A LETTER TO Dr. Charles Goodall, Physician to the Charter-House; OCCASIONED By his late Printed Letter, Entituled, A Letter from the Learned and Reverend Dr. Charles Goodall, to his Honoured Friend Dr. Leigh, &c. To which is Annexed, An Answer to a Sheet of Paper, Entituled, A Reply to Mr. Richard Boulton, &c. Writ by the aforesaid Honoured Charles Leigh by Name, M. D. Resident in Manchester, not far from the Well near Haigh, and the Well prope Boulton, in Lancashire. By R. BOULTON, of Brazen-Nose College in Oxford.

Nor hath the great Number of those Escaped my Observation, who finding it a much easier Task to Censure—than to write—endeavour to acquire the Title of Judicious, by condemning all things themselves have not written or thought on.
Boyle, Phis. Es. p. 1.

LONDON, Printed for A. Baldwin, 1699.


THE following Sheets containing an Answer to Dr. Goodall's Letter; and also an Answer to a Sheet of Paper writ by Dr. Leigh; I think my self bound to make an Apology to the World upon a double Score: And first, for what I have said in Answer to Dr. Goodall's Letter. And upon this Account, all that I need to say is, that had the Doctor not suffered his Letter to be Printed, I had not Writ or Published what I have; but since he began first, he I hope, or at least the World will pardon me, for Re­lating Matter of Fact so plainly, that they might judge of the Sincerity and Truth of his Letter.

But perhaps there are some, and I hope a great many, that will be unapt to believe the Grounds of the following Relation true; I say, I hope they will be unapt to believe it; because I would not wish them to have the same Reasons to change their Thoughts of him as I have; and that I have fufficient Reason to think the Character I once gave him, rather what I could have wished him to be, than what he is. I conceive the following Certificates, together with his own Letter, will be self-evident Arguments; I have the Copy of his Letter writ by his own Hand, and the Certificate signed and witnessed by the Persons whose Names are Subscribed; so that if any Body should question the Truth, they shall be convinced with those Papers.

As for Dr. Leigh, all the Apology I need to make is, That I beg their Pardon for taking Notice of his Libels, since Envy and Malice needs no other Answer but Can­tempt: And if the Doctor takes such a delight in writing Penny and Two-penny Books, he may look out for some other Adversary, that thinks it worth his while to hearken [Page] to him: I for my Part, shall entertain the same Opinion of him as the World does, viz. That his Remarks are his true and real Representatives.

And here I shall let the World know, that I take so little delight in opposing such Adversaries, that for the future (except I have great Reason for it) I shall leave such as have not the use of their Reason to confute themselves; and shall rather spend my time in making what Improvements I can in the Profession I have made choice of: And as Truth and Reason shall always be the Rules by which I shall write so far as I can, so if I think my self upon that Score con­cern'd to oppose any one that may be mistaken, I shall shew that respect which is due both to their Learning and Cha­racters; but if on the contrary, their Ignorance and Con­tempt of Learned Men, deserves ill Usage, I shall leave it to some body else to gave them their Merit, who shall not think it time mispent to answer them.

I shall conclude this Epistle with this Advertisement, viz. That whereas a Party of Men have imagined, that by Vindicating the Colledge, I opposed them; I profess, that by the Colledge, I meant no separate Party, but all such Members which had not adopted that Doctrine which I writ against; and except they include themselves in that Number, I shall declare that no Party shall engage me fur­ther than Truth and Reason, either for or against any Body; and what is the Product of that small share I have of ei­ther, I shall always submit to the Candid Censure of the Learned; to whom I subscribe my self

Their Most Humble Servant, R. BOULTON.

AN ANSWER TO Dr. Goodall's Letter, Dated Decemb. 6th, 1698. in a Letter to Himself.


I Must confess, it was not without a little Concern and Surprize, that I found a Letter against me with Doctor Goodall's Name to it: I once thought, and had I not evident Reason to the contrary, I should think still, that Doctor Goodall was a Man of more Courage and Honour, (as well as Justice, than to desert a Cause he had once engaged himself in; of more Courage and Honour) I say; because it is an Ar­gument against both, to turn your Back upon what you thought Just; and of more Justice, because it would be unjust to engage your self in Encouraging or Patronizing that, which in your Opinion was not [Page 2] Approved. And give me leave to say, this Letter which Dr. Leigh hath Printed, will, I am afraid, call in Question your Judgment, as well as Honour and Justice; for if in your Judgment you thought my Book was faulty, why did you Patronize it with such Zeal? If the contrary, why should you not have the same Opinion now as before?

At least, Doctor, it had been better to have been Silent, and much more Prudent, than to force me to prove, what in your Letter you deny. It is a thing I confess I am very loth to do, and would not, did I not think my Reputation concern'd in it: For I am yet ready to acknowledge, that I not long since, thought my self very much obliged to you; and as Favours received from any one, shall with me be per­petual Obligations of Respect to them that bestowed them on me; so I would be unwilling to do any thing which should look like Ingratitude to you: For I must beg leave to say, that with me, Ties of Friendship shall be held inviolable, if it lies in my Power; and Obligations I shall ever hold as Sacred. But as the Case now stands, the greatest Respect I can shew you, is to prove the Contents of your Letter in respect of your Reflections false, without that Severity which your Usage of me really deserves; for whatever you may think, I am bold to say, that I shall make it appear that your last Obligations and Favours have made your former of very little value. Therefore to justify my self, and to do you no wrong, I shall answer your Letter in the same Method you have writ it; first re­turning you thanks for the good Character you are pleased to give of my other Books.

[Page 3] The First Words which concern me are these; I— own your Writing to me about Mr. Boulton's Book, as a Particular Favour, he having by no means obliged me by his Rude and Unmannerly Reflections upon you; who I am sensible are not therein treated like a Gentleman or a Scholar. The Language and Reflections I own to be such, as no Man of good Breeding, much less any Censor of the College of Physitians would pass with an Impri­matur. To this, Doctor, I must answer, That as for an Imprimatur to such a thing as that, I never desired it, for there was no need of it, it being an Answer to such Ridiculous Reflections on me, as you were pleased to say at your own Table, were the Rudest and most Malicious that ever you saw in your Life, and that you thought that no Doctor in Physick could write such Stuff: This was your Opinion of Dr. Leigh's Re­marks; and as for my Answer to them, I will certify any Body upon Oath, that you Read the greatest part of them whilst I sat by you, and that when you were weary, I read the remaining part to you; and that you were so far from finding Fault, that you smiled al­most all the while; and not long after gave your fa­vourable Opinion of them to a Learned Man of Mer­ton Colledge in Oxford; this I affirm to be true, with as much Solemnity, as if I were to say it upon Oath. But supposing you had neither approved nor disap­proved the thing, I leave the World to judge, whether you have not much more reason to reflect on Dr. Leigh than me, he having reflected on me, who never was in the least acquainted with him, and consequently could not possibly disoblige him; and as for me, I have only turned his own Dirt upon him again.

[Page 4] The next Words I shall take notice of in your Letter, are these, As to his writing against Mr. Col­batch, I must own that did encourage him thereto, he having so rudely treated the Universities, Colledge of Physitians, and the most Learned Men of our Faculty, and likewise Published and Defended such an Erroneous Hypothesis, and raised such a Dangerous Superstructure thereon, as I fear will prove fatal to many.—Yet notwithstanding Mr. Colbatch hath deserved Ill of Learn­ed Men, &c.—I cannot commend Mr. Boulton' s Treat­ing him in the manner he hath done, which was so far from my Opinion and Good liking, &c. Really, Doctor, I am concern'd for your Reputation, that you should suffer such things to be Printed, which you could not but think highly disingenuous, and contrary to Truth, if not inconsistent with Reason it self: For here you declaim against my way of treating Mr. Col­batch, yet say he hath deserved Ill, his Hypothesis is Erroneous, Dangerous and Fatal to many: Where you Ju­stify what I have done; for if his Hypothesis be Er­roneous, Dangerous and Fatal to many, and deserved Ill; if what I have writ be ill Usage, it is what you here pronounce to be his Merit, though in the following Words you say it is contrary to your Approbation and Good Liking: Which Words, if true, it follows, that your own Opinion is contrary to your own good Li­king; because what I have writ is according to it; and if you fall out with your own Opinion, well may you with mine.

But give me leave to say, my Book is not only Ju­stify'd by what you say now, but was Printed and was Writ or altered according to your good Liking: For before I writ one Word of it, when you enourag'd me [Page 5] to it, I told you, I thought it was not worth my while to take notice of his Books, and that I hated to write in such a manner as it was by some thought he ought to be treated in; but to this you told me, I could not handle him too roughly, or some such Words; and this (to put it into your Memory) you told me as I was walking with you cross Smithfield. Again, you declaimed upon the same Subject coming down Floulborn, where you told me, It would do the Faculty of Physick a great deal of Service; which prevailed with me to gratifie your Humour, though contrary to my own Inclination; I then thinking your Opi­nion preferable to my own, especially in a City where I was almost a Stranger then, and the Temper of which I was then unacquainted with.

But you did not only approve it then, but when I had writ but a small part of it, you gave me leave to Dedicate it to you; for though in your own Par­lor, you seem'd with a Smile to refuse it, yet upon Reading over the Dedication, you were pleas'd with another Smile to accept it, telling me modestly, It was more than you deserved: And really I fear you have given me Reason to think it so; yet, I confess, I am heartily sorry, if I was so much mistaken in you.

But to proceed to your further Good-liking, you not only accepted the Dedication, but read over the Sheets from the Press; and altered or put in what Zealous and Fervent Words you had a Mind; and at the same time approved of them. To convince the World of which, I add these Certificates.

I Whose Name is hereunto Subscribed, do certify, that I carried several Sheets of Mr. Boulton's Book against Colbatch to Dr. Goodall, who read them over whilst I was by; and not only put in several Words, but blotted out what he thought fit, and withal re­peated these Words, This will Maul him: And this I am ready to Testify upon Oath.

Witness my Hand, Edward Midwinter.

I whose Name is hereunto Subscribed do Testify, that I carried several Sheets of Mr. Boulton's Book against Mr. Colbatch to Dr. Goodall's House, and de­livered them to him, one of which, I received back from him my self; several Words being put in according to his Direction: And this I am ready to testify upon Oath.

Witness my Hand, Henry Lloyd.

Besides these Certificates, I could add Two more, were there Occasion, but these I suppose may be suf­ficient, to shew that you approved of them; besides, when the whole Book was Printed, I carried the De­dication to you, which you consented to; nor did you express the least Dissatisfaction concerning the Dedica­tion, when the Book was Published, but only said, there was (to) instead of (of) in one Place.

[Page 7] But you further say, you requested me to read the Learned Mr. Boyle's Book, and to imitate that Learned Author, in my Answer to Mr. Colbatch. Truly, I re­member you were commending Mr. Boyle, and said, He had mauld the Unmannerly Dr. Bently, when I had writ about half my Answer; but I can never think your Judgment so weak, as to have proposed it for a Pat­tern, Since there is no Parallel in the Case; for tho' I remember you said, One might see how a Gentleman could manage a Clown; yet it is on all Hands agreed, that as Mr. Boyle is an Ingenious Man, so Dr. Bentley is a Learned Man, as well as the former; but Mr Col­batch sure is not a Doctor Bentley, tho' you think sit to parallel them, for you say, Mr. Colbatch hath rais'd a dangerous, a fatal, and an Erroncous Hypothesis, but Dr. Bentley hath not; for it is not dangerous or fatal to read any thing about Phalaris.

So that the Circumstances shew there is no Parallel, and consequently it could be no Pattern: And I hope you will not wrong your Judgment so much, as to say, that when a Man runs down Learning as much as he can, the same Measures are to be taken as if he only erred in Criticisms; for one Critick may make Re­marks on another in a different way, by which he may think the World will be set a Laughing, and by that means Ridicule the other: But when a Man, as you say, lays down Notions of a more Dangerous Consequence, and which may be fatal to many, Ridi­cule may set Men a Laughing that understand the Jest, but it will never convince weak and unthinking Phy­sitians; nay, that which is Ridicule to a Judicious Man, is not Ridicule to a Man that Understands not the Unreasonableness of a thing; for such cannot think [Page 8] it Ridiculous till they are convinced it is Erroneous; and though Laughter may make an Impression upon their Lungs, it never influences the Reason of those that think Laughter unreasonable; and though the Weaker sort of Physitians can read a Satyr, and keep the Subject before them in their Thought at the same time, yet Laughter puts them out of a Capacity of Thinking, and consequently of being Convinced. In short, it may make Men Merry for a time, but it never lasts longer than their Lungs are in a violent Motion; whereas a Satyr where it is due, renders the Subject opposed more despicable, and brings a Cloud upon it, without setting the Readers Head a shaking, and rendring the Sight inconstant.

But not to urge at present what might be said in fa­vour of Satyrs, where a Design is to influence the Vulgar, and not to set Learned Men a Laughing, I shall only shew you how much your Proposition of a Pattern was inconsistent not only with Reason, but the Opinion of the greatest Orators that we know of. For Cicero, that Father of Roman Eloquence, in his O­ration pro Sext. Ros [...]io Amerino says, Non in Omneis ar­bitrar omnis convenire, The same Measures are not to be taken upon all Occasions: For as he further says, Haec enim est Causa Nova ac Singularis, This is a peculiar Cause, and therefore must have a peculiar Method in managing of it. Again in his Book, de Oratore, he says, Neque est dubium, quin Exordium dicendi, vehe­mens & pugnax, non saepe esse debeat; No doubt but some­times an Oration ought to begin with heat and earnestness. According to which, in his Oration pro Q. Rossio, he falls upon a whole Body of Men. O! Societatem cap­tiosam & indignam, &c. Again, the same Father of Elo­quence, [Page 9] in his Book of Oratory says, it is the Part of an Orator, Ut inveniat quemadmodum fidem faciat eis quibus volet persuadere, & quemadmodum Motum eo­rum Aninus afferat; It's the part of an Orator to consi­der what Arguments are necessary to gain Assent, and what may move Mens Passions. And I leave it to any candid Judge, whether Laughter or Satyr are more proper, where an Hypothesis is Erroneous, Dangerous and Fatal to many? Whether Mens Lives are to be made Subjects of Laughter, or rather of more Con­cern?

But to proceed to the last Paragraph of your Let­ter: You say, I am truly sorry, that in the Particulars you mention, he hath not only disobliged me, but many others. How many I have disobliged by opposing them, I am not insensible; but as for your self, I can assure the World, it is not by writing against Dr. Leigh, nor Mr. Colbatch, for if it were so, I had disobliged you half a Year ago; for then you had read Mr. Colbatch's Answer; and it is above Four Months since my An­swer to Dr. Leigh was Printed, though for some Rea­sons it was not Published so soon: But you and I have not been fallen out above Seven Weeks; besides, if you had been disobliged with my Writing so against Mr. Colbatch, by the same Reason you would have fallen out with Dr. Leigh, he having writ a Two-Penny Book with worse Language than Mine; and if my An­swer to him disobliged you, his Reflections would have had the same Effect; but instead of that, you are both raised to such a Pitch of Friendship, that you are got to be Reverend, and your Friend, the Honou­red; though before the Reverend fell out with me, the Honoured was unknown to the Reverend altoge­ther.

[Page 10] But further, if my Reflections on Dr. Leigh, or Mr. Colbatch had disobliged you, you'd have disobli­ged your self, for you did not only correct my Book, but Mr. Young's against S [...]lmon, which hath as many Reflections as Mine; and I am afraid that's contrary to your Good-liking by this Time. But sure you'll not turn your Back on Mr. Young, and say it's contra­ry to your Good-liking: No, he's a little Older than I, and you're a little more afraid of his Resentments: But though Young Birds are more easily catched with Chaff than Old ones, yet they are not all so ensna­red, but sometimes they make shift to disintangle themselves. But to proceed,

We are to look for another Cause of your present Obligations, and to seek for another Cause of our fal­ling out, which in short was this. In May last, I re­ceived the following Letters from you, writ both up­on the same Paper. Dated May 26, 1698.

This to Mr. Richard Boulton, of Brazen-Nose Colledge in Oxford.

—As to Mr. Boulton, be pleased to acquaint him, that there is a Work in a certain Part of Natural Hi­story, which he is very capable to perform, and will be both Reputable and Advantageous to him; but that for some Reasons you cannot as yet acquaint him with Parti­culars. But let him disingage himself from all other Studies, reserve himself wholly for this, and come to Town as soon as his Affairs will permit.—

[Page 11] This is a part of the Letter, though the Persons Name is not here to be mentioned; but upon the same piece of Paper, I received likewise the following Lines.


I Thank you for your very Kind and Ingenuous Letter of the 18th Instant; your Gratitude expressed therein, doth highly oblige me, and you may be assured I will do you all the good Offices I can:—Your Printer hath brought but one Sheet since we Parted; if you let me know his Name and House, I will take some Care about the Press, we all give our Service to you. I am

Your Sincere and Faithful Friend, CHARLES GOODALL.

Now from this Letter, it is plain, you were con­cern'd about the Press; but of that enough before. And how far you have been my Sincere or Faithful Friend, I leave the World to judge, who have a Spe­cimen of your Sincerity in this Letter. Upon the Receiving thereof, I came to Town as soon as I could possibly, but too late for what was mentioned in the former part of the Letter; which was to be taken for a peculiar kind of Favour to be sent for from Oxford for nothing; whereas I writ to you the Week before about it. But that it might not be for nothing, you got me to Translate Dr. Groenvelt's Book about Cantharides, into English for you, which to please you, I did. Why you could not answer that Book (for you threatned [Page 12] it mightily) in Latin as well as in English, I will not say. But this was not enough to send for me from Oxford for, but you so tyred me with one thing after another, that I must either spend my time wholly for you, or you would not be pleased.

But you will be apt to say, I am still obliged to you; and truly I am not insensible of your last Obli­gations, since to make Tryal of them, I only deferred Writing some Unreasonable things you desired, upon which the Storms rose, and the Winds blew, and pre­sently untied the Bonds of Friendship.

But since I have made this Relation Publick, it per­haps may be wondered, why I should be your Humble Servant so long, having no more Reason than your sending for me to London, for nothing almost; since to disappoint me, and serve me so handsomly, was none of the most worthy Actions of the Physician to the Charter-House. That this then may seem less strange, I must own, that you made me such Promises of your Interest in Oxford, that I was willing to spend a little time to see the Event; but when I saw you had de­ceived me in that, as well as your Letter to Oxford, I thought it high time to make better use of it, than to consume it with Dr. Goodall.

Thus Sir, I have, I hope, satisfied the World, that you have dealt, if I may be so bold to say so, very disingeniously with me; yet I was willing to say no­thing, had you not Maliciously done me the favour to publish your Spleen against me.

Yet I can easily forgive you; and am from my Heart sorry, that your Reason should be so prevail'd on by the violence of your Passion: But since it is so, and past help, I hope you will pardon this Freedom▪ [Page 13] which you your self have been the Occasion of: And this I will assure you of, though it lies in my Power to say much more to your Disadvantage, I shall not, except you give me further Reason: And I could wish, there were no just Cause given to prevent me from Subscribing my self,

Your Humble, And Obliged Servant, R. BOULTON.


SInce the former Sheets were put to the Press, I am told by several, that Dr. Goodall does own that he consented to the Dedication, and that he won­ders Dr. Leigh should pretend to say, that I presumed to dedicate my Book to him, since it was done with his Consent; and he likewise declares, that he is not a little displeased, that Dr. Leigh should be so unfair, as to print his Letter, without his Consent: But I thank Dr. Leigh for it, because had it not been prin­ted I could not have vindicated my self.

AN ANSWER TO Dr. Leigh, &c.

THAT Doctor Leigh may be satisfied I am the very same Man I ever took my self to be, I have, by Certificates from the Persons who carried my Sheets to Dr. Goodall's House (from the Place where I have lodged ever since I came to London) proved, that Dr. Goodall did correct and approve of my Book; and that he was concerned in it, appears from his Letter sent to me at Oxford: And how disinge­nuously and dishonourably the Doctor hath dealt with me, let the World judge.

But of this I have said enough before; I shall there­fore take a View of what the Doctor hath said, ei­ther against me, or in Defence of himself; in doing which, I shall only lay down Matter of Fact, and [Page 16] leave the World to judge whether I have given him his Answer.

And First in his Title, he calls my last Book, my Last Piece; he calls my Book of the Heat of the Blood, a Piece; so that all I can write in the Language of the Famous Doctor Doctorum Doctor Leigh must needs be Pieces: But I leave it to the World to judge, whe­ther what he writes, be not more like Pieces than Books; for in the first Place he writ a Penny Book a­gainst me; next he writ a Three penny Book against Mr. Colbatch; and now I have got a Two-penny Book again: So that I cannot for the Heart of me, stretch the Doctors Phancy, to write a Book as valuable as a common Almanack; and it's strange that all the Doctor can say against me is not worth more than Two pence in his own Opinion; but perhaps he hath squeezed more Sense into his Pieces than usually sticks in so small a Compass, and therefore I shall examin their Merit.

In his first Piece he hath made Remarks on Pigs, Mice, Elephants, Cheesmongers, Irish-Men, C—w T—d. The Pudenda of a Salt Bitch, Duck-Shot, Roger a Co­verly, the Wise Men of Gotham, the Cuckow and Die­go and his Spanish Geese. And all these wonderful Phaenomena hath he declaimed on, instead of Answer­ing me: But truly in his last Piece, he hath condem­ned himself. And Page the 12th says, They were writ in a Stile too light for the Gravity and Sobriety of Phi­losophy; so that in this, we must expect something like a Philosopher; truly a happy Change: And I hope my last Prescription hath taken effect. But let us see what Alterations it hath wrought. Page 5th, he makes his Observations on Sportive Rattles of [Page 17] unthinking Striplings: Page 6th, He says, a Snail will make a swift New-Market Courser; which may be true, if a Horses Name. Page 7th, he hath coined a New Metaphor, viz. Faeculent Brain, derived from Bog-house, in his first Piece, Page 7th. But Page 8th, He says, if the Lapwing would stay till the Shell dropt off his Head, he might fly: Page 9th. He says, The Crane and the P [...]gmies might have fought about the Knots in a Bull-rush [...]. 10th. He tells us a Story of a Tartar that de­faces th [...] Plains he was foraging in, and straight removes to a [...] Clime: Whence it's evident that his Notions of Feve [...] and Inflammatory Diseases, could not be borrowed from Dr. Willis. A strange Consequence. p. 14th. he says, The Weash-man purchased the Pompion for the Mare's Egg and got never a Colt from it, and these are things not too light for the gravity and sobriety of Philosophy. Strange! how the Dr. Philosophized when he wrote these things of Weight and Sobriety, and how much they differ from the admirable Contents of his first Peice.

But if this be the Dr's Philosophy, unenvied by me may he phylosophize, till he hath gathered enough to compleat his Theory; I for my Part shall leave him to hug and admire his Peices till he is weary; and shall only take notice of what he further dogmatically de­nies in my Book without giving any Reason for it, and what he says for himself.

And First, all that sticks with the Doctor, as to my Books, is, That he cannot See or Taste the Mucilage; which I conceive to be Animal Spirits; and that the Metaphorical Glands which are made up of the Extre­mities of the Vessels, cannot be discerned by Micro­scopes: This is all that the Doctor alledges against my [Page 18] Books, the remaining part of his Sheet being either Enlargements upon the wonderful Stock of Philoso­phy, but just now mentioned, or a Vindication of his own Book.

As to the First, he tells me, I no where prove Ani­mal Spirits to be an Oyly Mucilage; and he asks me, Whether I ever saw it or tasted it? To this I answer, that I have both seen and tasted it; and have already proved the Animal Spirits to be an Oyly Mucilage, in my Book of the Heat of the Blood; and therefore, I shall refer the Reader thither, it not being requisite that I should trouble my self to repeat what is there said, as often as Dr. Leigh shall ask the Question a­fresh.

And since he here says, Their Agility in Voluntary Motion, demonstrates that they do not move slower than Blood; I answer, That it is no Demonstration; for though the Spirits move slowly in the Nerves, yet when they come to be mixed with the Blood, and meet with Particles which are of a different Temper and Tex­ture, they may then become Active, and many de­grees more active than before. So the Particles of Al­kalies and Acids when kept separate in distinct Ves­sels, have not half the Agility and Activity in their Parts, as when mixed together; the Result of their Mixture, if Volatile, being a strong Fermentation, which was in neither of the separate Liquors, And al­tho' Gun-powder be slowly squeezed through a long pipe and out of that falls upon the Fire, yet it's Explo­sion when worked upon by so powerful an Agent, is no argument that the Corpuscles of the Gun-powder were in as violent a Motion before the Explosion; since it's evident that they are not; so that the Spirits [Page 19] may move slowly in the Nerves when kept separate from the Blood, yet be put into a more violent Agi­tation when mixed with it; that Agitation being no Argument of their equal Agility before, but a conse­quence of their Mixture.

But to proceed to his other Objection, viz. That the Metapborical Glands cannot be seen with a Microscope; To this I answer, that by Metaphorical Glands, I mean nothing but a Commixture of the Extremities of Ves­sels, Metaphorical Glands implying no more; which appears from what I have said in my Book of Muscular Motion, to which I shall refer the Reader, it not being necessary to repeat what is there, tho' Dr. Leigh should for Information sake, ask the Question again and a­gain: But that what I have said there, is sufficient to prove, that there are such Glands, I presume unde­niable, till what I have offered with submission to Rea­son, be confuted by it; and then if I cannot maintain it, let it fall: It is Knowledge and Truth I shall ever value above my own Opinion, if it be not so; but if it be, I shall value it as Truth, and only content my self with the satisfaction of contributing my En­deavours to the General stock of Knowledge. But to satisfy the World, that we are not to dis-believe, what I have said of those Glands, because we can­not see them, I shall add a Quotation from the Ho­nourable Esquire Boyle's Works, which will shew him, that there are several Truths in Nature, which we be­lieve, because we have Reason for it; tho' as to Sight they are imperceivable; for that most ingenious and experimental Promoter of useful Knowledge, who was a profound, and one of the greatest of Phi­losophers, in his History of Fludity, Page 189. Sect. [Page 20] XX. admits of Reason to be proof, where the mi­nuteness of Bodies renders them imperceivable: For he says, If it be objected, that the Various and Insensible Parts of Water, and resembling Bodies, wherein we make the Nature of Fluidity chiefly to consist, is but an Ima­ginary thing, and but precariously asserted, since by our own Confession they are so small, that the Particles them­selves, and more, the diversity of their Motions, are imperceptable by Sense, &c. We shall not deny the Ob­jection to be plausible, but must not acknowledge it to be unanswerable. And the like may be said for those Glands; for if we have Reason to believe there are such, we are not to deny what our Reason tells us, because it is not an Object of Sight; and that it is the Smallness of those Glands that makes them to be imperceiptible by Sight is evident, since the best Mi­croscopes will not make the Terminations of those Vessels visible which compose them: Yet I hope no Body will say, that the Vessels have no ends, because they cannot see them: If then we allow what is be­yond Contradiction, viz. That the Terminations of the Vessels cannot be perceived, we must allow that these Glands must be Invisible, because made up of those Vessels which are too fine to be perceived; and that those Vessels do communicate with one another, and consequently make up such Glands I have given such Reasons in my Book, and also laid down such Experiments, that I need not to bring any more till those are deficient.

Having answered all the Doctors Objections against my Book, I shall consider what he says for himself: And First, to pass by all that heap of loud sounding Words, which is vulgarly called Bombast, or Sound [Page 21] without Signification, I shall briefly take notice, that tho' I quoted Doctor Willis, and shewed him that his Notion of Heat was the same with it, as also that Doctor Willis had the same Notion of the Cause of Intermitting Fevers; and tho' I shewed him, that in Dropsies, he mistakes the Effect for the Cause; and that in his Dissertation of Mineral Waters, he only proves what no Body denies; he thinks it an Answer sufficient to deny what is evidently true, and mat­ter of Fact: For he says, he did not borrow his No­tions from Dr. Willis, neither do I say so; but he acted the Plagiary (to use his own Words) or he stole them from him; for those Words he makes use on him­self.

But he says Dr. Willis assigns Fermentation to be the Cause of Heat; and that he assigns Collision; but any Body that knows the least of the Corpuscularian Philosophy, would not think to come off with such mean Evasion, since Fermentation implies Collision, and Collision, which is the Effect of Motion, where it is violent enough, is but calling Fermentation by another Name, since Fermentation and Collision of the Parts of hot Bodies, are significatively the same, tho' different Sounds.

Again, he says, He does not endeavour to prove an Acid in Vitriolated Waters, but that there is a perfect concocted Vitriol; which is as much as to say, he does not argue for an Acid, but for a perfect Acid, since Vitriol is an Acid; so that to prove Vitriolate Waters have Vitriol in them, is to prove Acid Wa­ters have Acid in them; which I suppose none de­nies. But let the Doctor dispute the Case, it's a fine easie Subject for him; he may tell his Country­men [Page 22] such Amusing Stories; and that there is Salt in their Porrage if he will; perhaps he may convince them, by the same Strain, and Vigorous Arguments used at the Well near Haigh, and the Well prope Boulton in Lancashire.

But lest People should [...] Doctor really con­futed, he says very little in vindication of himself, thinking if he should use Arguments, it would make People take Notice of his Faults the more.

Therefore to divert their Observations, he thinks to make a Noise about a Latin Sentence, and Three Latin Words; as if convincing me there, would attone for the whole Notions of Value in his Book, taken from Dr. Willis; but I don't think I need to use any Arguments to perswade Physicians, to believe what I have said, since it is the generally received Opinion that Dr. Leigh hath nothing in his Book of his own worth owning.

But to come to his Scholarship, he tells me I don't understand Latin, and that I must go to School again: Poor good Natur'd Soul! he finds the Good Effects of my last Advice, and by his Quoting of Horace and Virgil, &c. I find he hath been at School, and taken it; and now like a sweet Tempered Gentleman, he would needs advise me to make use of the same Means▪ This had been a Symptom of a good D [...]sposition in Mind, had I not been mightily prejudiced; for there is scarce any Body that finds Benefit by a Medicine, but they usually recommend it to every Body that they have a Respect for, whether they want it or not: Whether I want it or not, I don't pretend to say, but am sure that notwithstanding his Quoting Dr. Lister, I must tell him, pro me, is not so good Latin, as Quod [Page 23] ad me attinet, or Quatenus me refert; but he hath a mind Dr. Lister should be blamed with him, as when Two Children fall out about their Play, the one thinks it hard to be whipped, and the other saved; so he must needs have Dr. Lister in for Two Words at least; with all my Heart, I am not against it; if he must be blamed, when the one hath the Ferula, let the o­ther stand by.

The Doctor is not angry that I find fault with Sic Regero: But let him not be concerned, I only think it a mean Metaphor, and fitter to be used by him in the Genuine Sense of the Word, than Metaphorically. But he cannot let one Sentence pass; I carp at a harm­less Word in proclivi, and say it should be in promptu; but that he may be satisfied in this particular also, I shall tell him I designed it, as an Emblem of his In­genuity; for I did not say in Proclivi was never used, but I meant, that his Thoughts which were in Pro­clivi, ought to be in Promptu; which was as much as to say, they were according to the Aetymology of the Word; i. e. Mean and Weak, instead of easie and fluent; and I only expressed my self so ambiguously, to catch the Doctor; for I knew he'd fall foul upon any Bait; and truly I had a mind to lay up a Reserve to Banter him; for I could not think the Doctor when roused, would have said so little in Vindication of himself.

But again, what shall I do now, he says I fall hard upon Case; and truly his Case is such, that I cannot avoid it; but he brings Cicero, Virgil, Ovid, Horace and Plautus against me, can I oppose them? No, but I can easily shew that they'll oppose him, for tho' he be so Vigorous, these Quotations are against him: For [Page 24] Opinioni haud Natura se Credidit, is false Latin; and to make it appear, we are to consider, that Cicero in his Book, de Oratoriae Partionibus says, Ut in simpli­cibus Verbis, quod non & Latinum; sic in Conjunctis, quod non est Consequens V [...]uperandum est. So that tho' Doctor Leigh hath joined Words, if the Connection be false, the Latin hath no Consequence, and conse­quently is culpable. And where the Sense of Words are not connected, the Sense is broke, and consequently to be blamed. I shall therefore, because he is so zea­lous upon his Sentence, shew him, that the Sense wants Connection, and that none of the Quoted Sentences will help him: For in this Sentence, Opinioni haud Natura se Credidit, the Person is the Accusative Case, and the Thing in the Dative, where if Cre­do be taken in a Grammatical Signification of that Word; it must signifie to believe, and then the English will be, I believe my self to Opinion not Nature. But the Doctor thinks this absurd himself; let us see then what the Authorities avail; The first Instance in Plau­tus which he brings is, credere se Neptuno. The Second is, Credere se Coelo praepetibus pennis, Virgil: The remaining Instances are, Credere suum animum Alicui, Terence, Credere uni omnia, Cicero. Libris Arcana Cre­dere, Horace. Veritus se Credere nocti, Ovid. Now in all these, Credo signifies to Commit, as to commit ones self to the Waves, to commit ones self to the Air, to commit Secrets to Writing, &c. But if one should say, I commit my self to my Opinion, and not to Nature; how incoherent would the Sense be, and ridi­culous. But perhaps the Doctor will say, that Credo may s [...]gnify, I give my self up to my Opinion and not to Nature; if he does, the Sense is not much better; [Page 25] besides, the Word Nature is used so ambiguously, that I cannot tell what he gives himself up to, till he in­forms me, what he means by Nature; for Nature is by some Philosophers, and particularly the Honourable Mr. Boyle, used to signifie the Natural State of Bodies, or their Natural Texture and Modification; but to say a Man gives himself up to the Natural State of Bodies, or their Texture and Modification, must be nothing but Absurdity; and let the Doctor try, if Credo will bear any other English Sense better than what I have mentioned, still remembring to keep the Person either in the Accusative or Dative Case; if he cannot, as I am sure he cannot, the Sentence is false Latin, according to Cicero, because false Sense, and consequently Vituperandum; and not only so, but since Credo is used by Dr. Leigh, in a different Sense from what it is in those Citations, and the Authors Quoted, it is impossible to use the Word Credo in their Sense, so as to make Grammatical Sense of his Latin Words; besides, as Cicero says, there must be a like Conse­quence or similar Signification, to make the Compa­rison good; for it is not placing any Latin Words in the same Cases and Order, that makes them Justi­fiable, except there be a parity of Sense and Rea­son.

But why do I talk of Reason to the Doctor, since no­thing is more Heterogeneous or disagreeable to his Head, than any thing that concerns that Faculty; for my Book of the Heat of the Blood contains nothing, but what I hope I have given Reason for. Upon which Account▪ the Doctor fell out with it, was dissatisfied, and in sine was resolved to shew his Wit; to which I gave an Answer, which I thought most agreeable to such a Philoso­pher; [Page 26] which had so good an Effect, as to bring the Doctor to a very little better Temper. But since I see he will be a Two-penny Author, I was resolved now to talk Reason to him, finding it the properest Method to be revenged on him; for if Reason before made him so mad with me, it may have a stronger Influence, if re­applied to a weak Head.

And now I shall leave the World to judge what's become of Dr. Leigh's Reply, and Dr. Goodall's Letter. As for a Letter of Mine, that he tells me of; he hath taken a great deal of care to mis-represent it, and to make it what he would have it: But the Sense of what I writ was, that tho' there were a great many Learned and Ingenious Men in the University, they were not all such, which was no Reflection, since it is mod cer­tain, that those that are come fresh from School, or of a small standing, cannot reasonably be ranked a­mongst Graduates in the University. And as for my Qualifying my self for a Degree in a Month, or to perform the Exercise of a Day in an Hour, I do not think saying so, was calling the Exercise trifling; for I having studied Five Years after I left Chester-School before I came there, and having studied Philosophy before, and read most Conttoversies of Value, I do not think it much Presumption in me to say, that that which Five Years hard Study had made easy to me, was difficult to those that came fresh from School: and I presume if Dr. Leigh should be sent to the Uni­versity now, which were to be wished, he'd be apt to say, the Exercise was easie; for when a Thing is Learnt, any thing is easie; and I had learnt most of those things before; so that I gave my Friend an Account how easie it was to me then, and how much [Page 27] my past Studies had made those light: So that what I said, was nothing but what any Batchelour of Arts will say, viz. That at Four Years end they remember so well what they had learnt for the Four Years past, that were they to begin the Exercise of the first Year again, they could do in an Hour, what a fresh Scholar could not do in Twelve: And if a Batchelour at Four Years might without Reflection say so, I hope in the Sixth Year of a continued and hard Study, I might pre­sume to say, I could do that in an Hour, which a School boy could not do in Twelve.

But the Doctor would needs represent me as an E­nemy to the Universities, that they might revenge his Cause; but I here declare and say, that nothing shall make me an Enemy to them, as long as I have the Use of my Reason; and I shall ever contribute my ut­most Endeavours in Vindication of the Universities, till I have Reason to the contrary, which I hope I shall never have; and till then, as I shall make it my Bu­siness to make what Improvements I can in real Know­ledge, so I shall to the utmost of my Power vindicate Learning, and oppose the Opposers of it.


SInce the Three former Sheets were Printed, I hear that Dr. Goodall is very angry, that I should offer to answer his Letter in Vindication of my self: And I am likewise told, that a certain Friend of Dr. Leigh's thinks I have used him too hardly: But as to the First, I must beg Dr. Goodall's Pardon; for if he's offended, he may blame himself for it; I thought my self concerned to take off the unjust Imputations laid upon me; and if he can think well of himself for Pub­lishing a Letter so inconsistent with Truth, I have a better Apology to make, for laying down Matter of Fact. As for Dr. Leigh, had he writ against me as a Rational Man ought, I should have answered him with that Deference which is due from me to a Graduate; but if he thought fit to transgress the Bounds of Reason, it was but Reason to answer him in a way he made choice of himself; a Method which I by no means would have made choice of, had he deserved a better Character from me, than he hath amongst Learned Men.


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