A Hertochs fecit

[Page] The French GARDINER: INSTRUCTING How to Cultivate all sorts of FRUIT-TREES, AND HERBS for the GARDEN: TOGETHER With directions to dry and conserve them in their Natural; Three times printed in France, and once in Holland.

An accomplished Piece, First written by R. D. C. D. W. B. D. N. And now Transplanted into English by PHILOCEPOS.

LONDON, Printed by I. C. for Iohn Crooke at the Ship in St. Pauls Church-yard. 1658.

TO My most Honour'd and Worthy Friend THOMAS HENSHAW, Esquire.


I Have at length o­bey'd your Com­mands, only I wish the Instance had bin more considerable: though I cannot but much approve of the designe and of your ele­ction in this particular work, which is certainly the best that is exstant upon this Subject, notwithstanding the plenty [Page] which these late years have furnish'd us withal. I shall for­bear to publish the accident which made you engage me upon this Traduction; because I have long since had inclina­tions, and a design of commu­nicating some other things of this nature from my own ex­perience: and especially, con­cerning the Ornaments of Gar­dens, &c. Because, what re­spects the Soyle, the Situation and the planting is here perfor­med to my hand with so mu [...]h ingenuity, as that I conceive there can very little be added, to render it a piece absolute and without reproach. In or­der to this, my purpose was [Page] to introduce the least known (though not the least delici­ous) appendices to Gardens; and such as are not the Names only, but the Descriptions, Plots, Materials, and wayes of contri­ving the Ground for Parterrs, Grotts, Fountains; the propor [...]i­ons of Walks, Perspectives, Rocks, Aviaries, Vivaries, Apiaries, Pots, Conservatories, Piscina's, Groves, Cry­pta's, Cabinets, Eccho's, Statues, and other ornaments of a Vigna, &c. without which the best Gar­den is without life, and very defective. Together with a Treatise of Flowers, and Ever-greens; especially the Pa­lisades and Contr-Espaliers of Ala­ternus, which most incompara­ble [Page] Verdure, together with the right culture of it, for beauty and fence, I might glory to have been the first propagator in England. This, I say, I intended to have published for the be­nefit or divertisement of our Country, had not some other things unexpectedly interve­ned, which as yet hinder the birth and maturity of that Embryo.

Be pleased, Sir, to accept the productions of your own Com­mands; as a Lover of Gardens you did promote it, as a Lover of you I have translated it. And in the mean time that the Great ones are busied about Governing the World (which is but a Wilder­nesse) [Page] let us call to minde the Rescript of Dioclesian to those who would perswade him to re-assume the Empire. For it is impossible that he who is a true Virtuoso, and has attain'd to the felicity of being a good Gardener, should give jealousie to the State where he lives. This is not Advice to you who know so well how to cultivate both your self and your Garden: But because it is the only way to enjoy a Garden, and to preserve its Reputation. Sir, I am

Your most Humble and most Obedient Servant J. E.


I Advertise the Reader that what I have couched in four Sections at the end of this Volume, un­der the Name of an Appen­dix, is but a part of the third Treatise in the Original: there remain­ing three Chapters more concerning Preserving of fruits with Sugar; which I have therefore expresly omitted, be­cause it is a Mysterie that I am little acquainted withall; and that I am as­sured by a Lady (who is a person of quality, and curious in that Art) that there is nothing of extraordinary a­mongst them, but what the fair Sex do infinitely exceed, whenever they please to divertise themselves in that sweet employment.

There is also another Book of the same Author intituled Les delices de la Campagne, (or the Delights of the [Page] Countrey) being as a second Part of this: wherein you are taught to prepare and dresse whatsoever either the Earth or the Water do produce, Dedicated to the good Housewives: There you are instructed to make all sorts of French Bread, and the whole Mysterie of the Pastry, Wines, and all sorts of drinks. To accommodate all manner of roots good to eat; cocking of Flesh and Fish, together with precepts how the Major Domo is to order the services, and treat persons of quality at a Feast, a la mode de France, which such as affect more then I, and do not understand in the Original, may procure to be inter­preted, but by some better hand then he that did the French Cook, which (be­ing as I am informed an excellent Book of its kinde) is miserably abused for want of Skill in the Kitchin.

If any man think it an employment fit for the Translator of this former part; it will become him to know, that though I have some experience in the [Page] Garden, and more divertisement, yet I have none in the Shambles; and that what I here present him was to gratifie a noble Friend, who had only that em­pire over me, as to make me quit some more serious Employments for a few dayes in obedinc [...] to his command.



THE French Gardiner.

The first Treatise.


Of the Place, of the Earth and mould of the Garden, together with the means to recover and meliorate ill ground.

Site. ALL those who have written concerning the husbandry of the Countrey, have ac­companied it with so many insup­portable difficulties about the dispo­sition of the Edifices, and other parts appertaining to the Demesnes, that [Page 2] it were altogether impossible to ac­commodate a place sutable to their prescription: forasmuch as the Si­tuations never perfectly correspond to their desires: and therefore I shall by no means oblige you to the particular Site of your Garden,; you shall make use of the places as you finde them, if already they are laid out: or else you shall (with good advice) prepare a new one in some part that lyes most convenient to your Mansion.

Soile. Touching the Ground, if you meet with that which is good, it will be to your great advantage, and much lessen your expence: but it is very rarely to be found where the land doth not require a great deale of la­bour: for many times the surface of the ground shall be good, which (being opened the depth of a spade­bit onely) will be found all clay un­derneath which is a more pernicious mould for Trees then the very Gra­vell [Page 3] it self: since in Gravell, the rootes may yet encounter some smal veynes for their passage in searching the moysture beneath from whence to draw nourishment: but the Clay­ie which is a sort of earth (where­withall the Bakers of Paris do make the hearths of their Ovens) is like a board, so thick, and hard, that the roots cannot Peirce it: and in the extraordinary heats of Sommer it hin­ders the moysture which is below, that it can by no means penetrate; in so much as the Trees and other plants become so extreamely drie, that instead of advancing their growth they altogether languish, and in con­c [...]usion perish.

Dressing For redresse of this defect, there is onely one expedient; and that is by hollowing and breaking up the ground 3 or 4 foot deep, beginning with a trench 4 or 5 foot large, the whole length of the place that you will thus open, casting the several [Page 4] moulds all upon one side; and thus when your trench is voyded and emptied to the depth which you de­sire, you shall cast in long dung, of the Marc, or husks of the wine-presse, or Cider, and fearne (which if you can commodiously procure is of all other composts the best) leaves of trees, even to the rotten sticks and mungy stuffe to be found under old wood piles, mosse, and such like Trash; in fine whatever you can pro­cure with the most ease and least charge: for all the design in this stir­ring the ground is onely to keep it hollow, that so the moysture beneath may invigorate the Trees, and plants during the excessive drouths.

You shall therefore lay it halfe a foot thick at the bottome of your Trench; and afterwards dig a second of the same proportion, casting the mould which lies uppermost (and which is ever the best) upon the dung, and so making this Second [Page 5] trench as deep as the former, you shall fill your first trench; and the mould which you found undermost, shall now lye on the top, thus con­tinuing your Trenches, till you have finished the whole piece.

Peradventure you may object, that the earth which you take from beneath, will be barren? I confesse with you, that for the first year, the goodnesse of it will not appear, but when (with that little amendment which you bestow upon it) it shall be mellow'd by the rains, and frosts of one Winter, it shall produce abundantly more then what before lay above, which being exhausted and worn out through the long usage, hath certain­ly lost a great part of its vertue.

Neither are all Seasons proper for this Labour; because during the great heats, This earth is so extreame­ly hard and bound, that neither Crow, nor Pick-axe can enter it. The Win­ter is then the most convenient sea­son [Page 6] of all other; for as much as the Autumn raines, having well moystned the earth, it is dug with the more fa­cility; and besides, the rain, the snow, and the frosts, which are frequent in that season, contribute much to the work; nor are Labourers (being at that time lesse imployed) so charga­ble, as when they work in the Vine­yards, and during August, when they are hardly to be procured for money.

As concerning the bottom, where you encounter with Gravell, you shall husband it as we have allready described, by breaking it, and the stones that are mingl'd in the ground shall be carried out of the Garden. But in case the gravell lie not very thick and that when it is broken up you arrive at sand, or to another smaller loose gravell, it shall suffice that it be broken up without flinging out of the trench: since the Trees will shoot sufficient rootes amongst this smaller gra [...]vell, by reason of the [Page 7] moysture which the duug lying a­bove them will coutribute.

You must remember to lay excel­lent dung half consumed at the bot­tome of such Trenches out of which you have cast the gravell, to the end that the rain and all other refreshings may the more easily passe through it; especially if it be of the huskes of the presse, fearne and the like, such as we have already mentioned.

You will object (I suppose) that to trench and dresse a whole Garden in this manner is to engage one into an extraordinary expence? I grant it in­deed, but it is once for all, and the e­molument which will result from one such Labour, will recompence the charge an hundred fold: since the Trees will be more beautifull, with­out mosse, or galls, and without comparison produce their Fruits a­bundantly more faire then those which are planted in a ground which is not thus dressed.

[Page 8] Artichocks, Leekes, and other rootes grow there to a monstrous bignesse: briefly you will finde your self so ex­treamely satisfied perceiving the dif­ference, to what your Garden pro­duced before it was thus loosened, that you will have no cause to regret your expences.

However if you would be yet more thrifty, I shall instruct you how by another expedient you may a­mend your Garden with lesse charge, but withall, as the expence will not be so great, so neither will the pro­duct be so faire. Of this I purpose to treate hereafter, in the planting of pole-hedges and the Kitchen-garden.

Many that are curious do ex­treamely exceed all this: for they passe all their Earth through a Hur­dle to cleer it from the stones, which is done by placing the Hurdle or Cive upon the margent of the Trench, and so shoveling the mould to the top of the Cive, the earth passes, and [Page 9] the stones rolle to the foot of the Cive, which are afterwards carried forth of the Garden.

The forme of this Cive is a frame joyned together, two Inches thick, six-foot high, and five foot in breadth which shall have two crosse quarters within the height, of the same big­nesse of the frame, and all the four crosse peices shall be equally b [...]ared about the bignesse of those sticks which the Chandlers use to make their Candles on; these holes must be a fingers thicknesse distant one from another, and in them you shall fit sticks of Dog-wood because it is tough and very hard when it is dry, and which will endure longer without breaking then any other. Note, that both the top, and the bottome of your frame must be pierced quite through, that when any of the sticks are broken, you may put new ones in their places, fastning them with small wedges at the extreames.


Of Espaliers, or Wal-fruit and of sin­gle pole-hedges and shruls.

Wall-fruit▪ [...]edges. WAl-fruits being the principal ornament of Gardens it is most reasonable that we should as­signe them the most eminent place and give a full description of them, as being indeed the subject upon which I determine chiefly to di­scourse in this first Treatise.

By Espalier, we mean those Trees with which the Wals of Gardens be adorned and furnished: To bring this to perfection you must make a Large trench, as I have described it before. If the ground be of Clay, you are to husband it as hath bin spoken of Clay, and if of a rocky nature, as of rocky: But you shall leave one foot of Earth unbroken, next to the wal, for [Page 11] fear least you indanger the founda­tion; and after having layed a bed of Dung, of halfe a foot thick at the bottome of your trench, you shall cast thereupon, of the very best mould which came forth of the Trench to the thicknesse of a foot; This done, you shall marke out the places where you design to plant your Trees, which shall be at a reasonable distance. That of twelve foot to me seems the most convenient; but this at your owne discretion, I shall oblige you to no Law, every man hath his par­ticular fancy, but my opinion is, that if they are planted neerer, they will much incommode one another in few years, if farther remote, and that a tree chance to die, or that you graft an other, whose fruit may per­adventure not pleas [...] you it will ex­treamly vex you to see your wal so long disfurnished, and naked in that place.

Dist­ance. Having thus marked the place for [Page 12] your trees, according to the propor­tion of 12 feet, you shall cause the pits where you plant them to be fil­led (at three foot distance from ei­ther side of your marke) with the best mould, which must be mingled with short dung of an old Melon bed, or else with some other, which before had bin employed in your Garden for plants; and thus there will remaine a space of six foot, in which intervall you shall cast a second Layer of Cow, hogs, or sheeps dung very fat and well rotten, after this you shall fling thereupon the mould which you had out of the trench, and dressing your border, make it very even.

Plant­ing. You shall make the holes for your trees, at the places before marked out, and plant them handsomly, making a small heap in the center of the pitt, to set your tree upon, whilst you extend the roots all about it, drawing them downward, and then the hole being filled, and the mould [Page 13] cast in, you may tread it about the Tree the better to fix it, and fil up the hollow places.

You may if you please, before you plant, break away the ledge of earth to the very Wall a foot on either side of the place where you intend to plant your trees, without the least pre­judice to your wall.

You shall set your tree a foot di­stant from the wal, the branches somewhat inclining towards it, for the more ornament in their growth, this will also bring the roots better to the middle of your Trench, by which they will more easily finde nourishment.

Have a special care that you put no other dung neer the roots of your Trees, then that short stuff of the old bed (which it will be good to mingle also with store of excellent mould) least the summer burne it all; for as much as new dung keeps the earth hollow and loose till it be totally [Page 14] consumed; but if otherwise you cast it into the intervalls, when your Trees are once taken, and that their roots within 2 or 3 years have found this excellent dung (which will by that time be quite rotten) they will shoot wonderfully, produce a clean bark, and most incomparable fruit.

Concerning Esphaliers (which I will English Palisades) I will shew you severall formes of accommodat­ing then according to the age of your trees. Pole-hedge set up agai [...]st a wall, much used in France.

The first is, To fix small Stakes into the ground halfe a foot distant from your Wal, to begin to conduct the ten­der sprouts of your trees, and if need require, you may add some cross poles or Lathes, as many as are necessary, binding to them your tender shoots with the gentlest osiers, or rushes, without knitting them too fast, but onely to guide them for the pr [...]sent.

The second manner shall be to make a hedge of Poles, and la [...]hes [Page 15] equally cancelled and well bound, which, being of greater strength then the former, will oblige the trees to what flexure and forme you please.

The third is a Lattice fashioned to the Wall, and supported with the bones of horses legs or by iron hooks, fixed in the wall, least otherwise the tree, rising and force­ing it to come at the fresh aire, bend it forwards, and break or overturne the hedg, whose Stakes are onely fixed in the loose and newly broken up earth, and besides, with length of time they become rotten.

See the fi­gure or first plate. The fourth, which is the most sub­stantial of all the rest, and more ea­sily maintained, is to place in the wall the ends of woodden blocks, about the bignesse of a strong rafter, which are to be placed at eight equidistant squares, projecting onely six inches from the wall, in which you shall boar holes with an Auger an inch and [Page 16] an half deep, and some two inches from the ends: be sure to place them at equal distance, for height, and breadth; and in the middest of every square, there shall be also one block, resembling the figure of a quincunce.

Then you shall provide Lathes, or poles, which you shall cause to be made exactly of the length, that your blocks-ends are placed, which Lathes or poles you shall shave and fit at both ends, to enter into the holes made in the extreames of the blocks, and to fix them well you shall bend them alittle like a bow, putting the two ends into the opposite holes and letting the bow goe, they will force in themselves so strongly as that they shall need no other fastning. The fi­gure which is at the beginning of the treatise, will sufficiently informe you.

When your Trees are now a little strong, they will not need to be spread with so much wood, as when [Page 17] they are young; it shall suffice in these kinds of Espaliers to stop the strongest branches onely. And when any of these poles shall chance to be rotten, another may easily be sup­plied, reserving alwaies provision of them in your house.

The fifth is, to take quarters of wood, a little bigger then your poles, and to accommodate them to your Iron hooks, or horses bones (as we have said above) and bind them with copper or brasse wyre which will con­tinue a very long time.

As they are fre­quently in France, with a kind of rough-cast if the wall be built of unhewen Stone. The sixth and last fashion, to plie or palisade your trees (and which is the handsomest and most ageeable, but cannot easily be made, save where the walls are plastred over) is to take shreads of Leather, or Lists, of Cloath with which you shall stay the tender branches, fixing the list of the cloath to the wall with a naile, and so the boughs will take their plie as they grow bigger, without either casting [Page 18] forwards, or loosning the nailes, which will rust within the wall.

These three last manners of Espa­liers are in greatest practise, to de­fend the trees from snailes, Earewigs, Stotes, & other noxious infects which creep into the withy twigs, and be­twixt the rinds of round poles, which are not quarter wood.

Be carefull not to plant any Tree in the coines or Angles of your Walls; since they can there come but to half their nourishment; and besides in so doing it will marr the figure of your Garden, the Tree shooting forth all his branches forward, to come at the aire.

Pole-Hedges. The Counter Espalier is a hedge which formes all the walkes and Al­lies of the Garden, it is planted in the same manner as the former, except­ing onely that the trench shall be at the least four foot broad, causing the moulds to be cast, the good upon one side, and the worse upon the other, [Page 19] that so you may fling the best into the bottome of your trench, and the rest upon it.

Then you shall plant your trees in lines very even, perpendicular and not inclining as in wall-fruit.

The wood which supports these trees must of necessity be fixed in the Earth, and bound athwart with poles: all the curiosity which can be expressed in this manner of hedge, is to make it with quarter wood and bind them with Iron or brasse wyre.

There are some, to spare the charge of maintaining these palisads, satisfie themselves with b [...]nding and joyning the trees together when they are strong enough, but then they ought to be planted nine foot asun­der; and the mischief is, that they are extreamly subject to be shaken by high winds.

Shrubs. [...] [Page 20] Kitchin-garden by the path sides; which one may cut in what figure he please, round, square, flat at top, or let grow in the shape of a Cypresse; in clipping whereof men are rather sa­tisfied with their forme, then their fruit, which the walls and Contr' Espaliers abundantly afford.

You shall therefore plant them in the most commodious places of your borders, and at equal distances one from another, observing what I have already taught concerning planting.

The description which I have giv­en you of planting your trees, will ex­empt you of the expence of trench­ing your whole Garden; the Allies and walkes not so much needing it, for before the trees shall come to shoot their roots as far as the walks, they will have sufficient strength to pierce them and search out the best ground. Howbeit you shall not leave your Allies neglected, but shall cause them to be diligently weeded, and especially [Page 21] be carefull to cleanse them of Couch or dog-grasse to the very least string, though you dig after it a spadebit deep, continually shaking it from the earth; and if after all this you perceive any of it remaining, be sure to eradicate it how deep soever it lie, that so you may utterly extermi­nate a weed so extreamly noxious to your Garden.


Of Trees, and of the choice which ought to be made of them.

Trees their choice. IT is to no purpose to have well prepared your ground, unlesse you also plant it with the best and choy­cest fruit, which you may find in the Nurseries of such Gardiners as have the reputation of honest and trusty men; for the greater part of those which [...]ell, usually cheat those who deale with them. Therefore of such, [Page 22] I shall not advise you to buy any, un­lesse you first see the fruit on them, and so you may retaine them from that time, sealing them with little Labels or bonds of Parchment, with your own seale, that thereby when you take them up, you may be sure of your purchace. With those whom you may confide in, for their faith­full delivery, you may be lesse exact; however it shall not be amisse to seale them, though it were onely to give other customers notice, that you have already bargain'd for them.

If you desire to mark the species, you may effect it two manner of waies; One by writing the name of the tree upon small pieces of slate, and the other, by binding to them locks of wooll died with several Coulours, whereof you shall make a memoran­dum, and this shall serve you to dif­cerne your trees in planting, them, that so distinguishing your summer fruit from the winter, your wals, Espaliers, [Page 23] Contr' Espaliers and Bushes may afford an object more agreeable, since they will never be intirely naked, but will here and there be still furnished with fruits, and also that you may the better sever them, that two of the same sort be not contiguous to one another.

Pears. The Fruits which you shall make particular choyce of, as for Pears (if you desire to make profit of them in the Market) shall be the summer and winter Bon-Chrestien, The Muscat, the great and lesser rath-ripe peare, the Portail, the summer and winter Ber­gamotte, St. Lezin, Amadotte, Bezi­dairy, Double Flower, the great Russe­ting of Rheims, the perfume pear, and p [...]ire Boeure of both sorts, the Messire Iohn, Cir [...], Cadilla [...], and what ever other you finde to sell dearest.

Apples. For Apples, the Renettings of seve­rall sorts, Cour-pendu, Red pipin, Ches­nut, Apis gros and petit, Pigeonnet the Iudea and others,

Peaches. Abricots. As for Peaches and Abricots, they [Page 24] allwaies sell well; but these two sorts of fruits, are not so proper in Espaliers, because their boughs fre­quently dye, sometimes upon one branch sometimes on the other, and very often quite perish, which is ve­ry illfavored to behold, by reason of the breach which it causes in your Espaliers. Those which are chiefly in reputation are the Rath peaches or Peaches of Troy, Alberges, Pavies, Cherry-peaches, Violette de Pau, Bri­gnons, and others.

Cherrie [...] For Cherries and Bigarreaux, for as much as there are particular Or­chards of them, I will discourse no further of them, then onely to tell you that those which have the short­est, stalke, and least stone, resembling those of the vally of Montmorency are the most excellent.

There are likewise Precoce and rath-ripe Cherries, which are to be planted where they may stand warme, and exposed to the southern [Page 25] aspect, or else set in Cases, to be re­moved into the stove during the win­ter, together with the Orange-tree: but these serve rather for Curiosity then for profit.

Returne we therefore to the e­lection of our Trees, and let us not suffer this digression to hinder us from saying all that can be spoken upon this Argument, and in particular, con­cerning Peare trees which are the bearers of the most delicious and best fruit of your Garden.

That tree which is Grafted upon a Quince is to be preferred before all other, because tis not only an early bearer, but produces large and lovely fruite ruddy and blushing where it regards the son, and yellow on the other part which is more shaded by its thicknesse.

Those which are on the freestock are esteemed to beare better relished fruit but they are nothing so large, nor so rarely colour'd, as are those [Page 26] which be grafted upon the quince, and that's it we principally look af­ter for sale, other pears being all­waies of a green and lesse tempting Colour: and besides, they are long in bearing, and frequently fail of blossoming, spending much in su­perfluous wood; if plyed in form of wall-fruit, you prune them till they are shot up very tall, and past their utmost effort.

Age. Concerning the Age you shall best choose your trees when they are a­bout four years growth or therea­bout, as being then of a very fair size; for if they be younger, it will be a long while 'ere they will have garnished your walls; and if they be elder, they will have shot their great roots, which one shall endan­ger the breaking or splitting in tran­splanting them, to the exceeding prejudice of the Tree, which are wounds that are a long time recover­ing, and it must have shot a good [Page 27] quantity of new strings, before it will any thing prosper.

It is the opinion of very many, that one should plant a great and full grown tree once for all, forasmuch as they are so long arriving to their perfection: [...] I am quite of ano­ther sentiment; for I conceave that a well chosen tree, and that is of a thriving kind, of the age I have spok­en, shall make a fairer root then one that is elder, and which can send out but very small twigs, though in greater quantity.

Shape. As to the shape and forme of the trees, be carefull that they be clean from mosse, not stubbed, sightly and thriving; the body clean and large, that the Escuchion or [...]left be well recovered at the stocke, and that the tree be plentifully furnished beneath, handsomely spread and agreeable at the wall.

Taking up. I would have you present your selfe at the takeing up of your trees [Page 28] that they break off as few of the string roots as is possible, nor split or cut any of the greater roots.

Transpor­ting and transplan­ting. Choose a fair day, about St. Mar­tines, for as soon as ever you shall perceive the leafe to fall you may securelty [...]ake up your trees, and then transport them as gently as may be, either on the backs of men or beasts, and plant them again with all expe­dition, least otherwise they languish, and the hairy-roots grow drie: but as you plant, remember to cut off the small poynts of the roots, to quicken them, and take away that which may be withered.

But you must not prune them till the season, for the reasons, which I shall hereafter prescribe.

From Peare-trees grafted upon the freestock you should cut off the downe right root, that so the other roots may fortifie and extend them­selves all about to sucke the best mould.

[Page 29] All sorts of other trees may be drawne, transplanted, and cultivat­ed in the same manner, without any difference or distinction.

Pruning. Touching the pruneing of Trees, the just season for those which are old planted, is in the decrease of the Moon in Ianuary, at which time Grafts for the cleft, and crowne are to be gatherd and provided: and for such as are newly planted, they must not be disbranched till the sap begins to rise, that the wound may the so­ner be cured, for if you cut them in winter, the wood will be dried by the frost in place of the scar and make a stubb of dead wood to the ve­ry bud, which should else shoot neer to the cut.

I could scarcely resolve with my self how to teach this art of pruning: since it would merit an express Di­scourse to instruct you perfectly: but having in my Preface resolv'd to con­ceal nothing from you as a Secret, [Page 30] I had rather hazard the censure of captious persons, then hide the art from you, how you may attain the most excellent and fairest Fruit: in description whereof I shall never­theless be as succinct and brief as I can; teaching in a very few lines (by way of Maximes) what would employ more then two sheets, if I should give a contexture to my Pe­riod. Therefore

You shall begin to prune, by cut­ting off all the shoot of August where ever you encounter it, unless the place be naked, and that you su­spect the next old branch will not suffice to cover it, without cutting it off, which would exceedingly spoil and deform your tree.

Those young branches which pro­ceed from the old, and shoot lustily, must be stopped at the second or third knot; for they would attract all the Sap which ought to nourish the branch: and in case the Tree be [Page 31] plentifully garnished, you may cut them off at their first peeping; and such as you would spare are to be conducted where you would have them continue.

Every Branch which sprouts as well before as behinde the Tree must be cut off, because they de­forme it.

All Buds that will be Fruit shall be spared; yet if there be any at the top of a branch which you desire should fortifie and spread, cut off that branch near a Sprig-bud, rub­bing off the Fruit-buds which are on the new shoot.

Every branch which is to spread and fortifie, must be prun'd, be it never so little: but on the stronger you may leave more buds, then on the weak and feeble.

Every branch forceably plyed to garnish any void place, doth never bear the fruit fair: but in case it be guided thither from its prrimary [Page 32] shooting, it will do well enough.

Every Bud which hath but a single leaf produces only wood: that of fruit hath many, and the more, the sooner it will bear, and the greater its fruit.

The Fruit-bud which grows on the body of the Tree produces fairer fruit, then such as break out of the collaterall twigges, and tops of branches.

You shall rub off all twig-bu [...]s, which sprout before or behinde your trees.

If you desire to have your tree soon furnished on both sides, hinder it from shooting in the middle.

The more you prune a Tree, the more it will shoot.

You should prune but little wood from trees that are graffed on the free-stock, and which do not yet pro­duce fruit-buds: but afterward ha­uing passed their effort, they will bear but too plentifully.

[Page 33] Make as few wounds in a tree as possibly you can, and rather exter­minate a deformed branch, then haggle it in several places.

Cut your branches alwayes slant­ing, behind a Leaf-bud, to the end they may the sooner heal their wounds without leaving any stubs, which you shall afterward cut off to the very quick, to avoid a second skar, and a great eye-sore.

When your Trees form into crowns or bunches, the tops of your branches that have been too much pruned, or that have cast their fruit, leaving the knots of the stalks, they are to be discharged of it, to beau­tifie the Tree.

You shall also disburthen your trees that are too fertil, commen­cing with the smaller, by cutting the stalks in the middle without unknot­ting them: the fewer the tree doth nourish, the fairer will be your fruit.

Nailing and Pru­ning. [Page 34] The best season to binde, plash, nail and dress your trees is in the moneth February, for the greatest frosts be­ing then past, one may cut off what is superfluous without difficulty, and besides, the sap not as yet risen, there will be no danger of breaking off the buds, knotted into fruit.

But the greatest dificulty in this work, is to spread the trees hand­somely like a Fan when it is display­ed, that is, that as the sticks or ribs of a fan, never thwart one another, so nor should the branches of your trees.

Spreading And this is a vulgar error amongst the greatest part of Gardiners, which proceeds from their ignorance, and that they will undertake, the order­ing of trees, which is a peculiar sci­ence, not to be attained amongst the Cabbage-planters.

Error. They do extrtamly ill, when they fagot and bundle together a great many smal twigs, in one tack, which is a fault altogether unsufferable; for [Page 35] indeed one should never leave above the breadth of a single branch, about all the tree; In fine they are so stu­pid, that they pass, and repass the branches, and wind them about the poles which (in Palissade hedges) are erected for their support; or else they thrust and draw the tree behinde, and the poles before, which are so grosse mistakes, that they may not be past over without due reproach. I shall counsell these men in charity, to put themselves into the service of some skilfull Gardiner for a year or two, where they may learn to order Trees as they ought, and profit by his in­structions.

And yet notwithstanding all this, if you spie a place about your tree which is very naked and unfurnished, you may in such a case thwart some small branch to cover that eie-sore and voide, but let this be rarely, and so dis­posed as not easily to be discovered.

Dressing. It is requisite that you give foure [Page 36] diggings or dressings to your trees eve­ry year, and you may employ that ground by sowing it with the seeds of such hearbs, as will be in season and ready to be spent at the renewing of every dressing, such as are Lettuce, Purslaine, Cherile, Cichorie, nay even yong Cabbages to transplant; in fine, what ever is not to abide long in a place; and there you may also re­plant, Lettnce to pome and head, Ci­chory to blanch it, Purslain to pickle, and for seed, and thus your labour will redouble the profit, for by this means your trees will (besides the dressing, stirring and opening of the uld) be often watered by the Gar­diner, whose care must be continuall about these youngherbs and plants.

The season for the first is before Winter, when you should well dung such as have need, and the digging ought to be very deep: at expirati­on of winter give it a second labour, mingling it with the soyl which you [Page 37] first bestowed upon it; the other which follow need only suffice to preserve it from weeds; but never dig it in rainy or scorching weather; for the one will make morter of the ground, and the other will chap and and parch it: If you give it a stir­ring when the vine begins to soften the verjuice-grape, and tinge the black clusters, you shall finde your Pears in the space of a week to swell and improve exceedingly.

But you shall by no means sow any seeds which produce any large roots, not so much for that they require a longer sojourn in the ground to ar­rive to their full growth, as because they will suck, emaciate, and dry much of the mould about them. For this reason likewise let the greater Cabbages, and leeks of the second year be sedulously banished.

Old trees. It will be necessary at every three or four years period, to cherish and warme your aged trees, and such as [Page 38] were old planted, and this is done by uncovering the mould within a little of the roots, and applying of excellent dung thereon. The best season for this worke is at the com­mencement of Winter, that so the dung may be halfe consumed before the heat and drouth of Summer in­vade it.


Of the Seminary, and Nursery.

Seminary. THe Seminary being the mother and the nurse for the elevati­on and raising of Trees, it will be highly requisite to give you perfect instructions, after what manner it is to be governed; and therefore begin we with seeds.

All sorts of seeds affect a fresh place cleansed from bushes, trees, and roots, & would be sheltred from the [Page 39] darts of the Meridian sun by some high wall or other fence: and this is a convenience which you may easily finde in some quarter of your Gar­den, where the wall is towards the south: One year will amply furnish you with all sorts of Plants, and in­deed with more then you can tell how well to employ.

Seeds. Kernels. Stones. Having therefore provided store of kernells and stones the year before, and as you eat the fruits, and the winter well spent; You shall to­wards the end of February, sow your kernells, &c. in lines upon beds, sow every species apart, and in like man­ner set the stones in even files about 4 Inches asunder. I presuppose, that the ground where you designe them, hath been well dressed and prepar­ed at the begining of the Winter, and that it shall receive a second e' [...]e you begin to sow. Your kernells and stones will spring up the first year, some stronger, some more fe [...]ble [Page 40] then others, but thats nothing, they will all serve to transplant. Not­withstanding, if you did sow them in a bed or quarter behinde your Pole-hedges: at the same south-side, that they might be visited a little by the rising and declining of the sun) they would be better to be planted forth at two years growth then at one, but with such as they are omit not to store your Seminary.

Set your Peach stones at such time as the fruit is in maturity, interring them with the peach about them as they are gatherd from the tree but you must not forget to marke the place with a little stick, least in dres­sing the seed plot, you break off their sprouts.

Seed-plot To begin therefore your seminary, having made choyce of some fit place in your Garden, you shall dress, labour and dig it very well and then tread it very even all over to settle the Earth; afterwards you shall cut [Page 41] out small trenches about a spade-bit deep, and two foot distant each from other, casting the mould on one side upon the margent of your fur­row: this done, set your plants (hav­ing first a little topped them) about halfe a foot distant, and supporting them with your hand cover their roots with the mould which you cast out of the trench, and so tread them in to fix them, least, being loose they vent and spend themselves. You must observe to plant every species by themselves, Pears with pears, Apples with Apples, &c. and be carefull that the weeds doe not suffocate the plants, and therefore they must be dressed and weeded upon all oc­casions.

Cutting. But you shall not cut your plants till the sap begins to rise, and then you may nip them within halfe a foot of the ground: and where they shoot leave only one cutting, the re­mainder of the following winter, [Page 42] still rubbing the formost Buds for a foot space, to secure the bark from knots, which would be a great im­pediment, when you are to Graft upon them.

Cra [...]ing. If in the same year that you plan­ted you find any of them strong e­nough to Inoculate, & that they have plenty of sap, graft on them with­out farther difficultie. My opinion is that a man cannot Inoculate either on wild or free-stock too young; provided they be large enough to receive the Scutcheon; and my reason is, that the stocke and the Scutcheon taking their growth proportionably the incision of the stock will the sooner be heal­ed, and they will shoot with a great deale more vigour, then those which you shall bud upon stronger sets, which are 2 or 3 years recovering the place from whence you tooke the dead part, and of which at the other side of the Scutcheon, the barke of the wild stock does frequently die three [Page 43] or four Inches below the Scutcheon, so that it will require three or four years to heal the defect: Adde to this: that the Bark of an old stock, will not unite so well with that of of the Scutcheon; but is apt to make a great wreath, subject to peel and unglue; a thing which never arrives when the Rinds are both of them young and tender.

Some observe yet, that tall Stocks are to be graffed together, affirming that they grow equally: but chosing my Plant at half a foot, it were im­possible that all should prosper, and be taken up together separated, but with difficulty, and without violating the Roots: and therefore it is better doubtless to graff young, for the cau­ses already specified, since the stron­ger must needs master the weaker: and those likewise which are most vigorous will surmount the other; and a small compasse will furnish you with a sufficient quantity of [Page 44] good trees, provided you suffer them not to grow there too long.

Quince-stocks. You shall likewise Provide you a Seminary of Quince-stocks like to the other, and order them in the same manner.

There are three sorts of Quinces: That which is poynted before; The Pear or Female Quince, which hath the fruit like a Callebasse; The great Portugall Quince pointed at both extreams. The first is the least, the ordinary is next, that of Portu­gal much more excellent, and a­bounding in Sap.

The right Quinces (which is that which I name the wild-stock) are such as have their fruit resembling a Gourd or Callebasse, and not such as be great behind and pointed before.

Peaches. For the Peaches which proceed from the stones that you set, I advise you to prepare a quarter in your gar­den a part, for the reasons already alledged: because that if you range [Page 45] them in hedges or walls some of the branches perishing every year, will prove a very great eye-sore: And therefore my counsell is that in one of the quarters most distant from your house (toward the north where they will not impeach the prospect of your garden) Plant the Peach-trees which you shall take out of your Seminary, Placing them six foot from one ano­ther equidistant on every side in the quincunx, and thus they will pro­duce you a world of fruit, by reason of their multitude.

Dressing. You must be carefull to give them four dressings or diggings, prune off the dead wood, and to cut off at the second or third joynt the young shoots, which growing too exuberant will draw all the sap of the tree to themselves, and starve the old bran­ches, which in defect of nourishment will shortly perish; for observe this as a Maxime, that the sap does allways apend to the most tender shoots) [Page 46] You may also intermix some Abri­cots in the same place, which are to be governed after the same manner of the Peaches.

Nursery. You shall Plant your Nursery, in some large bed or quarter of your garden, which lyes most remote from your dwelling, least when it shall appear like a grove or Copse­wood, it hinders your prospect.

Plot. The Plott designed, and the ground exquisitely piched and voyded of all manner of weeds and roots, you shall marke out with a line, and make holes every way, 2 foot large and 2 deep, distant 4 foot asunder, and the ranges also as wide from each other. Then taking your grafted trees out of the Seminary, you shall transplant them into this Nur­sery; Nor is it materiall though the shoot be but of the first year they will serve well enough to replant; and in that you shall punctually ob­serve the rules which I have prescri­bed [Page 47] in planting of Esphaliers and hedges, which is, to mingle some fine dung of the old bed with good mould, and making a little marke at the center of the holes, there you shall place your tree, extending the roots of it on every side, and allwaies drawing them downwards; then fill the hole up to the very Graft, and tread the mould about it to establish the tree.

Planting. Note that the graft be almost le­vell with the ground for the greater ornament of the Tree; since it would be a very great eye-sore to see the knott or swelling where it was graft­ed, and especially in some whose graff is bigger then the stock which beares it, and so it makes an ilfa­voured wreath at the closing which is very ugly and disagreeable.

However you shall remember to plant somewhat hig [...]er when it has not bin long since the ground was trenc [...]ed, for as much as the dung un­derneath, [Page 48] when it begins to consume will make the tree to sinke.

Trees. As for trees in Hedges and counter­hedges exposed to the south, one may set them four fingers lower then the Soil, the better to refresh them; and without any peril of striking out small roots, by reason of the drouth; yet in case there should sprout any, the Gardiner searching with his Spade may cut them away, and give the knot a little air to stop their growth for the future.

You shall likewise remember that (if during the extream Heats you will benefit your Trees) you put some mungy Fearn, or half rotten Dung about all their feet; yet so as it do not touch the Stemme: and thus you may spread it for a yard compass, and about four fingers thick; This will both shade the Roots, and exceedingly refresh the Mould about them, preserving the earth from gaping in extremity of [Page 49] weather, by which oftentimes the Tree languishes, and the small roots become dry: but if you a little stir the ground before you apply this dung, you will render a double ad­vantage to your trees, for the earth will by this means maintain it self supple, and put forth no weeds through the dung.

It will be requisite to have a Nur­sery for three main considerations. The first is, that you may always have provision of trees, fit to supply the places of such as accidentally dye, or languishing do not thrive. The se­cond is, to dis-incumber your Seminary which will otherwise be too full and thick of young trees. And thirdly that you may spare some for the market, to recompence the expence of your first Plantation; and besides, they may yield you some fruit where they stand, which will extreamly please you; add to this, that a tree which has been frequently transplanted, be­comes [Page 50] a great deal more generous and kind then if it had bin immedi­atly drawn from the seminary only, and Planted in his station to con­tinue.

Disbran­ching. It is also convenient to have a Nursery for those trees which are grafted upon theSuch as are pr [...] ­duced of Kernels. free-stock (as Pears, Apples, and others) which you designe for trees of six foot stem, you cut off the top, or master root, and as the tree grows, to prune those branches neer the trunk, which suck too much of the moysture, or fork and deforms the tree; but spare the smaller ones, that the stem may for­tifie by stopping the sap in its course. There are very many wch extreamly mistake themselves in this particu­lar taking off all the branches upon the body of the tree to the place where they would have it head and so are constrained to set a prop or a stake to redress and secure it from the violence of impetuous winds, [Page 51] which bends and wrests the trunck, by reason of its weighty head which renders its top heavy, and hinders the body of the tree of its growth because the sap speedily Passing up­wards to the new shoots makes no halt by the way, as it would doe if some of the young branches were left.

Nipping. There is a season when to nip the bud and stop the trees whilst the sap is up: and the buds which may in this case be taken away, are such as most deforme the tree; but you must ever spare those which will be fruit.

And to distinguish them one from the other, such as have but one leafe apendant produce wood on­ly, whereas those which are fruit­full are plentifully furnished with leaves.

Pruning. You may also prune off those yong shoots which are too exuberant, and that may draw too much sap from the tree to the prejudice of the [Page 52] rest of the branches: where there­fore you observe this, you shall stop them at the third or fourth knot, and after it hath put forth its Sap.

They use also to prune in August­spring, as well to impeach its un­handsome spreading, as that it may ripen before Winter and not starve the branches below, which must of necessity be cut off in February.

If you desire to make a plantation of great trees in an Orchard by them­selves, you must of necessity Graft them upon Freestocks, and not upon the quince, that is to say, Pears, and the Apples upon the Apples of Para­dise, A wilde appl [...] pro­duced of kernels, on which they graff the Dwarf for otherwise they will never become of any stature, but will be low and shrubbie.

Distance. You may Plant your Apple trees 30 foot distant, and your Pears, Plum­trees and other fruits 24: Forme. and be carefull that you plant them in the quincunx, that is, in lines which mutually cut at right angles.

[Page 53] In such a plot of ground you may safely sow some seeds, and pulse, which will occasion you to open and stirr the ground; for I advise you a­bove all things not to permit any wild herbs or weeds in your Orchard, rather restraine your self to a smaller circuit of ground, which you may manage well, then to undertake a larger, and neglect it for want of dressing. Great Orchards are admir­ed, but the smaller better cultivated, and you shall receive more profit from a small spot well husbanded then from a large plantation which is neglected.


Concerning Graffs, and the best di­rections how to choose them.

Graffing. THere is a great deale of difi­culty in the well choosing of Grafts; for upon that does depend their earely bearing, there being some which produce no fruit in ten or twelve years.

The best Grafts are those which grow upon the strongest and master branch of a tree, which is wont to be a good bearer and such a one as does promise a plentiful burden that year, and is thick of buds; for hence it is that your young grafted trees, have fruit from the second or third year, and sometimes from the very first.

Whereas on the contrary, if you take a graft from a young tree which has not as yet borne fruit, that which you shall propagate from such a tree [Page 55] will not bear a long time after.

[...]nocu­lating. The graffe or bud for the Scutche­on, ought to be gathered in the moneth of August, at the decrease, and immediatly grafted or for a more certain rule, without such no­tice of the Moon, observe when your wild-stock, and Free are in the Prime of their sap: for the Escutcheon is allwaies fit enough, but the wild-stock does frequently fail of being disposed to receive it, for want of sap: as it commonly happens in an extreame drie Summer where they shoot not at all, or very little in the Agust-spring: And therfore if you have many trees to graft, loose no time, and be sure to begin early.

Season. You shall know whether your wilde-stock be in the vigour of his Sap by two indications. The one is, by making incision, and lancing the bark with a Pen-knife, and lifting it up; if it quit the wood, there is Sap suf­ficent; but if it will not move rea­dily, [Page 56] you must attend, till it ascend; for it will else be but labour in vain, and prejudice your Tree. The other is, when at the extremities of the branches of the wilde stock, you see the leaves of the new Sap appear white and pallid, it is a Symptome that the tree is in case, and fit to graffe.

Choyce. A Graffe for the Scutcheon shall be chosen from a Shoot or Syen of that year, mature and very fair; for there are many which are thin and meagre at the points, and upon such you shall hardly finde one or two buds that are good: gather it neer to the Shoot of the precedent year, cutting the upmost point in case you may not take off the Scutcheons, and cut away also all the leaves to a Moyety of the stalk.

And the reason why I oblige you to cut off the top of the Graffe, and its leaves so far, is, because if you spare them they will wither, and so drie all the graffe, that it will not [Page 57] be possible to separate the Escutcheon from the wood, and besides all the leaves are worth nothing.

Time. If you defer your graffing till the morrow, or some dayes after they are gathered, you shall dip their ends in some vessel, the water not a­bove two inches deep, till such time as you intend to graffe them, but if you will graff them on the same day, you need onely keep them fresh in some Cabbage leaves, or moyst linnen clout.

Cleft. Graffs for the Cleft are to be ga­thered in the wain of the Moon in Ianuary, to the increase of it in Fe­bruary, and so continuing from Moon to Moon, till you perceive that the Sap being too strong in the Stock, se­parates the Rinde from the wood.

Choyce. To choose a Graff well for the Cleft, my opinion is, that it should have of the wood of theViz. that which rises in Spring & August. two saps of the pre­cedent year, whereof the oldest will best accommodate with the Cleft, and [Page 58] the other will shoot and bud best; though I do not utterly reprove the graffing of the wood though but of one year; but the tree will not bear fruit so soon.

You shall gather your Graffs at the top of the fairest branches, as I have formerly said, and you shall leave three fingers length of the first Sap, or old wood, that you may cut your graffe with the greater case.

To conserve them till you graffe, it is sufficient to cover them by bun­dles half wayes in the earth, their kindes distinguished, least if you should mingle them, and should graffe of two sorts upon the same same tree, you be constrained to cut one of them off; since two several kindes of fruit do never agree well upon the same Stem, the one hin­dring the other from arriving to its perfection by robbing it of the Sap.


The manner how to graffe.

I Have never observed above four several necessary manners of graf­fing, and from which you may hope for an assured success, the rest being more curious then profitable, seeing that by these four a man may graffe all sorts of Trees and Shrubs what­soever. Of these

The Escutcheon holds the prehe­minency; for as much as it is appli­cable upon all sorts of trees, the most easy to do, and the soonest that bears fruit.

The Cleft or Stock followes, and that as practicable upon the greater trees, and also upon the smaller, even to those of one inch diameter.

The Crown is not much in use, save upon trees of the largest size.

The Approch is not ordinarily [Page 60] practised, except it be upon O­range, Limmon trees, and other rare Plants, such as we conserve in Cases, and are therefore joyned with the more facility.

Inocula­ting To begin therefore with the E­scutcheon. Your Stock being stripped of all its small twigs the height of half a foot, or a little more, from the season that they use to cut trees; or else deferred till graffing time, you shall choose out the fairest part of the Bark of your Stock, and if it be possible upon the quarter which is exposed to the most impetuous windes; because they come some­times so furiously, that they loosen the Shield, being yet tender, and charged with branches and leaves; which accident does not happen so frequently, when they are thus pla­ced, as when they are graffed on the other side, though you should set supporters to uphold them.

Cut your Escutcheon long enough, [Page 61] an inch or thereabout, and reasona­bly large, that it may derive suffici­ent nourishment; be sure to take it off dextrously, and look within it, whether the sprout of the Bud hold to it; for if that stay behinde with the wood from whence you took it, it is worth nothing: You shall hold this in your mouth by the end of the stalk of the leaf, which I ordered you to reserve expressly when you gather your graffs; then make in­cision upon your stock, and gently loosen the bark with the pointed handle of your Knife, without rub­bing it against the wood, for fear of scraping the Sap which is under­neath; this done, place your Scutche­on between the wood and the bark, thrusting it down till the head of the Shield joyn with the incision at the top of your Stock, and that it be even and flat upon the wood, which being performed, you shall binde it about with Hemp, beginning to tie it [Page 62] very close above, neer the Bud, then turning it below, leave the Eye but a very small compass, and thus you shall finish your binding with a knot.

Season. Be careful when you graffe, that it be neither during the excessive heat of the Sun, nor in a rainy season, for the Scutcheon will not endure to be wet, and it will be in great dan­ger of not taking, if it rain the first four or five dayes immediatly after your inoculating.

There are some who take off part of the wood with the Shield, which they do with one cut of the knife, which manner of inoculating I do not disapprove: I have succeeded well in it my self, and besides in so doing, there is no danger of im­peaching the Bud of your Scutcheon, that is, of leaving the Eye of the Bud behinde you. Those which have ma­ny trees to inoculate use this way because it is more prompt & expedite.

[Page 63] Three weeks after you have ino­culated (or thereabout) you may cut the knot of the Ligature, that the sap may enjoy the freer intercourse. Winter past, and the Bud beginning to open, cut your Stock three or four fingers above the Scutcheon, and cut likewise the binding behinde it, and the Rinde it self to the very wood; this must be done at one gash of the knife, from the bottom to the top.

Howbeit you shall not take off the Tow from about the Scutcheon, but let it fall of it self; for there is danger in quitting it, lest you press the Bud, which is then extreamly tender: You shall not cut off the Stub which remains beneath the Scutcheon, till you prune the Tree, which must be in February the year following.

After your Scutcheon has put forth its first Sap, you may prune it at top, that it may shoot out branches about the Eyes below, otherwise it will [Page 64] mount without forking, and so your Dwarf will have no grace or beauty.

The just season to stop them is in the decrease of the Moon, when the Sap of August shoots out; you may then also, if you please, [...]ut the wood of your Stock which you left above the Scutcheon, and cover the wound with good earth thinly mixed with Hay, and making it a little hood, or more curiously, with a plai­ster of wax, mixed with a compo­sition which I shall describe here­after.

If you will attend the issue of the Winter following to cut the heel of your tree, you need not be obliged to wrap it up, and secure it thus, because the ascending sap will im­mediately cure it.

I have observed, that a Scutcheon set on a wilde or free-stock of about an inch Diameter or more, does not prosper and shoot so well, as upon one that is younger, and besides, it [Page 65] is more subject to unglue. Some there be that inoculate from the very first rise of the Sap, but they do not much advance; for the Scutcheon not shooting till August, the sprout is nothing so fair as that of the close Eye or shut Bud, since it is frequent­ly found that the wood of the new shoot never ripens, and the Winter approaching kills it; and therefore I counsel you not to inoculate so ear­ly, unlesse the necessitie be very urgent.

In the Cleft. In the Cleft or Stock, all sorts of trees from one inch bignesse to the greatest that are may be graffed: The most proper Season for it, is from the beginning of the new moon in February, till the Sap (becoming too lustly in the tree) separates the wood from the bark; for then you shall leave off graffing.

When you graffe in the Cleft, if it be to make Dwarfs, you must first saw your Stock four inches, or there­about, [Page 66] above ground, and then with your Pruning-Knife pare off the sur­face of the wood, where the saw has passed, about the thicknesse of a Six-pence, because the Track of the Saw leaving it rugged will hinder the Sap from healing the grated wood; nor can the graffe joyn to its trunk unlesse the rinde be refreshed, and cut to the quick with the knife. When this is done, you shall cleave the Stock where the Bark appears most even, and least knotty; and observe, that you never place your knife exactly in the middle of the tree, where the Pith and Heart of the wood is, but a little towards the side. Then cut and fit your Graff, sharpning all the old wood, as far as the new in fashion of a wedg, e­qual on both sides, yet leaving the two rindes fast to the wood in the narrowest parts; for if once they be separated, your Graff is good for nothing: Then top your Graffe three [Page 67] or four inches, more or lesse, accor­ding as it will bear it; for as much as upon a small stock one would not leave them so long, as upon a great tree. Thus prepared, you shall open the Stock with a small wedge made of some tough wood, such as Box, Ebo­ny or the like, striking it in gently, and then lodge your graffe at the edge of your Stock, sinking it down as far as the new wood, and place it so that the parts through which the Sap has intercourse (which is mutual 'twixt the wood and the bark) do exactly correspond.

Having thus lodged your Graffe, you may place a second on the other end of the Cleft, alway remembring to put two Graffs into every Cleft, provided that you can so place them that they be not contiguous; for by this means they will sooner recover their stock, then if there were but one, because the Sap ascends equally on both sides, and preserves the back [Page 68] side of the rinde from withering, as we have already said: After this you shall cover what remains of the Cleft, 'twixt the two Graffs, with a little of the thinnest and most tender Bark, joyning it accurately to keep the water from entering in: then you shall make the Hood with fine earth and Hay; some cover the hood with mosses, and with two short Willow-rinds laid 'thwart one ano­ther, bind them on with an Ozyer to the foot of the Stock, to maintain them the more fresh, and preserve them from the water.

When you graffe upon great Trees, you shall choose the smooth­est and most even branches to place your Graffs upon, if they be very big you may lodge four upon it, making the Cleft in forme of a Crosse, yet without touching the Pith of the tree, the remanent branches which you do not graffe, must be sawed off within half an inch of the Stem, and [Page 69] then paring away the wood which the saw may have grated, you shall swathe it about with Loam till the Bark have healed the wound, to guard it from the scorching of the Summer, and the frost of the winter, which would exceedingly prejudice it, by penetrating to the very heart of the tree. It will be good to apply some stayes to the branches which are graffed, to strengthen the young shoots, and secure them from the windes, till the second year be past, and that they are well established; and if you finde any that grows dis­orderly, you shall cut it off, as also if they come too thick, and choke one another, by this means giving free Air to the tree.

Upon your small wilde stocks, which will support but a single graffe, you shall cut the hinder part where you might place a second, to the very heart of the stock, slanting it in, like that part of a Pipe which is ap­plied [Page 70] to the nether Lip, this will greatly contribute to its recovery. And

When you graffe small stocks, which have not strength enough to fasten their graffs, you shall assist them, by binding them about with some tender twig of an Ozier.

Now, albeit I did oblige you to choose a graffe with the old wood, yet I would not have you to cast a­way that which is but of one Sap, nor the cuttings of those where you took the graffes of the two Saps, be­cause they are excellent, however they produce their fruit something later then the oher, nor do they bear so great a burthen; and therefore unless it be in case of necessity, I would only use those which are of two saps.

Crown. Graffing in the Crown or 'twixt the wood and the bark is never practised, save upon old trees, whose rinde be­ing very tough can indure the wedg [Page 71] without splitting, and which will not suffer the cleaving (by reason of the thicknesse of the bark) but with much difficulty, and besides it is a great hazard if it takes.

To graffe in the Crown, having sawed your tree at the place where you would graffe it, and pared away the raggednesse which the saw hath left to the quick, especially about the Bark, you shall cut and sharpen your graffe but on one side, then str [...]ke in a small Iron wedge 'twixt the wood and the rinde, and so taking out the wedge, set in your graffe, rinde to rinde, and wood to wood, to the full depth that it is sharpned.

Thus you may place as many as you please about the Trunk, provid­ed that their number do not split off, and cleave the Bark.

Approch. To graffe by Approch it is very ea­sy; For you have only to take two young branches, one of the free and graffed, and the other of the wilde [Page 72] stock, without separating them from their Stems, and then paring away about four fingers breadth of bark, and wood till you approch neer to the pith, and so marry them together as dextrously as 'tis possible, tying them about with raw Hemp, from one end of the Cut to the other, and so let them remain for two Saps: then after a moneth or six weeks are expired, if you perceive the wood to swell, and that the Ligature in­commode them, you shall cut it upon the wilde stock, with one gash of your Knife, as we taught you be­fore on the Scutcheon.

At the beginning of Winter, you may cut and sever the natural tree from its stock, and cut away the head of the stock within two inches of its graffe, and thus these two twigs concorporating, it will receive t [...]e nourishment of the wilde stock. R [...] ­member to cover the wounds of them both, with the Wax, which I shall [Page 73] hereafter instruct you how to make.

You shall not cast those twigs in­to the fire which you cut off from the Quince, which you graffed in the Cleft, for you may reserve the cut­tings, which will strike root the first year, and must be set in your Nurse­ry to be graffed when they are rea­dy, and what you prune off from the Q [...]ince trees during Winter, will be very good for this purpose.

The Prunings of the Pomme de Parradis, which they call the Scion, will also take in Layers.

Cuttings Layers. All sorts of Cuttings are to be plant­ed in a small Trench, such as we de­scribed in the Nursery, which may be about the breadth and depth of a s [...]ade-bit: but first strip off the leaves, and cut them slan [...]ing at the great ends, in form of a Does foot, and so you shall lay them at the bottom of your Trench very thick, one by an [...] ­ther, because there will many of them die; and let their small ends [Page 74] appear above ground, and so cover them, and fill the Trench, pressing it well down upon the Cutting, that the Ayr do not enter, and when you dress them, cleanse them only with a haw, that the weeds do not choke them, and it will suffice.

Then cut off the tops of your Layers all of an evennesse, within three fingers of the ground, and that especially when you perceive the Sap to be rising, which you shall finde by the verdure of their Buds, which never shoot when the Scion begins to take root.

You may not cut, or stop the first years Shoots, fearing lest they put forth their Buds beneath at August, which will hardly come to maturity: it were better stay till February, and then leave them as the tree will best support it, and in such places as you des [...]re they should shoot, rubbing off such as pe [...]p before, behinde, and in other unprofitable places. [Page 75] This opposes the opinion of many, but experience makes me persist in my own.


Of Trees and Shrubs in particular, how they are to be governed, and their Maladies cured.

Trees. I Thought it requisite to make a Chapter apart, to comprehend in particular, all that we have spo­ken in general, in the several pre­cedent Sections, and that for the a­voyding of confusion, and to the end, that in case there were any thing which might seem difficult to you (though I have much endeavoured to render my self intelligible in the simplest terms, and the most vulgar that our Language will bear, that I might be understood of all, and profit them by it) I might more [Page 76] perspicuously explain it, in particu­larizing all sorts of fruits, which we in France do usually furnish our Gardens withall.

Pears. I will therefore set Pears in the first place, as those which of all o­thers bear the most rarity of fruit, and are the principal ornament of the walls, Contr' Espaliers and Bushes of a Garden, from whence we may gather fruit in their perfection du­ring six moneths of the year at least, and for that it is a fruit which one may in great part keep till the new ones supply us again, and that with­out shriveling, or any impeachment of their taste, a thing which we finde not in any other fruit besides.

Graffing. All sorts of Pear-trees may be graffed after any of the four prece­dent manners, but they succeed in­comparably upon the Quince, and in the Scutcheon produce their fruit much earlier, and that fairer, ruddy, and of greater size, then when they [Page 77] are graffed upon the Free-stock, ex­cepting only the Portail, which of­ten misses taking upon the Quince, and will therefore hit better upon the Free-stock: The Summer bon Chrestien and the Vallee are very fit for it, and if they have been for­merly graffed upon the Quince, it is the better, for it will render the fruit a great deal more beautiful, and fair.

And in case that any graffed ei­ther in Scutcheon or the Cle [...]t upon the Quince fortune not to take, and that you conceive it to be dead, let the stock shoot, it will produce wood sufficient, which you may clear of all the small branches, and at the neer expiration of the winter fol­lowing, you shall earth it up at the ends in forme of a great Mole-hill, leaving out the extreams of the branches, without cutting them off, and they will not fail to strike root the same year, provided that you [Page 78] remember to water them sometimes during the great heats, and that you do not suffer the rain to demolish the earth about them, which must be continnally maintained in its first height; and if in the same year, you finde any of those branches strong enough inoculate them with­out any more ado, unlesse you will choose rather to stay till the next year and graffe them all together; every one of these will be as so ma­ny trees to your hand, which you may plant in your Nursery, the year after they have made their first shoot, accurately separating them from the Mother-stock, and cutting the ends of their great root as­lant.

Remember to graffe them con­veniently high, that your tree may have sufficient Stem, and all that part which is in earth will abound with small root [...]

If you have any old Quince-trees, [Page 79] and would raise young Suckers from them, lay some of the branches in the ground, and in one year they will be rooted: but in case you desire to produce a Tree at once; you may effect it as I have already described it. The season of Laying these branches is all the Winter long, till the Buds begin to spring, provided that the earth be qualified.

Apples. Apple-trees challenge the second place, and may be likewise graffed after all the four wayes, they suc­ceed very well upon the Scion of the Pear-main grafted on Layers of the tree (called by the FrenchA kind of Cod­ling. Pom­mier de Parradis) and in particular the Queen-apple do [...]s wonderfully prosper upon it, and is more red within, then those which are graffed upon the Free-stock.

There are some curious persons who graffe the Q [...]een-apple upon the white Mulbery, and hold that the fruit does surpasse in rednesse, all [Page 80] others that are graffed, either on the Free-stock, or the forementioned Scion: but my opinion is, that it is the age of the trees only which im­parts that colour to them.

Plum. Plum-trees are ordinarily graffed in Scutcheon and in the Cleft, if you have any stocks rais'd from the stones, or the Suckers which spring from the Damask-Plum, they will yield very good trees, and bring abundance of fruit, there being no Plum whatsoe­ver which bears so full as the Da­mask.

The Wilde-Plum (which you shall know by the rednesse of the ends of the branches) is not fit at all to graffe upon, for it rejects many kinds of fruits, and is besides very uncer­tain to take.

Your old Plum-trees, whose small twigs grow in bundles and puckles, may be recovered and made young again, by taking off the head of them at the end of winter; they [Page 81] will shoot anew, and bear fruit the very year following: but you must cloame the heads of the wounded branches, and refresh the tract of the Saw, as I directed you before.

Abricots. Abricots are grafted either in the Stock, or in the Bud, upon plants springing of their own stones, and also upon a Plum-stock, but the white Pear-plum, and Moyend' oeuf make a very fair Abricot, and much larger then upon any other sort of Plum.

Peaches. Peaches, Perses andSort that cleaves to the Stone. Pavies, are ordinarily graffed by inoculation up­on a Peach, Plum, or Almond tree, but I prefer the Plum, because they are of longer continuance, and do better resist the Frosts, and the per­nicious winds, which shrivel and rust the leaves, and the young shoots. The white Plum, or Poictrons are not at all proper, but the black Damask, A great white plum, as big as an Abri­cot. Cyprus, andA black unplea­sant fruit. St. Iulian. Such as are budded on the Peach do not last, upon the Almond somewhat longer, [Page 82] and produce more abundance and much better fruit: but there is so much difficulty of governing the Almond-tree in our Climate, that one had better content himself with Plum-stocks; for the Almond is very impatient of Transplantation, and in great danger of perishing, if you remove him not the first, or second year at farthest, after he has made the first shoot: and besides, you must be sure to place him where he is ever to abide, and bud him there, without thought of stirring him af­terwards. The Almond-tree is of all others the most obnoxious to Frosts, by reason of his early blossoming; all the good in him is this, that he never sends forth any Suckers from the Root.

Cherries. Cherries, Bigarreaux and the like fruits are better propagated on the small wilde, or bitter Cherrie, then upon the Suckers which spring from the roots of other Cherrie-trees of a [Page 83] better kinde, though tollerable in defect of the other: and the right season to bud them, is, when the fruit begins to blush, and take co­lour.

They do very well graffed in the stock, and shoot wonderfully, but the Bud is much to be preserved.

They have of late found out an expedient to prevent the Gumme which incommodes the graffes and Clefts of Cherry-trees, to which they are wonderfully obnoxious: and that is, by sawing and paring the part smooth with a knife, after­wards to make an incision of two inches length into the first and ut­most rinde, drawing it aside, and separating it from the green some two inches long, without peeling it quite off: Then in the middle of this length to make the Cleft lodge the graff, and cover it with this skin, by replacing it; and then swathe it, as the custome is.

[Page 84] For Stones and Almonds of all sorts, which you would sow to pro­duce natural fruit or graffe upon: prepare a Bed of Earth before Win­ter, trench it, and tread it, then rake and water it: which done, range all your Stones on it at three inches distance, (every species apart) then lay as many boards upon them as wil cover the Bed, and upon the boards a good quantity of weighty stones; cover all this with new dung to pre­vent the Frost: the moneth of May following take up your boards: you shall finde your stones sprouted; which you shall immediately take up without impeaching the Sprouts, and so place them where you would have them remain: This is a parti­cular which will extreamly satisfie you, as in time you will finde.

Figs. Figs of all sorts are propagated by Layers, and suddenly bear fruit, which you may facilitate by passing a fair branch through some Bushel [Page 85] or Bushels, and environing it with rich earth, that it may take root. But be careful that you fasten the Vessel very well to the side of the tree, lest the windes and its own weight turn it over, and ruine your Labour. You may also take the Suckers which spring out of the earth from the foot of a Fig-tree ready rooted, or the Cuttings, which you may cultivate and govern after the manner of Quinces; but yet with­out cutting off the tops of the branches which you so lay, for this wood having a large pith, is very sub­ject to the iniury of winde and wa­ter: and the sooner you plant these trees in the places designed for their abode, the better they will take. Winter past, gather off all the unripe Figs before they fall off themselves, for if they stay till they spontaneously quit the trees, they will have ex­hausted them very much of their Sap, to the great prejudice of the [Page 86] Figs which are to succeed them, and which by neglecting this do often­times never arrive to their maturity. And forasmuch as the Fig-tree does very much suffer by reason of the Frosts, you are obliged to plant them in a warm place, or in Cases, which you may remove and house with your Orange-trees in the Win­ter.

Mulberies take likewise of Cut­tings and Layers, pricking them in a moyst place, half a [...]oot profound, not permitting above three fingers of the tops to peer out of the earth, and treading it down with your feet as you should do Quinces.

If you would sowe Mulberies, to produce a great quantity in a little ground; take an old Well-rope, which is made of a certain wood called the Bline, easy to be twisted, and rub it with such ripe Mulberies as you finde fallen off the tree; bu­ry this Cord four fingers deep in a [Page 87] trench, cover it with earth: and the next year you shall have Trees e­nough both to store your self and your Friends.

Oranges. Limmons. Concerning Orange and Limmon-Trees, I shall only deliver the prin­cipal and most ordinary govern­ment of them, which is to sowe their Repins in Boxes, and when they are two years old, transplant them in Cases, every one in a Case by it self, filled with rich Mellon- bed-mould, mingled with Loam refined and ma­tur'd by one winter, and when they can well support it, you may either inoculate, or graffe them by Approch in the Spring of the year: Above all things, be diligent to secure them from cold, and commit them early to their shelter, where, that they may intirely be preserved from the Frost, you may give them a gentle Stove, and attemper the Air with a fire of Charcoal, during the extream rigour of the Winter, in [Page 88] case you suspect the Frost has at all invaded them.

But so soon as the Spring appears, and that the Frosts are intirely past, you may acquaint them with the Air by degrees, beginning first to open the doors of the Conservatory in the heat of the day, and shutting them again at night, and so by little and little you may set open the win­dowes, and shut them again in the evening, till all danger is past, and then you may bring them forth, and expose them boldly to the Ayr du­ring all the Summer following.

As these trees grow big, you may change and enlarge their Cases, but be sure to take them out earth and all, razing the stringy and fiberous roots, a little with a knife, before you replace them, and supplying what their new Cases may want, with the fore-described mould: Some when they alter their Cases denude them of all the earth, con­ceiving [Page 89] it exhausted and insipid: but it is to the extream prejudice of the Tree, and does set it so far back, that a year or two will hardly recover it.

You may gather the Flowers eve­ry day, to prevent their knotting in­to fruit, or (being too luxurious) their languishing; it will suffice therefore that you spare some of the fairest, and best placed for fruit, and of them as many as you con­ceive the tree can well nourish.

The Spiders do extreamly affect to spread their Toyles among the bran­ches and leaves of this Tree, because the flies so much frequent their flow­ers and leaves, which attract them with their redolency and juice, and to remedy this, use such a Brush as is made to cleanse pictures withal, from the dust, but treat them tenderly.

Shrubs. Arbusts and all Shrubs, such as Pome-granads, Iassemins, Musk-Roses, &c. Woodbines, Myrtles, ordi­nary Laurel, Cherry-Laurel, R [...]se-Laurel, [Page 90] Althea-frutex, Lilac, Guelder-Roses, Phylirea, Alaternus, and divers more superfluous to repeat here; Of these we will only take the prin­cipal, and discourse a little upon them.

Granads. Granads, as well those which bear the double Flower, are propagated from Layers, letting them passe the year in the ground, they will be sufficiently rooted before winter, to be transplanted: You may likewise govern their branches and cuttings as you did the Quince. They may be either budded, or graffed in the Cleft in the ordinary season: And some plant them in Cases to preserve them in the house during Winter; but they will endure without doors, planted against some well-sheltered Wall, where they will prosper very well. The Granads which they call de Ra­guignan, are most beautiful, very glowing, and of a rich taste, although something lesse.

[Page 91] If your Pome-granads run out too exuberant, and neither knot, nor pre­serve their fruit; it proceeds from the drouth of the ground; and therefore being in flower, you should water them, and their flowers will stop and knit.

Jass [...]mine Common white Iassemine, and yellow, are produced also by Layers, out of which you may draw a rooted plant whereon to graffe the Spanish Iassemine, which you must preserve in Cases, and house with your O­ranges in Winter; you shall cut it every year, (at the end of Winter) neer the graft, leaving but one Bud at a twig to produce young shoots for flowers: You may form the Plant like the head of an Ozier, leaving it only a foot high at the Stem: You may graffe it in Cleft, upon a shoot of the precedent year, placing the Graffe in the middle of the Pith of its stock, and inveloping it with your Cerecloth, head it as you do other [Page 92] graffes: If you will plant it abroad against some wall expos'd to the East or South, you may govern it as you do the Vine, making small heads at each knot: but you must loosen it from the wall in Winter, and gently bend it towards the ground, the more commodiously to cover it with Mats and long dung till the Spring, at what time you may redress, prune and apply it to the wall as before.

Musk-rose The Musk-Rose may be budded upon a Sweet-brier, and are easily ordered; for you need onely dis­charge them of the dead wood, and stop the young shoots which are too exuberant, and draw away all the sap to the prejudice of the rest of the branches: You may also lay them in the ground, and separate other trees from them; or the Cuttings or­dered like Quinces, and interred in the shade.

Myrtl [...]s. Laurels. Myrtles, Cherry-Laurels and Rose-Laurels, are produced of Layers. It [Page 93] is sufficient that it be done a little before August; but you should cleave or wound that part of the wood a little which you plunge into the ground, at some joynt, cleaving it half the thicknesse of the branch, and three or four fingers in length, according as it is in strength, and in six weeks they will shoot a sufficient root to be severed and transplanted; Moreover they produce Suckers rea­dy rooted, which you may separate from their Mothers.

You may forme Cherry-Laurels in Palisades and Hedges, which support the winter abroad very well.

Common Laurels are rais'd of Seed in Cases like Oranges, and may be transplanted the first or second year, and being planted under the drip (not the gutter) of a house shaded from the Sun, they will flou­rish wonderfully: some cover them with Fearn or Straw, to secure them from the frosts, to which they are ob­noxious.

Phyliriea. Alaternus [Page 94] Phylirea and Alaternus are sown likewise in Cases before Winter, and set in the house, where the Berries will come up and sprout a great deal better, then if they had been sown at the Spring.

By that time they are half a foot high you may transplant them, and (if you please) clip and fashion them like Box without any danger, shaping them into close walks and Cabinets, upon frames of wood, as you will.

Althea­frutex. Arbor. Judae. Lilac. Concerning the rest, as Althea­frutex, Arbor Iudae, Lilac, &c. be­ing Plants which are easily propa­gated, I shall pass them over for fear of swelling this Book, and im­portuning the Reader. Let us con­clude rather with the Diseases to which our Trees and Plants are ob­noxious, and speak of those Ani­mals which incommode them.

Diseases. Of all the Maladies to which Trees are subject, the Canker is the [Page 95] most perilous, for it chaps and mor­tifies that part of the Bark where it breeds, daily augmenting, unless prevented by a prompt and speedy Remedy, so soon as it is perceived; so that if you neglect to visit your trees, you shall often finde them all dead upon one side: to remedy which you must launce and open the living Bark round to the very quick as deep as the wood, and so the Canker will fall of it self: or else you must scrape it well, that the bark may the more easily re­cover, the sore; and secure it from the Hail, by covering it with a little Cow-dung, and swathing it with a clout of some Mosse.

Moss. The Mosse which invades trees proceeds commonly from some oc­cult and hidden cause, which is, when the roots encounter with a gravelly, sandy or other bad mould, so that they cannot penetrate to search for refreshment; this burns [Page 96] up the Tree, and spoils it of his leaves, during the great hea [...]s. For this, there is only this expedient. If it be a small tree, you must take it up with as much mould about its root as possible, and make a Pit for it four foot square, filling the bot­tom with Mellon-bed-dung, and the rest with rich earth, and then re­place the tree, observing what I have already said; and thus the tree may be taken up without any damage, and will take again with ease, pro­vided that you be careful to preserve its Rootes from languishing and taking Ayr. But in case the tree be old, you must bare the root before Winter, and dis-interre the greatest roots half their thickness, making a large Trench about the foot of the Tree, and so let it remain all Win­ter (that the earth may become mellow) till the Spring, when you must fill the apertures with well consum'd dung mixed with earth, [Page 97] and especially about the Roots▪

You may take off the Mosse from great Trees with a Plane, lightly paring off the dry Surface of the Bark; and from smaller Trees with a blunt knife, or some proper instrument of wood. The properest season for this work is after a soaking rain, or great dew in the morning; for whilst the great heats continue, it cleaves so obstinatly to the trees, that you can­not scrape it off without prejudicing the Bark, if you would utterly era­dicate it: Neither ought you to neglect this cure, for the Mosse un­disturbed doth daily augment, and is the same inconvenience to Trees that the Itch is to Animals. If you water your Trees during the exces­sive heats, and cover the roots with Fern, or other mungy stuff, it will preserve them from this disease.

Jaundies. The Iaundies or Languor, which you may perceive by the leaves of [Page 98] Trees, proceed from some hurt, which either the Mols, or Mice, may have done to their rootes; or by the stroake of some spade or per­adventure by the too great aboun­dance of Water which corrupting suffocates them. For redresse here­of you must uncover the roots in­tirely, and visite them, to see if they have received any prejudice from any of the forementioned ac­cidents; and in case you finde any galling or hurt upon a roote, you shall cut it smooth off, aslant, above, but neare the place, and then strow the bottom of the hole with some Chimny-soote to make these creatures abandon their haunt filling up the rest with rich mould; and if the cause proceed from corrupted Wa­ter, you must divert it with a trench.

Moles. To take the Moles, some place a Butter-Pot crosse their passage sinking it two fingers lower then the tract, by which meanes they [Page 99] often fall in and perish. Others use a pipe of wood of about two foot long, and the bore as big as your wrist, In this trunk is a small tongue of tin or thin plate of Iron within four fin­gers of either end, which is fastned to the trunk with a wyer a little slanting at the bottom towards the middle of the pipe; that so the Mole entring in, and thrusting the tongue can neither get out at one end or other: You must place this trunke exactly in the Moles passage: Some to make them quit an obsti­nate haunt make a small hoop of el­der, which they six halfe a foot into the ground.

But the most infallible way is, to watch them in the Morning and E­vening, when they worke in their Hills, and to fling them dextrously out with the spade. If you take any alive, put them in an empty butter­pott, for they report, that they will invite others by their cry, who run­ning [Page 100] through the same passage fall into the same pot and so are caught.

They are destroyed likewise with Mole-graines, which is a set of sharp Iron points, skrewed upon a staffe, which struck upon the hill when the mole is working, does cer­tainly pierce him through, amaze, or kill as you shall finde if you dig immediatly after it.

Mice. Field-nice are best taken by mak­ing them a small hutt of ferne or straw, like the cover or hack of a Bee-hive, placing under it some vessell full of Water filled within 4 fingers of the brim, and cover it with some husks of Oats to hide the water which will soon tempt them to wallow in't, and [...]earch for the grain, and so drown themselves. It is good also to put some Wheat-ears or of oates, which may hang near the middle of the vessell, without touching it; for the mice striving to come at the corne will fall into [Page 101] the water. Or you may Poyson them with Arsenick or Ratts-bane the powder of it mingled with grease; but you may by this means endan­ger your Catts, which finding and eating the dead mice will not long survive them.

Worms. The Worme getts sometimes be­tween the barke and body of a tree: if you can discover whereabout they lie, you may soon draw them out without making any great incision.

There is also another kind of small worme, which they call the Nip-bud which breeds at the very poynt of young shoots, and kills all their tops; but these are easily de­stroyed, for cutting the branch to the quick, you shall be sure to find them.

There is a Green-worme which devoures the young shoots as fast as they grow, and those are very hard to un-nestle, unless you daub them with quick-lime newly quinched, [Page 102] which you may easily do with a small Painters brush.

Ants. Ants and Pismires will forsake their haunt, if you incompasse the stemme four fingers breadth with a circle or roule of Wooll newly pluck­ed from a Sheeps belly, or if you a­noint it with tarre.

But there is an other expedient more cleanly and not so difficult, which is to make little boxes of cards or Pastboard pierced full of holes with a bodkin, every box hav­ing a baite of the powder of Arse­nick mingled with a little hony; these boxes must be hung upon the tree, and this wil certainly destroy them; but you must be carefull that you do not make the holes so large that a Bee may enter least they poison themselves also.

A Glasse-bottle with a little hony in it, or that has had any other sweet liquor in it fastned to the Tree, will attract all the Ants, [Page 103] which you may stop, and kill them, by washing the bottle with a little hot water; then carrying it to its place again rinced with a little sweet Syrup, you will by this meanes intirely destroy them.

Snails. Shell-s [...]ailes you may easily ga­ther from behinde the leaves which grow neerest to the fruit which they begun to eat the night before.

For yor shall find some fruit half devoured in one night, insomuch as one would think it the work of some Stotes, Field-rats, or Nut-mouse, whereas indeed they are nothing but the snailes which in great num­bers devonr as much as one of those animals.

You should never pluck off the fruit which the Snails or other Vermine have begun, for as long as they last, they will not touch any of the rest.

The Black Snails (without shell) are easily gathered, for they cleave [Page 104] to the leaves, and feed upon them.

Woodlice. Earwigs. As for Wood-lyce, Earwigs, Mar­tinets, and the smaller insects which likewise infest Trees, you shall place Ho [...]fs of Bullocks, Sheep or Hogs, upon short stakes fixed in the Ground, or upon the Ozyers which fasten your Palisades, and wall-fruit, and this Chase will employ two men from Morning break, who must take them gently, but speedily off, and shake them into a kettle of scalding water, which they are to carry with them; or the other may bruise such as are likely to escape with some instrument of wood.

Cater-pil­lars. Caterpillars are easily gathered off during all the Winter, taking away the Packets which cleave about the Branches, and burning them; but if you neglect this, till they are dis­clos'd, you will not be able to destroy them without much difficulty: but in case you have not prevented it, be diligent to take them whilst they [Page 105] are yet young, when either through the coldnesse of the Night, or some Humidity, they are assembled toge­ther in heaps; for otherwise; when the Sun is hot, and that it is high day, they will have over-spread your Trees.

And the destruction of these Ver­mine is so absolutely necessary, that you shall quit all manner work to accomplish it; for a Garden anoy'd with this plague but one year only, shall resent it more then three years after.

And now we will shut up this Treatise with the Receipt which I promised to give you of the Compo­sition to cover your Graffs.

The com­position to hood your Grafs. Take then half a pound of new Wax, as much Burgundy Pitch, two ounces of ordinary Turpentine, melt all these Ingredients in a new earth­en Pot, glazed, sufficiently stirring it; then let it cool at least twelve hours, then break it into pieces, [Page 106] and hold them in warm water half an hour, where you must work it with your hands, till it become very pliable. Or you may dip any Clouts in this Composition, and afterwards cut them out into Plasters, fitted to the wounds of your Trees, which will lesse waste your store, and not take up so much of your Composition as if you applyed it in morsels; and you may make use of this Cerecloth to cover the Clefts of your Trees, which gape between a Stock that hath two Graffs, and secure it from the rain; and you may winde it a­bout the Hoods, before you daub them with Loam and Hay, and this will certainly preserve your graffs from all injuries of water whatso­ever.

To make fruit knot. There are some so curious, that to make their Fruit knot well, and abide upon such Trees, which spend all in Blossoms, do make holes in di­vers parts of the Tree with an Au­ger [Page 107] of about a finger bore, filling the hole again with a Pin of Oak, which they beat in quite crosse the Tree. This they conceive does stop the fruit. You may experiment it if you please, the labour is not great, nor at all to the hazard of your Tree.

A Catalogue of the names of Fruits known about Paris.

Pears whose Fruit is in perfection at the end of Iune, and in Iuly.
  • SMall Blanquet.
  • Hasty Pear of several sorts.
  • Musk-Pear, or Sept en gueule, &c.
  • The Musky St. John.
In Iuly and in August.
  • THe great Amyret.
  • Lesser Amyre [...].
  • Little John Amyret.
  • Good twice a year.
  • Camouzines.
  • Lady-dear Muscat.
  • Lady-dear Green.
  • Citron-Pear.
  • Cocquin Rozat.
  • [Page 109] Ladies Thigh.
  • Madera-Pear.
  • Desgranges yellow.
  • Two headed Pear.
  • Sweet two sorts.
  • Vacher Rozatte.
  • Espargne.
  • Fine Gold long Stalk.
  • Fine Gold of Orleans.
  • Fine Gold, great, round and Rosse.
  • Friquet.
  • Gloutes de Gap.
  • Magdalene.
  • Muscat long tayl.
  • Pearl Muscat.
  • Great Musky white and yellow.
  • The great Muzette.
  • Small Muzette.
  • Perdreau.
  • The Pearl.
  • Pernant Rozat.
  • Province Pear.
  • Pucell of Xainctonge.
  • Green Royal.
  • Rozat of three colours.
  • [Page 110] Rozat red, straked with Green.
  • Rozat Royal.
  • The King of the Sommer.
  • The Superintendent, or great green Musk.
In August and September.
  • THe Amazon.
  • Amours.
  • Amydon.
  • Armentieres.
  • Balme.
  • The Father in Law.
  • Fair and Good.
  • Sommer Bergamotte.
  • Great Blanquet.
  • The Butter-Pear of August, long and round.
  • Green Butter-Pear.
  • Beuueriere.
  • Bezy of Mouuilliers.
  • Sommer green Bon-Chrestien.
  • The good Micet of Coyeux.
  • The Ugly-good.
  • [Page 111] The younger Brother.
  • The Rosy Musk-flint.
  • The Maidens flesh.
  • The Wax-Pear.
  • The Citron Pear.
  • The Melt in mouth.
  • Rosy Daverat.
  • Golden Pear.
  • White Ladder Pear.
  • Spicing.
  • The Forrest Pear.
  • The Ditch Pear.
  • Musky Ant Pear.
  • The Mangy Pears.
  • Rosy Garbot.
  • The Cake Pear.
  • Giacçiole of Rome.
  • Long Gillets.
  • Gracçioli, or Cowcumber Pear round and red.
  • The Greasie Pear.
  • The Jealous Pear.
  • Jargonelle.
  • Jouars.
  • The red and yellow Balsam Pear.
  • [Page 112] Milan Pears.
  • Muscadel of Piedmont.
  • Round and Rosie Muscat.
  • Nançy Muscats.
  • Summer Novelet.
  • Summer Onion.
  • Musky Onionet.
  • D' Or.
  • The Red Orange of Xainctonge, red and very great.
  • Yellow Orange, pennach't with red like a Tulip.
  • Orange knotted.
  • Flat green Orange.
  • Canarie Palmes.
  • Perfume of Sommer.
  • Passe-good of Burgogne.
  • Pepin.
  • White and Red Piedmont.
  • Sommer Portugal.
  • Putes, or Pimp-Pear.
  • Xaintogne Rosy of three sorts.
  • Ingranad Rosy.
  • Round Rosie, green mixed with red.
  • Grey Rosie of Xaintonge.
  • [Page 113] Rosie or hasty Butter-Pear.
  • Bloody Pear.
  • Wilde Sweeting.
  • Sorel Pear.
  • The Sugar Pear.
  • White Sugar Pear.
  • The Treasurer.
  • The Cheat-Liquorish.
  • The Turky Pear.
  • The Valley Pear.
  • Clown of Anjou.
  • Clown of Reatte.
In September and October.
  • AN [...]y, the English Pear
  • The Goose's Bill.
  • Long and green Butter-Pear.
  • Caillouat of Champagne.
  • The Musky Calvill.
  • The Cinnamon Pear.
  • Cappon.
  • The long Clairvils.
  • Sommer Certeau.
  • The Toad-Pear.
  • [Page 114] The Deans Pear, white, or St. Mi­chaels Pear.
  • The Thorn Pear.
  • Fontarabie.
  • Galore.
  • The Clove Pear.
  • The round Clove.
  • Grain.
  • Rozatte Guamont.
  • High Relish.
  • Jargonell of Autumn.
  • Rosie Kerville.
  • The Sawcy Pears.
  • The Lombardy Pear.
  • The Meilleraye Pear.
  • The Flies Pear, or Soft Butter.
  • Monsieurs Pear.
  • Small Melt in Mouth.
  • The Muscat.
  • Mont Dieu.
  • The Moutieres of Daulphine.
  • Oignon of Xaintonge.
  • The Poictiers.
  • The Rebet.
  • The Roland▪
  • [Page 115] The great Russet of Rheims.
  • Small Russet.
  • Long Rosy poud'red with red.
  • Rosie green two sorts.
  • St. Michael.
  • St. Samson, or Ditch Pear.
  • Champagne without name.
  • Sausedge Pear.
  • Rozatte of September.
  • Supreams.
  • The Pear of three tastes.
  • The Found-Pear.
  • Vintage Pears.
  • Ysambert.
  • Pear Evelyn.
In October and November.
  • AMadotte.
  • The Silver Pear.
  • The Bag Pipe Pear.
  • The Ice Pear.
  • The great stalked Pear.
  • Ugly-Good.
  • The Lady Pear.
  • [Page 116] The great Mary of Amiens.
  • Messire John, green.
  • The grey Messire John.
  • My Lords Pear.
  • The Autumn Marrow in mouth.
  • The Peach-Pear.
  • The Noiron.
  • The Virgin of Flanders.
  • The double Virgins.
  • Robine.
  • King of Saulçay.
  • King Musky Pear, all yellow.
  • Autumnal Saffran Pear.
  • The Seigneur.
  • The Sun-Pear.
  • The So-good.
  • The Vine-Pear.
  • The Virgoulette: great and small.
In November and December.
  • ALeaume.
  • The Musk Long Bergamo [...]s.
  • The Round Betgamots.
  • Bezy D' Hery.
  • [Page 117] Carisy.
  • The double Cartelle,
  • The Burnt Cat.
  • The Charity Pear.
  • Stopple-Pear.
  • The Squib-Pear.
  • Spindle-Pear.
  • Girogille, or Venus Nipple.
  • Our Lady-Pear.
  • The Autumn Pear.
  • Winter Virgins.
  • King of Autumn.
  • The peerlesse Pear.
  • White Sucrin.
  • Black Sucrin.
In December and Ianuary.
  • THe Namelesse Pear.
  • Gascogne Bergamotte.
  • Musk-Bon-Chrestien.
  • Bonne Foy.
  • The Ugly Morma.
  • Cadillac-Pear.
  • Certeau Madam.
  • [Page 118] Pear of the other world.
  • The Pound Pear.
  • The Scarlet Pear.
  • The Fig Pear.
  • The Winter flower.
  • Free Royal.
  • The great Mesnil.
  • Keville.
  • The dry Martins.
  • Winter Messire John.
  • The white Milan Pear.
  • The Onionet with a short stalk.
  • The Orient Pear.
  • The Leaden Pear.
  • The Red King Pear.
  • The Rosie Saffran.
  • The Rozat of St. Denis.
  • The Healthy Pear.
  • The Saulsig-Pear.
  • The wreathed Pear of two sorts.
  • The Cheat Knave or Ugly good.
  • The Priests Load.
In Ianuary and February.
  • [Page 119]THe Alençon Pear.
  • The Amber Pear.
  • The Lovers Pear.
  • Bezy of Privillier.
  • Bezy of Quassoy.
  • The Winter Butter P. of Xaintonge
  • The Butter Pear of Yveteaux.
  • The Bouvart Pear.
  • The Musk Caillotet, or Curdled P.
  • The Caillouat of Varennes.
  • The Winter Rosie Flint.
  • The Carcassonne.
  • The great Certeau.
  • The Carmelite.
  • The small hooked Certeau.
  • The Castle Gontier.
  • The Condon.
  • The Little Dagobert.
  • The Dagobert of Miossan.
  • Dame Houdette.
  • The red Ladder Pear.
  • Winter Fine Gold.
  • [Page 120] Rosy Florentine.
  • The Fremont, or St. Franceis.
  • The Winter Spindle.
  • The Garay of Auxois.
  • The Gourmandine.
  • The huge Hongrie.
  • The Incognito of Persia.
  • The Winter Legat.
  • The sweet Limon.
  • The long green Pear of Berny.
  • The Micet.
  • Winter melt in mouth.
  • The Fleshy stalk Muscat.
  • The Mazeray Muscat.
  • The Winter Bag-pipe.
  • Nanterre.
  • The O [...]gnon of St. John of Angely.
  • The Winter Orenge-Pear.
  • The Rose Perigord.
  • The petit Oing.
  • Plotot, or Squat Pear.
  • Portail-Pear.
  • The Prince or Bourbon.
  • The Prince of Sillery.
  • The white Rabu.
  • [Page 121] The great and little Ratot.
  • The Pear Royal.
  • Rozatte of Xaintonge.
  • Rozatte of Mazuere.
  • St. Anthony-Pear.
  • The Suisse with red, green, and yellow Cheeks.
  • The Greening.
  • The Valladolid.
  • The Winter Clown.
In February and the other following Moneths till new ones.
  • BEzy.
  • The latter Bon-Chrestien.
  • The great Chrestien.
  • Calo Rozat.
  • The Gallon Oak-Pear of severall sorts.
  • The double Blossom Pear.
  • Gastelier.
  • The great Kairville.
  • Liquet.
  • The long-liv'd Pear.
  • [Page 122] The Long green pear.
  • The Musk pear.
  • The Parmein.
  • The Winter Virgin.
  • Rille.
  • The Winter Saffran pear.
  • The peerlesse pear.
  • The Thoul pear.
  • The great Found pear.
  • The little Found pear.
  • The Vignolettes.
Rath-ripe Apples.
  • DAnquelles.
  • The White Calvil.
  • The Cleer Calvil.
  • The red Calvil.
    • Queen Apple.
  • White Camoise.
  • Carmagnolles.
  • The tender Chesnut.
  • The Clicquet, or Rattle Apple.
  • The single Short-Start.
  • Red Short-start.
  • The great Cushion Apple.
  • Round Cushion Apple.
  • Long Cushion Apple.
  • [Page 123] The Apple of Hell, or black Apple.
  • The Scarlet Apple.
  • The Spicing.
  • The May-Flower.
  • The Raspis Apple.
  • Giradottes.
  • The Frozen Apple.
  • The great-ey'd Apple.
  • The Jacob Apple.
  • Lugelles.
  • Magdalene.
  • The Minion.
  • The Snow Apple.
  • Our Ladies Apple.
  • The Oblong Lissee.
  • Orgeran.
  • Passepommes or Hony meal of se­veral kindes.
  • Pommasses.
  • The white Rambourg.
  • Red Rambourg.
  • The hasty Reinette or Pippni.
  • The Royal.
  • The Dewy Apple.
  • The large red of September.
  • [Page 124] The soft red.
  • The St. John of two sorts.
  • The clustred Apple.
  • The Vignan Court.
  • The March Violet.
Keeping Apples.
  • THe great, and small Apis, or
  • Appius Claudius.
  • The Apioles.
  • The Parsly Apple.
  • Babichet.
  • The great white Apple.
  • The lcy white Apple.
  • The Little-Good.
  • The white Apple of Bretagne.
  • The red Apple of Bretagne.
  • The Cardinal.
  • Camuese, or Flat Snout.
  • Winter-Chesnut.
  • The Citron-Apple.
  • The Coqueret of several sorts.
  • Hard Short-Start.
  • Red Short-Start.
  • [Page 125] Russet Short-Start.
  • Douettes.
  • The Bretagne Cloth of Gold.
  • The Stranger.
  • White Fenouill.
  • Red Fenouill.
  • The Yron Apple.
  • The great belly'd Woman.
  • The High-good.
  • Horluva.
  • Jayet.
  • The Judea Apple.
  • Malingres, or Maligar Apple.
  • Mattranges.
  • Winter Passe-Pommes, or Hony-Meal.
  • The Pigeonnet.
  • Pear-Apple.
  • The Raeslee.
  • The Reinet of Auv [...]rgne.
  • Pippin of Mascons.
  • The Grey Reinet.
  • The Flat Reinet.
  • Robillard.
  • The Winter Reed.
  • The Rose Apple.
  • [Page 126] The Apple without Blossom.
  • Health.
  • The Seigneur.
  • The Vermillion.
Plums early and late:
  • ABricots.
  • Abricotines.
  • Amber.
  • The great Appetite.
  • Bessonne or Twin-plum.
  • All Saints, white.
  • Blosses.
  • Good at Christmas.
  • Prunella of Provence.
  • Citron Prunellas.
  • White Cherry-plum.
  • Red little Cherry-plum.
  • Round Citrons.
  • Pointed Citron.
  • Pigeons Heart.
  • Cypres.
  • Almond.
  • The White Damask.
  • [Page 127] Great double Damask.
  • The latter Grey Damask.
  • The hasty black Damask.
  • Musky Black Damask.
  • The Violet Damask.
  • White Date.
  • Red Date.
  • Great Dattille.
  • Datilles.
  • Black Diapred.
  • White Diapred.
  • The Escarcelle.
  • The double Flower.
  • High Good.
  • Great Imperial.
  • Round Imperial.
  • Joinville.
  • Jorases.
  • Green Peascod.
  • Maximilian.
  • Merveille, or Balsam plum.
  • Mirabolans.
  • Mirabelles.
  • The Looking-Glasse.
  • The Egge Yolk.
  • Yolk of Bourgogne.
  • [Page 128] Monsieurs Plum.
  • Montmiret.
  • Musk
  • The Passe for Velvet of Valency.
  • White
  • Black
  • Red
    • Perdrigon.
  • Late
  • Green
  • Great Violet.
  • Poictron.
  • Small Grape Plum.
  • Queen Claudia.
  • Cocles Kidney.
  • Roche Corbon.
  • Roman.
  • Latter Round.
  • King of Bresse.
  • Little St. Anthony.
  • St. Catharine.
  • St. Cir.
  • The White St. Julien.
  • Black St. Julien.
  • Huge Saluces of two sorts.
  • The Plum without Stone.
  • Simiennes.
  • [Page 129] Black Trudennes.
  • Red Trudennes.
  • The Vacation Plum.
  • The black Vintage.
  • Verdach.
  • GReat Alberges.
  • Small Alberges.
  • Alberges of Province.
  • Aubicons.
  • Almond Peach.
  • Amber Peach.
  • Angelicks.
  • White forward Peach.
  • Yellow forward Peach.
  • Great Brignons of Bearn.
  • Musky Brignons.
  • Cherry Peach.
  • Corbeil Peaches.
  • Winter hard Peach.
  • Double-Flower Peach.
  • Gallion Peach very fair.
  • Yellow Pavie.
  • Magdalen Pavie.
  • [Page 130] Magdalene Peach.
  • White Mircoton.
  • Yellow Mircoton.
  • Mircoton of Jarnac.
  • Nutmeg Peach.
  • Parcouppes, or Gashed Peach.
  • Pau-Peach.
  • Prune-Peach.
  • Pavies-Raves.
  • Peach-Rave.
  • Persiques.
  • Persilles, or Parsly Peach.
  • Rossan peach.
  • White Scandalis.
  • Black Scandalis.
  • Yellow peach.
  • Troy peach.
  • The Fromentee peach.
  • The Violet peach.
Cherries, Heart-Cherries, &c.
  • BIgarreaux.
  • Red Cherrie.
  • White Cherrie.
  • [Page 131] Double Blossom Cherrie.
  • Heart-Cherrie.
  • Preserving Cherry, great.
  • Sweet Guin Cherries.
  • White Guin Cherries.
  • Black Guin Cherries.
  • Merizettes.
  • Double Blossom Merizier.
  • Mountmorency Cherry, Short stalk.
  • Rath-ripe: or May.
  • Trochets clustred, or Flanders
  • Cherrie.
  • The All Saints Cherrie.
  • WHite Figs.
  • Bourjassotes.
  • Bourno-Saintes.
  • Flower-Fig.
  • Gourravaund of Languedoc.
  • Marseilles Fig.
  • White Dwarfe.
  • Violet Dwarfe.
  • Violet Fig.
  • [Page 132]BIgarrades.
  • China-Orange.
  • Spanish
  • Genoa
    • Orange.
  • Portugall
  • Province
Limons and Citrons.
  • LImonchali.
  • Limoni Cedri.
  • Limoni Dorsi.
  • Limoni of Grarita.
  • Sweet Limons.
  • Pommes D' Adam.
  • Poncilles.
  • Spada Fora with Laurel leaves.
Other curious Trees.
  • ARbutus.
  • Azarollier, or Neapolitan
  • Medlar.
  • [Page 133] Carob-tree.
  • Cornelian.
  • Jujuba.
  • Mirabolans of Africa.
  • Medlars without Stone.
  • Pistachia.
  • Berberies without Stone.

IF in this Catalogue of Fruits, I have either mistaken or omitted many of the true English names, it is be­cause it was a Subjection too insup­portable: and besides the French Gar­diners themselves are not perfectly accorded concerning them; nor have our Orchards, as yet, attained to so ample a Choyce and universal, as to supply the deficiency of the Dictionary.




Of Melons, Cucumbers, Gourds, and their Kindes.

Melons. SINCE Melons are the most precious Fruits that your Kitchen Garden affords, I think it most proper to discourse of them in the Front of this Chapter, & instruct you how you ought to go­vern them in this our Climate, for which alone, I have calculated all these observations passing by those which (differing from ours) may possibly fill you with doubt, should I confound you with the manner how they order them in the hotter Coun­treyes, different from ours, more tem­perate, and cold in respect to these delicate fruits.

Seeds. [Page 136] In order to this intention of ours, which is, that we may have them excellent: You must diligently en­quire after the best seeds, such as you may procure out of Italy, from Lions, Tours, Anjou, Champagne, and other places, where men emu­late one another who shall have the best Melons. Also to have of all the kindes, Sucrin, Morin, Melonnes, Grenots, white, wraught, or Embro­d'red, Ribb'd, and others, even to the locking up of those seedes whose fruite has pleased you; for some affect them of one tast, which ano­ther will reject, and hold worth nothing. One loves to eat them a little greene, another would have them very ripe. And therefore you shall furnish your self with such kindes as are most agreeable to your tast, and as thrive and ripen best in your ground, which is the thing you must chiefly respect; for oftentimes there comes such raines from Au­gust [Page 137] as uterly spoyl them; depri­ving them both of odor, savor, and colour, filling them so with water that they are not to be eaten, and [...]ipening them so altogether, that they are only [...]it to be given to horses, who extreamly affect them; In briefe, these rains spoyl, and utterly destroy your Meloniere, where you have be­stowed so much care, and the paines of five or six moneths are lost, with­out gratifying you with the least of your hopes; and therefore you should endeavour to have them early that you may prevent these inconveniences.

In those Countryes where they raise great store with little trouble; but plant them in the open ground, as we do Cabbages, as soon as the rains come, they give over eating them, and think them as bad as poyson.

Plo [...]. To begin then your Meloniere, or Melon Plot, you shall choose a [Page 138] place in your garden the most secu­red from pernicious winds, which you shall close in with a Reede-hedge handsomely bound in Pannells, which you shall set up with suffici­ent stakes or posts fixed in the ground, and sustained, lest the windes overturne them: To this Enclosure you must make a door, which you shall keep under lock and key, that none molest your Plantation; and particularly to keep out Women-kinde at certaine times, for reasons you may imagine.

F [...]gure The Figure at the Frontispiece of this treatise, will easily instruct you in what manner you should inclose your Melon ground.

In this Parke, which may be of what extent you think good, you shall make beds of horse-dung, such as you have provided the winter be­fore and heaped up together in some place neer your Meloniere, as fast as it is throwne forth of the sta­ble.

Season. [Page 139] About midd-February you shall begin to prepare a bed for the seeds, taking dung hot from the stable, and of that of your foresaid heape, mingling them together, that the heat of the fresh may communicate it self to the other.

Beds. Make your Bed the whole length of your Melon ground, four foot large leaving a path about it of three foot wide, that you may have place to put hot dung when you perceive the bed to languish, and that it begins to coole overmuch.

This bed handsomly made, and trodden with the feet to excite the heat, you must cover the [...]op of it with (neer four inches thick) of ex­cellent mould, or rather with that rich stuff, which comes from a last years bed mingled with a little of the purest mould you can procure: This composition you must spread, keeping a board to the side and margent of the bed, and clapping [Page 140] the earth down with your hand a­gainst the board, to render it the more firme and even.

Your Bed thus prepared, of a­bout a yard high you shall suffer to repose till it has passed its greatest heats; which may continue two or three dayes, more, or lesse, accord­ing to the temper of the season.

The extreamity of heat past (which you shall discover by the sinking of the bed and by examining it with your finger) you will easily judge if it be well qualified for your seed: For if you cannot suffer your finger in it, it is yet too hot, and it ought to be but tepid, but not qui [...]e cold, in which case, you mast heat it again by applying new made dung immediately to the sides of your bed in the passage about it, as I before have described.

The bed in perfect temper, and your seeds steeped in good Wine-Vinagre, or Cow-milk eight and four­ty [Page 141] howers, every species apart by themselves: You shall sowe them at one end of your bed, reserving the rest, for the other seeds whereof I shall speak hereafter.

Sowing. Draw then upon your Terras, narrow furrowes with the point of your finger quite crosse your bed; But let the lines be six inches asun­der, and as even as you can, which you may facilitate with the help of a Rule.

Upon every of these lines make three holes in the earth or Terras, joyning your fingers together in fa­shion of a hens-rump, and in each of these holes put three or four Me­lon-seeds, all of a sort.

Upon the Intervalls 'twixt the lines, which I advised you to leave, you may sow Lettice-seeds for early sallets, in other Chervill; And you may fringe the whole bed about with purslaine; for these herbs will be very forward, and are to be ta­ken [Page 142] up very young, least they suf­focate your Melon-plants, but this will spare you a weeding, and will be a kind of dressing to them also.

Covering. Be carefull to cover your Bed e­very night, and when the weather is bad, with hurdles made of straw, or close matts, which are to be sup­ported with ribs, and arches of poles or small rafters layd crosse into forkes fixed in the ground, at the sides of the Bed.

You shall not approach these Coverings neerer then four inches to your bed; if it happen to freez or snow, you shall then fill the whole vacuum with fresh and newly drawn dung, till the weather be more kind.

But if your seeds burn, by reason of the too great heat of your bed, (which you shall soon perceive, for they ought not to be long in the ground) you shall sow them all o­ver again, and heat the Bed a new [Page 143] by the sides, with hot dung, as you have been taught.

Season. The perfect season to sowe Melon-seeds, is in the full of February.

When your plants begin to peep you shall cover them with pretty large Drinking-Glasses, leaving a little passage for the Ayr 'twixt the Glasse and the Earth, least otherwise, they suffocate and tarnish.

Thus you shall let them grow to the fourth or sixth leafe before you remove them.

Trans­planting. They are Transplanted after four several fashions. First upon the Beds, which you must prepare at t [...]e side [...] this Genial bed, and all together: Make holes in the middle of these beds four foot asunder, and in each of these holes put in half a bushel of ex­cellent rich mould without making your whole [...]ed of it, and in this, you shall Transplant your Melons, taking them dextrously from the Nursing-bed with a good clod of earth about [Page 144] the noots. In the Evening about sun-set will be the most covenient time for this purpose, and if it may, let it be after a fair day, for it will much improve your plants.

This done, shelter the beds from the sun for three or four dayes fol­lowing, but you must water them from the first day of their planting that they may take hold and spring the sooner.

Then you shall cover them with wider glasse Bells till the fruit be big, and indeed, as long as the plant may be contained under it, leaving it a little ayr 'twixt the Bell and the bed for fear of choaking the Plant, unlesse the bell have a hole at the top, which you may stop at night.

From ten in the Morning till four in the Afternoon, you may take off the Bells, to accquaint them with the ayr and fortifie your Melons a­gainst unseasonable weather, but [Page 145] you must cover them again in the Evening.

Stormes. There sometimes happen such storms of hail as crack all the Bells, and to prevent this, some are provi­ded with covers made of straw of the same shape, to clap over the glasses at night, to prevent this accident.

Bells. Others make Bells of Earth, but I do no way approve of this inven­tion, for it is not possible that the sun should sufficiently penetrate this earth, as it doeth the Glasse: They may pretend them for the night onely and to pervent hayl, and that indeed with better reason.

If you perceive your plant to lan­guish, and not improve, water it within halfe a foot of its roote, with water where in Pigeons dung has been steeped.

[...]runing Your Melons now reasonable strong, choose out the prime shoots (which will be in number equal to your seeds) the rest you must [Page 146] gueld and prune off, and when you perceive three or four Melons knot­ted upon one shoot, you shall stop that vine pinching a knott above that of the fruit, then extend all the other shoots of your plants, spreading them upon every part of your Bed, that they may nourish the fruit with more ease, which when it is grown as big as your fist you shall forbear to water any longer, unlesse it be in some excessive dry season, when you perceive the leaves burne, and that the plant it self scorches; in such case, you may refresh every languishing foot with a little water.

You must place a Tyle under e­very Melon, the better to fashion them, and advance their maturity by the reflection of the sun from it, and this is a thing which cannot be so well upon a dung-bed, (in which some Transplant and force them) besides they will be much Dryer, [Page 147] and lesse participate of the loath­some quality of the dung.

You shall never suffer any small new shoot or string to draw away the Sap from your leading plant, but nip it off immediately, unlesse it be that your fruit lies naked, and too much exposed, and that it stand in need of any leaves to accelerate its growth & preserve it in temper.

Trans­planting. The second Method of Transplant­ing Melons, is to make, neer the end of summer, trenches of about 2 foot deep, and four foot large, (as they do in Anjou) leaving a square of three foot between each of them, to cast the mould upon, which you must form into a ridge somewhat round, in form of an Asses-back, by which name the French call them. Then you shall fill the trench with good dung, and very rotten earth, scoarings of ditches, which has laine two or three years mellowing in the raines and frosts.

Season. [Page 148] Then in March when the Winter has sufficiently ripened the foresaid earth, you shall stir and mingle that which lyes in the ridge with the ditch-scouring adding to it new dung well consumed, and so fill up your trenches with this mixture, and let it be kept well weeded till the season that you transplant your Me­lons on it, as I have before instruct­ed you.

Trans­pla [...]ting. There is yet a third fashion a great deale more easy then this, and which I have found as succesfull, as any of the former two, and which hath afforded me store of excellent and high tasted Melons every year, (but attribute the principall cause of it, to the goodnesse of my soil which is Sandy, but richly improv'd by a long cultivation.) There is no more difficulty in the business, then to give the ground three or four dressings before and after Winter, and at the time of Transplanting to [Page 149] make pits in the middle of the beds, which you must fill with a bushell of the mould, and halfe dung, of an old hot-bed, and in this to set your plants after the manner I have taught you.

Wa [...]ring. There are a world of curiosities in transplanting of Melons, some place them in vessells of earth, pierced full of holes, and filled with excellent mould, and so change their beds when they are over chil­led, others in baskets of the same shape, and some again, are so nice about them as would weary the most laborious Gardiner.

Ga [...]hering If during the excessive heats you perceive that your Melons suffer for want of refr [...]shment, and scald (as they term it) it will be good to to afford a watring to exery root, but this only in case of extream neces­sity, and very rarely.

To k [...]ow when your Melon is fit to be gather'd, you shall perceive him to be ripe when the stalke seem [...] [Page 150] as if it would part from the fruit, when they begin to gild and grow Yellow underneath, when the small shoot which is at the same knot wi­thers, and when approching to the fruit, you be saluted with an agrea­ble odor. But such as are accustom'd, and frequent the Melonieres judge it by the eye, observing only the change of their colour and the inter­costal yellowness, which is a suffici­ent index of their maturity.

Those Melons which are full of Embrodery and Characters are com­monly twelve or fifteen dayes a fa­shioning, e're they be perfectly ripe. The Morins grow yellow some days before they be fit to gather.

For their gathering, let it be ac­cording as they turne; If to be con­veyed far off you shall gather him instantly upon his first change of colour, for they will finish their ripening by the way. But if he be spent immediately, gather them [Page 151] thrrough-ripe, putting them into a bucket of Water drawn new out of the well, and let them refresh themselves there, as you would treat bottles of Wine, since com­ming newly from the Melonieres, they are sun-heated, and nothing so quick and agreable to be eaten.

Others which you must gather as fast as they ripen may be layd upon a board in some coole place, and spent according to their maturi­ty.

You shall remember to leave the joynt which holds to the stalk of eve­ry Melon, with two or three leaves for ornaments, and be carefull not to break off the stalk, least the Me­lon languish, (as a cask of Wine un­bunged) and loose the richnesse of its gust.

Visi [...]i [...]d and [...]. You must not think it much to visit your Meloniere at the least four times a day when your Melons be­gin to ripen, lest they passe their [Page 152] prime, and lose of their tempting, be­coming lank and flashy.

Choice. To choose a perfect good Melon it must neither be too green nor over­ripe; let him be well nourished, and have a thick & short stalk, that he pro­ceed of a Vigorous plant, not forced with too great heat, Weighty in the hand, firme to the touch, dry, and of a Vermilion hue within. Lastly that it have the flavor of that pitchy mixture wherewith seamen dresse their cordage.

Seeds. Remember to reserve the seeds of all such Mellons as you found to be excellent and the most early, (as before I advertis'd you) preserve them carefully, taking those which lodged at the sunny side, they are better at two or three years old then at one.

Cowcum­bers. Cowcumbers are sown and raised upon the same bed, and at the same time with Melons; having before im­bibed the seeds in either cow or breast [Page 153] milk. There are of white and green, which they call Parroquets: You shall forbear to gather some of your fairest, whitest, longest and earliest fruit, but leave them for seed, letting them ripen upon their own Stalks as long as the plant continues, which will be till the first frosts: As for the Parro­quets, they may all be spent, since the seeds of the white Cowcumbers do suf­ficiently degenerate into them.

They are transplanted also as Me­lons are both in beds and in open ground, but they must be exceeding­ly watered, to make them produce abundantly; The vines and superflu­ous shoots must be guelded, the false flowers which will never knot into fruit are to be nipped off.

The first colds bring the Mil­dew upon them, which is when the leaves become white and mea­ly, a signe that they are neer their destruction.

Gather them according to your [Page 154] spending, for they will grow bigger every day, but withall, harder, and the seeds more compacted renders the fruit less agreeable to the tast: They are then in perfection a little be­fore they begin to grow yellow.

Pumpe­ons. Pumpeons are raised also upon the hot-bed, and are removed like the former, but for the most part upon plain ground: being placed in some spacious part of your Gar­den because their shoots and tendrells straggle a great way before they knot into fruit.

Trans­planting. When you transplant them make their pits wide enough asunder, twelve foot or there about, and lay two bushells of rich soyle to every plant; because of the strength of the plant; Water them abundantly.

Ga [...]her­ing. The time of gathering them is in their perfect maturity, which is about August, nor do they spoyl at all by lying upon the earth, but become daily riper by it.

[Page 155] When the first cold begins to come, gather them in a Morning and heape them one upon another, that they may drie in the sun, and afterwards carry them into some temperate Roome upon boards, where let them ly without touching one another: above all, preserve them from the frost, for that will immediately perish them.

If you have plenty, and abound, you may put it into your ordinary House-hold bread or that of your owne table. But first you must boyle it after the same manner as you prepare it to Fry, only a little more tender, then drain the water from it, and wet your flower with this mash and so make your bread. It wil be of better colour, and better re­lish being a little Dow, and is very wholesome for those who stand in need of refreshment.

There is a small kind of Pumpeon which knots into fruit neer the foot [Page 156] without trailing, and bears abun­dantly: they must be guelded leav­ing none but the fairest.

Poitirons a kind of round Pumpeon or Citro­vill. Potirons white and coloured, Priest-capps, Spanish trumpets, Gourds and the like, are to be order'd as you doe Pumpeons, with this only diffe­rence, that some of them would be stalked, and not suffered to ramp up­on the ground.

Seed. The seeds of these, as also of pum­peons are to be saved, as you spend their fruite, but it must be carefully cleansed and dried in the air, and se­cured from mice which devour these seeds as well as those of Melons and cowcumbers.


Of Artichocks, Chardons, and Asparagus.

Artichokes THe Artichock is one of the most excellent Fruits of the Kitchen Garden, and recommended not only for its goodnesse, and the divers manners of cooking it: but also for that the fruit contiuues in Season a long time.

Of these there are two sorts, the Violet and the Green. The Slips which grow by the sides of the old Stubs, serve for Plants, which you must set in very good ground, deep dunged, and dressed with two or three manures.

Planting. When the Frosts are entirely past, in April you shall plant the Slips, having separated them from the Stem with as much root as you [Page 158] can, that they may take the more easily, and if they be strong enough, they will bear Heads the Autumn following.

You shall plant them four or five foot distant one from another, ac­cording to the goodnesse of the Soil; for if it be light and sandy, you may plant them closer; if it be a strong ground, at a greater distance to give scope to the leaves, which with the fruit wil come fairer and bring forth more double ones.

They shall need no other Culture before Winter, then to be dress'd and weeded sometimes.

You shall cover them in Winter to preserve them from the Frost; and to do this, they order them af­ter divers manners; some cutting all the Plants within a foot of the ground, and gathering up the rest of the leaves, (as they do to blanch Succory) think it sufficient to make it up in form of a Mole-hill, leaving [Page 159] out at the top, the extreams of the leaves, about two fingers deep to keep the Plant from suffocating; and then covering them with long dung preserve them thus from the Frosts, and hinder the rain from rotting them.

Others make trenches 'twixt two ranges, and cast the earth in long bankes upon the plants, covering them within two fingers of the topps, as I shewed you above: And there be some which onely put long dung about the plants, and so they passe the winter very well: All these seve­rall fashions are good, and every man a bounds with his particular reason.

Ear [...]h [...]ng. Onely be not over ea [...]ly in earth­ing them, least they grow rotten, but be sure that the great frosts doe not prevent and surprise you, if you have many to govern. If you desire to have fruit in Autumne you need onely cut the Stemm of such as have borne fruit in the spring, to hinder [Page 061] them from a second shoot. And in Autumn these lusty Stocks will not faile of bearing very faire heads, pro­vided that you dresse and dig about them well, and water them in their necessitie, taking away the Slips which grow to their sides, and which draw all the substance from the plants.

The Winter spent, you shall un­cover your Artichockes, by little and little, not at once, least the cold ayr spoyl them, being yet tender, and but newly out of their warm beds: and therefore let it be done at three times, with a four dayes interval each time, at the last whereof, you shall dresse, dig about and [...]rim them very well, discharging them from most of their small slips, not leaving above three of the strongest to each foot for bearers.

Chard. To procure the Chard of the Ar­tichocks (which is that which growes from the rootes of old plants) you [Page 161] shall make use of the old stemmes which you do not account of. For it will be fit to renew your whole plantation of Artichocks every five-year, because the plant impoverishes the earth, and produces but small fruite.

Slips. The first fruites gathered, you shall pare the plant within halfe a foot of the ground, and cut off the Stemm as low as you can possible; and thus you will have lusty slips; which grown about a yard high, you shall bind up with a wreath of long straw, but not too close, and then inviron them with dung, to blanch them.

Thus you may leave them till the great frosts before you gather them, and then reserve them for your use in some Cellar or other place lesse cold.

Gathe [...]ing But it is best to gather them from time to time as you spend them, be­ginning w [...]th the largest, and sparing [Page 162] the rest, which will soon be ready, having now all the nourishment of the plant.

Spanish Chardon. The Spanish Chardons are not so dilicate to govern, as those of the Artichocke, nor produce they chards so sweet and tender: they are to be tyed up after the same manner to make them white.

They spring of seeds, and are transplanted in slips. The flowers of these chardons which are little vi­olet colour'd beards, being dryed in the Ayr, will serve to turne milk withall, and make it curdle like ren­nett: The Spanyard and Languedoci­ens use it for that purpose.

Asparagus Asparagus are to be raised of seeds in a bed a part, the ground prepar­ed before with divers diggings, and well dunged: at the end of two years you may take up the rootes and transplant them.

To lodg them well, you must make trenches four foot large, and [Page 163] two in depth (leaving an intervall of four foot wide 'twixt the trenches to cast the mould on which you take out of them) and make them very levell at bottom, the earth cast in round banks on both sides, be­stow a good dressing upon the bot­toms of your trenches mixing the mould with fine rich dung, which you must lay very even in all places. This done, plant your Asparagus by line at three foot distance, place­ing two rootes together: You may range the first at the very edg of the trench, for that when you dig up the Allyes, you may in time reduce them to a foot and a half wide, cast­ing the earth upon the quarters, and then cutting above a foot large on either side of your aspargus, where the earth was heaped up, your plants will shoot innumerable roots at the sides of the Alleys.

You shall plant a third range in the midst between the two which [Page 164] we have named. It will be expedi­ent to place them in Crosse squares, that the rootes being at a convenient distance they may extend them­selves through all the bed.

Some curious persons put ramms­horns at the bottome of the trench, & hold for certaine, that they have a kind of Sympathie with Asparagus, which makes them prosper the bet­ter, but I refer it to the experienced.

Dressing. They will need dressing but three times a year. The first, when the Arsparagus have done growing: The second at the beginning of Winter; and the last, a little before they be­gin to peep: At every one of these dressings, you shall something fill, and advance your beds about four fingers high with the earth of your Allyes, and over all this spread a­bout two fingers thick of old dung.

Three years you must forbear to cut, that the plant may be strong, not stubbed, for otherwise they [Page 165] will prove but small. And if you spare them yet four or five years longer, you will have them come as big as leeks, after which time, you may cut uncessantly, leaving the least to bear seed, and that the plant may fortifie.

During these four-years, observ­ing to give them the severall dres­sings, as I have declared, your bed will fill, and your paths discharged of their mould, you may dig them up, and lay some rich dung under­neath.

You know that the plants of As­paragus spring up and grow perpetu­ally, and therefore when the mould of your Alleyes is all spent upon the beds you must of necessity bring earth to supply them, laying it upon the bed in shape like the lid of a truncke otherwise they will remaine naked, and perish.

Cutting. When you cut your Asparagus, remove a little of the earth from a­bout [Page 166] them, lest you wound the o­thers which are ready to peep, and then cut them as low as you can con­veniently, but take heed that you do not offend those that lye hid, for so much will your detriment be, and it will stump your plant.

Such as you perceive to produce onely small ones, you shall spare that they may grow bigger, per­mitting those which spring up about the end of the season in every bed, to run to seede, and this will ex­ceedingly repayr the hurt which you may have done to your plants in reaping their fruit.


Of Cabbages and Lettuce of all sorts.

Cabbage. THere are so many severall sorts of Cabbages, that you shall hard­ly resolve to have them all in your [Page 167] Garden, for they would employ too great a part of your ground, and therefore it will be best to make choyce of such as are most agreable to your tast, and that are the most delicate and easiest to boyle, since the ground which produces them, & the water which boyles them, renders them either more or lesse excellent.

Seed. We have seede brought us out of Italy, and we have some in France, those of Italy are the Coleflower, those of Rome, Verona, and Milan, The Bosse, the long Cabbage, of Ge­noa, the curled and others.

In France we have the ordinary headed Cabbage of severall sorts, and some that do not head at all, and therefore I think it necessary to treat here particularly of them all, as briefly as I can.

Cole­flowers. I will begin with Coleflowers as as the most precious: Seed. They bring the seede to us out of Italy, and the Italians receive it from Candia and [Page 168] other Levantine parts, not but that we gather as good in Italy and France also; but it dos not produce so large a head, and is subject to de­generate into the bosse cabbages, and Na [...]ets and therefore it were bet­ter to furnish one self out of the le­vant either by some friend, or other correspondent at Rome: The Linnen Drapers and Millaners of Paris can give you the best directions in this affaire which traffick in those places, Linnen, Lace, and Gloves.

To discover the goodnesse of the seed (which is the newest) it ought to be of a lively colour, full of oyle, ex­actly round neither shrivled, small or dried, which are all indications of its age, but of a broun hue, not of a bright red which shews that it never ripened kindly upon the stalke.

Sowing. Being thus provided with good seede, sow it as they do in Italy or France. The Italians sow it in cases and shallow tubes in the full moon of Au­gust; [Page 169] It comes speedily up, and will be very strong before Winter: when the Frosts come remove them into your Cellar, or Garden-house, till the Spring, and that the Frosts are gone, and then transplant them into good mould; thus you shall have white, very fair heads, and well condi­tioned before the great heats of Sommer surprize them.

The Italians stay not so long, as till their heads have attained their utmost growth, but pull them up before, and lay them in the Cellar, interring all their roots and stalks to the very head; ranging them side by side and shelving, where they finish their heads, and will keep a long time; whereas if they left them abroad in the ground, the heats would cause them run to seed.

The French are satisfyed to have them by the end of Autumn keep­ing them to eat in the Winter: not but that (being early raised) they [Page 170] have some which head about Iuly; but the rest grow hard and tough by reason of the extream heat, and improve nothing for want of moysture, producing but small and trifling Heads, and most commonly none at all. And therefore I counsel you to sowe but a few up­on your first Bed in the Meloniere thinly, sowing them thinly in li [...]es, four fingers asunder, and covering them with the mould. Two or three ridges shall abundantly suffice your store.

Towards the end of April, when your Melons are off from their beds and transplanted, you may renew your sowing of Coleflowers, (as you were taught before) these will head in Autumn, and must be pre­served from the Frosts, to be spent during the Winter.

Remov­ing. You must stay before you remove them till the leaves are as large as the Ralme of your hand, that they [Page 171] may be strong. Pare away the tops of them, and earth them up to the very necks, that is, so deep that the top leaves appear not above three fingers out of the ground, or to be more intelligible, you shall interre them to the last and upmost knot; Moreover you must hollow little Basins of about half a foot Diameter, and four fin­gers deep at the foot of each stalk, that the moysture may passe di­rectly to the Root when you water them, it being unprofitably em­ployed elsewhere.

Trans­planting. The just distance in transplanting is three foot asunder; two ranges are sufficient for each Bed: But be careful to keep them weeded and dug as often as they require it, till the leaves cover the ground, and are able to choke the weeds that grow under them.

If you make Pits in the places where you remove them, aud bestow [Page 172] some good Soil (as I described in Melons and Cucumbers) they will the better answer your expectations, for they will produce much fairer heads.

Cabbage. Watring. All sorts of Cabbages whatever they be, must be carefully watred at first, for a few dayes after their planting that they may take the better root, which you shall then perceive, when their leaves begin to erect, and flag no longer upon the ground.

Sowing. All kindes of Cabbages are to be sown upon the Melon bed, whilst the heat remains, that they may cheq and spring the sooner, sowe them therefore very thin in travers lines cross your Melon bed.

In April you shall sowe fresh up­on the same bed and place where your Melons and Cucumbers stood.

Birds. Now forasmuch as the Birds are extreamly greedy to devour their seeds as soon as they peep, because [Page 173] they bear the husk of it upon the tops of their leaves; I will teach you how you may preserve them. Some spread a Net over the Beds, sustaining it half a foot above the surface: others stick little Mills made of Cards, (such as Children in play run against the winde with) and some make them with thin Chips of Firre, such as the Comfit makers boxes are made withall, ty­ing to the tree or Pole which bears it some Feathers, or thing that con­tinually trembles; this will ex­tremely affright the Birds in the day time, and the Mice in the night; for the least breath of winde will set them a whirling, and pre­vent the mischief.

Wormes. There breeds besides in these beds a winged Insect, and Palmer worms, which gnaw your seeds and sprouts: To destroy these Enemies, you should place some small vessels, as be [...]r glasses, and the like, sink­ing [Page 174] them about three fingers deeper then the surface of the bed, and filling them with water within two fingers of the brim, and in these they will fall and drown themselves as they make their sub­terranean passages.

Large sid­ed cab­bages. The large sided Cabbages, shall not be sowne till May, because they are so tender, and if they be strong enough to be remov­ed by the begining of Iuly they will head in Autumn: To my Gusto there is no sort of Cabbage comparable to them, for they are speedily boyled, and are so delicate, that the very grossest part of them melts in ones mouth: If you eat broth made of them, Fasting, with but a lit­tle bread in it, they will gently loosen the belly, and besides, what ever quantity of them you eat, they will never offend you; Briefly, [Page 175] tis a sort of Cabbage, that I can ne­ver sufficiently commend, that I may encourage you to furnish your Garden with them rather then with many of the rest.

VVhite cabbage. Of the White headed Cabbage, those which come out of Flanders are the fairest and of these one of the heads produced in a rich mould hath weighed above four­ty pounds.

Those of Aubervilliers are very free, and a delicate meate.

There is another sort of Cab­bage streaked with red veines, the stalk whereof is of a purple colour when you plant it, and they seem to me, the most naturall of all the rest, for they pome, close to the ground and shoot but few leaves before they are headed, growing so extreamly close, that they are almost flat at top.

Red cab­bage. [Page 176] The red Cabbage should likewise have a little place in your Garden, for its use in certain diseases.

Pefumed cabbage. There is yet another sort of Cab­bage, that cast a strong musky Per­fume, but bear small heads, yet are to be prized for their excellent odor.

The pale tender Cabbages are not to be sown till August, that they may be removed a little before the Winter, where they may grow and furnish you all the winter long, and especially during the greater Frosts, which do but soften, mellow, and render them excellent meat.

They plant also all those Italian kindes, of which theA long excellentt cabbage. Pancaliers are most in esteem, by reason of their perfum'd relish.

Planting. To plant all these sorts of Cabba­ges, the ground deeply trenched and well dunged beneath; you shall tread it out into beds of four foot large; and within a foot of the margent, [Page 177] you shall make a small trench, four fingers in depth, and of half a foot large, angular at the bot­tome, like a Plough-Furrow new turned up: In this Trench (to­wards the Evening of a fair day) you shall make holes with a Set­ting stick, and so plant your Cab­bages, sinking them to the neck of the very tenderest leaves; ha­ving before pared off their Tops. Place them at a convenient di­stance, according to their big­nesse and spreading; then give them diligent Waterings, which you shall pour into these furrowes on­ly; since it would be but super­fluous to water the whole bed.

A man may transplant them confusedly in whole quarters, espe­cially the paler sort, for the frosts; but it is neither so commodious as in beds for the ease of watring them, nor for the distinction of their species: Be carefull to take away [Page 178] all the dead leaves of your Cab­bages, as well that they may looke handsomely, as to avoid the ill sents which proceed from their corruption, which breeds and in­vites the Vermine, Snaile, Frogs and Toads, and the like which greatly endamage the Plants.

Seed. When their heads and pomes are formed, if you perceive any of them ready to run to seede, draw the plant half out of the ground, or tread down the Stem, till the cab­bage inclines to one side, this will much impead its seeding, and you may mark those Cabbages to be first spent.

For the seeds, reserve of your best Cabbages, transplanting them in some warm place, free from the Winter winds, during the great­er frosts, and covering them with Earthen Pots, and warm soyl over the pots: But when the weather is mild, you may sometimes shew them [Page 179] the ayr, and reinvigorate them with the sun, being carefull to cover them again in the evening, least the frost surprise them.

Others you shall preserve in the house, hanging them up by their rootes about a fourtnight, that so all the water that lurks amongst the leaves may drop out, which would otherwise rot them. That season past bury them in ground half way the stalk, ranging them so neer as they may touch each other.

For those which arive to no head you need only remove them, or leave them in the places where they stand, they will endure the Winter well enough, and run to seed betimes.

When the seed is ripe (which you will know by the drinesse of the swads which will then open of themselves) you shall gently pull up the Plant, drawing it by the stalks, and lay them aslope at the [Page 181] foot of your Hedges or Walls to dry, and perfect their maturity: but it w [...]ll not be amisse to fasten them with some small twig of an Ozyer, for fear the Winde fling them down, and disperse a great deale of the Seeds.

Season of sowing. In August you shall sowe Cab­bages to head, upon some bed by it self, there to passe the Winter, as in a Nursery, till the Spring, when you must plant them forth in the manner I have already taught: and by this means you will have headed Cabbages betimes, especially pro­vided that you be careful in well ordering them.

Insects. There are several little Animals which gnaw and indammage Cab­bages, as well whilst they are yet young and tender, as when they be arrived to bigger growth; as a cer­tain green hopping Flie, Snails, Ants, the great Flea, &c. The best expe­dient I finde to destroy these Insects, [Page 180] is, the frequent watering, which chaces them away, or kills them: For during the great heats, you shall see your Cabbages dwindle and pine away, every day importun'd by these Animals.

At the full of the moon every Moneth, if the weather be fair, it is good to sowe your Cabbages, that you may prevent the disorders, which these Devourers bring upon them: and you may do it without expence, by sowing them upon the borders under your Fruit Trees, which you must frequently dig, and besides the waterings which you must bestow upon your young Plants, will won­derfully improve your Trees.

There are a curious sort of Cab­bages, which bear many heads upon the same stalk, but they are not so delicate as the other.

When yo [...] have cut off the heads of your Cabbages, if you will not ex­tirpate the Trunk, they will produce small [Page 182] small sets, which the Italians call Broccoli, the French des Broques, and are ordinarily eaten in Lent in Pease-Pottage, andSmall dishes of severall things which stand twixt the greater to garnish the table. Intermesses at the best Tables.

Letice. There are almost as many sorts of Lettuce as there be of Cabbages and therefore I have ranged them together in the same chapter.

For such as harden and grow into heads we have the Cabbage-Lettuce and a sort that beares divers heads upon the same stalk.

The Cockle Lettuce, the Genoa, Roman and the curled lettuce, which pome like Succory.

Others that grow not so close, as a sort of curled lettuce and severall o­ther species: Others which must be bound to render them white, such as the Oake-leafed, the Royal and Roman.

Sowing. Lettuce may be sown all the year long, Winter excepted: for from the time that you begin to sow them [Page 183] upon your first Bed (as I have de­scrib'd it in the Article of Melons) to the very end of October, you may raise them.

Trans­planting. To make them pome and head like a Cabbage, you shall need onely to transplant them, half a foot or little more distant, and this you may do upon the borders, under your Hedges, Trees, and Palisades, without em­ploying any other quarter of your Garden.

During the excessive heat of the year, it will be difficult to make them head, unlesse you water them plentifully, because the Season prompts them to run to seed.

Those of Genoa are to be preferred before all others, by reason of their bignesse, and for that they will en­dure the Winter above ground, be­ing transplanted; or you may make use of them in Pottage, and for that they furnish you with heads from the very end of April.

[Page 184] For such as do not come to head at all you need only sow them, and as they spring, to thin them (that is extirpate the supperfluous) that those which remain may have suf­ficient soope to spread: some transplant them, but it is lost la­bour, the Plant being so easily raised.

Roman lettuce. Heading. The Lettice-Royall would be re­moved at a foot or more distance, and when you perceive that the plants have covered all the ground then in some fair day, and when the morning dew is vanish't you shall tie them in two or three several places one above another, which you may do with any long straw, or raw-hemp, and this at severall times, viz. not promis­euously, as they stand, but choos­ing the fairest plants first to give roome and ayr to the more fee­ble, and by this means they will last you the longer: The first be­ing [Page 185] blanched, and ready, before the other are fit to bind.

Blanch­ing. If you would blanch them with more expedition, you shall cover every plant with a small earth­en Pot fashioned like a Gold-Smiths Crusible, and then lay some hot soyl upon them; and thus they will quickly become white.

Seed. Lettuce-seed is very easily ga­thered, because the great heats cause it to spring sooner up then one would have it, especially the earliest sowne. Pull them there­fore up as soone as you perceive that above halfe of their flowers are past, and lay them a ripen­ing against your hedges, and in ten or twelve dayes they will be drie enough to rub out their seed betwixt your hands, which being clensed from the husks and ordure, preserve, each kind by it selfe.


Of Roots.

Roots. Parsenp. THe Red Beet, or Roman Par­snep, as the greatest, shall have the preheminence in this Cha­pter. They should be placed in ex­cellent ground, well soyl'd and trenched, that they may produce long and fair roots, not forked; for if they do not encounter a bottom to their liking, they spread indeed at head, but have always a hole in the middle, which being very profound, renders them tough and full of Fi­bers to the great detriment of their colour, which makes them despised. And therefore, if, to avoid the ex­pence, you do not trench your Gar­den, you must of necessity bestow two diggings one upon another, as I shall here teach you, a diminutive only of trenching.

[Page 187] You must dig a Furrow all the length of your Bed, a full foot deep, and two foot large, casting the earth all at one side, then dig ano­ther course in the same trench, as deep as possible you can, without casting out the mould: afterwards fling in excellent Dung, fat and rich, which must lye about four fingers thick; and for this the Soyl of Cows and Sheep, newly made af­ter fothering time is past, is the best. When this is done, dig a second trench, casting the first mould up­on this Compost, and lay dung up­on that likewise; then dig the next, and cast Soyl upon that, as you did upon the first, and so con­tinue this till you have trenched the whole Bed. Your last Furrow will be but a single depth, for which you may consider of three expedients, and take that which best pleases you, and which will cost you least to fill; or else you may [Page 188] fetch the earth which you took out of the first trench, and fill it up even, setting your Level on, or leav­ing it void to cast your weeds into, where they will consume and be­come good soyl reserving so much earth as will serve to make the Area of the bed even, at every dressing which you give it.

This manner of good husbandry is what I would have described be­fore in the first section of the for­mer Treatise, when I spake of trenching the ground, when I pro­mised to shew how you should bet­ter and improve your Garden at lesse charge, and this I esteem sufficient for the raising of all sorts of pot herbs and pulse.

[...]owing. The winter intirely past you shall sow your Red Beets either upon Beds, making holes with the setting stick fourteen or fifteen inches asunder, and dropping 3 seeds into every hole, or confusedly, to be transplanted, [Page 189] those which are not transplanted be subject to grow forked, but those which you thus remove, grow or­dinarily longer and fairer, because you will be sure to choose the like­liest plants.

Remov­ing. In removing the plants you shall practise the same rule that I shewed in Cabbages, excepting only, that you cut not off the tops.

Housing. A little before the frosts you shall draw them out of the ground, and lay them in the house, burying their Rootes in the Sand to the neck of the Plant, and ranging them one by another somewhat shelving and thus another bed of sand, and another of Beets, continuing this order to the last. After this manner they will keep ve­ry fresh, spending them as you have occasion, and as they stand, and not drawing any of them out of the middle or sides for choyce.

Seed. [Page 190] For the Seed you shall reserve of the best and fairest Roots, which you shall bury as you did the rest, to re­plant in the Spring, in some voyd place neer the borders of your fruit-hedges; because there you may stop its growth, which the windes would overthrow by reason of its overlopping, and poize; unlesse it be sustained: except that you had rather place them in some Bed, where you must support them with strong stakes for the purpose.

The Grain ripe, pull up the Plan [...]s, and tye them to your Pole-hedg, that they may dry and ripen with the more facility: then rub it out gently 'twixt your hands, and be sure to dry it well to preserve it from becoming musty.

Carrots. Carrots and Parsneps are to be go­verned like Beets; but are much more hardy, and easily endure the Winter without prejudice, till the Spring, when they run up to seed, [Page 191] and are then not to be eaten: and therefore you shall draw your pro­visions in the Winter, and preserve them for your spending, as you did the Beets.

Season. There are Carrots of three colours, yellow, white, and red. The first of these is the most delicate, for the Pot, or Inter-mess: If you would have those that be very tender in May (as the Picards and those of Amiens have them, who put them in their Pottage instead of hearbs) you must soyl the ground, and prepare it by good dressing before Summer. In August you shall sowe at the decrease of the Moon: They will spring be­fore Winter, and when you cleanse them from weeds, you must thin them where you finde they grow con­fusedly, since you need not trans­plant them as you do your Beets.

Seed. For the Seed, chuse the very prime and longest Roots; lay them all Winter in the Cellar, and set them [Page 192] in the ground again at the Spring as you do Beets, that they may run to seed: and in case you leave any in the grou [...]d, they will easily passe the winter without rotting, and come to seed in their season: but it is best to draw them out, as I said, that you may cull the best for propagation; a Rule to be well observed in all sorts of Plants, if you be ambitious to have the best.

Salsifix. Garden Salsifix is of two sorts, the common is of a Violet colour, the other is yellow: This is the Salsifix of Spain which they call Scorsonera, they are different as well in leaf, as in flower: For the Violet have their leaf like the small five rib'd Plantine, and those of the Yellow are much larger.

It is but very lately that we have had this Scorsonera in France; and I think my self to be one of the first: 'Tis a Plant aboundantly more delicious then the common Salsifix, [Page 193] and has preheminence above all o­ther. Roots, that it does not lye in the ground as other roots which be­come stringy and endure but a year: Leave these as long as you please in the Earth, they will dayly grow big­ger, and are fit to eat at all seasons; though it yearly run up to Seed.

Dressing. 'Tis good to scrape off the brown crusty part of the Rinde (from whence they derive their name Scorfonera) and to let them soak a while in fair water before you boyl them; because they cast forth a little Bitternesse, which they will else retain, and that the common Salsifix is free of; which be­ing simply washed, are boyled, and the Skin peeled off after­ward.

Season. There are two seasons of sowing; in the Spring, and when the Flower is past; letting the seed flye away: for the more uniformity they are sown in Lines upon Beds; four [Page 194] rankes on a bed: When they blowe you must Raile about your bed with stakes and poles like a pole hedg, for fear the wind breake their stalks and fling them downe, to the great prejudice of your seed. But the common salsifix does flower before the Spanish.

Seed. To gather the seed, you must be sure to visit your salsifix four or five times a day, for it will vanish and flie away like the down or Gossemeere, of Dandelyon, and there­fore you must be watchfull, to ga­ther all the beards, and taking them with the tops of your fin­gers, pluck out the seed (as soon as ever you perceive their heads to grow downy) which you shall put into some earthen pot (which must stand ready, neer the bed, that you may not be troubled to car­ry it in and out so often) cover­ing it with a tyle, to keep out the raine, &c.

Radishes. [Page 195] There are three sorts of Ra­dishes. The Horse-Radish, the Black-Radish and the Small ordinary eating radish.

Horse-ra­dishes. The Horse-radish is a grosse kinde of food, very common in Limoges a­mongst the poorer people, who di­versly accommodate them, by boyling, frying, and eating them with oyle, having first cut them in slices and soaked them in water to take away their rankness: You may sowe them all Ialy even to three lines, that in case the first crops do not prosper, the other may. They affect a sandy ground well soyled, and turned up two or three times, and so they will come very fair, there are some that are as big as a twopeny loafe: You must draw them out of the ground before the frosts, and conserve them in a warme place, as you do your Turneps.

Seed. For their seed you need only leave the fairest in the ground which will passe the Winter well enough [Page 196] and produce you their seed in their season▪ but the most certain way is to transplant some of the biggest as soon as the hard Frosts are past.

The Black Radish is little worth, but they are raised as the smaller are.

Small rad­dish. Sowing. The Small Radish or little Rab­bon, may be sown at every decrease of the Moon, from the time you begin your hot Melon-Bed, to the very end of October. They are several wayes ordered: for if you desire them very fair, transparent, clean and long, you must when you sowe your Melons in some part of the Bed, (whilst it yet remains warm) make holes as deep as your finger, three inches distant from each other. In every of these holes drop in two Radish seeds, and covering them with a little sand leave the rest of the hole open: thus they will grow to the whole length of your finger higher then otherwise they would [Page 197] have done, and not put forth any leaves till after they are come up a­bove the level of the Bed.

When your Melons are trans­planted, you may sowe them upon their bed, and in other open ground, by even lines.

Seed. Let the first sown run to seed, and gather them when you first per­ceive their Swads below to open and shead: then lay them to ripen and drie along your Hedges, as I instructed you before. The best seed which we have comes from the Gar­dens about Amiens; where amongst their low grounds they raise that which is excellent. At their first coming up, they appear like the wilde: but after the fourth or sixth leaf they grow very lusty, provided they be well watered.

Turneps. There are several sorts of Turneps which I shall not particularize; I shall onely affirme that the lesser are the best, and most agreeable [Page 198] to the tast, the other being soft, flashy, and insipid.

Season. You may sowe them at two sea­sons; at spring, and in the beginning of August. All the difficulty is in taking the right time, for if the weather prove wet, the seed will burst, and not sprout at all: If too dry it will not come up, and therefore, if you perceive your first season to faile, you shall give them a se­cond digging or howing, and sowe a­new. Vermine. So soon as they come up and have two or four leaves, if the wea­ther be very dry, the Ticquet, or winged wormes, and the flea, will fall upon them and devoure them, and all your paines: therefore (as I said) if you see your first to have failed, you must begin again.

To be excellent, they must not remain above six-weekes in the ground, least they become worm-eaten, withered, ill meat, and full of strings.

Housing. [Page 199] House [...]hem in Winter in your Cel­lar, or some other place where they may be exempt from the frost, and without any other trouble, save lay­ing them in heaps, or bunches.

Seed. For the seed reserve the biggest, longest, and brightest roots, which you shal plant in the ground at spring, and draw forth again when you perceive the pods to open; then set them a drying, and afterwards rub out the seed upon a sheet, expos'd the remainder of the day to the sun to exhaust their moysture; then, having well cleansed it, reserve it in some temperate place.

Parsly. We will range Parsly also among the roots, though its leafe be the most in esteem, and used in seve­rall dishes, serving oftentimes in­stead of Pepper and spice.

Season. When the frosts are past, you shal sowe the greater and lesser sort of Parsly, the Pennach't, and the curled, in ground deeply dug, and [Page 200] well [...]oyled that it may produce long and goodly roots. Sow your seed upon your beds in each four lines, the mould made very fine and well rak­ed: You may sow Leeks over them, chopping them gently in with the rake only: when all is clear, cover the whole bed about two fingers thick with some dung of the old bed as wel to amend the ground, as to preserve the seeds from being beaten out with the raine, your watring, and from bursting.

Dressing. Now [...]ince Parsly-seed lyes a moneth in the ground, before it comes up, the leeks will have time e­nough to spring and be sufficiently strong to be removed, and when you pull them up for this purpose, it will serve as a second dressing and weed­ing to your parsly, and when by this means they are grown, you may thin them where you perceive the plants come up too thick, which will very much improve them.

[Page 201] You may cut the leaves when e­ver you have need, without the least detriment to the plant.

rootes. Leave the roots in the ground for your use, because they daily grow bigger and that even all the winter long, however you'l do well to take as many up as you conceive you may need, least when the earth is hard frozen, you can procure none in case of necessity.

Seed. For the seed, let one end of your bed stand unpulled up till it is all ripe, which you must set a drying, as you did the others.

Skirret. The Skirret comes of seed and of plants, but the best and fairest of plants; and of these, those which they bring from Troyes in Champagne are most esteemed.

To plant them, you must in spring (the ground well dug, and dressed) make four small rills on each bed, two fingers deep, then make holes with the dibber at half inch distance [Page 202] setting in every hole two or three young Slips, which you may take from the old plants, being carefull to water them at the beginning.

Spending. Draw them out of the ground ac­cording as you spend them, the rest which you leave will grow bigger and in their season produce their [...]eed.

Rampions Rampions, though it be a plant ve­ry agreeable to the tast, and which they have severall wayes of dres­sing: Yet I will not spend time in teaching you how to order them, since they grow wild in sufficient quantity, and are not worth the trou­ble ofr [...]aising.

Jerusalem Artichocks Ierusalem Artichocks are round roots which come all in knots and are eaten in Lent like the bot­tomes of other Artichocks: they need no great ordering, and if they be planted in good ground they will flowrish exceedingly.

Seed. They are raised of seed, and planted in roots, bearing flowers, [Page 203] like a small Heliotrope, in which there growes a world of seed. Danger. The Physitians say that the use of them is prejudiciall to the health and that they are therefore to be banished from good Tables


Of all sorts of Pot-hearbs.

Pot-herbs. Beet-leeks WE will begin with the white Beet or Leeks as being the greatest of all the Pot-hearbs, and of which there is more spent then of any of the rest.

The white Beet or Beet-Card (for so some will call it in imitation of the Picards, who really merit the ho­nour to be esteemd the best and most curious Gardiners for herbs, before any other of all the Provinces of France: Be it that the [...]r soyle and climate produce more, or that [Page 204] they are more industrious. Their Hearbs are a great deal more fair and large, then in other places. Season. I have seen of those amongst them that have been of eight inches Cir­cumference, or little lesse, and in length proportionable to their thickness) is to be sown at Spring when the Frosts are quite gone. Tran­splanting. You may make use of your Hedge-bor­ders for this purpose, and when they come to have six leaves, you shall transplant them in ground that has been deeply trenched the Au­tumn before, and lain mellowing all the Winter. Before you remove them, soyl the ground very well, and then giving it another digging, turn the dung into the bottom, then taking them out of your Nursery beds, cut off their tops and transplant them in quarters, two ranges in a Bed; and a yard distant, making a small Trench or Line, as I shewed be­fore, concerning removing of Cab­bages, [Page 205] which I forbear to repeat to avoid prolixity.

If you would have them abound in fair Cards, you must keep them well hou'd, Weeded, and watred when you perceive they need it.

Gather­ing. You must not cut them when you gather, but pull them off from the plant, drawing them a little aside, and so you shall not injure the stalk, but rather improve those which re­main: a little time will repair its loss.

Plant not those for Cards which you shall finde green, for they de­generate.

Sowing. You may sowe them all the Sum­mer, that you may have for the Pot, and to farce such as are tender: also at the end of August, which you may let stand all the winter as a Nursery, and transplant at Spring, which will furnish you with Leeks very early.

red Beets. There is a Red Beet if you desire to have of them, for Curiosity rather [Page 206] then for use, because they produce but small Cards, which being boyl­ed, lose much of their tincture, be­coming pale, which renders them lesse agreeable to the Palat, and to the Eye, then the white.

Seed. For the Seed, leave growing of the whitest and largest, without cropping any of their leaves, which you shall support with a good stake, lest its weight overthrow it, to the prejudice of the Seeds which would then rot in lieu of ripening. Two Plants are sufficient to store you am­ply, which you shall pull up in fair weather (when, by the yellownesse of the colour you shall judge it to be ripe) and lay a drying, afterwards rub out the seeds with your hands upon some cloth, and cleansing it from the husks, give it a second dry­ing, lest it become musty; for being of a spongy substance, as the Red Beets are, it will continue a long time moyst.

Orache. [Page 207] There is another sort of Beets, which is called Oracke, very agree­able to the taste, it is excellent in Pottage, and carryes its own Butter in it self: it is raised as the former is, excepting only that you may plant it neerer, and needs no transplant­ing, 'tis sufficient that it be weeded, and houed when there is cause.

Succory. There are several kindes of Gar­den Succories, different in leaf and bigness [...], but resembling in taste, and which are to be ordered alike.

Season. Sow it in the Spring upon the bor­ders, & when it has 6 leaves replant it in rich ground about 18 inches distance, paring them at the tops. When they are grown so large as to cover the ground, tye them up, as I instructed you before, where I treat­ed of Rom▪ Lettuce, not to bind them up by handfuls as they grow promis­cuously, but the strongest & forward­est at first, letting the other fortifie. I remit you thitherto avo [...]d repetition. [Page 208] It is in the second Section, Art. Let­tuce, where you will also finde the manner of whiting it under earth­en Pots.

Blanch­ing. There is yet another fashion of Blanching it. In the great heats, when instead of heading you per­ceive it would run to seed, hollow the earth at one side of the Plant, and couch it down without violating any of the leaves, and so cover it, leaving out only the tops and ex­tremity of the leaves, and thus it will become white in a little time, and be hindred from running to seed.

Those who are very curious bind the leaves gently before they interre them, to keep out the Grit from en­tring between them, which is very troublesome to wash out, when you would dresse it.

Remember to couch them all at one side, one upon another, as they grew being planted, beginning with that which is neerest the end of the [Page 209] Bed, and continuing to lay them, the second upon the first, and the third upon the second, till you have finish­ed all the ranges.

I finde likewise two other man­ners of blanching them for the Win­t [...]r; The first is at the first frosts, That you [...]ye them after the ordinary way, and then at the end of eight or ten dayes, plucking them up, couch them in the bed, where you raised them from seeds, making a small trench cross the Bed the height of your plant, which will be about eight inches, beginning at one end. In this you shall range your plants side by side, so as they may gently touch, and a little shelving: this done, cover them with small rotten dung of the same bed: Then make another Fur­row for a second range, in which or­der lay your plants as before, conti­nuing this order til you have finish'd, and last of all cover the whole bed four fingers thick, with hot soyl fresh [Page 210] drawn out of the Stable; and in a short time they will be blanched. If you will afterwards cover the Bed with some Mats placed a [...]lant, like the ridge of a house to preserve them from the rain, they will last a very long time without rotting. When you would have any of them for use, begin at the last which you buried, and, taking them as they come, draw them out of the range, and break off what you finde rotten upon the place, or that which has contracted any blacknesse from the dung, before you put it into your Basket for the Kitchen.

Housing. A second manner of preserving it, is, to interre it, as before, in Fur­rows of Sand in the Cellar, placing the root upmost, lest the Sand run in between the leaves, and you finde it in the Dish when they serve it. You need not here bestow any Dung upon them, it is sufficient that the Sand cover the Plant four [Page 211] fingers high, and when you take it out for use, before you dresse it, shake it well the Root upmost, that all the Sand may fall out from the leaves. Take them likewise as they happen to lye in the Ranges.

There is a kinde of Succory, which hardens of it self without binding; which is a small sort, but very much prized for its excel­lence.

Seed. For the Seed, leave of the fairest Plants growing, and particularly such as you perceive would whiten of themselves, and head without tying. Let it well mature, though it a little over ripen: since it is not subject to scatter and fall out as many others are. On the contrary, when being exceedingly dryed, you shall lay it upon the Barn-floor, you shall have much adoe, to fetch out the Seeds from the heads, though you thrash it with a Flail.

Endive. [Page 212] Of Endive or wilde Succory, some of it bears a blew Flower, others a white, it is to be governed like the Garden, but with lesse difficulty; for you need only sowe it in a small Rill, weeding, houing, and thinning it in due season.

Blanch­ing. Housing. To blanch it, cover it only with reasonable warm dung, and draw­ing it out at the first appearance of Frost, keep it under sand in your Cellar, as you do other Roots: but first, it ought to be almost white of it self: The root is very much e­steemed, which has made me dubi­ous whether I should not have placed it amongst them, but I con­cluded it most properly reserved with the curled Succory in respect of their conformity, as well in grow­ing, as in producing its seeds.

Sorre [...]l. Of Sorrel we have very many kindes, the Great, the Lazy, &c. for as much as one leaf is sufficient for Pottage, being so prodigiously [Page 213] large, that they have some leaves seven inches broad and fifteen or eighteen long: It is a sort which has been transported out of the Low-Countryes, and I have had of the first.

A second kinde is another large Sorrel resembling Patience.

A third produces no seed, but is propagated from the small side­leaves, which it shoots when it be­gins to spread in the ground.

A fourth is the Small Sorrel which we have had so long in use.

A fift is the round-leaved Sorrel, large, and small, which also does not seed, but is to be raised of the little strings with which it o're­spreads the ground, and by little tendrels which grow about the plant, and which you may take up in tuffts to furnish your beds withall.

A sixt is the Wild sorrel, frequent­ly found upon the up-lands and therefore not worth the paines to plant in gardens.

[Page 214] Lastly, there is a seventh sort, which bears a small traingular leafe called Alleluja, it is very delicate and agreeable by reason of its aci­dity, like the other sorrel for tast, but excellent in pottage, Farces and Sallades, as being endowed with the same qualities and rellish of the other sorrels.

Soweing. You may sow all those sorts, which produce seed, after the frosts, in narrow rills, four in a bed, but be diligent to weed it, lest it be overgrown; when it is a little strong thin it a little, that it may the bet­ter prosper, and if you please, you may furnish other beds with what you take away.

Trans­planting But it is the best way if you would transplant it, it, to gather of the strongest, and at the beginning of Autumn or spring make borders a part: They doe well ei­ther way, continue long in per­fection, even till ten or twelve years. But then it will be fit to re­move [Page 215] it, because the ground will be weary of being alwayes burthen­ed with the same plant, and de­lights in diversity: besides the rootes crowding and pressing one another, cannot finde sufficient substance to nourish and entertain them.

Dressing▪ They must be dug at least thrice a year, which should be at the entry of the hard frosts, you must shake some Melon bed dung upon them: The Soyl of Poultry is excellent and makes it wonderfully flourish.

At this second digging, you shall extirpate what ever you finde grow scatring out of range by the shead­ing of seed, and geuld them also a­bout, cutting off all the leaves and stalks neer the ground, before you cover them with the dung.

Seed. The seed is easily gatherd from such as bear it, for it runs up at Midd-Summer, and when you see it ripe, cut off the stalkes close to ground, afterwards being dryed, [Page 216] it soon quits the pouches, cleanse it well and preserve it for use.

Patience. Patience must be ordered like Sor­rel: The plant is not so delicious to the Palate, however one would have a bed of it, that your Garden may be compleat.

Borrage. The Vertues of Borrage recom­mends it to your Garden, though it impaire the colour of your Pot­tage, darkning it a little The flowers of it are a very agreea­ble service, to garnish the meate, pottages, Sallades, and other dish­es; since by reason of their sweet­nesse, they may be eaten without any disgust.

Soweing. It is to be sow [...]e in the spring, like other herbs, and may be left in the ground: their hardy Ro [...]ts sup­porting the hardest frosts, sprout­ing a fresh in the Spring: The Gardiners of Paris pull up the whole plant, and sowe it many times in the year, to have it alwayes ten­der.

[Page 217] For the ordering of it, it is suffi­cient that it be gently houed and weeded.

Seed. For the seed, let the fairest plants run, and when they are full ripe on the stalke, gather and save it.

Buglosse. Buglosse is to be govern'd like bor­rage, and therefore I will spend no more time upon it.

Chervill. Chervill, besides what I told you before, that you should sowe it upon Beds to compose swaller Salades at the end of Winter; It will be good to sowe new from moneth to moneth (though it be but little) that you may still have it fresh and more tender, then that which is old sowne. The borders of your Wall-fruit and hedges may serve for this effect, forasmuch as it can­not prejudice your Trees, being so small, and requiring so little substance for its growth, and the small time of its Sojourne in a place.

Seed. [Page 218] You shall let one end of your bed run to graine, which will amply suf­fice to furnish you, let it ripen well upon the stalke then pull it up or cut it, and dry it perfectly before you reserve it,

There is another sort of Spanish Chervill which is called Mirrhis O­dorata whose leafe much resembles Hemlock: But very agreeable to the tast, having a perfume like the green Anis, and much pleasanter being a little chewed.

At the spring, when it makes a shoot from its old stalke, they co­ver it with small dung, and then with hot soyl over to choke it, that it may be fit for Salads; It is infinitely to be preferred be­fore Allisanders, or the Sceleri of Italy.

Sowing. You shall sowe it in spring in some place by it self, and till it be come up do nothing to it, besides cleans­ing it of weeds as they spring up, [Page 219] it being some times a whole year under ground.

Seed. The seed you shall gather in its season, and order it as you do the rest.

Allisan­ders. Allisanders are to be ordered as I now shewed you in Spanish Chervill, only the seed of it does not ly so long hid, and that it is not to be eaten till it be buryed under the dung, or covered with pots like Succory.

Sceleri. Italian Sceleri shall be treated after the same manner: the shoot or stalke is that which is the most ex­cellent in the plant, because it is so delicate and tender.

Soweing. These three last plants, are not to be sowne every year, but preserve themselves in the ground during Winter without pre­judice.

Purslaine. Of Purslaines I finde four sorts, the greene, and White, and the Golden lately brought us from the Ilands [Page 220] of St. Christopher, which is the most delicate of all the rest; and lastly the small wild Purslain▪ which the ground spontaneously produces and is therefore least esteemed.

Soweing. It is to be sowne at spring upon the bed, and all Summer long, to have alwayes that which is tender, bur first you must dig the earth well, and throughly dresse it: sprinkle your seed as thin as you can, which is the more difficult to do, because the grain is so exceeding smal, and when it is sowne, you shall cover it no otherwise, then by clapping the bed with the back of your spade. This done, water it immediately, that you make no holes in the bed, thus it will come up speedily, provided that you ply it with refreshments at the beginning.

Trans­planting. To be master of excellent seed you must transplant it, and thus you will produce goodly stalks [...] to Pickle, and serve to put in your winter Sa­lads, and in Pottage.

Seed. [Page 221] You shall perceive the graine to be ripe, when it lookes very black, and then you shall pull up the plant, and lay it upon a Sheet to wither, and dry in the sun: But at night carry it in the same sheet into the house, and the next day expose it again, continuing so to do till it be all perfectly ripe, then rub it 'twixt your hands, and poure it into another sheet to dry throughly before you box it up. You shall set your plants a dry­ing again for some dayes after, and they will furnish you with more seed which could not be gotten out the first time.

You shall finde that new seed is nothing so good to sowe as that which is two, three, or four years old.

Spinach. Of Spinach there are three sorts: The large which has not the leafe so pointed and prickly as the smaller, and the Pale, which makes up the third.

Soweing. Season. It would be sowne in the begin­ning of Autumn, that it may gather some streugth before winter. If you perceive that it springs too fast, you may cut for pottage, and to make tarts, it will be a great deall tenderer then in Lent when it is chiefly eaten. The manner of soweing of it is on beds in small rills four lines in a bed. When it is up keep it neat­ly weeded, and extirpate all such stragling plants as you shall find out of their files.

Seed. Reserve a corner of your Bed for the seed, cutting off al the rest as you have occasion. At Lent pull up the plant quite for the use of the Kitchin, cutting away only the roots.

The seed is of two sorts, the prick­ly, and the smooth and round which produces the pale coloured and most delicate.


Of Beanes, Peas, and other▪ Pulse.

Beanes. THere are three sorts of great Beanes. Those which we call at Paris, Marsh-Beans, which grow very large, flat, and of a pale colour: Of others there are ma­ny lesser kinds like the first but a little rounder. And some there are lesse yet than these, and wholly different from the first, being almost exactly round, of a gray, or a little reddish-coulour. And these are such as they give to Horses, and which they grind for divers purposes.

I shall here only treate how the great ones are to be ordered, leaving the small as of small consequence, and shall shew you how different mens opinions are for the time and manner of soweing them,

Sowing. [Page 224] Some sowe them about Advent, and hold that they shall have of the first ready to eat: Others stay till Candlemasse, and some will have the frosts first past: every man hath his particular reasons, because say they, the Flea devoures their tops when they are in Flower. For my own particular (who alwayes love to be sure) I stay till after the frosts are past, and I build my reason upon this; That the season is all in all: not that I would disswade any from soweing in Advent, or in February, but I would advise you to be sparing, and to reserve the greatest quantity for the spring, since it being necessary to sowe them in the best ground, and the lowest you have, it would be scarce fit to dig at those two seasons, being more re­tentive of water then the lighter grounds,

Choyce. Before you sowe them, make choice of the most healthy and best [Page 225] condition'd; then steep them a day or two in water wherein dung has been imbibed, this will cause them to flourish exceedingly, and advance their growth above ten or twelve dayes, and besides they'l not remain [...] so long in the earth before they come up, will greatly prevent the danger of wormes, and, being throughly soaked in the foresayd li­quor, will participate of its good quality, which is to make them pro­duce great abundance.

Ground. For their soweing, the ground ought to be dug and prepared before winter, and cleansed of weeds, then with the houe make a furrow, upon the side whereof, (and not at the bottome) drop your beans a little above halfe a foot asunder, then open another trench, and with the earth which comes out of that, cover your first, then a third, placing your beans as on the first and so con­tinuing every second furrow to drop [Page 226] the beans: be careful to make your trenches as direct as you can, that you may the better houe, weed, and crop them, without breaking their stalks, when you pass between them.

There are others, who after they have well dug and dressed their ground, tread it out into quarters, and plant their beans with a Dibber; but I most of all affect the first, be­cause it makes the ground looser a­bout them.

Houing. Whilst they are growing, and that the weeds are ready to choke them, you shall houe and cleanse them carefully, without doing them any harm; and when they are pret­ty strong, you shall observe that the Flies and Gnats will even cover the tops of their spindles, lighting upon the tenderest part of them, which with your knife you may crop off, and so carry away both the tops and the insects, casting your cuttings into a Bushel, and afterward burn them, [Page 227] or bury them in your dunghil pit, or in some other place distant from your beans, lest they return back a­gain.

Gather­ing. Some of these Beds you must de­stine to be eaten young and green, and not gather the Pods amongst the whole Crop; and when you have quite plundered a Plant, cut the stalk close to the ground, that it may shoot up another, which will pro­duce its fruit in the latter sea­son.

Seed. For seed, let them drie upon the stalks, till both the Pods and they are grown black; then in the heat of day pull them up, and thrash them out gently with a Flail, fan­ning them out at your leasure.

Hame. Burn not the Hame which they afford, though it makes excellent ashes, but cast it amongst your Soyl, and let it rot there, for it will great­ly improve it: nay if you would make your ground exceeding rich, [Page 228] sowe beans in it, and when they be­gin to lose their blossoms, dig them in all together, earth and beans, with­out minding your losse, for this sort of Soyl is a wonderful improvement of your land.

There are a great kinde of Beans, which are of a red-brown colour: but they are nothing so delicious as the pale.

Haricots. The small Haricot or Kidney beans are of two sorts, white, and coloured, amongst which there are also some white, but they are lesse and rounder then the great white ones.

Sowing. To commence with the great, you shall sowe them in some Bed apart, four ranges in a Bed, that you may the more commodiously stick them, then if they were sown confusedly: some of these also you shall destine to be eaten green, leaving the rest till they are dryer, and for Seed. When you gather them be careful not to break their Stalks, that they [Page 229] may bear till it be withered to the very root.

Painted. beanes. The painted and coloured Beans, which are a lesser sort, are common­ly sown in the open ground, newly dug and raked over, without any further care then what you take of such seeds as are sown abroad in the Fields, unlesse it be, that, eight or ten dayes after they are come up, you houe them a little, and then touch them no more till they shoot forth their strings, (which is about the beginning of Iuly) which you must cut off, that the Pods may the better prosper, which are below the stalks, and to prevent, that in catch­ing one to another (by over branch­ing) they be not thrown down, and so perish those which grow beneath, instead of ripening them.

Soyle. This kinde of Bean doth not re­quire so strong a mould as the Marsh Beans do, but rather a sandy.

Sowing. They would be sown at the be­ginning [Page 230] of May, and pulled up as the plants drie, threshing them forth as I spake before of Marsh-beanes: for if you gather them greener, you will be much troubled to finde a convenient place to drie them, they being so cumbersome, if you have plenty.

White. streaked. bean [...]s. As for the white which are riced, seeing they clime to the very top of the boughs, and continue long bear­ing, you shall do well to gather those Pods which, you finde drie, since they doe not ripen together, and to prevent two inconveniences, the first whereof is, that being past their maturity, the pod will open of it self in the heat of the day, and so lose out their beanes, and the second that in case there fall any conside­rable raines, the skin of the pods being over soaked, will cleave to the beanes with a certain inseparable glue which it produces, indamaging the beanes by a musty finnow which bespots [Page 231] them, and makes them very ill- [...]a­voured to the sight, and worse to the taste: and besides you will be constrained to shail them out by hand to the great losse of time.

You should separate and draw out all such as you finde black, mixed with black and white, forasmuch as they also become black, and in boyl­ing darken and tinge the liquor.

Red bean [...] But the Red are to be esteemed above all the rest, because of their delicatenesse, much surpassing the white, though they are most account­ed of at Paris.

Peas. Of Pease there are found seve­ral Species very much different, viz. The Hot-spurs or Hasties, the Dwarf, the great White Pease, the Black-ey'd Pease, great and small Green, the Crown'd Pease: and those with­out Skins of two sorts, the Cic [...]es with, and without Skins, Monethly Pease, the Grey Pease, and the Lu­pines.

[Page 132] Of all which I think it not amisse to particularise in brief, their maner of ordering, though there be no great difficulty in the plant, yet for your better instruction.

Soweing. There are three manners of soweing Peas. In Beds or quarters making four or five ranges in each. according to the kinds which you will sowe: In heaps or clusters, and in confusion.

Hot-spurrs Hot-spurrs and Hasties, would be sowne from Candlemas or a little after the great frosts.

Soyl. Sandy ground is that which they most delight in to come early and if the place be something high and lie expos'd to the South­sun, it will exceedingly advance them, of which we have the ex­perience about Charenton and St. Maur neer Paris, from whence we have them very early, and all the secret is, in often houing them which doth wonderfully advance them.

Soweing. [Page 233] If you sow them in furrows and lines you will finde it very commodious when you come to dresse them, because you will finde room enough to stand and come at them between the files, without indamaging the shoots, and when they are growe to range them one upon another for the more convenient houing them, which should be often retera­ted, and gather the cods with more [...]ase when they are ripe without hurting the plants.

Setting. If you sowe them in heapes, plant them with the Setting-stick, or dibber, a full foot distance, and put six or eight Peas in every hole, they will come up and grow without Cumbring the ground, if you have the leasure to hou and dresse them sufficiently.

As for those which you sowe con­fusedly upon the ground newly dug, or in furrows after the Plough, they will not require so much attendance, [Page 234] because they spread and display themselves on both sides, and cannot be hou'd above once, without great hazard of spoyling many of them with your feet.

Great pease. Bushing. All sorts of great Pease (as the White, Green, Crown'd, those with­out Skin, and the Cich [...]s) would be sown in quarters, and small rills, four ranges in a Bed, for the more com­modious bushing them in two ranks, every rank serving to support two of Pease, and the greater kinde your Pease are of, the stronger and high­er must your Bushes be; because they climb to the very top, producing Cods at every joynt; especially the greater kinde of those without skins, whose Cods grow eared, and are very weighty, shooting their brach­es at every joynt from the foot, eve­ry of which doth oftentimes bear as many Cods, as the Master stalk of the others. This is a sort of Pease which you ought much to esteem [Page 235] for its deliciousnesse, and they may be eaten green with as much plea­sure as Radishes. These are called Holland Pease, and were not long since a great rarity.

Mould. If you would have very fair Pease, you must sowe them in rich mould, and geld them when they are grown about four foot high: but the mis­chief is, that being sown in a strong ground, they do not boyl so well as those which are produced in a light sandy, which is the only proper ground which they require to b [...] ­rightly condition'd.

Distance. You must not set your quarter of Pease so bushed as that they may intertwine and intangle each other; but leave a void Bed betwixt two, to give ayr to your Plants, lest other­wise they suffocate, and rot at the bottom.

Beds. You may employ these interposed beds by sowing any other sort of roots heretofore described, and which will [Page 236] wonderfully thrive by reason of the refreshment which they will receive from the Shade of the higher peas.

Gray peas You shall also set a part some particular beds to be eaten green, and cause the cods to be gatherd by some carefull person, who may have the patience to take them off handsom­ly, or else cut them from their stalks without injuring them, that thus relieving the plant from all it af­fords they may the longer conti­nue.

Small peas. For the smaller sort of peas (as the White, Green, Gray, Hasties, Dwarf; and black-ey'd) you may sowe them after the Plough in open Field, for since they do not branch much, they never choak.

Soweing. They may be sown in two fashions, either in ground newly dug and which has one dressing before wet winter: or under furrow that is, to say by sowing them upon the field, be­fore you Plough, and then in making [Page 237] the furrows the peas slide in, and are coverd with earth by the culter.

Pidgeons. This kind of husbandry is practis­ed for two respects, the one to lodg them coldly when the earth is too light, and the other to preserve them from the Pigeons, for those which are onely harrow'd in upon the superficies, they scrape out like Poultry, and so devour the greatest part of your seed.

Houing. There is also another method of soweing peas, in use amongst those of Picardy: They have a kind of flat [...]hou, like those which the Vignerons use about Paris, where the Vines grow in a pale moyst soyl, or in a sandy. This Instrument is very like their hou's, when they have done with them being too much worn at the sides, these they round to a point in the middle, or to make it more intelligible, they do very much resemble the culter of a Plough, and use it after the same fashion as [Page 238] they plow the furrows, that is, with­out ridges or pathes, save only upon the Lands where it is divided 'twixt neighbour and neighbour.

With these, upon newly dug ground, cleansed of weeds and well dress'd, they make a rill or tr [...]nch, going backward and drawing the earth which separates it self on both sides: And in these furrows they sowe their Pease at a reasonable di­stance and then beginning a second rill, the Houe covers that which was sown before. And so the third the second, till they have finish'd the whole Plot. This manner of Hus­bandry is very expedite, and com­modious for their cleansing, without danger of treading upon them when they are grown. In this manner they sowe like-wise all sorts of Beans, Ra­dishes, Sorrel, Leeks, and divers o­ther hearbs, some deeper then other, according to the nature and strength of the seed.

Mo [...]ethly peas. [Page 239] Monethly Pease (so called because they last almost the whole Year, continually flourishing) must be sown in some place of your Gar­den well defended from the cold win [...]les, that you may have Fruit be­times.

C [...]ting. They need no other curiosity a­bout ordering then other Pease, only that they would be speed [...]ly cut being green, leaving none of them to drie; and as you perceive that any thing springs from them of which you have no hope it should produce Cods, to cut it off.

Wat [...]ing. You must have a great care to water them, especially during Au­gust, and to shelter them with pan­nels of Reeds or Mattresses during the excessive heats, to preserve them from the scorching Sun.

Lupines. Lupins or Taulpins (so called be­cause the Mole flyes the place where they are sowen) are a flat kinde of Pease, round [Page 240] like a bruised Pistol bullet. Slave-peas. In the Gallyes they call them Slave-peas, because they are their chief sus­tenance: They are bitter of tast, and must be a long time soaked before they be boyled. They proceed from pods fastned to the stalk like beanes, and are very full. In Spain they sowe whole fields of them for their Cattell.

Soweing. They must be sown in furrows four fingers distant, and four files in a bed and will prosper well enough in or­dinary ground.

Lentills Lentils should be sown at the same season as peas in ground newly dug, but if it were prepared the win­ter before, they will be a great deal fairer. Mould. They affect Sandy mould, and are to be gathered being ripe, and may be bound in swaths: Thus you may leave them in the barns as long as you please unthrashed, because they are not so obnoxious to the mice not to be worme-eaten as other peas [Page 241] which are continually gnawn as long as they remain in their cods, Thrashing and therefore they must be thrashed out as soon as possible you can, for which reason some bringing them out of the Field in a fair day, thrash them in the very Street upon some Spa­cious place expos'd to the Sun, which dos much contribute to their loosning: Housing. For there is a great deal of trouble in housing them and be­sides they will Sweat as many other graines do, and Soften their Cods which makes them difficult to beat out: Notwithstanding you may House the Gray Peas to give your Horses in the H [...]me, which will whet their appetite, and much re­store them if they be fallen in their flesh.


Of Onions, Garlick, Chibols, Leeks, Odoriferous Plants, and other Con­veniences of a Garden, not compre­hended in the Precedent Chapters.

Onions. ONions are of three Colours, the White, the Pale, and the Pur­ple-Red: I say of three Colours, for I do not conceive them to be of three different Species, because they are so alike in taste: but I referre their qualities to the judgement of the Botanists.

oweing. Besides your sowing of Onions with Parsly as I shewed you before, you shall sowe others upon a Bed apart, and when it is grown as big as a Hens quill, you may trans­plant it in lines with a Dibber, that you may have them very fair.

If you leave any upon the Bed [Page 243] where you sowed it, 'twill diminish, and rise out of the ground at the Season, sooner then that which you removed.

Seeding. During the great Heat of Sum­mer, it would run to seed, which you must prevent by treading upon the Spindle, which will stop its carreer, and make the Onion the fairer.

Drying. Housing. When you finde them out of the ground, and that the leaf is become very drie, as it uses to be in August, then you shall take them quite out of the earth, searching with your Spade for every small head, letting them dry upon the Bed, and after­ward lay them up in some tempe­rate place, and an ayr rather d [...]ie then moyst.

Seed. For the seed, you shall choose [...]he fairest and biggest that you re­served, and when the Frosts are past plant them in Ground very well soyled, and clear from stones, which [Page 244] is the mould thy best affect. For this you may make use of the houe, rilling the bed where you would set them: not long-wayes but a thwart, and deep enough, then lay them in the bottom of the rills, half a foot distant and cover them by drawing the second trench and thus a third, and a fourth continuing the order till your bed be finished.

When it is in seed 'tis very Subject to be overthrown by the wind by reason of its weight, and the weak­nesse of th [...] spindle, which being ea­sily bent or broken fals with the head to the ground, which rots the seed in­stead of ripening it, and therefore to remedy this, you shall rail the bed a­about (as I directed you concerning Salsifix) or else stake them from space to space, to which you shall tie them up, by four or five spindles together bending them gently to the props if it be possible without breaking them.

The stalks drie, and the head disco­vering [Page 245] the seed gives testimony of its maturity, and therefore you shall draw them up, and having cut off all their spindles, you shall lay the heads a drying upon some cloath, seperating that which falls out of it self upon the cloath, as the best conditioned: afterwards when it all is perfectly drie, rub the heads in your hands, and getting out as much as you can with patience and much drying.

If you do not immediately rub it out, bind up the heads in bunches, and hang them up in your house, because they will both keep and augment in good nesse taking them only as you have occasion.

There is so great deceit in buy­ing this seed, that I would ad­vise you to use none but which is of your own growth, unlesse you have some intimate friend that will send you that which is excellent, to renew your store, for some Merchants sell it old, and so it can never prosper, or [Page 246] else they scald it to make it swell: To discover that which is good put a little into a Porrenger of water, and let it infuse upon the hot Em­bers, and if it be good it will begin to Check and speer, if it do not, its worth nothing.

Chibol. Chibolls of all sorts, from the greatest to the English-Cives, are to be planted in Cloves, four or five to­gether, to make a tuft, in distance ac­cording to their bignesse, they requi­ring no other care, then to be weeded and cleansed, and, if you will, a little dunged before the winter. Thus you may let them continue in their bed as long as you please, the plant con­tinually improving by Off-s [...]ts which it will produce in abundance.

Trans­planting However it will be good at every three or four years end to take it up, and plant it in another place, foras­much as the ground is weary of bearing perpetually but one sort, and loses that quality which is most [Page 247] proper to the plant, rendring it lan­guid and weak if it dwell on it too long.

Garlick. [...] Garlick is to be orderd like Onions, Planting. the best season is to plant it at the end of February. The time of bruising it, to make the spindles knot, is about St. Peters in Iune, and to pull it out of the ground, at St. Peters in August, according to [...]he old Gardiners A­dage.

Sow at St. Peters the first crop.
Your Garlick at St. Peters stop.
And at St. Peters take it up.

Pulling. Housing. When you have amassed them together you shall let them dry in heaps upon the bed, and then in the cool of the morning bind them up with their own leaves, by Dozens, and there let them passe the Day in the hot sun, before you carrie them in, hanging it to the beames of the Sieling to keep it drie.

Eschalots, or (as the French call them) [Page 248] Appeties, being a species 'twixt an oni­amd Garlick, and add a rare relish to a sawce, neither so rank as the one, nor so flat as the other) are to be orderd like Chibolls, Planting. planting the little Cloves, to make them greater, and in the moneth of August, you shall pull as many of them out of the ground as you desire to reserve, and hang them up as you did the Garlick.

Leeks. Blanch­ing. Leeks are to be planted like Onions, and transplanted in files with the dibber, as deep as may be, that you may have a great deale of White-stalke; nor should you fill the Trench till a little after, and that they be well grown, this will augmeut their blanching. But besides this there is another way, and that is when they have done growing, to lay them in the rill one upon another, leaving only the very extremities of their leaves out of ground, [Page 249] and thus what is covered will be­come white, and this does much lengthen the plant, one such Leek be­ing as good as two others.

Seeds. For the seed, reserve of the fair­est and longest to Transplant in the Spring: and when they are run up, environ them with suppor­ters and Palisades as you doe Onions to preserve their heads from falling to the ground.

When they are ripe, cut them off [...]rie, and reserve them in bunches, or otherwise as you did the O­nions.

Herbs O­di [...]sant. Sweet and Odoriferant Herbs, and what other you ought principaly to furnish your Garden withall as are proper for Salades, and for the service of the Kitchen, omitting the rest at your own pleasuure, such as are Gallingale, Basill, [...]avan­der, Southen-wood, Hysope, Cassidonia: [...]aulme, Camomile, Rue, and others. We will here discourse [Page 250] of such only as you ought of necessi­ty be provided.

Salad. For Salads, Balm, Tarragon, Sampier, Garden-Cresses, Corne-Sallet, Pimpinell, Trippe-Madame, are such as we do ordinarily use to­gether with those which I have de­scribed in the foregoing Sections▪ that salad being most agreeable, which is composed with the greatest variety of Herbs.

Some of these Herbs are to be sown, and others to be planted in roots and though they all for the most part bear seed, yet none so effectually as the rooted plants.

Corne sa­lad. Pimpinel. Cresse. Those which you are to sowe are the Corne-Salad, Pimpinel, and Cresses, the rest are to be planted in roots [...] all of them passe the Winter in the ground without pre­judice. And you may leave them as long as you please in the Beds where you sowed and planted them; without any▪ far­ther [Page 251] trouble then to weed them and now and then dig up and cleanse the paths least the weeds o­come them.

The rest which you gather for the Kitchen, are Thyme, Savory, Marjo­ram and Sage, of both sorts, and R [...]se­mary; all which plants are easy to be raised, and sufficiently furnish you.

Licoris. We will not omit Licoris, to gra­tifie such as make use of it in their P [...]isans: but if you plant it in your Garden, Place it in some quarter where it may not preju­dice it, for if it like the ground, it will S [...]ring and goe a great deal deeper then the very Couch or Dog-Grasse, and put you to a world of difficulty to come at it in case you should resolve to extir­pa [...]e it intirely.

There grows as good in all places of France, as any that they transport out of Spain.

Plantin [...] To furnish your self with this [Page 252] take rooted plants, and lay them half a foot in ground, it will need no other labour to make it thrive, but to preserve it well weeded and clensed by stirring up the earth.

Time. Thyme is both sown and planted; One Thyme tuft wil afford many slips, which you may set with the set­ting-stick, as you doe all sorts of cuttings.

Savory. Savory is every year to be sown, and therefore be carefull to re­serve the seeds, and the Hearb also being dried, to serve in divers seasonings.

Marioram Of Marjoram there is the sweet, and the Pot-Marjoram. The first sort is very t [...]nder in Winter, and therefore the Seeds thereoff should be carefully preserved, to sowe of it every year: The Winter or Pot-Marjo­ram (which is a bigger kind) may be perpetuated where you please.

Sage. Garden and Bastard-Sage grows well of slips or branches cleft off [Page 252] with Roots from the main Stemms.

Rosemary. Rosemary is also planted of slips, and roots split from the old stock.

Fenell. Sweet-Fenell and Anis, which are plants to be sown and governed with­out much difficulty, are not to be forgotten in your Garden.

Satisfie your self therefore with these few instructions which I have given of odiriferous plants: The appre­hensions I have of swelling our Vo­lume has caused me to passe them so lightly over. There now only re­mains to conclude this Treatise the addition of some Plants and Shrubs which bear fruit, highly necessary to accomplish your Garden.

St [...]awbe­ries. Strawberries are of four kinds. The White, the Large Red, the Capprons, and the small red wild Strawberry.

Plan [...]. Concerning these last sort which are the small, you need not put your self to the trouble of cultivate­ing them, if you dwell neer the Woods, where they abound; for the [Page 254] Children of every Village will bring them to you for a very small reward: And in case you be far from these pretty Sweets, you may furnish some small carpets of them on the sides of some of your Alleys without other care or pains then to plant them, sending for such as are in little sods from the places which naturally pro­duce them, or else you may sowe them, by casting the water wherein you wash the strawberies before you eat them, upon the foresaid Beds.

[...]. For the great white straberies, the red, and C [...]aprons you shall plant in Borders, four ranges in a border or Low-bed, which must have a path between, of a foot and half at least: The best plants are such as you take from the strings which they make during all the Summer, and to put three plants in every hole which you shall make with the dibber. Season. The best season, is to plant them in Au­gust, when their strings are lusty, and [Page 255] have taken roots by their joynts, form­ing a small plant at every knot.

Proping. To order them well you must dresse, weed and loosen the mould a­bout them very dilligently, and to have fair and clear Fruit you shall stick a small prop to every plant, to which you shall bind their stalks with a straw and by this means, besides that your fruit will prove much fairer, Snails, Toads, Frogs, and other noxious animals will for­sak [...] them, for want of covertures, which they would not do if the whole plant lay upon the ground, where they fail not to eat ago [...]dpart of them, ever attayning the fairest.

[...] When your Strawberies shoot their strings, you must castrate them and leave them none but such as you reserve to [...]urnish you with plants.

Ren [...]wing And you shall every year renew some of your [...] such as are above four of five years old, as be­ginning [Page 256] then to impair of their goodnesse and vertue.

Dressing. It will be convenient to strew them over with some Melon-bed dung, a little before the great frosts, which will much improve them, cutting off all their leaves, as I taught you concerning Sorrell.

Soyl. The Soyl which they most affect is rather a sandy then a stiff, and therefore you shall make choyce of that part in your Garden for them which most approaches this mix­ture.

Strawber­ries in Autumn. If you desire to have strawberries in Autumn, you shall only cut off the first blossomes which they put forth, and hinder their fructifying, they will not fail of blowing anew after­wards, and produce their fruit in the latter season.

Raspis. R [...]spis are of two Colours, the White and the Red: You must plant [...] which you may split off into many from a good stemm: They [Page 257] are to be planted four fingers distant from one another in an open trench as deep as your spade-bit, as I have described it in my discourse of a Nursery, whither I referr you for more brevity.

P [...]uning. Besides the former labours, they will only require that you free them of their dead wood, and clear them of the suckers which they shoot up in the paths between their ranges: But if you perceive that notwith­standing all this, they spring too fast as to endanger their choaking, you shall succor them by pruning off the new sets, and sparing the old, as the most ingenuous and fruit­full.

Goosber­ [...]ies. Of Gooseberries there are two kindes, the great-large and the small white ones which are thorny and full of prickles: Others Red, White, and Perled, without Prickles, which in Normandy they call G [...]delles.

They are all of them to be Plant­ed, [Page 258] and governed like Raspis, and therefore I proceed no farther.

Champig­non. Choyce. Champignons, and all other kinds resembling them to which the Italians give the common Apella­tive of Fongi, we distingush in our language, naming some of them Mushroms of the Woods, which rests, and are very large. And are such as grow by the bor­ders and skirts of great For-Mushroms of the Meadews, and sweet Pastures, which are such as grow frequently where the Cattell feeds, and seldom flourish till after the first fogs of Autumn are past. These last are those which I Esteem the best of all, as well because of their beauties and whitenesse above, as for their Vermillion beneath, add to this their agreeable sent, which are wanting in the other. The Gar­den Mushroms which are ordinarily grow upon the beds, and those which do not appear before the be­ginning [Page 259] of May, hid under the mosse in the woods from whence they seem to derive their name of Moush, or Mousserons.

Bed Mushram. Dressing. Of all these species there is only the Bed-mushrums which you can produce in your Garden, and to effect this, you must prepare a bed of Mules or Asses soil, covering it o­ver four fingers thick with short and rich dung and when the great heat of the bed is qualified, you must cast upon it all the parings and falls of such Mushrums as have been dres­sed in your Kichen, together with the Water wherein they were washed as also such as are old and wormeat­en, and a bed thus prepared will pro­duce you very good, and in short space. The same bed may serve you two or three years and will much assist you in making another.

Producti­on. If you poure of this water upon your Melon beds, they may likewise furnish you with some. But I had [Page 260] almost forgotten to inform you, that there are certain stones, which being placed in the dunghill, have the vertue to produce them in a lit­tle time, and that there are some curio [...]s persons which have of these stones, to whose better experience I recommend you.

Morrille [...] Concerning Morilles, and Truffs: the first whereof is a certain delicate red Mushrum, and the other an in­comparable kind of round ru [...]et excres­sence which grows in drie ground, with­out any stalk, leafe, or fibers to it, and therefore used to be found out by a hog, kept and trained up in the mysterie: there are but very few places which do naturally produce them.

Conclusi­on. And thus I presume to have suf­ficiently instructed you, in all things which are necessary to be cultivated in Gardens; at the least; what is commonly eaten and in request in our Parisien France. Other Pro­vinces have other plants, the spoyls [Page 261] whereof they afford us so good cheap, that it is not worth the while to husband them: as for In­stance, Capers, &c. not but that they prosper very wel in these parts; but they are troublesome and re­quire a large compasse, for a small crop, flourishing better amongst the stones of some antient Ruine, then in any other place: Tis too great a subjection to gather their blossomes, and to Pickle them in Salt, and would cost you more then you may buy them for of the Oyl-men

Let us Conclude this discourse then, and hasten to shew you how the fruits of the Garden are to be Conserved in their Naturall, accord­ing to the precedent Sections and Articles, as your Fruit, your Herbs and your Pulses are disciplind in the two former Treatises.


AN APPENDIX TO THE Former Treatises.


Of the Manner how to conserve Fruits in their Natural.

Conserv­ing of Fruits in their Na­turall. Raspis. THere is nothing which doth more lively concern the Sen­ses then in the depth of Winter to behold the Fruits so fair, and so good, yea better, then when you first did gather them, and that then, when the Trees seem to be dead, and have lost all their verdure, and the rigour [Page 264] of the Cold to have so despoyl'd your Garden of all that imbellished it, that it appears rather a Desart then a Paradise of Delices: then it is (I say) that you will taste your fruit with infinite more gust and contentment, then in the Summer it self, when their great abundance, and rarity, rather cloy you then be­come agreeable. For this reason therefore it is, that we will essay to teach you the most expedite, and certain means how to conserve them all the Winter, even so long, as till the New shall incite you to quit the Old. For it is just with Fruits as it is with Wines: those which we drink first are the more delicate and juicy; and those which we reserve for the latter part of the year are more firm and lasting: both excellent in their Season: But so soon as the New are made, and fit to pierce, we aban­don the old, which we before e­steemed so agreeable. In like man­ner [Page 265] it is, so soon as the new Fruits approach to their maturity, we for­sake those of the year past; and one dish of Strawberries, or Cherries, (though never so green) or for­ward Pears, shall be preferred to the best, and fairest Bon-Chrestien which you can produce.

Conserva­tory. Fabrick. Situation To pursue then our first intention. It will be necessary to choose some place in your house the most com­modious to make your Reserva [...]ry or store-house, which should have the windows and overtures narrow to prevent the extreamity both of heat and the cold: these you shall allways keep shut, and so secured from the ayr as only to afford you a moderate light, which you shall also banish by closing the wooden shutters when you go out: And in­deed were there none at all, and that the door to it were very straight, and low, it would be the better keeping it shut so soon as ever you are entred.

[Page 266] Such a place designed for your store, you shall build shelves about, and (if the room be capable of it) that the middle be to lay fruit in heaps, such as are the most common and destind for the Servants, and if it be not wide enough, it shall suf­fice to shelve it three parts and leave the fourth for the heaps.

Shelving. Let your shelves be layd upon brackets of wood or Iron very strong because of their charge: two of them side by side, two foot broad: Which you must ledg with a small Lath, to keep the fruit from rowling and falling off: but let-none of these shelves be within a yard of the floor, that you may place the best rare fruit under them, seperateing and di­stinguishing them according to their kinds: but you may continue the shelves upward to the very Ceeling placing them about nine or ten-in­ches asunder. And for the more convenien [...]e you should have a smal [Page 267] light frame of steps by which you ascend and reach to the uppermost shelf, when you would visite your fruit: a ladder being nothing so con­venient, wearying the feet, and more subject to fall.

Season of Gather­ing fruit. The season of Gathering your win­ter-fruits being come, which you shall discover by many indications, as when they begin to drop off themselves, which commonly hap­pens after the first rains of Autumn, when the Tree being sobb'd and wet, swells the wood, and loosens, the fruit: Or when the first frosts ad­vertise you that it is time to lay them up: or (to be more certain) at the decrease of the Moon in Octo­ber (thus for the Pears and Apples) begining to gather the softest first, and finishing with the harder, that they may have the more time to perfect their maturity.

There are some fruits that are only to be eaten ripe as the Gros [...]enil-pear [Page 268] A kinde of hip, a [...]ound red berrie, Cor­ [...]es is a fruit fashi­oned like a pear and to be rotted like a Med­lar. Cor [...]nes, Pear. Services, Azerolls, and the like, which you shall leave up­on the Tree till you perceive by their falling in great numbers, they admonish you to gather them.

Medlars are to be gathered about St. Lukes, according to the [...]roverb.

Medlars. Baskets. When you gather your Fruits, you should be provided with strong ozier Baskets, to be born full be­twixt two men, and you shall put a little straw at the bottom, lest the weight of the uppermost bruise the undermost against the basket.

Fallen fruit. You shall as you gather your fruits separate the fairest and biggest from the midling and such as are fallen off themselves, or as you have thrown down in gathering the o­thers, putting each sort in a b [...]ket a­part: I speak not here of the smallest and the crumplings, for I suppose you discharg'd your Trees of them be­fore, so soon as you perceived that they did not thrive, to give the [Page 269] more nourishment to the rest. The worm-eaten Apples should be put also amongst those which are fallen to be spent first.

Housing. As fast as you gather your fruits, you shall carrie them into your store­house, and range them upon your shelves so as they may not touch one another, putting [...] little straw all un­der them, and in like manner di­stinguishing the fairest and biggest from the lesser upon several shelves and heaping up the worm-e [...]en and fallen, as I but now directed you.

Bon-Chresten As [...]ouching the Bon Chrestien Pears, they are more curiously to be gathered then the rest, for the stalkes of such as are very fair and well coloured, red at one side and yellow at the other, should be sealed with Spanish wax to preserve their sap from evaporating: this done, wrap them up in drie pa [...]ers and put them in a Bushell or a Box well covered, that they may grow t [...]wny [Page 270] and mature being thus shut up.

You shall Practice the same upon the Double-f [...]owere Pear, the Cadil­lace, the Thoul, and others which are graffed upon the Q [...]ince, and which receive their colour from the Tree: For as for those as are graffed upon the Pear-stock, they common­ly continue Green; and therefore without any farther trouble, you need only range them upon the shelves, as you did the rest.

C [...]inet. Those that are very curious have a Cupboard which shutts very close, in which they reserve their Bonne Chrestiens: This Cupboard is furnish­ed with shelves, upon every of which are fastned small quarters of wood, which are laid cross like a grate, every square neer as big as the greatest Pear. Upon each of these s [...]uares they lay a Pear by it self, for fear lest they should touch; and that if any of them should be pe­rished, it do not in [...]ect its neighbour. [Page 271] This Cupboard they keep very close, pasting pieces of Paper about the Key-holes, to keep out the ayr, and never open it, save when they would take our fruit, and this clo­sing them up does give them a most excellent colour: but before they thus shut them up, [...] they leave the Pears five or six dayes in the Baskets, wherein they were brought out of the Orchard, that they may have time to sweat.

Ripe fruit. Those Fruits which are to be leaten ripe, should be layed in heaps, and if they do not mellow fast e­nough to your desire, you shall put them into a Wheat-Sack, and shall jumble them together betwixt two, this Concussion one against the other will exceedingly advance their ma­turity.

Grapes. Your Muscat grapes of all colours, as the Chasselats, Bicane, and Rochel Grapes, or others more ordinary, are to be preserved several ways, either [Page 272] singly ranging them upon straw o [...] h [...]nging them in Sieves up to the Ceeling, covering them over with paper to guard them from the dust, or barrelling them up with Oat-Chaff or in a tub of Ashes, or which is best, hanging them by their ends (not stalks) in your forementioned Cub-board.

To keep them. I pretermit severall o [...]her curi­ous wayes of keeping Grapes, as when they are in Flower to put the Clusters into a Glasse-Violl, and when it is Ripe cut it from the Vine, and seal up the stalk, but it must so hang as that none of them touch the [...]ide of the Glasse, and then close the mouth of it with soft wax, to keep out the Ayr, this will preserve the Chister till Christmas.

There are divers other means, which I omit because they are al­together unprofitable, troublesome, and expensive.

and though I have not before taught [Page 273] you how you may store your self with these Muscat-Grapes of all Co­lours, it is not out of ignorance, for I am abundantly furnished withthem; But because it is a plant which is to be governed like the other Vines, I referr it to my Vignerous, who have from their Youth been accostomed to the ordering of Vines, their ex­perience instructing them in those necessary subjections which a Gardner would never observe, with so many precautions as they are obliged to do, especially in planting and prun­ing them, which are the onely things I instrust them in, and am well satisfied.

Vermine. I shall tell you upon this occasion, that all sorts of Flies, and Bees, Wasps, &c. Dormise, and Rats, are exceedingly licorish of these grapes, when they are ripe, to prevent which you shall place some clove of Garlick half hid in severall places upon the poles which support them, [Page 274] neer the Clusters, and the very Sent thereof will chase them away.

Aspect. The fullest aspect of the Meridi­an Sun, and shelter of some Wall, is the onely place that the Muscat and Precoce Grape affects.

Rotten fruit. Mice. Cats. To conclude this Section, I will advise you to visit your Conservatory often, that in case you finde any of the Fruits rotten, you take them a­way; for they spoil all that they touch: but if you perceive any one that the Mice have begun, stirre it not from the place; for as long as any of that single Fruit remains, they will never attaque another: In the mean time set a Trap to catch them, for to let Cats in, they will disorder your Fruit, and leave their Ordure amongst the heaps, and upon the Shelves.


Of Dried Fruits.

Dryed fruit. THere are divers Fruits that we drie in Ovens, which in hotter Countreys they drie in the Sun, as in Provence the Prunella's, in Langvedoc Raisins of the Sun; but since the Cold of our Climate obliges us to make use of the Oven, I will here describe in particular, how each of them ought to be dried.

Cherries. Beginning then with Ch [...]rries, White, Hearts, and the Preserving Cherries, as with the first which the Season prescribes us. Chuse such as are very ripe, fair, fresh, and not bruised: you shall spread them upon Lattices, or Hurdles [Page 276] made of wicker, ranging them one by another, as handsomely as you can, without suffering them to lye one upon another, with their Stones and stalkes then put them into the Oven which must be of a tem­perate heat. Such as it usually is after the household bread is drawn. and then leaving them as long as any heat remains, you shall take them forth turne them, to the end they may perfectly dry: after this you shall heat the Oven again, putting them in, and repeating this course till they are sufficiently dryed to be kept, then let them cool in heaps a whole day, and afterwards bind­ing them up in small bunches, reserve them in greatThey call them in F [...]ance Bush [...]ll. boxes, be­i [...]g of that shape and containing about hal [...] a Bushell. round Boxes exqui­si [...]ely shut.

Plum. Plums are to be dried like Cherries very ripe gathered, the best for this purpose are such as are fallen off the Trees, for they are most fleshy, and will be more agreable to eat [Page 277] then those which you shall gather, which retaine alwaies some ver­dure upon them.

The very best to drye are to be chosen, as the Imperial, Date, and St. Catherine, Diaper, Perdrigon, Cy­trout, [...] Mirabolan, Roche-Corbon, Damasks of all sorts, and the St. Iulian for ordinary spending.

Prunellas. If you desire to counterfeit Pru­nellas, you must make choyce of the fairest of your Plums, as the Per­drigon, the Abricotplum, Moyen d [...] oeuf, a Plum so called. Egg­yolk, Brignolles or others, which have a white skin, pee [...]e them with­out a knife, drawing them by the skin which will easily quit the plum, if it be throughly ripe, then stone them without breaking the fruit, as I shall hereafter instruct you when I speak of Abricots. Boyle the skins well with a little water, and strain it through a cloath, and in this juice (which be in the consi­stance of a Syrupe infuse your plums as [Page 278] often as you set them into the Oven, flatting them every time: If your Liquor be not thick enough, you shall adde to it the juice of White Corrinths, very ripe, which will ren­der your Syrup sufficiently thick. You may also (if you please) adde some Sugar to them, they will be excellent, and require less drying.

The Provençals instead of setting them in the Oven, stick them upon Thorn branches, one upon each Thorn, and so leave them to drie in the Sun.

Peaches. Peaches are to be ordered after the same manner as Plums, except­ing that they must be gathered from the Tree; for those which fall, be­sides that they are over-ripe, they wil have such Bruises as will hinder their drying, without great trouble, and will be very disagreeable to the taste: Before you stone them, you shall set them once into the Oven to mortifie them: afterwards you [Page 279] shall slit them neatly with a Knife, and take out the Stone; then open and flat them upon some Table, that when you set them in the Oven, they may dry as well within as with­out, by reason of their great thickness; & the last time you draw them out of the Oven, whilst they are yet hot, close them again, & flatten them, to reduce them to their natural shape.

Abricots. Abricots are also to be gathered ripe from the Tree, you need not open them, to take out their S [...]ones, but thrust them out dextrously, neer the Stalk: neither in drying them need you open them like Peaches; but leave them whole, and only flat­ting them, that they may drie equal­ly in every part, and be the more commodiously ranged in the Boxes.

If you desire to have them ex­cellent, put a Pill of Sugar about the quantity of a P [...]a, in the place of the Stone; and fill an earthen Milk­tray, covering it with a lid of Paste [Page 280] closed thereto: then set it in the Oven, as soon as the Bread hath taken colour, and there let it re­main till it be cold: after which you shal set it in the Stove upon slatse, as they drie Sweet-meats; and when they are sufficiently dry to keep, whilst yet warm, strow some finely searced Sugar upon them, and leave them two dayes before you set them up.

Pear [...] Pears are to be dried pared and unpared, in the same manner as I shewed you before: but being pared they are much more delicate, and the Parings are to be used, to infuse in the Liquor, as I taught you in Plums. You must leave their Stalks, and the crown when you pare them, choosing such Fruit as is the fairest, most delicate, and full of Flavour, as the Orange, Summer Bon-Chrestien, Muscadel, Great M [...]scat-Pear, the Rousset, & a hundred others as rare.

You shall put of these likewise in earthen Pans, with their Skins up­on [Page 281] the Fruit, before you cover them with Paste, thus drie, and strew them as you did your Abricots.

The Pear is not to be gathered over ripe, for that wil render it too flashy.

In Grape-time, you may infuse the parings in new White Wine instead of water, or in Cyder-time in new Perry made without water.

Apples. Apples are commonly dried with­out paring them, and are to be slit in the midst, taking out the Core: some of them you may boyl for Liquor to s [...]ak those in which you intend to dry.

Grapes. Grapes of all sorts, Muscadine and others, are to be dried in the Oven, upon the Hurdle, without farther trouble then onely to drie them in a temperate heat, and turn them frequently, that they dr [...] equally. Those of Languedoc passe them through a [...] pre­serve them from worms Lye before they drie them in the Sun.

Beanes. Amongst drie Fruits I will also range green Beans, which being well [Page 282] dress'd with a little Winter Savory dried (the true seasoning of Beans) may pass for new.

To drie them, you shall take those that are tender, which have yet theirIn which the beau [...]s are invol­ved. Skins green, before they are white; take off this Coat (that is, peel them) then drie them in the Sun upon papers, often turning them daily, at Evening bring them in, and expose them again to the Sun every day, till you finde them very drie, which will soon be, if it be not close weather: being drie, you may keep them covered in Boxes, carefully preserving them from all moysture.

Before you boil them, you must lay them in soak for the space of half a day in warm water.

Pease. For green Peas [...] chuse the young­est, which shailed out of their [...]ods, drie as you did the Beans, and infuse them likewise in warm water be­fore you boil them, adding to the [Page 283] liquor, a handful of the leaves of new Pease, if you have any green, tying them in a Bunch, lest they mingle with your Pease.

Mushrum [...] Morilles and Mushrums are to be filed on a Thred, and hung up in some hot place, as over an O [...]en, where they will easily drie; or if the place be commodious for it, be­fore the Fire, or set into the Oven itself temperately warm.


To pickle Fruits with Salt and [...]inegre.

Pickling cucum­bers. CUcumbers are the biggest Gar­den Fruit which we use to pickle, they are to be chosen very small, (which they call Cornets or Gerkins, because we choose those which resemble little crooked hor [...]s, and that do not improve) or else somewhat bigger, but very young, before their seeds be hard, which are [Page 284] nothing so pleasant to eat: These are to be pickled pared, or whole; but it is best to pare them before you put them in pickle then afterwards; because of the loss of your Salt and Vinegre upon the Skin, which will become so hard, as scarcely to be eaten: But they are handsomer and whiter, being pared at that instant when you serve them to the Table, then such as you pare before they be pickled: so that you may do which of them you please.

The other small horned Cucumbers are to be pickled without paring, by reason of the delicateness of their skin.

Cathering You must gather very early in a fair morning, and let them lie all the rest of the day in the Sun to morti­fie them a little, that they may the better receive in the Salt.

Put the pared, the unpared, and the Ge [...]kins, each of them in well glazed earthen Pots apart (for those that are unglazed, crumble and [Page 285] moulder away, by reason of the Salt which does penetrate them, and so lose their Pickle) ranging them handsomly, and crowding them as neer as you can to one another, without bruising: then you shall strew a good quantity of Salt upon them, and the Vinegre afterwards, tilf the uppermost of all are well covered; otherwise there will breed a mouldinesse that will spoil all that remain bare. Thus set them up in a temperate place, and touch them not at least in six weeks, that they may be perfectly pickled. Your Store­house will be the most convenient place to keep them in.

[...]. Let the Purslain which you would pickle be of tha [...] which you have transplanted, that it may be the fair­er. The true season to gather it is, when it begins to flower, if you would have that which is tender: for if you omit it till it be out of flower, that you may save the Seed, [Page 286] (as it is commonly sold) it will be too hard to eat. Let it also be dried and mortified in the Sun, two or three dayes, and then range it in glazed Pots with Vinegre and Salt as you did the Cucumbers.

C [...]pers Broom-b [...]ds. Sampiere. Tarr [...]gon. Capers, Broom-buds, Sampier, Tar­ragon and the like, are to be pickled after the same manner as above.

Artichoks. Bottoms of Artichock [...] are to be pickled in Salt, but after another Method then the former; for they must first be above half-boyl'd, and when they are cold, and well drain'd of their water, which should like­wise be dried with a cloth to take out all their hu [...]idity, range them in Pots, and pour Brine upon them, as strong as it can possibly be made; which is done by putting into it so much Salt, as till it will no longer imbibe, & that the Salt precipitates to the bottom whole and without melt­ing. This we call Marinated water.

Upon this water (which will co­ver [Page 287] your Artichocks) you must pour Sweet Butter melted, to the eminence of two fingers, that you may there­by exclude the Air; then the Butter being cold, set up the Pot with your Cucumbers, or in some other tempe­rate place, covered and well secur'd from the Cats & the mice, which else will make bold to visit your B [...]tter.

But I presume that before you put the Artichoks in the Pot, you did prepare them as you would have done to serve them to the Table, that is, taken off all the leaves and the Chocke which is within.

Time. The true season for this is in Au­tumn, when (practising what I taught you before in the second Treatise in the Chapter of Arti­chokes) your Plants produce those which are young and tender, for they are these which you should take to pickle, before they come to open and flower, but yet not till their heads are well formed and hard.

[Page 288] When you would eat of them, you must extract their saltnesse by often shifting the water, and boyle them once again before you serve them to the Table.

Asparagus Peas. Champig­nons. Asparagus, Peas without Cods, Morilles, Champignons, or Mush­rums, are also to be pickled in salt, (having first parboyl'd them, & pre­pared every sort in its kind) af [...]r the same manner that you did Artichoks.

V [...]sit your pots. You shall monethly be sure to vi­site your Pots, that in case you per­ceive any of them Mouldy, or to have lost their pickle, you may ac­cording repayr it.

Corneli­ans. I have some years since invented the pickling of Cornelians, and have frequently made them passe for Olives of Veronna, with divers per­sons who have been deceived, their colour so resembling them, and their tast so little different. To effect this, I cause the fairest and biggest to be gathered when first then would [Page 289] begin to blush, & then letting them lye a while, I Pot or Barrel them up, filling them with brine, just as I do Artichocks, and to render them odo­riferous, adding a little branch of green Fenel, & a few Bay-leaves: then closing the vessel well, touch it not for a moneth after. If you finde them too salt, dilute & abate the pickle be­fore you serve them to the Table.


To preserve fruit with Wine in the Must, in Cider, or in Hony.

To Pre­serve fruit with Wine Cider. Hony. ALl sorts of Fruits which may be preserved in Sugar, may also be preserved in Must, in Cyder, or in Ho­ny. And there is no other dfficulty in making choyce of fruits to scald and preserve this way, then in choosing such as you would preserve in Sugar.

In Must. To describe in this place the prin­cipall rules which must of necessity be observed in preserving fruit in the Must or new Wine; You shall take▪ [Page 290] three pails full, three pots, or 3 parts of must, according to the quantity of fruit which you intend to preserve: set it in a Kettle or Skillet on the fire, but with care, that if your fire be of wood, the flame being too great do not burn some side of the vessell. Then let your must continue boyling till it be reduced to one third part, that it may be of fitting [...]onsistence to preserve your fruit in, sufficiently, & keep it from moulding & spoyling.

The fruits being pared or unpared, according to their natures or your curiosity, those which ought to be scalded being done, well drained, and dryed from their water, are to be put and preserved in this Must care­fully scummed, and made to [...]oyl till you perceive that the Syrupe is of a sufficient consistence, which you shall know by dropping some of it on a plate, if it appear in stiff Rubies & run not about, the plate a little inclining.

You cannot take your Must too new, & therefore, as soon as you per­ceive [Page 291] the grapes very ripe, tread them immediatly, and take of that must as much as will serve, white or re [...], ac­cording to the fruit you would pre­serve. Some fruits as the Quince, the Pear, & the Blew grape, &c. require Must of blew grapes, others of white, as Walnuts, the Muscat-grape & the like, whose candor and whitenesse you desire to preserve.

To heighten the tast of those fruits which you ought to preserve in red-Wine, put in a little Cinnamon and Cloves tyed up in a button of Lawn that they may not be dispersed a­mongst the preservs, lost or consum'd in the Syrupe, and to those which require white wine, a bunch of green Fenel bound up likewise in a cloath.

Ma [...]malad of Grapes or Raisins▪ Codiniack, or Marmalad of Grapes is made of the fairest, & ripest blew grapes, gathered in the afternoon at the heat of the day, to the end that their moysture may be intirely dryed up: Lay them in some lost of your house, where both the ay [...] & the Sun [Page 292] have free entercourse, spreading them upon Tables or Hurdles, that, for at the leas [...] a fortnight, they may there sweat & shrink: In case the weather prove cloudy, or that the season prove cold, you may set them in your O [...]en temperately warm, after which presse them wel with your hands, cleansing them from all their seeds and stalks, putting the husks and juice to boyl in the kettle, & diligently scumming and cleering it from the seeds: Reduce this liquor also to a third part, dimini­shing the fire, according as your con­ [...]ection thickens, and stirring it often about with your spatule or spoon to prevent its cleaving to the vessel, Gas [...]be an instru­ment made like an Oare. and that it may boyl equally. Being thus prepar'd, you shall percolat it through a Sieve or course cloath, bruising the husks with your wooden Ladle, the better to express out the substance, aud besides, you shall wring it forth, or squeez it in a press: when this is done, set it again on the fire, & boyl it once more keeping it continually [Page 293] stirring till you conceive it to be suf­fici [...]ntly boiled, then taking it off, pour it into Earthen-pans, to prevent its contracting any ill smack from the kettle, and being half cold, put it into Gally-pots, to keep.

Potting. You shall let your pots stand open five or six daies, and then cover them with paper so fitted as to lye upon the very preserve within the pot, and when visiting your pots, you finde that any of your paper is mouldy, take it away and apply another, this doe as long as you shall see cause, which will be untill such time as all the superfluous humidity be evaporated, for then the mouldinesse will vanish unlesse your confection was not suf­ficiently boyled, in which case it must be boyled again, and then you may cover them for altogether.

M [...]stard de Dijon. To make Mustard a la mode de Dijon, you shalf only take of this Codiniack and put to it store of Seneve or Mustard-seed well b [...]uised in a mor­tar with water, & finely searced, and [Page 294] when it is exquisitely mixed toge­ther, quench therein some live coles, to extract all the bitternesse from the se [...]d, then either barrel or pot it up, well closed, and reserved for use.

You may also preserve all sorts of fruit in Perry that has not been di­luted, reducing it in boyling also to a third part, as we shewed you in the Must. Lastly.

In Hony. To preserve in Hony, you shall take that which is most thick, hard and most resembling Sugar, boyling it in a preserving Pan, scumming it exactly, & stirring it about to prevent its burn­ing. You shall discover if it be e­nough boyled, by putting into it a Hen [...] egg, if it sink, it is not yet e­nough, if it float, it is of sufficient consistence to preserve your Fruits: You know that Hony is very subject to burn, & therefore finish this pre­paration upon a gentle fire, frequently stirring the bottom of your pan with the spatule to prevent this accident.


Table of the principal matters contain­ed in this Bo [...]k.

The First Treatise.

§ I. Of the Place, of the Earth, and mould of the Garden, together with the means to recover, and meliorate ill ground.
  • S [...]te Pag. 1
  • Soil. 2
  • Dressing. 3
  • Skreening. 8
§. II. Of Espaliers or wall-fruit, and of single Pole-hedges, and Shrubs.
  • PLanting. 12
  • Pole Hedges. 18
  • Shrubs. 19
§. III. Of Trees, and of the Choyce wh [...]ch ought to be made of them.
  • PEars. Apples. Peaches. Abri­cots. 2 [...] ▪ 24
  • Cherries. 25
  • Age. 26
  • Shape. Taking up. 27
  • [Page] Transporting. Transplanting. 28
  • Pruning. 29
  • Nailing. Spreading. Errour. 34
  • Dre [...]sing. 36
  • Old Trees. 37
§. IV. Of the Seminary and Nursery.
  • SEminary. 38
  • Seeds. Kernels. Stones. 39
  • Seed-plot. 40
  • Cut [...]ing. 41
  • Graffing. 42
  • Quince-stocks. Peaches. 44
  • Dressing. 45
  • Nursery. Plot. 46
  • Planting. 47
  • Trees. 48
  • Nipping. Pruning. 51
  • Distance. Forme. 52
§. V. Concerning Graffs, and the Best directions how to choose them.
  • GRaffing. 54
  • Inoculating. Season. 55
  • Choyce. 56
  • Time. Cleft. Choyce. 57
§. VI. The manner how to graff. p. 59
  • [Page]INoculating. 60
  • Season. 62
  • Cleft. 65
  • Crown. 70
  • Approach. 71
  • Cutting. Layers. 73
§. VII. Of Trees, and Shrubs in particular, how they are to be governed, and their Maladies cured.
  • TRees. 75
  • Pears. Graffing▪ 76
  • Apple-Trees. 79
  • Plum. 80
  • Abricots. Peaches. 81
  • Cherries. 80
  • Figs. 84
  • Mulberies. 86
  • Oranges. Limmons. 87
  • Shrubs. 89
  • Granads. 9 [...]
  • Jassemine. 91
  • Musk-Rose. Myrtles. Laurels. 92
  • Phylyrea. Alaternus. Althea frutex. Arbor Judae. Lilac. Diseases. 94
  • [Page] Mosse. 95
  • Jaundies. 97
  • Moles. 98
  • Mice. 100
  • Worms. 101
  • Pismires. 102
  • Snails. 103
  • Wood-lice. Earwigs. Caterpillars. 104
  • Composition to hood Graffs withall. 105
  • To make fruit knot. 106
  • A Catalogue of the names of Fruits known about Paris, and when they are in Season. 108

The Second Treatise.

§▪ I. Of Melons, C [...]cumbers, Gourds, and their kinds.
  • MElons. 135
  • Seeds. 136
  • Plot. 117
  • Figure. 138
  • Season. Beds. 139
  • Sowing. 140
  • Governing. 142
  • Season. Transplanting. 143
  • [Page] Stormes. [...]ells. Pruning. 145
  • Transplanting. 147
  • Season. Transplanting. 148
  • Watring. Gathering. 149
  • Visiting. Care. 151
  • Choice. Seeds. Cucumbers. 152
  • Pumpeons. Transplanting. Ga­thering. 154
  • Seed. 156
§ II. Of Artichocks, Chardons, and Asparagus.
  • ARtichocks. Planting. 157
  • Earthing. 159
  • Chard. 160
  • Slips. Gathering. 161
  • Spanish-Chardon. Asparagus. 162
  • Planting. 163
  • Dressing. 164
  • Cutting. 165
§. III. Of Cabbages, and Lettuce of all sorts.
  • CAbbage. 166
  • Seed. Cole-flowers. 167
  • Sowing. 168
  • Removing. 170
  • Transplanting. 171
  • Cabbage. Watring. Sowing. Birds. 172
  • [Page] Wormes. 173
  • Large sided Cabbage. 174
  • White Cabbage. 175
  • Red. Perfum'd. Cabbage. 176
  • Planting. 176
  • Seed. 178
  • Season of sowing. Insects. 180
  • Lettuce. Sowing. 182
  • Transplanting. 183
  • Roman Lettuce. Heading. 184
  • Blanching. Seed. 185
§ VI▪ Of Roots.
  • ROots. Parsneps. 186
  • Sowing. 188
  • Removing. Housing. 189
  • Seed. Carrots. 190
  • Season. Seed. 191
  • Salsifix. 192
  • Dressing. Season. 193
  • Seed. 194
  • Radishes. Horse-Radishes. Seed. 195
  • Small Radish. Sowing. 196
  • Seed. Turneps. 197
  • Season. Vermine. 198
  • Housing. Seed. Parsly. Season. 199
  • [Page] [...]re [...]ing. 200
  • Roots. Seed. Skirret. 201
  • Spending. Rampions. Jerusalem Artichocks. Seed. 202
  • Dangers. 203
§ V. Of all sorts of Pot-herbs.
  • BEet-Leeks. 203
  • Season. Transplanting. 204
  • Gathering. Sowing. Beets Red. Seed. 206
  • Orache. Succory. Season. 207
  • Blanching. 208
  • Housing. 210
  • Seed. 211
  • Endive. Blanching. Housing. Sor­rell. 212
  • Sowing. Transplanting. 214
  • Dressing. Seed. 215
  • Patience. Borrage. Sowing. 216
  • Seed. Buglosse. Chervill. 217
  • Seed. Sowing. 218
  • Seed. Allisaunders. Sceleri. Sow­ing. P [...]rslain. 219
  • Sowing. Transplanting. 220
  • Seed. Spinach. 221
  • Sowing. Season. Seed. 222
§ VI. Of Beans, Peas, and other Pulse.
  • [Page]BEans. 223
  • Sowing. Choyce. 224
  • Ground. 225
  • Houing. 226
  • Gathering. Seed. Hame. 227
  • Haricots. Sowing. 228
  • Painted Beanes. Soyl. Soweing. 229
  • White Streaked Beans. 230
  • Red Beans. Peas. 231
  • Sowing. Hot-Spurrs. Soil. 232
  • Soweing. Setting. 233
  • Great Peas. Bushing. 234
  • Mould. Distance. Beds. 235
  • Gray-Peas. Small-peas. Soweing. 236
  • Pigeons. Houing. 237
  • Monethly peas. Cutting. Watring. Lupines. 239
  • Slave-peas. Soweing. Lentils. Mould. 240
  • Thrashing. Housing. 24 [...]
§▪ VII. Of Onions, Garlicke, Chibols Leeks, Odirif [...]r [...]us Plants, and other conveniences of a Garden, not compre­hended in the precedent Chapters.
  • [Page]ONions. Sowing. 242
  • Seeding. Drying. Housing. Seed. 243
  • Chibols. Transplanting. 24 [...]
  • Garlick, Planting. Pulling. Hou­sing. Eschalots. 247
  • Planting. Leeks. Blanching. 248
  • Seeds Odoriferant. 249
  • Salad. Corne-Salad. Pimpinell. Cresse. 250
  • Licoris. Planting. 251
  • Time. Savory. Ma [...]joram. Sage. 252
  • Rosemary. Fenell. Strawberies. Plants. 25 [...]
  • Beds. Season. 254
  • Propping. Stringing. Removing. 255
  • Dressing. Soil. Strawberries in Autumn. Raspis. 256
  • Pruning. Goosberries. 257
  • Champignons. Choyce. 258
  • Mushrum-bed. Dressing. Produc [...]i­on. 259
  • Morills. Truffs. Conclusion. 260

AN APPENDIX To the Former Trea [...]ise.

[...] I. Of the Manner [...] to [...] Fruits in their Naturall.
  • COnserving fruit [...]. 263
  • Consevatory. Fabrick. Si­tuation. 265
  • [...]elving. 266
  • Season of gathering fruit. 267
  • Medl [...]rs. B [...]kets. Fallen fruit. 268
  • Nousing. [...]-Chrestien. 269
  • Cabinet. 270
  • Ripe-fruit. Gr [...]pe [...]. 271
  • Keeping. 272
  • Vermine. 273
  • Aspect. Rotten fruit▪ Mic [...]. Cat [...]. 274
§. II. Of Dryed Fruit [...]
  • DRied-fruit [...]. [...]. [...]75
  • Plums. 276
  • [...]. 277
  • [Page] Peaches. 278
  • Abric [...]t [...]. 279
  • Pear [...]. 280
  • Apples. Grapes. Bea [...]s. 281
  • Pea [...]. 282
  • Mushrums. 283
§ III. To pickle [...] with Salt and [...]i [...]egre.
  • PI [...]kle Cucumbers. [...]83
  • Gathering. [...]84
  • Purslain. 285
  • Capers. Broom-buds. Sampiere Tarragon. Artichocks. 286
  • Season. 287
  • Asparagus. Peas. Champigno [...]s. Pickle. C [...]rnelians. 288
§ III. To preserve fruit With wine in the Must, in Cider, or Hony.
  • IN Mu [...] [...]9
  • Marmalad of Grapes or [...]. 291
  • Potting. Must [...]rd of Dijon. 293
  • In Hony. 294

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