A LOOKING-GLASS FOR THE TIMES. BEING A Tract concerning the Original and Rise of Truth, and the Original and Rise of Antichrist. SHEWING By pregnant instances of Scripture, History, and other Writings, That the Principles and Practices of the People called Qua­kers, in this day, and their Sufferings, are the same as were the Prin­ciples and Practices of Christ and his Apostles, and their suffer­ings in that, and of the Holy Men of God since, and the Mar­tyrs of Jesus, who have Prophesied in Sackcloth: And that the Apostacy hath held all other Professions since the dayes of the Apostles. In a constant Series out of the Ecclesiastical History, by way of Chrono­logy, for near the first 600. years, and other Fathers (so accounted) and learned Men both of the former Day, and This. That Men may once see, and be advised in the words of the Principles of their own Professions, and of others whom they esteem. That the Truth held and practised by the People called Quakers, is no other than what themselves, or such as they approve of, have held forth in Word, or have practised. By GEORGE BISHOPE.

DEUT. 32. 7.

Remember the dayes of Old, consider the years of many Generations: Ask thy Father and he will shew thee, thy Elders and they will tell thee.

London, Printed in the Year, 1668.

ERRATA.

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A Looking-Glass for the TIMES, &c.

THE Everlasting God, which setteth the bounds to the Nations, and declareth to man his thoughts, is not circumscribed to time or place; but in every Nation, he that feareth God, and work­eth Righteousness, is accepted of him: This said Peter of old, who once thought (as did the Samaritans) that all Religion was impaled to the Jews, who had the Circumcision, to whom pertained the Adop­tion, and the Glory, and the Covenants, and the giving of the Law and the Service of God, and the Promises, whose were the Fathers, and of whom, as concerning the flesh, Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever, Amen. Therefore he, thought it much, in the Vision that was shewen him, to—Arise, slay and eat,—Not so Lord, (said he) for I Acts 10. 13, 14, 15. have never eaten any thing that is common or unclean. But, said the Voice the second time,—What God hath cleansed, that call not thou common, in the Case of the Centurion, unto whom he was sent, being a Gentile, to turn unto the Faith.

And said Christ Jesus to the Woman of Samaria, who said, Our Fa­thers worshipped in this Mountain; and ye say, That in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship. Woman, believe me, the hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this Mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father. Ye worship ye know not what; We know what we worship, for Salvation is of the Jews; But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true Worshippers shall worship the Father in Spirit and in Truth, for the Father seeketh such to worship him. God is a Spirit, and they that worship him, must worship him in Spirit and in Truth, John 4. 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

And said the Apostle,—Who hath also made us able Ministers of the New Testament, not of the Letter, but of the Spirit; for the Letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth Life: but if the ministration of the Letter, written and engra­ven in stones, was glorious; so that the Children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses, for the glory of his countenance, which glory was to be done away; How shall not the ministration of the Spirit be rather glori­ous? for if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of Righteousness exceed in glory: for even that which was made glorious, had no glory, in this respect, by reason of the glory that excelleth; for if that which was done away was glorious, much more that which remaineth is glorious, 2 Cor. 3. 6, to the 12.

The intent and substance of all which, is as much as to say, That there is no Religion under the Sun, or no prescription that ought to be, as to [Page 2] any thing that relates to the Worship of God, or that is ground of Wor­ship, since Christ came in the flesh, and was offered up, but what is within, in Spirit and in Truth; which is in opposition to all outward Forms, which proceed not from the Spirit.

For Israel of old, during the State under which they stood, of an out­ward Administration, had no further reference than to themselves, who had the Circumcision, or outward Administration, the Law of Commandments contained in Ordinances, which Law was added because of transgression till the Seed should come, which is Christ, who being come, put an end to Circumcision, and that outward Administration, which with the Jew ended, who was of the Stock of Sem, which related not to the Gentile.

So that whole Administration, with the particularity of the Jew in the flesh, had an end, and hath no more ground of enforcement, where­fore the Gentiles should be obliged to a form, or that form of Worship, or outward Administration, then if the Jew in the flesh had not been, or that outward Administration, for it related to time and persons, and not to the body of the World, or the universality of dayes; which time being out, or expired, and those persons or Nations at an end, as to that for which they were taken into a particular consideration, the thing hath al­so an end with them, and cannot admit of a force upon themselves, or those that are yet left of the Jewish Nation; much less upon those who are not Jews but Gentiles, whom the Lord never so took in, nor dealt with, as to any outward Administration.

So that to enforce, or to endeavour so to do, from what was once the Administration of God in the flesh to the Jews, on them who are not Jews but Gentiles, what the Scriptures hold forth to be the outward ad­ministration of the Jews, or to seek to ground from thence a bottom, why all Nations, or the Nations of the Gentiles should be in an outward administration of Worship, and should be bounded in, or denominated by any particular form, is to put force upon the Scriptures, and to hold forth that which neither doth the Scripture, nor is the intent of the Spi­rit, and which Christ Jesus ended in the Jew, and the Apostles testified unto, so to be ended, as aforesaid.

For in the first place; Where there is no ground or bottom for such a thing, no such thing from such a thing can be concluded: But no such bottom or ground is there for any such thing, as from the Judaical Poli­cy, to enforce a legal Administration, or outward form of Worship, as hath been declared, since Christ was offered up, and an end put thereby to that Administration. Therefore to enforce any such thing now, that he is offered up, and that Administration ended, is to enforce such a thing without a ground or bottom.

In the next place; The Lord Jesus when he was offered up, and as­cended, gave gifts unto men, (not outward Administrations, as to Times, Places, and Nations,) Some Evangelists, (saith the Apostle) some Prophets, some Pastors, some Teachers, for the perfecting of the Saints, for the work of the Ministry, for the edifying of the Body of Christ, till we all come (saith he) in the unity of the Faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ, Ephes. 4. 10, 11, 12, 13.

Thirdly, The Administration of the Spirit, or of Righteousness, is that [Page 3] which excels in glory, (as hath been said); and even that which was made glorious, had no glory in this respect, by reason of the glory that excel­leth, 2 Cor. 3. 9, 10.

Fourthly, All outward Administrations had a time to end as well as to begin, and they had a signification, which the thing signified being come, vanished, and came to nothing; So all that which was the Administrati­on to the Jews, had its beginning and end, its time to come to nothing, and to vanish, as it had to begin; which was when the thing signified, the end and intent of that Administration, was come, which was Christ; the morning being come, the shadows fly away; that which was before trans­gression being come, that comes to be removed which was added be­cause of transgression.

Fifthly, The Spirit it was, that led the Disciples into all Truth; not the Letter, for that kills, as the Apostle saith, as aforesaid.

Sixthly, And the Worship which Christ, who was the end of the Let­ter, set up for all to walk by, whether Samaritan, or the Inhabitant of Jerusalem, Jew or Gentile, bond or free, Barbarian or Scythian, Male or Female, the publick Worship which he would have all to be exercised in, and which he saith, The Father chuses to worship him; the true VVorship­pers, which are not at this Mountain, nor at Jerusalem, that in which he said the true Worshippers should worship; and that the time was to come, or cometh, Yea, it now is, (saith he) Is the Spirit, John 4. as aforesaid.

So that the Glory that excelleth, the Administration of the Spirit which exceeds in Glory, the Spirit which gives Life; the Gift, not the outward Administration; the thing that is come, not that which is done away; the substance, not the shadow; the Institution of the Son, which abides in the House for ever, not the Administration of the Servant, which is not to abide in the House for ever; the universality, or largeness, where the partitian Wall is taken down, not the particularity, or narrowness, where the partitian Wall standeth, is that which in this day, since Christ was offered up, and ascended, is to be looked to and heeded, as that which is pleasing to the Lord, and which he accepts.

For I would demand, Wherein, or upon what bottom can any ground a contrary Assertion? Is Christ come, or not? Is he offered up, or not? Is he ascended, or not? Fills he all things, or not? If he be so, why then is that enforced or sought so to be, or placed, which was before he came, which was to end in him? Either he is come, or he is not come; if he is not come, then let such say so in open words, who do the things that were to be, or had their being before he came; if he be come, how dare any to enforce that, or seek so to do, which was before he came, or that which by his coming is done away?

The Matter is brought, or lies in a narrow compass, and there is no trifling in the Matter; the things are of the highest consequence, and mortals must take heed of giving Law to their Maker; and the Pot­sherds of the Earth must beware of clashing against him that formed them; and they who are in the condition or state of destruction, must heed how they ascend, or seek so to do, in his Throne who lives for ever, who came to redeem, on whose shoulders the Government lies, who is the everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace, Wonderful, Counsellor, the Head of his Church, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, who only hath [Page 4] Immortality and eternal Life; to whom be Glory, and Power, and Do­minion everlasting.

Away then with all outside Religion, (that is to say) all that which pro­ceeds not from Spirit and Truth; away with all Forms that come not from the power of Godliness; away with all Jewish and outward Wor­ship, Forms, Constitutions, Canons, Orders, Decrees, Directories, Ca­techisms, Confessions of Faith, all forcing of Religion, all persecution be­cause of Religion, all Injunctions, Synods, Councils, Prescriptions, Or­dinances of Men, all outward, fleshly, carnal Commandments, Tradi­tions; all imitations of Christ and his Apostles, and doing things by ex­ample of them, or because of what they did, or were led into, where the same Spirit of Jesus is not the Leader, as it was in them, is not the ground and bottom, root and source, as it was theirs. Away with all private Re­ligions, and Worships, and Precepts of Men; all National Worships, and Religions; all forcings such Religions and Worships; Christ the Sub­stance is come; Christ the true Jew inwardly is come; Christ the Phil. 3. 3. Circum­cision in the Spirit, whose praise is not of men, but of God, that hath no con­fidence in the flesh, is come; Christ the publick Worship in the Spirit and Truth is come; he is dead and risen again, and ascended, Rom. 6. 9. No more hath death dominion over him; He is Col. 3. 13. Head of his Church; He is Gal. 4. 1. Lord of all; He is Rom. 9. 5. God over all, blessed for ever, the 1 Tim. 6. 15. onely Potentate, and King of the Princes of the Earth, he lives for ever.

For you must make him something or nothing, if he be come, and if he hath put an end to those, & if he so spake, as aforesaid; and if that be the Worship, and those the Worshippers, the Father seeks, which is, and who worship, in Spirit and in Truth; then the Worship at this Mountain, and at Jerusalem is to be no more; no more the fear of God to be taught by the precepts of men, (which was complained of in that day, when the Isa. 29. 13. Administration was outward) the teaching for Doctrine the Command­ments Mat. 15. 9. of men, which he then reproved; no more clutter or adoe among men, as to Religion, and the settlement, and the inforcing thereof; If these things be, and as of right, and what ought to be, then he is not come, dead, risen, ascended into Glory. How long halt ye between two Opinions, either subscribe to these things, and that he is the Head of the Church, which is in God, or deny him, as your actions speak, who en­force these things, and require them.

Now because it may be thought that I am here too dogmatical, and that I have stamped things according to mine own Image and under­standing; and that I take upon me to judge all the Worlds Professions and Religions, that have been since Christ and his Apostles; and that I seem to intend to set up instead of, or in the room of the other, something that my self fancies, or some few that are called Quakers, who were but of yesterday, (as some may say); I shall to what I have indefinitely alrea­dy concluded, according to Truth and the Spirit, and demonstration and proof thereof, and of the Scriptures, proceed further to shew:

First, The Original and Rise of the Truth, from the dayes of Christ and his Apostles, throughout the Apostacy to this day, or that the Truth, which we who are called Quakers now pretend to, is the same that was in the dayes of Christ and his Apostles, which hath had more or less in this thing or in that, a testimony throughout the Apostacy unto this [Page 5] day; that is to say, that some, because of such testimony, have suffered as well as testified, since the dayes of the Apostles.

Secondly, The Original and Rise of Antichrist, from Christs and his Apostles dayes unto this; shewing in all by instances of Scripture, and History, that the Principles and Practices of the People called Quakers, in this day, are the same as were the Principles and Practices of Christ and his Apostles in that, and of the Holy-men of God since, and the Martyrs of Jesus who have prophesied in Sackcloth; and that the Apo­stacy hath held all other professions ever since the dayes of Christ and his Apostles: in which I shall of necessity be somewhat large, because the nature of the thing requires it, but with what brevity I can, I shall reduce them to what I have laid down and determined.

And because I may not seem too prolix and tedious, I shall compre­hend much of what I have to say under these four heads, or the follow­ing four heads, are the things in which I shall comprehend much of what I have to say.

  • First, National Worship, how it came in, when it ended, and what testimonies the Scriptures and History afford against it, since it was at an end.
  • Secondly, Swearing, and what appertains to that, when, and how it arose, and when it had an end, and since it was at an end what testimo­nies are against it.
  • Thirdly, Bearing of Arms when, and how that was, and wherefore it is, that now it is declined by us, and what may be said as to that during the Apostacy.
  • Fourthly, The changeable Priesthood, its rise, date, time, and end, and of what concerns it, and of what hath been said, and suffered in op­position thereunto, since it had its end.

Of these things I intend to treat, and begin in their order. First General Head concern­ing National Worship.

First, With National Worship.

National Worship had its institution under the Jews, or the Jewish was the only Nation which the Scriptures mention to have had a Worship that was National ordained of God, who as a Figure or Representation of what was to be Universal, in reference to those throughout the World, whom the Lord would gather to be Kings and Priests unto God, a Cho­sen Generation, a Royal Priesthood, an Holy Nation, a Peculiar Peo­ple.

This Nation of the Jews had their Laws and Ordinances, their Kings and Governors, their Religion and Worship all outward, though they had their inward signification, which was Christ, the Messiah, the Pro­phet which was to come, who according to the flesh, was of theirs who were of the Seed of Abraham, whose Seed in the Spirit, the Seed of Abraham, are the Elect, the Children of Abraham, whom to redeem he came in the flesh; so the whole constitution of the Jewish Kingdom, whether as to the Civil Policy, or Ecclesiastical, had its face looking hi­therward, which it signified, which it represented.

Now in the fulness of time, he coming, whom these things did hold forth, and typifie, and which in his flesh, the last of all was accomplished, the things themselves ceased, and he whiles he was not yet offered up, and all things yet were not accomplished, began to end them, as the [Page 6] morning doth the night as the day approacheth: And he said unto the Pharisees, The Kingdom of God is within you, it cometh not by observation; Luke 17. 21. or it is not outward (that is to say) such as your Kingdom is, an Ad­ministration which is to be seen with the outward eye, but it is of an in­ward and intrinsecal nature, seen by another eye, that seeth not as man seeth, but beholds things as they are, which gives Law to wickedness, re­proves, judges it, as your outward Administration represents, which shews you how God will be worshipped, and when and what you are to do; which your outward Government, in all the particulars thereof, had re­ference unto; which because of transgression which came over, and had blotted out the other, the Law written in the heart, and the fear put in the Heb. 8. 10. Gal. 3. 6. inward part; the Seed, which is Christ, the High Priest of his People, was added, or given, which was not at first, to wit, the Law written in Tables of Stone; but, in the fleshly Table of the Heart, and which was promised should be again, and which now came to be fulfilled.

So the Partition-Wall came to be removed, and that which was general to the Jews in the Figure, who were singled from all the Nations in par­ticular, came to be general to the Jew in the Spirit throughout all Nati­ons, and to be no more particular to the Jew; and this was that which Peter aforesaid came to be informed of, when in the Vision he was sent to the Centurion, and which made him speak, having been so informed, as aforesaid; I perceive, of a truth, that God is no respecter of persons, but in every Nation he that feareth God, and worketh Righteousness, is accepted of him.

So the thing being come, Christ Jesus, the Universal Head of the Church, which the Priesthood signified to the Nation of the Jews, the Partition, (that is to say) the Nation of the Jews, or the Laws, Ordinan­ces, and Administrations of Moses, which were outward, came to be ta­ken away, and the Vail to be rent, and no more was the National Church-Worship to be minded, which that constitution held forth, but the Wor­ship which was to be Universal: Now through the offering of him up, and the Law in the Heart, and the fear in the inward parts▪ Christ the Seed, was that which every one was to know, and worship by, as it was in the beginning before transgression was, and as before the Law was given by the Prophets, and holy men of God, Abraham (who saw his day and rejoyced; who said, Before Abraham was I am) Noah, Enoch, &c. The Law came by Moses, but Grace and Truth by Jesus Christ.

Hence it came to pass, that upon the first encounter, when after he was risen from the dead and ascended, and the Holy Ghost was given, the Comforter, which he said he would send to them, which should abide with them for ever, the Spirit of Truth, which proceedeth from the Fa­ther, which he said, should receive of his, and give unto them the Lati­tude, or rather Narrowness, was no longer to the Nation of the Jews, but its extent was to the end of the World; How hear we every man in his own tongue wherein he was born? Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judea, and in Cappadocia, in Pontus and A­sia, Phrygia and Pamphilia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Lybia, about Cy­rene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and Proselytes, Creets and Arabians; We do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful Works of God: And there were added the same day unto them about three thousand Souls. Peter, a Jew [Page 7] according to the flesh, preaching to them who were Gentiles and Jews, now promiscuously together; and to the Gentiles, The promise is to you, and to your Children, and to those that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call, Acts 2. 8, 9, 10, 11, 39, 41.

So that the limits of the Church was now no longer restrained to the People or Nation of the Jews, nor the Worship, but to all Nations of the Earth, to the Gentiles, the Church of God amongst them, which to gather▪ or to draw into one, was the Gospel sent and preached; and the Worship now was no longer National, nor was it the National Worship of the Jews, which also was commanded of God, and accompanied with his presence, while the end of it was not come, or accomplished; But it was every where, Spirit and Truth, not Form and Letter, fearing of God, working of Righteousness is accepted of him; the true Wor­shippers, the Worshippers whom the Father seeks to worship him: All the others were dasht in pieces, the end was accomplished, it stood not in meats and drinks, the Kingdom of God, but in Righteousness and Peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost; not in killing of Sheep, and slaying of Oxen, but in an humble and contrite heart, and that trembled at his Word, the Sacrifices of God which even under the Law were entitled, and said to be his, through all which he looked for, and accepted; which the Sacrifi­ces, and the blood of Goats and Bulls signified; Circumcision, and all the Ordinances of the Jews, which Moses commanded, and which it was death not to observe, comes now to be called beggerly Rudiments, the Hand-writing of Ordinances, the Law of Commandments contained in Or­dinances, the enmity which he destroyed on the Cross, and blotted out, which the Apostle saith, was against them, and which neither they nor their Fathers were able to bear; And he saith, Touch not, tast not, handle Gal. 5. 2. Phil. 3. 2, 3. not, which all (saith he) perish in the using: And if you be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing: I wish them cut off that trouble you. And beware of Dogs, and beware of evil workers, beware (saith he) of the Concision; for we are the Circumcision which worship God in the Spirit, and rejoyce in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh.

And the Apostles now, as any were gathered into the Church, they gathered them out of all the Jewish Observations, and Heathenish wor­shipping of Idols, into one God, and Name of the Lord Jesus, who was the great Shepherd and Bishop of the Soul; Not into the Name of the Church of the Jews, or the Temple, or of this Region and that, but into the Name of Christ Jesus; The Churches of what? Of the Jews, &c. Nay, the Churches of Christ, Christ the Head of the Church, which are in 1 Thes. 1. 1. Judea, &c. The Church which is in God: Paul and Silvanus, and Timothe­us, unto the Church of the Thessalonians which is in God. Not in this man, or that, not in this profession, and that barely, but in God.

And so it was during the Apostles times, of which the Scripture makes mention, and their business was to open the eyes, to turn men from dark­ness to the light, and from the Power of Satan unto God, that they might receive forgiveness of sins, and an inheritance among them which are san­ctified by Faith, which is in me; As Paul saith of his Commission which he received of the Lord, Acts 26. 18. And he stiles himself an Apostle, not of men, neither by men, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father which raised him from the dead. And he saith, The Righteousness which is of [Page 8] Faith, speaketh on this wise, Say not in thy heart, Who shall ascend into Heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down from above) Or who shall descend into the deep? (that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead.) But what saith it? The Word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart; that is the Word of Faith which we preach, Rom. 10. 6, 7, 8. And the Apostle to the Hebrews saith, But finding fault with them, (that is, the first Covenant, and the things therein, of which he had been speaking in the former words) he saith, Behold, the dayes come (saith the Lord) when I will make a new Covenant with the House of Israel, and the House of Judah: Not ac­cording to the Covenant which I made with their Fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, because they continu­ed not in my Covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the Lord: For this is the Covenant that I will make with the House of Israel after those dayes, saith the Lord, I will put my Laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts; and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a People; And they shall not teach every man his Neighbour, and every man his Brother, saying, Know the Lord, for all shall know me, from the least unto the greatest; For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their iniquities will I remember no more, Heb. 8. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.

Now here is nothing of Churchship, of an outward Administration and Worship, of a delegation of Power to any to constitute and appoint Worships, or how God should be worshipped, or what Discipline should be used in the Church, or what Power the Church should have, as to visi­ble things, and who should be the Governors or Rulers thereof, that should direct or order, as to that throughout all Ages; but a turning to a Principle, wherein God is to be known, and whereby he is to be wor­shipped; Not to Man, Kings, Princes, Governors, States, Emperors; no not to Presbyters, Councils, Fathers, Pastors, Officers, Synods: Be ye fol­lowers 1 Cor. 11. 1. of me, as I also am of Christ, saith Paul; But to the Light, the Light of the Son of God, who is Light: God is Light, and in him is no dark­ness at all; the Covenant of Light to the Gentiles, the Light of the World, the true Light that lighteth every man that cometh into the World; that which sheweth man that is in the Transgression, that he is in the dark, that turns him from the darkness to the Light, and from the power of Satan unto God.

The Lord never sent to turn man unto man, nor did he ever give power to man to order man, as to the Worships of him, no not in the Mo­saical Administration; all the World have been in mistakes about these things; but he alwayes reserved the power in himself; and by the gui­dance and order of him, man was to be directed, and God to be worship­ped; for from the Lord Moses received in the mount what was that Admi­nistration; & hitherto, to the Law of Moses, when the Israelites were gone astray, and had transgressed, were all things to be reduced, and the re­formation to be made, the Law of Moses, which was a figure of that which came by Jesus Christ, unto which all things after he was come, to which Moses his Administration, or the Law which was given by Moses, was to have reference, as it was to spring from it; And the coming of him was the time of Reformation of which the Apostle speaks, Heb. 9. 10. Which stood (saith he, speaking of that Ministration which in the verse before he calls a Figure) only in Meats and Drinks, and divers Washings, [Page 9] and Carnal Ordinances imposed on them, until the time of Reformation, Heb. 9. 10.

Moses his time, or the duration of the standing of the Law, or the outward Administration, or Jewish National Worship, was not to re­main for ever, the first Covenant, but it was to pass away, and to have an end, as not being able to make the comers thereunto perfect, Heb. 10. 1. though it was commanded of the Lord: So there was to be a time of Reformation, when that which could not make the comers thereunto perfect, was to be removed; when that which was the shadow of good things to come, but not the very Image of the things, (as the same place hath it) was to have an end, which was in the coming of him who was per­fect, who perfects for ever them that are sanctified, Heb. 10. 14. which the other lead unto; For by one Offering (saith the Apostle in the verse aforesaid) he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified; and this was called the time of Reformation, when he came who put an end to all that was outward, and had a visible, or an outward Administration, which could not make the comers thereunto perfect, nor was appointed for that end and purpose, but to lead unto another thing which should put an end thereunto, and which was its end.

Now, I say, if the very outward Mosaical Jewish Administration, Na­tional Worship, the first Covenant, which was all the outward Govern­ment which was commanded of God in the World, was not of man, but from the Lord; which yet had reference to another thing, which was Christ, the new Covenant, the Law put into the mind, and wrote in the heart, which was the Prophet, which Moses said unto the Jews, the Lord their God should raise unto them of their Brethren like unto him, whom they should hear in all things, whatsoever he should say unto them; and that it should come to pass that every Soul (he doth not say Body) that will not hear that Prophet, should be destroyed from among the people, Acts 2. 23. How much more now that the thing is come, which those Administrations had re­ference unto, (the great Reformer) ought all things now in relation unto Worship have reference unto him; and how ought all things of this nature thither to be directed?

For, as I said, he sent not to turn from man to man, from the darkness to man, but to the Light, to the Principle of God, that which is of God in man, the Seed, which is Christ, the Mystery hid from Ages and Gene­rations now made manifest, as the Apostle speaks, Col. 1. 26, 27. that men may know who they worship, and when, and how thy may worship him; God is a Spirit, and they that worship him, must worship him in Spirit and in Truth: Spirit, that is, something that is Spirit, that is of the Nature that God is, that is Spirit and Truth, that is as as he is, Spirit; they that worship him, must worship him not in the Letter, not in the Injunctions of men, not in an outward or fleshly Principle; not in man, or the spirit of man, but of God, which is in opposition to all that is of man, or cometh from man, that is not from the Spirit or Principle of God.

So men must first come to learn, or be turned to the Light, to the Principle of God, to that which is Spirit, by which they may come to know him that dwells in the Light that is inaccessible, as to all that is mannish or mortal from the darkness, all that is from man, or of him, who is mortal; then something may be said to them as to the Worship [Page 10] of God; then they are somewhere, and know something which God accepts, and in which he is well pleased; such Worshippers the Father seeks to worship him: All other Worships are not available, nor are they to any purpose, nor doth God seek them, though men may think thereby that they seek after God: The time of Reformation svveeps them avvay to the Moles and to the Bats, to go into the Clefts of the Rocks, all the Idols of Silver and of Gold, which are made each one for himself to wor­ship; and into the tops of the ragged Rocks, for fear of the Lord, and the glory of his Majesty, when he ariseth to shake terribly the Earth. Cease from man, whose breath is in his Nostrils; for wherein is he to be accounted of? Isa. 2. 20, 21. The great Reformer gives them no standing; every one must worship him from his Temple, whose Temple ye are, saith the Apo­stle to the Saints; Know ye not that ye are the Temple of God, (saith he) and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? 1 Cor. 3. 16. In his Temple doth Psal. 26. 9. every one speak of his glory.

Novv man coming to be the Temple of God, and the Spirit of the Lord dvvelling in man, and the Principle of God in man being knovvn, 1 Cor. 3. 16. here the Worship comes to be knovvn, vvhich is in the Spirit, and in Truth; and this is that vvhich the Father seeks.

So avvay vvith all inventions of men in the Worship of God; avvay vvith all Imitations and Likenesses; avvay vvith the shadovvs even of good things to come: Novv the thing it self, Christ Jesus, is come; the Principle, the Measure of him is knovvn, the Incense or Odour vvith Rev. 8. 3. vvhich the Prayers of all Saints are offered upon the Golden Altar, vvhich is before the Throne, vvhich God accepts. The Principle of God is to lead, the Spirit of the Lord to offer; as this moves, the Lord ac­cepts; in this he is vvell pleased; the living Root must be knovvn, something that is holy, that never sinned, to guide and direct; something that is as he is, vvho is holy, and no iniquity can come near his dvvelling, Hab. 1. 13. then the Worship is accepted of the Lord.

Say not in thy heart, Who shall ascend into Heuven? (that is to bring down Christ from above); Say not, Who shall descend into the deep? (that Rom. 10. 6, 7, 8. is to bring up Christ again from the dead). You need not go so far, you need not look vvithout you to Forms, Constitutions, Ordinances of Men, Laws and Imitations, the thing is vvithin you, the Lord hath brought it nigh to you, he hath not put you to another: You must account for your selves, and joy, or be undone for your selves; every man is an In­dividual, he is made so by God: An Individual signifies a being by it self that can never be mixed, that can never be made tvvo, something vvherein a man is determined for ever, vvhich the Lord should guide, of vvhom the Lord vvill require an account; the Lord hath not put you to seek here and look there. Loe here, and loe there; it is not in Heaven, that thou shouldst say, who shall go up for us to Heaven, and bring it unto us, that we may hear it, and do it? Neither is it beyond the Sea, that thou shouldst say, Who shall go over the Sea for us, and bring it unto us that we may hear it and do it? (said Moses) even of that which he gave as an outward Com­mandment, which was near in Christ, which the outward signified; which being blotted out, by reason of Transgression, that which was within, but blotted out by reason death was come over, was given with­out. But the Word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, [Page 11] that thou mayest do it, Deut. 30. 13, 14. The Word is nigh unto thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that is the Word of Faith which we Preach, saith Paul, Rom. 10. 6, 7, 8. there is no need of going afar off. As he hath made man individual, so he requires every individual man to worship him; and he hath put something of himself, a measure of Christ Jesus in­to every individual man, whereby and wherein every individual man may worship him: this is General, this is Universal, this is Publick, this is Catholick; he hath not left man to seek out of himself, to form, to shape, to liken, nor to depend one man upon another, how or wherein he should be worshipped; he hath not put him to that hazard, neither hath laid upon him that which is a heavy burden, or too hard for him to bear, or at too great a distance, or at any distance at all; but as he hath required man, so he is near man, or he hath put into man that which will enable him to do as he requires. So the Lord is no hard Master, nor doth require impossibilities; nor hath he left man to wander up and down, but he is near him to take him by the hand, and to lead him to all that he requires; he is in him to tell him what he should do, and he is with him to enable him to do what he would have him; the same that doth the one, doth the other: Herein is the loving kindness of God seen, and his justice, that he requires no more than he enables to do, and that he gives to ena­ble to do what he requires; and to another man hath not the Lord left man to be directed, but the thing is in himself, which all the World is mad at, because the Devil is in all the World; and he would perswade man that God is afar from him, as the Devil is to God, and gets his eye abroad to look at a distance where God is not to be found.

That which is to be known of God, is manifest in man, for God hath shewn it unto him; but the work of the one my hath been to draw man from this; The invisible things of him are clearly seen from the Creation of the World, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal Power and God­head, so that they are without excuse, saith the Apostle, Rom. 2. 19, 20. Yet because that when they knew God they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful, but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkned; professing themselves wise, they became fools, and changed the Glory of the incorruptible God into an Image made like corruptible man, and to Birds and four-footed Beasts, and creeping things; wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness, through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves, who changed the Truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the Creature more than the Creator, who is God blessed for ever, Amen. For this cause God gave them up to vile af­fections, for even their Women did change their natural use into that which is against Nature; and likewise also the men leaving the natural use of the Wo­men, burned in their lust one towards another, men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet. And even as they did not like to retain God in their know­ledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things that are not convenient, &c. vers. 21, to the end.

So here's the reason why men are so far off God, and are strangers un­to him, and become abominable, and to every good work reprobate; it is not that God is not near them, or that that of God which is to be known is not manifest in them, even his eternal Power and Godhead; [Page 12] but because they like not to retain him in their knowledge, because when they know God, they glorifie him not as God, neither are thankful, but become vain in their imaginations; so they come to change the Glory of the incorruptible God into an Image like unto corruptible man; men come to form God like unto themselves, and make him like as they ima­gine him to be, therefore God gives them up, who change the Truth of God into a lie, into imaginations of things without them, their foolish heart being darkned, and to worship the Creature more than the Crea­tor, who is God blessed for ever.

Here's the reason of all the false Worship in the World, all worship­ping of God at a distance, all inventions of men, and their medling and having to do with Worship, and to order that, all outward Constituti­ons, and Persecution for not observing the same. Men are gone far from God, their foolish heart is darkned, they are become vain in their imaginations, they are alienated from God by wicked works, they have not liked to retain God in their knowledge, nor have been thankful, that that of God which is to be known was manifest [in] them; therefore have they put God afar off, and looked upon him at a distance; and so have made Images and Representations, and taken upon them to form him as they please, and a Worship for him as they please; and they that will not fall down to it, into the fiery Furnace they must be thrown, and into the Lyons Den he must be cast, that will make a Petition to any other Godd, that will not worship God after that manner of Worship, and as those their Laws have prescribed: First, They are gone from that which is of him in them, by which they might know him that they have not liked to retain in their knowledge, nor glorified God as God when they knew God, will not own that which is to be known of God, which is manifested in them, as it is; then they think of God without them, as he is not, then they frame Worships according to their own minds, after this manner, and after that, shaping God as they please, and a Worship for him whom they have so shaped, who have neither heard his Voice at any time, nor seen his shape outwardly; then they compel all to serve this God so shapen, and to worship him as they have shaped and formed his Wor­ship, some after this manner, some after that, and those that will not, Fines, Imprisonments, Suspensions from Places and Dignities, casting out, and Excommunications, Whippings, losing of Ears, burnings in the Body, selling for Bond-men and Bond-women, Banishment upon pain of Death, and Death it self; after the most exquisite and various manners that can be thought of, as Ages and Generations have proved; of which I am by and by to speak and give witness.

And the reason hath bin, because being gone from that of God in them, by and in which they should vvorship him, and every one in their ovvn particulars, vvhich is near, vvhose Injunction as it is in Spirit, so is the Worship, and the Punishment of not so vvorshiping: they are in nothing but vvhat is outvvard themselves, and knovv no more of God than vvhat themselves think, which being indeed nothing at all (that is, so far, and as they are gone from that, or worship or compel thereunto, other­wise than that) their Worship is like their Godd, which is as themselves; These things thou hast done, and I kept silence: Thou thoughtest that I was al­together such [...] one as thy self, but I will reprove thee, and set them in order [Page 13] before thine eyes. Now consider this ye that forget God, lest I tear you in pieces, and there be none to deliver, (Psal. 50. 21, 22.) and being as them­selves, their punishment is as themselves, which is outward, corporeal, as man is not in the Spirit.

So every one that makes a Worship, makes a Godd; and every one that worships not God in Spirit and in Truth, makes a Worship; and con­founded be all they that serve graven Images, that boast themselves of Idols; worship him all ye Godds, Psal. 97. 7.

And the Enemy is in all this, who (as I have said) being far from God himself, endeavours to put man as far as himself; he removes him from having respect to, and minding that of God in him, to look afar off, well knowing that if he can but once do that, he shall never know God; and then he can easily perswade man to be as God, and to give Laws how he, indeed as God, may be worshipped, and to torture and tor­ment the Bodies of those who worship God as he will be worshipped, or who cannot worship God as man would have him worshipped.

For he that would drive a man from the Measure of God in himself, to worship God as he pleaseth, drives a man from God, and instead of God sets himself up to be worshipped, and himself being set up, or he having set up himself to be worshipped, he takes revenge, and punishes those who will not worship what himself sets up, and so falls into the predica­ment of Nebuchadnezzar, and of all those, who because of Worships, not conforming to their Laws of Worship, have caused men to suffer, as the Histories now to be made mention of give instance.

And here, lest I should seem too prolix, and fill a Volumn with that which a lesser space may serve to give evidence to what I have in hand, I shall principally confine my self to what Eusebius, Pamphilius, Socrates, Scholasticus, and Evarius Scholasticus, in their Ecclesiastical History, have set down, and touched at, for near the first six hundred years after the death of him who is Lord and King, and lives for ever. And here I shall be as short as well I may, that in a thing of this consequence, I may con­vince what I have here asserted to this and the Ages that shall succeed, to the end that (as the wise man said) it may appear, that as to God and his Worship, and Worshippers, and what they have received, who have worshipped him in Spirit and in Truth, from them who have held up the Ecles. 1. 9. Form without, and not knowing, and not from the Power of God, there is no new thing under the Sun; but as they did of old, so in this day, the same they receive from such as are in the Form, who know, and are in the Power of God, and how that which hath held up the Form, and hath prescribed Laws and Constitutions, Creeds and Governments, by which God should be worshipped, have stained the Earth with blood, and with the most horrible torments and sufferings most exquisite, have wrung out of every Age this confession, That destruction and violence is in their Paths, and the way of Peace they have not known: And this one thing hath proved, that man was in all this (or rather the Devil in man) who having set up himself as God, destroyes, as he can, all those who will not fall down and worship him, which is not the Religion of God, the Wisdom which is from Above, which is first pure, then peaceable, Jam. 3. 17. gentle, easie to be intreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisie; nor the Worship of him, who saith, He came not to Luke 9. 3 [...] destroy mens lives, but to save them.

And here I shall take upon me no affected Stile, nor strain any thing beyond what they speak in themselves; but as the Spirit of the Lord, of whom I am moved this to undertake, shall lead and give me; to whom be the glory of his own working, who is God over all, blessed for ever, Amen.

Eusebius in his first Book of Ecclesiastical History, Chapter the first, Eus. lib. 1. c. 1. taking upon him to speak of the Divinity and Humanity of Christ the Lord, and treating of the Antiquity of the Christian Religion, and the Name of Christ, which the Heathen in that day thought a very Nove­lism, who worshipped Images and Idols, such things which they made to themselves, who sacrificed to Devils, not to God, as it was said of Je­roboam,—He ordained him Priests for the high Places, for the Devils, and 2 Chron. 11. 15. Deut. 32. 17. for the Calves which he had made.—And by Moses, They sacrificed unto De­vils, not to God; to Godds whom they knew not, to new Godds, who came newly up, whom your Fathers knew not; and which he forbad to Israel, when he said,—They shall no more offer their Sacrifices unto Devils, after whom they are gone a whoring: This shall be a Statute unto them (said the Lord by Levit. 1. 17. 7. Moses) throughout their Generations.—I say, he speaking of the Divinity, and the Humanity of Christ, and treating of the Antiquity of the Chri­stian Religion, and the Name of Christ, which the Heathen in that day counted a Novelism, brings him in thus,—This [Light] (saith he) go­ing before the World, and all the Worlds, the Intellectual and Essential Wis­dom, and the living Word of God, being in the beginning with the Father, who but the Father alone hath rightly known?—Implying that they took upon them that which they did not understand, who did undertake to speak of him and his descent and beginning of dayes, who is from everlasting; al­so of his Religion, and the Age and Antiquity thereof, who knew him not, much less his Religion.

This was the ground of all the most cruel and Heathenish persecutions of the Christians, and of the then called Christians one of another, of which he (and the aforementioned) treat; they knew not Christ the Light, which (he saith) went (or was) before the World, and all Worlds, the Intellectual and Essential Wisdom, and the living Word of God, who was in the beginning with the Father; therefore they thought him a thing (or some Imposter) in time, about that time, or but then brought forth, or appearing, or known in the World, when those who pretended to him were nicknamed, Christians (that is to say) in such a year of the Reign of such a Roman Emperor, who is without beginning of dayes, or end of Life, as hath been declared: Also they who were called Christians, and yet persecuted one another, were from the Light, Christ the Light, which was before the World, and (so far, or whilst as such (that is to say) per­secuting one another) knew not that, or were not in it, which was before the World; So they placed things in time, the Heathen, their gods, be­fore him whose Name was Christ, and that which one, called Christian, persecuted another for before that, for holding of which, or not hold­ing, Persecution of the Christi­ans. one, called Christian, persecuted another.

And here (as I said before) was the ground of both, and of all those who since, and at this day, persecute others upon account of Religion, or the Worship of God, their not knowing, or not abiding in the knovv­ledge of him, vvho is the Light of the World, the true Light that light­eth [Page 15] every man that cometh into the World, which was (or went) before the World was; Who but the Father alone hath (as hath been said) rightly known.

For all such judging of things relating unto him in time, and thinking of him, as they think of themselves, think grosly, and so put the de­termination of Truth, according to the measure of themselves, who a beginning have, and must come to an end, which is wholly out of the verge of Truth, which neither hath beginning nor end: So these gross apprehensions, both in the Heathen, and such as were called Christians, is the reason or ground wherefore they call Truth Novelism, and so per­secute one another because of Truth; they are absolutely from that which was before time was, by which the World was made, in that which is in time, which knows not that by which time was, and in which time was made, which hath a beginning, and must end, which never could nor can judge of Truth, which hath no end, as it never had a beginning. Lord, thou hast been our dwelling place in all Generations, before the Moun­ [...]ains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the World, even from everlasting to everlasting thou art God, Psal. 90. 12.

The Heathens accounted the Christian Religion, or Christ and his The ground of the Hea­then Persecu­tion, and of the Christians; and of the Christians persecuting one another. Worship, an upstart thing; the Christians (so called) that persecuted, ac­counted what they persecuted, a thing that was an upstart; they laid their Force, they put their Penalties, their Laws, their Death; Why? they were in that which stood in time, that knew not the Light which was before the World was, which is the Intellectual and Essential Wis­dom, the living Word of God, which was in the beginning with the Father, who alone the Father hath rightly known: All things are delivered me of my Father, and no man knoweth the Son but the Father, neither know­eth any man the Father save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will re­veal him, Mat. 11. 27.

And these persecuted one another about Worship; Why? Because they saw not the Light, they saw not that Light by which all things were made, but being in that which is made, and seeing with that eye, or the eye which is made, and not with the Light which was before the World, the Principle of God; they quarrelled about Religion, and the Worship of God, and for that shed blood, which came not to destroy mens lives, but to save them, as hath been declared; who will have no bloody Sacri­fices, since he was offered up, who by one offering for ever perfected those that are sanctified, Heb. 10. 14.

So that the reason of all lies here, Men not coming to that which was before the World was, not knowing, or not believing or abiding in that by which all things were made, which was before all things, and taking upon them to judge of that which was before the World was; judge like themselves, and prosecute their Judgments with things like themselves, and make that which they prosecute like to themselves, which is perishing and transitory, which they cut off and destroy; they count Truth new, an upstart, Christ Jesus this thing, that Novelism, they persecute, cut off, and seek to do it, because they see not the Antient of dayes, whose Kingdom is an everlasting Kingdom, and his Dominion that which shall never have an end; his Dominion is an everlasting Dominion, which shall not pass away, and his Kingdom that which shall not be destroyed, Dan. 7. 14.

Eusebius addeth,—Which is before every Creature, and workmanship, Euseb. further account of Christ the Light, both of visible and invisible things, the first, and only Son of God, chief Cap­tain of the Celestial, Rational, and Immortal Host, the Angel of the great Counsel, and Executor of the great Will of the Father, Maker, and worker of all things together with the Father; which after the Father, is the cause and Author of all things which are created, the true and only begotten Son of God, Lord God, and King of all things which are created, receiving Dominion and Rule of the Father by the said Divinity, Power, and Glory.

All this he calls the Light (as aforesaid) and withall saith, His Gene­ration And his Ge­neration. who shall be able to declare? For the Father no man hath known but the Son, neither at any time have any known the Son but the Father alone which be­gat him, in the words aforegoing.

So that here he layes the bottom of his History, which he calls Ecclesi­astical, The bottom of his History, and of the Truth. or relating to the Church, or the Worship of God, which is the Antiquity, unto which he pretendeth, against that which rose up against the Christians in that day, both by the Jews and Heathens, as a thing but of yesterday, of young date, and not everlasting; the same unt [...] which answereth now in this, that which pretendeth now to Truth, as a new thing never heard of before, no Antiquity before a few years late past, which is everlasting, Christ the Light, which was before the World was; by whom all things were made which was made, without whom nothing was made which was made; which was with God, which was God, in whom was Life, and the Life was the Light of men, which is the true Light that lighteth every man that cometh into the World, John 1. 2, 3, 4, 9. Here's the Anti­quity, here's the Antient of dayes, here's the Original, the Principle of them that pretend to the Light in this day; hitherto pretended he that wrote in that day; the reason of the wrong Judgment of the youngness of Truth then, is the same, of the same censure of it now; the ground hath been declared, and the bottom, which I thought convenient to take notice of in the entrance of what I have to say, as he did in the begin­ning of what he spake; the same being then as it is now, and the an­swer the same with that upon which he grounded that which he said, (as aforesaid) which I have inserted in order as his History began, of which he layes this as the ground and bottom; and which I quote, that such men may see, that that which they lay as the ground of their own Principles, is no other but the same on which we are grounded, who pretend to the Truth; and that so they may not be offended with their own Principle, when they come to see it in the hand of another, or others professing, and coming to that which themselves pretend to, yet come not at, but run on those that both come to, and pretend it; as is the case of the People called Quakers at this day, who are run upon, as bringing up some strange and uncouth Doctrine, which is no other then what was in the beginning, the ground of which was before the World, and which when they will lay a bottom for their own work, they must come to, or no bottom they can lay; also, that the Controversies may cease, and that in this particular it may appear we are not diverse from Christ nor his Apostles, nor the holy men of God, nor the Principle on which they pretend to build their own Profession, which they not holding to, come to persecute those who hold it, as it was in the begin­ning, The Son of the Bondwoman, the Son of the Freewoman; for (as the Gal. 4 29. [Page 17] Scripture saith) as it was then, so it is now: Also that in this work I may proceed methodically, and as it ought, taking away all ground of Ob­jections, and representing every thing as it is: And so I come to that for which I chiefly quoted these Authors, and shall in order go as I find the History, which by that time I have finished, I hope no reasonable or sober man (when he hath read and considered all in the Spirit of Truth) will have cause to say, that either the things are needless, or that he mis­spent his time in taking notice of what lies here now to be spoken to, or discoursed of.

This then concerning National Worships, and the sufferers by, or be­cause The ground of National Worship, and the sufferings by them. of the not complying with them, and how it came that there were such Worships after the decease of the Apostles, and so how they came in, and on what steps they have stood, and do stand at this day (that is to say) the sufferings by reason of them, as I have shewed their Original, as to the Jews, on the foot of which no National Worship can have Warranty or Ground, though upon that foot they have seemed to place their Ground and Warranty, as hath been declared.—National Worship, how it came in, and what it was, as to the Jews, and how and when it had its end, I have already manifested. Spirit, and Truth, the Law of the Spirit of Life, which is in Christ Jesus, the newness of the Spirit, not the oldness of the Letter, the Spirit of Truth which leads into all Truth, after his Resurrection & Ascension put it out, that which was in the letter in the outward Administration, in Carnal Rites, & Ordinances, and Com­mandments; which were (in the Jew) the shadows of good things to come, but not the very things themselves, came to have an end, when this promise was fulfilled: So the Apostles and Disciples of Jesus Christ te­stified, of which the Scriptures bear Record, and for this they suffered [...]m the Jew that stood in the outward Commandment, Worship and [...]ministration, the shadow that once was of that good thing, which whiles the shadow continued, was to come, but being come, the shadow had an end: So the Jew in the flesh persecuted the Jew in the Spirit; the Circumcision made with hands, the Circumcision made without hands; and here began the dispute in that day, which hath continued unto this, which is the thing I have hitherto treated of, and now shall proceed fur­ther, to demonstrate according to the Histories, of the things that have been done since the decease of the Apostles and Disciples of Jesus, and what they went through, as it is mentioned in the Scriptures.

And here the Heathens give me the first occasion of drawing the Sufferings by the Heat [...]ens on the foot of National Wor­ship, during the dayes of the Apostles, bloody Roll of Sufferings, at which these Histories at large do make mention: At Acts 6. 5. Antioch it was that the Disciples of Jesus were first called Christians, a Nickname, or term of slander, no doubt, given, or cast upon such by way of reproach, or derision, or marking out for mis­chief, as the consequence both from the one and the other, gives at large to understand: The Gentiles or Heathen, had their Worships, they sa­crificed to Devils, not to God, they were mad upon their Idols; Spirit Je [...]. 5. 38. and Truth that was risen from the dead, came to root them up, as it did put an end to the Administration of the Jew, or his National Worship, it turned the World upside down, which had put it down, and crucified it Acts 17. 6. in Jesus, and changed the Laws and Customs, and said, That they were Acts 19 26. 17 6. no gods that were made with bands; and overturned the Decrees of Cesar, [Page 18] as even in the Apostles dayes, they spake of the Disciples, of which the Scriptures makes mention; Spirit and Truth overturned it. The Devil had his false Worships, as he hath had ever since he entred into man, he made still adoe in the World about his Worship; he stirred up Cain to kill his Brother Abel about his Worship; he raised up the chief Priests 1 John 3. 12. and Pharisees to put him to death who came to overturn his Worship; he set them on against his Disciples when they preached the Resurrection of the dead, that risen again that came to put it under. And the Devil (said John by the Spirit of Prophesie in the Revelation) shall cast some of you into Prison! Man thinks he should worship God; something calls Rev. 2. 10. after man (though he is fallen) to return to God and worship him, who gave him his being. The Devil being entred, by reason of transgression, seeks to deceive man, and being in man, sets man upon making of Wor­ships, and then to destroy all that will not observe what he hath set up as his Worship, or would have to be set up as the Worship of God. God is from everlasting, his Worship is as he is, they which stand in his Wor­ship, and which Worship from him, are gentle, and meek, easie to be Jam. 3. 17. 2 Tim. 2. 25. entreated; with meekness instructing them that oppose themselves, if God per­adventure will give them the knowledge of the Truth: It is Spiritual, and the Weapons thereof are not Carnal, but mighty through the Spirit: But that 2 Cor. 10. 4. which stands in the Worship of man, or of the Devil, or of the Worship of the Devil, or man, is otherwise: It is like that, from whence it came, which is Carnal, and outward, and fierce, and implacable, and destructive in the consequence to those that bow not thereunto, which is a demon­stration of that from whence it came, as pertaking of its nature, and be­ing like thereunto.

This I write to give a little taste of the difference of either, that as I go along all may see what things have ruled in the World, and what hath been the ground of the troubles that have been therein concerning Re­ligion, and that they may know what that Religion is that ends in death, and other sufferings, and may be convinced how far it is from that which came not to bring death, but to deliver from it, which seeks the destructi­on of the spirit that leads aside from God, not the man, but to redeem and deliver him. And here, as in a Glass, these things may be seen and dis­covered, and with great perspicuity and plainness, if men shut not their eyes on purpose, and refuse to see, though the day-light break in never so bright upon them, whose eyes the god of this World hath blinded, even the minds of them, lest the Light of the glorious Gospel of Christ, who 2 Cor. 4. 4. is the Image of God, should shine unto them; As the Apostle spake in his day, of those to whom his Gospel was hid, even to them that were lost; it was so plain, it was so perspicuous; If our Gospel be hid, it is to them that are lost, in whom the God of this World hath blinded their minds, &c. as a­foresaid, 2 Cor. 4. 3. 2 Cor. 4. 3, 4.

So there I leave this matter, and shall proceed to shew what hapned, or came to pass after the time of which the Scriptures give testimony, being the thing of which I have declared to treat, though thus much was ne­cessary to say, to bring things down from the beginning to their due or­der and place, and so I shall proceed. Sufferings by the Heathen, after the days of the Apo­stles.

The Roman Emperors were worshippers of Images of Godds; their Jurisdictions were large, and their Worships they made as large as their [Page 19] Jurisdictions; nothing was more against that which was not God, than the Name of that, or of him, which came to redeem from dumb Idols to the Service of the living God, and this was Christ Jesus; he gave a great start to the Godds made with hands, the Inventions of men, who had eyes, and saw not; ears, and heard not; neither did they understand. The Psal. 115. 5. Power in which he stood, and the Miracles which he wrought were such, that drew to him great admiration throughout the World. The Romans had jurisdiction over Judea in those dayes, and the Regions thereabouts; they were an inquisitive and understanding People, as men, though ig­norant of God; their Lievtenants, Prefects, and Governors usually gave them account, who had the chief rule of what considerably passed in their Provinces, and was most remarkable; the mighty things which Je­sus did, and how he was put to death, and rose again, went not with­out its observation and report: Pilate, under and by whom he suffered Pilates ac­count at the instigation of the Jews, being then Governor of Jerusalem, who washed his hands, and said, He would have nothing to do in the death of that just Person; though he afterwards delivered Jesus to their wills, notwith­standing that he knew that through very envy Jesus was delivered to him, having a sence upon him of what Jesus was, and of the mighty things he had wrought, signified the matter so unto Tiberius, who was Anno. 18. to Tiberius Emperor, of Jesus, occasi­oned then Emperor, that he had him in great Reverence, and his Doctrine, and declared to the Senate, That it pleased him right-well; and so would have had him put among the number of their Godds, but they received it not, because of the decree that was amongst them, That no Godd should be consecrated by the Emperor, unless it were first agreed upon by the Senate, as Eusebius quotes Tertullians words; who nevertheless (viz.) Tiberius Euseb. lib. 2. cap. 2. gave not over, but persevered in his Opinion of Jesus, and his Doctrine, [...]hreatning them with death that would accuse the Christians. The Se­ [...]ate the liberty of the profession of (saith Eusebius of Tertullians words) rejected it, because they had not allowed the same, but he persevered in his Opinion, threatning them death that would accuse the Christians.—And this maketh for us, (saith Eusebius of Tertullian, in his Apology for the Christians) that the Deity is weighed amongst you after mans will and judgment; unless God please man, he is not made God; so that (saith Tertullian) by the Decree, man must be favourable Tertul in Apo­log. advers. Gentes. cap. 3. and gracious unto God: This was the wisdom (saith Eusebius of Tiberius, his retaining of the sence of Christ and his Doctrine) of the Divine Pro­vidence [lightning] his mind, that the preaching of the Gospel should pass Christian Re­ligion, at the beginning throughout the World.

So I have given the ground or occasion (as to men) how the fame of Jesus had its liberty to go through the World; which (as Eusebius hath observed) no doubt was through the Wisdom of God, and his mighty Hand, that the report, of what he was and did, from Pilate, should bear that weight with Tiberius, as to allow a propagation thereof throughout his Dominions, which extended very far, by reason of which it so came to pass, that multitudes were turned from their Idols, and worshipped the God which made Heaven and Earth, through his Son Jesus Christ.

Thus got the Name Christian footing in the World, and spread it self Which spread­ing it self over under the whole Heaven, as it were of the Roman Empire, into Towns, Cities, Nations, Provinces; and the Lord was called upon, who made Heaven and Earth, the Sea, and the dry Land, of which John speaks, [Page 20] and the Earth was replenished with the knowledge of the Lord: But in The World occasioned, or the Persecuti­on because thereof, this state it stood not long, but the Enemy, as soon as he could, wrought off that sound, which was of what Jesus was, from all the Emperors that succeeded Tiberius, and the sence of him and it, and got the constituti­ons of the Roman Empire, for the enforcing of the Worship of their Idol become Ge­neral. Godds, to take place, which gave occasion of infinite sufferings, and un­heard of Butcheries to be committed on the Christians from the dayes of Nero who succeeded Claudius, whom Caius Caligula succeeded, who was Nero the first chief persecu­tor of the Christians. the successor of Tiberius, to the dayes of Constantine, and so onwards, as the same spirit ruled in the Emperors, who made their Laws like them­selves, and shewed the inward portraicture of their bloody brests, by inflicting most inhumane sufferings; of which, what I have further to say, gives a more particular account. Read your Authors (saith Tertul­lian Tertul. in Apolog. cap 5. his account thereof; and of him, in his Apology for the Christians to the Gentiles) there you shall find Nero chiefly to have persecuted this Doctrine (which was that of the Christi­ans) at Rome, where the whole East was now subdued, he became cruel unto all men. We boast and brag (saith he) of such a famous persecutor, for they which knew him, may easily perceive that this our Doctrine had never been condemned by Nero, had it not been passing good.

So the setting up of Religion by man, the requiring of man to observe the Religion that was set up by man, was that which (at first) gave the occasion, or was the ground of the first and the fiercest persecutions: And of Perse­cution, & the ground of it. for (as Tertullian hath fully and well said as aforesaid) unless that God please man, he is not made God.—A strange presumption, that poor man, whose breath is in his Nostrils, and is not sure that once more he shall breath, should be so bewitched with the inchantments of the wicked One, and so deluded, as to take upon him to prescribe unto God, and in effect to say unto him who made him, Thou shalt not be, or have any The sence of Persecution (in effect) of God, and what of him it saith according to Tertullian. Worship but as I will, and shall please to afford thee. Indeed he might well assume and say, as upon the former account, as aforesaid, Man must be gracious and favourable unto God.—A strange inversion, yet it is that, which all that which by the force or power of man, would prescribe how God shall be worshipped, doth affirm and speak, viz. If thou please me, or if it so like me, thou shalt be so, and after this manner worshipped; otherwise expect not any Worship in the World: pray thou unto me that I may be gracious and favourable to thee, for unless thou please me, thou shalt not be God, thou shalt not be worshipped.

It were well if mens eyes were open to see these things, and how their And what the seeking to en­force Religion signifies, as to that, or speaks. setting up of Worship, of Religion, something that is of their own mind and framing, which is not from the Spirit, the Principle, the mea­sure of God in them, is the same with what hath been rehearsed; for if he be a God, knows not he how to direct his Worship? If he hath made the World and Man, and required Man to worship him, and to do what is pleasing in his sight; knows not he how to direct man in what manner to worship him? Or hath he left man so without something of himself to guide and instruct him, that man must needs take upon him to advise and instruct, yea to inforce, as to the Worship of God? Gird up now thy loyns like a man, for I will demand of thee, and answer thou me, said the Lord to Job, cap. 40. vers. 7. who answered, I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear; but now mine eye doth see thee: wherefore I abhor my self, and [Page 21] repent in dust and ashes, Job 41. 5, 6. These things would be ridiculous to affirm, yet the things speak it, and every dayes experience manifests it, how vain man would be wise, who is born as the wild Asses Colt, who Job 11. 12. would teach his Maker, and instruct the holy One of Is [...]ael; and instead of abiding at his Feet to intreat his Grace and Favour, seems to seek to bring his Maker to his feet to intreat his grace and favour, how, and that he may be worshipped.

Well, these things cost them hard who ran this course, through And the con­sequence thereof, as to punishment, throughout all Generations, as a warning to this. all Generations; and this will cost them hard who run the same course now; the Lord will be known by the Judgements that he will execute. And as Heathens, and those who bear the Name of Christians (but are otherwise in Nature) do the same thing, who enjoyn Worship, and re­quire men to conform unto their Decrees therein, (for the spirit in both is the same) so will they partake of the same punishment. Judah and Edom, and the Children of Moab and Ammon, all that are in the utmost Corners, that dwell in the Wilderness; For all these Nations are uncircum­cised, and all the House of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart, Jer. 9. 26. Behold, the dayes come, saith the Lord, that I will punish all them that are circumcised with the uncircumcised, vers. 25.

So all Kings and Princes, Lords and Potentates of the Earth, had need to look about them, and consider how they meddle with his Dominion, who lives for ever, in the Conscience, as to his Worship; How they say in effect, Unless he please them, he shall not be made God; and so by their Decrees speak that they must be gracious and favourable to God, as the Heathens did of old, lest he dash them to pieces. Kiss the Son lest he be angry, and ye perish in the way, if his anger be kindled, yea, but a lit­tle: Blessed are all they that put their trust in him, Psal. 2. 12.

Thus stood the case of the Heathen Emperors as to God, by the And the rea­son thereof. judgment of Tertullian, whose judgment is true, and this proves the consequence, when as by virtue of their Power and Jurisdiction, they took upon them to meddle with his Dominion in the Conscience, as they went over and murthered all sence of God, or as the sence of God and his Majesty, and dread, was murdered in their hearts; so they mur­dered those, who retaining a sence of the dread and Majesty of God in their hearts, could not bow down unto and worship their Godds, their National Worship which required all men to fall down and worship it: The truth of it is, they required God to fall down and worship; and be­cause that which was of him in men, hindred many from so doing, therefore they laid at God what they could; but missing him whom they could not reach, they killed the Creature in which he was, which that of him which was in them kept them from doing, and bore them through all that which the rage of man executed upon them because of God. And thus stands it with all those who tread the same steps; the spirit is the same, and the way is the same, and the work is the same, and the same will be the end of those that tread therein.

Nero was the first of all the Emperors that gave the fierce on set upon Nero began the first Per­secution, Euseb. lib. 2. cap. 4. Anno 41. Cap. 5. Caius Caligula the Christians; for although Caius Caligula made himself a Godd, and caused himself to be proclaimed a Godd; and the Tributaries to the Romans dedicated Altars and Temples to him, and esteemed him in all other respects as God, (as those in effect do who take upon them to en­joyn [Page 22] as to the Worship of God); and though his dealing was so grie­vous unto all men, especially the Nation of the Jews, who disdainfully withstood the honour done to him of men, and were accustomed to pro­phane his Name, and vexed so many with manifold and innumerable af­flictions, which are too long to be repeated; for beginning at Alexan­dria, he claimed unto himself their Prayers, and set up his own Picture every where, and dedicated the Temple in Jerusalem to himself, unto his proper use (which until that time is said to have been undefiled, and free every way) translating or consecrating the name to New Caius as a famous Godd; who told Pilate, when he said of Jesus, Behold your King, shall I crucifie your King?—We have no other King but Caesar: Yet Anno. 46. Claudias, c. 25. I read not that he so fell upon the Christians, nor Claudius neither, who succeeded Caius: The Historian▪ saith of him these words,—Nero now Anno. 56. A particular account of Nero, and setled in his Seat, fell into abominable facts, and took Armour against the Service due unto the Universal and Almighty God; how detestable he was be­come, is not for this present time to declare, for there be many who have painted out his wilful malice, which may easily appear, if we consider the fu­rious madness of that man, through the which, after that, beyond all reason he had destroyed an innumerable company, he fell into such a sucking vein of slaughter, that he abstained not from his most dear and familiar Friends; yea, he tormented with divers kinds of deaths his own Mother, his Wife, his Brethren, and many of his nearest Kinsfolks, as if they had been enemies and deadly foes unto him: but it behoved us to note this one thing of him above the rest, That he was accounted the first Enemy of all the Emperors to the Service of God. This Enemy of God (saith he) set up himself in the de­struction Paul Behead­ed, Peter crucified. How he be­gan, and fi­nished the first of the Ten Persecutions. The Heathen Lineage of Christs perse­cu [...]ors. Domitian, Anno. 63. Euseb▪ l. 3 c. 8. Titus cap 15. Raised the se­cond persecu­tion. An account of him and his Persecution, Anno. 97. of the Apostles, wherein he was first discovered, for they write that Paul was Beheaded, and Peter Crucified of him at Rome.—Thus far Euse­bius he began, and in his Reign was finished the first of the Ten most famous and bloody Persecutions of the Christians, being the first Ene­my or Persecutor (as the Historian saith above) of the Christians, of the Service of God, of all the Emperors. So see your Stock and Lineage in these latter dayes, ye who have been persecutors of the Truth.

Domitian was the next who raised, and upon the foot of whose cruelty is called the second Persecution; he took the Imperial Crown, when his Brother Titus had reigned two years and two months, he was very wick­ed and cruel. The Historian saith of him,—Domitian, when he had ex­ecuted much cruelty against many, and put to death no small multitude of the Nobles of Rome, and notable men, beyond all rightful Judgement, and pu­nished an infinite company of famous men, with exile and loss of their sub­stance, dieth, and appointed himself successor of Nero in hatred and war a­gainst God. This man also raised persecution against us, although his Father Vespasian practised no presumptuous Lordliness towards us.—John is said Vespasian, c. 16 John banished to be banished by Domitian into the Isle of Patmos, the same year in which he died, as saith Eusebius, lib. 3. cap. 16. Our Religion (saith he again) so flourished in the aforesaid times, that the Heathen Writers no­ting exactly the times, vouchsafed to publish in their Histories this Persecution, and the Martyrdoms suffered in the same.

Trajan is the third, whose footsteps were covered in the blood of the Trajan raised, Euseb. l. 3. c. 18 Anno. 100. The third Persecution. Christians; great slaughters were made of them, and with most cruel torments were many of them drawn unto death; he succeeded Nerva, [Page 23] who succeeded Domitian; the compleating of his cruelty made up what Nerva, cap. 30. is called the third Persecution. Eusebius saith,—So great a persecution An account of his Persecuti­on, and the Christians Principl [...]s, by Plinius Se­cundus. was raised against us in several places, that Plinius Secundus, a notable Presi­dent, made relation there of unto the Emperor, being very much moved with the number of Martyrs which suffered death for the testimony of their Faith; signifying withal that they committed no beynous offence, nor transgressed any Law, saving that they rose before day, and celebrated Christ with Hymns as God, forbidding Adulteries and Slaughter, with such other like abominable facts, shewing conformity in all things agreeable to the Laws; after which report it is written, that Trajan commanded by edict, that the Christian Nati­on Upon which Trajan com­manded the Christians not to be en­quired for. should not be enquired for, but if happily they were found, they ought to be punished.—By which Edict the vehement heat of that grievous Persecution was somewhat quallified: Yet nevertheless there was scope enough left for such as were willing to afflict us; so that in one place, the people, in another place the Princes and Rulers of the Regions, laid wait for our men, whereby several persons suffered Martyrdom in their Provinces, and sundry of the Faithful, with sundry kinds of deaths, without open or manifest persecution;—Which he groundeth out of Tertullians Apology for the Christians Tertul. Apolog cap. 5. Relates the reason of the Inhibition of the Inquisiti­on. against the Heathens, where yet Tertullian saith,—Although we have known the Inquisition directed for us to be inhihited, it was by reason of Plinius Secundus, who having condemned some of the Christians, and deprived some others of their Dignities, was moved with the greatness of their Multitude, and doubted what was best to be done. He made the Em­peror Trajan privy thereof, saying, That he found nothing in them that was impious, but that they refused the worshipping of Images; signifying this And the Chri­stians Princi­ples. withal, that the manner of the Christians was to rise before day, to cele­brate Christ as God; and to the end their Discipline may straitly be observed, they forbid shedding of blood, adultery, fraud, traiterous dealing, and such like: For answer hereunto, Trajan wrote again, That there should be no inquisition for Christians, but if they were met with they should be punished: And thus, saith Eusebius, went the affairs of the Christians then.

Marcus Aurelius Verus was the fourth, who drew the blood of the Anno 163: Euseb. l 4. c 14 Marcus Aure­lius Verus, the fourth Pe [...]se­cution, cap. 3. Christians, and made up what is called the fourth Persecution, who with Antoninus his Son, and Lucius his Brother, succeeded Antoninus Pius, which Antoninus Pius succeeded Aelius Adrianus, and Aelius Adrianus, Trajan: Those two Emperors, (viz.) Adrian and Pius were more friend­ly to the Christians, who through their tenderness got some respite. Adrian began his Reign at the death of Trajan, in the year 119. Trajan having worn the Imperial Scepter for the space of twenty years wanting six months, (a long time for such issues of blood, and perpetrations of cruelties) when he was dead, the old spight and malice of wicked men ended not with him, but it sought its rise with Adrian against the Chri­stians, who then began to molest them. In the behalf of whom, and the Christian Faith, Quadratus wrote and dedicated a Book, intituled Quadrat. Apol: for the Chri­stians. an Apology of the Christian Faith, The works of our Saviour (saith he in it) were manifest and open, for they were true; such as were healed and raised from the dead, were not onely healed and raised in sight, and outward shew, but they continually and constantly remained so indeed, (it seems there were such that blasted them what they could with the contrary, and that he was an Impostor) neither lived they only the time that our Saviour (saith he) [Page 24] had his aboad here on Earth; but a long time after his ascention, yea, and a number of them unto our time.—Aristides also an Atheman Philosopher, Aristid. Athen Philosop. Apol for the Chri­stians. The cruelty of the Perse­cution, & their valour pro­cu [...]es the Apology, c. 8. wrote another Apology for the Faith of the Christians; for such was the havock, desolation and destruction made of the Christians, and with all kind of torments, and with death, were they so run upon, and esteemed worse than Beasts of prey, whom all knock in the head, as if they had been the only Creatures on the Earth who were to be destroyed, and made so to be; that it, and their unmoveable constancy in their suffer­ings, moved great sence upon sober men, even among the Heathen, whom it turned to the Faith.

Justinus Martyr, in his Apology for the Christians, assigneth that as the cause why he left Paganism, and embraced the Cristian Faith,—For Justin Martyrs own confessi­on; how it had influence on him to be­come a Chri­stian. my self (saith he) delighted with the Doctrine of Plato, hearing that the Christians were led Captives, neither fearing death, nor any torments which are accounted terrible, I thought it could not be that this kind of men were subject unto malice, and set on pleasure; for what voluptuous person, and in­temperate, or delighted with the devouring of mans flesh, (which it seems in those dayes was taken pleasure in) can so imbrace death, that he be depri­ved of his desire, and not rather endeavour that this alwayes may last, that he may be able to deceive Princes, and not betray himself to death?—Also he saith, In the Judaical Wars, fresh before your eyes, Barehochebas a Barochebas the Jewish Persecutor of the Christians Sereninus Gra­vianus inter­position to Adrian. Captain of the Jewish Rebellion, commanded the Christians only to be grie­vously punished, unless they renounced Christ, and blasphemed God.—So they suffered on all hands. Sereninus Granianus, a noble President of the Romans, wrote also to Adrian, signifying in their behalf, That it was ve­ry injurious, that for no crime, but onely at the outcry of the people, they should be brought and executed; for even amongst their own Commanders and Governors, the sufferings of the Christians had consideration: whereupon Adrian wrote again to Minutius Fundanus, Proconsul of Asia, Stops the Persecution. wherein their sufferings abounded, That none without grievous crime and occasion should be put to death.—And, when as (saith Justin, in his Apo­logy Justin Martyrs Apology for the Christians to Antinous. for the Christians, to Antinous, speaking of Antinous, a Servant of Adrianus Caesar, who had a festival Tryumph celebrated in those dayes, and a City built after his name called Antinoa, and Priests Consecrated, and Prophets appointed thereunto, whom all Worship (saith he) for fear, when as they know well enough who, and whence he was) We might justly require, by virtue of the Epistles of the most Victorious and Nota­ble Caesar Adrian your Father, that as he graciously commanded, so sentence should be given; yet we require not this as commanded by Adrian, but inas­much as ye know, that at the request of the people justice is to be craved.—So that the sence of what they understood, became general, and the cry was, that it should be intermitted. Adrians Epistle, or rather Edict to Minutius, was as followeth,—Unto Minutius Fundanus, Proconsul of Asia, Adrian sendeth greeting. I received an Epistle from Sereninus Grania­nus, Cap. 9. Adrians Edict to Minutius Caudanus, Proconsul of Asia, to stop the Persecu­tion. that worthy Man, thy Predecessor, the occasion whereof I cannot with silence leave untouched, lest that thereby men be troubled, and a gap left open to the malice of Sycophants; Wherefore if your Provincials can prove ought against the Christians, whereof they charge them, and justifie it before the Bar, let them proceed on, and not impeach them onely for the Name, with making outcries against them; for it is very expedient that if any be disposed [Page 25] to accuse, the accusation be throughly known of you, and sifted: Therefore if any accuse the Christians, that they transgress the Laws, see that you judge and punish according to the quality of the offence; but in plain words, if any upon spight or malice, in way of cavilation complain against them, see you chastise him for his malice, and punish him with revengement.— and punis [...] the Infor­mants. Cap. 10. Anno. 140. Antonius Pius, Just. Martyrs Apology, &c. again for the Christians, which Thus Adrian, who when he had finished his Rule for the space of twen­ty one years, yeelding unto death in the year 140. through whose ten­derness the Christians had some intermission (as I have said) from their sufferings. Antonius Pius succeeded him, as aforesaid. Justin (among others) Apologises again for the Christian Faith, to him, and the Senate of Rome,—Intituling it,—Unto the Emperor Titus Aelius Adrianus, (so called, because he was Aelius Adrianus Adopted Son) unto Antonius Pius, most noble Caesar and true Philosopher; unto Lucius Son of the Phi­losopher (that was an honourable Title accounted then) Caesar, and Adop­ted of Pius, favourer of Learning; and unto the Sacred Senate, with all the People of Rome in their behalf, which among all sorts of men are unjustly hated, and reproachfully dealt withall; Justinus the Son of Priscus Bacchius, born in Flavia, a new City of Palestina, one of them, and one for them all, doth make this request, &c. Unto which divers other supplications from others with other supplications &c. produced an Edict, c. 13. remitting the Persecution. The Copy of the Edict, being brought to the Emperor, in the behalf of the Brethren who were grieved with all kind of contumelies practised upon them by their Pro­vincials in Asia he granted to the Commonalty of Asia this Constituti­on.—The Emperor Caesar, Marcus, Aurelius, Antonius, Augustus, Ar­menicus, Pontifex Maximus, fifteen times Tribune, thrice Consul, unto the Commonalty of Asia sendeth greeting; I know the Gods are careful to dis­close hurtful persons, for they punish such as will not worship them, more grievously than you do those whom you bring in trouble, confirming that Opi­nion which they conceive of you, to be wicked and ungodly men; It is their desire, in Gods quarrel, to die rather than to live; So that they become Con­querers, yeelding their lives unto the death, rather than to obey your Edicts. It shall seem very necessary to admonish you of the Earthquakes which have, and do happen among us, that being therewith moved, ye may compare our estate with theirs; they have more confidence to Godwards than you have; you during the time of your ignorance despise other Godds, contemn the Reli­gion of the Immortal God, banish the Christians which worship him, and perse­cute them unto death: In the behalf of these men, many of the Provincial Pre­sidents have written heretofore unto our Father of famous memory, whom he answered in writing again, That they were no longer to be molested, unless they had practised Treason against the Roman Empire; and many have given no­tice unto us of the same matter, whom we answered as our Father did before. If any therefore hereafter be found thus busied in other mens affairs, we com­mand requiring the punishing of the Accus­ers, cap. 14. Marc. Aurel. Verus, Antoni­nus his Son, Lucius his Brother: that he accused be absolute and free, though he be found such a one, I mean, faulty, and that the accuser be grievously punished.—In the hearing of the great Assembly of Asia this Edict was proclaimed at Ephesus. Thus far of Antonius Pius, who was called so, for his gentle and good disposi­tion; he reigned twenty and two years, and then gave to Death, whom Marcus Aurelius Verus, aforesaid, succeeded, and Antoninus his Son, to­gether with Lucius his Brother, so called, because he was Adopted with Antoninus, under whose cruelty arose, as I have said, the fourth Per­secution.

Verus was a wicked cruel man, and under him many famous men in An account of Verus and his Ty [...]anny. their day, and multitudes of others, suffered; It would be endless to go through all the particulars of that dayes Tragedy, only some things I shall touch in the words of the Historian, (as I have done before) to give the Reader a taste of what they endured, who then were required to give a testimony of their Faith.

Asia, which had a little release by the Edict of Antonius Pius, as be­fore, Asia troubled again. Policarp. Bish of Smyrna, suffered Mar­tyrdom, and Cap. 15. divers others. came to be sorely troubled with Persecution again; and Policar­pus, Bishop of Smyrna, amongst many others, met with a full cup of it, of whom the Church there, to the Church at Philomilium, and unto all the Congregations throughout Pontus, thus wrote,—We have written unto you Brethren, of such as suffered Martyrdom, and of blessed Policarpus, who Signed and Sealed the Persecution with his own blood.—The beholders were The cruelties of the Execu­tions amazeth the beholders amazed, seeing the flesh of the Martyrs rent with scourges, even to the inner Veins and Sinnews, so that the most secret Intrals of their Bodies, their Bowels and inward Privities were piteously to be seen; beholding, again, the sharp shels of Sea-fish and pibble stones strewed under the Martyrs backs and bruised bodies, with every kind of torment that could be devised. Last of all, They were thrown to be torn in pieces, and devoured by wild Beasts.—They wrote of Germanicus, that when the Proconsul exhorted him to relent, and Ger manicus, and his suffer­ings, and admonished him of his tender years, and prayed him to pitty his own case, (which is the usual Crocodile temper of Persecutors, who without pitty offer men to cruelty for their Conscience, and then seem to bespeak them to pitty themselves) being now in the flower of his youth, he without inter­mission inticed the Beasts to devour him; yea, constrained and compelled, that Valiant Mar­tyrdom. with speed he might be dispatched of this cruel and wicked life,—the patience and constancy of whom, and the whole Christian Nation, (saith the Histori­an) the multitude of Infidels beholding, suddenly cryed out, Remove the Policarpus Martyred, Cap. 16. Justin Martyr, wicked, seek out Policarpus,—whom they burned alive.

Justinus also the Philosopher, aforesaid, who Apologized for the Christian Faith (as hath been said) being in life and learning, of that sort of them called Cynicks, was put to death also, by reason of Cresseus ano­ther by reason of Cresseus, an­other Philo­sopher, put to death. France. Antonius Ve­rus Emperor, then perse­cutes, Men, Women, Lads Blandina wearied her tormentors, Philosopher, from whom he carried away the Bell, (as men use to say) Apologizing for the Christians, and reprehending the Philosophers as gluttonous and deceitful persons. In France also the Persecution was exceeding hot, by reason of Antoninus Verus the Emperor, who there had Jurisdiction, Men, Women, Lads, suffered such torments, as the Letter of the Christians in Vienna and Lyons, of their sufferings, saith, as Tongue cannot express. Blandina feared, as one that would not hold out, so stood it, that the Executioners who tormented her by turns, from morning to night, fainted for weariness, and ceased, confessing them­selves overcome, and that they were no longer able to plague her with any more punishments, marvelling that as yet she drew breath, having Is refreshed wonderfully, feeling no pain, whilst she renewed her confessi­on, I am a Christ [...]an. Sanctus, whilst he an­swered no otherwise her whole body rent in pieces, and the Wounds open; they confessing withal, that one of those torments was of force sufficient to cost her her life, much more so many and great: Her strength was renewed, and she was refreshed, and felt no pain of her punishment (as the Historian saith in the aforesaid Letter wherein it is repeated) as oft as she pronounced,—I am a Christian, neither have we committed any evil.—Sanctus, a Deacon, is said also to bear nobly and valiantly, yea, above the nature [Page 27] of men, all such vexations as man could devise, and when as the wicked incompass, by reason of his great passions and torments, had well hoped to the questi­on asked him, but to have heard some undecent and uncomely Speech out of his mouth; his constancy is said to be so great, that he uttered neither his own Name, neither his Kindred, neither his Countrey whence he was, nor whether he was Bond or Free; but unto every Question, he answered in the Ro­man Tongue,—I am a Christian.—This he is said to have confessed of­ten, I am a Chri­stian,—was most ba [...]ba­rously tor­mented; instead of all other things of his Name, and City, and Kindred, neither could the Gentiles get any other Language of him: Wherefore (it is said) the President, and the Tormenters, were fiercely set against him; and when as now there remained no punishment unpractised, at length they applyed to the tenderest part of his Body plates of Brass, glowing hot, which fryed, seared, and scorched his Body; yet he is said to remain unmoveable, nothing amazed, and constant in his Profession: Over all his Body his Flesh (is said to be) wounded, his Members be­scarred, his Sinews shrunk, so that the natural shape and outward hue was quite changed; And whenas his Tormenters, a few dayes after, brought him to the place of Torment, hoping that if they punished him now, having his whole Body (as it is said) puft up with swelling and fe­stred Wounds, so fore that it might not be touched no not with the and the se­cond time being brought to torment, had his pain▪ taken away, and the shape of his body restored. Biblis faint­ing at first, came on again and had her lot among the Martyrs. least finger, they should overcome him, and prevail, or if he died in tor­ment, it would terrifie the rest, and so warn them (as they thought) to take heed. None of all these things hapned unto him, but beyond all mens expectations, in the latter torments, his Body is said to have been released of the pain, to have recovered the former shape, and the Mem­bers to have been restored to their former use.—Biblis having fainted through cruel torments, they brought out again, hoping again to cast a reproach upon the Christian Faith; but she coming again to the Tor­ments, is said, as one awakened out of a dead sleep, to cry out unex­pectly to the Tormenters, and to say, How can ye devour Infants, which were not suffered to suck the blood of bruit Beasts? and confessing her self a Christian, was appointed to take her lot amongst the Martyrs of Jesus;—Then they took a new devise to keep them in noysome Dungeons and New devises to destroy them by stench and cruelty of Prisons. Photinus Bish. of Lyons, above ninty years of age, carried by Souldiers be­fore the Tri­bunal Seat; Prisons, and in Stocks, to the fifth Hole, after their grievous torments, seeing their torments they went through, as aforesaid, by the stench and cruelty of which, and the festring of their Wounds, many died.—And Photinus, Bishop of Lyons, being above fourscore and ten years old, weak of Body, and scarce able to draw breath, through the imbecility of Na­ture, (as the History saith, in the repetition of the Letter aforesaid, out of which all that I have said, is continued) was carried of the Souldiers, and laid before the Tribunal Seat, with a great shout of the Multitude, as if (saith the History) he had been Christ, where were the Potentates, or Chief of the City; being demanded by the President,—Who is the God of the Christians? He answered, If thou become worthy, thou shalt un­derstand. Whereupon he was cruelly handled, and is said to have suffer­ed Kickt, struck, beaten, cast into Prison. many stripes; such as were near to him, struck at him both with hand and foot, reverencing, or having respect to his years nothing at all; and such as stood afar off, look what each one had in his hand, that was thrown at his head; and such as ceased from pouring out their poysoned malice, thought themselves to have grievously offended, supposing by [Page 28] this means (saith the Letter) to revenge the ruine of their rotten Godds, but he almost breathless, they cast into Prison; where after two dayes he departed this life.—Vetius Epagathus, one of the Brethren, (saith the Then dies. Vetius Epaga­thus, a Noble Man, History, repeating the Letter) having fulness of love towards God and Man, whose conversation was so perfect, though a young man, that he was thought comparable to Zacharias the Priest, for he walked unblam­ably in all the Services & Ordinances of the Lord, and very serviceable to his Neighbours, having great zeal & fervency of the Spirit of God, allowed not of the Sentence unjustly pronounced against them (for after they had born manfully all such vexations as the multitude laid upon them, as excla­mation, scourgings, dragging, spoyling, stoning, fettering, and the like, whatsoever the heady and savage Multitude accustomed to practise against the professed Enemies, they were led unto the open Market­place, and examination being had, they were condemned in the pre­sence of the people by the Tribune, and the other chief Potentates of the City, until the Presidents coming, before whom they were brought, (which had exercised all kind of extream cruelty against the Christians) but with vehement motion required that audience might be given him to demanding audience to plead for the Christians; was denyed, and confessing himself a Christian, was Martyr­ed, & called, The Christians Advocate. plead for the Brethren, alleadging that they had committed no impiety; which being denyed him (for he is said to be a Noble Man) of such as compassed the Tribunal Seat, and of the President, rejecting this just Petition, and onely demanding, Whether he was a Christian? he con­fessed it with a loud voice; and so he was received into the fellowship of the Martyrs, and called, The Advocate of the Christians.—The afore­mentioned, stirred by his Example, hastned themselves to Martyrdom, and became more lively and ready.—Great (it is said) was the whole rage, both of the President, People, and Souldiers, against Sanctus, Sanctus, Deacon of the Church of Vienna, and against Maturus, lately baptized, Maturus, yet said to be a noble Warriour; and against Attalus, a Pergamenian, Attalus, who is said to be alwayes a Pillar and Fortress of the Faith; and against Blandina, the Woman aforesaid, because of whom (it's said) they quaked Blandina. for fear; yea, and that her Carnal Mistress (as she is called, which also was one of the persecuted Martyrs) was very careful, lest peradventure at the time of her Answer, by reason of the frailty of her flesh, she should not persevere constant.—Maturus, Sanctus, Blandina, and Attalus, were led unto the bruit Beasts, in the popular and publick Spectacle of the Led to the wild Beasts. Maturus and Sanctus diver­sly tormen­ted, Heathenish inhumanity, (as are the words) at the day appointed of set purpose for so beastly a bucking; where again Maturus, and San­ctus were diversly tormented with all kinds of punishments, as if they had suffered nothing before, yea rather (as it were with many new means) repelling the Adversary, they bear again the victorious Garland, suffer­ing again the wonted revilings, all the cruelty of the savage Beasts, and whatsoever the outragious multitude craved and demanded; and above all, they patiently suffered the Iron Chair, wherein their Bodies broiled, as in a Frying-pan, filling such as were present with the loath­some Put in the Iron Chair, and broiled, savour of that their foulsome froth. Neither were they thus con­tented, but practised further to overcome the patient sufferings of the Saints; neither could they get any other Sentence of Sanctus, saving that confession which he cryed at first.—At length, when they had endured this great and grievous tryal, they were slain, and executed after all that afterwards executed. [Page 29] whole day they had been a Spectacle to the World in that variable Com­bate, as commonly it falls out in equal Matches, where one buckleth Blandina hanged in Chains for wild Beasts, who touched her not; she is cast into Prison. Attalus, a Ro­man, with another;—But Blandina was hanged in Chains, an Object for the wild Beasts to exercise their savage violence upon; after she had hung a great while, and no beast touched her, she was taken down, cast into Prison, and reserved for further torments.—Attalus being, as it is said, a famous Man, was earnestly called for by the People unto punish­ment, who being ready, and of a clear Conscience, came forth, for be­ing (as it is said) notably exercised in the Christian Profession, was al­wayes a Witness, a Defender of the Truth; Therefore when he was led about the Theatre with a Scrowl before him, wherein was written in the Roman Tongue,—This is Attalus the Christian;—and the People and raged against him, the President knowing that he was a Roman, com­manded him to be closely kept with the other Prisoners, concerning sent to Prison whom he had written unto Caesar, and expected an Answer; but the time passing between was not fruitless:—For besides many other things wherein they were of advantage and comfort, many dead were by the living revived; the Martyrs profited such as were no Martyrs; the pure Virgin, and Mother, the Church, was greatly comforted and cherished; when as she recovered and received for living, such as before she had lost as untimely Births, and dead Fruits; for many which before had fainted, were restored, regenerated, stirred up afresh, taught to protest their Faith; and now being quickned and strengthened, having tasted of him which willeth not the death of a sinner, but is merciful unto the Peni­tent, they came forth before the Tribunal Seat, ready to answer unto Interrogatories of the President; and because that Caesar had commanded by writing, that such as had confessed themselves Christians, should be ex­ecuted, and such as renounced, should depart the frequented Solemnity, (which by reason of the concourse of the Gentiles from every Countrey, was at first time very populous) he brought forth from Prison the blessed All are brought forth again. Confessors into the open Spectacle, and presence of the People, to be scornfully gazed upon; and when he had again made Inquisition of The Romans beheaded, the rest thrown to be rent of wild Beasts; the fainty confess again, and carry through; them, as many as he found to be priviledged persons of Rome, those he beheaded, the rest he threw to be rent asunder, and to be torn of wild Beasts: Christ (saith the Letter) was greatly glorified in them, who at first denyed, and at last, beyond all the expectations of the Heathens, boldly confessed their Faith; they severally were examined to be set at liberty, but after confession, they were coupled to the number of Mar­tyrs; but they tarried without, which had no grain of Faith, no feeling of the Wedding, no spark of the fear of God, but rather through their wicked Conversation blasphemed the way of God, as sons of Perdition: All the other were coupled to the Christian Congregation; and at the time of examination, Alexander, a Phrygian born, professing Physick, Alexander the Physitian, having dwelt in France many years, a man well known for his great zeal to Godwards, and boldness of speech, (for he was not without Aposto­lical encouraged the fainty at the Bar, with signs, &c. was com­plained of, de­manded, Whe­ther a Christi­an? Grace) stood hard by the Tribunal Seat, and nigh the examined persons, exhorting them to boldness of confession by signs and tokens, so that by his sorrowing and sighing, his hopping and skipping to and fro, he was discerned by the standers-by; and when the people in com­pass, had taken in evil part, that they which before had recanted, did [Page 28] [...] [Page 29] [...] [Page 30] again confess, they with one consent cryed out against Alexander as Au­thor thereof; and when the President had urged him, and demanded of He confesses; is condemned to be torn of the Beasts. him what he was, he answered, I am a Christian; for which answer the President allotted him to the Beasts, of them to be rent in pieces and de­voured: The next day after, together with Attalus, he is brought forth; Attalus, to gratifie the people, is de­livered to the Beasts the se­cond time. All are put to death. Attalus f [...]yed in the Iron Chair, Gives an ac­count of the Christians, and of God. (for the President to gratifie the people, delivered him unto the Beasts to be baited the second time); And when these had tasted of all the tor­ments provided for them, in compass of the Scaffold, and suffered great pain, in the end they were put to death.—Alexander not once sighed, neither uttered any kind of Speech, but inwardly from the heart talked with God: Attalus burning in the scalding Iron Chair, blooming hot so that the savour of his broyled Body filled their Nostrils, said unto the Multi­tude in the Roman Tongue,—Behold this that you do, is to devour men, but we neither devour men, neither commit any other heinous offence; And being demanded, What Name God had? he answered, God is not called after the manner of men. After all these things, upon the last day of the Specta­cles, Blandina, together with Ponticus, (a young man of fifteen years Blandina and Ponticus ex­ercised with all kind of torments; of Age) was brought forth (which thing was daily used, to the end they might behold the torments of the rest) whom they would have com­pelled to swear by their Idols Names; but they constantly persevered in their Opinions, and contemning their Idol Godds, set the multitude in such a rage against them, that they neither pittied the years of the young man, nor spared the Woman, but plagued them with all kind of punish­ments used in their Theater, urging them now and then to Swear, which Urged to swear, which they refuse. when they could not bring to pass; Ponticus being encouraged of the Sister in the presence of the Pagans, who then beheld how she exhorted and confirmed the young man, after that he had suffered all kinds of bit­ter Ponticus yeelds up the Ghost. Blandina greatly re­freshed in the constancy of the rest, and in the Lord; is scourged, thrown to Beasts, broyl­ed as in a Frying-pan; wrapt in a Net, cast to a wild Bull, fanned with his Horns, beheaded. The Pagans glorifie God by her suffer­ings. torments, yeelded up the Ghost. Last of all, blessed Blandina, like a noble Mother, having exhorted her Children, and sent them before as Conquerers unto the King, pondering with her self all the punishments of her Children, hastned after them, joying and tryumphing at their end, as if she had been invited to a Wedding Dinner, and not to be cast among wild Beasts; after scourging, after buckling with wild Beasts, after the broyling of her body (as it were) in a Frying-pan; at length she was wrapped in a Net, and tumbled before a wild Bull, which fanned and tossed her with his Horns to and fro, yet had she no feeling of all these things, her mind being fixed, and wholly set upon the conference she had with Christ; and in the end she was beheaded, the Pagans themselves pronouncing, That never any Woman was heard of among them to have suf­fered so many and so great torments: Neither did their rage and cruelty against the Christians so cease, for the barbarous Gentiles, being provoked by a wicked Fiend (saith the History) could not quiet themselves, but that their furious rage practised another kind of malitious spight upon the dead Carkasses; neither were they pleased in that they were overcome, and void of natural feeling, and sence, but proceeded further like bruit Beasts, both President and People were furiously provoked, prosecuting them with like hatred, that the Scripture may be fulfilled, He that is wick­ed, let him be wicked still; and he that is just, let him work Righteousness still; The Bodies of those that were choaked in Prison, cast to dogs. for as many as were choaked up with the noysome sent of the Prison, were thrown to be devoured of Dogs, and a continual watch set day and [Page 31] night, that none of them should be buried;—And gathering together the Reliques of the Martyrs Bodies, some undevoured by Beasts, some And guar [...]ed of them to be devoured. unburnt by fire, partly torn, and partly burned; with the Heads and stumps of others uncovered with earth; they committed them for the space of many dayes to the custody of Souldiers; others fretted and fumed, snatching at them with the gnashing of their Teeth, seeking further revengement of them; others derided and scoffed them, magni­fying their Idols as cause of this our calamity; and such as were of a mil­der nature, and somewhat sorrowed at our suffering, upbraided us, and said,—Where is their God? and what profited them this Religion which they Others said, Where is their God? prefer before their lives? And such was the variable and devilish disposi­tion of the Infidels to our great sorrow, because we were not permitted to bury the dead bodies of the Martyrs; neither stood the night in any stead to us for that purpose; neither would money perswade the Keep­ers, nor our Prayers move them, but they kept the bruised Carkasses of the Saints, as if some great Commodity grew unto them, by keeping them unburied.—To be short, after that the bodies of the blessed Saints had been every kind of way spitefully and scornfully intreated, The stumps of their bo­dies lying six dayes unbu­ried, are burnt, and the Ashes cast into the River Rhodanus, lest they should rise again, or, that their God should help them. The French sustain lying whole six dayes unburied, at length they were burned to Ashes, the Ashes also they gathered and scattered in the River Rhodanus, which passed by, so that no Jot or Relique thereof should longer remain upon Earth.—This they did, to the end they might overcome God, and hin­der the reviving of the Saints, lest that (as they said) there should be any fur­ther hope of the Resurrection, whereof (say they) the Christians being fully per­swaded, bring amongst us a strange and a new Religion; they contemn punish­ment, and hasten themselves chearfully unto death: Now let us see whether they can arise, and whether their God can help and deliver them from our hands.

Thus far of the Sufferings of the French under this Emperor, out of the Sufferers own Writings, which though it be a little prolix, and so may seem somewhat besides the intent of this Discourse, yet being so pertinent, and of so circumstantial a nature, I thought it convenient to give the Reader a relation thereof, that in the instance of these he may see how grievous the persecution was, and how inhumane on the one hand; and on the other, how the Lord sustained and carried them through like noble Conquerors: In the other places the persecutions were not so great, nor the inhumanities so long and terrible to flesh and blood, but he made them easie, and caused those to overcome, who were faithful un­to the greatest Persecutions. him.

Besides these of cruel Torments and Death, they were exercised with Exile as well as Death. Exile from their Houses, Booths, and common Market-places; and not only so, but every one of them were charged not to shew his face; with the weakness also of many, who through fear of torments fell from the Faith; who notwithstanding, many of them came on again, and confessed The fallings of many for fear; Exe [...]cise the French. themselves what they were, (viz.) Christians, and died constant in the Faith, though the enemy wrought, by their first stepping aside, no small disadvantage; and these were divers of the Ethnicks their own Servants, whom those terrible Spectacles of grim Beasts, and torments made to start, and to accuse their fellow Christians falsly, as using the feastings of Thiestes, and the incests of Oedipus with divers others, which them­selves They are falsly accused of disorde [...]ed conversations say, may neither Godly be thought upon, neither with modesty [Page 32] uttered, neither without impiety be believed; Through the egging on and perswasions of the Souldiers these things were feigned and reported of them; which was the wile of the Devil in all Ages, where he cannot otherwise thereto make Truth to suffer, and the followers thereof, that his Instruments may have something to pretend to sober men that they are not such as he knows them to be, and which they are, and sober peo­ple take them for; but on the contrary such as they are themselves, who so force the report, that they may seem worthily to put them to death, wip­ing off thereby the opinion of their sanctity, so far as he is able, that neither may their sufferings sink into the hearts of others, neither take with them, so as to turn them to the Truth; but having removed them by such re­ports out of the Opinion of the Sober, he might have also an influence on them to give them sufferings; which proved something to these Ser­vants of the Lord, for these reports being bruited abroad, every body (they write) was moved and incensed against them, insomuch that they who for familiarity sake used moderation before, now were exceedingly moved and mad with them; Then was (say they) the saying of our Saviour And thereby cast out of the minds of the most sober. fulfilled, The time will come when every one that slayeth you, shall think that he doth therein God good service: Then suffered (say they again) the holy Martyrs such torments as tongue cannot express; and Satan also pro­voked them with all might possible that they might utter some blasphe­my: There were certain others (say they) found unready, less exercis­ed, The flagging of many, and yet weak, not of ability to bear the burthen of so weighty a Combate (in number Ten) which fell through the frailty of the flesh, to our great heaviness, and sorrowful lamentation, quailing the chearful­ness of others, which were not as yet apprehended, but accompanied the Martyrs, what torments soever befel them, and severed not themselves to the great grief of the rest, from them: Then trembled we all (say they) for fear, and that greatly, because of the uncertainty of confessions, being not terrified with any torments, but carefull for the end, lest any should fall from the Faith: Yet (say they) daily there were apprehended, such as were accounted worthy to fulfil the number of the fallen weaklings, so that out of both these Churches, as many as ruled and bear the greatest sway, were taken and executed; and the others came on again, as aforesaid, and died the death, whom to encourage, lest when at the Bar again they should flag, Alexander offered himself up, and was torn in pieces; A worthy remem­brance Drew Alex­ander to offer up himself, whe [...]eby such were streng­thened at the Bar to die. of the famous power of the Truth, and of the valour of him and the Christians in that day, who thought not their lives dear unto the death, for the confession of Jesus Christ. The President commanded publickly a general Inquisition to be made for them;—And the inhu­mane and most cruel butcheries of them, were made the recreation of the Heathen on their days of pleasure, who to be so recreated, flocked to The Heathen recreated themselves in their suffer­ings, and came to them as to sport. the Theatres in great multitudes; which would be strange to think that men could be so far degenerated into cruelty, who are made of a tender nature; So that no man ever hated his own flesh, as to make sport of the highest torments inflicted on their Brethren, and to count it a pastime, and come thither to such savage and barbarous cruelties for that pur­pose, but that the Devil being got into Man, and forming his Worship; look how much their understandings are dark, and they are brought in­to the grossest sort of Idolatrous Worship, by so much they are come into [Page 33] his Nature, and he hath power over them, who is the Godd they wor­ship, who is without natural affection, that they destroy and take plea­sure therein: These noble Christians were kept low and tender under all their sufferings, desiring, with watery eyes, the prayers uncessantly of their Brethren, that they might hold out unto the end, and in the ful­ness of the fear of God (as are those Christians own words) refused to be called of the Brethren, Martyrs, as thinking themselves not worthy; Cap. 2. The low ac­count the Christians had of them­selves who thus suffered. but themselves said, We are mean, and base, and humble Confessors, whom the Lord highly exalted, and counted worthy of this Name, and of the Crown Immortal, which they enjoy with the Lord in the highest Hea­vens.

And thus much shall suffice of this horrible Persecution of the French, and their Noble Constancy and Faithfulness to God, by which may be judged what was done in other Provinces; for the Persecution under this Verus seemed to be general, of which in these words I thought fit to give this particular.

Nevertheless the Lord was not absent from his People, but with a The tendernes of the Lord to suppo [...]t them, and to work a re­lease. tender hand, not only upheld those that suffered through the greatest tor­tures, and so gave the demonstration of his power in them; but some release also of those sufferings, in as great a wonder, when he saw good, he gave them, as he did in carrying them through sufferings, in manner following.

Historians do Record (saith Eusebius) that when his Brother Marcus Euseb. l. 5. c. 5. By the means of the Legion of the Christi­ans under Marc. Aurel. Antoninus's Brother, in Germany, who praying to the Lord, obtained Lightning against the Enemy, which over­threw them, and Rain to refresh the Army, which was near perishing. The Heathen Writers Re­cord it. Aurelius (viz. Antoninus his Brother, who gave these Persecutions) warred against the Germans and Sarmatians, his Hoast was ready to pe­rish with thirst, so that he wist not what to do; and that the Souldiers of the Legion called Militina, moved again and again with faithfulness to­wards their Prince, bowed down upon their bare knees (as our accu­stomed manner (saith he) of praying is) in the midst of the Army, turn­ing them to the Enemies, and made supplication unto God; When as this sight seemed strange unto the Enemies, there was shewed a more sad Spectacle, (viz.) Lightning, which put the Enemy to flight, and overthrew them, and withal a shower of Rain to refresh the Army, which well nigh perishing with thirst, poured out their Prayers before the high Throne of the Majesty of God: The History (saith he) is reported by them who favoured not the Christian Faith, yet were careful to set down the things which concerned the aforesaid persons. It is also writ­ten by our men (saith he) and of the Heathen Historiographers them­selves the Miracle is mentioned, but not expresly to proceed from our men; yet our Writers (saith he) as Friends and Favourers of the true Doctrine, have delivered it simply and plainly, as in deed it was done; whereof (saith he) Apolinarius is a Witness of credit, who reporteth that this Legion (by whose Prayers this Miracle came to pass) was from that time forth called by the Emperor in the Roman Tongue, after a pe­culiar The Emperor calls them the Lightning, or Thundering Legion. Name, the Lightning Legion, or Thundering, as some interpret it. Tertullian also, (saith he) a man worthy of Credit, dedicated an Apo­logy in the Roman Tongue, unto the Roman Senate, in the defence of our Faith, (whereof (saith he) we mentioned before) hath confirmed this History with a mightier and more manifest proof; for he writeth (saith Marc. Aurel. himself re­cords it. he) that the most prudent Epistles of Marcus (that is the Emperor afore­said) [Page 34] are yet extant (that is in Tertullians time that thus wrote) wherein he himself testifies, that w [...]rring with the Germans, his Army well nigh perished through the scarcity of Water, but yet was saved through the prayers of the Christians; he saith (viz. Tertullian) That the Emperor Tertul. in Apolog. cap. 6. and threat­ned them with death, which accus­ed the Chri­stians. threatned them with Death which went about to accuse them. Unto the afore­said things, he addeth,—What manner of Laws are these against us? Impious, unjust, cruel, which neither Vespasian observed, although Conquerer of the Jews; which Trajan partly frustrated, commanding the Inquisition of the Christians to cease; which neither Adrianus, although busiing himself with every matter; neither he which is called P [...]us, confirmed.

And under Comodus the Emperor, who succeeded Ve­rus, the rage of the Gentiles (saith Eusebius) was mittiga­ted Commodus ceases, Anno. 182. Euseb. lib. 5. cap. 10. The Persecution under Verus, who succeeded Verus. towards us, so that peace was granted through the Grace of God, unto the Universal Church throughout the World; and the Heavenly Doctrine led the mind (saith he) of all mortal men to the embracing of the true Religion of the only and Uni­versal God, so that many of the Nobles of Rome drew near Many Nobles, and others embrace the Christian Faith; to their Souls Health and Salvation, together with their whole Houses and Families; Yet Apollonius, a man (saith Euse­bius) Yet Apollonius confessing himself a Christian before the Senate, upon the importunity of the Judge, among the Faithful at that time, for Learning and Phi­losophy very famous, was brought before the Tribunal Seat, who exhibiting before the Senate, in the presence of them all, a notable Apology for his Faith, when the Judge Perennius had earnestly, and with many words intreated him (after he had (though the Legs of him that accused him were broken ac­cording to the Law) yet sentenced his Legs to be broken who accused him, according to the Decree of the Emperor, that the Accusers of the Christians should die the death) to render an account of his Faith before the Senate, (on purpose to entrap him) by decree of the Se­nate he was beheaded. was beheaded. The antient decree of the Senate being of force, and prevailing among them,—viz. that the Christians that were once presented before the Tribunal Seat, and not revoking their Opinion, should no more be set at liberty; As the same Eusebius, in the same Chap­ter, word for word, at large rehearseth.

Severus was the fifth, upon whose Theatre of Blood is placed the fifth Severus raised Anno. 204. the fifth Per­secution. Persecution; He succeeded Didius Julianus, who succeeded Pertinax, (whose Reigns are said to be short) Pertinax two months and two and twenty dayes, Didius Julianus, called also Salvius, two months; Co­modus having reigned thirteen years before them both.

This Severus was most severe, (as is his Name) and a wicked Perse­cutor, An account of him, & his cruelty and wickedness. and caused multitudes of rare men in their day, and others, to be most cruelly tormented, and put to death; the matter is long to be particular therein, and the particular sufferings, I may say, hardly to be reckoned; Therefore minding brevity so far as well I can, and reach the intent of what I am about, I shall give a touch or two of what then hap­ned, for the satisfaction of the Reader, and to give some sence of what then was suffered.

When Severus persecuted the Church of God, (saith Eusebius) there were Euseb. l. 6. c 1. Eusebius his account of the Persecu­tion. every where famous Martyrdoms of such as strove for godliness, but especi­ally at Alexandria, whither chosen Champions out of Egypt, and all The­bay (as unto a most notable Theatre of God) were brought, and after a most [Page 35] patient sufferance of sundry Torments, and divers kinds of death, were crowned with Garlands of Immortality.—Leonides the Father of Origen Leonides, Ori­gens Father, beheaded. was one who was here beheaded: Severus having governed the Empire ten years, and Laetus Alexandria, and the rest of Egypt; and Demetrius, af­ter Julianus, had newly taken upon him the oversight of the Congregation there; Origen also, when the heat of persecution was very vehement, and an infi­nite Origens friendliness to the Mar­tyrs, Euseb. l. 6. c; 2. number (as saith the Historian) were Crowned with Martyrdom, being yet very young, bore in his mind a fervent desire of Martyrdom, so that he hazarded himself often, and coveted voluntarily to thrust himself into that dangerous Combate; yea, narrowly did he escape, for it had cost him his life, had not the Divine and Celestial Providence of God (saith the History) stay­ed him, by reason of his Mother, to the further commodity and profit of ma­ny, he then being able to do no other thing, wrote to his Father in Prison, be­ing more prompt in mind then ripe in years, (as the History saith) in the which he exhorted him thus,—O Father, faint not, nor imagine amiss be­cause His prompt­ing his Father to Martyrdō. of us. Under Aquila, Lievtenant of Alexandria, he purchased unto himself a good Opinion among all the faithful, in that he chearfully embraced all the Martyrs, not onely of his acquaintance, but such as were to him un­known; he visited not only such as were fettered in deep Dungeons, and close His visiting the Prisoners and attending them to execution. Imprisonment; neither only such as looked for the last Sentence for Execution, but after Judgment given, and Sentence pronounced, he was present with the Martyrs, boldly attending them to the place of Execution, putting himself in great peril oftentimes, boldly embracing, and kissing, and saluting them, so that once the furious rage of the fond multitude had stoned him to death, if that the Divine Power (saith the Historian) had not marvellously deli­vered him; so extreamly (it is said) he was dealth withal by the Infidels, that Souldiers were commanded to watch about his House because of the multitude that came to be instructed by him in the Christian Faith. Plutarch was one of Cap. 3. Plutarch, Serenus, Heraclides, Heron, Serenus 2d. all his scholars Martyred. his Scholars whom he accompanied to the place of Execution, not without great danger of his life. Serenus was the next of his Disciples that gave proof of his Faith by fire, for he was burned alive, being said to be the se­cond Martyr. Heraclides was the third out of that School. The fourth was Heron, both of which were beheaded. Another Serenus, was a fifth Champion for the Truth out of the same School, who after patience in great torments and grievous pain, was beheaded. And Phais, a Woman, was Phais burned. Cap. 4. Basilides a Souldier, Potomiena. burned alive, and departed this life. Basilides a Souldier (which led forth the renowned Virgin Potomiaena to execution) was a seventh. Potomiaena is said, for the chastity of her Body, and purity of Mind, to strive very stoutly with her Lovers: She is also said to be endued with ripeness of Mind, and goodly beauty of Body; When she had suffered infinitely (as the Histo­rian saith) for the Faith of Christ; last of all, after great and grievous tor­ments, terrible to be spoken of, together with her Mother Marcilla, she was Marcilla Martyred. burned with fire, and consumed to Ashes; the report goeth (saith the Histo­ry) that Aquila the Judge, commanded her whole Body to be scourged over, and that very sore; and threatned her, he would deliver her Body shamefully to be abused of Fencers and Ruffians; and that after she had mused a while with her self, and they demanded an Answer, to have said such things as pleased not the Gentiles; and therefore immediately after sentence pronounced, to have been taken and led of Basilides (a Souldier of Authority among the Hoast) to execution: when the multitude molested her sore, spightfully handling her with [Page 36] opprobrious terms, Basilides rebuked and reproved their railing speeches, pittying her very much, and practised great courtesie towards her; She an­swered to his kindness, and had some communication with him, immediately after which, Pitch scalding hot was poured by little and little over all her bo­dy (as saith the History) from the Crown of her Head, to the Soal of her Foot, the which she is said manfully to endure in the Lord; and such was the sore combate she sustained. As for Basilides, of whom I spake not long af­ter, Basilides re­fused to swear, he was required to swear by his fellow Souldiers, for some occasion or other, to which he affirmed plainly,—That it was not lawful for him to Swear, for he said he was a Christian, and that he would in very deed protest the same.—At first he was thought to dally, (as saith the Histo­ry) but when he constantly avouched it, he was brought before the Judge, and there having confessed the same, he is clapt in Prison, and afterwards be­headed, and so suffered Martyrdom. is beheaded.

Maximinus was the sixth, whose progress in blood and cruelty made Anno. 237. Euseb l. 6. c. 14 Maximinus raised the 6th Persecution. up the sixth persecution; for Severus reigned eighteen years, and dyed at York in England, in whom the fifth Persecution went out, and was extinguished: After him Antoninus Caracalla was Emperor in the year 213. he reigned seven years and six months: Marcinus succeeded Ca­racalla, and died in the first year of his Reign, being in the year 220. Antoninus Heliogabalus, in the year 221. took the Imperial Scepter four years; and he dying, Alexander was Emperor, Anno. 224. whom after thirteen years, the space of his Reign, Maximinus aforesaid succeeded, of whom, and the Persecution thus saith the Historian.

After that the Emperor Alexander had Reigned the space of thirteen An account of him & his Persecution, & the ground thereof. He ordered onely the Governors of Churches to be put to death. years, Maximinus Caesar succeeded him, who being incensed with the anger, spite, and grudge he bare unto the House of Alexander, which harboured many of the Faithful, he stirred up the fiery flame of Perse­cution, and gave Commandment, that the Governours onely of the Churches, as principal Authors of the Doctrine of our Saviour, should be put to death;—but his Reign was short, for he continued but three years, though, as to those who cruelly suffered under his Persecution, as men may judge, it was very long.

Decius was the seventh who mounted the bloody Throne, which made Anno. 254. Euseb. l. 6. c. 38 Decius forced the seventh Persecution; the ground of his persecuti­on. up the seventh Persecution, for after Maximinius succeeded Gordianus in the year 240. who reigned six years; Philip succeeded him in the year 246. who is said to be the first Christian Emperor, who reigned seven years, whom Decius succeeded, (as aforesaid); who as Maximinus upon his grudge and spite to Alexander, so this to the House of Philip raised Persecution, in which Fabianus, Bishop of Rome, was Martyrd; also Fabianus, Bish. of Rome Martyred, and Alexander Bishop of Je­rusalem. Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem, after he had the second time endured confession for Christs sake (as the History saith) before the Tribunal Seat of the President of Cesaria, was cast into Prison, where after a famous and notable testimony of his true Faith given before the Judgment Seat of the Lievtenant, he is said to end this mortal life. Origen also sustain­ed Origen suffer­ed. much for the Doctrine of Christ, Imprisonments, and torments of Body, scourging at Iron Stakes, stench of close Prison, his feet stretch­ed four spaces asunder in the Stocks, for the space of many dayes; and endured the threats of fire, and all the enemy could terrifie him with; the Judge used all the means possible to save his life. It will not be amiss, [Page 37] if (as in the former) I give a little further touch of the cruelty of this Persecution, in the Description thereof, by Dionisius then Bi­shop of Alexandria, and Fabius, Bishop of Antioch, in these words,—This Persecution was not begun by the Emperors Edict, but Cap. 40. The Persecution be­gan at Alexandria, by means of a Southsayer, who perswaded, one whole year before, for there came unto this City a certain Southsayer and inventer of mischief, who moved and stirred up the whole multitude of the Heathen against us, and excited them to defend the superstition of their Native Soyl, by whom they be­ing thus provoked, and having won to their side such as were in That the onely Wor­ship of Devils, and the slaughter of the Chri­stians was Piety it self. Power and Authority to perpetrate all impious Acts; they per­swaded themselves that the onely Worship of Devils, and our slaughter was piety it self. First, Then they apprehend a certain Minister, whose name was Metras, and command him to utter Metras a Minister, bea­ten with Clubs, his face and eyes pricked with sharp Quills, stoned to death. blasphemy, who for his disobedience therein is beaten with Clubs, his face and eyes, they pricked with sharp quils; afterwards they led him forth into the Suburbs of the City, and stoned him to death. Again they bring into the Temple of Idols, a faithful Woman named Quinta, and constrained her to Worship, who Quinta trailed along the streets, contrarying and abhoring their Idols, had her feet bound toge­ther, and by them trailed and lugged all along the streets, which were paved with sharp stones, and withal, being beaten against Beaten against Mill­stones, Millstones, and sore scourged, she was brought forth to the place of Execution, and executed; which being done, they all with one Sore scourged and ex­ecuted; Christians houses run in [...]o, rifled, the best taken, accord run into the houses of the Religious, and every one of the wicked leadeth the heady multitude unto their Neighbours houses, whom they knew to be godly and well-disposed; and they destroy, spoyl, steal, and bear away the precious Jewels; The rest thrown out, & burned, as in times of Warr. but the vile, and the base, and the wooden stuff they threw out into the street, and burn it to Ashes, shewing forth thereby the resemblance or spectacle of a City taken and ransacked by the E­nemy; but the Brethren gave back, and drew themselves aside, taking in good part, and very chearfully the loss of their goods; They take all pati­ently. much like unto them of whom Paul hath testified; neither do I remember any (one onely excepted) of them which were appre­hended unto this day that denyed the Lord. Furthermore they Apollonia's cheeks beat, her teeth knockt out; laid hold on the elderly and renowned Virgin Apollonia, they beat her cheeks, and knockt out all the teeth in her head; over against the City they prepare a Pile, and threaten to burn her quick, unless she would together with them utter blasphemy; but she lingring a little while as if she would take further deliberation, sud­denly She leaps into the fire, & is burned to ashes. leaps into the fire, and is consumed to Ashes: To be short, they laid hold on Serapion, who continued in his own House, they Serapion variously tormented & thrown down headlong. vext him with sundry, grievous, and bitter torments, bruising all the Members of his Body, and throwing him down headlong from an upper Chamber, there was no way left for us to pass, no not High-wayes beset, no passage by day or night; the common high-way, nor any by-passage, either by day or by night, they cryed out against all, and exclaimed every where, there was no other choice, but either to utter blasphemy, or to be No medium but blas­phemy, or death. The cruelty returns on their own heads. drawn and burnt at the Stake. And these things (the more is the pitty) endured too too long; but in the end this Sedition and Ci­vil [Page 38] Warr overtook the Seditious persons themselves, and turned upon them the self same cruelty which they before had practised Which gives liberty to the persecuted; upon us, so that for a little season we refreshed our selves, their fury with which they raged against us, being somewhat abated; This fore-ran the Em­perors Edict. but a while after the alteration of the Imperial Crown was made known unto us, which aforetime was very favourable unto us, but now threatned great mischief to ensue. For the Emperors The Edict of the Em­peror, following, puts all to it. Edict is proclaimed, and that most dreadful saying of our Saviour, prognosticated long agoe, now taketh place, Now if it were pos­sible the very Elect themselves should be offended. All do tremble All tremble, some fly away. Others the World car­ries away; and quake for fear; some forthwith of the mightier sort fly away, doubting what would befall them; some of their own acco [...]d are carried away with worldly affairs; some are perswaded by their Neighbours, and being called by their Names, are present at Neighbours perswade others; Some present at the Sacrifices; others wax pale, fearing to Sacri­fice, fea [...]ing to suffer; are divided. their prophane and impious Sacrifices; some waxed pale, and trembled not, as though they would Sacrifice, but like to become Sacrifices and Oblations to the Idols, so that the whole multitude in compass divided them, for they seemed manifestly to be timo­rous, both to die, and also to do Sacrifice; some went stoutly to Some at the Altar af­firm, they never were Christians▪ others held on both sides; some s [...]ed, others taken; the Altars, and affirmed boldly that they were never Christians; of whom the Lord hath most truly foretold, that such should hard­ly be saved; some other there were that held with both sides, some fled, and some were taken, whereof divers endured Fetters, and Imprisonment; other some, after long Imprisontment, be­fore they came unto the Tribunal Seat, renounced their Faith; some after they had stoutly endured torments, in the end denyed Some having endured, denyed Christ at last. Christ; but others that were blessed, and valiant as Pillars or Bul­works of the Lord, being strengthened by him, and stout in pro­testing Others went through all, and were mar­tyred. their Faith, having got unto themselves worthy Constan­cy, and Courage sufficient, became renowned Martyrs of the Kingdom of Heaven.—And so here goes on, and mentions par­ticulars, Julianus, not able to stand, carried by two, one denies, the other (Cronian) confesses. as Julianus, a Gouty man, not able either to stand or go, he was brought out by two who bore him on their Shoulders; one of them afterwards fell from the Truth; the other called Cro­nian, whose Sirname was Eamus, confessed, and acknowledged the Lord (as it was meet, saith the Bishop) with a perfect and sound Faith, they were both thrown upon Camels, and scourged Both Julian and Cro­nian thrown on Ca­mels, scourged, and burnt. A Souldier rebuking the exclaimers against them, beheaded. aloft, and in the end were thrown into the fire and burned to Ashes; when they were brought forth, a certain Souldier rebuked such as reviled them; he is exclaimed against, so that he was brought forth, and had stoutly behaved himself in the great skirmish for the Christian Faith, was beheaded: After him Macar a Lybian was often admonished by the Judge to deny Christ, and Macar burned. renounce his Faith, which he not doing, was burned quick. Epi­machus Epimachus and Alex­ander, and four women burned. and Alexander after them, who after they had been long punished with Fetters, tormented with sharp Razors, and bitter Scourges, were burned, together with four Women. Amonarian Ammonarian execu­ted. (said to be a Virgin) was grievously tormented by the Judge, be­cause she foretold him she would answer him in nothing, which she performed, and was brought forth to Execution. Mercuria and [Page 39] Dionisia, two famous Matrons, after they had confounded the Mercuria and Dionisia, confounding the Judge tormented and [...] ­headed. Judge, which used all manner of perswasions to them, who now of the Women was overcome, were tormented till they were past all sence and feeling, and then beheaded with a Sword; of all whom Ammonarian is said to pass notably, enduring all kind of torment; Heron, Ater, Isidorus, being Egyptians, together with Heron, Ater, Isiodorus, Egyptians. Dioscorus, of fifteen years, is first took in hand, intreated, tor­mented, released. Dioscorus (a young man of fifteen years old) were committed; the Judge first takes the young man in hand, with fair speeches, as if he were easie to be entreated; with torments, as if he were soon terrified, but he neither bowed at his flattery, nor broke at his threats. The rest, after they had endured the most cruel The rest rended and disjoynted, burned. rending and disjoynting of their Bodies, he commanded to be burnt with fire. But Dioscorus he set at liberty▪ wondering (as the Bishop writes) at his gracious countenance, which gave a glistering shine, and the wise Answers that proceeded out of his mouth, saying, He would give him a longer space to repent, and re­member himself for his tender years; who was afterwards a man very eminent. Nemesion, an Egyptian, is accused of Theft, Nemesion double tor­mented and vexed▪ whereof he had openly purged himself before the Centurian. Again, he is accused of Christianity, for which he was brought bound before the President, who delivered him among the Thieves to be twice more grievously tormented and vexed. Last­ly (to add no more in this place) Ammon, Zenon, Ptolomeus, Ammon, Zenon, Ptolo­meus, Ingenuus, cer­tain Souldiers, old The­ophilus, encouraging at the Tribunal those ready to shrink, Ingenuus, certain Souldiers; and old Theophilus standing at the Tribunal Seat, when any of the Christians came to hear the Sen­tence or Judgement, and now were ready to shrink, so strugled, that they were ready to cry again, nodding with their counte­nance, and beckning with their hands; so exhorting them to sted­fastness, which being perceived by the multitude▪ before they laid hands on them, preventing their doings▪ nobly stept forth No [...]ly stept forth, pro­claimed themsel [...]es Christians, amaze the President and Assi­tants, encourage the fainty, chearfully suf­fered, and rejoyced in their Testimony. before the Bar, and proclaimed themselves Christians, which amazed the President and his Assistants, and encouraged the o­ther boldly to suffer, and made their Judges marvellously afraid. These (saith the Bishop) departed from the Tribunal Seat very chearfully, and rejoyced in the Testimony of their Faith, God gloriously tryumphing in them.

I thought it necessary to give these short touches of these long The reason why these things are repeated. and cruel sufferings, which I hope the Reader will not take as a burthen, but rather be refreshed thereby, and encouraged vali­antly to go through whatsoever he may be called unto for the Te­stimony of his Conscience, and glorifie God, who through these weak Instruments, got unto himself mighty renown and glory which will last for ever.

Yet a passage or two more briefly, and I shall have done with Cap. 41. Many Quartered, Dis­membered. this Persecution. Many others (saith the aforesaid Dionisius) through the City and Villages were Quartered and Dismembered by the Ethnicks, whereof for example sake I will rehearse some, Ischyrion, a Noble Mans Servant, a Steward, being commanded Ischyrion, a noble mans Servant. of his Master to do Sacrifice, obeyed not, but was contumeliously reviled; his Master perceiving him constant, and persisting in his [Page 40] former Opinion, took a Cudgel in his hand, and beat his Body Beat to death with a Cu [...]gel by his Master. Multitudes fled to the Desarts; Consumed with Fa­mine, Col [...], Diseases; Spoiled by Thieves; Devoured by Beasts. and Bowels till breath departed. What shall I say (saith he) of the multitude of them which wander in the Desart and wast Mountains consumed with Famine and Hunger, and Cold, and Diseases; spoiled by Thieves, and devoured by Beasts, whose blessedness and victories (saith he) they that remain alive are able to testifie; there was one Chimeron, a very old man, Bishop of a Chimeron, Bishop of Nilus, very old, and his Wife, fled to the Mountains, never hea [...]d of more. City called Nilus, who together with his Wife, fled unto the Mountains of Arabia, and returned home no more, nor could afterwards be seen; and though they were often sought for by the Brethren, neither could they nor their Carkasses ever be found: Many also in these Mountains of Arabia were taken Captives by Many taken captive by the Saracens in the Mountains; Hardly Ransomed. the Saracens, whereof some were hardly ransomed for great sums of money; some not as yet, no never unto this day appeared; And these things (saith Donisius to Fabius aforesaid) Brother, I write not in vain, but that thou mayest understand what, and how great evils and mischiefs have hapned among us, whereof they know more, (saith he) which among all others have felt most.

Thus fared it with the Christians in these parts, but what they As here, so in other parts were the Suffer­ings. Decius is slain, and his Sons. He and his Ar­my were overthrown in Scythia, exposing the Roman Empire to the contempt of the Goths. did in others throughout the Roman Jurisdiction, exceed Hercu­lem, by what hath been said may be judged; but this wicked man had a short Reign, and a just Judgment fell upon him, for when he had not reigned full two years, he was slain, together with his Sons, whom Gallus succeeded, of whom Dionisius wrote unto Hermmamon in these words,—Neither did Gallus perceive the Impiety of Decius, neither did he foresee what seduced him, but Anno. 255. Euseb. lib. 6. cap. 7. Gallus succeeds, stumbled at the same stone which lay right before his eyes; who when the Imperial Scepter prosperously fell unto him, and his afairs went luckily forwards, chased away the holy men which prayed for Peace, and his prosperous Estate; and so together with them he banished the Prayers continually poured to God for him.—Yet Persecution ceas­ed, and the Christians had some rest; he reigned not full two years: after him succeeded Emilianus, who was Emperor but And Emilianus. three months.

Valerianus was the eighth, by reason of whom the eighth Per­secution Anno. 256. Euseb. lib. 7. cap. 9. Valerianus the Author of the eighth Persecu­tion; Galienus, he in­treats the Christians well at first, afterwards Persecutes. took place, who when his Son Galienus succeeded Emi­lianus, he was a bloody wicked man, and caused much sufferings to the Christians, whom at first he seemed courteously to intreat, but his end was short, and things were turned again, as shall be made manifest: But in the first place hear the account of him from Dioscorus, aforesaid, who is said to write in these words,—It was Dioscorus his account of him and his Perse­cution. revealed unto John, for a Mouth was given unto him (saith he) to utter proud Speeches, and Blasphemies; and power was given him two and forty months, both things are wonderful in Valerianus; and we have to consider, how that above all his Predecessors, he was dis­posed at the first, gentle towards all the men of God, meek and friend­ly minded, for there were none of the Emperors before him so friendly, courteous, and affected towards them, no not they which openly were accounted Christians; he at the first embraced our men very familiarly, most lovingly, and that openly, so that his Palace was replenished with [Page 41] the professors of the Faith, and accounted for the Church of God. But the Master and Ruler of the Egyptian Sorcerers Synagogue, perswaded him af­terwards to slay and persecute these sincere Men, and Saints of God, Adver­saries and Impugners of their most impure and detestable Sorceries, (for the godly then prevailed so much, and do prevail at this day, that being present, and with their countenance only blowing the contrary, and resisted as it were with a little speech, scattered the bewitchings of the detestable Devils) he brought to pass impure Ceremonies, execrable Inchantments, and abominable Sacrifices; he made a slaughter of miserable Children, he sacrificed the Sons of infortunate Parents, he searched the bowels of the newly born Babes, spoyl­ing and rending asunder the shaped Creatures of God, as if by such heynous offences he should become fortunate. Macrinas offered up unto them gratu­latory Gifts and Presents, and good luck of the hoped Empire; for before it was commonly blazed that he should be created Emperor, he respected not the consonancy of Reason, neither the publick or common affairs, but was sub­ject to the Curse of the Prophet, saying, Wo be unto them which prophesie after their own desire, and respect not the publick Prophet. He under­stood not the Universal Providence, and Wisdom of him which is be [...]o [...], [...]ll [...] all, and above all; wherefore he is become a deadly Foe unto the [...] Christian Faith; he outlawed and banished himself from the [...] and as he fled farthest from the Church, so hath he answered the [...] his Name. Valevianus was by his means given over to such [...] and abominations, that the saying of Esay was verified in him; And they (saith he) chose their own wayes and abominations which their Souls lusted after; and I will select them their own delusions, and recompence their own sins. This Emperor was made, and doting over the Empire, other­wise then became his Majesty; not able, by reason of his maimed body, to wear the Imperial Robes, brought forth two Sons, followers of the Fathers Impie­ty; in them was the Prophesie manifest, where God promised to punish the sins of the Fathers upon the Children unto the third and fourth Generation of such as hate him; he poured the sins of the Father (whereof he could not be satisfied) upon the Pates of his Sons, and posted over unto them his malice and spight against God.

Much more I could relate of the cruelties exercised in the time Cap. 10. Dionisius banished. of this Persecution, of the banishment of Dionisius, aforesaid, from place to place, and what passed at his Examination; also what befel in Caesarea, to Priscus called the second; Malchus and Cap. 11. Priscus 2d. Malchus, Alexander, blaming themselves for sloth­fulness, came out of the Countrey, Alexander, who living in the Countrey, blamed themselves for negligence and sloathfulness, because they strove not for the Crown of Martyrdom, but despising these Masteries, which that present time distributed to such as coveted after Coelestial things, and further advisement therein, they came to Caesarea, went to the Went to the Judge and were Martyred. A Woman torn in pie­ces by wild Beast, &c. Judge, and enjoyed their desired end: Of a certain Woman also that there was torn in pieces by wild Beast, and of divers others; but I am loath to go over the bounds in the relation of things of this nature, lest I should seem too tedious to the Reader. The The Persecution ends in the Supremacy. time also dured not very long, though it ended the dayes of many in terrible sufferings, and to flesh and blood very formidable, but Cap. 12: Anno. 262. Gotten by his Son Galienus, by another thing made easie because of their Testimony to God. Valerianus having subdued the Barbarians; Galienus his Son got [Page 42] the Supremacy, and with better advisement ruled the Empire, and forthwith released and stayed the Persecution by publick Edicts; Who stayed the Perse­cution. and to the end that the Presidents and chief Governours of the Christian Doctrine might freely, after their wonted manner exe­cute their Office and Function; he gave them his Letters, com­manding that it should be so, which are as followeth,—The Em­peror The Copy of the Edict for that purpose. Caesar, Publicus, Licinnius, Galienus, vertuous, fortunate, Augustus, unto Dyonisius, Pynna, Demetrius, together with the rest of the Bishops, sendeth greeting;—The benefit of our Gracious Pardon, we command to be published throughout the World, that they which are detained in banishment depart the places of all Pagans, for the Execution whereof, the Copy of this our Edict shall be your dis­charge, lest any go about to molest you; and this which you now may lawfully put in ure, was granted by us long agoe; Wherefore Aure­lius Cyrenius, our High Constable, hath in his keeping the Copy which I delivered unto him.—Yet at Cesaria, Marinus, a famous Soul­dier, Marinus a Souldier and Christian, and of nob [...]e Lineage, be­headed, upon cap 14) accusation that he was a Christian, when he should have had the dignity of the Centu­rious Vine, (cap▪ 15.) whose body after the Execution, Astyrius a Senator of Rome, in his gorgeous apparel, took upon his shoul­ders, & provided for it a most noble Funeral. for feats of Arms, and noble Lineage, and great substance, was beheaded for confessing himself a Christian, being accused thereof by some who emulated his Profession to the Roman Dig­nity, called the Centurious Vine. And Astyrius, one of the Sena­tors of Rome, well accepted of the Emperors, in good estimation of all men for his noble Stock, and well known for his great sub­stance, being present at the execution of the Martyr, took up his Body, laid it upon his Shoulders, being arrayed in gorgeous and costly Attire, and provided for him a most Noble Fune­ral.

Macrinus (saith the History) after he had fore-ran one of the Euseb. lib. 7. cap. 22. Macrinus being rooted out, Gallienus is pro­claimed Emperor. Emperors, and followed after another, immediately he is rooted out, and all his Kindred, and Galienus is Proclaimed and Crown­ed Emperor, by the consent of all men, both an antient and a new Emperor, being before them, but appearing after them, accord­ing to the saying of the Prophet Isaiah, The things of old are past, and behold the new things come in place; for even as a Cloud dark­neth a little the Sun Beams, and shaddoweth the Sun it self shin­ing in its Sphear, and after the Cloud is dissolved and vanished away, the Sun which rose before the Cloud shineth, and taketh his course: So Macrinus, who intruded himself before the pre­sent reign of Galienus, is now no Emperor, no more he was not then; but the man is like himself, as he was then, so is he now; And the Empire it self laying aside heavy and wrinckled old Age, The observation of the prosperity of the Empi [...]e by good Em­pe [...]ors, and the con­trary by others. Valerianus taken alive, bound, & led in Royal Robes, and flead, and salted, by Socor King of [...]e [...]sia, Constant. Orat. cap. 24. and purged of the former malice, now flourisheth afresh, is heard and seen further;—Thus it fared when good and just men reign­ed, but when the wicked, the contrary. Valerianus the Persecu­tor aforesaid, and Galienus his Son, reigned together a while, but Valerianus being taken captive of the Persians; Galienus ruled alone, and the Common Wealth had rest, but trouble when the contrary, when it persecuted the Christians; of which the Histo­ries give large Particulars.

Claudius was the ninth, from whose barbarous Inhumanities Anno. 271. Euseb lib. 7. cap. 28. Claudius [...]aised the Ninth Persecution: The Empire commit­ted towards the Christians, the ninth Persecution took place, and [Page 43] was so tearmed from his Persecution;—He did many wicked Acts, and the peace of the Christians was much disturbed by him: And they had great sufferings, but after two years, he committed Anno. 273. to Aurelianus, he is at first friendly, after­wards Euseb. lib. 7, cap. 29, persecutes. the Empire to Aurelianus, who was a while very friendly to the Christians; summoned the great Synod at Antioch, and did many things in the behalf of the Christians, as a man well affected to them, but in process of time he so estranged himself, that well­nigh, (saith the Historian) through the lewd motion of some men, he moved Persecution against the Christians, and much talk was blazed far and nigh concerning him; but when he had raised Persecution against them, and now well-nigh subscribed to a publick Edict, prejudicial to their affairs, the just Judgement Judgment overtakes him, cramping his hands, that he could not sign the Edict a­gainst the Christians. Aurelianus making war in Thrace; was slain in the middle way, & filled the Cart Ruts with his wick [...]d blood Constant. Orat. cap 24. The Historians obser­vation of the Ju [...]ge­ment and Pow [...] of God, without whom none have power to persecute. of God (saith he) overtook him, and hindred his purpose, camp­ing (as it were) his Knuckles (for the Cramp so took him in the hand, that he could not hold his Pen to subscribe the Edict) so he was plagued (who went to write against God) and to that which he had before cherished and affected, making manifest unto all men, (saith he) that the Princes of the World have never any power to practice ought against the Church of God, unless the invisible might of God, for Discipline and Conversion of his People, according to his Divine and Coelestial Wisdom, grant License to bring any thing about in what time it shall please him best; he reigned six years, after him Tacitus, who was Emperor six months; Thorianus succeeded him, whose length of Imperial dayes was fourscore; Probus took his turn after; and after six years Carus succeeded him, who with Carinus and Numerianus his Son mannaged the Empire, but after three years they had an end.

Dioclesian was the tenth, whose furious rage mounted the Anno. 287. Dioclesian caused the tenth Persecution. Anaccount of this sore and long persecution. Throne of the tenth Persecution, as it is called, and made it up; a sore and long persecution it was, and multitudes of People were tormented, and through multitudes of torments yeelded up the Ghost; it will not be unconvenient to be a little particular there, partly because the constancy and faithfulness of the sufferers was exceeding great, which may provoke to Emulation, as it is an occasion to shew forth the vertue and power of Truth, which carries through whatsoever a man is called to suffer for the same, partly, because it is the last of these great Persecutions of this sort (viz. Christians from Heathens) that I have to mention, wherein the fruit of imposed Religions, or National Worship is made manifest, which was the intent of this Discourse, and the end of producing these Instances, under this head of suffering, for, or because of not conforming to National Worships, or the consequen­ces of them.

It was the ninteenth year of Dioclesians Reign, (saith the Historian) Anno. 306. Euseb. l 8. c. 3. The da [...]e of the Procla­mations for Persecution, and the Con­tents of the first. and the Month Disties, after the Romans Thoret; the Feast of Easter then being at hand, when the Emperors Proclamations were every where published, in the which it was commanded, That the Churches should be made even with the ground; and the holy Scriptures, by burning of them, should be abolished; such as were in Honour and Estimation, should be con­temned; and such as were of Families, if they retained the Christian Faith, [Page 44] should be deprived of their freedom; and such were the Contents of the first Edict: But in the Proclamation which immediately followed after, The Contents of the second Edict. That the Pastors throughout all Parishes first should be Imprisoned, next with all means possible constrained to Sacrifice: Then I say (saith the Historian) many of the Chief Governors of the Churches enduring, and that chear­fully The Persecu­tion very cruel Some flag, others very valiant. The diversity most bitter torments, shewed example of most valiant and noble Christians; many others fainting for fear, at the first onset were quite discouraged: All the rest tyred the experience of sundry torments; one scourged from top to toe, another tortured and launced with intolerabe pain; some failed of the purposed end; some other were found constant and perfect, one was drawn to the foul and filthy Sacrifices, and dismist, as if he had done Sacrifice, when as in very deed he had not; another when he had neither approached nor touched ought of their detestable of torments, and offerings; and such as were present affirmed, that he had Sacrificed, de­parted with silence, patiently suffering this false accusation; another half dead was thrown away, being thrown of them for dead: Again there were some prostrate upon the pavement, trailed and lugged all along by the feet, and recounted for Sacrifices; one reclaimed, and with a loud voice denyed that ever he had sacrificed; another lifted up his voice, Sufferings. and confessed himself a Christian, and gloried in the Faith of that glad­some Title: Another again protested that he had neither sacrificed, nor ever would do Sacrifice. These were beaten on the Face, and buffeted on the Cheeks; their mouths were stopped by the Souldiers hands, a whole band being appointed for that purpose, which violently thrust them out of doors; so the Enemies of the Truth tryumphed, (saith he) if at least wise, they might but seem to bring their purpose to effect; but (saith he) their purpose prevailed not against the blessed Martyrs of God, whose conflicts no tongue can sufficiently de­clare. Veterus, a Captain began it privily, with the Souldiers in Veterius, a Captain, (Cap. 4) began it in the Army p [...]ivily. the Camp, sifting them narrowly what they were, and putting them to the choice, such as he found Christians, either to obey and enjoy their dignities, or resist, and on the contrary be depri­ved; whereupon many forsook their imployments, chose rather to live solitary, and now and then one or two of them were put to Some put to death. death; he staggering at the multitude, at first fearing the effect Veterius staggers at the multitude, deals somewhat particular­ly; afterwards gives inexpressible suffer­ings. (as was thought to be most like) of suddenly giving battail unto all; but when he took upon him more manifestly to persecute, it cannot be told or expressed (saith the History) with tongue, how many, or what manner of sort of Martyrs were to be seen throughout all Cities and Villages. A noble man of Nicomedia, Cap. 5. The Edict for persecu­tion tore from the Post, in the presence of both the Emperors, &c. by a noble man of Nicomedia. as soon as the Edict against the Christians was published in that City, took the Proclamation, as it was paisted to an open and publick Post, and tore it in pieces in the presence of both the Emperors, and of him which amongst the rest was most honoura­ble, and was the fourth Person of the Empire: But he which first Enduring valliant to the last, he is Mar­tyred. practised this noble Act (saith he) endured (as it is most like) the penalty of so bold an enterprise, retaining a valiant and invincible mind unto the last gasp. Cap. 6. Great persecution at Nicomedia, the place of the Emperors Palace.

Great were the sufferings in Nicomedia, where the Emperors Palace was, and the Martyrs thereof. This Age (saith the Histo­rian) [Page 45] passed all the renowned men that ever were either of the Grecians or Barbarians. To speak a little of the Courtiers, and The martyrdom of the Courtie [...]s. such who being Pages to the Emperors, (which place was of great request, and noble men performed it) and of chiefest credit with their Lords, and no less unto them than dear and natural Sons; such as were Dorothaeus, and Gorgonius, and Peter, &c. who coun­ted Dorothaeus, Gorgonius, Peter, &c. Pages to the Emperor. those reproaches, calamities, and new found torments for the Truth [in] Christ (as the Historians words are) greater riches than the glory and pleasure of this present life: To give one instance for Peter brought forth, enjoyned to Sacrifice, refused stoutly, is scourged aloft; his flesh rent in pie­ces. all, one of these noble men (saith the History) was brought forth at Nicomedia in the open Assembly, and enjoyned to Sacrifice, who stoutly refussing, commandment was given, that he should be hoised up on high naked, and his whole body to be scourged, and the flesh rent in pieces with the lash of the Whip, until he being overcome, should be enforced to yeeld unto their Sacrifice; when that he had endured these torments, and persisted constant, and the bones lay all bare, they poured Vinegar mixt with Salt into Vinegar and Salt poured on the bare bones, & the wounds, the festred Wounds, and bruised parts of the Body; when he had overcome also these torments, and rejoyced greatly thereat, a Gridiron with hot burning Coals is prepared, and that which re­mained then put on a Grid­iron, and broiled with a slow fire; of his Body was laid thereon to be broiled, a slow fire being made under to consume it by little and little, lest death should quickly deliver him of his pain; so that they which had the charge of the fire, would release him of no part of his pain, No re [...]se but [...] Sa­cri [...]cing. unless he promised to yeeld in the end to the Emperors De­cree; but he holding fast his former Opinion, overcame them, and yeelded up the Ghost in the midst of those torments; his He yields up the Ghost in the Torments. Name was Peter,—Dorotheus, and Gorgonius, with many more Dorothaeus, Gorgonius, and many more of the Emperors Family hanged. of the Emperors Family, after sundry torments (saith the History) ended their lives on the Gallows, and bore away the Garland of Victory.

Anthemius, Bishop of Nicamedia, is said to be at this time be­headed, Anthemias, Bishop of Nicomedia, beheaded. and with him a great multitude of Martyrs; for some part of the Emperors Palace at Nicomedia being on fire, it was The Emperors Palace being some part on fire, attributed to the Christians, who thereupon are cut off some behead­ed, some burned; imputed to the Christians; whereupon the whole Troop of all the godly there (saith the History) at that time were executed, some with the Sword beheaded, some burned with fire, where also (saith it) by the Secret and Divine Providence of God, as the report goeth, (saith the History) both Men and Women skipt Men and Women leap and skip into the burning flames; Others put in a Boat, and drowned in the Sea. The Emperors Pages Bod [...]es [...]ug up & cast into the Sea, least they should be adored as gods. This was the beginning of the Per­secution. In Syria and M [...]letis, all the Pasiors ordered to be clapt up. and leapt into the flaming fire: Another Company the Serjeants set in a Boat, and threw into the deep Sea; The Emperors Pa­ges after their death being decently buried, and resting in their Graves, were digged up, and by the commandments of the Lords cast into the Sea, lest any should adore them in their Sepulchres, and take them for gods; this was the practice of the beginning of the Persecution at Nicomedia; but a little while after some of the Regions of Syria and Miletis being found ready to rebel, the Emperor falls upon the Christians, and commanded all the Pastors (as they are called) throughout every Church to be Imprisoned, and kept in hold; the Spectacle (saith the History) of the practices [Page 46] were so cruel to behold, that it exceeded all that thereof may be spoken; infinite numbers (saith it) were every where inclosed, The Prisons filled with Bishops, Mini­sters, &c. instead of Robbers, &c and the Prisons of old appointed and ordained for Murtherers, Diggers of Sepulchres, and Robbers of Graves, were then reple­nished with Bishops, Ministers, Deacons, Readers, Exorcists, so that there was no room in the Prisons, for such as were condem­ned for heinous offences: After those other Edicts took place, by More Edicts for Perse­cution, Cap. 7. Multitudes of Martyrs in Africk, virtue of which such as sacrificed were set at liberty, and such as re­sisted were commanded to be tormented with a thousand kind of torments, (as saith the History); but who is able (saith it) here al­so to number the multitude of the Martyrs in all places? especi­ally throughout Africk, and among the Moors; throughout The­bais and Egypt, from whence passing into other Cities and Pro­vinces, Thebais, Egypt, they (saith the History) suffered glorious Martyrdom. We have known (saith the Historian) divers of these to have flourish­ed Palestine, Tyrus in Phenicia. A sum mary of the di­versity of their con­stant sufferings thorow successive torments and cruelties. in Palestina, and some others in Tyrus of Phenicia, whose infi­nite stripes, who would not be amazed to behold? and in their stripes, marvellous constancy, and after their stripes, their sudden bickering with ravening Beasts; and in that bickering, their vali­ant courage, in withstanding the force of fierce Libbards, the rage of Bears, of wild Bears, and Bulls, provoked with hot burn­ing Irons; At the doing of all which we were present our selves, and saw with our eyes (saith the Historian) the Divine power of our Saviour Jesus (for whose sake they suffered these things) pre­sent and manifestly aiding these Martyrs. Neither durst these ra­vening The Beasts touch not the Martyrs, though ptovoked, but devour the without standers. Beasts (saith he) of a long time drawing, and approach un­to the Bodies of the blessed Saints, but ranged about, and devou­red them, which set them on without the Ring, touching by no means, among all the rest of the blessed Champions, though their bodies were bare, though they provoked them, with the stretch­ing forth of their hands, as they were commanded; and if some­time They retreat on a sud­den from the Marty [...]s, when they violently set on them, as if re­pelled by Divine Pow­er, to the admiration of the beholders. violently they fell on them, they retired back again, as if they had been repelled by Divine Power from above, which con­tinuing a long time, brought great admiration to the beholders; when the first beast ranged about to no purpose, the second and third Beasts were let loose at one and the same Martyr. The suf­ferance of those Saints (saith he) was to be wondered at, and their constancy firm and unmoveable in their fresh and green bodies; for then (saith he) might a man have seen a young strimpling under After wild Beasts were let loose at them, one after another, twenty years of Age, standing still without any holding, stretching forth his hands in the form of a Cross (for that was used as a sign, because of the contempt of the Heathen, to Jesus that was cruci­fied, shewing that neither were they ashamed of, nor denyed him that on a Cross was crucified, which since is come by others to be worshipped, and made as an Idol, this I speak, but not the Hi­storian) making earnest supplication unto God, with a setled and immoveable mind, not wagging himself at all, or pointing any whither from his standing place, yea though the Bears and Lib­bards And several thrown before them, and yet not touched. breathed out present death, and were now ready to tear his flesh in pieces with their teeth, yet I wot not how, as if their Jaws [Page 47] had been glewed together, they recoiled back again. Again (saith he) ye might have seen others, in number five, thrown at the feet of a fierce Bull, which tossed in the Air, and tore in pieces with his Horns such as stood without the Ring, and left them as dead; only (saith he) the holy Saints he had no power to hurt with his furious and cruel threats, though he threw up the Earth with his Feet, and fanned the Air with his Horns, Though the Beast was provoked with hot I­rons. though he were provoked to fierceness with searing Irons, and foamed out present death; yet (saith he) by the Divine Providence of God he was pushed back: When this Beast (saith he) nothing could prevail a­gainst the holy Martyrs, others were let loose: At length, after sundry They are be­headed, and their bodies cast into the Sea. Cap. 18. Tyrus in Egypt the sore Per­secution there, and the particulars thereof. bitter torments and violence of wild Beasts, (saith he) all were behead­ed; and instead of still Earth and quiet Sepulchres, they were thrown into surging Waves of the Seas: The like had they of Tyrus in Egypt; Then wouldst thou have marvelled (saith the Historian) at their Martyr­doms, suffered upon their own Native Soyl, where infinite, both Men, Women, and Children, for the Salvation procured (saith he) by our Saviour Jesus Christ, contemning this transitory Life, have endured sun­dry kind of torments; whereof some after Maiming, Wracking, and Scourging, thousands of other vexations (horrible (saith he) to be heard of) were burned to Ashes; others drowned in the Seas; others manfully laid their necks to the Block; others hanged on the Gallows: Some as heinous Offenders; some others far worse tied to the Tree with their heads downwards, and so long beset with a Watch, And va [...]ieties of most cruel sufferings, and death. Cap. 9. The exquisite varieties of sufferings in The­bays, till Famine had bereaved them of their lives.—But no Speech (saith he) can sufficiently declare the punishments and torments endured of the Martyrs throughout Thebays, having their bodies torn in pieces with shells of Sea-fish, instead of the Tallons of Beasts; the Women tyed by the Leg, were lifted into the Air, and their heads downwards, with a certain Engine of Wood, and And the divers and unheard of manner of manner of them, con­tinuing for many years. there hanged all bare and uncovered, yeelding to the behold­ers a foul, filthy, cruel, and unnatural Spectacle; others ended their lives upon Boughs and Branches of Trees, they linked to­gether with certain Instruments, the tops of boysterous and migh­tier Boughs, and tied them unto either of the Martyrs Thighs; afterwards loosing the Boughs to spirt and spring into their grow­ing place, suddenly rent asunder the Members of their Bodies, for which purpose they invented this pain. All these mischiefs (saith he) continued not a few dayes, but for the space of many years, sometimes more then ten, some other time more then twenty Ten, twenty, thirty, sixty, one hundred in a day thus execu­ted, of Men, Women, and Children, after the first tasting of sun­dry torments. The varieties of their sufferings and deaths. were executed, one while not under thirty, another while well nigh threescore; again another time an hundred in one day of Men, Women, and very young Children, after the bitter tasts of sundry kinds of torments, were put to death. We our selves (saith he) being there present at the Execution, saw with our eyes a great multitude, whereof some were burned, others beheaded, until the Sword became blunt, and the Tormenters wearied; so that others came in place and executed by turns, where we beheld (saith he) the noble chear and countenance, the Divine Power and valiantness of mind in such as builded their Faith on Jesus Christ our Saviour; as soon as the Sentence was pronounced, [Page 48] (saith the Historian) and judgment given upon the former, there stepped forth others and stood at the Bar, protesting their Faith, and publishing themselves Christians, not fearing at all the bitter­ness of manifold and sundry torments, but with invincible minds laying their whole trust and confidence upon God, joyfully, mer­rily, Their joy in suffering. and chearfully took the last Sentence of Condemnation, singing Psalms, and Hymns, and Thanksgivings unto God, even to the last gasp: These (saith he) were truly to be wondred at, but those were especially to be admired, who being renowned for their Riches, Nobility, Honour, Eloquence, and Philosophy, The quality of the Sufferers. yet preferred before all these, the Piety and Faith in our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; of which sort Philorenus, a Governour of Philorenus Governour of Alexandria. Alexandria, of no small account, put in trust with weighty mat­ters of the Empire, being guarded after the Roman Dignity and Honour, with a Troop of Souldiers to his Train, was daily sif­ted and examined. Such a one also was Phileas, Bishop of the Phileas, Bishop of The­maite, People of Themaitae, a famous Man, both for the famous Govern­ment of his Countrey, as for the oversight of the publick Lytur­gies, and study of Philosophy: These men, though they were Notwithstanding all intreaties of Kindred, Friends, Rulers, and Judge, to sacrifice and spare themselves, intreated of many of their kinds-folks, and otherwise their fami­liar Friends, of many of the chief Rulers, and last of all by the Judge himself, that they would tender their own case, that they would consider their Calling, that they would pitty their Wives and Children; yet could not they for all the perswasion of such great personages be brought (by preferring this present life) to hearkened not, but contemn the Faith of Christ, and to renounce his Laws, but with constant and Philosophical minds, yea rather Divine, enduring all the threats and contumelies of the Judge, ended their lives were beheaded. Pag. 10. The sufferers at Alex­andria endured not once, but some twice the cruel torments. with the losing of their Heads;—Those at Alexandria, not once, but some of them twice all pain and punishment that could be invented; all the threats of Souldiers practised against them, either by word or deed, with an invincible courage, excluding fear by reason of the fulness of love, whose manhood and vali­antness in all their torments, what man is able with mouth to ex­press? Everyone did to them as they pleased, It was permitted, and was lawful for every man to torment them as he pleased; and because it was so, some smoat them with Clubs and Cudgels, some with sharp Twigs, some with Whips, some with Leathern Thongs, some other with Whipcord; The Spectacle was pit­tiful Most cruel, both for the variety of torment and superfluity of malice; some with their hands tied behind them, were stretched along, and wracked in every joynt throughout the Body, and as they hung and lay in the Wrack, the Tormenters were commanded to torment them all their Bodies over, not plaguing them as Thieves are commonly handled, with the only renting of their sides, but they had the skins of their Bellies, New, and un­heard and their Shins, & of their Eye-lids rased all off with rugged Hoofs, and with the Tallons and Claws of wild Beasts; some were seen to hang by one hand as a hollow Vault, and to endure that way far more bitter wracking of the joynts and members of the Body; some were tied to Pillars, and their Faces writhed backwards to behold themselves, their of sufferings. feet standing them in no stead; but they violently wagging by the weight [Page 49] and poize of their bodies were thus grievously tormented, by rea­son of their stretching and hard binding in bonds; this they suf­fered, not onely while they were examined, and whilst the Presi­dent dealt with them, but throughout the whole day. And when Care in the President to see if any would recant, by means of their torments; that he had passed from the former, he gave his Ministers charge to oversee them behind, if peradventure any of them being over­come with the grievous torment did yeeld: He commanded also, If that any were in danger of death, by reason of cold, that their Fetters and Bonds should be released speedily, and they to be And charge to drag them on the ground to get them heat, lest cold should kill them in their Irons. laid on the ground, to be lugged and drailed all along to get them heat; they had not one spark of compassion, but thought, of duty they should thus be affected, and furiously rage against them, as though they had been no living Creatures, wherefore their Adversaries invented this second pain, and added it to the for­mer punishments, after stripes, they were laid in the Stocks, The succession of their most cruel torments, and their feet stretched four spaces (or holes) asunder, that of necessity they must lie on their backs, and having no feeling of their bodies, by reason of the Wounds which the stripes printed in their Members; others being thrown along upon the Pave­ment, lay poudered in the dust in extream pain, a more piteous and lamentable spectacle to the beholders than the torment it self, bearing in their bodies divers Wounds diversly invented: The And their constancy therein, and varieties of deaths. case standing thus, some died in torment, and confounded the Adversary with their patience; some half dead, and shut in Pri­son, after a few dayes died of their pain; The rest by careful pro­vision were comforted, and after certain continuance of Imprison­ment became more constant, when they had given them in choice either to touch the detestable Sacrifices, and so be at ease, and enjoy among them their cursed liberty, or not to sacrifice and change life for death; with all speed voluntarily they imbraced death, for they were skilful in those things which concerned them in holy Scripture; He that sacrifices to strange Gods (saith And encouragements to others to endure Persecution, he) shall be rooted out from among the People, and thou shalt have no other Gods but Me: Phileas wrote from Prison thus to his Pa­rishoners (as the Historian tearms it) before the Judge pronoun­ced the Sentence of Condemnation upon him, rehearsing unto them the state he stood in, provoking them to march forwards, And to hold fast their Profession by Phileas from the Prison, a fa­mous man, and a Phi­losopher. and to hold fast the profession of Faith in Christ after his death, which was then at hand; he is said to be a Philosopher, and a man famous in prophane (as they tearm it) Literature: Two or three instances more, and I shall end this Scene of Tragical Persecu­tion.

The Souldiers having besieged a City in Phrygia, wholly inha­bited Cap. 11. A whole City in Phry­gia, Men, Women, Children, Lieutenant, Captain, Senate, Peo­ple, all Christians, be­sieged, and burnt to Ashes. of Christians, and compassed in both Men, Women, and Children, which called upon the Name of the Lord, they set all on fire, and burnt them to Ashes; for with one consent, all the Inhabitants thereof, Lieutenant, the Captain, the whole Senate, and the people every one professed themselves Christians, and could by no Edicts be brought to adore Idols or carved Images. And there was also another renowned for Roman Dignity, whose [Page 50] name was Audactus, by Lineage coming of a noble House in Audactus, a noble and great man in the Em­pire, and in great cre­dit with the Emperor Italy, and for his Virtue in great credit with the Emperor, so that he governed with great wisdom and uprightness the Com­mon Wealth, and weightiest matters of the Empire; but above all, he was famous for Religion and Faith in Christ, so that in the Administration and governing of the Common Wealth, he en­dured tormented, and Mar­tyred. Cap. 12. The sufferings in Arabia, Cappadocia, and the varieties of them, and in torment, and was Crowned with Martyrdom. In Arabia some were beheaded, some tormented with the breaking and bruising of their Legs; as it hapned in Cappadocia, some hanged by the feet, and their heads downwards, with slow fire set under and smothered to death, with choaking smoak, as it hapned to the Brethren in Mesopotamia; some others had their Nostrils slit, Mesopotamia, their Ears boared, their Hands maimed, their Members and parts of their bodies drawn asunder and disjoynted, as it hapned at Alexandria; some burned at Antioch, hot burning Coals laid Alexandria, Antioch. under not quickly to dispatch them, but with lingering pain to torment them; others chose rather to burn their hands, then they would touch their abominable sacrifices; the experience whereof some going to avoid, before they were apprehended, and fallen into the hands of their Adversaries threw themselves down headlong from the tops of Houses, and thought better to pre­vent death, than to sustain the torments of their malitious Ene­mies.

A certain Matron renowned for virtue and integrity of life, and The particular of a Matron of Antioch, and her Daughters, among all of them at Antioch, famous for her great Riches, no­ble Lineage and estimation, brought up two Daughters, that were Virgins, in the fear of God, which passed all others in brightness of beauty, and youthly comeliness; these because they were of great beauty and comeliness, greatly spighted and envied, though they hid themselves, yet were they found out; and when at length, with much adoe, they understood of their being among Forreiners, they cited them to appear at Antioch with speed in their proper persons, and beset cited to Antioch, the place of their aboad with a Band of Souldiers, compassing Beset with a Pand of Souldiers, them, as it were, with a Net: This Matron seeing her self and her Daughters in great peril, by no means possible to be avoided, Advised by the Mo­ther, above a [...]l, not to s [...]ffer the abusing of their bodies, and to be constant, pondered with her self the punishments ensuing; and that which was most grievous of all, the abusing of their Bodies, she ad­monished in no wise to be suffered, no not once to sink into their ears; and said further, That if they committed their Souls as Bondslaves unto Satan, it were a thing more intollerable then any death or destruction: Yet there remained one remedy for all, and that (said he) was to fly to the Lord for refuge; After delibera­tion, and to flie to the Lord, with uniform consent, they laid down what was to be done, they apparelled themselves gorgeously, and took their journey towards Antioch; in the midst of the way, when their Guard se­vered Cast themselves into t [...]e River, as they were carried towards Antioch, and are drowned. Another couple of Virgins cast into the Ri [...]er. themselves, as about to serve Nature, they cast themselves into the floods that slided thereby, and drowned themselves: Those Heathen Idolaters threw into the Sea another couple of Auteochian Virgins, renowned for all Virtues, true sisters of no­ble Lineage of good life, of tender years, of goodly beauty, [Page 51] of honest mind, of godly conversation, of wonderful disposition, as though the earth could no longer bear them; such were the Tragedies of Antioch.—In Pontus they suffered punishment hard­ly Sufferings in [...]ontus, and the variety, and exquisiteness of them, to be heard of, fingers of both hands were pricked under the tender Nails with sharp Quills; others had hot boyling Lead poured on their backs, the most necessary Members of their bo­dies maimed; others indured shameful, intollerable, and such The Judges wit exer­cised in devising new torments, and out of measure, cruelties, and contending for that purpose. torments as may not be told of, in their privy Members, and in the secret bowels of their bodies. Such (saith the History) as these noble and lawful Judges, excogitated, for tokens of their sharp wit and deep wisdom; daily also they found new torments, con­tending one with another who should excel in spiteful inventions and additions of torments; this calamity was extream and out of measure cruel: And when as henceforth they dispaired of increa­sing They are wearied with slaughters, and begin to practise cour­tesie, which is their mischief, and now were wearied with slaughter, gotten their full of blood-shed; voluntarily they mittigated their rage, they practise courtesie, their pleasure (forsooth saith the Histo­rian) is henceforth to punish with death no longer; It is not re­quisite (say they) that the Cities should be stained with blood, issuing out of our own bowels, that the most noble Empire of the Caesars should be blemished and defamed with the Title of Cruel­ty, the Emperor himself being well known for Clemency and Benignity; yea rather, the gracious goodness of the Emperors Highness is to be stretched forth and enlarged towards all men, that they be no more punished with death; they deemed their cruelty aswaged, and Emperors clemency to shine, in that they command our eyes to be pulled out, (saith the Historian) and the their right eye to be pulled out, and the left leg unjoynted, or sawn asunder in the Hams, left leg to be unjoynted, wherefore by reason of this cruel courte­sie, it may not be told what number and infinite (saith he) multi­tude of men, having their right eyes pulled out, and the empty places seared with hot burning Irons; their left leg sawn asunder in the Hams, and seared likewise; were condemned to the Quar­ries and sent to the Quar­ries; And this is the Empe­rors cou [...]esie. Several tormented besides. and Mines throughout the Provinces, to the digging of Me­tals, not for commodity and profit sake, but for affliction and misery. But besides all this, they were led forth to sundry kinds of torments, which may not be rehearsed, whose valiant Acts al­so cannot be described.—Lastly, The Bishops and chief Rulers Cap. 13: Anthymus Bishop of Nicomedia beheaded. of those Churches that suffered Martyrdom, were Anthymus Bi­shop of Nicomedia, who there was beheaded, as aforesaid.—In Phenicia, Luciania Minister of the Congregation at Antioch, who Luciana put to death at Antioch. preached at Nicomedia, in presence of the Emperor, the Kingdom of Christ.—Tyrannion Bishop of Tyrus; Zenobius Minister of Tyrannion Bishop of Tyrus. Zenobius Minister of Zidon. Silvanus Bishop of Emissa, and others put to death, cast into the Sea. Zidon; and Silvanus Bishop of Emissa, who together with others were thrown to feed Beasts; The other two both at Antioch glo­rified God by their patient deaths: Tyrannion buried in the bot­tom of the Sea; and Zenobius reputed an excellent Physitian after Scourgings, and bitter torments, died most constantly. Among the Martyrs of Palestina, Silvanus Bishop of the Churches in Silvanus Bishop of Goza beheaded. Nine and thirty Offi­cers sent to the Mine Pits in Phoenos. Gaza was beheaded, together with nine and thirty Officers, which were committed to the Mine Pits in Phoenos. In Egypt, Peleus [Page 52] and Nilus, Egyptian Bishops were burned to Ashes.—Of Cesa­rea, Peleus, Ninus, Egyp­tian Bishops burned to Ashes. Pamphilus Senior of Cesaria suffered death Peter Bishop of Alex­andria. Faustus, Ridius, Am­moni [...]s, Ministers martyred. Phileas, Hezechias, Pa­chynius, Theodorus, Bi­shops of Egypt; and multitudes of other famous men put to death in Egypt, The­bais, and that Region. The end of the ten Persecutions, and the reason of producing them. The end of the Ty­rants, and sad case of the Empire, Cap 14. Pamphilius, the Elder, said to be the renowned Pillar of that place. The most famous of Alexandria, Thebais and Egypt, that suffered, were Peter Bishop of Alexandria, Faustus, Ridius, and Ammonius, Ministers and Martyrs: Also Phileas, Hezechias, Pachymius, and Theodorus, Bishops of the Churches in Egypt: And besides these (saith the History) infinite other famous men whose names are well known in the Congregations throughout that Region.

Thus have I travelled through the ten most famous Persecuti­ons, and therein most of the chiefest of them in general or parti­cular, to shew the effect, or the bloody consequence of National Worships, or the enforcing of Religion by the Laws of men, which is not Spirit and Truth, but Letter and Death, as these in­stances have abundantly manifested; and to make appear how God is against them, and supporting his people in protesting against them, and overthrowing the Persecutors, as this very Tyrant knew, who in the twentieth year of his Reign, and not full two years after this hurly burly with the Christians, when as before the affairs of the Empire prospered well, and found good success; now it suffered a change, and such a one as the Histori­an observes never befel the Empire before, turning all upside down: Dioclesian the chiefest, being overtook with no small dis­ease, Anno. 307. Dioclesian be reft of his wits, and Maximinia­nus depose them­selves. which bereaved him of his wits; together with Maximinianus, the second to him, after they had been Emperors for the space of twenty years, as aforesaid, deposed themselves, and lived a pri­vate life, from which time to his end Dioclesian wasted and pined Dioclesian wasts away with Diseases. Maximinian hangs himself; Constantius and Maximinus sole Emperors. away with Diseases, and Maximinian hanged himself: Constanti­nus and Maximinus then took the sole government of the Empire (which had before four Princes at one time governing); Constan­tius was very friendly, and Persecution on his hand loosened from the Christians; Maximinus persecuted them sorely, though at Maximinus sorely plagued in his body at Tarsus, times he would seem to be otherwise minded: The Hand of God pursued him so, that at Tarsus a great plague fell upon him; first, taking hold in his flesh, and afterwards proceeding to the very Soul, for there arose suddenly in the secret parts of his body, an impostume, or running sore, afterwards in the lower part of his Privities, a botchy corrupt Boyl with a Fistula, whence issued out with a Botch. corrupt matter eating up the inward bowels, and an unspeakable multitude of Lice swarming out, and breathing a deadly stench; and Lice, and stench. when as the corpulency of the whole body, through abundance of meat, before the Disease came; was turned into superfluous grosness, and then being grown into matter, yeelded an intole­rable and horrible spectacle to the beholders; wherefore of the Which flew some of his Physicians. Physitians, some being not able to digest that wonderful noysome stench, were slain; some other (when there remained no hope of Others were executed because they could not help. recovery, by reason of the swelling throughout the whole body) being not able to help at all with their Physick, were cruelly exe­cuted themselves; Whilst the Hand and Plague of God was on him, and he lay in his miserable plight, he pondered with himself [Page 53] the rash enterprises he had practised against the Worshippers of God; Cap. 18. In this plight he repents, confesses to God; Commands persecution to cease, wherefore returning unto himself, first, he confesses his sins to God; next, calling upon him such as were about him, he gave command­ment, that with all speed they should cease from persecuting the Christians; and that by Decree and Commandment of the Emperor, they should build a­gain their Churches, and that they should meet often to celebrate their wonted Ceremonies, and pray for the life of the Emperor; And immediately that And desires Prayers of the Christians for his life. The Procla­mations hast­ned. which by word he commanded, was indeed brought to pass. The Pro­clamations of the Emperor were published throughout the Cities, con­taining a recantation of those things formerly prejudicial unto the Chri­stians, in this form,—

The Emperor Caesar, Maximinus, Puissant, Magnificent, chief Lord, The Copy of the Edict. Lord of the Thebais, Lord of Salmatia, five times Conqueror of Persia, Lord of Germany, Lord of Egypt, twice Conqueror of the Carpyans, six times Conqueror of the Armenians, Lord of the Medes, Lord of the Adiabeni, twenty times Tribune, nineteen times general Captain, eight times Consul, Father of the Countrey, Proconsul; And the Em­peror Caesar, Flavius, Valerius, Constantius, (some read Constantius, but it is not so found in the Greek) Vertuous, Fortunate, Puissant, Noble, chief Lord, general Captain, and Tribune five times, Consul, Father of the Countrey, Proconsul. Among other things which we have decreed for the Commodity and profit of the Common Wealth, our pleasure is first of all to order and redress all things according to the antient Laws and Disci­pline of the Romans; and withal to use this provisoe, That the Christians which have forsaken the Religion of their Ancestors, should be brought again to the right way, for after a certain humour of singularity, such an Opinion of excellency puffed them up, that those things which their Elders had recei­ved and allowed, they rejected and disallowed, devising every man such Laws as they thought good, and observed the same, assembling in divers places great multitudes of people; Wherefore when as our Edict was proclaimed, that they should return unto the Ordinance of their Elders, divers standing in great danger, felt the penalty thereof, and many being troubled therefore, endured all kinds of death. And because we perceive many, as yet to per­sist in the same madness in their yeelding due worship to the Caelestial Godds, nor regarding the God of the Christians, having respect unto our benignity and godly custom, pardoning all men according to our wonted guise, we thought good in this case to extend our gracious and favourable clemency, that the Christians may be tollerated again, and that they may repair again the places where they meet together, so that they do nothing prejudicial to publick Order and Discipline; We mean to prescribe unto the Judges by ano­ther Epistle what they shall observe: Wherefore as this our gracious Pardon deserveth, let them make intercession to their God for our Health, for the Common Weal, and for themselves, that in all places the Affairs of the pub­lick Weal may be safely preserved, and that they themselves may live securely in their own houses.

I have mentioned this Edict or Proclamation, the rather that men, The reason of the rehea [...]sal of the Copy of the Edict. however swel'd with Titles, Dominions, and Honours, notwithstanding all that they can say of them, and do by them, must come to bow to him, whom in their hearts they despise, and seek to trample his Worship and [Page 54] Worshippers under foot, who is a Spirit, and will be worshipped in Spirit and Truth.

Great calamities attended the Roman Empire, whilst their rage was The sad con­sequence of these perse­cutions to the Roman Em­pire, and the for­bearance of them. great against the Christians, whilst they imposed the Worship of their Heathen Godds, and destroyed all those who could not bow down unto, nor worship them; which when they forbore, and left to these who worshipped the Lord, to worship him according to his Spirit, not ac­cording to their Law, it flourished, was safe, and increased. I should be marvellous large if I should go through those things also in particular. The rebellious invasions, divisions amongst themselves, Plagues, Pesti­lences, Famines, Earth-quakes, and untimely deaths that befel those Emperors themselves, the Lord, when he saw time, cutting short their race, who ordaineth his Arrows against the Persecutor; notwithstanding that he saw it good also to suffer those things to be, to prevent greater The end of the Lord to the Christians in suffering these perse­cutions. mischiefs amongst the Christians, and to give testimony before all the World of his Power, that was in them wonderfully to carry them through whatsoever was laid upon them for the testimony unto his Name. For the Christians, when a little ease and liberty befel them, and the Hand of the Lord so wrought, that instead of being cast out like Dogs, and cut off every way with the most cruel and detestable suffer­ings, and trampled under foot as if they were not fit to live among men, or as Beasts of prey were made to be destroyed, they were accounted eminent and honourable, and had to doing in the mannagement of pub­lick Affairs, and in the very Emperors Pallaces were the men of account and trust; they degenerated from the natural Rule of Piety, (as are the Historians own words, and his honest and right observation); and after The Histori­ans account of the cause, as among the Christians of the Persecu­tions. that one pursued another with open contumely and hatred, (as he goes on and speaks) and when (saith he) we impugned our selves by no other than our selves with the Armour spite, and sharp Spears of oppro­bious words, so that Bishops against Bishops, and People against People raised Sedition. Last of all, when that (saith he) cursed hypocresie and dissimulation had swom even to the brim of malice, the heavy hand of Gods high Judgment, after his wonted manner, whilst as yet (saith he) the Ecclesiastical Companies assembled themselves, nevertheless began softly by a little and a little to visit us; so that the Persecution that was raised against us, took his first Original from the Brethren which were under (Vecturius the Captain, aforesaid, persecuted the Souldiers in Camp) Banner in Camp; when as (saith he) we were touched with no manner of sence or feeling thereof, neither went about to pacifie God; we heaped sin upon sin, thinking like careless Epicures, that God neither cared nor would visit our sins; and they who seemed our Shepherds, (saith he) Anno. 301. And lamenta­tion o [...]er the divisions of the Christi­ans, and the consequences of them, Lam. 2. laying aside the Rule of Piety, practised Contention and Schism among themselves; and whilst they aggravated these things, that is, contenti­ons, threatnings, mutual hatred and enmity, and every one proceeded in ambition, much like Tiranny it self: I say (saith he) then the Lord, according to the saying of Jeremiah, made the Daughter of Sion obscure, and overthrew from above the glory of Israel, and remembred not his foot­steps in the day of his wrath; the Lord hath drowned all the beauty of Israel, and overthrown all his strong holds; and according to the prophesies in the Psal. 87. Psalms, He hath overthrown and broken the Covenant of his Servant, and [Page 55] prophained his Sanctuary, casting it on the ground; by the overthrow of his Churches he hath broken down all his Walls, he hath laid all his Fortresses in ruine. All they that passed by spoiled him, and therefore he is become a re­buke unto his Neighbours, for he lifted up the right hand of his enemies, and turned the edge of his Sword, and aided him not in the time of Battle, but caused his Dignity to decay, and cast his Throne down to the ground; the dayes of his Youth he shortned, and above all this, he covered him with shame.

I have repeated this his words at large, for example sake, that the The use of it as to England. consequence of such things may be avoided, by the avoiding of such things as these, and that it may be taken notice of, that the Lord hath a correction in suffering such dayes as these to come for them that go astray, as he hath judgment for his Enemies who work such things, and seek to set up their Dominion over his Principality, who lives for ever, who will needs prescribe to his Worship, and make Laws how he, (or rather themselves, as I have shewed) shall be worshipped, and destroy and cause to suffer such as cannot fall down and worship the Laws they make, and the Images they set up.

It would require a Volumn if I should go through these things also, as in observation of what History affords in this particular, even of those very Christians, and what they suffered as the ends of this Emperor, Maxentius, and Lucinnius, who rose up in the dayes of Constantine, Son to Constantius, of whom I have by and by to treat, and the general end that then became of those Persecutions, when Maximinus was dead, and Lycinnius also; and Constantine came also to be Emperor alone, who being a Christian, and a wise and mighty Prince, struck all those cruel­ties and death under foot, and gave peace unto all, it being also some­thing besides my purpose to notifie those divisions that (as peace and rest came) rose up among them, further then what I have observed already, what was among them then when they had no power, that which follow­ed in the dayes of Constantine and after, serving to my intent herein, and of which I shall speak, when as I come to shew how that when the Chri­stians came to impose Faiths, or National Worships one upon another, as did the Heathens to them, to gather for their National Worship, or Gods, (of which I have treated) and through all to prove the truth of what I have laid down concerning these things, and the consequences of all Religions, Professions, Worships, that are not from Spirit and Truth, but stand in the contrary,

Before I come unto which, it will be necessary, seeing that I have hi­therto kept along with the History, that I go along in order, and give something to be understood of the Persecution which yet the Christians sustained after the death of Dioclesian, and Maximinianu [...] aforesaid, which is reckoned the tenth Persecution, and of this M [...]iminus, af­ter his Edict of Liberty to the Christians, of which I have made men­tion.

Constantius ending his dayes in Quietness and Peace, being Em­peror Constantius dies in peace. Anno. 311. Euseb▪ lib. 8. cap. 14. Constantine proclaim­ed full Emperor by the Army. alone in the presence of his natural Son Constantine, who was proclaimed full Emperor, and Caesar by the Army, being a follower of his Fathers Piety (as the Historian observes) in Chri­stian Religion, and such a one (saith he) was he: But Lycinnius, [Page 56] whilst these things were a doing (for Constantius died at York in Lycinnius also created Emperor. England, in the year 310.) by common consent of the Potentates (as he calls them) was also created Emperor and Augustus. This grieved Maximinus very sore, who unto that time was alone called Maximinus grieved thereat, invades their Jurisdictions, intitles himself Augustus; is attainted of Treason against Constantime, deposed, aspires again, dies a shameful death. Caesar of all men, who also being Tirannically disposed, violent­ly of his own mind invaded the Empire, intituled himself Augu­stus; but being attainted of Treason, and found to have conspi­red the death of Constantine, and after deposition to have aspi­red again after the Emperial Scepter, died a most shameful death.

His Son Maxentius which exercised Tiranny at Rome, (as saith Cap. 15. Maxentius his Son at first dissembles with the Christians at Rome; commands Persecuti­on to cease; proves afterwards o­therwise than he pre­tended. the Historian) in the beginning of his Reign dissembled with the Christian Faith egregiously, and creeping into credit by flat­tering the people of Rome, and therefore he commanded his Commonalty to cease from persecuting the Christians; but in process of time he was not indeed found the same which men took him for, and hoped he would be, for he fell into all kinds of enormities, omitting no heinous offence, how detestable and lacivious soever it were unessayed, committing adultery, and all kind of lewd wantonness, sending home again unto their Hus­bands the loving Spouses and lawful Wives, taken from them by force, An account of his most abominable wick­edness. after he had ignominiously abused them. These presump­tuous practises he exercised not only upon the obscurer sort, but he dealt thus opprobiously with the most renowned of the Roman Sena­tors; wherefore all, both high Primates, and inferour People trembling for fear of him, were oppressed with his intollerable Tiranny; yet neither by silence, neither by suffering of his grievous servitude, could they be free from the bloody slaughter and imbrued murder of this Tyrant; upon light occasions, sundry times delivered he the people unto the Souldiers, which were in compass to be slain, and innumerable company of the Roman people, in the midst of the City, he offered to the Swords and Spears, not of Barbarians nor Scithians, but of his proper Souldiers; it may not be recited what slaughter of Senators he procured, craftily seeking after their substance, of whom an infinite number he executed (saith the Historian) for sundry causes, and divers crimes; This was the drift and mark this mischievous Tyrant shot at: He applyed himself to the study of Magical Arts; he opened and ript the Bowels of burdened Women great with Child; he searched the Intrals of new born Babes; he slew Lyons; and after a secret manner conjured Devils, and endea­voured to withstand the Wars then approaching, for he daily determin­ed with himself to be Crowned Emperor by reason of these Arts. This Maxentius therefore practising Tyranny at Rome, oppressed the Com­monalty with such heinous offences as may not be told; so that they were pinched with so great penury of necessary Victual, that the like cannot be remembred in this our Age (saith the Historian) to have hap­ned at Rome.

This is Maxentius, and as for Maximinus the Eastern Tyrant, C [...]p. 16. Maximinius in the East as g [...]eat a Persecutor as Maxentius in the West, and as wicked a person. as this was the Western, of a long time (saith the Historian) he used means to conceal his malice against his Brother, and his secret friendship to the Roman Empire; but in the end he was espyed, [Page 57] and suffered punishment due to his desert; it was wonderful to see how he committed things alike, and correspondent to the practises of the Roman Tyrant; nay he surpassed him in malice and mischief, the chiefest Inchan­ters An account of him and his wickedness. and Magicians were in greatest credit with him; and because he was a man very timorus, and wonderfully rooted in Superstition, he highly esteemed of the erroneous Worship of Idols, & Devils: Without South­saying, or answer of Oracles, he durst not move, no, as it is common­ly said, the breadth of a Nail, for which cause (saith the Historian) he persecuted us without intermission, and more vehemently then his An­cestors did before him; he erected Temples throughout every City; the Idolatrical Worship of a long time defaced and overthrown, he carefully restored again, and published by Edict, That Idol Priests should be ordained throughout all Countreys and Cities; besides this, he ap­pointed in every Province one to be high Priest, of such as were accoun­ted famous for politick Affairs, being also able with decency to execute that Function, whom he furnished with a great Train or Guard of Soul­diers: To be short, he priviledged all Inchanters as godly, and taken as Gods themselves, with Primacy, Dignity, and chiefest Prerogatives: He went on still, and oppressed not one City and Region onely, but whole Provinces under his Dominion, exacting Gold and Silver, and sums In particular, of money, and vexing them with grievous Proclamations, one Penalty ensuing after another. The Wealth and Substance his Progenitors had gathered before, he took in great heaps of Treasure, and great sums of Money, and bestowed it upon his flattering Parasites. He was so drowned with over much Wine and Drunkenness, that among his Cups he would be stark mad, and besides himself, and oftentimes being Tipsy, (saith the Historian) commanded such things, whereof afterwards be­ing restored to his former sobriety, he repented him; he gave place to no man for surfetting and superfluity, but made himself ring-leader of that Vice unto all that were about him, both Prince and People; he effeminated his Souldiers with all kind of delicacy and laciviousness; he permitted his Presidents and Captains to practise ravenous extortion, and Polling of his Subjects, whom he entertained as fit Companions of his foul and shameful Tiranny.

This is Maximinus, as the other was Maxentius, the Eastern Both of them put to­gether as a Looking­glass for Tyrants and Persecutors, and set­ters up of National Worships. and Western Tyrants, who persecuted so grievously the Church of God; and this is the description of them both, which I have set down on purpose, that in these two Instances may be seen who they were, and of what they were made that set up National Worships for the Idol Gods, and persecuted the Christians for not bowing unto them.

I shall now proceed to what remains behind, that I may finish the instances of this particular.

God plagued Maximinus, (as I have said before) who in the Maximinus overcame all save the Christians. His cruelty to the Christians, and the particulars of their sufferings. things aforesaid prevailed against all sorts of people (saith the Hi­story) the Christians only excepted, who contemned death, and despised his Tiranny: The men endured Burning, Beheading, Crucifying, ravenous devouring of Beasts, drowning in the Sea, Maiming, and broyling of the Members, Goring, and digging out of the Eyes, mangling of the whole Body; moreover Fa­mine [Page 58] and Imprisonment. To be short, they suffered every kind of torment for the Service of God, rather than they would leave the Worship of God, and imbrace the adoration of Idols; Wo­men also not inferior to Men, through the Power of the Word of God, put on manly courage, (saith the Historian) whereof some suffered the torments with men; others attained unto the like masteries of Virtue; some others drawn to be abused, yeelded sooner their life unto the death, than their Bodies to be defiled: This Plague prevailed upon, and wrested from him the Edict, in His Plagues produced something of liberty; Euseb. lib. 19. cap. 1. Which being over, he fetch't back his liber­ty; the behalf of the Christians. This Edict was matter of Joy and Liberty a while, but the time continued not long in the Eastern Parts, as in Asia, &c. Orders were given by word of mouth to the Lieutenants and Officers not to persecute the Christians, but not in Writing; He fetcht things back as he could, first, he went First, in denying (Cap. 2.) Meetings in their Church-yards. Then in instigating Petitions to have the Christians banished his Dominions. about, under a pretence, to hinder their Meetings, in (what the History calls) the Church-yards; Then he sets malitious men on work, to desire of him that no Christian might be suffered to live in his Dominion; it was not six whole months after the for­mer Edict that he began these things, and thereby gave an occa­sion of outward wreck to the Christians, who but a little before had such occasion (by the said Edict) of Joy and Rejoycing, that the incredulous Heathen are said to be much dismayed, and won­dering at the marvellous strangeness of so great a change, cryed The Heathens confess to the God of the Christians. Cap. 1. Cap. 3. Theotecnus conspiracy in raising false reports on the Christians; his cruelty, and erecting an Idol to Jupiter, and an O [...]acle, saying, out, That the God of the Christians was the great and only true God.—By Theotecnus, Lieutenant of Antioch, he began this conspi­racy, who (that is to say Theotecnus) fell upon the Christians, imprisoned whom he could find, devised means wherewithal to accuse them, and of many was the cause of their deaths, and at length erected the Idol of Jupiter, as the God of Friendship; with certain inchantments, and sorceries, feigning to the Em­peror what strange things the Oracle seemed to utter; and being a flatterer, seeing what pleased the Emperor, raised a wicked spirit against the Christians, and said, God so commanded, that God commanded that the Christians should be banished. the Christians should be banished out of the City and Liberties there­of, for that they were Rebels and Traytors to the Crown.

This wicked man Theotecnus, having done these things of his Cap. 4: Other Magistrates fol­low his example, own accord, all the other Magistrates inhabiting the Cities of his Dominions premulgated the like; and when as the Presidents throughout the Provinces saw this pleased the Emperor, they egged the Subjects to do the like, and the Tyrant very promptly Whereby Persecution grew hot. (saith the History) consented by his Rescript unto their Ordinan­ces; so that again the heat of persecution was blown against the Christians, and Idol Priests were ordained by the Decree of Max­iminus Idol Priests set up. throughout every City and Village; and moreover high Priests which specially excelled in Polices, and passed others in all things; who also were zealous followers of their Religion, and bestowed great labour about the service of them whom they worshipped; by reason of which the Emperors Superstition and Idolatrical mind was again, as it were, fresh incensed against them: And that I may utter the whole in a few words, (saith the [Page 59] Historian) he brought all his Dominion, both Magistrates and All are brought to practise cruelty upon them. inferior Subjects, to practise every kind of mischief for his sake against us, and so thought they requited him fully, and should have great favour, as many as desired to obtain any benefit at his hand, if they oppressed them with slaughter, and executed certain new mischiefs against them.

Certain forgeries of wicked blasphemies, of Pilate and Jesus, Forgeries of Blasphe­my of Pilate and Je­sus, ordered to be taught in the Schools instead of Theams, to initiate the Children against the Christian Religion. The antiquity of the slanders cast upon pri­vate Meetings by the Heathen. Slanders forced to be feigned on the Chri­stians by extremity of torment. The drift and end in raising those slanders. he also caused to be dispersed among the Provinces, and deliver­ed to School-masters to commit to memory, by the Lads instead of Theams: And by force of threats, of torments, a Captain of Damascus constrained certain infamous Women to say, That them­selves were sometimes Christians, and so had been privy to the wicked and lacivious Acts which the Christians committed among themselves at their solemn Meetings on the Sundayes, as saith the History, which wicked slanders he caused to be Registred and Coppied, and sent to the Emperor, who also commanded the same to be published every where, in every place and City.

Which things I make mention of, to shew how it hath been the Artifice of the Devil in all Ages, to raise slanders on those who had fear towards God, and in that drew near to worship him, that so the most bruitish persecution he might draw upon them, by such as honoured not God, nor feared before him, seeming to enforce thereby that it was not for Religion sake, or Holiness, they persecuted them but for wickedness. And how the Devil had his Priests and high Priests for the worships of the Heathens, through whom they were held up, and who wrought the Testi­fiers against them the worshippers of the true God, no small suffer­ing, incensing, and bearing through the Magistrates and chief in Authority, yea the Emperors against them, as hath been de­monstrated.

But the just Hand of the Lord overtook this Captain, who in Cap. 6. The end of the Cap­tain that by torment forced those false sug­gestions. The Persecution en­creases, many notable men put to death. a while after this wicked deed, procured his own death with his proper hand, and suffered punishment due for his malitious de­sert. But the Persecution went on, and became very grievous by reason of these things, and the Presidents cruelty stirred it up, so that divers notable men which excelled among the Christians were put to death, of which number there were three in Emissa, Three at Emissa in Phaenicia put to death. a City in Phaenicia, who of their own accord professed Christia­nity, and were delivered to be devoured of ravening Beasts. Also Silvanus an antient Bishop, and Peter of Alexandria, two that excelled all Bishops, beheaded. Silvanus a Bishop far striken in years was put to death, and Peter of Alexandria, who is said to excel all others of the Bishops for his vertuous life, and godly exercise of Preaching, was beheaded by the commandment of Maximinus and Lucianus, after he had And Lucianus an El­der, after he had deli­vered the Emperor an Apology in defence of the Doctrine he had taught. delivered to the Emperor an Apology in defence of the Doctrine which he taught, being brought from Antioch (of the Church in which place he was an Elder, and a man of great repute) to Ni­comedia, where the Emperor resided, upon which he was cast into Prison, and shortly after executed.

It will not be amiss, before I close up the dayes, and finish the The later persecution by Maximinus far greater than his for­mer. rehearsal of the cruel Persecutions of this Maximinus (who is said [Page 60] in short space to have exercised so great tiranny and cruelty to­wards the Christians, that the latter persecution seemed far grea­ter then the former) to give a touch of a new practise used in those his dayes, and the Contents of one of his Edicts, and the conse­quence thereupon in the Judgement of God, openly reproving what he wickedly had assigned, and falsly said of the prosperity of his wickedness.

The Edicts for Persecution, and the Decrees of Cities were Cap. 7. A new practise, en­graving the Edicts of persecution in brass, and nailing them to Posts. engraven (which never were seen before, saith the History) on brazen Tables, and nailed up, that so of all they might be seen, and none might miss his oppertunity in persecuting the Christi­ans; this was the new practise of which I have intimated.

The Edict or Rescript is as followeth.—At length the weak resi­stance A Copy of part of one of the Edicts of Persecution. of mans mind, laying aside and scattering all obscurity and mist of er­ror which hitherto possessed their Wits, as well of the impious and miserable men, wrapped in the pernicious darkness of ignorance, hath been able to dis­cern that the same is governed by the providence of the immortal Gods, im­bracing goodness, which thing may not be expressed, how acceptable, how pleasing, how greatful it was unto us, and how great a tryal it shewed of your godly will, when as also aforetime every man knew your disposed dili­gence and piety towards the immortal Gods, whose faith is made manifest, not by naked and fruitless words, but by firm and wonderful works; where­fore your City may justly be called the Seat of the Immortal Gods, and by ma­ny These were the Tyrants whom he commendeth for their su­perstition, and persecut­ing the Ch [...]i­stians. examples it is apparent how she flourisheth, having the Caelestial Gods present with her: For behold your City, laying aside all the things which especially concerned her, and despising the things which chiefly should be sought for her Wealth, when as she perceived that cursed vanity again to creep, and like contemned and covered sparks of fire, by blow­ing again to send forth mighty flames, immediately without further deli­beration, you having recourse unto our Grace, as unto the Metropolitan of all Divine Worship, have made supplication for remedy and aid, the which sound mind, it is manifest the Gods for your trusty service have in­grafted in you. He therefore, I mean the most high and mighty Jove, who ruleth your most renowned City; to the end that he might deliver your Coun­trey Gods, your Wives, your Children, your houshold Goods, and Houses from all corruption, hath inspired your minds with this wholesom counsel, shewing and declaring how excellent and notable a thing it is to imbrace the Religion and Sacred Service of the Immortal Gods with due Worship, who may be found so bereaved of all his Wits, which cannot understand this thing to happen to us, by the favourable care of the Gods, that neither the Earth denyeth the Seed she receiveth, frustrating the hope of the Husbandman by vain expectation; neither is that shew of wicked War on Earth strengthen­ed without offence; neither doth the noysome temperature of the Earth de­spatch with death the corrupt bodies; neither is the Sea (swoln with intempe­rate Winds) overflown the Banks; neither do the Storms which fall down, stir up pernicious Tempests; neither is the Earth which is fosterer, and Mo­ther of all, drowned in her own bottomless Gulfs by terrible Earthquakes; neither the Mountains setled on Earth swallowed up by rending of the Earth asunder. All which evils, yea greater than those who knoweth not often to have hapned heretofore: Yet all these things came to pass, because of the meer folly of those wicked men, whereas that shameful spot overshadows their [Page 61] minds, and well-nigh (as I may so say) prevailed every where; let them behold the wide and broad Field, the flourishing Corn, and overflowing Ears, the pleasant Meadows cloathed with Herbs and Flowers, moistened with showers from Heaven, and the Weather become temperate and calm again; let all rejoyce, because the might of the most Potent and sturdy Mars is pacified, through your Service, Sacrifice, and Worship; let them rejoyce, because that therefore constantly we enjoy quiet peace, and as many as left that blind error, and returned unto the right and best mind, may the rather be glad for that they are delivered from that sudden storm and grievous Dis­ease, and henceforth attained unto the sweetness of a pleasant life. But if they persist in that execrable vanity, our Will and Pleasure is (according to your request) That they be severed and banished far from your City, and the bordering Regions, that your City by this means, after your laudable in­dustry, being made free from all impurity, may busily occupie her self ac­cording to her disposed mind, in offering up Sacrifices with due honour of the Immortal Gods; And that you may thorowly understand how graceful your request in this behalf hath been unto us, (yea, without intreaty or great suit) our most prompt mind to promote good endeavours, hath voluntarily granted unto your devotion, That what gift soever of our bountifulness ye list, ye crave it of us, in consideration of this your godly purpose. And that this thing may be accomplished, forthwith ask and have, which being done, shall be a perpetual testimony unto your City, of piety towards the Immortal Gods, and shall be a proof unto your Sons and Posterity, how that you have been worthily rewarded by our goodness, for this your desire, to lead a right life.

This is the Copy of so much of the Edict which concerns this mat­ter The intent of quoting the Copy of the Edict. I have in hand, which I was willing to insert, the rather because all may see here as in a Looking-Glass, how the Heathen judged of the Christians, and how the most detestable bloodsheds and torments exer­cised against them, are accounted the best devotions, and the indul­gence of God extended to the Empire, whilst there was a little release of the Christians sufferings in the times and seasons, and freedom from Plague, Invasion, and other miseries, is attributed to their beginning again to embrue their hands in the blood of the Christians; And how acceptable such Sacrifices of blood are to those in power, who would have their blood to be sacrificed forthwith; ask and have, all shall be accomplished.

Thus of the new Practise, and the Edict, now of the Consequence; The conse­quence there­of, from the Hand of the Lord, and his terrible Judg­ments. It is true, these things being nailed to Pillars throughout every Province, they bereaved the Christians of all hopes of better success, as much as lay in man, so that well-nigh, (saith the Historian) according to the Divine saying of Christ, The Elect themselves (if it could be possible) had been offended at these things. But when as in a manner the hope of many lay for dead, immediately (saith he) whilst they were yet in their Jour­ney, which were authorized in certain places to publish the aforesaid Edict, God, the Defender of his Church, (saith he, for his words are good and pertinent, and I may well use them) not only resisted the in­solent outrage of this Tyrant, but shewed unto the World his Coelestial Aid in our behalf, for showrs and Rain in Winter Season ceased from The Rain withheld, Fa­mine ensued, Then the Pe­stilence. their wonted streams, in watering the Earth; and Famine unlooked for oppressed them; after this ensued the Pestilence, and a certain grie­vous [Page 62] Disease in form of a Boch, tearmed for the fervent burning thereof, a Carbuncle; This spreading it self over the whole Body, A description of the Pestilence. brought such as were therewith infected into doubtful danger of their lives, but especially taking them about the eyes; it blinded (saith he) an infinite number both Men, Women, and Children: Moreover there arose a War between the Tyrant and the Armeni­ans, who unto that time, from the beginning, were Friends and Fellows of the Romans. These Armenians, when as they were Wars with the Arme­nians. Christians, and careful about the Service of God, the Tyrant (enemy to God) endeavoured to constrain them to do sacrifice to Idols and Devils: So instead of Friends he made them Foes, and instead of Fellows, Enemies. These things meeting in one and Which meeting toge­ther, quelled the pre­sumptuous boasting of the Tyrant. the same time, quelled the boasting of the presumptuous Tyrant against God, wherewith he gloried, that neither Famine, nor Pestilence, nor War fell in his time, for that he carefully wor­shipped Idols, and impugned the God of the true Christians.

These things running in a heap, and together, conteined fore­signs Cap. 8. And presaged his death. The Armenian Wars vex him. of his death; for he, together with his Army, were sore vex­ed with the Wars against the Armenians; and the rest, to wit, the Inhabitants of the Cities, sore pined away with Famine and Pestilence, that one measure of Wheat was sold for two thousand and fifty Atticks. An infinite number (saith the Historian) throughout the Cities, but more throughout the Countries and A most sore Famine. Villages, so that now the sundry and antient demeasness of Hus­bandmen were quite done away, for that all suddenly, for want of food, and grievous malady (saith he) of the Pestilence, were An account thereof in particular. perished: Many therefore sought to sell unto the welthier sort for most slender food, the dearest things they enjoyed; others selling their Possessions by pieces, fell at length into miserable peril of extream po­verty; others gnawing the small shreded tops of green Grass; and with­al, confusedly feeding on certain venomous Herbs, used them for food, whereby the healthy constitution of the Body was perished and turned into Poyson: Divers noble Women throughout the Cities driven to ex­tream need and necessity, went a begging into the Countrey, shewing forth by their reverend countenance, and more gorgeous Apparel, an ex­ample of their antient and free manner of feeding: Certain others (saith he) whose strength was dried up, totring to and fro, nodding and slid­ing, much like carved Images without life, being not able to stand, fell down flat in the midst of the Streets, grovelling upon the ground with their faces upwards, and stretched our Arms, making humble sup­plication that some one would reach them a little piece of Bread; and thus lying in extremity, ready to yeeld up the Ghost, cryed out, That they were hungry, being only able to utter those words: Others which seem­ed And the ex­tremity thereof. to be of the wealthier sort, amazed at the multitude of Beggers, af­ter they had (saith he) distributed infinitely, put on an unmerciful and sturdy mind, fearing lest they shortly should suffer the like need with them that craved, wherefore in the midst of the Market-place, and throughout narrow Lanes, the dead and bare Carkasses lay many dayes unburied, and cast along, which yeelded a miserable spectacle to the beholders; yea many became food unto Dogs, for which cause (chiefly) [Page 63] such as lived, turned themselves to kill Dogs, fearing lest they should become mad, and turn themselves to tear in pieces, and devour men. And no less truly did the Plague spoil every House And Pestilence in ex­t [...]emity. and Age, but specially devouring them whom Famine for want of food could not destroy. Therefore the Rich, the Prince, the One Plague took a­way what the other left. Presidents, and many of the Magistrates as fit people (saith the Historian, because they were not pinched with penury) for a Pe­stilent Disease, suffered a sharp and most swift death; all sound­ed An account thereof, and its miserable de­struction. of lamentation throughout every narrow Lane, the Market­place, and Streets, there was nothing to be seen but weeping, together with their wonted Pipes, and the rest of Minstrels noise; death after this sort (saith he) waging battle with double Ar­mour (viz.) with Famine, and Pestilence, destroyed in short space whole Families, so that the dead Carkasses of two or three were seen born to the Grave at one Funeral.—These were the recom­pences The recompence of his wickedness. of the braging of Maximinus, and the Edicts which he published throughout the Cities; when as by manifest tokens it appeared unto all men, how serviceable and godly (saith the Hi­story) The Christians appear most tender in that day in cureing the sick feeding the hungry, burying the dead. the Christians were in all things, for they alone, in so great an overflowing of mischief, shewed forth true compassion, and studious courtesie every day; some busily occupied themselves in cureing and burying the dead; whereas (saith he) infinite were otherwise despised of their own Friends, others gathering toge­ther throughout the whole City into one heap and place the mul­titude of them which were in great danger by reason of Famine, distributed bread unto all. To the end they might make that benefit manifest, and famous unto all men, whereby they might glorifie the God of the Christians, and confess that they alone were godly indeed, and found by their works to be the onely worshippers of God.

These things (saith the Historian, for his own words will serve The Historians obser­vation on the whole. me in this matter) being thus brought to pass, the great and Coe­lestial God, Defender of the Christians, which by the aforesaid calamities, shewed his wrath and indignation against mortal men, because they had vexed us (saith he) above measure, made his The most terrible Judgments cease the most cruel Persecuti­ons. bright contenance of his providence towards us, placable and comfortable, so that thereby peace shined with great admiration unto us, like light unto such as dwell in darkness, and made ma­nifest unto all men that God himself is the continual Overfeer of our Affairs, which chastiseth his people, and exerciseth them with calamities for a season, yet after correction appeareth again tracta­ble and merciful to such as trust in him.

Thus much of the description of these two Tyrants, the manner and course of their proceedings, and what befel the Christians; of the new Practise, Edict, and consequence of which I have spo­ken; It remaineth now that I close up the end of these Trage­dies with the end of these men who were the great Tyrants and Persecutors of their times, and had their ends accordingly.

Maxentius takes upon him to fight with Constantine, and for that Cap. 9. purpose gathers together great Forces, and at length being drawn [Page 64] forth, somewhat from the City of Rome, near unto which Con­stantine Maxentius and many of his Souldiers fight­ing with Constantine, are sunk in the River Tiberis. had approached, having overcome a good part of Italy, he was totally overthrown, first himself, then his Guard, sinking as Lead into the deep Waters, through the falling of a Bridge of Boats that he had caused to be made over the River Tiberis, for the passage of his Souldiers, so that he was utterly foiled and over­come. And as for Maximinus, his end was not long after, for Anno. 318. Dioclesian died about the same time. Cap. 10. Maximinus over­thrown by Licinnius, under great ignomy, slayes his Priests and Inchanters, Ordains liberty to the Christians, he waged Battle with Lycinnius, that was Emperor with Constan­tine, was overcome also, and forced to fly; he slew many Priests and Prophets of their gods, (being strucken with rage and mad­ness, and made subject to most vile shame and reproach) as In­chanters, and Deceivers, which had villanously betrayed his Person, by the procurement and trust of whose Oracles he had gone forth and waged Battle. And as for the Christians, after he had glorified the God of the Christians, he ordained a most perfect and absolute Decree in behalf of their liberty, as he had upon the Letters of Constantine and Licinnius, after the overthrow of Max­entius, wrote something before; but this served not his turn, for he had been an old dissembler, as well as a bloody persecutor, driving up and down, as I have given instance; so that as the They trust him not, Christians trusted him not, notwithstanding his Edict, upon the Letters from the Emperor, who had dealt so contrary with them before; for neither gathered they a Synod, nor medled with pub­lick Affairs; neither did the Lord (who releasing him of his for­mer Neither did the Lord. extremity upon his bowing by affliction, and freeing the Chri­stians, which he revearsed and persecuted again thereupon) now give him any release, but (notwithstanding he was made to con­fess and give glory to him whom he had ran against, yet (his mea­sure being full) now cut him off; so he died, not as Captains in War, (saith the Historian) who fighting manfully in Battle for their Countrey, for Virtue, and their Friends, are commonly wont to endure couragiously a glorious death; but like an impious per­son, and a Rebel against God (his Army as yet lying in the Who whilst he lay in secret, his Army being in the field, smote him with an incurable Plague. Field, and he tarrying at home, and in secret) he suffereth due pu­nishment, being stricken with a sudden Plague of God over all his Body, so that he was vexed with great torments and griefs, pined away with hunger, fell down from his Bed, his flesh alto­gether wasted by invisible fire sent from above, so that it consum­ed, dropped away, and lost all the fashion of the old form, where­as there remained nothing unto him save only the bare bones, like a painted Image dried up of a long time. Neither did the behold­ers Which after most grievous torments, and unheard of. take his body for other than the Sepulchre of the Soul buried in a body that was now dead, and altogether consumed, when as yet he burned more vehemently than the boyling Baths are wont out of the inward Closets of the Marrow; his eyes leapt forth, and passing their bounds, left him blind; but he breathing as yet And his confession to the Lord that he suf­fered justly, in the torments, making his confession to the Lord, called for death, and at length confessing himself to have suffered these things justly, and instead of revengement for the madness he presumed and practised against Christ Jesus, gave up the Ghost. Gave up the Ghost.

Thus ended Maximinus, and thus ended Maxentius, and so let all The end of both these Tyrants. The persecu­tion of Lycin­nius. thine enemies, O God, perish: And thus ended the fierce persecutions of the Christians from the Heathen; onely Lycinnius gave now and then some overtures, but he being laid aside through some workings against Constantine, the persecutions had a full end, and the Christians, as from the Heathen had rest from persecution; though from themselves, and as doing that unto one another which the Heathens exercised towards them, what I have to say yet giveth instance. So I proceed in the particular of the Christians, to give particulars to this first thing laid down by me, viz. National Worships, Creeds, or confessions of Faith, Laws, or Doctrine, and Government concerning Religion, enforced by men, what it hath produced in the World, as it is in enmity unto God, unto the Religion, the Worship of him which is in Spirit and in Truth.

And here I shall gather up matters as narrowly as I can, and yet bear The [...] praeludiu [...] [...] the follow [...]g matter. the intent, and drift of this Discourse, to what I have proposed, which I suppose will not be unprofitable, seeing that on this very foot what hath been the consumption of multitudes, of thousands in the former dayes, is the present sufferings in this, of such who being come to Spirit and Truth cannot conform to the Worship, either on this Mountain, or at Jerusalem, as was said in the beginning; And so I come to this second Particular, and therein to the close of this Head, which (I hope) will not seem large to the sensible and men of understanding, seeing that the end and drift of what I have said, and have yet to say, is in a matter of highest importance, viz. the Worship of God, and to the present case, as to imposition, in relation to Worship. And here (as I said before) I shall mind no affected Stile, or to please the ears of men, but as I shall receive by that which leads into all truth; so I shall communicate the counsel that shall be with me in this matter.

No sooner were the Tyrants cut off, and throughout the whole Em­pire Anno. 330. The Heathen persecution ceasing, the Christians fall a persecuting one another. of Rome Peace and Quietness was setled to the Christians, by the means of Constantine and Lycinnius, who married with his Sister, whom he made Emperor with him, who as yet had attempted nothing against the Christians, and the Heathen persecutions on all hands laid aside; but difference began to arise among the Christians (as it had done before, as I have intimated, which produced the last persecution, of which I gave former instance) and they who joyntly and together withstood the force of the Heathenish persecution came now to be at variance, and at length to do the same things one to another, as the Heathen had done unto them together.

The difference began among themselves, for having all quiet in the When all things we [...]e quiet in the Empire, and Empire, through the wonderful working of the Lord, who thought it fit to give a little rest after their sore travel in blood and persecution, and to stop the issue of blood, which for a long time (for the most part) had infested the Christians, they could not be content to be at rest, but differing in some things amongst themselves, they knew not how to bear one another; but being unsensible of the hand that had so wrought for them, (at least not so as they should be) they began to impose one upon forcing forms of Faiths, with tor­ments, and the Sword. another, and to force their several Faiths with torments, and the Sword which wrought sore destraction and trouble among them, and shamed [Page 66] the Christian Religion, which is not a Law of blood, or as seek­ing to enforce it self, by the destroying of mens lives, but a Law of Peace, endeavouring by distilling, not by coertion to preserve and save.

In the dayes of Constantine, free liberty was given to all men Constantine gives free­dom of Religion to all. to use what Religion they pleased, as by repeating the particular Constitutions and Edicts (which here I shall omit) I could shew at large, so that there was liberty now of complaints, and Synods called to refute, at least take off the opposition of the contrary; but when that Emperors succeeded, which leaned to this or that But as succeding Em­perors leaned to this or that Faith, the con­trary came to be per­secuted. Party, or confession of Faith, or Opinion, then force of Arms, or carnal extremities were exercised towards those who were of the contrary disposition, banishment, torments, death.

Its sore to remember all the particulars, and indeed besides my A lamenta [...]ion for the Divisions, and the rea­sons, purpose, for rather would my eye run down with tears when I view them over, that such a reproach, through such their doings, should rest upon the Christians, then to give an account of them; but seeing that the things are past silence and oblivion, so many Histories speaking at large of them, which cannot be called in, nor taken out of the memories of men; and seeing that they are Wherefore they are now mentioned. of use as to this Generation or present Age, what hath been wrote in the former, that they may see at what door the enemy then came from the Heathen into the Christians, and so may learn to beware by the consequences.

And lastly, in regard it suits my purpose, and the particular I am upon, to shew, or give instance, how in all Ages, and among all sorts of men, when Religion became National, and was re­quired by Laws of men, or imposed; what were the consequen­ces, I shall as briefly as I can give some instances, even among the Christians to this particular, and the rather because the instance hath particular relation to this Age in which I write, or the present Generation.

Maxentius the Tyrant, and Maximinus being gone, and the Cap. 11. The Introduction to the ensuing Relation of the Christians dif­ference, and suffering one by another. whole race of Maximinus cut off, his Children, Kindsfolks, and the chiefest favourers of the persecution, in particular Paucetius his greatest favorite, and Culcianus, who shed the blood of mul­titudes in Egypt, and Theotecnus aforesaid, who set up the Image of Jupiter at Antioch, and wrought that later and sore persecution, together with the Prophets and Priests of that Idol, who confest before they were executed, that by Inchantments the Oracle of that Idol was produced, being first diversly tormented by Lycin­nius. This Edict reversed, his Monuments and his Pictures were overthrown and defaced, and he declared by publick Edicts to have been the chief and most deadly enemy, the most impious, the most ignominious, and a Tyrant, that was abhorred before the Face of God; and the Heathen confessing diversly, The the only Euseb. lib. 10. Cap. 1. Cicilian [...]s Bishop of Carthage, and the Bi­shops with them, be­g [...]n the Tragedy in Africa. true God was the Defender of the godly Christians. The enemy being shut out at this, began to enter at the other door, as I have intimated. A difference fell out between Cicilianus Bishop of Carthage, and the Bishops with him, the one siding against the [Page 67] other in Africa, which occasioned Constantine to summon a Synod of Bishops to meet at Rome, for the hearing and reconciling there­of; Cap. 5. A Synod at Rome ap­pointed thereabouts. at which something being attempted, and the judgement gi­ven by the other party, not being acquiessed in; but after the ri­sing of the Synod, the difference increasing, instead of being end­ed amongst them, a second Synod he called at Orleance in France, Who ending not the difference, a second Synod is called at Or­leans in France; As a scourge hereun­to; Lycinnius (Cap. 8.) comes forth a persecu­tor; He falls upon the Christians; Cashires such as were Souldiers of Place and Dignity. Commands no relief to be given to the Prisoners; to the end it might be determined, as a scourge or rebuke unto which dissentions, or the differences that then arose among the Christians, Lycinnius aforesaid, (who being Emperor, and toge­ther with Constantine, had wrote with Constantine, enjoying the liberty of the Christians) comes forth and fell upon the Christi­ans under his Dominion, who never did him evil, practising the same things upon them as those had done, whom for so doing he had cut off: First, He banished them from his Court, then the Souldiers he deprived and spoiled of their Honour and Dignities who would not sacrifice, commanded no charity to be given to them that were in Prison, and in Fetters, no not by their Kinds-folks, and punished with the like penalties of the relieved, those Throws down some of their Meeting-places, shuts up others who were the relievers of the Imprisoned and Fettered; he over­threw some Meeting-places of the Christians to the Pavement, and others he shut up; his flattering Presidents, to gratifie him, Bishops are tormen­ted, and their bodies minced and cast into the Sea. The good Roman Laws revoked, Barbarians introduced. A short Catalogue of his other abominable wickednesses. tormented some of the Bishops, whose bodies being cut into ma­ny small pieces, as Butchers use to do their meat, were cast into the Sea for food for Fishes: He revoked sundry good Laws of the Romans; brought in barbarous and cruel Laws, unjust, and un­lawful, and cruel deceits; sundry Taxes of Gold and Silver, sur­veys of Land; gainful penalties on the Lands of those which were deceased long before; and devised abjurations for them who had done no evil; and making away of noble and honest Perso­nages, whose youthful and tender Wives he delivered to his Ser­vants to be contumeliously and shamefully handled: Many Wives, Virgins and Maidens he abused shamefully, though he was now stricken in years. Constantine made War against him, seeing things Constantine fights him, and (Anno. 367) overthrows him, and with his Son Crispus rules the Empire. come to this pass (who practised against Constantine) & overthrew all Chrisopolis, a City of Bithinia: So the Christians from those persecutions had rest; and Constantine with his Son Crispus (a Son like his Father in all things) quietly reigned throughout all the Jurisdictions of the Empire of Rome; so far Eusebius, Pamphilius, and the Records of his History: At noon day those in the Cities belonging to Lycinnius, a little before the fight, saw armed Troops and Bands of men marching through all Constantines Army, as if they had got the Victory, which were only apparitions.

Socrates Scholasticus takes up from his time, and proceeds on­wards Socrat. Scholast. suc­ceeds in the History. in the prosecution of the History, out of whom I shall give what materially may serve to what I have in hand, and purpose yet to treat of, in reference to this first head of National Worship.

I have shewed what contentions arose by reason of Cecilianus Bishop of Carthage, in that and other Provinces; and how Con­stantine summoned two Synods in order to the reconciling that difference, and how Lycinnius, as a scourge, or rather rebuke, [Page 68] stept in to offer those things unto the Christians, who being over­thrown Ly [...]innius cut off by Constantine, when he sought to make stirs after. He had suffered him to live quietly in Thes­salonica, having taken him ali [...]e. and cut off by Constantine, when he had endeavoured to stir trouble again, when as Constantine with much humanity had gi­ven him liberty to live in quiet at Thessalonica, after he had taken him alive Prisoner, further then which Eusebius goeth not. Now I shall shew what Socrates in the continuation of the History saith concerning the differences that were among the Christians, and the consequences thereof, as instances of that which I have here as­serted, and so I shall proceed.

Arius is the first whom he takes notice of, who being a Priest Socrat. lib. 1. cap. 3. Arius, and his Heresie. under Alexander, (who succeeded Achillas, who succeeded Pe­ter that was Martyred, Bishop of Alexandria) and hearing Alex­ander The ground of its Rise, intreating somewhat more curiously of what is called the Trinity in Unity, among the Priests that were under him, said,—If the Father begot the Son, then had the Son which was begotten a And what it was. beginning of Essence; hereby it is manifest that there was a time when the Son was not, and the consequent to follow necessarily, that he had his Essence of nothing.

This begat a great deal of reasoning amongst them; Arius had It spreads amongst Bi­shops, and others in Egypt, Libia, and up­per Thebais. his favourers both of Bishops and others of this his blasphemous Opinion, which beginning at Alexandria, spread it self through­out all Egypt, Libia, and the upper Thebais, and at length passed through the rest of the Cities and Provinces. The spreading of this moved Alexander, who calling of a Counsel of many Bishops, Alexander Bishop of Alexandria, deprives him; Writes against him to all; The matter spreads further. deprived Arius, and such as favoured his Opinion of the Priestly Order; and afterwards writing to the Bishops throughout the Cities against him, spread the thing further than it was before, because those unto whom the Letters were directed, began to burn among themselves with the sparks of contention and discord.

So the nicety of the Bishop on the one hand, and his sharp The cause attributed to the Bishops nice­ty, sharpness, writing. proceeding and writing on the other, gave occasion for this little sparkle to burn out into a great flame, which made fore destracti­ons and divisions, and which in no wise could come to be quench­ed, but ran over all as a loathsome leprosie, Bishop against Bishop, It flies over the world, engages one against the which makes mat­ter of de [...]ision on the Heathen Theaters, and People against People, and Synod against Synod, doing the things which the Heathen had done to them, as aforesaid, which rended them asunder, and caused the Religion the Christi­ans professed, to be openly derided by the Heathens on the pub­lick Theatres.

Constantine was sorely troubled at these things, and by a prin­ciple Cap. 4. And troubles Constan­tine; he writes to Bi­shop and Priest, Alex­ander and Arius. person whom he entirely loved, he wrote both to Alexan­der and Arius, blaming Alexander for demanding a question of the Elders touching a certain place of Scripture, yea rather (saith his Letter) touching a certain vain piece of a question what every Reproves them both. ones Opinion was;—And Arius for unadvisedly blazeing a­broad, and setting a broach, That which thou shouldst (saith the Emperor) not at the first have conceived, and having conceived it, Offers an accomodati­on, condesends low for that purpose, but neither would hear. thou shouldst have passed it over with silence. He wrote smartly to them both, and very reasonably concerning an accomodation, and [Page 69] that Union might be again, saying, Let either of you pardoning each other, like of that which your fellow Minister (so low he con­descended) not without cause exhorted you unto. But neither of them would hear; He summoned a Council at Nice concerning Cap. 5. He summons a Coun­cil about this and Easter. Three hundred and eighteen Bishops met; besides others of the Clergy. Five dissent from the Creed of one sub­stance. Some of those the Emperor exiled, sub­scribe the Nicene Creed. Arius and his Compli­ces accursed. The Dissen [...]ers Argu­ment. that, and what they call the Celebrating the Feast of Easter, con­cerning the time of the celebrating of which there was no small controversie: Here the Council of three hundred and eighteen Bishops, the Emperor being present, who endeavoured all he could to bring to unity, besides many others of what is called the Clergy, five onely excepted, who admitted not of the clause of one substance, some of whom the Emperor exiled, subscribed that which is called the Nicene Creed, accursing Arius, and all others that held the contrary Opinion. The five dissenting Bi­shops against the Clause of one Substance with the Father, thus reasoned or affirmed, That to be of one Substance, which hath its O­riginal of something, either by division, or derivation, or production; by production, as a Bud out of a Root; by derivation, as Children of the Parents; by division, as two or three pieces out of a piece of Gold; The Son of God by relation was after none of these manners, and there­fore they said they would not agree to the form of Faith confirmed in the Council of Nice; whereupon they derided exceedingly the They deride the con­trary, and submit not. clause of one Substance, and would not submit unto the depositi­on of Arius, for which cause the Council, not only accursed Arius, (as hath been said) and all his Adherents, but also forbad And forbad Alexan­dria; and with Euse­bius of Nicomedia, and Thergius of Nice, ba­nished. The two later recant. him Alexandria: And by the Emperors Edict, Arius, Eusebius, (not of Caesaria, that wrote the History aforesaid, but of Nicome­dia) and Thergius of Nice were exiled, who afterwards gave a Book (that is to say, the two latter) of their conversion and re­pentance, and consent to the clause of one Substance, as the Hi­story gives the Relation.

Here they were all mistaken, for the Council or Synod which A Judgement upon both the Council, and Arius their Opinions. held the clause of the Sons being of one Substance with the Father, speak they did not know what, who judged of the Son accord­ing to a Carnal Generation, who is God from everlasting. And Arius, with those who opposed it with him, who concluded there­hence that he was not God, (as in effect what both parties hold do speak) both which things should have been let alone, but the medling with them made this jar and contention, the evil con­sequence of which is hereafter to be related.

The Decree of this Synod, by a Solemn Epistle, is sent unto Cap. 6. The Synods Decrees sent about by Epistles the Churches throughout Egypt, Libia, and Pentapolis, wherein not only this concerning Arius, but the difference concerning Easter hath a determination; and Constantine also writes to the Constantine writes also to Alexandria. Calls the Decree of the Synod, the Sen­tence of God, and instinct of the Holy Ghost. Church at Alexandria, and otherwhere, concerning the matter, wherein he calls the censure of this Assembly, or the decree of this Synod, the Sentence of God himself; neither doubted he that so great a company of Bishops was united and linked toge­ther in one Opinion and one mind, but by the motion and instinct of the Holy Ghost; Notwithstanding Sabinus (who was tearm­ed Sabinus Ringleader of the Macedonian Here­sie, opposes them. the Ringleader of the Macedonian Heresie) impugned those [Page 70] things, tearming those that met at Nice, unlearned and doltish Idiots.

So things grew on to a height, for Religion coming hereby to Religion comes now to be National. be National, or the Emperor siding therewith, and making these Decrees as Laws, there came to be an injunction, and opposition Laws are made, and opposition founded. was founded on the other side; and the Emperor commanded in his Epistle to the Bishops and Congregations throughout Chri­stendom, That if there could be found any Book or Work compiled Arius Books ordered to be burnt. by Arius, that the same should be burned to Ashes.—This also (saith he) we straitly command and charge, that if any man be found to hide or conceal any Book made by Arius, and not immediately bring The Concealers to die the death as soon as taken on them. forth the said Book, and deliver it up to be burned, that the said of­fender for so doing shall die the death; for as soon as he is taken, our pleasure is, that his Head be struken off from his Shoulders. He also wrote against Arius, and so the contest grew high, and his Ex­ample and Laws animated the division, and that which in his Let­ter to Alexander and Arius he reproved, and said,—Hereby I ga­ther All this against his own Letter to Arius, and Alexander. Part of his said Letter. the Original ground of this controversie, in that thou Alexander hast demanded of the Elders concerning a certain place of holy Scrip­ture, yea rather touching a vain piece of a question what every Opinion was, (as aforesaid) being now become a Law, and made so by him, woful wreck and mischief came upon the Christian Assemblies, al­though in that his Letter he reasoned to the contrary, and said to them Cap. 4. upon the foot of the Unity,—Wherefore let every of you, pardoning each other, like of that which your fellow Minister, not without cause, exhorteth you unto, (as aforesaid) And what is that? That you neither object at all, neither answer any Objection that concerneth such matters; for such questi­ons as no Law or Ecclesiastical Canon necessarily defineth, but the fruitless contention of idle brains setteth abroad, though the exercise thereof avail for the sharpning of the wit, yet ought we to retain them in the inward Closet of our mind, and not rashly to broach them in the publick Assembly of the vul­gar people, neither unadvisedly to grant the common sort the hearing there­of; for how many be there that can worthily explicate, and sufficiently pon­der the weight of so grave, so intricate, so obscure a matter? But if there be any such that perswadeth himself easily to compass and attain unto it, how many parts are there, I beseech you, of the multitude whom he can suffici­ently instruct therein? And who is there, who in sifting out so curious a que­stion, that can well pass the peril of plunging into error? Wherefore in such cases we must refrain from verbal disputations, lest that either we, by reason of the imbecility of our Wit cannot explicate our mind, either our Auditors, when we teach, by reason of their dull capacity cannot comprehend the curious drift of our Doctrine, whereby the people of necessity, either incurreth the dan­ger, either of blasphemy, or the poysoned infection of discord, wherefore both the rash Objection, and the unadvised answer, being the cause of the heretical Sect of the Arrians, Eunomians, and as many as favour the like folly, ought each one of each other crave pardon.

Yet how these things came to be bruited abroad, and to be made pub­lick, His actions judge his Let­ter, and his Letter his actions. and a Law made as to these things, the contrary to that Law, or Decree, accursed. Arius Books ordered to be burnt, those that con­ceal them presently to be put to death, by the sudden striking off [Page 71] their Head from their Shoulders, what hath been said makes manifest.

So see, Reader, here an exact account of this Schism and Di­vision, A repetition of the ground of the diffe­rence. The difference be­tween the Heathen and the Christians concerning Christ in their Opinion. and what was the ground and occasion thereof; how it came to be broached and fostered, and what made it up: The difference between the Heathen and the Christians, were, Whe­ther Christ was the Son of God? The Heathen that held the Nega­tive, imposed what they held, and put to death, and made to suffer the Christians, who were on the part of the Affirmative: Both persecute, and the Christians The Heathen being down, the question among the Christians, who held the Affirmative, was, Whether the Son of God was Eter­nal?—Arius, who held the Negative, and all that adhered to one another, contrary to him, through occasion of some niceties, and Philosophical curi­osities, not understanding the God-head, is accursed and prosecuted: The others who held the Affirmative, imposed what they held, and so did persecute; All came to be rent (in a moment, as it were) and torn asunder, pretending to the same Jesus, to Christ, who is not divided, The Doctrine of Chrich, which impos­es not Reli­gion. who never imposed the Faith of him on any, nor gave authority for so doing, otherwise than by wayes that are Spiritual, not Carnal, nor did his Ministers; Is Christ divided? saith Paul; The Weapons of our War­fare are not Carnal, but Spiritual, mighty through God to the pulling down of strong holds, and every thought and imagination that exalteth it self against the Kingdom of Christ;—And the Son of Man came not to destroy mens lives, but to save, saith he of himself, Luke 9. 56. And my Kingdom is not of this World; if my Kingdom were of this World, then would my Ser­vants fight that I should not be delivered to the Jews; but now my King­dom is not from hence, John 18. 36. Both are besides the Question, the Heathen and the Christian, so called in this matter, for his Doctrine al­loweth no other thing, but conviction by and in the Spirit, whose Wor­ship is Spirit and Truth, as hath been declared.

About what is called the Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity, and the The tearms Trinity in U­nity, and the Unity in Tri­nity, the ground of all this. persons of the God-head, which man cannot attain unto, nor possibly can come with all his Wisdom to understand, are they divided, and one against another, who pretend to his Name, which his Kingdom is against, and which is not his Kingdom; quite besides the matter are all such who by any other way than the Spirit, seek to enforce the Doctrine of Jesus, and belief in Christ.

This I say was the cause of the division, and in at this door entred the enemy to make shipwrack of the Flock, as by and by I shall make ma­nifest, though the Emperor seems to be of another mind in his Letter aforesaid, wherein he saith further,—Neither is there occasion ministred A further ac­count of the Emperors Letter to confute his proceedings. to contend about the chiefest Commandment in holy Scripture; neither is there sprung any new Opinion touching the Service of God, for you retain the one and the same sentence in substance of Faith, so that you may easily imbrace the uniform consent of Unity and Concord, for it is not well that for your con­tention about slender matters, and trifling toys, so great a multitude of the People of God, through your negligence, should be at discord among your selves; yea, it is supposed, not only, not well, but altogether intollerable; And that in few words I may lay before your eyes some presidents hereof, I will reason with you;—And so he goes out and tells them of the Philoso­phers, [Page 72] how they agree among themselves, and all joyntly profess one Title and Name of Discipline, and yet vary and disagree in some odd Opinion which severally they hold, who though they so dissent, yet in respect of their Profession joyn hands, and like Birds hold together; And from thence he argues, How much more should Christians. Then he pleads with them upon the foot of his capacity as chief Minister; And (saith he) let me therefore enjoy the dayes in peace, and the mights without molestation, that the pleasure that ariseth of the pure Light of Concord and quiet Life, may henceforth be inviolably conserved; if it otherwise happen (saith he) it be­hoveth me to sob and sigh, and to shed many a salt tear; and beseecheth them hereupon to hear him, and tells them how the understanding of those things turned him from his journey in the East, when he was come as far as Nicomedia.

I should fill a Volumn, if I should speak very particularly of these Some reasons of the quo­ting of these things, and why other things are omitted. things, and yet I can hardly tell how to let them pass by, they being of such consequence, and pertinent to the matter in hand, and needful for all men to know and understand, seeing that so much lies on the foot of this matter, worthily deserving the most serious consideration, and to be above many things weighed and considered.

Now I shall proceed to what remains, as worthy of observation The Nicaene Council held, Anno 328. comes to have an end, but not the Division. in this matter, the Nicaean, or Council of Nice aforesaid, which began, some say, in the year 324. some 326. some other 328. came to have an end; but the Division ceased not, but increased, and banded it self throughout those Cities and Provinces, and Con­stantine himself had enough of them, who whether by convicti­on Constantine seems to incline to favour Arius of his rashness, who drew the Sword in the quarrel of Religi­on, or through the importunity of his Sister Constantia, late wife The supposed causes thereof. to Lycinnius, who is said, by the Historian, to have commended a Priest of the Opinion of Arius to her Brother, during her weakness, of which she died, which Priest, she dying, is said to be of great ac­count with the Emperor; or whether both, is hard to determine. This appeareth by the Historian, that Constantia had the influence, as aforesaid, which (if she had not, which yet I judge to have had to do in the matter) that he became more gentle, and being Arius is bespoke to the Emperor as wil­ling to sign the Nicene Creed. presented by the said Priest, with the account of Arius, as if he would subscribe the Canon of that Council, if he might be admit­ted to Constantines presence, and moreover that he was falsly ac­cused; the Historian quoteth the Emperor to have said, If Arius The Emperor receives the account thereof; his words thereupon. be of that mind, and (as you say) agreeth with the Faith confirmed by the Council, I will not onely give him the hearing my self, but also send him with honour to Alexandria.

Arius being sent for, comes to Constantinople, and Euxojus a Arius being sent for, comes to Constantino­ple, and Euxojus, Con­stantine bids them welcome. Deacon, whom Alexander deposed with Arius; Constantine bids them welcome, they frame, and give their Recantation in writ­ing to the Emperor at his demand; The Emperor sends him to Alexandria again; Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria (for Alexan­der Cap 20. They frame their Re­cantation. was dead) refuses to receive him. Eusebius Bishop of Nico­media writes to Athanasius, and also procures the Emperors Let­ters to command Athanasius to admit Arius, and his complices: Arius sent to Alexan­dria again. Athanasius wrote back again to the Emperor, That it was not law­ful [Page 73] for such as had made shipwrack of their Faith, and had been held Athanasius refuses to receive [...]im Eusebius of Nicomedia w [...]ites to Athanasius, and procures the Em­peror to write to re­ceive him. Athanasius still refuses. The Emperor is vext, writes again, and threa [...]ens to depose him. for accursed of the Church, after this their turn and conversion to re­ceive their former dignities.—This vexed the Emperor, who be­ing chafed, conceived great displeasure in him against Athanasius, and thus wrote to him,—In as much as thou art made privy to our will and pleasure, see that thou make the door wide open to all that de­sire to enter into the Church: for if I understand that any one which desired to be made a Member of the Church, hath by any means through thee been hindered, or his entrance stopped, I will forthwith send one of my Officers, who by Authority from me, shall forthwith depose thee, and also place another in thy room. Athanasius, not­withstanding He refuses, notwith­standing. Six Bishops take the opportunity to lift him out, and for that pur­pose raise false accu­sations. He is cleared, and charged again, and cleared before the Emperor, and sent home by the Emperor who writes in his be­half. He is charged again, and summoned before the Censor. He is reordered to ap­pear before the Coun­cil of Bishops, ordered to meet at Tyrus. doth not receive him; Eusebius aforesaid, with half a dozen Bishops more inclined to Arius, takes the opportunity to lift Athanasius out of the Bishoprick, and for that purpose raiseth (saith the History) false accusations against him, thinking if he were once out of Alexandria, Arius's Opinions should take place. Of these things Athanasius is cleared; they charge him again, he is cleared again in presence of the Emperor, who sends him home, and writes a letter to his Church in his behalf; he is accused again, and appointed to appear before the Censor; The Emperor again forbids the appearance before the Censor, and appoints him to come before the Council of Bishops, which he had ordered to meet at Tyrus, in order to the consecrating of a Temple he had built at Jerusalem, whom he appointed also to hear, and end the business of Athanasius; he is unwilling to go there, not so much (saith the History) that he was dismay'd at the slanderous reports against him, as fearing lest he should be put upon the innovating something against the Nicene Council; but because of the angry Lines of the Emperor, who had wrote to him, That if he came not of his own accord, he would be brought thither with a vengeance: He came of necessity to the Council, at this Council he cleared himself of He goes thither a­gainst his will, & there clears himself of Ar­senius, whose hand he was charged to have cut off, and so to have killed him. The providence in the business. He is found out, pro­duced, both his hands found on him. Arsenius, whose hand he was accused to have cut off, and so conse­quently to have killed him; it falling out providentially, that Arse­nius was taken unthought of, and produced, who denying himself to be the man at first, was forced afterwards to confess it; being known to one of the Bishops, and both his hands found on him, though before he was brought forth, the hand pretended to be cut off was produced. The second particular was adjourned to another place, upon pretence of want of proof present, which then Athanasius perceived to be delegated to certain persons that The second particular adjourned to another place. Athanasius refuses to go thither; The reason thereof. He withdraws to the Emperor, is condem­ned absent. he had excepted against; having spoken his mind, he withdrew himself, and went to the Emperor: being withdrawn, the Council condemns him before they had heard the matter upon the Wit­nesses on one hand; and at Mereotis, unto which place the hear­ing of the matter was adjourned, they agree unto his deposi­tion; and Arsenius, who aforetime was reported to be slain, as aforesaid, is entertained by them; and he who afore­time was counted a Bishop of the Miletian Sect, (saith the Arsenius signs his de­position, who was said to be slain by Athana­sius. Historian) even then subscribed to the deposition of A­thanasius, and called himself Bishop of Hepsepolis; and [Page 74] that which seemeth incredible, (saith he) he that was said to have died under the hand of Athanasius, is now alive, and de­poseth Athanasius.

Hereupon the Bishops depart to Jerusalem to consecrate the Cap. 22: The Bishops depart to Jerusalem to conse­crate the Temple built by Constantine. Arius sent by them to Alexandria, is admit­ted, and Athanasius, exiled. The Emperor requires them to appear at Constantinople about the business. Temple built by the Emperor, having sent to Alexandria for the receiving of Arius, and his Confederates (as the History tearms them) and to banish all rancor, spight, and malice, and to settle their Ecclesiastical Affairs in peace and quietness, who are admit­ted; and by the consent of them all Athanasius is exiled of which things they also gave the Emperor an account; but Athanasius having fled to the Emperor, as these things were in doing, came Letters from the Emperor for their appearing at Constantinople, about the business of Athanasius, wherein he inveighs greatly against them, for that which through tumults and troublesome stirs they had decreed; tells them, that the Truth they had sub­verted He is grieved, and writes plainly to them by their hurly burly, and kindled heat of contention, that whilst they prosecuted their privy spite and hatred one towards a­nother, wch in no wise they would leave unpractised, they seemed to neglect the Service of God, & the furtherance of the Truth, that he trusted through the providence of God to bring to pass, that after the proof of that pestilent contention, it might wholly be banish­ed: And charges them home with doing that which made Truth suffer amongst the Barbarians, whom his clemency had wrought over to be Christians, And that he might perceive whether their Council and Assembly had any care of the Truth, and whether they had de­cided the matters called into question without partiality, favour, and poysoned malice, he willed them that with all speed they all repair unto him, to the end that they themselves, by no other than themselves, might yeeld him an exquisite account. Moreover he tells them, That the Barbarians through his industry came to the knowledge of God, and learn't to serve him in Holiness, whom they perceived in all things with a careful eye of providence to have defended him, which thing (saith he) moved them at first to taste the Truth of Christ; whom also (saith he) for the awe and loyalty they owe unto our Imperial Scepter, they serve up­rightly, but we (saith he to them) which would seem (I will not say to observe) to maintain the sacred Mysteries of the Church, do practise nothing else, but that which breedeth discord And to the utter over­throw and destruction of mankind. and dissention; and to be short (saith he) that which tendeth to the utter overthrow and destruction of mankind.

Notwithstanding these, and many other strait words in his Let­ter, Cap. 23. All came not notwith­standing. they all came not, but Eusebius, Theogius, Maos, Patropo­lis, Ursacius, and Valens, all Bishops inclining to Arius, and Atha­nasius his chief opposites were not there, but framed (as the Hi­story They frame another accusation against Athanasius. saith) an Accusation, that Athanasius threatned that he would cause that no Corn should be conveyed from Alexandria to Constan­tinople, as was usual, and that four certain Bishops heard it out of his own mouth: The accusers carrying credit with their persons, the Emperor was wonderfully moved at this, and caused him to be banished into France; some (saith the History) out of policy, also He is banished into France. Some say out of poli­cy, that quietness might ensue. he did it to see whether his absence would reduce them to Unity and Concord, for he would by no means communicate with he [Page 75] called Arians; so being exiled, he leads his life at Trevere in France.

The thirtieth year of Constantines Reign was expired, while Peace ensued not a­mong the C [...]ristians, though Constantine had past thirty years of his Reign. Arius returning, sets Alexandria on fire. The Emperor sends for him to Constanti­nople. Thither he comes. these things were a doing, yet he saw no peace among rhe Christi­ans; Arius with his company returning to Alexandria, set the whole City in an uproar, for they were not onely distasted with the return of Arius, but the banishment of Athanasius: The Em­peror understanding (as the History saith) of the perverse mind, and corrupt purpose of Arius, sends for him again to Constantino­ple, to render an account of the tumult and sedition he had raised afresh. The City being divided into two parts, one for the Ni­cene Creed, the other for Arius; Alexander then governed the Alexander Bishop of Constantinople holds disputation with him. He layes aside quirks of Logick; and seeks by Prayer to over­come. Church, who a little before succeeded Metrophanes in the Bishop­rick of Constantinople, held disputation with Arius, and laying a­side the quirks of Logick, is said with continual Fasting, and Prayer, and Tears, many dayes and nights to have fled for aid to the Lord, and on his bare knees, before the Communion Table (called also the Altar) of [...]e Church called Peace, having lock't himself in to have besought the Lord in these words,—Grant I beseech thee, O Lord, that if the Opinion of Arius be true, His Prayer, and his Obtestation therein concerning him, and Arius, as to the deter­mination of the mat­ter. The Emperor de­mands of Arius to sign the Nicene Creed. He doth it. He puts him to his Oath. He swears to it by E­quivocation. The Equivocation. The Emperor requires Alexander to receive him into Communi­on. I my self may never see the end of this set Disputation; but if the Faith I hold be true, that Arius the Author of all this mischief, may receive due punishment for his impious desert.

Arius being come to Constantinople, the Emperor demands of Arius to sign the Nicene Creed; he subscribes it chearfully, he puts him to his Oath, he swears it also; his juggle (is said to be this) he wrote his own Opinion in a piece of Paper; the same he carri­ed under his arm in his bosome; coming to the Book, he takes his Oath, That he verily believed as he had written. The Empe­ror believing he had dealt plainly, commanded Alexander Bishop of Constantinople, to receive him to the Communion. It was on a Saturday (saith the History) the day after Arius looked to be received into the Church and Communion of the Faithful, but vengeance (saith it) lighted forthwith upon his lewd and bold Vengeance overtakes Arius. enterprises, when he had his leave, and departed out of the Em­perors Hall, he passed through the midst of the City with great pomp and pontificiality, compassed and attended with the Facti­on and Train of Eusebius Bishop of Nicomedia, that waited upon him; as soon as he came nigh Constantines Market (for so was the He is taken ill sudden­ly in the street, place called) where there stood a Pillar of Red Marble, sudden feat (saith the History) of the heinous faults he had committed, took Arius, and withal he felt a great lask: Sirs (saith Arius) is there any draught or jakes nigh? When they told him there was one in the back side of Constantines Market, he got him thither strait, then he was taken with faintness, and, together with his excrements, he voideth his Guts, a great stream of blood follow­eth, after, the slender and small bowels slide out, blood, together with the Spleen, and Liver gushed out, and immediately he dieth And dieth miserable, and with a remarkable hand of Judgment. like a Dog (saith the History): And the Jakes was then to be seen (when the History was wrote); and that Passengers were [Page 76] wont as they went by, to point their fingers thereat, in remem­brance of the miserable end of Arius; Which (saith the History) being done, terror and astonishment amazed the mind of Euse­bius His followers are ama­zed. The Emperor cleaves the more to the Ni­cene Creed, as confir­med (as he said) (Cap 26) by the testimony of God himself. The Emperor falls sick the next year; makes his Will; trusts the Priest therewith, that perswaded him to tenderness to Arius, and dies. his Confederates that followed him. And that the Emperor clave the more unto the Christian Religion, and said, that the Nicene Creed was ratified and confirmed to be true by the testi­mony of God himself,—and rejoyced exceedingly at the things which then came to pass. The next year being the 65th of his Age, he sailed to Helenopolis for his healths sake, where his sickness more and more encreased; he got him strait to Nicomedia, where after a certain time he was baptised, in which he is said to have greatly rejoyced, made his last Will and Testament, wherein he had appointed his three Sons their particular Inheritances, trusteth the Priest, which was the occasion of Arius his return from ex­ile (as aforesaid) with charge to the Priest to deliver it into no mans hands but to his Son Constantius, whom he had made Empe­ror of the East, and died, having reigned one and thirty years.

Yet neither with Arius, nor the death of Constantine, was there Anno. 348. Socrat. lib. 2. cap. 2. Discord ends not with Constantine nor Arius. Constantius Constan­tines Son leans to the Arians, by means of the Priest that Con­stantine entrusted his Will withal; who al­so brought Arius in respect with Constan­tine. an end of the troublesome discord that was among the Christians: For the Priest aforesaid, unto whose charge Constantine commit­ted the trust of his last Will and Testament, having possessed Con­stantius therewith, and with the Arian Heresie, (as it was called) and Constantius being pleased therewith, as he was with the dispo­sition of his Father to him of the Government of the East, that Opinion came to vent it self again, and to bear head; for it had entred into the Empress, and the Chamberlains, and the Empe­rors Guards, and every where almost (as the History relates it) the Opinion had entrance and controversies throughout the East; and plain questions would not serve the turn, but open contenti­on, tumult, and stir; but in the West, in Illyrium and other Coun­tries, Contention, tumults, stirs, grew high there­abouts. The Western parts clear. they held to the Nicene Council, or the Faith, as it was called, of one Substance, which by no means they would suffer to be ab­brogated: And Eusebius of Nicomedia waited for an opportuni­ty through these tumults, when some or other should be put into the place of Athanasius, to accomplish his purpose there: But Athanasius once more goes to Alexandria upon Constantine the youngers Letters; through means of Constantine the youngers Letters, (who was also Caesar, who governed the Western Parts) which he wrote to Alex­andria, and his confidence of them, he returned to Alexandria, where he was received with most willing mind by them who held Is received by them of the Nicene Creed. the Nicene Decrees; but those who were otherwise disposed with Arius, rose what flame they could, and contention in the City, The others raise stir, and accuse him again, Upon which the Em­peror drove him out of Alexandria. and accused him of having setled himself into the Church without the general consent of the Assembly of the Bishops, which so in­censed the Emperor, that he drove him out of Alexandria.

Thus the fire of Contention grew hot, and the Separation won­derful, Cap. 3. The contention en­creaseth. which increased still as opportunity presented it self, and occasion to minister thereunto.

Constantine the Younger, and Brother to Constantius, invading Constantine the youn­ger invading by force certain Countries un­der Constans his youn­ger Brothers Juris­diction, is slain. by force certain Countries under his younger Brother Constans, and fighting hand to hand with the Souldiers, was slain; and Alexan­der [Page 77] Bishop of Constantinople died also at the age of fourscore and Alexander Bishop of Constantinople, 98 years old. Great contests for a Successor. eighteen years; about a Successor unto whom there was great contestion: Those inclined to Arius, whilst Alexander lived, in­clined to Macedonius; those on the other hand, that held the clause of one Substance, would have Paulus, whom Alexander com­mended before his death; so the contest was great, but Paulus Paulus is Elected. carried the Election in the end.

Constantius shortly after coming to Constantinople, displaceth Cap. 5. Constantius displaces Paulus, and puts in Eusebius. Cap. 6. A Synod is called at Antioch, to make an end of Athanasius. Cap. 7. Several Bishops come not there; Paulus, and places Eusebius of Nicomedia in his room, but not content therewith, Eusebius procures of Constantius, a Synod to be called at Antioch, on purpose to have his ends on Athanasius, and to overthrow (as the Historian tearms it) and subvert the Faith of one Substance, which as they could, they endeavoured: unto which Synod Maximus Bishop of Jerusalem would not come, lest he should be constrained to subscribe unto the deposition of Athanasius: Neither did Julius Bishop of Rome come thither, or send any Substitutes; The Canon Ecclesiastical forbidding any constitution to be thrust into the Church, without the censure of the Bishop of Rome. Nevertheless before a Council of fourscore Yet before ninty Bish. Athansius is accused, and is put by Alexan­dria. and ten Bishops, Athanasius is accused with rushing into the Church upon his own head, after his return from exile; That at his return, when the Tumult and Schism was raised, many were slain; more­over that he caused some to be scourged, others to hold up their hands at the Bar.

Athanasius being put by Alexandria, and Gregorius a favourer Cap. 6. The Synod ends here­with, and placing Gre­gory in his room, and a new Creed being (Cap. 7.) made, and sent to the Churches. Cap. 8. Gregory attempts his Investure with a Cap­tain and 5000. Souldi­ers, and the Arians. The Church (so cal­led) is besieged by the Captain Sirianus. of Arius, being appointed in his room, and a new Creed placed in wary and equivocal tearms, being consented unto; somewhat different from another, which at first at Antioch they had con­cluded, and sent unto the Churches; the Synod hath an end: And Gregorius attempts his investiture into Alexandria with five thousand Souldiers under Sirianus the Captain, whom also to aid, came the Arians, so called in the City, so the matter was made formidable, the Captain drew his Souldiers in Battle array about the Church (as the History calls it) where Athanasius was, and the People, for it was Even-tide, and the People spent the whole night in Vigils, for there was a Communion to be (he saith) the next day: Athanasius seeing how things were, that he Athanasius by a wile gets out thereof, and escapes, might preserve the people, and save himself, set his Deacon to read the Collects unto the People, he bids them sing a Psalm; when the Psalm was sweetly and harmoniously sung (saith the Hi­story) all the People went forth at the Church Poarches, (the Souldiers keeping quiet) and Athanasius through the midst of Gets to Rome. the singers got safe away and hastned to Rome. Then Georgorius took possession of that Church; but the Citizens not brooking The Citizens fire the Church called Saint Dennis. those things, set the place, called Saint Dennis, Church on fire.

During these times of trouble among the Christians, the Affairs The State disturbed. The French invade the Empire. Great Earthquakes in the East; at Antioch (where these things were done) for a years space. of the Common Wealth (as it usually fareth) grew troublesome; The French invaded the Roman Borders; then also there were great Earthquakes in the East, but especially at Antioch, where [Page 78] these things were done, where the Earth was moved and shaken for the space of one whole year.

Eusebius having effected his purpose in displacing Athanasius, Cap. 9. Eusebius sends to Ju­lius Bishop of Rome, to give definitive Sen­tence against Athana­sius, Eusebius dies pre­sently after the end of the Council, and saw it not. Paulus is made Bishop again by the people; Macedonius by his Col­leagues, viz. several Bishops, and setling Gregory, that he might yet seem to be wary in his un­dertaking, sends a Legate to Julius at Rome, to give definitive Sentence in the cause of Athanasius; but the Sentence of Julius, Eusebius never saw, for immediately after the Council brake up, breath departed Eusebius Body, and so he died.

Eusebius being dead, the People at Constantinople bring Paulus to be their Bishop; Those appertaining to Arius chose Macedo­nius; the same persons wrought it, as were Eusebius his Colleagues, who were able to do something at that time, (viz.) Theoguis Bi­shop of Nice, Maris Bishop of Chalcedon, Theodorus Bishop of Heraclea in Thracia, Ursacius Bishop of Zingidon in the Higher Misia, Valens Bishop of Nursa a City in the Higher Pannonia; Two of which after­wards recanted. but Ursacius and Valens repented them afterwards, and writing a Recantation to Julius of Rome, submitted to the cause of one Substance, and the Communion of the Church.

These things producing civil Wars among themselves, through Great mischiefs, and bloodsheds; the conse­quence. the pretenders of Arius (as the History renders it) much mischief was the consequence, there being said to be many and often skir­mishes in that City thereabouts, in which many were trodden un­der foot and crushed to death.

Constantius hearing of this, while he abode at Antioch, com­manded Cap. 10. Constantius commands Hermogenes to dis­place Paulus. The people are dis­quieted, and rise. Hermogenes, that was taking his Journey into Thracia, to take Constantinople in his way, and to thrust Paulus out of his Church: This gave great disquiet in the City, they gathered themselves together, and prepare to aid their Bishop; whom Her­mogenes came by force to banish. Hermogenes with his Souldiers Hermogenes endea­vours to disperse them They fall upon him, burn the house over his head, pull him out by the ears, and put him to death. endeavours to disperse the people; they being in an uproar fell upon him, they fire the house over his head, they pull him out by the ears, and put him to death. This was done when both the Emperors were Consuls, and when Constans had overcome the French, and concluded a peace between them and the Romans; hereupon Constantius left Antioch, came to Constantinople, thrusteth Constantius comes to Constantinople, thrusts out [...]aulus. Fines the City. Paulus out of his Church, merced the City, taking from them so many measures of Grains as their City received, above four hundred thousand, the which (saith the History) by his Fathers Yet for fear forbears placing in Macedonius. Donation daily was given unto them; yet he delayed the placing in of Macedonius, for that he was greatly incensed against him, not only because he was chosen without his advice and counsel, but also in that through the stir and tumult raised between him and Paulus, not only Hermogenes his Captain, but also many others besides were slain; the pretenders also to Arius removed Gregory Gregory removed from Alexandria by the pre­tenders to Arius. The reason why Geor­gius put in. from Alexandria, because the people hated him grievously, and had set their Church on fire, and for that he but slenderly main­tained their Opinion, and put in his stead Georgius born in Cappa­docia, one that was nuzled in the Opinion they held.

By this time Paulus of Constantinople, and several other Bishops, Cap. 11. Paulus and the other Bishops repair to Ju­lius of Rome. being accused one for one thing, and another for another, and [Page 79] deprived of their Churches, go to Rome, and having Julius his Letters unto the Bishops of the East, that every one should be re­stored again, sharply reproving their rash deposition, they de­pending He gives them letters, they repair to their Bishopricks. on the Prerogative of Rome, went every one to his own charge, sending their Letters to those unto whom they were di­rected, and whom it concerned.

The Eastern Bishops took this correction of Julius Bishop of The Bishops of the East take Julius cor­rection heinously, summon a Synod at Antioch. They decree against Julius Bishop of Rome Rome as a contumely, and summon a Synod at Antioch, where being assembled, they devise an Epistle by uniform consent, where­in they bitterly inveigh against Julius, and signifie withal,—That if any were banished the Church, and excommunicated by their Censure and Decree, it was not his part to intermeddle, neither to sit in Judg­ment upon their sentence: For when as he had removed Novatus out of the Church of Rome, they neither resisted, neither con­traried his doings; Athanasius coming to Alexandria, Georgius Alexandria in a tumult upon the return of A­thanasius by Georgius, (as some said) by Atha­nasius (as others af­firm) much blood is shed. the Arrian (so called) made great stir and tumults, in which much harm, murder, and bloodshed was committed, which the one sort impute to Georgius, and the other to Athanasius, whom yet the Historian justifies as innocent.

Well, as soon as Constantius (who then remained at Antioch) Cap. 12. Constantius is displeas­ed at the return of Paulus, commands Philip to remove Pau­lus, and place in Ma­cedonius; Philip useth a wile to entrap Paulus, heard that Paulus was placed again in Constantinople, he took great displeasure, and was sorely incensed, he gave commission to Phi­lip the chiefest of his Lieutenants (and called the second person in the Empire) to remove Paulus, and to appoint Macedonius in his stead; Philip fearing the rage and tumult of the multitude, circumventeth Paulus very subtilly, and covertly concealeth the Emperors pleasure. He feigneth the cause of his coming to be for the common Affairs of the City, he gets him strait to the pub­lick Bath called Zeuxippus; he sends thence one unto Paulus, Which taking, that he should honourably salute him, and will him in any wise to repair unto the Emperors Lieutenant; as soon as he came, the Governour opened unto him his Lord the Emperors Command­mant. The Bishop taketh patiently his Sentence, although un­justly decreed against him; But the Governour standing in great fear of the furious rage of the multitude, and such as stood in compass about him (for many by reason of the suspicious rumour flocked unto the publick Bath) gave Commandment, that one of the back Windows of the Bath should be opened, that Paulus He is privily sent to exile, should be let down at the said Window, into a Ship ready appoin­ted for the purpose, and thence be conveyed to exile: The Go­vernour had commanded him that he should sail thence strait to Thessalonica, the Head City of Macedonia (from thence his An­cestors came) and there make his aboad; Paulus thinking little or nothing of all this, is both deprived his Church, banished the City, and forthwith brought to exile. Philip got him with And Macedonius carri­ed by Philip to their Church. The Souldiers guard them with naked Swords. The people are ama­zed, run thither. speed from the Bath to the Church, Macedonius accompanies him, as it was concluded afore, sitting by his side in the Wag­gon, in the face of the whole Multitude, the Souldiers guarded them with naked Swords: the multitude in compass are amazed thereat, and struck with sudden fear, all ran to the Church; such [Page 80] as defended the Creed that contained the clause of one Substance, flocked to the Church (saith the History) as well as the Arrian To the Nicenians and Arians. Hereticks: The Governour and Macedonius being come near the Church, a marvellous great fear afrighted both the multitude and the Souldiers themselves; so great a company gathered toge­ther No passing, the Com­pany was so great. The Souldiers force their passage on this side and that. that there was no passing for the Governour to lead Macedo­nius; The Souldiers were fain to force the people of this side and that, but the throng was so great, and the room so narrow, that they could not recoyl; The Souldiers supposing that the multi­tude had set themselves against them, and of set purpose stopped their walk that the Governour might have no passage thereaway, drew their Swords, let fly amongst them, and laid on lustily; the report was, That there fell about three thousand one hundred, About three thousand and one hundred slain, and stifled, and crushed to death. Macedonius not re­garding, is enstalled by the Governor. whereof some were slain by the Souldiers, others stifled in the throng, and crushed to death; But Macedonius (saith the Histo­ry) after all these famous acts, as if he had committed no offence, and were innocent and guiltless, touching all this heinous and horrible slaughter, is stalled in the Bishops Seat, more by the censure of the Governour, than by the Canon of the Church: These be the means (saith the History) that Macedonius and the Slaughter and blood­shed, the Arians means to climb into the Church. Arrians used to climb by slaughter and murder to be Magistrates in the Church.

Athanasius also comes again to be accused, but falsly (saith the Athanasius is again accused. History) with turning the Corn or Grain which the Emperor had gi­ven for the relief of the poor within the Church of Alexandria, unto his private commodity; with which slanders the Emperor being informed, threatned him with death; he hearing thereof, flies The Emperor threa­tens him with death, he slies, and hides. Julius sends for him to Rome. Certificates from the Eastern Bishops come to Julius, that the crimes were false. Julius writes back to the Bishops of Antioch, his grief, because of their Letters in re­proof of his to them, and reproves them for divers things. The proceedings at Mereotis against Atha­nasius registred on the one side, and not on the other. Sabinus used the like in his collection of Councils, whereby lit­tle judgement can be given to their writings away and hides in an obscure place. Julius Bishop of Rome hear­ing thereof, sends for him, and willed him to come to Rome; also at the same time he received Letters from the Council at Antioch, and the Bishops of Egypt, that all such crimes as Athanasius was charged with, were meer false, therefore he writes to the Bishops at Antioch, what grief and heaviness he had conceived by their Letters, how they had transgressed the Canon of the Church, in not calling him to the Council, insomuch that the Canon com­mandeth, That no Decree be thrust upon the Church without the Cen­sure of the Bishop of Rome. Moreover that they had covertly cor­rupted the Faith: Also that they had concluded by main force, and double dealing, such things as of late they had lewdly handled at Ty­rus, in that they of spight had procured the relations of one side only to be registred at Mareotes; and that the forged Leasings of Arseni­us were meer slanders, and false reports. The like did Sabinus use to do in his collection of Councils, (viz.) put down what was on the contrary behalf of those who were for the clause of one Substance, not what was written in the behalf thereof. And this was the course and manner of proceedings among them.

Not long after Paulus leaving Thessalonica (the place of his ex­ile) Paulus gets to Italy, from his exil. Cap. 14. He and Athanasius o­pen there their cause to the Emperor. feigned as if he would go to Corinth, but went strait into Italy, where he and Athanasius joyntly open their cause to the Empe­ror; The Emperor, whose Dominion was the West, esteeming [Page 81] these injuries as his own adversity, wrote unto his Brother, re­questing He writes to his Bro­ther to send him three persons to signifie the causes of their deposi­tion. The Emperor sends them. They re­fuse to reason with Athanasius. Conceal the form of Faith de­creed at Atioch Frame another, give it to the Emperor, depart. Photinus his Heresie sprung up in Illirium. three men to be sent him with the full cause of their de­position; The Emperors Brother sends three, but they would not reason with Athanasius, but concealing the form of Faith de­creed at Antioch, these Bishops frame out another which they gave the Emperor, which when they had done, and shewed it to some others, they took their leave and departed without further reasoning of any other matter: Then a new Opinion sprang up at Syrmium, a City of Illyrium, by Photinus that governed the Churches there, who was born in the Lesser Galatia, and the Disciple of Marcellus, who was deposed of his Bishoprick, fol­lowing his Masters steps, affirmed, That the Son of God was onely An account thereof. Man.

Three years after the Bishops of the East summon again ano­ther Cap. 15. Another Council called by the Eastern Bishops and another form of Faith made, and sent to the Western. The Western refuse it, and the causes why. Council, and frame another long form of Faith, and send it to the Bishops in Italy by certain Bishops.

The Bishops of the West Churches would in no wise receive it, partly because it was written in a strange Tongue, therefore could not understand them: They also said, That the Nicene Creed was sufficient, and that it was not for them curiously to search further.

The Emperor of the West having wrote again concerning Cap. 16. The Western Empero [...] writes again for Pau­lus and Athanasius, but to no purpose. The Reasons why. They two desire ano­ther Council to be called. Paulus and Athanasius, that they should be restored to their for­mer Dignities, to no purpose by reason of the civil dissention and discord not yet appeased among the Multitude. Paulus and Atha­nasius desired, That another Council might be called, that their cases may be known the better, and the Faith decided, protesting that their deposition was wrought to the end that the Faith might be de­stroyed.

By commandment of both Emperors another Council is called Another Council is called by both the Emperors at Sardice. Three hundred Bish, of the West, and 76. Bish. of the East only meet. The excuses of the absent. at Sardis, of the West Churches, (as saith Athanasius) three hundred Bishops met; and of the East (as Sabinus reports) only seventy and six, the rest making excuses, some infirmity of Body, others short warning, for which they blamed Julius Bishop of Rome, when as there was a year and a halfs time between the Pro­clamation and the sitting of the Council, which was the ele­venth year after the death of Constantine the Father of the Em­perors.

The Bishops of the East would not come to the Bishops of the The Eastern Bishops refuse to come to the Bish. of the West, unless they two were kept out. The Western [...]ot brooking it, the East­ern depa [...], and meet at Philippi, and cu [...]se the Creed of one Sub­stance. West, unless they would bar Paulus and Athanasius their Com­pany, which the Bishops of the West not brooking, the Eastern Bishops departed, and at Philippi, a City in Thracia, they assem­bled a private contemning the clause of one Substance, and in writ­ing to sow abroad their Opinion, That the Son of God was not of one Substance with the Father.

The Western Bishops that continued at Sardice, first condem­ned The Western at Sardice condemned them. De­pose the Accusers of Athanasius; ratifie the Nicene Creed; abro­gate the other. them which fled from the hearing of their Cause; next, de­posed from their Dignities the accusers of Athanasius; afterwards ratified the Creed of the Nicene Council, and abrogated the He­retical [Page 82] Opinion, (as they called it) which said, That the Son was Send Letters to the Churches of what they had done, as did the other throughout the World. of a different Substance from the Father. Lastly, They set forth more plainly the clause of one Substance, and wrote Letters there­of, and sent them throughout the whole world.

Both sides were pleased with their own doings, and every one Each pleased them­selves with what each had done. The causes of the do­ings of each. seemed to himself to have done right well; The Bishops of the East, because the Western Bishops had received them whom they had deposed; The Western Bishops, because the Bishops of the East, being deposers of others, had departed before the hearing of their cause; The one for that they maintained the Nicene Creed; The other for that they went about to condemn it: To Paulus, Athanasius, Marcellus, restored to their Bishopricks. Paulus and Athanasius, their Bishopricks are restored, and to Marcellus Bishop of Ancyra in the Lesser Galatia.

The Bishops of each part having decreed such things as seemed Cap. 18. Each part depart, sepa­rating as far in affecti­on as they were in place. best unto themselves, they depart every one to his own home, going asunder as far in Spirit as they were in Person, and so be­came divided; and the Mount between Illirium and Thracia, cal­led Tisuris, was the bound of both, beyond which there was no The Mount Tisuris is set the bound between them for their Com­munion. The West Emperor desires the restitution of Paulus and Athana­sius. Constantius de­laying, the other sends him in choise, either War, or Restitution. communion: such confusion, such stir, and such division (saith the History) reigned then in the Church.

Immediately after this the Western Emperor signifies to his Brother what was decided at the Council of Sardice, and request­ed him to see Paulus and Athanasius placed in their Bishopricks: But when Constantius delayed from day to day his Brothers desire; The Emperor of the West gave his Brother in choice, Either to restore Paulus and Athanasius, and so account of him as his Friend, or else to hear the Proclamation of open War, and so find him as his deadly Foe. The Letters sent by his Embassador were these,—There remain here with me Athanasius and Paulus, who as I am cre­dibly A Copy of his Letters. given to understand; are persecuted for piety sake; if that thou wilt promise me to restore them unto their Seas, and to punish se­verely such as have injured them, I will send the Parties themselves unto thee; But if thou wilt not accomplish this my will and pleasure, know for surety, that my self will come thither, and maugre thy bread, restore them to their proper Seas.

This when the Emperor of the East understood, it troubled Constant. is troubled hereat; assembles the Bishops; him, and is said to be wonderful pensive and sad; he assembles many of the Bishops of the East, layes before them the choice his brother gave him, demandeth of them, What was best in the Demands of them, What is to be done. They chuse Peace ra­ther than War. He sends for Athanasi­us; Constantine sends Paulus to Constantino­ple with his and the Councils Letters. case to be done? They answered, It was far better to restore Atha­nasius, than to raise deadly and mortal Wars. Therefore the Em­peror, being constrained through necessity, sent for Athanasius; In the mean while Constans the Emperor had sent Paulus honoura­bly, together with two Bishops, with his own Letters, and the Letters of the Council for more surety unto Constantinople.

Athanasius yet doubting whether he yet were best go or no to Cap. 18: Constantius sends a­gain for Athanasius, and a second and third time. Constantius, because the slanders cast upon him troubled him ve­ry sore; Constantius sent for him not once only, but the second and third time, which he having received, and the Bishop of Rome being made privy thereunto by Athanasius, and having the [Page 83] said Bishops Letters unto the Priests and People of Alexandria, he went to Constantius, who (it's said) received him not unwil­lingly, He goes to Constantius. but through the slights of the followers of Arias went Who desires sufferance of one Church in A­lexandria for the Arri­ans. He leaves it to the Emperor; and craves another thing of him, viz. That the Nicenians might have one Church through­out every City. about to beguile him, by desiring a permission of one Church, for those that differed in Opinion from Athanasius, and severing themselves from his Communion; he answered,—It lies in thee, O Emperor, to do as pleaseth thee best to command, and execute thy Commandment. And craved of the Emperor another thing, (viz.) That he would grant him one Church throughout every City, for such as communicate not with the Arrians. The followers of Arius per­ceiving that his request was not unreasonable, made answer, That The Arrians hereupon defer the matter. it behoved them to defer the matter unto another time, and consider better of it. They hindred not the Emperor, but suffered him to do what pleased him best; wherefore the Emperor setled Athanasius is setled, & Paulus with other Bi­shops by the Empe­ror, who writes to Alexandria of Love and Friendship, and to abregate what Laws were against Athanasius. Athanasius, and Paulus, Marcellus, and Asclepas Bishop of Ga­za, and Lucius of Andrianople into their Bishopricks, and wrote Letters to Alexandria of Love and Friendship, and for them to receive Athanasius, and all of the same mind with him, and to settle them in their places; and to abrogate whatsoever Law or Order was made against him or them, or any thing that appertain­ed unto them.

These things being done, Athanasius takes his Journey to Cap. 19. Athanasius returns by the way of Jerusalem, Anno. 351. Acquaints Maximus Bishop of that place; He calls an Assembly of Bishops; assigns him his Dignity. Alexandria, by the way of Jerusalem, where he acquaints Maxi­mus the Bishop of that place with the Decrees of the Council of Sardis, and also the Emperor Constantius his agreement and con­sent therein, and procured out of Syria and Palestina an assembly of Bishops, where Maximus gave him the Communion, and assigned unto him his Dignity; and the Council being dissolved, they wrote and signified by their Letters to the People of Alex­andria, The Council also write Letters to Alexandria in his behalf. unto the Bishops of Egypt and Libia, all their Decrees and Canons concerning Athanasius.

This incensed all the Adversaries of Athanasius, who cried out The Arrians are incen­sed hereat; cry out against Maximus. against Maximus, for that aforetime he had subscribed to Atha­nasius deposition; but now repenting of his folly, as if he had not then done well, he became of his Faith, and awarded him both Communion and Dignity; yet Ursacius and Valens hearing Ʋrsacius and Valens, upon the success of Athanasius, recant. of the prosperous success of Athanasius, they exhibit to Julius Bishop of Rome their Recantation and Repentance in writing, and subscribed to the Creed containing the clause of one Sub­stance. But Athanasius travelled by Peleusium in the way to Alex­andria, Athanasius returns by Peleusium, inveighs against Arius. preaching in every City where he came, and exhorted them to eschew the followers of Arius, and to embrace such as confessed the Faith of one Substance. And in divers of the Ordains Ministers in other Churches, gives occasion thereby of new Accusations. Churches also he ordained Ministers, which gave occasion to the Adversaries to accuse him again, that he presumed to make Ministers in other mens Provinces.

Whilst the Ecclesiastical Affairs went thus very troublesome Cap. 20. The Common wealth reels whilst the Chri­stians totter. about Athanasius, and the clause of one Substance, the quiet estate of the Common Wealth (as usually it falls out so to be) was not a little out of square; Constantine, who builded Constantinople, [Page 84] dying, left his three Sons to succeed him in the Empire, of which Constantine the great left three Sons, they are divided. Constan­tines Son the younger slain, Constantius not forbidding it. The Souldiers did it, when he had reigned but a little while. number Constantine, that was called after his Fathers Name, was one, and reigned together with the rest of the Emperors, whom the Souldiers slew, after he had reigned but a very little while; and as Constantius commanded not he should be slain, so again he for­bad not the slaughter: but how that Constantine the Younger breaking forth into his Brothers Dominions, lost his life, whilst he fought hand by hand with the Souldiers, it hath been shewn before, after whose death there arose War between the Persians The Persians, War with the Romans. The Romans have but ill-favoured success. and the Romans, where Constantius had but ill-favoured success; for the Camp being pitched in the night time, about the bounds of the Roman and Persian Dominion; the Persian Host seemed then to prevail, and for a time to have the upper hand. Things being at this point, Magnentius the Tyrant became a Rebel in Magnentius turning Rebel, produces the death of Constans ano­ther Son. the West part of the World, and through Treason procured the death of Constans the Emperor, who governed the West, and then aboad in France: This being wrought, there ensued great Great Wars follow thereupon. and grievous Wars; Magnentius invaded Italy, subdued Africk and Libia, and all France. Moreover at Sirmium a City of Illi­rium, Bretanion another Ty­rant, raises War at Sermium. there was another Tyrant set up by the Souldiers, whose Name was Bretanion; At Rome also there was a great stir, for Nepotianus, Constantines Sisters Son, having got him a great Troop Nepotianus at Rome stirs then, Magnentius cuts him off, subdues the West. of Fencers and Sword-players, aspired unto the Imperial Scep­ter; but the Captains of Magnentius dispatch't him. In a lit­tle time Magnentius over-ran and subdued all the West parts of the World.

Constantius understanding all this, and what was befel his Bre­thren, Cap. 21. Constantius makes War with the Tyrants; is proclaimed Emperor of the West. the fourth year after the Council of Sardice, made Title and Challenge to the Dominions of his Brethren; and being pro­claimed Emperor of the West, he maketh expedition to wage War with the Tyrants.

The Scaene now beginning to change, the Adversaries of Atha­nasius, Athanasius hereupon is new charged again. supposing they had now gotten a fit opportunity, forge again (as saith the History) heinous offences afresh against him, before his coming to Alexandria, informing, That he perverted all Egypt and Libia; Also they charge him with making Ministers in other mens Provinces: Athanasius coming to Alexandria, calls He calls a Council, they decree according to Athanasius. The Em­peror decrees the contrary. divers Councils of the Bishops of Egypt, who decreed certain things according to the Council of Sardice and Jerusalem. The Emperor being said to be addicted aforetime to the Heresie of Arius, wrested all things he had lately decreed to the contrary part; and first of all he banished Paulus Bishop of Constantinople, He banishes Paulus, and is stifled by them that carried him to Exile. Basilius put in the room of Marcellus Lu­cius of Adrianople, im­prisoned, and there choaked with stink. aforesaid, whom they who carried him to exile, stifled at Cucu­sum, a City in Cappadocia: Marcellus is expelled Ancyra, and Ba­silius placed in his room; Lucius Bishop of Adrianopolis is clapt in Prison, and there choaked up with stink: but the Relations made to the Emperor against Athanasius, so incensed him, that he gave forth a Commandment he should be executed where ever he was taken: He charged moreover, That Theodulus and Olympius Athanasius ordered to be executed. Bishops of Thracia should be put to death, which threats of the [Page 85] Emperor, Athanasius understanding (for he was quickly made privy thereunto) fled away. He flies.

Macedonius after Paulus was murdered, as aforesaid, was made Cap. 22. Macedonius put in Paulus room. Bishop of Constantinople; he had great liberty and access unto the Emperor; he made Wars among the Christians, nothing in­ferior to the Tyrannical practises of those times; he perswaded The Emperor aids him. the Emperor to aid him, when as in very deed he procured the overthrow (as is said) and the destruction of the Churches, and Makes Edicts at his Will. prevailed, that whatsoever he compassed, the same forthwith was by a Law confirmed; every City sounded of Proclamations; the Souldiers were commanded to see the Emperors Edicts take place: As many as cleaved unto the Creed, containing the clause Orders Souldiers to make them take place. The Nicenians cut off from the Church, and exiled. of one Substance, were not only cut off from the Churches, but also banished altogether the Cities; And first, they joyn heads and hands together to bring this to pass: But when this Pestilent Infection (saith the History) had spread it self far and nigh, such as had little or no care at all of the Ecclesiastical Affairs, determi­ned with themselves to constrain men to their Communion; the They constrain to their Communion, as the Heathens did the Christians, violence (saith the History) truly was no less than that of old pra­ctised towards the Christians, when they were compelled and drawn to sacrifice to Idols, for many endured several kinds of tor­ments, By racking, dismem­bring, confiscation, exile, d [...]th. often racking and dismembring of their joynts, confisca­ting of their Substance, some bereaved of their Native Soyl; other some departed this life under the hands of the Tormentor; some died in Banishment and never saw their Country again; these This throughout the East, chiefly at Con­stantinople. All by Macedonius. were their practises throughout all the Cities of the East, but espe­cially at Constantinople. This civil Plague and Persecution (afore­time being not so out of measure, though the least of it is too much) Macedonius did greatly augment, as soon as ever he had gotten the Bishoprick; but the Cities of Greece; Illirium, and of the other The West is at rest. parts tending toward the West, were void of all these tumults and calamities, because they agreed within themselves, and ob­served the Canons of the Nicene Council.

Hear a little further what Athanasius himself writes of what hor­rible Cap. 23. Athanasius Account of the sufferings at Alex­andria by Georgius. The Nicenians sought out for Execution. Their Church beset with Souldiers. practices were exercised at Alexandria, by Georgius the cal­led Arrian, who was there himself, and felt part of the lamenta­ble affliction,—There came (saith he) certain people that sought us out to execution, so that the ending was far worse then the beginning; the Souldiers unawares beset the Church; instead of devout service of God, they take in hand desperate Swords. Then Georgius that was sent by them from Cappadocia, coming in Lent time, added unto his own of the lewd practices which he learned of them; after that the Easter week was over, the Virgins began to be clapt in Prison, the The Virgins clapt in Prison. The Bishops bound; and led by Souldiers. The Fa­therless and Widows dispossessed. Families rifled. Pe [...]sons trailed. Doors nailed up. Bishops were bound and led by Bands of Souldiers; the Fatherless and Widows were dispossessed of their Houses; the Families were rifled, the Christians were violently trailed and lugged out of their Houses; their doors were nailed up; the Clergy mens Brethren were in great danger of their lives for their Brethren sake: These things seemed very grievous; but the afterclaps were far worse; the week after Whit­suntide the people did fast, they got them therefore into the Churchyard [Page 86] to pray, because they all abborred the Communion of Georgius; but Beset in their Church­yards by a Troop of Souldie [...]s. when this passing lewd man understood of it, be stirred up against them one Sebasteanus a Captain, which also was a Manichee; he forthwith, together with a great Troop of Souldiers all in Armour, having na­ked Swords in their hands, Bows and Arrows prepared, ran upon the The people ran upon. people as they were praying on the Sunday; When he found there but a few, (for the hour being past, the greater part was gone away) he committed such heinous acts as became very well his person: He set on fire a great company of Faggots, he made the Virgins to stand The Virgins made to stand near to a burn­ing flame. nigh the burning flame; he went about to constrain them to confess the Arrian Faith: but when he perceived they would not yeeld, and that they despised the burning heat of that horrible fire, he stripped them Then stripped naked, and beaten because they would not re­cant Forty scourged with twigs of Palm Trees newly gathered. The terribleness of that new torment. stark naked, he buffeted them about the head and face, so that of a long while after they were scarce known of their own Friends. Moreover he took forty persons, and plagued them with a new kind of Torment never heard of before, their backs and sides were so scorched and rent with Palm Twigs newly pluckt off the Trees, having on their pricking knobs, that divers, because of the stumps that stuck in the flesh of their backs, were constrained oftentimes to repair unto Chy­rurgions; other some not able to endure such terrible pain, died of their Wounds. As many of the men as remained yet alive, together The remainder alive of Men and Virgins, banished. The bodies of the dead not suffered to be buried. with the Virgins, were exiled, and led by the Souldiers to Oasis. The dead Carkasses, not yet fully cold, were denied the Friends of the de­ceased, being thrown here and there, and lying unburied (for that liked them best) the Souldiers hid them, as if they had not been faul­ty in committing such horrible crimes; this did they, having their minds overshadowed with frantick Heresie. And when as the dear Friends and Familiars of the dead rejoyced at the bold protestation of their Faith, yet sorrowed because their Carkasses were not covered with earth; the savage impiety, and beastly cruelty of the Souldiers, revealed it self with a greater shame and infamy. Moreover they banish forthwith certain Bishops of Egypt and Libia, (viz.) sixteen, Sixteen Bishops ba­nished of Egypt and Libia. whose names he reckons up; these being bereaved of their native Soyl, they handled so roughly, that some of them died by the way, some other in exile never returning again: They put to death above thirty Thirty Bishops put to death. Bishops; they followed the steps of the wicked Achab, employing all their care and industry for the rooting out of the Truth from the face of the Earth:—Thus far Athanasius.

The Emperor with his Army came to Illyrium, where Bretani­on Constantius with his Army comes to Illyri­um. Bretanion & he parly. The Souldiers brought over from Bretanion to Constantius. was proclaimed Emperor; as soon as he came to Syrmium, Truce being made, they came to Parly, in which time Constantius endeavoured to win over the Souldiers that had proclaimed Bre­tanion, who refused him for their Emperor; which being done, they proclaimed Constantius alone, both their Augustus, their King, They proclaim Con­stantius Emperor. and Emperor: Bretanton seeing himself betrayed (for there was no mention of his Name in the Proclamation) fell down prostrate at Constantius feet, and craved for mercy; Constantius taking from Bretanion begs mercy. him his Princely Robe and Scepter, lifted him up by the hand ve­ry courteously, and exhorted him to live a peaceable and quiet life as a private man; saying further, That it was fitter for such [Page 87] an old man as he was to embrace a trade of life that were free from all He sends him into [...] private life; b [...]a [...]s his charge. trouble, than to gape after a vain title of Honour, full of disquiet­ness and molestation. Constantius commanded all charges to be born him out of the Publick, and wrote him several Letters to Prousa a City in Bythinia, where he made his abode, signifying Writes to him, blames his unadvisedness that he had not given him­self that liberty which he had done to ano­ther, viz. to live pri­vately. what singular pleasure he had done him in ridding him from cares and troubles; shewing also what misery oft-times befalls to Reign and Go­vernment, and that for his own part he had done unadvisedly in not giving to himself that which he granted to another.

These things being finished, Constantius made Gallus his Cozen Cap. 24. Gallus made Caesar by Constantius, and sent into the East. Other Captains against Mag­nentius. He remains at Sirmium German, Caesar, sent him to Antioch in Syria, to keep those parts of the Empire which lay in the East: Other Captains he sent with great power against Magnentius, himself remaining at Syrmium, where Photinus aforesaid being Superintendant of that Church, having broached an Opinion, (as hath been declared) That the Son of God was only man: About which there was a great tumult, and much trouble arose; he summoned a Council thither, who Anno. 355. Has a Council there, and deposes Photinus. deposed Photinus; It was held in the year 355. And then ano­ther form of Faith was agreed on; And because there was great contention about the understanding of the Word which the La­tines call Substantia, and the Grecians [...], about the equality, The word Substance put out of the Creed. or as they call it, the Unity of Substance. They decreed, That thenceforth the controversie should not once be remembred; That the Church of God should no longer be troubled with the Interpretation thereof, and that for two causes; First, Because the Scriptures of The Causes thereof. God made no mention thereof; Next, Because the Interpretation there­of exceeded the sence and capacity of man: for the Holy Scriptures testifie that no man was able to set forth the Generation of the Son in these words,—His Generation who shall be able to declare? Isa. 53.

Much more is rehearsed as the Ground or Reason of their leav­ing Observations there­upon. out that clause of one Substance, about which such tumults and divisions had been raised, so much blood spilt, and torments ex­ercised, even Christian by Christian, and other grievous sufferings already rehearsed, which having wearied themselves with, whe­ther it were this or that in signification, they will have it left out; and no more remembred, judging themselves, as having erred from Scripture in the thing which had no such word, and in med­ling with that, or to give account of that which none can declare, and so, as intruding into things that are not revealed; So the righ­teous Judgment of God comes at length to be made manifest, after man having tired himself in his way of blood, and mischief com­ing to be weary, sees it time to give over, and so judgeth and condemns himself, wherein he had judged and destroyed ano­ther. Photinus is put to dispute his Opinion: the Bishops are pre­sent, Photi [...]s put to dis­pute his Opinion. Bisilius undertakes him. He is foiled. And banished. by the command of the Emperor, and at his request, of Se­nators not a few, Basilius undertakes him and gives him the foil, so Photinus is banished.

This form of Faith was wrote in the Latin Tongue, which af­terwards The new Creed dislike because wrote in the Latin Tongue. The Papers called in by threats. misliking, they called in the Papers, and when they could not get them all in, the Emperor by his Edicts, threatned [Page 88] with punishments those who did it not, but it could not a­vail. Prev [...]il not.

Yet Osius Bishop of Corduba in Spain, who was present at this Cap. 22. Osius Bishop of Cordu­ba in Spain, called from exile to this Council, scourged for not con­senting, and wrack't till he did. Council, and summoned thither by the Emperor, though an ex­ile by reason of those called Arrians, not consenting unto this Creed, or the form of Faith agreed on at this Council, had his sides scourged, and his members put upon the Wrack, and so constrained to consent thereunto, which was thought to be the doings of the Emperor, who caused him to be cited there; and The causes wherefore force a perswasive Argument. being there, would have him subscribe it, that the Acts of that Council might have the more force and credit. A perswasive Argu­ments.

Magnentius having in the mean time taken Rome, and put to Cap. [...]7: Magnentius takes Rome; puts many Se­nators to death, and other people. Is overthrown, and runs away, slayes his Mother, his Brother made Cesar, and him­self. Decennius another Brother hangs himself death many of the Senators, and abundance of the common peo­ple, Constantius abiding still at Sirmium, sends a great power against him, who at length overthrew him; he was so close beset, that he ran away alone to Lyons, for the Engagement was in France, where first of all he slew his Mother, next his Brother, whom he had created Caesar, then he murdered himself; not long after which, Decennius another Brother of Magnentius, hanged himself; yet the Common Wealth was not in quiet, but another Tyrant steps up to give him trouble, that troubled the Earth because of the Conscience of men unto God, Sylvanus by name, who gave Silvanus another Ty­rant arises in France. He is soon disparch't. The Jews in Diocesa­rea rise against the Romans. Gallus overthrows them. Levels the City with the ground. Plots against Constanti­us. He takes his head off, and makes Julia­nus his Brother Cesar in his place. He is sent into France. Constantius falls to persecuting, his trou­bles being fallen. Summons a Council into Italy, being remo­ved to Rome. Julius Bishop of Rome dies, Liberius succeeds. Cap. 28. Aetius and his Heresie comes forth. The Rea­sons why he severed from A [...]ius, though an Arian. His Heresie. disquiet in France; but he was soon dispatch't out of the way: Then the Jews made a stir in the East, those inhabiting Dtocaesa­rea in Palestina, took Arms against the Romans, and invaided the Neighbouring Regions, whom Gallus discomfited, and laid the City even with the ground: Gallus also swelled in his mind against Constantius, and plotted against him, whose head Constantius caused to be taken off his shoulders, and made Julianus the Brother of Gallus, Caesar in his room, whom he sent into France against (as the Historian calls them) the Barbarians.

Constantius being rid of these present mischiefs or troubles, turns himself against the Church of God; removing from Sirmium to Rome, he calls a Council, and requires several Bishops from the East to repair to Italy, during which time Julius aforesaid died, and Liberius came in his room.

About this time Aetius came forth, who though he was coun­ted an Arrian, yet he severed himself from Arius, because they admitted Arius into Communion, who had so dissembled with the Emperor, in signing and swearing the Nicene Creed, as aforesaid. The History saith, He could not understand that there was an unbegotten birth, or bow to imagine that the begotten could be eternal with the begetter. Whereupon he was called the Atheist, He is called the Athe­ist, his followers Euno­mians. Observations upon the several Here­sies of Aetius, & Arius and what they speak. and those that went after him were afterwards called Eunomians. So here are three things in which the Christians came principally to be divided. The first, The Faith (so tearmed) of one Sub­stance. Next, The Opinion of Arius. Then this of Aetius. The first (as I have said) thinks of God, according to a Natu­ral Generation. The second, Judges that such a Natural Gene­ration [Page 89] is not God. The third, That there is no God: For if that were not the Son of God, which Mary, being overshadowed of the holy Ghost, bore, according to an eternal Generation, then there is no God; For, of the Son, he saith, Thy Throne, O God, endures for ever; the Scepter of thy Kingdom is a Scepter of Righteousness, &c. Heb. 18. But no God he is, if that Holy Thing that was born of Mary was not God; and if that Holy Thing that was born of Mary was not God, then there is no God: For, the Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool, saith David, Psalm. 110. 1. And there be that are called gods, whether in Heaven or in Earth, (as there be gods many, and lords many) but unto us there is but one God, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him, 1 Cor. 8. 5, 6. And all are yours, and you are Christs, and Christ is Gods, 1 Cor. 3. 22, 23. And, For this purpose the Son of God was manifest, that he might destroy the works of the Devil, 1 John 3. 8. And, Great is the Mystery of Godliness; God was manifest in the flesh, 1 Tim. 3. And if he were not the Son of God, then is your Faith vain, and ye are yet in your sins; For, He became the Author of Eternal Salvation to as many as obey him, yea, even to as many as believe in his Name, Heb. 5. 9. And if he be not God, how can his Name be be­lieved in? for the Name of God is Power; and how can that which hath not power be the Author of Eternal Salvation? and what obedience due where there is no power? These things are manifest; Now to re­turn to the History.

The Emperors Edict was for the Council to meet at Millain, Cap. 29: The Council is at Millain; from the East many Bishops came not, because of the length of the way. Three hund [...]ed Bi­shops of the West came. The East Bishops re­quire Sentence against Athanasius. The Western decline it. Make their Speech. whither very many Bishops from the East could not come, because of the length of the way; but of the Western there were to the number of three hundred: Being come together, the Bishops of the East in the first place require that Sentence by their gene­ral consent should be pronounced against Athanasius, thinking thereby to stop all gaps for his return to Alexandria: The Bishops of the West perceiving that the Bishops of the East bent all their might to enact a Decree against Athanasius, for no other purpose, but to overthrow the true Faith, they stood up and cried, That in so doing the Christian Religion should be cancelled by the means of their deceitful and fraudulent Treachery: That the Crimes laid to Athanasius his charge, were false reports, and meer slanders; and that they had invented such things to deface the true and Catholick Faith. When they had ended these loud Speeches, the Council The Council ends. broke up.

The Emperor understanding this, commanded them forthwith The Emperor banishes the West Bishops. Summons another ge­neral Council. to Exile and Banishment, determining to summon another gene­ral Council, thinking thereby to bring them into Unity and Con­cord; which upon better consideration he laid down, perceiving it very hard to accomplish, by reason of the long Journeys from the East unto the West; so he divides them into two parts, the Divides the Council. Those present to meet a [...] Ariminum, the East at Ni [...]omedia. Neither agree amongst them­selves. Bishops then present to meet at Arminium in Italy, the Eastern at Nicomedia in Bythinia; yet he prospered not in his purpose, for neither Council agreed among themselves, but was divided into several Factions: A new Schism also arose among the Eastern at [Page 90] Selencia, a City of Isauria, Leontius that preferred Aetius afore­said, to be Deacon, being also dead; Eudoxius Bishop of Ger­manicia, a City in Syria, who was then at Rome, thought it high time for him to return, feigns a pretence to the Emperor, and gets a Pasport, and through the interest of the Emperors Chamberlains, creeps into the Bishoprick of Antioch: then seeks to restore Aeti­us Leontius getting into the Bishoprick of An­tioch, seeks to restore Aetius, but prevails not. again; summons a Council of Bishops to make him Deacon, but could not prevail: At Ariminum, the Eastern Bishops letting pass the business of Athanasius, without mentioning Ursacius and Valens aforesaid, who were observed still to lean to the stronger and surer side; first, Arrians, then Nicenians, now Arrians again, having others that joyned with them, affirmed, That all forms The East Bishops lay by all preceeding forms of Faith to be cancelled, and establish the Latin Paper-form of Faith now turned into Greek, which was made at Sirmium, and called in, with some additions. Observations here-upon. of Faith laid down in times past, were thenceforth to be cancelled, and that the new form of Faith published at Sirmium, a little before at the Council there, was to be confirmed, and gave forth a sheet of Paper which they had in their hands to be read. The second Creed written before at Sirmium, and suppressed there, (as I said before) was also read at this Council. See what divisions here is about forms of Faith, and how their Languages like Babel are divided, whilst they seek to bring that into Form which is everlasting, and so make a Law to worship it: What a do and clutter there was about the Creed containing the clause of one Substance, I have shewed before, up and down; now this, and now that, and then it must not be at all, but omitted; I mean that clause as hath been declared, and now all forms of Faith; But what is now produ­ced, must be cancelled, and that which themselves sought to sup­press the Copies of, must now be read, being translated out of the Latin into the Greek, it being before in Latin, and not so well liked of: So whilst men go about in the wisdom that perishes, And their confusion. to bring forth that which men have nothing to do to force, or compel, or enjoyn; see what confusion they bring forth, and the consequences thereof, blood, and torment, and fierce perse­cution: Behold how the Lord laughs them to scorn, and hath them in derision, and how their folly they bring forth, and hath left it for after Generations to see and consider.

Substance, Substantia; [...], the Greek and Latin of the same Sustantia and [...], the Latin & Greek for the English word Substance; what a do it made in the World as to the Creeds; word Substance, what a do it made, I have in part manifested; (for to speak all would seem endless) I do but touch at things, that in a series I may bring something reasonable to serve my purpose, (which as the end will produce) is of weight, and yet to many I may seem overlong, though upon due consideration I hope I shall be excused, and that seeing these things having not been before so produced, and the thing unto which I bring them being of greatest weight that can be thought of in the World, and even in the things that men hold, that it may be manifest how they run against the Lord, whilst they run against us in point of Worship, and forcing of Religion, which the whole series of History gives to understand; I say, I hope I shall be excused, as not having done amiss in bringing things thus together in the series of History; I say, what ado the words [...] and Substantia, the Greek and [Page 91] Latin of the word, in English called Substance, have made in the World, I have in part manifested, and how through disagreement it must be left out. Now here's a Creed after the demand of can­celling And at length is left out. Now the different translations of the same Creed, what that makes, and the conse­quences thereupon. all the other forms of Faith, upon the enjoyning of which, such multitudes of Christians were tormented and destroyed, and the Peace of the Empire broken, and War, and Earthquakes, and Pestilences, as the consequence from the hand of the Lord, where­in millions were undone and ruined; I say, all the other forms of Faith must be cancelled, at least it is so demanded, that this Creed, All must be cancelled, that the Greek Copy may stand of that Faith, which in Latin the form thereof is called in. which being wrote first in Latin, must be called in, but being now translated into Greek, must be read, as that which should suc­ceed.

Had it not been recorded, and that by men of that Age, and Considerations upon this. who in those things were concerned, & wrote, either as being eye Witnesses, or from them that were, it were hard to be believed, that so many, otherwise wise and learned grave men, should so extreamly be besotted to keep ado in matters of Faith, the highest thing as to God, to trifle, and (I may say) fool it in things of such weight, so as to become ridiculous, and a laughing-stock to Children: but this is the consequence, when men go out of their place to meddle with things which they have nothing to do with, and that are beyond their reach, in being definitive as to him, and the belief and worship of him, and the enjoyning thereof, who is Infinite, who is of a Spiritual Nature, who is a Spirit, and so is all that which relates to the Faith and Worship of him, and therefore ought no otherwise to be attempted, to be defined or enjoyned, but by the Spirit in Spiritual wayes and means, which cannot be confined, which is as the Wind which blows where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof (saith Christ) but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it geoth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit, John 3. 8.

The said Creed being read, those who liked not the Contents The Council hereup­on is divided. and Circumstances thereof, rose up and said,—We came not hi­ther as if be wanted Faith and Belief (for we retain that Faith which What the opposite party said. we learned from the beginuing) but we are come to withstand novel­ties, if ought be practised prejudicial to the same. And so they And how they bad the Greek-Copy-men curse Arius: bad them curse and renounce the Heresie of Arius, if it were otherwise, in such wise as the old and antient Canon of the Church hath banished all heretical & blasphemous Doctrines. It is apparent And place the troubles of the World on the foot of his Opinions. The others withstand them. The Unity is broken. Some cleave to the Greek-Copy-form of Faith. (said they) to the whole World, what tumults and troubles the blasphe­mous Opinions of Arius, hath raised even unto this day in the Church of God. Ursacius, Valens, and the rest accepted not of this, where­upon (saith the History) the bond of Unity retained in the Church of God, was broken asunder; Their men cleaved unto such things as the Council of Ariminum had decreed, (I think it should be Sirmium, where the form was agreed; for this Council seems to have agreed on nothing but only to divide) the other confirmed the Canons of the Nicene Council, and derided the Others to the Nicene, and deride the other, Athanasius his Pasquil on the Greek-Copy-Faith. Contents of the Creed that was then read. Athanasius also in a Letter to his Friends, scoffs them exceedingly in that they began [Page 92] their Creed, or the Creed began thus, In the presence of Constantius, And its date of the Consuls then, and the name of their Lord the Em­peror, the Month, & the day of the month. our Liege Lord Flavius, Eusebius, and Hypacius, renowned Consuls, the Eleventh Kalends of June; We believe in one onely True God, &c. Which he saith was never heard of before among Christians, when they had written such things as they thought necessary to be believed of them; they (saith he) laid down the Consuls, the month, and the day, that it might easily appear unto all wise men, their Faith, not to have been be­fore the Reign of Constantius. Furthermore (saith he) when they take Pen in hand to pronounce what they think of the Lord, they name ano­ther Lord, to wit, Constantius, for it was he that opened the gap (saith he) into impiety; and whilst they denied the Son of God to be Eternal, (for those enemies of Christ, saith he, fell into such outragious impiety) they intituled the Emperor to be Sempeternal, or Everlasting. Then whereas they might pretend the example of the Prophets, who name themselves to have prophesied in such and such a Kings Reign, as their And his an­swering the case of the Prophets, as to the times mentioned of their pro­phesie. President; They (saith he) are fouly deceived, and bewray every one his own ignorance and folly; for though the Prophets (saith he) made mention of the times they lived in, yet were they not the first founders of the Service of God, and Sacred Religion, it was long (saith he) be­fore their times, it was from everlasting, it was before the Foundations of the World were laid, the which verily God himself (saith he) by Christ hath prepared for us; The times when their Faith had their Ori­ginal, they did not signifie, for there had been faithful men long before them, for those were the dayes when such promises of God, and Pro­phesies of things to come were preached by them: Moreover (saith he) in the aforesaid specified times, their Faith had not her first Foundation and beginning, but the Prophers themselves; but these our Southsayers neither writing of Stories, neither prophesying of things to come, do write their Catholick Faith was published, adding immediately thereun­to the times of the Consuls, the month of the year, and the day of the week; Even as the Holy Men of God (saith he) have declared both the times of the matters they wrote of, and the years of their own Ministry; so these men have noted unto us the dayes when their Faith began: and as they (saith he) took Maxilla and Montanus for their Lord; so these men instead of Christ have chosen Constantius: and so in many other ex­pressions, he goes on to reflect these things upon them, which I think too long to mention, though hitherto I judge (and I hope it will be so thought) what is said to be convenient.

Well, the issue of this Council was, they deposed Valens, Ur­sacius, Valens, Ʋrsacius, and four more chief Bish. deposed, for not cur­sing the Heresie of Arius. They run to the Emperor. The others write to the Emperor, and send twenty Bishops there­with. Auxentius, Germanius, Cajus, and Demophulus, (the chief men in this matter) because they refused to renounce and accurse the heresie of Arius, who taking it impatiently, run unto the Em­peror, and shew him the form of Faith read in the Council; the Council also wrote unto the Emperor an Epistle, wherein they signified unto him what they had decreed, and sent certain twenty Bishops therewith to know his pleasure, who kept them there long, for he stomached wonderfully the proceedings of the Coun­cil, having been infected (as the History saith) with the Arrian Opinion; the other being before, having also discredited the They are detained and slighted. Council with the Emperor; so at length he sent his Answer, or [Page 93] rather displeasure by other hands to the Council, and advanced The others advanced. Valens and Ursacius into honour and estimation.

The Emperor having delayed the return of the Bishops, and The Council wear [...] with attendance. slighted them, though in his Letters he pretended, that being engaged or occupied with the expedition he made against the Barbarians (for he had then new troubles) was the reason, because (saith he) requisite it is (as you know very well) for them that will deal in matters of Religion, to be void of all care Send again to the Em­peror their protestati­on not to shrink from their sentence. Intreat a dismiss, Which after long waiting, coming not, and troublesome Affairs. The Council return him their protesta­tion and assurance, That they would in no wise shrink from their sentence and determination: And therefore beseech him to dismiss them, That so many Churches might not so long be bereaved of their Bishops; And that they might be dispatched home before the cold nip­ping Winter. Upon, or for his Answer unto which, they having waited some while longer, and nothing coming, they departed They depart. every one to his own home.

Hereupon the Emperor (being determined to sow the Arrian The Emperor inter­prets it Heresie (saith the History) throughout every Church, took hereby occasion at the Bishops return to bring about what was in his heart, and which he had endeavoured by all means possible to prefer every where, and accomplish; so he said, That in con­tempt As done in contempt and despight of him. and despight of him, and contrary to his will, they had dissolved the Council, and gave Ursacius Authority freely at his Impowers Ʋrsacius to send into Italy. The Faith read at Ari­minum according to the Greek, and to de­pose the Nonsubscri­bers thereunto. Liberius Bish. of Rome presently deposed, and Felix an Arian-Dea­con placed in his stead The People rise, force Felix out. will and pleasure to practise all mischiefs against the Churches of God, and commanded him moreover to send unto the Churches of Italy, the Faith that was read at the Council of Ariminum, and to depose all such as would not subscribe unto the same.

Liberius Bishop of Rome was presently deposed, because he would not sign thereunto; and Felix Deacon of the said Church, being an Arrian, forced into the Bishoprick, though afterwards Liberius was returned from his Exile, and placed in the Bishop­rick, because of the tumults the people having been all in an up­roar, and thrust Felix out of the Church. The Emperor by Constrain the Empe­ror to send for Liberi­us from Exile, and place him in again. reason of these things, being constrained against his will to agree thereunto.

By reason of these things the whole Western parts of the World Great tumults and dis­cords, the consequence in the West of these alterations, many be­ing ex [...]ed, and others put in their places. Ʋrsacius departs to Nice in Thracia; Calls a Council▪ Ratifies the form of Faith read at Ariminum, transla [...]ed into Greek, and flou­rished with glorious Titles. were in great tumults and discords, whilst some were by force deposed and sent into Exile, and others put into their rooms; which Ursacius having effected, he took his Journey into the East, and got him to the City of Nice in Thrasia, where having continued a long while, he summoned a Council, and endeavou­red to ratifie the form of Faith that was read at Ariminum, calling it the Nicene Faith, having translated it into the Greek Tongue; To publish, and set forth the same with glorious Titles, as agreed upon by a general Council, which he so called, to the intent that it might prove a snare to the ignorant rude and simple people, His design therein to ensnare the simple with the thoughts that it was the old Nicene Fai [...]h The de­ceit manifested, and they laught at. who verily thought that it was the same Faith which of old was confirmed at Nice, a City in Bithinia; But it was not long ere this treachery was made manifest, and those who did it, were laught at for their labour.

And not onely in the West, but also (and chiefly) in the East The East filled with tumults, slaughters, &c were there great tumults, slaughters, and destruction; for the Eastern Bishops that were inclined to Arius, being swoln with pride and confidence, by reason of the Emperors Edicts, presumed Maximus Bish. of Rome deposed, in order to the Summoning of a Council, which was determined. Cyrillus put in his room. Macedonius and his outrages. with great boldness to bring their purpose to effect. Maximus Bi­shop of Rome they depose (before the summoning of a Council, which a Council to summon they concluded on, the better to car­ry on what they intended) and put Cyrillus in his room; and ma­ny outrages were committed, especially by Macedonius Bishop of Constantinople, of whom I have often spoken, and shall now fur­ther give this particular account.

He made Eleusius Bishop of Cizicum, and Marathonius some­time He makes Eleusius Bi­shop of Cizicum. Marathonius of Nico­media. He thrusts out the very Novations, and torments them. his Deacon, Bishop of Nicomedia: This as to the Countries and Cities bordering about Constantinople, the better to serve his intended purpose; he thrust out of the Church not only such as seemed to vary from him in the Council, but also the Novations, because they imbraced the Faith of one Substance, and cruelly tormented them; their Bishop Agelius was forced to flie for his Their Bishop Agelius forced to flie for his life. Many notable men apprehended, and grievously plagued for not communicating with the Arrians. After other torments, their mouths forced open, and gagged, and the mysteries pop't in. Women and Children dragged to their Com­munion. The refusers, &c. whipt, imprison­ed; Women laid in Chests, and their Brests sawed of at the Lids. life; many excellent and notable men (saith the History) were then apprehended, and grievously plagued, because they refused to be partakers of their Communion: Yea, after their being tor­mented, they were constrained by force to partake thereof, for they stretched wide and open, and gagged their mouths, and so popped in (as the History hath it) the mysteries, which was more grievous to such then all their torments: They trailed Women and Children by main force to their Communion; if any refused, or gainsaid their doings, immediately they were scourged, after stripes, imprisoned, and in the end compelled to endure more bitter torments: Of the Women that refused to communicate with them, some were laid along in Chests, and at the lids their Brests sawed off, (new-found torments never found among the Heathens, but now practised by those which professed Christianity) some The Paps of others burned with searing Irons, and roasted hot Eggs. others had their Paps burned with searing Irons, glowing hot, and with Eggs laid thereunto, that were rosted so hard, that they scalded for heat; this as an instance of some of their torments. Alexander Paphlagon, a man very famous for a severe and strait Alexander Paphlagon, scourged and tormen­ted. Of which he died in Prison. kind of life, was imprisoned and scourged, and endured many other torments, who after the grievous lashes of the Whip, died in Prison. Auxanon a very old man, a Novation, endured very Auxanon an aged No­vation, sorely scourg­ed and tormented. many torments with him, and scourgings, as he had suffered much before he entred into Orders: He destroyed not onely other Churches (saith the History) in other Cities, but also the Nova­tion The Novation Church in Constantinople thrown to the ground, And all other Nicenian Churches, by the Em­perors Edict. Church within the City of Constantinople. It was proclaimed by the Edict of the Emperor, and the cruelty of Macedonius, (saith it) That the Churches of such as embraced the Faith of one Substance, should be thrown to the ground, even to the Foundations; which was soon put in execution: The true Catholicks (saith the History) and the Novations were alike handled together. These An account of the No­vations Opinion, and wherefore they were called so. Novations were called so, because they denyed that those who sacrificed to Idols, and had recanted, should not be admitted [Page 95] Communion, although they repented. Novatus was the head of them, from whom they received their Name, or that from whence the tearm Novation came; and this not only in Constanti­nople, but in all other places they were very friendly, and kept together, though in that point they differed. Eleusius of Cizicum Elusius at Cizicum fol­lows the steps of Ma­cedonius. Afflicts the Novations, and the others. proceeded in the steps of Macedonius, laid the Novation Church there even with the ground, and arming himself every where a­gainst the other Christians, he afflicted them every where, and tormented them grievously, in which Macedonius gave the last Macedonius afflsts, stroke and final conclusion; for there being many in Paphlagonia and Montinium of the Novation Opinion, which by Ecclesiastical Authority could not commodiously be removed, he procured of the Emperor four Bands of Souldiers, whom those of Montinium Brings four Bands of Souldiers on those of Montinium. They go against the Souldiers. Slay down the Soul­diers. went against with long Hedging-Bills, Axes, and rusty Armour, and joyning Battle, coming to Handy-gripes, are said to have slain down the Souldiers every one, a few only excepted, though they came in glittering Array, thinking to have afrighted them, with the loss of many of themselves. These Hostile proceedings procured the enmity and ill-will of many against Macedonius, who Macedonius hated, hated these doings, and not only among them, who because of these things bore incurable Wounds, but of his near Friends and Familiars, yea of the Emperor himself, whose displeasure he pro­cured, Even by the Emperor. The reasons thereof. and whose mind was alienated from him, partly for these things, & partly for what follows; he went about to pull down the Temple where the Tomb of Constantine the Emperor lay, which He removes Constan­tines bones. lest the falling of the Temple should deface, he endeavoured to re­move the Emperors bones; this his enterprize the people withstood as unlawful; and being in a manner nothing less then the digging him out of his Grave; the people in this were divided, some were against it, as I have said, and these were those that held the Faith The people divided thereabouts. of one Substance; others said, This wicked deed might lawfully be done, and these were such as followed Arius. Macedonius heeding not the gain-sayers, removed the Corps into the Church where Acatius the Martyr was buried; this was no sooner done, but the multitude of the contrary side ran thither in all haste, and They rise and fight. setting themselves one against another, went together by the Ears, upon which so great a slaughter proceeded, that the Body of the The body of that Church floated with blood. The way filled with blood and dead Carkasses. Church was a float with streams of blood, and yet not only there, but from the Porch unto the Street the way was all blood and dead Carkasses crossing one another; which lamentable and woful Spectacle wonderfully incensed the Emperor against them, partly for that he had murdered so many men, and partly for presuming without his consent to translate his Fathers Bones. Thus far of Macedonius in this place, and the cruelties that were the conse­quence of this new form of Faith, and the Emperors Edicts to inforce it as aforesaid. Macedonius shortly after was deprived of He is afterwards de­posed. his Bishoprick, and received no small punishment for so great an offence. The Emperor after he had committed the Government of the West unto Julianus, whom he made Caesar, called after­wards [Page 96] the Apostate, he returned into the East. Thus much of these things.

Now concerning the Council, though it pleased the Emperor The Council ordered to meet at Nicomedia. The Earthquake pre­vented it. best that it should meet at Nicomedia, yet the great Earthquake (for there were terrible significations of the displeasure of the Lord in those dayes, because of the things that were done, though they would take no notice thereof) which shook the Countrey, and overthrew Nicomedia; Nice was then thought of, Which overthrew Nicomedia. but being very far, they appointed to meet at Tarsus a City of Cilicia; and when they could neither agree upon that, they assemble at Selusia a City of Isauria, called Rough, where met one They meet at Seleusia, 160. Bishops, then they agree not. hundred and threescore Bishops, but neither could this Council agree, being divided, some for examining the lives of Cyrillus Bi­shop of Jerusalem, Eustathius Bishop of Sebastia in Armenia, and divers others who had hainous crimes laid to their charge; others to reason and question concerning the Faith; and Tholeonas, who Freedom of proposi­tion and speech at first given by Tholeonas the Emperors Lieutenant or President. The others restrain it till Macedon. and Basi­lius came. Who for fear of being accused, absented themselves. The Council divided, and how. being in great favour with the Court, proposed at first free liberty (for by the Emperors Commandment in his hearing they should reason of the Faith) for every one freely to propose what seemed to him best; yet those present affirmed it was not lawful to call any thing into question, before they came, whose presence was re­quired in the Council, which were Macedonius aforesaid, and Basilius Bishop of Ancyra, who mistrusting their cause, and suspect­ing they should be accused of heinous crimes, absented them­selves on set purpose. So they were divided into two Factions; When that side prevailed that would reason concerning matters of Faith, the Complices of Acacius Bishop of Cesarea, moved, that the Nicene Creed should be abrogated, (which was the first Faction) and that a new form of Faith be laid down, (so Faiths Faiths turned up and down, [...]as the Wind doth Weathercocks. are turned up and down as the Wind doth Weathercocks): Geor­gius Bishop of Laodicea in Syria, and the others with him, which was the greater number, and the other Faction approved all other things of the Council of Nice, the clause of one Substance onely laid aside: And whilst they thus brawled together (saith the Hi­story) They brawl from morning to night. from morning to night; Silvanus Bishop of Tarsus cryed out, That it was not their part to lay down a new form of Faith, but to retain inviolable that which was decided at Antioch, at the dedica­tion of the Church. Presently Acacius and his party rising up, got them away, who being gone, the Creed concluded on at Antioch, The Creed at Antioch concluded on: the Council dissolved. They meet in the Church at Seleucia, and barring the doors, sign the Creed. was read, and immediately the Council was dissolved. The day after, meeting in the Church of Seleucia, they bar the doors, and ratifie with their Subscription the form of Faith which was read the day before in their stead who were sent; their Readers and Deacons subscribed, for they had signified before that they would by their Deputies approve the aforesaid Creed.

Here is a great clutter about Creeds, attended with bloody and Creeds, and their clut­ter, and bloody con­sequences. The reason & ground of the inserting of these things. terrible consequences, which is something indeed to me to draw forth, and it may prove tedious to the Reader, but being inga­ged, as I have shewed, in a matter of this importance, I cannot pass them by, but in the way of a Chronologie to draw what is [Page 97] convenient to be said hereunto before the Reader.

This was the fruit of the first dayes sitting of the Council; the Cap. 23: The first dayes work found fault with, be­cause the doors were shut by Acacius and his Complices, because done in hucker-muck­er, who sought to introduce a Faith of his own; which he read in the presence of the Emperors Presi­dents. This was the se­cond dayes work. next day Acacius and his Complices found great fault with the Canons of that Council, because subscribed when the doors were shut. And, saith he, the things which are done in hucker mucker, as they ought not to be approved, so are they not void of suspition.—This he said, because he had another form of Faith ready to be offered, which he read in the presence of Lauricius and Leonas, which were noble Men, and appointed for this Council: This bent his whole might to have only the same confirmed. No­thing besides this was done the second day of the Council.

The third day Leonas went about to bring both parties together, Leonas the President seeks to bring all to­gether on the third day, on which Mace­donius and Basilius appear. Acacius, &c. refuse to appear, till they were put out, being formerly depo­sed; they are put out. Leonas proposes Aca­cius his Book. at which time Mecedonius and Basilius were present: These being present, Acacius his Confederates would not appear, but said, It was requisite they should be banished the Assembly, who of late had been deposed, and then also were accused. These prevail­ing, the accused left the Council, whom Acacius and his Compa­ny succeeded: Then Leonas stood up and said, Acacius had pre­sented him with a Book; yet knew they not that it was a form of Faith, which sometimes privily, and sometimes openly and plain­ly confuted the Opinion of the contrary part, which they giving diligent ear unto, all being silent, thinking nothing less but this had been a form of Faith. At length Acacius read his own Creed, Acacius reads his own Faith. The pream­bulatory protestation. with a kind of preambulatory protestation in the beginning there­of.—We (saith he) who by the Emperors Edict met yesterday, that is the fifth of the Calends of October, in Seleucia, in Isauria, have laboured with all might possible to continue unity and agreement in the Church of God, to dispute and reason of the Faith, according to the sacred testimonies of the Prophets and Evangelists, with modest and quiet minds, as the most virtuous Emperor Constantius hath given in charge, and to conclude nothing for Canons of the Church, which might be found contrary to the Holy Scriptures; but seeing there were such kind of men at the Council which railed at some, shut up some others mouths, forbad those to speak, excluded others from their company, joyned with them out of divers Provinces, certain deposed and excluded persons, and entertained them contrary to the old Canon of the Church: The Council (as Lauritius the most valiant Captain saw (more is the pitty) with his own eyes) was all set on tumult and grievous dissen­tion. We have spoken these things to the end that you may understand we reject not the form of Faith that was published at the dedication at Antioch, &c. And so goes on and reads his Creed, whereunto he He and his party sub­scribes his Creed. and his party subscribed.

Which being read, Sophronius Bishop of Pompeyopolis in Pyhlo­gonia, It's opposed by So­phronius his Speech. stood up and spake after this manner,—If that the new de­vices, and daily invention of your brains be laid down for Creeds, it cannot otherwise fall out, but that shortly we shall be found without any one grain of Faith.—In my Opinion (saith the Historian) if The Historians Opini­on upon these confu­sions. that his Ancestors, and such as lived then with him, had so setled thetr minds, as touching the Nicene Council, all these stirs and tumults had been quite taken away, all this hurly-burly, this rash [Page 98] and unadvised sedition had never reigned in the Church; but to what pass (saith he) things are now come, let them judge that can better discern and give sentence thereof. When they had rea­soned to and fro of this matter, and of them that were accused, and had brawled together a long while, (as saith the History) at last the Council brake up. The Council breaks up

The fourth day they assembled again, and afresh they chide They chide afresh the fourth day. Acacius his Speech in behalf of his Faith. one another; in circumstance of talk, Acacius gave forth this Verdict following,—If the Nicene Creed was once altered of old, and afterwards often, what can you say to the contrary, but that a new form of Faith, without any prejudice at all, might be established of us?—Eleusius made answer, We are not come to this Assembly for The answer thereunto by Eleusius. to learn that which we have learned before, neither to receive the Faith we have not received before, but to walk in the Faith of our Forefa­thers, and not fall from the same unto our lives end. But a man may here reply, and say thus, (saith the Historian) O Eleusius! The Historians return upon Eleusius. How calledst thou such as assembled at Antioch, Fathers, and yet denyest their Ancestors to be Fathers? For the Bishops of Nice, and the establishers of one Substance, ought more properly to be called Fathers, partly for that they were more antient, and part­ly also because the Bishops at Antioch were found to be such as cut their Fathers throats; these men of their Progeny without good advisement do tread the steps of Murderers: And how, I beseech you (saith he) do they allow of their electing and laying on of hands as sufficient and lawful, when as they cancel their Faith, and abrogate their Canons, for imperfect and corrupt Doctrines. If they had not the Holy Ghost, which lighteth upon every one that enters into Holy Orders; these men receive not the Function of Priesthood, for how can they receive of them which had it not to give? These things in my Opinion (saith he) may very well be urged against Eleusius.

Yet again, another controversie arose among them. Whereas Another controversie concerning part of Acacius Creed, viz. The Son of God be­ing like unto the Fa­ther. It is demanded how? It is answered. Acacius his Creed had affirmed, That the Son of God was like unto the Father. It was demanded, Wherein the Son was like unto the Father? No, Arcacius answers, not in Substance, but onely in Will and Mind.—The others replyed, That he was like unto the Fa­ther in Substance. And of this question all that day they reasoned. All the day is held with it. Acacius confuted. He is reasoned with concerning his Books. His answer. Acacius being confuted, when it was demanded of him, Why in his Books he had avouched and written the Son in all things to be like unto the Father, and now denyed that the Son was of one Substance with the Father? Made answer, No man that ever was, either of old time, or late dayes, is wont to be tryed by the Books that he wrote.—And this is the Harmony which the Councils and the Fathers, so Observations upon the whole. called, have had as to the Truth; which is the consequence of all that which meddles with the Faith and Worship of God, with the things that are of Man, the wisdom of the Wise, which (he saith) he will destroy, and will bring to nothing the understanding of the Prudent, That no flesh may glory in his presence. 1 Cor. 1. 14. For, Where is the Wise? Where is the Scribe? Where is the Di­sputer of this World? For after that, in the wisdom of God, the World [Page 99] by wisdom knew not God, vers. 20. And, Father, I thank thee, Lord of Heaven and Earth, that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and revealed them unto Babes; even so Father, for so it seemed good in thy sight, Mat. 11. 25. And these things are manifest in these Disputations, which hath produced, as is signi­fied to the Reader.

When they had sifted out this question diligently on both sides, When yet they could not agree, Leon as dissolves the Council. and could not agree, Leonas rose up and dissolved the Council: And this was the end of the Council held at Seleusia. The next day when they made suit to him to prorogue the Council, he Refuses to hear them the next day: And bids them go home and brawl in their own Churches. His Speech. would not sit with them again, but told them flatly, That the Em­peror had sent him to be present at a uniform and peaceable Council; But insomuch that divers of you are at discord and debate among your selves, I cannot away (saith he) with your Company; go your wayes therefore daily, and brawl ye at home in your own Churches.

This being done, (saith the History) the conspiracy of Acaci­us, The Faction of Acaci­us, absent themselves. supposing now that they had got their desired excuse, absented themselves, and would not shew their faces at the Council; The The others meet and summon Acacius to decide Cyrils matters. others met again at the Church, and summoned Acacius with his Company to decide Cyrillus his matter, who was Bishop of Jerusa­lem, who had been accused and deposed his Bishoprick, for what cause the History maketh not mention; and being called to purge himself, absented for the space of two whole years, thinking there­by to escape, and the crime to be forgotten: as soon as he was de­parted, Cyril appeals to the Judges of the High Court. Constantius admits it. The first President of appealing from the Ecclesiastical Canon. he appealed unto the Judges of the Higher Court; Con­stantine the Emperor admitted the appeal; he was the first of all, and alone, that gave forth a President prejudicial to the practice of the Ecclesiastical Canon, as if the matter had been to be decided before Lay Judges; At length he came to this Council to have his Cause heard, and therefore the Bishops sent for Acacius and his Company, to the end they might not only hear Cyrillus, but also examine such as had been accused, and were fled to the faction of Acacius; but when they had often cited them, and they appeared Acacius is deposed, and many Bishops more. not; they deposed Acacius himself, and Georgius Bishop of Alex­andria. Ursacius Bishop of Tyre, Theodorus Bishop of Cheteraphon a City of Phrygia, Theodosius Bishop of Philadelphia in Lydia, Eva­grius Bishop of the Isle Miletene, Theontius Bishop of Trypolis in Lydia, and Eudoxius who first had been Bishop of Garmanicia, and afterwards crept by wiles into the Bishoprick of Antioch in Syria; and last of all they deposed Patrophilus for stubborn be­haviour and disobedience: Nine more they excommunicated, Nine are excommu­cated. and decreed they should remain in that state, till they had an­swered for themselves, and cleared them of the crimes laid to their charge.

When these things were done, they wrote to the Churches Anianus put in Eudox­ious room. what they had decreed, and put Anianus in Eudoxious room, whom the Faction of Acacius apprehended and delivered to Eudoxious sent to Exile. Leonas and Lauricuis, who sent him forthwith into Exile; Then the Bishops that put in Anianus, made a long Plea, and discoursed at large before Leonas and Lauricius, against Acacius and his con­federacy; Acacius pleaded against and his confederacy. [Page 100] federacy; but when they prevailed nothing, they took their But they not being heard, Get to Constantinople to acquaint the Em­peror what was done at the Council. voyage to Constantinople, to certifie the Emperor what they had done in the Council; the Emperor was then come thither from the West, and had taken away the Office of Proconsulship, and instead thereof ordained a certain Government at Constantinople, which he endowed with the Title of Honour; But Acacius had Acacius prevents them, and accuses them. prevented them, and laid grievous accusations to their charge, perswading him that their form of Faith was no wise to be ad­mitted.

The Emperor being grievously incens'd against them, deter­mines The Emperor is in­cenc'd, determines to cut them off. Makes a Law to take them from their civil jurisdiction, &c. to cut them off; he made a Law, That as many as were Magistrates, and bear Office in the Common-Wealth, should be brought back again to imbrace a popular and private kind of life; For of the Bishops, some were called to govern the Common-Wealth, some were Senators and Counsellors, some others were Presidents and Lieutenants of Provinces.

Acacius and his Accomplices remaining at Constantinople, and Another Council held at Constantinople by Acacius, &c. Anno. 364. They confirm the form of Faith read at Ariminum, which was dated with the Con­suls, and add thereunto something of their own. calling unto them the Bishops of Bythinia, held there another Council, being to the number of fifty, unto whom came Maris Bishop of Chalcedon; these confirmed the form of Faith that was read at Ariminum, at whose beginning and title the Consults were written; unto which they also added something of their own: So the Faiths changed up and down as Clouds and Meteors, which participate of various Colours and Appearances, as the Wind, and Sun, and Candence Air gives them being, rouling up and down until they come at length to that from which they were, to wit, to nothing, and these are the footsteps, or rather wanderings of those who know not the Lord, the Principle of God to guide them, the Spirit of Truth which leads into all Truth.

I have traced this Council, and these things hitherto, to shew The consequences of mens taking upon them to determine Faith, observed through all. what is the consequence of mans taking upon him to determine concerning the Faith of Jesus, by that which is not the Spirit of Jesus, and to enjoyn it, which runs them into all these confusions, bloodshedings and destructions, and yet hath no other certainty than the determinations of man, which change and alter as they please. Now let me rehearse the number of the Creeds, because A rehearsal of the number of the Creeds, being nine in number At Nice one. At Antioch two. In France one. In Italy one. At Sirmium three. At Ariminum one. At Seleucia one. At Constantinople one. the History gives me in this place an assistance in that particular; The first is that of Nice, Two others were framed at Antioch, The third in France by the Bishops which were with Narciscus, and ex­hibited unto the Emperor Constantine; The fourth was sent by Eudoxius to the Bishops throughout Italy, Three were published in writing at Sirmium, whereof one, being gloriously intituled with the names of the Consuls, was read at Ariminum: The eighth was set forth at Seleucia; The ninth was given abroad with additions at Constantinople; there was thereunto annexed. That thenceforth The clause of Sub­stance, &c. left out. there should be no mention made of the Substance or subsistancy of God, about whom they had kept such ado, whom they did not under­stand. Ʋlphilas Bishop of the Gothes subscribes thus. The Application of the whole, and the Consequences Unto which Ulphilas Bishop of the Goths first subscribed, who till that time imbraced the Faith established by the Nicene Council, and had subscribed to that Creed. So see what confusion [Page 101] here is, & which is the Faith upon which a man may pitch, seeing all these were enforc't, and sought to make it self a Standard for all to resort unto, which were contrary to one another, which many of the same men made contrary, and put the highest stress there­upon, Thereupon, even to death. punishing the Nonconformity thereunto with Prisons, Whipings, Scourgings, Torments, Exile, Death.

Acacius and Eudoxius (saith the History) made foul tumults Cap. 33. Acacius, &c. make great stir at Constan­tinople; deprive and depose the Bishops, &c. and great stir at Constantinople, seeking to remove from their Bi­shoprick some of the contrary side, and causes of deprivation they invented, not for Piety sake and Religion (saith the Histo­ry) but of private malice and quarrelsome spight; for though they varied in their Faith, yet in deposing one another they charg­ed not each other with their belief; Those of Acacius's side took the opportunity of the Emperors displeasure, for that he had been the cause of great slaughter, and had admitted into the Communion a certain Deacon taken in Adultery; deposed Ma­cedonius; Macedonius in parti­cular, Eleusius and others. Eleusius Bishop of Cizicum they removed for baptizing Herachius, a sacrificing Priest of Hercules, at Tyre; They deprived Basilius, alias Basillas, who was made Bishop of Ancira in Mar­cellus room, for that he cruelly tormented and imprisoned a cer­tain man, and because he forged slanders, and disordited divers persons, and lastly, for molesting the quiet state of the Churches in Africa by his Epistles.

Several others they suspended and removed, too long to men­tion, They suspend several. nor had I these but only to shew the fruits of forced Faith or Religion, and into what it runs its self, and under cover of piety seeks to vent its spight and mischief: They gave Eustathius Eustathius deposed, and the causes thereof Bishop of Sebastia no liberty to purge himself, because his own natural Father Eulavius Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, had but Eulavius Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia. a little before deposed him for wearing a Weed not decent (saith the History) for the order of Priesthood; Miletius was put into his room, afterward at the Council held at Gangra, which was summoned for the hearing of his matters, Eustathius was condem­ned And his Principles and Opinions. for forbidding Marriages, for setting forth Precepts of ab­stinencie, for parting asunder divers that were coupled together in Wedlock; for perswading such as refrained the Churches and publick Assemblies, to raise Conventicles and Brotherhood in the private Houses; for taking Servants from their Masters under colour of Religion; for using the Philosophers habit, and causing his followers to use strange attire; for causing Women to be sha­ven, forbidding accustomed and prescribed fasting dayes, and commanding abstinences on the Sundayes; for abhorred prayers in married mens houses; and detesting the Offering and Communi­on of the married Priests, who when he was a Layman had law­fully coupled himself in the bond of Wedlock: he attempted many things after his former deposition against the Canons and Constitutions of the Church, so he was deposed as aforesaid, and For which he is de­posed, and his Do­ctrine cursed. his Doctrine accursed.

Eudoxius also supposing Constantinople to be superior to the Sea Eudoxius made Bishop of Constantinople by Acacius, &c. at Antioch, was proclaimed Bishop there by Acacius and his Ad­herents, [Page 102] who made and put Laws in execution contrary to their former Decrees (as saith the History) for they made Eudoxius Bishop of Constantinople from one Sea to another, the second time (saith the History) having deposed Dracontius, after this they ra­tifie And Dracontius remo­ved. The form of Faith read at Ariminum, confirmed. Sent about the World with a Mandamus imperial of perpetual Exile to the Non-subscribers. Observations on these things. the form of Faith that was read at Ariminum, together with additions and glosses, as a very absolute thing, and send it abroad into the whole World, commanding that whosoever refused to subscribe unto the same, should by virtue of the Emperors Pro­clamation be condemned to perpetual banishment.

And to see the ridiculousness of folly, when wise men advan­cing themselves into the Throne of God, are turned, their wisdom backwards, and their understanding into foolishness; Eudoxius having done these things, and signified to the Eastern Bishops this his intent, who were of the same mind with him, having placed his Seat in the great Church, called by the name of Wisdom, gave forth this as his first Sentence, which at this day (saith the Histo­ry) is rife in every mans mouth, and become a famous jest, The Eudoxius his foolish Jest of the Father, and the Son, in the Church of Wisdom. Raiseth a tumult. His explana­tion thereupon. Son Religious, the Father Irreligious, meaning God the Father, and the Son: By occasion of which words a tumult arising, Let this saying (saith he) nothing grieve you at all, for the Father is Irreligious because he worshippeth none; The Son is Religious because he worshippeth the Father. This quieted the contentious multitude, & instead of the hurly-burly, the whole Church (saith the History) was set on laughter: and thus these Faith-makers who turned the Sets them into laugh­ter. The Faith-makers, and the fruits of their brains. World upside down, in reference to conformity to their Faith, exercise their brains in such trifling quirks, and about such fond and frivolous words, having broke asunder the Bond of Unity and Concord, contained in the Church of God. This Council The end of the Coun­cil at Constantinople. at Constantinople had such an end as hath been declared.

Now Meletius after the deposition of Eustathius, was first cho­sen Cap. 34. Meletius and his suc­cession of Bishopricks, he comes to Beraea. Bishop of Sebastia in Armenia, from thence he was taken and translated to Beraea a City in Syria; after he had been at Seleucia, and subscribed unto the form of Faith which the factious of Aca­cius had framed and exhibited to the Council, he immediately turned to Beraea. The Antiochians hearing how Eudoxius had made light of them, and for great lucre (saith the History) had crept into the Bishoprick of Constantinople, send for Miletius, Is sent for thence, and made Bishop of An­tioch. and made him Bishop of Antioch, he at first medling little with Faiths and such things, delivered unto his Auditors such things as good manners, good life, and godly conversation; but after­wards Preaches the Faith of one Substance; is exiled. Euxojus put in his room. expounded to them the Faith and clause of one Substance, which the Emperor hearing of, commanded him to Exile, and put Euxojus, that was deposed with Arius, into his place, where­upon the affectionated to Meletius began to meet privately, and Meletius's Auditors meet in Conventicles. had their particular Conventicles; yet those who alwayes had been for the Faith of one Substance, refused their Communion, be­cause Are refused Commu­nion by those of the Faith of one Substance, because Meletius was made Bishop by the Arrians. Meletius had been made Priest by the Arians; and for that his followers had been baptized of them, though these men be­ing Arians followed Miletius; so the Church of Antioch leaned to that side which agreed with it self.

Well, the Lord who usually attendeth these bold presumptions Judgements as the consequence of these presumptions. of mortal men about his Faith and Worship, with exemplary Judg­ments, left not himself without a Witness in this time, as he had done before, of which I have given some little instance. The The Persians break League, and proclaim War with the Romans. Persians being in amity with the Romans, proclaimed War with them, which caused the Emperor to hast to Antioch.

Thus much of Miletius. Now as to Macedonius, with whom I Macedonius, and the account of him, and his end. have had some what to do in this large Tract, and to declare his wickedness and cruelty, that I may make an end of the History of him, and draw what concerns him to some conclusion, give me leave a little farther to signifie as followeth.

Being banished from Constantinople, he took it very impatient­ly, Cap 35. His shifts & turnings, and could by no means quiet himself, but shifting for himself, made use of his wits, and turned himself to the contrary side, to such as had deposed Acacius at Seleucia, and with his Complices he dealt with Sophronius and Eleusius by Messengers, that they should firmly addict themselves to the form of Faith set forth at Antioch, afterward confirmed at Seleucia, and requested them earnestly to call it the Faith of one Substance, whereupon many of his familiars frequented unto him, together with those who after his Name are called Macedonians; Others also resorted unto him that were foes to the Faction of Acacius, who at first maintained both publickly and privately the Faith of one Substance, but after­wards trod it underfoot, as it hath been the course of many from the beginning, under policy to cover themselves to serve other ends; he affirmed, that the Son of God was like unto the Father, as His blasphemy of the Holy Ghost. well in Substance, as in all other things; yet he avouched that the Ho­ly Ghost had not these Titles and Honours, but tearmed him their Ser­vant or Drudge.—He is said not to be the first founder of this blasphemous Opinion, but Marathonius who long before his Marathonius the first founder thereof. time had been Bishop of Nicomedia, whereupon such as main­tained that Opinion are called Marathonians, unto these Eusta­thius So the followers are called Marathonians. Eustathius joyns to them. He would neither call the Holy Ghost God, nor a Creature. This Sect were called deadly Foes to the Di­vinity of the Holy Ghost. Acacius, &c. gets ano­ther Council at Anti­och to undo what they had assented unto, of the Sons being like to the Father in all things. aforesaid, linked himself, when Macedonius affirmed that the Holy Ghost was equal, and partaker of the Godhead, which is in the Blessed Trinity.—Eustathins made answer, I for my own part (saith he) do not mind to call the Holy Ghost God, neither dare I pre­sume to call him a Creature.—Wherefore such as imbrace the Faith of one Substance, do call them [...], by interpretation, Deadly Foes to the Divinity of the Holy Ghost.

Again Acacius his Faction endeavoured with all might to call a Council at Antioch, for it repented them that they affirmed the Son in all things to be like unto the Father;—Therefore the year following they there Assembled, Euxojus then governing the Church there, and there the Emperor then made his aboad. See how (as Tertullian before asserted) unless man please, God shall not be God; which he used to the Heathen, or took up as to them, but now is verified among the Christians, many of them present at this Council, calling in question such things as they had decreed in times past; they affirm, That the clause of likeness, by the Coun­cil And abandon the clause of likeness, as not once to be named again. of Ariminum, and that held at Constantinople, is quite to be [Page 104] abandoned, and not once to be named again. See what changes and Observations here­upon. alterations are here, and (as I have intimated) men like the wind turn every where, when they have lost that which gives weight to the Winds, by their going about to determine of him; the clause of one Substance before must go out, after all the First, The clause of one Substance. wanderings to and fro, and terrible destractions made by reason thereof: Now that of likeness must be abandoned also; but when Now that of Likeness must be abandoned. do they put it, but then when there is not the thing it self of which the Likeness and Substance is abandoned, near unto which Aeti­us drew, as aforesaid? Whither will not man run when he is turn­ed from God, from the Subjectum quo, that which gives the first Principle of seeing and knowing, of which the Philosophers in their Ethnicks speak, where men must make a stop and begin, if they will have the rovings of their minds stayed and stopt (as I have elsewhere shewed.) But this Generation cloak their busi­ness See the visitation to the Universities, &c: Horrible blasphemy. no longer, but pronounce with open mouth, That the Son was altogether unequal and unlike the Father, not onely in Substance, but also in Will: And before it was answered, He was like him in Will, when it was demanded, Wherein he was like him in all things, if he be not in Substance? So from Substance they come to Will, and from Will they come to Nothing, as by and by will appear; for as Arius dreamed, He had his being of Nothing, (and Arius his blasphemy. so God cannot be said to have, for he hath his being of himself from Generation to Generation of old, even from Everlasting). So such as appertained to Aetius, entangled themselves also in the Aetius followers fall in with the Decrees of this Council. snares of this Opinion; Therefore besides that the Arians were called [...], which signifieth that they affirmed the Son to be unlike the Father; there were of the Antiochians, who defended the Faith of one Substance, and then were divided in the aforesaid cause of Miletius, called [...], signifying that they had af­firmed the Son of God to have had his being of nothing. When they were demanded, Wherefore they constantly affirmed in their Creed, that the Son was God, of God, and now durst presume to say, that he was unlike the Father, and had his being of nothing? They used this falacy,—Whereas we affirmed the Son to be of God, we meant it in The Falacy of the Mi­letians in point of the Sons likeness to the Father. that sence that the Apostle wrote, where he said, That all things were of God, therefore the Son is of God, inasmuch as he is included in the word All;—And for this cause we laid down in our Creed the clause according to the Scriptures.—And so they shuffle, and cut, and Conclusions there­from. equivocate with matters of Faith, and the things of the highest import as to God; and yet upon this falacious, or on such falaci­ous Foundations as these, which are abominable amongst men, would they have mens Faith as to God bottomed and pitch't, and destroy all them who will not take it to be so, & build upon it.

Georgius of Laodicea was the Author of this equivocal answer; Cap. 36. Georgius of Laodicea, the Author of the fa­lacy aforesaid. The Sect of the Appo­linarians, and their blasphemy. and yet this was not all, for another sort crept up, who are called Appolinarians, from Appolinarius the Father and the Son; the one whereof was a Priest, and the other a Reader; the one teach­ing Grammar, the other Rhetorick; They held, That God, the Word, took manhood according to the order of Incarnation without [Page 105] Soul. Again, recanting the same, they affirmed, That he took Soul, yet not the Mind or Reason, (which is accounted the highest part of the Soul.) But that God the Word was shut up, included and comprised in man in place of the mind.—So whirling round, not knowing where they are, nor whereof they affirm.

I have set down these things, as I find them in the History, that The reason of these Quotations. so the Reader may take notice into what confusions, contradicti­ons, ridiculousnesses, and vanities, men run, when they would de­termine of Faith, and God, not knowing the Principle of God, and enjoyn the same; the Appolinarians, so called, hold in o­ther things the Creed containing the clause of one Substance.

Well, these cruel Divisions and Persecutions, because of Faith The Judgments as the Consequences. and Doctrines in relation unto God, had (as I was but even now observing, and do mind to carry it along, in the progress of this Discourse, as that which is necessary, and to my purpose, and a thing worthy of, or fit to be duly considered) their rebukes from Not only the Persians, but the French put (Cap. 37.) the Romans to it. the Lord, for not only did the Persians proclaim War against the Romans, but Julianus Caesar had much ado with the Barbarous Nations in France, of whom when he got the upper hand, his Souldiers proclaimed him Emperor: Constantius hearing of this, Constantius hearing that Julianus was p [...]o­claimed Emperor by the Soldiers in France, is troubled, marches against him from An­tioch. was wonderfully troubled and disquieted in his mind, so that the grief thereof brought him into a dangerous Disease, whorefore being first baptized of Eudoxius, he made expedition from Anti­och to give him Battle, and coming as far as Mopsus Wells between Cappadocia and Silicia, by reason of the great thought and sor­row conceived in his mind of his unlucky Affairs, (as the History tearms it) he fell into an Appoplexie, and thereof presently Dies in the way of an Appoplexie. died in the forty and fifth year of his life, having reigned thirty and eight years (that is to say) thirteen together with his Father, and twenty five after the death of his Father.

Constantius being dead, Julianus succeeds him, who being Socrat. lib. 3. cap. 1. Julian the Apostate, how he was bred up, both a Philosopher, a Christian, and a Pagan. brought up in the Christian Religion, by the disposition or ap­pointment of Constantius, yet he had a secret inclination unto the other, to wit, the Pagan, and therefore by stealth he got the works of Libanius the Syrian Sophist; and Maximus (whom Constantius had put to death for a Conjurer) taught him Philosophy, so that he His Scholership was both a Rhetoritian, a Philosopher, & a man passing eloquent; and though he was brought up in the precepts of Christianity from a Child, yet he secretly retained the other, which afterward manifested it self, as the progress of what I have farther to rehearse will give to understand: he was crafty and subtile, and therefore and Qualities. though all along as he passed the Countrey towards Constantius, after he (to wit) the said Julian was by the Souldiers proclaimed Emperor; he set open the Temples and Idol Groves of the Hea­then He set open the Idols Temples, and sacri­ficed. Calls himself a High Priest. Dissem­bled with the Christi­ans. Godds; sacrificed to Pictures, and intituled himself a high Priest; so with open face manifesting himself what he was, and otherwise than what he had dissembled to the Christians; yet, when he heard Constantius was dead, he got him to Constantinople, and there applyed himself to the humour of the people; and be­cause Applies himself to the humour of the People he found that the Christians that held the Clause of one Sub­stance, [Page 106] hated Constantius for banishing their Bishops, and confis­cating Returns the banished by Constantius their Estates; and that the Heathen or Ethnicks had great spight unto Constantius for shutting up their Temples, and keeping them from sacrificing; He applyed himself to both (as he did to many other things) according to what he thought would please them; The Bishops (for I confine my self still, for the most part to matter of Religion, and National Worships, and their Conse­quences, as I have often declared) he commanded from Exile, From Exile, and their Substance to be resto­red, he orders. And opens the Groves and Temples of the Heathens to please both, both being in spight to Constantius. But at length himself falls to flat Paganisme. and their Substance to be restored; And opened the Temples and Groves of the Idols. So by seeming to hold a kind of neutra­lity, or indifferency, or liberty in Religion, he sought to gain all sorts unto him, thereby to settle himself in the Roman Empire; but the inclination of his mind, through all, appeared to Idolatry, to the Worship of the Heathen Godds, as the sequel mani­fests.

By reason hereof, many Bishops returned from their banish­ment, Athanasius and other Bishops return from banishment. Georgius and his end. and Athanasius (of whom I have spoken often in particu­lar) to Alexandria, of whom farther to speak will not be requisite, until I first declare the end of Georgius, aforesaid, (of whom I have had occasion oft-times to speak, and shall now of his end) Bishop in that place, and also thereby give an Introduction into the Tragical Scene of the Consequences of the dissimulative Reign of this Emperor Julian, called the Apostate.

There was a void space of ground in the City of Alexandria, Cap. 2. Georgius attempting to cleanse a void place of ground, formerly used in Sacrifice to the Heathen Godd Mi­thra, which being in Alexandria, Constanti­us gave to the Church there, and intending there to build a called Church. Finding dead mens bones there, And the people car­rying the bald Skulls about in derision of the Heathen. full of filth and uncleanness, where the Heathen used to offer up men for Sacrifice, to their Godd called Mithra, which serving for no use, no purpose, Constantius gave to the Church of Alexan­dria: This Georgius would needs cleanse in this doubtful season, and build there a place called a Church; in the cleansing of which, finding a Channel or Vault of great height, wherein the Heathen had laid up the Reliques of their Mysteries, multitudes of dead mens bones were there found both of young and old, which (the History saith) were slain, when they used divination and devilish Southsaying, by Bowels, and Intrals: the bald Skulls of these the Christians carried about for the people to gaze upon, that thereby their fond Ceremonies might be manifested and derided of all men; which stomached the Heathen in that place, so that The Heathen rise and slay the Christians on every hand, with di­vers manners of deaths. they took that which first came to hand, and setting on the Chri­stians, slew of them every kind of way; some were run through with Swords, some brained with Clubs, some stoned to death, some strangled with Halters, some nailed to the Trees, casting in their Teeth the death of the Cross; one Friend fell upon another, one Brother sought the others life, the Parents put their Children to death; and to be short, one cut the others Throat; and Georgius And Georgius being haled out of the place called the Church, is tied to a Camel, torn to pieces, and burnt to Ashes. himself was pulled out of the place, called the Church, by the Hea­then, and being tied to a Camel, was first torn to pieces, and then his Body was burnt to Ashes with the Beast, so that the Chri­stians were constrained to give over cleansing of that place; so mad were the Heathen, through the influence of Julian, upon their Idols, as the Scriptures speak.

This blood, and murther, and especially of Georgius, Julian Cap. 3. Julian is troubled hereat. takes very hard, the rather, because it was popular, and done without order, and he thought it might give at a sudden a start to his settlement in the Empire; therefore he writes a cruel angry Letter (as I may so tearm it) to those of Alexandria, which be­ing very long, I may not take up time here to repeat, though for the sedulous flattery therein, and crafty dealings, it deserves even here a Record, the sum whereof was, Blaming their precipi­tancy Not so much that the thing was done, but that being without order. It carried the outcry of murder; And as fearing the consequence. in such wayes of Murther and Blood in the overthrow of Government, which in the way of Government might have been (as to Georgius in particular) lawfully effected, and that so the execution might not have had the outcry of Murther, but the re­port of Justice; and he feared also the consequences of these things, lest it should give the Christians to understand what was at the door, and so put them to it to give a shake to his Empire; but the others he treated as bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh.

Georgius being thus dispatched, and receiving from the hand Cap. 4: Georgius justly punish­ed as from the Lord. Athanasius returns, of the Lord a due reward for his bloodshed and persecuting-wickedness; Athanasius returned from Exile to Alexandria, who consulting with Eusebius of Urcella a City of the Ligurian Itallians, and Lucifer Bishop of Caralitanum a City of Sardinia, (who had been banished into the upper Countries of Thebe) how they And consulting with other Bishops, fall to the old trade of (Cap. 5.) determining of Faiths pa [...]ticularly that of the divinity of the Holy Ghost, the rea­sonable Soul of the Son. might return to their Bishopricks without breach of the Canons of the Church; they presently fall to the old trade of determin­ing of Faiths: And Eusebius joyning with Athanasius, the Coun­cil which they summoned, confirmed the Divinity of the Holy Ghost to be of one Substance in the blessed Trinity; Affirmed the Son of God at his Incarnation not only to have taken humane flesh, but also a reasonable Soul. So God, and Christ, and the Holy Ghost are made and unmade, as Councils, Fathers, and times pleased, damning, accursing, and condemning the Faiths of one another as to these things, as they could get the start of one another in Power and Authority: and a great do they had about the clauses of Essence and Substance, too long to relate, and at length resol­ved And determine the leaving out the clause or tearm of Essence. that the clause or term of Essence, in handling of the Divinity of God, should be left out, or not be mentioned, but that of Sub­stance should, because the Apostle hath the word, the other not be­ing in Scripture.

And yet the word Substance, was seldome found amongst the The Historians ac­count of the words, Substance and Essence, and their usage and signification. Antient Writers, but accounted as barbarous, and as not having relation to one proper thing, but unto divers; and so being used, where it was found to be used by them, being taken for Wiles, or Conspiracies, and Sauce, and Lees, or dreggs of Wine. Essence also hath divers significations, which therefore cannot be applyed to that which is Incomprehensible, or is used, or can be properly to a thing of an incomprehensible nature; and therefore Evagri­us Evagrius forbids the definition of the God­head, and his Argu­ment. in his Book intituled the Monk, exhorteth to refrain from rash and unadvised reasonings of the Godhead, and forbiddeth the definition of the Divinity of God, because it is a simple thing: For [Page 108] definitions are alwayes (saith he) of concreat and compound things, not of the abstract, or the simple; And this Argument lies here, Every Proposition (as the Logicians do write) hath either Genus, of whom it may be verified, or Species, or Differentia, or Propri­um, or Accidens, or that which dependeth on these; but in the handling of the blessed Trinity none of all these is to be required, be­cause it cannot be laid down nor expressed by word, therefore it is not to be defined, but reverently to be run over with silence.—But this word they got in opposition to Sabellius, lest for want of proper words Sabellius. it should be thought, that there were three Gods, so as they were from that which gave the knowledge of God, so they made God as they pleased, and formed words to represent what pleased them of God.

Athanasius being returned to Alexandria, as aforesaid, and Cap. 6. Athanasius, Apologizes for his flying. having reflections upon him for his escape when he was beset with the Souldiers in the Church of Alexandria, as aforesaid, writes an Apology therefore; he read his Apology to those pre­sent in the Council, which being long, I shall here pretermit: But the Council being broken up, Eusebius got him to Antioch, Eusebius comes to Antioch. The Heathen the Ori­ginal of the word Conventicle, which they gave to the Chri­stians who separated from them, and the Christians to each o­ther, as from each o­ther they separated, and had the starr of power of each other. where he found the people divided into two parts, some for Me­letius aforesaid, who had several Conventicles by themselves; the word Conventicle had first its rise from the Heathen, who so tearm­ed the meetings of the Christians in the days of the forementioned Persecutions by the Heathens; and now where any that were ac­counted dissenters from the enjoyned Faiths or Creeds, they met not at the publick Places, or Churches so called, for such enjoyn­ed Faiths or Creeds, but apart, which also amongst the Christians received the same denomination, as it had from the Heathen. So here is the original of the word Conventicle, and the use that is made of it in the same nature and tearm now by the National The same is it which is applied to the sepe­rators from National Worships. The Antiochians di­vided, some for Mele­tius, some for Paulinus Worshippers, as it was of old by the Heathen to the Christians, and the Christians one to another. And those for Paulinus, whom Lucifer had made Bishop, met apart from them; which troubling Eusebius, and yet concealing his Sentence or Judgment, because of the respect he bore to Lucifer, having promised to summon a Council to provide for their quiet State, he departed. Meletius returning from Exile, and finding his Followers in the same with­out the Walls, became their superintendant. Paulinus (it's said) had but one little Parish within the City, of which Euxo­jus the Arrian, who had all the rest, did not deprive him, be­cause of the respect he owed unto him: Thus was Antioch di­vided. In the particulars of that one City, I give to understand As Antioch, so were the rest divided in other places of the Empire. Lucifer and Eusebius disagree, and the for­mer refuses to com­municate with the later. Occasion stir in that troublesome time, and many to fall away. And the Sect called the Luciferian Heresie to arise. how it was in other places in the Empire.

Lucifer took Eusebius dislike of his Election of Paulinus very ignominously, and was altogether impatient, and refused to com­municate with Eusebius, and rejected the Canons of the Council; which things falling out (saith the History) in those heavy and tempestuous seasons for Ecclesiastical Affairs, ministred occa­sion that many fell from the Faith; so that a new Sect, called the Luciferian Heresie, had then first its rise; But Lucifer being not [Page 109] able to have his fill, or to satisfie himself with anger, because by his Deacon he had sent before to Alexandria, That he would give his assent, who thereupon subscribed in his Name, he got him un­to his own Bishoprick in Sardinia, but his followers remained out of the Church there.

Hilarius Bishop of Poictiers, a City of Guien in France, return­ing Cap. 8. Hila [...]ius Bishop of Poictiers in France, re­turning from Exile, seeks to set up the Faith of one Substance. Eusebius the like in the East. Macedonius's follow­ers did the like. As to their Opinions, accu [...]sing the contra­ry Faction of Acacius. Rejected the Faith set forth at Ariminum. Confirmed the Creed of the Council at Se­leucia. from Exile, endeavouring to instruct the Bishops of Italy, wrote in the Latin Tongue, expounding the Faith of one Sub­stance, so endeavouring to set that up, as Eusebius did through the Eastern Countries, from whence he came unto Illirium, and so into Italy; the followers of Macedonius, Eleusius, Eustathius, and Sophronius, (all called Macedonians) had their private and often Conventicles, calling unto them such as were of their own Opinion in Seleucia, and accursed the contrary Faction (to wit) of the Acacians; rejected the Faith that was set forth at Arimi­num, and confirmed the Creed that was read in the Council at Seleucia: It was the same which a little before was established at Antioch, of which I have spoken. These men being reasoned withal in this sort, (viz.) You that are called Macedonians, if so be that you differ from the Acacians, how is it that you could find in your hearts to communicate with them unto this day, as if they had been of one Opinion with you? Sophronius, as in the name of the rest, Fall into an indiffe­rency between the Faiths of two Coun­cils, that of Nice, and of Aetius. The difference be­tween both, and the absurdities. made thereunto this Answer, The Bishops of the West Churches have in a manner doted over the Faith of one Substance; Aetius also in the East endeavoured to corrupt the sentere Doctrine, teaching the dissi­militude of Substance in the Father and the Son: Both these Opinions are absurd, they unadvisedly, and without discreet judgment joyn'd in one, the distinct and severed Substances of the Father and the Son, link­ing it not well together under the name of Coessential, or one Sub­stance; but Aetius parted & divided the property of Nature which the Son hath together with the Father, terming it the unlikeness, or diver­sity of Substance; and inasmuch as both these fall into contraries and meer extremities, we thought good to walk in the mid way, and hold the mean between both, to retain the true and godly Opinion, That the Son is of like Substance with the Father.—This was the answer Sabellius Collect of Councils, impugning both Arius, and the Nicene Creed, and Aetius, and of Sophronius (as Sabinus writes in his collection of Councils) in the Name of the Macedonians, so called, who by this appeared to impugn both Arius, and partly those who held the clause of one Substance, charging Aetius as the Author of the diversity of Sub­stance in the Father and the Son, and not the Acacians, whilst they Whilst they seem to go between both, make a new one of their own. craftily dissemble and cloak the Truth (saith the Historian) and impugn them both, as aforesaid; But with their own words they overthrow themselves (saith he); for, indisplaying and opening both Opinions, they lay down a new one of their own.

These things I assert and lay down, that it may appear how all The intent of produ­cing these instances. Sects of the Christians, having an intermission of their particular sufferings, yet retained and held their singular Opinions, for which they suffer, and as they could, sought to enforce them, as what follows manifests, and shews more particularly what were their Opinions: But a scourge for these things the Lord soon [Page 110] raised up, as he had in times past; for whilst the Christians were Whilst they differ a­mong themselves. Cap. 9. Who return from Ba­nishment. Julian turns a scourge for all. He hears the Christi­ans in spight to Con­stantius, but is in grudge to them him­self. thus going together by the ears one with another, as soon as they returned from Captivity or Exile, Julian who in the beginning of his Reign shewed himself meek and courteous to all men, in process of time appeared not alike unto all men, particularly to the Christians, whom he would hear at will many things that tended to the discredit of Constantius; but otherwhile he shewed his grudge and malice to them every where: He commanded Eleusius Bishop of Cizicum in Bythinia, in two months time to build up the Novation Church (which he had pulled down) at his own Eleusius commanded to build the Novation Church (which he had pulled down) in two months, at his own charge. Cap. 10. Julian Sacrifices at Constantinople. Maris Bishop of Chal­cedon, and Julian, and what passed between them. cost; he set up afresh the Rites of the Gentiles, he set wide open their Temples, and offered Sacrifice (saith the Historian) in the Cathedral Church at Constantinople, to the Goddess Fortune, where her Idol was set up. About this time Maris of Chalcedon being led by the hand to Julian, for he was old, and had a Web grown over his eyes, which bereaved him of his sight; he began to re­buke him sharply, calling him an Impious Person, an Apostate, and an Atheist: The Emperor returned him with the like, and opprobiously said, He was a blind Fool: And further, Thy God of Galilee will not restore thee thy sight again, (for Julian called Christ a Galilean, and all Christians the same). I thank God (replyed Maris to the Emperor) which made me blind, lest that ever I should set mine eyes upon so ungracious a face as thine is.—To which the Emperor made no answer, but handled him roughly. And when Julians craft in a­voiding, putting the Christians to death, because he saw they could suffer, and were reverenced therefore. And his device that they shou [...]d not be brought up to learn­ing, he perceived that such as suffered Martyrdom were highly reve­renced and honoured by the Christians, under the Reign of Dio­clesian; and when he understood for certain that divers of them now would willingly suffer Martyrdom, he went another way to work, and devised how to disappoint them of that, and yet to accomplish his end on the Christians, which was, he made a Law That the Christians should not be brought up in prophane (as it's called) Literature; For (saith he) seeing they have the gift of ut­terance so readily, they will easily be able to overthrow the quirks of Logicks wherewith the Gentiles do uphold their Doctrine. And (saith the History) although he let pass the unsatiable Tyranny practised Lest they should out-do the Heathen. Socrates Opinion of what makes a Perse­cutor. in the time of Dioclesian, yet ceased he not altogether from Per­secution. In my Opinion (saith he) he is a persecutor that molesteth any kind of way such men as lead a quiet and peaceable life.

Farthermore he gave out a Proclamation, That such as would Cap. 11. Julian proclaims a ca­shie [...]ing all the Chri­stians out of the Camp that will not Sacrifice. None to bear Office in the Common-Wealth that were Christians. And his Reason. not renounce the Christian Faith, should Warfare no longer in the Em­perors Pallace:—That all should prepare to do Sacrifice; That no Christian should bear Office in the Common-Wealth, for their Law (saith he) forbiddeth the use of the Sword unto such as deserve death, and therefore they were not fit to be Magistrates. He allured whom he could to offer Sacrifice; but those who were Christians indeed (saith the History) and those also who were thought to be no less, Hereupon Jovianus, Valentinianus, Valence, all three afterwa [...]ds Emperors, throw down their Sword-Girdles, to suffer as Christians. made themselves manifest, as upon a publick Theatre, Jovianus, Valentinianus, and Valence, (who were successively all three of them afterwards crowned Emperors) with many more, threw down their Sword-Girdles, and said, They would rather suffer [Page 111] any kind of torment, then deny their Saviour Christ Jesus. Others Others Sacrifice. (saith he) counterfeit Christians, who thought that the Riches and Honour of this World was true felicity it self, without any delay fell to Sacrifice: Ecebolius the Sophist of Constantinople was Ecebolius the Sophist turns Cat in the Pan again. Falls to Idolatry, after Julianus death turns again. His Speech in the Church Po [...]ch, when he laid himself all along for the pas­sers in to tread upon him▪ one of them, who in the dayes of Constantine, was an earnest fol­lower of the Christian Faith; but when Julian succeeded him, he fell to Gentility, and the Idolatry of the Pagans: after the death of Julian he became a Professor of the Doctrine of Christ again, and lying along at the Porch of the Church (saith the History) cryed to such as came in, Tread me underfoot, for that I am the un­savoury Salt.

As a scourge for Julian, who undertook these enterprizes for Julians Judgments. The Persians invade him. the Heathen Godds, and against the Christians; the Persians in­vaded some of the Romans Jurisdiction, of whom to be revenged he took his Journey into the East through the Coasts of Asia: and Raiseth money on the Christians for not Sa­crificing, to main­ta [...]n his Wars. Wh [...]ch was rigorously ex­act [...]d. considering that many evils and inconvenies attended War, and great sums of mony were requisite, he set a great fine on the heads of those that would not Sacrifice; So that the Christians every one rateably were assessed in a certain sum which was very grievous, and duly demanded; which Law he made of force, not onely where he travelled, but also in such Countries where he came not The Heathen hereup­on insult over the Christians. near, so that he wonderfully enriched himself with injurious heaps of money unjustly exacted. Then did the Gentiles insult over the Christians, the Philosophers celebrated their frequented Con­ferences; they solemnized certain detestable Rites and Ceremo­nies; they made slaughter of Infants, sparing no Sex; They used Perform their Rites. Slay Infants. their Intrals for Southsaying; they tasted of their tender flesh: These detestable practises were both at Athens and Alexandria, and elsewhere. And because Athanasius was returned to Alexan­dria, Cap. 12. Athanasius returned, is falsly accused. divers false accusations were raised against him, that he had subverted Egypt, and the whole City of Alexandria, so that of necessity (they said unto the Emperor) that it behoved him to banish Athanasius out of Alexandria, so that by the command of the Emperor, the Governor was sorely incensed against him; con­cerning The Emperor incenst. which Athanasius is said to utter these words to some of Athanasius prophesies of the shortness of the storm. Gets away, is pursued, but lies hid. his Familiars,—My Friends, let us go aside for a season, this is but a little Cloud which will quickly vanish away.—He immediately took shipping and went into Egypt, his Adversaries pursued him, his Followers perswaded him to fly into the Desart; so he escaped them, and got privily again into Alexandria, where he hid him­self till the kindled flame of Persecution was quenched. Further­more The Governors enrich themselves by the Taxes on the Christi­ans. the Governors of Provinces thinking it now high time to fill their Bags, under colour of Religion, vexed the Christians far sorer than the Emperors Proclamation bore them out in, de­manding greater Taxes then they were rated at, and sometimes tor­mented their Bodies; which the Emperor winked at, and an­swered The Emperor winks at it, and flouts the Christians with their required patience. the Christians when they complained, It is your part, when you have injuries offered you, to take it patiently, for so your God commanded you.—

At Maris in Phrygia, Amachius the Governor commanded the Cap. 13. A notable attempt of three Christians in Maris in Phrygia, on the Idols Temple. Idols Temple to be set wide open, and to be cleansed, and set him­self to the worshipping of the Idols, which pricked not a little in Conscience (saith the History) the zealous Christians; wherefore Macedonius, Theodulus, and Tatianus, brake in the night season into the Temple, threw down their Idols, and stamped them in­to ponder; at which when the Governor was exceeding wroth, and threatned to execute divers of the Citizens; the men afore­said presented themselves, who were the Authors thereof, that the They present them­selves to death, lest the guiltless should die. guiltless of that Act might not suffer, and chose to die themselves for the Truth: The Governour commanded them to clear them­selves by Sacrifice, threatning severely to punish them if they did it not: They set nought by his threats, and made themselves ready Endure all kind of torments, the Grid­iron, and are broyled to death. to suffer; The Governor when he had assayed them with all kind of torments, last of all set them on the Gridiron, and caused fire to be made under, and broiled them to death; and to the end that they might gloriously encounter (saith the History) under the glorious Garland of Victory, they reasoned thus with the Go­vernor, If thou long, O Amachius, after broyled meat, turn up the Their noble Speech on the Gridiron. other side of us, lest in the eating we seem raw unto thee, and the blood run about thy teeth.—

Onward in his Journey towards the Persians the Emperor pro­ceeded, Cap. 15. Julian in his expediti­on against the Persi­ans, is derided at Anti­och with his long thrum Beard. when he had from the Christians heaped up a great sum of money, and came to Antioch, where the people derided him with his long thrum beard, and bad him make halters thereof, when he had, for the advantage of his Souldiers, put down the rates of the Market; so playing upon him: which he, to be revenged of them for the flouting of his Beard, answered in an Oration, which He avenges it in an Oration. he called Antiochian, or Misopogon, wherein he defamed the City of Antioch for ever.

He got him also to the Oracle of Apollo at Daphne, a little from Cap. 16. Attends the Oracle of Apollo. The Devil would not speak. He interprets the cause to the Body of Babilas, removes it. Antioch; But the Devil, (saith the History) whose dwelling was in that Den, would give the Emperor no answer. The Emperor supposing the cause to be the body of Babylas the Martyr, which lay there, caused his Tomb to be removed thence with speed: The Christians of Antioch hearing of this, they assembled toge­ther their Men, Women, and Children, they rejoyce and are The Christians re­joyce with Songs. Julian is plagued, de­termines to do as had Dioclesian. glad, and sing Psalms in reproof or derision of the Heathen god, and such as worshipped Images; which plagued the Emperor, who thereby discovered his inward mind, determined to torment the Christians as Dioclesian had before; but his expedition against the His expedition hin­ders. Orders these Christians punishment. Persians hindred him: Nevertheless he gave order to Solustius, the Lieutenant of that Province, to see that such as had so sung should be severely punished: The Lieutenant, though a Pagan, liked not the Work, but seeing that he could not otherwise help it, clapt many of them into Prison. But Theodorus, a young Theodorus cruelly scourged. man whom the Pagans had accused, he punished with diversities of Torments, and rent his flesh all the body over with the lash of the Whip, and being thought not possible to be able to live, he Let go as not possible to live, yet dies not. let him loose, yet he recovered, and with him a long time after [Page 113] the Governour had conference, and would needs know, Whe­ther The Governors mo­deration with the Christians, and confe­rence with him. he had not felt great pain when the lash of the Whip re­bounded from his Body; it is said, that he answered him again, that the torments were not so great as some men thought; that there stood The young mans an­swer. by him a young man which wiped away all the Salt drops of that sweat­ing Combate, confirmed him in the Faith, and that the hour of tor­ment was to him rather a delectable pleasure, than a doleful pain. At The Persian Ambassa­dors call Julian away this very time Ambassadors came from the Persians to Julian, re­quiring him to proclaim open Wars: So that he was constrained to give over his enterprise against the Christians, to whom, that is to the Persian Ambassadors, he gave this answer,—You shall His answer to them. see me shortly in my own Person, and therefore I shall not need to send any in Embassy unto you for this matter.

Yet to vex the Christians, being a great delighter in offering Cap. 17. Julian to vex the Chri­stians, calls on the Jews to Sacrifice. Requires for that pur­pose the rebuilding the Temple at Jeru­salem. They build. Cyrillus prophesies upon the prophesies of Daniel and Christ. of Sacrifices, he called to the Jews, and asked them, Why they did it not? They answered, They could not without a Temple. He bad them, In all hast to rebuild the Temple of Solomon at Jerusa­lem, and that the cost be defrayed out of the publick Treasury. Af­ter this he took his Journey towards the Persians; The Jews set upon building. Cyrillus looking into the Prophesie of Daniel, which Christ had foretold, also prophesied, That the time was now come, when not one stone should be left upon another: But that the Prophesie of Christ should now take place, when the Bishop had thus prophesied, (saith the History) the night following there It takes place the night after, not one stone left on another, by an Earthquake. was a great Earthquake, which shook the old Foundation of the Temple, and turned all to the ground, together with the Houses that adjoyned thereunto; which afrighted the Jews, and many come out of other Countries upon the fame thereof, to see what was done; afterwards fire came down from Heaven, and burned Fire also from Heaven consume the Tools. all their Tools and Instruments; the fire is said not to cease burn­ing for the space of one whole day: this astonished the Jews, and (as the History hath it) confessed against their Wills, That The Jews made to confess to Christ. Yet though there was a third Wonder, bow­ed not to him. Christ was an Omnipotent God. When unto these a third Wonder was wrought, the Jews yet bowed not unto him, They had ba­nished, being blinded, (saith the History) the goodness of God (as the Apostle saith) from amongst them.

Well, to conclude this particular, and to give the end of this The end of Julian. wretched man Julian, whom the Hand of the Lord crossed, and met with in all his undertakings, as he was made to be a scourge to the Christians, when they were not as they should be, by the same hand: A little before Winter he led his Army into Persia, He enters Persia. because they cannot endure cold so wel as the Romans; he destroy­ed the Villages, the Castles, the Countrey, and fell a ransanck­ing Ransacks & destroys. of the Cities; he besieged Ctesiphon the great City of Persia; Distresses the King. Refuses accomodati­on and pitty. and so straitned the King of Persia, that he sent Embassadors, re­questing him to take some part of his Kingdom to end the War, or in compensation thereof. Which Julian would not hear, neither pitty the King; he tryumphed over the Conquered, he put con­fidence Tryumphs over the conquered. Trusts to Southsaying and Dreams. in fond Conjectures of Southsaying; he trusted to Fan­tastical Dreams, which Maximus the Philosopher then present [Page 114] put into his head; he hoped verily to countervail, or rather sur­mount the great Glory and noble Prowess of Alexander the Thinks himself great­er then Alexander, and that he is Alexander. Great, so that he set nought by the humble suit of the Persians: he dreamed according to the Opinion of Pythagorus and Plato, that by the Transmigration of the Soul, from one Body to ano­ther, the Soul of Alexander had crept into his Carkass, or rather that he was Alexander himself in another Body; which lead him into a foul Error, and made him to make slight of the King of Fights the King of Persia, who being slighted, is constrained to fight. Persia his Request, who seeing his Embassy was to no purpose, and that he was drawn to a narrow strait, and sore plunge, the day after gathered his force together, and fell upon the Roman Hoast face to face: Julian thinking himself cocksure, (as they use to say) got him on Horseback to encourage his Souldiers, but being not compleatly Armed, by reason of his confidence, an Arrow pierced through his Armour, and sticked in his Ribbs, Is slain with an Arrow and killed him; he first pulling it out all bloody, (as some write) threw it in the Air, saying, Vicisti Galilee, Thou hast overcome, His dying blasphemy. O Galilean! which was his rancorous expression of his detestati­on of Christ.

So ended Julian, who as he began in spight, so in spight against Cap. 19: Jovianus chosen in his place. the Truth ended his dayes: Him Jovianus succeeds, who being a Tribune when Julian proclaimed for all in his Army, Either to do Sacrifice, or to depart the Army; threw down his Sword-Girdle rather than he would Sacrifice; yet Julian put him not by his Command, he being a valiant man: him the Souldiers, being in some strait, proclaimed Emperor, he refused the Crown, and He refuses. being compelled thereto by loud Speeches, expressed himself, In that he was a Christian, he would not be Emperor where Ethnicks should be his Subjects. But when all cryed out, and with one Voice confessed themselves Christians, he yeelded, and was Crowned Yet accepts. Emperor.

No sooner was Jovianus returned out of Persia, but Sedition Cap. 20. The Christians fall to Sedition among them­selves. Each Sect seek to get the Emperor to it. began again (as usually was the consequence of any peace) amongst the Christians: the Bishops also hoping each to find the Emperor according to their Opinion, apply themselves unto him, but he stuck close to the Faith of one Substance, unto which he had al­wayes adhered. He encouraged Athanasius to return to Alexan­dria, He cleaves to the Ni­cene Creed, sends home Athanasius. Calls the Bishops f [...]om Exile. Shuts up the Pagan Temples. who upon his Letters took courage, and went; the Bishops whom Jultan had not returned, who were banished by Constanti­us, he called from Exile; he shut up the Pagans Temples, and ceased their worshipping of Devils, which Julian gave way to, and of which they had their fill in his Reign.

Now went on the old work of tearing and rending one ano­ther Cap. 21. The Christians tear and rend one another. The Macedonians sup­plicate t [...]at none but themselves might be. amongst the Christians. The Macedonians make a supplica­tion unto the Emperor, That such as avouch the unlikeness and dis­similitude between the Son and the Father, should be banished the Church, and themselves substituted in their rooms. The Emperor gave them no answer at all, but with these words sent them away, The Emperors answer I tell you truly, I cannot away with contention, but such as imbrace unity and concord, I do both honour and reverence them. Which [Page 115] cooled the fiery contention of others, and answered to the Empe­rors wishes. The Acacians also signed a supplication to the Em­peror, The Acacians conforth to the Emperors Faith, who turn every where. acknowledging the Faith of one Substance, who had made such a hurly-burly as before is mentioned, for they ever were ob­served to turn according to the minds of the Emperors; to which the Emperor determining with himself to pacifie with gentle and courteous language all Quarrels and Contentions, made answer, That he would not molest any, what Faith or Religion soever they pro­fessed; The Emperors decla­ration of distu [...]b [...]ng none, but respecting them that we [...]e for peace. but above all others, that he would honour and reverence such as shewed themselves Peace-makers, and went about to maintain the bond of Unity and Concord.

One thing is worthy to be noted in their supplication, they The Emperor being clawed to the setting up one form of Faith. claw the Emperor with the Faith of one Substance, as if he in­tending to promote Unity and Concord, might mind, at least they would insinuate it into him, That the form of that Faith which they therein call Catholick, would produce much thereunto; and therefore they declare and subscribe thereunto, insinuating an Example for an universal Subscription, and to set up that Faith, because the Emperor being of it, they thought he might set it up, or to insinuate into him, that so to do were best; but the He refuses, and turns all Court ship aside. Emperor wisely turns all their courtships and flattery aside, and answers them like himself, as aforesaid. All men commended this Is commended by Themistius, and ap­plauded for giving liberty. his equality of Spirit, yea the Philosophers themselves, and The­mistius in particular, who in his Oration to him, called Consul, saith,—That in granting every man his free choice and liberty to pro­fess this or that kind of Religion, he stopped the mouths of all flatter­ing Parasites and Sycophants, which kind of men, (saith he) as it is known unto the whole world, worship not the King of Heaven, but the An account of Para­sites. earthly Crown and Scepter, much like unto Euripus, carried headlong, sometimes this way, sometimes that way.

Thus when Jovianus had appeased the sedition of contentious Cap. 32. He comes to Tarsus, Inters Julian. persons, he came from Antioch to Tarsus, then he took his voy­age towards Constantinople, having honourably interred his Prede­cessor, he came to Dadastana, lying in the midst between Ga­latia Ar [...]ives at Dadastana. There Themistius, and many Senators meet him in the way to Constantinople. He dies. and Bythinia; there Themistius the Philosopher aforesaid, meeting of him, with other sundry Senators and noble Parsona­ges, he died in the Winter with a deadly obstruction of his Lungs, having been Emperor seven months, and being three and Anno. 368. thirty years old.

Valentimanus succeeded Jovianus, whom the Souldiers pro­claimed Valentinianus succeeds (Socrat. l [...]b. 4. cap. 1.) him and Valens. Emperor of Nicia in Bythinia; and he made Valens his Brother his fellow Emperor, they both with Jovianus threw down their Sword-Girdles, when Julian made his Proclamation, as aforesaid; who notwithstanding displaced them not; the first being Tribune, and the other of the ordinary Guard about the Emperor.

Valentinian was of the Faith of one Substance, but molested not Valentinian of the Nicene Faith. the Arrians at all. Valens as he endeavoured to encrease the num­ber of the Arrians; so he grievously persecuted the others: So Valence an Arrian. the Emperors varied one from another, and by reason thereof [Page 114] [...] [Page 115] [...] [Page 116] great variety of occasions exercised, and tryed the Christi­ans. The Christians are exercised.

Valentinian, through some necessary occasions removed to the Cap. 2. Valentinian removes to the West. Valens keeps in the East. The Macedonian Bish. desire a Council. West; Valens remained at Constantinople, where he was requested of the Bishops that favoured Macedonius, or were of what were called his Sect, to call a Council, he thinking them to be one in Opinion with Acacius and Eudoxius, gave them License; they cite the Bishops from every where to meet at Lampsacum; but he It's ordered at Lamp­sacum. Valens hastens to Syria to keep all quiet, where he finds it so. himself hastens to Antioch in Syria, fearing some stir among the Persians; but when he came there, he found them quiet, and meaning no harm.

Valens living in quietness, fell grievously to persecute those of His prosperity turns him to persecute. Displaces Bishops. Plagues some, throws others into the River Orontes. the Faith of one Substance; he displaced some Bishops, and those of Antioch that would not communicate with Euxojus, he vexed diversly, and plagued with sundry punishments, and threw many (as was reported) into the River Orontes, which runneth by the City, and there drowned them.

Whilst Valens was at this work in Syria, the Hand of the Lord Cap. 3. Judgment meets him. moved to give him trouble at Constantinople, who before he per­secuted his fellow Christians, knew no trouble; Procopius rebels Procopius rebels at Constantinople. against him at Constantinople, gathers a great Army, and march­eth to give Battel to the Emperor, who had given Battel to the Lord. Valens was in a sore taking at this, and by this his cruelty Valens is troubled, re­strains persecution a while. Dreadful Earthquakes, great inundations, and alterations of Land to Sea, rested a while from persecuting the Christians: yet this was not all, but whilst the fire of this tumult waxed hot, there appeared on a sudden another hand from Heaven in a great Earthquake, which scattered the buildings asunder of, and destroyed many Cities; nor did the Sea keep within its bounds, but brake over the Banks, and drowned many Countries: for it fell out in many places, that where a little before men went on foot, all was on a float, Barques and Ships were used: Again in other places, the Sea went so far from it self, that it left much dry land, much sandy And Sea to Land. ground, and many Fishes. These things hapned (saith the Hi­storian) in the first Consulship of both these Emperors.

These were the 2 things that commonly marched hand in hand Observations of Judg­ment marching with Persecution. together, during this History; Persecution and Division in the Church, as its called, Commotions and Stirs in the State, which Cap. 4. The Historians obser­vation of the same. the Historian observes in these words,—In the time of the afore­said calamities, neither enjoyed the Common-Wealth peace, nor were the Ecclesiastical Affairs in prosperous state. The Council at Lamp­sacum The Council at Lamp­sacum gets the start of Valens, confirm the Faith at Antioch of old established. Curse that at Ariminum. seven years after that of Seleucia, being met, through the afore­said troubles: those appertaining to Macedonius got the upper hand; confirmed the form of Faith that of old was published at Antioch, which a little before they had subscribed at Seleucia, and accursed the Creed of the Bishops, which by uniform consent in Religion, they had lately established at Ariminum: Against Acacius and Eudoxius they gave Depose Acacius and Eudoxius. Sentence, as of right deserving to be removed. Eudoxius in no wise could resist their doings, because of the commotion of Procopius, nor be revenged of them; wherefore Eleucius of Cyzicum, having gotten [Page 117] the upper hand, maintained for a while together with his Complices, the The Macedonians get the day; and a while keep it. Anno. 370. Cap. 5. Valens and Procopius pitch Battel. Procopius taken alive. Strangely executed. Macedonian Opinion.

Well, Valens and Procopius met the year following at Nacolea a City in Phrygia; and there pitched Battel; in the first skirmish Valens side was the weaker; in the next he took Procopius alive, ordered his Thighs to be tyed to the tops of mighty Boughs, groving not far asunder, the which first of all with certain Engines he wrested to the ground, and afterwards loosened them, which lifted Procopius on high, and pulled him in pieces; Angello and His Captains sawn a­sunder that betrayed him. Gomarius, his own Captains that betrayed him, he sawed asunder in the midst; Procopius being thus torn into two parts, died mi­serably.

The Emperor (saith the History) being puffed up with his Valens turns again to Persecution. prosperous success, turned himself again to molest and perse­cute the Christians, (as is the wont of all Persecutors, because he determined with himself to prefer every where the Arrian Opi­nion): The Council held at Lampsacum, stuck in his stomach, not only because they deposed the Arrian Bishops, but accursed the form of Faith lately established at Ariminum: Therefore coming to Nicomedia, he called Eleusius Bishop of Cyzicum, who Calls a Council at Ni­comedia of Arian Bish. was of the Macedonian Opinion before him; also a Council of Arrian Bishops, and compelled Eleusius to subscribe to their Compel Eleusius to subscribe. Faith, which at first he utterly denied; but being sore threatned by the Emperor with Banishment, and confiscation of goods, he yeelded: But his Conscience was not satisfied, for he was in great agony and torment; so he turned to Cyzicum, and in the face of He is troubled. Makes his publick lamentation. the Congregation made a pittiful complaint, relating the injury the Emperor had done unto him, and how he had condescended not by his will, but by compulsion, and requested them to get another Bishop, but they would not, nor acknowledge another Bishop over them, nor yeeld up the Government of the Church, but took him for their Superiour, and kept still to their former Opinion.

In the place of Eleusius Bishop of Constantinople, he chose Eu­nomius Cap. 7. Eunomius put in his place. aforesaid, who being an eloquent man, he thought the people might be induced the more to receive him, and the Empe­ror sent commandment, That he should be put out, and Euno­mius put in his room, whereupon the favourers of Eleusius built Eleusius's people hold Conventicles. them what is called a Church without the Walls of the City, and there had their private Conventicles, (as saith the History): This Eunomius was the Scribe of Aetius (as I have formerly spoken) with whom living, it is said he learnt his captious falacies, and quirks of Logick, which of Sophisters is highly embraced: Moreover with vain Speeches and Epithetons he was delighted; he is said to learn unadvisedly to frame Sophistical Arguments, in which he took great pride, and ran headlong into blasphemy; he imbraced Arius, and impugned the Faith of one Substance, when Eunomius's Sophistry raises a tumult. after his wonted manner he fed the Ears of his Auditors out of the Pulpit; with Sophistical Arguments and Reasons of Logick he amazed them so, that a great tumult was raised at Cyzicum, and [Page 118] the Citizens that could not away with his arrogant and insolent Which banishes him Cyzicum. He gets to Constanti­nople, playes the Bish. no longer. His blas­phemous Opinions, and Atheistical. manner of preaching, banished him the City, from whence he got to Constantinople to Eudoxius, and (saith the History) plaid the Bishop no longer: He said as followeth,-God of his own Essence under­stood no more then we do, neither is the same better known or understood of him than of us, and whatsoever we know of it, the same knoweth he; and look what his capacity reacheth to, the same thou shalt find in us. This was the Heresie, or rather the Blasphemy of Euno­mius, who was made a Bishop, as aforesaid, and became the head of those who held the same Atheistical Opinion of God; of whom I have treated the larger, because the Reader may understand what things were held, and what was amongst them.

Those of the Faith of one Substance, together with the Nova­tions, Cap. 8. The Nicenians and Navations banished Constantinople. Doors shut up. Agelius exiled. The Bishop alwayes went barefoot, had but one Coat. the Emperor banished out of Constantinople, and nailed up their Church doors, (as they are called) and exiled Agelius the Novation Bishop, who had ruled their Church from the dayes of Constantine: It is said of this Bishop, that he went alwayes bare­foot, and had but one Coat; yet through the influence of Marti­anus, who was sometimes a Souldier in the Emperors Pallace, the Novation places were opened again, yet were they not rid of the Arrians, nor delivered from their Persecution.

I must still take notice, as I go along, how the displeasure of the Judgements again at­tending Persecution. Lord alwayes accompanied these Persecutors, in some exemplary or signal hand of Judgment, or that which is pertentious or signifi­catory thereto. The year following these unnatural persecutions, Hail of a wonderful bigness, like unto stones, lighted at Constan­tinople; Cap. 10. Great Hail at Constan­tinople. It is rife (saith the History) in every mans mouth, That God sent that great Hail in token of his displeasure against the Emperor for banishing many Priests and Bishops who refused to communicate with Eudoxius the Arrian. In Bythinia, the year Great Earthquakes in Bythinia. following, there was a great Earthquake which overthrew the City of Nice; it was the twelfth year after the ruine of Nicomedia. Immediately after many pieces of Germa, a City of Hellespont, Also in Hellespont. were turned upside down with another Earthquake, yet neither Valens the Emperor, nor Eudoxius the Arrian Bishop were moved Neither Valens nor Eudoxius consider, but turn them otherwise. any thing at all, nor inclined to Pitty, or Reformation, but obser­ving no mean, furiously raged against all such as held the contra­ry Faith and Opinion, as usually is the disposition of Tyrannical Persecutors. These Earthquakes were no otherwise to be taken The Historians obser­vation of the Earth­quakes. (saith the Historian) then for manifest tokens of Schism and Di­vision in the Church. Yet Basilius Bishop of Cesaria in Cappado­cia, and Gregorius of a small and mean City bordering upon Cesa­rea, were not exiled their Native Soil, which then was looked upon as a great kindness.

The Persecution being very hot, in particulat, against the Ma­cedonians, Cap. 11. The persecuted Mace­donians apply them­selves to Rome. and they being at their wits end, agree together, and send certain Bishops, viz. Eustathius of Sebastia, and others to the Emperors Brother; and Liberius Bishop of Rome, with a Sup­plication, wherein they conform to the Creed with the Clause of one Substance, being charged not to disagree with Liberius. This [Page 119] they did because they could not communicate with Eudoxius the Arrian: The Emperor Valentinian being then in France, in his War against the Sarmatians, they delivered their Letter to Libe­rius, who at first refused to give their Letters the Reading, telling them they were Arrians, and therefore in no wise to be entertain­ed of the Church, having abrogated the Nicene Creed. To which they answered, That his words were true, and that it repen­ted them of their folly; that they acknowledged the Truth that of late they had condemned; the Opinion which affirmeth the Son to be unlike the Father; that they confessed the Son in all things and in all respects to be like the Father, and that the clause of Likeness differed nothing from the Sence of one Substance; and subscribing unto the same in their Supplication aforesaid, which they presented, he received them into Communion, and writing Letters by them, sent them away. And are received.

They being returned, sent Letters into every City of them that held the Faith of one Substance, for an Assembly at Tarsus in Cili­cia, They desire an Assem­bly at Tarsus. partly to ratifie the Nicene Creed, partly to remove all Schism and Contention since that time: And the History saith, Peradven­ture it had been done, if Eudoxius aforesaid had not withstood it, through the great favour he had with the Emperor, who was won­derfully incensed at the summoning of them, and afterwards diversly Are vexed by Eudox­ius. vexed them.

I quote these things all along as the History bears through, to The reason of these Quotations. the end that in a constant Series and Succession for near the first six hundred years, I may shew what I have often laid down as the ground of this my undertaking, viz. The Original and Succession of National Faiths or Worships, and the consequences of them in every Age throughout the World; even what they have produced of tumults, and trouble, and confusion, and destruction, and death. The Tra­gical Scenes of every Age bearing nothing more rampant than these Characters throughout every Generation.

Thus as to the Macedonians dividing from the Arrians. Now I shall shew how Eunomius aforesaid went from them also; such Eunomius divides from the Arrians, as did the Macedonians. roulings and tumblings were there in the World amongst men, who knowing not that which should stay their minds, would yet go to make a definition of God. Eunomius having made a long The reason thereof. and tedious suit unto Eunomius, in the behalf of Aetius his Master; Eudoxius would not receive him into their Church, which (the Hi­story saith) Eudoxius did not of himself, for his own Opinion differed not from Aetius, but because of the Faction of Eudoxius, which abhorred Aetius, as one contrary in Opinion unto them, therefore Eunomius withdrew from the Arrians; this at Constantino­ple: Cap. 12: Persecution at Alex­andria. but at Alexandria, the Writ that was sent thither by the Go­vernor, through the procurement of Eudoxius, molesting wonder­fully the quiet thereof, the consequence of which, and fearing lest if any mischief were wrought by the heady and rash motion of the common people, it would be laid to his charge. Athana­sius Athanasius hides him­self at Alexandria. The people in an up­roar. The Emperor constrained thereby to let him be there quiet. hid himself in his Fathers Closet for the space of four months, whereupon the City of Alexandria being all on an uproar, the Emperor was constrained to signifie by his Letters to the People [Page 120] of Alexandria, that Athanasius should quietly, as they wished themselves, enjoy the Bishoprick; through which it came to pass, that they had peace and tranquillity to the death of Athanasius, in that which was called the Church of Alexandria.

When shall I have done with this turmoil and trouble? Eudoxi­us Cap. 13. Eudoxius dies. Demo­philus put in his place by the Arrians. Evagrius by the Ni­cenians. dies; In his room Demophilus is placed by the Arrians; those of the Faith of one Substance, supposing now was their opportuni­ty, put in Evagrius, whom Eustathius had consecrated Bishop, who of old had been Bishop of Antioch, and lately called from Exile by Jovianus, and now lay hid in Constantinople secretly to confirm those of the Faith of one Substance. This being done, The Arrians furiously rise in persecution. Valens hastens to Con­stantinople, fearing the Consequence. the Arrians furiously began to persecute the other Christians, which Valens hearing, as it came quickly to his ear, being at Ni­comedia, in his way to Antioch from Constantinople, he hastned un­to Constantinople great powers of armed Souldiers, fearing lest the seditious tumults of the vulgar sort should overthrow the City; and commanded that both the Consecrator and the Consecrated Banishes the Conse­crator and the Con­secrated. (what holiness is here, and how is it turned underfoot, as occasi­on presents) should be banished, one to one place, another to another Countrey; hereupon Eustathius was exiled into Bizia a City of Thracia, and Evagrius was conveyed to another City. The Arrians hereupon (saith the History) crowed exceedingly The Arrians hereupon insult, scourge, revile, imprison, merce the other Christians. They complain to Va­lens by eighty of the Priestly Order. over the Christians, they scourged, reviled, imprisoned, merced, and laid upon them all the grievous and intolerable burthens they could devise. The persecuted went to the Emperor, and besought some mittigation of some part of their troubles, if not altogether, and this humbly, (as saith the History): but where they thought to have found favour and Justice, there they found it otherwise, for whereas they sent about eighty, who were in the Priestly Or­der, in the name of all the rest, to Nicomedia, who made supplica­tion unto the Emperor, opened to him their grief, and certified the injuries they sustained of the Arrians; he, although he was wonderfully (saith the History) incensed against them, yet con­cealed he his displeasure, until that privily he had commanded his Lieutenant Modestus to lay them in hold, and to punish them He causes them to be put on board a Ship, and being at Sea, the Ship to be set on fire, and they burned. with death, whom the Lieutenant commanded on Board a Ship, and ordered the Mariners to set the Ship on fire, when they came into the main Sea, which they did in the Astacen Sea, themselves getting into a Cock-boat; and returning home, a mighty wind arose, which continued till the Vessel was brought into Dacidizus Haven, where both the Ship and they were burned to Ashes. This Which was performed he did, fearing otherwise the tumult of the people, and therefore gave out that he would banish them the Countrey; which because it went no further, was taken in good part. The report of the Countrey was, and (saith the History) it is yet rife in every ones mouth, That this cruel and horrible Act was not long after unre­venged, for that immediately after Phrygia was plagued with a sore and lamentable Famine, so that many were constrained to fly The Countrey plaug­ed with Famine, as the consequence. for relief to Constantinople, and other Provinces.

Yet this dreadful Judgment signified no more to Valens, then Cap. 14. Valens receives it not as a Judgement, but persecutes more cru­elly. if there had been no such thing, but on in his Journey he goes to Antioch, where he pursued with deadly hatred such as detested the Opinion of Arius, he deposed from their Churches for no other Crime, than that they were not one with Arius, all that held the Faith of one Substance, which he did throughout the Eastern Countries; and not only so, but with divers grievous devices he Torments and exe­cutes the other Chri­stians with divers deaths. tormented them, and executed a far greater number than hath been mentioned before, with sundry kinds of death, but especi­ally with drowning them in the Sea. Let me give one famous in­stance for all, and so close this particular.

At Edessa in Mesopotamia was a famous Temple, unto which Edessa a notable in­stance of the preven­tion of the destruction of multitudes by the hastning of a Woman with a little Child, through the Souldiers Ranks, towards the Temple, there to be put to death, which to do, and all that were then there, Souldiers were thithermarching multitudes did resort; Valens desired to see it, though he knew the frequenters thereof hated his Opinion, and gave his Lieute­nant a blow with his fist for not scattering the Conventicles of such as he had given them in charge. The Lieutenant notwithstand­ing all this contumely, framed himself (though unwillingly) to obey the Emperors wrath and displeasure; and yet being unwil­ling to murther so many godly Citizens, he sent privily that none should appear in the Temple, and that none should be found raising any Conventicle: Nevertheless not any one made ac­count of his advice, nor weighed his threats, but the day follow­ing they flocked in great multitudes to the Temple; and whilst the Lieutenant hastned with great power of armed Souldiers thi­ther, to answer to the Emperor, a simple Woman, leading a Child in her hand, all in haste brake their Array or Ranks, to pass whi­ther she was going, (viz.) to the Temple. The Lieutenant be­ing moved herewith, called the Woman before him, and thus rea­soned with her; Thou fond and unfortunate Woman, whither runnest The entercourse be­tween the Woman and the Lieutenant, thou so rashly? Thither (said she) where others do hasten.—Hast thou not heard (said he) that the Lieutenant will execute as many as he finds there? I heard it (said the Woman) and therefore I go thither in all the haste, that I may be found there. But whither (said he) leadest thou this Child? That he also (said she) may be accounted in the number of Martyrs. By this the Lieutenant conjectured of I [...]s influence on the Lieutenant. the rest, and getting to the Emperor, he giveth him to under­stand, that all from the highest to the lowest prepared to die in the quarrel and defence of their Faith: Adding moreover, That it was very rash, and without all reason, that so great a multitude in so short a space, should so suddenly be executed; and in so saying, he fell a perswading of the Emperor so long, until his And the Emperor. words prevailed, and the Emperor was with reason appeased.

Notwithstanding his devilish lust after blood and mischief was Cap. 15. Several executed, whose names began with THEOD, as sus­pected to succeed the Emperor. The Nicromancers threw out this. Theo­dosiolus of Spain lost his head on this account. Many changing their names through fear. not appeased, but understanding that some Nicromancers had gi­ven out that the Successors name of this Emperor began with THEOD, he executed several whom he thought should succeed him in the Empire, (viz.) all such as were called Theodorus, Theo­dotus, Theodosius, Theodulus; Particularly Theodosiolus a noble Man, the Son of a Senator, who being brought to him from Spain, lost his Head: Many also changed their names for fear [Page 122] of the same, which I note, that nothing may be wanting that the History doth afford to point out the Persecutors.

Athanasius being dead, after he had been Bishop forty and six Anno. 375. Cap. 16. Athanasius being dead, Peter succeeds. The Emperor sends Euxo­jus the Arrian with ar­med men, to put Luci­us the Arrian therein. He puts Peter in Pri­son, banishes the rest of the Clergy, settles Lucius. years, Peter was left behind to succeed him; but the Emperor being certified thereof, and Euxojus the Arrian being then with the Emperor at Antioch, opportunity was taken to put Lucius the Arrian therein, who with a great power of armed Men from the Emperor took his Journey to Alexandria, who clapt Peter in Prison, and banished the rest of the Clergy, some to one place, and some to another, and setled Lucius therein.

Lucius being setled in Alexandria, great persecution followed Cap. 17. Great persecution follows in Egypt. Peter gets out of Pri­son, flies to Damasus Bishop of Rome. Arrians hold all the Churches of Alexan­dria. The Religious Houses in the Desart thrown down by the Emperors Edict. The Religious persons mi­serably slain, who re­sisted not. The slaugh­ter beyond expression miserable. This through Lucius. Cap. 19. The persecution throughout Alexan­dria and Egypt very great. Imprisoned, vexed, tormented, who led a quiet life. Lucius with Souldiers marches to the Mona­steries in Egypt. Finds them praying, &c. in Egypt, wherein some were imprisoned, some tormented, others exiled: But Peter, as soon as he was got out of Prison, fled unto Damasus Bishop of Rome. The Arrians held all the Churches of Alexandria; not long after the Emperors Edict was proclaimed, by virtue of which the Religious Houses (as they are called) in the Desart were spoyled, thrown down, and cruelly beat to the ground; for (saith the History) the armed Souldiers setting upon those silly and unarmed Souls, who stretched not out the hand in their own defence, were miserably slain, the manner of which slaughter was so lamentable (saith the Historian) that it cannot sufficiently be manifested to the World.

And throughout Alexandria and Egypt, there was great per­secution to them that maintained the Faith of one Substance; they were brought before the Bar, they were put in Prison, they were diversly tormented and vexed with sundry punishment, who (saith the History) led a quiet and peaceable life; thus was it practised at Alexandria, at the pleasure of Lucius, and in Egypt the Cap­tain of his forces, and Lucius (who vexed those Christians more grievously then the Souldiers) marched forward towards those places called Monasteries, whom (saith the History) they found pouring out prayers unto God, curing Diseases, casting out of Devils; these they led away, and stirred up the rash and rude multitude against them; many of them (saith the Historian Ruffi­nus, who is said to be an eye witness and partaker with them in the same calamity) were set at nought, scourged, spoiled of their They are cruelly de­stroyed. An account of the se­veral sorts of their sufferings. Rayment, fetred in Prison, crushed with stones, beheaded with bloody Swords, shut up in the Desart, covered with Sheep and Goat Skins, destitute of Aid and succor; grievously afflicted, wonderfully troubled with adversity, who (saith he) the World was not worthy to enjoy, nor the Earth to bear so holy a bur­then; many wandred in Desarts and dangerous wayes, they hid themselves in Mountains, and Caves, in Dens, and hollow Rocks; all which, when Lucius had accomplished, and made those times (saith the Historian) to seem to fulfil anew what the Apostle spe­cified; he perswaded the Captain to banish the Fathers (as they Macharius the Egypti­an, and Macarius the Alexandrian, their Fa­thers banished. were called) and Ringleaders of them, viz. Macharius the Egyp­tian, and Macarius the Alexandrian.

Nor did Basilius of Cesarea in Cappadocia escape his hand, who Cap. 21. Basilius and Gregory of Nazianzum sent for by the Empe­ror. together with Gregory of Nazianzum being very famous, Valens [Page 123] sent for him in hast to Antioch, and charged him to be brought be­fore the President at the Tribunal Seat. The President demand­ed Basilius brought be­fore the President. The passages. of him, Why and wherefore he liked no better of the Emperors Reli­gion? Basil unfeignedly & freely spake his mind of the Emperors Religion, yet highly commendeth the Faith of one Substance.—When the President threatned him with present death, I would to God (saith he) it would fall out so well on my side, that I might leave this Carkass of mine in the quarrel of Christ, in the defence of my Head and Captain.—When the President advised him again and again, to remember himself better; he said,—As I am to day; Basils noble resolu­tion. so thou shalt find me to morrow, but I pray God thou alter not thy mind. Basil was laid in Prison that whole day; Galates the Em­perors Basil imprisoned. The Emperors Son Galates si [...]k. His Wife troubled in her sleep. Son, a youthly tender Lad, was then dangerously sick, and out of hopes of recovery by the Physitians, Dominica was trou­bled exceedingly in her sleep with ugly shapes, and Devils, of which she told the Emperor; and that the Child was visited with Assigns the cause of the sickness to be the abusing of Basil. sickness for the contumely and reproach he had done unto Basil the Bishop. The Emperor marked her words, and mused a while; at length resolved, and sent for Basil, and said, If thy He sends for Basil. The passages between them. Faith and Opinion be true, pray that my Son die not of this Disease. Basil said, If thou wilt promise to me to believe as I do, and if thou wilt bring the Church to Uniformity and Concord, thy Child no doubt shall live.—The Emperor not agreeing unto this, God (said Ba­sil) deal with the Child as pleaseth him. Immediately he was set at Basil set at liberty, the child dies. liberty, and forthwith the Child died.

Long had Rome a day of peace and quietness, by reason that Cap. 24. Rome quiet, because the Emperors, and Rome were of the same Faith. They fall into discord themselves. Ʋrsinus striving to succeed Damasus, is the cause. the Emperor that there resided, and in the Western parts, were of the same Faith with Rome, as I have formerly declared; and under Valentinian they had it now, for he troubled no Sect, but of themselves they fall into an uproar about the Election of a Bi­shop upon Liberius his disease; Damasus was chosen, and Ursinus a Deacon would have had it, who got certain base and obscure Bishops, (saith the History) who in an odd corner of the Cathe­dral, called Sicona, had his Consecration: the people hereupon were in uproar, and the multitudes were so great, and the con­tention so hot, that many lost their lives besides Maximinus the Many lost their lives in the qua [...]rel. For this the Gover­nour plagues both the Clergy and Laity. Cap. 25. At Millain they are in an uproar. Also upon the death of Auxentius. Ambrose Lieutenant of the City, comes to appease them. Governor, for this Schism and Rebellion grievously tormented many, both of the Laity and Clergy.

Thus at Rome, at Millain another strange Act appeared: Aux­entius whom the Arrians chose, there dying, the people were all in an uproar about the Election of another Bishop. The tumult being raised, Ambrose the Lieutenant of the City, who was also a Consul, came in to appease it, fearing greatly lest that Schism should breed mischief in the City. After that he had prevailed much with the people by his presence, so that they were quieted, and had given them divers good exhortations; on a sudden, with one mouth they nominated him to be Bishop, hoping thereby to They chuse him Bish. have all reconciled: the Bishops present judged that the uniform Voice of the People, was the Voice of God; therefore without any further deliberation, they baptize and enstall him Bishop; he He is baptized and enstalled. [Page 124] wondering at the consent and agreement of the people, supposed that which was done to be the Work of God himself; and signi­fied He obeys, and the ground on which he doth it. to the Bishops, That they should obey the Will of God, and create him Bishop, for God rather than men preferred him unto this Dignity. Ambrose being thus chose Bishop, the Citizens of Millain, who aforetime were at discord among themselves, thence­forth imbraced Peace and Unity. The City at quiet.

After the aforesaid stir was ended, the Emperor Valentinianus Cap. 26. Valentine marches a­gainst the Sarmatians. having raised great power, & made expedition against the Sarmati­ans, who had assaulted the Roman Dominion, they supposing them­selves too weak to engage such a power, sent Ambassadors to the They send Ambassa­dors to him. He despises them as Abjects. Emperor, to joyn with them in League, & to establish a Peace be­tween them: He perceiving that they were but Abjects & Rascals, (as the Historian termed them) demanded, Whether the rest of the Sarmatians were such as they? When they had answered, Yes, O Em­peror, thou seest the chief of the Sarmatians before thee. The Emperor He vext that the Ro­mans should be infest­ed by such a base peo­ple. Burst forth into passionate words. was so incensed thereat, that breaking out into vehement Lan­guage, he said, The Empire of Rome hath ill luck to fall into my hands, under whose reign so beggerly and so abject a kind of Barba­rians could not be quiet, and content themselves with safety within their own bounds, but they must take Armor, and rebel against the Roman Empire, and so boldly proclaim open War. And straining himself so with his extream speaking, he opened every Vein in Opens his Veins, breaks his Arteries, dies. his body, and broke the Arteries asunder, upon which there gushed out such a stream of blood, that he died in the Castle com­monly called Bergitium: he lived fifty and four years, and reigned thirteen.

Valentinianus being thus dead, the same day at Acanicum the Anno. 380. His Son Valentine the younger proclaimed. Souldiers of Italy proclaimed Valentinianus the younger, so cal­led after his Fathers Name, who was of very tender years, Em­peror. This the other Emperors took very much to heart, not The other Emperors offended, be­cause chosen by the Souldiers, not by them. Yet gave their consent. because he was Brother to the one, and Brothers Son to the other, but because he was appointed without their consent, unto whom belonged to create him Emperor, but both gave their consent that he should be Emperor.

Valens still continuing at Antioch, and having little War with Cap. 27. Valens being quiet from Wars, troubles the Christians. Torments them with new devices. Themistius the Philo­sophers Oration in their behalf quiets him. the Barbarous Nations, who kept themselves within their bounds, still pursued those that held the Faith of one Substance, and ceased not daily to invent new devices, and strange torments, wherewith he might plague them, till the Oration of Themistius the Philoso­pher, aforesaid, somewhat mittigated him, who admonished him not to marvel that the Christians varied among themselves in Religion; that if Christianity were compared with the infinite Opinions reigning among the Heathen Poilosophers, for there were above three hundred Opinions, and great dissentions about Rules and Precepts, whereunto every Sect necessarily addicted themselves; it would seem but a very small thing, and that God would set forth his Glory by the Diversity and Discord in Opinions, to the end that every one might therefore the more stand in awe of his Majesty, because it was not easie for every one to Afterwards he puts none to death. know him perfectly. So that afterwards he put none to death, [Page 125] though he yet punished the Clergy with Exile or Banishment, so Yet he ba [...]i [...]es the Clergy, till he was stopt upon occasion of the Goths. long till his mischievous enterprizes were stopped upon such an occasion as followeth.

The Goths beyond Istrum, by reason of civil Wars, were di­vided Who being divided a­mong themselves. One party got the upper hand. The other prays Valens help. He orders it, they pre­vail, and become Christians in recom­pence. among themselves into two parts; Athanaricus seemed to get the upper hand; Phritigernes thereupon sought aid of the Ro­mans; Valens commanded his Souldiers in Thrace to aid the one side against the other: The Souldiers foiled Athanaricus, which oc­casioned many of the Goths to imbrace the Faith of Christ; for Phritigernes to requite the Emperors courtesie, imbraced his Re­ligion, and perswaded his Subjects unto the same. Ulphilas also Ʋlphilas their Bishop gets the Scriptures Translated into the Gotthick Letters. Both Factions thereby became Christians, but Arrians. The subdued side per­secu [...]es. Bishop of the Goths, having got the Gotthick Letters, translated the Scripture into that Tongue; so that as well those of the Faction of Athanaricus, as of Phritegernes, imbraced the Christian Reli­gion; but it was that of the Arrians, because of the Emperor who was one himself. These Athanaricus tormented grievously, as if his Countrey, Laws and Ordinances were corrupted thereby, so that divers of them suffered Martyrdom. Now (saith the Hi­storian) Many put to death, and suff [...]red, not as Arius, e [...]bracing the Christian Faith, Arius because he could not withstand the error of Sabbel­lius the African fell from the right Faith, saying, That the Son of God was but lately created. But these men received the Christian Faith with simplicity of mind, sticked not to spend their lives in But in simplicity of mind. the quarrel.

One thing more concurred in the wisdom of God, quite to The Goths coming to Unity, are over [...]un by the Hunni, they flie to the Romans. Valens receives them, the onely thing in which he shewed him­self clement. Lets them inhabit in Thracia. Embraces them as his Guard. extinguish persecution with Valens; the Goths coming to Unity among themselves, were over-run with the Hunni: They flie to the Romans, and protest Loyalty and Subjection. Valens com­manded (not foreseeing the consequence) that they should be received courteously, and in this one thing onely shewed himself clement; he appointed them certain Countries to inhabit in Thra­cia, thinking himself happy for their coming, supposing thereby to have alwayes ready an exercised Army on all occasions, and that the Barbarians Guard would be a greater terror unto the Ene­my then the Roman Souldiers. Hence it came to pass that the Neglects the Romans old Souldiers. Roman Souldiers were neglected to be exercised in feats of Arms, and set at nought; and the old Weather-beaten Warriors, and valliant Captains laid aside, and fourscore Crowns required for every Souldier that was pricked and mustred in every Village, was required. This he did when first he released them of their Tri­bute, and which was the Original cause that the Roman Affairs prospered not a long time after. But the Goths forgetting the The Goths over-run the Countrey. kindness done them, took Arms against the Romans, over-ran and spoiled the Countrey. When Valens heard of this, he thought Valens hereupon for­bears banishing the Nicenians. Turns against the Rebels. The persecution ceases. it high time for him to leave exiling the true Christians, and to turn himself unto these Rebels; by this means the heat of Per­secution kindled against the Christians, was wholly quenched. What wayes are here brought about in the Wisdom of God to bring to pass? and what Judgements brings he over men, ere they will cease their hands from persecuting those whom they should let free as to their Conscience to God?

Furthermore, that it may appear that by other wayes then one, More Judgments following Valeus. the Hand of the Lord was stretched out against Valens for his cru­elty to his Brethren.

And so to give yet more evidence of the revealed Judgements of God, and his Vengeance, Who ordaineth his Arrows against the Persecutors; and so to shew how he makes that an opportunity of Reconciliation, the running in division against which is a cause of punishment; I shall produce one instance of reputation and weight, even answerable to this case, whilst yet Valens is to be discoursed of, as not having breathed out his last.

When the Emperor had left Antioch, the Saracens who before Cap. 29. The Saracens war with the Romans un­der Mavia their Queen, as a scourge. And had like to over-ran them. were fellow-Friends, and in league with the Romans, took up Arms against them, under the Government of Mavia, (whose Husband a little before had departed this life) and had like to over-ran all the Provinces of the Romans that lay towards the East, had not the same hand stopt them, who raised them up as a scourge unto Valens, through such an opportunity as this of the Saracens. There was one Moses who led in the Desart a Monasti­cal The making of Moses a retired man amongst them, a Bishop, is her Proposition of Peace. or retired kind of life; and is said for his zeal to Religion, his constant Faith, and working of strange Miracles, to be famous amongst them. Mavia demanded this Moses to be her Bishop, and so she would lay down Arms, and be in league with them. The Roman Captains accept thereof. He is sent from the Wilderness to Alex­andria, to be so made. He refuses to be made by the Bishop Lucius. His Speech. The Roman Captains accept hereof, and laying aside all delayes, command it to be done: Moses hereupon is taken from the Wilderness, and sent to Alexandria to be made Bishop; and being come to be made Bishop, he refuseth to receive Or­ders from him, and after this sort reasons with him, I think my self unworthy of the Priestly Order; yet if it be for the profit of the Common-Wealth that I be called unto the Function, truly thou Lucius shalt never lay hand upon my head; for thy right hand is imbrued with slaughter and bloodshed. When Lucius said again, That it be­came The Bishop reproves him. not him so contumeliously to revile him, but rather to learn of him the Precepts of Christian Religion. Moses answered, I am not come to He replies, and gives the reason of his re­fusal, because of his Persecution. And shews what the true Principles are of Chri­stian Religion. reason of matters of Religion, but sure I am of this, That thy horrible practises against the Brethren prove thee to be utterly void of the true Principles of Christian Religion: for the true Christian striketh no man, revileth no man, fighteth with no man, for the Servant of God should be no fighter; but thy deeds in exiling of some, throwing others to wild Beasts, burning of some others, do cry out against thee; yet are we surer of the things we see with our eyes, then of those we hear with our ears. He having uttered these and such like words, his He is brought to a Mountain, and made Priest by the Exiled. The Wars cease. Friends brought him to a certain Mountain, where he was made Priest of such as were exiled. So the War with the Romans end­ed, and Mavia married her Daughter to Captain Victor. And Antioch being left by Valens, the persecuted found comfort; and Cap. 30. Peter bringing Letters from the Bishop of Rome; the people th [...]ust out Lucius, and place Peter in his Rome. He dies in a sho [...]t time, Timothy succeeds. Peter being come from Rome with Letters from Damasus, confirm­ing both the Religion of Moses, and the Creation, or making of Peter Bishop of Alexandria. The people thrust out Lucius, who got him to Constantinople; Peter being in his place, after a little time died, whom his Brother Timothy succeeded.

Valens being come to Constantinople, found the people in great Cap. 31. Valens coming to Constantinople; finds the people in heavi­ness because of the Goths. They reflect upon, and reprove him. heaviness; the Goths who had overrun Thracia, having set upon the Suburbs of that City, and there was no power prepared to repel them; such a plague came upon the Empire for the perse­cution: the Barbarians (for so the Romans called the other Na­tions) being come nigh the Walls, the people of Constantinople were wonderfully sorry; they lament their case, and steping to the Emperor, charged him with entertaining in his own Domini­on such as now were ready to cut his own throat; they blamed him for withstanding them no sooner; they condemned him for proclaiming open War no sooner: as they ran at tilt, and were exercised in such Warlike Pastime, they all with one consent ran unto the Emperor, and cryed out against him, that he had set such exercises at naught, and said, Give us Armour, and we our selves will deal with them.—Thus was this persecuting Empe­ror He boils in anger, and is plagued. Leaves the City with threats, what he would do when he returned. plagued, and boyling in anger at their exclamations, left the City not without threatnings, That if he returned again safe, he would plague the City, partly because they reviled him, partly for the Treason of Procopius, and lay it even with the ground, and turn it into Arable Land, for the Plough to pass through the Bowels thereof. But he never returned: for though his marching forth made the He returns not. The Goths retreat to Adrianople. He joyns Battel, and is slain. The manner how di­versly reported. Anno. 381. Goths to retreat as far as Adrianople, a City of Thracia, lying on the confines of Macedonia; yet there, as he joyned Battel, he was slain in the fiftieth year of his Age, after he had reigned thirteen years with his Brother, and three years after his decrease. Some say he was burned to Ashes in a certain Village whitherto he fled, which the Goths set on fire; others, that the Horse having yeelded without any great fighting, he threw off his Imperial Robe, and thrusting himself among the throng of Footmen, was there slain, and his body lay there unknown. And this was The end of the Perse­cutor, and the venge­ance that overtook him, who pretended to Christ, yet tore the Christians. the end of this wicked Persecutor, whom vengeance met with at last, though he seemed to prosper a long time in his persecuting of the Christians, to whose Master he, as well as they, pretended, whom yet he tore in pieces and destroyed; which now came to be his own portion, through the just Judgments of him who or­daineth his Arrows against the Persecutors.

The Goths having dispatched Valens, they drew near to Con­stantinople, Socrat. lib. 5. cap. 2. Valens being dead, the Goths approach Con­stantinople. The peo­ple engage them, and beat them from the City. and began to destroy the Suburbs; the People taking Arms, such as came next to hand, and being paid by Dominia the Empress, out of the Emperors Treasury, as was the agree­ment; and Mavia Queen of the Sarazens, having helpt them with some succour a little before, they beat the Barbarians far from their City.

Valens being dead, Gratianus, together with Valentinianus the Anno. 383. Gratian and Valentine govern the Empire. Cap. 3. Valens cruelty is con­demned. The Exiles are called home. Liberty of Religion for all save the Euno­mians, Photinians, Manichees. younger, aforesaid, both Brothers, but by two Mothers, governed the Empire; he condemned his Uncle Valens cruelty towards the Christians, called home the Exiles, made a Law, That every Sect and Opinion should freely have liberty, except the Eunomians, Pho­tinians, and Manichees. And to the end that the Roman Affairs, which were then very low, might be raised up again (for the Barba­rians [Page 128] much infested them) he joyned Theodosius a valliant noble Theodorus of Spain made also Emperor. man of Spain in the Empire, and at Sirmium, caused him to be proclaimed.

This quiet Affairs as to the Government of the Empire, in refe­rence Cap. 4. The Empire being quiet, the Christians begin to fall out. to the Christians, gave again a discovery of what lay with­in, as to the forms of Faith in every one, unto which they adhe­red, and as opportunity was sought to impose; and those who out of necessity, and for straits sake, because of persecution sub­scribed And appear secretly what they were within. The Macedonians, who subscribed the Nicene Creed before Liberius Bishop of Rome in their adversity, gather a Synod. to another than their own, to preserve themselves from suffering, now the necessity being over, return to their old form again; in particular, the Macedonians, who though they sub­scribed to the Faith of one Substance, before Liberius Bishop of Rome, as aforesaid, yet now every Opinion having liberty, they shew themselves as they were, and how they had dissembled; Therefore being met in a Council, they Decreed,—That hence­forth, Declare against that Faith as not to be re­ceived, nor those to be communicated with, as were of it. Many fell from them hereupon and follow­ed the other. for altogether, the clause of one Substance should never be re­ceived; and that they ought no more to communicate with the Profes­sors of the Nicene Creed.—Which gave those among themselves, which were more conscientious, so to understand them, seeing they did say and unsay after this manner in matters of Faith, that they fell from them, and imbrace the other; such turning of times the Lord in his Wisdom suffering to be for the tryal of all, Times of tryal mani­fest them. that at one time or another every thing might be made mani­fest.

Also at Antioch there was a great stir about Miletius and Pauli­nus; Cap. 5. Stirs at Antioch about Paulinus & Miletius, And what they were. Paulinus would not admit the other to be joyned with him, be­cause made by Arians. The people fall out. the latter was not exiled, as aforesaid, and the former was; who returning, his Friends would have him joyned to Pauli­nus, who was ready to go into his Grave. Paulinus would not admit thereof, because it was contrary to the Canon, That any that were created by Arrian Bishops, should be made Colleagues in any Bishoprick. So to difference they go again, and falling together by the ears, when a little outward peace, as from the Empire, sprang in among them, and an uproar here was, because it was en­deavoured to be enforced in a certain Church of the Suburbs, which they having performed, raised the tumult which would A tumult is made. They swear the six Bishops that stood in competition, not to attempt the place whilst those two lived The stir is composed thereupon. The Fruits of compul­sive Faiths. not be reconciled, till all the six Bishops that stood for that place, had bound themselves with an Oath, That none of them would a­spire unto the Bishoprick whilst Miletius and Paulinus lived; and that when either of them were dead, the Bishoprick should remain to the surviver of them.

This was the division among themselves, when there was no division made of them by the Roman Government, which was the usual trades of the Christians among themselves, whose Faith was of an inforcing or compulsive nature, when the Governors of the Common-Wealth left all things free as to matters of Reli­gion, and made no compulsion, except as aforesaid.

Matters being thus all out of frame at Antioch, Gregory of Na­zianzum Gregory Nazianzum made Bishop of Con­stantinople. Cap. 6. was made Bishop of Constantinople, whitherto Theodosi­us came, after that Gratianus and he had overthrown the Barba­rians, from Thessalonica; Gratian being gone to France to en­counter [Page 129] the Germans which there had done some Hostility, where he found things in the same turmoil, as at Antioch. For Gre­gory, Cap. 7. Demophilus the Arrian opposes him. He confines himself to a little Church within the Walls. though he was chosen Bishop by the uniform consent of the Bishops of the Nicene Faith; yet Demophilus the Arrian Bishop, had raised such stir against him, because he was a stranger, that as he only kept him to a certain little Church within the Walls of Constantinople, before the Emperors coming; so when the Em­peror The Emperor coming he refuses to s [...]ay. Theodosius requires Demophilus to sign the Nicene Creed. He refuses. was come, he utterly refused to continue any longer at Con­stantinople, whereupon Theodosius immediately gave Demophilus to understand his mind, and demanded, Whether he would imbrace the Nicene Creed? Which he refusing, the Emperor said, If thou re­fuse to imbrace peace and unity, I command thee to avoid the Church. The Emperor com­mands him from the Church. He withdraws. Whereupon he assembling those of his own party, stood up in the midst, and said, Brethren, it is written in the Gospel, If they per­secute you in one City, fly unto another. Insomuch that the Empe­ror banisheth us the Churches, I would have you know that to morrow you must meet together out of the City. He understood not (saith the Historian) that such as flie that trade of life which worldlings fol­low (for so, saith he, must we take the words of the Gospel) must seek the higher Jerusalem, but he meant it otherwise (saith the Historian of Demophilus) and thenceforth raised Conventicles Raiseth Conventicles. Lucius resorts to him. without the Walls of the City: Unto whom Lucius of Alexan­dria (who was there in Exile) resorted. And so the Arrians, who had held the Churches there for the space of forty years, re­fusing (saith the History) Unity and Concord, which Theodosius exhorted them unto, departed the City, and those of the Faith The Arrians depart. The Nicenians take their place. of one Substance, came into their room, and took possession of the Churches.

Thus whilst the Arrians stood so stubbornly to own their Opini­on, What the stout Spirit of the Arrians met with. Persecution the con­sequence of Theodosius, enforcing the Faith of one Substance. as to Faith and Religion, as stout a Spirit entered into the Em­peror, who by little and little introduced a settlement of his own Opinion, which was of the Faith of one Substance, which he en­deavouring to establish, contrary to the Universal Liberty which Gratian had granted, brought divers Persecutions, as is the proper nature of imposing of Religion.

One hundred and fifty Bishops of the Nicene Faith, or of the Cap. 8. A Council at Constan­tinople of 150 Nicene, and 36 Macedonian Bishops. By order of Theodosius he seeks to perswade the Macedonians to the Ni [...]ene Faith, which they had sub­scribed. Creed containing the Clause of one Substance; and thirty and six of the Macedonians being met together in a Council at Constanti­nople, which Theodosius had summoned; partly to settle a Bishop in Constantinople, Gregory being gone to Nazianzum, refusing that Bishoprick, as aforesaid; and partly to confirm the Canons of the Nicene Council, he together with the other Bishops greatly en­deavoured to bring them over to them, urging their Embassy by Eustathius to Liberius of Rome, and their Subscription then; and that not long before, without exception, they had communicate throughout every Church with such as held the Faith of one Sub­stance, No Arguments pre­vail. (this Faith of one Substance still remaining a jar in the way) and that they would behave themselves neither godly nor religi­ously, sithence they aforetime had ratified the same Opinion and Faith with them, if now again they sought to overthrow such [Page 130] things as before they advisedly decreed; but all would not do, Their hat answer, ra­ther to joyn with the Arrians. They leave Constanti­nople, and send their Letters every where against the Nicenian Faith, which once they had subscribed. The rest place Necta­rius in the [...]oom of Gregory that was gone. They make Patriarks, establish the Nicene Faith. No Bishop to intermeddle with a [...] ­others Diocess. The Emperor con­sents. The Council ends. they said flatly, Rather than they would subscribe unto the Faith of one Substance, they would hold with the Arrians. So they left Con­stantinople, and sent their Letters every where, that they should in no wise consent to the Nicene Council. The one hundred and fifty Bishops which remained, placed Nectarius, (by Office a Pretor, of Noble Lineage, whose Ancestors had been Senators) Bishop of Constantinople; enstalled Constantinople next in the Em­pire to the Bishoprick of Rome, because called New Rome; and made Patriarks, and established the Nicene Faith; and that no Bishop should leave his one Diocess and intermeddle with For­reign Churches, which till that time, because of Persecution, was suffered. To all which the Emperor gave his consent: so the Council was dissolved.

Thus things went at Constantinople, where the beginning of the This new fire burns after through the Em­pire. new fire kindled, which afterward burnt through the Empire, which by and by I shall in particular treat of, giving only this in­timation by the way, That Meletius dying at Antioch, his Favou­rites Cap. 9. Meletius Favourites refuse after his death to be under Paulinus, contrary to the Oath. Flavianus is chosen. would not be under the Jurisdiction of Paulinus, though the Oath was taken in the former uproar, which quieted it, that so it should be, but chose Flavianus one of the six aforesaid, by whom the Oath was taken, that it should be submitted. So discord rose again in that City, and Tumults, and Divisions, and those of Antioch became to be divided again, not about the Faith (saith Antioch divided here­abouts. the History) but the Colleague aforesaid; the Faith was concern­ed, but their fond contention in choosing a Bishop: for Meleti­us being made by the Arrian Bishop, Paulinus refuseth him as his Colleague, as aforesaid.

The banishment of the Arrians from their Churches, caused a Cap. 10. A Council again is called by Theodosius, to reconcile (if it might be) all Opinions, for the flame was grown great through the ex­pulsion of the Arrians great flame of tumult and schism to arise every where; the Empe­ror perceiving it, summoned a Council of all Opinions, if so be possible he might reduce them into one, and particularly the Faith which himself held, for he had peace as to the Civil State, through­out his Dominion. At that time the Valiant Captain of the Goths Athanarichus being come in with all his power, and shortly after dying at Constantinople, and he having created his Son Arcadius, He advises with Necta­rius, how to accom­p [...]ish his design. viz. Theodosius, Augustus, or Emperor. The Bishops of all sorts being come, he devised how he might rid the Christians of Con­tention and Discord, and with Nectarius advised for that purpose, saying, That the Controversies and Quarrels that molested the quiet state of the Church, ought to be sifted out, and the punish­ment to light on the Pates of them that were found to be the Au­thors of Schism, and disturbers of Peace and Quietness.

This made Nectarius very pensive and sad because of the conse­quence; Nectarius consults with Agelius. he consults with Agelius Bishop of the Novations, who held the same Faith with those of one Substance; Agelius was lit­tle Agelius with Sisinius. at disputation, and appoints Sisinius a Reader of his Church, who was a man very eloquent, well experienced in all things, a skil­ful Interpreter (saith the Historian) of Holy Scripture, and a no­table Philosopher, who knowing well enough that Disputations [Page 131] would not only not reconcile Schisms, but also fire the slimy mat­ters of contention; he thus advised, That it was best to avoid the Sisinius his Judgment. strife of Logical Disputations. For this was the manner of the Bishops when they met together in Councils and Synods, to cleave Hairs (as they use to say) at Arguments; and they that were most curious and subtile therein, were accounted the best Masters of Faith, and so carried the matter, not according to the Revela­tion of Truth, but the subtilty of man, in things relating unto Truth, through which came all this adoe and trouble in the World; and to lay before them the form of Faith established by their Ancestors; and in pursuit hereof the Emperor should de­mand, Whether they made any account of the antient Fathers who governed the Church godly and prudently before the Schism and Division, (still the matter stood upon man which made all this stir, not knowing the Principle of God, in and by which only the Truth can indeed be known and determined) or condemned them as Aliens, and far-estranged from the Christian Faith. If they rejected them, then let them (saith he) boldly pronounce them accursed. If they presume so bold an enterprize, then (saith he) will the common people cry out against them; if they reject them not, then let us alleage their works and writings, and confirm the matters in controversie out of them.

This was the advice of Sisinius, and this was the policy of those The policy of those dayes as to truth. dayes as to Truth, which not being from a right Principle, could neither determine of Truth, nor quiet the minds of people con­cerning it; for the determination of Truth, as it comes from the Principle of Truth, is that only which can answer to the Witness of God, and so satisfie.

Nectarius having received this advice, acquaints the Emperor, Theodosius receives his Judgment. Puts the matter. They perceive him not at first. the Emperor likes it well, and treads the steps thereof; he puts the question concerning the Fathers, Whether they liked them? They not seeing his drift, who were of the opposite part, answer­ed, They highly reverenced them as their Masters. He demanded, Whether they would be tryed by their Testimonies concerning the true and right Faith? Here they were in a puzzle, and knew not what Afterwards were stumbled. answer to make, for they were divided among themselves, some held with the Emperor, and some affirmed, That it was altogether contrary to their mind and purpose. So that not only every Opini­on was divided from the other, but each Opinion among them­selves. Each Opinion be­comes divided a­mongst themselves as well as one with ano­ther. The Emperor seeing this, and how they builded not up­on the Antient Fathers exposition of the Faith, but trusted in their Sophistical quirks of Logick, (for they had brought many Logicians with them) he went another way to work, and bad He bids each give him by su [...]h a day their Faith in writing. every Opinion to take Pen and Ink, and lay down in writing what they held, and by such a day bring it unto him at the Emperors Pallace: They met, viz. Nectarius, Agelius, of the Faith of one Sub­stance; They meet. The four Op [...]nions, and the heads of them under which the whole world was divided. Demophilus of the Arrians; Eunomius himself in the name of the other Eunomians, and Eleusius of Cyzicum for the Macedo­nians. And into these four was the whole World of Christians [Page 132] chiefly divided, there being under each of them also several other Opinions, as the History makes manifest.

The Emperor (saith the History) salutes them friendly, next Theodosius receives all friendly. Locks his Closet. Prayes for direction. Tears in pieces all Creeds but the Nicene. Approves of that. receives every ones writing; then he went aside, and lock't in him­self, fell down on his knees, and prayed unto God, That he would assist him in the choice and revealing of the Truth. Last of all, having perused every ones Opinion, he condemned and tore in pieces all such Creeds as derogated from the Unity of the blessed (as the History calls it) Trinity, and allowed, and highly com­mended that above all the rest, the Creed containing the Clause of one Substance. This was the cause that the Novations had their The cause why the Novations had Church­es with the Nicenians. The rest depart pen­sive, yet endeavour by Letters to comfort their people. Churches with their priviledges as the rest, because to this Creed they leaned; the rest, though at their departure they went away sorrowful and pensive, yet fell they a comforting of their charge by Letters, exhorting them not to shrink at all from them, be­cause many had left them, and were fallen to the Faith of one Substance, they being set at naught, by reason of their mutual discord and difference, yea, by the people committed to their charge, For many were called, but few were chosen. Yet these of one Substance were not without molestation, for at Antioch they Factions at Antioch again About. Flavianus. Three Nations to re­move him, three to keep him in. fell into two Factions, the Egyptians, Arabians, and Cyprians held together, and thought good to remove Flavianus out of the Bi­shoprick of Antioch, but the Palestinians, Phoenicians, and Syri­ans took his part.

Thus this Council ended, which I have the rather been parti­cular The end of the Coun­cil. The cause of bringing these instances. in, because its of great consequence, as to what I have fur­ther to produce, as to the effects thereof, and what followed there­upon in the World, as well as to shew what Policies have been used in matters of Religions, and how that Religion hath been built thereupon.

Thus fared it at Constantinople. In the Western part of the Em­pire, Cap. 11. Persecution in the West by Justina. which hitherto had generally been more free from Persecu­tion, there arose Persecution. Justina the Mother of Valentini­anus the Younger, whilst her Husband lived, could effect no­thing of this matter; but he being dead, she removed to Mil­lain, and her Son being of tender years, she raised tumults, being of the Opinion of Arius, against Ambrose, so that in the end he Ambrose ordered to Exile by the Arrians. The people resist. Gratian is murdred. The news stops Justi­na's persecution. was exiled; which when the people withstood and hindred their force that came to carry him to exile; news came that Gratian was murthered by the wiles and slights of Maximus, which cool­ed the heat of Justina against Ambrose. So the Lord that look­eth down from Heaven, and beholds the doings of the Chil­dren of men, puts stops to their rage, and reproves it as he sees good.

Andragathius, Maximus his Captain, hiding himself in a Cha­riot The conspiracy by which Gratian was murdered. in the form of a Litter born with Mules, went to meet with Gratian; giving in charge to them that conducted it, That it was the Empress who came to meet the Emperor: he passed over Rhodanus River that runs by Lyons in France; The Emperor su­specting nothing, went to the Litter, out of which Andragathius [Page 133] lighted and killed him presently. So Valentinianus was constrain­ed to receive Maximus (who being a Brittain, thus conspired, Designed by Maximu [...] his fellow Emperor. Executed by Andraga­thius. Probus hasts to Illyri­um for fear of Maxi­mus, with Valentines Army. Cap. 12: Theodosius troubled, who gave trouble to the World. Gathers a great Army. and had slain Gratian) his fellow Emperor. But Probus, who had governed prudently during the nonage of Valentinianus, fear­ing Maximus power, left Italy, and hastned to Illyrium, making his abode at Thessalonica a City in Macedonia.

Now found Theodosius trouble, who began to trouble the World about Religion; he was wonderfully sorry, and gathered a great power to go against Maximus, fearing lest he should con­spire the death of Valentinianus also. At the same time Legates came from Persia to conclude a Peace between them; and Hono­rius was born to him by Placilla the Empress. So Theodosius leav­ing his Son Arcadius at Constantinople, marched towards Maximus to give him Battel: When he came to Thessalonica, he found Va­lentinianus's Comes to Thessalonica, finds Valentines Army discouraged because they had proclaimed Maximus. He neither receives, nor rejects Maximus's Legates. Souldiers dismayed and discouraged quite, because necessity had constrained them to make Maximus Emperor. For his part he made no shew of being of either side; and when the Ambassadors of Maximus came, he neither rejected nor received them; yet was he sorry that the Empire of Rome should be op­pressed with Tyranny under colour of the Imperial Title; there­fore He hastens to Millain; whitherto Maximus was come. he gathered his power, and made haste to Millain, whitherto Maximus was come.

In the mean time the Arrians at Constantinople thinking now Cap. 13. The Arrians at Con­stantinople s [...]ew them­selves hereupon, and their grudge. They publish false re­ports of Theodosius. And burn Nectarius's Pallace. that they had an opportunity, upon the false report that Theodosius was worsted by Maximus, and near taken alive; with a deal of such things which was raised on purpose, without any truth in them, pluck up their Spirit for the old grudg they bore to see those enjoying their Churches whom they had persecuted, and set fire on Nectarius his Pallace.

When Theodosius was drawn near to Maximus, the Souldiers of Maximus's Souldiers bind him, and bring him to Theodosius. He executes Maximus. Maximus could in no wise bear the rumour thereof, but binding Maximus they brought him to Theodosius, who presently execu­ted him in the second Consulship of Theodosius, and the first of Cynegius, 28th Augusti, wherein the things aforesaid were also committed; of which overthrow Andragatius hearing, ran Andragath. drowns himself. headlong into the next River and drowned himself, which gave occasion to the Emperor, having gotten the Victory, to re­turn Theodos. marches to Rome. to Rome.

One thing more, and then I shall have done with the conse­quence Symachus having wrote a Book in the praise of Max. takes sanctuary in the No­vation Church. of this Battel: Symachus the Consul, a man of great skill and eloquence in the Roman Literature, wrote a Book in the praise of Maximus; which whilst he was alive, was repeated in his hearing, but being dead, he is now charged with Treason; he fearing death, runs to what is called a Church for sanctuary, (see the Antiquity of this superstitious Propitiatory in the times of the Christians) whom at the suit of Leontius Bishop of the Nova­tion He is pardoned. Church at Rome, he pardoned; and yet the Novations will The Novat. break their Principles to up­hold their Sanctuary. admit none unto their Communion, though they repent that have sacrificed unto Idols.

The troubles of Antioch were not yet over: Paulinus being Cap 15. More troubles at An­tioch. Paulinus dies. Evag. chosen. He lives not many dayes. Flavian. works that no Bishop is chosen. dead, the people abhorred Flavianus for his Perjury, and chose Evagrius, who living not many dayes, in whose room, through the device of Flavianus, none was chosen but those that detested him for the breaking of his Oath, met in private Conventicles. Flavianus rolled every stone to get this over, and to bring them under his Jurisdiction; which he thus brought to pass: The spight and grudge between him and Theophilus Bishop of Alexan­dria, being over, and Damasus Bishop of Rome by his means be­ing reconciled unto him, both of them having been offended with him, for that he had both forsworn himself, and been the occasion of the discord of the City; But now Theophilus being Theoph. sends Isidorus to Damasus of Rome, to indulge his Perjury. As the custom of the Church, to serve po­pular [...]nds. pleased with him, he sent Isidorus a Priest to appease Damasus to­wards Flavianus, and to instruct him, That it was according to the use and manner of the Church, if (respecting the Unity and Concord to be trained among the common people, he would not think amiss of Flavianus for so doing); See how Perjury came to be pallia [...]e [...] for popular ends by those Bishops, and how it is re­presented as the use and manner of the Church so to do. When Flavianus was thus restored to the Communion of the Faithful, Flavian is restored. the people of Antioch were in process of time brought to Love and Union one with another: The Arrians then being thrust out of The Arrians hold Conventicles. the Church, raised Conventicles in the Suburbs.

Much stir there was at Alexandria; About the same time the Cap. 16. New troubles at Alex. about the pulling down of an Idols Temple. said Theophilus got Orders from the Emperor to pull down the Idols Temple in that City, and that Theophilus should oversee it, which he did, omitting nothing that might tend to the reproach and contumely of the Heathenish Ceremonies: which the Hea­then there, and those professing Philosophy could no longer bear, but joyntly ran on the Christians, dispatching them every kind of way, as they could, whom the Christians resisted, and sought to defend themselves; so that mischief was heaped upon mischief; the skirmish continued so long, and was so sore, till both sides Many slain of the Christians by the Hea­thens, and the Hea­thens by the Christians They fight till they can kill no longer. were weary and could kill no longer. Not so many were killed of the Ethnicks, yet a great number of the Christians were killed, and of both sides wounded (saith the History) an infinite num­ber. This is the consequence of doing things of that nature, in The consequence of reforming Religion in a way of violence. a grating and insulting manner, which otherwise may be better accomplished. The Ethnicks (or Heathen) when they had done, were wonderfully afraid of the Emperors displeasure, and so ran The Heathen hide themselves. away and hid themselves. Haladius Priest of Jupiter boasted that he had killed nine with his own hands. The slaughter being over, the Governor of Alexandria, and the Captain of the Host came and assisted Theophilus in the pulling down of the Temples. Theoph. assisted by the Captain of the Host. Thus much of the broiles of Alexandria.

One thing I cannot let pass without mentioning, though it may Cap. 19. seem no otherwise to appertain to what I am about, than to shew the effects of mens ordering and imposing of Religion, who know not the Principle of God; and that I may shew the rise of many things, which yet some retain, though long agone they [Page 135] were thought fit to be abandoned: The Novations dividing them­selves from the other Christians Communion, because of recei­ving again such as fell in the Persecution under Decius; The Bi­shops The Office of the shrieving Priest [...] Ori­ginal. made a Canon, That in every Church there should a Priest be appointed for the admission of Penitents, that such as had fallen after Baptism, should in the hearing of the Priest appoin­ted for that purpose, confess their sin and infirmity: Among some of the Christians this Canon (saith the Historian) is yet of force. But those of the Faith of one Substance, and the Novations, ba­nished it from them on this occasion; To a Priest appointed for this purpose, a noble Woman came and confessed her sins order­ly after Baptism; the Priest enjoyned her Fasting, and continual Prayers, for penance; and that together with her confession in word, she shewed forth the works of Repentance in deed; as she continued a while longer a shriving (saith the History) she ac­cused her self of another crime, and declared, That a certain Deacon of that Church had abused her Body; for which the Deacon was banished the Church; and there being much ado among the People, for they were wonderfully incensed, and so by the advice of Eudaemon of Alexandria, Nectarius Bishop of And the taking of it away, through a Priests defiling a noble Wo­man that came to confess. Constantinople took away the Function of the shriving Priest, and granted liberty to every one as his Conscience served him to be partaker of the holy Mysteries.

Great was the diversities of Opinions in Religion among the Cap. 20. Great divisions among the Christians as to Opinion, though only the Eunomians were exiled by the Emperor. Christians in this day, wherein, though the outward state of things were not very troublesome, for Theodosius molested none of the aforesaid Opinions, saving Eunomius, whom the Emperor exiled for publishing Books, for raising Conventicles at his own private House within Constantinople, and denying the others of the publick places within the Cities, except the Novations, and the Friendship of Authority which lay deep in the Brests of some of them: For they thought if all had been equally priviledged, there had been offence to none; I say, Theodosius molested them not otherwise than aforesaid; and although things thereby had prety quiet as from Authority, yet upon every trifling occasion they break forth among themselves, viz. the Arrians, Novations, They fall out among themselves. Macedonians, and Eunomians, one severing himself from ano­ther; and these Schisms and Rents were many, and too long here to repeat, as it is usual where the Unity of the Spirit is not known in the bond of Peace, where Logick, and Wit, and the wisdom which is from beneath, takes upon it the determination of Truth. In the Suburbs, Theodosius gave leave for them to have Conventi­cles, The Heathens the Ori­ginal of the Word Conventic [...]e, the Chri­stians take it up after the same manner and sence. (for so as I have intimated from the Heathens dayes, who were the Original, all professions of Religion, who stood not with the priviledges of publick Authority, received appellation); A great ado there was about the successor of Agelius aforesaid, in the Novation Church, he being very antient, appointed Sisinius, Much ado about a successor to Agelius. and not Marcianus to succeed him. The people were troubled hereat, because Marcianus preserved them from trouble in the dayes of Valens, and was a godly man; so the old man was con­strained [Page 136] for the cooling of their heat, to come as well as he could The poor old man to cool their heat, was constrained to come into the Church, and declare his Successor. Sho [...]tly after which he dies. Marcianus succeeds. Sabbatius a Jew turns Christian, fe [...]gnedly is made a Priest. Insinuates Jewish ob­serva [...]ion of Easter, gets two Priests more to him. Seeks to be a Bishop. The like attempted at Pazus in Phrygia. Marcian. is troubled that he laid hands on him and them. Sabbat. Hypocrisie. (for he was very feeble) into the Church, where he said,—Im­mediately after my decease, you shall have Martianus for your Bi­shop, after Martianus, Sisinius.—Not long after which he died. Marcianus becoming their Bishop, they were divided again. A certain Jew called Sabbatius, being turned a Christian, was made Priest by Martianus; he retained the old root of Judaism in him, notwithstanding, applyed himself to the Jewish observations, with which being not content, he sought to be a Bishop, seeking to alter (by means of two Priests he had got on his side, viz. The­octistus and Macarius) the observation of the time called Easter to the Jewish Observation; as before the Novations had attemp­ted at Pazus in Phrygia, in the time of Valens. It grieved Marti­anus, that he had not taken better advisement before he laid his hands on such vain glorious and aspiring minds as he; and those Priests were; for Sabbatius severed himself at first from the Church on pretence of a Monastical or retired life, (for that was it, which being at first, was afterward called Monastical) in colour of ten­derness of Conscience, that he could not administer the Myste­ries to certain men that were stumbling-blocks unto him: But in process of time shewed himself what he intended, in raising Con­venticles to his Opinion. A Council of Novation Bishops he A Council of Novat. Bishops summoned at Angaris about him. summoned at Angaris a Town in Bythinia, adjoyning to Heleno­polis, whereunto he cited Sabbatius, (for he fretted within him­self with anger, (saith the Historian) and wished that his hands had been set on pricking Thorns, when they were laid upon Sab­batius.—It seems he had ordained a Jew for a Christian) and expo­stulated the matter with him, who pleaded the difference about He is expostulated with about Easter. the Celebration of Easter, concerning which his Judgment was the Jewish; and that at Pazus aforesaid, leaning thereunto: The Bishops supposing that he enterprized all this in hopes of a Bishop­rick, made him take an Oath that he would never take upon him Is sworn by the Bi­shops not to attempt to be a Bishop. The Canon read for the indifferency of ob­serving Easter. to be a Bishop. He having taken this Oath, read to him the Ca­non for the indifferency of Celebrating that time, as every one would, (for there had been a great stir about Easter, and the Ea­stern and Western Churches were divided thereabouts) which having done and said what they thought fitting concerning that matter, and laid down a Proviso, that notwithstanding, they should be at Unity and Concord in the Church of God; that is, those that differed about the Celebrating of that time, which they said, the Canon for it was of an indifferent matter. That business had an end, only Sabbatius was beforehand with them for Fasting and He keeps Easter on Saturday, and meets with the others on the next day. Vigils, for he kept Easter on the Saturday, and met the next day with the others in the Church, and was partaker of the Mysteries; which he did for many years, and therefore could not be conceal­ed. By occasion whereof (saith the Historian) many simple and ignorant Souls, especially in Phrygia and Galatia, hoping verily to be justified thereby, became earnest followers of him, and observing in secret his Celebration of Easter: So in the end Sab­batius is said to raise many private Conventicles, and forgetting He raises a Conventi­cle. [Page 137] the Oath he had taken, was made Bishop of such as addicted And contrary to his Oath was made a Bis [...]op▪ An account of Easter. themselves to his kind of Discipline.

Now concerning Easter, and other things into which they were divided, it will be necessary that I speak a little, that I may not leave this work imperfect; but seeing I am going through the first 600. years, as I have said; and therein shewing in a constant Series the Effects or Fruits of National Worships, Forms of Faith, and Creeds, and the imposing of them, It will not be amiss a little to give an account of those things in particular.

Concerning Easter. The greater part throughout the lesser Cap. 21. The greater part throughout the less [...]r Asia held it on the fourteenth day of the month, whether Sab­bath day or not. Victor Bish. of Rome excommunicates them all. Iraeneus Bishop of Lyons rebukes him sharply. And gives instances of Unity when the day is differently observed. Asia of old, kept it on the fourteenth day of the month, without any account made, or heed taken of the Sabbath Day, about which they held no Discord, which those that held the contrary Opinion, till Victor Bishop of Rome through boyling heat and choller (saith the Historian) had excommunicated all Asia; For which Irenaeus Bishop of Lyons in France, inveyed bitterly by Let­ters against him, and rebuked him for (they are the words of the Historian) his fumish dealing, and furious rage, (so here was Division) and put him in remembrance that the Elders and Anti­ent Fathers, who varied among themselves about the observation of this Feast, communicated nevertheless one with another. Also that Policarpus Bishop of Smyrna, who suffered Martyrdom un­der Gordianus, communicated with Anicetus Bishop of Rome; Neither fell he out with him at all, though he kept the fourteenth day of the month, as the custome of Smyrna, where he abode, Those of the furthest part of Asia kept it upon the Saturday, as observing the Jews, yet differed about the day of the Mon [...]h, Holding it af [...]er the Equinoctial space, did prevail. Some again inhabiting the furthest parts of Asia, vary in the month, yet hold it upon the Saturday, thinking the Jews were herein to be followed, though they kept not precisely the time of that Feast; they solemnized it after the Equinoctial space; yet detesting the time limited by the Jews, for they think that Easter is ever to be kept when the Sun is in Aries, after the When the Sun is in Aries, as do the Anti­ochians. manner of the Antiochians, in the month Xanthicus, but with the Romans in April: Therein they followed not the Jews of the latter Age, (as saith Josephus in his third Book of Judaical Anti­quities) who fouly erred therein; but the eldest and most anti­ent. And as these varied thus among themselves, so is it mani­fest (saith the Historian) that all other Countreys throughout the The Western parts celebrated it West part of the World, whose Banks are beaten with the surging Ocean, of old Tradition, and prescribed Customs, have cele­brated this Feast after the Equinoctial Line. And although all After the Equinoctial Line. these Countries, (saith the Historian) whose endeavour by all these instances is to shew that the keeping of that time, ought not to be impulsive, Nations and Languages then varied one All prove it was not compulsive. from another; yet they never divided from the Communion of the Church; neither brake they asunder the Bond of Unity, nei­ther is that true (saith he) which is rife in the months of malici­ous men, that the Council summoned in the time of Constantinus Magnus, perverted and set quite out of order the manner and custom retained concerning the celebrating of this Feast: for Constantine himself wrote to such as varied from others, exhorting [Page 138] the lesser number to follow the greater. The which Epistle of Constantine exhorted the lesser number to follow the greater. His Letter thereabouts the Emperor, thou shalt find wholly in Euseb. 3d book of the Life of Constantine, wch as to this is read in this sort, In my simple Judg­ment that is a notable custom the which all the Churches, West, South, and North, together with many Countries of the East, do retain; and therefore it cometh to pass, that all presently do think well of it. I my self have presumed so much upon your discreet wisdom, that what custom soever is observed with uniform consent in the City of Rome, Italy, Africk, and all Egypt, Spain, France, Brittain, Libya, and all Grece; in the Provinces of Asia, Pontus, and Cilicia, you most willingly approve the same; weighing with your selves aright, that there is not only more Churches, but a greater number of people in those parts, and that all of duty should wish and earnestly desire that thing to be most religiously established, which right & reason requireth, which also hath no fellowship with open Perjury, of stubborn and stif­necked Jews.—This is a piece of the Emperors Epistle. They Those who are for the fourteenth day, bring John for their Author. Those of Rome, and the West, bring Peter and Paul, as having left such a Tradition. Yet none can produce any Testimony for this. The Celebration more of custom than any Law. The Historians own confutation. that keep Easter (saith the Historian) the fourteenth day of the month, bring John the Apostle for their Author; but such as in­habit Rome, and the West parts of the World, alleadge Peter and Paul for themselves, that they should leave them such a Traditi­on; yet (saith the Historian) there is none that can shew in writing any Testimony of theirs for confirmation and proof of their custom; and hereby (saith he) do I gather, that the Cele­bration of the Feast of Easter came up more of custom, then by any Law or Canon: But concerning the day it self, hear him what he saith, and I think I need say little more for the confutati­on of the strictness of the keeping thereof, for I have minded in all these things to let the words of Antiquity, or the sayings of those whom I quote, as History, evince the thing for which I produce them; that not in mine onely, as I proposed in the be­ginning, but in the words of them who are received as Authen­tick, the matter may be judged. Presently, me thinks (saith he) Of the observation of Easter by Imposition. fit opportunity serveth to discourse of Easter, for neither had the El­ders of old, nor the Fathers of late dayes, I mean such as favoured the Jewish Custom, sufficient cause (as I gather) so eagerly to con­tend about the Feast of Easter; neither weighed they deeply with them­selves, that when the Jewish Forms and Figures were translated into the Christian Faith, the literal observation of Moses's Law, and the Types of things to come wholly vanished away. The which may evi­dently be gathered, when as there is no Law established in the Gospel which alloweth the observation of Jewish Rites; nay, the Apostle hath in plain words forbidden it, where he abrogated Circumcision, and exhorted us not to contend about Feasts, and Holy-dayes: For, writing to the Galathians, he saith in this sort, Tell me, you that desire to be under the Law, do ye not hear what the Law saith? Gal. 4. When that he had discoursed a while thereof, he concludeth that the Jews were become Servants unto the Law, and that such as were called into the Christian Faith, were thereby made free. He admo­nisheth us further, Not to observe dayes, neither months, nor years: And unto the Colossians he is plain as may be, saying, That the ob­servation [Page 139] of such things were nothing but a Shadow; His words are these, Let no man therefore judge you in Meats, or Drinks, Col. 2. in a piece of a Holy-day, or of the New Moon, or of the Sab­bath, which are the shadows of things to come. And in the Epistle to the Hebrews, he confirmeth the same, where he saith, In­somuch Heb. 7. that the Priesthood is translated, of necessity there must be a translation of the Law: Wherein neither doth the Apostle nor the Evangelists press the Christians with the yoake of bondage and servitude, but left the remembrance of the Feast of Easter, and the observation of other Holy-dayes, to their free choice and discretion, which have been benefited by such dayes. And because men are wont to keep Holy-dayes for to refresh their weary some bodies, already pining with pain and labour; Therefore it cometh to pass, that every one, in every place, of a certain custom, do celebrate of their own accord the remembrance of the Lords Passion: for neither our Saviour nor his Apo­stles have commanded us any where to observe it; neither have they laid it down as a Law; neither have the Evangelists and Prophets threat­ned us, or enjoyned us a penalty or punishment, as the Law of Moses hath done to the Jews; but only the Evangelists make mention of this Feast, partly for the great shame of the Jews, who defiled their Bo­dies, and prophaned their holy Feasts with blood and slaughter; and partly also to signifie that our Saviour suffered death for the Salvati­on of mankind, in the dayes of unleavened Bread: the drift of the Apostle was not to lay down Canons and Decrees concerning Feasts and Holy-dayes, but to become Patterns unto us of Piety, of good Life, and godly Conversation. I am of Opinion (saith he) that as many other things crept in of custom in sundry places; so the Feast of Easter too hath prevailed among all people of a certain private custom and ob­servation; Insomuch that (as I said before) not one of the Apostles have any where prescribed to any man as much as one rule of it.

Thus much concerning Easter, now of Lent. The occasion Concerning Lent. of Fasting usually observed before Easter, as it appeareth to the whole World, hath been diversly observed. Such as inhabit Rome do fast three weeks together before Easter, excepting the Saturday and Sunday; Illyricum, all Greece, together with Alex­andria, begin their fasting dayes six weeks before Easter, and that space they call forty dayes fasting, or Lent; others, contrary to the aforesaid customs, begin to fast seven weeks before Easter; yet in all that while they use abstinency but only fifteen dayes, pausing between every one of them; and these few dayes they call forty days fasting, or Lent; so that I cannot chuse but marvel (saith the Historian) that they differing in number of dayes, yet all joyntly do call every of their observations forty dayes fasting, or Lent. Others have derived the Etymology of the word as it pleaseth them best, according to the invention of their own brain. Neither was there this difference only about the number of dayes, but also hath there been a great diversity about the kinds of meat, for some have abstained from every living Creature; some, of all the living Creatures, feed only upon Fish; others together with fish, feed upon the Fowls of the Air, affirming, as Moses saith, [Page 140] That their Original is of the Water. Others eat neither Nuts nor Apples, nor any kind of Fruit, nor Eggs neither; some feed only upon dry Bread; some others received none of that; some who when they had fasted till nine of the Clock, they refreshed nature with divers sorts of meats; other Nations had other cu­stoms; the manner and causes (saith the Historian) are infinite: But (saith he) insomuch there is no man able to shew a President or Record thereof in writing, it is plain, that the Apostle left free choice and liberty unto every man at his own discretion, without fear, compulsion, and restraint, to addict himself unto that which seemed good and commendable: We know (saith he) for most certain, that this diversity of fasting is rife throughout the World. Thus of Lent.

Again, concerning the Communion. There were sundry ob­servations Concerning the Communion. and customs; for though in manner (saith the Histori­an) all the Churches throughout the World do celebrate and re­ceive the holy Mysteries every Sabbath Day after other; yet the people inhabiting Alexandria, and Rome, of an old Tradition do not use it. The Egyptians adjoyning unto Alexandria, toge­ther with the Inhabitants of Thebais, use to celebrate it on Sun­day; yet did they not receive the Communion, as the manner is among the Christians; for when they had banqueted and filled themselves with sundry delicate dishes, in the evening after Service (as it was called) they used to communicate. Again, at Alexadria on the Thursday and Friday the Scriptures were read, the In­terpreters expounded them all the solemnity for the Communion is accomplished; yet then the Communion not received, and this was an old and antient custom at Alexandria. It is well known (saith the Historian) that Origen flourished in those dayes in the Church, who being a wise and discret Doctor, and expounder of Holy Scripture, perceiving that the Precepts of Moses Law could no way litterally be understood, gave forth of the Passe­over, a Mystical and more Divine kind of Interpretation, viz. That there was but only one true Passeover, or Easter, the which our Origen's notable ob­servation concerning the Communion, or Ea­ster, once only offered or celebrated by Christ on the Tree. Concerning Readers in the Church. Saviour effectually celebrated (saith he) at his nayling on the Tree, when he encountered with the power of darkness, and tryumphed over the Devil and all his works. Thus as to the Communion.

Again as to the Readers. The Readers and Interpreters of the Scriptures at Alexandria, were the Catechumenists, or Baptized, it forced not: when as the custom in other Churches or Countries is to admit none into that Function, unless he be first bapti­zed.

Concerning the Priests. I remember (saith the Historian) Concerning Priests, and their Ma [...]rying. another custom that is in force in Thessalia, that is, If he that is a Priest after the receiving of Orders, do keep company with his Wife, the which he married being a Lay-man, he is forthwith deposed of the Ministry. Yea, when as (saith he) all the famous Priests throughout the Eastern parts of the World, and the Bishops And the Bishops. also refrain the company of their Wives, at their own choice, with­out Law or Compulsion. For many of them, (saith he) not­withstanding [Page 141] the Administration and Government of their Bi­shopricks, beget Children also on their lawful Wives. Theodorus Theodorus that wrote against Priests Mar­riages, wrote wanton Books. a Priest of Trivia, a City of that Countrey, was the Author and Ringleader of that custom, who wrote those amorous and wan­ton Books, the which he made in the prime of his flourishing years, and stiled Aethiopica. Those in Thessalonica, Macedonia, and Hellas in Achaia, retain the same customs and observa­tions.

Concerning Baptisme. In Thessalia they baptized only in the Concerning Baptisme. Easter Holy-dayes, (as they are called) and therefore (saith the Historian) very many die without Baptism.

Concerning what is called the Altar. The Church (so cal­led) Concerning the Altar. in Antioch in Syria, was scituate contrary to other Churches, (so called) for the Altar stands not to the East, but towards the West.

Concerning what is called Service. In Hellas, Jerusalem, and Concerning Service. Thessalia, Service was said by Candle-light, after the manner of the Novations at Constantinople. In Caesarea, in Cappadocia, and at Cyrus, the Priests and Bishops did expound the Scripture at Even­ing-prayer, on the Saturdayes and Sundayes, by Candle-light. The Novations at Hellespont had not the same order and manner of Service as the Novations at Constantinople; yet for the most part they imitate the chief Churches among them. To be short (saith the Historian) amongst the customs and observations of all Among all Sects, scarce two follow the same Order. Sects and Religions, we shall not be able to find two which follow and retain one order of Service.

Concerning Preaching. At Alexandria the inferiour Priest did Concerning Preaching use to preach: that Order first began when Arius turned upside down the quiet state of the Church.

Concerning Fasting. At Rome they did fast every Satur­day. Concerning Fasting.

Concerning Sinning. At Caesarea in Cappadocia, after the Concerning Sinning. manner of the Novations, they received not into the Communi­on such as sin after Baptism a sin unto death. So did the Ma­cedonians in Hellespont, and such as throughout Asia do cele­brate the Feast of Easter the fourteenth day of the month.

Concerning Marriages. The Novations throughout Phrygia Concerning Marriages allow not second Marriages: Such of them as were at Constanti­nople, neither received it, nor rejected it. Those in the West parts of the World admitted it wholly. The Originals and Au­thors of so great diversity (saith the Historian) were Bishops, which governed the Churches at divers and several times; such as like of these Rites (saith he) do commend them to Posterities for Laws. But (saith he) to pen in Paper the infinite and di­vers Customs and Ceremonies throughout Cities and Countries, would be a very tedious work, and scarce, (saith he) nay im­possible to be done. And thus much I have said, and thus much I have rehearsed concerning this matter, which shall suffice me; and now I shall proceed where I left off, as to matter of Division and Tumult, as this hath been of Confusion, the natural Chil­dren [Page 142] of imposing Religion, or enjoyning Creeds, Confusions, and forms of Faith, which hath produced what hath been here rehearsed, and a great deal more during the term of time I have waited upon in this Discourse throughout the World.

The Christians, who (as I have said) having little or no out­ward Cap. 22. The divisions of the Christians when the Empire was quiet. disturbance, at least in comparison to what had been be­fore; not only fell into diversity of Opinion and Divisions, as I have signified, but those so divided, fell from their Fellows, and upon sundry light and trivial occasions, disagreed among them­selves. The Novations were divided about Easter, (as I said be­fore) The Novations divide about Easter, the month, and day of the week. yet were not content with one division, but throughout sundry Provinces they sometimes jarred, and sometime joyned together, not only about the month, but also the day of the week; with such like matters of small importance. The Arrians were The divisions of the Arrians. continually arguing and broaching of intricate quirks, which brought their Disputations to very absurd and horrible Opinions; and whereas the Church believeth (saith the Historian) That God is the Father of the Son, which is the Word. They question, Whether God may be called a Father before the Son had his be­ing; and because they were of Opinion, That the Word of God was not begotten of the Father, but had his being of nothing; erring in the chief and principal, no marvel that they plunged into absurd Opinions. Dorotheus who was translated thither from Dorotheus and his Heresie. Antioch, said, That the Father could be neither in Essence, nor Ap­pellation, if the Son had no being. Marinus, whom they called Marinus and his Opi­nion in contradiction. out of Thracia, before the time of Dorotheus, stomaching that Dorotheus was preferred before him, supposed that now it was high time to work his feat, set himself opposite, and maintained the contrary Opinion, wherefore they were divided; and because (saith the Historian) of the vain and frivolous questions amongst them, parted Companies. Dorotheus, and those with him, con­tinued in their former places. Marinus and his Company, erect­ed them Chappels, and there had private Meetings: their con­clusion was,—That the Father was ever a Father, yea, before the Son had his being.

The followers of Marinus were called Psathyriani, because of The appellation of the followers of Marinus. one Theoctistus, a waferer bo [...]h in Syria, and was an earnest main­tainer of that side. Selenas Bishop of the Goths, who was by Selenas Bishop of the Goths. Father a Goth, by Mother a Phrygian, and so able to preach in both Languages, was also of that Opinion.

These were also not long after divided, for Marinus contend­ed Marinus contends with Agapius Bishop of Ephesus. with Agapius, whom he had but lately advanced to the Bi­shoprick of Ephesus. The controversie was not about Religion, but of Primacy; they strove which of them should be greatest; the Goths sided with Agapius; wherefore (saith the Historian) many Clergy-men under these Bishops Jurisdictions, perceiving the ambition, the rancor, and malice of these proud Prelates, Not so much of Reli­gion as Ambition. forsook quite the Arrian Opinion, and imbraced the Faith of one Substance.

The Arrians being divided among themselves the space of Arrians divided thirty five years. The Psathyrians or followers of Marinus make a Law. thirty and five years, in the end, as many as were Psathyrians, through perswasion, which prevailed with them, made an end of brawling (saith the History) in the Consulship of Theodosius the younger, and Plinthus the Pretor; who after their reconcilia­tion and agreement, made a Law, That the Question that was the principal cause of that stir, should never again be called into Contro­versie. Notwithstanding it took place no where but in Constanti­nople; for in other Cities where the Arrians had dominion, the stir is rife.

Thus of the Novations and Arrians, now concerning the Eu­nomians. Cap. 23: The divisions of the Eunomians. Eunomius himself first fell from Eudoxius, who had chosen him Bishop of Cyzicum, because he would not admit his Master Aetius, lately excommunicated, into the Church. Others called after his name, parted themselves into several Sects.

Theophrinius a Cappadocian, one that was trained up under Eu­nomius, Theophrinius and his Heresie. in quirks of Logick and captious Fallacies, and having Aristotles Predicaments and Perihermenias at his fingers end, wrote Books, intituling them, The Exercise of the Mind. Because of which he became hated of his own Sect, and accounted by He is hated of his own Sect. them as an Apostate; whereupon he raised private Conventi­cles, and left behind him an Heresie intituled with his Appel­lation.

At Constantinople, Eutichius fell from the Eunomians upon Eutichius divides from them also. light and trifling occasions, and frequented several Meetings.

The followers of Theophronius were called Eunomotheophrani: From these two came the Eunomotheophrani, and the Eunomiluti­chians. What fond things they brawled about (the Historian saith) he thinks not needful to lay down in writing, but concerning Bap­tisme, which (saith he) they corrupted; they Baptize not in the Name of the Trinity, but the death of Christ.

Thus of the Eunominians. Lastly, concerning the Macedoni­ans, The divisions of the Macedonians. Eutropius, Carterius, divided from one another. (for these things are necessary to be particularly instanced): Eutropius a Priest, gathered a several company of such matters as he thought good (saith the History) to follow his Tail. Carte­rius also of the same Sect, divided himself from him: And of these arose others among the Cities. I of my own part (saith Socrates the Historian) inasmuch as I led my life here at Constanti­nople, where I was born, bred, and brought up, no marvel though I write more at large of the famous Acts within this City, partly, seeing that I saw most of them with mine eyes, and partly also, insomuch they are more famous, and thought far worthy of memory than any other Acts.

These things reigned not at one, but at sundry times; the se­veral names of these and all other Sects, may be found particu­larly by those that are disposed thereunto, and to learn them ex­actly in Epiphanius his Book, Bishop of Cyprus, intituled Ancy­rotus.

Whilst these things cluttered so, and were divided among the Cap. 24. The Common-Wealth rouls as the Christians are divided. Christians, the outward state of the Common-Wealth was not at rest, but very troublesome. One Eugenius, who was first a Gram­marian, [Page 144] then a Courtier in the Western Empire, Guard to the Eugenius conspires the death of Valenti­nianus, who is smo­thered in his bed. Emperors Person; then his Treasurer: being a politick man; and then puft up with pride, consulted with Arbogastes of the lesser Galatia, by Office Captain, in condition barbarous, and beha­viour cruel; and together conspired the death of Valentinianus the Emperor, which to effect, they dealt with the Eunuches of the Emperors Chamber, who as he slept, stifled him to death, through which Eugenius got the Empire of the Western part of the Gets the Empire of the West. World, behaving himself after the wonted guise of Tyrants.

Theodosius hearing of this, was very sorry, yet prepares to give Theodosius troubled hereat, prepares for Battel. Anno. 396. him Battel as he had done to Maximus: So having made his Son Honorius Emperor in his third Consulship, and the first of Abun­dantius, the tenth of January, having gathered great forces to­gether, began his march into the West, leaving both his Sons be­hind Leaves his Sons Em­perors. him Emperors at Constantinople; whom to aid against this Tyrant, many of the Barbarous Nations beyond Illyricum, came The Barbarians freely joyn with him. freely and of their own accord. Into France he came with great power: Eugenius having there drawn together multitudes of men, and fortified themselves; the Camp was pitched, and the They fight in France. The Battel doubtful. The Barbarians wo [...]st­ed. Theodosius troubled, falls prostrate, and prayes. Battel fought by the River Phrygdus. As the Battel was doubt­ful when the Romans came to fight hand to hand; So among the Barbarians that came to aid Theodosius, Eugenius had the upper hand. Theodosius seeing the Barbarians foyled & overthrown, was wonderfully pensive, and falling down prostrate on the ground, prayed to God for aid and assistance: who heard him, and he ob­tained his suit; for Macurious his Captain putting on a venturous and valiant courage, got him where the Barbarians were foyled, came to the Standard, joyned with him the other chief Captains, encountered the Enemy, brake the Array, made them to fly, and pursued the flight. Immediately after proceeded another strange Eugenius is routed. The wind turns the Arrows on Eugenius. Act, there arose such blustring blasts of Winds, as turned Euge­nius ▪s Darts, the Usurper, on their own sides, and the Arrows of Theodosius forcibly on the armed Souldiers of Eugenius. Which so coming to pass, Eugenius falling at Theodosius's feet, craved mer­cy; Eugen. falls at Theodo­sius's Feet. The Souldiers strike off his head. but as he kneeled, the Souldiers of Theodosius struck Euge­nius's head from his Shoulders.

These things were done on the sixth of September, in the third Consulship of Arcadius, and the second of Honorius, in the year 396. In the which I have been the more particular, to shew into what a narrow strait Theodosius was brought, and how at length the Lord turned the hand he had brought against him, who gave occasion of trouble, by enforcing of Religion, so far forth as hath been manifested.

Arnogastus the Author of so great a slaughter, seeing that by A [...]nogastus the Con­spi [...]ator falls on his own Sword. flight there was no possibility to escape, ran upon his own Sword and dispatched himself.

The travel and great toyl Theodosius the Emperor took about Cap. 25. Theodosius falls ill. these things, made him ill at ease; which when the Disease in­creased, so that he saw he must conclude his natural race, he was more troubled with the cares and doubts of the setling the Com­mon-Wealth, [Page 145] than the finishing of his course, and considering how many calamities commonly happen when the Empire is di­vided; therefore he sent for Honorius his Son from Constantinople, Sends for Honorius. purposing by him to establish tranquillity in the West. When his Son was come to Millain, he was something recovered, so that He somewhat reco­vers. he held the tryumph of his Victory, and in the morning was pre­sent thereat, but in the afternoon he was so suddenly taken with his Disease, that he could not go, but charged his Son to see all accomplished, and the night following departed this life, in the Dies the next night. sixtieth year of his Age, and the sixteenth year of his Reign, whom his two Sons, Arcadius and Honorius succeeded, who be­tween Anno. 397. Arcadius and Honorius succeed. them divided the Eastern and Western parts of the Em­pire.

Theodosius being dead, his Sons took in hand the Government Socrat. lib 6. cap 1. Both govern peace­ably. of the Empire, Arcadius in the East, and Honorius in the West, who both of them lived peaceably and quietly, had those whom it concerned, turn'd the same course with them, but the old spirit of The Christians fall out mischief and rancor stil remaining, and the bottom and ground on which the leading men amongst the Bishops stood, being that which tended not to peace, as what hath already been instanced abundantly manifests, so the Fruits appeared in them, whose times were outwardly peaceable, but themselves not having the Prince or Principle of Peace to rule them, produced the effects The reason why. hereafter to be mentioned.

Theodosius being dead, his Son Arcadius laid his Corps in the Theodosius buried by his Sons. Grave; and the Army that overthrew Eugenius, being come to the City of Constantinople; and the Emperor going to the Gates to meet them, the Souldiers laid hands on Ruffinus his Ambassa­dor, and beheaded him, being suspect of Treason, and procu­ring His Army strikes off Ruffinus head for trea­son. He was Am­bassador. Marcianus B [...]sh. of the Novations, dies. Anno. 401. Sisinius succeeds. Cap. 2. Nectarius dies. John Chrysostome is put in his place. Theophilus of Alexandria opposes. Seeks to put in Isidor. Isidorus agency for Theophilus. the Hunne [...] to invade the Roman Dominions, who destroyed Armenia, and other Countries of the East. The same day Mar­cianus the Bishop of the Novations dying, Sisinius was constituted in his room; and Nectarius Bishop of Constantinople dying short­ly after, to put another in whose room, occasioned some stir; but at length Arcadius, and the people, send for John Chrysostom, then a Priest, and placed him therein, which Theophilus of Alexan­dria sought to oppose, and to place Isidorus, a Priest of his own Church, who had undergone some peril for him therein; the peril was this, When Theodosius waged war with Maximus, Theo­philus sent presents, and two Letters, charging Isidorus to pre­sent him that had the upper hand with the gift, and one of the Let­ters.

Isidorus was careful in the business, and going to Rome, waited The discovery. there to hear who had the Victory; whilst he attended hereon, the Reader he had with him stole away the Letters, upon which Isi­dorus betook him to his heels, and ran away. I mention this Isidorus's flight. The application of the Narration, and how the Bishops cour­ted the rising Sun. story, that the World may see what fetches were in those Bishops at that time, and how they were deceived one by another, as they sought to deceive. The rising Sun they sought to worship (as the Proverb is) and carrying two faces, or being Jacks on [Page 146] both sides, (as also is the expression) many of them deal with the times, as they deal with Religion, which being meerly political, And deal with matters of Faith, as they deal with the Emperor. they deal with matters of Faith as they deal with the Emperor, and with the Emperor as with matters of Faith; who could get the Prince on his side (I speak not of all, for some were honest to what they knew, and suffered for it, but of too many this was the custom) and according to his Religion they had their fetches, and designed themselves, as is the antient saying,—Regis ad ex­emplum totum componitur orbis, (that is) The whole World follows after the example of the King. But Theophilus his hostility in seek­ing Theophilus disappoin­ted, with charging of John to advance his Friend, is cha [...]ged himself. to put by John by discrediting him, and to advance his Friend, prospered no better than his shift by his Friends, for the Bishops that were for John, charged Theophilus with many heinous crimes; and at length Eutropius belonging to the Emperors Chamber, The Article shewed him. And choice gi­ven him to create John, or stand to the Bar. shewed the Articles and Indictment to Theophilus, and bad him chuse whether he would create John Bishop, or stand to the Bar and answer to the Crimes that were laid to his charge; which Theophilus seeing, and being afraid, consented to the enstalling of He creates John. John. And these were some of the Fathers of the Church, and some of their doings, whom Policy, not Faith, ruled in matters of Religion, the concernments of men, not of God.

This John had no great matter of quiet during his being in that Cap. 4. John disquieted the Clergy for reforming them. Cap. 5. Then by the Magi­strates is banished a fi [...]st and second time. Cap. 6. The Common▪wealth sore shaken. Gainus the Goth re­bels Puts the Emperor to it, is dispatched. Anno. 404. Cap. 7. The Priesthood di­vided. A Q [...]ery put, Whether God had a Body? Anno. 403. Bishoprick, First, The Clergy were offended with him because he was very severe in reforming them; then the Magistrates: so he was banished a first and second time, in which latter banish­ment he died. The Common-Wealth also, as for the most part it came to pass when the Christians were in division, suffered sore shakings. Gainas a Goth, trusted much in Military Affairs by the Emperor, because he was a valiant man, rebelled, and put the Emperor exceedingly to it; who at length dispatched him, and rid the Empire of that trouble.

Then during these turmoils, those in the Priesthood were in great dissention among themselves, to the great slander (saith the Historian) of Christian Religion. There was a question broach­ed a little before, Whether God were a Body made after the likeness and form of man? Or, whether he were without a Body; and not on­ly without the form of man, but also void of all corporeal shape? Such monstrous Opinions ran men into, who knew not the Principle of God, but in the Wisdom which is from beneath, which is earthly, sensual, and devilish, went to determine of God. This ran them into several contentions and quarrels; certain of the rudest and unlearned sort of them, called Religious, thought that God was corporeal, and that he was of the form and figure of man: But others condemned them and their Heretical Opinion. Hence arose the ground of picturing God like an old man. Amongst The ground of pictu­ring God like an old man. Theophilus opposes this. the rest Theophilus Bishop of Alexandria was one that opposed this blasphemous Doctrine; who inveying bitterly against it, in the hearing of the whole Congregation; The Worshippers of Egypt understanding it, left their Religious Houses, and coming to Alexandria, flocked about him, and condemned himfor a wick­ed [Page 147] person, and sought to bereave him of his life. Theophilus be­ing Those of Egypt seek to kill him. put to his wits end, trusted thereunto more than unto God, and seeking to gratifie them, said, When that I fasten mine eyes up­on you, me thinks I do see the lively face of God. Though the rash He falls before them for his life. heat of the unruly Monks was alaid at this, yet said they,—If that be true which thou sayest, that the countenance of God is no other­wise than ours, accurse then the Works of Origen, for divers of his Books do oppugn our Opinion; but if thou refuse to do this, asure thy self to receive at our hands the punishment due unto the impious and open enemies of God.—Nay (said Theophilus) I shall do that which is good in your eyes; I pray you be not offended with me, for I hate Curses the Books of Origen also. the Books of Origen, I think them worthy of great reprehension which allow of them.

This quieted the Monks, but whether somewhat else was quie­ted thereby, which he dissembled with in this thing, I leave the tender Reader to judge. There were four natural Brothers who The four Brothers of Egypt Monasteries, cal­led Long, courted by had the oversight of the Religious Houses or Monasteries, so called, of Egypt, Dioscorus, Ammonius, Eusebius, and Euthimi­us; who by reason of the goodly statures of their tall Bodies, were called Long, as they were famous otherwise, and accounted worthy men, especially at Alexandria. These Theophilus afore­said Theophilus, Dioscorus he made a Bishop. intirely loved; Dioscorus he in a manner constrained from the Desart, and made Bishop of Hermopolis; two others of them, being a Bishop, he constrained to live with him, which they did, Forced two more of them to live with him. not of a willing mind, but by force, which usually holds not long; but as Rivers still gather together by stopping, becomes more strong to run their former Channel, so is it with force. The They cannot bear his hoording of money. heaping, and holding, and gathering up of monies by the Bishop, and his being set thereupon, much displeased them, and being grieved and pricked in Conscience, they determine into the De­sart Determine to return to the Desart. again, and would by no means stay with him; which he essay­ing, and not prevailing, and finding that they abhorred his man­ner of living, promised to work them a displeasure; they not heeding his threats, depart; he, as opportunity presented, being He threatens them, they depart. prone by nature (saith the History) to anger and revenge, sought their mischief; first, he began to spight Dioscorus, for it grieved him to the guts (saith the History) that the Worshippers made so much of Dioscorus, and reverenced him so little; and because he could find no other way to work them trouble than by seeking to disaffect the minds of the Monks that were under their Govern­ment, and favoured them; he wrought this feat, remembring that in conferring with those Monks, they had affirmed, That God was without Body, and void of humane form or figure: for had His devilish conspira­cy in the murder of his Principle to work them mischief. he the shape of man, it would follow necessarily, that he could suffer after the nature and guise of man; and that Origen and other Writ­ers had excellently sifted out the truth thereof. That he might be revenged of these Monks, though he himself was of the same Opi­nion, he sent to the Religious Houses of the Desart, That they He works it. should obey neither Dioscorus, nor his Brethren, forasmuch as their Opinion was, That God had no Body. For God (saith he) as Holy [Page 148] Scriptures doth witness, hath Eyes, Ears, Hands, and Feet, even as men have. Dioscorus and his followers (said he) are of a wicked Opinion; they deny, with Origen, that God hath Eyes, Ears, Feet, and Hands. And into this he deceived many Monks, who were simple and plain Souls, Idiots, and divers also, that were altoge­ther unlearned, unto his side. This divided the Monks, and set Div [...]des the Monks. them to the reviling of one another for lewd and impious per­sons: The Confederates with Theophilus called their Brethren The Original of the word Origenist, or wicked men. These Attributers to God the form of man, called Anthropomor­phites. Theophilus marches with forces against the Monks, whom his plot had divided. It proves a deadly b [...]t­tel. It turns at length upon his own head. Origenists, and wicked men: The Complices of Theophilus had the name of Anthropomorphites, by interpretation, such as artri­bute to God the form of man; the bickering was great, and fell out to be a deadly Battel. Theophilus with his great power went to the Mount Nitria where those Religious Houses stood, and aided the Monks both against Dioscorus and his Brethren. The Religious men being beset with great danger, had much ado to save their lives; but the end turned upon Theophilus, in the just Judgment of God, as aforesaid, who to save his life then, deny­ed his God; as now to destroy these men, he opposed his Princi­ple. These things I thought convenient (in one Bishop that had The reason why these two instances of this Bishop and the Empe­ror are produced. the Patriarchal Sea) to signifie, and in two instances, that of the Emperor, and this, to shew what it was that ruled in the World, that made Forms of Faith, and Principles of Believing.

Thus as to Principles of Faith. Now as to Service, (so called) Cap. 8. Concerning Service. The bloody conse­quence of Anthems. I shall give one instance of Anthems, and the Original of them, and therein shew how their Songs were as bloody, and founded in blood, as was their Doctrines or Forms of Faith; and so from Egypt I shall come to Constantinople, and shew how the streams of blood both in Faith and Worship ran through the Eastern Domi­nion of the Roman Empire.

The Arrians having their Conventicles in the Suburbs of Con­stantinople, A particular instance between the Arrians and the Nicenians at Constantinople. when the Festival Meetings, which was used among the Christians, were come, viz. the Saturday and the Sunday, the Arrians divised Hymns of their Faith, and gathering them­selves together into the Porches of the City Gates, sang inter­changeably such Songs as they had devised, almost throughout the whole night; and as the day began to dawn, they were wont to go through the Gates of the City to their places where they met, or their wonted Congregations, singing as aforesaid; which when John Chrysostome, Bishop of Constantinople understood, and how they had passages, as this,—Where be these fellows that affirm three to be but one Power? Fearing lest the simple sort should be beguiled, caused several of those of the Faith of one Substance, to go singing such Anthems in behalf of that Creed, partly to suppress the Arrians, and partly to confirm (as he thought) those of the same belief with himself, but it proved otherwise: for when the Arrians found that the Anthems of the other had more maje­sty and reverence, and with a more melodious and sweet harmo­ny were sung in the night season; and because a little before their side had gotten the upper hand, and prevailed, they were swoln, and puft up (saith the History) and boyling with revenge, [Page 149] they took Arms and set on the others, in which conflict many were slain on both sides. And Briso an Eunuch of the Empress, Many slain in the conflict. Briso the Empress Eunuch woun [...]ed. who favoured the Faith of one Substance, and the Hymns for that purpose, was struck in the Forehead with a stone, which wonder­fully incensed the Emperor; who thereupon gave commandment Anthems forbidden by the Emperor. that no more Hymns should be sung; the Empress Eudoxia was so far in these Hymns, for those of the Faith of one Substance, that she found silver Candlesticks made on Cross-wise for the bearing of the Tapers and Wax-candles.

Now for the Original of the Anthems. It is said, That Igna­tius The Original of An­thems by a dream of Ignatius of Antioch, of Angels. of Antioch in Syria, the third Bishop in succession from Pe­ter the Apostle, (as saith the History) saw a vision of Angels which extolled the blessed Trinity (as it's said) with Hymns that were sung interchangeably, and delivered to the Church of Antioch the order and manner of singing expressed in the Vision, from whence it came to pass (saith the History) that every Church received the same Tradition. Whether this were so or no, I leave to the Rea­der to judge as he thinks fit; Angels and Quiristers are two things. The effects of this Antheming, shews that it was not of A paraphrase there­upon. the Original of Angels, except those of the bottomless Pit, whose King is Abaddon; for those whom the Shepherds heard sing, when Jesus was born, was, Glory unto God on High, on Earth Peace, good will unto men, not destruction; as was his Doctrine also, who said, He came not to destroy mens lives, but to save.

Thus of Anthems; now as to Bishops again; for I still find the History interlaced with their Quarrels and Contentions, which usually sets the whole World on fire, who yet were called Pastors of the Church.

Dioscorus and his Brethren, called Long, and the Monks with Cap. 9. Dioscorus and his Bre­thren called Long, get them to Constantinople. Inform the Emperor, and John; Isidorus goes with them. them, being so intreated, as aforesaid, by Theophilus, get them to Constantinople, and with them Isidorus his former great Friend, but now turned otherwise, that to the Emperor and John they might give an account of the slights of Theophilus, whom John courteously received, but admitted them not to the Communion, though he did to the Common-Prayer, till the matter had been John receives them to Common-Prayer, not the Communion. Theoph. plots against John, because (as he heard) he received them to the Commu­nion, & against Isidor. His plot. He summons a Coun­cil in pretence against the books of Origen. farther sifted out and examined. Theophilus heard he had recei­ved them to the Communion, which set him to think how to be revenged upon John, and also of the others, and Isidorus too; to effect which he takes this course, he sent Letters to the Bishop­ricks in every City to meet in a Council, pretending his dislike of the Books of Origen as the cause, but concealing his main in­tent and drift, from which Books Athanasius in former times had borrowed Testimonies to confute the Arrians; and to effect his business the better, he linked into him Epiphanius Bishop of Con­stantia, Gets Epiphanius unto him, whom he before had charged with thinking basely of God, in attributing to him the shape of man. Which now Theophilus turns to, in revenge to the others. a City in Cyprus; whom Theophilus had a little before charg­ed with thinking of God basely and abjectly, attributing unto him the form and shape of a man; for though Theopoilus was of this Opinion, and charged those that believed God had the figure of man, yet because of the hatred and spight he owed unto others, he denyed openly in word that which he believed secretly in [Page 150] mind, and that in the highest things which concern the Godhead, A view of a Bishop and a Patriarch. and yet a Bishop, and (as I said before) set in the Patriarchal Seat as high as Alexandria. At this Council in the Isle of Cyprus, Ori­gens The Council held in the Isle of Cyprus. They condemn Ori­gens Books. Send to John not to read them. Books are condemned, a Decree being made, That from thenceforth the Works of Origen should not be read. And by consent of them all, they write unto John, requesting him to abstain from the reading of the Books of Origen.

Having this success, he called a Council of his own Province He calls a Council at Alexandria; they con­demn Origens books, who was dead about 200. years before. Yet is not satisfied. at Alexandria, where they condemned Origens works, who was dead about two hundred years before. Yet this satisfied not Theophilus, his chief design and drift being to be avenged on John and Dioscorus, with his Brethren; which being openly known, there wanted not them who sought, what by Letters, and what by Messengers, by forging of false stories and accusations, to get a Seeks by false stories to get a Council at Constantinople. Cap. 11. Epiphanius from Cy­prus [...]rings the Decree against Origens books. John invites Theophi­lus to his House. He refuses. Gets Bishops. Reads the Decree. Council to be held at Constantinople.

To this place Epiphanius came from Cyprus, at the request of Theophilus, bringing with him the Decree of the Bishops, for the condemning Origens Books, but not excommunicating Origen; whom John courteously invited to his House to lodg with him; but he to please Theophilus, refused his courtesie, and calling the Bishops, who by chance were at Constantinople, read the Decree, (of which the Historian saith) I have thus much to say, That it pleased Epiphanius and Theophilus to condemn them. Of the Bi­shops, Some sign. some for reverence of Epiphanius subscribed unto the De­cree; some others denyed it utterly, of which were Theotinus Others refuse. Theotinus Bi [...]hop of Scyth [...]a, in particular, his Speech to Epipha­nius, and the Council thereabouts. Bishop of Scythia, who made Epiphanius this answer,—I of mine own part, O Epiphanius, will no so much injure the man, who is de­parted to rest many years agoe; neither do I presume once to enter­prize so heynous an offence, for to condemn the Books which our Ance­stors have not condemned, especially seeing that I understand not as yet, neither read any parcel of the Doctrine therein contained. And when a certain Book of Origens was brought forth, he read it, and shewed there the interpretation of Holy Scripture, agreeable un­to the Faith of the Catholick Church. Last of all he concluded with these words, They that reprehend these things, do no less than mislike with the matter whereof these Books do treat.—This was his answer, who was of great fame, both for sound Doctrine and god­ly conversation, (saith the History.)

I have instanced this the rather, not only that the wiles and The reason why these quotations are produ­ced. The Original of con­demning Books after men are dead, the ground thereof, and the men f [...]om whence it came. Cap. 13. Epiphanius makes a Deacon in Johns Church; refuses to lodge with him, or pray with him, unless he would bani [...] Dios­corus, & subscribe the Decree against Origen. shifts used in those dayes, by the chief in matters of Religion, may be seen one against another; but that the beginning of the work of condemning of Books after men are dead, may be understood, and the men that undertook it, and the ground on which they went.

Yet was not the matter ended between John and Epiphanius; for Epiphanius, not only made a Deacon in Johns Church, without Johns License, and denyed to lodg with him at his House, say­ing, He would neither lie with him, nor pray with him, unless be would banish Dioscorus and his Brethren out of the City, and subscribe with his own hand the Decree which condemneth the works of Origen. [Page 151] Which John paused upon, and would not rashly undertake, but John pauses hereon. Epiphanius does both at celebration of the Communion, Epiphanius being by the Com­plices of Theophilus, set in the midst, in the Church of the Apo­stles, he condemned the Works of Origen, and excommunicated Dioscorus and his Brethren, all to reprove John for taking their To reflect on John. part; to whom when John heard this, he sent this Message by Se­rapion: Epiphanius, Thou dost many things contrary to the Canons; Johns Message to him: first, In that thou hast presumed to make Ministers within my Diocess; secondly, In that thou hast ministred the Communion of thy own head, without my License. Again, in that thou didst refuse it when I re­quested thee, and now thou didst it of thy self; therefore take heed lest Warns him of the ho­stility of the people. the people stomach thy dealings, and be set on an uproar. If ought come amiss, thou hast thy remedy in thy hand.

This Message stroke Epiphanius with fear, who got him away, Epiphanius is afraid, and hasts away. His Message to John by way of p [...]ophesie, wishing Johns to him in the same. Both take place. and it's said, as he went to take Shipping,—He said of John, I hope thou shalt never die a Bishop. And John of him, I hope thou shalt never come alive into thy Countrey. Whether these things were true or not, the event proved so, for neither came Epiphamus a­live to Cyprus, for he died on the Sea by the way; neither died John a Bishop, for he was deposed and banished the Church, as aforesaid.

Well, Epiphanius having hoised Sail, and John hearing that CAp. 14: John preaches in di [...] ­praise of all Women, because Eudoxia coun­tenanced Epiphanius. Eudoxia takes it as in­cluding her, complains to the Emperor. A Counc [...]l called at Calcedon thereupon. Johns Opp [...]sit [...]s ha­sten thither, Theophi­lus among the r [...]st. Eudoxius the Empress had countenanced Epiphanius against him, he presently steps up and preached a Sermon wholly in dispraise of all Women; which being taken to include the Empress, and she complaining to the Emperor that she was contumeliously dealt withal, A Council was called of Bishops at Chalcedon, witherto gladly resorted all those that owed John a displeasure, or that were cast out by him, or did not like him; and Theophilus hasted thi­ther also to take the opportunity, which John himself had admi­nistred, to have him out, which was the end and drift of all his other contrivance and negotiation, where he was enveighed bit­terly against, as a wicked man, and an arrogant and sullen Bi­shop. John charged to be an arrogant and sullen Bishop. He is cited to appear. Refuses four times, be­cause they were his Enemies. And appeals to the General Council. He is deposed. So they babble not (saith the Historian) against the Books of Origen, but they fall to forming false accusations against him, and cite him to appear; which he refusing four times to appear after their citations, because they were his Enemies, and therefore no in­different Judges; and appealing from them to the General Coun­cil: They notwithstanding proceed against him, and depose him of his Bishoprick; after they had condemned him, because he refused to appear, and for no other cause. But the people took The people [...]ise. this ill, and made an uproar, and would not suffer him to be cast out of the Church; yet he privily got away the third day to Exile Hegoes of himself pri­vily to Exile. The Emperor forced to fetch him back. He refuses to come into the City. of himself, having respect to the publick peace; but from Exile the Emperor was constrained to fetch him, who sent Briso, afore­said, the Empress Eunuch, for that purpose; who refused to come into the City till his Cause was heard, and would have staid in the Suburbs at Marianae till then: but the multitude forceth The people force him. him thence, and also to take his place of a Bishop again, and both to Pray and to Preach; which administred occasion to his Adver­saries And to Pray & Preach [Page 152] to accuse him again, though for the present they were con­strained His Enemies lay it up. to let it lie dead because of the multitude.

Now whilst these things were, and that his Adversaries watched Cap. 15. Heraclides is charged. for occasion the second time to have him deposed, Heraclides bu­siness was endeavoured to be brought on the Stage, as to what was done at Ephesus, viz. his unjust punishing of certain persons, im­prisoning and leading them ignominiously through the streets of Ephesus, intending thereby a reflection upon John, who had made Heraclides, who was a Deacon of his Church, yet of Cyprus, the Bishops of that place, to cease the tumult upon the death of the former. John answered,—That of right no man ought to be judged John opposes the pro­secution because of Heraclides absence. Those of Alexandria urge i [...]. in his absence, without the presence of the party, and the hearing of his own Cause. Those of Alexandria urged notwithstanding the hearing of the Witnesses, as that which ought to be, though he was absent. So great contention and strife hereupon arose, be­tween the Citizens of Constantinople, and the Inhabitants of A­lexandria; The people fall out, wound and kill one a­nother thereabouts. Theophilus and the Bi­shop hie them home hereupon Blood the fruit of most of their contentions. and whilst they skirmished one with another, many were sore wounded, and divers also presently dispatched. This being done, Theophilus got him in all haste to Alexandria, and the other Bishops to their several places, having shed blood up­on their quarrels, the understanding of which was then come to light. And this was the fruit of most of their contentions and quarrels.

So Theophilus got home, but left behind him greater hatred An account of Theo­philus. than ever, because that though he condemned Origens Books, yet he looked into them more studiously than before; for indeed it was John he aimed at, not so much Origen, when he went about by the Judgment on Origen to reach John; a man of such conver­tibility and transformation into any thing, his craft and cunning led him to accomplish his innate desire of revenge and blood, as one ordinarily shall meet withal. To whom I have given no more than the History allows, when I have so spoken.

Dioscorus died not long after, and Serapion was made Bishop of Dioscorus dies. Heraclea a City of Thrace.

Yet John was not free, for a Silver Picture covered with a John in trouble again. Inveighs against the Silver Picture of the Empress set up. Mantle of Eudoxia the Empress, being set upon a Pillar of Red Marble, and common Playes and Shews being made thereby; John sorely enveighed against the Authors thereof with very nip­ping taunts. The Empress took it to her self, and as done to her reproach, and therefore procured another Council of Bishops to Another Council is called at Constantinople He preaches against her. The Empress on fire. John's Enemies his Ac­cusers and Judges. be called at Constantinople; which he hearing of, preached that Sermon which thus began,—Herodias rageth afresh, stomacheth anew, danceth again, seeketh yet the Head of John in a Platter. Which made the Empress mad, and set her all on fire; the Bi­shops which were his utter Enemies, sate his Accusers; the old Crimes are brought forth: he trusting to the upright dealings of the Bishops, desires that things might indifferently be examined: The Emperor sends John word, That he would not communicate The Emperor refus [...]s to communicate with John till he had clear­ed himself. with him (it being their Feast of the Nativity) till be had cleared himself of the Crimes laid to his charge. The accusers mistrusting [Page 153] themselves, and John building upon the integrity of his Cause, the Bishops perceiving this, would insist on nothing but his com­ing into the Church without admission of a Council; after he was John is charged. deposed; and when he made answer, That the Canon that required He answers. that, was not made for their Church, but was to be executed where the Arrians did reign, (for such as assembled at Antioch to root out the Faith of one Substance, made that Canon against Athanasius) and that he had the confirmation of fifty Bishops that communicated with him. They made no account of his Answer, nor weighed that those that made that Canon were deposers of Athanasius, but They sentence him. The Emperor for [...]ids him the Church. gave sentence against him; And the Emperor sent to him, That he had no authority to go into the Church, inasmuch as he was deposed and condemned by two Councils; so he refrained, and He withdraws; and those with him. those that favoured him did the same, and kept Easter in the Common Baths, called Constantiana, together with many Bishops, Priests, and other Ecclesiastical Persons, who because of their several Conventicles, were called Johannites. John was never They are called Jo­hannites. He is carried to Exile, there dies. The Church set on fire as [...]e was carried away, by some Johan­nites, burns the Sena­tors Court. The Governor sore plagues the Christians therefore. The cause wherefore these things are re­hearsed. seen abroad for the space of two months, till by the Emperors Commandment he was carried into Exile, where he died. The same day as he was so carried away, some called Johannites set the Church on fire, which taking on the Senators Court, burnt it to Ashes; for which Optatus the Governor of Constantinople, a Pagan by his Religion, and so a sore plaguer of the Christians, made them endure heavy punishments, and sore penalties.

I am constrained to mention these things thus at large, that once for all I may let the world understand what the forcing of Religi­on, and the strife that comes through the imposition thereof, hath produced in the World.

Many revolutions followed this banishment of John, and his Ominous consequen­ces of t [...]e Exile, and death of John. death, and certain other significant things from Heaven, which then there were, that attributed to this persecution of John, as the rotting of Cyrinus his Foot, Bishop of Chaldon, who was un­awares Cap. 17. Cyrinus's foot rotted. trod upon by Maruthas, Bishop of Mesopotamia, when the first Council met there to depose John, which the people impu­ted The imputed cause. to his reviling of John, and calling of him stubborn Bishop, which rotted so, as that he was constrained to have it sawn off, It is sawn off. which he suffered not once, but twice, and oftner, for it ran (viz. the putrifaction) over his whole Body, and fell into his other foot, so he was forced to cut off both. The falling of great And the other also. The greatest Hail that ever was seen falls at Constantinople. The Empress dies. And the Emperor. Hail, the likeness of the magnitude of which none had seen be­fore: The death of the Empress, which followed immediately after his banishment; all said by the people to be tokens of God's Wrath, because of his banishment; yea, the death of the Emperor himself, who died shortly after the death of John. All which are matters for me to speak of, as that which the vogue of that Age All attributed to the persecution of John. attributed to be significatory, as to the displeasure of the Lord, as to things that then were transacted and done, and which still speaks the consequence of imposing or persecuting because of And speak the conse­quence of pe [...]secution for Religion. Religion.

In the place of John, Arsacius was made Bishop of Constanti­nople, Arsacius of 80. years of Age succeeds John. who was of the age of about fourscore years, in whose time things were very quiet, he being said to be of singular modesty, and meek behaviour; He lived Bishop of that place not very long, His good description. Dies the year follow­ing. but in the year following that he was made Bishop, he departed this life: to pitch upon a successor, unto whom proved a difficult kind of work; and the contention grew long, but at last ended in Atticus of Sebastia in Armenia, who was made Bishop of Con­stantinople. Atticus chosen in his place.

John died in Exile at Comanum, scituate on the Sea Euxinus. Cap. 19.

Arcadius died at Constantinople; he reigned together with his Cap. 21. Arcadius dies. Anno. 412. His Son Arcadius suc­ceeds. Socrat. lib. 7. cap. 1. Father thirteen years, and beginning with the one and thirtieth year of his Age; he reigned fourteen years after the decease of his Father, leaving behind him his Son Theodosius, of the Age of eight years, who by direction of Anthemius, governed the Ea­stern, as Honorius, Arcadius his Brother did the Western part of the Roman Empire.

These times were not free from trouble, for men took upon Cap. 3. Contention in Religi­on grew on. Theodo­sius of Synada, Bishop, persecutes the Ma [...]e­donians, banishes them the Town and Coun­trey them in several places to do what they listed in matters of Religi­on. Theodosius Bishop of Synada, a City of Phrygia, Pacatiana sorely exercised the Macedonian Opinion; he banished them not only the Town, but also the Countrey, which he did neither ac­cording to the rule of the Catholick Church, neither with zeal of sincere and upright Faith, (saith the History) but for his advan­tage sake, for foul gain, and filthy lucre, to wring money from For gain-sake, to wring money from them. Maintains his Clergy against them. His cruel usages. Punishes Agapetus their Bishop. them; for which cause he left no way unessayed to vex them, maintaining his own Clergy against them; he brought them in Fet­ters, made them hold up their hands at the Bar: Their Bishop Agapetus he exercised with sundry griefs and vexations; and be­cause he found that the Commission of the Magistrates extended not to the punishment of the Macedonians, he made haste to Con­stantinople Gets to Constantinople for more power a­gainst them. Agapetus conforms, and his people in the mean time to the Ni­cene Creed. Gets into Theodosius Church and Seat. Theodosius being dis­appointed of his place and power, to get larger power from the Lieutenant of that Pro­vince, for the sharp correction of them; but whilst he was about these things, Agapetus embraced the Faith of one Substance, per­swaded all his people, both Clergy and Laity to do the same, got him into their Church, placed himself in the Seat of Theodosius, and had the ordering of the Churches within the Diocess of Sy­nada. Theodosius not knowing any thing of this, shortly after comes down with his power, of which he much bragged, but finding things as aforesaid, and what small welcome he had, the doors being made fast against him, hasted again to Constantinople, Hies to Constantinople. Complains, but in vain and complained to Atticus; but his grief he was forced to retain, for that it was for the profit of the Church that he was thus put by his Bishoprick.

Thus at Synada. At Constantinople Sabbatius aforesaid severing Sabbatius makes stirs at Constantinople a­bout Easter. himself from the Novations, took upon him the Jewish Celebra­tion of Easter, on the day of which he read this part of the Gospel, Reads the Gospel, and adds to it. Ensnares the people. —The Feast of the sweet bread drew nigh, which is called Easter, adding,—Cursed be every one that keepeth Easter without sweet bread. Through occasion of which, many of the Novations [Page 155] came to be of his Opinion. But there soon came a reproof upon his corrupting of the Scriptures, for as they were in their Vigils, for the solemnization of that Feast, they thought they saw Sisini­us An apparition frights them. their Bishop setting upon them, which an infinite number of men, on which they getting together in a narrow room, the throng was so great, that threescore and ten persons of them were smo­thered Seventy persons smo­thered to death. to death, upon which many of them shrunk from their Opinion, as he did from the Novation Church, of which he was a Priest.

Thus at Constantinople. At Alexandria, Theophilus being dead Cap. 7. A Successor of Theoph. dead of a Lethargy. Troubles Alexandria. Cyrillus is chosen. His height, and taking up­on him Temporal Ju­risdiction. His persecu­ting of, and plunder­ing the Novations, and their Bishops. of a Lethargy, a great contention there was for a Successor, which at length fell to be the Lot of Cyrillus. Theophilus Brothers Son, who challenged more Authority than ever Theophilus had; and together with the Ecclesiastical, took upon him the Government of Temporal Affairs; He shut up the Novation Church in Alex­andria; and not onely rifled them of all their Treasure, but bereaved Theopomptus their Bishop of all his Substance.

These whirlings up and down, and persecuting of one another Cap. 10. The distracted conse­quences in the State. Alaricus aspires to the Empire. He subdues Illyricum. at pleasure, went not without their attendancies of trouble in the State; for Alaricus a Barbarian, who was in league with the Romans, and aided Theodosius against Eugenius, aspired unto the Imperial Scepter; he left Constantinople, and hasted into the West; all Illyricum he subdued, as he came into it. The Thessalonians The Thessalonians withstand him, fight him, kill 3000. of his men. He removes, ran­sacks all as he goes. Takes Rome: his out­rage & cruelty there. withstood him when he came amongst them, and at a pitched Bat­tel slew three thousand of his men; he marched away, ransacking Town & Country as he went, and at length took the City of Rome, which he ransacked also; defaced and fired many Monuments; plundered the Citizens of their Money; put to death many of the Senators with sundry kinds of torments; proclaimed Attalus Em­peror Makes Attalus Empe­ror to day, and a Ser­vant to morrow, to bring the Imperial Government into con­tempt. Theodosius's Ar­my hastens to give him Battel. He flies A Monk admonishes him as he was march­ing to Rome, to forbear his outrage. His Answer, as set on by God. to day, who had his guard of Souldiers; the next day made him go in the tire and habit of a Servant, on purpose to bring the Imperial Government into contempt. Theodosius's Army made great expedition to give him Battel; he hearing thereof, betook him to his heels. It is said, That as he marched to Rome, a Monk met, and admonished him, Not to delight in perpetrating of such heinous and horrible offences, neither to rejoyce in committing slaugh­ter and bloodshed. To whom he is said to make this Answer, I, God knoweth, do take this voyage against my Will; There is one which molesteth me daily, nay he compelleth me by force, and saith thus unto me, Go on thy journey, destroy the City of Rome.

And no wonder that these things were, for Celestinus Bishop of Cap. 11. Celestinus Bishop of Rome banishing the Novations, imputed as the cause of the sack­ing of Rome. Rome banished the Novations out of that City, and deprived them of their Churches; and thereby constrained Rusticula their Bishop to raise private Conventicles, who beforetime flourished in Rome, and had there great Congregations, but now they began to be ha­ted out of measure: The Bishop of Rome challenging to himself He took upon him sole power, as did the Bishop of Alexandria. secular Power and Jurisdiction, as the Bishop of Alexandria had done, which (saith the Historian of the Romish Bishop) he presu­med Which the Historian charges as presumption in the Romish Bi [...]ops to do, passing the bounds of his Priestly Order. So these Bi­shops, though they commended the Novations for their uniform [Page 156] consent, as touching the Faith, yet they deprived them of all The Novations depri­ved of all their Sub­stance, save at Constan­tinople, by Nicenians, though of that Faith, because differing in a particular. Cap. 12. Chrysanthus chosen Bi­shop of Constantinople in Sysinnius's stead. An account of him. their Substance; But at Constantinople it was not so with the No­vations.

Sysinius dying at Constantinople, Chrysanthus the Son of Marci­anus was chosen in his room. This Chrysanthus had been a Soul­dier from his youth in the Emperors Court, and Lieutenant of Italy, against Theodosius Magnus his Vicegerent of the Isles of Brittain, where he purchased great commendation for his poli­tick Government; coming to Constantinople, where he desired to reside in his old years, was there chosen, as aforesaid; but he not liking of that Service, conveyed himself away. Whereupon He gets away. Sabbatius steps up for the Bishop [...]ick. Getshimself consecra­ted, to the breaking of his Oath not to be a Bishop. Sabbatius aforesaid, thinking this to be his opportunity, got a Company of obscure Bishops to consecrate him; and so, contrary to his solemn Oath and dreadful Protestations, steps up a Bishop: one of them that consecrated him, being Harmogenes, whom before he had excommunicated. But this fetch served not his turn, for the Novations detesting his abominable proceedings, sought Town Chrysanthus is found out, and stalled a Bish. Sabbat. disappointed. He is the first of the Bi­shops that gave Gold to the poor. His allow­ance but two loaves of Blessed Bread every Sunday. A Tragical Scene at Alexandria, and Countrey after Chrysanthus; and having found him lurking in Bythinia, forced him thence, and stalled him Bishop. He was the first that of his own Substance gave Gold to the poor; he took nothing, but every Sunday two Loaves of the Blessed Bread (as the Historian tearms it.)

Now I have a Tragical Scaene again to enter upon; for without Blood and Persecution hardly was any thing accomplished; among the Bishops of Alexandria, where the people, of any, are most prone to such things, it so fell out, That on a Saturday the peo­ple gathered in great multitudes to see a certain Dancer, and to Through occasion of the Jews present on the Sabbath day at the publick Dancing. pass time therewith; and because the Jews spent not that day in the hearing of their Law, being the Sabbath day, but gave them­selves wholly to the hearing of Comedies and Interludes, to the beholding of Shews and Spectacles. That day was the occasion of great Schism and contention among the people; which though The ground of the Quarrel. it was partly appeased by Orestes the Lieutenant of Alexandria, yet the Jews gave not over their quarrel, for the spight they owed unto the one part of the Faction: for the Jews as they were found alwayes deadly foes unto the Christians, so then above all other times they were incensed because of the Dancers. Wherefore, when as Orestes had nailed on the Theatre the Writ of Politick Government, for so they called the Lieutenants Proclamation, some of Cyrillus's familiar Friends stepped up, and among the rest one Hierax, to examine what the Lieutenant had written; whom when the Jews had espied there, they exclaimed that he came thither for no other cause but to set the people together by the Ears. Orestes, although he envied the Bishops, because they had cut short the credit and power of the Magistrates, which was done by reason of them with the Emperors, yet then he spighted Cyrillus above all other times, because of his prying into the Lieutenants Writings, and curiously sifting out the Contents and meanings of them; therefore he caused Hierax openly to be ap­prehended Hierax punished. on the Theatre, and extreamly to be punished. Cy­rillus [Page 157] hereupon cited the chief of the Jews to appear before him, Cyril threatens the Jews. and told them plainly, That if they would not give over their Re­bellions and Traiterous Conspiracies against the Christians, he would punish them according to their deserts. The Jews stomached the They stomached i [...], as the Governor did his medling with the Civil Authority. They plot against the Christians. Bishops Threats, and therefore devising with themselves, set an opportunity wherein to set upon the Christians; on a certain time in the night season, they caused certain to cry out Fire, Fire; The Christians running out to see what was the matter, the Jews that watched under the Penthouses, and had a sign of a Ring of Palm Trees, every one fell upon the Christians and dispatched Many Christians are slain. Cyril executes some of the Jews in their Sy­nagogue, plunders, and banishes the rest. them; which being understood, Cyrillus with great power got him to the Jews Synagogue, and executed presently some of the Jews; and others he banished; others he bereaved of their Sub­stance: upon occasion whereof the Jews, who had inhabited Alex­andria, from the time of Alexander King of Macedonia, were ba­nished thence, and dispersed over all the Countries.

Orestes took this Deed of Cyrils very ill, being sorry that so Orestes is troubled, in­forms the Emperor. Noble a City should be deprived of so great a multitude; there­fore he certified the Emperor thereof. Cyril also painted in Pa­per Cyril doth the same. the conspiracy of the Jews, and sent it in writing to the Em­peror; yet he sought to be Friends with Orestes, which when Seeks Orestes friend­ship. He refuses, yea, the New Testament also which Cyril put into his hand. Orestes would not hearken unto, he reached into his hand the New Testament, supposing that he would reverence the Book, and receive him the better: But when the mind of Orestes would not be turned, another Scaene was acted, which was as follow­eth.

Fifty Monks of Nitria, partakers in the quarrel of Cyril, came Cap 14. A second Trag. Scene at Alexandria. Fifty Monks assault O­restes in Cyrils quarrel to Alexandria, and encountered the Lieutenant in his Chariot, calling him Sacrificer, and an Ethnick, with such like; he sup­posing that Cyril was in the consparacy, cryed out, That he was a Christian, and that Atticus Bishop of Constantinople had Baptized him. But the Monks having no regard to his words, one of them, viz. Ammonius took him in the Head with a Stone, with which His head is wounded. having sorely wounded the Lieutenant, so that the blood ran The blood runs down. His Guard flies. The people rescue him. The Monks flie▪ Ammonius that did the Act, taken. about his ears, the Sergeants or his Guard, for the most part, fled away, the stones flying about them, and held down their heads among the multitude: In the mean time the people came, and in the Lieutenants behalf set upon the Monks, so that the Monks ran all away, only Ammonius, who being taken and brought be­fore the Lieutenant, he according to the Law reasoned with him concerning the matter, pronounced against him the Sentence of Justice, and tormented him as long as he had breath in his Body. Tormented him whi [...]st he had breath. Cyril buried his body, changed his Name, Extolled his courage. Commands him to he called a Martyr, who was a Ryoter. Sober Christians allow it not. Cyril took his body, calling him not Ammonius, but Thamnasius, and in the Church extolled the noble courage of the man, and the great combate he endured for Godliness, (who was a Rioter) and commanded he should be called a Martyr; which the more modest and sober Christians allowed not of, knowing him not to have dyed, because he would not deny Christ, but to have suffer­ed due punishment for his rash enterprises: So by little and little Cyril was enforced to let the matter fall unto the ground; yet the Cyril forced to let the matter fall. [Page 158] quarrel between Cyrill and Orestes was not at an end, but produ­ced this third Scene, of which when I have spoken, I shall mention no more.

In Alexandria there was a Woman whose name was Hypatia, Cap. 15: A third Tragical Scene in Alexandria. Hypatia a Woman, and the most eminent Phi­losopher of her time. the Daughter of Theon, who so profited in profound Learning, that she excelled all the Philosophers of her time; and not onely succeeded in Plato's School, the which exercise Plotinus conti­nued, but also expounded to as many as come to her the Precepts and Doctrine of all sorts of Philosophers; wherefore many that gave themselves to the study of Philosophy, flocked to her from every Countrey. Moreover, for her grave courage of mind, her modest and matron-like behaviour, she sticked not to present her self before Princes and Magistrates; neither was she abashed to come into the open face of the Assembly: wherefore great en­vy and spight of mind arose against her, (being had in admirati­on and reverence of all Women for her singular modesty) and be­cause Suspected to influence the difference be­tween the Bishop and Orestes. Is set upon by a Rea­der, & rude Company. Carried to a Church. she conferred oft, and had a great familiarity with Orestes, so that she was charged by the people as the cause why the Bishop and Orestes were not become Friends; At length one Peter a Rea­der of that Church, having a company of rude persons with him, watched her coming from some place or other, pulled her out of her Charriot, haled her into the Church called Caesareum, stripped Stript stark naked, tor­mented with sharp shells till life departed Her body quartered, And burnt to Ashes. Cyril, and the Church of Alexandria stained with this blood. Christians ought to be no fighters, by the Hi­storians judgment. her stark naked, razed the skin, and rent the flesh of her body with sharp shells, until the breath departed out of it; then they quartered her body, brought them to a place called Cinaron, and burned them to Ashes. This heinous offence (saith the Historian) was no small blemish both to Cyril and the Church of Alexandria. For (saith he) the professors of Christian Religion should be no fight­ers, they ought to be far from commiting of murther and bloodshed. This was done the fourth year of Cyril's Consecration, the tenth Consulship of Honorius, and the seventh of Theodosius, in the Em­ber dayes.

The Jews also were not without their devises in this day of Cap. 16. The Jews come on with a 4th Tragedy. They deride Christ. Crucif [...] a Child. wickedness and mischief, who at a certain place called Inmestar, between Chalcis and Antioch in Syria; at their Interludes and Playes, derided Christ Jesus, and those that believed in him: Af­ter this sort they took the Child of a Christian, and nailed him to Deride, scourge him till breath departed. a Tree, and set him on high; when they had so done, first they deride and laugh at him, then like mad men they scourge him as long as breath remained in his body.

This gave occasion of great contention between them and the Christians, and the Emperor hearing thereof, wrote to the Lieu­tenant and Magistrates of that Province, to make diligent search for the Authors of so great a mischief, and to punish them severe­ly; They are punished in earnest. therefore the Jews for that shameful Act which they had com­mitted in jest, were plagued in earnest.

The Persians also drew a line of blood and cruel torments over Cap. 18. A fifth Scene of blood acted by the Persians upon the Christians of t [...]at Nation, with great extremity. those of that Nation, who in the time of Isdigerdes King of Per­sia were become Christians, whose Son Baratanes succeeded him, through the perswasion of the Magicians and Southsayers, being [Page 159] forced thereunto, vexed the Christians out of measure, and pu­nished them with divers torments, after the manner of Persia; through the extremity of which they fled unto the Romans for They fly for succor to the Romans. succor, praying them to pitty their case, and not to suffer them in that measure to be so lamentably oppressed; whom Atticus Bi­shop Atticus of Constantino­ple receives them. The Emperor deter­mines their relief. of Constantinople courteously received, and wrought with the Emperor, so that what through that and other particulars of dif­ference that lay between them, he intends to stand to their relief; especially seeing he had sent to demand the fugitive Christians, of the Emperor, and denyed those whom he had lent for the Gold-Mines to return, and also had stopped the Romans Marchandize; War is proclaimed. so that League was broken, and War was proclaimed, and the The Persians are bea­ten again and again, and a third time. Cap. 20. Persians (through the wonderful hand of the Lord, who was near them in their straits) were again and again overcome: and the Persians being yet again overcome, upon the refusal of a tender of Peace, by perswasion of his Souldiers, who were called (a certain number of them) Immortal, who would needs make one attempt more upon the Romans, ere they accepted thereof, and multitudes were Prisoners, many of whom died for Famine, and the rest were like so to do. Accasius Bishop of Amida, gathered his Acacius Bishop of A­mida, and his Clergy. Cap. 21. Redeem the Persian Prisoners, with their Cups, Dishes, Plate, Jewels, Clergy together upon the commiseration of their lamentable state, there being seven thousand that were in this condition, said, Our God hath no need neither of Dishes nor of Cups, for he neither eateth nor drinketh, these be not his necessaries. Wherefore seeing this Church hath many precious Jewels, both of Gold and Silver, bestowed of the free will and liberality of the Faithful, it is requisite that the captive Souldiers should therewith be redeemed and delivered out of Prison and Bondage; and that they also perishing with Famine, should be with some part thereof refreshed and relieved.

Which his Clergy consenting unto, and the Treasury being cast, and translated, he turned it into money, and not only paid Turned into money; Cloath, and send them home: which so took on the King of Persia, that he lent for Aca­cius. The War turns into Peace, and the utter ceasing of Persecution The Saracens under Alamundarus promi­sing great things to the Persians; therewith the Ransom-money, but supplyed them with necessa­ries, and to carry them home; which so took with the King of Persia, that he desired earnestly to see Acacius, whom the Empe­ror commanded thither. The issue of these Wars procured a Peace, and the quite extinguishing the persecution of the Chri­stians in the Kingdom of Persia. It is said, That in these Wars the Saracens coming to assist the Persians, under Alamundarus, (a valiant Captain, who promised not only to beat the Romans, but to take in Syria and Antioch) being in a sudden fear of the Romans approach, that (though the Romans were not near them) For fear of the Romans ran into Euphrates, 100000. drowned. they ran into the River Euphrates, where an hundred thousand with their Armes were drowned.

Nor was the Roman Empire without trouble within it self, du­ring Cap. 23. John seeks to be Em­peror on the death of Honorius, sends Legats to Theodosius to pro­c [...]aim him. They are imprisoned, John is marched a­gainst, & overthrown. the whirl of Christians persecuting one another; for Honori­us being dead, John his chief Secretary took upon him, and sent Legates to Theodosius to proclaim him Emperor: who laid up his Embassadors Prisoners, and with his Army marched against him, and at length overthrew him, though he passed through many straits in the accomplishing thereof; after which he caused Valen­tinianus [Page 160] the Son of Constantius, and Placida the Aunt of Theodosius, Valentinianus proclai­med Emperor. Cap. 24. Troubles in Constant. Cap 25. The Johannites cour­ted by Atticus of Con­stantinople. John Chrysostoms me­morial solemnized at Service. Observations there­upon. to be proclaimed Emperor at Rome.

A great stir there was in Constantinople about the Exile and death of John Chrysostom, (of whom I have formerly spoken) the Church being divided about him, and those called Johannites, using their private Conventicles, Atticus the Bishop hoping there­by to cease the Division, and to return many to the Church of which he was, commanded the memorial of John to be solemnized at Service, as was the manner for other Bishops that were deceased; So the one deposeth, exiles him as a cursed person, the other Canonizeth him as a Saint: and this was the contradiction as well as the superstition of those dayes among the Christians.

The followers also of Sabbatius removing his Corps from the Prayers made on Sab­battius's Tomb by his Followers. Atticus removes his body thereupon in the night. Observations on both. Isle of Rhodes (where he died in exile) prayed upon his Tomb, which caused Atticus to have his Body in the night to be removed to another Sepulchre, whether for Religion sake, or because of the Opinion of Sabbatius, let the Reader judge, seeing he caused the name of dead John to be remembred in the Service of his Church; and these but prayed upon the Tomb of dead Sabbatius; but the body being gone, those that frequented the place where he lay, ceased any more to come thither and pray. These were the poor things into which they ran in those dayes, who knew not the Principle of Truth; yet few exceeded this man Atticus, The praise of Atticus. if any came at him, of whom I read of very few, for charity seemed to be very little among many Bishops; he is said to have given to Calliopus Minister of Nice, three hundred pieces of Gold His liberality to the Poor, without respect to Opinion, but to such as wanted, who were ashamed to beg. to be distributed among such as were ashamed to beg, without having respect to practise of Faith, or Sect, or Opinion, but to such who had not wherewithal to relieve their hunger and thirst; He is commended for very many things, and especially for ten­derness to such, however differing from him, who suffered per­secution in the dayes of Constantius and Valens: he prophesied of He prophesies of his death, and dies ac­cordingly. Cap. 26. Great stir about his Successor: Sisinius cho­sen. The like at Cizi­cum about Proclus. Cap. 28. Dalmatius chosen a­gainst the Canon by the people. his death, which fell out accordingly.

About his Successor there was a great stir in Constantinople, as it fell out ordinarily: Sisinius carried it against Philip, who yet was not quiet, but wrote Books, and made all the stir about it as he could; and the like hapned at Cyzicum, where Sisinius appoin­ted Proclus in the place of the Bishop that was dead, whom they of Cyzicum would not receive, but against the Canon, chose Dalma­tius, so that he was constrained to continue at Constantinople.

In two years after his consecration at Constantinople, Sisinius Cap. 29. Sisinius dies, new stirs about one to succeed him. Nestorius from Antioch is the man. He sets all on fire. His proud Speech to the Emperor. dies; a new stir is again for another to succeed him, the Complot­ment brings Nestorius thither from Antioch, he sets all one fire, and in his Oration to the Emperor, before the people, immediately af­ter his Enstalment, thus said,—Restore unto me, O Emperor, the Earth weeded and purged of Hereticks, and I will render Heaven unto thee; Aid thou me in foyling of the Hereticks, and I will assist thee in the overthrow of the Persians.

A proud arrogant Speech, which I notifie, to shew to what a height these Bishops were come, and what furious persecution lay [Page 161] in the bottom of their proud stomachs, to all that which was other­wise than their own Religion.

He had hardly drank, as the saying is, before he began to He falls on the Ar [...]ians blow the smoke, and kindle the fire of Persecution; for the fifth day after he was chosen, he determined to overthrow the Arri­ans Church, where they had their service privily and by stealth; who when they saw their Church must needs down, they set it on fire themselves, which fell on the next houses, and burned them They burn their Church, when they saw he would have it down. It burns more houses. He is called the Fire­brand by all. to Ashes, and rose up to revenge them on their Enemies: From that time not only those that opposed him, but his own party cal­led him a Firebrand. Neither rested he here, but destroyed, as much as in him lay, the whole City, whilst he went about to mis­chieve those who from him differed. The Novations he molested, He persecutes the No­vations. because Paulus their Bishop was more eminent than himself; but the Emperor who sent for him, because divers vain-glorious per­sons in Constantinople sought the Bishoprick (who now had enough of him, meeting with one that was worse than them all) nipped The Emperor nips him. He vexes the obser­ve [...]s of Easter on the 4th day of the month, in Asia, Lydia, Caria. him with sharp admonitions, and so withstood his enterprises; he vexed those that kept Easter the fourth day of the month, throug­out Asia, Lydia, and Caria, with many injuries, and was the oc­casion of cutting off many in the Sedition, which he raised at Miletum and Sardis; and so perplexed the Macedonians in Helle­spont, At Miletene & Sardice many are cut off. Cap. 31. In Hellespont the Ma­cedonians conspire the death of Anthony, through his setting him on to persecute. by Anthony Bishop of Germa, that they conspired the death of Anthony, and by certain persons did accomplish it, which gave occasion to Nestorius to perswade the Emperor to deprive them of their Churches, many of which thereupon conformed to the Faith of one Substance.

Commonly (saith the History) we say, such as are given to Cap. 32. The scale comes to turn on Nestorius. drunkenness, are never to seek for the Cup; and busie bodies ne­ver want woe: Nestorius who endeavoured to cast others out of their Churches, comes to be cast out himself. Anastasius a Priest, whom he brought thither from Antioch, preached,—That none The occasion how. ought to call Mary the Mother of God, because that she was but a Woman, and that God could not be born of a Woman.—Nestorius joyns to this man, who was his great Counsellor in all his Affairs; and in his Sermons favours Anastatius, which divided the Church, so that the Members separated one from another, and a general A general Council cal­led at Ephesus. Council was summoned for the determination of this matter.

The Bishops came to Ephesus, whitherto the Council was sum­moned, Cap. 33. and multitudes of other people flocked thereunto: Thither came Cyril Bishop of Alexandria, and Juvenalis Bishop of Jerusalem. But when John of Antioch tarried; Cyril, that he Cyril begins the Dis­putation. might be upon Nestorius, of whom he thought very ill, began and used certain preambles of Disputation; when many confirmed that Christ was God, Nestorius pleaded,—I verily (said he) will Nestorus's blasphemy. not call him God, who grew to mans state by two months, and three months, and so forth; and therefore I wash my hands from your Joyns to the Bishops that denyed Mary to be the Mother of God. blood, and from henceforth I will no more come into your company. And so joyned with the Bishops of his Opinion; so the Bishops The Bishops divided. were divided into two parts: Such of the Council as held with [Page 162] Cyril, called Nestorius before them, he came not, but said, He Cyril, &c. sends for Nestor. He refuses to come. would defer his Cause till John of Antioch came. Cyril, and those with him, after they had read over Nestorius his Sermons, and ga­thered out of them, that in good earnest he had uttered open blasphemies against the Son of God, they deposed him. Those He is deposed. The Bishops that held with Nestor depose Cyril, &c. John of Antioch com­ing, blames Cyril for running so fast. Cyril deposes John. All in a hurly-burly. Nestor conforms. It is not accepted, be­cause supposed to be in hypocresie. which held with Nestorius, met, and deposed Cyril and Memnon Bishop of Ephesus. John being come, blamed Cyril for running on head, and so soon deposing Nestorius, and so being the occa­sion of all that stir; Cyril to be avenged on John, taking Juvena­lis with him, deposed John. Thus the contention flew up, and a great hurly-burly there was, and the poysoned infection of Dis­cord was scattered, which Nestorius perceiving, said,—Let Mary be called the Mother of God, and I pray you conceive no longer dis­pleasure.—But being not supposed to speak this from his heart, he was both deposed and banished to Oasis. Thus was the Coun­cil He is deposed and ba­nished. The Council ends. John coming to Anti­och deposes Cyril. Afterwards they re­store one another. of Ephesus at that time divided and broken up. John when he returned to Antioch, got many Bishops together, and deposed Cy­ril; shortly after which they laid aside their grudges, and restored each other to their Bishopricks.

A great stir arose in Constantinople about the Election of a Bi­shop Cap. 34. Much ado at Constan­tinople about a Suc­cessor of Nestor. in the place of Nestorius, for the people were greatly divi­ded by reason of his Opinion; all the Clergy with one consent accursed it openly, for so the Christians called the Sentence pro­nounced against the Author of Blasphemy, thereby intending to make it as manifest to the World, as what is engraven in a Table, and nailed unto a Poast; at length Maximinianus was chosen Maximin. is chosen: Bishop.

Maximinianus not possessing the Bishoprick above two years, Cap. 39. He dies. died; about the Election of another, lest there should be new Schisms and Divisions, the Emperor was put to his Wits, and therefore ere the other was interred, he put Proclus in his stead, The Emperor puts Proclus in his room. He troubled no Sect. who was a quiet man, and troubled no Sect, but reserved (saith the History) and restored unto the Church that renowned vertue of meekness required in Clergy-men.

Yet were not the Barbarians quiet, whom John had gathered Cap. 42. The Barbarians di­sturb the Empire by John. Their lamentable end. Rugus slain with a Thunderbolt. Pestilence destroyed most of the Souldiers. Fire from Heaven con­sumed the rest. Cap 44. Proclus removes John Chrysostoms bones to Constantinople, to en­dear his followers. Who are reduced hereupon. Observations upon the whole. to wage War with Theodosius, but purposed to over-run certain Dominions which appertained to the Emperor, but their end proved lamentable. Rugus their Captain was slain with a Thun­derbolt, and a Plague ensuing dispatched most of his Souldiers, and those that remained, fire from Heaven came and consumed, which proved a great astonishment to the Barbarians.

Yet there is not an end of Johns matters, though he was dead long ago. But Proclus, that he might unite those that followed him, to that in which Proclus was, got leave of the Emperor, and removed his bones from Comanum to Constantinople, thirty and five years after his deposition, and with great pomp interred him in the Apostles Church, which effected the reducing of those who appertained unto him; so he is deposed, exiled, dead, and buri­ed, remembred in the Prayers among the dead, brought to Con­stantinople, and enterred in the Church of the Apostles, upwards [Page 163] and downwards, backwards and forwards; things ride where Truth is not known in the Principle thereof which should lead into it, There would have been no matter administred for my Pen, Cap. 47. The Historians reason why he wrote. The end of Socrates's History of 140. years. Evag. lib. 1. cap. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. (saith the Historian in his last Chapter) if such as set their minds on Sedition and Discord, had been at Peace and Unity among themselves. And so he ends his History of 140. years: and Evagrius goeth on with the History, and having given somewhat a more particular account of Nestorius, and the things then that passed both at the Council of Ephesus, and elsewhere, of which Schola­sticus hath given some intimation, he goes on to shew of the death of Nestorius, which, he saith, was after this sort,—His Tongue Nestorius's tongue ea­ten up of Worms, dies was eaten up of Worms, and so he died; whom Maximinianus succeeded, as aforesaid.

Yet his Opinion died not within him, but Eutyches took it up, Cap. 9. Eutyches takes up his Blasphemy. An account of his Blasphemy. who held as followeth,—I confess (saith he) that our Lord consist­ed of two Natures before the Divinity was coupled with the Humani­ty; but after the uniting of them, I affirm, that he had but one Na­ture, and that the Body of the Lord was not of the same Substance with ours.—A Council was called about him at Constantinople, A Council called at Constantinople. He is degraded. A second Council at Ephesus. where Eusebius Bishop of Dorylaeum, an eloquent Rhetorician, in reasoning, finding him to hold, as aforesaid, he was degraded, and a second Council summoned at Ephesus.

At this Council Dioscorus who succeeded Cyril in the Bishop­rick Cap. 10. of Alexandria, was Moderator, through the working of Chrysaphius Governor of the Pallace, for the hatred he bore to Flavianus, whom the Council before Eutyches had charged with the forging of the Records which concerned him, but being searched, it was found otherwise, and the Records were con­firmed at the Council. Now at this Council Elpidius having ac­quainted them with the command of Theodosius, which was this,—Such as in time past gave Sentence of Eutyches the most virtuous Abbot, good leave have they to be present at the Council, but let them be quiet, and their voices suspended: My Will is, That they wait for the general and common Sentence of the most holy Fathers, seeing that such things were aforetime decided by them, are called in contro­versie. Dioscorus, and the Bishops with him, restored Eutyches, Eutyches restored. Flavian. and Euseb. deposed, four Bishops more excommunica­ted and deposed, two removed. The Council ends. whom the other Council had degraded, unto his former dignity; and Flavianus, and Eusebius, they deposed; they excommunica­ted, and deprived also four Bishops more, and two more they re­moved, so this Council broke up.

This kind of contrary work, one Council undoing what the Cap. 11. The Historian con­strained through these contradictions, to apo­logize for the Christi­an Faith to the Hea­then. His whole History a continuation of the rehearsal of the Divi­sion. other had done, and concerning Faiths and Creeds varying and changing, as aforesaid, put the Historian eftsoons to Apologize for the Christian Faith, because of these things, with the Hea­then among whom his History could not but come, which in this Chapter he endeavours. Yet the whole series of his Book holds forth little less than the continuation of such division and contra­diction; which shews the fruit and consequences when men un­dertake to determine of him, whom they cannot comprehend, The natural conse­quence of imposing Religion. who should let alone things of that nature, which is too high for [Page 164] them; and if they have Faith, have it to themselves, that is to say, in such freedom and liberty unto every man, that they seek to impose no more on another man than they would have imposed upon themselves, in that which is contrary. Theodosius decreed Nestor. condemned by the Emperor to per­petual exile, and ac­cursed him. He yet boasts of the Emperors good will. Nestorius to perpetual exile, and pronounced him therein to be accursed, being moved thereunto, no doubt (saith the Historian) by the instinct of the Holy Ghost; yet Nestorius elsewhere boasted, That the Emperor bore him intire and singular good will. We Decree moreover (saith the rehearsal of the said Decree, Cap. 12. Another Decree a­gainst Nestor. and his Favourers. Cod. de sum trin & fid. cath. tit. 1. l. 3 sancimus. found in the Code of Justinian, the third Law of the first Title) that whosoever doth imbrace the wicked Opinion of Nestorius, and give ear unto his lewd Doctrine, if they be Bishops, that they be ba­nished the Holy Churches; if Lay persons, they be accursed.—Other Laws also he made in the behalf of Religion.

Many things ran up and down in this Generation; for as the Many opinions ran up and down in this day, and superstition. times drew off the dayes of the Apostles, or were at a greater di­stance from them, so superstition & folly, as well as confusion and division, entered in among the Christians. To give one instance for many: In these times there was one Simeon, a man famous, and Cap. 13. One instance for all. Simeons living in a Pil­lar upon pretence of the Angelical Life. The particulars there­of. of renown (as the History saith) for a godly man; he in pretence of imitating in life the trade of the Angelical Powers, withdrew himself from worldly Affairs, forced Nature, which of her self leaneth downwards, and followed after lofty things, being placed, as it were in the midst, between Heaven and Earth, he sought conference with God, he praised him together with the Angels; he lifted the prayers of men up to Heaven, and offered them to God; he brought the goodness of God from Heaven to Earth, and made the World partaker thereof. Thus saith the History, a ridiculous kind of Superstition, by placing himself in a Pillar high from the Earth, and scarce two Cubits wide; to think that this brought him nigher to the Angels, and to accomplish that which thereof hath been quoted by the History; and all this, as I have intimated, springs from the ignorance of the Principle of God in man, by, and in which, and as that revealeth him, man only can know God.

I should write very much, if I should be particular in what is said of this man, and what reckoning was made of him whilst he lived; and how his body being dead, was worshipped, and car­ried His dead body adored and carried up and down as Reliques. about in pieces as Reliques. The people of Antioch desired of the Emperor Leo, who desired the Body, that they might have it for a fortified Wall to their City, and so exprest it, because the anger of the Emperor had caused the Wall to be pulled down; so much they put of preservation in a dead Carkass: Gregory Bi­shop of that Church, and Philippicus required, That the Reliques of the Saint, for the speedier execution of his martial Affairs in The Reliques of the dead required, for the expedition of Martial Affairs. the East, should be sent unto him; such blind superstition was amongst them at that day. First, A singular humour, and fan­tastical imagination they hold forth, as the height of Religion; then the Carkass of the humorists they adore as Religion; they say he lived six and fifty years, nine years in a Monastery, seven [Page 165] and forty years in Mandrya, ten of which in a very narrow Room, An account of his life, and of the Iron Chain about his neck. seven in a very strait Pillar, and thirty years in a Pillar of forty Cubits; they speak of the Iron Chain that hung about his Neck, and with it the Corps so renowned (saith the History) of all men, and for induring so great hardness and misery, was honoured with Divine Praises; and yet in the same Chapter, he quotes the Re­ligious men of the Desart to have sent a Messenger unto him to And the message of [...]e Monks to require him to give an account of his so living, demand of him, What he meant by that new-found and unknown kind of life? and wherefore he forsook the wonted Trade; the steps and traces of the Saints which went before, and devised unto himself a for­reign and unknown way? and moreover to have exhorted him by the Messenger to come down from his Lodging, and to follow the Holy And to come down, Fathers which were his Predecessors; and to have given the Messenger in charge, that if he saw him yeeld and come down, he should license him to go on in his own way, for they perswaded them­selves that his obedience would declare, Whether God had guided him to lead such a life, and to take upon him in this World so weighty a Combate to chastise his Carkass; But if he stubbornly resisted, if he were froward and wilful, not yeelding with all speed unto their Or to pull him down with a vengeance. counsel and advice, he should pull him down with a vengeance.

But I must not stay longer on the relation of this man, and this The ignorance of God the ground of all Su­perstition, and impo­sing of Religion. example of superstition in one President, that those times did produce in the World; this was necessary to give as an instance; I shall now proceed to matters of another nature, yet proceed­ing from the same root, viz. the Ignorance of God.

The Lord was displeased in this day. Attilas King of Scythia, Cap. 17. Judgements in the Common-Wealth. Attilas invades East and West. An Earth­quake exceeding all that went before, Almost throughout the world. Anno. 4 [...]2. The Palace shaken. invaded both East and West, and won many great Cities, and behaved himself nobly to the end of his dayes. A great Earth­quake, the strangeness whereof exceeded all that ever were be­fore-going in a manner throughout the whole world, hapned in the latter end of the reign of Theodosius: Though yet he was praised for such a gentle Prince, yet dared he to meddle with Religion and Faith, and to do therein as aforesaid. Many Turrets within the Pallace were overthrown to the ground, the long Wall of Cherronesis turned to ruine; many Villages swallowed up, many Many Villages swal­lowed up. Well-springs dried. Fountains in dry places. Trees rooted up. Valleys become Mountains. Fish dead. Islands drowned. Sea overflows. Ships on ground where the Sea was. Many Countries undone in Bythinia, Hellespont, &c. woful mischances fell out unto mankind both by Sea and Land; many Well-springs dried up; where Fountains were never seen before it flowed out; many Trees were pulled up by the Roots; the Vallies became high Mountains; the Sea threw out Fish for dead; many Islands drowned; the Sea over-ran the Banks, and overflowed the Countries; many Ships that had been in the Sea, seen on ground, by the falling back of the Sea, not yeelding its wonted streams; many Countries through Bythynia, Hellespont, and both the Phrygia's, endured such calamities that they were ut­terly undone.

Nor were these the only troubles that invaded the Empire, for Cap. 19. Great Sedition in the West. Wars with the Persi­ans. Theodosius dies. there was great Sedition throughout Europe, when Valentinianus governed the Western Dominions; and with the Persians there was War, as aforesaid. He reigned thirty and eight years, and then he died.

Martianus succeeded Theodosius. No sooner had he entered Cran. p 590. Anno. 450. Lib. 2. Cap. 2. Martianus succeeds, and peace with him, but disquiet among the Bishops. Leo of Rome begins; Complains of Diosco­rus's slighting the De­c [...]ees of the second Council at Ephesus. Desires a Council. Eusebius complains of Chrysaphius defraud­ing him, and Flavia­nus, of their Bishop­ricks. Gold demanded by Chrysaphius, for the admission of Flavia­nus. Other accusations. the Throne, but he presently is entertained with some of the old trade of disquiet among the Christians; Leo Bishop of old Rome sends to him, that Dioscorus had made light of the Decree which he had laid down in the second Council of Ephesus, agreeable unto the true and right Faith; others also complain of the injuries and contumelies Dioscorus had done unto them, desiring a Council might be called for the hearing of these matters. Eusebius of Dorilaeum also, chiefly, above all others, follows the Emperor, shewing him how he and Flavianus were defrauded of their Bi­shopricks through the fraud and wiles of Chrysaphius, sometimes of Theodosius his Guard; that Flavianus (at what time Chrysaphius sent unto him, requiring Gold for his admission unto the Bishop­rick) sent unto him the Holy Vessels of the Church for to make him throughly ashamed of his demand, and that he wallowed a­like in the Heretical Puddle and Blasphemous Impiety of Euty­ches. Moreover, that Flavianus was lamentably slain by the pro­curement Flavianus murdered by Dioscorus. of Dioscorus, who thrust him violently out of the Church, and disdainfully trod on him with his feet.

A Council therefore was summoned at Chalcedon for the hear­ing A Council at Chal­cedon. of these matters, and Legates, and Posts, were sent every where for the calling of them together; the Bishops come and meet together, some Senators with them, and also the Emperor; Cap. 4. Dioscorus deposed and exiled. Nicene Creed against Eutyches's Canons, decreed. Much debating. The conclusion of the Council. matters are turned up-side down, and great bustle is made: Di­oscorus is at length deposed, and ordered into banishment, and the Nicene Creed, and several other things against Eutyches are Decreed, and several Canons of the Church, and much debat­ings to and again, and at length it thus endeth,—Seeing we have sifted out the truth of these things with great care and diligence, the Sacred and General Council hath Decreed that it shall be lawful for no man, either to alleadge, or to write, or to frame, or to believe, or to teach any other Faith. Moreover, the Council commandeth such as None must alleadge, write, frame, believe, teach any other Faith. presume to devise any other Faith, or to bring forth, or to teach, or to publish any other Creed, unto such as turn either from Paganism to Judaism, or any other Sect whatsoever, unto the knowledge of the Truth; If they be Bishops, that they be deposed of their Bishop-like The penalties. dignities; If Priests, that they be degraded; If Monks and Lay­people, that they be accursed.—Hillarius and the Eastern Bishops The manner of Excla­mation at the accur­sing of Dioscorus. Cap. 18. And conjuring God to chastize him, and the Emperor to be aven­ged on him. cryed out, Let Dioscorus be accursed. In the very same hour Christ deprived Dioscorus, when Dioscorus deposed Flavianus. Oh Holy Lord, we beseech thee chastise thou him, and thou, O Catholick Emperor, be avenged on him, (these were Christians, so called, but what spirit they were of, let understanding men judge, ac­cording to the Spirit of Truth.) God grant Leo (who was then Leo his Benedictus. Bishop of Rome) may live many years; God send the Patriark a long life.—When the Sentence was passed on the Bishops that were deposed with Dioscorus, (which was afterward to those Bi­shops The cry upon Diosco­rus's Judgment. The Bishops of Illyri­um confessing them­selves all to have done amiss. remitted, but not to Dioscorus) the Bishops of the East cryed out,—The Judgment is just.—Then the Bishops of Illyri­cum said,—We have all done amiss, and therefore we all crave pardon. [Page 167] And when the Bishops of the East cryed again, The Sentence is just, Christ deposeth the Murderer, Christ revengeth the quarrel of the Martyrs.—The Senators bad every one give in his particular The Emperors F [...]ith according to that of Nice, declared so to be by the Senators. Faith in writing, asuring them that the Emperor believed, accor­ding to the form of Faith published at Nice by three hundred and eighteen Fathers, and agreeable to the Creed framed at Constan­tinople by one hundred and fifty Bishops, and no otherwise, then the Epistles of the Holy Fathers, Gregory, Basil, Hillary, Epistles read. Athanasius, Ambrosius, and the two Epistles of Cyril read in the first Council of Ephesus, have directed him; and that Leo the most reverend Bishop of Rome deposed Eutyches for the contrary.

Lastly, (for it will be too long, though otherwise of some ac­count, Cap. 18. Dioscorus's Sentence. to rehearse all the Acts of this Council) Dioscorus's Sen­tence was in these words,—Because thou hast despised the Holy Ca­nons of the Church, because thou hast not obeyed this holy and general Council, because thou art moreover convinced of many other Crimes, because thou being thrice called of this famous Assembly to answer to such things as are laid to thy charge, thou camest not; know, that for all the aforesaid, thou art deposed by the Holy and General Council, the thirteenth of this present October, of thy Bishoprick, and be­reaved of all Ecclesiastical Right and Title.—After this Florentius Bishop of Sardis craved their favour, that with advice, and after deliberation taken, they might attain unto the Truth; and Ce­cropius Bishop of Sebastopolis, said,—The Faith is most notably set The Faith of the 318. Fathers confi [...]med by Athanasius, &c and by Leo, desired to be read. forth by the three hundred and eighteen Holy Fathers, confirmed after­wards by the godly Fathers, Athanasius, &c. as aforesaid, and now again approved by most Holy Leo: Therefore our request is, That the Creed of the three hundred Holy Fathers, and the most Holy Leo, may The cry upon the reading this Faith and confirmation. The Faith of the 150. Fathers at Constantino­ple read. The cry thereupon. be read.—Being read, all the Council cryed,—This is the Faith of the true Professors, we are all of this Faith; This is the Faith of Pope Leo, this is the Faith of Cyril, thus hath the Pope interpreted. Then the Faith of one hundred and fifty Fathers at Constantinople was read, upon which the Council cryed out, and said,—This is the Faith of the true Professors, thus we do all believe. Then the Epi­stles Cyril's Epistles to Ne­storius an [...] John, con­ce [...]ning Mary's being the Mother of God, read. of Cyril to Nestorius, and John of Antioch were read, which treats of Mary being the Mother of God, (what strange expres­sions are here of him! the Mother of him who is from everlasting, and is without beginning of days, or end of life) and in the behalf The cry upon that. of that; upon which all the Council cryed out, We are all of that Faith; Leo the Pope believeth so: Cursed be he that divideth Christ, that confoundeth his Natures; this is the Faith of Arch-Bishop Leo, thus be­lieveth Leo; Leo and Anatolius are of this Faith, we are all of this Faith; Cyril is of this Faith, let Cyril never be forgotten, let the Epistles of Cyril be ever had in memory; this is our Opinion, thus we have be­lieved and do believe; thus doth Arch-Bishop Leo believe, thus hath Leo's Epistle, and the Interpretation read. The cry after the reading of that. he written,—Then Leo his Epistle is read, with the interpretation annexed thereunto, and the Bishops cryed out, This is the Faith of the Fathers, this is the Faith of the Apostles, we are all of this Faith, the true Professors are all of this Faith, cursed be he that be­lieveth not this; Peter in the person of Leo, said thus, Thus have [Page 168] the Apostles taught, Leo hath godly and truly taught these things, Cyril hath taught this, Leo and Cyril have taught the like, cursed be he that holdeth not this Faith; this is the true Faith, this is the Opini­on of the true Professors; This is the Faith of the Fathers: Why were not these things read in the Council of Ephesus? What meant Dios­corus to conceal these things?

No less than ten Pages are taken up in such things as these, and Ten Pages in the Hi­story filled with these things. the proceedings of the Council, which I should much (perhaps) offend some if I should be particular in them all; onely thus much (as in one instance) I thought convenient to insert, that the Reader may see what work here was, what cluttering, what cla­mouring, what being more like a company Geese, gigling their A comparison of these things, and the reason why they were thus. noises, than a Council of grave men and sober Christians; and how their Faith was placed and set, and upon what Foundation. I shall now proceed to the consequences of these works, and the effects of them, as they seemed to have a reproof from the Lord, in the matters of the Empire, and the things that ensued therein.

Dioscorus being exiled to Gangrena, a City in Paphlagonia, Pro­terius Cap. 5: The consequence of these things. Great Tumult at Alexandria about exiling Diosco­rus, and pla [...]ing in Proterius. Slaughter, bloodshed. was set in his room, upon whose enstalment wonderful and great tumults arose among the people; some would have Diosco­rus called home again, others clave unto Proterius, the conse­quence whereof was much slaughter and blood-shed; for with blood commonly was stained the Seats of these Bishops, as their forms of Faith were the consequences of such their Seats, and the occasions of them. The Lieutenant of Thebais coming then into Alexandria, seeing the people all in an uproar, and setting The people set upon the Magist [...]ates. Force the Garison. Burn the Souldiers quick. Ransack the Temple in which they forced them. 2000. choice Souldi­diers hastned thither. They ravish the Wives, deflour the Daughters of the Ci­tizens. upon the Magistrates, how they threw stones at the Garison, that endeavoured to keep the peace; how they forced the Souldiers into the Temple of old called Seraphis, how the people ran thi­ther, ransacked the Temple, and burned the Souldiers quick: The Emperor understanding thereof, sent two thousand chosen Souldiers, who having Wind and Weather, arrived in six dayes after; they ravished the Wives, and defloured the Daughters of the Citizens, which to them that beheld it, this last skirmish seem­ed to have exceeded the former in cruelty. After all this the people gathered together at Circus, where their Shews used to be solemnized, requesting of Florus the Governor of the Garison and City in Civil Affairs, to restore unto them the priviledged Corn, their Baths, their common Shews, and other things, of which for these Tumults he had deprived them, who by his pre­sence Floras reduces the people into peace. The Monks near Jeru­salem not at rest be­cause of the Sentence of Dioscorus. G [...]eat stir and dissen­tion in the Council aforesaid. and gentle exhortation brought them for a while into peace.

But the Monks inhabiting near Jerusalem, could not be at rest, for some of them that had been at the Council aforesaid, and dis­sented from the Decrees; for there had been a great stir and dis­sention in the Council: First, The Bishops of Illyricum, for a while, with some clauses in Cyrils and Leo's Epistles, yet afterwards they subscribed; and such a cry as this was by the Bishops of the More cries of the Bi­shops as to Dioscorus. East, when the Clergy of the Church of Constantinople cryed, Few do cry, we hear not the whole Council speak, viz. Let the Egyp­tian be deposed, and the Bishops of Illyricum requested the same. The [Page 169] Clergy of Constantinople cryed, Let Dioscorus be banished, let the Egyptian be exiled, let the Heretick be sent away, Christ hath depri­ved Dioscorus.—Again, the Bishops of Illyrium, and such as were of their side, cried, We have all offended, we beseech you pardon us, Cap. 18. rid the Council of Dioscorus, away with Dioscorus out of the Church­es. And when the Monks tendered their Supplication, who The supplication of the Monks that sub­scribed not. would not subscribe till the General Council past, and they un­derstood the Councils Decrees. When this was read, Diogenes of Cyzicum remembered that Barsumus was one of them which made the Insurrection, and murdered Flavianus, and that he had cryed Kill him; and now not having his name in the Supplica­tion, contrary to order, to have presumed to come into the Coun­cil; all the Bishops cryed at this,—Barsumus hath perverted all The cry against Bar­sumus thereupon, who killed Flavianus. Syria, and raised against us a thousand Monks. The Monks requi­red their Supplication to be read, which was, That Dioscorus, and the Bishops of his Opinion might be present at the Council. All the Council was moved at this, and cryed,—Let Dioscorus be The cry against the Monks, at the desire of their Supplication to be read. accursed, Christ hath deposed Dioscorus, out with these Monks, re­move shame from the Council, take away shame and injury, let not these impious and lewd sayings come to the Emperors ears, let not the Council be discredited, away with infamy.—I say, some of them They come to Pale­stina, and complain. Seek to stir up division Juvenalis of Jerusa­lem forced to fly to the City where the Emperor was. They chose Theodosius Bishop of Jerusalem, he makes Bishops, is the Ring-leader of mis­chief. This Monk Theo­dosius is said to have been expelled the Mo­nastery for Crimes, whipped for Sedition at Alexandria, being a cleaver to Dioscorus, set upon a Camel, as Malefactors use to be, and car [...]ied through the City. Souldiers required to bring Theodosius to the Emperor. Juvenalis returned, unmakes the Bishops. had been at the Council and dissented from the Decrees, who came to Palestina, and complained of this form of Faith deliver­ed by the Council, and laboured to stir up the rest to Sedition; and Juvenalis Bishop of Jerusalem, having both confuted and detested his own Religion, being compelled thereunto by his Adversaries, returning from the Council, was forced to fly to the City where the Emperor resided. These who oppugned the Council of Chalcedon, gathered themselves together, made an Election on Easter day, and chose Theodosius for their Bishop (who is said to be the Ring-leader of all the mischiefs raised in the Council, and the first that certified them of the Decrees and Ca­nons thereof) unto him came many out of the Cities of Palestina, requesting him to make them Bishops.

These things coming to light, the Emperor commanded Theo­dosius to be brought to him by Armed men, then required Juvi­nalis to go thither, and reform the disordered state of the Church, and to depose as many as Theodosius had preferred to the Priestly Function.

Yet these things had not an end, but they broke out more and They grow more and more into Faction. more, and into Factions more and more were they divided, as is the natural consequence of mans intermedling with the things of God: Many grievous calamities and mischievous devices ensued (saith the Historian) by reason of these contrary Factions; one device was this, (as saith the Historian) The Devil by changing one Letter, and lewd interpreting thereof, brought to pass, that it should be pronounced either way, (that is) concerning Christs The Devils subtilty about the two words [...] & [...], concerning the Natures of Christ. And the interchanga­bleness of them. being IN or OF two Natures, (the Greek words being [...] & [...]) for to establish a contrary Opinion, the which Sentence, (saith he) as divers do think, is so repugnant, and inferreth such contra­dictory [Page 170] sence and meaning, that the one seemeth utterly to sub­vert and overthrow the other; for he that confesseth Christ to be in two Natures, (which is one of the words) saith no less, but that he consisteth of two Natures, (which is the other word) for by granting that Christ is both IN Divinity and Humanity, is to confess that he consisteth OF Divinity and Humanity. He again (saith he) that saith that Christ consisteth OF two Natures, affirm­eth plainly that he is IN two Natures; for by avouching that, he consisteth of Divinity and Humanity, he testifieth him to be IN Divinity and Humanity, yet not by conversion of the flesh into And how they are put together. the Godhead (whose uniting was inexplicable) neither of the Godhead into flesh; so that when we say OF Two, we un­derstand withal IN Two, and by saying IN Two, we mean OF Two, not parting the one from the other: For it is most plain (saith he) that the whole not only consisteth of the parts, but that the whole is understood in the parts; yet for all that (saith he) some men are of Opinion that they are far severed asunder. And varied.

I had not been so particular in this thing, but that I might here The reason of this Quotation. also shew what a puzzle men are in, and into what a bottomless Gulf they were plunged, who went about in their understand­ings to comprehend God, and to speak of him what he is, and how they come to be divided shamefully hereabouts, and what is the consequence of imposing the contradictions of men as Faith in God.

Well, the Hand of the Lord testified against these things, Cap. 6. Judgments succeed these Impositions and Divisions. The Rain withheld in divers Regions. Pestilence the conse­quence. An account of the Pe­stilence, and the man­ner thereof, and its incurability. whilst in both Phrygiaes, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Cilicia, the Rain was withheld, so that men wanting necessaries, they recei­ved poysonous nourishment; from whence arose a great Pesti­lence, and men after change and alteration of diet, began to sicken, their bodies swelled; the inflamation was so great, that it made them stark blind; they had withal such a Cough, that they died thereof the third day: No Medicine could be had, nor Re­medy found for this Pestilence; yet the Hand of the Lord again, as he saw fit, and the correction was sufficient, aswaged the Fa­mine to such as was left alive, it being reported, that in that dear Food from Heaven in the dear years. barren year there came down Food from the Air, no otherwise than the Manna of old to the Israelites, and that the year follow­ing the Earth of her own accord brought forth fruit. Neither was Earth of its own ac­cord brings forth Fruits. These things in Palestina, and other Regions where the former things were done. only this misery (saith the History) throughout Palestina, but also sundry calamities reigned in many other Regions; and these things (saith the History) were about that time, (that is to say) when the things aforesaid were controverted and done.

In the Civil State also these things hapned, Aetius was lamen­tably Cap. 7. Aetius put to death at Rome, also Valentinia­nus; the Emperor and Heraclius, by the Trea­son of Maximus, be­cause Valentinianus had ravished his Wife, Maximus ma [...]ries Eu­doxia the Wife of Va­lentinianus against her will. put to death at old Rome: Valentinianus Emperor of the West, together with Heraclius, by certain Souldiers of Aetius, through the Treason of Maximus, who aspired unto the Empire, and therefore wrought their destruction; because the Wife of Maximus had been ravished by Valentinianus; Valentinianus be­ing dead, Maximus married his Wife Eudoxia against her will: she taking this in great contumely and reproach, devised how to [Page 171] revenge her Husbands death; she sends to Genzerichus to Libia, She sends to Genzeri­cus the Vandal to re­venge her. makes him fair promises, puts him in good hopes of prosperous success, requests him, that, unlooked for, he would invade the Empire of Rome, and promised to yeeld all into his hands: He being a Barbarian, unconstant, of little trust, gave no credit to her words, sets the City on fire, carries away the spoyl, took Eudoxia He burns Rome, car­ries away the spoyl; takes Eudoxia and her two Daughters with him. Returns, marries Eudoxia's elder daugh­ter to his Son. Sends the other and her Mo­ther to Martianus. He tore Maximus in pieces, and threw his body into Tiber. The short succession of the after Western Em­perors. Avitus reigned eight months, Maxi­mus 70. dayes. Plague destroys Avitus Majorinus that suc­ceeded him, cut off by Treason. Severus three years. Anno. 458. Martianus dies. Proterius opposed. Cap. 8. Anno. 458. Timoth. Elurus chosen. with her 2 Daughters, returned got him home to Libia, married Eu­doxia the elder Daughter to his Son Honoricus; but sent Placidia the younger Daughter, and Eudoxia her Mother, with a Princely Train unto Martianus, thereby hoping to mittigate his wrath and displeasure, who was not a little offended at the burning of Rome, and the abusing of Valentinianus his Daughters; he tore Maximus in pieces, and threw his Carkass into Tiber.

Nor did things cease here, for short dates befel the next suc­cessive Emperors of Rome; Avitus was Emperor eight months af­ter the death of Maximus, who reigned seventy dayes; when he was dispatched by the Plague, Majorinus the year following took the government of the Empire; when Rhecimerus a Roman Cap­tain had procured, through Treason, the death of Majorinus, Severus became Emperor for the space of three years.

Also Martianus finished this course, having reigned the space of seven years, which those of Alexandria understanding, they renewed their opposition against Proterius; Dionysius the Captain of the Guard being absent, they consulted to make Timotheus, surnamed Aelurus, to be their Bishop; and having brought him into the great Church called Caesars, they proclaimed him, whilst Proterius was yet alive, and exercised the Priesthood, slew Prote­rius Proterius slain, as he fled to the Font. Tyed with a Rope, dragged, derided. whilst he was flying to the Holy Font, (as saith the History) tyed him with a Rope, and haled him to the four Poarches for all men to gaze at him; through the perswasion of Timothy, and with shouting and laughter revealed the murdering of Proterius; af­terwards they drew his Carkass through the City, and burnt it to Drawn through the City, burnt to As [...]es. His bowels tasted of. Ashes; neither abstained they from the tasting of his Bowels, as the Bishops and Clergy throughout Egypt, in their complaints to Leo, who succeeded Martianus, of them who were Eye-witnesses, gave it at large under their hands, which is said to be done with a He was run through the body with a Sword, as it was ru­moured, that the Cap­tain hasted into the City. Six more killed with him. His dead body lashed, disjoynted, and his Ashes thrown into the Air. naked Sword, as the Captain hearing the rumor of the tumult came in post hast to Alexandria to quench it; so being ran through the Body, died, and six more were killed with him, and his dead body they lashed with a Whip, and unjoynted his Members; and when they had burned his body, they threw the Ashes, and scat­tered them in the Air.

This outragious Villany thus committed, put the Emperor to it, who sent his Letters throughout the Empire to consider what was Cap. 9. The Emperor troub­led, sends Letters what were best to be done. best to be done; for there were two things in it, the blood of Proterius, and the dissatisfaction of the Decrees of the six hundred and thirty Bishops in the Council of Chalcedon, and how to secure the peace of Alexandria: so the issue returned upon Timothy, Timothy is deposed, banished. (who wrote bold Letters in answer to the Emperor's, that were sent about, and that Council) who was deposed and banished to Gan­grena [Page 172] aforesaid, and Timothy called Basilius was put in to succeed Cap. 10. Basilius succeeds. Proterius. Annatolius being also dead, Gennadius was Bishop of Constantinople, and after him Acasius Master of the Hospital or Col­ledge of Orphans.

Thus things shook in reference to Religion, and reeled up and Judgments on the State. The Empire shaken. down, whilst men took upon them to settle and establish Religi­on. And in the Civil State things shook also. The Earth moved Cap. 12. An Earthquake at Antioch again. at Antioch again, it turned upside down, in a manner, all the build­ing of that new City, being well peopled, without a waste corner or ruinous piece of building, but all adorned, and gorgeously set forth by the bountifulness of the Emperors contending successive­ly who should excel the other therein; the first and second Lodg­ings of the Pallace were overthrown, the rest stood with the Bath adjoyning thereunto; the Portly Gates of the Palace, the place called the Four Porches, the utter Turrets and Galleries near the Gates, where the Stage-Playes were kept, some Poarches that came out thence, together with abundance of other places, were turned to the ground. Before the Earthquake began, cer­tain The people ran mad before it began. people born in Antioch waxed mad, raved above measure, seeming to exceed all furious rage of bruitish fierceness, which was preambulatory to this great calamity; this grievous Earthquake hapned in the 506. year after the City was called Antioch. The fourteenth day of the Month called Gorpiaeus, after the Romans, September, about the fourth hour in the night; three hundred forty seven years being expired, after the Earthquake under Tra­jan. The Baths under Trajan, Severus, and Adrian, the adjoyning Ostracina, with the Porches and Nymphaeum were overturned.

As dreadful a fire, or beyond it, hapned at Constantinople in that Cap. 13. A dreadful fire at Con­stantinople, much like that lately at London. part of the City which lay next to the Sea, and is called Oxstreet; it lasted the space of four dayes, and no man was able to quench it; it flashed throughout the midst of the City, consumed from the North part to the South end all Houses, five Furlongs in length, and fourteen in breadth, left no building either publick or private, no Pillars, no strong Arches, nor Vaults, in all that time, and in all that compass, unburned to the Foundation, but to have pierced the flint Stone, and hard Mettal, as if it had been stubble or straw, on the North part of the City where the Haven lies. This lamentable destruction reached from the Oxstreet unto the old Temple of Apollo; on the South-side from the Haven of Julian unto the Temple of Concord; in the midst of the City from Constantines Market unto the Market of Taurus; a pittiful shew, and dreadful to behold, (saith the History) the goodly places and gorgeous high buildings that had been within the City, the costly carved Timber, yeelding heretofore great majesty unto the eye of man, both publick and private, were then become like craggy Hills and Rocks that no man could pass through; confused heaps of filth, and all kind of stuff, full of deformity, that the owners themselves could not discern the bounds of their Possessions, nor say this or that place stood thus before the fire consumed them: These are the words of the Historian, in which I have put them [Page 173] down, because it seems to bear some resemblance to the late dreadful fire in London.

Moreover in the East part of the Empire the Scythian War Cap. 14. The Scythian War waxed hot in the East. Thracia, Hellespont, Io­nia, the Cyclades, or 50. Isles, Cnidos in Ca­ria shaken with te [...]ri­ble Earthquakes, storms of Rain like floods fall in Constanti­nople and Bythinia. Mountains made Plains, and Valleys Hills. Villages on float. Islands in Lakes. waxed hot; Thracia, Hellespontus, and Ionia, were wonderfully shaken with Earthquakes; no less were the fifty Isles called Cy­clades, in the Sea Aegaeum, Cnidos in Caria and Coo, so that many buildings were thrown down to the ground. Priscas also writes, that at Constantinople and Bythinia, such storms of Rain and Wa­ter fell for the space of three or four dayes, it poured down like streams and floods; beat down the Hills and Mountains with the violence thereof (as saith the History) and made them plain Val­leys; that the Villages were all on float, and in danger of drown­ing; and that in the Lake Boan, not far from Nicomedia, by rea­son of the filth and baggage the Water brought thither, were seen Islands.

These things hapned more Eastward. At Rome, Leo the Em­peror Cap. 16. Anthemius made Bi­shop. Genzerichus in­vades the West. Basiliscus sent against him. sent Anthemius, at the request of the Roman Ambassadors, to be Emperor of Rome, who had married the Daughter of Mar­tianus; Basiliscus the Brother of Berina, Leo's Wife, he made Captain of an Army that he sent against Genzerichus that invaded those parts: but as for Aspar, whom himself had made Emperor, Leo conspires the death of Aspar, who he made Emperor, and slayes him, his Son, and Patricius. Anthemius slain. Olymbrius succeeds. Leo conspired his death, and slew him, with his Sons Ardaburius, whom he had made Caesar, and Patricius, that he might scorn at the ignorance and insolency of Aspar their Father. Anthemius after he had been Emperor five years, was slain, and Olymbrius by Rhecimerus was proclaimed Emperor. After he was dispatched, who reigned but seven months, Glycerius was proclaimed Emperor; Glycerius after him. Nepos deposes him. Orestes puts by Nepos. Augustulus succeeds. Odoacer follows, who called himself King. The last Emperor of Rome, of the 1300 years after Romulus, was Augustulus. and after he had continued five years, was deposed by Nepos. Orestes after six and fifty dayes puts by Nepos. After Orestes, his Son Romulus, sirnamed Augustulus, succeeded, who was the last Emperor of Rome of the thousand three hundred years after the Reign of Romulus. When he departed this life, Odoacer governed the Roman Common-Wealth, who refused the name of an Empe­ror, and would himself be called King.

So I have traced the Empire of Rome, or the Western part of The end of the West Empire of Rome. The cause assigned: the Roman Empire to this foot, which was the end thereof, through the just Judgment of God, who met with them, and brought his calamities, as he thought fit, through Sedition and Civil War (as the particular Judgments) it fell out, that the Empire came to Many reigned in the W [...]st of equal Autho­ri [...]y. No Emperor of the West for 330. years af­ter the year 800. Carolus Magnus tran­slated the name to the Emperor of Germany. nought: Many reigned in the West of equal Authority; there was no Emperor of the West for the space of three hundred and thirty years, afore the year eight hundred; When Carolus Mag­nus, King of France, was by Leo the Third Bishop of Rome, crea­ted Emperor, from which time the Emperors of the West were called the Emperors of Germany.

Leo also after he had reigned seventeen years, deposed himself, and placed Leo, who was of tender years, the Son of Ariadne his Cap. 17. Anno. 457. Leo deposes himself. Cap. 1: Places young Leo in his room. Zeno comes to be Emperor with him. Leo the younger dies. Zeno Emperor alone. Daughter, and Zeno in the Empire; in a while Zeno came to be Emperor with him, by the procurement of Berina; but Leo the younger departing, he was Emperor alone.

And thus have I gone through this Council of Chalcedon, and the consequences that in so small a tract of time ensued thereup­on, both of Blood and Judgment; and to this time, how that was shaken and brought down, which broke the unity of the Chri­stians, by seeking to establish the Truth: This Council was fa­mous, not only for the particulars already exprest, but of coun­terfeiting More indirect dealings at the Council of Cal­cedon, and horrible wickedness. hands, the wringing of the fingers of such as wrote, directing their Pens, compulsion by force to a Subscription to Blanks, Souldiers with naked Swords standing by ready to dis­patch them if they yeelded not, said to be used in the business of Dioscorus for the accomplishing of his ends, in the second Council of Ephesus; which I note to shew, what fraudulent courses At the second Council at Ephesus. The proper conse­quences of forcing Religion. of force and violence, as well as blood and mischief, were used by those Fathers of the Church (as they are called) in the taking upon them to determine and establish the highest part of Religi­on, viz. Faith in Christ; God, and what he is; the Son and Spi­rit. I shall now go unto Zeno, and those that follow, and see what the History of him will afford me in the things I am about, and do now treat of.

This Zeno, (saith the History) as if he were certainly per­swaded Evagr. lib. 3. cap. 1. The unreasonable sen­suality of Zeno. that he could not enjoy the Empire of the whole World, unless with outrage and Riot, he yeelded himself to all fleshly pleasure whatsoever; gave himself in the beginning so much un­to sensuality, that he left no filthy or shameful Act, nor heinous offence unpractised, but so wallowed in them, as that he thought it the part of a base mind to commit them in the dark, or in secret, but to do them openly in the face of the whole world, was Prince­ly, and such as onely became the Emperor: being led into all sensuality, his Dominion became as himself, weak and rusty, and The decay of the Empire. Cap. 2. Invaded on every hand. His Subjects vexed. Great losses. The Scenitae, and Hun­nies destroy all. fell away by degrees, as he gradually was captivated by his Lusts; no good defence was made for his Dominions, but on every hand he suffered it to be invaded, so that his Subjects were vexed out of measure, and sustained great losses. The Scenitae, a barbarous Nation, destroyed all places as they came, and a great multitude of Hunnes, of old called Massagetae, invaded Thracia, and passed over the River Danuby, without let or stay; by force also, after a Barbarian sort, he was bereaved of the other parts of the Em­pire: for things being at this pass, Basiliscus the Brother of Ber­nia Basiliscus takes Arms. Zeno slies. His Subjects desert him. took arms against him. Zeno being so faint in courage that he fled away, giving Basiliscus the Imperial Honour and Victory, without any travel; for his abominable life was so detested of his Subjects, that they mattered not to assist him; therefore he got him into Isauria, with Ariadne his Wife, who also fled away from her Mother; and there where he was brought up, he was besieged [...] So Basiliscus became Emperor, who proclaimed his He is besieged. Basiliscus Emperor. Marcus made Cesar. Son Marcus, Caesar, and lad down a platform of Government far contrary to the manner of Zeno's Reign, and such as were Empe­rors before him.

Basiliscus being thus become Emperor, he turns all things up­side Cap. 4. All turned up-s [...]de down by Basiliscus. down, undoes that which was done before him, calls Timo­thius [Page 175] Aelurus Bishop of Alexandria home from Exile, where he Timothy called home. The Council of Chal­cedon accursed by Let­ters to all the Church­es under Heaven. The Decrees thereof, and of Leo burnt to Ashes. had continued eighteen years; sends Letters by the advice of Timothy, unto all the Priests throughout the Churches under Heaven, and therein accurseth the Acts of the Council of Chal­cedon; chargeth all the Decrees of that Council, and of Leo, (which he saith therein disturbs the quiet state of the Church of God, and the peace of the whole World) to be burned to Ashes, The Faith of the se­cond Council at Ephe­sus, and the 318 Fa­thers, and the 150 established. The Bishops required to subscribe these Let­ters by the Emperor, by Priests also, Monks, Laymen, as the Coun­cil of Chalcedon had done. and so to be abolished, as to be banished for ever; confirms the Faith of the second Council of Ephesus, and the 318. Fathers, and the 150. godly Fathers after them; requires the Bishops to subscribe to these his Letters, and commands the same to be done by Bishops, Priests, Monks, and Laymen, as the Council at Chalcedon had done in the conclusion of theirs, as aforesaid, with much more of the like nature, too long to be repeated.

Now as the Wind drives from every part of the Compass, the stubble flies before the Wind, so did the Bishops the force of this Cap. 5. The Bishops turn and subscribe. Emperor; many signed to these his Letters, being quite contra­ry to what they had done at Chalcedon. Anastasius the Successor Anastatius Bishop of Rome, and 40. others. of Juvenalis Bishop of Rome, and forty more that way, are said to do it, and that the Bishops of Asia met at Ephesus, tendered Those of Asia. supplications unto him, wherein they exprest to have subscribed to his Gratious and Apostolick Letters, (as they are called) with most willing and prompt minds, and not as it was reported of them, that they did it by compulsion and constraint. To this Letter Timothy also subscribed, and Peter Cnapheus of Anti­och, Peter of Antioch, con­trary to what they had done at Chalcedon who was at that time at Constantinople, and in that supplication they desire the Emperor to depose the Bishop of Constantinople, Acasius, and many others.

Timothy hereupon left Constantinople, puts Paulus again into Cap. 6. Paulus put into Ephe­sus. Ephesus restored to a Metropolitan Juris­diction. Those at Alex­andria requested to curse the Council of Chalcedon. Ephesus, from whence he was deposed; restores Ephesus to the Metropolitan Jurisdiction taken away by the Council of Chalce­don, came to Alexandria; and there he requested as many as came unto him to curse the Council of Chalcedon.

Notwithstanding all this peremptory work and contradiction, Basiliscus, fearing the disturbance of the Monks might make a­gainst Cap. 7. Basiliscus sounds a re­treat for fear of the Monks. Judges his Letters. Writes contrary. him, through the perswasion of Acasius, who canvassing the matter, set them on, and so wrought that he was constrained to deny that he had written his Letters universally unto all men; and to decree that such things as he had rashly and unadvisedly published, should be called in again, and contrary Letters, where­in he approveth of the Council of Chalcedon, to be wrote unto all men.

These things wrought not well for Basiliscus, but Zeno, to Cap. 8. Zeno rises a scourge to Basiliscus. whom, and for whose sensuality and pleasure Basiliscus was made a scourge, he is now made a scourge to Basiliscus, and so arising (as it were) out of the Graves of pleasure and punishment, led his Army towards Constantinople, and thrusts by Basiliscus, after Puts him by. He flies to the Altar for Sanctuary. he had reigned two years, taking him out of the Sanctuary, unto which he had fled (for they used the Altar for Sanctuary in those [Page 176] dayes) he sent him to suffer at Cappadocia, where, together with Is sent to Cappadocia. He and his Wife and Children put to death there. his Wife and Children, he was put to death in an Inn called A­couson.

Now the Wind turning again, how plyant are the Bishops of Cap. 9. The Bishops turn a­gain, crave pardon. Swear that they sub­scribed by compulsion. Asia? they acknowledge their fault, and crave pardon of Acaci­us; protesting that they subscribed not of their own accord, but by compulsion and constraint to the general Letters of Basiliscus, confirming with an Oath that it was so, and that they believed no otherwise than the Council of Chalcedon believed. The thing it self I forbear to rehearse, lest I should seem too tedious.

Thus it fared with the Bishops, and thus Religion came to be Cap. 10. Observations here­upon. turned up and down, and Faith, and Creeds, at the pleasure of men, and as it listeth them. Peter being banished the Church of Antioch, Stephen succeeded him, whom the people of Anti­och Stephen at Antioch murdered with Darts. dispatched with little Darts much like sharp Spears, whom Calandio succeeded, who perswaded all that came near him to ac­curse Calandio who succeeds perswades all to curse both Timothy, and the Letters of Basilicus. both Timothy, and the General Letters Basiliscus had sent unto all Churches.

Timothy also had gone into banishment, had not Zeno been Cap. 11. Timothy dies. Pet Moggus succeeds. told he was a very old man, and ready to lie in his Grave, who not long after finished his mortal life; and the Bishops of their own heads chose Peter, sirnamed Moggus, to succeed, which Zeno Zeno threatens to put him to death. Another Timothy called home to succeed. hearing, it displeased him, so that he threatned he should die the death; and called home Timothy the Successor of Proterius, who then, by reason of a certain Insurrection of the people, lived at Canubus.

Not long after Timothy died, whom to succeed, John the Cap. 12. He dies. John succeeds by Symony. Zeno, because he had sworn he would never be Bishop, turns him out. Priest of St. John Baptist, (so called) gave a piece of money to be Bishop, and was chosen for Alexandria, which when the Emperor heard of, and how he had broken his Oath to the Em­peror, which was, That he would never be Bishop if it was offered him; he turned him out, and commanded Peter to be restored, Peter restored on con­ditions of subscripti­on, &c. Cap. 14. The people brought into Concord. conditionally that he subscribed unto the Epistle, and received in­to Communion such as held with Proterius, which was an Epistle of Concord of Zeno's, to those at Alexandria, to draw them un­to the Faith held by the Council of Chalcedon, which the people having heard read, it is said, they returned into the Catholick and Apostolick Church.

John being thus put out of Alexandria, takes his heels and Cap. 15. John runs to Rome. Raises a stir there. runs unto Rome, and there raises a great stir and contention, pre­tending that for standing to the Epistle of Leo, and the Council of Chalcedon, he was deposed; at which the Bishop was much moved, The Bishop writes to Zeno. Zeno returns, it was for Perjury. and wrote to Zeno, but Zeno answered it was for John's perjury, and for that crime he was removed.

Calandio write to Zeno and Acacius, that Peter was not only Cap. 16. Calandio charges Peter with Adultery, & cur­sing the Council of Chalcedon. Calandio is banished. Peter Cnapheus resto­red to Antioch. an Adulterer, but had accursed the Council of Chalcedon; not­withstanding Calandio was banished into Oasis for holding with Ilus, Leo, and Pampreps, against Zeno. Peter Cnapheus here­upon was restored into Antioch, and subscribed the Epistle of Con­cord, wrote by Zeno, and wrote Synodical Letters to Petter Mog­gus [Page 177] of Alexandria. Acacius also was reconciled to this Peter▪ Martyrius likewise the Bishop of Jerusalem wrote Synodical Let­ters unto him; yet divers withdrawing from his Communion, he openly accursed the Council of Chalcedon. This troubled Aca­cius, He curses the Council of Chalcedon. Peter seeks to purge himself. Observations upon the reeling state of things in that time. John pursues his qua­rel. Felix of Rome sends to the Emperor to de­pose Peter. but Peter wrote back to purge himself, as if he had done no such Fact. So backwards and forwards things turn and reel, and men are unstable as Water, whilst they know not the Rock of Ages to be their strength and establishment, in reference unto God. John persists still in his quarrel of deposition, gets Felix Bishop of Rome to send Vitalius and Misinus, two Bishops, to the Emperor, to depose Peter of his Bishoprick as an Heretick, and to send Acacius unto him to render an account, and to purge him­self of such Crimes as John had laid to his charge, because he had communicated with Peter.

Before the Messengers came to Zeno, Cyril, head of the Vigi­lant Cap. 19. The vigilan [...] Monks pursue the business by Cyril. They blame Felix for slackness. Monks, (so called) charged Felix with slackness of duty, seeing so many grievous practices took place against the true and sincere Faith. Felix then wrote unto Misinus, That he should do nothing before he had conferred with Cyril, and learnt of him what was to be done.

Felix wrote not only unto Zeno, but unto others, to put them Cap. 20. Felix solicits the Em­peror afresh. in mind of the Council at Chalcedon, and of the persecution in Africk, in the reign of Theodorichus. Another Epistle he wrote unto Acacius. Zeno returned him, That he fought with his sha­dow, in giving an ear to Johns report, and contending with his Ad­versaries, He turns a deaf ear; tells him, John was put by for perjury. for he was the man that bound himself with an Oath, That he would never be Bishop of Alexandria, yet afterwards was found perjured, and to commit every kind of Sacriledge; that Peter was not advanced to the Priestly Function without good tryal of his Faith, that he had subscribed with his own hand, and approved the Faith of the 318. Fathers in the Council of Nice, which Faith was afterwards ratified by the Council of Chalcedon.

This was the ado that was kept about John, who was perjured, Observations here­upon. as aforesaid, and gave money also to be Bishop, when he had sworn to the Emperor that he would not be a Bishop; and about Peter, who was charged, as aforesaid, to be an Adulterer, whom notwithstanding the Emperor in the latter end of his Letter calls most Holy; for that Title he gives him, which, right or wrong, it seems, is used to the Bishops, especially that had Patriarchal Seats, or were Arch-Bishops.—We would have you assure your self, that our Highness, with most holy Peter (mentioned before) and all the Christian Congregations, do imbrace and reverence the Sacred Council of Chalcedon, which Council is one in effect with the Nicene Creed.—Yet the Monks of Constantinople, and the Bishops throughout Egypt, charge Peter to be an Heretick, and so write against him to Felix the Bishop of Rome, and against all that communicated with him; as many also of the vigilant Monks which came to Fe­lix, reproved Misinus and Vitalis, because at their coming to Constantinople, the name of Peter was secretly used to be read in the holy Catalogue; notwithstanding they since that time commu­nicated [Page 178] continually with Peter; the Bishops of Egypt their Epi­stle signified, That John (the perjured person aforesaid, and that bought his Bishoprick) was of the true Faith, and consecrated ac­cording to the Canons of the Church; That Peter was ordered only by two Bishops, infected with the same error with him, and that after the flight of John, he left no punishment unpractised upon the true Peter a Persecutor. Professors.

Simeon also, one of the vigilent Monks whom Cyril had sent Cap. 21. A great ado still about John. unto Felix, augmented the accusations, who reprehended Misi­nus and Vitalis for communicating with Hereticks, specially see­ing the Name of the Heretick was openly read in the holy Cata­logue, whereby many simple people were snared of the Here­ticks, who sticked not to brag that the Bishop of Rome received Peter into the Communion, and that when certain questions were asked Misinus and his Company, would not confer with the true Catholicks, nor receive their Writings, nor exquisitely sift out things which were done in the prejudice of the true Faith, which when Silvanus, who accompanied them to Constantinople, avouch­ed to be true what was alleadged; and Acacius his Epistle being read, wherein he gave Simplicius to understand that Peter was lately deposed, and pronounced the Child of darkness. Misinus and Vitalis were deposed of their Dignities, and cut off from the holy and undefiled Communion, and that by the censure of the whole Assembly:—This that follows is part of the Decree, which I set down, that it may appear after what manner those things were penned with them,—The Church of Rome doth not communicate Part of the Decree of the Assembly against Peter. with Peter the Heretick, who was lately condemned by the Apostolick Sea, excommunicated the Church, and held for accursed; although there were no other Crime to charge him withal, yet is this of force suf­ficient, That he cannot govern the faithful People of God, because he was ordered of Hereticks.—Also it saith, It appeared evidently that Acacius Bishop of Constantinople was greatly to be blamed, because, though he wrote unto Simplicius, and called Peter an Heretick, yet he would not make Zeno privy thereunto, whenas in very deed, if he had born good will unto Zeno, he would have done it; but he desired rather to please the Emperor, than to provide for the Faith.

When the Schism grew hot, and the Sedition grievous within Cap. 22. Many Bishops, &c. communicate with Peter. The Decrees of Leo, and the Chalcedon Council condemned, though signed to (in effect) in signing the Epistle of Leo. Divers banished. the City of Alexandria, Peter perswaded many Bishops and Go­vernors of Monasteries to communicate with him, & condemned the Decrees of Leo, and the Chalcedon Council (though in effect he had signed unto them in Zenoes Epistle of Concord) And such as would not receive the Books of Dioscorus and Timothy, he banished the Monasteries, when to his Opinion he could not al­lure them. Whereupon Nephalius went for Constantinople, and to Zeno revealed the whole matter, who was troubled, and sent Zeno troubled. Sends Cosmas thither. Cosmas one of his Guard to rebuke Peter sharply, and to threaten him both for contemning his Epistle, and causing the Sedition, He prevails little. or being the occasion thereof, who when he could prevail no far­ther than for the expulsed to be returned to their Monasteries, he Arsenius is imployed, but to as little pur­pose. went back to the Emperor, who imployed Arsenius Lieutenant [Page 179] of Egypt, who with the other went strait to Alexandria, and en­treated them to keep the peace; but when he could not obtain his purpose, he sent some of them to Constantinople; and though Some sent to Constant. there was a great reasoning in the presence of Zeno about the Council of Chalcedon, yet there was nothing concluded, in that Ze­no No agreement, the Emperor dissenting. did not consent thereunto.

Great stir there was in this business, as indeed nothing hardly Cap. 23. More stir in the busi­ness. Acacius dies, Phranitas succeeds. Pet. rejects his friend­ship. Phranitas dies. His Successor is Euphremi­us. Peter courts him. Euphremius refuses. without it was accomplished; Acacius dies, who was Peters great Friend; Phranitas is put in his stead, he writes Letters of friend­ship unto Peter, but Peter would not hear him, but bitterly en­veighs against the Council of Chalcedon. Phranitas dying after four months, Euphremius succeeded him. Peter to him writes Letters of Friendship, in which he accusing the Council of Chalcedon, Euphremius would in no wise communicate with him: These two contending one with another, and purposing to call Synods to one anothers Opinion; Peter dies, whom Athanasius succeeds; he Peter dies, Athanasius succeeds. He seeks friends [...]ip of Palladius, so doth Joh. Palladius dies, Flavia­nus comes in his room He sends to John Let­ters of friendship. John dies, another John takes his place. Anastatius the Empe­ror (to whose dayes these things held) de­poses Euphremius. sends Letters of friendship to Palladius, Peters Successor at An­tioch, concerning the Council of Chalcedon; so did John the Suc­cessor of Athanasius of Alexandria. Palladius dying, Flavianus succeeds him, who sends Solomon Priest of Antioch with Letters of friendship unto John. John deceasing, another John succeeds in Alexandria. These things continued to the Reign of Anasta­tius, who deposed Euphremius; which for the better understand­ing of the consequence of the Council of Chalcedon are here to­gether repeated.

Zeno was not without his troubles in the State, as these things Cap 24. Zeno finds trouble for his troubling about Religion. otherwise exercised the Christians. Armatus the Cousin of Be­rina the Empress, whom Basiliscus sometime made Captain against him, yet he won him to his side, and instead of his Enemy made him his Companion, and created his Son Basiliscus, Cesar, at Nice: Notwithstanding these great benefits, he got him to Constantino­ple, and conspired the death of Armatus; instead of Cesar, he He conspires the death of Armatus. Makes his Son Basilis­cus a Priest, who was made Cesar. made his Son Basiliscus Priest, who afterwards was preferred to a Bishop. This dispatching of this man, was through the procure­ment of Ilus.

Then Theodorichus a Scythian born, prepared to give Zeno Bat­tel, Cap. 25. Theodoricus the Scythi­an engages [...]im, de­stroyes in Thracia, likely to have taken Constantinople. He is dispatched. raised a mighty Army in Thracia, and marched towards Con­stantinople, destroying all the Countrey before him unto the entry of Pontus, and (its like) had taken Constantinople, had not some of his dearest Friends been displeased with him, and conspired to bereave him of his life.

He being dead, Martianus Son of Anthemius sometimes Em­peror Cap. 26. Martianus Son of An­themius, rebells. They fight in the Pal­lace. Martianus by tar­rying till to morrow lost his day. of Rome, being Allied to Leo the Emperor, rebelled against him; he married Leontia the younger, Daughter of Leo: When they had fought in the Pallace, and many were fallen on both sides, Martianus had gotten the day, had he not set [...]ip the op­portunity, and posted off his devise till the next day, wherein he was betrayed of his own men; left desolate, and constrained to Is betrayed of his men. Left desolate. Flies to the Temple of the Apostles. Removes to Cesarea. fly to the Temple of the Apostles, from whence being driven out, he removed to Cesaria in Cappadocia; and whilst he sought to hide [Page 180] himself there, with certain Monks, he was taken, and sent by Is taken among the Monks, and made one. the Emperor to Tarsus in Cilicia, and there shaven, and made Monk.

Ilus also conspired against him in Cilicia, because of Berina, Cap. 27. In Cilicia, Ilus con­spires against him. Is sent Captain into the East to cover the intent. Takes off the poor mans head, who mist, being sent to dis­patch Ilus. Zenoes Wives Mother, whom he had banished thither to Papiri­um Castle, whose life oft-times he sought. Ilus he made Cap­tain of his Army in the East to cover his intent, and then sent one to dispatch him, who because he did not, but failed of his pur­pose, he took the poor mans Head from his Shoulders.

At Tarsus also Leontius was proclaimed Emperor, against whom Cap 28. Leontius at Tarsus is proclaimed Emperor. Theodorichus sent a­gainst him. Is plotted against by Zeno. Goes to old Rome. Overcomes O­doacer. he sent Theodorichus, a Goth, of great honour among the Romans, with great power both of Romans and Barbarians, yet he wrought evilly against them, who, in love they bare him, travelled hard in his Affairs, and cut some of them off, insomuch that Theodori­chus hearing of his malitious purpose against him, got him to old Rome; and yet some report, that through the procurement of Zeno, Theodorichus overcame Odoacer, and so conquered Rome. Conquers Rome. Cap. 29. Himself comes last on the Stage; dies of the Falling Sickness. Longinus would, but Anastatius, by Ariad­ne's means, becomes Emperor.

At length himself comes upon the Stage, and in the seventeenth year of his Reign dies of the Falling Sickness: Longinus his Bro­ther hoped to succeed him, and for that purpose raised great power, but he accomplished not; for Ariadne took the Imperial Scepter, and therewith Crowned Anastatius, who was not as yet a Senator, but only was enroled in the School of those who were called Silentarij. He took to Wife Ariadne, and sent Longinus He marries Ariadne, dismisses from the Cou [...]t all that would. Peace he desired. Alteration he made none. Gave all liberty. Every Governor of a Congregation did as he would himself. into the Country, and dismised all such from the Court that desired it: He was a man that earnestly desired peace and quietness; he made no alteration of what is called Church or State. As for the Council of Chalcedon's Decrees, it was neither openly preached, nor generally rejected, every Go­vernor of the several Congregations did therein as he thought fit himself. And as some maintained the Canons of that Council, not admitting the change of one syllable, but avoiding the company of, and refusing to communicate with them that were otherwise; The miserable division that was among the Christians when they had no Persecution. So others not onely condemned that Council, and the Decrees thereof, but also accursed it with Leo's determination of the Faith. Some cleaved wholly to Zeno's Epistle of Unity; yea when they were at bitter contention among themselves, whether there was one or two Natures in Christ, (they are the very observation of the Historian) some were deceived in the very joyning the Let­ters together. Some were rather disposed to reconciliation and peace; insomuch that all the Churches (saith he) were divided into sundry Factions, and the Bishops themselves refused to com­municate one with another, so that there arose great ado in the East, West, & Lybia, whilst the Bishops of the East would commu­nicate neither with the Western Bishops, nor the Bishops of Lybia, neither among themselves, but every day more then other fell to exceed other in malitious contention. For the Bishops of the East would not be reconciled amongst themselves, neither would the Bishops of Europe, neither of Lybia, be at one, either with themselves, or with Forreigners. These things Anastatius under­standing, [Page 181] took the best counsel he could, as he thought to pre­serve Constrained Anastat. to banish the heads of Novellisms, and that introduced any thing that was contrary to the custom of the place. As the Bishops of Con­stantinople & Antioch. the peace, and so deposed all the Authors of Novel­ties, and all such as contrary to the custom of the place either preached the Council of Chalcedon, or accursed the same; and first he began with Euphremius Bishop of Constantinople, whom he banished, and after him Macedonius, whom Timothy succeeded: Moreover he drove Flavianus out of Antioch.

Peter being dead at Alexandria; Alexandria, Egypt, and Ly­bia, Cap. 31. were at variance among themselves, and other Countries in the East contended within themselves, the West Churches would in no wise communicate with them, but upon condition that they accurse Nestorius, Eutyches, Dioscorus, Peter sirnamed Moggus, and Acacius; wherefore seeing the Churches throughout the World were at this point; the favourers of Dioscorus, and Eutyches were brought to a narrow strait; and now being, as it were, rooted from off the face of the Earth; one Xenaias made an insurrection un­der Xenaias makes an In­surrection under co­lour of Religion. colour of Religion against Flavianus, charging him with the Heresie of Nestorius; when Flavianus had accursed Nestorius and his Heretical Opinion, he left him, and turned to Dioscorus, and Theodorus, and Theodoritus, and Ibas, and Cyrus, and Eutheri­us, and John, and to others, of which some in very deed were Nestorians; some, to avoid the suspition of that Heresie, ac­cursed Nestorius, and returned unto the Church. Unless thou accurse (said Xenaias) all those which savour of Nestorius sink of Heretical Doctrine, thou thy self shalt seem to be of Nestorius his Opinion, although thou accurse both him and his Doctrine, yea a thou­sand His insolent demands. times. Then he dealt with the favourers of Dioscorus and Eutyches, to hold with him against Flavianus; not that they should accurse the Council, but onely the persons above named. Flavianus after he had withstood them along while, and saw that others held against him, perceiving, at length, that they would be pacified if the aforesaid persons were accursed; he yeelded un­to them, and then wrote to the Emperor: yet Xenaius was not satisfied, but again required Flavianus to condemn both the Council, and those that affirmed there were two Natures in Christ; which he refusing, is charged afresh with the Heresie of Nestori­us. Last of all, when this Patriarch had published a form of Faith, wherein he gave to understand that the Council was to be approved, as to the deprivation of Nestorius and Eutyches, but not for the Decree of their Faith and Doctrine, they threatned to take him in hand again, as a favourer of Nestorius, unless he will accurse both the Council it self, and them that affirmed there were two Natures in Christ, the one Divine, the other Humane: And the new patched Faith of him, & those with him. And the Isaurians by flatteries and fallacies they got to their sides, and patched together a form of Faith, wherein they accursed both the Council, and such as esteemed there were two Natures in Christ. And in the end, divided themselves from Flavianus Their horrible divi­sion. and Macedonius, and joyned with them who had subscribed to their patched Faith. The Bishop of Jerusalem in the mean time they requested to lay down his Faith in writing, which he did, [Page 182] and sent it by the faction of Dioscorus to the Emperor; and this Its sent to the Em­peror. Faith at last they brought forth, accursing those that said he had two Natures; but it seems they had corrupted his form of Faith, Complained of to be corrupted. Another is wrote. The Books and Writ­ings of the Fathers corrupted. for he charged them therewith, and wrote another, wherein there is no such accurse; it seems they oft-times corrupted the Books and Writings of the Fathers, by changing their Titles and In­scriptions, and fathering of many of the works of others upon them. They craved of Macedonius to see his Belief in writing, Macedonius's belief. who protested that he onely allowed the Faith published of old at Nice, by 318. Fathers, and afterwards ratified at Constantinople; accursing Nestorius, Eutyches, with such as said there were two Sons, or two Christs, or divided the Natures; yet spake he not a word of the Ephesian Council, which deposed Nestorius, neither of the Chalcedon Council which deprived Entyches; therefore the Monks at Constantinople were wonderfully moved at this, and di­vided The Monks divide from him. The intollerable be­haviour of Xenaias and Dioscorus. themselves from Macedonius. All this while Xenaias and Dioscorus, having linked to their sides many other Bishops, be­haved themselves intollerably towards such as would not accurse whom they would have accursed, insomuch that they procured divers, because they would not yeeld unto them, to be banished. Many by them banish­ed, viz. Macedonius, John, Flavianus. Thus they made Macedonius, John Bishop of Platum, and Flavia­nus to leave the Countrey.

In these things I have been the more particular, because they The end wherefore these divisions are mentioned. are so significant to the matter I have in hand, which is (once for all, as I have said) to draw a line over all professions of Faith, and imposing of Religion, as that which hath produced the saddest Scenes of Murder and Division, as hath been yet in the World, and which I mean to close up with that which appertains thereunto, viz. Judgment and Destruction. Therefore I would have none to be offended with me, for a necessity lies upon me thus to bring these things into the World.

That which gave Anastatius the secret displeasure, was this; Cap. 32. The ground of Anasta­tius's displeasure with Macedonius. Ariadne intending to put the Imperial Robe on Anastatius, after the death of Zeno; Macedonius would in no wise assent unto his Coronation, unless he would give it under his hand, and confirm it with an Oath, that he would maintain the true Faith, and bring no novelty into the Church, which he gave Macedonius to keep, for Anastatius was suspected to be a Manichee. Anastatius taking it as a great disreputation to the Empire, that his hand should be kept to testifie against him, called for it; Macedonius denyed him, saying, That it should never be said of him, (viz. Macedo­nius) that he betrayed the Faith. Therefore Anastatius sought to And wherefore at first he carried it so indif­ferently in matters of Religion. work him mischief, as there was opportunity, and the aforesaid was the reason why Anastatius carried it so indifferently at first in matters of Religion.

This as to M [...]cedonius, and what gave the occasion of working him out of the Bishoprick of Constantinople. As for Flavianus, the Monks of Cynegica, which inhabited the chiefest Countries of Sy­ria, being perswaded by Xanaias, a Bishop of Hierapolis, bor­dering upon Antioch, aforesaid, sirnamed Philoxenus; after the [Page 183] Grecians came all on head to Antioch, having made an Insurrecti­on, with resolution to force Flavianus to curse the Council of Chalcedon, and Leo's Decree of the Faith; which Flavianus taking very grievously, the Monks urging him with violence, the Citi­zens Many of the Monks slain at Antioch, be­cause of the things a­foresaid, and thrown into the River. made such a slaughter of the Monks, that very many of them instead of quiet Grave and Earth, were covered with the swift Waves of the River Orontes, whereinto they were cast.

On the other side, the Monks that inhabited Coelosyria, now cal­led The Monks on the o­ther side came to as­sist Flavianus. Are slaughtered. He is banished. Syria Minor, came to Antioch to assist Flavianus, which pro­ved of mischievous consequence, and in the end no less lamenta­ble than the former; whether for the former, or the later slaugh­ter and calamity, or for both, the History determines not, but banished he was the Province, to inhabit the craggy Desarts in the farthest part of Palestina.

Severus succeeds Flavianus, and a great bustle there is about Cap. 33. Severus, and the bustle about him. him; from him fell the Province of Apamia; and Cosmos Bishop of Epiphania, and Severianus Bishop of Arethusa, first divided themselves from his Communion, then sent him a Libel of De­privation, A Sentence of Depri­vation sent to him by a Deacon in a disguise which to him was delivered by a Deacon in the dis­guise of a Woman, faining both Voice and Apparel: Of which Anastatius hearing, and considering their practises, charged Asi­aticus The Emperor charges hereupon Asiaticus to remove Cosmos and Severianus. Lieutenant of Libaeesa in Phoenicia, to remove Cosmos and Severianus from their Bishopricks, because of the Libel of Depri­vation. But Asiaticus perceiving that without slaughter and blood­shed it could not be accomplished, because the people stood to He durst not do it, be­cause of the people. Certifies the Emperor them, and manfully defended their Walls; he certified the Em­peror thereof, who returned him in answer,—That he would have The Emperors gentle Answer for avoding the effusion of blood. Severus held in whilst Anastatius reigned. His name blotted by some out of the Sacred Catalogue. no enterprize taken in hand, were it never so noble and worthy, if it did cost him as much as one drop of blood. He kept Severus in his place whilst he held the Scepter, and had tenderness, as aforesaid, yet some blotted him out of the Sacred Catalogue, (as it was cal­led) as an Enemy to the Council of Chalcedon, for he was ac­cursed at Jerusalem. Thus much as to the Affairs Ecclesia­stical.

As to the Civil, Longinus, Zeno's Brother, after his coming Cap. 35. Civil Troubles. Longinus raises War a­gainst Anastatius in Isauria. The Bishops of Apa­mia assist him. into Isauria, his Native Soyl, of which I have spoken, practised against Anastatius, and made preparation to proclaim open Wars, he having other Nations besides the Isaurians to assist him, him­self marching to the Battel; the Bishop of Apamia being his Assi­stant; but Longinus was defeated, the Isaurians foyled, the heads He is defeated. His, and Theodorus heads sent by John the Scythian, and stuck upon Poles. of Longinus and Theodorus sent by John the Scythian to Constanti­nople, & stuck upon Poles beyond the Water over against Constan­tinople at Sica, which pleased the Citizens, and was a goodly shew to them, (saith the History) because Zeno and the Isaurians had heretofore grievously vexed them. A second Longinus sirnamed Selinuncius and Indus sent alone. Selinuncius, one of the chiefest of the Company, and Indus, were sent alive by John unto the Emperor, of which both he and the Made shew of in the Tryumphs. Citizens were glad; they both were tyed in Chains about their necks and hands, and led about the Theatre, as is the manner of Tryumphs, and throughout the Streets also.

The Scenetae also; a Barbarian People (so called) because of Cap. 36. The Scenetae invade, and destroy Mescpot. Phoenicia, Pal [...]stina. their living in Tents, were so lifted up, that they took Arms a­gainst the Romans, destroyed Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, and Pale­stina, but to their own great damage and hurt, it tended in the end, so that they were constrained to make truce, and joyn in Are co [...]st [...]a [...]ned to make peace. league with the Romans.

The Persians also broke their League, and under the Conduct Cap. 37. The Persians War also in Armenia. Are overcome. Dacas builded. of Cabades their King, came into Armenia, took Theodosiopolis, besieged Amida, which with great toyl and trouble was hardly recovered. This Battel being ended, Anastatius builded Daras as a bound between the one Countrey and the other, walled it about, and beautified it with goodly buildings; he took away the Tribute called Chrysargyrum, which was the Mulct for license The Tribute Chrysar­gyrum taken away. And Chrysotelia set up. A selling of the Souldiers Wages. for uncleanness, but set up Chrysotelia, (which was something like the Sale of Debentors sometimes here in England) a making Merchandize of the Souldiers pay; and from the places of Judg­ment he took away the Tribute and Revenue, and appointed The Revenue for the Seats of Judgment, removed, and Proctors and Attorneys set up. through every City Proctors and Attorneys: which much reflected upon his reputation, and discontented the people.

Vitalianus also a Thracian, rebelled and over-ran Thracia and Cap. 43. Vitalianus rebels in Thracia. Marches to Constant. Hyspatius sent against him; he is betrayed by his own Souldiers, ta­ken alive, ransomed. Cyrillus sent against Vitalianus. Fights him. A doubtful Battel. Cyrillus seemed to have the upper hand. Vitalian. turns again, takes Cyril. Marches towards Con­stantinople. Mydia, as far as Odyssus and Anchialus, and with a great compa­ny of people that had no dwelling place, marched towards Con­stantinople. Against him the Emperor sent Hypatius, whose own Souldiers betrayed him; he was taken alive, and ransomed with a great sum of money; then Cyrillus made great expedition to engage him, who fighting a doubtful field, and dangerous, so that many began to fly; by pursuing the Enemy, and calling again his own Souldiers, seemed to have the upper hand, against whom Vitalianus turning, as the Souldiers retreated in spight, he took him in Odyssus. Unto Sycae, he invaded the whole Coun­trey, destroying with Sword and Fire all that came in his way, purposing to take Constantinople, and to be Emperor; his Camp he pitched at Sycae: Marinus Syrus went with a great Navy to Ma [...]inus Syrus fights him on the Water. give him Battel; they fight with their Navy about Bytharia, where Vitalianus was beaten and put to flight; his Souldiers fled also, Vitalianus beaten. not one of them being to be seen the day after. Pilas also in Cap­padocia was infested with another sort of Barbarians, and about Pilas infested by the Barbarians. Rhodas the third time shaken with an Earth­qu [...]ke, & overthrown. the same time Rhodos on a certain night, now the third time, was shaken with a wonderful great Earthquake, and in a manner all overthrown.

Great tumults about this time were also at Constantinople, be­cause Cap. 44. Great tumults at Con­stant. because of the Emperors adding a Clause to their Trisa­gium. The Priests the Ring-leaders. the Emperor had added unto their Trisagium, [who was cruci­fied for our sakes] they thinking thereby, or, as if the interlacing that clause had been an overthrow to the Christian Religion. Ma­cedonius with the Priests were the Ring-leaders unto all this. This helped on Macedonius his banishment. The tumult was so great, that many noble men were in danger of their lives, and many great buildings set on fire. The people finding a certain rude and A simple Monk put to death on supposition by the Tumult. simple Monk in the house of Marinus Syrus, struck off his head, saying, It was by his procurement that the clause was interlaced. [Page 185] Then they tyed him to a long Pole, and lift him up on high, with Lift him upon a Pole, and deride him. great shouting, deriding him, and saying,—Here is he that con­spired against the Trinity. The Sedition was so great, that the The Emperor throws aside the Imperial Scepter. Proclaims that he wil be Emperor no longer Emperor not knowing what to do, and being so vexed with sor­row, threw aside his Imperial Scepter, came unto the Theatre, sent the Beadles about to proclaim that with good will he would be Emperor no longer; that many in no wise were to be prefer­red to that room, for the place alloweth but of one that was to succeed him in the Empire. The people hearing of this, on a The people hereupon change their minds, and are quiet. Shortly after he dies. sudden changed their minds, requesting Anastatius to take the Crown, and in so doing they would be quiet. Shortly after this stir, he departed this life, having been Emperor twenty seven years, three months, and so many dayes.

Justinus a Thracian succeeded Anastatius, by the Pretorian Soul­diers, Anno. 519. Evagr. lib. 4. cap. 1. Justinus succeeds. whose Captain he had sometimes been; and so unlooked for he came to the Government, there being then many worthy Personages of Anastatius Alliance flowing in wealth and felicity, and of very great power.

It seems Amantius, who was a man of very great power, and The manner how he attained it. chief of the Emperors Chamber, seeing no Eunuch could be Em­peror, wished the Imperial Robe to Theocritus his sworn Brother; and imployed Justinus in the distributing a great sum of money to effect it. But Justinus, whether by bribing the people on his own behalf, or gaining the Watch and the Guard by money, ob­tained it for himself; and then put Amantius and Theocritus, with many others, to death.

Vitalianus seeing by force it was thought it could not be done, Cap. 3. He courts and kills Vitalianus. he courted with flattery, sends for him to Constantinople out of Thrace, makes him one of the Captains called Presens. And moreover consults then by conspiracy, had him slain in a certain Gate behind the Emperors Court; so he had his reward for ri­sing against Anastatius.

As Anastatius stood in the indifferency, and endeavoured to Cap. 4. Justinus prosecuts the Faith of the Council of Chalcedon. Religion is imposed. All goes to wreck. Severus punished for cursing the Council of Chalcedon. His tongue pulled out of his mouth. Vitalianus begged his Tongue, not thinking his own doom had been so near. Severus flies. keep all things quiet, so Justinus was on the other hand a zealous prosecutor of the Faith of the Council of Chalcedon: So things went to wreck again, on the foot of publick Authority, which before had the issue of private discontents. Severus Bishop of Antioch ceasing not daily to accurse the Council of Chalcedon, and raising up great stirs and contentions thereabout, he was severely punished, for his Tongue was pulled out of his mouth by the or­der of Justinus, which Vitalianus, whilst he was in great favour, begged of the Emperor, because Severus had reviled him out of measure in his Sermons, not thinking what a Rod was provided for his own back: Severus forsook his Bishoprick hereupon, and fled, in whose place Paulus was set, who going the way of all flesh Paulus succeeds, dies. quickly, Euphrasius, one who came from Jerusalem, succeeded Euphrasius is next. him.

This heat of Persecution in the beginning was not without Cap. 5. Anno. 526. Consequences as to Judgment. A grievous fire at Antioch. some sore attendances, and signal Tokens of displeasure from Hea­ven; for about the same time a great and grievous fire and burn­ing [Page 186] hapned in Antioch, as a preambulatory forewarning of dread­ful Judgments, of Earthquakes, and other calamities that followed, as is the observation of the Historian: For immediately in the 7th year of Justinus, in the month Artemesius, called of the Romans Afterwards a trebble Earthquake. May, the nine and twentieth day, being Friday in the afternoon, such a shivering, ratling, and shaking of the Foundation there The City overthrown was, that in a manner overthrew the whole City; after which the fire came again, as if they had been conjoyned together, or went Fire comes again, de­stroys the rest. hand in hand to destroy all; for what the Earthquake had not de­stroyed, the fire took hold of, most horrible to be seen, flashing about, and burning the whole; and which seemed very hard to them, Euphrasius their Bishop was crushed to death with the fall Euphrasius Bishop crushed to death by the Earthquake. of ruinous buildings; Lest any one (saith the Historian) should remain to oversee the City; The places of the City that came by this means to utter ruine; the people that perished by the fire, and The destruction of the People and City, very lamentable. the falling of the Houses, the lamentable consequences were so strange, (saith he) that they could not by any stile be expressed. John Rhetor (saith he) hath so lamentably bewailed it, that the Reader by perusing cannot chuse but shed tears.

Afterwards, in the space of about two years and six months, the Cap. 6. Two years and six months afterwards the City shaken with an Earthquake again, loses its name. Eu­phrem. Lieutenant cho­sen Bishop, because of his tenderness. The City by the Em­peror rebuilt. Cap. 8. Epidamus sore shaken, and Corinth, and Ana­zarbus with an Earth­quake, the latter the fourth time repaired by Justinus. Edessa overflown by the River Scirius. Many houses and peo­ple carried away and destroyed. Their names changed by Ju­stinus, viz. Edessa and Anazarbus, and called Justinopolis. Cap. 9. He finishes his race himself, and dies▪ Anno. 528. Cap. 9. Justinianus succeeds. New troubles. Religi­on imposed. City was so shaken with an Earthquake, that her name was chang­ed, and called Theopolis. Euphremius Lieutenant of the East tak­ing such care for Antioch in the former Earthquake and fire, that it might be supplied with necessaries, the people chose for their Bishop in the room of Euphrasius; the City was raised up again by the bountifulness of the Emperor.

Epidamus, of late Dyrrachium, was also, whilst Justinus was yet alive, sore shaken with an Earthquake, so was Corinth in Greece, and Anazarbus a head City in Cilicia the less, which now the fourth time endured that calamity, whom Justinus repaired with great sums of mony. Edessa was also overflown with the streams of the River Scirius, which slided by in such a manner, that many houses were carried away with the violence of the stream, and multi­tudes of people drowned. Edessa and Anazarbus had new names given them by Justinus, who called either of them Justi­nopolis.

And in the close of all, Justinus came to end his race, for ha­ving made Justinianus his Sisters Son fellow Emperor, and reigned together with him about four months, and in the whole eight years nine months and three dayes, he died.

Now come new troubles on again, by reason of that which still disquieted the State and the Christians, viz. the imposing of Religion; Justinianus was Emperor alone, and the Faith of the Council of Chalcedon was ordered to be preached alone, which The Council of Chal­cedons Faith ordered to be preached alone. The consequence, great troubles. Anthimus of Constant: Theodosius of Alexan­dria hold against him. gave occasion of great disquietness and troubles in the State, as the consequence, as I have all along observed in this Tract, and which the Historian also brings in order to my hands. For An­thimius Bishop of Constantinople, and Theodosius of Alexandria, held the contrary, viz. That in Christ there was but one Na­ture.

Justinianus was a great favourer (as I have said) of the Chalce­don Cap. 10: So doth Theodora the Empress. Council, and his Wife Theodora held with the contrary, viz. those that held that in Christ was one Nature: Whether out of design, that between them both, both Opinions might have countenance; or whether they were really in opposition. This is certain, the Neither yeelded to the other of the Em­peror and Empress. He defends that Faith. She countenances those who appertained to her own. She perswades he Emperor to send for Severus from Exile. Cap. 11. The World set upon jangles. Anthimus turned our of Constant. Epipha­nius put in. Theodos. out of Alex: Zolus must in. The Faith of the Coun­cil of Chalcedon only must be preached. Severus accursed, and all that hold with him by Imperial Edict. His plot fails, who by setting up onely one; thought to put down all other divisions in Religion. one would not yeeld unto the other, for he was very earnest in defence of the Chalcedon Council, and she was very careful for the Patrons of one Nature, whom she lovingly and friendly en­tertained, especially her Countreymen, and unto them sent Gifts and Presents. Nay, she perswaded the Emperor to call Severus from Exile.

Things relating to Religion being thus distributed, the World was set upon a jangle; Anthimus Bishop of Constantinople must out, and Epiphanius must succeed; and Theodosius of Alexan­dria must give way to Zoilus; and the Chalcedon Council must on­ly be preached throughout the whole World, and none must be so bold as to accurse it; and if any were found to be of the con­trary Opinion, they must by all means be endeavoured to be per­swaded. For Justinianus published an Edict, wherein he accursed both Severus, and as many as held with him, and enjoyned great penalties on such as maintained their Opinion; to this end, (as he thought) but it proved quite otherwise, as it hath in all expe­rience throughout the World been found in imposing Religion; that from that time forth there might no dissention take root in any of all the Churches throughout the World, but that the Pa­triarchs of every Province might hold together, and the Bishops of every City obey their Arch-Bishops; and that the four Coun­cils, the first at Nice, the Council of Constantinople, the first held at Ephesus, and the Council of Chalcedon should be preached in the Churches.

As Justinian forced Religion thus over the World, so over the Cap. 12. Justinian finds trouble who forces Religion. The Perfian King en­gages him. Many bloody Battels sought between him and Belissarius. The Scenite also: Who overthrew the Romans. World had Justinian trouble; Cabades King of Persia engages him; and between him and Belissarius, his chief Captain of the East, are many bloody Battels fought; unto this the State of Ar­menia is annexed, which Alamundarus Captain of Scenetae afore­said, infested in the borders of the Roman Empire, whom Belis­sarius was enforced to fight, and was overthrown, the Romans not following the Council of Belissarius.

At Constantinople the stir went very high, a watch word they Cap. 13. A conspiracy at Con­stantinople. Hypatius and Pompei­us forced to rebel, their heads are cut off, 32000 killed in the In­surrection. Cap. 14. The Vandals infest Lybia. The Christians sorely persecuted by them. Burnt to Ashes. Tongues cut out. Cap. 20. The Goths take Rome. had, which was Nica, (that is) overcome; and in it Hypatius and Pompeius they constrained to rebel; yet Justinian caused their Heads to be cut off, after the Insurrection was appeased, in which thirty thousand are said to be slain.

The Vandals also in Lybia, under Honoricus the Son of Genze­richus, who was an Arian, gave the Christians a great encounter, that were of the contrary Opinion, and most vehement persecu­tion: Those that yeelded not to his Opinion in Religion, he burnt to Ashes, and executed with sundry kinds of lamentable deaths; and out of some he pulled their Tongues, in which guise some of them got to Constantinople. The Goths also under Totilas took [Page 188] Rome again, who became Emperor, which Belissarius took from them, and which Belissarius retook again; above one hundred 150 Cities in Africk repaired (taken in the Wars) after Lybia was won the second time. and fifty Cities are said to be repaired by Justinianus, after he had won Lybia the second time, being ruined by the Wars; the con­sequence of the Wars with the Vandals.

In Greece, Baeotia, Achaia, and the Countries about Crisaeus Cap. 22. Strange Earthquakes in Beotia, Achaia, Cri­seus Haven in Grece. Haven, strange Earthquakes hapned, so that many Regions were destroyed, and Cities overthrown; and gapings and openings of the Earth there were, which in some places closed up again, and in other places continued so still.

The Wars were great and thorough, and the miseries many, The whole force of the Romans engaged. The Wars at length, and athwart the whole Empire. Ofttimes ready to sink. They are brought on their knees who would give Law to God. which were the consequences thereof, almost from one end of the Empire to the other, and athwart, so that the whole force of the Roman power was engaged, and with much ado things were stemm'd, that the Roman Empire sunk not, which would give Law to God, and how he should be believed in, and worshipped; so he brought them on their knees, who would bring him to theirs, and attempt that which they could never bring to pass.

The Persians also broke their League again with him, and de­stroyed Cap. 24. The Persians break their League again. Take Antioch and Se­leucia, destroy all with Fire and Sword. Sarus took, Berea set on fire. Cap. 28. Pestilences such as have not been heard of thorough the whole World; Sword and Pe­stilence er gage him on every hand. The Plague lasted 52 years Lighted on Antioch. Began in Aethiopia. A short Relation of the lasting, and destroying extremity of this Pe­stilence, and how it took, began, & ended. many places; took Antioch, destroyed all with Fire and Sword; came to Selucia, then to the Suburbs of Daphne, then to Apamia; Sarus also he took, and set Beraea on fire.

Pestilences also infested the World in such a manner as hath not been heard: The Lord seemed, as it were, on every hand to make his Hand General in Sword and Pestilence; whose Domi­nion Justinian on every hand would run over; This Plague, this Historian saith, lasted fifty and two years; it prevailed so much, (saith the Historian) that it destroyed in a manner the whole World; It lighted on Antioch two years after the Persians had ta­ken that City; it began in Aethiopia, and spread it self afterwards throughout the whole World; neither was there (saith he) al­most any one that escaped the infection thereof; in some Cities it raged so vehemently that the Inhabitants thereof were dispatch­ed; with others it was more gentle and mild; it began not at any one certain time of the year, nor did it cease or abate after one manner or order; in some places it entred in Winter, in some others about the end of the Spring; in other Countries in the midst of the Summer; in other places in the midst of Autumn: When it had infected some part or other of some Cities, in some Regions it left the other untouched. Certain Families in some places were wholly dispatched, in others one or two rooted out, and the rest not visited. The Families that escaped this year, were alone, and none others dispatched the next year, (this saith he) we marked diligently, and which (saith he) is most remarkable; if any which inhabited the infected Cities fled into other Coun­tries where the sickness was not; they only were visited, although they removed (hoping to save their lives) out of the Contagion into the clear Air; the Calamity during the tearm and compass of these years, which are called Revolutions, passed through both Town and Countrey: but the greatest mortality fell upon man­kind [Page 189] the second year of the Revolution, which comprised the tearm of fifteen years; the Disease was compound, and mixt with many other Maladies; It took some men first in the head, made their eyes as red as blood, and puff [...]d up their cheeks; then it fell into their throats; and whomsoever it took, it dispatched him out of the way: In some it began with a Flux, a voiding of all that was within them; in some others with swellings about the secret parts of the body, whereof arose burning Feavers, so that at two or three dayes at the farthest they died thereof, in such sort, & of so perfect a remembrance, as if they had not been sick at all; some died mad; and Carbuncles that arose in the flesh killed ma­ny; and many times those who had this Disease, and escaped the first and second time, died of it the third: Some had it by lying and keeping company together; some only by touching and fre­quenting the infecting Houses; some in the Market; some that fled out of the infected Houses were not visited themselves, but infected where they came; others which kept company with the sick, and touched not onely the sick but the dead, had it not at all; some others who would have died gladly, because of the de­parture of their Children and Friends, and so thrust themselves among the sick, the infection fled from them, and so they could not have their wills. It exceeded all the Diseases that ever had been before. Philostratus wondered at the Plague that was in his time, because it continued fifteen years; but this was of fifty two years continuance, throughout the whole World; the great­est The greatest & longest Mortality that ever was heard of. Four times in Antioch, a place famous for division & bloodshed, Earthquakes, Fires, Pestilences. The Consequences of enforcing Religion. and longest mortality that hath been heard of. In Antioch it had been four times, a place famous for Divisions, Tumults, Bloodsheds, Earthquakes, Fires, Pestilences, and the Sword, which I have quoted; and this in particular, that men may see (if they will yet open their eyes) what things have infested the World, whilst they have infested the World with imposition of Religion.

Yet all these things would not warn Justinian, but with Reli­gion Cap. 37. Justinian is not yet at a stand. Anno. 555. A fifth General Coun­cil he will have. He expels the Orige­nists New Laura, ba­nished by Eustachius of Jerusalem, makes a Journey for that pur­pose. They disperse, and encrease the more he will yet have to do, and a fifth General Council he would needs have, when the favourers of Origen's Opinion prevailed, especially in New Laura, whom Eustochius Bishop of Jerusalem banished, he making a Journey thither on set purpose, and dri­ving them out of that Coast; yet he had not his end, for being dispersed, they had the opportunity the more to sow their Opi­nion, which produced many favourers, and some that were chief with the Emperor, and to whom he most leaned. At this Coun­cil the Question was put, Whether it were lawful to accurse the dead