Brethren in Iniquity: OR, THE CONFEDERACY OF PAPISTS with SECTARIES, For the Destroying of the True Religion, as by Law Establish'd, plainly detected. WHEREIN Is shewed a farther Account of the Romish Snares and Intrigues for the Destroying the True Reformed Religion, as Professed in the Church of England, and Established by Law, and for the Introducing of Popery or Atheism among us; clear­ly shewing from very Authentick Writers and Testimonies, That the principal Ways and Methods whereby the Papists have sought the Ruine of our Religion and Church, from the Begin­ning of our Reformation, to the present Times, and by which they are still in hopes of compassing it, are by promoting of To­leration, or pretended Liberty of Conscience; and that for above these Sixscore Years the Papists have so craftily Influenced our Dissenters, as to make them the unhappy Instruments of ef­fecting their most pernitious Designs, which they contrived for the Subverting our Church and State.

Every Kingdom divided against it self, is brought to desolation: and every City or House divided against it self, cannot stand,

Matth. xij. 25.

Now I beseech you, Brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences, contrary to the Doctrine which ye have learned, and avoid them: For they that are such, serve not the Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches, deceive the hearts of the simple,

Rom. xvi. 17.18.

These be they which separate themselves, sensual, having not the Spirit,

Jude i. 19.

LONDON Printed, and are to be sold by Randal Taylor, near Stationers-Hall, MDCXC.


  • TWO very remarkable Letters, the one from Sir Will. Boswell, the other from Archbishop Bram­hall; shewing how much the Sectaries were Influenc'd by Papists, to take off the Life of King Charles I. and to Embroil the Church, &c. pag. 1, 3.
  • Dr. Peter du Moulin's Narrative, which confirms the Pa­pists contriving the Death of King Charles, and their putting Phanaticks upon the Execution pag. 6
  • Part of Father Sibthorp's (a Jesuit) Letter, shewing their Intrigues with the Sectaries, for the raising of Broils in Church and State pag. 12
  • Mr. Richard Baxter's Discovery and Confession of the Pa­pists insinuating themselves among the Sectaries, for the restoring of Popery pag. 14
  • Several material Collections to the same purpose, out of the Writings of the Learned Dr. Stillingfleet, now the Right Reverend Bishop of W. pag. 17
  • Archbishop Whitgift's Opinion, That the Papist's befriend the Puritans pag. 19
  • Archbishop Grindall's fear of Popery and Atheism being promoted by them pag. 20
  • Campanella's and Father Young's Advice of bringing in Po­pery, by means of Toleration, and help of Phanaticks pag. 22
  • Coleman's and the Lord Viscount Stafford's Confession of bringing in Popery by Toleration, and the Phanaticks help pag. 23
  • [Page]Bishop Saunderson's Opinion how and in what Phanaticks befriend Papists. pag. 26
  • Some Verses to the same purpose ibid.
  • The Judgment of Nine Learned Presbyterian Divines of Toleration pag. 31
  • The Votes and Reasons of the House of Commons, in 1662. against it. pag. 43
  • The Letter of the Presbyterian Ministers to the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, against Toleration pag. 46
  • Sir Francis Walsingham's Letter concerning Severities used against Papists pag. 53
  • Lord Keeper Puckering's Speech to the Parliament, concer­ning the Puritans preparing the way to the Spanish Inva­sion, 1588. pag. 59
  • What good Effects the Penal Laws wronght, and the Acts of Ʋniformity, in bringing People to Church, when duly executed pag. 60
  • Bishop Burnet's Reason why the Penal Law's wrought no more good, in making People generally conformable to the Church pag. 62
  • Arshbishop Whitgift's Character of the Puritans turbulent Spirits ibid.
  • King Charles I. his Memorial of the great Numbers of Papists in the Parliaments Army, and of the Papists and Phanaticks Confederating pag. 63
  • An Ingenuous and very true Account of the Dissenters com­bining with the Popish Party, in the late Reign of King James II. against the Church of England pag. 64

A LETTER OF THE MINISTERS Of the CITY of LONDON, Presented the First of January, 1645. to the Reverend Assembly of Divines sitting at Westminister, by Authority of Parliament, a­gainst TOLERATION.
To our Reverend, Learned, and Religious Bre­thren, the Prolocutor, and the rest of the Di­vines assembled, and now sitting at Westmin­ster by Authority of Parliament, these present.

Reverend and beloved Brethren,

WE are exceedingly apprehensive of the desirableness of the Church's Peace, and of the pleasantness of Brethrens Ʋnity, knowing that when Peace is set upon its proper basis, viz. Righteousness and Truth, it is one of the [Page 47]best possessions, both delectable and profitable; like Aaron's Ointment, and the Dew of Hermon. It is true, by reason of different lights and different sights among Brethren, there may be dissenting in opinion; yet why should there be any se­parating from Church Communion? The Church's Coat may be of divers colours, yet why should there be any rent in it? Have we not a touchstone of Truth, the good word of God; and when all things are examined by that word, then that which is best may be held fast; but first they must be known and then examined afterward. If our dissenting Brethren, after so many importunate Entreaties, would have been per­swaded (either in zeal to the Truth, or in sincere love to the Church's Peace and Ʋnity among Brethren, or in respect to their own reputation by fair and ingenuous dealing, or in con­science to their promise made with the Ministers of London now five years since, or any such like reasonable consideration) at last to have given us a full Narrative of their Opinions, and grounds of their Separation, we are perswaded they would not have slood at such a distance from us as now they do: But they chose rather to walk by their own private lights, than to unbosom themselves to us their most affectionate Brethren, and to set themselves in an untrodden way of their own, ra­ther than to wait what our covenanted Reformation, accor­ding to the Word of God and Examples of the best Reformed Churches, would bring forth. But the offence doth not end here, it is much that our Brethren should separate from the Church, but that they should endeavour to get a warrant to authorize their separation from it, and to have liberty (by drawing Members out of it) to weaken and diminish it, till (so far as lies in them) they have brought it to nothing; this we think to be plainly unlawful, yet this we understand is their present design and endeavour. Wherefore (Reverend Brethren) having bad such large experience of your Zeal of God's Glory, your care of his afflicted Church, your earnest endeavours to promote the compleat Reformation of it, and [Page 48]of your ready concurrence with us in the improvement of any means that might be found conducible to this end; we are bold to hint unto you these our ensuing Reasons against the Toleration of Independency in this Church.

I. The desires and endeavours of Independents for a To­leration are at this time extreamly unseasonable and prepro­perous: for,

1. The Reformation of Religion is not yet perfected and setled among us according to our Covenant. And why may not the Reformation be raised up at last to such purity, and perfection that truly tender Consciences may receive abundant satisfaction for ought that yet appears?

2. It is not yet known what the Government of the Inde­pendents is, neither would they ever yet vouchsafe to let the World know what they hold in that point, though some of their party have been too forward to challenge the London Petitioners as led with blind Obedience, and pinning their Souls upon the Priest's sleeve, for desiring an establishment of the Government of Christ, before there was any model of it extant.

3. We can hardly be perswaded, That the Independents themselves (after all the stirs they have made amongst us) are as yet fully resolved about their own way wherewith they would be concluded, seeing they publish not their model (though they are nimble enough in publishing other things) and they profess Reserves, and new Lights, for which they will (no doubt) expect the like Toleration, and so in insinitum. It were more seasonable to move for Toleration when once they are positively determined how far they mean to go, and where they mean to stay.

II. Their desires and endeavours are unreasonable and une­qual in divers regards.

1. Partly because no such Toleration hath hitherto been established (so far as we know) in any Christian State by the Civil Magistrate.

2. Partly because some of them have solemnly profess'd, That they cannot suffer Presbytery; and answerable here­unto is their practice in thoses places where Independency pre­vails.

3. And partly because to grant to them and not to other Sectaries who are free born as well as they, and have done as good service as they to the Publick (as they used to plead) will be counted Injustice and great Partiality; but to grant it unto all will scarce be cleared from great Impiety.

III. Independency is a Schism; for,

1. Independents do depart from our Churches, being true Churches, and so acknowledged by themselves.

2. They draw and seduce our Members from our Congre­gations.

3. They erect separate Congregations under a separate and undiscovered Government.

4. They refuse Communion with our Churches in the Sa­craments.

5. Their Ministers refuse to Preach among us as Of­ficers.

6. Their Members, if at any time they join with us in hearing the Word and Prayer, yet they do it not as with the ministerial Word and Prayer, not as Acts of Church Communion.

Now we judge that no Schism is to be tolerated in the Church,Schisms. [...], 1 Cor. 1.10. 1 Cor. 12.25. Divisions. [...], Rom. 6.17. with 1 Cor. 3.3. Gal. 5.20.

IV. Many mischiefs will inevitably follow upon this Tole­ration, and that both to Church and Common-wealth.

First, To the Church, as,

1. Causeless and unjust revolts from our Ministry and Congregations.

2. Our Peoples minds will be troubled, and in danger to be subverted, as Acts 15.24.

3. Bitter heart-burnings among brethren will be fomented and perpetuated to posterity.

4. The godly, painful and Orthodox Ministry will be dis­couraged and despised.

5. The life and power of Godliness will be eaten out by fri­volous disputes and vain janglings.

6. The whole course of Religion in private families will be interrupted and undermined.

7. Reciprocal duties between persons of nearest and dearest relations will be extreamly violated.

8. The whole work of Reformation, especially in Discipline and Government, will be retarded, disturbed, and in danger of being made utterly frustrate and void, whilst every person shall have liberty upon every trivial discontent at Presbyterial Government and Churches, to revolt from us and list them­selves in separated Congregations.

9. All other Sects and Heresies in the Kingdom will be en­couraged to endeavour the like Toleration.

10. All other Sects and Heresies in the Kingdom will safeguard and shelter themselves under the wings of Indepen­dency, and some of the Independents in their Books have openly avowed, that they plead for Liberty of Conscience as well for others as themselves.

11. And the whole Church of England in short time will be swallowed up with destraction and confusion. And God is not the Author of Confusion but of Peace, 1 Cor. 14.33.

Secondly, To the Common-wealth. For,

1. All these mischiefs in the Church will have their pro­portionable influence upon the Common-wealth.

2. The Kingdom will be wofully weakned by scandals and Divisions, so that the enemies of it both Domestical and Foreign will be encouraged to plot and practise a­gainst it.

3. It is much to be doubted, lest the power of the Magi­strate, should not onely be weakned, but even utterly over­thrown, [Page 51]considering the principles and practices of Indepen­dents, together with their compliance with other Sectaries, sufficiently known to be Anti-Magistratical.

V. Such a Toleration is utterly repugnant and inconsistent with that solemn League and Covenant for Reformation and Defence of Religion, which not only both Houses of Parliament, but also persons of all sorts in both Kingdoms of England and Scotland have subscribed, and with hands lifted up to the most high God have sworn: Which Covenant likewise both you, and we, and those that most earnestly pursue the establishment of this Toleration, have made, (or should have made) in the presence of Almighty God the searcher of all hearts, with a true intention to perform the same as we shall an­swer at that great day, when the secrets of all hearts shall be disclosed. For,

1. This is opposite to the Reformation of Religion accor­ding to the Word of God, and the example of the best Re­formed Churches, Article 1.

2. It is destructive to the three Kingdoms nearest conjun­ction and uniformity in Religion and Government, which might lead us and our Posterity after us as brethren to live in Faith and Love, Art. 1.

3. It is plainly contrary to that extirpation of Schism, and whatsoever shall be found contrary to sound Doctrine, and the power of Godliness, which we have sworn sincerely, really, and constantly to endeavour without respect of persons, Art. 2.

4. Hereby we shall be involved in the guilt of other mens sins, and thereby be endangered to receive of their plagues, Art. 2.

5. It seems utterly impossible (if such a Toleration should be granted) that the Lord should be one, and his name one in the three Kingdoms, Art. 2.

6. This will palpably hinder the Reformation of Reli­gion; Inevitably divide one Kingdom from another, and [Page 52]unhappily make Factions and Parties among the people, contrary to this League and Covenant, of which evil offices whosoever shall be found guilty, are reputed in the words of the Covenant, Incendiaries, Malignants, or evil Instru­ments, to be discovered, that they may be brought to publick Trial, and receive condign Punishment, Art. 4. and 5.

These are some of the many considerations which make deep impression upon our Spirits against that great Diana of Inde­pendents, and all the Sectaries so much cried up by them in these distracted times, viz. A Toleration, A Toleration. And however, none should have more rejoiced than our selves in the establishment of a brotherly, peaceable and Christian Accommodation; yet this being utterly rejected them, we cannot dissemble how upon the forementi­oned grounds, we detest and abhor the much endeavou­red Toleration. Our bowels, our bowels are stirred within us, and we could even drown our selves in tears, when we call to mind how long and sharp a travel this Kingdom hath been in for many years together, to bring forth that blessed fruit of a pure and perfect Reformation, and now at last, after all our pangs, and dolours, and expectations, this real and thorough Reformation is in danger of being strangled in the birth by a lawless Toleration that strives to be brought forth be­fore it.

Wherefore (Reverend and beloved Brethren) we could not satisfie our selves till we had made some discovery of our thoughts unto you about this matter, not that we can har­bour the least jealousie of your zeal, fidelity, or industry in the opposing and extirpating of such a root of gall and bitter­ness as Toleration is and will be, both in present and future ages; but that we may, what lies in us, endeavour mutually to strengthen one anothers resolutions against the present growing evils, and that our Consciences may not smite us ano­ther day for sinful silence, or sluggish deficiency in any point [Page 53]of duty tending to the Glory of Christ, Honour of the Truth, Peace of the Church, Perfection of Reformation, Perfor­mance of our Covenant, and benefit of present and succeeding Generations.

Subscribed by us your affectionate Bre­thren, and Fellow-labourers in the work of the Ministery, to whom Truth and Peace is very precious.

Sir Fr. Walsingham's Letter to Monsieur Critoy, concerning the Queen's Proceedings against both Papists and Puritans.


WHereas you desire to be advertiz'd, touching the pro­ceedings here in Ecclesiastical Causes, because you seem to note in them some Inconstancy and Variation, as if we inclined sometimes to one side, and sometimes to another; and as if that Clemency and Lenity were not used of late, that was us'd in the beginning: All which you imputed to your own superficial Ʋnderstanding of the Affairs of this State, having, notwithstanding Her Majesty's doing in sin­gular Reverence, as the real Pledges which she hath given unto the World of her Sincerity in Religion, and of the Wisdom in Government, well meriteth.

I am glad of this occasion, to import that little I know in that Matter unto you, both for your own Satisfaction, and to the end you may make use thereof, towards any that shall not be so modestly and reasonably minded as you are.

I find Her Majesty's Proceedings to have been grounded upon two Principles.

The one, That Consciences are not to be forced, but to be won and reduced by force of Truth, with did of Time, [Page 54]and use of good means of Instructions and Perswasion.

The other, That Causes of Consciences, when they exceed their bounds, and grow to be matter of Faction, lose their Nature, and that Sovereign Princes ought distinctly to punish their Practices and Contempt, though coloured with the pre­tences of Conscience and Religion.

According to these Principles, Her Majesty coming to the Crown, utterly disliking the Tyranny of Rome, which had used by Terrour and Rigour to settle Commandments of Mens Faith and Consciences; tho', as a Princess of great Wisdom and Magnanimity, She suffered but the Exercise of one Re­ligion; yet her Proceedings towards the Papists was with great Lenity, expecting the good Effects which Time might work in them; and therefore Her Majesty revived not the Laws made in the 28th. and 35th. of her Father's Reign, whereby the Oath of Supremacy might have been offered at the King's pleasure to any Subject, so he kept his Conscience ne­ver so modestly to himself, and the refusal to take the same Oath, without further Circumstances, was made Treason. But contrariwise, Her Majesty not liking to make Windows into Mens Hearts and secret Thoughts, except the abundance of them did over-flow into overt and express Acts or Affirma­tions, tempered Her Law so, as it restraineth every mani­fest Disobedience, in impugning and impeaching, advisedly and maliciously, Her Majesty's Supream Power, maintaining and extolling a Foreign Jurisdiction: And as for the Oath, it was altered by Her. Majesty, into a more grateful Form: The hardness of the Name and Appellation of Supream Head, was removed, and the Penalty of the refusal thereof, turn­ed only to disablement to take any Promotion, or to exercise any Charge, and yet of Liberty to be reinvested therein, if any Man should accept thereof, during his Life. But after, when Pius Quintus Excommanicated Her Majesty, and the Bulls of Excommunication were published in London, where­by Her Majesty was in a sort proscribed, and that thereupon [Page 55]as upon a principal motive or preparative, followed the Re­bellion in the North, yet because the ill Humours of the Realm were by that Rebellion partly purged, and that she feared at that time no foreign Invasion, and much less the attempt of any within the Realm, not back'd by some potent Power and Succour from without, She contented her self to make a Law against that special Case of bringing in, and publishing any Bulls, or the like Instruments; whereunto was added a Prohibition, upon pain, not of Treason, but of an inferiour degree of punishment, against the bringing of the Agnus Dei's, and such other Merchandice of Rome, as are all known, not to be any essential part of the Romanists Religion, but only to be used in practice, as Love-tokens, to inchant and bewitch the Peoples Affections from their Allegiance to their natural Soveraign. In all other Points Her Majesty continued her former Lenity: But when about the Twentieth Year of Her Reign, She had discovered in the King of Spain an intention to invade Her Dominions; and that a principal part of the Plot, was to prepare a Party within the Realm, that might adhere to the Fo­reigner; and that the Seminaries began to blossom, and to send forth daily Priests, and professed Men, who should by Vow taken at Shrift, reconcile her Subjects from their Obe­dience, yea, and bind many of them to attempt against Her Majesty's Sacred Person; and that, by the Poison which they spread, the Humours of most Papists were altered, and that they were no more Papist in Conscience, and of Soft­ness, but Papist in Faction: Then were there new Laws made, for the Punishment of such as should submit them­selves to such reconcilements, or renunciation of Obedience. And because it was a Treason carried in the Clouds, and in wonderful Secrecy, and come seldom to light, and that there was no presuspicion thereof so great, as the Recusancy to come to Divine Service, because it was set down by their Decrees, that to come to Church before Reconciliation was [Page 56]to live in Schism; but to come to Church after Reconcile­ment, was absolutely Heretical and Damnable. Therefore there were added Laws containing punishment Pecuniary, viz. such as might not enforce Consciences, but to infeeble and impoverish the means of those about whom it resteth indifferent and ambiguous, whether they were reconciled or not: And when, notwithstanding all this provision, the Poison was dispersed so secretly, as that there was no means to stay it, but by restraining the Merchants that brought it in: Then, lastly, there was added a Law, whereby such sedi­tious Priests, of new Erection, were exiled; and those that were at that time within the Land, shipped over, and so com­manded to keep hence upon pain of Treason. This hath been the proceeding, though intermingled, not only with sundry Examples of her Majesty's Grace towards such as in her Wisdom she knew to be Papist in Conscience, and not Facti­on and Singularity, but also with extraordinary mitigation towards the Offenders in the highest degree, committed by Law, if they would but protest, that if in Case this Realm should be invaded with a Foreign Army, by the Pope's Authority, for the Catholick Cause, as they term it, they would take part with her Majesty, and not adhere to her Enemies.

For the other Party, which have been offensive to the State, though in another Degree, which named themselves Reformers, and we commonly call Puritans, this hath been the proceeding towards them. A great while, when they in­veighed against such abuses in the Church, as Pluralities, Non-residence, and the like; their Zeal was not Condemned, only their Violence was sometimes Censured. When they refused the use of some Ceremonies and Rites, as Supersti­tious, they were tolerated with much Connivency and Gen­tleness; yea, when they called in Question the Superiority of Bishops, and pretended to a Democrary in the Church; yet, their Propositions were here considered, and by con­trary [Page 57]Writings debated and discussed; yet all this while, it was perceived that their Course was dangerous, and very popular: As, because Papistry was odious, therefore it was ever in their Mouths, That they sought to Purge the Church from the Reliques of Papistry; a thing acceptable to the People, who love ever to run from one extream to another.

Because multitudes of Rogues, and Poverty was an Eye­sore, and a dislike to every Man; therefore they put into the Peoples head, That if Discipline were planted, there should be no Vagabonds nor Beggars, a thing very plausible: And in like manner they promised the People, many of the impossible wonders of their Discipline; besides, they opened to the People a way to Government, by their Consistory and Presbytery; a thing, though in consequence no less preju­dicial to the Liberties of private Men, than to the Sove­raignty of Princes, yet in first shew very Popular. Never­theless this, except it were some few that entered into extream contempt, was born with, because they pretended in dutiful manner to make Propositions, and to leave it to the Provi­dence of God, and the Authority of the Magistrate. But now of late Years, when there issued from them that affirmed, the consent of the Magistrate was not to be attended; when under pretence of a Confession, to avoid Slander and Impu­tations, they combined themselves by Classes and Subscripti­ons, when they descended into that vile and base means of defaming the Government of the Church by ridiculous Pas­quils; when they began to make many Subjects in doubt to take Oaths, which is one of the fundamental Parts of Justice in this Land; and in all places, when they began both to vaunt of their strength, and number of their Partizans and Followers, and to use Comminations that their Cause would prevail, through Ʋproar and Violence; then it appeared to be no more Zeal, no more Conscience, but meer Faction and Division: And therefore, though the State were compelled [Page 58]to hold somewhat a harder hand to restrain them than be­fore, yet was it with as great moderation, as the Peace of the State or Church could permit. And therefore, Sir, to conclude, consider uprightly of these matters, and you shall see Her Majesty is no more a Temporizer in Religion: It is not the success Abroad, nor the Change of Servants here at Home, can alter her; only as the things themselves alter, She applied her Religious Wisdom to Methods correspondent unto them, still retaining the Two Rules before mentioned, in dealing tenderly with Consciences, and yet in discovering Faction from Conscience, and Softness from Singularity. Farewel.

Your loving Friend, Fr. Walsingham.

The Learned Dr. Burnet, now the Right Reverend Bishop of Sarum, first published this Letter in the second Part of his Hi­story of the Reformation, Pag. 418. and had he joined it to his Preface of Persecution before Lactantius his Book of the Death of Persecutors, it would have vindicated the Proceedings against Dissenters in the Reign of King Charles II. from the odium of Persecution, when the Laws were so justly and deservedly Execu­ted against them, for their insolent provocations.

This Sir Francis Walsingham was sometime before a Friend and Favourer of the Puritanical Party, and therefore he is not in the least to be suspected of doing them wrong, in the Account which he hath given of their unruly, boisterous Carriage to the Government.

The Lord Keeper Puckering gave the like Account of their ungovernable Temper, and how dangerous they were to the Government, in his Speech to the House of Lords, by Queen Elizabeth's Command, which you have in the following Page.

Lord Keeper Puckering's Speech.

IN the day of Queen Elizabeth the Puritans as well as Papists, persecuted her Majesty so vigorously, that they thereby open'd the door, and prepared the way to the Spanish Invasion, and al­though they were very troublesome, and made a noise with their great numbers, which would arise by disobliging them, which were implicite threatnings, to awe her Majesty into a favourable compliance with their insolent demands, yet even in that critical time, when she was inviron'd about with potent Enemies from abroad, she was nothing terrified with the impetuous clamours of these domestick Foes, nor would she stoop so much beneath the Honour and Dignity of the Government as to condescend, even in that juncture of time, to their unreasonable as well as un­godly desires. And though they had also great favourers of them at Court, as the Earl of Leicester, Sir Francis Walsingham and others, that were ready to plead in their behalf, yet would not her Ma­jesty be prevail'd upon in favour or out of fear of them, to doe the true Religion and the Church so much wrong as to grant them any Indulgence. She did not like the Hobbian Politicks of the pre­sent age, nor would she adventure upon the displeasing of God and the making him her enemy, to gratifie them and gain their Friendship, by establishing so great a sin as Schism or Toleration is, but having a good Cause and trusting in God for a Blessing on it, she was so far from giving them any Indulgence, out of fear of their great numbers, of which they boasted not a little, that she proceeded against them with greater courage and reso­lution, and immediately before the Spainish Invasion, she moved the Parliament against them, and gave order to the then Lord Keeper Puckering to warn the Parliament not to hearken to them: which accordingly he did in his speech, in the house of Lords in the following words.

— Especially you are commanded by her Majesty to take heed, that no ear be given, nor time afforded to the weari­some Sollicitations of those that are commonly called Puritans, wherewithal the late Parliaments have been exceedingly im­portun'd, which sort of men, while in the giddiness of their Spirits, they labour and strive to advance a new Eldership, [Page 60]they do nothing else but disturb the good repose of the Church, and the Common-wealth, which is as well grounded for the Body of Religion it self, and as well guided for the discipline as any Realm that professeth the Truth. —And as the pre­sent case standeth it may be doubted, whether they or the Je­suits do offer more danger, or be more speedily to be repres­sed. For albeit the Jesuits do empoison the hearts of her Majesty's Subjects under a pretext of Conscience, yet they do it but closely and only in privy corners, but these men do both publish in their printed Books, and teach in all their Conven­ticles, sundry opinions, not only dangerous to the well set­led State and Policy of the Realm, by putting a Pique between the Clergy and the Laity, but also much derogatory to her sa­cred Majesty and her Crown, as well by the diminution of her antient and lawful revenues, and by denying her highness Pre­rogative and Supremacy, as by offering peril to her Majesty's safety in her own Kingdom. In all which things (however in many other points, they pretend to be at War with the popish Jesuits, yet) by the Separation of themselves from the unity of their fellow Subjects, and by abusing the sacred Authority and Majesty of their Prince, they do both join and concur with the Jesuits in opening the door and preparing the way to the Spanish Invasion that is threatned against the Realm.

And 'tis worth the observation, says Dr. Heylin in his History of the Preshyterians, pag. 280. That the Puritans were then most busie, as well in setting up their Discipline, as in publishing rai­ling and seditious Pamphlets, when the Spaniards were hovering on the Seas with their terrible Navy; at what time they con­ceived and not improbably, that the Queen and Council would be otherwise busied, than to take notice of their practices, or sup­press their doings; or rather that they durst not call them into question, for their words or actions, for fear of alienating the af­fections of so strong a party as they had raised unto themselves. The serious apprehension of which mischievous counsels prevail'd so far on Leicester and Walsingham that they did absolutely re­nounce any farther intercession for them, professing that they had been horribly abused with their Hypocrisie. And it is as obser­vable, that their so much boasted of great numbers immediately did abate when the Laws were executed upon them, and they presently submitted as soon as they did perceive that the Govern­ment [Page 61]would no longer trifle with them and endure their inso­lencies. So likewise as Dr. Tompkins observes in his Pleas for Toleration discuss'd; It happened in King James I. his days, their loud clamours were presently silenced as soon as ever the King declared himself resolute at the Conference at Hampton-Court. Nor would the Act of Uniformity made in the Year 1662, have had any less effect, if it had not been accompanied with a general discourse at the same time of a Toleration to follow im­mediately upon it, the hopes of which hinder'd many Nonconfor­mists from conforming. However the awe of this Act, and the le­vying sometimes a Shilling for absenting from the Church, wrought ry good effects; insomuch that in most places, where Fanaticks did greatly abound, they were reduced to conformity, and in a great City of this Nation, containing fourteen Parish Churches, as a Divine of good note that lived in it, hath publish'd to the World, there were not above six or seven that absented from the Church, till the Popish and Fanatick interest, in Conjunction together, procured a Toleration in 1672, which drew them a­way from the Church again; but upon the cancelling of that mis­chievous Indulgence, and the using of a little severity in levying from some few of them, their Shillings for absenting from Church, they repair'd as formerly to their Parish Churches, and a Dissen­ter was very rarely to be found. So that although King Charles the second in his Indulgence, declared, that in twelve Years the Severities of the Laws, had not work'd the desired end in bring­ing Dissenters to close with the Church of England, and that King James the second in his Declartion for Toleration asserts, That all the endeavours that have been used in the last four reigns, for bring­ing this Kingdom to an Ʋnity in Religion have been ineffectual, it was not because the means were defective or insufficient, for the wor­king this design, but because the Laws which were enacted for this purpose were so much neglected, or so often intermitted, which if they had been steadily or constantly put in execution, would have thoroughly cured the Nation of Divisions, but when they were only upon some short and sudden fit put in execution, and such frequent Connivences and Indulgences given afterwards, to countenance and impower the Ring-leaders of the several Sec­taries, to seduce from the Church, and to propagate and in­crease their Parties, it could not be expected that the dissenting Parties should close with the Church. And as the Learned Dr. Bur­net, [Page 62]now the Right Reverend Bishop of Sarum, well notes, in his reflections on the Declaration for Liberty of Conscience. pag. 3. We can see no reason to induce us to believe that a Toleration of Religion was proposed with any other design, but either to divide us, or to lay us asleep for the destroying us. The Popish Party, as he rightly says, Since Queen Elizabeth's gentle reign, has been ever restless, and has had credit enough at Court, during the three last reigns, not onely to support it self, but to distract and divert us, by somenting of our diffe­rences, and by setting on Toleration, &c. and as he further judici­ously observes, while such (intermitting) Methods were used, and the Government as in an ague divided between hot and cold sits, no wonder if Laws so unsteadily executed, have failed of their effect.

But if the Government shall think it sit to imitate that prudent excellent Princess, and in instead of shewing any fear of the Dis­senters, put the Laws moderately in execution against them, we shall no doubt in a short time find the good effects of it, in the happy uniting them to the Church of England, to the great dis­appointment and grief of the Papists. And till this be done we can expect no other than Confusion and disorder in the Church and Distraction in the State. And the Book that was written in the Oliverian days by a learned Presbyterian, intituled, Wholesome Severity reconciled with Christian Liberty, licenced by Ja. Cran­ford, will justifie such a proceeding against the several sorts of Dissenters, and vindicate it from the odious Imputation of Perse­cution. In which Book there is this memorable sentence, That Liberty of Horesie and Schism is no part of the Liberty of Conscience, which Christ hath purchased for us, but that under these fair colours, and handsome pretexts, Sectaries infuse their poison, their pernitious, God-pro­voking, Truth-defacing, Church-ruinating, and State-shaking Toleration.

The Character which the Great and good Arch-bishop Whit­gift gave of the turbulent Spirits of the Puritans, is very conside­rable, in a Letter of his to the Privy Council, which was occasi­on'd, by a Paper of some Suffolk Ministers. ‘True it is, saith he, they are no Jesuits, neither are they charged to be so, but notwithstanding they are contentious in the Church of England, and by their Contentions, they minister occasion of offence to those which are seduced by Jesuits, and give the Sacraments against the Form of publick Prayer, us'd in this Church and by Law establish'd, and thereby increase the number of them, and consirm them in their willfulness. They also make a Schism in the [Page 63]Church, and draw many other of her Majesty's Subjects to the misliking of her Laws and Government in Causes Ecclesiasti­cal; so far are they from perswading Men to Obedience; or, at least, if they perswade them to it, in the one part of her Authority in Causes Civil, they disswade them from it, as much in the other in Causes Ecclesiastical; so that, indeed, they pluck down with the one hand, that which they seem to build with the other.’

And is is truly observed by Doctor Tompkins, in his Pleas, &c. Pag. 141. That notwithstanding all the Zeal which the Non­consormists doe declare against Popery, it is well known, that they have, and (as their Interest leads them) can still, join both Coun­sels and Arms together. The leading Men of both Parties in Ireland, were wonderfully great together, all the while that the Design was managing against the Earl of Strafford. And here in England, in the Declaration which King Charles I. set forth, concerning the Success of the Battel at Edgehill, on Octo­ber 23. 1643. he hath left this Memorial to all Posterity. All Men know the great member of Papists which serve in their Armies, Commanders and others; the great Industry to corrupt the Loyalty and Affection of all our loving Subjects of that Religion; the private Pro­mises and Ʋndertakings that they have made to them, That if they would assist them against us, all the Laws made in their prejudice should be repealed.

The Popish Party also, used the same perswasive methods in the late Days of King James the Second, to allure the Dissen­ters to join with them, for the pulling down the Established true Religion, and how effectually this Bait was swallowed by them, and into what a hellish Confederacy these two Brethren in Iniquity enter'd together for the Destruction of the Church of England, their many scandalous Addresses, and other their libellous Invectives against the Church of England (which were stuffed with the most inveterate Hatred, Rancour and Malice that Hell could devise against it) do abundantly testifie; nor can I better express suitably to their deserts, how foolishly as well as criminally, they acted in those Days, inconsistent with Prudence, Honesty, and their former Clamours against Popery and Arbitrary Government. Then, in the Words of a late Author, their Friend and Favourer, who professes a great deal of kindness for them in many Pages of his Book, Entitled, [Page 64] A Representation of the threatning Dangers impending over Protestants in Great Britain, before the coming of his Highness the Prince of Orange. In this Book, notwithstanding the good will he shews to the Dissenters, and his undeserved Censures and Reproaches of the Church of England, which very spitefully do abound in it, yet when he came to consider the Dissenters siding so much with the Papists, and the brave opposition the Members of the Church of England made against Popery, it drew from him smart re­flections on the one, and very high Commendations of the other, according to the just Merits; insomuch that by reason of the Dissenters many flattering Addresses, and their countenancing and defending the King's Arbitrary unjustifiable Proceedings, he says of them, Pag. 44. The World has just ground to say, That the Phanaticks are not governed by Principles, but that the measures they walk by, are what conduceth to the private and personal Benefit, or what lies in a tendency to their loss and prejudice; and that it was not King Charles II. his Ʋsurping an Arbitrary and Illegal Power that offended them, but that they were not the Objects in whose favour it was Exercised. And Pag. 46. he saith this of them, ‘Not­withstanding all the danger from Popery that the Nation was exposed unto, and all the hazard that the Souls of Men were in, of being poisoned with Romish Principles; yet instead of Preaching or Writing against any of the Doctrines of the Church of Rome, they agreed among themselves, and with such of their Congregations as approved of their procedure, not so much as to mention them, but to leave the Province of defending our Religion, and of detecting the falshood of Papal Tenets, to the Pastors and Gentlemen of the Church of En­gland. And being asked (as he knew of some that were) why they did not preach against Antichrist, and confute the Papal Doctrines? they very gravely replied, That by preaching Christ they did preach against Antichrist, and that by teaching the Go­spel they refuted Popery; which is such a piece of fraudulent and guileful Subterfuge, that I want words (bad enough) to express the Knavery and Criminalness of it. It was but the other Day that the conformable Clergy were represented by some of the Dissenters, not only as favourers of Popery, but as endea­vouring to hale it in upon us, by all the methods and ways that lay within their Circles; and yet now the whole Defence of the reformed Religion must be entirely divolved into their [Page 65]Hands: And when all the sluces were pulled up, that had been made to hinder Popery from overflowing the Nation, they were left alone to stem the Inundation, and prevent the Deluge. They, among the Phanaticks, that boasted to be the most avow­ed and irreconcilable Enemies of the Church of Rome, were not only become altogether silent, when they saw the Kingdom pestered with a swarm of busie and seducing Emissaries, but were turned Advocates for that Arbitrary Paper, whereby we were surrendered as a prey unto them; and did make it their Business to detract from the Reputation of the National Ministers, The Members of the Church of England wrote then above 220. Books a­gainst Popery, when there were not above one or two writ by the Non-conformists, as is to be seen in the late Lift or Accompt that was published of them. who with a Zeal becoming their Office, and a Learning which deserves to be admired, did set themselves in opposition to that croaking fry, and did enough by their excellent and unimitable writings to save People from being delu­ded and perverted, if either unanswerable Confutations of Popery, or demonstrative Desences of the Articles and Doctrines of the Reformed Religion, can have any efficacy upon the minds of Men.

And this Author farther saith, ‘Among other fulsome Flatte­ries made to his Majesty by an addressing Dissenter, he found this hypocritical and shameful Adulation, namely, That if there should remain any Seeds of Disloyalty in any of his Subjects, the transcendant Goodness exerted in his Declaratian, would mor­tifie and kill them: To which he might have added with more Truth, That the same transcendant Goodness had admost de­stroy'd all the Seeds of their Honesty, and mortified all their Care and Concernment for the Interest of Jesus Christ, and for the Reformed Religion.’

‘Their old strain of zealous Preaching against the Idolatry of Rome, and concerning the coming out of Babylon, my People, were grown out of Fashion with them— And whosoever should come into their Assemblies, would think, (for any thing that he there heard delivered from their Pulpits) that she, which was the Whore of Babylon a few Years ago, were now become a Chaste Spouse; and that what were heretofore the damnable Doctrines of Popery, were of late turned innocent and harmless Opinions.— And as they are already arrived, to believe a Roman Catholick the best King, so they may, in a little time, [Page 66]come to esteem Papists for the best Christians.’ This and a great deal more to the same purpose you may find in this Book, of smart reflections upon the Dissenters scandalous and abominable wicked Confederacy with the Papists, for the subverting the true reformed Religon.

The Troublers of our Israel being thus plainly manifested to the World, and a true Discovery made in the several Collections, from whence the Evils and Miseries did principally arise, that have befallen our Church, and State, since the days of Queen Elizabeth unto these present times, and which will undoubtedly bring Ruine, Confusion, and Disorder on both, if not seasonably and effectually redressed; for so the Fountain of Truth and Wis­dom tells us, Matth. 12.25. That a Kingdom divided against it self is brought to desolation, and every City or House divided against it self cannot stand? The foregoing accounts are therefore humbly offer'd to the serious perusal of our Church and State-Physicians, the Parliament and Convocation to find out and apply proper means and remedies, for the preventing the farther growth of these mis­chiefs, which not only threaten, but genuinely tend and hasten to the destruction of the true establish'd Religion, and of our Nation.

And that they may zealously go about this good work, and effe­ctually finish it, it is the Interest and Duty of all good Christians to pray for them both, as we are taught in that excellent Form in our Liturgy, ‘That God would be pleased to direct and pro­sper all their Consultations to the Advancement of his Glory, the good of his Church, and the Safety, Honour and Well-fare of their Majesties and Kingdoms. That all things may be so orde­red and setled by their endeavours upon the best and surest Foun­dations, that Peace and Happiness, Truth and Justice, Religion and Piety may be establish'd among us for all Generations.’

And it is no less the Duty of all that profess themselves Mem­bers of our Church, to be sincerely minded, and not to be mock­ers with God, but earnestly to seek and endeavour after the free­ing us from those evils, which we pray to be delivered from, in our Litany, viz. From all Sedition, privy Conspiracy and Rebelli­on, from all false Doctrine, Heresie and Schism, from hardness of Heart, and contempt of God's Word and Commandments; and that after the putting up these Petitions in the Church to the Throne of Grace, that all who profess and call themselves Chri­stians, [Page 67]may be led into the way of Truth, and hold the Faith in Unity of Spirit, in the bond of Peace, and Righteousness of Life; and that God would give to us and all Nations Unity Peace and Concord, and bring into the way of Truth all such as have erred and are deceived, none of us may be found such wretched self-con­demners in our Practice, and wicked Prevaricators with God and the Church, as to act directly contrary to what we pray for, in the promoting of a Connivence, Toleration, or Libertinism, which will establish Schism, propagate and multiply Heresies, breed Discord and Divisions, and will also impower and com­mission Satan to sow his tares and to seduce multitudes from the ways of Truth, Peace, Unity and Righteousness, and when peo­ple are left at Liberty, in matters of Religion, to do what seemeth good in their own eyes, they seldom do what is good in the Lord's eyes, but are laid open to great Temptations of be­ing drawn away into the paths of the most dangerous errors.

Happy is he that condemneth not himself, in that which he alloweth, Rom. 14.22.Be not deceived, God is not mocked; for whatsoever a man soweth that shall he reap, Gal. 6.7.
St. Paul's Prophecy of the Downfal and Suppression of seducing Separatists or Dividers, 2 Tim. 3.8, 9.

Now as Jannes and Jambres (Aegyptian Magicians) withstood Moses, so do these also resist the Truth: men of corrupt minds, repro­bate concerning the Faith. But they shall proceed no further: for their folly shall be manifested as theirs also was.


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