the State thereof; and that, by their Books in great number written and pub­lished; and by all other means that possibly they were able to devise; and also to defame that holy Religion of Christ, which through Gods great mercy, and the godly Laws of the Soveraigns, is according to Gods word establish­ed in this State.

2. What they have wrought with many of all Estates, and how mightily they have pre­vailed with that strong, and effectual [...] of Sathan, which hath advanced Antichrist un [...] that Supremacie of Power, Authority, and Credit in the World, whereof the Holy Ghost, [Page 232]by S. Paul, and by S. John hath foretold, lamen­table experience can witness; And that in the backfliding, and continual Apostating of many a way from us, to the final perdition of such Apo­states, to the grief of the Godly, and to the great encouragement, and comfort of the E­nemy.


ANd we have no doubt, that all the English Jesuites, and Seminarie Priests of Rome, or of the Colledge of Rhemes, are all most wil­fully bent, and earnestly disposed, to do what harm any of them possibly can, to the Church of England.

§. All the English Jesuites, and Seminary Priests, by their writings, have gained nothing against the Reformed Religion of England.

1. THese English old Souldiers of the Popish party, Sanders, Harding, Allen, Staple­ton, Bristol, have imployed in the assailing of the Reformed Religion of England whatsoever. Either Reading,

Or Leasure,

Or Cunning.

Or Wit,

Or Diligence,

Or Malice,

Could supply unto them, and for all this have gained nothing.

2. Should New-discovered others of that kind that are not worthy to be compared with these, hope to Reform that wherein they have failed.

§. Refutation of the Censure of the Manners of the State and Church of England, made by the Jesuites.

1. HE that reproveth the Manners of others, it were meet that he should be without fault.

2. Now is there so great a change made of Rome upon the sudden? Is their Life now such? Are there Manners begun to be so godly, that the Jesuites being thence returned here Friers, dare strive with us about Vertue, Shamefastness, and Honesty.

3. Howsoever there be in England many things done, which ought not to be done; Yet if the Jesuites shall say that there is as great Impunity, and Licentiousness of sins in England, as they themselves have seen at Rome, which is the very Towre of their Religion, and Kingdom; all men will judge them to be too too impudent.

4. Surely as long as those publick Stewes, and Dens of Whores stand still in Rome, the Je­suites could scarce honestly make mention of Manners.

Of the English Service Book, and of the Change in it since the beginning of the Reformation, in the Raign of Edward the Sixt.

1. THe first Service Book of King Edward, was not altogether approved by Bucer, and Peter Martyr, but in some things reproved. As the censure of Bucer upon the same doth de­clare. Vide Bucer Script. Anglican. pag. 428.

2. That first Service-book was rather accept­ed of the Protestants by toleration, because at first they could obtain no more, then by an ab­solute approbation.

3. The same Service-book was changed and reformed, and many things were left out of the said Liturgie, by another Edition thereof esta­blished in the Fifth Year of Edward the Sixt.

4. And that latter Service-book of King Ed­ward is in substance all one with the Service­book of Queen Elizabeth.

5. And that since King Edwards Reigne, there hath been no material Alteration of the English Service book.

6. The Papists have no cause to inveigh a­gainst this alteration of the Service-book of the Church of England, if they remember that themselves have changed their Breviaries, Por­tesses, and Missals, more then once, even of late years. See Possevin Appar. v. Missal. Etver. Breviarum.

Of the mention of Saints made in the Liturgie of the Church of England, and of their Feasts keeping yearly.

1. VVHen in the Church of England, accord­ing to the Liturgie thereof, the said Church doth adorn the Calendar with the Names of some Eminent Saints, and do make honour­able mention of them in her Religious publick worship, as the Antient Church did of her Mar­tyrs, yet she doth not call upon them; She doth not lift up the hands, nor bow the knees, nor present offerings, nor direct her prayers, nor in­tend any part of Religious worship to them; But to their God, and ours, as S. Augustine answereth for the practice of the Church in his time.

2. She doth remember the Saints of God, but in no wise made Gods of Saints; She doth blesse God for them, and not worship them for God.

3. Although her Devotion doth glance by their Names, yet it doth pitch, and is fixed upon the Angel of the Covenant, the Holy of all Ho­ly ones, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

On the blessed Virgins Anniversary, she doth honour Christ in his Mother.

On S. John Baptists, she doth honour him in his forerunner.

On S. Michaels, she doth honour him in his Archangel.

On the Apostles, she doth honour him in his Ambassadours.

On the Evangelists, she doth honour him in his Chroniclers.

On S. Stephen, she doth honour him in his Martyr.

On S. John the Divine, his day, she doth honour him in his beloved Disciple, who also leaned on his breast at Supper.

It is a great Error in the Worship of God, to be altogether for Prayer, and to make no esteem of the Preaching of the Word of God, both must not be severed one from the other.

1. FOr if it be said of Christ that his House is an House of Prayer, and not of Sermons; We must observe where he spake this: it was in the Temple where he spake it: And were not these very words part of a Sermon, which he Preached to the Buyers and Sellers there.

2. He hath but little skill in the Language of Canaan, who knoweth not that Prayer, and Invocation of Gods Name, is in the Scripture by a Synecdoche, taken for the whole Worship of God, Acts 2.21. Rom 10.13.

3. Yet admit that our Saviour should in that place take Prayers strictly for that part of Gods Worship, which consisteth in lifting up our hands to prefer our Petitions, and Supplications unto him; S. Paul furnisheth us with a direct [Page 237]answer to this Objection, even by those Questi­ons he propoundeth, Rom. 10.14. How then shall they call on him on whom they have not believed? How shall they believe on him of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a Preacher?

4. As there is no powerful Preaching without Prayer to God for a blessing upon it, so no good Prayer without Preaching, to direct both in the matter, and form, and to enflame our hearts with zeal.

How the Magistrate is to carry himself toward Seducing and Seditious Hereticks, that are not Tolerated in a State.

1. LEt it be accounted Mercy, not to execute the Rigour of Penal Statutes upon silly seduced Sheep; But certainly it is cruelty to spare the Wolves which worry them.

2. I mean those Wolves who plot Treason against their Natural Prince, who scandalize the State; and who stain with impure breath the Gold and Silver Vessels of the Sanctuary, who turn Religion into Statism, or rather into A­theism.

3. Such Wolves are in England, the Popish Priests, and the Jesuites.

4. Who not onely shew their Rage in not spa­ring our Sons, and our Daughters, and daily enticing them, and by their Agents conveying [Page 238]them over beyond the Sea, to sacrifice, not their bodies, but their souls, their Faith, their Religion to the Moloch of Rome.

5. But besides who plot the ruine and over­throw of the State, who say as the Children of Edom, in the day of Jerusalem, down with it, down with it, even to the ground; or rather up with it, up with it to the trembling Aire; blow up King, Queen, Prince, Parliament, Clergy, Laity, Nobility, Gentry, Commons, Lawes, Statutes, Charters, Records all in a Cloud of fire, that there remain not so much as any Cin­dars of them upon the Eearth; lest parhaps the Phenix might revive out of her own Ashes.

We must not in England frequent Hereticks, Se­ducers, nor keep familiar society with them; ra­ther we must fly from them, and detect them to the Magistrate, when they be banished from the Countrey.

1. WE must beware in England of the Agents of Rome, Priests, and Jesuites, who go about to withdraw us from the love of our Countrey, from our Allegiance to our Prince, and which is worst of all, from the true and pure Worship of God.

2. If stealing away the bodies of our Sons and Daughters, be so hainous a crime, that ma­ny conceive it better to deserve the Gallows, then the stealing of a Horse, or of a Sheep: what [Page 239]punishment do we suppose they do deserve, who steal away their souls from God, and their hearts from their Parents?

3. If we account them as capital Enemies who seek the ruine of our Estate, can we esteem otherwise of them who seek the utter ruine, and overthrow of our Souls.

4. And let us not be deceived in regard of them, because their outward behaviour is fair, and their company delightful; For as they are Panther like, which hideth her ugly visage, which she knoweth will terrifie the Beasts from coming near her, and allures them with the sweet smell of her body, but as soon as they come within her reach, she maketh a prey of them.

5. Therefore as we tender the Salvation of our Body and Soul, our Estate in this Life, and in the Life to come, let us take heed how we play at the hole of the Cockatrice; And do fa­miliarly converse with the great Whore, or with any of her Minions, lest they draw us to naugh­tiness, and spiritual lewdness.

6. Let us have no part with them, that have no part in God, or who have part with abomi­nable Idols.

7. Nay furthermore, let us detect such Per­sons to publick Authority, that they may learn not to blaspheme the truth of our Religion, nor seduce his Majesties Subjects from their Allegi­ance unto him, and conformity to his Laws.

Of the Contentions, and Differences, which hap­pens in the Church about Religion.

1. IT is the craft and practice of Sathan, sworn enemy to Christ, and to his Church, to rise and excite Contentions and Differences in the same. He sowes his Tares in the Field of the Lord, and at the coming up of the Heavenly Doctrine, he raises great Fogs, as some do rise, at the rising of the Sun.

2. Which he doth to hinder to his utmost po­wer, the vertue and efficacy of the said Divine Doctrine, and to maintain his Kingdom, which is not destroyed by any thing so much as by preaching of the Word of God.

3. From the beginning of the Christian Church, we have some examples of such differ­ences among the Faithful; Then there was a great controversie concerning the Cere­monies of the Law, Act. 15.5. some thought it needful to keep them, and others were against them.

4 Since Divisions and Differences are also crept in the Churches, which were founded by the Apostles, in the time of Irencus, what con­tention was it between the Eastern and Western Churches, concerning the time of the Celebra­tion of Easter, or Pasch, and how long did it last.

The Eastern Churches maintaining that it was [Page 241]to be kept, as the Jews did the fourteenth day of the Moneth, after the Equinox of the Spring; And the Western onely the Sunday following. In the time of S. Cyprian, the Council of Af­frick, had a belief quite contrary to that of the other Churches. Having decreed that those should be rebaptized, who before had been baptized by Hereticks. Is it not also that which by the craft of the same Enemy is happened im­mediately after the last Reformation of the Church, when then the first Reformers did im­ploy themselves about the Discovery and Refu­tation of the Errors of the Roman Church; on one side the Anabaptists did arise in great num­ber, and with a wonderful fury opposing the Power, and Authority of the Civil Magi­strate.

And on the other side the Sacramentary War did become hot. That is to say, the difference concerning the presence of Jesus Christ in the Eucharist. Is it not besides, that which since some years, we have seen in this Church and State, where the Arminians did trouble the peace of both? And now it is troubled by Ana­baptists, Separatists, Antinomians, and by sun­dry other dangerous Sects.

5. Now when we say that Satan is the cause of the contentions, and differences which hap­pens in the Church; We do not mean that he be the onely cause of them. For it is certain that there are some other.

As, 1. Pride, and Self-love.

And, 2. Ignorance.

1. Pride, and Self-love is a firebrand of con­tention and discord, whereas on the contrary, Humility entertains peace and concord; For Humility seeks the last places, for which there is no debate, and so peace is conserved.

2. Ignorance also is a great cause of contentions and differences; For the Faithful may be igno­rant of many things, and yet be too-confident in their knowledge.

Of the Troubles and Contentions, which happens in the Church about Religion.

1. IT is a thing which is to be noted, that the contentions and differences which happens in the Church, commonly begins by the most weak and ignorant; but who with their igno­rance, are stubborn and obstinate.

2. The reason thereof is rendered by S. Cyril, who sayes that there is nothing more audacious, than ignorance, and that there is none so enor­mous crime, but that it hath the boldness to reach unto it.

3. So do we read, John the third, 25, 26. that the contention which was moved between the Disciples of John the Baptist, and the Jews which followed Christ, did first arise from the Disciples of John who were rude and imperti­nent men; As it is to be seen in the History of [Page 243]the Gospel, and particularly in the Answer of John their Master which he gave unto them.

4. And this is too much confirmed by the Examples of the dangerous contentions moved in these times, by the dangerous sects of Ana­baptists; Of all Sectaries none are so ignorant as they, and yet none so quarrelsome, and who are the first to debate.

5. They are like unto Sarah, Abrahams Wife, who in the difference concerning Hagar, although she was the weakest, and had the wrong on her side, Yet she did rise against A­braham her Husband, and said unto him, the Lord judge between me and thee, Gen. 16.5.

Of the Remedy to the Contentions and Differences, which happen in the Church about Religion.

1. WE read, Acts 15.5, & 6. that the way which the Apostles and the Elders did take to compose the great dissention which was arised touching Circumcision, was to meet in Council, for to consider of this Matter.

2. Which is a commendable way, and most fit to compose differences and contentions, when some are happened in the Church.

3. And therefore which ought to be the way, that the Prince, and Supream Magistrate most use, when some happens in the Churches of his States and Dominions; Then he must assemble a Synod, or Council, as he calls a Parliament [Page 244]to compose the civil differences, and to order the things belonging to the State.

4. So did the Apostles, as hath been said; so did afterwards the Primitive Church; And so did the Antient Emperours, who did desire the Union of the Church which did succeed ve­ry well unto them; For as by the Council of the Apostles was decided and composed the dif­ference concerning Circumcision, and the Ce­remonies of the Law, Acts 15. So the first Council of Nice did condemn the Heretick Ari­us, who denied the Divinity of Christ.

The council of Constantinople did condemn the Heretick Macedonius, who denied the Divi­nity of the Holy Ghost.

The council of Ephesus, did condemn Nesto­rius, who denied the Unity of the Person of Christ.

And the council of Chalcedon did condemn the Heretick Eutiches, who confounded the two Natures of Christ.

5. An Universal council is most useful when it can be called, and assembled; But it is not absolutely necessary for the conservation and maintenance of the Church.

6. And therefore National Churches may commodiously enough be Ruled and Governed, by National Synods.

7. For that cause, and in that regard, the care of the Prince, and Soveraign Magistrate ought to be, that such a National Synod be [Page 245]settled, and established in the National Churches of his Dominions, and States.

Let us be careful to entertain Peace and Concord in the Church of England, and to avoid all Divisions among us.

1. FOr it is the Axiom of our Saviour, That A Kingdome divided against it self cannot stand.

2. It is the Maxim of Philosophy, Omne divi­sibile est corruptibile, which holds in all States and Societies.

3. Lib. 2. Natur. Hist. cap. 105. The Church and the Common­wealth like the Lapis Tirrhenus, of whom Pliny speaketh, while they are whole, swim in all waters, but if they be broken into Factions, or crumbled into Sects and Schisms, they will soon sink, if not drown.

4. After the Donatists had made a Faction in Affrica, as they brake the unity of the Church, so they were broken themselves into divers fra­ctions. And so in a short space came to nothing.

5. The Division among the Britains of this Nation brought in first the Saxons, next the Danes, and last of all the Normans.

6. This is a cunning sleight of Satan to divide us one from another, that so he may prevail a­gainst us all.

7. The barbarous Soldiers divided not Christs Coat; shall we rend and tear asunder his Body by Schism and Faction.

8. Religion is the bond of all Society, the strongest Sinew of Church or Commonwealth; O let us take heed that there be no rupture in this bond, nor any sprain in this Sinew.

9. The Husband-man hath sowed good Seed, clean, and picked, in this Kingdome for more than threescore years, and it had fructified ex­ceedingly since the happy Reformation of Reli­gion in these parts; lately the Envious man did sow upon it his Tares: O let Christian Charity pluck them up; or in the defect of it, Publick Authority.

10. We are all one Body, let us have all the same mind towards God; and let us endeavour to the utmost of our power to preserve the unity of the Spirit in the bond of Peace, Ephes. 4.3.

11. That our Spiritual Jerusalem may resem­ble the old Bizantium, the stones whereof were so matched, and the wall built so uniformly that the whole City seemed to be but one stone continued throughout.

12. It was the Honour of the Old Jerusalem; Let it be also of the New, that it is a City at uni­ty in it self, Psal. 122.3.

13. The lines, the nearer they come to the Center, the nearer they are one to another, we cannot be one with God, so long as we are thus divided one against another.

Refutation of this Accusatin of the Jesuites, and other Popish Doctors, that in the Church, and Religion of England, since the last Reformation, have been many Changes and Alterations, and particularly in the Common Prayer Book.

The Popish Doctor.

1. HE first calleth to remembrance the Act of 6. Articles established in the later dayes of King Henry the 8.

2. Which in the beginning of his Son Edward the 6. Reign was straightwaies disanulled, and the Church Reformed.

3. Which Reformation was overthrown in Queen Mary's Reign.

4. And after renewed by Queen Elizabeth.

5. And continued by her Successors unto this day.

Answer of the Reformed.

THis is the Answer that we make to that Ac­cusation.

1. That at the first, when the Lord began to work some Reformation in the Church of Fu­gland, perfection in every Point was not forth­with attained, and established.

2. Which is no marvell, considering both the greatness of the work, and the malice of [...] fold enemies that withstood the same.

3. Yea, if in the Common Prayer Book of that Church, alteration hath been, according [Page 248]as to that Church seemed most convenient, that was not in substance of Doctrine, but in matters of Ceremony.

4. Neither can the Popish Doctors charge the Church of England more for changing her Com­mon Prayer Book, then the said can charge the Roman Church for changing and reforming

Her Missales,

Her Portasses,

Her Breviaries,

And a number of such Books, even of late years, in daily and publick use of Service in Her.

Defence of the English Translation of the Bible, against the Contumelies of Jesuites, and other Popish Writers.

Accusation of the Popish Writers.

THe divers English Translations of the Bible, say the Popish Writers, are nothing else but corrupt Gutters flowing from corrupt and stink­ing Lakes, the best containing wicked, horri­ble, and Ethnical Errors.

Answer to that Accusation.


THis is a slander most wicked, horrible, Eth­nical, of all men to be detested, and the Accusers shall never prove any word of their Ac­cusation true; Gregory Martin hath laboured herein, and hath performed nothing.


If the said Popish Writers find fault with us for Correcting our Bibles, let them shew us if they can, that either it is unlawful to Translate the Bible into our own Tongue, or else after it hath been Translated, to reform the Translation in such places wherein some Errors have escaped, or to Translate it again.


No Translation of the Scripture can at the first be so perfect and sincere, but it may be after­wards amended, as God shall reveal to his Church the faults thereof.


Otherwise, if it were any Fault to amend a Fault, why hath the Council of Trent taken or­der for the Correction of the Church of Romes Latine Translation? and for a better Edition thereof to be published, then heretofore hath been.


Yea, why hath Pope Pius Reformed

The Psalters,

The Breviaries,

The Offices,

And such other Books as are in the Church of Rome in greatest use, and estimation.


If this seemed requisite, why may not we look to our Translations likewise, amend the Imperfections, and set forth better?


We add, that we depend not upon any Tran­slation, English, or Latine, or of other Lan­guage, no otherwise then the same agreeth with the Word of God.

EXERCITATION. Refutation of this Accusation of the Jesuites, that in the State of England, great cruelty is exercised against them, and the Seminary Priests, in regard of their Religion.

1. TO that Accusation, the Reformed Doctors do answer; That it is true indeed that some few of the Jesuites, and other Popish Priests have been punished in the State of Eng­land, but they died not for Religion, but were by open Judgment of Law convicted of Treason.

2. In the Raign of Queen Elizabeth, of hap­py Memory, was executed one Everard a Priest sent from the Colledge at Rhemes, into England, who though he was in danger of the Laws many wayes, yet might have had his life; But that impudently at the Bar he uttered things shame­ful, vile, and intollerable, for he boasted him­self, both to be the Subject and Vassal of the Pope, even in England, and affirmed that the Pope was no lesse the Head of the Church of England, then of the Church of Rome; A­vouching further, that he was verily per­swaded, that the Pope did not erre, when he [Page 251]termed Queen Elizabeth an Heretick, and the Patron of Hereticks, and denounced Her no lawful Queen.

Everard was for this confession convicted and condemned, who afterwards as if this had not been enough, in prison professed plainly, and directly, in the presence and hearing of sixteen men of credit, that it was no sin against God to commit Treason against his Prince. Yet for all this he suffered no new and unusual punishment, but the same that all Traytors suffer in England, in the like cause.

3. We leave other Examples.

4. And say generally of all the Jesuites, and Priests, that did suffer in England, that they did not suffer for their popish Religion, but onely for their Treason, and for their perturbation of that State.

§. Great is the Evil and Harm, that the Jesuites and Roman Priests, hidden in England, did cause, and do cause, to that State.

1. THey trouble the peace of it.

2. They corrupt its Children with an impious, and strange Religion.

3. They make more precious account of a forreign Enemy, than of its Dignity.

4. They divert the minds of people from true Religion, to trouble the peace of the State.

5. They estrange the minds of Loyal Sub­jects [Page 252]from their Lawful Prince.

6. And turn all things topsie turvie.

§. In the State of England, as in other States, since the last Reformation of the Church, ex­tream hath been the cruelty of the Papists, to­wards the Reformed.


VVHo are the Papists, and what is their Re­ligion? That the Jesuites and Roman Priests, so boldly object cruelty unto the Re­formed State of England.


1. In Queen Maries time, more of them were condemned in that State at one Sessions, more executed in one day, more consumed in one fire, then they can recount to us to have been put to death for the Popes cause, at any time, or by any kind of death, in the whole happy Reign of Queen Elizabeth.

2, Let the Jesuites and other Papists, then but call to mind the extream cruelty, the exqui­site Tortures, the frequent Martyrdome of the times before the Keign of Queen Elizabeth. And if there be in them any mark of Humanity, they cannot chuse but confesse, that their side hath been extream cruel; And that the Eng­lishes Reformed have been sufficiently provoked to severity against them, and to have repayed them with the like.

3. For what Times can afford such, and so many Butcheries of men, as was to be seen when the Papists were Lords over the Protestants in England, let them tell what Sex, or what Age they spared, and did not bloodily execute all, without difference and distinction.

Of Learned, or Unlearned,

Of Male, or Female,

Of Old, or Young.

Children, Virgins, Married, Clergie, and Laye­tie, Bishops, Archbishops, escaped not their hands. The Martyrs they did beat with Rods, their Tongues they pulled out of their Mouths, their hands they burned off with Torches: They Tormented, Crucified, Hanged, and Behead­ed them, they burned them alive, and toasted them at a soft fire; Yea, the Infant leaping out of the Mothers belly, they received upon the Spears point, and cast it into the flaming fire: To conclude, whatsoever barbarous cruelty could invent, that they were not wanting to in execution against them.

4. And if their cruelty had ended with the Living, and had terminated in their deaths, it had been lesse; but so raging was their Tyran­ny, that they took up the bodies of Saints in­terred in the Earth, they arreigned them upon a day,

They accused them at a Bar,

They condemned them to Death,

And burned them at a Stake, even exdeed­ing [Page 254]those old Tyrants in Fury and Cruelty.

5. Can they name any one such Savage Fact amongst the said Reformed of England.

6. Or what was he that was put to Death a­mongst them Reformed, whom every good Man that heard of him, judged not worthy of Death threefold more then of Life.

7. Therefore let the Papists acknowledge their own cruelty in the State of England, and accuse not the English Reformed.

§. What the Jesuites did alledge for their Justi­fication of coming in England, against the Laws of that State.

THey did alledge, That they came thi­ther upon commandment of their Supe­riours, according to the Order of that Religion which they professe.

Confutation of such an Allegation.

1. BUt the English Reformed did demand of the said Jesuites, what necessity did lie upon them to obey his Commandement, who had no Authority to enjoin them a Journey, whether they were willing or unwilling to goe.

2. And if that Spanish Soldier Loyola, the first Authour of their Jesuitical Society, were now alive, and should enjoin them to set their Coun­trey on fire, would they obey him? we Re­formed of England are sure they would never command such a foul fact.

3. And yet he might better command, and the English Jesuites execute that, then this Thing for which they did professe that they were then come in England.

4. For whether might it be deemed less to set houses on fire, then to cause the Evils and Harms represented before?

5. Which yet were the Ends of the Jesuites coming, and the Order of their Profession re­quired no less at their hands.

§. The Soveraign Magistrate in the Reformed State of England hath great Reason to Prohi­bite the Books of English Jesuites, and Semi­nary Priests.

1. THe Books of those man are such as it be­hooveth the Soveraign Magistrate to stop their passage.

2. He must of necessity restrain their Books unless he would suffer the State to be stirred to Sedition, the Church in danger of Heresie, and Mens minds filled with cursed Opinions.

3. For if Magistrates ought carefully to pre­vent, lest the infection of the Plague be from other places brought into their Cities, much more care is to be had, that pestilent and perni­cious Books be not openly spread abroad, out of which simple and unlearned men do suck Poyson of deadly Error.

4. Neither is the Reformed State of England [Page 256]the first that have taken this Course.

5. It may be remembred in Queen Maries Time, that they proceeded by Martial Law a­gainst all those with whom any of the Reformed Books were found. If this was in the Reformed of that Time, a matter worthy of Death, so that they were by and by drawn to punishment, as men guilty of High Treason, and that without any Judicial Proceedings; what reason have the English Jesuites and Seminary Priests that are in Rome, Rhemes, and other places abroad, to look that their Books should now have such free li­berty to be every where publickly sold?

Of Heretical Churches, and Religions, Of Heresies, and Hereticks.

1. HEresie is some opinion in matter of Faith repugnant and contrary to the Word of God, being of some chosen out to themselves, and wilfully maintained.

2. And an Heretick is a person wilfully and stiffly maintaining false Opinions against the Scriptures after due admonition.

3. There be three things required to an He­retick; first, that it be an Error about some Ar­ticle of Christian Faith. Secondly, that it be con­trary to the evidence, and clear truth of holy Scripture soundly, and generally held by the holy Catholick Church of God in the earth. Thirdly, that it be stoutly, and obstinately main­tained, [Page 257]after conviction and lawfull admoni­tion.

4. The Doctors of the Roman Church do erre, which account such Opinions for Heresies as are not condemned, but rather taught in the Word of God, which is the onely Rule of saving Truth.

5. It is to be noted, that Heresies are com­pared in Scriptures to whores; because they are stored with cunning pranks, and a thousand en­tisements to make men ill advised to swerve from the right way. See Revel. 14.4.

6. As on the contrary in the said Scriptures simplicity of Faith is called Virginity. See 2 Cor. 11. v. 2.

7. The Difference which is between Heresie and Schisme, is as the Difference which is be­tween Faith and Charity. Heresie is the Poyson of Faith, and infecteth the Doctrine thereof: Schisme is the wound of Charity; and by which the Church is divided; which Division is not for points of Faith, but for the Ceremonies and Discipline of the Church received and establish­ed in her since a long time, and well grounded upon the Word of God: and that by a Spirit of contention and trouble to purchase the glory of some particular, and extraordinary wisdome and sufficiencie.

8. Hereticks are called Antichrists, 1 John 2. v. 18. because they are fore-runners of the great Antichrist, the man of sin, and the Son of Perdi­tion.

Heresie is a most dangerous thing, and spreads soon over the whole body of the Church, and produceth woful Effects.

1. HEresie like a Canker soon spreads over the whole body of the Church.

2. And if it be not looked into killeth, and that eternally, thousands of Souls; breaketh the bonds of nature, and cutteth asunder all si­news of humane society; putteth enmity, vari­ance; and implacable discords in Families; sow­eth Seeds of Sedition in the State; reacheth Daggers, and Daggers to Subjects to assacinate the Sacred Persons of the Lords Anointed; lay­eth Traines in the deep Vaults of disloyal hearts, to blow up Parliaments; and to offer whole Kingdomes for an Holocaust.

Of the Impudency of Error and Hereticks in these Times.

IN this wretched Time, Error and Hereticks, which were wont but to whisper men in the Eare, and to mumble between the Teeth, have been so bold as to step into the Pulpit, and to belch out blasphemies against God, and the true Chri­stian Religion.

Concerning the Books of Hereticks; whether they are to be tolerated, or absolutely abolished by the Prince.

1. Concerning the Books of Hereticks, this is our Judgement, that of them,

1. Some are Magicall.

2. Some are Defamatorie Books.

3. Some are Blasphemous Books.

4. And some are Books full of divers Errors.

2. The Magicall Books are to be burned Acts 19.19.

3. The Defamatory Books are to be forbid­den; The Emperours Constitutions do ordain a Capital Punishment for the Authors of them.

4. The Notoriously Blasphemous Books of Hereticks are also to be abolished.

5. Concerning the Books of Hereticks, which containe divers Errors, the reading of them is not to be permitted to every one; and chiefly not to those who did not yet sufficiently know the grounds of true Faith, and Religion.

6. But for that they are not absolutely to be abolished; but the reading of them is to be per­mitted to the Learned.

7. Which we prove by the following Argu­ments:

The first is taken from the Apostles Injuncti­ons; Prove all things, saith S. Paul, 1 Thes. 5.21. And S. John 1. Epist. 4. v. 1. Brethren helieve not e­very [Page 260]Spirit, but try the Spirits whether they be of God.

The 2. Argument is taken from the Commo­dities and Utilities which proceeds from the reading of such Books. In the Books of Here­ticks such things are written, by which the Here­sies themselves are confuted. Besides, it is profi­table to know what is happened in every Age.

The 3. Argument is this, Which of the Fa­thers hath been free from all kind of Errors: And in the Books of the Gentiles, and of the Jews many things are contained contrary to the true Christian Faith, and yet we do not abolish them.

Hereticks, and Deceivers, and Impostors grace themselves with high and strange Titles, and glorious Names to blear the eyes of the simple.

1. THeudas said he was some great one; Simon Magus stiled himself the great Power of God; Montanus arrogated to himself the Title of Paracletus the Comforter; and to his three Minions, Priscilla, Maximilla, and Quintilla, the names of Prophetesses: Manes bare himself as if he were an Apostle, immediately sent from Christ.

2. Therefore it is a silly shift of a bankrupt Disputant in the Schools to argue à vocibus ad res, from the bare name of things to their nature; and yet Bellarmine fights against us with this Festraw, De Not. Eccles. We are Sir-named Catho­licks, therefore we are so.

The Devil often maketh of women strong Instru­ments to dispread the Poyson of Heresie.

1. SImon Magus had his Helena;

Marcion his female Fore-runner;

Apelles his Philumena;

Montanus his Maximilla;

Donatus his Lucilla;

Elpidus his Agape;

Priscillian his Galla;

Arius the Prince his Sister;

Nicholaus Antiochenus his Feminine Troops, and Quires; and all Arch-hereticks some Strumpets or other to serve them for Midwives, when they were in Travel with Monstrous and mis-shapen Heresies. Thou sufferest the woman Jazabel.

We must avoid the familiar company of Gods Ene­mies, and of true Religion, for fear of Infection.

1. FOr such enemies are like Jacobs Poplar rods, they are like the two Rivers in Mercator, Axius and Aliacmon; like the two Fountains in Spain, whereof Maginus;

1. Omnia Injecta respuit, refuses all that is cast into it.

2. Omnia injecta sibi assimilat, makes all things cast into it like to it self.

2. The danger is noted by Solomon, Prov. 6.27. And by the sharp speech of Jehu the Pro­phet [Page 262]to Jehosaphat, 2 Chron. 18.3. 2 Chron. 19.2.

3. Therefore is the Exhortation of the Apo­stle, Wherefore come out from amongst them, and touch no unclean thing, 2 Cor. 6.17.

4. If Saint John the Evangelist would not stay in the Bath with Cerinthus the Heretick, shall we dare freely to communicate with worser Hereticks?

Of the Chief Errors of the Socinians.

1. Their Errors concerning the Ʋnity of the Di­vine Essence, and the Trinity of Persons.

THey deny the Trinity of Persons.

They deny the Divinity of the Son.

They say that the Birth of the Son is altogether impossible.

They deny the Divinity of the Holy Ghost.

They denie that the Holy Ghost is a Person.

They maintain that the Holy Ghost is onely the Power of God.

They teach that the Holy Ghost dwelling in the hearts of the Faithful is nothing else but a firm and certain hope of Eternal Life.

They deny that a particular operation of the Holy Ghost be required for the production of Faith.

They deny also that in God there be a certain natural Justice and Mercy.

2. Their Errors concerning Christ the Mediatour.

THey deny that there be two Natures in Christ, the Divine, and the Humane.

They deny that Christ is risen from the Dead, by his own power, and vertue.

They deny that Christ by his Death, did sa­tisfie for our sins, or that he be dead, to merit Salvation unto us.

They deny that Christ hath reconciled us un­to God.

They deny that Christ be come to fulfil the Law for us; on the contrary, they say, that Christ hath added new Commandments to the Law.

They deny that Christ upon the Altar of the Cross, did offer himself to God for us.

They deny also that Christ was a Priest, before his Ascention in Heaven.

They deny that by the Sacrifice of Christ, any other thing is to be understood, than a de­liverance from our Necessities.

They deny that Christ doth properly inter­ceed for us; And they say, that by the Inter­cession of Christ, nothing else is to be under­stood, but that Christ hath from God, the Po­wer by which he doth work.

3. The Errors concerning the Image of God, con­cerning the first Sin of our first Parents, and concerning the Strength of Free-will, which yet is remaining in Man.

THey deny that Adam was made in Immor­tality, they say, that the Image of God after the Fall, is yet remained in Man, and that this Image was nothing else than the Dominion of man over the other Creatures.

They deny Original sin.

They deny that by sin, the Natural gifts of Adam could be corrupted; And much lesse, those of his Posterity.

They say, that it is now as much in our power to render obedience to God as it was before the Fall.

They say that naturally there is in all a free will to obey God: By the help of God necessa­ry unto us to do good, they say that nothing else is to be understood, than Gods threatnings, and promises outwardly propounded unto man.

4. Their Errors concerning the Law.

THey teach that Christ hath added some pe­culiar Commandments to the Moral Law, and them of two kinds; So that some are in re­gard of Manners. And some in respect of Ce­remonies.

They deny that the promise of Eternal Life was added to the Law of Moses.

They say that in the Old Testament, it was also lawful to pursue that which regarded Vo­lupties, and Pleasures, which now is forbid­den in the New.

5. Their Errors concerning the Gospel, and con­cerning Justification.

THey say, that in the Old Testament, there was another means to be saved, than there is in the New.

They denie that the Faith of the Faithful, in the Old Testament, had a regard to Christ. They oppose the free Mercy of God, by which we are Justified to the merit of Christ.

6. Their Errors concerning the Sacraments.

THey denie that Infants are to be Baptized. They denie that Baptism, be a perpetual Sacrament of the New Testament.

They acknowledge none other end of Bap­tism, than this, that in the beginning of Christi­anism, those that were converted, did profess by this outward Ceremonie, that they did ac­knowledge Christ to be the Lord.

They denie that in the Lords Supper, the Bo­dy of Christ be received, yea, not Spiritually.

They denie that Faith is confirmed by the use of the Lords Supper, or that at all any Spiritual good be there received.

They say that the Words of the Lords Supper, are to be understood Typically; Namely in this Sense, the breaking, and eating of Bread, is the signification of that which is to happen to my bodie. The pouring and drinking of Wine, is a signification by which is set, as before the eyes, what is to be done with my blood.

7. Their Errors concerning the Church.

THey denie that Purity of Doctrine, to be a Mark of the Church.

They say that it availeth but little, to be soli­citous concerning the Signes of the true Church.

They denie that a peculiar Vocation, be re­quired in the Ministers of the Church.

The abovesaid Errors, or rather Furors, are short waies to Mahumetism, and to Hell; and do shew manifestly that Satan hath discharged in those Vessels of wrath, a sink of divers Here­sies: Satan I say, the enemie of Christ, and of the Godly, which is cursed for ever with all his Organs.

Of the Errors of the Anabaptists, who in the be­ginning of the last Reformation of the Church, did trouble the Empire of Germany.

1. THe Anabaptists then were divided in many Sects, of whom some maintained more [Page 267]Errors, and some less, but all of them did pro­fess such Doctrines, that they could not be suf­fered and tolerated,

Neither in the Church,

Nor in the State,

Nor in the Families.

1. These be the Errors of the Anabaptists which could not be tolerated in the Church.

1. THat Christ did not take his flesh & bloud from the Virgin Mary, but brought them down from Heaven.

2. That Christ is not a true God, but onely that he is above the Saints that are in Heaven; because he did receive more gifts of the Holy Ghost than any one of the Saints.

3. That our Justice before God doth not con­sist in the onely merit of Christ, but in Renova­tion, and also in our own righteousnesse, in which we are to walk.

4. That Infants not Baptized are not sinners before God, but righteous, and innocent. And that in such an innocency, having not the use of reason, they are saved without Bap­tisme; of which Baptisme, according to their opinion, they have no need: And by this means the Anabaptists do reject the whole Doctrine concerning Original Sin; and all the rest also which dependeth from the same.

5. That Infants are not to be Baptized until they have got the use of reason.

6. That the Children of Christians, because they are born of Christian & Faithful Parents, even be­fore they have received Baptism, are truly Saints, and to be ranked in the number of Gods Chil­dren; for which cause also, neither do they much esteem the Baptisme of Infants; neither do they take care that Infants be Baptized, which is a­gainst the expresse words of the Divine Promise, For it belongeth onely to those who keep the Cove­nant of God, and do not despise the same.

7. That that Church is not a true Christian Church in which some sinners are yet to be found.

8. That no Sermons are to be heard in these Temples, or Churches, in which sometimes the Popish Mass was celebrated.

9. That a godly man ought to have no com­merce or communication at all, with those Mi­nisters of the Church, who teach the Gospel according to the sense of the Confessions of the Reformed Churches, and who reprove the Er­rors of the Anabaptists.

That it is not lawfull to serve, nor to be bound to such Ministers of the Church, but rather that they are to be shunned and avoided.

2. These be the Errors of the Anabaptists which were Intolerable in the State.

1. THat the Office of Civil Magistrate under the New Testament, is not a kind of life pleasing, and acceptable unto God.

2. That a Christian man cannot in good Con­science perform the Calling and Office of Ma­gistrate.

3. And that the Subjects also ought not to implore the help of the Magistrate to the end that he should exercise the Power which he hath received from God for the Defence of the said Subjects.

4. That a Christian man cannot with a good Conscience take an Oath; neither by any Oath, promise, fidelity and obedience to his Prince and Soveraign Magistrate.

5. That under the New Testament a Magi­strate cannot with good Conscience condemn to Death the Criminal Persons, nor cause them to be put to death.

3. These be the Errors of the Anabaptists which could not be suffered in the Families.

1. THat a godly man cannot with an entire Conscience, retain and enjoy that which [Page 270]belongeth unto him, but that he is to make common whatsoever means he hath.

2. That a Christian man, without wronging his conscience, cannot exercise Marchandise, nor Cookerie, neither make Armes.

3. That it is lawful for Wives to divorce themselves for different Religion, and to marry with another Person, which shall not differ in Religion.

The Spirit is not without the Word, and must be examined by the Word of God, against Ana­baptistical Enthusiasts.

TRy the Spirits, whether they be of God, or no, by the Word of God, 1 Joh. 4.1. To the Law and to the Testimony, saith the Prophet Esaiah, if they speak not according to this Word, it is because there is no light in them Esa. 8.20. And if we, saith the Apostle, or an Angel from Heaven preach unto you any other Gospel, than what ye have received, let him be accursed. Gal. 1.8. That is, saith S. Augustine, than what is contained in the Prophetical, and Apostolical writings. August. contr. tit. Petil. lib. 3. c. 6.

Of Schism, and Schismaticks.

1. SChisme, is a Dissention, or Separation, when one or more separate, and rent them­selves from the outward fellowship of the Faith­ful, [Page 271]cutting asunder the Peace, and Unity of the Church, upon some dislike of some Rites and Orders therein lawfully received and obser­ved, or else upon different Opinions about their Teachers.

2. As Heresie is a departing from the Commu­nion of the Church in respect of Doctrine, so Schism, is a cutting off ones self, for External things. An example hereof we have, 1 Cor. 1.10. &c. In these words, every one of you says, I am Pauls, I am Appollos, I am Cephas, and I am Christs.

3. There are two kinds of Schism, one is Simple and without any conjunction of Error in Doctrine; The other is Mixt, that is to say, that it is conjoined with some Error in Doctrine.

4. It is not the Separation that makes the Schism, but the Cause of the said Separation, as the Doctors of the Cannon Law do teach.

5. This cause of Separation, must not be the corrupt Life and Manners of some Members of a particular Church, but onely Errors, Heresies, and Idolatry.

6. In this regard the Reformed Churches, are not Schismatical; Because, for such a cause they have separated themselves from the Roman Church.

6. It is rather the Roman Church which is Heretical, and the Pope Head of the same, be­cause they have given the cause of the Separa­tion by their Heresies, their Idolatry, their [Page 272]Persecutions, and their Tyrannie.

8. Before this Separation of the Reformed from the Roman Church, there hath been great Schismes in her by the plurality of Popes which she had at the same times.

9. There hath been also many Schisms in the said Roman Church by the Division of her Do­ctors.

10. The Reformed Church do wish the Con­vocation of a lawful Council to reform the Er­rors and Abuses of the Roman Church.

11. Besides the Roman Church, other Churches have been Schismatical; as that of the Dona­tists, and of the Novatians, who for some Faults of some Members of the Church, did sepa­rate themselves from the Communion of the Church.

13. There is a great danger in Schisme, al­though it be not as great an evil as Heresie, and therefore the remedy must be applied unto it as soon as it doth appear.

Of the False Religions in general, and conjointly. • 1. Of Pagans and Gentiles; , • 2. Of the Modern Jewes; , and • 3. Of Turks and Mahumetans; which are all Enemies of the Church of God. 

1. Of Pagans and Gentiles.

1. THe Pagans and Gentiles are ignorant of the true God, & of the truth of his Word.

2. And among them some are found, who not by consequence, and as if they did not mind and mean it, but by expresse profession do worship the Devil, builds Temples unto him, and ren­der unto him Religious Worship.

2. Of the Modern Jewes.

THe Modern Jewes, which are now scattered among the Nations of the Earth, are virulent enemies of Christ, and of his Church; for ha­ving persecuted the Saviour during his Life, they injure him, and blaspheme against him after his Death.

3. Of the Turks and Mahumetans.

THe Turks and Mahumetans do preferre their Mahumet to Christ, and do follow the per­nitious Doctrine which the Alcoran doth pro­pound unto them.

Of the False Religion of the Ancient Pagans, in particular.

1. THe Principle, and the Rule of the true Re­ligion, is the Word of God.

2. The Marks of the true Religion are,

  • 1. The true knowledge of the true God.
  • 2. The true Worship of the true God.
  • 3. The true Mean of Mans Reconciliation with God.

3. Let now every one consider well whether all that is to be found elsewhere than in the An­cient Judaical Religion, and in the true Chri­stian.

4. Truely not among the ancient Pagans:

1. For instead of a Word of God which en­lightneth us to Salvation, there were but Am­biguous, Vain, Frivolous Oracles, which did not speak, neither of the Glory of God, nor of Mans Salvation.

2. Instead of the true God among them onely were found Devils, Men, and Idols.

3. Instead of a sufficient Mediatour, they on­ly had Washings which pass not further then the skin; Slaughters of Men; Sacrifices of poor wretched condemned for their Crimes.

5. How could there have been a true Reli­gion among the said Pagans, since they did not know, nor had the true God? how could there have been among them an assured and certain Religion, since the true God did not speak un­to them? and how could there have been a sa­ving Religion among them, since the true God did not intervene in it?

What differences there are between the true God, and the false Gods of ancient Pagans and Gentiles.

THe true God is stiled the Living God, in op­position to the Heathen Idols, which were without Life, Sense, or Motion.

1. They had eyes, and saw not; ears, and heard not; hands, and handled not: whereas the true God hath no eyes, yet seeth; no ears, yet heareth; no hands, yet worketh all things.

2. The Heathen Idols were carried upon mens shoulders, or Camels backs, as the Pro­phet Esay excellently describeth the manner of their Procession, Esa. 46.1, 2, 3. But contrari­wise the true God beareth his Children, and sup­porteth them from the womb, even to their old age, and gray hairs.

3. The Heathen Gods, as S. Augustine obser­veth in the Siege of Troy saved not them that worshipped them, but were saved by them from Fire and Spoile; whereupon he inferreth, what folly was it to worship such Gods, for the preservation of the City and Countrey, which were not able to keep their own keepers; but the true God preserveth them that serve him, and hideth them under the shadow of his wings.

Of the great multitude and diversity of the Gods, acknowledged and worshipped by the Pagans.

1. THe Assyrians worshipped as many Gods as they had Towns.

2. The Persians had as many Gods as there be Stars in the Heaven, and Fires on Earth.

3. The Greeks had as many Gods as they had Fancies.

4. The Aegyptians had as many Gods as [Page 276]they Sowed, or planted Fruites, or as the Earth brought forth Fruites of it self.

5. To be short, the Romans in conquering the World, did conquer all those Vanities, and they wanted not wit, to devise others of their own brain.

Let us learne by this what the Gods of the Pa­gans and Gentiles were.


1. IT is written of Ewhemere of Tegea, That, the cause why he was called an Atheist, was for that he wrote the true History, and Genea­logie of the heathen Gods.

2. Shewing that they were Kings, Princes, and great Personages.

3. Whose Images being kept for a Remem­brance of them, were turned into Idols.

4. Their High and worthy Doings into yearly Gamings.

5. And their Honourings into Worshippings.


1. ANd Seneca writes in his Book of Super­stition, that the Gods, as he saith, which were called inviolable and immortall, were dumb and senceless Images, disguised in the shapes of Men, of Beasts, and of Fishes, and some in ugly and ill favoured Monsters.

2. That the Daemones, which were the De­vils, which possessed those Images, did require worse things for their service, then the horriblest Tyrants that ever were.

3. As that men should Gash themselves, Maime, and Lame themselves, Geld themselves, and offer to them in Sacrifice, Men, Women, and Children.

Seeing the Romans brought into Rome, the Gods of all the Nations, whom they had conquered; It is demanded how it happened, that the God of the Ancient Jewes, which was the true, and the onely God, and none other did find no place there.

1. CIcero, in his Oration for Flaccus, answer­eth; That that beseemed not the Majestie of the Empire.

2. But in his conscience, did Bacchus, Anu­bis, Pryapus, and their shameful Nightwakes, and Mysteries, celebrated in the Dark, yeild Renown to the State of the Empire?

3. Nay, if he will say the Truth, they knew that the God of Israel, and none other, was the true God.

4. And that for the harbouring of him, it be­hoved them to drive away all the rest.

5. And they had for so long a time, fed the people in Idolatrie, that they were afraid, as many Princes also, to be cast and driven away by their Subjects, in receiving their rightful Lord.

They were Devils who were worshipped by the Pa­gans, under the Name of their false Gods.

1. THe Gods of the Pagans were men.

2. Under the Names of those men, the Devils made themselves to be worshipped.

3. The Devils to get credit, and to autho­rize themselves, did borrow the Name of men, and very often the Names of most wicked men.

4. And in their Oracles, when they were asked what they were, they said that they were those men.

5. As for Example, he that was worshipped at Delphos, said he was the Son of Latona, Escu­lapius said, he was the Son of Apollo, and Mer­cury said, he was the Son of Jupiter, and of Maja, as we read in their Oracles rehearsed by Porphyrius.

6. Now what honest man doth not make diffi­cultie, for never so great gain, to make use of the Name of a wicked man; Nay, who doth not abhor the Name, and the very remembrance of such an one.

7. And who then will not conclude that those Devils were worse then those wicked men, who would win credit, clothed of the skins of such wicked men.

• 1. The Sybils speak but of one onely God. , and • 2. And do cry also against the false Gods. 

1. IT is disputed among the Learned, by what Spirit the Sybils did speak, because it is [Page 279]not unconvenient that God should compel the very Devils to set forth his Praises.

2. Howsoever it be, they speak but of one onely God, saying, There is but onely one true God, right, great, and everlasting, Almighty, and Invincible, which seeth every thing, but cannot be seen himself of any fleshly man; Lactantius lib. 1. cap. 6.

3. Also they cry out against the false Gods, and exhort men to beat down their Altars, ac­counting them happy who shall dedicate them­selves to the glorifying of onely one God.

Among the divers Religions of Pagans, there were some manifestly impious and wicked.

1. SOme worshipping the Creatures in Heaven, yea, and on Earth, as the Aegyptians did in old time, and as the Tartarians do at this day.

2. Some offering up Men in Sacrifices, as the Carthaginians did in old time; and as the We­stern Isles do yet at this day.

3. And other-some permitting things, not one­ly contrary to all Laws, but also even horrible, and lothsome to nature.

4. If all this was good, I pray you what good doth remain, or what evil is there in the World?

Of the False Worship of the Idolatrous Heathen.

1. THe Idolatrous Heathen did render a Reli­gious Worship.

2. And were not content onely to offer Beasts to their Gods, as the Jewes did to the true God, but also they did offer men.

3. For in some places they Sacrifice their Children, as among the Moabites: In others their Fathers, as among the Triballi: Elsewhere their Princes, or Priests, as among the Indians: And in some Countries Themselves, as among the Americans.

4. Yet for all this their throwing themselves into, or causing others to passe through the fire to their Moloch, or Saturn, or Abaddon, they are not to be accounted true worshippers; and such worship is not true, but false.

5. Because what they doe in this kind is not done by Gods Commandement, nor intended to the honour of the true God, but it is in obedi­ence and to the honour of an Idol, or Devil, whom they worship instead of the true God.

Of the Falshood of the Modern Jews Religion, in particular.


THey serve, and honour onely one God, but they soyle with many Fables the Doctrine of the nature of God, and of the Providence which they acknowledge, as it clearly appears by the Fables which are related by Buxtor­fius.


The Modern Jewes seek the means of their re­conciliation in some outward Ceremonies, in [Page 281]Washings, and Purifications, and such other like things, whose Conscience being awaked, they are forced to acknowledge, that by such things the Remorse of the Conscience, and the Sting of Sin, cannot be plucked out from the sinful Man.


1. The Modorn Jews, although it seems that they keep the Bark of the Law, yet they denie the Truth thereof.

3. Besides, they give false Interpretations to the said Law, as it is to be seen in divers places of the New Testament.

4. Moreover, they forge and invent many absurd things, concerning the Messias, and the Kingdom thereof; As also concerning Eternal Life, all contrarie to the Doctrine of the Old Testament.

Of the Religion of the Modern Jews.

In what respects now the Judaical Religion is opposite to Christ.

1. THe Jews Religion is opposite to Christ, in two respects principally.

First, In retaining the old Ceremonies of Mo­ses Law, which were shadows of things to come, Rom. 10.4. Heb. 10.1. and had their accom­plishment in Christ; For that which S. Paul saith concerning Circumcision, is to be under­stood of all other Ceremonies, Gal. 4.9. & 5.2. They which entangle themselves with that Yoke [Page 282]of Bondage under those impotent, and beggar­ly rudiments, are abolished from Christ, and Christ doth profit them nothing.

Secondly, In devising a multitude of strange and new Superstitions, coined in the Mint of their Rabinish conceits, contrary not onely to the Gospel of Jesus Christ, but even to their own Law; Which Deutorologies of theirs, our Saviour condemneth, Mat. 15.3.6. When he saith, That they transgressed the Commandment of God, and made it of none effect, by their own Tradition.

4, Both these waies do the Jews shew their enmitie to Christ, and Christian Religion, and are thereby retained, and encouraged in their Errors.

Jesus Christ is the true Messiah.

1. MAugre all, Christ is the true Messiah.

2. Whatsoever was prophesied of the Messiah, is performed in Christ.

1. Christ came of the Stock of David, and of the Root of Jesse, so should the Messias.

2. Christ was born of a Virgin, so should the Messiah. Christs Star appeared, and the Princes did worship him. Christ was born in Bethlehem. He fled out of Judea into Egypt. The Chil­dren were slain for his sake. He was called out of Egypt, and was called a Nazareth; All which things were prophesied of the Messiah.

3. He had John Baptist his forerunner, and cryer, and that was foretold of the Messiah.

4. He vanquished the Devils, and had the Angels to minister unto him, which was foretold of the Messiah.

5. He called his Disciples, and his Conversa­tion was in Galilee, foretold of the Messiah.

6. His Miracles were altogether Divine, and from the power of God, prophesied of the Messiah.

7. His Preaching and Conversation were in humility and gentleness, foretold of the Messiah.

8. He was reproached, reviled, whipped, and Crucified; foretold of the Messiah.

9. He Rose, and Triumphed; forespoken of the Messiah.

10. He called the Gentiles unto the unity of Faith; fore prophesied of the Messiah.


1. The Messiah must be true God, and true Man; so was Christ.

2. The true time when the Messiah should be born, was when Judea should be subject unto the Romans; Christ was born in that time.

3. The Messiah should be born of a Virgin; so was Christ, as S. Matthew doth witness.

4. The Place where the Messiah should be born was Bethlem; the same is where Christ was born, according to the Evangelists.

5. Things forespoken by Esay, and foretold by David, concerning the M [...]ssiah, were fulfil­led in Christ, as the Preaching of the Apostles, the banding of Pilate, and of Herod; the Kingdome of Christ after the death of the Cross; his [Page 284]sitting at the right hand of God; and the de­struction of the Jewes for killing the Anointed.

6. Also the Prophesies concerning the Mira­cles of the Messiah, concerning the slaughtering of good Men; concerning the Calling of the Gentiles; are accomplished in Christ.

7. Also are the Prophesies of the death of the Messiah, of his Resurrection, and of his Ascention into Heaven.

8. All these things Prophesied of the Messiah, being accomplished in Christ, it follows against the Jewes that he is to be believed, and wor­shipped as the onely Son of God, and Saviour of the world.

The Jewes shall be converted to Christ before the End of the World.

1. THe Scripture hath determined, that this Conversion of the Jewes shall be; that ap­pears Rom. 11.26. And so all Israel shall be saved,

2. But of the day and year of this Conversion the said Scripture hath said nothing.

3. All that we dare say of it, is by way of probability.

4. And it may be comprised in the following Propositions.

1. The Conversion of the Jewes is not as yet past; for though some be here and there con­verted, yet the promise being more general, is not yet fulfilled.

2. It will not be long before the second com­ing [Page 285]of our Saviour Jesus Christ, but toward the latter end of the world.

3. Nor when that day shall be; that is to say, when God will convert this Nation, or come in the Clouds of Heaven to Judge the Earth, no man can tell: It is not for us to know the times and seasons, which the Father hath put in his own power, Acts 1.6.

4. If we say so little of so great a Point, our Apologie is, that of what we know not, we speak not.

5. If any man out of a proud spirit, for osten­tation, shall take upon him to determine the time, we professe that we believe him not.

6. We dispute not whether they shall have a Policy, and shall recover the holy Land, and dwell there; for it is likely they shall never reco­ver it, because we find no such promise.

We must have pity and compassion of the blindness of the Jews, and pray God earnestly, that they may be enlightned with the saving knowledge of God, his Christ, and holy Gospel.

1. FOr if their Case be to be pitied and lament­ed, who through bodily blindnesse run into innumerable mischiefs, and fall at last into a deep gulph without hope of recovery; how much more should we pity and bewail their mise­rable condition, who through spiritual blindness plunge themselves for the present into far greater [Page 286]evils, and at last fall irrecoverably into the Pit of everlasting destruction.

2. Neither let their fury and faultinesse in opposing Christ in his truth and members, lessen our pity, but rather encrease it.

3. For what can they doe otherwise, so long as they are under this heavy Judgement of Spi­ritual blindnesse; who is angry with a blind man because he goeth out of his way, or stum­bleth at every block, or falleth into every pit and ditch? yea, who doth not pity him in all, or a­ny of these miseries, and laboureth not that he may either prevent, or be delivered out of them.

4. And how much more then should we stand thus affected towards those who lie under the punishments of spiritual blindnesse and phrensie, which without all comparison are greater than the other, and much more desperate and durable.

What things from Christians do alienate and de­tain the Jewes from Christianity.

1. IT is on one side the Idolatry of the Papists, they see in Babylon some Sacrifice to Idols, some prostrate themselves before Creatures; and other such Idolatries.

2. And on the other side the Libertinage of the Protestants, and their profane Life, and bad Conversation.

3. For when the Jews do see that the Papists believes not well, and that the Protestants live [Page 287]not wel, it is a Rock of offence to them, that they can approve neither the one, nor the other.

Let us help and set forward the Conversion of the Jews, and how.

1. LEt us to that end endeavour by our pure, and sincere service of God, by our Zeal, by our Godly Life, by our just Dealing, and by our good Conversation, to give light unto the Jews, to provoke them to Emulation, and to win them to Christ.

2. That there may be one Fold, and one Shep­herd, as our Saviour speaks, John 10.12.

3. Let us so behave our selves towards the Jews, as S. Peter taught once the Jews, to be­have themselves towards us, 1 Pet. 2.12.

Have your Conversation honest among the Gentiles, that they by your good works, which they shall see, may glorifie God in the day of their Visitation.

4. Example is very powerful, there is nothing more available to the winning of one that belie­veth not, than the good conversation, and life of him that doth believe; S. Peter teacheth that, 1 Epist. 3.1.

Of the Falsehood of the Religion of Turks, and Mahumetans in particular.


THe Mahumetans have learned of the Christi­ans, to serve and honour onely one God; But they soil with many fables, the Doctrine of the Nature of God, and of the Providence which they acknowledge, which appears by their Alcoran.


The Mahumetans seek the means of their Re­conciliation, in some outward and foolish Cere­monies, in Washings, and Purifications, and such other like things, whose conscience being awaked, they are forced to acknowledge (as we have said also of the Jews) that by such things, the Remorse of the Conscience, and the Sting of Sin, cannot be plucked out from the sinful Man.


Among the Turks.

1. Pluralitie of Women,

2. Private Vengeance,

3. The Murther of Brethren by their Emperour, are things in recommendation, and praised.

4. That which they hold concerning the Life to come, relishes nothing but the Fable.

5. They make their happiness, to consist in the satisfying of their Carnal lusts.


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