IRELANDS NATURALL HISTORY.

Being a true and ample Description of its Situation, Greatness, Shape, and Nature▪ Of its Hills, Woods, Heaths, Bogs; Of its Fruit­full Parts and profitable Grounds, with the severall ways of Manuring and Improving the same:

With its Heads or Promontories, Harbours, Roads and Bays; Of its Springs and Fountains, Brooks, Rivers, Loghs; Of its Metalls, Mineralls, Free­stone, Marble, Sea-coal, Turf, and other things that are taken out of the ground.

And lastly, of the Nature and temperature of its Air and Season, and what diseases it is free from, or subject unto. Conducing to the Advance­ment of Navigation, Husbandry, and other profitable Arts and Professions.

Written by Gerard Boate, late Doctor of Physick to the State in Ireland.

And now Published by SAMUELL HARTLIB, Esq For the Common Good of Ireland, and more especially, for the benefit of the Adventurers and Planters therein.

Imprinted at London for Iohn Wright at the Kings Head in the Old Baily, 1657.

To His Excellency OLIVER CROMWEL, Captain Generall of the Common-wealths Army in England, Scotland and Ireland, and Chan­cellor of the University of OXFORD. AND To the Right Honorable CHARLES FLEETWOOD, Commander in Chief (under the Lord Generall Cromwell) of all the Forces in IRELAND.

Right Honorable,

IT is a very great and signal Truth, that all the works of God are both wonderfull and precious, much sought out by all those that love him: and it is the guilt of the wicked, that as they regard not the Lord, so they consider not the Ope­ration of his hands; for the Lord hath re­vealed [Page] his Truth, even his Godhead and his Eternall Power by his Workes,Rom. 1.20 that such as respect him not, in the Creation of the World, and in the wayes of his Provi­dence, may be without excuse: Now it se [...]ms to mee, that the end for which God hath not left himself without a Testimony in Nature, is not onely, that we should in our spirit glorifie him as God and be thankfull, Act. 14.1 [...] but that also our Out­ward Man should bee made sensible of his goodness, and partake of that sup­ply of life, which by his appointment the Creature can yeeld unto us, if happi­ly wee may feel after him and find him therein. Act. 17.27 So that such as respect him not in his wayes of Nature, being careless to seek them out, do make themselves also incapable of the blessings of Nature through their ignorance and neglect of the good things which God hath provi­ded for them thereby: for all things are Ours, things present and things to come; and Godliness hath the promise of the life that now is aswell as of that which is to come: for as by the act of Faith we are made capable of the good things of the life to come, because by the truth of God, as it is the Object of our Faith, they have a spirituall being and Subsistence in us▪ [Page] so by the act of Reason rightly ordered we are made partakers of the benefit of this life, because by the effect of Gods Wisedom and Power in Nature, as they are the Objects of our Reasonable facul­tie, they have a bodily being and subsi­stence in us: and as the Wisdom of God doth many wayes manifest it self, not on­ly in Spirituall, but also in Outward and Bodily things, so there are many parts of Humane Learning▪ some wherof are sub­servient to the Private life of a single man, some to the comforts and Publick Use of a Societie, and amongst all these parts of Learning, which relate to a Soci­ety, I can conceive none more profitable in Nature, than that of Husbandry. For whether we reflect upon the first settle­ment of a Plantation, to prosper it, or up­on the wealth of a Natiō that is planted, to increase it, this is the Head spring of al the native Commerce & Trading which may bee set afoot therein by any way whatsoever. Now to advance Husbandry either in the production and perfectiō of earthly benefits, or in the management thereof by way of Trading, I know no­thing more usefull, than to have the knowledg of the Natural History of each Nation advanced & perfected: For as it is evi­dent, [Page] that except the benefits which God by Nature hath bestowed upon each Country bee known, there can be no Industrie used towards the improve­ment and Husbandry thereof; so except Husbandry be improved, the industrie of Trading, whereof a Nation is capa­ble, can neither be advanced or profita­bly upheld.

There is a twofold body, and a two­fold life in man, which God hath crea­ted, the one is Naturall, the other Spiri­tual, & the Apostle tells us,1 Cor. 15.46. that the Spiri­tuall is not first, but the Naturall, and after­ward that which is Spirituall; as the Bodies and lives of men are ordered by God, so we must conceive of the frames of their Societies, that the Naturall is before that which is Spirituall, & that in Gods aime it is a preparatory thereunto; although in the use which men make thereof, this aime is not obtained: for seeing in the wis­dom of God, the world by wisdome hath not known God; 1 Cor. 1. &c. therefore God is pleased by an­other way which to the World doth seem foo­lishness, to manifest his Power and his Wis­dome unto salvation, namely by the Preach­ing of the Gospel in the name of Iesus Christ, and him crucified; and although hitherto, since the death of Christ, the dispensati­on [Page] of wisdome hath not yet opened the conduit pipes of Natural Knowledge to cause the souls of men flow forth & par­take of the life of God therein, by reason of the prevalencie of Sensuall inclinati­ons, & of the want of due reflection up­on Christ, in whom alone the perfect use of Nature is brought home to the glory of the Father, by the Spirit, yet when the time of the Restauration of all things, shall come from the presence of him, who will come shortly and will not tarry, then the works of the Devill, whereby he hath brought us, & the whole Creation, under the bondage of Corruption, shall be destroied, & when the Nature & right use of the Creature by his meanes obscu­red, shall be revealed, then also the pro­perties and application of the Creature in the glorious liberty of the sonnes of God, shall be subjected unto Grace.

These great and mighty Changes, which God is making in the Earth, do tend to break the yokes of Vanity, and to weaken the Power, which hath wrea­thed the same upon the necks of the Nations, these Changes seem to me to presage the neer approaches of this Li­berty, and the advancement of the ways of Learning, whereby the Intellectuall [Page] Cabinets of Nature are opened, and the effects therof discovered, more fully to us, than to former Ages, seem in like manner to prepare a plainer Address unto the right use thereof for us than our fore­fathers have had: which will be effectuall to the manifestation of Gods Wisdome, Power, and Goodness, when the great promises shall be accomplished, that the Earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord, Isa. 11.9. He [...] 8.11. as the waters cover the sea, & that we shall be taught of God, from the least to the greatest: and although the Father hath reserved in his own hand the times and sea­sons, wherin these promises are to be ful­filled, yet as by the dawning of the day we can know that the Sun is neer ri­sing, so by the breaking of yoakes & the breaking forth of the meanes of more perfect knowledge, both in Natural and Spiritual things, wee may see the draw­ing neer of the promises, which will in their own times Constitute the day of Salvation unto all the Earth, wherein all flesh shall see the glory of the Lord together. Isa. 40 5.

The expectation of this day is the hope of Israel; and those that wait for the Lord, and his appearance therein, shall find a plentious redemption; namely such as having this hope purifie them­selves [Page] that they may be found in peace at his appearing, and such as being solici­tous to bestow their Talents in their way and generation, to the advance­ment of his approaching Kingdom, shall approve themselves as faithfull servants to him in that day. Of this Number I am perswaded your Honours are in these Nations as Leading Men; there­fore I have made bold thus to address my self unto you, and to inscribe this Work unto your Names, that it may see the light under your joint patro­nage. God hath made You very eminent Instruments to set forward one part of the preparatives of his great Work, the Breaking of our yokes, the other part, which is the Advancement of Spirituall and Natural sanctified Knowledge, your Zeal, I am sure will carry you to coun­tenance by the wayes which Providence shall open unto You. Therefore I hope it wil not be without acceptance, what in this kind (though but a mean begin­ning) I have here offered. Your influence upon it, to set forward Learned Endea­vours of this Nature for a Publick Good may be a blessing unto Posteritie, and your Relations of Eminent note, unto Ireland, to watch for the good therof, [Page] and to the Universities of Oxford and Dublin, to countenance all the Meanes of profitable Learning, have encouraged me to make this Dedication; besides the expressions of your Honours wil­lingness, to favour me in my underta­kings, which I knew no way so well to resent, as by offering to your Generous Inclinations, the Objects, which are worthy of being considered and set for­ward in order to a common good. I lookt also somewhat upon the hopefull ap­pearance of Replanting Ireland shortly, not only by the Adventurers, but hap­pily by the calling in of exiled Bohemians and other Protestants also, and happi­ly by the invitation of some well affe­cted out of the Low Countries, which to advance are thoughts suitable to your noble genius, and to further the setle­ment thereof, the Naturall History of that Countrie will not bee unfit, but ve­ry subservient. Thus beseeching the Lord to prosper all your undertakings to the glory of the Kingdom of Christ, I take my leave, and rest unfeignedly

Your Honours most humble servant SAMUEL HARTLIB.

To the Reader.

Gentle Reader,

SOme particulars there are con­cerning this following Work, of which I think it sit you should be advertised: and for as much as I can tell you no more of them than what was written to me by the Authors most Loving and Learned Brother, give me leave in stead of mine own Words to present you with his said Letter on that sub­ject, being such as doth follow.

Sir,

I Am very glad to understand by you, that my Brothers work of the Naturall History of Ire­land, is not only not lost, as I greatly feared i [...] was, and that you have found it in perusing those books and papers of his, which he had left behind him at London; but that you are a going to print it, and have already contracted about it: by the doing whereof I am fully perswaded, that [Page] you will gain both credit and contentment, and that those shall no wayes be losers, who will bee at the charges of doing the same. For though I say it, the work is excellent in it's kind, as not only full of truth and certainty, but written with much judg­ment, order, & exactness; so as it is to be preferred before most Naturall Histories of particular Countries, and may well be equalled to the very best, for as much as there is done of it. For to make it a compleat Naturall History, there should be joyned to that which my Brother hath gone through, two Books more, the one of all kind of Plants, and the other of all sorts of living Crea­tures; which also might have been expected of him if God had given him longer life. For he intended, as­soon as he had published this part, to have fallen also to the rest, if he had found that he had not lost his labour on what was done already, & that it had met with a gratefull acceptance abroad, such as might have incouraged him to take further paines [...] ­bout the perfecting of it: in which case he was resolved to have also joined a Fourth book to those other Three, concerning the Natives of Ireland, and their old Fashions, Lawes, and Customes; as likewise the great paines taken by the English, ever since the Conquest, for to civilize them, and to improve the Countrie. You say you wonder, & others may justly concurre with you in that your wonder­ment, how a Countrie could bee so accurately described by one, who never was in it. For al­though my Brother hath been in Ireland, and that he hath ended his dayes there, yet he had both begun and finished this First Book of his Natu­rall History of Ireland, some yeares before he went [Page] thither, or had any thoughts of doing so: seeing that he begun to write that work in the beginning of the year of our Lord 1645. and made an end of it long before the end of the same year! wheras he went not to Ireland untill the latter end of the year 1649. & dyed at Dublin within a very short while after he was arrived there, viz. on the 9/19th of Ianuary 16 [...]0/49. Now to answer that difficulty moved by you, be pleased to know, that I being come from Dublin to London in the beginning of May 1644. and having stayed there untill the latter end of Octo­ber, great part of that conversation, which he and I had together during those six months, was spent in reasoning about Ireland, and about all manner of particulars concerning the Morall and Civill, but chiesly the Naturall History of the same: my Brother beeing very carefull to inform himself of me, about all things appertaining thereunto. For besides that his curiositie, which was very great for to enrich his mind with all manner of laudable knowledge, was of it self alone capable enough for to make him inquisitive in that kind; he was there-besides led thereto by his own interest, having ventured great part of his estate upon the eschea­ted lands there, according to the severall Acts made by the King and Parliament in that behalf. And having set down in writing what he had so heard of me, he conferred afterwards about the same with severall of those Gentlemen, whom the bloody combustions of Ireland had driven away thence, and made to resort to London; he beeing very well acquainted with them, especially with Sir William Parsons, and Sir Richard Parsons, which two having above all others a very perfect [Page] insight into that land, & into all matters' belonging to the same, were wonderfull well able to satisfie any of those Questions, which from time to time he propounded unto them, either about those things that he had already learned of me, or about such o­thers, of which hee had forgot to speak to me, or on which I had not been able fully to inform him. In this maner he brought that Work together, the which to accomplish yet further, he sent to me still as much as he had finished, desiring me to review it diligently, and to adde, put out, or alter, what I should see cause: wherein also, as in the first infor­mations, I was not wanting to contribute what e­ver was necessary, as far forth as my knowledge did reach unto, and according to those Observati­ons, unto which I had very studiously and with sin­gular delight applied my self during those eight yeares that I lived in that Iland: whereunto I had so much the more opportunity, because that as my constant abode was in Dublin, so I made very many journeys into the Countrie, & by meanes ther­of saw great part of it, especially of the Provinces of Leinster and Ulster, and by reason thereof also it would be an easie matter for me, to make-up those parts of this work, which are still wanting. Thus I beleeve to have fully taken away the forementioned Objection, and to have given you as perfect an ac­count about the grounds & the manner of the wri­ting of this Naturall History, as was expected by you. And having nothing else to trouble you with all at the present, I shall end these with my most hearty wishes, that notwithstanding any discouragements, or any want of incouragement, you would still goe [Page] on in that most commendable purpose, of furthe­ring as much as in you lieth all manner of reall and profitable knowledge: the which indeed hither­to you have done so largely on very many occasions, as must needs greatly redound to the generall good of Mankind, and make your memory precious to them in all future ages.

Your most affectionate and humble servant ARNOLD BOATE.

IRELANDS NATVRALL HISTORY.

CHAP. I. Of the situation, shape, and greatness of Ireland: it's division into Provinces and Counties: of the English Pale: the prin­cipall towns of that Nation.

Sect. 1. Situation of Ireland.

IReland, by the Irish them­selves called Erin, and by their neighbours the Welsh Yver­don, lyeth in the North-west Ocean, having on the West­side no land nearer than Ame­rica, or the West-Indi [...]s, and thereof that part, which above Nova francia and Canada running North-ward, hath of the English received the name of New-Britain, but of other Nations before of Terra Laboratoris. The next land over against it on the South is Galicia, one of the Kingdomes of Spain, from which it ly­eth [Page 2] divided some dayes sayling. Northwards it hath the Scotish Ilands, by the Geographers called Hebrides or Hebudes; the principall of which are Eust, Lewis, Skye, Ila, & Mula. On the East-side is Great-Brittain, and all the three parts of it, to wit part of Scotland, the whole West coast of England, and all Wales.

Sect. 2. Distance betwixt Ireland and severall places upon the coast of Great-Britain.

The Sea, which parteth Ireland from Great-Britain, being of a very unequall breadth, is more narrow in the North-end, less in the South-end, but broad in the midst, as farre as it washeth the the English coast, being the full length of the two Counties of Cumberland and Lancashire, oppo­site against which are situated in Ireland the Counties of Down, Lowth, and Dublin. The Sea which is inclosed betwixt these Counties, & com­priseth in its middle the Ile of Man, is wel neer of an equall and uniform breadth every where, not beeing in any place much broader or much nar­rower, than it is betwixt the havens of Dublin & Leverpoole, the distance betwixt which two is reckoned by the English Pilots to be of fortie leagues, or sixscore English miles. But Wales in two or three places commeth a great deal nee­rer to Ireland, and in some as neer again. For Holy-head, being the most Westerly corner of the Northerliest part of Wales, called Anglesey, lyeth just half way between Dublin & Lerpoole or Chester, being twenty Leagues, or three score miles, from Dublin, and ten or twelve houres sayl with a reasonable good wind; which di­stance is no greater, than what the eye may very [Page 3] very well reach: for a man whose sight is but of an ordinary goodness, may at any time in clea [...] weather with ease discern the high and moun­tainous coast of Wales from the top of the Dub­lin mountaines. And about the same distance, as is betwixt Dublin and Holy-head, is also betwixt St. Davis-head, a Promontory of Pembrookshire (which shire is situated in the most South-west part of Wales) and the Irish Promontory in the County of Wexford, which the Natives call Can­carne, and the English Sea-men Tuskard-point. Also the Promontory of Carnarvan in Wales, called Brachipult-point, and lying betwixt Ho­ly-head and St. Davis, is well neer at the same distance from the next Irish shore, as either of those other Welsh Promontories. But between Brachipult-point and Saint Davis-head the Sea doth much inlarge it self (although nothing so much as betwixt Ireland and England) ma­king a great inlet on the coast of Wales, the which here retireth it self a great way back­wards: whereas to the contrary the Irish shore, which lyeth opposite to it, extendeth it self in an equall manner without any great Bayes or inlets.

As for the North part, where Ireland & Scotland are neighbours, there this Sea groweth very nar­row; insomuch as Galloway, a County in that part of Scotland, is distant with its most wester­lie shoare from the Ardes (a little country and demy-island so named in the most Northerlie part of the County of Down in Ireland) not a­bove five Leagues; which space the open boats, wherein they ordinarily here doe pass from the one kingdome into the other, use to sail in three [Page 4] or four houres time: and Cantire, another Foreland on the West shore of Scotland, more to the North than Galloway, is neerer yet unto Ireland: so that in these two places the one Na­tion may perfectly bee seen and discerned out of the other at all times, whensoever it is no very dark gloomie weather.

Sect. 3. Shape and bigness of Ireland.

The shape of this Iland is long-waies square, but not fully: for to say nothing of severall cor­ners and Forelands, which run out a great way into the Sea, nor of divers great Bayes and Inlets, which the sea maketh here and there, in the three other parts of this Iland; the fourth part, called Munster, doth greatly alter that figure; for in lieu of stretching it self fi [...]st from the North to the South, & then from the South to the West, it run­neth altogether sloping from the North-east to the South-west; and there besides it stretcheth it self much further into the Sea with its Western shores, than any other part of Ireland on the same West-side.

As for the bigness thereof, questionless it is to be reckoned among the chief Ilands of the whole World; and of Europe the principalest of all, except only Great-Britain, the which is more than twice as big: for being as long again, as it is broad, it is at the narrowest (which is just in the middle, where Dublin is situated) no less than an hundred miles broad; seeing that Atlone, which lyeth just half way betwixt the two Seas, is fifty miles distant from Dublin; and in Vlster, where Ireland is at its broadest, it is in most pla­ces ten, or twelve, and in some twenty miles [Page 5] broader. In the length, if from the middle of the Northern coast one doe go directly Southward, one shall find it to be about two hundred miles. But if you shape your course more to the East, the length will be found less by some miles, because the cost of Munster runneth so sloping, as we have said before: and to the contrary, if one measure the length of Ireland more to the West, it will be found to bee a great deal more than two hun­dred miles. And if the measure were taken not through the inland-parts, as now we have framed it, but all along the sea-shore, the length would amount to a great deal more than what now we have declared (as well on the East as on the West side) in regard of the inequality of the coast, and of the great Bayes and Fore-lands, which make it in most places very much run out to the seaward, or into the landward: for which same reason the circuit of the whole Iland, taken alongst the shoare, is by far greater, than otherwise the pro­portion of its length and breadth would seem to require. The Miles here mentioned must bee understood not of the cōmon English ones, three wherof make one League, or Holland mile▪ but of the Irish, the which are about one fifth part big­ger, so as five Irish miles doe amount to about six English.

Sect. 4. Division of Ireland into Provinces and Counties.

This Iland is divided into four principall parts, called Provinces, viz. Vlster, Leinster, Connaught, and Munster: of which the first and the last extend themselves from the one sea to the other, Vlster in the North, and Munster in the [Page 6] South. Leinster & Connaught, lying betwixt those two forenamed Provinces, have the sea only on one side, Connaught on the West, and Leinster on the East. To these four most Writers and Records add a fifth, called Meath; but that is re­ally a part of Leinster, and ordinarily now is held to be such.

Each of these Provinces is again divided into divers Counties. Vlster hath eleven, whereof six on the sea-side, viz. Fermanagh, Doneghall alias Tirconnel, Colraine, Antrim, Down, Lowth; and five within the land, viz. Cavan, Monaghan, Armahg, Nether-Tirone, & Upper-Tirone. Lein­ster comprehendeth likewise eleven Counties, Dublin, Wickloe, and Wexford on the sea-side, East-Meath, and Catherlogh or Carlo within the land, but with a little nook reaching unto the sea; West-Meath, Kildare, Kilkenny, Kings-county, Queenes-county, and Longford altoge­ther within the land. Munster is divided into six Counties, two within the Land, viz. Tipperary and Limmerick; and the other four, Waterford, Cork, Desmond, and Kerry, situated on the sea-side, but stretching themselves a great way into the land. In Connaught there be six Counties, viz. Clare alias Tomond, Galloway, Majo, and Sleigo, situated on the Sea, and Roscomen, and Letcim within the land

Sect. 5. Of the English Pale.

There is yet another division of Ireland, whereby the whole land is divided into two parts, The English Pale, and the Land of the meer Irish. The English Pale comprehendeth onlie four Counties, one whereof is in Vlster, viz. [Page 7] Louth, and the other three in Leinster, to wit Meath, Dublin, and Kildare: the originall of which division is this. The English at the first conquest, under the reign of Henry the second, having within a litle time conquered great part of Ireland, did afterwards, in the space of not very many yeares, make themselves masters of almost all the rest, having expelled the natives (called the Wild Irish, because that in all manner of wildness they may bee compared with the most barbarous nations of the earth) into the de­sart woods and mountains. But afterwards be­ing falln at ods among themselves, and making severall great warres the one upon the other, the Irish thereby got the opportunitie to recover now this, and then that part of the land; whereby, and through the degenerating of a great many from time to time, who joining themselves with the Irish, took upon them their wild fashions and their language, the English in length of time came to bee so much weakened, that at last no­thing remained to them of the whole King­dome, worth the speaking of, but the great Ci­ties, and the forenamed four Counties; to whom the name of Pale was given, because that the authority and government of the Kings of England, and the English Colonies or Plan­tations, which before had been spread over the whole Land, now were reduced to so small a compass, and as it were impaled within the same. And although since the beginning of this present age, and since King Iames his comming to the Crown of England, the whole Iland was reduced under the obedience and government of the Eng­lish Lawes, and replenished with English and [Page 8] Scotch Colonies; nevertheless the name of Eng­lish Pale, which in the old signification was now out of season, remained in use, and is so still, even since this last bloody rebellion, wherein the inhabitants of almost all the Pale, although all of them of English descent, have conspired with the Native Irish, for to shake off the Government of the Crown of England, and utterly to ex­tinguish the Reformed Religion, with all the professors thereof, and quite to root them out of Ireland.

Sect. 6. Cities and chief Townes of Ireland.

This Iland hath in it severall Cities, among which Dublin is the principall, beeing the chief City of the whole Commonwealth, the Residence of the Governour, the Counsell of State, all the Great Officers, the Exchequer, Iudges, and Courts of Iustice; beeing also adorned with an Vniver­sitie, the onely in all Ireland. It is situated in the Province of Leinster, about the middle of the length of Ireland (as already hath been mentio­ned) not far from the Sea, an Inlet whereof ma­keth a harbour for this City; which harbour, al­though none of the best of Ireland, (whereof in the next chapter but one shall bee spoken more at large) is neverthelesse frequented with more ships, and hath greater importation of all things, than any other Haven in the Kingdome; by reason that all sorts of commodities are much more readily & in greater plenty vented here than any where else, what in the City it selfe, beeing great and populous, what into the country, for in the time of peace almost all Leinster and and Vlster were wont to furnish themselves from [Page 9] Dublin of all kinds of provisions and necessaries, such as were brought in out of forrein Coun­tries.

Next to Dublin is Galloway, the head-citie of the Province of Connaught, to bee reckoned, as well for bigness and faireness, as for riches; for the streets are wide, and handsomely ordered, the houses for the most part built of free stone; and the inhabitants much addicted to trafick, doe greatly trade into other countries, especially into Spain, from whence they used to fetch great store of wines and other wa [...]es every year.

In the third place commeth Waterford, situa­ted in the province of Munster; and in the fourth Limmerick, the head-city of the said Province, both towns of trafick, situated on goodly havens, and of reasonable bigness and handsomness.

Cork, in the Province of Munster, and Lon­don-derrie, in the Province of Vlster, are less than any of the formentioned, but otherwise handsome places, well built, & very fitly situated for trafick and navigation, as standing upon ve­ry good Havens.

As for the rest of the Townes, Drogheda, Kil­kenny, and Bandonbridge are passable and wor­thy of some regard both for bigness and hand­someness: But Colrain, Knockfergus, Belfast, Dundalk, Wexford, Youghall, and Kinsale are of small moment, the best of all these being hard­ly comparable to any of those fair Market-townes, which are to be found in almost all parts of England. And as for Cassel, Rosse, Lismore, Clonmell, and Kilmallock in Munster; Sleigo and Atlone in Connaught; Molingar, Trimme, [Page 10] Kels, Navan, Aboy, Nace, Carlo, Arklo, and Wicklo in Leinster; Carlingford, Ardee, and Down in Vlster, all of them walled Townes, they are scarce worth the mentioning, because there are few Market Townes in England, even of the meanest, which are not as good or better, than the best of them all. We could give a more perfect relation of this particular: but because this serveth little to our purpose, and properly doth not concern the Naturall History, wee have thought it best to touch it but briefly.

CHAP. II. Of the principall Havens of Ireland.

Sect. 1. Waterford Haven.

THe Havens of Ireland are so many in number, and for the most part so fair and large, that in this particular hardly any land in the whole World may be compared with this, as will easily appear by the particular rehearsall thereof, which we are now to make, first of the best and chiefest in this Chapter, and of the others in the next. We shall begin with Waterford Haven, the which being situated on the confines of Leinster and Munster, runneth some seven or eight miles into the land, not winding or crooked, nor with any great nookes or inlets, but almost in a straight line, (extending in it self North and North by West) and in most parts of an equall breadth, all the way deep and clear, having no roks or sands, but onely two or three little ones, which lying not across nor in the midst, but by the sides, [Page 11] may be shunned very easily. Without the Har­bour it is eleven and twelve fathoms deep, in the mouth seven and more, inwards six fathoms. Within the Easterly corner is a good road, in four or five fathoms; and on the other or Westerly side, five or six miles from the mouth, is another good road, very commodious as well for them who goe forth, as those that will sail upward to Waterford. Upon the East-side, about halfe-way the length, lyeth a very strong Castle called Duncannon, which so commandeth this Harbour, as no ships can go up or down a­gainst the will of those in the Fort, without run­ning extreme hazard.

This Haven in the end divideth it self into two armes, both a great deal inferiour to the princi­pall harbour in breath and depth, but yet such as are capable of ships of a good big port, especially the left, which runneth Westward to the City of Waterford, whereof this whole Haven beareth the Name, being situated some four or five miles from that division, and a little below the place where the river Shure falleth into this Harbour. The right arm being the mouth of the river Bar­row, and extending it self straight along, goeth up to Ross, (a Town in former times famous for trade) the which is much about the same di­stance from this division, as the division is from the mouth of the Harbour.

Sect. 2. Carlingford Haven.

On the whole coast of Leinster there is not one fair large Harbour, so as the next good Haven from Waterford Northwards is that of Carling­ford; which two Harbours, in sayling straight [Page 12] along the coast, are above an hundred mils distant.

This Haven is some three or four miles long, and nigh of the same breath, being every where very deep, so as the biggest ships may come there to an anchor; and so environed with high land and mountaines on all sides, that the ships doe lie defended off all winds; so that this would bee one of the best havens of the world, if it were not for the difficultie and the danger of the entrance, the mouth being full of rocks, both blind ones and others, betwixt which the passages are very narrow: whereby it commeth that this Harbour is very little frequented by any great ships, the rather because there is no trafick at all, nor any good Town seated on this Haven. For the Town of Carlingford, whose name it beareth, is a very poor place, hardly worth the speaking of. A­bout eight miles from the mouth of the Harbour is the Nurie, a fine little Town, untill in this late bloody rebellion it was for the greatest part de­stroyed by the Irish: by which Town passeth a little river, called the Nurie-water, which dis­charging it self into the Harbour some four or five miles below the Nurie, is not portable but of very little barkes and boats, and that onely when the Tide is in.

Sect. 3. Strangford-haven, and that of Knockfergus.

About thirtie miles Northwards from Car­lingford-haven is the Haven of Strang-ford, the which in its entrance is almost as much encum­bred with rocks of both kinds, as that of Car­lingford. It is some five or six miles long, and beareth North-westward, being the mouth of [Page 13] a great Lough, called Loch Cone; the which be­ing but two or three miles broad in the most places, but some fifteen or sixteen long, doth ebb & flow untill the utmost ends of it: so that there goeth a very strong tide in this Harbour, which makes the same the unsafer, especially in great stormes and high winds, for which there is no great defence here. On this Haven, and on the neighbouring Lough, there lyeth never a good Town, Strangford beeing more inconsiderable yet than Carlingford.

The next great Harbour upon this coast, and about twenty miles more to the North, is that of Knocfergus, being a great wide Bay, the which in its mouth, betwixt the Southern & the Nor­thern point, is no less than ten or twelve miles broad, growing narrower by degrees, the farther it goeth into the land, the which it doth for the space of fifteen miles, as far as to the Town of Bel­fast, where a little river called Lagon (not port­able but of small boates) falleth into this Har­bour. In this Bay is a reasonable good Road before the Town of Knockfergus (seated about nine miles within the land,) where it is good an­choring in three fathoms, and three and a halfe. On the North side of the Bay, somewhat neer the Sea, under a Castle called Mouse-hill, is a sand-bay, where it is good anchoring for all sorts of ships, aswell great as small ones, for the North and North-west winds: but bad riding for the South-west.

Sect. 4. Sheeps haven, Lough Suillie, and Lough foile.

The three fore-mentioned Havens of Car­lingford, Strangford, Knockfergus, are all in the Province of Vlster, on the East-side thereof. The said Province hath also three good Havens on its Northern coast, not very far distant the one from the other, viz. Sheep haven, Lough Suillie, and Lough foile. Every one of these is a Lough (which the very name of the second and third sufficient­ly testifieth) opening it self into the sea: of the which Sheeps haven and Lough Suillie al­though they bee fair large Harbours, as well as Lough foile, and that Ships may ride there de­fended off all winds, Lough Suillie beeing also of sufficient bigness to contain a thousand great vessels, yet are they very litle frequented, because there is not any trade nor trafick, nor any good town placed upon or neer them.

Lough foile is of a great bignes, at least twelve miles long, and in most places five or six miles broad, beeing almost every where of an equall breadth, except at the two ends, where it grow­eth narrow, beeing of an Ovall figure. For at the mouth, betwixt Magilions point and Greencastle, it is hardly a mile and a half broad: and at the other end it is much narrower yet, running from thence with a long arm some miles into the countrie, beeing liker to a broad River, than to a Lough. Vpon this Arm, three or four miles from the great Lough, is the town of London-derrie, in a place where that Arm turneth and windeth it self in that manner, as it environeth the town on three sides. It is nothing big, consisting only of two long streets, the which cut one nother [Page 15] cross-wayes in the midst; but it is very handsome, the streets beeing broad and well paved, the hou­ses some stories high, & built for the most of free­stone, with a handsome Church, Market place, and Key: and is inclosed with a thick and very strong stone wall, being one of the principall for­tresses of Ireland. It is but few yeares old, having been built up from the ground by a company of London Adventurers under the reign of King Iames. Before the mouth of this Lough lyeth a great sand, called the Touns (upon which it bur­neth greatly, when the wind bloweth from the sea) but so as a fair broad and deep channell re­maineth betwixt the said Sand and the West-side of the land, where there is at all times fourteen and fifteen fathoms of water, as in the mouth it self some eight or ten. Entring into the Lough, there are very great Sands on the left hand, from the one end to the other, which are some miles broad from off the land; and of the right hand are some little sands or shelves here, lying close to the land. Betwixt these runneth a broad channell in most parts three and four fathoms deep: and in that Arm, whereon London-derry standeth, it is deeper yet, in some places no less than ten or twelve, and before the Town four and five fathoms: so as this is one of the best and most commodious harbours of all the Land.

Sect. 5. Kilbeg and Dungall Haven.

The Country of Tirconnell, the which ta­keth up the whole West-side of the Province of Ulster, runneth a great way into the Sea with its Southern part, on the South side of which Foreland there are two very Fair Havens, the one [Page 16] not far from the other, viz. Kilbeg and Dun­gall-haven. Kilbeg is a fair round Bay, where the greatest ships that goe upon the seas, may at all times with their full lading enter and come to an anchor; being distant about twelve miles from Cape de Tellin, the outmost or most We­stern point of that forenamed Foreland of Tir­connell. The entrance is very narrow, so as un­to them who are comming to it, there seemeth to be no opening there, untill they are very neer, but it is very clean, as well in the mouth, as in the Bay it self, and nothing that can hurt the ships either comming in or going forth, beeing entred, one may anchor where one will, in five, six, seven, eight fathomes, or more.

Three or four miles to the South from Kilbeg is a Cape, called St. Iohns point, and six or seaven miles Eastward from the said Cape is Dungal-ha­ven, wide and deep enough, but in the entrance greatly incumbred with shelves, sands, & rocks, so as great care & circumspection is requisit, to en­ter or goe forth safely. These two Havens have their names of villages seated on them, which are very small and no wayes considerable.

Sect. 6. Broad-haven, Akill-haven, and Galloway-haven.

The Province of Connaught, extending her self betwixt Vlster and Munster, taketh up the greatest part of the westside of Ireland, it hath also some good Ports, as namely Broad-haven: an other to the North of Akill head; and a third, si­tuated between the main, and the North and East side of Akill Iland, in which one may ride in seven and eight fathomes, and be defended off [Page 17] all winds; although it be rather a Sound, than an inclosed Harbour: for the ships which are come into it, need not to goe forth the same way a­gain, but sailing on betwixt the Main and the Iland, may at the South end of the Ile come again to the open sea. These Havens are nothing fa­mous, beeing very seldome resorted unto by any great ships, except such as by tempests and foul weather, or some other accident, are necessitated to shelter themselves in the same.

But the famousest Port of this Province is that of Galloway, beeing a very great Bay, some miles broad, and many more long, having in the mouth three Iland [...], (named the Iles of Aran) the which lye North and South by the side one of the other, there remaining three chanels for to come out of the sea into this Bay. One chanel runneth be­twixt the Land and the Northern Iland, called therefore North-sound: the second between the the same Northern Iland and the middlemost; which channel, beeing the most usuall of the three, is commonly stiled St Gregories sound: and the third between the Southernmost Iland and the main, named South sound: the channel betwixt the Southern and the middlemost Iland not beeing passable by reason of the sands and shelves, wherefore the name of False-sound hath been given to it.

The whole North-side of this Bay is very foul with sands and rocks, so as one may not approach the shoar in a great way: at the end of which sand, and in the innermost part of the Bay, lyeth a litle Iland, called in English Mutton-Iland, and by the Irish Enis Kerrigh, which hath the same signifi­cation; at the East side whereof one may anchor [Page 18] in five or six fathomes of water; but from thence Northwards untill the citty of Galloway, which is the space of two or three miles, none but litle vessels and barks can goe, the Citie standing not on the Bay itself, but on a broad water like a river, the which not farre above Galloway comming out of a great Lake, called Lough Corbes, dis­chargeth it self into the Bay a litle above Mutton Ile.

Sect. 7. The Havens of Limmerick, Smerwick, Din­gle-bay, Ventrie, and Dingle-Icoush.

The next great Haven on the West side of Ire­land, to the South of Galloway, is that of Lim­merick, which Haven divideth the Province of Connaught from Munster, beeing of a huge length, no less than fifty miles: for so far it is from the mouth of the haven untill the Cit­ty of Limmerick, to whose walls great vessels may goe up, without meeting with any thing els in all that way, save a many little Iles, but not any f [...]ul places, Rocks, or Sands. This Harbour is nothing els but a great Lough (halfe way its length growing somewhat narrow, but imme­diatly enlarging it self again into a great breadth) whereinto the River Shanon, (upon whose bank Limmerick is situated) dischargeth it self a litle way below the said City; although the English and the Irish both call it the Shanon all the way untill the Sea, as it were not a Lough into which the River falleth, but the River it self thus enlarged.

Comming out of this Harbour, the Land on the left hand shooteth a huge way Westwards into the Sea, on the side of which Fore-land, ten o [...] [Page 19] twelve miles at this side of the uttermost point (betwixt which and the Iles of Blaskes passeth the Sound of the same name) is the Haven of Smerwick, not very great, deep, but clean, and well inclosed.

At the other side of this Fore-land, and to the North-east from the Blaskes, is a fair and very large Bay called Dingle-bay, the which goeth very many miles into the land, having in it divers good Havens, one whereof, called Ventry, is four or five miles from the Sound of Blaskes East­wards; and three or four miles further is Dingle-Icoush, before the mouth of which Harbour, and at the West-side of it, lyeth a rock, called the Crow, round about the which one may sail without danger, it being alwayes above water, but at spring tides, at which time the Sea doth overflow it.

Sect. 8. Maire, Bantrie, and Beer-haven.

Against the South-east corner of Dingle-bay lyeth a great Iland, called Valentia, betwixt which and the Main is a very fair and safe Road. And a litle way beyond that Iland goeth in ano­ther huge Bay, called Maire, which shooteth into the Land a great deal further than Dingle-bay: and somewhat further is a third Bay, called Ban­trie, which equalleth Maire both in breadth and length; in both which, as well as in Dingle-bay, there be severall good Harbours and Roads.

Maire hath in the mouth some fifty or five-and-forty fathomes of water; entring in fur­ther, there be six and twenty, twenty, and eigh­teen; afterwards you come to ten, and to six, and in the innermost parts to three and two fa­thomes; beeing throughout very clean, and free [Page 20] from all kind of Rocks and Sands, except in ve­ry few places.

As you enter into Bantrie, side-ward upon the left hand lyeth a reasonable big Ile, called the Iland of Beer-haven, betwixt which and the Main there goeth in a fair Sound, being a great musket shot broad; the which in its whole length, from where it beginneth untill the place where it endeth at the further part of the Iland, being the space of some miles, se [...]veth for a very good and safe port, wherefore also it beareth the name of a Hav [...]n, being called Beer-haven. A good way within the mouth [...]ly some Rocks in the midst of the chanel, the which at high water are overflown, & you may sail of either side of them: & at the other side of this Sound, where the same commeth out into the Bantrie, there ly two great Rocks just in the mouth, betwixt which the ships may pass, as also betwixt the same and the land of either side. All the rest of this Harbour or Sound is every where very clean and clear, and very good anchor-ground, ten, twelve, and thirteen fathoms deep.

Sect. 9. Whiddie-haven and Langerf.

In the innermost of the Bantrie lyeth an Iland about three miles long, called Whiddie, betwixt which and the Main is a very fair wide Bay, (being the uttermost end of the great Bay Ban­trie) where you may every where come to an anchor in three, four, five, or six fathomes, in as much or as litle water as you will, according as you have a mind to ride neer the shore or further from it, being every where clean ground. Ships may enter into this Bay or Sound in two severall places, at both ends of the Iland. But the entrance [Page 21] at the South-end is very dangerous, because that there betwixt the Iland Whiddie and the Main land it is in most places foul and Rockie: But in the other entrance, at the Northern end of the Iland, is both room and depth enough, it being much broader than that at the South-end, and eight and nine fathomes deep; and there is nothing that can doe hurt, except only a row of Rocks a litle musket shot from the shoar, the which being covered at high water, doe not begin to appear but at half [...]bb.

Right against this Iland, at the other side of Bantrie, is a Haven called Langerf, in which is every where good anchoring and good ground; only at the one side, on the right hand close to the mouth, ly some foul grounds, the which fall dry at the ebb of a springtide.

From Beerhaven to the Northern corner of the Iland Whiddie the Bantrie tendeth East-North-East and North-East, eighteen or twenty miles in length. Over against Beerhaven, in the midst of the fair water, it is deep forty, six and thirty, and thirty fathoms; beyond the Iland fif­teen and sixteen; but further in, approaching the Ile of Whiddie, it is again twenty and five and twenty fathoms deep.

Sect. 10. Downams bay, Baltimore-bay and Baltimore-haven.

Next to the Bantrie, and only by a narrow neck of land divided from it, is Downams bay, being great and wide (although no wayes com­parable to any of those three already described) a very commodious Road to save ships in, and good anchor ground every where.

[Page 22]The land to the East of this Bay shooteth out very far to the Sea-ward; the uttermost point thereof, called Messan-head, being the Souther­most Cape of all Ireland. For Cape de Clare, being about twenty miles further to the East, and somewhat more Southerly, is not on the Main, but in an Iland.

Beyond Messan-head is another Bay, far greater than any of those three forenamed, but nothing like the same in shape, nor in the same manner running with a long arm a huge way into the land, but rather approaching to the figure of a half moon. In this Bay is Crook-haven, School-haven, and severall other great Havens, not only on the main land, but also in some of the Ilands, whereof there is a great number in this Bay. The most Easterly of all these Ilands is Baltimore, the which surpassing all the others in bigness, giveth its name unto the Bay.

That part of the Bay which lyeth betwixt this Iland and the Main, having a narrow entrance, but within of a great largenes, is a marvellous good Road, where ships may come to an an­chor on either side, & lye defended off all winds. It is five and six fathoms deep on the sides, & six and 7. in the midst. In the mouth of the Harbour, next to the East-side, lyeth a blind Rock; & in the midst of it another Rock, which appeareth at low water. There is nothing els that can do hurt. This Haven, being far the principallest of all this Bay, hath its name, as wel as the Bay it self of the Iland, being called Baltimore-haven. To the North of that Iland lieth another [...]land, called Spain-Iland, where one may pass betwixt these two Ilands to the West, and so out of Baltimore-haven [Page 23] goe into the Sea. But onely with smaller vessells, because half flood there is not aboue 12. or thiteen feet of water in all that channell.

Sect. 11 Castle-haven, Rosse-haven, Clandore Haven with the Havens of Kinsale and Cork.

Some miles beyond Baltimore-bay is Castle-haven, where ships may come to an anchor in twelve fathoms of water, being of a reasonable bigness, and very clear and clean, as well in the entrance as within.

Between Castle-haven and Kinsale are two o­ther good Havens, to wit that of Rosse, and of Clandore, in which there is water enough, and very clean ground.

The Haven of Kinsale is one of the famousest of all Ireland; ships may sail into it, keeping in the midst of the channell, without any danger ei­ther without or in the mouth of the Harbour, except a blind Rock close to the East point. Within the haven, on the West-side, lyeth a great shelf, wch shooteth a great way off from the land, but leaving a very large passage along by the side of it, in which, as in all the rest of the Harbour, it is many fathomes deep. This Haven for some miles goeth in North-North-East, but after­wards turneth West-ward untill the Kay of Kin­sale, where ships may ride in eight or nine fa­thoms of water, being defended off all Winds.

Ten or twelve miles to the East of Kinsale is Cork-haven, the which goeth in North-North-East, being within large and wide, running a great way into the land: for the town of Cork, untill whose Kay this Haven is very clean and deep, is seated many miles from the Sea, and from the mouth of the Harbour.

CHAP. III. Of the lesser Havens, and the barred Havens of Ireland, also of the Roads and An­chor-places upon the coast, and in the little Ilands near the coast.

Sect. 1. Wexford-haven.

AFter the description of the principal Ha­vens of Ireland, we shall come to them of less moment, in which number we put all those, which either in their entrance, or within, have not water enough for the bigher sort of vessels; as likewise those, the which being deep enough, are but very little, and of a small pourprise; and in this description we shall observe the same or­der as in the former, beginning with Wexford, and so going North-ward, then West, afterwards South-ward, and lastly East and North-East­ward, untill wee have gone about the whole Iland.

The Haven of Wexford runneth in West, and by North, and with her innermost part altoge­ther Northward. Just before this Haven lye two great shelves of Sands by the side one of the o­ther, of which that on the South-side is called Hanemans-path, and the other North-grounds. There goeth a chanel betwixt Hanemans-path and the land on the South-side of the Haven, and another betwixt the North-side and the North-grounds; but this last hath but six feet of water at full flood, and in the other eight feet with the flood of ordinary tides, and ten at spring-tides. The chief chanel is that which goeth in betwixt the two Sands, being four and five fathom deep. Besides these Sands there is ano­ther [Page 25] Shelf in the mouth of the Harbour it self; which kind of sandy-banks lying across in the mouth of Harbours and Rivers, are usually call­ed Bars; and the Havens which have them, Bar­ed-havens ▪ With a high flood there is about six­teen feet of water. Being past the Bar, you have for some way three fathoms of water, three and a half, and four; but afterwards for a great way but ten feet, and ten a half, with a high flood; although under the Castle where the Ships come to an Anchor, you have four fathoms, and be­fore the Town three; but because of the fore­mentioned shallows, no vessels can go to Wex­ford, that draw more than ten feet of water, but must unlade and lade in a Creek near the mouth of the Haven on the South-side, about three miles from the Town, where is water enough, but no shelter for the South-west winds, the which do come over the land to this place.

Sect. 2. Dublin-haven.

Dublin Haven hath a Bar in the mouth, upon which at high-flood and spring-tide there is fifteen and eighteen feet of water, but at the ebbe and nep [...]-tide but six. With an ordinary tide you cannot go to the Key of Dublin with a Ship that draws five feet of water, but with a spring-tide you may go up with Ships that draw seven and eight feet. Those that go deeper cannot go nearer Dublin than the Rings-end, a place three miles distant from the Bar, and one from Dublin. This Haven almost all over falleth dry with the ebbe, as well below Rings-end as above it, so as you may go dry-foot round about the Ships which lye at an Anchor there, except in two [Page 26] places, one at the North-side, half way betwixt Dublin and the Bar, and the other at the South-side not far from it. In these two little Creeks (whereof the one is called the Pool of Clantarf, and the other Poolebeg) it never falleth dry, but the Ships which ride at an Anchor remain ever afloat; because at low water you have nine or ten feet of water there. This Haven, besides its shallownes, hath yet another great incommo­dity, that the Ships have hardly any shelter there for any winds, not only such as come out of the sea, but also those which come off from the land, especially out of the South-west; so as with a great South-west storm the Ships run great ha­zard to be carried away from their Anchors, and driven into the sea; which more than once hath come to pass, and particularly in the be­ginning of November, Anno 1637, when in one night ten or twelve Barks had that misfortune befaln them, of the most part whereof never no news hath been heard since.

Sect. 3. The Havens of Drogheda and Dundalk.

The Haven of Drogheda, or, as the word is pronounced in common use, Tredagh, is very troublesom to be got into, as having not only a Bar lying across before its mouth, over the which vessels cannot pass but at high water, but also very narrow in the mouth: This Haven not being an Arm or Bay of the sea, but onely a Ri­ver which keepeth her own bigness untill the end, without receiving any notable enlargement of the sea about her mouth, as other Rivers use to do. Upon this Bar is as much water as upon that of Dublin; and the Ships which can pass [Page 27] the Bar, may go up to the Key of Tredagh; which Town is seated about two miles from the month of this River, which is called the Boine.

Sixteen miles to the North of Tredagh standeth Dundalk, where a wide open Bay (made by the giving back and retiring of the coast) growing narrow, and receiving a little River, which a­bove Dundalk is but a small Brook, maketh a kind of Haven, where never is much water, and with the ebbe may be passed over a foot; where­fore, and because there is not any shelter for the windes comming from the sea, nor any usuall Trafique, this Road is very little fr [...] ­quented.

Sect. 4. The Havens o [...] Dondrom, Arglas, Old­fleet, Belletree, and the Band.

A few miles on this side of Strongford, are the Havens of Dondrom and Arglas, the one not far from the other, both little, and not very deep, but safe: And a little way beyond the Northern point of the Bay of Knockfergus, is Oldfleet-haven, a Harbour of the same sort as those two last mentioned.

Port Belletree, six or seven miles to the West of Fair-foreland (the North-Easterliest point of Ireland) is as little as any of those three, less defended of the winds, and the ground sharp and foul.

Some miles further is the Haven of Colrain, called Band-haven, the which is nothing else but the mouth of the River Band, the which here falleth into the sea, keeping her own narrow­ness untill the end, in the same manner as we said above of the Haven of Tredagh. This River [Page 28] passing through Lough Neaugh, the greatest Lake of all Ireland (the which receiving severall Rivers, hath no other out-let into the sea but the Band) carrieth a mighty deal of water, the which being inclosed in a narrow chanel, pow­reth it self into the sea with great violence: for which reason, and because of the narrowness of the mouth, this Haven is very hard to enter, ha­ving also but little depth, so as vessels which draw eight feet of water, must at least have three quarters of the flood before they can enter.

Sect. 5. Tellin-haven, Mackswins-bay, the Havens of Balleshanon, Slego, Endrigo, Moy, and Niffadoy.

Upon the West coast of Ulster, about half way between Cape Tellin and Kilbeg, is Tellin-ha­ven, a round Bay, with good sand ground, which will contain about thirty Ships: West, and South-West winds blow directly into it, but off all other winds one is there defended.

Two or three miles Eastwards from Kilbeg is Mackswins Bay, where a Ship may ride safe with­out Cable and Anchor: but the entrance being every where beset with Rocks, it is dangerous to go into it.

Some miles to the South-West of Dungal-ha­ven, is Balleshanon, being the mouth of that short River, by which Lough-Earn, one of the greatest Lakes of Ireland, dischargeth it self in­to the sea; which River runneth just on the bor­ders of the two Provinces of Ulster and Con­naught, dividing the same; this having a Bar before it, by reason whereof no bigger vessels [Page 29] than of thirty or forty tuns can enter into it.

Slego and Endrigo are two little Harbours, situated near the one to the other, in the North part of Connaught, very much encumbred with Rocks and Sands in the entrance, but otherwise reasonably deep; for a Ship of two hundred Tunnes may come and ride before the Town of Slego.

About half way between Slego and Broad-haven is Moy, being the innermost of a great Bay, divided from the rest by a little Iland some­what long, the which lyeth cross in that manner, that onely one chanel remaineth, whereby to go out of the great Bay into the lesser, or the Haven, which chanel is twelve feet deep; but in the Haven it self, being nothing else but two little Creeks, divided asunder by some sands ly­ing betwixt them, it is about fifteen or sixteen feet deep; but in the little channel which passeth into the inmost creek, being nearest to the Vil­lage Moy, there is but nine feet of water at full flood with an ordinary tide.

Some miles to the South-East of Sline-head, (a famous Cape in Connaught, and situated a­bout half way the length of that Province) is Port Niffadoy, a reasonable good Harbour, but very dangerous to get into, the sea there round abouts being full of Rocks both blind ones and others.

Sect. 6. The Havens of Trailie, Youghall, and Dungarvan: item of Wickloe, Arckloe, Malahide, &c.

At Trailie, half way between Smerwick and the mouth of the Haven of Limmerick, is a [Page 30] fair Haven but none of the biggest.

About the middle way between Cork and Waterford is the Haven of Youghall, before the which lyeth a Bar, not to be passed but at high water.

Twelve miles Eastwards from Youghall, is Dungarvan, being a narrow Tide-haven, whose mouth is full of Rocks, many of which do not appear, and so more dangerous, and at low water it falleth dry, so as one must go into it at high flood, and pass amidst the Rocks.

As for the Havens of Arckloe (where with high water it is but six feet deep) of Wickloe (where at ful flood you have but ten feet of wa­ter) Malahide, a little to the North of the Bay of Dublin; Coldach-haven, and Red-haven, the first betwixt Loughsoile and Loughsuillie, and the other betwixt Loughsuillie and Sheeps-ha­ven; Milk-haven, not far from Slego; Mablin-haven, betwixt Waterford and Wexford; and some others of the same nature: They are so little, that they will hardly serve for other than Fisherboates, and therefore scarce merit the name of Havens.

Sect. 7. Roads upon the Coast of Ireland, from Waterford to Fair-Foreland.

Be [...]ides this great number of Havens in Ire­land, there are many good Roads, where ships at need may save themselves, and commodious­ly come to an anchor, not only upon the coast of the Main land, but also in the most part of the litle Ilands, which ly round about Ireland.

To begin with those on the Main. From the point of Waterford to Carnarord, being the [Page 31] space of about twenty miles, the coast is full of Bayes, where one may come to an anchor. Under Carnarord ships anchor in six and nine fa­thomes. In St Margarets bay, three miles from Carnarord it is good anckoring in five and six fa­thomes, sand ground. A litle further is the bay of Grenore, where you may anchor as neer the land as you will, in six, five, four, or three fathomes.

Some miles from Wexford to the point of Glasearick, from which place to the bay of Dub­lin, being about fifty miles, the coast is full of in­lets, where it is very good anchoring, in good sand ground, especially to the North of Arkloe-head (in a fair sand bay every where in eight, se­ven, or five fathomes) and between Arkloe and Missen-head, being the space of six or seaven miles.

In the mouth of the Bay of Dublin, at this side of the Bar, is good anchoring, as well on the South side, before the Village Dalkee (which place is known by the name of Berton Road) as on the North-side, round about that great Cape, named the Head of Houth.

Between Strangford-haven and the Bay of Knockfergus are divers good Anchoring-places; but all that Coast is very foul with Rocks, and blind Rocks. To the North of Knockfergus are divers inlets, where one may come to an Anchor; there are some Rocks, but they all stand above the water, so as easily they may be shunned.

Sect. 8. The rest of the Roads upon the coast of Ireland.

To the West of Fair-foreland the coast is flat and clean, so as there ships may Anchor every [Page 32] where in eight and nine fathoms. Under the point of Eniston on the West-side one may An­chor for Easterly winds, or to stop the tide.

Between Loughsuille and Sheeps-haven is an inlet where Ships may come to an Anchor; but the ground is somwhat foul.

On the West-side of Cape-horn Ships may ride at Anchor for Easterly winds: And along the whole coast between Cape-horn and the Iles of Aran is every where good Anchor-ground; as also upon the West-coast between St. Johns-point and Dungal-haven, being the space of five or six miles.

In the Sound of Blaskets it is good Anchoring on the South-side of the point for Northern and Western, and on the North-side for the contrary windes.

On both sides of the Old-head of Kinsal [...], by the Dutch Mariners called Cape Velho, ships may Anchor as deep or shallow as they will.

There is also a good inlet for to Anchor in a few miles beyond the Haven of Cork; and on the East-side of Ardimore-head is a Bay, where it is good riding for Westerly winds in seven or eight fathoms.

There is also a good Anchoring place or two betwixt Dungarvan and the Haven of Waterford.

Sect. 9. Roads in the Ilands of Salters, Dal­kee, Irelands-Eye, and Lambay.

As for the Roads in the Ilands; about half way betwix Waterford haven and Carnarord lie two litle Ilands, a mile or two from the land, called Salters: the Southmost whereof, which lyeth furthest from the land, is much bigger [Page 33] than the other: ships may passe between these two Ilands in five, six, and seven fathoms. On the East-side of the lesser Iland is a good Road to come to an anchor in seven or eight fathoms, where ships may ride in safety for South-West, West, and North-West winds: and on the North-West-side of the bigger Iland ships may anchor in seven, eight, or nine fathoms, the Road be­ing defended off South-South-East, and East-South-East winds. Close by the South point of Dublin-bay lyeth a small Iland, called Dalkee, betwixt which and the Main land pas­seth a Sound seven, eight, and nine fathoms deep, in which you may anchor under the Iland. On the North-side of the head of Houth lyeth ano­ther small Iland, scarce half a mile in compas (where-in, as also in Dalkee, no body inhabiteth, both serving only for to feed cattell) having a decayed [...]hapell on the West-side, over against which ships may come to an anchor.

Three or four miles beyond Irelands Ey lyeth the Ile of Lambry, belonging to Sir William Vsher of Dublin, who hath there a fine litle Castle of free stone, and close by it a village, wherein dwell divers families, of Fishers and Husband-men, who plow part of this Iland, and upon the the rest seed cattell and sheep. The whole Iland, being about three miles in compas, is high land, wherefore it may be seen a great way off. On the North-side of this Iland ships may anchor in twelve and thirteen fathoms for a Southerly wind. For a Sea-wind the ships must ride on the West-side, over against the Castle: but that Road is not very good, because alwayes in that Sound, being about three miles broad, goeth a great Sea.

Sect. 10. Roads in the rest of the litle Ilands about Ireland.

Right against the Promontory of Fair-Fore­land lyeth the Iland Raghleens, where ships may sail round about, as well at the out side, as be­twixt it and the land, according as the wind and tide serve. On the South-West side is a fair Bay with very fine Sand-ground, where ships may ride defended off all winds. A litle way on this side and to the East of Brandhaven lyeth Skires Portrush, a Rockie Iland, the which on the South-side hath a fair Bay, very good Sand-ground, where ships may anchor in six or seven fathoms, being sheltred of all winds, except the East-North-East wind, the which along the Coast doth directly blow upon it.

There is a good Road on the South-East-side of the Ile of Aran, situated on the North-West-side of Ireland: and betwixt this Iland and the Main there lye three or four small Iles, where ships may anchor in divers places, and be secu­red off all winds.

There is also a good Road for some winds un­der Eneskie Iland; the middlemost of the three Ilands situated betwixt Akill head and Sline-head, called Boche, where is good anchoring in four fathoms; under the Northern-most Iland of those three lying in the mouth of the Bay of Galloway; under Enis Morrow, one of the Blaskees; under Dorses Ile, lying betwixt the Bayes of Maire and Bantree, in the Sound which passeth betwixt the same Ile and the Main land.

Ten or twelve miles to the East of Cork-haven lyeth an Iland called Balle-cotton, where [Page 35] ships may anchor in five or six fathoms for Westerly and Southerly winds. There is also a good Road on the East-side of Capel-Iland, a little Ile, lying three or four miles from the mouth of the Haven of Youghall.

CHAP. IV. Quality and fashion of the Irish Coast or Shoares. Item, a brief description of the principall Promontories or Heads of Ireland.

Sect. 1. Of the low and Strandie Shoares of Ireland.

THe Irish Coast is not every where alike, but of severall sorts: In some places the land along the Sea is low and flat, having a broad sandy strand, with a row of sandy hills, the which doth part the land from the strand, in the same maner as it is upon all the Coast of Hol­land and Flaunders (where these kind of hils are called Duynen or Downes) only with this diffe­rence, that they are not so large nor high, as in the Low-Countries, and that the rowes of them take up but a little space in breadth. This kind of Strand is in most parts of Fingall (being a portion of the Countie of Dublin Northwards towards Tredagh, and a good way beyond that, and els where. In other places ly no Downes or Sandy hills, nor any other heights, betwixt the Strand and the land, it being only defended from the overflowing of the Sea by an unsen­sible rising▪

Sect. 2. Of the high and hilly Shoares of Ireland.

In other places the land is high and hilly on the sea-side; part whereof doth descend by de­grees towards the sea, having a Strand below; but elswhere the land is high and steep, being washed underneath by the deep sea, so as ships of a great burthen may sayl close by it; the which may be observed not onely in the Heads or Capes, the most part whereof are thus fashioned, but in many other places, & in great extents of the coast. For as concerning the saying of Giraldus, that Ireland every where upon the coast is very low, Est per omnia sui latera a marináque littora terra valdè demissa, that is evidently repugnant to the truth. Some of these high Shoars are bare naked Rocks, covered with very little or no earth, so as scarce any thing groweth upon them but dry grass and heath; others are stony within, but have at the top a reasonable deep mould, and all over cloathed with good grass; some of them being so exceeding steep towards the Sea-side, that it is imposible for man or beast, being come to the further end, to go one step further, with­out falling down and being lost. So as it hath happened, that cattle and sheep feeding in those places, when they were come to the top, and fol­lowing the grass, suddenly tumbled down, fall­ing head-long into the sea, or upon the hard sharp Rocks standing at the bottom.

Sect. 3. Capes on the East-side of Ireland.

The Heads or Capes of Ireland are in great number, and many of them very observable, to the great commodity of the Sea-faring men. In [Page 37] the South-Easterliest point of Ireland is the Cape of Greenore, five or six miles to the South of the Bay of Wexford, being not very high, but steep, and flat at the top: and three or four miles to the South-West from it is the point of Carnarord.

Betwixt Wexford and Dublin there bee five Heads: That of Glascarick, which the Dutch Mariners call the Blew-point, and the Steep­point, twelve miles to the North of the Bay of Wexford, being of no great height. That of Glaskermen or Arklo being we [...]-near at the same distance from the Head of Glascarick, as that is from the Bar of Wexford. Missan head, some nine or ten miles further to the North. The Head of Wickloe, six miles beyond Missan-head, being steep and rocky, divided at the top into two little Hillocks. And the fifth and last of all, that of Bray, about fifteen miles beyond Wick­loe, and five or six miles to the South of the Bay of Dublin, being a great and high Cape, shooting a good way into the Sea, and so steep, that it is ten fathomes deep there close under the land.

On the North-side of Dublin-bay is the Head of Houth, a great high Mountain, three or four miles compass in the bottom, having the sea on all sides, except the West-side, where with a long narrow neck it is joyned to the land; which neck being low ground, one may from either side see the sea over it, so that afar off it seemeth as if it were an Iland. This Head may be seen a great way off at sea; for even up­on the land one may very perfectly see it, not only upon the Key of Dublin, which is six miles [Page 38] from thence, but nine or ten miles further West­ward.

Upon all the coast from the Head of Houth to Dondrom, being the space of about threescore miles, is none considerable. But some miles be­yond Dondrom, and three or four miles at this side the Haven of Arglas, is St. Johns-point, a Head and Fore-land which shooteth a good way into the Sea.

The next Head beyond St. Johns, is the point at the North-side of the Haven of Strangford, which the Dutch Mariners by a notable mistake call the point of Arglas.

All these Capes lye on the East-side of Ireland, whose utmost point Northward is the Promon­tory of Fair-foreland.

Sect. 4. Capes on the North-side of Ireland.

About fifty miles to the West of Fair-foreland, and well near the middle of the North-coast, is the Head of Enyston, which with the land next adjoyning lyeth much more Northward, and runneth further out into the sea than any o­ther land upon this coast, being of a great height, so as it may easily bee known by any that once have seen it.

Some forty miles more Westward beyond this Promontory lyeth the Cape which is known by the name of Horn-head, being a Hill with two hommocks at the top, in fashion somewhat like unto two horns, from whence it hath received its denomination.

Sect. 5. Capes on the West-side of Ireland.

Upon the West-side of the Irish coast are four principal Heads, viz. Tellin-head, lying about thirty miles to the South-West of the Iles of A­ran, the which are situated over against the North-Westerlyest point of Ireland. Akil-head, some miles to the South of Broad-haven, being not on the Main, but in an Iland. Sline-head, wch by the Sea-faring men is called Twelve-pence, because the land sheweth it self in twelve round hommocks, being situated well near in the middle of the West-coast: And Lupis-head, which is the Northern-point of the Haven of Limmerick.

As for the other Heads upon the same West-side, namely those three betwixt the Haven of Slego and Broad-haven, by the Irish Pilots call­ed Can-Moin, Can-Killaloy, and Can-Jores, (Can in Irish betokeneth a Head in all sorts of significations) Renilira and Clegan, between Akil-head, and Sline-head (which last the Irish call Can-Leme) Brain and Calew, situated to the South of the Bay of Galloway; and Can-Sanan, being the South-point of the Bay of Lim­merick; those are less considerable.

Sect. 6. Heads on the Southern Coasts of Ireland.

Upon the South-West-side of Ireland, the principall Heads are Cape-Dorses (situated in an Iland of the same name, betwixt the two great Bays of Maire and Bantree) and Messan­head, situated betwixt the Bayes of Bantree and Baltimore; being the same, in Camdens opinion, which Ptolomie calleth Notium, that is Sou­thern, [Page 40] it being the most Southerly point of all Ireland.

Upon the South-East-side is the Head of Clare, standing in an Iland on the East-side of the Bay of Baltimore; and a great way from thence, the old Head of Kinsale, called Cape Velho by the Dutch Mariners; which Head, to those that come sayling along the land afar off, seemeth to be an Iland, being a point which shooteth a great way into the sea, whose utmost, or most Souther­ly end is very high and steep.

Upon the same side standeth the Head of Ardi­more, which runneth a great way into the sea from the land on both sides, and because of its height may be seen many miles off.

CHAP. V. Of the Sands or Grounds, Blind-Rocks, and other Rocks in the Irish sea.

Sect. 1. Of the Grounds before the Coast be­twixt Dublin and VVexford.

THe Sea which invironeth Ireland, is as free from Shelves, Sands, or Grounds, as any in all the world, not alone upon the other sides, where the same is wide and open, far distant from all other lands, but upon the East-side, where the same is inclosed betwixt Ireland and Great-Britain, in which whole space it hath not any other Sands than those situated along the coast between Dublin and Wexford. These in­deed are of a huge extent, but not turning and [Page 41] winding as most part of the Grounds in other places, but in a streight line, North-North-East, & South-South-West, being farthest from the land with their North-end; and as they go South­ward, so they do come nearer to the land; and near the Tuskar, a Rock right against the point of Greenore, in which place they end, they are not much more than two miles distant from the land; whereas the distance betwixt the North-end, near the Iland Dalkee (which Iland, as before we have shewed, lyeth at the entrance of Dublin-bay, about threescore miles from the Tuskar) is above eight miles. They are all of a Stoney-ground, in some places but one fa­thom deep, and a fathom and a half; but in the North-end two fathoms and a half, and three fathoms.

Betwixt these Grounds and the land lye two or three little Sands, besides those which lye in, and before the mouth of the Bay of Wexford: one betwixt the South-end and Greenore; a­nother to the South of the Head of Glascarick, a good mile from the land, called Rush and Ram; and a third one mile to the South of Arcklo­head, called Glaskermen, somewhat more than half a mile from the land, and about two miles long.

Sect. 2. Of the Chanel betwixt the Land and the forenamed Grounds.

The Chanel betwixt the great Grounds and the land is very deep all over, so that the biggest vessels may pass through it from Dublin to Wexford, and from Wexford to Dublin, taking care only that they doe not come too neer the [Page 42] Grounds, the which being very steep on the in­side (as they are also without, or on the East-side, where ships may not come neerer to them than in 24. and 25. fathoms, because that in twenty fathomes one is close by them) it is re­quisite not to goe further off from the land, than in seven or eight fathoms, in which depth ships may within a cabels length sail all along the coast, the which here every where is very clean, and free from all danger. And even between the land and the forenamed small Grounds, Glaskermen and Rush and Ram, the Sea is very clean and deep, so as most ships doe passe betwixt them and the land, and not about by the out side of them.

These Sands in four severall places are cut tho­rough with fair broad and deep chanells, whereof the one is over against the Bay of Wex­ford; the other against Glascarick, beeing no less than fifteen or sixteen fathoms deep; the third right against Arckloe, in which cha­nel it is about seven or eight fathoms deep; and the fourth is directly against Wickloe.

Sect. 3. Blind Rocks upon the coast of Ireland from the Saltees unto Wickloe.

There are some blind Rock in this Sea, but lye for the most part close under the land, or neer some of the litle Ilands or high Rocks, so as they may easily be shunned, the rather, because most of them doe at low water appear either in part or altogether. To speak a litle of these in order: the Saltees, two litle Ilands situated half way between the Haven of Waterford and and the head of Carnarord of the which hath [Page 43] been spoken heretofore) have both at the North-side some blind Rocks; whereof those which ly neer the bigger and Southermost Iland, fall dry at low water. About three miles to the South of the same bigger Iland lyeth a blind Rock called Kinmore, of the bignes of a ship, at half ebbe it cometh above water, and is so steep, that with the side of a ship one may ly close against it, and have fourteen fathomes of water, so as without any danger one may sail very close by it. To the South-East of the fore named big­ger Iland doe also lye some blind Rocks, called the Frailes, the which may be seen at low water, and ships may passe through the midst of them. About half a mile from Blackrock (a noted Rock, whereof shall be spoken anon) lyeth a blind Rock, called the Barrell, of the which one must take heed very carefully. A little to the West of Carnarord lyeth a small Rocky foul, close under the land. Betwixt Carnarord and St Margarets Bay it is foul and Rocky, but the foul grounds doe not reach far into the Sea.

South-South-East from St Margarets Bay lyeth a blind Rock, called Caliogh, the which at low water falleth dry. From the point of Greenore a riffe of blind Rocks and Stones run­neth almost the length of a mile into the Sea, the which at low water falleth dry a good way from the land. At the North-side of the Head of Arcklo lyeth a litle Stony row, the which is shunned very carefully by the ships, not daring to come neerer to it than in five fathoms of wa­ter.

Sect. 4. The rest of the blind Rocks upon the coast of Ireland.

Iust to the South of the head of Wickloe, a little way from the land, lyeth a Rocky sand cal­led Horse-shoe; betwixt which and the land ships may sail thorough, if need be: but that be­ing full of danger, it is done very seldome; and a little further to the South lyeth a little blind Rock close by the land, called the Wolfe, the which at half ebb cometh above water; betwixt which and the land fishers boats doe passe.

The like blind Rocks & Rockie sands lye up­on the coast betwixt Tredagh and Dundalk, as also betwixt Dundalk and Carlingford, in both places close under the land: at both the points of the Havens of Carlingford & Strangford▪ under St Iohns point, situated half way between those two Havens: on both sides of those two great Rocks, a litle way beyond Strangford Haven, cal­led Southrock and Northrock: between the I­lands of Copland Iles and the land, at the South-point of the bay of Knockfergus: round about those great Rocks over against Oldfleet, called the nine maids: to the West of the little Iland cal­led Sheeps-Iland: betwixt Port Belletree and Skires Portrush, which Rocks are called the Chickens: half-way betwixt Lough-Suillie and Sheeps-Haven, a mile or two from the land, which Rocks the flood doth cover, but at ebbe they come above water; & in severall other places upon the West-coast & the South-coast the which it would be tedious all to particularise: wherfore we will conclude this rehearsall of the Blind Rocks with that which to the West of St Iohns point (a point situated three or four mile South­wards [Page 45] from Kilbeg-haven) doth lye somwhat more than a mile off from the land, upon which the Sea breaketh with great noise, and neverthe­less one may freely and without any danger sail between the same and the land.

Sect. 5. Rocks in the Irish Sea, upon the East-side and the North-side of the coast.

There be also divers Rocks that alwayes stand above water, the which as they are dangerous in the dark night, and in misty weather, so at other times they are rather profitable than hurtful, for­asmuch as they serve the Sea-faring men for Sea­marks, and help them to discern the situation and distances of the coasts; wherefore also the most part of them have received peculiar and proper names. The principall of this whole number is the Tuskar, a great black smooth Rock, of fashion like unto a ship turned the upside downwards, but as big again, lying South-Eastwards from the point of Greenore the space of three miles. To the South West of the Tuskar a great way, and about a mile and a half from the bigger of the Saltees, is the Rock Kinbeg. To the North-East of the Saltees stand two Rocks not far the one from the other, of wch the one of its situation is called North-Rock, & the Southermost The Tuns. To the East of these two, and about three miles from the point of Carnarord, lyeth Black-Rock, being clean of all sides, so as ships may freely sail round about it without any fear or danger.

A mile or two to the North of Lambry lyeth a great Rock called Rock Abill, about which ships may sail of all sides.

[Page 46]Two miles beyond the North-point of the Haven of Strangford are two great Rocks, the one called North-Rock, and the other, di­stant two miles from it to the South, South-Rock: The North-Rock is a number of Rocks lying close together, divers whereof are cove­red at high-water. From the end of these two shoot out riffes of foul and rocky-ground; but betwixt them goeth a broad, clean, and deep chanel, through which all manner of ships, even the biggest, may pass.

Six or seven miles to the North of the Bay of Knockfergus, and three miles from the land, are the Nine Mayds, being great Rocks that lye but a little above the wa­ter, or low Rocky-Iles, with a great number of blind Rocks about the same, so as ships may come no nearer to them than within five or six mile.

Of the same kind of low Rocks, or little Rocky-Ilands, are also those who are called Eneste [...]hull-Ilands, being situated before the most Northerly-point of Ireland, betwixt Lough-Foile and Lough-Suillie.

Sect. 6. Rocks in the Irish-sea upon the Western and the Southern-coast.

Near the Ilands of Aran upon the North-West-coast of Ireland, lye severall high Rocks, called the Stags of Aran; and such o­ther Rocks, called the Stags of Broad-haven, lye three or four miles from the Northern-point of Broad-haven.

Three miles to the North-west of Akill-head lyeth Black-rock, a great high and black [Page 47] Rock, with severall other Rocks near un­to it.

On the North-side and West-side of the I­lands Blaskes, lying over against the most Westerly-point of Ireland, are severall great Rocks, some whereof are called the Horses, and others the Bucks.

Seven or eight Leagues to the South of Blaskes lye three great Rocks, called the Skel­lighs, the Easterliest about three miles, and the Westerliest six or seven miles from the Land; the which, to those that come from the South, when first they begin to see them, re­semble the Sails of Ships.

Without the Head of Dorses lye three o­ther great Rocks, whereof the uttermost, or the most Westerly, is called the Bull, the mid­dlemost the Cow, and the third the Calf, be­ing clean round about, so as without any dan­ger one may sail between them.

Five or six miles West and by South of the Head of Clare lyeth a high steep Rock alone in the sea, called Fastney, the which at the first appearing looketh like the sayl of a ship.

Two or three miles to the East of Baltimore, and a mile or two from the land, lye five or six high steep Rocks called the Stags, as those of Aran and Broad-haven, to those that come from the East along the land, when first they begin to have them in sight, they resemble some Spires or Pointed-steeples standing to­gether.

Two miles Eastwards from the mouth of the Haven of Kinsale, lye two great black [Page 48] Rocks, the one somwhat farther from the land than the other.

There lie also severall Rocks neer the little Ilands of Dalkee and Irelands-Eye, the one situated before the North-point, and the other before the South-point of the Bay of Dublin, as heretofore we have shewed: Like­wise on both ends of the Ile of Lambey, half way betwixt the same Iland and Tredagh-ha­ven, close by the Land; near the Iland Rangh­lins, near Skires Portrush, and in severall o­ther places, but the principal and most con­siderable are those whereof we have spoken.

CHAP. VI. Of the nature of the Irish-sea, and of the Tides which go in the same.

Sect. 1. The Irish-sea not so tempestuous as it is bruited to be.

THat part of the Irish-sea which divideth Ireland from Great-Britain, is very much defamed both by Antient and Modern Wri­ters, in regard of its boysterousness and tem­pestuousness, as if it were more subject to storms and raging weather than any other, and consequently not to be passed without very great danger: Mare quod Hiberniam & Britan­niam interluit, undosum inquietumque, toto in anno non nisi paucis diebus est navigabile: That is, The Sea which passeth betwixt Ireland and Britain, is boysterous and restless, so as but few [Page 49] dayes in the year ships can go upon it; saith Soli­nus: With whom Giraldus (who several times went to and fro betwixt England and Ire­land) fully agreeth, writing in this manner, Hibernicum Mare concurrentibus fluctibus undo­sissimum, fere semper est inquietum, it a ut vix e­tiam aestivo tempore paucis diebus se naviganti­bus tranquillum praebeat: That is, The Irish-sea being very boysterous through the concourse of the waves, is almost alwayes restless, so as even in the summer-time it is hardly for a few dayes quiet enough to be sayled upon Likewise also Camden and Speed give unto this sea the surnames of Boysterous and Tempestuous. Yea it is a com­mon Proverb in England, As unquiet as the Irish-sea. Nevertheless it is nothing so bad as they make it; and the words of Stanyhurst, in his Annotations upon Giraldus, Mare Hiber­nicum satis tranquillum est, nisi ventorum vi agi­t [...]tur, & non solum aestate, sed etiam summa hyem [...] vectores ultro citroque navigant: The Irish-sea is quiet enough, except when by high windes it is stirred, so as not only in the summer, but even in the midst of winter people do pass it to & fro, are alto­gether true, & confirmed by dayly experience. True it is that some ships do perish upon this, but the same happeneth as well upon other seas, who are all subject to the disaster of tem­pests and shipwracks.

Sect. 2. Causes of the loss of such ships as perish upon this sea.

The common cause of the casting away of ships upon this sea, and upon the East-coast of Ireland, is this, that in the long dark Winter-nights [Page 50] (when this disaster is more frequent than at other times of the year) some furious storm arising, the ships are dashed against the Rocks, against the rocky Shoares, or against those Grounds which extend themselves be­twixt the Tuskar and the Bay of Dublin, whilst the Steer-men and Pilots by reason of the darkness not being able to discern the land, or any of their wonted marks, do not know which way to steer to shun those dangerous places, and to keep themselves in the open sea.

Sect. 3. Nature of the ground of the Irish-sea.

The ground of the Irish-sea, as well in the midst, as under the land, is almost every where clear sand; but in some places black and mud­dy or oasi [...]-earth: In very few places rough and sharp; and scarce any where else but in the Bay of Wickloe, so hard and stifly compact­ed, that the Anchors can take no hold of it.

Sect. 4. Of the Tides in the Irish-sea.

What concerneth the Ebbing and Flowing in this sea, which invironeth Ireland: upon all the West-side it floweth against the land, and the Ebbe falleth back from it into the sea; the Flood from, and the Ebbe towards the West; for which reason very great Tides, as well of Ebbe as Flood go upon all this coast, not onely the open shoares, but in the bayes and inlets (even those which go a great way into the land, as the Haven of Limmerick) so as those, who have been at Galloway, do assure us, that it doth so mightily ebbe and [Page 51] flow there, that at high-water great vessels may sayl over those Rocks, the which with the Ebbe come above water.

Upon the other side of Ireland it ebbeth and floweth along the land; for upon the North-side of Ireland the Ebbe and Flood falleth in the same manner as upon the West-side, flowing from, and ebbing towards the West. But upon the East-side, from Fair-Foreland unto Carling­ford, the Flood commeth from, and the Ebbe falleth to the North: As upon the rest of this East-side, to wit from Carlingford to Carna­rord, it floweth from the South, and ebbeth from the North. For although upon all this side the Flood runneth along the land, yet doth it not take its beginning from one and the same, but two contrary points; the which two floods comming the one out of the Main-sea in the North, and the other out of the Main-sea in the South, do meet and stop one another before the Haven of Carlingford.

From Tuskar and Carnarord as far as to the Head of Clare, being the whole South-East­coast of Munster, the Flood falleth along the coast East-North-East, and the Ebbe West-South-West. But upon the rest of the coast of Mun­ster, beyond the Head of Clare Westward, which coast lyeth West and by South, the Flood falleth East-ward, and the Ebbe to the West.

Sect. 5. Strong Tides in the Sounds. Strange proprietie of the Bay of Wexford in the matter of Tides.

That which the Sea-faring men do witness, that in the Sound of Blaskes, of Dalkee, and in [Page 52] that of Lambey, as also in some other narrow chanels of this sea, there goeth a very strong Tide, as well of the Ebbe as Flood, is no other than may be observed almost every where else in places of the like nature.

But it is much to be wondered, what the same do relate of the chanel, or entrance of the Haven of Wexford, to wit, that it ebbeth and floweth there three houres sooner than without in the open sea; so as when it is high water in the chanel of that Haven, and upon the bar of the same, the Flood doth still for half a Tide, or three hours after, strongly run by it to the North; whereby it cometh to pass that the end of Hane­mans-path (a great Sand lying just before the Haven of VVexford) is cast up more and more to the North; and that the chanel which passeth by the North-side of that Sand, being the en­trance of the Haven, is now more to the North than it hath been formerly. And as it floweth three houres longer in the open sea than upon the Bar and in the chanel of this Haven, in the like manner also, the Ebbe in the sea falleth to the South three houres after that it is low water in the same place, but not so strongly as the Flood.

Sect. 6. Some other strange particulars about the Tides in the I [...]ish-sea, related by Giral­dus, but found not to be true.

More strange it is what Giraldus writeth of the Havens of Wickloe and Arckloe, to wit, that in VVickloe-haven it ever floweth, when in the sea it ebbeth; and that it ebbeth there when it flow­eth in the sea. And that in the same River (this [Page 53] Haven being nothing else but the mouth of a lit­tle River) the water is salt as well when the ebbe is at the lowest, as at the flowing and high-water: And that to the contrary in that Riveler, which at Arcklo dischargeth it self into the sea, the water keepeth its sweetness at all times (never receiving the mixture of any saltness) as well with the flood and high-water, as with the ebbe. But experience sheweth these things to be repug­nant to the truth; as also what he writeth of a Rock not far from Arcklo, at the one side wher­of he saith that it alwayes ebbeth, when it doth flow on the other; and to the contrary. Also that in Milford-haven (situated in the Southern­most part of Wales, in a manner over against Waterford) and upon the next coasts, it ebbeth and floweth at quite contrary times to what it doth at Dublin, and the coast thereabouts; so that it should begin to ebbe in Milford-haven, when in the Bay of Dublin it beginneth to flow, and to flow in Milford-haven when it beginneth to ebbe at Dublin: Which how untrue it is, all those can witnes, who having bin in both places, have had the curiosity to observe the times and houres, at what age of the Moon soever, wherein it doth begin to ebbe and to flow there.

CHAP. VII. Of the Springs and Fountains, item of the Brooks and Rivelets of Ireland.

Sect. 1. Of the Springs and Fountains.

HAving sufficiently spoke of the Sea wher­in Ireland lyeth, and of whatsoever be­longeth thereunto; we shall now, before we come to treat of the Land it self, speak of the Waters within the Land; first of the Springs and Brooks, afterwards of the Rivers, and lastly of the Loughs or Lakes.

As for the first, to wit Fountains and Springs, Ireland is very full of them every where, not only in the mountainous and hilly parts, but even in the flat and Champain countries: Which Springs for the most part are all of one and the same fashion, being like unto a small pit full of water up to the brim; at the lower [...]ide whereof the water doth run forth, with­out making any noise or bubling. For that kind of Fountains which forcibly burst out of the side of a Rock, or spout their water on high, are very rarely to be found in this King­dom. The water of these Well-springs is for the most part cool, clear, and pure; free from all strange smell and tast: in which properties nevertheless, and in the wholsomness of the water, the same differences are found, and for the same causes, as in other countries. For those which spring out of a gravelly or sandy ground are purer than those that spring out of earth or clay; those that rise out of a stony or [Page 55] Rocky ground, cooler than any of the former; those that are exposed to the Sun, and freely re­ceive the Bea [...] thereof, especially of the mor­ning- sun, have lighter and wholsomer water, al­though less cool than those which are contrarily seated; and so for the rest.

Sect. 2. Spaes and Holy-wels in Ireland.

A few yeares since some Fountains have been discovered in Ireland, some of them not far from Dublin, and others in other parts, whose veines running through certain Minerals, and washing off the vertue of the same, yeeld a Medicinall water, apt to open the obstructions of mans body, and to cure other accidents thereof; which kind of Fountains are commonly called Spaes, a name borrowed of a certain village in the country of Liege, in which there is a Spring of that sort, absolutely the principallest, and the most effectuall of all those of the same kind, and therefore of very great renown in near and in far countries. Besides these Spaes there are also a great number of other Fountains throughout all the Land, called Holy-wels by the inhabitants, whose water not differing from that of other Wels, in smell, tast, or in any other sensible qua­lity, neverthelese is beleeved to be effectuall for the curing of severall diseases. But experience doth shew, that those vertues are not found in the Springs themselves, but onely in the vain imagination of the superstitious people; the which also having dedicated every one of those to some particular Saint, do expect the suppo­sed vertue rather from the power of them, than from any naturall efficaciousness inherent in the water it self.

Sect. 3. Of the fabulous Fountains of Giraldus Cambrensis.

As for those wonderfull Springs mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis, One in Munster, whose wa­ter presently maketh them gray that wash their head or beard therewith; One in Ulster, of quite contrary vertue, so that the persons washed therewith never come to be gray; One in Con­naught, whose water good and commodious for the drinking, and other uses of men, is hurtfull, yea deadly to cattle, sheep, horses, and all other sorts of beasts; And yet another in the same Pro­vince, the which being on the top of a high hill, far from the sea side, ebbeth and floweth twice a day, in the same manner as the sea, I could not hitherto come to the speech of any, who in our times had seen those Fountains, or observed any such thing in them: Which maketh mee doubt, that that good man hath been deceived herein by his credulity, as in innumerable other things, the which being evidently untrue and fi­ctitious, are by him related for certain truths. As in this matter who seeth not the idleness of that fiction concerning a certain Fountain in Mun­ster, whereof he writeth, that as soon as any body doth touch it, or but look at it, it beginneth pre­sently to rain most heavily over all the Province, and continueth so to do, untill a certain Priest, appointed for that purpose, and who hath never lost his Maiden-head, do appease the Fountain, in singing a Mass in a Chappel standing not far from thence, and built expresly for that end; and in be sprinkling the same Fountain with Holy-wa­ter, and with the Milk of a Cow of one colour.

Sect. 4. Of the Brooks in Ireland.

No country in the world is fuller of Brooks, than Ireland, where the same be numberless & wa­ter all the parts of the land on all sides. They take their beginning three severall manner of waies. Some have their source of Fountains, the wch for the most part are very small, not only those who carry the water but of one spring (most of wch are rather like unto a gutter, than a brook) but even those into which the water of severall fountains doth flow together. Others rise out of Bogs, the which besides their own universall wetness being full of springs, and by reason thereof gathering in them more water than they are able to drink in or contain, doe necessarily send out the same in convenient places, and so give a be­ginning unto Rivelets and Brooks. The third sort take their beginning out of certain small Loughs, which brooks ordinarily are of a reasonable bignes, and farre surpasse the other two sorts; although there doe not want some, e­ven of this kind, which are very little. And there is very few of any of these kinds, who come to any notable bignes, as long as they continue to be solitary, and untill having received the wa­ter of severall other Brooks, doe thereby grow more considerable than they were in their first originall.

These Brooks, besids the great good they do the land in watering the same, & besides the commo­dity they afford of drenching the Cattle & other Beasts; do also greatly serve the inhabitants for a­nother good use, to wit the grinding of their corn, wherunto the Windmils are very little used in Ireland, because they have the conveniency, [Page 58] through the great number of Brooks, to erect watermills in every quarter where it is necessary: which bring a great profit to the owners, being kept and maintained with less cost and labour.

Sect. 5. Of the swelling and overflowing of the Brooks.

Some of the Brooks doe flow in an equall bigness all the year long, without receiving any notable increase or diminishing: but far the ma­jor part doe change according to the wet or dry seasons of the ye [...]r, and as many of them as come out of the mountaines, or run thorough hilly countries, swell so excessively, when any great rain doth fall, that they not only overflow the next low grounds, doing many times great da­mage in them, but also bring the wafering men into great distresse; for it cometh to passe very oft, that a brook, which ordinarily is very shal­low and still, riseth so mightily through the multitude of the rain water, which from the next mountains and hills descendeth into it, that a good horse cannot passe without swim­ming, where at other times a child easily may wade over: and with that adundance of water is commonly joined so strong and impetuous a current, that man and horse are often caried a­way with it, to their extreme danger; and what soever wee say here-in of the Brooks, is much more to bee understood of the Rivers, the which otherwise in convenient places or foards may be passed over; wherein the afore­said danger is greater yet: so that few yeares passe in Ireland, in the which some persons are not drowned in that fashion.

Sect. 6. Strange invention of a man to pass a Brook, greatly risen by the a­bundance of rain.

It shall not be improper to insert here a parti­cular observed by a very credible and reverend person, Theophilus Buckwort, Bishop of Dremore, the which he hath severall times related to my Brother and others, being this; The Lagon, a little River or Brook which passeth by the Town of Dremore, upon a certain time being greatly risen through a great and lasting rain, and having carryed away the woodden-bridge, whereby the same used to be passed at that Town; a country fellow who was travelling that way, having stay­ed three dayes in hope that the water would fall, and seeing that the rain continued, grew impatient of staying longer, and resolved to pass the Brook whatever the danger was; but to doe it with the less perill, and the more steadiness, he took a great heavy stone upon his shoulders, whose weight giving him some firmness against the violence of the water, he passed the same with­out harm, and came safe to the other side, to the wonderment of many people, who had been looking on, and given him all for a lost person.

Sect. 7. Of the Brooks of Dromconran and Ra­fernam by Dublin.

Of these dangerous Brooks there are two hard by Dublin, both running into the Haven some­what more than a mile from the Citie, the one at the North-side thereof, a little below the Vil­lage Dromconran, which is seated upon the High-way from Dublin to Drogheda; and the o­ther [Page 60] at the South-side, close by the Rings-end. This called Rafernam-water of the village by which it passeth two miles from the sea, and the same distance from Dublin, is far the worst of the two, as taking its beginning out of those great Mountains South-wards from Dublin, from whence after any great rain such abundance of water is descending to it, that the same, which at other times is of very little depth, groweth thereby so deep, and exceeding violent, that many persons have lost their lives therein; a­mongst others Mr. Iohn Vsher, Father to Sir William Vsher that now is, who was carryed by the current, no body being able to succour him, although many persons, and of his nearest friends, both afoot and horsback were by on both the sides. Since that time a stone bridge hath been built over that brook (as over Dromconran-water there hath been one from antient times) upon the way betwixt Dublin and Rings-end; which was hardly well accomplished, when the Brook in one of those furious risings quite al­tered its chanel for a good way, so as it did not pass under the Bridge as before, but just before the foot of it, letting the same stand upon the dry land, and consequently making it altoge­ther useless: in which perverse course it conti­nued, untill perforce it was constrained to re­turn to its old chanel, and to keep within the same. To go from Dublin to Rafernam, one passeth this River upon a woodden-bridge; the which although it be high and strong, neverthe­less hath severall times been quite broke, and carryed away through the violence of sudden floods; although at other times, and when that [Page 61] Brook doth onely carry its ordinary water, a child of five yeares may easily and without dan­ger wade through it; and a tall man on hors­back riding underneath it, not being able to reach it; in the great floods the water many times riseth so high, as that it doth not onely touch, but floweth quite over the bridge.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Rivers of Ireland.

Sect. 1. Of the Shanon.

BEsides the excessive number of Brooks wher­with Ireland is watered, it hath a good ma­ny Rivers, the which being broader and deeper than the Brooks, are consequently navigable; al­though the major part are not portable of any great ships nor barks, but only of small vessels and boats.

The principallest of all is the Shanon, who taking his originall out of Lough-Allen, and in his course dividing the Province of Connaught from Leinster, and afterwards also from Mun­ster, passeth through two other great Loughs, to wit Lough-Ree, whereout she cometh just above Atlone (a mean Market-town, but adorned with a stately and strong Castle, the ordinary resi­dence of the Presidents of Connaught) and Lough-Dergh, about half way betwixt Atlone and Limmerick, and a little below the said Town shee dischargeth her self again into another Lough, by far the biggest of all, the which ex­tending [Page 62] it self from Limmerick unto the sea, and above fifty miles long, it is held by the Irish as well as the English not for a Lough, but for the Shanon it self, and consequently called with that name; whereof hath been spoken in the second Chapter.

This River is wide and deep every where, so as she would be navigable in her whole length, not only with Boats of all sorts, but with reasonable big Ships, to the great com­modity of them that inhabit near it, were it not for the impediment of a certain Rock, some six miles above Limmerick, the which standing across in the chanel, and the River with great violence falling down­wards over it, all communication of Naviga­tion betwixt the upper and the lower parts of it is thereby absolutely hindred.

Sir Thomas Wentworth, Lord Wentworth, and afterwards Earl of Strafford, he that in in the beginning of this present Parliament was beheaded, having been Governour of Ireland many yeares, first in the quality of Lord Deputy, and afterwards of Lord Lieute­nant, had a design to take away that let, in causing of a new channel to be digged for a little way, whereby the River being made to alter her course, should have avoyded that Rock; and to that purpose sent certain skil­full men thither to view those parts, and care­fully to examine whether it were feasible, who made report that it might be done, and would not cost above seven or eight thousand pounds sterling, a sum not very considerable in comparison of the great profit which [Page 63] afterwards would have been reaped from that work: Nevertheless it was never taken in hand, the intents of publick utility having been diverted and smothered by those of pri­vate profit, as commonly it falleth out.

Sect. 2. The Rivers Suck, Sure, Oure, Broad-water, Barrow, and Slane.

There are several other Rivers in the Pro­vince of Connaught, but none of them is any waye comparable with the Shanon for length, bredth, or depth, and little to be said of them, but that the Suck, the which falleth into the Shanon a little way below Atlone, is the prin­cipallest of all.

The two chief Rivers of Munster are Sure and Broad-water, the City of Waterford be­ing situated upon the first of those two, the which close by it dischargeth her self into that arm of the sea which is known by the name of Waterford-haven. The other passeth by Lis­more, and falleth into the sea by Youghall, where it maketh a Tide-haven. Next to those two is the River of Cork, and then that of Kinsale, the which is but of small moment, as also are the rest of the Rivers of this Pro­vince.

In Leinster is the Nure or Oure, the Barrow, the Slane, the Liffie, and the Boine, besides some others of less moment.

The Oure and Barrow do mingle their wa­ters at the Town of Ross, from whence ha­ving past a little way together, they discharge themselves into the right arm of the Haven of Waterford, and so in a manner doe meet the [Page 64] Sure, who falleth into the other arm: For which consideration these three Rivers were wont to be called the three Sisters, as Giral­dus witnesseth. Both the Oure and the Bar­row are portable many miles into the coun­try; the Oure onely with little Boats, and with Cots (they call in Ireland Cots things like Boats, but very unshapely, being no­thing but square peeces of timber made hol­low) but the Barrow with good big Boats. The Slane falleth into the Haven of VVex­ford, being like unto the Oure for length and bigness.

Sect. 3. Of the Liffie and the Boine.

The Liffie is the Princess of the Irish-Rivers, not for her bigness (for not only the Shanon, but the Boine, Barrow, and severall others, do far surpass her therein) but because Dublin, the chief City of all Ireland, is seated upon her banks; a mile below which City, at a place called Rings-end, she loseth her self in a Bay of the Sea, which is called Dublin-ha­ven. With the help of the Flood, ships of fifty and threescore tuns can make a shift to come up to the Key of Dublin, but when the Tide is out, and at the lowest, the smallest boats find hardly water enough to go between Dublin and Rings-end, because the chanel being very broad there, the water spreadeth it self too much, and by reason thereof groweth very shallow. But in the City it self, where she is in­closed betwixt the Keys on both sides, and from the bridge of Dublin untill the bridge of Kil­manan, and a little further, being somewhat [Page 65] more than a mile (in which space she runneth be­tween her own banks) great boates may goe up­on her at any time. She would be navigable with boats some three or four miles further; but the Weres, made in her a little way above the bridge of Kilmanan, doe hinder that. This River ta­keth her beginning in the mountaines lying to the South of Dublin, not above ten miles from it; but fetcheth such a compass (bending her coast first to the West, afterwards to the North, and lastly, for seven or eight miles, Eastward) that from her originall to her mouth is the space of no less than forty or fifty miles.

The Boine the River where-on Tredagh is seated, hath her beginning in Kings County, close by the originall of the Barrow, although the place where the Barrow falleth into the haven of Waterford, is above fourscore miles distant from the mouth of the Boine. This Ri­ver is almost of an equall bigness in farre the greatest part of her course, and would be porta­ble of good bigg boates very many miles into the land, if that were not hindred by the Weres.

Sect. 4. Of the Band and Blackwater.

The principall River in Vlster of those that fall directly into the Sea, is the Band, the which as in her mouth, she is incumbred with severall inconvenients, as wee have declared above in the third chapter, so she is portable but a few miles from the Sea, because of a certain Rock, the which running across the chanel from the one bank to the other, stoppeth all manner of passage, not only of bigger vessels and barks, but of the smallest boates, which dare not come [Page 66] neer the same Rock, because it being somewhat high, and the water from it falling downwards with great violence, it goeth for some space with a mighty current. This Rock or Cataract, cal­led vulgarly the Salmon-leap (for a reason here­after to be declared) and the Fall, because of the falling down of the water, is not above four miles from the Sea, hindring all manner of com­munication between the same and Lough Ne­augh, from the wch this Cataract is distant about three miles: whereas otherwise, if the passage of this River from the sea to the Lough were open, ships might by that meanes goe a great way in­to the land, not only the whole length and breadth of Lough Neaugh (which every where is very deep, and navigable even for great ships) but even a good many miles farther (with good big boates) by meanes of some Rivers that fall into it, especially the Black-water, which is the principallest of them all. For the Band, al­though she giveth the name to the River going out of the Lough, is not comparable to the Black-water for breadth nor depth, beeing ra­ther a brook than a River, the which being very shallow at other times, doth rise so excessively upon the falling of much rain, that it is one of the most dangerous and terrible brookes of all Ireland, in the which therefore from time to time many men and horses have been drowned at the passing of it.

Sect. 5. Of the Lagon and Nury-water: tide-rivers.

Besides the Band and the Black-water, there is scarce any other River in Vlster, but that [Page 67] which passing by Strebane and London-derrie, dischargeth it self into Lough-foile. For the Lagon, hereto [...]ore mentioned by us, which by Belfast falleth into the Sea; the Nury-water▪ whereof wee have spoken in the description of Carlingford-haven; and some others of that na­ture, are properly brooks, and not portable by reason of their own water, but of that which out of the Sea floweth into them; as appeareth clearly when the tide is out. For then they are as small, and as little portable in those pla­ces, where the boates and bigger vessels doe pass at high water, as are they at all times in those places unto which the tide doth never reach: which kind of Tide-rivers or brooks, which on­ly by the comming in of the tide are made na­vigable for a little way, are to be found in all the Provinces of Ireland.

Sect. 6. Of the Cataracts in the Irish Rivers.

Besides that the navigable Rivers are but rare in Ireland, and that the most part of them are only portable of very small vessels and boats, not of any bigger ships or barks, as appea­reth by the former relation, there be very few rivers, who have not some impediment or other in them, whereby it commeth that they are not portable so farre, as otherwise they would be. These impediments are chiefly three in num­ber, Cataracts, Weres, and Foards; whereof the last two doe only concern the lesser Rivers. The first, to wit the Cataracts, are incident to the greatest Rivers as well as to others, as may appear by what wee have said concerning them in the description of the Shanon and the Band; whereby also fully may be conceived the [Page 68] manner and nature of the said Cataracts, so as it is needless here again to delineate them.

Such a Cataract or Fall there is found in the Liffie, seven miles from Dublin, and about a quarter of a mile above the village and Castle of Leslip, the description of which as holding it not improper for this place, wee shall here set down as it came to our hands from those who have observed it very exactly. The said River running there abouts along a narrow and deep valley, being hemmed in at both sides with high hils of a long continuance, hath a very Rockie chanel, and besides that the bottom is overspread in severall parts with great massie stones, there is in two or three places, at no great distance, a contin [...]all Rocky bulk reaching from one side to the other, leaving but one or two narrow passages, through which the stream runneth with a very strong current, and a migh­ty noise, but the third and last bulk, like a Cata­ract hath the chanel close to it, a great deal lower (by far more than the other, at least by seven or eight feet) which is the cause that the stream doth not so much run swift here, or pas­seth with a current through narrow channels, as in the two first bulks, but as soon as it is got over the Rock it falleth steep down with great violence, the space of three or four paces in breadth; where as the remainder of the main chanel is altogether stopped by the said Rock. In winter and other very rainy seasons, when the water doth increase much, it passeth over all the said Rockes smoothly and without noise, where the same is exceding great, those times, when the Liffie runneth with a small streame.

[Page 69]There is also a Cataract in a small tide Ri­ver in the County of Cork in Munster, the which falleth into the innermost corner of the great bay Bantrie, and one in the Haven of Bal­le-shanon, which haven being in effect nothing els but the mouth of Lough-Earne, commonly is counted for a River, and called by the name of Trowis

Sect. 7. Of the Foards in the Rivers of Ireland a second impediment of their navigableness.

Concerning the Foardes; it is to be observed, that not every where, where the high-wayes meet with great brooks or small Rivers, bridg­es are found for to pass them, but that in very many places one is constrained to ride through the water it self, the which could not be done, if the Rivers kept themselves every where inclo­sed between their bancks; wherefore they are not only suffered in such places, to spread them­selves abroad, but men help there to as much as they can, to make the water so much the shal­lower and consequently the easier to be passed: whereby it commeth many times to pass, that a River which above and below the foard is deep enough to be portable of great boates, through the shallowness of the foards lying between▪ will bear none but of the very smallest; or where o­therwise the same would carry small boats is not portable at all; this in most places might easily be remedied, in raising of dikes or arti­ficiall banks, where the naturall ones failing doe minister opportunitie unto the Rivers fo [...] [Page 70] to spread themselves; and making bridges to pass over. Some Foards, do not greatly impair the chanel of the Rivers, but leave the same almost in her full depth, especially in the midst; but the same, as they are more incommodious for the traveller, so they are not very frequent, but in far less number than the others.

Sect. 8. Of the Weres, a third impediment of the Navigableness of the Rivers in Ireland.

The Weres, a third [...]et of the Navigation of the Irish Rivers, are thus ordered: They set up very big stones in the River, close together from the one side of the River to the other, leaving on­ly one hole, either in the midst, or near one of the sides, before which hole a Basket being layd, they take therein a great quantity of fish; for comming to the Weres, and finding their way stopt by the stones, they take their course to that place where they find an opening. These rows of stones doe not directly cross the River from the one side to the other, but doe go very much floaping, that the stream with less force may beat against them: and the same also doe stand but very little above the water, to the end that when the flouds come the water may find a rea­dy passage over them, without which they would not be able to subsist against the force thereof, but easily be thrown down and scat­tered.

Some Weres are set up, not so much for the ta­king of fish, as for Mils, and that the course of the water thereby being in part stopped in the main chanel, may be made to go into some little by-chanel, cut expresly for to conveigh the wa­ter [Page 71] to the Mill: many Weres serving for both these uses jointly.

Some Rivers have onely one of these impedi­ments, as the Shanon and the Band, each a Fall or Cataract: The Boine, Weres; having onely Foards, many miles from the sea. The grea [...]st number have Weres and Foards, and commonly each of them in severall places. Some have all three, as the Liffie by name, which hath not on­ly Weres and Foards in severall places, but also a Cataract or Salmon-leap, as hath been mentioned above.

CHAP. IX. Of the Lakes or Loughs in Ireland.

Sect. 1. Of the little Loughs.

LOughs there is a very great number in Ire­land, especially in the Provinces of Ulster and Connaught, we may distinguish them into three severall sorts, Great, Middle-sort, and the Least. Under this last we comprehend all such whose parts discover it self to the eye all over at one time.

This sort of Loughs are found in severall pla­ces of the other Provinces, but nothing near so many as in Ulster. Every one of these common­ly sends forth a Brook, and some more than one, being all of them very deep (the very least not excepted) and well-stored with Fish: So as they are not only delightfull, especially such as are si­tuated in some Dale or Valley, or environed [Page 72] round about, or on some sides with pleasant lit­tle Hils (as it falleth out in the greatest part of them) but also commodious and profitable, af­fording good opportunity to build houses and Castles upon their borders, which was done in [...]any places by the English and Scotch, who had made severall fair Plantations, and would have done more, if it had not been hindered by that horrible Rebellion of the bloody Irish; in the beginning of which many of them which were already built have been destroyed by those Barba­rians.

Many of these little Loughs have a little lland in the midst, which is both commodious and pleasant. Some wherein little llands doe float, not keeping long any certain place, but remo­ving to and fro as the force of the wind doth drive them.

Sect. 2. Of the Middle-sort of Loughs.

The Middle-sort of Loughs we understand to be such as far exceeding the fore-mentioned in bigness, nevertheless are not to be compared with the biggest sort, of which we shall speak present­ly: Of this kind are Lough-Fin and Lough-Dirg in the County of Donegal in Ulster, Lough-Mugkney in the County of Monaghan, and Lough Sillon in the County of Cavan, both in the same Province; Lough-Ranmore in East­meath: besides several others in other Counties of Leinster, especially in Queens-county, Long­ford, and Westmeath, having little or nothing worthy of observation.

Sect. 3. Of the Great Loughs, and first of those of Salt-water.

The great Loughs are of two sorts, either of Sweet-water, as all the former; and some of Salt-water; these last being such through the mixture of the sea; the which finding an open entrance, and twice a day with the Tide fully flowing into them, maketh the water so salt. And it would be no great error to take all those Loughs where­in that happeneth, (viz. Lough Cone, in the County of Down; Lough-Foile, in the County of Colrain; Lough-suille, in Tirconnell; and the Lough of Cork) rather for Inlets of the Sea than for Lakes, although the Inhabitants hold them all to be Loughs, and give them the name of Loughs: And in this number is also to be put that great Lough betwixt Limmerick and the sea, through which the Shanon dischargeth it self in­to the sea; of the which we have already spoke once or twice heretofore.

Sect. 4. Of Lough-Earne, Lough-Neaugh, and the rest of the great Loughs.

Amongst the great Loughs of Sweet-water, are far the principallest Lough-Earne & Lough-Neaugh, the first of which is situated in the con­fines of Ulster and Connaught, being in effect two different Loughs, joyned together onely by a short and narrow chanel; of which two, that which lyeth farthest within the land, doth extend it self in a manner directly North and South; but the second, which is next to the sea, doth lye East and West; so that both together they have the fa­shion of a bended elbow, being both very broad in [Page 74] the midst, growing by degrees narrower towards both the ends.

Lough-Neaugh lyeth in the North-Easterly part of Ulster, bordering upon the Counties of Tirone, Armagh, Down, Antrim, and Col­rain, being of a round, or rather somwhat ovall figure.

Next in bigness to these two is Lough-Corbes, the same on whose neather-end the Ci­ty Galloway is seated: The two Loughs tho­rough which the Shanon passeth, Lough-Ree, and Lough-Dirg: item Lough-Fingarrow in Connaught, betwixt the Counties of Maio and Roscomen.

In the last place, as the least of this sort, are Lough-Allen, out of which the Shanon taketh his originall, being nine miles long, and three miles broad: Lough-Me [...]ke, situated betwixt Lough-Fingarrow and the Lough of Galloway; And Lough-Larne, in the County of Kerry in Munster, not far from the upper-end of those two famous Bayes Dingle and Maire. The least of these is some miles long and broad, and ma­ny miles in circuit; but the biggest are of so vast a compass, that they are more like a Sea than a Lough.

Sect. 5. Of the Ilands in the Loughs.

Most of these great Loughs are very full of little Ilands, and above all Lough-Earne, in which the same are numberless. In Lough-Cone also there is so great a number, that those who inhabit about it, affirm them to bee two hundred and threescore. Lough-Ree, and Lough-Dirg are likewise very full of them: And [Page 75] there is also a good many in Lough-Fingarrow, Lough-Larne, and Suille. But Lough-Foile is very free from them, and in the Lough of Cork there is not above one or two, as likewise in Lough-Neaugh, in which they lye near to the [...]ides, leaving the midst altogether free.

Very few of these Ilands are inhabited or plan­ted; but the most part being plentifully cloath­ed with very sweet Grass, serve for pastures to sheep and other cattle, the which doe thrive wonderfully well in them, and the same befalleth also in the middle sort of Loughs, amongst which likewise there be very few that have not some of these little Ilands in them.

In some few of these Ilands, especially of Lough-Earne and Lough-Ree, are some dwell­ings, whereunto persons who love solitariness were wont to retire themselves, and might live there with much contentment, as finding there not only privacy and quietness, with opportuni­ty for studies and contemplations, but there be­sides great delightfulness in the place it self, with variety of very sweet pastimes in fowling, fishing, planting, and gardening. In one of the greatest Ilands of Lough-Earne, Sir Henry Spotteswood had a fine seat, with goodly Buildings, Gardens, Orchards, and a pretty little Village, with a Church and Steeple belonging to it, which whi­ther it is in being yet, or destroyed by the Barba­rians and bloody Rebels, I am not informed. In Lough Sillon in the County of Cavan in a Iland not far from the bank where the River Nanne [...] runneth into it, is a Castle built of form four square, which covereth the whole Ile, much after the manner of the Fort Eneskellin in Lough-Earne, [Page 74] and so many more to long to be re­hearsed.

Sect. 6. Of St Patriks Purgatory.

One of these little Ilands situated in Lough-Dirg (one of the middle-sort of Loughs) hath been very famous, for the space of some ages, over almost all Christendome; because the world was made to beleeve, that there was the sub­urbs of Purgatorie, into which whoso had the courage to goe, and remaine there the appointed time, did see and suffer very strange and terrible things: which perswasion having lasted untill our times, the matter hath been discovered with in these few yeares, and found to be a meer il­lusion. This discoverie was made during the goverment of Richard Boile, Earle of Cork, and Adam Lostus, Vicount of Elie, and Lord Chancellour of Ireland: which two being Lords Iustices of that Kingdome in the last yeares of King Iames, & desirous to know the truth of the business, sent some persons of qualitie to the place, to inquire exactly into the truth of the whole matter. These did find, that that mi­raculous and fearfull cave, descending down to the very Purgatorie and Hell, was nothing els but a little cell, digged or hewen out of the Rockie ground, without any windowes or holes, so as the doore beeing shut one could not see a jot within it; beeing of so little depth, that a tall man could but just stand upright in it, and of no greater capacity, than to contain six or seven persons. Now when that any per­son desirous to goe that Pilgrimage to Pur­gatory, was come into the Iland, the Friars, [Page 75] some small number whereof made their con­stant aboad there for that purpose, made him watch and fast excessively: whereby, and through the recounting of strange and horrible appa­ritions and [...]antasmes, which he would meet withall in that subterranean pilgrimage, being well preepared, they did shut him up in that lit­tle dark hole: and beeing drawn out again from thence after some houres, altogether astonished and in a maze, he would be a good while be­fore he came again to himself; and afterwards the poor man would tell wonderfull stories, as if in very deed he had gone a great way under the ground, and seen and suffered all those things, which his weak imagination, altogether corrupted by the concurrence and sequel of so many causes to weaken the braine, did figure unto him.

To prevent this delusion in future times, the said Lords Iustices caused the Friars to depart from thence, their dwelling quite to be demo­lished, and the hole or cell to be broke open, and altogether exposed to the open aire, in which state it hath lyen ever since: whereby that Pil­grimage to Purgatory is quite come to no­thing, and never hath bin undertaken since by any.

To beget the greater reputation to this sicti­tious Purgatory, the people was made to be­leeve, that St Patrick, by whome the Irish were converted to the Christian-faith about four hundred yeares after the nativity of Christ, had caused the same, and obtained it of God by his prayers, to convince the unbeleevers of of the immortality of the soul, and of the tor­ments [Page 78] which after this life are prepared for the wicked persons; wherefore also they gave it the name of St Patricks Purgatorie. But it is very certain, that nothing of it was known in Ireland during the life of that holy person, nor in a huge while after, it having been devi­sed some Ages after his death, when that the general darkness of the times ministred a great opportunity of such like inventions, to those kind of men that knew how to abuse the blind devotion of ignorant and superstitious people to their own profit and filthy lucre.

Sect. 7. Of the property of Lough-Neaugh, of turning Wood into Stone.

Before we make an end of this Chapter, we must say something of the wonderful proper­ty which generally is ascribed to Lough-Neaugh, of turning Wood into Stone; where­unto some do adde, to double the wonder, that the Wood is turned not only into Stone, but into Iron; and that a branch or pole be­ing stuck into the ground somewhere by the side, where it is not too deep, after a certain space of time one shall find that peece of the stick which stuck in the ground, turned into Iron, and the middle, as far as it was in the water, into Stone; the upper-end, which re­mained above the water, keeping its former nature. But this part of the History I beleeve to be a Fable: For my Brother, who hath been several times in places not far distant from that Lough, and who of the English there a­bouts inhabiting hath enquired this business with singular diligence, doth assure me, that [Page 79] he never could learn any such thing; but that the turning of Wood into Stone was by every one beleeved for certain, as having been tryed divers times by severall persons: saying more­over to have understood of them, that the wa­ter hath this vertue onely at the sides, and that not every where, but onely in some few pla­ces, especially about that part where the Ri­ver Blackwater dischargeth her self into the Lough. He could never come to speak with any persons, who themselves had tryed this matter; but with severall, who affirmed, that to their knowledge it had certainly been done by others of their acquaintance. For further confirmation of this particular (which in it self is credible enough, seeing that in many parts of the world there are found waters in­dued with that vertue) serveth, that here and there upon the borders of that Lough are found little stones of a pretty length, some of them round in their compass, others flat, or flattish, and some angulous, the which being looked on, as well near as from afar off, seem to be nothing else but Wood, and by every one are taken for such, untill one come to touch and handle them: for then by their coldness, hard­ness, and weight, it appeareth that they are not Wood but Stone: Whereby it may probably be conjectured, that the same formerly having been Wood indeed, and so having kept their old shape and fashion, in length of time have been turned into a stony substance by the vertue of that water, wherinto they were fallen through the one accident or other.

Giraldus writeth, to have heard of a Well or [Page 78] Fountain in the North-quarters of Ulster, the which in seven years space turneth into Stone the Wood cast into it: But seeing that no body now adayes knoweth of any such Well, and that with all my enquires I could never come to hear any news of it, I will beleeve, that Giraldus hath been mis-informed, and that they have told him that of a Well which was proper unto this Lough.

CHAP. X. Of the nature and condition of the Land, both for the outward shape, and for the internall qualities and fruitfulness.

Sect. 1. Distinction of Ireland into Champain-Lands, Hils, and Mountains.

THe Lands of this Iland, as of most all other Countryes, are of a various kind & fashion: For some parts are goodly plain Champain, o­thers are Hilly, some Mountainous, and others are composed of two of these sorts, or of all three together, and that with great variety, the which also is very great, in those three un-compounded sorts.

Sect. 2. A necessary observation about the use of the words Hill and Mountain.

To avoyd all ambiguity, and make our selves cleerly understood in what wee have sayd, and [Page 80] are further to say upon this subject, wee think it necessary to forewarn our Reader, that we do use the word Hill in a narrower signification, than what is given to it in the ordinary use of speech. For whereas all, or most other Languages, both those which are now in vulgar use, and those which are only preserved in books, have two se­verall words for to signifie those observable heights which appear above the ground, calling the bigger sort by one name, and the lesser sort by another: The English language useth one and the same word for both, calling hils aswell the one as the other, without any other distincti­on, but that sometimes the word small or great is added. Now because this word so indifferent­ly used would cause some confusion in the matter we treat of, that hath made us re­strain it to one of the sorts, and to call hils onely the lesser sort, called in Latin collis, in French colline, in Dutch heuvel, and in Irish knock. As for the other and bigger sort, whose name in the aforesayd four Languages is mons, mountain, berg, slew, we call them mountains: which word mountains, although it be good English, yet in common speech it is seldom made use of in that sense whereunto we apply it, but only to signi­fie a Country wholly consisting of those great Hils, especially when the soyl thereof is lean and unfruitfull.

Sect. 3. Of the Mountains of Ireland, and first of the lower sort.

The difference betwixt Hils and Mountaines consisting in bigness, is of two sorts; for in the number of Mountains are counted not only those [Page 82] which lift up themselves very high into the air so as they may be seen many miles off, but also those, the which take up the more in length and breadth, what is wanting to them in height, as­cending slopinly by degrees.

The Mountainous parts of Ireland do for the most part consist of this second part of Moun­tains, most of them in one quarter being much­what of the same height, so as sometimes one shall ride some houres together, through the Mountainous country, without meeting with any one Mountain that greatly excelleth in height above the rest: The which in particular may be observed in the Mountainous Country of the Fuse, betwixt Dundalk and Armagh; In that of Mourne, betwixt the Nurie and Dondrom (each of those two being above twelve miles long) In all that space which is betwixt Kelles, a walled-town in the County of Eastmeath, and Kilacollie, alias Bailiebor­rough, in the County of Cavan, vvhich be­ing ten miles long, is almost nothing else but a continuance of hils of no great bigness, all very fruitfull land both Pasture and Arable. In the County of Westmeath, from Lough-Crevv to Lough-Sillon, and beyond it, as far as Ballaneach, vvhere Mr William Fleving had built a fair house and Farm ten yeares before the late detestable Massacre and bloody Rebel­lion of the Irish. These hils are for the most part lovv and small, yet some of a good height and bigness; the ground lean, in many places very stony, in some rocky, not of any one con­tinuall Rock, but-by peecemeals here and there rising and appearing. Yet are these hils [Page 83] in severall places wet and moorish, aswell in the Rockie as other parts. These hills serve on­ly for pasture of sheep. In the major part of the Mountainous country of Wickloe, the which beginning five miles to the South of Dublin, doth extend it self above fiftie miles in length; and in severall other parts.

It hath bin observed in many parts of Ire­land, but chieflie in the county of Meath, and further North-ward, that upon the top of the great hills and mountaines, not onely at the side and foot of them, to this day the ground is uneven as if it had been plowed in former times. The inhabitants doe affirm, that their fore-fa­thers being much given to tillage, contrarie to what they are now, used to turn all to plow­land. Others say that it was done for want of a­rable, because the Champain was most every where beset and over spread with woods, which by degrees are destroyed by the warres. They say further, that in those times, in places where nothing now is to be seen, but great loggs of a vast extent, there were thick woods, which they col­lect from hence, that now & then trees are digged out there being for the most part some yards long, and some of a very great bignes and length.

Sect. 4. Of the higher sort of Mountaines in Ireland.

As for those other mountains, the which with an excessive height rise up towards the Skies, they are not very common in Ireland; and yet some there be, which although not comparable with the Pyrenaei, lying between France and Spain, with the Alpes, which divide Italy from France and [Page 84] Germany, or with other mountains of the like vast height, nevertheless may iustly be counted among the lostie mountains. Of this number are the Mountains of Carlingford, betwixt Dundalke and Carlingford, the which in a clear day may easily be seen from the Moun­tains to the South of Dublin, the which are more than fortie miles distant from them; the Mountains about Lough Suillie, in the North-parts of Vlster, the which may be seen many miles off in the Sea; the Curlews, that sever the counties of Slego and Roscoman in Connaught; the twelve Mountains in the North-quarter of the County of Tipperary in Munster, the which farre exceding the rest of the mountains there, are knowne by the name of the twelve hils of Phelim [...]ghe Madona; Knock-Patrick, in the West part of the county of Limmerick, not farre from the bay of Limmerick, which Mountain can be se [...]n by the ships, which are a huge-way from the land yet; the Mountains of Brandon hills, in the County of Kerry, to the East of the haven of Smerwick, the which are discovered by the Sea­faring men, when they are above fifty miles from the land; in the North-west quarter of the coun­ty of Waterford, called Slew-Boine; that in the mountainous country of Wickloe, which for it's fashions sake is commonly called the sugarloaf, and may be seen very many miles off, not only by those that are upon the Sea, but even into the land.

Sect. 5. Nature of the Ground in Ireland, and of the fruitfull grounds.

Next to the fore-going division of Ireland [Page 85] taken from the fashion and outward form of the land, commeth to be considered that which consisteth in the nature of the soil or ground; some parts of the countrie beeing fruitfull, and others barren.

The fertile soil is in some places a blackish earth, in others clay, and in many parts mixt of both together: as likewise there be sundry pla­ces, where the ground is mixt of earth and sand, sand and clay, gravell and clay, or earth; but the chalke-ground and red earth, which both are very plentifull and common in many parts of England, are no where to be found in Ireland.

These grounds differ among themselves in goodness and fatness, not only according to the different nature of the soil whereof they con­sist, but also according to the depth of the mold or uppermost good crust, & the nature of the ground which lyeth next to it underneath: for the best and richest soil, if but half a foot or a foot deep, and if lying upon a stiffie clay or hard stone, is not so fertile, as a leaner soil of greater depth, and lying upon sand or gravell, through which the superfluous moisture may descend, and not standing still, as upon the clay or stone, make cold the roots of the grasse, of corn, and so hurt the whole.

There be indeed some countries in Ireland, where the ground underneath being nothing but stone, and the good mold upon it but very thin, it is nevertheless very fruitfull in corn, and bringeth sweet grass in great plenty, so as sheep & other cattle do wonderful wel thrive there; which kind of land is very common in the County of Galloway, and in some other Counties of Con­naught, [Page 86] as also in sundry parts of the other Pro­vinces. But the reason thereof is in those parts, because the stone whereon the mould doth lye so thinly, is not Free-stone, or any such cold ma­terial, but Lime-stone, which doth so warm the ground, and giveth it so much strength, that what it wants in depth, is thereby largely recom­pensed.

Sect. 6. Causes hindering the fruitfulness of the ground, where the soyl otherwise is not bad.

Except in the case now by us declared, neither Corn nor Grass will grow kindly, where the ground, though otherwise good, is not deep e­nough, as also where it hath a bad crust under­neath: From whence it commeth, that in many places, where the grass doth grow very thick and high, the same nevertheless is so unfit for the food of beasts, that cows and sheep will hardly touch it (especially if they have been kept in bet­ter pastures first) except that by extreme famine they be compelled thereto; and that by reason of the coarsness and sowerness of the grass, caused by the standing still of the water, the which through the unfitness of the neather crust, find­ing not a free passage downwards, maketh cold the good mold, and the crop and grass degene­rate from its natural goodness.

For the same reason the land in many parts, where otherwise the soyl in it self would be fit e­nough to produce good Wheat or Barley, will hardly bear any thing else but Oats, or Rye, and that none of the best: As in other parts, the fault is in the soyl it self, and by the leanness [Page 87] thereof it commeth, that nothing else but coarse grass, and the worst kinds of grains will grow there. And unto these causes may be joyned a­nother yet, the overshaddowing of high and steep Mountains and Hills, whereby the sides thereof, and the lands lying close under them, being de­prived of the free and seasonable access of the Sun-beams, and so wanting convenient warm­ness, cannot afford to the things growing there­on such good and well-concocted nourishment, as unto the producing of the best and richest sorts of grains and grass is requisite.

Sect. 7. Ireland a very fruitfull Country, especially for grasse.

These defects are not peculiar to Ireland, but common to other countries, and nowise gene­rall in it, but only here and there in distant parts; & where they are, they may be amended by the meanes fit & usuall for that purpose, where­of by-and-by wee shall speak particularly: There­fore they cannot hi [...]der, that Ireland should not justly be counted among the fruitfullest countries of the world. And although Oro­sius, who preferreth it even before England in this particular (Hibernia soli coelique tempe­rie magis utilis Britanniâ, are his words) goeth too far, yet fullie true is the saying of Stany­hurst, in the preface of his Irish chronicle, Cum Hibernia, coeli salubritate, agrorum fertilitate, u­bertate frugum, pastionis magnitudine, armentorum gregibus, conferre paucas, anteferre nullas valeas: that is, With Irelond for wholesomness of air, fruit­fulness of lands, great store of corn, abundance of pastures, and numerousnes of cattle, few countries [Page 88] may be compared, none preferred: as also that of Giraldus, Gleba praepingui uberique frugum pr [...] ­ventu faelix est terra, et foecunda frugibus arva, peccore montes: that is, This country is happy in ve­ry rich ground, and plentifull increase of graines, the fields beeing fertill in corn, and the mountains full of cattell. But although Ireland almost in e­very part, where the industry of the Husbandman applieth it self thereto, bringeth good corn plentifully, nevertheless hath it a more naturall aptness for grasse, the which in most places it produceth very good and plentifull of it self, or with little help: the which also hath been wel observed by Giraldus, who of this matter wri­teth thus: Pascuis tamen quam frugibus, gramine guam grano foecundior est insula, This Iland is fruit­fuller in grasse and pastures, than in corn an [...] graines. And Buchanan in the second book of his History of Scotland calleth the pasture-ground of Ireland pascua fere totius Europae u­berrima, the fruitfullest pasture ground of most all Europe.

Sect. 8. More of the plenty and goodness. of the Irish pastures.

The aboundance and greatness of pastures in Ireland, doth appear by the numberless num­ber of all sorts of cattle, especially of Kine and Sheep, wherewith this country in time of peace doth swarm on all sides, whereof in another place shall be spoken more at large: and the goodness of the same is hereby sufficiently wit­nessed, that all kind of cattle doth thrive here as well in Ireland, and give as good milk, butter, & cheese (with good handling) as in any other country.

[Page 89]It is true, that the Irish kine, sheep, and horses, are of a very small size: but that that doth not come by reason of the nourishment and grass, but through other more hidden causes, may easily be demonstrated by the goodly beasts of the forenamed kind, that are brought thither out of England, the which not only in themselaes, but in all their breed, doe fully keep their first largenes and goodnes, without any the least diminution in any respect, so that before this last bloody rebellion the whole land, in all parts where the English did dwell, or had any thing to doe, was filled with as goodly beasts, both Cowes and Sheep, as any in England, Holland, or other the best coun­tries of Europe: the greatest part whereof hath been destroyed by those barbarians, the natu­rall inhabitants of Ireland, who not content to have murthered or expelled their English neighbours (upon whom with an unheard of and treacherous cruelty they fell in the midst of a deep Peace, without any the least provocation) endeavoured quite to extinguish the memory of them, and of all the civility and good things by them introduced amongst that wild Nation; and consequently in most places they did not only demolish the houses built by the English, the Gardens and Enclosures made by them, the Orchards and Hedges by them planted, but de­stroyed whole droves and flocks at once of English Cowes and Sheep, so as they were not able with all their unsatiable gluttony to devour the tenth part thereof, but let the rest lye rotting and stinking in the fields.

The goodness of the pastures in Ireland doth [Page 90] further appear by this, that both Beef and Mut­ton there, as well that of the small Irish, as that of the large English breed, in sweetness and sa­vouriness doth surpass the meat of England it self as (all those, who have tried that, must confess) although England in this particular doth surpass almost all the countries of the world.

Nevertheless the saying of Pomponius Mela, That the grass here is so rank and sweet, that the cattle doe burst, if they be suffered to feed too Iong, wherefore they be fain every day to drive them betimes out of the pastures, Iuverna adeo luxuriosa herbis, non lae [...]is modo, sed etiam dulcibus, ut se exigua parte diei pecora impleant, & nisi pabulo prohibeantur, diu [...]ius pasta dissiliant: The which al­so hath been repeated by Solinus, Hibernia ita pa­bulosa, ut pecua ibi, nisi interdum à pascuis arceantur, in periculum agat satias: That is, Ireland hath such excellent pastures, that cattle there are brought into danger of their lives by over-feeding, except now and then they be driven out of the fields; is a meer fable, no wayes agreeable to the truth: For all kinds of cattle here, as in other countries, are continually left in the pastures day and night: neither doe they through their continuall feed­ing ever burst, or come into any danger of burst­ing.

CHAP. XI. Of the severall manners of manuring and inriching the ground practised in Ireland.

Sect. 1. In some part of Ireland the ground never needs dunging.

TO amend the lean and fau [...]ty grounds, to enrich both them and the good ones, and to keep both the one and the other in heart, in preserving them from being exhausted, the dung­ing of the ground is usuall in Ireland, as in other Countries. It is true, that as approved Authors assure us, in the Iland of Zealand, part of the Kingdom of Denmark, the naturall richness of the ground is such, and so lasting, as it needeth not the succour of any artificial helps, but is very fruitfull, and aye preserveth its fertility, without putting the Husbandman to the labour and costs of dunging. That likewise there is some part in the Province of Munster in Ireland, where very credible person [...] have assured me, of their own knowledge, that the land never needeth any dung­ing; so as the inhabitants thereof never trouble themselves to keep the dung of their beasts, but from time to time fling it into a River which runneth by them. But this happiness and rich­ness of soil as it is very rare over all the world, so in Ireland too, being confined to very narrow bounds, all the rest of the Kingdom is necessitated, for the ends aforesaid, to help and improve their Lands by dunging; the which they do severall manner of wayes.

Sect. 2. Of Sheeps-dung.

The commonest sort of manuring the lands in Ireland, is that which is done with the dung of beasts, especially of Cows and Oxen, and also of Horses mixed with a great quantity of straw, and having lyen a long while to rot and incorporate well together: Whereof, as of a matter every where known and usuall, it is needless to speak further.

Onely thus much seemeth good to us not to pass over in silence, that if Sheep here, as in other countries, were housed and kept up in stables for any long time together, their excrements would make better dung, than that of any other four-footed creatures. For the land on which sheep have fed for two or three yeares together, or longer, is so greatly enriched thereby, that when it commeth to bee plowed, it bringeth a much fairer and plentifuller crop, than if from the be­ginning it had been made Arable, and dunged after the ordinary manner. Wherefore also great Sheep-masters may set their land, where the sheep have been feeding some yeares together, as dear again by the Acre, than what at the first they could have got for it of any body.

Wherefore also it is an usuall thing in Ireland, as well as in England, to drive the sheep upon the Fallow, and to keep them there untill all the hearbs which may minister any food unto the Sheep be by them consumed; which doth the ground a great deal of good, and giveth it heart to bring afterwards the better increase. And the same also helpeth greatly for to make good grass grow upon the Arable, when the same is turned [Page 93] into Pasture and Meddow; a thing ordinarily u­sed in sundry parts of Ireland, and many times necessary for to keep the lands in heart: For ground being plowed, and the Sheep driven thi­ther as soon as any herbs grow upon it, they do not only consume the Thistles, and other useless herbs, but cause good grass to grow up in lieu thereof, and that speedily. For in all places where their dung lighteth, of the best and sweet­est sorts of grass do grow, and that within the first year, which otherwise would not have come in much longer time, and that nothing near so good generally.

Sect. 3. An usefull observation about Cows-dung.

There is a notable difference betwixt Sheeps-dung and that of other cattle, as in the good­ness and richness it self, so in the particular last mentioned by them. For that of Oxen and Cows is no wayes fit for dunging untill it is grown old, and hath lyen a soaking with straw a great while: Dayly experience shewing in Ireland, as in England and other countryes, that in those places of the pastures where the fresh Cow-dung falleth and remaineth, the grass the next year doth grow ranker and higher than in the rest of the same fields, but so sowre and unpleasing, that the beasts will not offer to touch it; so as ordi­narily you shall see these tufts of grass standing whole and undiminished in the midst of pastures, that every where else are eaten bare and to the very ground. The which as in part it may bee imputed to the quantity of the dung, the which being greater than the earth can well digest, and conveniently unite with it self, cannot be turned [Page 94] into so good and sweet nourishment; so doth it also without doubt come in part through the very nature of the dung, the which of it self, and without a long preparation and alteration, is not so fit to nourish the ground, as that of sheep.

Sect. 4. Of Pigeons-dung.

Pigeons-dung also is very convenient for the improvement of the ground; and I know some in Ireland, who having tryed that, have found a wonderfull deal of good in it, incomparably more than in that of any four-footed beasts, and of Sheep themselves. But the Pigeon-houses no where in Ireland being so big as to afford any considerable quantity, and never having heard of any body there who could dung more than an Acre or two with all the Pigeons-dung which had been gathering the space of a whole twelve-moneth, it cannot well be reckoned among the common sorts.

Sect. 5. Of Ashes and Mud.

Besides the dung of Beasts there are usuall in Ireland, or were before this Rebellion, five or six other sorts for to Manure and Improve the ground, whereof some are as good as the dung consisting of the excrements of beasts, and others do far surpass it▪ One of these sorts is Ashes, and Mud another.

As for the first, I have understood of English­men, who had lived many years in Ireland, and all that while had exercised Husbandry, that they had used to gather all their Ashes of their hearths, bake-houses, and brew-houses, being Wood-ashes, [Page 95] and to lay them of a heap somewhere in the open air, from whence at convenient times they would carry them upon their grounds, and there spread them in the same manner as other dung, but nothing near in so great a quantity; wherein they affirmed to have found as much and more good than in any dung of beasts.

And I know several other English, who living in Ireland, did use to take the scouring of their ditches, together with other Mud digged out of the Bogs, and having let it lye a good while a rotting in great heaps, did afterwards carry it upon their lands in lieu of dung: the which they found very good and usefull for that pur­pose.

These two sorts were never yet brought into common use, but onely practised by some few persons, especially that of the Ashes, although in other Countries they have been known long since; so as Pliny, who lived about fifteen hun­dred years ago, writeth in the ninth Chapter of the seventeenth Book of his Natural History, that in his time in that part of Italy which is si­tuated between the Alpes and the River Po (com­prehending those Countries which now are known by the names of Piemont and Lombar­dy) Ashes were more used and commended for the manuring of the grounds, than the dung of beasts.

As concerning the burning of the Heath, and other dry herbs standing upon the ground, for to manure the land with the ashes thereof, that not properly belonging to this place, shall be spoke of more at large in some of the ensuing Chapters.

Sect. 6. Of Lime.

The English living in Queens-county in Lein­ster, having seen that in sundry parts of England and Wales, especially in Pembrookshire, Lime was used by the inhabitants for the manuring and inriching of their grounds, begun some years since to practise the same, and found themselves so well thereby, that in a short time the use thereof grew very common amongst them, so as many of [...]hem ever after used no other kind of dung.

The manner of it was thus▪ Having first plow­ed their fields, they carryed the Lime on them, and layd it in many small heaps, leaving a con­venient distance between, in the same manner as useth to be done with the dung of beasts; and having let them lye for some moneths, they plow­ed the land again to convey the Lime into the ground.

This made it so rich, that in a great while after nothing else needed to be done to it, but to let the land at a certain revolution of time lye Fal­low, no other manuring at all being requisite for some yeares after: And all that while the land was very fruitfull, more than it could have been made with any ordinary dung, and very free of al sorts of bad herbs and weeds (especially for the first yeares) bringing Corn with much thin­ner huskes than that growing upon other lands.

They found that the Lime carryed upon the Land hot out of the Kiln, did more good in all the fore-mentioned particulars, than when they let it grow cold first. And this they could doe [Page 97] very easily, because Lime-stone is very plentifull in that County, especially in the Town of Mon­rath, where there is a whole hill of that stone, of that bigness, that if all the adjacent Country did continually fetch it from thence for the fore­named use, it would for ever hold out suffi­ciently.

The Land thus manured and improved by Lime, shewed its fruitfulness not only in the fol­lowing yeares, but even in the first, except the Lime had been layd on in undue proportion, and in greater quantity than was requisite; for in that case the Lime burnt the Corn, and the first years Crop was thereby spoyled.

In some places where the land was not cold and moyst enough to bee able to endure meer Lime, they mixed the Lime with earth digged out of pits, and let that stuff lye a mellowing in great heaps for some moneths together, and after­wards carryed it on the land, and manured that therewith.

Sect. 7. A remarkable historie concerning the ex­cellencie of Lime for the inricheng of the ground.

How incredibly the land was inriched by this kind of manuring, may be gathered by the ensuing particular, The whole Lordship of Mounrath was thirty yeares agoe set by one Mr. Downings (whose it was, and who afterwards sold it to Sir Charles Coot) for fifty pounds sterling by the year, and nevertheless after a while the Farmers surrendred it unto him, com­plaining that they could not live by it but were quite impoverished: where as they who farmed it next after them (beeing people newly come out [Page 98] of England) & gave an hundred and fifty pounds sterling a year st [...]rling for it, did not only live very freely upon it, yea grew rich and wealthie, but withall did so farre forth improve the land, partly indeed with building, plauting, hedging, and the like, but chiefly by this kind of manu­ing that [...]t the time when this last horrible rebel­lion broke forth, the same Lordship, if it had been to let out then, mighe have been let for five hundred pounds sterling a year: as it hath been assured me by some, who themselves had been farmers of that land.

Sect. 8. Another history, shewing the [...]fficacy of Lime in this particular.

Before we give over this discours of Lime, we shall adde to what hath been said already, that in some other parts of Ireland, where this ma­nuring with Lime was not used nor known, the vertue of Lime in this particular hath been found out by meer chance. For some persons known to me, who lived but a few miles from Dublin, having understood that the crowes (wherewith they were much plagued, and who did use to make very great spoil of their grains) would not touch the corn wherewith the lime was mixed, did cause unsl [...]ked Lime to be mingled with water, making it as thinne as if it had been for the whitening of walls, and very well bespringled the corn therewith, before it was carried to the fields to be sowen, and that after this manner, the corn lying on a heap, one turned it with both hands, whilest another sprinkled on the fore-said stuff, doing so untill the whole heap was thoroughly besprinkled▪ at [Page 99] other times they mingled dry lime with the corn, and afterwards besprinkled the whole heap with fair water through and through, for the same purpose, and hereby they did not on­ly obtain the aforesaid end, of preserving the corn from the crowes, but had thereby a fairer and better crop, than ever before their land had produced.

Sect. 9. Of Sea-sand.

Lime is much used in the province of Munster, as in other parts of Ireland, so for to manure the ground withall, where the sea-sand likewise is greatly used to the same end, not only in pla­ces lying on the seaside, but even ten, twelve, and fifteen miles into the land, whether it was car­ried in some places by boats, and in others up­on carts, the charges being sufficiently recom­pensed by the pro [...]it comming from it. For they used it for the most part only upō very poor land, consisting of cold clay, and that above half a foot deep: which land having been three or f [...]ur times plowed & harrowed (in the same man­ner as is usuall to be done with fallow) the sand is strawed all over very thinly, a little before the sowing time: the which beeing done, that land bringeth very good corn of all sorts, not only Rye and Oates, but even Barley and Wheat, three yeares one after another; and ha­ving lyen fallow the fourth year, for many years after it produceth very clean and sweet grass; whereas formerly, and before it was thus ma­nured, it produced nothing but moss, heath, and short low furze: which herbs are fired upon the ground, and the ground stubbed, before it be plowed the first time

[Page 100]It is not any peculiar sort of Sea-sand, nor out of any particular places, which is used for this purpose, but that which every where lyeth on the strands. And this manner of manu­ [...]ing the land with Sea-sand is very common in the two most Westerly shires of England, Corn­wall and Devonshire, from whence those, who first practised it in Ireland, seem to have lear­ned it.

Sect. 10. Of Brine or Pickle.

The goodness of the Sea-sand consisteth chiefly in its Saltness, for which reason Pickle it self is very good for this purpose: it beeing very well known to severall English dwelling about the Band and Colrain, that were Farmers of the Salmon-fishing there, who used every year care­fully to keep the soul pikle, comming of the Salmons at their repacking; and having powred it among the ordinary dung of cattle and straw they did let them ly a good while a mellow [...]ng together. Hereby it was greatly strengthened and enriched, so that the land being dunged with it, did bear much better and richer crops than that which was manured onely with com­mon dung without the mixture of it.

CHAP. XII.

Sect. 1. Of the Marle in Ireland, and the man­ner of Marling the land there.

MArle is a certain sort of fat and clayish stuff, being as the grease of the earth; it [Page 101] hath from antient times on greatly used for ma­nuring of land both in France and England, as may appear out of Pliny in the sixth, seventh, and eighth Chapters of his seventeenth Book. The same also is stil very usual in sundry parts of England, being of an incomparable goodness: The which caused the English, who out of some of those places where Marle was used were come to live in Ireland, to make diligent search for it, and that with good success at last; it having been found out by them within these few years, in se­verall places; first in the Kings-county, not far from the Shanon, where being of a gray colour, it is digged out of the Bogs; And in the Coun­ty of Wexford, where the use of it was grown very common before this Rebellion, especially in the parts lying near the sea; where it stood them in very good steed, the land of it self being nothing fruitfull. For although the ground (for the most part) is a good black earth, yet the same being but one foot deep, and having under­neath a crust of stiff yellow clay of half a foot, is thereby greatly impaired in its own goodness. In this depth of a foot and a half next under the clay, lyeth the Marle, the which reacheth so far downwards, that yet no where they are come to the bottom of it. It is of a blew colour, and very fat (which as in other ground, so in this, is chiefly perceived when it is wet) but brittle and dusty when it is dry.

Sect. 2. The manner, charges, and profit of Marling the ground.

The Marle is layd upon the land in heaps, by some before it is plowed, by others after, many [Page 102] letting it lye several moneths ere they plow it again, that the Rain may equally divide and mixe it; the Sun, Moon, and Air mellow and incorporate it with the earth. One thousand Cart-loads of this goeth to one English Acre of ground; it being very chargeable, for even to those who dig it out of their own ground, so as they are at no other expences but the hire of the labourers, every Acre cometh to stand in three pounds sterling. But these great ex­pences are sufficiently recompenced by the great fruitfulness which it causeth, being such, as may seem incredible; for the Marled-land, even the very first year, fully quitteth all the cost bestowed on it. There besides it is suffici­ent once to Marle, whereas the ordinary dung­ing must be renewed oftentimes.

Sect. 3. The usage of the Marled-land, practised by them of the County of Wexford.

The good usage of the Marled-land, to keep it in heart for ever after, doth consist, in the opinion and practise of some, in letting it ly Fallow at convenient times, but the ordi­nary manner, commonly practised by the in­habitants of the County of Wexford, and counted the best by them, is, that having sow­ed it five or six years together, with the rich­est sorts of Corn, to wit, Wheat and Barley (especially that sort which in some parts of England, and generally in Ireland, is peculi­arly called Bear, being a much richer Grain than the ordinary Barley) it being afterwards turned to Pasture, whereunto it is very fit, [Page 103] forasmuch as it bringeth very sweet grass in great abundance: For the Marle is also used on Meddows at the first, with very good success, improving the same most wonder­fully.

If the Marled-land be thus used, and by turns kept under Corn, and Grass, it keeps its fruit­fulness for ever; where to the contrary, if year after year it be sowed till the heart be drawn out, it's quite spoyled, so as afterwards it is not possible to bring it again to any pas­sable condition by any kind of Dunging, or Marling. This would ordinarily be done in the space of ten yeares; for so long together the Marled-land may be sowed, and bring e­very year a rich crop of the best Corn.

Nevertheless this is not generall, but taketh place onely in the worser kind of ground▪ for where the land of it self is better and rich­er, there after Marling, Wheat and other Corn may be sowed, not only for ten yeares toge­ther, but longer: For very credible persons have assured me, that some parts of the Coun­ty of Wexford having bo [...]n very good Corn for thirteen yeares together, and afterwards being turned to Pasture, it was as good and fertile as other Marled-grounds that had been under Corn but five or six years.

Sect. 4. Of the Marle in Connaught.

The Province of Connaught (by what hath been discovered) is much more plentifull in Marle, than Leinster, as in other Counties, so in those of Roscoman, Slego, and Galloway, almost in every part of it. It is there of three [Page 104] several colours, some being white as chalk, other gray, and some black; but none blew, as that in the County of Wexford. It lyeth nothing deep under the upper-ground, or surface of the earth, commonly not above half a foot; but its own depth is so great, that never any body yet digged to the bottom of it.

The land which they intend to Marle in this Province, is commonly plowed in the begin­ning of May, and lying five or six weeks (un­till it be sufficiently dryed and mellowed by the Sun and Wind) they harrow it, and then having brought the Marle upon it, five or six weeks after it is plowed again, and a third time about September: After which third plowing they sow it with Wheat or Barley, whereof they have a very rich crop the next year.

Sect. 5. Property and usage of the Marled-lands in Connaught.

Land Marled in that manner as we have said, may be sowed ten or twelve yeares together; the first eight or nine-with Wheat, and Bear, or Barley, and the remaining three or four years with Oates, afterwards the land is tur­ned to pasture, and having served some years in that kind, it may be Marled anew, and made as good for Corn as at the first.

For the observation of those of the County of Wexford, that land may not be Marled more than once, doth not take place in Con­naught, where it is an ordinary thing, having some space of years to make it again. I know [Page 105] some Gentlemen who have caused some par­cels of land to be Marled thrice in the space of twenty yeares, and have found very good profit by it. But whether this be caused by the difference of the ground and Marle (appearing also hereby, that in Connaught they scarce lay the fourth part of the quanti­ty of Marle on the ground of what they doe in the County of Wexford) or by the care­lesness or want of experience of those of that County, I am not yet fully informed. But thus much is known as well in Connaught as other parts, that those who sow the Marled-land untill it can bear no more, and be quite out of heart, wil find it exceeding difficult, if not altogether impossible ever to amend or improve the same again by any means what­soever.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Heaths and Moores, or Bogs in Ireland.

Sect. 1. Of the Moory, or Boggy-heaths.

HAving spoke of the fruitfull lands of Ire­land, it followeth that we treat of those which are neither fit for the bringing of Corn, or feeding of Cattle; some being such for want of good soyl, and others through super­fluous moysture.

Of the first sort are those places where the ground consisting of meer rock, sand, or earth, [Page 106] naturally unfruitful hath no good mold at the top sufficient for Corn or Grass to root, and to draw convenient nourishment out of it, the ground being bare, or over-grown onely with Moss, Heath, Furze, Brakes, Thorns, Rushes, and the like.

The places whose ground is bare, are no­thing frequent, nor of any great bigness in Ire­land, and rather on the Sea-side than within the land. But the other are very common throughout the whole Kingdom, not only in the Mountains (many whereof do for the most part consist of nothing else) but also in the Hilly-quarters, the Plain-countries, and in many places of great extent, taking up some miles in length and breadth. Most of these Wasts in the Plain-countries and Valleys, as also some on the Mountains and Hils, are Moory and Boggy, fit for to dig Turf out, to the great commodity of the inhabitants, in places where other fuel is wanting. So that these parts of Land, although barren and pro­ducing no kind of thing for the food of man or beasts, may not be reckoned in the number of those which are altogether unprofitable, being of good use in the parts far distant from the Sea, where they can have no Sea-coales, and where Woods are wanting, nor well live. Some of these dry, or red Bogs, as commonly they are called (the first, in comparison of those whereof presently shall be spoken, the other, because the earth in them for the most part is reddish, and over-grown with Mos [...] of the same colour) are in some parts of a vast extent; instance that by the Shanon-side, beginning [Page 107] hard by Atlone, and following the course of the River down towards Limmerick, which being two or three miles broad in most parts, is said to be upwards of fifty miles in length.

Sect. 2. Of the dry Heaths.

There are some dry Heaths in Ireland, for the most part on the mountains, and very few in the plain countries; to the contrary of En­gland, where, as well as in Netherland, Ger­many, and other countries, those Heaths on plain ground are very common in sundrie parts of the land, and many of them of a great extent, ha­ving very many miles in compass; and where any such dry Heaths are in Ireland, the land for the most part is not altogether barren, but gra [...]sy be­tween and at the bottome of the heath; so as the heath being burnt (a thing much used in Ireland both by the English and Irish) the land bringeth reasonable good and sweet grass, fit for sheep to feed on; and with a little extraordinary labour and costs brought to bear corn.

Others of these Heaths are grassie, having the grass growing not all over among the heath, but in spaces by it self: as upon the Heath between the town of Kildare and the Liffie; which is fa­mous over all Ireland by the name of the Cur­rogh of Kildare, being a hilly ground, at its highest neer the said town, from thence to­wards the Liffie descending by degrees, about three miles long, and two or three broad, divi­ded into rowes, of heath and grass; which being of no great breadth, and many in number, doe ly by the [...]ide one of another throughout the whole earth, each of those rowes extending it [Page 108] self in length from the one end of the Currogh to the other, The rowes of Heath are about a stone cast over in some places, in some more, in o­thers less: but those of grass a good deal narrow­er than the others, being alwayes alike green and dry, in the winter as well as the summer, and clothed with short grass, but very sweet and good, very convenient for sheep to feed on; of the which alwaies in time of peace, a very great number is grazing here, the whole Currogh be­ing a Commons.

Sect. 3. Of the Wet Bogs

The places barren through superfluous moi­sture, are bogs called by the Irish Moones, where­of Ireland is full. There is three or four diffe­rent sorts of them; grassy, watery, muddy, and Hassocky, as appeareth more largely by the fol­lowing description. But the English Irish have given the name of Bogs, not only to the wet, of which we are now to treat, but aswell to the turf moores of all sorts, not excepting the red bog, which in most places is firm enough to bear a man, or unshod nagge going over it, but is not for any great weight. But we shall in the following chapters speak in order of the four sorts of wet bggs, which above wee have menti­oned, and afterwards in its due place treat of the turf and red moores, as occasion shall require.

Sect. 4. Of the Grassie Bogs

The grassy Bogs are all over covered with grass, looking fair and pleasant, as if they were dry ground and goodly meadowes; whereby many, who not knowing the nature of those [Page 109] places, and because of the greeness suspecting no evill, goe into them to their great trouble, and many times to the extreme danger of their lives, for the earth being very spongy can bear no weight, but as well men as beast, assoon as they set foot on it doe sink to the ground, some knee deep, others to the wast, and many over head and ears: for all or most bogs in Ireland having underneath a hard and firm gravell are not of an equall depth, which in some is only of two or three feet, in others five, six or more, in somuch that those who fall into the deepest places of these bogs, can hardly escape, but for the most part doe perish, being pittifully smothered.

Some of these bogs, doe so dry up in the sum­mer that they may be passed without danger; the which in particular falleth out in the great Mountaines in Munster in the county of Kerry, called Slew-Logher, upon which all kind of cat­tle doe grase the summer long being every where full of good and sweet grass, knee deep in most places; whereof not the tenth part being eaten (for if all the cattle of that Province were dri­ven thither and left all the summer upon the place it would hardly be consumed) the rest is spoyled when the wet weather cometh in, and stayeth the rain-water from descending; through which the ground rotteth in that manner, that all winter long it is unpassable for men and beasts.

But the deepest bogs are unpassable in the sum­mer as well as in the winter, yet most of them have firm places, in narrow paths, & in some lar­ger parcels; by the meanes whereof those, unto whom they are known, can cross them from [Page 110] one side to another, where others who are not used to them doe not know in what part to set one step; in which nimble trick, called commonly treading of the Bogs, most Irish are very expert, as having been trained up in it from their infancy.

The firm places in passing, or but lightly shaking them, tremble for a great way, which hath given them the name of Shaking-Bogs; and where they are but of a small compass, Quagmires.

Sect. 5. Of the Watery-Bogs, and of the Miry-Bogs.

The Watery-bogs are likewise clothed with Grass, but the water doth not sink altogether into them, as into the former, but remaineth in part standing on the top (in the same man­ner as in some of the Grassie-bogs, and in all the low Pastures and Meddows of Holland) by reason whereof these Bogs are not dange­rous; for every one at the first sight may easily discern them from the firm ground.

These two sorts are in many parts found apart, and in others mixt and interlaced; and likewise parcels both of the one and the other are found up and down in the Moory-heaths and Red-bogs.

Both these sorts, as well the watery as the Green-Bogs, yeeld for the most part very good Turf, much better than the Red-Bogs, where­of more shall be spoken hereafter.

The Miry-Bogs do consist of meer Mud and Mire, with very little or no grass upon them. These are commonly of a very small compass, [Page 111] whereas most part of the other two are of a notable extent, and some of several miles in length and breadth.

Sect. 6. Of the Hassockie-bogs.

Hassockie-bogs we call those, whose ground being miry and muddy is covered over with water a foot or two deep, in some places more, in others less; so as one would sooner take them for Loughs, were it not that they are very thick over-spread with little Tufts or Ilets, the which consisting of Reeds, Rushes, high sower Grass, and sometimes with little Shrubs, for the most part are very small, and have but a few feet in compass; some of them being of the bigness of a reasonable big cham­ber. These little Ilets or Tufts being so many in number, and spread over all the Bog, there remaineth nothing between them but great Plashes of water (in regard whereof these Bogs might well be called Plashy-Bogs) in some places wider, in others narrower, so as from the one men may well step or leap to the other; that which those who are expert in it know how to do very nimble, and so to run from one part of the Bog to another: For the roots of the Rushes, Reeds, and other things grow­ing on those Tufts, are so interwoven, that they can easily bear a man who lightly tread­eth upon them, although they have very little earth, and are wondrous spungy; so as they, when the water being drained, the Bog is dri­ed round about, may easily be plucked from the ground.

The English inhabiting in Ireland have [Page 112] given these Tufts the name of Hassocks, and this sort of Bogs, Hassocky-bogs: Of which Bogs Munster and other Provinces are not al­together free, but most of them are found in Leinster, especially in Kings and Queens-coun­ty, where also the othtr sorts of Bogs are very common; whereas otherwise Connaught is generally fuller of Bogs than any of the other Provinces.

CHAP. XIV Originall of the Bogs in Ireland; and the manner of Draining them, practised there by the En­glish Inhabitants.

Sect. 1. Of the originall of Bogs in this Countrie.

VEry few of the Wet-bogs in Ireland are such by any naturall property, or primi­tive constitution, but through the superfluous moysture that in length of time hath been ga­thered therein, whether it have its originall within the place it self, or be come thither from without. The first of these two cases taketh place in the most part of the Grassie-bogs, which ordinarily are occasioned by Springs; the which arising in great number out of some parcel of ground, and finding no issue, do by degrers soak through, and bring it to that rottenness and spunginess, which ne­vertheless is not a little increased through [Page 113] the rain water comming to that of the Springs.

But the two other sorts, viz. the Waterie and Hassockie-bogs, are in some places caused by the rain-water onely, as in others through brooks and rivelets running into them, and in some through both together; whereunto many times also cometh the cause of the Grassi-bogs, to wit the store of Springs within the very ground: and all this in places, where or through the situ­ation of them, and by reason of their even plain­ness or hollowness, or through some other im­pediment, the water hath no free passage away, but remaineth within them, and so by degrees turneth them into Bogs.

Sect. 2. Retchlesness of the Irish, cause of most of the Bogs. Of trees found in Bogs.

So that it may easily be comprehended, that whoso could drain the water, and for the future prevent the gathering thereof, might reduce most of the Bogs in Ireland to firm land, and preserve them in that condition. But this hath never been known to the Irish, or if it was, they never went about it, but to the contrarie let dai­ly more & more of their good land grow boggy through their carelesness, whereby also most of the Bogs at first were caused.

This being otherwise evident enough, may further be confirmed by the whole bodies of trees, which ordinarily are found by the turf-diggers very deep in the ground, as well of other trees, as of Hasels: likewise they meet sometimes with, the very Nuts themselves in great quantity, the which looking very fair and whole at the outside, as if they came but newly [...] [Page 114] have no kernell within the same, through the great length of time beeing consumed and tur­ned into filth.

And it is worthie of observation, that trees, & truncks of trees, are in this manner found not only in the Wet bogs, but even in the Heathy ones or Red bogs, as by name in that by the Shanon-side, wherof hath been spoken above: in which bog the turf diggers many times doe find whole Firr-trees deep in the ground; whether it be that those trees, being fallen, are by degrees sunk deeper and deeper (the earth of that Bog almost every where being very loose and spungy, as it is in all such Bogs) or that the earth in length of time bee grown over them.

Sect. 3. Draining of the Bogs practised by the English in Ireland.

But as the Irish have been extreme careless in this, so the English, introducers of all good things in Ireland (for which that brutish nation from time to time hath rewarded them with un­thankfulnes, hatred, and envy, and lately with a horrible and bloody conspiracie, tending to their utter destruction) have set their industrie at work for to remedy it, and having considered the nature of the Bogs, and how possible it was to reduce many of them unto good land, did some yeares since begin to goe about it all over the land, and that with very good success; so as I know Gentlemen, who turned into firm land three or four hundred acres of Bog, and in case that this detestable rebellion had not come between, in a few yeares there would scarce have been left one acre of Bog, of what was in the [Page 115] lands and possessiion of the English; except onely those places whose situation is alto­gether repugnant to draining, because that the water either through the hollowness of the place, as in the inclosed valleyes and deep dales between the hils and mountaines, or through the too great evenness & plainness of the ground, not inclining to any one part more than a­nother, cannot be drawn away at all; and except such parcels as needs must have been kept for turf, and Red bogs who are very unfit for draining, for the trenches being made, the earth on both sides will sink into them again, and choak them up.

Sect. 4. Profit reaped by the draining of Bogs.

This draining of the Bogs as it tended not a little to the generall good of the whole land, by amending of the Air (wherof we shall have occasion to say more in some other place) and otherwise, so it brought great profit unto the Authors, for the land or soil of the Bogs being in most places good of it self, and there besides greatly enriched by the lying still and the soa­king in of the water for the space of so many yeares, the same being dryed through the drai­ning of the water, is found to be very sit either to have corn sowed upon, or to be turned into pastures; making also excellent meadowes: so as those, who have tried that, doe affirm, that the meadowes gained out of the Bogs might be com­pared with the very best of their other meadowes, yea many times surpassed the same in goodness: & this took place chiefly in the Grassie bogs or Shak­king bogs, whose fruitfulness in this particular, & in the plentifull production of very sweet and [Page 116] deep grass, after the draining off the water, was very wonderfull; and all this without any other trouble or costs bestowed upon these Meddows, than that they dunged them the first year, to warm them the better, and the sooner, and more thoroughly to amend the remainders of that coldness and rawness contracted through that long and constant continuance of the water upon them; after which once dunging, afterwards for a good many yeares nothing else needed to be done to them.

Sect. 5. The manner of draining the Bogs.

This draining of the Bogs was performed in the manner following. On that side of the Bog, where the ground was somewhat sloaping, they cut a broad deep Trench, beginning it in the firm ground, and advancing it unto the entrance of the Bog, into which Trench the water would sink out of the next parts of the Bog in great a­bundance, and that many times so suddenly, as if a great sluce had been opened, so as the labou­rers were constrained to run out of it with all speed, lest the [...]orce of the water should over­whelm and carry them away. Some part of the Bog being by this meanes grown reasonable dry within a short space of time, opportunity thereby was ministred to advance the Trench further into the Bog; and so by little and little they went on with it untill at last they carryed it quite across the Bog, from the one side to the other: And having done this, they made a great many lesser Trenches out of the main one, on both sides of the same; the which bringing the water from all the parts of the Bog unto the main Trench, did [Page 117] in a little while empty the Bog of all its super­fluous moysture, and turn it into good and firm ground.

Sect. 6. Observation about the falling and setling of the Bogs at their draining.

The Green or Grassie-bogs, the which having all their moysture and water inwardly, are there­by wonderfully swelled and pust up, use by means of this draining to fall very much, and to grow a great deal lower, and that not only apparent­ly, so that the ground which before the drayning was five or six feet high, commeth at last to be not above two or three feet high; but sometimes also suddenly, and within the space of four and twenty, or eight and forty houres; whereas or­dinarily that useth to come to pass in greater length of time; and although the ground by falling in this manner, may seem thereby to have been subject to return to its former boggy condi­tion on the least occasion; nevertheless there was no danger of that, as long as the Trenches were kept open, and thereby the passage kept free for the water, which from time to time would from all parts of the drayned Bog be sinking into them. This water, as at the first draining, so ever after, was by the main Trench carryed unto some Brook, River, or Lough, according as one or o­ther of them was next at hand, and the situation of the land would give opportunity.

CHAP. XV. Of the Woods in Ireland.

Sect. 1. Woods in Ireland are reckoned among the barren lands, and the reason thereof.

AMongst the barren parts of Ireland the Woods must also be counted, according to the usuall division of the lands of that Kingdom, whereby reckoning for fruitfull onely the Med­dows, Arable-grounds, and Pastures, they count all the rest for barren, comprehending them un­der these three generall heads, Bogs, Barren-Mountains, and Woods. Which division as it is in the mouth of all them that have any insight into the matters of that Land, and do, or have li­ved there, so it is further confirmed by a number of Writings and Monuments, both of ancien­ter times, and late ones, in the which it is very common and familiar: As for instance may appear by those several Acts, which since this last Rebellion of the Irish have been made by the Par­liament of England in the behalf of the Adventu­rers who have layd out their monyes for the re­conquering of the revolted parts of that King­dom.

For although the land which the Woods doe take up, is in it self very good in most places, and apt to bear both Corn and Grass plentifully (whereof more shall be sayd by and by) yet as long as the Woods remain standing, it is unfit not only to be made either Arable or Meddow (as in it self is most evident) but even for Pasture, by reason of the overmuch moysture, the roots of the trees staying the rain-water, so as it hath [Page 119] not the liberty to pass away readily, and their stems and branches hindering the free access of the Wind and Sun, whereunto cometh in many parts the grounds own wateriness, occasioned by Springs there arising, and by its situation apt for the gathering and keeping of water, which ma­keth them for the most part so muddy and bog­gy, that cattle cannot conveniently feed in them.

Sect. 2. Woods much diminished in Ireland since the first comming in of the English.

In antient times, and as long as the land was in the full possession of the Irish themselves, all Ireland was very full of Woods on every side, as evidently appeareth by the writings of Giraldus Cambrensis, who came into Ireland upon the first Conquest, in the company of Henry the second, King of England, in the year of our Saviour a eleven hundred seventy and one. But the English having setled themselves in the land, did by de­grees greatly diminish the Woods in all the pla­ces where they were masters, partly to deprive the Theeves and Rogues, who used to lurk in the Woods in great numbers, of their refuge and starting-holes, and partly to gain the greater scope of profitable lands. For the trees being cut down, the roots stubbed up, and the land used and tilled according to exigency, the Woods in most part of Ireland may be reduced not only to very good Pastures, but also to excellent Ara­ble and Meddow.

Through these two causes it is come to pass in the space of many years, yea of some Ages, that a great part of the Woods, which the English [Page 120] found in Ireland at their first arrival there, are quite destroyed, so as nothing at all remaineth of them at this time.

Sect. 3. Diminishing of the Woods during the last Peace.

And even since the subduing of the last great Rebellion of the Irish before this, under the con­duct of the Earl of Tirone (overthrown in the last yeares of Queen Elizabeth by her Viceroy Sir Charles Blunt, Lord Mountjoy, and after­wards Earl of Devonshire) and during this last Peace of about forty years (the longest that Ire­land ever enjoyed, both before and since the comming in of the English) the remaining Woods have very much been diminished, and in sundry places quite destroyed, partly for the rea­son last mentioned, and partly for the wood and timber it self, not for the ordinary uses of buil­ding and firing (the which ever having been a­foot, are not very considerable in regard of what now we speak of) but to make merchandise of, and for the making of Charcoal for the Iron-works. As for the first, I have not heard that great timber hath ever been used to be sent out of Ireland in any great quantity, nor in any or­dinary way of Traffick; but onely Pipe-staves, and the like, of which good store hath been used to be made, and sent out of the Land, even in former times, but never in that vast quantity, nor so constantly as of late years, and during the last Peace, wherein it was grown one of the ordina­ry merchandable commodities of the country, so as a mighty Trade was driven in them, and whole ship-loads sent into forrein countries [Page 121] yearly; which as it brought great profit to the proprietaries, so the felling of so many thousands of trees every year as were employed that way, did make a great destruction of the Woods in tract of time. As for the Charcoal, it is incre­dible what quantity thereof is consumed by one Iron-work in a year: and whereas there was ne­ver an Iron-work in Ireland before, there hath been a very great number of them erected since the last Peace in sundry parts of every Province; the which to furnish constantly with Charcoales, it was necessary from time to time to fell an in­finite number of trees, all the lopings and wind­fals being not sufficient for it in the least man­ner.

Sect. 4. Great part of Ireland very bare of Woods at this time.

Through the aforesayd causes Ireland hath been made so bare of Woods in many parts, that the inhabitants do not onely want wood for fi­ring (being therefore constrained to make shift with turf, or sea-coal, where they are not too far from the sea) but even timber for building, so as they are necessitated to fetch it a good way off, to their great charges, especially in places where it must be brought by land: And in some parts you many travell whole dayes long without seeing any woods or trees except a few about Gentlemens houses; as namely from Dub­lin, and from places that are some miles further to the South of it, to Tredagh, Dundalk, the Nurie, and as far as Dremore; in which whole extent of land, being above threescore miles, one doth not come near any woods worth the [Page 123] speaking of, and in some parts thereof you shall not see so much as one tree in many miles. For the great Woods which the Maps doe represent unto us upon the Mountains be­tween Dundalk and the Nury, are quite vani­shed, there being nothing left of them these many years since, but one only tree, standing close by the highway, at the very top of one of the Mountains, so as it may be seen a great way off, and therefore serveth travellers for a mark.

Section. 5. Many great Woods still left in Ireland.

Yet notwithstanding the great destruction of the Woods in Ireland, occasioned by the a­foresayd causes, there are still sundry great Woods remaining, and that not onely in the other Provinces, but even in Leinster it self. For the County of Wickloe, Kings-county, and Queens-county, all three in that Province, are throughout full of Woods, some whereof are many miles long and broad. And part of the Counties of Wexford and Carloe are like­wise greatly furnished with them.

In Ulster there be great Forrests in the Coun­ty of Donegall, and in the North-part of Ti­rone, in the Country called Glankankin. Also in the County of Fermanagh, along Lough-Earne; in the County of Antrim; and in the North-part of the County of Down; in the two Countries called Killulta and Kilwarlin; besides severall other lesser Woods in sundry parts of that Province. But the County of Louth, and far the greatest part of the Countys [Page 122] of Down, Armagh, Monaghan, and Cavan (all in the same Province of Ulster) are almost e­very where bare, not onely of Woods, but of all sorts of Trees, even in places which in the beginning of this present Age, in the War with Tirone, were encumbred with great and thick Forrests.

In Munster where the English, especially the Earl of Cork, have made great havock of the Woods during the last Peace, there be still sun­dry great Forests remaining in the Counties of Kerry, and of Tipperary; and even in the County of Cork, where the greatest destruction therof hath bin made, some great Woods are yet remaining, there being also store of scattered Woods both in that County, and all the Pro­vince over.

Connaught is well stored with trees in most parts, but hath very few Forests or great Woods, except in the Counties of Maio and Sligo.

CHAP. XVI. Of the Mines in Ireland, and in particular of the Iron-mines.

Sect. 1. All the Mines in Ireland discovered by the New-English.

THe Old-English in Ireland, that is, those who are come in from the time of the first Conquest, untill the beginning of Queen Elizabeths Reign, have been so plagued with [Page 124] Wars from time to time, one while intestine among themselves, and another while with the Irish, that they could scarce ever find the op­portunity of seeking for Mines, and searching out the Metals hidden in the bowels of the Earth. And the Irish themselves, as being one of the most barbarous Nations of the whole earth, have at all times been so far from seek­ing out any, that even in these last years, and since the English have begun to discover some, none of them all, great nor small, at any time hath applyed himself to that business, or in the least manner furthered it.

So that all the Mines which to this day are found out in Ireland, have been discovered (at least as for to make any use of them) by the New-English, that is, such as are come in du­ring, and since the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Severall whereof having begun to give their minds to it during the last Peace, have in a few years found out a great many Iron-Mines in sundry parts of the Kingdom, and also some of Lead and Silver; which greatly con­firmeth the opinion of many knowing per­sons, who hold that the Mountains of Ireland are full of Metals, and that if the same indu­stry and diligence had been used by the inha­bitants of that Country in former Ages, as there hath been since the beginning of the pre­sent, many more Mines might have been dis­covered, not only of the same Minerals as have been found out hitherto, but of others also, and perhaps even of Gold it self.

Sect. 2. Grounds to beleeve that there are Gold-mines in Ireland.

I beleeve many will think it very unlikely, that there should be any Gold-mines in Ireland; but a credible person hath given me to under­stand, that one of his acquaintance had severall times assured him, that out of a certain rivelet in the County of nether-Tirone, called Miola (the which rising in the Mountains Slew-galen, and passing by the village Maharry, falleth into the North-west corner of Lough-Neaugh, close by the place where the River Band commeth out of it) hee had gathered about one dram of pure gold; concluding thereby, that in the afore­said Mountains rich Gold-mines doe lye hidden.

For it is an ordinary thing for rivers, which take their originall in gold-bearing mountains, to carry Gold mixt with their sand; the which may bee confirmed by many instances, and to say nothing of severall Rivers of that kind, mentioned by Staabo, Pliny, & other old Geogra­phers and Historians, nor of Pactolus and Her­mus in Lydia, and Tagus in Spain, whereof all the old Poets are full; it is certain, that in our very times severall rivers in Germanie, as the Elbe, Schwarts, Sala, and others, doe carrie gold, and have it mixed with their sands; out of the which by the industry of man it is collected.

Sect. 3. Three sorts of Iron-mines in Ireland: and first of the first sort, Bog-mine.

But to let alone uncertain conjectures, and to content our selves with the Mines that are al­ready discovered, we will in order speak of [Page 126] them, and begin with the Iron-mines. Of them there are three sorts in Ireland, for in some places the Oar of the Iron is drawn out of Moores and Bogs, in others it is hewen out of Rocks, and in others it is digged out of Mountains: of which three sorts the first is called Bog-mine, the other Rock-mine, and the third with severall names White-mine, Pin-mine, and Shel-mine.

The first sort, as wee have said, and as the name it self doth shew, is found in low and boggie places, out of the which it is raised with very little charge, as lying not deep at all, commonly on the superficies of the earth, and about a foot in thickness. This Oar is very rich of metall, and that very good and tough, nevertheless in the melting it must be mingled with some of the Mine or Oar of some of the other sorts: for else it is too harsh, and keeping the furnace too hot, it melteth too suddenly, and stoppeth the mouth of the furnace, or, to use the workmens own expression choaketh the furnace. Whilest this Oar is new, it is of a yellowish colour, and the substance of it somewhat like unto clay, but if you let it lye any long time in the open air, it groweth not only very dry, as the clay u­seth to doe, but moldereth and dissolveth of it self, and falleth quite to dust or sand, and that of a blackish or black-brown colour.

Sect. 4. Of the second sort of Iron-mine, called Rock-mine.

The second sort, that which is taken out of Rocks, being a hard and meer stony substance, of a dark and rustie colour, doth not lye scatte­red in severall places, but is a piece of the very rock, of the which it is hewen: which Rock being [Page 127] covered over with earth, is within equallie e­very where of the same substance; so as the whole Rock, and every parcell thereof, is Oar of Iron. This Mine, as well as the former, is raised with little trouble, for the Iron-rock being full of joints, is with pick-axes easily divided and bro­ken into pieces of what bigness one will: which by reason of the same joints, whereof they are full every where, may easily be broke into other lesser pieces; as that is necessary, before they be put into the furnace.

This Mine or Oar is not altogether so rich as the Bog-mine, and yeeldeth very brittle Iron, hardly fit for any thing else, but to make plow-shares of it (from whence the name of colt-share Iron is given unto it) and therefore is seldom melted alone, but mixed with the first or the third sort.

Of this kind hitherto there hath but two Mines been discovered in Ireland, the one in Munster, neer the town of Tallo, by the Earl of Cork his Iron works; the other in Leinster, in Kings county, in a place called Desert land, be­longing to one Serjeant Major Piggot, which rock is of so great a compass, that before this re­bellion it furnished divers great Iron-works, and could have furnished many more, without any notable diminution; seeing the deepest pits that had been yet made in it, were not above two yards deep. The land, under which this rock ly­eth, is very good and fruitfull, as much as any o­ther land thereabouts, the mold being generallie two feet and two and a half, and in many pla­ces three feet deep.

Sect. 5. Of the third sort of Iron-mine.

The third sort of Iron-mine is digged out of the mountains, in severall parts of the Kingdome; in Vlster, in the County of Fermanagh, upon Lough Earne; in the County of Cavan, in a place called Douballie, in a drie mountain; and in the County of Nether-Tirone, by the side of the rive­let Lishan, not farre from Lough Neaugh; at the foot of the mountains Slew-galen men­tioned by us upon an other occasion, in the beginning at this Chapter: in Leinster▪ in Kings-countie, hard by Mountmelick; and in Queens-countie, two miles from Mountrath: in Connaught; in Tomound or the County of Clare, six miles from Limmerick; in the Coun­ty of Roscomen, by the side of Lough Al­len; and in the County of Letrim, on the East-side of the said Lough, where the mountains are so full of this metall, that thereof it hath got in Irish the name of Slew Neren, that is, Mountains of Iron: and in the Province of Munster also in sundry places.

This sort is of a whitish or gray colour, like that of ashes; and one needs not take much pains for to find it out, for the mountaines which doe contain it within themselves, doe commonly shew it of their own accord, so as one may see the veins thereof at the very outside in the sides of the mohntains, beeing not very broad, but of great length, and commonly divers in one place, five or six ridges the one above the other, with ridges of earth between them.

[Page 129]These Veins or Ridges are vulgarly called Pins, from whence the Mine hath the name of Pin-mine; being also called White-mine, be­cause of its whitish colour; and Shel-mine, for the following reason: for this stuff or Oar being neither loose or soft as earth or clay, neither firm and hard as stone, is of a middle substance be­tween both, somewhat like unto Slate, compo­sed of shels or scales, the which do lye one upon another, and may be separated and taken asunder very easily, without any great force or trouble. This stuff is digged out of the ground in lumps of the bigness of a mans head, bigger, or less, ac­cording as the Vein assordeth opportunitie. Within every one of these lumps, when the Mine is very rich and of the best sort (for all the Oar of this kind is not of equall goodness, some yeeld­ing more and better Iron than other) lyeth a small Kernell, which hath the name of Hony-comb given to it, because it is full of little holes, in the same manner as that substance whereof it borroweth its appellation.

The Iron comming of this Oar is not brittle, as that of the Rock-mine, but tough, and in ma­ny places as good as any Spanish Iron.

Sect. 6. Iron-works erected by the English.

The English having discovered these Mines, endeavoured to improve the same, & to make pro­fit of them, and consequently severall Iron-works were erected by them in sundry pats of the Land, [...]s namely by the Earl of Cork in divers places in Munster; by Sr Coarles Coot in the Counties of Roscomen and Letrim, in Connaught, and in Leinster by Mountrath, in Queens-county; by [Page 130] the Earl of London-derry at Ballonakill, in the sayd County; by the Lord Chancelour Sir Adam Loftus, Vicount of Ely, at Mount-melik, in Kings-county; by Sir Iohn Dun­bar in Fermanagh, in Ulster; and another in the same County, by the side of Lough-Earne, by Sir Leonard Bleverhasset; in the County of Tomond, in Connaught, by some London-Merchants; besides some other Works in other places, whose first Erectors have not come to my knowledge.

In imitation of these have also been erected divers Iron-works in sundry parts of the sea-coast of Ulster and Munster, by persons, who having no Mines upon or near their own Lands, had the Oare brought unto them by sea out of England; the which they found better cheap than if they had caused it to be fetched by land from some of the Mines with­in the land. And all this by English, whose industry herein the Irish have been so far from imitating, as since the beginning of this Re­bellion they have broke down and quite de­molished almost all the fore-mentioned Iron-works, as well those of the one as of the other sort.

CHAP. XVII. Of the Iron-works▪ their fashion, charges of erecting and maintaining th [...]m, and profit comming of them: With an exact description of the manner of melting the Iron in them.

Sect. 1. The fashion of the Iron-works.

THe fashion of the Iron-works, of whose erection we have spoke in the end of the foregoing Chapter, is such as followeth. At the end of a great Barn standeth a huge Fur­nace, being of the height of a pike and a half, or more, and four-square in figure, but after the manner of a Mault-kiln, that is, narrow below, and by degrees growing wider towards the top, so as the compass of the mouth or the top is of many fathoms. This mouth is not covered, but open all over; so that the flame, when the furnace is kindled, rising through the same without any hindrance, may be seen a great way off in the night, and in the midst of the darkness maketh a terrible shew to tra­vellers, who do not know what it is.

These Ovens are not kindled with wood, nor with sea-coal, but meerly vvith char-coal, whereof therefore they consume a huge quan­tity: For the Furnace being once kindled, is never suffered to go out, but is continually kept a burning from the one end of the year to the other: And the proportion of the coals [Page 132] to the Oare is very great: For the Mine would not melt without an exceeding hot fire; the which that it may be the more quick and vio­lent, it is continually blown day and night without ceasing by two vast pair of bellow [...], the which resting upon main peeces of timber, and with their pipes placed into one of the sides of the Furnace, are perpetually kept in action by the meanes of a great wheel, which being driven about by a little brook or wa­ter-course, maketh them rise and fall by turns, so that whilst the one pair of bellows doth swell and fill it self with wind, the other doth blow the same forth into the Furnace.

Sect. 2. Of the lesser Iron-works, called Bloomeries: Of the Hammer-works: And of the Casting works.

There is another and lesser sort of Iron-works, much different from the former: For instead of a Furnace they use a Hearth therein, altogether of the fashion of a Smiths Hearth, whereon the Oare being layd in a great heap, it is covered over with abundance of Char­coal, the which being kindled, is continually blown by Bellows that are moved by Wheeles and Water-courses, in the same manner as in the other Works.

These Works, commonly called Bloome­ries, are in use, or were so before this Rebel­lion in sundry places of the North-parts of Ulster.

Besides these two sorts of Works, where the Iron-mine is melted, there is a third sort, [Page 133] where the Iron after the first melting is ham­mered out into Bars, of which we shall have occasion to speak more in the latter end of this present Chapter.

There were also in some parts of Ireland yet another kind of Iron-works, differing from all the former, where the Iron was cast into Ordnance, Pots, small round Furnaces, and other things; of which Works Mr Chri­stopher Wandsworth, Master of the Rolls of Ire­land, and in his latter dayes Lord Deputy of the same Kingdom under the Earl of Strafford, then Lord Lieutenant thereof, had one upon his lands by Idough in the County of Carloe; whereof we cannot give the Reader any parti­culars, because we have not yet been informed thereof.

Sect. 3. Conveniencies requisite to the erecting of an Iron-work.

In the erecting of these Works men seek to make them as near to the Mine as may be, to get the more profit by them: for the greater the distance is, the greater are the charges in having the Oare brought from the Mine to the Furnace, especially where all must be carried by land, the which doth fall out so in far the most places.

But many times one is necessitated to make the Works a good way further from the Mine, than otherwise one would, because of the Wa­ter-courses, the which being of very great con­sequence in the well-settling of a Work, and absolutely necessary (the wheels being all mo­ved by water) those places must be made choice [Page 134] of, where one may have the conveniency of Water-courses. And besides all this, regard must be had to the nearness of the Woods, partly by reason of the Timber, a great deal whereof is necessary for the erecting of one of these Workes, and chiefly for the Charcoales sake, of which a vast quantity continually is requisite, as before we have shewed.

Sect. 4. The charges of erecting and maintaining an Iron-work.

It is to be observed, that although there be Wood enough upon ones land, and that not very far from the Mine, together with the con­veniences of Water-courses, so as the water needeth not to be brought from very far off, nevertheless the charge is very great, both of e­recting and stocking one of the Iron-works, and of maintaining it and keeping it afoot, and that by reason of the great number of Workmen▪ and Labourers of severall sorts, which thereunto is requisite; a list of whose names and offices here followeth: Wood-cut­ters, who fell the timber; Sawyers, to saw the timber; Carpenters, Smiths, Masons, and Bel­low-makers, to erect the Iron-works, with all the appurtenances thereof, and to repair them from time to time; Water-leaders, or Water-course-keepers, to steer the Water-courses, and to look to them constantly; Basket-makers, to make baskets for to carry the Oare and other materials; Boat-men, and Boat-wrights to make the Boats, and to go in them; Diggers, who work in the Mine, and dig the same; Carriers, who carry the Oare from the Mine; Colliers, [Page 135] who make the Char-coal; corders, who bring the Char-coal to the work; fillers, whose work it is from time to time to put the Mine and the coales into the furnace; keepers of the furnace, who look to the main work, rake out the ashes and cinders, and let out the molten metall at convenient times; finers, who look to the works where the Iron is hammered; hammerers, whose work it is to see the Iron hammered out: besides severall other labourers, who having no parti­cular task, must help to put their hand to every thing: of all which sorts of men Sir Charles Coot the elder, that zealous and famous Warriour in this present warre against the Irish Rebells (wherein having done many memorable exploits, he lost his life in the first year thereof) did conti­nually keep at work some five-and-twenty or six-and-twenty hundred, at his Iron-works, be­ing three in number. Wherby may easily be ga­thered the greatness of the expences in erecting & maintaining of Iron-works: and for all this the owners thereof did greatly gain thereby, or­dinarily no less than forty in the hundred per annum.

Sect. 5. Of the profit of the Iron-works instan­ced in those of Sir Charles Coot by Mountrath

To speak somewhat more particularlie both of the charges and the profits of these Iron-works, we shal instance the matter in one of the works of the said Sr Charles Coot, namely that which he had in the Lordship of Mountrath, in Queens-county. At that work the Tun (that is twenty hundred weight) of Rock-mine at the furnace head came [Page 136] in all to stand in five shillings six pence sterling, and the Tun of White-mine, which hee had brought him from a place two miles further off in seven shillings. These two were mixed in that proportion, that to one part of Rock-mine were taken two parts of White-mine: for if more of the Rock-mine had bin taken, the Iron would not have bin so good, and too brittle; and being thus mixed, they yeelded one third part of Iron: that is to say, of two Tuns of White-mine, and one of Rock-mine, being mingled and melted together, they had one Tun of good I­ron, such as is called Merchants-Iron, being not of the first, but second melting, and hammered out into barres, and consequently fit for all kinds of use

This Iron he sent down the river Oure (by o­thers called the Nure) to Rosse and Waterford in that kind of Irish boates which are called Cots in that countrie, being made of one piece of tim­ber: which kind of ill-favoured boats (mentioned also by us above) are very common throughout all Ireland, both for to pass rivers in, and to car­ry goods from one place to another; and not on­ly upon shallow waters, such as the aforenamed River is in the greatest part of its course, but e­ven upon the great Rivers and Loughs.

At Waterford the Iron was put aboard of ships going for London, where it was sold for six­teen, otherwhiles for seventeen pounds stering, and sometimes for seventeen and a half; where­as it did not stand Sir Charles Coot in more than betwixt tenne and eleven pounds sterling, all charges reckoned, as well of digging, melting, fi­ning, as of carrying, boat-hire, and freight, even [Page 137] the Custome also comprehended in it.

Sect. 6. Some other particulars about the same subiect, of the prosit of the Iron-workes.

In most of the other places did a Tun of the Iron-mine or Oar come to stand in five, five and a half, and six shillings sterling at the furnace head; and it was an ordinary thing, as well where they used White-wine, as where they mixed Rock-mine with it, to have a Tun of good Iron out of three tuns of Oar: in some places, where the Mine was richer, they would have a Tun of Iron out of only two Tuns and a half of Oar. Nevertheless few of them gained more or as much as Sir Charles Coot, because they had not the same conveniencie of transpor­tation: And he himselfe did not gain so much by his Iron works in Connaught, as by that neer Mountrath, although the Mines there afforded a richer Oar, and that the Tun thereof did cost him but three shillings at the furnace, because that Lough-Allen, whereunto the same Mines and Works are contiguons, gave him the opportu­nitie of carrying the Oar by water from the Mine unto the Work, and that in boates of forty tuns.

The Earl of Cork whose Iron-works being seated in Munster, afforded unto him very good opportunitie of sending his Iron out of the land by shipping, did in this particular surpass all o­thers, so as he hath gained great treasures there­by: and knowing persons, who have had a par­ticular insight into his affaires, doe assure me, that he hath profited above one hundred thou­sand pounds clear gain by his said Iron-works.

Sect. 7. The manner of melting the Iron-oar.

The manner of melting the Iron, usuall in Ireland, is thus. The furnace is not filled to the top, but some space is left emptie; and to put new stuff into it they doe not stay untill the former be quite consumed, but only untill it be some­what descended, and then they cast into it some charges or basketfuls of Coales, and at the top of them the same quantity of Mine: and thus they doe from time to time, so as the furnace is in [...] manner alwaie [...] in one and the same estate; where is to be observed, that in most furnaces they adde unto the Oar and Coales some quantity of Iron-cinders, and in others of Lime-stone, whereby the melting of the Iron is greatly furthered, and the furnace made to work more mildly.

Within the barn, at the bottome of the fur­nace, stand constantly two men, one of each side, the which with long iron hooks, through holes left for the purpose, doe every quarter of an hour draw out the unburnt coales, ashes, and cin­ders; which cinders are great lumps of a firm sub­stance, but brittle, of a blackish colour, shining, but not transparent; being nothing else but the remainder of the Iron-oar, after that the Iron which was contained in it, is melted out on't

The Iron it self descendeth to the lowest part of the furnace, called the Hearth; the which being filled, (so that, if one stayed longer, the Iron would begin to swim over through the afore­said holes) they unstop the Hearth, and open the mouth thereof (or the Timpas the Arts-men call it) taking away a little door, of fashion like unto that of a bakers oven, wherewith the same [Page 139] was shut up very close. The floor of the barn hath a mold of sand upon it, where-in, before they open the furnace, a furrow is made, of sufficient breadth and depth, through the whole length of the barn, from the bottom of the furnace until the barns door: into which furrow, as soon as the furnace is opened, the molten Iron runneth very suddenly and forcibly, being to look on like unto a stream or current of fire. It remai­neth a long time hot, but doth presently loose its liquidness and redness, turning into a hard and stiff mass, which mas [...]es are called Sowes by the workmen.

Sect. 8. Of the different Bigness of the Iron Sowes

These Masses or Sowes of Iron are not alwaies of one and the same weight and bigness, but there is them of all sizes, from one hundred weight untill thirtie hundred: which difference doth chiefly depend on the different bigness of the furnace and hearth, and partly on the will and discretion of the workmaster or founder, and according as he either stayeth untill the hearth be full, or letteth out the Iron sooner; but ordinarily they doe not use to cast, or to open the hearth, under less than twelve houres, nor to stay much longer than four-and-twenty.

And here is to be observed, that even in fur­naces of the same biguess, yea in the self-same fur­naces, the same quantity of Iron is not alwaies cast in the same space of time: but that vari­eth both according to the nature of the Oar, and according to the different seasons of the year. For within the same compasse of time you shall cast a greater quantitie of Iron out of [Page 140] a rich Mine or Oar, than out of a lean one; and in the summer time, when the Coales come in dry and fresh, than in the winter.

Sect. 9. Of the refining of the Sow-Iron, and the hammering it into Barres.

The Sowe [...] are with teams of Oxen drawn to the Hammer-works, where being put into the fire again, they melt them into the finerie, the Finer turning the melted stuff to and fro, till it come to be a solid body, then he carrieth it under the hammer, where it is hammered out into such flat narrow and thin bars, as are to be seen every where: the hammers being huge big ones, and never ceasing from knocking day nor night, as being kept at work by the means of certain wheels, turned about by Water-cour­ses in the same manner as the wheels of the Bellows.

By means of this second melting, and of that mighty hammering, the Iron is freed from a mighty deal of dross and dregs which it kept sticking to it, thorough its whole sub­stance, in the first melting; and so of impure called Sow-Iron, becometh to be usefull, such as is accustomed to be delivered unto Mer­chants, being therefore called Merchants-Iron; one Tun whereof is usually had out of a Tun and a half of Sow-Iron; but if that be of the best sort, and cast of the best Oare, two hun­dred pounds, less of it will yeeld the afore­sayd quantity of a Tun of Merchants-Iron.

CHAP. XVIII. Of the Mines of Silver and Lead in Ire­land: and occasionally of the pestife­rous Damps and Vapours within the Earth.

Sect. 1. Of the severall Mines of Silver and Lead, and in particular that of Tipperary▪

MInes of Lead and S [...]lver in Ireland have to this day been found out, three in number; one in Ulster, in the County of An­trim, very rich, forasmuch as with every thirty pounds of Lead it yeeldeth a pound of pure Silver; another in Connaught, upon the very Harbour-mouth of Sligo, in a little Demy-Iland commonly called Conny-Iland; and a third in Munster. The first two having been discovered but a few years before this present Rebellion, were through several impediments never taken in hand yet; wherefore we shall speak only of the third.

This Mine standeth in the County of Tip­perary, in the Barony of Upper-Ormond, in the Parish of Kilmore, upon the Lands of one Iohn Mac-Dermot O-kennedy, not far from the Castle of Downallie, twelve miles from Lim­merick, and threescore from Dublin. The land where the Mine is, is mountainous and barren; but the bottoms, and the lands adjoyn­ing, are very good for Pasture, and partly A­rable; of each whereof the Miners had part, to the value of twenty pounds sterling per an­num [Page 142] every one. It was found out not above forty years agoe, but understood at the first onely as a Lead-mine, and accordingly given notice of to Donogh Earl of Thomond, then Lord President of Munster, who made use of some of the Lead for to cover the house which he then was building at Bunrattie: But afterwards it hath been found, that with the Lead of this Mine there was mixed some Silver.

Sect. 2. The manner of digging this Mine: the nature of the Oare, and what pro­portions of Silver and Lead it yeelds.

The Veins of this Mine did commonly rise within three or four spits of the superficies, and they digged deeper as those Veines went, digging open pits very far into the ground, many fathoms deep, yea Castle-deep; the pits not being steep, but of that fashion as people might go in and out with Wheel-barrows, be­ing the onely way used by them for to carry out the Mine or Oare. The water did seldom much offend them; for when either by the falling of much rain, or by the discovering of some Spring or Water-source, they found themselves annoyed by it, they did by Condu­its carry it away to a brook adjoyning, the Mountain being so situate, as that might be done easily.

This Mine yeelds two different sorts of Oare; of which the one, and that the most in quantitie, is of a reddish colour, hard, and glistering; the other is like a Marle, somthing [Page 143] bl [...]wish, and more soft than the red; and this was counted the best, producing most Silver, whereas the other, or glistering sort, was very barren, and went most away into litteridge or dross.

The Oar yeelded one with another three pound weight of Silver out of each Tun, but a great quantity of Lead, so as that was coun­ted the best profit to the Farmer.

Besides the Lead and Silver the Mine produ­ced also some Quicksilver, but not any Alome, Vitriol, or Antimony, that I could hear of.

Sect. 3. Profits of this Mine. It hach been de­stroyed by the Irish Rebels.

The silver of this Mine was very fine, so as the Farmers sold it at Dublin for five shillings two pence sterling the ounce; as for the Lead, that they sold on the place for eleven pounds sterling the Tun, and for twelve pounds at the city of Lim­merick. The King had the sixt part of the silver for his share, and the tenth part of the Lead, the rest remaining to the farmers, whose clear pro­fit was estimated to be worth two thousand pounds sterling yearly.

All the Mil [...], Melting-houses, Refining-houses, and other necessary work-houses, stood within one quarter of a mile at the furthest from the place where the Mine was digged, every one of them having been very conveniently and suffi­ciently built and accommodated by the Officers and substitutes of Sir William Russell, Sir Ba­sill Brook, and Sir George Hamilton, which three persons successively had this Mine in farm from the King, but in the beginning of this pre­sent [Page 144] Rebellion all this hath been destroyed by the Irish under the conduct of Hugh O-kennedy, bro­ther of Iohn Mac-Dermot O-kennedy, on whose lands the Mine was situated: which Rebels not content to lay wast the Mine, and to demolish all the works thereunto belonging, did accompany this their barbarousness with bloo­dy cruelty against the poor workmen, such as were imployed about the melting and refining of the Oar, and in all offices thereunto belon­ging▪ the which some of them being English, and the rest Dutch (because the Irish having no skill at all in any of those things, had never been im­ployed in this Mine otherwise than to digg it, and to doe other labours) were all put to the sword by them, except a very few, who by flight escaped their hands.

Sect. 4. This Mine free from deadly vapours, the which otherwise in Ireland are bred within the Earth, as well as in other C [...]untries, as is in­stanced in a very remarkable History.

I have not heard that any of the Miners hath been stifled in this Mine, a thing ordinary enough in other countries: the reason whereof I conceive to be, because the work was done in wide and open pits, wherein the like noxious vapours can neither be so easily engendred, and when they arise find a free passage into the open air, to the contrary of those close and narrow vaults usuall in the most part of other Mines.

For else that the Earth of Ireland is subject, as well as that of other countries, to breed dan­gerous damps within her self, is undoubted, as evidently it appeared in the year sixteen hundred [Page 145] thirty seven, by this following accident.

A Maulter living in the suburbs of Dublin in St Francis-street caused a Well to be digged three yards deep, which yeelding but little water, and that not very sweet nor clear, resolved to have it made deeper; and injoyned a servant of his, to work at it at spare times, which he doing, and ha­ving digged a yard and half lower, the water of it begun the 24 of August to bubble up in a strange manner, making great noise; which having con­tinued two dayes, without any notable increase, hardly comming half-way the knees; he went down again into the Well, to digge there accor­ding to his custome. But having wrought but a little while, and being taken with a sudden gid­diness in his head, and faintness at his heart, made hast to get out, and being revived, returned to fetch away his spade and other instruments; but com­ming to the bottom he fell into a deadly sown, which being s [...]en by those that were present, one of them went down to help him up; unto whom the same accident happened. All the spectators being greatly astonished, and their tumult ha­ving drawn-on a great concourse of people, the place were the Well was being an open yard, looking into the main street; a certaine man, new­ly come to town, and casually passing by that way, not affrighted by the example of those two, had the courage to goe down to fetch the former out, but with as ill success as they themselves. The wonder and amazement being hereby increased among the people, there was nevertheless a But­cher (a bold robustuous man) who having drunk somewhat liberally, would notwithstanding these sad accidents goe in, which at the first not being [Page 146] suffered, and he continuing in his resolution, was at last permitted on condition that he let a strong cord be tyed about his wast to pull him out, if he found himself ill; the which to signifie he was to hold up his right hand. But being come to the bottome, and suddenly taken with a dead­ly faintness, that he had neither time nor power to give the appointed sign, falling from the lad­der; and being haled out with all possible speed, found to be in a deep trance, but with perfect signes of life: wherefore being carried to his own house, put into his bed, and care taken of him, it was nevertheless 24 houres before he came to himself.

The dead bodies being drawn out of the Well it was filled with earth by order of the Magistrat of the said City.

Sect. 5. Relation of an accident like the former happened at London.

The like accidents have at severall times been seen in other Countries, whereof wee could al­lege many instances, but passing by all other we shall make mention of one lately befaln here at London. Without Aldesgate, there is a little court called Carpenters-yard, in the midst of which there stood a Pump; the water whereof not being good for to dress meat, was used by the neighbours only for the washing and cleaning of their houses, and the like. But in length of time being grown so thick and muddy that no use could be made out, it was resolved that the Well, whereout the Pump drew its water, should be made clean, to which purpose the Pump being taken down, in the latter end of Iuly anno sixteen hundred fourtie four, a laborer was let down [Page 147] with a cord into the Well, being little and nar­row, to take out the mud by pailes full, which assoon as he came to the bottome presently fell stark dead. Those that had let him down, seeing this, and suspecting nothing else, but that a sud­dain faintness had overcome him, let down ano­ther to see what he ayled, and to bring him out. But he sped no better than the first, which when the people perceived, no more went into the Well▪ untill three or four houres after, in which mid­dle-space of time a great Iron pan or plate, hea­ped up with burning charcoal, had been let down into the Well, and severall times as the fire did slaken, renewed, that through the heat thereof that mortiferous vapour might bee overcome and dispersed, the which accordingly fell out; so that the person aferwards went down to fetch away the dead bodies, got no hurt at all. A great covered or vaulted gutter, whereby the ordures of the streets are under ground conveyed into the City ditch, passeth under the yard where-in the said Well, (dammed up since this sad accident) did stand; so as it may bee probably beleeved that that deadly infection of the air within the same Well had partly been caused through the neerness of the same sewer.

CHAP. XIX. Of the Free-stone, Marble, Flints, Slate, and Seacoles which are found in Ireland

Sect. 1. Of the Free-stone,

HAving in the precedent Chapters treated of the Metals and Minerals, which are found in Ireland, we shall now go on to speak of severall other substances, raised out of the ground there, of a less noble nature, but nevertheless profitable and serving for severall good uses.

To begin with Free-stone, there is two sorts of it, the one being gray or ash-coloured, and the other blew; which both for the most part ly­ing in the uppermost parts of the ground, co­vered over with very little earth, are raised with small labour and charge, whereas in most other countries it is as much labour to digge Free-stone as the metalls themselves, The blew Free-stone is not very abundant, and as little in request, as unfit for great buildings; it lying for the most part in small unshapely peeces; and when they are bigger commonly broke in the raising and hewing, partly through the unskilfullness of the workmen there, and chiefly because they are exceeding hard, and cannot well endure the Iron. The gray free-stone which is found very abundantly in most parts of the land is of a contrary nature; and may easily be cut out into stones of all bigness or fashion, wherefore also this sort hath been used by the English, to all the Churches, Castles, and Edifices, which since the Conquest have been builded by them; For the [Page 149] Irish themselves, never had the skill nor industry to erect any considerable buildings of Free-stone, Brick, or other the like materials, their dwellings being very poor and contemptible cottages. True it is, that the English at their first comming found several Maritine-townes in Ireland with stone-walls and houses, the Churches also, not onely in those, but in many other Towns being of the same. But built by strangers, who being come out of the Northern parts of Germany, and other neighbouring Countries, had setled themselves there, inhabiting severall parts of the Sea-coasts, some Ages before the English-Con­quest; which people called themselves Oast­mans, or Easterlings; all those Countries of the which they were come being situated to the East of Ireland.

Sect. 2. Certain evill properties of the Irish Free-stone.

This sort of Gray Fre [...]-stone in Ireland hath a bad qualitie, that it draweth the moysture of the air continually to it, and so becommeth dank and wet both in and out-side, especially in times of much rain. To mend this incon­venience the English did wainscot those walls with oak or other boards, or line them with a thin crust of brick.

Sect▪ 3. Of the Marble.

Besides the Free-stone, which is almost in every part of the land, there is Marble found in many places of severall sorts; one is red, straked with white and other colours, such as with a pe­culiar name is called Porphyre; other black, very curiously straked with white, and some all of one colour.

[Page 150]The first two sorts are found but in smal quantity, especially the second. But the last is very abundant in some places, but most about Kilkenny, where not onely many houses are built of the same, but whole streets are paved with it.

Sect. 4. Description of the Marble-quarrie at Kilkenny.

The Quarrie out of which they have their Mar­ble at Kilkenney, is not above a quarter of a mile distant from the Town, and belongeth to no body in particular, lying in common for all the Townsmen, who at any time may fetch as much out of it, as seemeth good unto them, without paying any thing for it: It is in fashion like unto Quarries of Free-stone, to wit, a wide o­pen pit, whereout stones and pillars of great thickness and height may be digged. This Mar­ble, whilst it is rude, and as it cometh out of the ground, looketh grayish, but being polished it getteth a fine blewish colour, drawing somwhat towards the black.

Sect. 5. Of the Flint.

Although Flints are not digged from under the ground, yet shall we give them a place next to the Free-stone and Marble, because of the affi­nity which they have with them. They are found in every part of Ireland in great abundance near the sea-side, within the land, upon the hils and mountains, and in the rivers, many of which have not onely their banks covered with them, but also the bottom of their chanels, and that for great spaces togeth [...]r, which as they are o [...] [Page 151] all sizes and fashions, so of very different co­lours.

Sect. 6. Of the Slate.

In sundry parts of Ireland Slate is found in great abundance, and that nothing deep within the ground, just in the same manner as the Free-stone, so as it may be raised with little charge and labour; wherefore at all times it hath been much used by the English inhabitants for the co­vering of their houses and other buildings. Ne­vertheless some years since in places near the sea, especially at Dublin, that kind of Holland Tiles, which by them are called Pannen begun to be used generally, the Merchants causing them to be brought in from thence in great abundance, be­cause in Ireland they had neither convenient stuff to make them of, nor work-men skilfull in that business: although the common Tiles usual in many parts of England and other Countries, were made and used in several places within the land.

Besides these there was another kind of cove­ring in use, both for Churches and houses, to wit, a certain sort of woodden Tiles, vulgarly called Shingles; the which are thight enough at the first, but do not many yeares continue so, it being necessary to change them often: which thing properly not appertaining to this Chapter, we nevertheless for affinities sake have thought not amiss here to mention.

Some yeares ago another kind of Slate hath been discovered in Ireland, which for the co­lours-sake is called Black-slate, being of a blackish colour, which is come into great esteem, not so [Page 152] much for the ordinary use of covering houses, for which they are no better than common Slate, but because it hath been found by experience, very good and medicinall against severall dis­eases, especially to stay all kind of bleeding, and to hinder that after falls and bruises the blood do not congeal within the body.

Sect. 7. Of the Sea-coal.

The Trees and Woods having been so much de­stroyed in Ireland, as heretofore we have shewed, and consequently wood for firing being very dear in great part of the land, the inhabitants are necessitated to make use of other fuel, viz. of Turf, and of Sea-coals. Of the Turf we shall speak in the next Chapter. As for Sea-coals, they are the ordinary firing in Dublin & in other places lying near the sea, where the same in time of peace are brought in out of England, Wales, and Scot­land, in great abundance, and therefore reasona­ble cheap; which is the reason, that the less care hath been taken to find out Coal-mines in Ireland it self, whereas otherwise it is the opi­nion of persons knowing in these matters, that if diligent search were made for them, in sundry parts of the land good Coal-mines would be dis­covered. This opinion is the more probable, be­cause that already one Coal▪ mine hath bin found out in Ireland, a few yeares since, by meer ha­zard, and without having been sought for. The Mine is in the Province of Leinster, in the Coun­ty of Carlo, seven miles from Idof, in the same hill where the Iron-mine was of Mr. Christopher Wandsworth, of whom hath been spoken above. In that Iron-mine, after that for a great while [Page 153] they had drawn Iron-oar out of it, and that by degrees they were gone deeper, at last in lieu of Oar they met with Sea-coal, so as ever since all the people dwelling in those parts have used it for their firing, finding it very cheap; for the load of an Irish-car, drawn by one Garron, did stand them, besides the charges of bringing it, in nine pence only, three pence to the digger, and six pence to the owner.

There be Coals enough in this Mine for to fur­nish a whole Country; nevertheless there is no use made of them further than among the neigh­bouring inhabitants; because the Mine being si­tuated far from Rivers, the transportation is too chargeable by land.

These Coals are very heavy, and burn with little flame, but lye like Char-coal, and continue so the space of seven or eight hours, casting a very great and violent heat.

In the place where this Mine standeth, do lye little Smith-coals above the ground, dispersed e­very where in great quantity, from whence the Smiths dwelling in the parts round about did use to come and fetch them even before the Mine was discovered.

CHAP. XX. Of the Turf, Lime, and Brick, and the man­ner of making those things in Ireland; item of the Glass made in Ireland.

Sect. 1. Of the two sorts of Irish-turf.

TUrf being very much used throughout all the land (as we have sayd before) is of two sor [...]s, according to the difference of the Bog [...] out of the which it is taken. That which is taken out of the Dry-bogs, or Red-bogs, is light, spungy, of a reddish colour, kindleth easily, and burneth very clear, but doth not last.

The other to the contrary, which is raised out of the green or wet Bogs, is heavy, firm, black, doth not burn so soon, nor with so great a flame, but lasteth a great while, and maketh a very hot fire, and leaveth foul yellowish ashes.

It is the observation of women, that the lin­nen which is dryed by a fire made of this last sort of Turf, getteth a foul colour, be it never so white washed and bleeched, and groweth yel­lowish in that manner as that it can hardly be got out again.

Sect. 2. The manner of making the Turf.

The first sort of Turf costeth but little paines in the making; for being digged, and having [...]yen some dayes a drying (first spread out thin and single upon the ground, and afterwards pi­led up in little heaps) it is brought into the Barn.

[Page 155]But black Turf cannot be made without more trouble. First they mark out convenient places; for onely those are fit for it to which some paths do lead, and which in themselves are not too mi­rie, and too deep, but have a firm & sandy ground underneath, within the space of four or five feet, or thereabouts. Having found out such a place, if it be too watery, they make some trenches, into which the water descending out of that part of the Bog wherein they intend to work, may by them be carried to some place fit for to re­ceive it; to the end that the Bog being thereby grown somewhat dryer and firmer, may the bet­ter bear the Labourers without s [...]nking too deep into it. Then they fall to the business, dividing it so among the Labourers, that one part of them do dig out the earth, or rather the mud (for all the earth whereof this Turf is made, is thin and muddy) and by spade [...]-full cast it on a heap, ei­ther by the [...]ide of the pit, or some where with­in the same, where others stand, who very well work it, turning it to and fro, and then with their shovels fill it into certain woodden trayes, amongst the English in Ireland peculiarly called Lossels; the which being full, another part of the Labourers draw the same, with great cords fastened to them, to some dry place within the Bog, or by the side thereof, where having poured out the mud, they go back to fetch more, and so go to and fro all day long. On that dry place where the mud is poured forth, sit certain women upon their knees, who mold the mud, using no­thing else to it but their hands; between the which taking a part of it, they press them toge­ther in that manner, that their hands meeting a­bove, [Page 156] the turf is fashioned flat and broad be­neath, growing narrower towards the top; which being done, the Turf is let lye upon the ground the space of a week or more, accor­ding as the weather is, and being reasona­bly well dryed, it is piled up in little heaps, leaving every where empty spaces between, that the air and the wind passing through them, they may dry the sooner.

Sect. 3. The charges of making Turf.

Ireland is so full of Bogs, that every man almost hath Bog enough upon his own land to make Turf for his family and for all his Te­nants; so that the Turf doth cost most men no more than the hire of the Labourers who are employed about it. Those that begun early in the year, whilst the Labourers had but little employment, gave ordinarily, besides meat and drink, three pence sterling a day to every man, and two pence to every woman; four pence a day being the ordinary price, and when it was was at the dearest, five pence. Twenty men made in two or three dayes as much Turf as was sufficient for the whole years firing of a great family; of which number five men did dig and cast up the mud, five wrought it and filled it into the trays, and ten were busied in drawing the trays to the place where the Turf was molded by the women; who went so nimbly to work with it, that onely two of them were sufficient to keep twenty men at work.

Sect. 4. Of the Lime, and the manner of making it of Lime-stone.

All the Lime in Ireland is made not of the shels of all sorts of shel-fish, as in Holland, and some other Countries, but onely of stone; and the gray Free-stone, whereof we have spoken in the precedent Chapter, is very fit for it, e­specially when it is not newly come out of the Quarrie, but taken off old buildings. But a peculiar sort of stone properly called Lime-stone, is best for it. This stone is of a gray co­lour, tending to a dark blew, which being broke, a white dust out of it doth fly abroad; and it is very common throughout all Ireland, but especially in the Provinces of Munster and Connaught, lying not deep within the ground, but very near to the surface of it, and in many places above ground.

The manner of burning it into Lime, usual over all Ireland, is this; In the side of some little height they make a great pit, round or square according as conveniencie is offered; of that bignes as may hold forty or fifty barrels, & of that fashion that being many feet wide at the top, it doth by degrees grow narrower towards the bottom, in the same manner as the Furnaces of the Iron-works. The inside of this pit they line round about with a wall built of Lime and Stone, at whose outside near the bottom a hole or door is left, by which to take out the ashes; and above that an iron-grate is laid, which cometh close to the wall round about: Upon this they lay a lay of Lime-stone (being first knockt asunder with a great Iron [Page 158] hammer, and broke into peeces of the bigness of a f [...]st, or thereabouts) and upon that a lay of wood or turf, or a certain sort of Sea-coal, the which being wonderfull small, and pecu­liarly called Comb, is hardly used for any o­ther purpose. Upon that they lay another of Lime-stone, and so by turns, untill the whole Kiln be filled, ever observing that the out­most lay be of wood, turf, or comb, and not of Lime-stone: which being done, the Kiln is set afire until all be burnt.

Sect. 5. Another manner of burning Lime used in Ireland.

There is another manner of burning Lime used in Ireland, in Kilns built altogether a­bove ground, and incomparably bigger than the others, insomuch as to the quantity of three hundred Barrels of Lime at once is made in them. In these Kilns they burn whole stones, without breaking them into peeces as the others, and that onely with wood (turf or comb not being fit for it) whereof they con­sume a huge deal, it being necessary from time to time to put new wood into them, to which end three or four men day and night do stand by the Kiln to keep the fire from decaying or slackning.

These (called French-kilns, because the us [...] of them was first received from thence) have ever their walls made of Lime-stone, the which in the same manner are turned into Lime, so as there remaineth nothing standing of these Kilns after that the work is accomplished, and the Lime taken away.

[Page 159]Now albeit that in these kilnes a very great quantity of Lime is made at a time, nevertheless it hath been found by experience, that they are much more unprofitable than the others, because they consume much more firing in proporti­on, through the continuall renewing of the fire, and require the constant labour of severall men all the while they are burning, which commonly is the space of three dayes and nights. For these reasons was the use of these kilnes, which never had been very generall in Ireland, more and more left off in these last yeares, and the others almost only made use of; in the which the Lime came to stand them, who burnt it, in no more then four pence the barrell at the most, all manner of ex­pences being reckoned; & but three to them who had the best conveniences.

Sect. 6. Of the Brick.

In every part of Ireland there is found a kind of clay very fit for to make bricks, and all sorts of Potters-ware, although the Irish never had the wit or industrie to make use of it for either of these two ends; yea they have ever been so farre from making any earthen vessels, that even the use thereof hath been very rare amongst them, and to the most part unknown, not only before the comming in of the English, but also since, yea even untill these very last times; although a great number of English Potters in severall parts of the land had set up their trade, so as all kind of earthen ware was very common, and to be had at very easie rates.

And as for the Brick, they have been little used in Ireland even among the English themselves for [Page 160] a great while; but of late years they begun to be very common, as well in the countrie, as in the Ci­ties, especially Dublin, where all the new buil­dings (the which not only in handsomness, but also in number, doe surpass the old) are all made of Brick. But that which is made in Ireland, for the most part is not so good, as that of other Countries, not so much for any unfitness in the clay it self, as for want of handling and preparing it aright; as may easily be conceived by the fol­lowing description of the manner they use to make it.

Sect. 7. The manner how they make their Brick in Ireland.

They dig a great square pit, taking away all the uppermost earth, untill they come to a good clay (which commonly lyeth one or two spits deep) This they digge up throughout the whole pit, and having broke it very small with the spade, they doe by degrees powre a great deal of wa­ter amongst it, working and labouring it toge­ther with the spade and their feet, till the whole mass become uniform, firm and tough like stiff dough; the which then in wheel bar­rowes is carried out of the pit to a place where certain long tables are set up, to each of which tables is allotted one man, one woman, & one boy. The woman taketh up the clay by handfulls, from the heap lying upon the ground, and reacheth it unto the man, who thrusteth it into a little wodden form without bottom, strawing now and then some sand upon the table, that the clay may not stick to it: and so having given them their due fashion, the boy doth carry them from thence [Page 161] to a place, where he layeth them all upon the ground, not under any covert, but in the open air. After they have lyen some dayes, and are somewhat dryed, they are piled up in small heaps, twenty or thirty in a heap, making the heapes transparent in the same manner, as we have shewed above of the Turf, Some dayes after those little piles are made into greater, which are ma­ny feet long, and five or six feet high, but not above two feet, or two and a half broad (ma­king the layes transparent, with some empty space between brick and brick, even so as in the small piles) the which at the top are covered o­ver with straw, laying upon the straw broad green sods, to keep off the rain. Having lyen so untill they be quite dry, they make great ovens or Kilnes of them, filling them within with the same, strawing betwixt them of that small sort of Sea-caol, whereof wee have spoke heretofore, called Comb or Coome, and having covered o­ver the kiln with the same clay, whereof the bricks are made, the thickness of two hand-broads or there-abouts, they set it afire with wood underneath, and continue the fire untill not on­ly all the bricks piled within the Kiln, but all the walls quite through, and at the out-side as well as at the in-side, be perfectly burnt, and tur­ned into good brick: wherein oftentimes, through the unskilfulness or neglect of those who make & fill these Kilns, and of those that govern the fire, there is great loss, and that two manner of ways. For sometimes great part of the Bricks is found not to be sufficiently nor uniformly burnt; and on the other side it falleth out oftentimes, that great quantities are reduced into one, beeing [Page 162] burnt, or half-burnt into great unshapely masses or lumps, which are good for nothing.

They do commonly burn in those Kilns two or three hundred thousand Bricks at a time; the which for the most part, all charges being reckoned, come to stand betwixt six and eight shillings sterling the thousand.

Sect. 8. Of the Glass made in Ireland.

We shall conclude this chapter with the Glass, there having been severall Glass-houses set up by the English in Ireland, none in Dub­lin or other cities, but all of them in the coun­trie; amongst which the principall was that of Birre, a Market-town, otherwise called Parsons-town, after one Sir Laurence Parsons, who ha­ving purchased that Lordship, built a goodly house upon it; his son William Parsons having succeeded him in the possession of it; which Town is situate in Queens county, about fifty miles to the South-west of Dublin, upon the borders of the two Provinces of Leinster and Munster: From this place Dublin was furnish­ed with all sorts of vvindovv and drinking-glasses, and such other as commonly are in use. One part of the materials, viz. the Sand, they had out of England; the other, to vvit the Ashes, they made in the place of Ash-tree, and used no other. The chiefest difficulty vvas, to get the clay for the pots to melt the materials in; this they had out of the North.

CHAP. XXI. Of the Temperature and Qualities of the Air, and Seasons in Ireland, as for Heat, Cold, and Moisture.

Sect. 1. Of the Cold weather, and the Frosts.

ALthough the climate of Ireland is some­what Northerly, the Land extending it self from the beginning of the one and fiftieth degree of Latitude, until the end of the five and fiftieth, nevertheless is the Air there very temperate, and nothing subject to violent Colds (not onely in Munster, Leinster, and Connaught, but even in the most Northern-part, to wit the Province of Ulster) much less than any other Land lying in the same height or latitude, yea than many Coun­tries of a much more Southerly-climate.

True it is, that the Cold-weather doth com­monly begin here somewhat soon, namely in the beginning of October, and sometimes in the middle or latter end of September, continuing ordinarily the space of five or six moneths, until the midst or latter end of March, and sometimes also good part of April; during which whole space of time all such persons as are chilly and cold of nature, and do sit still much, can hardly be any long while without a fire.

But again on the other side, it is very seldom violently cold there, and freezeth but little: there are commonly three or four Frosts in one Win­ter; but they are very short, seldom lasting longer than three or four days together, & with­all [Page 164] at their very worst nothing near so violent as in most other Countries; so that some all Win­ter long hardly come near a fire once in a day; and that not only in the ordinary cold weather, but even whilst it is a freezing.

Yea many times the cold is so slack even in the midst of the Winter-moneths, that by walking onely, or doing some other moderate exercise, you shall find your self as warm, and the Air as sweet and pleasant, as if it were in the moneth of May.

There hath been some Winters, wherein it hath frozen ten or twelve dayes together, so as the Liffie, and other the like Rivers were quite frozen, and might be gone upon by men and beasts: But those are altogether extraordinary, and do come very seldom, hardly once in the space of ten or twelve years.

But how mild they ordinarily be, and how little subject to excessive cold, may appear here­by, that all kind of beasts and cattle, as cows, horses, and sheep, do there all Winter long remain abroad, and do [...]eed in the fields, where they are left in the night-time as well as in the day, and that many herbs, which in England and Nether­land do [...] dye every Winter, here continue all the year long.

Sect. 2. Of the Warm-weather.

And as the cold in Winter is very moderate and tolerable, so is also the heat in Summer; the which is seldom so great, even in the hottest times of the year, as to be greatly troublesome. And it falleth out oft enough in the very Sum­mer-moneths, that the weather is more inclinable [Page 165] to cold than to heat, so as one may very well en­dure to come near a good fire. And this cometh to pass only during the Wet-weather, for else, and whilst it is fair, it is very warm all summer long, albeit seldom over-hot: And so it is many times also even on the rainie dayes, whereas for the most part it is very cool in them, and the heat much less than the season doth require.

Sect. 3. Of the Rain and We [...]-weather.

The Rain is very ordinary in Ireland, and it raineth there very much all the year long, in the Summer as well as in the Winter. Commonly in the Spring of the year it is very fair weather, with clear sun-shine from morning till night, for the space of five or six weeks together, with very little or no interruption; which fair weather be­ginneth commonly in the mon [...]th of March, some years in the beginning, other yeares in the midst, and sometimes in the latter end of it. But the same being once past, it raineth afterwards very much all the Summer long, so as it is a rare thing to see a whole week pass without it; and many Summers it is never dry weather two or three dayes together. Which inconstancy and wetness of the weather is not only troublesome to men, but also hurtfull to all things growing out of the ground for mans behoof. For the heat never being very great, and there besides of­ten interrupted by the intervention of the foul weather, hath neither time nor strength enough to ripen them so well and so soon, as otherwise it would; whereby it cometh to pass, that as well the fruits of trees, as the corn and grass, here commonly much [...]ater do come to perfecti­on, [Page 166] than in the most part of other neighbouring Countries. And as the ripeness of the fruits and other increase of the earth is greatly retarded by the abundance of unseasonable rain; so it doth also fall out oftentimes, that the same being come to ripeness, it is difficult to get them in, by rea­son of the exceeding store of rain which doth come down during the Hay-time and the Har­vest. Wherefore it behoveth one here to be won­derfull diligent, and not to lose any part of the fair weather: For else one would run great ha­zard to sustain great losses, and to have all spoy­led. But those that are vigilant and carefull, and that lose no occasion at all, do commonly in the end get in their increase well enough, notwith­standing all those great hinderances; so that there be as few years of dearth in Ireland, as in any other Country of Christendom; and most years there is not only Corn enough got for the sustenance of the Inhabitants, but a great deal o­ver and above, for the sending out of great quan­tities of Grains into other countries.

Sect. 4. Of the fair weather in the latter end of Autumn. In the foul weather the nights are often fair.

In the latter end of Autumn weather is com­monly fair again for some weeks together, in the same manner as in the Spring, but not so long; which as it doth serve for to dry up, and to get in the Corn and Hay, which till then hath re­mained in the fields▪ the too much wet having hindered it from being brought away sooner; so it giveth the opportunity of plowing the ground, and sowing the Winter-corn; the which [Page 167] otherwise would very hardly be done.

For that season being once past, you have very little dry weather the rest of the Autumn, and during all Winter. And although it doth sel­dom rain continually for many dayes together, yet is the wetness very great, and few weeks doe pass, wherein are not two or three rainy dayes. And it is to be observed, that ordinarily it raineth in Ireland much more by day than by night; and that many times when it doth rain two or three dayes together, the nights between are very clear and fair; the which also many times falleth out in other foul weather, and when all day long the Skie is overcast with Clouds and Mists.

Sect. 5. Some dry Summers in Ireland, but hardly ever any too dry.

But although it is ordinarily thus in Ireland; yet the same inconstancy and variablenes of years and seasons, which is observed in most other Countries, doth also here occur, and that more in regard of the Summers & dry weather, than of the Winters and cold. For it is marvellous seldom to have there a hard Winter and long [...]rost; but Summers have been which were ful of very dry, and fair, and pleasant weather. But as Win­ters cruelly cold, so likewise over-dry Summers do in this Iland hardly come once in an Age; And it is a common saying in Ireland, that the very dryest Summers there never hurt the land: For although the Corn and Grass upon the high and dry grounds may get harm, nevertheless the Country in generall gets more good than hurt by it: And when any dearths fall out to be in [Page 168] Ireland, they are not caused through immode­rate heat and drought, as in most other Coun­tries, but through too much wet, and excessive rain.

Sect. 6. Amendment of the wet Air in Ireland how to be expected.

So that the Irish-air is greatly defectuous in this part, and too much subject to wet and rainy weather; wherein if it were of somewhat a bet­ter temperature, and as free from too much wet, as it is from excessive cold, it would be one of the sweetest and pleasantest in the whole world, and very few Countries could be named, that might be compared with Ireland for agreeable temperateness. And although it is unlikely, that any revolution of times will produce any consi­derable alteration in this (the which indeed in some other Countries hath caused wonderfull changes) because that those who many Ages ago have written of this Iland, doe witness the self same things of it in this particular, as wee doe find in our time: There is nevertheless great probability that this defect may in part be amen­ded by the industry of men, if the country be­ing once inhabited throughout by a civill Nati­on, care were taken every where to diminish and take away the superfluous and excessive wet­ness of the ground, in all the watery and boggy places, whereby this too great moystness of the Air is greatly increased, and partly also occa­siond

This opinion is not grounded upon some un­certain speculation, but upon assured experi­ence; for severall knowing and credible persons [Page 169] have affirmed to me, that already some yeares since good beginnings have been seen of it; and that in some parts of the land well inhabi­ted with English, and where great extents of Bogs have been drained and reduced to dry land, it hath been found by the observation of some years one after another, that they have had a dryer air, and much less troubled with rain, than in former times.

Herewith agreeth what we read in that fa­mous Writer Pliny, in the fourth Chapter of the seventeenth Book of his Naturall History, concerning that part of Macedonie, wherein the City Philippi was seated; where the Air formerly having been very rainie, was great­ly amended by the altering the wetness of the ground: His words are these, Circa Philippos cultura siccata regio, mutavit coeli habitum: That is, word for word, The Country about Philippi being dryed up through tillage, hath alte­red the quality of the Air.

CHAP. XXII. Of the Dew, Mist, Snow, Hail, Hoar-frost, Thunder and Lightning, Earth­quake and Winds.

Sect. 1. Of the Dew.

THe Naturalists and Geographers do assure us, that it deweth exceedingly in the hot and dry Countries, and that the less it useth to rain in a Country, the Dew doth fall there [Page 170] the more [...]bundantly; whereby it should seem to follow, that in the wet climate it deweth very little, and consequently that in Ireland, where it raineth so very much, the Dew must be very scanty. But there is as much Dew there, as in other Countries that are a great deal hotter and dryer. Onely thus much ex­perience doth shew in Ireland (and it may be as well in other Countries, whereof I have not yet informed my self) that when it is towards any great rain, little or no Dew doth fall; so as in those times going forth early in the morning into the green fields, you will finde them altogether dry, and that even in that sea­son, wherein the Dew in Ireland, as in other neighbouring Countries, useth to fall more a­bundantly, than in any other time of the year, to wit in the moneths of May and June: This is a certain sign to the inhabitants, that great rain is to fall suddenly; and commonly after such a dry and dewless night it useth to rain two or three days together. But the preced­ing rain doth not hinder the Dew in that manner, as that which is imminent; and it is found ordinarily, that in a clear night follovv­ing a rainy day (the which is very ordinary, as we have sayd in the preceding Chapter) the Dew commeth down as liberally as if it had not rained the day before.

Sect. 2. Of May-dew, and the manner of gathering, and preserving it.

The English women, and Gentlewomen in Ireland, as in England, did use in the begin­ning of the Summer to gather good store of Dew, to keep it by them all the year after for [Page 171] several good uses both of physick and other­wise, wherein by experience they have learnt it to be very available. Their manner of collecting and keeping it was this. In the moneth of May especially, and also in part of the moneth of June, they would go forth be­times in the morning, and before Sun-rising, into a green field, and there either with their hands strike off the Dew from the tops of the herbs into a dish, or else throwing clean lin­nen clothes upon the ground, take off the Dew from the herbs into them, and afterwards wring it out into dishes; and thus they conti­nue their work untill they have got a suffici­ent quantity of Dew according to their inten­tions. That which is gotten from the grass will serve, but they chuse rather to have it from the green corn, especially Wheat, if they can have the conveniency to do so, as being per­swaded that this Dew hath more vertues, and is better for all purposes, than that which hath been collected from the grass or other herbs. The Dew thus gathered they put into a glass bottle, and so set it in a place where it may have the warm Sun-shine all day long, keeping it there all the Summer; after some dayes rest some dregs and dirt will settle to the bottom; the which when they perceive, they pour off all the clear Dew into another vessel, and fling away those setlings. This they doe often, because the Dew doth not purge it self perfectly in a few dayes, but by degrees, so as new dregs (severed from the purer parts by the working of the Dew, helped on by the Sun-beams) do settle again; of the [Page 172] which as often as those good women see any no­table quantity, they st [...]ll powre off the clear Dew from them: doing thus all Summer long, untill it be clear to the bottom.

The Dew thus thoroughly purified looketh whitish, and kepeth good for a year or two af­ter.

Sect. 4. Of the Mists and Fogs.

We have shewed how much Ireland is subject to Rain, and so it is likewise to dark weather, and overcasting of the air even when it raineth not, which continueth sometimes many dayes toge­ther, especially in Winter-time.

But as for the Fogs & Mists, Ireland is no more troubled with them than other regions, especially in the plain countrie, for in the mountaines they are much more frequent, so that oftentimes they are covered with them for a great way, the space of some houres together, when at the same time there is none in the neighbouring plain countrie; and in the high mountaines it commeth many times to pass that in a fair day the top thereof for a long time together is covered over with a thick Mist, when not only the adjacent country, but even the lower part of those mountains doe njoy a clear Sun-shine. And sometimes it be­falleth the tops as well as the lower parts beeing free from them, the middle parts are quite covered there-with: as my brother in his travels hath many times observed in severall parts, espe­cially upon those high mountaines between Dun­dalke and Carlingford, as well in the midst of the summer, as at other times of the year.

And in many places it is found by experience [Page 173] that the like Fogs upon the tops of the moun­taines is a fore-runner of rain in the next conn­try: whereof all those who have lived any time at Dublin, may have good knowledge. For seldom a mist appeareth upon the top of the Wickloe-mountains, situated some five or six miles to the South of Dublin, or of the head of both, without beeing followed with rain at Dublin and the adjacent parts within 24. houres: wherein is ob­servable, that a Fog quite covering those moun­taines all over is not so sure a signe of Rain, as when it is only upon the top: and that those ge­nerall Mists upon the mountains are often seen without any following Rain, the which very sel­dom or never happeneth in the others.

There be two sorts of Mists or Fogs in Ire­land: the one is uniform and constant, quite filling the air of all sides, whereby all manner of prospect is taken away, and continuing after the same fashion, untill it vanish by degrees, ei­ther ascending up into the Air, or falling to the ground; whereofhere, as in other countries, the first is commonly followed with Rain, and the second with fair weather

In the other sort are great parcells or flakes of foggie vapours scattered up and down the Air, with clear spaces betwixt: the which flakes doe not keep one place, but fly to and fro, ac­cording as they are driven by the wind, and that sometimes very swiftly; this kind of Fog doth arise not only upon the seaside, but also with­in the land, and upon the mountaines: often­times turning into a generall mist.

Sect. 4. Of the Snow, Hail, and Hoar-frost.

For the most part there falleth no great store of Snow in Ireland, and some yeares none at all, especially in the plain countries. In the moun­taines there is commonly greater plenty of Snow, than in other parts, So that all kind of cattle, doe all winter [...]ong remain there abroad, being seldome troubled with very great frost or snow, and doe feed in the fields night and day, as wee have related more amply above; yet it hath hap­pened that in a winter, one of many, abundance of snow hath fallen, instance that of the year 1635 where about the latter end of Ianuary and the beginning of February great store of snow did fall to the great damage of the cat [...]le, chiefly in the Northern parts (where it did snow most ex­cedingly) so as the People were put to hard shif [...]s to bring their cattle in safety to their folds and other covered places, One history among the rest by reason of the strangeness of it, I thinke will not be improper to relate as it hath been asser [...]ed to me by very credible persons, A Gen­tleman living about Ballaneah in the Coun­tie of Cavan, took great pains to save his sheep, yet missed eleven of them; some dayes after be­ing come forth to course, his man saw from a [...]arre off upon a hill, in a hollow place of a rock, part of it being covered with the top hang­ging over it, something alive and stirring, they thought it had been a Hare or a Fox, but comming neer they found it was the lost sheep, the which had sheer eaten away all the wool [...]rom one a­nothers back (being destitute of all other food, all [...]ound about being covered with deep snow) [Page 175] and which is more wonderfull one of them be­ing dead, the rest did eat her flesh, leaving nothing but the bar bones.

It doth also longer contiune there: so as it is and ordinary thing in those by Dublin, and all o­ther high mountaines throughout the Land, to see the Snow lying upon the tops of them ma­ny dayes, yea weekes, after that in the nether parts and plain countrie it is thawed and quite va­nished.

It Haileth there but seldome, and in thinne short shoures, the hail-stones also being very little.

As for the Hoar-frost, that is as common here, as in other countri [...]s, and that not only in the coldest months, and during the frost, but even in the Spring: so as commonly during all the fair weather of that season, of some weeks togethet, whereof wee have spoke heretofore, every mor­ning all the green herbs of the gardens and fields are quite covered over with it.

Sect. 5. Of the Thunder, Lightning, and Earthquakes.

Ireland is as litle subject to Thunder and light­ning, as any other countrie in the world, for it is a common thing, to see whole yeares pass wi [...]h­out them, and in those yeares, where-in any are, one shall seldome have them above once or twice in a Summer, and that with so weak noise of the thunder, and so feeble a shining of the Light­ning, that even the most fearfull persons are hard­ly frightned at all there-by, much less any harm done to men or beasts.

From Earthquakes this Iland is not altogether exempt; but withall they are so seldom, that they [Page 176] hardly come once in an age: and it is so long agoe since the last of all was, that it is as much as the most aged persons now alive can even remem­ber.

Sect. 6. Of the Winds.

With Winds it is in this countrie almost as with Rain, Ireland not only having its share in them, as other countries, but being very much subject to them, more than most other parts of the world. For the Winds blow very much at all times of the year, especially in the Winter months, when also there are many stormes, which sometimes doe continue severall dayes together.

And it is worth the observation, that not only storm-winds, but others also, do in Ireland much seldomer blow out of the East, than out of the West, especiall in the winter; so that commonly there is no need of a wind to be wafted over into England: where to the contrary, those, who out of England will come over into Ireland, very ordi­narily are constrained to wait two or three weeks, and sometimes five or six weeks, yea it hath faln out so more than once, that in two whole months, and longer, there hath not been somuch East-wind, as to carry ships out of En­gland into Ireland: notable instances whereof the History of the first conquest of Ireland, and that of the Lord Mountjoy, subbuer of Tirone's rebellion, doth afford.

But in the Summer-time, and chiefly in the Spring, and in the months of March, Aprill, and May, one is not so much subject to that incom­modity, as in the other times of the year.

And as the West-winds are much more com­mon [Page 177] in Ireland, especially upon this coast lying over against Great-Britain, than the East; so likewise the South winds are much more ordi­nary there, than the North: which two winds there doe seldome blow alone, but for the most part doe accompany one of the two other, espe­cially the North-wind, the which also doth oftner join it self with the East than with the West-wind.

CHAP. XXIII. Of the Healthfullness of Ireland, and what Sicknesses it is free from, and subject unto.

Sect. 1. Many old and Healthfull people in Ireland.

ALthough Ireland is obnoxious to exces­sive wetness, nevertheless it is very whol­some for the habitation of Men, as clearly doth appear by that there are as few sickly per­sons, and as many people live to a great age, as in any of the neighbouring Countries: For both men and women, setting those aside who through idleness and intemperance do shorten their dayes, attain here for the most part to a fair age, very many living to be very old, and to pass not only the age of fourscore, but of fourscore and ten; and severall there are found at all times, who doe very near reach an hundred yea [...]es, some out-living and pas­sing them. And the most part of those aged persons are in very good disposition, injoying not only their health, but also the use of their [Page 178] limbs, senses, and understanding, even to their utmost yeares. Among the women there are severall found, who do retain not only their customary purgations, but even their fruitfull­ness, above the age of fifty yeares, and some un­till that of sixty: my Brother hath known some, who being above three-score yeares old, have not only conceived, and brought forth chil­dren, but nursed them, and brought them up with their own milk, being wonderfull rare and almost unheard-of in other Countries.

Sect. 2. Ireland free from severall Diseases.

Irelands Healthfullness doth further ap­pear by this particular, that severall diseases, very common in other countries, are here very rare, and partly altogether unknown. For the Scurvy, an evill so generall in all other North­erly countries consining upon the Sea, is untill this day utterly unknown in Ireland.

So is the Quartan Ague, the which is ordi­nary in England, and in severall parts of it doth very much reign at all times.

As for the Tertian Ague, it was heretofore as litle known in Ireland as the Quartan: but some yeares since, I know not through what secret change, it hath found access into this Iland, so that at this time some are taken with it, but nothing neer so ordinarily as in other Countries.

The Plague, which so often and so cruelly infecteth England, to say nothing of remotes countries, is wonderfull rare in Ireland, and hardly seen once in an age.

Sect. 3. The immunity from certain Diseases consisteth in the Air, not in the bodies of the people.

It is observable concerning the fore-menti­oned particular, that this privilege, of being free from severall Diseases, doth not consist in any peculiar quality of the bodies of men, but proceedeth from some hidden property of the Land and the Air it self. This is made manifest two manner of wayes, first, in that strangers comming into Ireland, doe partake of this same exemption; and as long as they continue there, are as free of those evills, from which that climat is exempt, as the Irish themselves. Secondly, in that the natives, born and brought up in Ireland, comming into other countries, are found to be subject unto those diseases as well as other people, and I have known severall of them, who being come hither into England, have fallen into the Quartan Ague, and have as long and as badly been troubled with it, as ordinarily any Englishman useth to be.

And credible persons have affirmed unto me the same of Scotland, namely that the Quar­tan Ague never having been seen there, the Scotchmen nevertheless in other countries are as obnoxious to it, as people of any other Nation.

Sect. 4. The most part of all kind of Diseases are found in Ireland as in other Countries.

True it is, notwithstanding that privilege of being exempt from certain evills, that the most part of diseases and infirmities, where­unto [Page 180] mans body is subject in othe [...] Countries, are also found in Ireland, as wel outward as in­ward; and in the number of the inward not only the suddain ones, and those that in a few dayes or weeks come to an end, beeing called Morbi Acuti by the Physicians, as namely Feavers, Cast­ing of blood, Apoplexies, and others of that na­ture; but also those of long continuance, as the Falling-sickness, the Pal [...]ie, all sorts-of Gout, Coughs, the Consumption of the Lungs, the Stone of the Kidneys and of the Bladder, the Colick, the laundis, the Dropsie, the grief of the Spleen, and severall sorts of Loosnesses, with all which Evills it is here as in other Countries, some of them being very common here, and o­thers happening but seldom, and in few persons: the more particular relation whereof wee will leave for the books of Physick, and for those Ob­serva [...]ions, which perhaps my Brother some time or other will publish, of what he hath found concerning the [...]e matters, in an ample and flou­rishing practice of eight yeares, which he hath li­ved in Dublin.

CHAP. XXIIII. Of the Diseases reigning in Ireland, and whereunto that country is peculiarly subject.

Sect. 1. Of the Irish Agues.

AS Ireland is subject to most diseases in com­mon with other Countries, so there are some, whereunto it is peculiarly obnoxious, being at [Page 181] all times so rife there, that they may justly be re­puted for Irelands Endemii Morbi or reigning Dis­eases, as indeed they are generally reputed for such.

Of this number is a certain sort of Malignant Feavers, vulgarly in Ireland called Irish Agues, because that at all times they are so common in Ireland, as well among the Inhabitants and the Natives, as among those who are newly come thi­ther from other countries. This Feaver common­ly accompanied with a great pain in the head a [...]d in all the bones, great weakness, drought, losse of all manner of appetite, and want of sleep, and for the most part idleness or raving, and restles­ness or tossings, but no very great nor constant heat, is hard to be cured, for those that understand the disease, and seek to overcome it, do it not by purging, which cannot be used at any time with­out great and present danger; for the fermen­tation of the humors which causeth the disease, is hereby mightily increased, and the patient weakned; and hardly with bleeding, which seldom is used with success otherwise than in the very beginning; but with strengthning medicines and good cordials: in which case, and if all ne­cessary prescriptious be well observed, very few persons doe lose their lives; except when some extraordinary and pestilent malignity commeth to it, as it befalleth in some yeares, with so great violence, that notwithstanding all good helps, some are thereby carried to their graves; the same doth ordinarily come to pass, that it proveth deadly, if the Sick doe fall into unskilfull hands, or neglect all help, or do not observe good di­rections; in which cases many do perish: and [Page 182] others, who come off with their lives through ro­bustuousness of nature, or hidden causes, are for­ced to keep their beds a long time in extreme weakness, being a great while before they can r [...] ­cover their perfect health and strength.

Sect. 2. Of the Loosness.

The Loosness doth also greatly reign in Ire­land, as well among those of the countrie as a­mong the Strangers, wherfore the English inhabi­tants have given it the name of The country-dis­ease. Many are a great while troubled with it, and yet get no other harm: and those that betimes doe make use of good medicines, are without a­ny great difficulty cured of it. But they that let the Loosness take its course, do commonly after some dayes get the bleeding with it, whereby the disease doth not only grow much more troublesome and painfull, but a great deal harde [...] to be cured; & at last it useth to turn to the Bloo­dy flux, the which in some persons, having lasted a great while, leaveth them of it self; but in farre the greatest number is very dangerous, and killeth the most part of the sick, except they be carefully assisted with good remedies.

That this disease, as also the other, viz. the Ma­lignant Feavers, are so rife in Ireland, doth part­ly come through the peculiar disposition and ex­cessive wetness of the Air; but partly also through the errours which people do commit in eating and drinking, and other particulars: as manifestly doth appear by that a very great number, not only of the Natives, but also of the Strangers com­ming thi [...] her, who t [...]ke carefull heed to themselves in abstaining from hurtfull things, never are [Page 183] troubled with either of these infirmities.

Sect. 3. Of the Rickets.

Among the reigning diseases of Ireland the Rickets also may with good reason be reckoned, a disease peculiar to young children, and so well known to every body in England, as it is need­less to give any description of it; and yet to this day never any Physician, either English or of any other nation, made any the least mention of it, no not in those works which are expresly writ­ten of all manner of diseases and accidents of litle children.

In Ireland this disease is wonderfull rife now, but it hath nothing neer been so long known there as in England, either through th [...] unski [...] ­fullness or neglect of the Physicians (the most part wherof in both kingdomes to this day are ignorant not onely of the manner how to cure it, but even of the nature and property thereof) or that really it is new there, and never before having been in Ireland, hath got footing in it only within these few yeares, through some strange revolution or constellation, or Gods im­mediat sending: which kind of changes severall times have befaln in divers Countries, and in Ireland it self wee have alreadie shewed some such matter in another sickness, namely the Tertian-Ague.

This evill being altogether incurable, when it is gon too farre, is hard enough to be cured e­ven in the beginning, except it be very carefully looked unto, and use made of the best remedies; nevertheless this grief, as well as mo [...] others, hath its peculiar medicines, the which being [Page 184] applied betimes, and with convenient care, do with Gods blessing for the most part produce the effect desired.

Sect. 4. Of the Lepros [...]e

The Rickets are of late very rife in Ireland, where few yeares agoe unknown; so on the con­tra [...]y it hath been almost quite freed from another disease, one of the very worst & miserablest in the world, namely the Leprosie, which in former times used to bee very common there, especially in the Province of Munster; the which therefore was filled with Hospitals, expresly built for to re­ceive & keep the Leprous persons. But many yeares since Ireland hath been almost quite freed from this horrible and loathsome disease, and as few Leprous persons are now found there, as in any other Countrie in the world; so that be Hospi­tals erected for their use, having stood empty a long time, at length are quite decayed & come to nothing. The cause of th [...]s change is not so obscure nor unknown, as it is in most other changes of that nature. For that this sickness was so gene­rall in Ireland, did not come by any peculiar de­fect in the Land or in the Air, but meerly through the fault & foul gluttony of the inhabitants, in the excessive d [...]vouring of unwholesome Salmons. The common report in Ireland is, that boiled Salmons eaten hot out of the Kettle in great quantity, bring this disease, and used to be the cause why it was so common: and some famous Authors have not stuck to relate as much for a truth. But that is a fable, and Salm [...]ns have not that evill quality, which way soever they be eaten and prepared, but when they are out of season▪ [Page 185] which is in the latter end of the year, after they have cast their spawn: upon which they doe not onely grow very weak and flaggie, but so un­wholesome, that over their whole body they break out in very filthy spots, just like a scalled mans head, so as it would loath any man to see them; nevertheless the Irish, a nation extremely barbarous in all the parts of their life, did use to take them in that very season, as well as at any other time of the year, and to eat them in ve­ry great abundance, as easily they might, every river and rivelet in most parts being very full of them, and by that meanes that horrible disease came to be so common amongst them. But the English having once gotten the command of the whole Countrie into [...]heir hands, made very se­vere laws against the taking of Salmons in that unwholesome season, and saw them carefully ob­served; whereby hindering those barbarians a­gainst their will to feed on that poysonous meat, they were the cause that that woefull sickness, which used so mightily to reign amongst them, hath in time been almost quite abolished: which great benefit, with so many others, that hatefull people hath rewarded with seeking utterly to ex­terminate their benefactors.

Sect. 5. Of the League [...]-Sicknesses.

In the English A [...]mies, which since this bloody Rebellion went ov [...]r into Ireland to fight against that murdering Nation, were not only the Loos­ness and the Malignant Feaver, whereof wee have spoke above as of Irelands reigning diseases, very common, but there-besides severall other in­firmities, viz. violent Coughs and of lo [...]g con­tinuance, [Page 186] Stopping of the Breath, called in latin Dispnoea, Lameness of the thighs or Sciatica, pain­full Stranguries, all which griefes seized on so ma­ny persons, that they might well have been taken for sicknesses reigning in that land; as I have ma­ny times understood of my Brother, who at that time not only dwelling and practising at Dublin, but being Physician generall of the English For­ces, had but too much occasion to know that perfectly.

But withall he hath assured me, that those dis­eases had their originall not from any defect of the climate, but of the cold, & other hardship, which the soldiers suffered in their marches; for they many times going to the fields in cold and foul weather, and sometimes marching whole dayes long, yea severall dayes together, in very dirty and wet wayes, where their feet and legs were continually cold and wet, besides that they were sometimes constrained to pass through the water up as high as the knees and waste, and after all that hardship endured in the day-time, to lye in the night upon the wet ground in the open air, this caused the aforenamed diseases, and severall others amongst them, in so great number, it being to be wondred at, that many more did not fall into them. And without doubt in any other countrie of the world, where all the same causes did concurre, and where an Armie indured the like hard-ship, the same effects, if not worse, would follow: so that in this behalf the Land it self i [...] not at all to be blamed.

A Table of the principal Heads contained in this Book.

  • CHAP. I. Of the situation, shape, and greatness of Ireland: its division into Provinces and Counties: of the English Pale: The prin­cipall Townes of that Nation. pag. 1.
  • CHAP. II. Of the principall Havens of Ireland. pag. 10.
  • CHAP. III. Of the lesser Havens, and the barred Ha­vens of Ireland, also of the Roads and An­chor-places upon the Coast, and in the lit­tle Ilands near the coast. p. 24.
  • CHAP. IV. Quality and fashion of the Irish Coast or Shoares; Item, a brief description of the [Page] principall Promontories or Heads of Ireland p. 35.
  • CHAP. V. Of the Sands or Grounds, Blind-Rocks, and other Rocks in the Irish Sea. p. 40.
  • CHAP. VI. Of the Nature of the Irish Sea, and of the Tides which goe in the same. p. 48.
  • CHAP. VII. Of the Springs and Fountaines; Item of the Brooks and Rivelets of Ireland. p. 54.
  • CHAP. VIII. Of the Rivers of Ireland. p. 61.
  • CHAP. IX. Of the Lakes or Loughs in Ireland. p. 71.
  • CHAP. X. Of the nature and condition of the Land, both for the outward shape, and for the in­ternall qualities and fruitfulness. p. 78.
  • CHAP. XI. Of the severall manners of manuring and inriching the ground practised in Ireland. p. 91.
  • [Page] CHAP. XII. Of the Marle in Ireland, and the manner of Marling the land there. p. 100.
  • CHAP. XIII. Of the Heaths, Moores, or Bogs in Ire­land. p. 105.
  • CHAP. XIV. Originall of the Bogs in Ireland, and the manner of Dra [...]ning them, practiced there by the English Inhabitants. p. 112.
  • CHAP. XV. Of the Woods in Ireland. p. 118.
  • CHAP. XVI. Of the Mines in Ireland, and in partic [...] ­lar of the Iron-Mines. p. 123.
  • CHAP. XVII. Of the Iron-works, their fashion, charges of erecting and maintaining them, and pro­fit comming of them: with an exact de­scription of the manner of melting the Iron in them. p. 131.
  • CHAP. XVIII. Of the Mines of Silver and Lead in Ire­land: and occasionally of the pestiferous [Page] Damps and Vapours within the Earth. pag. p. 141.
  • CHAP. XIX. Of the Free-stone, Marble, Flint, Slate, and Sea-coles which are found in Ireland. pag. 148.
  • CHAP. XX. Of the Turf, Lime, and Brick, and the manner of making those things in Ireland; item of the Glass made in Ireland. p. 154
  • CHAP. XXI. Of the temperature and qualities of the Air, and Seasons in Ireland, as for Heat, Cold, and Moysture. p. 163.
  • CHAP. XXII. Of the Dew, Mist, Snow, Hail, Hoar-frost, Thunder and Ligthning, Earthquake and Wind. p. 169.
  • CHAP. XXIII. Of the hea [...]thfulness of Ireland, and what sicknesses it is free from, and subject unto. p. 177.
  • CHAP. XXIV. Of the Diseases reigning in Ireland, and whereunto that Country is perculiarly sub­ject.p. 180.
FINIS.

Errata.

Pag. 5. l. 6. r. coas [...]. p. 12. l. 1. r. miles. l. 3. r. breadth. p. 31▪ l. 9. r. is the. p. 99. l. 11. dele s [...]. p. 128. l. 11. r. of this. p. 137. l. 8. r. white mine.

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