[Page] THE Present State OF FRANCE.

Containing A General Description OF THAT KINGDOM.

Corrected and purged from the many Gross Mistakes in the French Copy, enriched with Additional Observations and Remarks of the New Compiler, and digested into a Me­thod Conformable to that of The State of ENGLAND.

By R. W. M. A.

LONDON: Printed for Gilbert Cownly, at the Popes-Head, in the Lower-Walk of the New-Exchange, in the Strand, 1687.

TO THE Right Honourable, RICHARD Lord Vicount Preston, IN THE Kingdom of SCOTLAND, And One of his Majesties Most Honourable Privy-Council.

MY LORD,

THis being my first Essay in Print, I thought I could not but in duty present [Page] it to your Lordship, as being a Description of that Re­nowned Court and Kingdom, wherein your Lordship, as upon a Most Illustrious Thea­ter, Signaliz'd your Self with so much Reputation to your Self and Country, and Mu­tual Satisfaction to those great Princes, between whom you were so successful an Instru­ment of that good Corre­spondence, that has not a lit­tle Contributed to the Hap­piness of Both Monarchies, the most Flourishing at pre­sent of Europe.

And indeed, France, my Lord, being the Place too, wherein I was honoured and [Page] made happy, by so many of your Lordship's Favours, what more Congruous Mark, could I give you, of the Lasting and deeply Impressed Sense, I have of them, than the Pre­sent, I humbly make you of France it Self, or at least of this small Prospect of so vast a Monarchy? A Present, which (though perhaps inconsider­able on the account of the Im­perfections it may have con­tracted from it's Author) will, I hope, be grateful, in respect of its noble Subject, and by your accustomed Goodness, be accepted as a Cordial Testi­mony, of the real Gratitude, and Profound Respect, I have [Page] and shall ever preserve, for your Honour, of whom, I am,

My Lord,
The most humble, and most devoted Servant, R. Wolley.

THE PREFACE TO THE READER.

Courteous Reader,

YOƲ have in this Trea­tise the Portraicture of a great and Flourishing Monarchy; viz. The Present State of France, as it now is, under the Government of the Potent and Victorious Prince, Lewis the Fourteenth, Sirnamed the Great. It is very different from that [Page] which formerly appeared under the same Title, and though a great deal of the matter be taken out of the latest and best Edition of the French Author, on that subject, yet it is not altogether a Transla­tion; and for your better and clearer understanding of what is remarkable in a Country, of the particularities of which, our Na­tion above all others is most cu­rious, I have Explained all Pas­sages needing Explication, added many Observations of my own, made during ten Years Travel and Converse in that Magnificent and splendid Court, and digested the Whole into a Method, as con­formable as the matter would suf­fer, to that observed, by the Wor­thy and Ingenious Author of The [Page] Present State of England; and consequently, if I be not mistaken, rendred both the Book, and the Country, much more intelligible to an English Reader than it was before; when it was so far from being Illustrated, that it was hardly half Translated, and left in many of the most material Places, almost as much French, as in the Original, and done in a very perplexed Method, which allay'd much the Pleasure of the Reader, who, I hope, will per­use this with more satisfaction and delight.

Farewel.

Note, That (l.) after the several Summs, signifies Livers, which is some­thing more in value than eighteen pence English, and that (d.) signifies Deniers, or Sols, which is in value somewhat loss than a Penny English.

THE Present State OF FRANCE.

Of France in general.

CHAP. I.

Of its Name, Climate, Dimensions, Divi­sions, Air, Soil, Commodities, Riches, Trade, Moneys, Weight, Measures, and Buildings.

THIS Famous Country has its present Name, as by most Authors is agreed, from the Franci, or Franks, a People of Germany, who seized upon those parts of it nearest the Rhine, in the time of Valentinian the Third, and having afterward subdued Paris, and made it the Seat-Royal of their growing Empire, cau­sed the Country thereabouts to be called FRANCE. Which Name, as they enlarged their Borders, they communicated to the rest of the Country, and those parts of Germany also that were Conquered by them. The Ancient Name was Gallia, or Gaul, and the people were called Galli or Gauls, and with those that write in Latin, the ancient name is still in use.

[Page 2] It is scituated between the degrees of 15 and 29 Climate. of Longitude, and between 42 and 51 of Latitude, in the Northern Temperate Zone, between the middle Parallel of the fifth Clime, where the long­est day is 15 hours and 12 Minutes, and the mid­dle Parallel of the Eighth Clime, where the longest day is 16 hours and a half.

It is bounded on the North with the Brittish Bounds. Ocean, and some parts of the Netherlands, on the South with part of the Pyrenean Mountains, and the Mediterranean Sea; on the East with a branch of the Alps, and the Countries of Savoy, Switzerland, and some parts of Germany, and the Rhine; and on the West by the Aquitanian Sea, and the rest of the Pyrenean Mountains.

The figure of it is, according to most, squarish, Dimensions and Figure. and to others roundish, or tending to an Oval, but all agree that it is almost of equal extent every way; and much about 200 Leagues, or 600 Miles, ac­cording to the common account of 3 Miles to a League, which is an account by which most Geo­graphers mightily inlarge the extent of other Coun­tries, and make England much less than it is: for I have observed, they reckon all by 3 Miles to a common League, whereas, I never could find, that a common French League was more than 2 com­mon Miles; and if it be said that in some places they have much longer Leagues, that is balanced by answering, that in some parts of England, there are likewise very long Miles. An eminent Geogra­pher reckons it 660 Italian Miles in length, 570 in breadth, and 2040 in compass; and makes it con­tain 200 Millions of Arpens of Land, (which is a measure something more than an Acre.

The Ancient Gallia or Gaul was distinguisht by several Divisions, but as not intending a History, Division. but only a short Description, I shall take notice of but only two made by the Romans after they be­came Masters of this Country; from the time of [Page 3] Julius Caesar, by whom it was divided into these four parts, viz. 1. Narbonensis is called so from the City of Narbon, then a Roman Colony, containing Languedoc, Provence, Dauphiny, and some part of Savoy, called also Braccata, from the wild habit worn by the people. 2. Aquitanica, so called from the City of Aquae Augustae, (now D' Acqu's) in Guienne, lying upon the Pyrenees and the wide O­cean, comprehending the Provinces of Gascoyn, Guienne, Xiantoygne, Limosin, Quercy, Perigort, Berry, Bourbonnois, and Auvergne, extending from the Py­renees, to the River Loyre. 3. Celtica, so named from the valiant Nation of the Celtae; also Lugdu­nensis, from the City of Lyons, and Comata, from the long hair worn by the people; extending from the Loyre to the British Ocean, and containing the Provinces of Brittany, Normandy, Anjou, Tourain, Main, le Beausse, the Isle of France, part of Cham­pain, the Dukedom of Burgundy, and the County of Lyonnois. 4. Belgica, from the Belgae, a potent Nation of that Tract, taking up all the East parts, viz. Picardy, the rest of Champain, the County of Burgundy, with so much of Germany and the Nether­lands, as lieth on this side of the Rhine, part whereof hath been reconquered lately by the Pre­sent King, and the rest remaining to the Spaniard, the States of the Ʋnited Provinces, and to the Em­pire.

In the new Modelling of the Empire by Constan­tine the Great, Gaul was divided into 17 Provin­ces, as 1. Lugdunensis prima. 2. Secunda. 3. Ter­tia. 4. Quarta. 5. Belgica prima. 6. Secunda. 7. Germania Prima. 8. Secunda. 9. Narbonensis Prima. 10. Secunda. 11. Aquitania Prima. 12. Se­cunda. 13. Novempopulonia. 14. Viennensis. 15. Max­ima Sequanorum. 16. Alpes Graiae & Poeninae. 17. Alpes Maritimae. Of these 17, Germania Prima, and Se­cunda, all Belgica Prima, and part of Secunda, sa­ving only what has been lately Reconquered; and [Page 4] all that of the Alpes Graiae, and Poeninae, and so much of the Maxima Sequanorum, as is in Switzerland, are now dismembred from the name and account of France.

The modern Division of France is threefold. First, According to its Ecclesiastical Government. Secondly, According to its Civil Government, or Administration of Justice. And thirdly, Accord­ing to its military Government.

1. According to its Ecclesiastical Government, it is divided into 17 Archbishopricks, containing 106 Bishopricks and Diocesses, besides the Archbishop­ricks of Cambray, Besançon, and the Bishopricks of Arras, St. Omers, Ypres and Perpignan, in the Con­quests, which are subdivided into Parishes.

2. According to the Civil Government, and Ad­ministration of Justice, it is divided into 10 Par­liaments, besides several other Sovereign Courts, and into many Bayliwicks and Seneschalchies.

3. According to the Military Government, it is divided into twelve Governments within France, and four in the Conquered Countries, being sixteen in all: Of these sixteen,

Four lie Northward, viz. 1. Picardy. 2. Nor­mandy. 3. The Isle of France. 4. Champaign.

Four in the middle of France, and on each side the Loire, viz. 5. Britany. 6. Orleanois. 7. The Dutchy of Burgundy. 8. Lyounois.

Four are Southern and beyond that River, viz. 9. Guienne. 10. Languedoc. 11. Dauphiny. 12. Pro­vence.

The four last lie Eastwards towards Germany, and are 13. The French Low Countries, or Nether­lands. 14. Lorrain. 15 Alsatia. 16. Franche Comte, or the County of Burgundy.

There are reckoned in the Kingdom of France, besides the Conquests, 32 Cities, above 4000 Towns, 27400 Parishes, 1450 Abbies, 540 Arch-Priories, 12320 Priories, 567 Nunneries, 700 Convents of [Page 5] Fryers, 259 Commanderies of Malta; several Col­ledges of Jesuits and other Religious Houses of later Foundations not reckoned, and 10 Universities: Of all which, we shall speak more particularly else­where.

The Air is every where generally temperate and Air. pure, and so healthful, that it is observed to be less subject to Plagues and Sickness than any other Country in Europe, and the Air particularly about Montpelier is held Medicinal for Consumptions. The North Wind reigns much there, a great part of the Year, which is thought to contribute much to the salubrity of the Air; the Winter in the North­ern parts of it, is rather fiercer and sharper than in England, though not altogether so long, but the Summer much hotter; and at Marseilles, and some parts that way, observed to be hotter than in seve­ral parts of Italy.

It is of an extraordinary fruitful Soil, as well in Soil. the Mountains as the Vales; every where watered with wholesom Springs and Streams, and with se­veral great Navigable Rivers, and to say the truth, there are not many Countries of Europe, to which Nature has imparted so rich a Portion of her choi­cest Blessings: the Woods there afford great plenty of Timber and Fuel-Wood, and abound with Ches­nuts and Walnuts; the former producing excellent Pork and Bacon, the latter great Quantities of Oyl, which in some parts of France they use instead of Butter: The Fields are large and open, interming­led with Vines and Corn, and bordered and interli­ned with choice of Fruits; and the steep sides of Hills, and most sandy stony grounds there produce often the strongest and richest Wines. In fine, it is every where so cultivated, that it seems like the Garden of Eden it self.

Its Commodities, Merchandises, and Manufa­ctures Commodi­ties. are many, and so necessary to other Coun­tries, that of late they hardly barter them but for [Page 6] Money: For from this Kingdom, are Exported vast quantities of Salt, Wine, Brandy, Corn, dried Fruits, Silks, Stuffs, Canvas, Linnen, Scissars, Nuts, Nut-Oyl, Box-Wood, Paper, Skins, Hats, perfumed Gloves, and all manner of Toys and tri­fles; and besides, they have within themselves, and from their own Conquests, and Plantations, such quantities of Oranges, Lemmons, Oils, Sugars, Wooll, Stuffs, Cloths, Sea-fish, Stone for Building, and all other things for necessity, or pleasure, that they will hardly barter of late years, but Trade only for Money, for the most part. The Country is every where well stocked with fresh Fish, store of Veni­son, though little eaten by them; Wildbores there much prised, with Rabbits, Hares, and all sorts of Wild-Fowl, and some unknown to us: They want not good Beef, which is very sweet, nor Mutton, which is generally sweeter than in England, nor ex­cellent Pork; and as for tame Fowl they have it in much more abundance than in England, and the Provinces of Normandy and Brittany, furnish great store of good Butter, salt and fresh; but for Cheese, they buy considerable quantities from the Hollanders and Suitzers.

By what has been said, their Riches cannot but Riches and Trade. be very great and inexhaustible, consisting in so ma­ny rich and inland Commodities, that like so many Loadstones attract the greatest part of the riches, both of Europe and of the whole World into France. For their Wines, Brandy, Salt, Canvas, Silks, Stuffs, and Toys, are Commodities which constantly bring them vast profits from England, Holland, and all the Northern Regions; and then in the Spanish Do­minions, they vend so much Corn, Linnen, Flax, Canvas, Cordage, Stuffs, and all sorts of Manufa­ctures, that they fill their Country with the Coin of that Nation in return; they likewise disperse great quantities of the said Commodities in Italy and Barbary, and of late, they drive a considerable [Page 7] Trade in the West-Indies, and have made some pro­gress in the East.

Their usual accounts are kept by Deniers, Sols, Money and Coins. and Livers; a Liver is twenty of their Sols, or Pence, which is a little more than eighteen pence of our Money, and their Denier is the twelfth part of a Penny, and very convenient for buying small quan­tities of things, and reckoning Fractions; but these Deniers in Specie or Coyn, are used but in the parts of France, remote from Paris. Next are their Doubles, which are worth two Deniers, and are the sixth part of a Penny, though formerly they went for Liards or Farthings, and still bear that Inscrip­tion; their Carolus's, or pieces of five Doubles, are absolute, though still used in reckoning, their Sols or Pence called Sols Marqués, or marked Pence, of a mixt Metal, that went in the War time for five Farthings, but now but for a Penny; then they have their three pence half-penny pieces, that go in England but for three pence, half three pence half-penny pieces, five penny pieces; fifteen pence pieces, or Quart-D'ecu's, Half-Crowns, or thirty pence pieces, and Crowns, which are reckoned here at four shillings six pence, or fifty four pence Ster­ling, though they be worth sixty Sols French: whereas an English Crown is valued there at sixty five pence, and a pound Sterlin at thirteen Livers Tournois, or pounds French, contrary to what is set down in most Books. Their Golden Coins are at present, Crowns of Gold weighing a Dram, and are worth five Livers and fourteen pence, Lys D'or, which are but rare, worth seven Livers ten pence; half Lewis's worth five Livers ten pence, whole Lewis's worth eleven Livers, and valued here at seventeen shillings and a groat, and sometimes six pence; Double Lewis's, Quadruples, and Octuples; but the two last are unusual. Besides these, most of the Monies of Spain, both Gold and Silver, are here current, and the gold pieces are more numer­ous [Page 8] than the French, viz. the Pistols, half Pistols, double Pistols, Quadruples, and Octuples, of the same value as the Lewis's, half Lewis's, double Lew­is's, &c. The silver Spanish Coins are Crowns, Du­cats, and other lesser pieces: Gold Coins are more frequent in payments than Silver, and though the Peasants be poor, there is a vast quantity of money always moving in the Kingdom, among the Cour­tiers, Tradesmen, and Merchants; but Spanish pie­ces are seldom taken without weighing first.

Their Weights are different, as are likewise their Measures, the most remarkable, and necessary to be Weights and Mea­sures. known by Merchants and Strangers, are those of Paris, Roüen, Bordeaux, Lyons, and Marseilles.

1. The Weights of Paris are, the Ounce, the Pound, and the Quintal, which is accounted a hundred Gross, but is found to make a hundred pound of London Suttle, two per Cent, more or less, and is of Lyons weight, of sixteen Ounces, a hundred and sixteen. Lastly, There is the Cargo or Great Quintal, which is three hundred pound Troy weight.

Their Measures of length called Aulns or Ells, are two, one for Linnen, and the other for Silks, and are much about the length of the vantaged and unvantaged Aulns, but seldom used in Gross, be­cause Silks and Stuffs, &c. in this City, are gene­rally sold by weight; which makes recompence to the Buyer, for any defect in them. Their Concave Measures for Wine, are the Pint, which is about a London Quart, the Chopine, which is a London Pint, and the Demysthier, which is half a Pint; the Citern, which is eight Pints, or a Paris Gal­lon, ninety six of which make a Tun, and a Muid, which contains two hundred and eighty Pints. But in the Country about, these Measures are al­most double to Paris liquid Measure.

2. At Roüen, their Weights are chiefly the Kings Beam, or Viconte, being about a hundred twenty [Page 9] six pounds English: Their Measure of length, is the Auln, accounted something better than forty six Inches: their other Measures are such as are common through France.

3. At Bordeaux, their Weight called a Quintal of a hundred pounds, makes a hundred and ten pounds English: their Wines are computed by Hogsheads and Terces, and sold in Retail by Mea­sures more than doubling those of Paris.

4. At Lyons, the Weights most in use, are the Kings Beam, containing a hundred pounds, which is larger than the largest Town-Beam by eight per Cent, by which, the Customs are proportioned, than there is in the greater Town-Beam, weighing a hundred pounds of sixteen Ounces to the pound, used for gross goods: And the lesser Town-Beam called the Pound-Mark, containing a hundred pounds, at fifteen Ounces to the pound, used for weighing Silks. The Measure of Lyons for length, is the Auln, which is forty six English Inches, seven of them making nine English Yards, and a hun­dred pounds suttle of London, makes in Lyons ninety six pounds and a half silk weight.

5. At Marseilles, their weight is the Pound of sixteen Ounces, a hundred of which make a Quin­tal, three Quintals the Cargo; the Quintal is eighty eight and a half English pounds. Their Measures of length are the Cane, which they divide into eight Palms, which make two English Yards and one eighth part. Their Concave Measure for Corn, Salt, &c. is the Mine which makes little above the third part of the English Quarter.

But Weights and Measures general for the whole Kingdom, are the Mark, by which, are weighed Gold, Silver, and great Pearls, containing eight Ounces, each Ounce containing twenty four De­niers, and each Denier twenty four Grains. The Mark weighs three Carats, each Carat being reckon­ed for the third part of an Ounce, and is used by [Page 10] the Changers: For Corn and Salt they have their Minots, their Muids, and their Boisseaux, or Bush­els; the Boisseau, or Bushel, is little more than an English Peck. Their Inch is something bigger than ours, and consequently their Foot, which is larger by half an Inch than the Roman Foot: their Lands are measured by Arpents; an Arpent of Paris con­tains a hundred Perches square, every Perch con­taining twenty two Feet: the distances of places are measured by Leagues, the least Leagues contain twelve thousand Paris Feet, and the greater twenty thousand like Feet.

As for their Buildings in France, they are gene­rally Buildings. of Stone, and at Paris very high, made mighty strong with Timber, and the Floors of Plaister of Paris, or paved with pretty Tiles, or else covered with Wood wrought with inlaid work; all which the better and neater sort keep well rub'd. Their Noblemens Houses are all very spacious, regular and magnificent, with stately Portals, and fine Courts and Gardens, and handsome stabling behind, or on the side. The chief Buildings in France are the Palaces of the Kings, of which more in their place; some Cathedrals, Colledges, Hospitals, and Religi­ous Houses of Modern Foundation, in which the perfection of Architecture is to be seen; the Foun­dation of many of which, is attributed to the English.

CHAP. II.

Of the Inhabitants, of their Laws, Religion, Manners, and punishments, of their Num­ber, Language, Stature, Diet, Attire, Re­creations, Names, and Surnames, and of their Computation, and manner of Num­bring.

THE present Inhabitants are the French, who Inhabi­tants. are a mixture of the ancient Gauls, Romans, Goths, Burgundians, and Francs, from which last they derive their name, who sometime before they seised on France, had seated themselves about Fran­conia in Germany, and hovered about the Rhine a long time, being till then, no setled, but an Ambu­latory People, as many Authors of note affirm; nay some make them to have been but ancient Colonies of the Old Gauls, who after they had rambled through several parts of the world, and could fix in no place, returned at last to this their ancient home, finding so fair an opportunity to recover it from the Romans, who had been the first occasion of their rambling.

They are governed chiefly by the Civil Law, Laws. though they have likewise their Customary Laws, peculiar to several Provinces, as the Laws in Nor­mandy, which were the foundation of several Laws in England since the Norman Conquest.

Their Religion is the Roman Catholick, but yet Religion. they are stiff Assertors of the Rights and Priviledges of their particular Church, which they call the Galli­can Church.

The Manners of the ancient Gauls, as they are Manners. described by Caesar and other Historians, seem to [Page 12] have been inherited by the present French, and to be effects of the Climate: for they are very quick­witted, and of a nimble apprehension, but withal, they are generally rash and precipitate, impatient, hasty, inconstant, eager and full of fire at the first onset, but better at a push than at an obstinate pur­suit; thus they are naturally; But the present King, who has much of the sober mixture of a Spaniard in him, has made it appear to all Europe, That His French well moderated, are capable of making as wise, discreet, and sedate Counsellours as any in the World, and as capable of managing secrets, which has been thought a thing almost incompati­ble with the temper of this Nation: Then, as for Souldiers, by providing well for them, as for Cloths, Victuals, and exact pay, by good Discipline, and by frequent, but cautious fleshing them in Wars, under experienced and fortunate Commanders; and lastly, by intermingling Foreign Forces of all Na­tions with them, to stir them up to emulation, He has made both his Infantry and Cavalry formidable, and it can no more be said now, that the French know not how to storm a Town, endure the Fa­tigues of a Siege, or rally again when their Ranks are broken: As for Commanders, they always had store of them, and have now the greatest plenty of them, and the best of any one Country in Eu­rope.

This Country has in all Ages produced great numbers of Learned Men, of which, and of all in­genious Artists, their Princes and great Men, have in this last Age been very great Encouragers; and all the Sons of their Gentry, as well those that are designed for Military Employments, as for the Gown, are bred up at least to a competent know­ledge of the Latin Tongue: So that as usually it happens under Great and Fortunate Princes, they now abound with Great Scholars, Great Statesmen, and Great Souldiers; and their Paris is become the [Page 13] Rendezvous of all the famous Wits and Artists of Eu­rope, who flock thither from all places. Their Gen­try is accomplisht, polite and civil, to the highest degree. They keep up their State and Magnificence with such a Decorum, as hinders them not from be­ing familiar and courteous to all; the Ceremonies they observe seem natural, and they love nothing that is crampt and precise. Their Citizens, Trades­men, Artisans, and very Peasants, are generally more civil and courteous to Strangers, and in ordi­nary conversation, than those of other Nations. They are very airy, amorous, and full of talk, and always in action or motion: In bargaining, by pre­valence of custom, they will ask three or four times as much as a thing is worth, and will have it if you bargain not, and when they buy, bid as little, but if you stand with them, you may buy cheap enough, and sell dear enough. They are very cha­ritable and good natured, and will do any thing for you by spurts, if you take them when they are warm: They are very quarrelsome, and given to Duelling, were they not severely restrained, but they are easily reconciled and disposed to forget in­juries: But above all things, they are most given to Law-Suits and Contentions, there being more Lawyers and Law-Suits there than in all Christen­dom besides, and that between the nearest Relati­ons; by which it comes to pass, that the Lawyers, Judges, and other Officers of Justice, with the Par­tisans or Farmers of Taxes, are reckoned the richest Body in the Kingdom, excepting the Church-men. The Women partake less or more according to their Sex, in all the Qualities of this Character, and are generally very talkative, but yet very pleasing in Discourse, of a graceful and winning deportment, generally good Singers, and so free in converse, that many Strangers, ignorant of their genius, are apt at first to mistake them to be what they are not.

[Page 14] Their punishments for Nobles, among which, all Punish­ments. Gentlemen are reckoned there; for smaller offen­ces, are Fining and Imprisoning, and for greater, Confiscation of Lands and Goods, Degradation, and after that Hanging, or Condemnation to the Gallies, as meaner persons, otherwise Beheading; those that are not Gentlemen are Fined or Whipped, as here, or Hanged for Thefts and some other Crimes; but Highway-men, Assasinators, or wilful Mur­therers, are generally broken on the Wheel, of what Quality soever, unless they be favoured. Trai­tors not noble, are drawn to pieces by wild Horses, or otherwise tormented; but Gentlemen are com­monly Beheaded, Poysoners and Sorcerers are burned: Many Crimes there are for which the Cri­minals are Condemned to the Gallies; false Wit­nesses in Capital Cases are put to Death: They use there the torture or Question, which is ordinary or extraordinary, which is by giving the Party Drenches of Water till they almost burst, and tying them up in painful postures.

France is very populous, the number of people Number. being reckoned to be about fifteen Millions, of which two hundred and seventy thousand are said to be Church-men, besides Nuns, about five Milli­ons fit for War.

Their Language is a mixture of the old Gaulish, Language. Gothish, Roman, and German Tongues, not without some smack of the Greek, and is now so polished, that it is become the sweetest, the most courtly, and most modish Language of Europe, but most espe­cially of the fair Sex, and politer part of men. It is tender, amorous, and delicious to the Ear, quaint and charming in expression, easy enough to learn in part, but most difficult to attain in perfection: It is rather elegant than copious, being not so signi­ficant and comprehensive as the English in prose, nor so fit for numbers, and strong and lofty in Verse, yet very melodious when sung, and very obedient [Page 15] and plyable to any variety of Airs and Tunes, of which they have some of the best and most aiery and sprightly that can be invented. Many neat, elegant, and ingenious works there are in this Lan­guage, but solid and profound Writers, not so ma­ny as in some other Tongues.

Their Stature and Complexion is different, ac­cording Stature and Com­plexion. to their quality, and according to the dif­ferent Provinces they inhabit: The common people that are exposed to the Sun, and hard labour, and fare hard besides, are commonly not very tall, and are tawny, tan'd and wither'd, both Men and Women, but hardy and strong; and the Women for their Sex more than the Men. The persons of Quality are generally tall, straight, well-shaped, and very hand­some and well complexioned, both Men and Wo­men: the middle sort of people are generally slight timber'd, but indifferently well shaped and complexioned, the Men more than the Women, as if they had in some sort rob'd the Female Sex of their chief Prerogative: Yet the Women there among the Gentry and better sort of Citizens, are for the most part, tall, and well shaped, and many of them very fair hair'd and complexiond, very white skin'd, and blue-eyed, which is reckoned there a Beauty; and some there are as perfect Beauties as any are in the World: But the major part are black or pale, yet well featured, and are almost all so aiery, so well carriaged, as we have already remarked; and withal so witty and dextrous at their Tongues, that they charm without Beauty: Those of Normandy, Picardy, and Brittany, are most like the English and Germans; but yet at and about Angers and Blois, are reckoned to be both the handsomest and wittiest Women in all France: Those in Languedoc, Provence, and other Provinces towards Italy and Spain, come nearer the temper and complexion of those two Nations: And in a word, we may say of the whole Nation in general, [Page 16] that they are of a Sanguine and airy temper and complexion.

Their Diet among the Peasants is very miserable, who feed on black Bread, Sallets, and Broth made Diet. of a little Salt and Herbs, fatned with the rinds of Rusty-Bacon, and on Apples and other Fruits, and drink Water almost all the Year, daring not to eat their own Fowls, nor drink the Wine of their own growth, for fear of being taxed the more, they being very envious one against another, and apt to betray one another, and carry tales on such occasi­ons, to the Assessors of Taxes, making them believe their Neighbours are richer than they think, and consequently able to bear a heavier burden, by which, they became the mutual instruments of their own misery: But in Towns and Cities, Tradesmen and Artificers diet well enough, only they eat their meat fresh and fresh, having constantly boiled meat, and Broth they call Soupe, for Dinner, made gene­rally of a little piece of Mutton, Beef and Veal, and sometimes a Fowl; and at Night, they have com­monly a joint of meat roasted, or some good Fowl, with Fruits and Sallets; on Fish-Days they have their meager Broths of Herbs, with Fish or Pulse in proportion; and always a competent quantity of Wine.

The Noblemen, Gentry, and richer sort keep very good Tables, though not so profuse as the Eng­lish, they chusing rather to shew their riches in Coaches, Horses, Liveries, Attendants, and other Equipage, than in Diet: Yet at Feasts and Enter­tainments, they are generally more Magnificent than the English: They use great variety of Hashes, Entries, Kickshaws, Poignant Sawces, and other made Dishes: But in Pastry, they use only Pasties and no Pies, among which, the Hare and Wild-Boar Pasties are much in esteem; they eat much young Kid, but Venison they prize it not. They are in general, great Eaters of Sallets, Fruits, and Bread: [Page 17] they use no salt meat but Pork and Bacon, but they use much Salt and Pepper in their Hashes and other Dishes: Those of the Female Sex seldom drink Wine there, till they come to be Married.

Their Attire being so much imitated by the Attire. English, cannot be unknown, whose Nations, little or much, following of late years their Mode, and therefore I shall refer you to your own Eyes for that; but this may be said in general of them, both Men and Women, that are more neat, curious and costly in their Habit than in any thing else, and put them on after such a manner, that they always be­come them; and that they look upon a fair outside as one of the first and most necessary steps to any that would live, and make a figure in the World.

Their Recreations and Exercises are Tennis, every Recreati­ons. Village affording a Tennis-Court, and Paris, many hundreds; Dancing which is natural to them, Masques, Playes, Musick, Singing, Fencing, Riding the Great Horse, Vaulting, Bowls, Biliards, Dice and Cards, to which they are much addicted. It is accounted a mean and scandalous thing to smoke Tobacco at Paris, or in any of the Inland Towns, and they will drink briskly enough for good Com­pany and Divertisement, but seldom to Drunkenness, at least the better sort, and never drink without eat­ing some good bit. Their Gentry use much Hunt­ing and Hawking, and for the former sport, buy many Horses and Hounds out of England, having them in great esteem: At Court, they use too, run­ning at the Ring, at a Head, and Carousels, where these and other nobler Divertisements are pra­ctised.

They have Christen-Names and Sur-Names as in Names. England. Their Christen-Names are generally Saints-Names, of which, they join many times two or more, and sometimes a Mans and Womans Name both in one compound, as Lewis-Marie, or Marie-Lewis: [Page 18] Their Surnames have generally the Particles du, de la, le or la, that is to say, of, of the, or the, before them, and are taken from the name of some Quality, Trade, or other matter or thing, or accident; if they be not noble, as le Blanc, White, la Fleur the Flower, le Fevre, the Smith, &c. But Noblemens, or Gentlemens Names, are generally taken from some chief or ancient Land of their In­heritance or Possession, and their Sons that are not Heirs to the whole Estate, or succeed to any Lord­ships newly acquired by their Father, many times Quit their Fathers Name, and take up the Name of that Land or Lordship which they Inherit from him, which in process of time breeds obscurity in the Genealogies of Families, notwithstanding the help of Heraldry, which yet is very much cultiva­ted among them. It is to be observed to by the way, before we quit this Article, that a Woman by Marrying, quits not her Name, for though in com­mon Conversation she be called by her Husbands Name, yet in all Writings and Acts, she Signs al­ways her Maiden-Name.

They number as the English, and other Europeans, but they compute the Year from the first of January, Computa­tion and Numbring. and follow the New, or Gregorian Account, which is ten days before the Julian or English, and deno­minate their quarters or terms of payment, from the first day of every first Month of each Quarter; As for Example, the Quarter beginning the first of January, they call the Quarter of January, &c.

Of the King, Royal Family, and other Princely Families in France.

CHAP. III.

Of the Present KING, and of the Title, Stile, and Prerogatives of the KINGS of France.

THE Present King, is named Lewis the Great, the Fourteenth of that Name, King of France and Navarre, Son of Lewis the Thirteenth, Surna­med the Just, and Grand-child of Henry the Great. Many have called our Most August Monarch, God­given, for his happy Birth granted to the Prayers of the French after twenty three years expectation. He was Born of Queen Anne of Austria, at St. Ger­mans en Lay, the 5th of September 1638. and suc­ceeded the King his Father the 14th of May, 1643. He was declared Major, or at Age, the 7th of Sep­tember, 1651. Consecrated at Reims 1654, and Mar­ried at St. John de Luz's, the 9th of the same Month 1660.

As to his Consecration, or Anointing, (for so the French call the Coronation of their Kings) though the Medals made on that occasion bear date the 31th of May, you are to remark that it was not performed till the 7th of June, of the said Year 1654.

I thought I could not give you a more faithful Draught of the Person of our Invincible Monarch, than that which I have borrowed from the words of the late Archbishop of Paris, in the History that [Page 20] Illustrious and Learned Prelate composed of Henry the Great.

Yes, Sir, (saith he to him) Heaven has given you a generous, good, and bounteous Soul, a Wit sublime, and capable of the greatest things, an happy and easy Memory, an Heroick and Martial Courage, a clear and solid Judgment, a strong and vigorous Body, and over and above all this, another very particular ad­vantage, and that is, That Majestic Presence, that Air and Gate almost Divine, that shape and that beauty worthy of the Empire of the Ʋniverse, that at­tracts the Eyes and Respect of the whole World, and which without the Force of Arms, and without the Authority of Commands, wins you all those to whom your Majesty is pleased to shew your Self.

The King of France is called Most Christian, for the great and Signal Services, received by the Church and the Holy See, from this Crown.

He is also, for the same reason, stiled the Eldest Son of the Church, and by several Bulls of Popes, a priviledge has been granted to the Kings of France, that they should not be liable to Excommunication, nor their Subjects absolved of the Oath of Allegi­ance due to them.

This Monarch is [in point of precedence] the first King of Christendom, notwithstanding the op­position of the Kings of Spain, who never disputed, or did so much as take place next after our Kings before the time of the Emperour Charles the Fifth, and then other Kings preceded them. It is true indeed, that that Emperour, being likewise King of Spain, because his Ministers and Ambassadours pre­ceded those of France, as representing the Empe­rour; the Spaniards under his Successour Philip the Second, who was only King of Spain, endeavoured under that pretence in the Year 1558. at Venice, to gain the Precedence of France; but that Repub­lick regulated that dispute, and ordered the Pre­cedence to be continued to the Ambassadours of [Page 21] France, as Pope Paul the Fourth had done before: And Philip the Fourth the King of Spain last de­ceased, agreed to it, by the satisfaction he caused to be made to the King of France by the Marquess de la Fuente, his Ambassadour Extraordinary, in the presence of eight Ambassadours, and twenty two Residents or Agents, the 24th of March 1662. for the Assault made by his Ambassadour on ours in England, in October 1661.

The Title of the King of France is so Excellent, and so much exalted above that of other Kings, that Suidas, an ancient Greek Author, writes, that in the World, when it is said, only the King, with­out naming who, it was meant of the King of France: Matthew Paris calls him, Terrestrium Rex Regum, the King of Earthly Kings; And Bodin says, that that King is Emperour in France: and many assert it to be a common notion of all the Nations of the World, that the Quality of King is much more sub­lime than that of Emperour. Pope Gregory the first, lib. 9. Ep. 6. Writing to Childebert King of France, says, that the Kings of France as much sur­pass all other Kings of the Earth, as the Royal Dig­nity is exalted above the rest of men.

CHAP. IV.

The Genealogy of the Royal Branch of Bourbon.

SAint Lewis the Ninth of that Name, had four Sons, of which there was none but Philip the Bold, and Robert his Fourth Son, that left Issue. Of this Robert, Count of Clermont, who was after­ward Lord, or Sire a Ti­tle anciently given to most great Lords who were petty Soveraigns, though now only to Kings. Sire of Bourbon, are descended our Kings, in manner as follows.

[Page 22] Robert Count of Clermont in the Country of Beau­vais, Married Beatrix, Sole Heiress of John of Bur­gundy, Count of Charolois, and of Agnes, Daughter of Archimbald the Younger, Sire of Bourbon, and by her he had Lewis Sire of Bourbon, in favour of whom, the said Land, Sirerie, Lordship, or Barony of Bourbon was erected into a Dutchy or Peerage, by Philip de Valois, in the Year 1329. which Lord­ship belonged to him in right of his Mother, whose Name he bore, according to the Articles of the Contract of Marriage between his Father and Mo­ther.

Lewis had Issue, Peter Duke of Bourbon, and James Earl of Ponthieu, and de la Marche, Constable of France: But because the Masculine Line of the said Peter is extinct, we shall leave it, to speak of that of James of Bourbon, Earl of Ponthieu.

James of Bourbon, Earl of Ponthieu, had John of Bourbon, by Jean de Chatillon, Daughter of the Earl of St. Paul.

John of Bourbon, had, by Catharine of Vendome, Sister, and Sole Heiress of Bouchard, last Count of Vendome, James, King of Naples, who leaving no Children, transferred the Birth-right to his Brother Lewis.

Lewis of Bourbon, Count of Vendome, Grand Master of France, had by Jean Daughter of Guy, Count de Laval, Lord of Gaure, John the Second of that Name, Earl of Vendome.

John the second of Bourbon, had by Isabelle of Beauvais, Daughter of the Lord of Pressigny, Francis, his Successour, and Earl of Vendome, and Lewis Prince de la Roche Sur-Yon.

Francis of Bourbon had five Children, by Marie of Luxemburg, Countess of St. Paul, the Eldest was Charles Count, and made Duke of Vendome by King Francis the First.

Charles the First of Bourbon, Duke of Vendome, had seven Male Children by Francise, Daughter of [Page 23] Renie, Duke of Alencon, of which, there were but two that left Issue: viz. Antony of Bourbon, who succeeded him as first Heir, and was afterward King of Navarre, and Lewis of Bourbon, Prince of Condé, Duke of Anguien, Marquess of Conti, Count of So­issons, which latter had among other Children, Henry the First of that Name, Prince of Condé, whose Son, Henry the Second, Prince of Condé, was Father of Lewis of Bourbon, Prince of Condé, of Armand of Bourbon, late Prince of Conti, and of Anne-Geneveve of Bourbon, Dutchess of Longueville, who had Children, as we shall say afterward.

Antony of Bourbon Duke of Vendome, had by Joan d' Albret, Queen of Navarre, Daughter of Henry the Second of that Name, King only of Navarre, and of Margaret d' Angouleme-Valois, Daughter of Francis the First King of France, Henry the third of that Name, of Navarre, who reuniting together the two Crowns of France and Navarre, was named Henry the Great, the Fourth of that Name, King of France and Navarre, Father of Lewis the Just, and Grandfather of Lewis our glorious Monarch, who by his great Actions, as well as his Grandfather has acquired to himself the Surname of Great.

You are to remark, that as soon as any Branch of the Blood Royal comes to the Crown, that they quit their former Surnames, and take up that of France: So, the King stiles himself Lewis of France, and not of Bourbon (in which several people have been mistaken) and Monsieur, Philip of France, &c. though they Sign only with their Christian-Name, without adding of France.

CHAP. V.

Of the Children of France.

THE Children of France are only the Kings Children, the Children of the Dauphin, or the Kings Eldest Son, and the Kings Brothers or Sisters, and the Brothers Children, the Sisters being always either Married abroad, or made Religious: all others of the Royal Family are called Princes of the Blood.

The first Son of the Kings of France is called the Dauphin, and the second Son of France is called Monsieur, without addition of any other Title. But after the Dolphin, his younger Brethren are Dukes of Orleans, of Anjou, of Alencon, of Valois, of Tou­raine, of Berry, of Ponthieu, and other Apanages; these younger bear the Surname of France, and Sign only with their proper Names, as the King does, so likewise do the Daughters of France, who are sti­led Ladies.

The Dauphin was Born at Fountain-Bleau, the first of November, 1661. about Noon, and Baptized at St Germains en Laye, in the Court of the Old Castle the 24th of March 1668. by Cardinal Antony Barbe­rin, Great Almoner of France. His Godfather was our Holy Father Pope Clement the Ninth, Repre­sented by the Cardinal Duke of Vendome, Legate à Latere; and his Godmother, the Queen Mother of England, Represented by the Princess of Conty, who named him Lewis.

The Dauphin is Heir Apparent of the Crown of France, and bears the Title of Dauphin by vertue of a Donation of the Province of the Dauphinate made by Humbert, last Prince Dauphin of Viennois, to Philip de Valois, in the Year of our Lord 1349. upon [Page 25] condition, the Eldest Sons of the Kings of France should thenceforward, be stiled Dauphins.

For that reason he bears the Arms of France Quarter'd with those of the Dauphinate, environed with the two Orders of the King, because the Sons of France wear the blue Ribband from their Cra­dles.

His Coronet is raised with Flower-deluces, as is that of all the Sons of France. Some Authors had formerly, without any ground, affirmed, the Dau­phins used to wear their Coronets closed, by way of Excellence; but the Abbot of Brianville, who had likewise upon their credit, averred the same thing, in his Game of the Coats of Arms of Europe, hath since found the contrary upon all the Seals, Coins, and other Monuments: and afterwards pre­sented to the King such a Coronet, of his own In­vention, closed by four Dolphins, whose Tails meet all in a Button or knob, with four Angels support­ing a Flower-deluce, which his Majesty liked so well, that he order'd the Dolphin should wear no other.

The Princess, that Heaven has replenisht with all sorts of Vertues, to be the worthy Spouse of my Lord the Dauphin, is named, Marie-Ann-Christine-Francise-Josephe-Terese-Antoinette-C ajetane-Hyacinthe Felicia-Victoria of Bavaria, Born in 1660. the 28th of November, or the 18th old Stile. She is only Sister to the present Elector of Bavaria, Daughter of Ferdinand-Marie, late Elector of Bavaria, and of Henriette-Adelaide of Savoy: Her Marriage with the Dauphin was Celebrated at Municke in Bavaria, the 28th of January, 1680. and the Ceremonies, or the Benediction of the said Marriage, was renewed in France at Chaalons in the Chappel of that Bish­oprick, between the hours of 7 and 8 at Night, the 7th of March, the same Year, by the Cardinal of Bouillon, Great Almoner of France, who next Morn­ing said the solemn Mass on that occasion.

[Page 26] By her he has three Sons, the Duke of Burgundy, the Duke of Anjou, and the Duke of Berry. Mon­sieur the Duke of Burgundy was Born at Versailles the 6th of August, 1682. about a quarter, and five or six minutes of an hour after ten at Night; Some call him Monseigneur, or My Lord Duke of Burgundy: He is a very handsome Prince, and seems to be very healthy: He was sprinkled, (that is, he received the essential part of Baptism, without the Ceremo­nies, which in the Children of France are common­ly deferred some Years) by the Cardinal of Bouil­lon, Great Almoner of France, presently after his Birth. The King sent him the Cross of the Order of the Holy Ghost, by the Marquess of Signelay, Mi­nister and Secretary of State, and Treasurer of the Orders of his Majesty.

The Duke of Anjou was Born at Versailles, at half an hour after four in the Morning, on Sunday the 19th of December 1683.

The Duke of Berry was Born on Saturday the 21st of August Old Stile, and the last of August New Stile, 1686.

The Children of France that are deceased, were

1. The most High and Mighty Princess, the Lady Anne-Elizabeth of France, was Born the 28th of No­vember 1663. and died in the Castle of the Louvre the 10th of January 1664.

2. The most High and Mighty Princess the Lady Marie-Anne of France, was Born the 17th of No­vember 1664. and died in the Castle of the Louvre the 26th of December, the same year.

3. The most High and Mighty Princess, the Lady Marie-Terese of France, was Born half an hour past ten at Night, the second of January 1667. and di­ed the 1st of March 1672. at the Age of five Years and two Months: She was Baptized in the Chap­pel of the Tuilleries in January 1668. and had for [Page 27] Godfather Monsieur, the Present Duke of Orleans, and for Godmother, Madame the late Dutchess Dowager of that Name.

4. The most High and Mighty Prince, the Lord Philip Son of France, Duke of Anjou, was Born the 5th of August, 1668. at St. Germains en Laye, where he died the 7th of July 1671. at the Age of three years wanting 25 days: He was Baptized in the Chappel of the Tuilleries, by Cardinal An­tony Barberin, Great Almoner of France, the 24th of March 1669. his Godfather was the Emperour, represented by the Duke of Orleans, and his God­mother, the then Queen of Spain, Represented by his Sister, the Lady Marie-Terese of France.

5. The most High and Mighty Prince the Lord Lewis-Francis, Son of France, also Duke of Anjou, was Born the 14th of June 1672. and died the 4th of November, the same year.

These two Dukes of Anjou are here placed ac­cording to the order of their Birth, after the La­dies their Sisters, though 'tis well known, they being of the nobler Sex, took place before them, though they were elder, which Order is observed by the Officers of both Sexes that served them.

When there are any Children of France, They are served by several of the Kings Officers. As for Example, The Kings Chaplains say Mass every day in their Chamber; The Chief Physician, or one of the Physicians of the quarter is present when they are shifted: the Valets de Chambre, come thither and serve them too: The Door-Keepers do their Office; There are likewise twelve of the Kings Life-guard Men, Commanded by an Exemt in Or­dinary, and a Sub-Brigadier, that keep Guard every day at the outward Door, and lie in the Hall: Two of the Kings Footmen wait always in the Anti-Chamber, to be in readiness to go where-ever there shall be occasion to send them for the service of the Children of France; and they have besides ten other little Footmen.

[Page 28] If any of the Children of France be carried or Conducted to the Audiences given by the King, to Ambassadours, they are placed on the Kings right hand: The Governess, and Under-Governess too, enter within the Rails upon the Cloth of State, as likewise the Chamber-Maid that holds them in her Arms, and the Gentleman-Usher that leads and supports them for fear they should fall.

Of Monsieur the Kings only Brother, and his Family.

Philip, Son of France, only Brother to the King, Duke of Orleans, &c. was Born the 22d of Septem­ber, 1640. His first Wife was the Lady Henriette-Anne, of England, Daughter to the late Charles the First, King of Great-Brittain, and Sister to the Present King of England; to whom he was Married the last day of March 1661. She died the 29th of June 1670. leaving him two daughters, Marie-Lewise of Orleans, Queen of Spain, Born the 27th of March 1662. Married at Fountain-bleau the 31st of August 1679. and Anne of Orleans, Dutchess of Savoy, Born the 27th of August, 1669. and Married at Versailles the 10th of April, 1684. His second Wife is Madam Charlotte-Elizabeth of Bavaria, Daughter to the late Elector Palatine, who was Born the 27th of May, or the 17th old Stile 1651. and was Married to him the 21st of December, 1671. By whom he has Issue, the Duke of Chartres, named Philip, Born the second of Au­gust 1675, and Madamoiselle of Chartres, Born the 13th of September 1676. named Elizabeth Charlotte.

The Duke of Chartres is Colonel of the Regi­ment of Guienne, His Governour is the Marshal d' Estrades, who has the same allowance as the Gover­nours of the Sons of France. His Tutor is Monsieur de St. Laurent, formerly Introductor of Ambassa­dours to their Royal Highnesses.

The Governess of their Royal Highnesses Chil­dren, is the Marshal of Grancy's Lady.

[Page 29] Monsieur the Duke of Orleans, is a Prince of a very lively spirit, that delights in great things, and that has signaliz'd his Courage in several Rencoun­ters, as at the taking of St. Omers, at the Battel of Mount-Cassel, &c.

CHAP. VI.

Of the Princes of the Blood.

MOnsieur, the late Duke of Orleans, who was named Gaston-John-Baptiste, Son of France, Duke of Orleans, &c. Died at Blois, at the Age of 52 Years, the second of February, 1660.

His first Wife was Marie of Bourbon, Daughter and Sole Heiress to Henry of Bourbon, Duke of Montpensier, and Sovereign Prince of Dombes, and to Henriette-Catharine Dutchess of Joyeuse: She was Married to him in the Year 1626. and died the 4th of June the next Year, being 1627. lea­ving him a Daughter Born the 29th of May in the said year 1627. Stiled Madamoiselle of Orleans, who Signs Anne-Marie-Lewise of Orleans, The Countess of Fiesque was her Governess: She is likewise Dutch­ess of Chatelleraud, (which formerly belonged to the Dukes of Hamilton in Scotland, and is still Claimed by them) and of Montpensier, &c. Princess de la Roche-sur-Yon, &c. and Sovereign Princess of Dombes, &c. But she hath given the Principality de la Roche-sur-Yon, to Francis Lewis of Bourbon, at present Prince of Conti, and the Soveraignty of Dombes, (which gives power to Coin Money) to my Lord the Duke of Maine, reserving only the profits of it during her Life.

In the year 1632. the said late Monsieur Married for his second Wife, Margaret of Loraine, second Daughter of Francis Count de Vaudemont, and of [Page 30] Christine de Salme, and Sister of Charles Duke of Lorrain, who was Born in the year 1615. and di­ed at Paris, in her Palace of Luxemburgh, the 3d of April 1672. By whom he left three Daughters.

1. Madamoiselle of Orleans, named, Margaret-Lewise, Born the 28th of July 1645. and Married the 19th of April 1661. to the Prince of Tuscany, at Present Great Duke of Florence, by whom he has Ferdinand of Medicis, Prince of Tuscany, Born the 9th of August 1663. and Marie Magdalene of Medi­cis, Born in the year 1665.

2. Madamoiselle d' Alençon Isabel of Orleans, Born the 26th of Decem. 1646. She is Dutchess Dowager of the late Duke of Guise, by whom she had a Son.

3. And Madamoiselle de Valois, Francise of Orle­ans, Born the 13th of October 1648. and Married to the Duke of Savoy 1663. She died in 1664.

He had likewise a Son by her, named John-Gaston Duke of Valois.

Before we come to the Princes of Condé and Conti, we must take notice, That Lewis of Bourbon, the first of that Name, Prince of Condé, [Brother of Antony of Bourbon, King of Navarre, who was Father to King Henry the Great.] Had by Eleonor de Roye, Countess of Roucy, Marchioness of Conti, and Lady of Muret, his first Wife, Henry Prince of Condé, the first of that Name: This Henry the first had, by Charlotte-Catherine de la Tremoüille, Henry the Second, who by Charlotte Margaret of Montmo­rency, Daughter to the last Constable of Montmo­rency, and Lewise de Budos his second Wife, who died the 2d of December 1650. left three Children and died the 28th of December 1646.

1. Lewis of Bourbon the second of that Name, Prince of Condé, first Prince of the Blood, Duke of the Territory of Bourbon, &c. and General of the Kings Armies, who was one of the most Valiant Prin­ces of Europe, or to speak better, the Alexander of his Age: He was Born the 8th of September 1621, [Page 31] and on the 11th of February 1641. being as then but Duke of Enguyen in his Fathers Life-time, Married Clare-Clemence, de Maillé Brezé, Daughter of the late Marshal de Brezé, and of the late Cardi­nal Duke of Richelieu's Sister: By whom he had at Paris, the 29th of July 1643. Henry-Julius of Bourbon, now Prince of Condé, Knight of the Orders of his Majesty, Governour of Burgundy, &c. Grand Master of France, or of the Kings Houshold, under which Head, we shall speak further of him. The Late Prince of Condé died at Fountain-bleau the 11th. of December, 1686. in the 65 Year of his Age.

On the 11th of December 1663. The present Prince Married Anne Countess Palatine, Dutchess of Bavaria, who was Born the 11th of December 1647. Daughter of the late Edward of Bavaria, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, and of Anne of Gor­zague, and was adopted only Daughter of Poland: By whom he had, 1. Marie-Terese, called Madamo­iselle de Bourbon, who was Born at Paris, the first of February 1666. and Baptized at the Convent of the Carmelites, in the Street called, La rue de Bouloy, the 22th of January 1670. 2. Lewis of Bourbon, Duke of Enguien, and Governour of Burgundy, Born at Paris the 11th of October 1668, who Married Madamoiselle of Nantes, Lewise Francise, of Bourbon, legitimated, of France, the 24th of July 1685. 3. Anne-Lewise of Bourbon called Madamoiselle of Enguien, Born at Paris the 11th of August 1675. 4. Lewise-Benedicte of Bour­bon called Madamoiselle de Condé, Born the 8th of November 1676. and 5. Marie-Anne of Bourbon, called Madamoiselle de Montmorency, Born the 24th of February 1678.

The King Restored to the Prince at the time of the Pyrenean Treaty, the County of Clermont, Ste­ney, and Dun, and that of Jamets; and since he has given him the Domain of the Country of Bour­bon, being the ancient Patrimony of this Royal [Page 32] Branch, before it came to the Crown.

This Princes only Brother, was the late Armand of Bourbon Prince of Conti, Governour of Languedoc, Knight of the Kings Orders, he was Born at Paris, the 8th of October 1629. and died at Pezenas, the 21st of February 1666. He Married Anne-Marie Martinozzi, Niece to the late Cardinal Mazarine, who died the 3d of February 1672. by whom he left two Princes, who were brought up with the Dauphin, which were 1. The late Prince of Conti, Lewise-Armand of Bourbon, Born the 4th of March 1661. and Baptized the last of February 1662. The King and the late Queen Mother being his Godfa­ther and Godmother, who named him Lewis; he died at Fountain-bleau, the 9th of November 1685. on the 16th of January 1680. he Married Mada­moiselle de Blois, Marie-Anne legitimated of France. The King gave then to this Prince, 50000 Crowns ready money, and a yearly Pension of 25000 Crowns, and to the Princess, a Million of Livers ready mo­ney, with a yearly Pension of 100000 Livers, and many Jewels, besides the Dutchy of Vaujours; she had besides, as Heiress, all that was left, by her Bro­ther the late Count of Vermandois, High Admiral of France. 2. The Prince de la Roche-sur-Yon, Francis Lewis of Bourbon, at present, Prince of Conti, Born the 30th of April 1664. The King has given him a Pension of 20000 Crowns a year.

3. Anne-Genevieve of Bourbon, only Sister to the present Prince of Condé, was Born the 27th of Au­gust 1639. and died the 15th of April 1679. She Married Henry the second of that Name, Duke of Longueville.

There still-remains of the Family of Bourbon, the Princess of Carignan, named Marie de Bourbon-Sois­sons, Born in 1606. Wife of the Deceased Prince Thomas, and Mother of Prince Emanuel Philbert, Prince of Carignan in Savoy, of the late Count of Soissons, Eugenius-Maurice of Savoy, and of the Prin­cess of Baden.

[Page 33] And Lewis Son of Lewis of Bourbon, Count of Soissons, Cousin German of the late Henry the Se­cond of that Name, Prince of Condé, who died in 1641. He is called Knight of Soissons, being Knight of Malta, and Abbot de la Couture, in Manse.

We have hitherto named only those Princes in France, which are such, without being obliged for that honour to any thing else but their Birth, but the Princes of Courtnay, pretend they ought like­wise to be comprised, having made great instances to that purpose, under the reign of Henry the Great, Representing that they were descended in a direct Male Line, from Peter of France, Seventh Son of King Lewis the Sixth, Sirnamed the Grosse: which because they have not as yet been acknowledged such, we shall pass by, and speak of some other Princes and Princesses descended from the House of France, who because they are natural Children, (or their Descendants) of the Royal Family, Born out of Legal Matrimony, have need of Letters of Legi­timation, or of a publick act, by which they may be acknowledged of Royal Issue, and enjoy the Rank of Princes, which the Kings Natural Children so Legitimated, and their Descendants, have always had in France.

CHAP. VII.

Of the Legitimated Children of the Present King.

1. THE first Legitimated Child of the Present King, is Marie-Anne of Bourbon, Legitima­ted of France, Natural Daughter of the present King, and of Lewise-Francise, de la Baume le blanc de la Valiere, Dutchess of Vaujour, &c. formerly one [Page 34] of the Maids of Honour, to the late Dutchess of Orleans, Henriette-Anne of Great-Brittain; who is at present a professed Nun in the Great Convent of the Carmelitesses, into which Order she entred the 4th of June 1675. under the Name of Sister Lewise of Mercy; This young Princess was Born in October 1666. and as we have already re­marked, is now the Widow of the late Prince of Conti, to whom she was Married the 16th of Ja­nuary 1680. having had no Children by him.

Her Letters of Legitimation were verified in Par­liament the 14th of May 1667.

2. Her Brother by the same Mother was the late Lewis, Legitimated of France, Count of Vermandois, and High-Admiral, or Grand-Master of the Seas, Head and Super-Intendant General of the Com­merce and Navigation of France, who was Born the 2d of October 1667. and died at Courtray, the 18th of November 1681. at five a Clock in the Morning, and was Interred in the Cathedral Church of Arras, leaving all he had to the said Lady his Sister.

His Letters of Legitimation bear date the 20th of February 1669. in which he is stiled Duke of Vermandois.

Other Legitimated Children of France, by Madam de Montespan.

1. Lewis-Augustus of Bourbon Legitimated, of France, Duke of Maine, Soveraign Prince of Dombes, and Colonel General of the Suisses and Grisons, &c. Born the last of March 1670. and Legitimated the 19th of December 1673.

The Soveraignty of Dombes was given him, by Madamoiselle Anne-Marie of Orieans, in the Month of March 1682. reserving only the profits to her self during her Life.

2. Lewis Caesar of Bourbon, Legitimated of France, Count de Vexin, Born in 1672. Legitimated the 19th of December 1673.

[Page 35] 3. Madamoiselle of Nantes, named Lewise-Fran­cise of Bourbon, Legitimated of France, the 19th of December 1673. who was Married to the Duke of Bourbon, the 24th of July 1685.

4. Madamoiselle de Tours, named Lewise-Marie-Anne of Bourbon, who was Legitimated of France, in January 1676. and died in September 1681.

5. Lewis-Alexander of Bourbon, Earl of Toulouse, and at present Great Admiral of France, and Colonel of the Regiment of Toulouse, Bornthe 6th of June 1678. and Legitimated of France in Novem. 1681.

6. Madamoiselle of Blois, Francise-Marie of Bour­bon, who was also Legitimated of France, in Novem­ber 1681.

CHAP. VIII.

Of the Legitimated Children of Henry the Great, and their Descendants.

1. BY the Lady Gabriele d' Etrées, Dutchess of Beaufort, one of Henry the Great's Mistresses, during his first Marriage, he had, First, Caesar Duke of Vendome, Born in the Month of June 1594. The second, Alexander of Vendome, Grand Prior of France, who died in the Wood of Vincennes; and the Third Catharine-Henriette, who Married the Duke of El­beuf, last deceased.

The deceased, Caesar of Vendome, Duke of Ven­dome, &c. was Born in the Month and Year above­said, at Coucy-le Chateau, His Majesty Legitimated him in 1595. and gave him the Dukedom and Peerage of Vendome in 1598. and caused him to take both that Name, and the Arms belonging to it. The same Year a Marriage was treated off, be­tween him and Françise of Lorrain of Mercoeur, only Daughter, and Heiress Apparent of Philip-Emanuel [Page 36] of Lorrain, Duke of Mercoeur, and of Marie of Luxemburg, Princess of Martigues, who died the 8th of September 1669. which Marriage was Con­summated in 1609. He took the Oath of Duke and Peer in Parliament in 1606. He was Governour and Lieutenant-General for the King in Brittany, which Place he Resigned, in favour of the Queen Regent, in the Month of May 1650. for that of High Admiral of France: The Crosses and disgra­ces this Prince had met withal, having nothing abated his Zeal for the service of the King and State. He died in his Palace at Paris, the 22d of October 1665. leaving three Children behind him.

1. Lewis Duke of Vendome and Mercoeur; Gover­nour of Provence, &c. and afterward Cardinal, who before he was Cardinal, Married in the year 1651. Victoria-Mancini, Niece to the Late Cardinal Ma­zarine, who died the 8th of January 1657. And died himself at Aix, the 6th of August 1669. leaving two Sons by this Marriage, of whom we shall speak below.

2. His Brother Francis of Vendome, Duke of Beaufort, Peer of France, Knight of the Kings Or­ders, High Admiral, or Grand Master of the Seas, Head and Super-intendant General of the Com­merce and Navigation of France, was Born at Pa­ris in the Month of January 1616. and was in April 1669. declared by his Holiness, General of all the Forces of Christendom, sent to the Relief of Candia, and never could be found or heard of since that unhappy attack given by the French to the Turks the 25th of June 1669. He was never Mar­ried.

3. Their Sister was named Isabel of Vendome, and died in May 1664. being the Widow of the late Duke of Nemours, Charles-Amedeus of Savoy, by whom she left two Daughters, as we shall remark afterward.

The two Sons of the abovesaid Cardinal, Duke [Page 37] of Vendome, during his said Marriage, are yet li­ving, and are

1. Lewis-Joseph of Vendome, Duke of Vendome, &c. Great Senechal and Governour of the Country and County of Provence, &c. was Born the first of July 1654. He won the prize at running at Heads, performed at St. Germains in February 1680. and that at running at the Ring the 2d of May the same year.

2. Philip of Vendome Grand Prior of France, Knight of St. John of Jerusalem, &c. was Born the 22d of August 1656.

The same Henry the Great, had during his second Marriage, by the Lady Henriette of Balsac D' An­tragues, Marchioness of Vernueil, a Son and a Daughter, being

1. The late Henry of Bourbon, Duke of Vernueil, &c. who on the 29th of October 1668. Married Charlote Seguier, Dutchess Dowager of Sully, who died without Children, the 28th of May 1682.

2. The late Gabriele of Bourbon, first Wife to the Deceased Duke of Epernon, by whom she had the Duke of Candale, who died at Lyons, and a Daughter, who is a Carmelite Nun.

By the Lady Jaqueline de Bueil, Countess of Mo­ret, he had Antony of Bourbon, Count of Moret, who was killed at the Battel of Castelnau d' Ary in 1632.

Lastly, By the Lady Charlotte of Essars, Countess of Remorantin, his fourth Mistress, the said King had two Daughters, viz. The Lady Joan-Baptist of Bourbon, Abbess and Chief of the Order of Fontev­rault, who was Born in 1608. and died the 16th of January 1669. and the Lady Marie-Henriette of Bourbon, Abbess of Chelles, who is likewise dead.

CHAP. IX.

Of the House of Longueville.

THE late Henry of that Name, Duke of Longue­ville, &c. Died at Roan the 11th of May 1663. at the Age of 69 years; He Married, as we have said, the present Prince of Conde's Sister, by whom he had two Sons, viz.

1. John-Lewis-Charles of Orleans, of Longueville, called, The Abbot of Orleans, Duke of Longueville and d' Estouteville, Count de Dunois, (or the Coun­try of Dun) &c. was Born the 12th of January 1646. and took the Order of Priesthood in 1669.

2. Charles of Orleans Duke of Longueville Count of St. Pauls, his Brother, was killed at the memo­rable passage of the Rhine, near Tolbuys in Holland the 12th of June 1672. leaving only a natural Son called the Chevalier Longueville, who was Legiti­mated the same year.

Their Sister by the Fathers side, by a former Wise, was Anne-Marie of Orleans, who was Born the 5th of March 1625. being Widow of Henry of Savoy, last Duke of Nemours.

This Family descended in a direct Male Line, from John, Natural Son to Lewis of France, Duke of Orleans, Brother to Charles the Sixth. This Count de Dunois, did such brave Exploits in the reign of Charles the Seventh, against the English, under the Names of the Bastard of Orleans, and of Count de Dunois, That he obtained for his Posterity very singular Priviledges, and such as never before or since him, were ever granted to any Natural Children but those of the Kings themselves.

After the Princes of the Blood, and those which [Page 39] are Legitimated, I thought good to subjoin those Families, that the King suffers to enjoy some parti­cular honours which other Dukes and Peers are not allowed; which are called, Stranger-Princes.

CHAP. X.

Of Stranger-Princes.

THese Princes, though born in France, and truly French by Nation, yet are called Strangers, be­cause they are originally descended from a Foreign House and Principality, and bear its Name: As those of the House of Lorain, Savoy, and others, of which we shall here speak.

It is almost impossible to regulate the point of Precedence among the Soveraign Families setled in France, and therefore not to meddle with those disputes, I shall follow the Order of the time of their respective setling here: And since the Branches of the House of Lorain, that for these many Ages have been setled in this Kingdom, have longer en­joyed the Bank of Princes in France, than those of the House of Savoy; I hope none will take it ill that I give them the first place: for, as for the Pre­cedence of some other Houses, there being as yet, almost nothing determined in France on that sub­ject, I shall leave it wholly to the Reader to think of that point what he pleases.

Of the House of Lorain.

The better and more distinctly to describe to you all the Princes and Princesses of the House of Lorain, that are at present living, I shall divide the Family into five Branches, and accordingly shall speak first,

Of the first Branch of Lorain.

The late Charles the Third of that Name, Duke of Lorain, who died of a Feaver at Cologne, the 17th of September 1675. at the Age of 75 Years, Married on the 22d of May 1621. his Cousin-German Ni­cole of Lorain, eldest Daughter of the deceased Henry Duke of Lorain. This Charles Duke of Lorain, was detained a long time Prisoner in Spain, which was the cause that the Princess Nicole Dutchess of Lo­rain, not being willing to fall into the same Misfor­tune with her Husband retired into France, where, in consideration of an honourable Pension for the support of the dignity of so great a Princess, she yielded up all her rights to the Dutchy of Lorain, and died without Children, at Paris, the 21th of February 1657.

After which the said late Duke Charles Married for his second Wife, at Nancy, the 5th of November 1665. the Lady Mary of Apremont, of Nantenil, by whom he had likewise no Children.

He in like manner, yielded up to the King of France, the Property and Soveraignty of his Dutch­ies of Lorain, and of Bar: which Donation was ve­rified in Parliament, in presence of the King him­self, who sat there in person on his Bed of Justice, in the Month of February 1662.

Yet there remain two Natural Children of the said late Duke Charles the Third, which he had by the Lady Beatrix of Cusance, Princess of Cantecroix, viz. a Son and a Daughter.

1. The Son is Charles-Henry Legitimated of Lo­rain, Prince of Vaudemont, Born the 25th of April 1649. and on the 27th of April 1669. at Bar le Duc, Married Anne-Elizabeth of Lorain, of Elbeuf, Daughter of Charles of Lorain Duke of Elbeuf, and Anne-Elizabeth of Lannoy de la Boissiere, Widow of Henry of Plessis of Liancourt, Count de la Reche­guyon, his first Wife.

[Page 41] 2. The Daughter is Anne-Elizabeth, Legitimated of Lorain, Wife to Francis-Marie of Lorain, Count of l' Isle-bone, who was Born the 6th of August 1649.

The late Prince, named Francis-Nicholas of Lo­rain, who died at Nancy the 26th of January 1670. was Brother to the said Duke Charles, and likewise Married his Cousin-German Claudia of Lorain youn­ger Sister of the abovesaid Dutchess Nicole, by whom he left an only Son, who is

Charles-Leopold-Nicolas-Sixtus of Lorain, the present Duke of Lorain in Title, though as yet he has no possession of it, as having refused to be in­cluded in the late Treaty of Nimguen. His Titles are, Duke of Lorain, Marchis, Calabria, Bar, and Gueldres, Marquess of Pont-a-Mousson, and of No­meny, Count of Provence and of Vaudemont, Blamont, Zutphen, Sarwerden and Salm: He was Born at Vienna, the 3d of April 1643. On the 15th of Fe­bruary 1678. He Married the Princess Eleonor-Ma­rie of Austria, Sister to the Emperour, and Queen Dowager of Poland. He has for several Years, been Generalissimo of the Imerial Forces: He took Phi­lipsburg from the French, and has done very noble things against the Turks in Hungary, at the relief of Vienna, the Battel of Gran, and the two Sieges of Buda, &c. The late Duke Charles had likewise two Sisters.

1. Margaret of Lorain called Madame Dowager, as being Widow of the late Monsieur Gaston, Duke of Orleans, Brother to the last, and Uncle to the present King, of whose Children we have spoken; she died the 3d of April 1672.

2. Henriette of Lorain, the younger Sister, Mar­ried to her first Husband, Lewis of Lorain, Prince of Phalzburg.

Of the second Branch, which is of Guise.

The late Duke of Joyeuse, Lewis of Lorain, left a Son and two Daughters by his Wife Margaret of Valois, only Daughter and Heir of the Duke of Angouleme, and of Henriette de la Gui [...]he, Lady de la Palisse.

1. The Son was named Lewis-Joseph of Lorain, Duke of Guise, he died the 30th of July 1671. on the 15th of May 1667. he Married Madamoiselle d' Alençon Isabelle of Orleans, to whom he left a Son, called Francis-Joseph of Lorain, Duke of A­lençon, of Guise, &c. who died the 16th of March 1675.

2. Madamoiselle of Guise, named Marie of Lo­rain, Dutchess of Guise and Joyeuse, &c. Born in 1615. and

3. Francise-Renée of Lorain, of Guise, Abbess of Montmarire Born in 1621. and died the 5th of December 1682.

Of the third Branch, which is of Chevreuse.

The late Duke of Chevreuse, was named Claudius of Lorain, Son of Henry of Lorain, Duke of Guise; he died in his Palace at Paris the 24th of January 1657. and of three Daughters he had by the Lady Marie of Rohan, who was Widow of the Constable of Luyne, there is none left but Henriette of Lorain of Chevreuse, Abbess of Joüare, who was Born in 1631.

Of the fourth Branch, which is of Elbeuf.

The late Duke of Elbeuf who died the 8th of De­cember 1657. left four lawful Children, by Catherine-Henriette, Legitimated of France, Sister to the late Caesar Duke of Vendome, and Daughter of King [Page 34] Henry the Great, and of Gabriele d' Etrées Dutchess of Beaufort.

I. The Eldest, who is at present, the head of the House of Lorain in France, is Charles Duke of El­beuf, &c. and Governour for his Majesty in Picardy, of the Country and County of Artois, of Hainaut, and the particular Governour of the Town and Cit­tadel of Montreuil on the Sea, in the said Province of Picardy; He was Born 1620. and Married to his first Wife on the 7th of March 1648. Anne-Eli­zabeth de Lannoy, Daughter of the Count of Lazzon, and Widow of Henry du Plessis, Count de la Roche­guyon; and to his second Wife, in the Month of May 1656. Elizabeth de la Tour d' Auvergne, Sister to the Duke of Boüillon, who died the 23d of Octo­ber 1680. And to his third Wife, on the 25th of August, 1684. Francise de Montaut, de Navailles, Daughter of the Marshal Duke of that Name.

By his first Wife, he has two Children; Charles of Lorain, Prince of Elbeuf, Knight of Malta, who was Born the 2d of November 1650. and Anne-Eli­zabeth of Lorain, who was Born the 6th of August 1649. and Married to Charles-Henry Legitimated of Lorain, Prince of Vaudemont, at Bar-le-Duc, the 27th of April 1669.

By his second Wife, he has four Children; 1. Ma­rie-Eleanor of Lorain, who was Born the 24th of February 1658. 2. Francise-Marie of Lorain, who was Born the 5th of May 1659. She is a Nun at the Nunnery of St. Marie in the Fauxbourg St. Jaqu's. 3. Henry of Lorain, Prince of Elbeuf, who has the Reversion of the Government of Picardie; he was Born the 7th of August 1661. and Married to Madamoiselle de Vivonne, Named Charlotte de Rochechoüart, de Mortemart, the 30th of January 1677. by whom he has one Son, called the Abbot of Lorain, whose name is Lewis of Lorain; he was Born the 8th of September 1662. and is Abbot of Orcamp. 4. Prince Emanuel of Lorain.

[Page 44] II. Charles of Lorain, Count of Harcourt, &c. was Born in 1623. He Married in the year 1645. Anne of Ornano, Niece to the Marshal of that Name; by whom he had three Sons and three Daughters, viz.

1. Alphonso-Henry-Charles of Lorain, Prince of Harcourt, Count of Montlaur, &c. who about the end of February 1667. Married Marie Francise de Brancas, Daughter of the Count de Brancas, Lady of Honour, or of the Palace to the Queen. Their Children are

1. Anne-Marie-Joseph of Lorain-Harcourt, Count of Montlaur, Born the last of April 1679. 2. Suson of Lorain-Harcourt. 3. Francis of Lorain-Harcourt. The Prince and Princess of Harcourt, had the ho­nourable Office of Conducting into Spain Marie-Lewise of Orleans, the Present Queen Consort of Spain.

2. Marie-Angelique-Henriette of Lorain, who was Married the 7th of February 1671. to the Duke of Cadaval, of the House of Braganza in Portugal, where she died the 7th of June 1674.

3. N.... Lorain, Born in 1657. Abbess of Montmartre.

4. N.... Lorain, Abbot of Harcourt, Born in 1661.

III. Francis-Marie of Lorain, Prince of l' Isle-bone, &c. called by some, Julius-Augustus-Lewis, was Born in 1624. and Married to his first Wife, on the 8th of September 1658. Christine d' Etrées, and to his second, on the 7th of October 1660. Anne of Lorain, Legitimated Daughter of the aforesaid late Charles Duke of Lorain, and Beatrix of Cusance, Princess of Sante-Croix, who in the year 1684. had the ho­nour to Conduct into Savoy, her Royal Highness Anne of Orleans, Dutchess of Savoy. Their Children are, 1. Charles of Lorain Prince of Comercy, Born the 11th of July 1661. 2. Madamoiselle de l' Isle-bone, Beatrix de Lorain, Born in June 1662. [Page 45] 3. The Princess of Commercy, Teresa of Lorain, Born in May 1663. 4. N.... Lorain, she was Born the 4th of April 1664. 5. N.... Lorain, Born in 1672.

Of the fifth Branch, which is of Armagnac.

The late Henry of Lorain, Brother to the late Duke of Elbeuf, Count of Harcourt, who died the 25th of July 1666. Married the Daughter of the Baron of Pont-Chateau, named Margaret-Philippa de Cambout, Kinswoman to the late Cardinal of Riche­lieu, who was Widow of the late Lord Antony de Lage, Duke of Puylorent; and died in 1675. by whom he had five Children, viz.

I. Lewis of Lorain, Count of Armagnac, of Charny, and Brione, Vicount of Marsan, &c. Great Seneschal of Burgundy, in the Bailywick of Dijon, &c. Grand Master of the Horse, of France; was Born in 1641. and on the 7th of October 1660. Married Catherine of Neuville, Youngest Daughter of the late Marshal Duke of Villeroy, by whom, he has, 1. Henry of Lorain Count of Brione, who was Born on the 15th of November 1661. who has the reversion of his Fathers Place, of Great Master of the Horse, which was confirmed to him the 25th of November 1677. 2. Margaret of Lorain, called, Ma­damoiselle d' Armagnac, who was Born the 17th of November 1662. and Maried on the 25th of July, to Don Nunno Alvarez Peyrera de Mello, Duke of Ca­daval, Grandee of Portugal, Grand Master of the Houshold to the Queen of Portugal, who had buried his first Wife, the Princess of Harcourt. 3. Fran­cis-Armand, Born the 17 of February 1665. called the Chevalier D' Armagnac, Abbot of Chateliers. 4. Camillus of Lorain, Born the 26th of October 1666. called Prince Camillus. He gain'd the Prize the first day of the Carousel held at Versailles, at running at Heads, with the Lance, Dart, and Sword, the 4th of June 1685.

[Page 46] II. Philip of Lorain, called the Chevalier de Lo­rain, Marshal of the Kings Camps and Armies, was Born in 1643. He is Abbot of St. John of the Vines of Soissons.

III. Alphonso-Lewis of Lorain, called the Cheva­lier de Harcourt, was Born in 1644. He is General of the Gallies of the Knights of Malta, and Abbot of Royaument, Primate of Lorain, and Commander of Noisy-le-sec.

IV. Raymond Beranger of Lorain, called the Ab­bot of Harcourt, is a Licenciate in Divinity of the Colledge of Navarre, and was Born the 4th of Ja­nuary 1647. He has several Abbeys.

V. Charles of Lorain, called the Count of Marsan, was Born in 1648. He won the Prize at the running at the Ring, at St. Germains, in the Month of Fe­bruary 1680. In 1682. he Maried Madamoiselle d'Albret.

Of the House of Savoy setled in France.

The late Count of Soissons, Eugenius-Maurice of Savoy, was Cousin-German to Charles Ema­nuel, Duke of Savoy. His Elder Brother, that is in Savoy, is named, Prince Emanuel-Philibert-Ame­deus, of Savoy, Prince of Carignan, who was Born the 22d of August 1631. His Sister the Princess Lewise-Christine of Savoy, on the 15th of May 1653. was Maried to Ferdinand-Maximilian, Marquess of Baden-Hochberg, Prince of the Empire; he was Born the 23d of September 1625. and died in 1669. By whom she had Lewis-William Prince of Baden, who was Born at Paris the 8th of April 1655.

They were Children of the late Prince of Carig­nan, who was called Prince Thomas, Son of Charles-Emanuel Duke of Savoy, and of the Daughter of [Page 47] Philip the Second, King of Spain: he was Grand Master of the Kings Houshold, when he died at Turin the 22th of January 1656. of a Feaver he got at the Siege of Paris, where he Commanded the French Army. He Maried in the year 1624. Marie of Bourbon-Soissons, called the Princess of Carignan, who was Born the 3d of May 1606.

The late Count of Soissons, Colonel General of the Suissers and Grisons, and Governour of Champagne and Brie, was Born the 3d of May 1633. and on the 21th of February 1657. Married a Niece of the late Cardinal Mazarine, named Olimpia Mancini, who was formerly Chief of the Queens Council, and Super-Intendant of her Houshold: He died the 7th of June 1671. and left these Children follow­ing, viz.

1. Lewis-Thomas of Savoy, Count of Soissons, Duke of Carignan, Colonel of the Regiment of So­issons, who was Born the 16th of December 1658. He has Married Madamoiselle de Beauvais.

2. Philip of Savoy, Knight of St. John of Jeru­salem, Abbot of St. Peter of Corbie, &c.

3. Francis-Eugenius of Savoy, Chevalier de Ca­rignan, called, the Abbot of Savoy.

4. Madamoiselle de Soissons, named Marie-Joan-Baptiste, Born the first of January 1665.

5. Madamoiselle de Carignan, Born the 22d of November 1667. named Lewise-Philibert.

There were still besides, of the House of Savoy, the two late Dukes of Nemours, descended from Philip of Savoy Count of Geneva, to whom King Francis the first, gave the Dutchy of Nemours; he was Uncle to the Grandfather of the present Duke of Savoy, and Brother to Emanuel-Philibert, and Charles-Emanuel, Dukes of Savoy.

The first of these two Dukes of Nemours last de­ceased, was named Charles-Amedeus of Savoy, Duke of Nemours and of Aumale, Peer of France, Count of Geneva, and of Gisors, &c. He was a very Comely [Page 48] Prince, and bred up to all the Exercises becoming his Birth: He was in many Military Expeditions, and principally at the taking of Mardike and Dun­kirk; where he gave signal proofs of his Valour, and received a dangerous Wound: He died at Paris, behind the Hôtel of Vendome, the 30th of July 1652. at the Age of 27 years and a half, lea­ving behind him two Daughters, by Isabelle of Ven­dome, whom he Married at the Louvre the 3d of July 1643. She died the 19th of May 1664. These Daughters were,

1. Marie-Joan-Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours, Born the 12th of April 1644. She was Married on the 11th of May 1665. to Charles-Emanuel, Duke of Savoy; She is at present Dutchess Dowager of Sa­voy, after having for many years been Regent of those Territories with much applause.

2. Marie-Francis-Elizabeth of Savoy-Nemours, was Born the 21st of June 1646. and was Married in 1665. to Alphonso the Sixth King of Portugal: But afterwards that Marriage being declared void, be­cause of the Impotence of that King, She was Re-Married to his Brother the Prince Don Pedro, then declared Regent of Portugal, the 28th of March 1680. and who is now King. She died the 27th of December 1683. leaving behind her only one Daughter, who was Born the 6th of January 1669. and Baptized the 2d of March following, and named Elizabeth-Marie-Lewise-Josephe: She is called the Princess, or otherwise, the Infanta of Por­tugal.

The Brother of the said Precedent Duke of Ne­mours, was Born in 1625. and was named Henry of Savoy Duke of Aumale, who after he had been brought up to the Exercises worthy of a Prince, was promoted to the Archbishoprick of Reims, and other Benefices. But upon the Death of his said Brother he quitted his Benefices, to take up the Sword, to endeavour to keep up and make to flou­rish [Page 49] in his person, the Illustrious House of Savoy: And so, taking the Title of Duke of Nemours, he Married on the 22d of May 1657. Madamoiselle Anne-Marie of Orleans, Daughter to the Duke of Longueville, who is now Dutchess Dowager of Or­leans; but died without Heirs, the 14th of Ja­nuary 1659. In whom, the Branch of Nemours, af­ter it had subsisted in France about the space of 150 years, was extinguished.

Of the Family de la Tour d' Auvergne, of which the famous Godfrey of Boüillon.

All the Princes of this House have remained in France, ever since the late Frederick Maurice de la Tour d' Auvergne, made an exchange with the King of his Soveraignty of Sedan, in the year 1651. who by Contract, gave him in lieu thereof, the Dutchies of Albret, and of Chateau-Thierry, and the Counties of Auvergne and Evreux, without pre­tending any thing to the right of Soveraignty this Family has over Boüillon, which then had been long usurped from him.

The said Prince Frederick-Maurice, who died at Pontoise the 19th of August 1652. was the Son of Henry de la Tour-d' Auvergne, Duke of Boüillon, Soveraign Prince of Sedan, and of Raucourt, Vicount of Turenne, Count of Monfort, and of Negrepelice [...]; and of Elizabeth of Nassau, Daughter of William Prince of Orange.

He Married Eleonor-Fébronie de Bergh, who died the 14th of July 1657. by whom he had Issue, as follows.

1. Emilia-Eleonor de la Tour-d' Auvergne, who is a Nun at the great Convent of the Carmelitesses at Paris.

2. Godfrey-Maurice de la Tour-d' Auvergne, So­veraign Duke of Boüillon, &c. High Chamberlain of France, and Governour of the upper and lower [Page 50] Auvergne. The Principality of Boüillon, upon the Kings Interposition, was restored to him, and put into his Possession, the 15th of June 1678. On the 19th of April 1662. in Presence of their Majesties in the Chappel of the Louvre, he Married the Lady Marie-Anne de Mancini, Niece to the late Cardinal Mazarine, by whom he has, 1. Lewis de la Tour Prince of Turenne, Born the 14th of January, and Baptized the 18th of April 1665. upon whom the Reversion of his Fathers Office of High Chamber­lain, was Confirmed the 24th of January 1682. 2. A Daughter, stiled Madamoiselle of Boüillon. 3. Emanuel-Theodosius Abbot of St. Saviours of Re­don, now Duke of Albret. 4. Madamoiselle d'Al­bret. 5. The Duke of Chateau-Thierry. 6. Lewis de la Tour d'Auvergne, Count of Evreux. 7. A Daughter Born the 26th of November 1679.

3. Frederick-Maurice de la Tour d'Auvergne, Count of Auvergne, Marquiss of Bergopzoom in the Low-Countries, Colonel-General of the light-Horse of France, Governour and Seneschal of the upper and lower Limosin, and Lieutenant-General of the Kings Armies, who in the year 1662. Married Henriette-Francise of Zollern, only Daughter of the late Iter-Frederick, Prince of Zollern, of the Ele­ctoral House of Brandenburg, and of Elizabeth de Berg, Princess of Zollern; by whom he has, 1. Emanuel-Maurice de la Tour d'Auvergne, Mar­quiss of Bergh. 2. Henry de la Tour, called the Ab­bot of Auvergne. 3. Lewis, called, le Chevalier d' Auvergne. 4. Francis, Prince of Limeil. 5. Eli­zabeth Eleonor de la Tour. 6. Lewise de la Tour. 7. Marie-Anne de la Tour.

4. Emanuel Theodosius de la Tour d'Auvergne, Cardinal of Boüillon, Great Almoner of France, &c. Great Provost of Liege, and Doctor of Sorbon.

5. Hippolyte de la Tour d'Auvergne, who is a Carmelite Nun with her above-named eldest Sister.

[Page 51] 6. Mauricia-Phobronia de la Tour d'Auvergne, called the Princess of Evreux, who on the 25th of April 1678. was Married at Chateau-Thierry, to Duke Maximilian-Philip of Bavaria, Son of Maxi­milian Elector of Bavaria, and of Marie-Anne Arch-Dutchess of Austria.

Henry de la Tour d'Auvergne Vicount of Turenne, and of Castillon, Count of Nêgrepêlice, their Uncle, was Governour and Seneschal of the upper and lower Limosin, Colonel-General of the light Horse, and Mareschal de Camp General, to the Kings Army, and was the Most Renowned Captain of this Age: But alas! on the fatal 27th of July 1675. New stile, a Canon shot put an end to the Illustrious Life of that Great Man, and to all the vast Projects he was about for the glory of his Majesties Arms.

He Commanded then the French Army on the other side the Rhine, against the Imperialists, under the Command of Count Montecuculi. The King in Honour of his Memory, caused a solemn service to be said for him in the Church of Nostre Dame at Paris, on the 9th of September 1675 at which the Parliament, and all the Superiour Companies were present, and ordered him a Stately Tomb in the Church of St. Denis in France, among the Mausolae­ums of his own Royal Predecessors.

Of the Family of Grimaldi de Mourgues, or of the Prince of Monaco in Italy.

Lewis the first of that Name, Soveraign Prince of Monaco, &c. Duke of Valentinois, Peer of France, &c. and Lord of the Town of St. Remy, was Born the 25th of July 1642. on the 30th of March 1660. He Married Catherine Charlotte of Gramont, who di­ed the 4th of June 1678. leaving him two Sons, and two Daughters. 1. Antony de Grimaldi, called the Duke of Valentinois, who is Colonel of the Re­giment of Soissons, and was Born the 27th of Ja­nuary [Page 52] 1661. 2. The Chevalier de Monaco, Born in 1669. 3. Marie-Charlotte Grimaldi, called Ma­damoiselle of Monaco, Born the 14th of January 1662. And 4. N..... de Monaco, who is a Nun.

The Prince of Monaco's Sisters are, Marie-Hippo­lyte de Grimaldi, Born in 1644. and Married in 1659. to Charles-Emanuel-Philibert de Simiane, Marquiss of Pianezz, lately first Minister of Savoy. 2. Joan-Marie de Grimaldi, who was Born in 1645. Widow of N.... Imperiale. 3. Devote-Marie-Renée Grimaldi, Born in 1646. who is a Nun. And 4. N.... de Grimaldi, Born in 1648.

Of the Family of Rohan.

The Family of Rohan being descended from the first Soveraigns of Brittany; is one of the most il­lustrious ones of the Kingdom: The Princes of this Family still maintain a Rank comformable to their Extraction, as they formerly did, enjoying the same Honours and Prerogatives as the fore-mention­ed Families. This Family has had several Allian­ces with our Kings, with the Emperours, and with the Kings of England, Scotland, Spain, Arragon and Navarre; and if Anne the Heiress of Brittany, who was afterward Queen of France, and Wife both to Charles the VIII. and Lewis the XII. had died without Children, there was no Family nearer to succeed to that Dutchy than this.

But the better to particularize in Order those which at present remain of this Illustrious Family, we shall make this Observation, That they descend all from these three following Heads or Chiefs.

  • 1. From the late Henry, Duke of Rohan.
  • 2. From the late Peter, Prince of Guémené.
  • 3. From his late Brother Hercules of Rohan, Duke of Montbazon.

1. The late Henry Duke of Rohan, Prince of Leon, [Page 53] left by Margaret of Leon his Wife, Daughter to the late Duke of Suilly, Margaret of Rohan, his only Heiress, who died the 9th of April 1684. In her, the Dutchy of Rohan, as well as the Vicounty of Leon, fell to the Distaffe (as they call it in France.) She Married Henry Chabot, Lord of St. Aulaye, the last in Rank, of the Barons of Jornac, and Grand-Child to Admiral Chabot, and died the 27th of February 1655. by whom she had a Son and three Daughters, viz.

  • 1. Lewis de Rohan-Chabot, Peer of France, of whom we shall speak among the Dukes and Peers.
  • 2. Anne Chabot de Rohan, Married the 16th of April 1663. to Francis of Rohan, Prince of Sou­bize.
  • 3. Margaret Chabot of Rohan, Widow of the Marquiss of Coëtquen, Governour of St. Malo, who died the 24th of April 1679.
  • 4. Joan-Pelagia Chabot of Rohan, called Mada­moiselle of Leon; She was Married to the Prince d' Epinoy the 11th of April 1668.

II. The late Peter of Rohan, Prince of Guémené, Count of Montauban, Elder Brother of the late Duke of Montauban, Married Magdalene of Rieux, Daughter to the Lord of Chateau-neuf, by whom, he had Anne of Rohan who was Married to the late Lewis of Rohan her Cousin-German, as we shall show further in due place.

III. The late Hercules of Rohan Duke of Mont­bazon, Count of Rochefort, Knight of the Kings Orders, Peer, and Great Huntsman of France, Go­vernour of the City of Paris, and Gentleman-Usher to Queen Marie of Medicis, who died in the year 1654. Married to his first Wife, Magdalene of Lenoncourt, Daughter and sole Heir of Henry of Lenoncourt, and the Lady Francise Laval; and to his second in the year 1628. Marie of Brittany, Daughter of the Count of Vertus; By both which, he had the Children following.

His Children by the first Wife were,

1. Lewis of Rohan, the Seventh of that Name, Prince of Guémené, Duke of Montbazon, Peer and Great Huntsman of France, Knight of the Kings Orders, who died the 19th of February 1667. in the 68th year of his Age: He Married Anne de Rohan, Princess of Guémené, his Cousin-German a­bove-mentioned, who died the 14th of March 1685. by whom he had one Son, viz.

Charles de Rohan Duke of Montbazon, Peer of France, Count of Rochefort, and of Montauban, who Married Joan Armanda of Schomberg, Daughter and Sister of the two late Counts and Marshals of that Name, by whom he has these following Chil­dren.

1. Charles of Rohan, Prince of Guémené, Duke of Montbazon, who Married to his first Wife, Ma­damoiselle de Luyne, Marie-Anne d' Albret, who died the 21st of August 1679. and to his second, on the 2d of December, the same year, Charlotte-Elizabeth de Cochefilet, called Madamoiselle de Vauvineux.

2. John-Baptist-Armandus of Rohan, called, The Abbot of Rohan.

3. John of Rohan, called the Prince of Montau­ban, who in 1682. Married N.... de Bautru No­gent, Widow of the Marquiss of Ranes, Lieutenant General of the Kings Armies.

4. Anne of Rohan, called Madamoiselle of Gué­mené.

5. Elizabeth of Rohan, called Madamoiselle of Montbazon, Born the 25th of March 1643.

6. And Madamoiselle of Montauban.

2. The late Marie de Rohan Dutchess Dowager of Chevreuse, who died the 13th of August 1679. was Daughter to the same late Hercules of Rohan, by the same Wife: She was first Married to Charles D' Albot Duke of Luyne, Peer, Constable and Great [Page 55] Falconer of France, Knight of the Kings Orders, Principal Gentleman of the Kings Bed-Chamber, and Governour of Picardie, who died in 1621. By whom she had Lewis-Charles d' Albert, Duke of Luyne, who was first Married to Lewise-Marie Se­guier Daughter of the Marquisse d' O, by whom he had several Children, and since, to the abovesaid Madamoiselle of Montbazon.

The same Marie of Rohan, after the Death of the said Constable of Luyne, was Married again, as we have said, to Claudius of Lorain, Duke of Chev­reuse, and had by him three Daughters, of whom there remains only Henriette of Lorain Abbess of Joüare.

The Children of the said late Hercules of Rohan by his second Wife, were one Son, and two Daughters, viz.

I. Francis of Rohan, Prince of Soubize, Count of Rochefort in Iveline, Lieutenant-Captain of a Com­pany of the Kings Gens d' armes, Governour of Berry, and Lieutenant General of the Kings Armies; who on the 16th of April 1663. Married his Cou­sin Madamoiselle de Rohan, Lady of Honour to the Queen; By whom, he has had several Children, the Eldest of which is

1. Lewis of Rohan of Soubize, who was Baptized at the Royal Chappel at St. Germains en Laye, the 16th of February 1675. Their Majesties being plea­sed to stand for his Godfather and Godmother.

2. Hercules-Meriadec of Rohan, Abbot of St. Taurin of Evreux, called, the Abbot of Rohan.

3. Anne-Margaret of Rohan of Soubize, who is a Nun in the Convent of the Benedictin Nuns of Nostre Dame de Consolation, in the Street called the Rue de Chasse-midy, in the Suburbs of St. Germain, at Paris.

4. Madamoiselle de Frontenay, N. [...]. de Rohan.

5, & 6. Two Boys more.

[Page 56] II. Constance Emilia of Rohan, who was Married by Proxy, on the 18th of May 1683. to Don Joseph Rodrigo de Camara, Son of Don Miguel de Camara, Count de Ribeyra-grande, Grandee of Portugal. This Don Joseph-Rodrigo de Camara, is of the Privy Council to the present King of Portugal, Gover­nour, and Captain-General, and Lord of the Island of St. Michael, and of the Town de Poule-Del­gade.

The Ceremony of the Espousals was performed the day before, at Versailles, in the Kings Great Cabinet, in Presence of their Majesties, of my Lord the Dauphin, and my Lady Dauphiness, of Mon­sieur, and Madame, and of all the Princes and Princesses, and principal Lords of the Court: She arrived in Portugal, in the Month of October 1683.

Of the Family of Tremoille.

I. The late Prince of Tarente, Charle-Henry de la Tremoille, Duke of Thoüars, Peer of France, Knight of the Order of the Garter; bore Arms in Holland, and was General of the Cavalry of the States of the United Provinces, and Governour of Bois le Duc, for the said Lords States. He made Abjuration of the reformed Religion, before the Bishop of Angers, the 3d of September 1670. and died the 14th of September 1672.

He Married on the 1st of May 1648. the Princess Emilia of Hessen, Sister to William Landgrave of Hessen-Cassel, who was Born in 1626. by whom he left divers Children; viz.

1. Charles-Belgick-Holland de la Tremoille, Duke of Thoüars, Peer of France, Prince of Tarente, &c. who has the Reversion of the Place of one of the Principal Gentlemen of the Kings Bed-chamber, af­ter his Father-in-Law, the Duke of Crequi: He Married on the 3d of April 1675. Madamoiselle of [Page 57] Crequi, named Magdalene of Crequi, onely Daugh­ter to the Duke of Crequi, by whom he has Issue a Daughter N.....: of Tremoille, Born in 1677. and a Son, N.... of Tremoille, Born in 1683.

2. William Frederick of Tremoille, Prince of Talmont, Abbot of Charroux, &c. and Canon of Strasburg.

3. Charlotte-Emilia of Tremoille, who having been Married in Denmark the 29th of May 1680. to Antony of Altemburg, Count of Oldenburg, became a Widow four Months after.

4. N..... of Tremoille.

5. N..... of Tremoille.

II. Marie of Tremoille, their Aunt called here­tofore, Madamoiselle of Tremoille, who was Married on the 18th of July 1662. to Prince Bernard of Saxe-weimar, Son of Duke William.

Of the Brothers and Sisters of the deceased Henry Duke of Tremoille, Grandfather to the present Duke, who died the 21st of January 1674. There remains the Issue that follows.

1. Of the late Frederick of Tremoille, Count of Laval, &c. who died at Venice in February 1642. of a Wound he received in a Duel against the Sieur du Coudray-Montpensier, there remain some natural Chil­dren by Mrs. Anne Orpe, an English Gentlewoman, and one Daughter, by N.... de Moussi, a Venetian Lady.

2. Henry-Steven of Tremoille, whose Birth was Controverted in the Court of Parliament of Paris, and declared Illegitimate, by a Sentence of the 23d of March 1647.

3. Charlotte of Tremoille, Married to the Lord James Stanly, Earl of Darby, King in Man, &c. Eldest Son to the late Earl William, and the Lady Elizabeth Vere: He did great Services to the late King Charles the First, in the Civil Wars, against the Rebellious Parliamenteers.

Of this Marriage are come several Children.

[Page 58] Those which remain at present of the two Bran­ches of Tremoille-Royan, and Tremoille-Noirmoutier, are second Cousins to the Prince of Tarente last de­ceased, who was Charles-Henry of Tremoille.

The House of Tremoille, at the late Treaties of Munster and Nimguen, Represented the pretensi­ons it has to succeed Frederick of Arragon, last King of Naples in that Kingdom.

I have not mentioned the Family of Epernon, because there remains none of it but one Daughter, who is a Carmelite Nun, and Marie of Cambout, Dutchess Dowager of that Name.

Before I put an end to this Chapter, it will not be amiss to tell you, what it is, to have The Pour, or The for, (as they term it) which is a Priviledge at Court, allowed only to Princes of the Blood, or to Legitimated Princes, or to such Lords, who as those of this last sort, have the Priviledge and Rank of Princes.

To explain then, what is the meaning of having the Pour, or the for at Court; You must know, That in France, 'tis a thing immemorially practi­sed by the Kings Harbengers, called Fouriers, to mark out before-hand Lodgings in private Houses in all places, whither the Court is to remove, for all the great Persons, Officers, and Attendants be­longing to it, without consulting the leave or liking of the Owners, who are bound to furnish the Rooms and supply necessaries, according to the respective Quality, as well of the Owner as of the Person or Persons he is to lodge, at a certain stinted incon­siderable rate. Now these Harbingers or Fouriers, mark the Doors of the Houses, or Chambers they single out for these purposes with Chalk; and if it be only for an ordinary, or mean Officer, or any Person beneath the Quality above-specified, then they mark out in Chalk only the Name of the Per­son, without further addition; but when they mark out any House or Rooms, for Persons of this high [Page 59] Quality, They then prefix this word Pour, i. e. for, and write Pour, i. e. for Monsteur or Monseignour tel, i. e. Mr. or My Lord such a one: And this is cal­led, Having The Pour.

It is to be observed, That there are some parti­cular Lords in France, that bear the stile of Princes, as a thing annexed to the Lands they possess, which have the Title of Principalities; such as are, The Principalities of Dombes, and of La Roche-sur-Yon, lately belonging to Madamoiselle of Orleans Mont­pensier, of Martigues and Anet, to the Duke of Ven­dome; of Neuf-Chatel, and Wallenghin in Suisserland, to the House of Longueville, and of Chatel-aillon in the Country of Rochel, to the Barony of Joinville, belonging to the House of Guise, Erected into a Principality, the 9th of May 1552. Of Gué­mené belonging to the Prince of that Name, Erected in 1570. and verified in Parliament the same year: Of Soubize, Erected into a Principa­lity, by Letters Patents of the Month of March 1667. and verified in Parliament, the first of July the same year. That of Talmont, belonging to the House of Tremoille: That of Tarente in Italy, which though it be in the possession of the King of Spain, yet the right thereof is pre­tended to by the said House of Tremoille, and ac­cordingly the Eldest Son of that House takes thence his Title: That of Soyon, in Vivarais, belonging to the Duke d' Ʋses: Of Enrichemont de Boisbelle, to the Duke of Suilly: Of Mortaigne sur Gironde, to the Duke of Richelieu: Of Marsillac, to the Duke of La Rochefoucault: Of Leon, an ancient Principa­lity in Brittany, to the Duke of Rohan: Of Tingrie in the Country of Bologne, and of Lusse, to the Duke of Piney-Luxemburg: Of Bidache, to the Duke of Gramont: Of Chateau-Portien, to the Duke of Ma­zarine, Erected into a Principality, by Charles the Ninth, the 4th of June 1561. Of Poix, to the Duke of Crequi: Of Buch, to the Duke of Foix-Rendan: [Page 60] Of Bedeilles, to the Countess of Marsan: Of Carency, to the House of Escars La Vauguyon: Of Chalais, to the House of that Name: Of Yvetot, to the House of Crevan-cing [...]: Of Amblise, to the House of Anglure: Of Delain, in the Franche-County, to the Marquiss of Montglat: Of Chabanois, in the Country of Angoumois, built on the Bank of the River of Vienna, to the Marquiss of Sourdis: Al­though those that are possest of these Principalities, have not the Rank of Princess, unless they be other­wise so in one of those four Mannors last above de­scribed; but only enjoy that place which is due to them among the other Dukes and Peers of France, if they be such: Of whom we shall treat further, under that Title.

CHAP. XI. Of the Royal Housholds.

Of the Kings Houshold, and of the Ec­clesiastical Officers of the Kings Hous­hold, and their Attendants; and First,

Of the Great Almoner of France.

THE Present Great Almoner of France is the Cardinal of Boüillon, who by his Place, is Commander of the Kings Orders: He was named to this Office of Great Almoner of France, the 10th of December 1671. And after having taken the usual Oath on that occasion, to the King, accord­ingly took possession of it the 12th of the same Month. He succeeded therein, the late Cardinal Barberin, Nephew to Pope Ʋrban the VIII. High Chamberlain of the Holy Church, Archbishop and Duke of Reims, and first Duke and Peer of France, who died the 3d of August 1671.

He has of ancient standing Wages fixed in the Wages. general Pay-Book of the Houshold, 1200 l. a year, and 1200 more under the name of a Pension; 6000 l. for his Table and Livery; 3000 l. paid him by the Treasurer of the Mark of Gold, on the 1st of January, and 3000 more by the same Trea­surer, as Commander by his place, of the Kings Orders, making in all 14400 l. French, which is about 1108 l. Sterling.

[Page 62] The Great Almoner of France, is by vertue of his Preroga­tive. Place Commander of the Kings Orders: And He, or his Great Vicars, are commonly appointed to make the Inquests of the Lives and Manners of the Knights of those Orders, and to receive their pro­fession of Faith.

Roillard and Loiuseau, and some other Authors affirm, that he is an Officer of the Crown. This Office is in France the Solstitium honorum, or highest Pinacle of Ecclesiastical Honour, and has accord­ingly been almost always honoured with the Purple, and possest by Cardinals.

Though in all times there always was a Head of the Court-Clergy, yet he never bore the Title of Great Almoner of France, tell the time of Francis the First, who Created Antony Sanguin Gardinal of Meudon, Great Almoner of France: though even in the time of Charles the VIII, Geffrie of Pompadour Bishop of Perigneux, began to take that Title, as appears in the Chamber of Accounes, by the Ac­count he gave of the Kings Alms, in the year 1489, but was not followed in it till the said Reign of Francis the First.

The Great Almoner takes an Oath of Fidelity to Oath. the King.

He gives the usual Certificates of the Oaths of Fidelity taken by all new Archbishops, and Bishops in France, and in partibus infidelium, as likewise, by any General of the Order, by Grand Priors of the Order of Malta, in France, who are Grand Priors of France, by those of St. Giles, or of Pro­vence, of Champagne, of Aquitain, and of Auvergne, and by some Abbots: for formerly, all Abbots and Abbesses, did likewise take Oaths of Fidelity to the King. He likewise presents to the King, the Book of the Holy Gospels, when he is to swear solemnly to any Alliance; as appeared in the Church of Nostre Dame at Paris, at the Renewing of the Aliance with the 13 Swisse-Cantons, performed the 18th [Page 63] of November 1663. He marches at the Kings right Hand in all Processions, and when the King permits any Officers to sit down in his Presence, during Sermon, or other Church-Service, the Great Almo­ners Seat is on his Majesties right Hand.

The Great Almoner has the Charge of Goal De­liveries, Office. usually made by Kings at their coming to the Crown, at Kings and Queens Coronations, at their Marriages, at their first Entries into any Ci­ties of the Kingdom, at the Birth of any Children of France, at the great Annual Festivals, at Jubi­lies, upon any signal Victory or Conquest, and up­on other occasions.

'Tis he that Disposes of the Revenue appointed for the Kings Alms, and that gives Order for the making the necessary Ornaments ordinarily used in the Chappel; he goes when he pleases, and per­forms the Service, as at the Kings rising, and go­ing to Bed, to assist at the Kings Prayers, at Royal Feasts, or at the Kings ordinary Meals, to crave a Blessing, and give Thanks; and at Mass, where he takes the Kings Prayer-Book from the Clerks of the Chappel of the Oratory, to present it to the King, as likewise the springsing Brush when Mass is done, to give the King some Holy Water. He Accompa­nies the King when he goes to the Offertory, from his praying Desk to the Altar. The same Functions are also performed by the Chief Almoner, or in his absence, by the other Almoners.

He does likewise other Functions, if he please to be present at all the Ceremonies that are done, as on the days the King touches for evil.

He administers the Communion to his Majesty, and other Sacraments of which he has need.

He is the Bishop of the Court (as the Abbot of Peyrat, one of the Kings Almoners, shows in his Antiquities of the Chappel Royal) and performs several Episcopal Functions in any Diocess where-ever it be, that the Court is, without asking leave of the Bishops of the places.

[Page 64] He Baptizes the Dauphins, the Sons and Daugh­ters of France, the Princes, and all others for whom the Kings and Queens, or any Children of France are please to stand Godfathers or Godmothers for, whether in person, or by Proxy, He affiances and marries in the Kings Palace, Princes and Princesses. You are to observe, that on a Communion-day, the Great Almoner, with his Crosier and Miter, gives the Absolution, without asking leave of the ordi­nary, or else appoints another Bishop to do it in his stead, according to the practise used in Cathe­drals.

'Tis he, if he be in the Chappel, that gives the King the Gospel, and the Pax to kiss on certain Festivals, and when his Majestry Communi­cates.

He gives the Ashes to their Majesties, and the usual Dispensation for eating Eggs and Flesh in Lent.

The Abbot of Peyrat in his Book of the Antiqui­ties of the Chappel Royal, brings Examples to show, that the Great Almoner gives permission to the Court Clergy, to Contract and Marry and Officers in the Kings Service, without any need of their going to a Parish Church.

He apoints those of the same Clergy to hear the Confessions of the Kings Officers, especially on the great Festivals of the year, and at Easter, and to administer the Sacraments to them when they de­sire it, and when they are sick.

The power of the great Almoner extends it self yet further out of the Kings Chappel, and House­hold.

He has the disposing of all places in the Hospi­tals of France, and he has power to appoint Vicars throughout all the Provinces and Diocesses of the Kingdom, to take an account of the Revenues of the said Hospitals; but he appoints one Vicar Ge­neral, who has power over the rest.

[Page 65] The Great Almoner has likewise power in the University of Paris, over the 17 Lecturers of the Royal Colledge, over the Colledge of Mr. Gervase, and over that of Navarre. He has the gift of the Scholars and Principals Places in those Colledges, where he has the right of Visiting.

He has also the Super-Intendance of the Hospital of the Fifteen-score blind People at Paris, of that of the sixscore blind at Chartres, and of that of the Haudriettes at Paris, which are now the Nuns of the Assumption.

It will not be amiss to place here, the Form of the Oath of Fidelity or Allegiance which the Bi­shops in France take to the King upon the Holy Gospels.

The Form of the Oath of Allegiance taken by the Bishops.

I Swear, Sir, by the Most Holy and Sacred Name of God, and Promise to your Majesty, That I will be to you, as long as I live, a Faithful Subject and Servant: That I will procure your Service, and the good of your State, with all my power: That I will never be present in any Counsel, Design, or Enterprize, to the prejudice of either; and, that if there comes any thing of that kind, to my Knowledge, that I will make it known to your Majesty. So help me God, and these Holy Gospels.

CHAP. XII.

Of the first Almoner, and other Almoners, according to their Quarters.

THE first Almoner, when he pleases, in the ab­sence of the Great Almoner, performs all the same Functions; and he Administers the Oath of Fidelity to the other Officers of the Chappel, and of the Oratory: which the other Almoners do not do.

In the absence of the Great Almoner, he like­wise gives to Bishops and other Ecclesiastical Dig­nitaries, a Certificate of their having taken the Oath of Fidelity, or Allegiance to the King during Mass.

He has 1200 l. per annum, Wages, paid by the Treasurer of the Houshold, and 6000 l. more for his Table at Court, paid by the Masters of the Chamber of Deniers.

On Sundays, if he be at Chappel, he presents Holy Bread to the King, to the Queen, to the Dau­phin and Dauphiness, to Monsieur, the Kings Bro­ther, and to Madame. Then the Almoners of that Quarter, give it to the other Princes and Princesses of the Blood, or to those that are Legitimated, which are near the Kings Foot-Cloth.

The first Almoner, and another of that Quarter, hold the two Corners of the Communion Napkin, on that side next the Altar, when the King re­ceives; and commonly two Knights of the Orders, or two other Lords hold the two other Corners, on his Majesties side; But if the Dauphin happen to be there, then he only is to hold the Communion Napkin on his Majesties side.

The Master of the Oratory, has 1200 l. per an­num [Page 67] Wages, paid by the Treasurers of the Houshold, and 3600 l. more for his Table at Court, paid him by the Masters of the Chamber of Deniers.

The Kings Confessor, who is the Reverend Fa­ther la Chaise, a Jesuit, has 1200 l. a year by Name of Wages 2654 l. at the Chamber of Deniers, and 3000 l. more to maintain his Coach.

On the great Festivals of the year, and when the King Communicates, the reverend Father Confes­sor is always at Church near his Majesty, Clothed with a Surpliss under his Mantle.

On other days, he assists, if he pleases, at the Kings Mass, but without a Surpliss.

By an Order of Philip the Long, made at St. Germain en Laye, in the Month of June 1316. The Kings Confessour has power to Order all Letters for Collating of Benefices to be made ready for the Royal Signature and Seal, and the Great Almoner, those of Royal Gifts and Alms; according to Mr. Tillet, Tom. 1. f. 434, & 435.

By a Charter of the same Philip the Long, made at Bourges, the 16th of November 1318. All per­sons were forbidden to speak to the King while he was hearing Mass, except his Confessour, who might speak to him, only about things concerning his Conscience.

And after Mass, he might speak to him about the business of Collating of Benefices.

The King has eight other Almoners, whereof two wait every Quarter, and of those two, at least he that is to wait that Day, is to be present at the Kings Rising, Dinner, and Mass, during which last, the Almoner of the Quarter, or some other, is to hold his Majesties Hat and Gloves, or in their ab­sence, the next Chaplain or Clerk of the Chappel, to be found in the way, is to receive them. The Almoners are to be afterward at the Kings Supper, and at his going to Bed, to perform the following Ceremonies, as to open the A Box containing the Kings Plates, Nap­kins, Knives, &c. Nave on the Table, [Page 68] if there be one, and to take it away when Supper is done, to crave a Blessing, and to give thanks.

The Almoners are present on solemn Festivals, and when the King Communicates, Clothed with Rotchets under their Mantles, both at Mass, and at Vespers. They Preach in Rotchets, both before the King and else where. They administer the Commu­nion to the King. They go and present the Holy Bread; they also deliver Prisoners, give Dispensa­tion in Lent to eat Eggs and Flesh, give Ashes to the King, Queen, and other Royal Persons; they give Holy Water to the King and Queen, when Mass is done; and in fine, in the absence of the Great, or the first Almoner, perform all Functions which they should do.

They have each a Salary 300 l. a piece for serving the King, and their Diet at the Table, called the Al­moners Table. And for serving at the Dauphins, by turns, one year in two, they have half the Wa­ges they have in the Kings Service, and half a Pistol a Day for their diet, which one year with another, makes 600 l. to each, besides their diet at Court.

I shall not mention those many titular Preachers and Almoners, that the King is pleased to admit only, ad honores, because they have no rank here. There is one Chaplain in Ordinary, who has 1200 l. a year under the name of Wages, and 1098 l. for his diet, at the Chamber of Deniers.

Besides whom, there are eight Chaplains that serve quarterly, two to each Quarter: Who are to say every day (excepting the High-Mass dayes) a low Mass before the King; they serve commonly Weekly, and he that is not in Waiting any Week in the Kings Service, may, if he pleases, when he is present at the Kings Mass, kneel in Mass-time next behind the Almoners, on the Kings right hand. They serve also the Dauphin, and his Chil­dren. [Page 69] They have each 240 l. Wages a year, for three Months waiting in the Kings Service, and their diet at the Almoners Table, during their said three Months Service, and 120 l. to serve by turns at the Dauphins, and their diet at Court, at the De­servers, or Water-Servers belonging to the Dauphin. They have likewise 120 l. Recompense for serving every other Year at the Duke of Burgundies, and 270 l. for their diet, at the end of their quarter. And besides, you are to take notice, that at the Dauphins, they are allowed half a Pistol a day a piece for their diet, every day there is no Table kept, which one year with another makes 495 l. yearly Revenue to each, besides their diet at Court, and some other profits.

The Chaplains, besides the ordinary Ceremonies, go before they begin Mass, and give their Majesties Holy Water: and when Mass is done, they present the Corporal, on which they have Celebrated, to their Majesties to Kiss.

There are eight Clerks of the Chappel and Ora­tory, that serve Quarterly, two each Quarter, be­fore the King, or before the Dauphin and his Chil­dren.

They have each 180 l. a year Wages paid by the Treasurers of the Houshold, for three Months Service to the King, and Diet at the Almoners Ta­ble, at Court, during their said three Months Ser­vice 75 l. a piece paid by the Treasurers of the Offrings, for Furniture for the Kings Chappel, 90 l. Wages, or recompense at the Treasure Royal, for serving every other year at the Dauphins, and their diet at the Serdeau's or Deservers Table at the Dau­phins, and when no Table is kept, half a Pistol a day for their diet, as have the Chaplains, 100 l. for Furniture for the Dauphins Chappel: They have likewise every other year 90 l. recompense paid at the Treasure-Royal, for three Months serving the Duke of Burgundy, 270 l. for their diet, at their [Page 70] quarters end, paid at the Chamber of Deniers, and 100 l. for the Furniture of that Chappel, paid like­wise at the Treasure Royal, which makes up one year with another 580 l. Revenue yearly, besides their diet at Court, and some other profits; as for Fees due to them from Bishops and others, at their taking the Oaths of Allegiance to the King, in his Chappel and Oratory, &c. Besides all this, when his Majesty gives Mourning at any time to the Offi­cers of his Houshold, and of his Chappel, the Clerks of the Chappel and Oratory, have an equal allow­ance with the Chaplains, as it was confirmed in 1684. at the Mourning for the late Queen Marie-Teresa of Austria; the Clerks of the Chappel ha­ving allowed them, on that occasion, 50 Crowns as well as the Chaplains for every Marriage Celebra­ted in the Kings Presence, his Majesty allows them 20 golden Lewis's, paid by the Principal Valet de Chambre then in Waiting, which are at present di­vided between the two Chaplains, and the two Clarks of the Chappel, who are in waiting at the time of such a Ceremony.

The Chaplains and Clarks of the Chappel, in the absence of the Almoners, may perform almost all the Functions, which they might do, if present, being as it were, their Vicars by their places.

You are to observe, that of the three Officers last named, viz. Of the Almoners, Chaplains, and Clarks of the Chappel, when they go out of wait­ing with the King, there enters into waiting with the Dauphin, one Almoner, one Chaplain, and one Clark of the Chappel; and with the Dauphins Chil­dren, only one Chaplain, and one Clark of the Chappel.

You are likewise to observe, that in the general Account-Books of the Kings Houshold, the Eccle­siastical Officers are called Masters: and in the Book of Accounts of the Chamber of Deniers, the first eight Chaplains, and the eight other Clarks of the [Page 71] Chappel, are equally placed under the Title of the Kings sixteen Chaplains.

There are two Grooms of the Chappel, who have 600 l. a year each.

The 20th of December 1669. the King Created an Office of Master of the Ecclesiastical Ceremonies of his Chappel and Oratory, which is at present vacant.

He began first to exercise the Functions of his place, on All Saints day in 1668. and bore for a mark of his Office, a Staff about the length of a Singing Mans Staff, covered with Violet-coloured Velvet, wrought with Flower de luces, and headed with a Crown Royal, and used to serve principally at high Masses, Vespers, and other Ecclesiastical Ceremonies where his Majesty was present, or that were performed by his Order. He had 1500 l. per annum Wages, paid quarterly.

The 2d of December 1681. The King Created an Office of Vestry-Keeper of his Chappel and Oratory, who has 900 l.—a year, Wages, and 1095 l. a year for his Diet, and takes an Oath of Fidelity, in pre­sence of the Lord Great Almoner.

Note, The manner of taking the Oath of Fidelity is thus: The Party who takes the Oath, kneeling on his Knees, puts his hands joined between the Kings, or any other dignified persons hands, who receives the said Oath, and so pronounces the Oath, and after, Kisses the Gospels, which are pre­sented to him; and this is the reason of the French Phrase, Prèter serment entre les mains du Roy, to take an Oath between the Kings Hands, when they speak of taking one to him.

CHAP. XIII.

Of the Musick of the Kings Chappel.

THE Musick of the Kings Chappel is composed of a Master of the Kings Chappel-Musick, who is at present the Archbishop of Reims, &c. and has under the name of Wages 1200 l. and 3000 l. more for his Table at Court, paid at the Chamber of Deniers.

He receives the Oath of Fidelity from the four Chaplains, for the High-Masses, from five Clerks, from the Musick-Masters, Organists, and Singers, and others of the Chappel-Musick.

Four Masters of the Musick that serve each their quarter.

The first of these performs all the Ecclesiastical Functions of a Musick-Master, during the half year, beginning from January, and besides, during all the same time, he has care of the nourishment, Education, and maintenance of the Pages of the Musick. And the second has the like care of them, during the other half year.

You are to take Notice, that in the Account-Books of the smaller expences, by which all Wages of the Chappel-Musick are payed, they are only stiled Under-Masters of the Musick.

Two Composers of the Musick, 50 Crowns.

Four Organists 600 l. They serve quarterly.

There are several Musicians that serve all by the half year, at the ordinary allowance for Diet and Maintenance of 900 l. a year, and the Pages of the Musick, &c.

Two Fouriers, or Harbingers of the Chappel of the Kings Musick; serving by the half year.

Two Grooms, and one Landrer of the Musick Chappel.

Of the Clergy of the Kings Houshold, and Court in general.

Thus much of the Ecclesiastical Officers that serve about the King, and other Royal Persons. There are besides them other Ecclesiastical Officers appointed for the Kings Houshold, and the whol-Court in general, viz.

Six Almoners of the Kings Houshold, serving every six Months, whereof the last was added in 1670. whereas there were but five before.

They have for their Wages a Denier being the twelfth part of a penny upon every Liver, or twenty pence French, out of the Wages of all the Officers Commoners of the Kings Houshold, each receiving 331 l. 2 pence, and 48 l. besides at the Chamber of Deniers for every half year.

Formerly they used to Bless the Meat at the an­cient Table of the great Master, and at that of the Stewards of the Houshold, when they had their diet at Court, and they likewise rendred thanks there, placing themselves at the upper end of the Table. At present they eat at Court, at the Table called the Almoners Table.

The Confessor and Preacher of the Houshold, or of the Commoners, as they are called, have an al­lowance of 300 l. a year, and likewise his diet at the Almoners Table: He takes an Oath to the Great Almoner.

Besides these, there are the Almoners belonging to the great and little Stables, and to the other Bo­dies of the Kings Houshold, and the Chaplains be­longing to the several Companies of Guards, and of the Gentlemen-Musqueteers, and others, of which we shall speak in their places.

The New Chappel of the Louvre, was Consecrated the 18th of February 1659. by the late Bishop of Rhodes, since Archbishop of Paris; and that of [Page 74] little Bourbon, pull'd down in the Month of August, the same year.

The Kings Ecclesiastical Officers keep always on his Majesties right hand in the Chappel; and the Bishops, Abbots, and Ecclesiastical Officers of the Queen, on his left. Now, on his Majesties right hand, the Great Almoners Place is next to the Kings Person, then follows that of the first Almoner on the right hand of the Great Almoner: As for the Kings Father Confessour, he places himself at the Great Almoners left hand, more within the Kings Praying-Desk: The Master of the Chappel-Musick takes his place on the left hand, next ad­joining to the Kings Praying-Desk. The rest of the Almoners rank themselves to the right-hand-ward, from the foot of the Kings Praying-Desk, toward the Altar, and after them, the Chaplains and Clerks of the Chappel, and Oratory, and the other Cler­gy of the Kings Houshold, every one in their Order.

CHAP. XIV.

Of the Great Master of the Kings Houshold, and those who depend on him, and of the Stewards of the Houshold.

THE Prince of Conde is at present Grand Master of the Kings Houshold, and his Son the Duke of Enguien has it in Reversion.

The Grand Master has yearly, under the name of Wages, 3600 l. for Liveries 42000 l. paid quar­terly, for his Collations 1200 l. and 1800 l. for his Steward.

Under the first Race of our Kings, the Great [Page 75] Master of France, was called the Mayor of the Pa­lace, who was a Lieutenant-General over the whole Kingdom; and according to the ancient Disposi­tion of the State, as there was a Duke placed over twelve Earls, and sometimes, a Duke over whole Provinces, so the Mayor of the Palace, was the Duke of Dukes, and stiled himself Duke or Prince of the French. His Authority was not confined only within the Kings Houshold, where he disposed of all Offices, but he had a great power over all Offi­cers of War, and Justice, over the Managers of the Revenue and Treasury, and indeed over all Affairs of State; and grew so great at last, that it Eclipsed the Kings, and gave Pepin, who was but Mayor of the Palace, opportunity to assume the Crown, which having done, and fearing, that if he continued any longer any such great Authority as this, in an Offi­cer, his own practice might be returned on him and his Successors, he suppressed this Office of Mayor of the Palace, and Erected in its stead, that of Seneschal, for the Government only of his House­hold, reserving all the other powers, of that former Office, to himself. Yet it has happened since, that the Seneschal for all that, has taken upon him some Command in the Armies, even so far as to have the Guard of the Kings Person: Some have called him the Great Gonfanonïer, or Standard-Bearer.

This Office became Hereditary to the Counts of Anjou, from the time of Geffry Grisegonelle, to whom King Robert gave it about the year 1002. and those that exercised it about the King, held it in Fee, of those Counts, to whom they did Homage for it, and paid certain acknowledgments, as going to meet the Count of Anjou, when he came to the Palace, Lodging him, letting him serve the King, &c. and furnishing him in the Armies, with a Tent big e­nough to hold a hundred Knights, as Hugh de Clé­ries reports at large.

This Officer also retained still a part of the power [Page 76] of the Mayors of the Palace in other things, and decided all differences arising among the Atten­dants of the Court, and among the Officers of the Houshold.

After the Kings Death, he throws his Staff up­on Functions and Prero­gatives. the Coffin, before all the rest of the Officers Assembled together, to show that their Offices are expired; but the succeeding King, ordinarily re­stores them, out of his special Grace and Fa­vour.

The Great Master Regulates every year the ex­pence of the Mouth of the Kings Houshold. He has an entire Jurisdiction over the seven Offices, the most part of which places he disposes of, and the Officers thereof take the Oath of Allegiance to the King, between his hands: Nevertheless, the Great Masters have voluntarily resign'd the Office of In­tendant of the Gobelet, and of the Mouth, into the Kings hands, ever since Monsieur de Soissons, Great Master of the Kings Houshold, under Henry IV. refused to trouble himself any longer with the care of them.

He receives the Oath of Allegiance from the first Master of the Houshold, from the Master of the Houshold in Ordinary, and from twelve Masters of the Houshold, that wait Quarterly, from the Great and Chief Pantler, Cup-Bearer, and Carver; from the thirty six Gentlemen Servitors, from the three Masters of the Chamber of Deniers, from the two Controulers-General, from the sixteen Controulers Clerks of Offices, from the Master of the Kings Chappel-Musick, and from the Master of the Kings Oratory, from the Almoners of the Kings Houshold, from the Great Master, the Master, and the Aid of the Ceremonies; from the Introductor of Ambas­sadours, and from........ from the Kings Ma­ster of the Horse in Ordinary, and of the twenty other Masters of the Horse that serve quarterly; from the four Lieutenants of the Guards of the [Page 77] Kings Gate, from the Keepers of the Tents, &c.

When he serves in Ceremony, and that he goes along with the Meat, he marches nearer the Kings Meat than all the Stewards of the Houshold, carry­ing his Staff strait, and bolt upright, like a Scep­ter, and the other Masters of the Houshold hold theirs more downward, in his presence. It is he likewise that at all Great Ceremonies, presents the first wet Napkin to the King. The Office, called the Kings Office, or Counting-House, is kept under the Authority of the Great Master.

CHAP. XV.

Of the first Master of the Houshold, and of the other Masters under him.

THE first Master of the Houshold is at present the Marquiss de Livry, who has a Jurisdiction over the seven Offices, as far as relates to their Ser­vice, but has not the disposal of their places. He may also receive the Oath of Fidelity from the Offi­eers of the Cup or Goblet, and of the Mouth, and of the other Officers, and in the Great Masters ab­sence, of those other Officers which ought to per­form that Ceremony to him. He has his Lodging in the Louvre, and has yearly for Wages 3000 l. for Liveries 7968 l. and for the Counters 60 l.

He keeps the Great Chamberlains Table, and has the last course of it for his Fee. The priviledge of the said Table is an acquisition that has been made to this Office, by some preceding First Masters of the Houshold.

When the King has at any time received the Communion, he presents to the Priest a Cup of [Page 78] Wine for his Majesty, and at the same time, a Napkin to the King, to wipe his Mouth. But if a Prince of the Blood, or any Prince Legitimated, be present, then that Prince presents the Napkin.

The first Master of the Houshold, or the Master of the Houshold then in Waiting, goes along with the Broth that is carried to the King when he takes any: He receives the Kings Orders concerning his Majesties Diet, and the hours he prescribes for his Repasts, and gives notice of them to the Officers of the Goblet, and of the Mouth.

The next Officer is the Master of the Houshold in Ordinary, who has yearly 1200 l. ordinary Wages, 1420 l. Liveries, and 60 l. for the Coun­ters.

In the absence of the first Master of the Houshold, he doth the same Functions, as he, both in the Kings-Office or Counting-House, and in his House­hold.

It was Order'd in 1669. that whenever the King, being at a Ball, a Comedy, a Balet, or an Opera, or the like, should take a Collation without sitting down at Table, that the Master of the Houshold in Ordinary should serve his Majesty. In the absence of the Captain of the Guards, he renders for him the same Honours at the Great Masters Table.

There are twelve more Masters of the Houshold, that wait three and three by quarters, who formerly had 900 l. a piece yearly, of the Treasurers of the Houshold, but now they have but 450 l. besides which, they have at the Chamber of Deniers, each Man 300 l. at the end of their quarters waiting, and 64 l. for Counters, besides several other profits, and he that serves the Dauphin in the same quality, has 225 l. Wages at the Treasure-Royal, and 150 l. more at the end of his quarters waiting, out of the Chamber of Deniers.

His Majesty by a Declaration in April 1654. re­duced the number of the Masters of the Houshold to [Page 79] twelve, and that of the Gentlemen-Walters, or Servitors, to thirty six.

By another Declaration of the 17th of October, The Masters of the Houshold are stiled Counsellers, and Masters in Ordinary, of the Houshold, Knights and Squires; They may bear their Coats of Arms timbred, and enjoy, as do their Widows after them, an exemption from all manner of Taxes and Impo­sitions whatever.

They have a Command over all the Offices called the seven Offices, and in the Kings House, when they Conduct the Meat to his Table, they carry Staves garnished▪ with silver and gilt Vermilion, having on the tops a Crown set with Flower-deluces.

They present to the King the first wet Napkin, with which his Majesty washes his hands, before he eats, and they yield this honour to none but the Princes of the Blood, the Legitimated Children of France, and the Great Master: They are present at all business that passes in the Kings Office, or Count­ing-House, as we shall show afterward.

In the absence of the first Master, or Master in Ordinary, they go every Night to ask his Majesty what hours he will please to eat at next day; and especially, when the Court is upon a Journey, they ask the King the time and place he would please to dine at, that they may give Order to the Officers of the Goblet, and of the Mouth, to provide ac­cordingly.

The Officers of the seven Offices, and several o­thers, that are accustomed to take the Oath of Fi­delity in the presence of the Great Master, may take it in an Assembly of this Office, and then those who preside there, which are the Master of the Houshold in Ordinary, or the Masters of the Houshold then in Waiting, may in the absence of the Great Master, or the first Master, receive the said Oaths of Fidelity. On Fish-Dayes a Master of the Houshold is to be present at the taking in of the Fish.

[Page 80] When the King is to give any Holy, or Blessed Bread in any Parish or Society, the Master of the Houshold in Waiting that day, holding his Staff in his hand, is to accompany the Holy Loaves to the Church, which are commonly six in number; The Almoner that goes to present them from his Ma­jesty, marches between the Master of the Houshold, and the Comptroller, at whose left hand goes the Treasurer of the Offerings.

The Masters of the Houshold keep the Table cal­led the Masters of the Housholds Table, or else eat at the Table of the ancient Great Master; and at the Dauphins, they keep the Table of His Highnes­ses Ser-d'eau, or Water-server, that is, his Deser­ver, or Voider, that takes away, when Meals are done.

Of the Great Pantler, Cup-Bearer, and Carver.

These three Officers are always present at great Ceremonies, where they have Rank, as they had at the Kings Coronation, &c.

They have 600 l. a year each, as Wages, paid them on the Book of the establishment of the House­hold, in which they are only stiled, First Pantler, First Cup-bearer, and First Ʋsher-Carver.

We shall tell you their Offices, in speaking of the Gentlemen-Waiters, or Servitors, who daily their Functions.

The present Great Pantler is, Timoleon Count de Cosse, of which Office, it is observable, that there remains still an ancient Custom in the Kings House, that upon every New-Years-Day, and on the four principal Feasts in the Year, as soon as the King is gone out of his Chamber, to go to Mass, the Ser­deau, or Voider, cries aloud three times, either out of a Balcony, or from the Stairs head; M. such a one, Great Pantler of France, lay the Cloth for the King.

[Page 81] The Great Cup-bearer is an Office set up instead of the Great Bottler, or Butler; which was anti­ently one of the Principal Officers of the Crown, from the time of Charles the Great, to a consider­able time after the rise of the Kings of the third Race, he used to Sign all Charters, and Letters Pa­tents, and to be present at all Assemblies, as other great Officers are.

The Great Ʋsher-Carver is the last of the three.

The Great Pantler has a Jurisdiction at the Pa­lace, which is at Paris, what Westminster-Hall has here: as we shall shew further when we come to speak of that.

All the Bakers of Paris are obliged on every next Sunday after the Epiphany, to go and do homage to the Great Pantler, between the hands of his Lieu­tenant-General, and to pay him, as they call it, the good Denier. Besides, all Master-Bakers, newly made free, are bound likewise to come and present the Rosemary-Pot to the Lieutenant-General, for the Great Pantler.

Of the Gentlemen-Waiters.

The Gentlemen-Waiters perform by turns the Fun­ctions of the three next abovenamed Officers: They are always called Gentlemen-Waiters to the King, because they serve none but Crowned Heads, Princes of the Blood, and Soveraign Princes when the King is pleased to entertain them.

In the Letters Patents for their places, they are stiled Esquires; and by a Declaration of the King, of the 17th of October 1656. they may take the Titles of Knights and Esquires, and may bear their Coats of Arms timbred. On Maundy-Thursday, they serve together with the Princes of the Blood, and other great Lords of the Court, in carrying to the King those Dishes which his Majesty on that day serves up to the thirteen poor people; he then en­tertains [Page 82] those who are called the Children of the Holy Supper. They have rank and place at all great Ceremonies, as at the Kings Coronation, his solemn Entry into Paris, and at the Christning of the Dauphin. They wait with their Swords by their sides, and may be present in the first Office of every quarter in which they have place and voice next after the Masters of the Houshold, ac­cording to the Regulations set down in the Ordi­nances made for that purpose.

They were formerly more in number, till his present Majesty, by a Declaration of the Month of April 1654. they were reduced to thirty six, who take the Oath of Fidelity in presence of the Grand Master, or of those, who as we have said, in his absence supply his place. They likewise, and their Widows, enjoy an exemption from all Taxes and Impositions; They are ranked upon the Book of the Establishment at the rate of 700 l. per annum Wages, though they receive but half that sum, and they have all their Diet at Court, at the Table, cal­led the Kings Water-Servers, or Voiders Table, and those that serve at the Dauphins, eat likewise at his Highnesses Water-Servers, or Voiders Table.

After these we may conveniently place the Ser­deaus, who are the Water-Servers, or Voiders, who are six in number, and serve every one in their turns two Months each: they had formerly 300 l. a piece yearly Wages, but now but 225 l. which is paid by the Treasurers, and 18 l. more paid at the Chamber of Deniers. They are called Serdeaus, or Water-Servers, because they present the chief Officers of the Houshold and Kitchin with Water to wash their hands, before they serve up the Meat to his Majesties Table; they may likewise be stiled Voiders, or Deservers, because they receive all the Dishes as they are taken from his Majesties Table, and see them conveyed to the Gentlemen Waiters [Page 83] Hall, where they serve them likewise with Water, and such as dine with them at their Table.

After them are the Ushers of the Hall, who after they have Conducted the Kings Meat from the Kitchin of the Mouth to the Anti-Chamber, where his Majesty dines in publick, take on them the keeping of that Door from the time the Table is spread, till the Cloth be taken away; they are twelve in number, waiting three and three quarterly: they have 300 l. a piece yearly Wages, and eat with the Gentlemen-Waiters: and he that serves the Dauphin in the same quality, has 226 l. Wages.

Of the Order observed in serving the King, when he Dines in Publick.

As soon as the Usher of the Hall has received Or­der to have the Kings Table spread, he goes to the Life-guard Chamber, and knocking at the Door of their Hall, he cries aloud, Gentlemen, Spread the Kings Table here. Thence taking a Guard with him, he goes to the Goblet or Buttery, then the chief of the Officers of the Goblet, bring the The Nave is the Box containing the Kings Plates, Napkins, Knives, &c. Nave, the others the rest of the Table Furniture; the Guard marching near the Nave, and the Usher of the Hall, with his wan in his hand, before them, carry the two Table-Cloths: And when they come all to the Preparation-Table (as they term it) the Usher of the Hall, himself alone, spreads one of the Cloths upon the Side-Bord, which done, the Officer of the Goblet, and the Usher of the Hall to­gether, spreads the other on the Preparatory-Table; of which the Usher receives one end, being de­cently cast into his hands by the Officer of the Gob­let, who keeps the other end to himself. After that, the other Officers of the Goblet place the Nave, and make an end of covering the Table; then the Gentleman-Waiter, whose turn is that day [Page 84] to attend the Preparatives, cuts out the Essays or tasts of the Bread already prepared at the Goblet, and causes one of the Officers of the Goblet to take a taste of the Kings two little Loaves, and of his Salt, he touches likewise, with one of his Slices of Essay, the Kings Napkins, Spoon, Fork, Knife, and Tooth-pickers, giving afterward the said Essay to an Officer of the Goblet, to eat, which is called, making the Preparatives: And the said Gentleman Server, having thus taken possession of the Prepara­tory-Table, continues to keep it.

These Preparatives being made, one of the Offi­cers of the Goblet, and the Usher of the Hall, go to the Table where the King is to eat, and lay the Cloth on it in the same manner as is above expres­sed, which done, one of the Gentlemen-Waiters spreads on it a Napkin, letting one half of it hang down on that side next his Majesty, and upon that Napkin he places the Kings Cover, or Service, viz. His Plate, and the stand on which are the two Manchets, his Spoon, Fork, and Knife, over which he lays the Kings Napkin, neatly folded with little Tassels. Then the same Gentleman-Waiter folds back over the whole, that part of the Under-Napkin that hung down, and so goes on to place the stands for the Plates, and the Carving-Knife, Spoon and Fork which he is to use in the service; wrapping these three last pieces in a Napkin, folded between two Golden Plates: Which having done, he stays at the Table to look after the Kings Cover, till Din­ner be served up.

An Extract taken out of the Ordinances made for the Kings Houshold, renewed and signed by the King, the 14th of April 1665.

When his Majesties Meat is to be served up to Table, whether at Dinner, or at Supper, two Arch­ers or Serjeants of the Kings Life-guards are to [Page 85] march before, then the Usher of the Hall, and next the Master of the Houshold, with his Staff, after whom, are to follow the Gentleman-Waiter, the Controuler General, the Clerk of the Offices, and others that carry the Dishes; and besides them, the Usher of the Kitchin, and the Keeper of the Plate, behind all which are to march two Arch­ers more of the Guards, who are always to appear in their Coats, and with their Halbards, or Arque­busses, and are to suffer none to come nigh the Kings Meat.

After the Serdeau, or Water-Server, has given Water to the Master of the Houshold, to the Gen­tleman-Waiter, and to the Comptroller, to wash their hands with, in the Office of the Mouth. The Usher of the Mouth places the Dishes upon the Of­fice-Table, and presents two Essays, or tasts of Bread, to the Master of the Houshold, that is, to tast the first Service, who after he has touched the Meat with the said two Essays of Bread, eats one himself, and gives the other to the said Usher of the Mouth, to eat. Then the Gentleman-Waiter takes the first Dish, the Comptroller the next, and the Officers of the Mouth the rest. In this Order, the Master of the Houshold, with his Staff in his hand, marches at the head of them, some steps before whom, goes the Usher of the Hall, with his Wand in his hand, which is the mark of his Office, and when the Meat is brought to the Table, guarded by three of the Life-Guards, with their Carabines on their Shoulders. The Master of the Houshold makes a bow to the Nave, and the Gentleman-Wai­ter that carried the first Dish, sets it on the Prepa­ratory-Table, and having received an Essay of the Gentleman-Waiter that makes the Preparatives, he eats it, and sets his Dish upon the said Table, after which, the Gentleman-Waiter that makes the Pre­paratives, takes the rest of the Dishes out of the hands of the Comptroller, and others that brought, [Page 86] and places them likewise on the said Table, giving every Man a tast of the Dish he brought; which done, the other Gentlemen-Waiters take the said Dishes off the Preparatory-Table, and carry them to the Kings Table. The first Course being thus served up upon the Table, the Master of the House­hold, with the Usher of the Hall going before him, with his Wand in his hand, goes and gives his Majesty notice: the said Master of the Houshold, when there, carries his Staff as a mark of his Office, but in his absence, the Gentleman-Waiter that offi­ciates his place, carries only for a mark of his pre­sent Function, a wer Napkin between two golden Plates, that his Majesty may see by that, the Meat is on the Table; then he comes back, marching before the King to the Table, where his Majesty being arrived, the Master of the Houshold, or in his absence the Gentleman-Waiter presents him the said wet Napkin to wash withal, according to an Order of the King for that purpose, of the 5th of September 1676. upon occasion of the dispute that happened thereon in the Queens Houshold; the said Master of the Houshold, or Gentleman-Waiter, ought likewise when he takes the said wet Napkin of the Officer of the Goblet, to make him make trial of it. Thus much for the first course; as for the others, you may observe, that the Gentleman-Waiter that has the charge of the Preparatory-Table, continues all along, to make the Officers of the Mouth and Goblet, tast of every thing they bring up at each course, which the other Gentlemen-Waiters come and take, and serve up to the Kings Table, when his Majesty calls for them.

But the other Gentlemen-Waiters, after they have brought up the first course, go no more down to the Office, but having washed their hands with Water given to them by the Officer of the Goblet, at the Side-Bord in the Anti-Chamber, or some other place, come back and wait at the Kings Ta­ble, [Page 87] on that side opposite to his Majesty, and not behind, where commonly Noblemen and Ladies stand.

Upon New-Years-Day, in the year 1674. his Majesty having been pleased to Order, that for the future, none but the Gentlemen-Waiters should serve him at Table, and that they should wait five at a time, that the Service might be the more ex­actly performed; Since that time, one of them al­ways waits at the Preparatory, or Testing-Table, as we have said, till the last course be served up, after which, he quits it, and going to the Officers of the Goblet, or Buttery, he takes of them the second wet Napkin, after he has made them make trial of it, and holds it ready for the King, to wash his hands with at the end of his stepast; and the other four wait always at the Kings Table, while his Ma­jesty is eating.

He that serves as Cup-Bearer, when the King askes for Drink, cryes out presently, aloud, Some Drink for the King, and then bowing to his Majesty, goes to the Side-Bord, and takes from the hands of the Chief Butler of the Mouth, a golden Plate, on which are placed a Glass with a Cover, and two Caraffes are large Glasses, in form of those used for Vine­gar, at our Tables. Caraffes, or larger Glasses of Christal, one of Water, and one of Wine, and then comes back the Chief Butler and his Aid, or Assistant of the Goblet of the Mouth going before him to the Kings Table, where being all three come, and having made Obeisance to the King, the said Chief-Butler steps on one side, and presents a Vermilion-Taster to the Gentleman-Waiter, who likewise turns himself toward him, and pours out of the two Caraffes, some Wine and Water into the said Taster, being a little Cup of Vermilion gilt, in the Chief-Butlers of the Goblets hands; after which, the said Chief-Butler pours out the half of what was filled into the Taster in his hands, into another like Vermilion presented him by his Aid, or Assistant, then giving the first into [Page 88] the Gentleman-Waiters hands, and taking the other out of his Assistants, he drinks that off first, after which, the Gentleman-Waiter drinks his, and re­turns it to the Chief-Butler, who returns them both to his said Assistant: Having thus tasted the drink, in the Kings sight, the Gentleman-Waiter bows again to his Majesty, and giving him the Glass, takes off the Cover, and presents him at the same time, the Plate or Stand, on which are the Caraffes, out of which, his Majesty fills himself Wine and Water, or Wine alone, as he likes, and when he has drunk, sets the Glass on the Stand again, which the Gentleman-Waiter covers again, and taking up the Stand, with what is upon it, bows once more to the King, and then gives it back into the Chief Butlers hands, who carries it to the Side-board.

It is to be remarked, that when the Nave is placed on the same Table on which the King eats, when the King asks for drink, the Gentleman-Waiter goes to the Side-board, with a Guard be­fore him, and fetches the Plate or Stand, with the Glass as aforesaid.

If the Nave be placed on the same Table at which the King eats, every time the King changes Napkins, which is at every course, at least, after the Almoner has opened the Nave, one of the Gen­tlemen-Waiters is to lift up the sweet or perfumed Bag which lies over them, to make room for another of his Companions to take them out, after which, the first Gentleman is to put in the Sweet-Bag again, and the Almoner to shut the Nave.

He that Officiates for the Chief-Carver, after he has washt his hands, and taken his place as is above­said, at the Table, is to present to his Majesty the Dishes, to uncover them, and to take them off, when his Majesty makes him a sign so to do, to the Serdeau, or Water-Server, and gives the King clean Plates from time to time, and Napkins at the com­ing in of any Inter-Messes, or choice Dishes, twixt [Page 89] Course and Course, and Carves the Kings Meat un­less he please to carve it himself.

At Great Ceremonies, when the Great Pantler, Great Cup-Bearer, and Great Usher-Carver serve in Person, they do all the forementioned Duties them­selves.

From the time the Cloth is laid, till his Majesty rises from Table, the Usher of the Hall is to keep the Door of the Room where his Majesty Dines in Publick at Home; and if the Nave be there, then he keeps the Door of the Anti-Chamber.

The Serdeau, or Water-Server, receives all the Dishes that are taken off the Kings Table, which are carried thence to the Office, or else to the Gen­tlemen-Waiters Hall, commonly called the Serdeau's Hall, where he serves up the same Dishes, to the said Gentlemen-Waiters, and to those who have their Diet at the same Table with them: Under the Serdeau, there are likewise several Servants that at­tend the Office; and the Gentlemen-Waiters Ser­vants, eat afterward, of what is taken from their Table.

Of the Kings-Office, or Counting-House.

The Kings-Office, or Counting-House, which is of the nature of the Green-Cloth with us, and is held twice a Week, on Tuesdays and Fridays, in which these following Officers have Voice and Place; viz. The First Master of the Houshold, the Master of the Houshold in Ordinary, the Masters of the House­hold serving quarterly, then the Masters of the De­nier-Chamber, or Chamber of Deniers, and their Substitutes, the Comptroller-General and his Substi­tutes, the Comptroller in Ordinary, of the Mouth, and the Comptrollers-Clarks of Offices.

We have spoken of the former, let us now speak of the rest.

There are three Masters of the Denier-Chamber, or Treasurers of the Houshold, who serve by turns, [Page 90] and are present at all Debates and Consultations about the Government of the Officers, and regula­tion of the Expences of the Houshold, and other matters of concern.

They have 1880 l. a piece yearly Wages, 5300 l. Liveries, 64 l. for Counters, and 2650 l. Wages more at the Dauphins.

They are to sollicite and see themselves paid the allowance assigned for defraying the Expences of the Mouth of the Kings Houshold, and to pay the Officers for such Expences. They pay also the Live­ries, they have their Ordinary at the Master of the Houshold's Table, or else at that of the ancient Great Masters, and he that serves at the Dauphins, eats at his Highnesseses Sirdean's, or Water-Servers Table.

They have every one their Substitutes, and if they please, under the Title of Officers, who assist them at their Offices, and officiate for them in their absence, having their Diet as their Masters, either at the Master of the Housholds Table, or when they serve at the Dauphins, at his Highnesses Serdeau's, or Water-Servers Table.

There are two Comptrollers-General, that serve each six Months, who have 900 l. a piece Wages, 1355 l. for Liveries, and 64 l. for Counters; and at the Dauphins for Liveries, antient Wages, and binding up the accounts, they have in all 2065 l.

The Comptrollers General settle and controul all the Expences of the Mouth in the Kings Houshold. One of them, or his Deputy that is in Waiting, is always in the Office with Pen in hand. They take all the setled Accounts of Extraordinary Ex­pences, of which a Roll is made every Month. They deliver the Extracts of the said Accounts so setled, to the Merchants that furnished the Commodities, in order to their payment, by the Masters of the Chamber of Deniers: and after the Comptroller-Ge­neral has got the Original Roll of the said Accounts, [Page 91] Signed by the Great Master, and has Entred it up­on his Register, he gives the said Original to the Master of the Chamber of Deniers. The Comptroller General, during the six Months he is in Waiting, do's likewise Accompany the Kings Broths, and re­ceives his Majesties Orders about his eating, as the Masters of the Houshold do; They have every one their Substitute, and if they will, in quality of an Officer, who assist them at their Offices, and Offi­ciate for them in their absence.

When it happens, that his Majesty Dines in Pub­lick, and that the Master of the Houshold does not re­form the Ceremony of carrying his Staff there, the Comptroller-General waies on his Majesty at Table, in the absence of the first Master of the Houshold. The Comptroller-General in the time of his Wait­ing, is to take care of all his Majesties Gold and Silver, and Vermilion Plate and Vessels, which he gives in Custody to the Keepers of the Plate and Vessels, and other Officers.

The Comptrollers General, and their Substitutes, have their Diet at Court, at the Master of the Housholds Table, and when they serve at the Dau­phins, at that of his Highnesses Serdeau, or Water-Server.

There is besides a Controuler in Ordinary, of the Mouth, and of the Goblet, or Buttry, who has 2000 l. Wages, and 3000 l. a year Liveries at the Kings, and 1000 l. more for Liverles at the Dau­phins.

He is to be present at the taking in of all Provisi­ons of Fish and Flesh, for the Kings Mouth, and before they are served up to his Table, he Examines whither all the particular things, set down in the Account of the smaller Expences, be made use of or no. Besides, He keeps an Account of Novelties in Provisions for the King, and of Fruits, Comfits, and Sweet Wines, &c. which are to be put into his hands: and in fine, he has an Eye and Inspection [Page 92] over all the Expences of the Mouth, or Goblet, and other Expences of the Houshold.

When the King eats in publick, without the Ce­remony of having the Staff born by the Master of the Houshold, the Comptroller in Ordinary, of the Mouth, sets the Meat on his Majesties Table, and when several are to serve, the Comptrollers Clerks, of Offices, likewise place some Dishes, but the Comptroller of the Mouth, serves on the Kings side. He has his Ordinary at the Master of the Housholds Table, while he is in Waiting on the King, and, at the Dauphins Serdeau's, or Water-Servers, when he waits there.

There are sixteen Comptrollers-Clerks of Offices, that draw up the Rolls and Bills of the Extraordi­nary expences of the Kings Houshold, and have Voice and Place at the Board of the Office. They have every one 600 l. Wages, and about 1500 l. Liveries yearly.

These Rolls which are in Parchment, contain a daily Account, ready sum'd up, of all the Expen­ces of the Kings Houshold, and are Signed by the Masters of the Houshold; And the Roll which is made on the last day of every Month, contains the whole Expence of all that Month; which only is Signed by the Great Master.

For the extraordinary Expences, there is a Monthly Account of them kept, which is cast up and setled at the Office, and Signed by the Great Master, by the first Master, by the Master in Ordi­nary, and by the other Masters of the Houshold, then in Waiting; upon which Bills of Accounts so setled and verified in the Office, the Masters of the Chamber of Deniers, payes those Expences to the Purveyors and Merchants to whom they are due. The said Comptrollers Clerks of Offices, are of the Body of the Office. At Feasts, and extraordinary Entertainments, they wait at the Kings Table, with their Swords by their sides, and set the Dishes on [Page 93] the Table themselves. Under the Masters of the Houshold and other Superiour Officers, they have Command over the seven Offices of the Houshold, the Officers of which, are bound to obey them as far as it concerns their Function. They write all the ordinary and extraordinary receits of Flesh and Fish; They Comptrol all the Provisions of the whole Houshold, and when they are not so good as they should be, they buy others, and the Money so by them laid out, is repaid them at the Chamber of Deniers, and bated on the Merchants Bills. They have their Diet at Court, at the Master of the Housholds Table, or else at the antient Great Ma­sters Table, or at the Almoners, and when they serve at the Dauphins, at his Highnesses Serdeau's, or Water-Servers Table.

There are eight Ushers of the Chamberlains, and of the Office, who formerly had 300 l. but now but 225 l. a piece by Name of Wages paid by the Treasurers of the Houshold, and 133 l. more at the Chamber of Deniers, yearly.

The seven Offices are, 1. The Goblet, or Buttry of the Mouth. 2. The Kitchin of the Mouth; which two first are only for the Kings Person. 3. The Com­mon Pantry. 4. The Common Buttry. 5. The Com­mon Kitchin. 6. The Fruit-Office. 7. The Fewel-Office.

1. Of the Goblet of the Mouth, or of the Kings own Buttry.

The Goblet consists of the Pantry of the Mouth, and that which is more properly called The Cup, or Buttry of the Mouth.

In the Pantry of the Mouth, there are twelve Chief Pantlers, that serve by turns, three every quarter, who have each 600 l. yearly.

The Officers of the Pantry of the Mouth, have allowed them besides, for Furnishing his Majesties [Page 94] Table with all sores of Pourcelan, or China-Ware, both ordinary and extraordinary, 75 l. for the two Quarters, beginning in January and October, and 200 l. for the other two Quarters, beginning in April and July.

There are under these, one Keeper in Ordinary of the Plate and other Vessels, who has 800 l. a year Wages, paid by the Treasurer of the Houshold, and 800 l. more Augmentation, at the Chamber of Deniers, besides, an Ordinary for himself, and ano­ther for a Servant, which he should have in specie, but commonly takes Money of the Master of the Denier Chamber for it.

Two Grooms serving six Months a piece, who have each 600 l.

One Groom in Ordinary for the Linnen, who has 600 l.

One Landrer who has 400 l. paid by the Trea­surers of the Houshold.

In the Buttry, or Collar of the Mouth.

There are likewise twelve Chief-Butlers, serving by turns, three every Quarter, who have each 600 l.

One Chief, or Head-Groom in Ordinary for Sweet-Waters 1600 l.

Four Aids, or Helpers, each 400 l.

One Aid in Ordinary 800 l.

Four other Grooms serving by turns, two each half year, 600 l. each.

Four Wine-Couriers serving two every six Months, 600 l.

The Servants of the Goblet have for their allowance 480 l. at the Denier-Chamber, and four Loaves, and four Quarts of Wine every day out of the Common Pantry and Cellar: besides this, the three foremost Servants of the Pantry of the Mouth, have six pounds of Beef, every Flesh-Day, and every Fish-Day [Page 95] a good large Corp, and two Quevivers or Sea-Dragons: And the foremost Servant of the Buttry, or Cellar of the Mouth, has every Flesh-Day, two pounds of Beef, and every Fish-Day one Quaviver.

The several Duties of the Officers of the Goblet.

The Officers of the Goblet, have several Charges, some are to take care of the Kings Bread, others of his Linen, others of laying the Cloth, and others of his Fruit, which till the time of the late King Lewis the XIII, was kept in the Fruit-Office; and others to look after his Wine and Water.

The Wine-Couriers are, whenever the King goes a Hunting, or elsewhere for his pleasure, to carry after his Majesty, a Cloak-Bag furnisht with Nap­kins, Bread, Knives, baked things, Fruit and Sweet-Meats, and two Flagons of Wine and Water. The Conductors of the Hackny of the Goblet, when his Majesty is travelling along the Country, carry after him a Horse loaden with Linnen, Bread, Fruit, Sweetmeats, a Cup for the King, a Taster, Knives, Salt, and other necessaries to lay the Cloth for the Kings Dinner and Supper, for fear the Grooms, and Carriages appointed for that purpose should not come up time enough with his Majesty: for better understanding of which, I have set down a particular account of the small things that are or­dinarily delivered to these two Officers last named when the King goes abroad: which they call the Menu.

The Officers of the Goblet, on such occasions, deliver to the Wine-Courier, two Portugal, or China Oranges, two ordinary Lemons, two Sweet Le­mons, six choice Apples, and in their Seasons, Heart-Cherries, Peaches, and other Fruits, for which they are allowed forty pence, or three shil­lings four pence English.

[Page 96] The Pastry-Cook of the Mouth, furnishes him with two great Biskets, six Perdrigon Prunes, six preserved Apricocks with Ears, and two Slices of Citron-Peel, for which, he is allowed fifty pence, or four shillings two pence English.

To the Conductor of the Hackney, are given six Loaves, value eleven pence, six Quart Bottles of Wine valued at four Livers eight pence, and one Denier or twelfth part of a penny, which is about seven shillings and four pence, English.

The Pastry-Cook of the Mouth, gives him twenty great Biskets, at eight pence a piece, six dozen of little Cabbages, at a Crown; the Officers of the Pantry of the Mouth, six packets of dry Sweet-meats, at a Crown and six pence, six Packets of Pastills, at the same value, six China-Oranges, at half a Crown: On Fish-Days the Pastry-Cook gives over and above, a Pie of Bon Chretien Pears, value forty pence. One Pie of beaten Eggs of like price, two great Cream Cheese-Tarts, at a Crown, two great Cream Cakes at forty pence, twenty four Cheese-Cakes, at forty eight pence, twenty four Brioches.

Besides which, are carried six dozen of Loaves and six dozen of Bottles of Wine, upon two Hor­ses, furnished out by the Court-Bakers, and Vint­ners.

2. Of the Kitchin of the Mouth, or the Kings own Kitchin.

The Officers of the Kings own Kitchin, are, two Ushers in Ordinary, that serve half a year each by turns, whose Salary is 1200 l.

Eight other Ushers that serve quarterly, who have each 600 l.

Four Master Cooks, 600 l. a piece.

Four Hastners, Roasting-Cooks, each 400 l. paid by the Treasurers of the Houshold, and 15 l. at the Chamber of Deniers.

[Page 97] Four Pottagers, or Boiling-Cooks, likewise at 400 l. Wages.

Four Pastry-Cooks, at 300 l. each.

Three Children of the Kitchin, or Under-Cooks in Ordinary, 300 l. Wages, at the Treasurers of the Houshold, and 24 l. each, at the Chamber of Deniers.

Four Porters serving by turns, two every six Months; who have each 300 l. Wages, at the said Treasurers, 91 l. 10 d. at the Denier-Chamber, and 150 l. for furnishing and keeping the Kitchin Fur­niture, besides 12 l. a quarter.

One Groom of the Chase in Ordinary, who has 1200 l. Wages, 500 l. Liveries, at the Treasure Royal, his Diet at Court the whole year, and se­veral other profits.

Two Advertisers serving six Months each, at 300 l.

Four Carriers of the armed Chair and Table for the Mouth, each 400 l.

Six Serdeau's, of which before.

Three Landrers of the Kitchin of the Mouth, and of the common Kitchin, who have each 300 l. Wa­ges at the Treasurers of the Housholds and 414 l. 16 d. at the Denier-Chamber.

The Duties of the Officers of the Kitchin of the Mouth.

The Ushers of the Mouth receive the Orders from the Superiour Officers, and give them to the other Officers. They receive the Meat, and give an account of what is served up: They carry the King his Broth, and his Breakfast every Morn­ing. The Master Cooks after them, is next in place, and has Charge of the Entries, or first Dishes. The Hastners, or Rosting-Cooks, tend the Rost-meat. The Potagers, or Boiling-Cooks, the Broths; the Porters are those that bring the Wood [Page 98] and Water; they likewise bring and keep clean the ordinary Kitchin-Furniture. The Groom of the Cupboard carries with him provision for one Meal, while the King is travelling in the Country; The Groom of the Chase, in Ordinary, carries with him, on a Horse, cold Meats for the King, and serves them himself to his Majesty. The Adver­tisers follow the King along the Countries, to give notice when he is to be at any place, and at what hour he intends to Dine or Sup.

The Menu, or particulars of what is delivered to the Groom of the Chase when he waits, are four dozen of Loaves, at 4 l. 8 d. a quarter of Veal, of 16 l. at 4 l. and a quarter of Mutton of 12 l. at 3 l. both sliced in Bread; 7 pounds of Salt Beef, and a Gammon of Bacon sliced in Bread; a quarter of Veal whole of 16 l. and a quarter of Mutton of 12 pound likewise whole at 3 l. a hot Turky-Pie, containing two Turkies, at 6 l. 15 d. a Partridge-Pie of three Partridges, 6 l. 15 d. eight larded Fowls in Bread 14 l.

On Fish-Dayes, four dozen of Bread, at 4 l. 8 d. and 300 hard Eggs, at 12 l.

Thus much for the Officers that are concerned about preparing the Kings own Meat and Drink, we shall place next those that belong to his Family, with the other Officers that are dependances on both. Which are called the common Officers, be­cause they furnish and serve the whole House­hold.

Of the rest of the seven Offices, called the Common-Offices, or Offices of the whole Houshold. And first,

3. Of the Common-Pantry.

In the, Common-Pantry, which is the third of the seven, there are thirteen Chief-Pantlers, who had formerly 400 l. a piece years, but at present, but 300 l.

Twelve Aids or Helpers, who formerly had 300 l. but now but 225 l.

Six Grooms, who have each 600 l.

Two Landrers, who have each 200 l. Wages at the Treasurers of the Housholds, and 576 l. 9 d. at the Denier-Chamber.

The three Servants of the Pantry, of antient establishment, whereof one is called the Deliverer, have allowed them at the Denier-Chamber for fur­nishing the Tables, 720, reckoning therein 60 l. of augmentation, for the New Table of the Great Master, and the Chamberlains Table.

4. In the Common Buttry.

There are twenty Chief-Butlers, who formerly had 400 l. and now have but 300 l. a piece yearly allowance.

Twelve Aids, or Helpers, who formerly had 300 l. but now but 225 l. yearly Wages.

One Master of the Cellars, who has 400 l. Wages and his Diet at Court all the year.

Four Grooms of the Bottles, serving by turns, two each half year, at 600 l. Wages.

Two Grooms of the Vessels, who have now 600 l. and formerly 660 l. Wages.

In the Account-Book, or Establishment of the [Page 100] Chamber of Deniers, the Grooms of the Common Buttry have 125 l. allowance every quarter for what they furnished in ordinary.

The Servants of the Common Buttry, have 64 l. 10 pence a quarter for what they ordinarily furnish, and the Servant Deliverer of the Common-Buttry, has over and above 72 l.

4. In the Common Kitchin, otherwise called, The Great-Common Kitchin.

There are twelve Ushers who had 400 l. but now but 300 l. Wages.

Eight Master-Cooks, at the same Wages.

Twelve Hastners, or Rosting-Cooks, at the same allowance, paid them by the Treasurers of the Houshold, and 8 l. a piece besides, at the Cham­ber of Deniers.

Eight Boiling-Cooks, or Pottagers, at the same allowance, besides 12 l. a piece at the Chamber of Deniers.

Twelve Children of the Kitchin, or Under-Cooks, at the same allowance as the Boiling-Cooks.

Four Pastry-Cooks at 300 l. a piece.

Two Herbmen, who have 200 l. a piece paid as Wages by the Treasurers of the Houshold, and 300 l. more augmentation Money at the Chamber of De­niers, because of their ordinary Groom.

Two Keepers of the Vessels, at 600 l.

Eight other Ushers of the Common-Kitchin, who had formerly 300 l. but now but 225 l. Wages.

Three Grooms of the Cupboard, serving each four Months a piece, at 600 l.

Four Grooms of the Spits, at 600 l.

Two Falotiers, or Faggot-Porters, that serve six Months a piece. They have 75 l. for every Bur­den, paid by the Treasurers of the Houshold, and 1098 l. at the Chamber of Deniers, besides 732 l. more at the Dauphins.

[Page 101] Three Landrers, which are the same that serve the Kitchin of the Mouth, at 300 l.

One Brasier, who is allowed at the Chamber of Deniers, for furnishing and keeping in order, the necessary Vessels of that kind, belonging to the ser­vice of the Goblet; the new Table of the Great Master, and that of the Great Chamberlain, and of the Great and Little Common-Kitchins, 1720 l. yearly, which is 430 l. a quarter.

The four Turn-Spits of the Great-Common Kitch­ins, have at the Chamber of Deniers, 30 l. a piece for a Suit of Cloaths.

6. In the Common-Fruitry there are

One Chief-Fruiterer in Ordinary, at 1200 l.

Twelve other Chief Fruiterers, at 400 l. each.

Four Grooms, at 600 l.

7. In the Fuel, or Wood-Office, that furnishes Wood, and other Fuel in the Kings Houshold.

Are twenty chief Masters of the Fuel-Office, who had formerly 400 l. and have now but 300 l. Wages at the Kings, and 75 l. at the Dauphins.

Fifteen Aids, or Helpers, who had formerly 300 l. have now but 225 l. at the Kings, and 50 l. at the Dauphins.

The Duty of the Fuel-Officers, is to furnish all the Wood that is burnt in the Kings House, as well in his Majesties own Chamber, Antichamber, and Closet, as in his Kitchin, and in all the other Offi­ces, and all the Halls, not excepting the Halls of the Guards, and in both the French, and Suisse Guard-Chambers. They likewise furnish what Coal and Straw is necessary: They have the priviledge of going first in to the King; for they go in and light a Fire in the Kings Chamber, a little before his Majesty is waked, so that by that means they [Page 102] have the first Entry, as they call it, to his Person; They are likewise to take care the whole day of all the Fires made in the Kings Apartment, and stay till he goes to Bed. When the King is travelling, they make the second Trusse of his Bed, that is, they sold the second and third Quilt of the Kings Bed, after the Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber have folded the first, and the Sheets; 'Tis their right to put the Dauphin to Table, he having no Table-Carrier.

When the King, or the Dauphin have occasion to wash, either their Feet, or their whole Bodies in a Bath, the Fuel-Officers are to heat and pour in the Water, and while the King or Dauphin are in the Bath, when any Perfumes are to be burnt, one of the said Officers is to hold the hot Pan on which the Perfumes are cast. When any Officer of the Kings Houshold is Arrested, or made Prisoner, the Fuel-Officers are charged with the Prisoner, and the Fuel-Office is made their Prison. 'Tis at this Office, that the Kings Visits the Poor on Maundy-Thursday, By his Chief Physician, and others, and the Chy­rurgion of the Houshold, wipes their Feet.

If the King happen to eat with another King, or Queen, the King of France, as performing the Honours due from a Person in his own House, to a Stranger his equal, will yield to that Crowned Head, his Cadenat, that is, his own Plate and Ser­vice, (which is the greatest piece of honour of the Table) together with his Captain of the Guards, and his Chair; and then it would be the Fuel-Officers Duty, to put the King of France to Table, that is to say, to present his Most Christian Majesty a Chair, and take it away again, when he rises from Table, as it was determined at Fountainbleau, at the Marriage of the Lady Marie-Lewise of Orleans to the King of Spain, who in Quality of Queen of Spain, eat several days with the King.

Besides these, there is at the Fuel-Office, one [Page 103] Deliverer of the Wood, one Porter that serves the Chamber with Wood, and three Servants of the Office.

The Kings Table-Carriers, and those of the Houshold, eat at the Fuel-Office.

The Kings Table-Carrier likewise gives the King his Chair when he Dines in Publick.

The two Table-Carriers of the Houshold, have 200 l. Wages paid by the Treasurers of the House­hold, and 600 l. more, each at the Chamber of Deniers, for their ordinary Furnitures.

There is likewise one Joyner in Ordinary, who among other things, furnishes Box-Branches on Palm-Sunday, at the Kings Chappel.

Two Chair-men for business.

In all these Offices, there are some Servants.

All the Officers of the seven Offices, have always priviledge to wear a Sword in the Louvre, or else­where, and to wait with their Swords by their sides, if they please.

The five Offices of the Houshold are composed, as you see, of Chiefs, Aids and Grooms, and are regulated after the same manner as those immedi­ately belonging to the King.

Besides the seven Offices, there is a new Kitchin, which was established in the Month of September 1664. called the Little-Common Kitchin, to serve the Great Masters, and Great Chamberlains new Table. Of which, we shall now name the Officers.

Other Officers belonging to the seven Offices.

There are still some others that may be reckoned as belonging to, or dependant on the seven Offices, as the Deliverer out of the Ice, who has his Place by Commission, and receives at the Chamber of Deniers, for Wages, Diet, and all together, half a Crown a day, paid by way of Extraordinary. He distributes Ice, not only for the Kings Table, but [Page 104] for all the Tables of the Houshold, and to the Princes and great Lords of the Court.

There are four Barber-Chyrurgions belonging to the Houshold, that are Sworn by the Chief Gentle­men of the Bed-Chamber, who have 200 l. a piece yearly Wages on the Book of the smaller Accounts, and 150 l. for dressing on occasion, the Pages of the said Chamber.

They shave the poor Men on Maundy-Thursday, and wash their Feet.

They Accompany the Chief Physician, when he visits the said poor Men.

After these we may place the Purveyors, and the Merchants that furnish necessaries, which are the Bakers, the Vintners, the Linen-Drapers, and others, who keep to the bargain they have made with the Kings Officers, so long as they please, and so long as no body offers to do it cheaper; but if they furnish any thing that is not so good as it should be, the Masters, and Comptrollers of the Houshold, and other Head-Officers may buy more elsewhere, and bate, or cause it to be bated in the said Merchants Bills.

The Baker has 150 l. at the Chamber of Deniers for Covertures.

There are three Purveyors, who have 200 l. likewise, at the Chamber of Deniers, for Cover­tures.

A Customary allowance called a Parists, for what he ordinarily furnishes, is paid to the Baker, Vint­ner, and Purveyor, when they are obliged to go further from Paris, than the distance specified in their Bargains.

The Vintner is likewise allowed for following the King or Dauphin out of the Kingdom, when they stir out of it, according to what is agreed on in the Contract made with them.

I shall add this one Remark, that when the Court is upon the march, there is allowed for the [Page 105] House where the Goblet is lodged, 3 l. or a Crown, for the Kitchin of the Mouth 5 l. for the two Common-Kitchins, both Great and Little, 3 l. each, for the Pastry-Cooks lodging 20 pence, and the like price for the Housing taken up by the Com­mon-Pantry, Buttry, and Pastry; as likewise by the Fruitry, and Fuel-Office, which is called paying the De Roy, or allowance due from the King, for House-room for his Offices.

The Officers of later Creation, for the service of the Great Masters, and Great Chamberlains Table, are,

A Master of the Houshold Waiting at the Great Masters new Table, who has 1000 l. yearly.

Another Master of the Houshold Waiting at the Great Chamberlains new Table, at 600 l.

This latter has an Ordinary of Bread and Wine, allowed him in the Establishment of the Houshold, and he takes his Ordinary of Meat upon what is served off from this Table: He has inspection over the Officers of the Little-Common Kitchin, and of the Fruitry, and over the Merchants that furnish the necessaries, as far as concerns the service of the Great Chamberlains Table.

Four Ushers of the Little-Common Kitchin, serving each three Months by turns; He that serves the first quarter, beginning from New-Years-Day, has 400 l. at the Treasurers, and 100 l. at the Chamber of Deniers. He that serves the second quarter, has 500 l. all at the Treasurers of the Houshold; He that serves the third quarter, has likewise 500 l. at the same Treasurers; and he that serves the last, has 400 l. at the said Treasurers, and 100 l. at the Chamber of Deniers.

There are two Aids in Ordinary, at 400 l. Wages.

These Ushers and Aids, make ready the Meat for both the said new Tables.

[Page 106] Besides which there are,

One Porter belonging to the Little-Common Kitchin, who has for Cords, Pails and Brooms, six pence a day.

One Servant of the Little-Common, who has 100 l. a year extraordinary Wages allowed him, upon the last Bill of every quarter, because of his extraordinary care and pains.

One Maker and Distiller of Waters for the Great Masters new Table, he has at the Chamber of De­niers, for the Waters he ordinarily furnishes in the quarter beginning in January, 150 l. and as much for the quarter ending in December. But for each of the other Summer Quarters, he has 300 l. which makes in all 900 l. yearly.

One Groom of the same new Table, who has for furnishing Glasses, Caraffs, and other things, 200 l.

One Keeper of the Vessels for the Great Masters Table, at 150 l.

One Butler belonging to the Great Chamberlain, at 600 l.

One Maker and Distiller of Waters, belonging to the same, at 900 l. as has he that serves the Great Master.

One Groom of the Great Chamberlains Table, who has 200 l. for Glasses, Caraffs, &c.

One Keeper of the Vessels, at 150 l.

CHAP. XVI.

Of the Great Chamberlain, and all Officers under his dependance.

IF the honour of Officer, may be rated from the frequency, and nearness of their approaches to the Kings Person, then certainly the Great Cham­berlain must needs have the greatest share therein of any, since it is at all times in his power, to be near his Majesty, and that he has a very consider­able Rank in all the most Magnificent Solemni­ties.

This Office is almost as ancient as the beginning of this Monarchy, and one may judge of its great­ness by the Nobility of the Persons that always have enjoyed it. He had formerly a great Juris­diction over the Mercers and other Trades that deal in Clothing, and for that purpose, he substi­tuted under him a Surveyor of those Merchandizes, who was commonly called the King of the Mercers, that is to say, their Syndic, or Comptroller, who also Examin'd the Weights and Measures of the said Merchants: His Court of Justice was held at the Marble Table in the Palais, or Palace at Paris, by a Mayor-Judge, Commissionated by the Great Chamberlain, and some other Officers.

The Great Chamberlain was formerly of the Great Officers that Signed all Charters, and Letters of Consequence, and has still a Right to sit in Judg­ment with the King at the Tryal of any Peers.

He had formerly the Keeping of the Kings Cof­fers and Treasury in his Chamber, and had the management of the Exchequer, as he has to this day, in several places, where the Camerlingue, or Chamberlain (for in different places, he is diffe­rently [Page 108] stiled) is likewise Treasurer, and receives all the Revenues; and it belonged to him, or his Un­der-Treasurers, to carry Money about them for the Kings Liberalities, and other necessary Expences: He used to have for his Fee the tenth part of what came into the Kings Coffers, and was wont to deal out the Annual Gratuities to the Souldiers, and pro­vide Presents for all Ambassadours.

He has been indifferently stiled, Cubicularius, Ca­merarius, or Cambellanus, that is, Bedchamber Man, Chamber-man, or Chamberlain; But the Office of Chamberlain, and Chamber-man, were afterward made distinct Offices, as, among other proofs, will appear by an ancient duty upon Merchants, who paid 16 pence, whereof ten pence went to the Chamberlain, and the other six to the Chamber-Man; But the Office of Chamber-Man was supprest in the Person of Charles Duke of Orleans, Anno 1544. or to speak more properly, we may say, that it assumed under Francis the First, the present Title it is now known under, of Chief Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber.

The present Great Chamberlain is the Duke of Boüillon, who has yearly 3600 l. under the name of Wages, and a Pension of 20000 l.

When the King sits on his Bed of Justice, or in a general Assembly of the Estates, the Great Cham­berlain Function and Privi­ledges. sits at his Feet, upon a Violet-Coloured Velvet Cushion, Embroidered with Flower deluces of Gold. He is present at all Audiences of Am­bassadours, where takes his Place behind his Ma­jesties Chair of State, between the Chief Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber, who is on his right, and the Great Master of the Wardrobe, whose Place is on his left.

Antiently, in the Queens absence, he was wont to lie in the Kings Bed-Chamber.

Upon the Coronation-Day, he takes the Royal Buskins from the Abbot of St. Denis, and puts [Page 109] them on the Kings Legs, and then invests him with the Dalmatick Robe of Azure Blue, and with the Mantle Royal.

As the Great Chamberlains have the honour to be nearest the sacred Persons of their Kings while they are alive; so when nature has exacted from them her Tribute, and they come to die, they with the Chief Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber, interre their Bodies.

The homage done to the King, by any Dukes or other Persons of higher Rank, holding their Lands, or Seignieuries of his Majesty, was antiently per­formed in the Bed-Chamber, whither being Con­ducted by the Great Chamberlain, Bare-headed, and without Sword, Belt, or Spurs; and kneel­ing down, and putting their hands between the Kings Hands, they promised him Fealty and Ho­mage.

Of which Ceremony, we have a fair Example, in Froissard, in the 25th Chapter of the First Vo­lume of his History, namely, in the Homage done by Edward the Third King of England, to Philip de Valois, to whom being brought in, and in the posture as aforesaid, the Great Chamberlain-ten­dered these words: You become the Liege-Man of the King, my Lord, that here is, (as Duke of Guienne, and Peer of France) and you promise Fealty and Loyalty to him, to bear: Say, Yes: And the King of Eng­land, as Duke of Guienne, answered, Yes, and the King received him for his Liege-Man: Thus Frois­sard, who likewise tells us, that this Homage had better have been let alone, it being so Stomached by that Couragious King, that it caused those long and bloody Wars between the two Nations, of which all Histories resound, and which are hardly yet well extinct, but lie couched under Em­bers, till opportunity shall raise them into new Flames.

At present, when any Marshal of France, Gover­nour [Page 110] of a Town, Place, or Province, or any other, is to take the Oath of Fidelity to the King, the Marshal, or such other Person gives his Hat, Gloves, and Sword, to the Usher of the Bed-Chamber, and then advancing towards the King, who expects him in his Chair of State, he kneels down upon a Cushion, presented him by one of the Chief Valets de Chambre, and putting his Hands between his Majesties, when, the said Oath being read to him by the Secretary, under whose Division his Place is, he gives his assent in the manner aforesaid; and then rising up, and making Obeisance to his Majesty, goes back, and takes again of the Usher of the Bed-Chamber the things he left with him, to whom, as well as to some other Officers of the Bed-Chamber, he makes an honourable Pre­sent.

The Great Chamberlains had formerly a Table furnished out of the Kings own Kitchin, but the late Duke of Chevreuse, Great Chamberlain, agreed with the Masters of the Houshold, to have instead of it, that which is still kept by them, under the Name of the Great Chamberlains Table.

He has a Super-intendence over all the Officers of the Kings Bed-Chamber, of his Wardrobe, of his Closets and Anti-Chamber, when the King Dres­ses himself, he gives him his Shirt, which honour, he parts not with, to any, but to the Sons of France, the Princes of the Blood, or Sons Legitimate of France. When the King eats in his Bed-Chamber, 'tis his Duty to wait on him, and give him his Napkin; and in short, he performs all the Ho­nours and Chief Ceremonies of the Bed-Cham­ber.

At all Solemnities, Balls, and other Assemblies, as likewise at Chappel, when the King goes to hear a Sermon, one of the Yeomen of the Bed-Chamber brings always a Chair out of the Kings Chamber for the Great Chamber, placing it behind the Kings, [Page 111] and another, for the Chief Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber.

Of the four Chief-Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber.

The Chief Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber, which now are four, exercise as I have said, by turns, under that new Title, the Office that was formerly performed by the Camerier, or Chamber-Man.

There was at first but two of them, but the late King Lewis the XIII. made them up four.

They serve By turns each one their Year.

The present Chief Gentlemen of the Bed-Cham­ber, are,

1. The Duke of Aumont. 2. The Duke of Gevres. 3. The Duke of Crequi. 4. The Duke of St. Aignan.

They take the Oath of Fidelity to the King in Their Fun­ctions and Privi­ledges. Person, and he of them, that is in Waiting, Sweats all the other Officers of the Bed-Chamber, that are admitted into his years Waiting. In the absence of the Great Chamberlain they supply his Place in all things. They give Order to the Usher, what Persons he is to let in, and deliver Certificates of their Service, to all the Officers of the Bed-Cham­ber: They perform likewise many other Duties, at the Kings rising, going to Bed, and Dressing. He that is in Waiting, lodges in the Louvre: The King does them the Honour to give them a Place in his own Coach.

They used formerly to lie in the Kings Bed-Cham­ber, as appears by the 9th and 82d Articles of the Ordinance of Charles the Seventh, that are ad­dressed thus, To the Chamberlains lying in our Bed-Chamber, &c.

They bespeak all the first Mourning at Court, and all Cloths and Habits used in Masques, Balls, and Playes, and other Divertisements for his Ma­jesty.

[Page 112] They have the sole ordering of all the Expences allotted in the Establishments, or Account-Books of the Argenterie, or Privy-Purse, for the Kings Person or otherwise; as likewise of those allowed in the Establishments for the Kings Pocket Expences, and affairs of his Bed-Chamber: Under them, are the Intendants, Comptrollers, and the Treasurers Ge­neral of the Kings Privy-Purse, and of the Pocket Expences, and the rest of the Officers of the Bed-Chamber.

It is to be noted, That there are many, that out of courtesy are stiled Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber, that have neither Place, nor Salary, as such; and many Gentlemen in Ordinary of the Kings Houshold, of which we shall speak in their proper place.

Next these, are the Pages of the Bed-Chamber, who are in number twenty four, and serve con­stantly all the year long, each Chief Gentleman be­ing allowed six of them, though they may, if they please, take a greater number; over whom, the King, for better regulation, maintains Governours, and Under-Governours, and Masters of all sorts, to teach them all Exercises requisite for Persons of Quality.

These Pages go every Morning and Evening, with the other Officers of the Bed-Chamber, into the Kings said Chamber, to give his Majesty his Slip­pers; and on Evenings, and Mornings too, (when 'tis dark) they carry white Wax-Flambo's before his Majesty, when he walks on Foot out of his Anti-Chamber, or when he crosses, either on Foot, or in a Sedan, the Courts of any of his Palaces; and in Summer they carry over him, an Ʋm­brello.

In the Armies, where the King is present, they serve as Aids de Camp, under the Kings own Aids de Camp, as likewise do the Pages of the Kings Great and Lesser Stables.

Of other Inferiour Officers of the Bed-Chamber.

There are four Officers that are called the Ordi­nary, or Chief Valets de Chambre, which last Title, though omitted in their Patents, was since con­firmed to them by a Brief from his Majesty. Their places are worth counting all things, about 2000. Crowns a Year. They serve indifferently, as they can agree, one in the place of another, and have all things common among them, though the Eldest usually chuses his Quarter. They perform several honourable Duties in the Chamber, as keeping the Door of the Council, and giving the accustomed Orders to the Ushers, in the absence of the Chief Gentlemen, &c. They lie at the Kings Beds Feet, and keep the Keys of his Trunks; They are al­lowed at present, in Money for their Table 1750 l. each.

Under these, there are thirty two other Valets de Chambre, that serve quarterly, eight each Quar­ter, their Salary is 660 l. yearly; they diet at the Table, called the Valets de Chambrés Table.

The quality of Esquires has been confirmed to them by several Orders, and particularly by an Order of the Council of State of the 25th of April 1669. By which the Sieur de la Faye, one of the Kings Valets de Chamber, was maintained in the said Quality of Esquire. They perform several Fun­ctions about the King, when he is Dressing, or Un­dressing; as, giving him his Chair, holding his Morning-Gown, and putting it on his Shoulders, presenting the Looking-Glass, &c. They make the Kings Bed, the Upholsters standing at the Beds-Feet to help them. The Valet de Chambre, that is in Waiting, is to keep all day within the Rails of the Alcove, to watch the Kings Bed. They are to see the Officer of the Goblet tast the Wine and Bread that he brings up to the Kings Chamber, before it [Page 114] is presented to his Majesty: When the Court is on the march in the Country, one of the Valets de Chambre, goes before, to conduct the Kings Bed; and is then allowed a Crown a Day Extraordinary. When the King quits only for a few days, any of his Royal Palaces, the Valet de Chambre that stays there, to keep the Kings Bed, is allowed a Crown a Day for his Diet.

The three Valets de Chambre, that wait on the Dauphin, have each of them likewise, a Crown a Day for their Diet.

The last year the King supprest all the Supernu­merary Valets de Chambre, that waited but every other year.

The Ʋshers.

There are sixteen Ushers of the Chamber, that serve Quaterly, four each quarter. They have 660 l. Salary, and 300 l. gratuity. In their Pa­tents they are written Esquires. As soon as the King is out of his Bed, and has got on his Morn­ing-Gown, and is set down in his Chair, the Ush­ers in Waiting come into his Chamber, and one of them taking immediately possession of the Door, takes notice what persons of Quality present them­selves to come in, which having observed, as soon as the King has changed his Shirt, he lets in the Nobility and the Officers, in order, as he sees them more or less qualified. If any speak too loud in the Chamber, the Usher Commands Silence. They carry Flambo's overlaid with Vermilion gilt, before his Majesty, when he goes out or in any where, or from Chamber to Chamber, or when he goes up or down Stairs, in any of the Apartments of the Louvre, but when he goes any further into the Courts, they quit him at the Door, and leave only the Pages to light him, to whom it only be­longs.

[Page 115] The Ushers have the Priviledge, to wait with their Swords by their sides, and their Cloaks on their Shoulders.

Upon the Annual Festivals, and on all Dayes of Solemnity, as at Te Deums, on the Dayes of the Kings Majority, Coronation, or Marriage, when he touches for the Evil, when he follows the Pro­cessions, when he fits on his Bed of Justice in Par­liament, or at the Creation of the Knights of his Orders, and at all the Kings first Entries into any Towns, two of these Ushers carry before his Majesty two silver guilt Maces, letting the tops of the said Maces, lean gently on their Shoulders; and every time they carry these Maces, there is due to them a Fee of 150 l. which is punctually paid them, by express Order, at the Treasure-Royal: But when the King goes to Parliament, besides the 150 l. they have out of the Treasure Royal, the Chief President Orders a like summe to be paid them out of the Fines. In like manner, at the Kings first Entry into any Cities, there is due to them from the Officers of the said Town, a Mark of Gold, be­ing the value of 400 l. besides their said constant Fee of 150 l. out of the Treasure Royal.

These two Maces are carried every where after the King in the Chests of the Wardrobe. At Coro­nations, and Creations of Knights, the two Ushers that bear the Maces, are habited in white Sattin Doublets, with Sleeves slashed in several rows, and their Shifts swelling out of the said slashes, with Trunk-Breeches, and Cloaks of the same, with silk Pearl-Colour'd Stockings, Shoes covered with white Sattin, and white Velvet, or Sattin Caps, or Bonnets. They have their share in the Fees and Presents given by Governours and Lieutenants, of Towns or Provinces, Great Officers of the Crown, and those of the Kings Houshold, the Chief Presi­dents of Parliaments, the Eschevins, or Sheriffs of Paris, or others, when at their several admissions, [Page 116] they take the Oath of Fidelity to his Majesty.

'Tis the Ushers Duty, to make them that are in the Chamber get out of the way, whether it be to keep them from standing in his Majesties light, when he is Dressing, or Undressing him, or to clear his passage when he goes from his Chair to his Praying-Desk, from that to his Closet, or when he goes from one side of his Chamber to the other.

No Body ought to have his Hat on in the Kings Bed-Chamber, though it be at certain hours when there is but two or three Officers there. And the Ushers are to see too, that no Body Combs them­selves there, or sit down upon the Seats, the Table, or the Rails of the Alcove. They have their Ordi­nary at the old Table of the Great Master, which is now that of the Masters of the Houshold, and those four that are in Waiting, have every day to their Breakfast, a Bottle of Wine, and a Loaf; They are allowed every day out of the Eruitry, a Flambo of white Wax of half a pound weight.

On Council-Days, if the Council be held in the Bed-Chamber, they go from his Majesty, to give notice to the Secretaries of State, and in the ab­sence of the chief Valets de Chambres, they keep the Doors of the Council-Chamber. They have the Honour to carry in their Arms the Children of France, during their Infancy.

The two Ushers of the Chamber, that wait at the Dauphins, have each of them a Crown a day for their Diet; one of the four Ushers that are in Waiting at the Kings, goes every day and waits on the Duke of Burgundy, and he that stays with that Prince, in the Kings absence, has a Crown a Day for his Diet: and the Officers of the Kings Counting-House, or Green-Cloth, diminish so much as his Ordinary comes to, at the Table, he should otherwise eat it, and discount it to his Majesties profit. Another Usher likewise appointed to wait [Page 117] on the Duke of Anjou, has the like allowance, which will be the rule for all the Children the Dau­phin shall have.

When the Usher asks any one, that would come in, his Name, whoever he be, he ought not to take it ill, because he is obliged by his Office, to know who he lets in.

It is to be observed, that any person that would enter into the Bed-Chamber, the Anti-Chamber, and the Closets, when the Doors are shut, must scratch gently at the Door, and not knock hard, and when he would go out, he is not to open the Door himself, but to call to the Usher to open it for him.

When the King, any Queens, Children of France, and their Wives, or any Ambassadors, that go to, or come from Audience, come in or go out of the Chamber, the Usher presently opens to them both the Leaves of the Door, the same is done by the Usher of the Anti-Chamber, and by the Sentinel at the Door of the Guard-Chamber.

There are besides, two Ushers of the Closet, that wait six Months each, who have 660 l. Salary, and a gratuity of 600 l. at the Treasure Royal. They eat at the Masters of the Housholds Table.

If on a Council-Day, the Council be held in any of the Closets, then 'tis the Usher of the Closets Duty, to give notice of it from the King, to the Secretaries of State.

There two Ushers of the Anti-Chamber, who have a yearly Salary of 500 l. each. They eat at the Valets de Chambrés Table, and are allowed Bread and Wine too for their Breakfast.

At New-years-tide, the Queen, when there is one, gives for a New-Years Gift, 4 l to the Ush­ers, a 100 l. at each Station, that is to say 100 l. among the Ushers of the Anti-Chamber, as much to him that keeps the Closet, and as much among those of the Bed-Chamber. By which means, he [Page 118] that keeps the Cabinet that day, and that is in waiting the first half year beginning in January, has as much alone, as the two Ushers of the Anti-Chamber, and the four Ushers of the Bed-Chamber. And formerly, when the two Ushers of the Anti-Chamber waited by turns, each their half year; he whose turn it was to wait at New-years-tide, had the whole 100 l. to himself, but since they have been both made ordinary, and serve all the year round, the said summ is usually parted among them; which Order was made about twenty years ago.

The Porte-Manteau's, or Cloak-Carriers.

Are twelve in number, and serve quarterly, three each quarter, and have yearly 660 l. Wages, up­on the Establishment, and 120 l. gratuity at the Treasure Royal: They are Esquires by their Pla­ces.

Over these there is one Porte-Manteau, or Cloak-Carrier in Ordinary, who has a Salary of 1320 l. and his Diet at Court at the Kings Serdeau's, or Water-Servers Table.

The Cloak-Carriers take the Oath of Fidelity be­fore the Chief Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber, then in Waiting; and take from him, Certificates of their Service. They eat at the Valets de Cham­bre's Table. They are to be present every Morn­ing, at the Kings rising, when the King is on a Journey, or going any where in the Country, when he goes a Hunting, a Walking, or to see any Musters; or when in ill weather his Majesty passes through any open place a Foot, or a Horse-back, and in any other encounters where the Cloak-Carrier foresees his Majesty may have occasion for his Cloak; Nay, if his Majesty does but step out of his Apartments into the open Air, though it be but to cross the Courts of his Palace, or walk in the [Page 119] Garden, the Cloak-Carrier runs immediately to the Wardrobe, and fetches his Majesties Cloak, and keeps close by him with it, to be ready to give it him whenever he calls for it. At certain Ceremo­nies, where his Majesty usually has a Cloak of State, as at a Ball, &c. Every time his Majesty has a mind to put it off, or on, it is the Cloak-Carriers Office to do it for him.

Besides the Cloak, these Cloak-Carriers are obli­ged to take and keep in Custody all other Cloaths, or other loose things the Kings puts off only for the present, with intention to use them again the same day, as his Sword, his Gloves, his Hat, his Muff, his Cane, &c. and to be always nigh at hand to give him them; So that by this means, they have Entry into almost all places where the King goes: But if the King puts off any of these things with intent to use them no more that day, then the Officers of the Wardrobe take charge of them, and not the Cloak-Carriers: And as for his Sword, there is something more of Ceremony observed in keeping, or holding of that; for sometimes it be­longs to the Cloak-Carriers, and sometimes to the Gentlemen of the Querry to do it: for when his Majesty wears Spurs, it belongs to the Gentleman of the Querry then in Waiting to carry his Majesties Sword, but when the King goes out of his House in Shoes only, the Cloak-Carrier carries his Sword as far as the steps of the outward Door, and fur­ther if the King walks on Foot, or goes out in a Coach with but two Horses; but if he mounts on Horseback, or goes out in a Coach and six Horses, then whether the King wears Spurs or no, the Cloak-Carrier delivers the Sword into the hands of the Gentleman of the Querry, as soon as he comes to the said steps, who when they come back, if the King wear no Spurs, returns the Sword again to the Cloak Carrier, as soon as his Majesty lights from his Horse, or out of his Coach; but if he wear [Page 120] Spurs, then the Gentleman of the Querry parts not with the Sword till the Kings Spurs be put off.

The Cloak-Carriers take Horse in the Court of the Louvre, when the King goes out, and follow him back again into the Louvre in the same manner, when he returns.

When the King plays at Tennis, they present the Balls to the King, and keep account of them; and they reckon with the Master of the Tennis-Court, for the Expences made during the time his Majesty was playing, because the King always pays them, whether he win or lose.

The Cloak-Carrier that waits on the Dauphin, is allowed a Crown a Day for his Diet.

The Arquebuse, or Fire-arms-Carriers.

Are two in number, and wait by turns, each his half year. They have each of them 1100 l. paid them by the Treasurer of the Privy-Purse, or Pock­et-Expences, as well for Wages, as for Powder, Shot, &c. for Hunting, besides a gratuity of 300 l. at the Treasure Royal. All the Kings old Hunting Arms are their Fees, as Fowling-Pieces, Pistols, &c. They eat at the Valets de Chambre's Table.

They take Horse in the Louvre, and follow the King back again thither, in the same man­ner, as likewise, at present, do several other Offi­cers.

There is likewise one * Mall-Carrier in Ordinary, who is likewise Valet de Chambre to the King, who A Stick used in the Pallmall. is allowed yearly 400 l. Salary, paid out of the Privy-Purse 240 l. gratuity, at the Treasure Royal, and 549 l. for his Diet, at the Denier-Chamber. When the King goes to play at the Pall-Mall, he goes to the Chests of the Wardrobe, and takes out for him, a Mall, some Bowls, and other Imple­ments used in that sport.

Of other Officers, who have, or take at least, the Title of Valets de Chambre, and Diet at their Table.

There are eight Barbers qualified Valets de Cham­bre, who jointly Exercise the same Office that was formerly enjoyed but by one, under the Title of Chief-Barber, which Title they all eight retain, and part the Wages and Gratuities of the said Office among them, by vertue of a Brief granted them in the year 1669.

Besides which, they have 700 l. Wages, paid by the Treasurers of the Houshold, 150 l. gratuity at the Treasure Royal, and 100 l. for furnishing Combs and Sweet Powder. At the Dauphins, they have half as much Wages as they have at the Kings, and 150 l. Gratuity, all at the Treasure Royal. Besides a Crown a Day for their Diet.

They have the Priviledge, to keep by themselves, or their Deputies, open Shop in any Town of the Kingdom they will chuse, not excepting Paris it self, in the same manner as any Master Chyrurgion of Paris may do. They commonly let out this their Priviledge at Paris, for 100 Crowns a year: they also let out apart the Priviledge of Chief Barber at Paris, at 37 l. 10 d. each place.

Each of these Barbers are allowed to keep, if they please, two Prentices or Journey-men in their Shops, that understand Chyrurgery; but the Kings Chyrurgeons can keep none in their Shops that meddle with the Barbers or Perriwig-Makers Trade, because nothing should divert from arriving to per­fection in Chyrurgery, which is supposed to require a Mans whole application.

Over these, there are two Barbers in Ordinary, who have a Salary of 800 l. a year each.

The Duty of all these is, to Comb the Kings Head, Morning and Evening, to Shave him, and to rub and dry him when he comes out of the [Page 122] Bath or Stove, and when he has been playing at Tennis.

There is one Operatour for Teeth, who has in all, for Wages, Diet, and Gratuity, 11295 l. yearly.

He furnishes Roots and Oprate.

There are three Bone-Setters that serve by turns, four Months a piece, they have each a Salary of 600 l.

And one Operatour for the Stone, who has a like Salary:

These eat at the Valets de Chambre's Table.

There are likewise eight Upholsters, that serve quarterly, and in their Certificates of Service, are called Valets de Chambre.

Their Salary yearly is 300 l. and 37 l. 10 d. Gratuity.

Their Office is every day to help the Valets de Chambre to make the Kings Bed.

They are obliged to take charge of the Kings Houshold-Stuff, in the time of their Waiting, when his Majesty is abroad in the Country, or in the Field, and to put up or take down his Furni­ture.

When the Court is on the march into the Coun­try, or the Field, there always goes to a first and second Chamber, that is, Furniture of all forts for two Chambers, because one would not be enough: The first of these Chambers, or the first Suit of Furniture, is sent away always the Night before the King begins his Journey, that so the King, when he comes next day to the place where he is to lie at, may find his Chamber ready furnished, and the next day the Furniture for the second Chamber keeps on its march outright to the second Stage of the Journey, and so along to the end of the Journey, and back again; and of the two Upholsters that are then in Waiting, one conducts the first Cham­ber, and the other the second.

He that waits at the Dauphins, is allowed forty [Page 123] pence, or ten Groats a day for his Diet.

There are likewise four Clocks, or Watchmakers, that in their Patents are stiled Valets de Chambre, and eat at their Table: their Salary is 200 l. a piece.

Of the Yeomen of the Chamber.

There are six Yeomen in Ordinary, of the Cham­ber, they have, under the notion of Wages, toge­ther with other allowances, 658 l. yearly.

They wait always in the Chamber, to be ready to receive the Orders of their Superiours, or in their absence, from the King himself. They take care of the Wax-Lights in the Kings Chamber, and in his other Apartments, and what is left of them is their Fees every where but at Versailles. They open the Bed-Chamber Door every Morning, be­fore the Ushers come.

They have their share in all Gratuities given by Governours and Lieutenants of Provinces, &c. when they take the Oath of Fidelity to the King in his Bed-Chamber as is aforesaid. They have a Ta­ble a part, and in the year 1675, his Majesty by fresh Patents was pleased to confirm all former Grants made to them: they, as other Officers of the Bed-Chamber, are Sworn by the Chief-Gentle­men of the said Chamber. When the King, or any other persons of Quality, play at any Game in the Kings Bed-Chamber, or any where else in his A­partments, they have the profits of the Box, unless it be at Versailles.

They are to make ready several necessary things in the Chamber, as Tables, Carpets, and Seats for the Councils that are held in the Kings Chamber, and for the Council of Finances, or of the Trea­sury, which is likewise held in his Majesties Cham­ber; and they furnish Pen, Ink, Paper, and Sand, for which they are allowed 200 Crowns; they lie [Page 124] always near the Kings Chamber, and just by his Chests, or Trunks, they go and carry word to the Officers of the Kitchin, when his Majesty has a mind to have any Broth, or to Breakfast; and to the Officers of the Wardrobe to bring the Kings Cloaths; and every Night, they light the Lamp that is placed in a Corner of the Chamber, and burns all Night.

There likewise belong to the Bed-Chamber, two Chair-men for business, who have 600 l. Salary out of the Privy-Purse, and 200 l. Gratuity, at the Treasure Royal.

The Table-Carrier likewise carries a Chair of State out of thé Bed-Chamber, for the King, when he goes to High-Mass, Tenebras, or elsewhere.

There is one Rubber in Ordinary of the Kings Chamber and Closets, who enjoys his place by Commission. Who has 540 l. yearly, paid him by the Chief Valets de Chambre.

The Porters of the Bed-Chamber,

Are nine, who carry and remove on all occasions, the Kings Beds, and other Furniture of his Cham­ber and Wardrobe. They serve quarterly, three the first quarter, beginning at New-Years-Tide, and two every of the other quarters. Their yearly al­lowance, counting all things, amounts to 340 l. a year. They have some Servants under them. Be­sides, there is a Captain of the Mules of the Cham­ber, who has several Servants under him, that Con­duct and Load and Unload the Chests of the Kings Chamber, and Wardrobe.

Other Officers assuming also the Title of Valets de Chambre,

Are, the Painters, Shoomakers, Joyners, Gla­siers, Lock-smiths, Carvers, and other like Trades­men, [Page 125] and Artists, as likewise others belonging to the Wardrobe, &c.

Of the Wardrobe, or the manner of the Kings Dressing and Undressing.

There is at present but one Great Master of the Wardrobe. He has likewise the Honour to have place in his Majesties Coach. He has by way of Salary, together with other allowances, 19600 l. yearly.

He has the Charge of the Kings Cloths, Linnen, and Shoes and Stockings, and what he leaves off he has for his Fees.

In the absence of the Princes, the Great Cham­berlain, and the Chief Gentlemen of the Bed-Cham­ber, he gives the King his Shirt, and in the Morn­ing, when his Majesty Dresses himself, he puts on his Wast-Coat, his Blue-Ribban, and his strait Coat, and presents him his Sword, and at Night when he is going to Bed, he presents him his Night Wastcoat, Cap, and Handkercher, and asks him what Cloths he pleases to wear the next day.

You are to take notice, That the Kings Hand­kercher is always presented him upon a Vermilion guilt Salver, which is a kind of Plate-Stand.

Upon great Festival and Solemn Days, he fastens on his Cloak the Collers of his Orders, after he is Drest.

He has an Apartment in the Kings Lodgings.

What place he has at Audiences and other So­lemnities, I have already told under the Articles of the Great Chamberlain, and chief Gentlemen.

Next, are two Masters in Ordinary of the War­drobe, that serve by turns, each of them his year. Of their Salary and other allowances, I find no account.

They take the Oath of Fidelity to the King in Person. And in the absence of the Great Master of [Page 126] the Wardrobe, and his Superiours, they give the King his Shirt, and do other things that he should do. They are likewise present at Audiences of Ambassadours, and mount upon the highest part of the Cloth of State. He of them that is in waiting, has an Apartment in the Kings Lodgings. In the Morning when the King rises, he presents him his Cravat, his Gloves, his Cane and his Hat. The King himself empties the Pockets of the Suit he leaves off, into those of the Suit he intends to put on, but the Master of the Wardrobe is to hold those Pockets to him while he empties them. At Night, when the King goes out of his Closet, the Master of the Wardrobe waits for him at the Door, and takes his Gloves, his Cane, his Hat, his Belt and Sword.

When his Majesty goes to Bed, he first kneels down at his Praying-Desk, which is by his Bed-side, upon a Cushion laid for him by his Almoner, and when he has said his Prayers, he comes back and sits down in his Chair, where the Master of the Ward­robe, draws off his Strait-Coat, and Vest, and Blue-Ribban, as likewise his Cravat.

There are four Chief Valets of the Wardrobe that wait quarterly; they present his Majesty his Socks and Garters in the Morning, and at Night, tie the Ribbans of his Shirt. Their Salary, and other allowances from the King, amount to 2935 l. yearly, and from the Dauphin to 862 l.

Sixteen other Valets of the Wardrobe, that are allowed by the King a Salary of 520 l. and their Diet at the Valets de Chambres Table; and at the Dauphins when they wait there, a Gratuity of 260 l. and a Crown a day for their diet.

Over these there is one Valet of the Wardrobe in Ordinary, whose Salary is 1200 l.

The Valets of the Wardrobe bring the King his Cloths, and their particular Office is, when the King rises, to give him his Breeches, his Stockings, [Page 127] and his Boots when he puts on any: They always draw off the Shoe, Stocking, or Boot from his Majesties left Leg. Besides this, they give the great Master, or the other Masters of the Wardrobe the Cloths they are to dress his Majesty with, and pre­sent and put them on themselves in their absence, or in the absence of the chief Valets of the Wardrobe, on all other occasions, when the King shifts any of his Cloths in the day time, or when he plays at Tennis, or comes from Hunting, the Valets of the Wardrobe perform the same Duties.

At Night when the King is going to Bed, and in the Morning, when he rises before day, the Chief Valet de Chambre, gives one of the Lords then pre­sent, that the King names to him, the Wax-Light to hold, whilst his Majesty is Dressing or Un­dressing.

There is one Mail-Carrier, who has for Wages, Diet, and other allowances, 2405 l. yearly.

When the King is on the march, he is obliged to mount on Horseback with his Mail covered with a Horse-Cloth Embroidred with his Majesties Arms and Motto, in gold. In this Mail, he carries a Suit of Cloths, Linnen, Ribbans, a loose Gown, and other things necessary to shift his Majesty. He is mounted at the Kings Stables, and has fresh Horses provided for him at every Stage, where the King takes any, that he may be able to follow him, and not be obliged to quit him.

There are four Yeomen in Ordinary of the Ward­robe, they have care of all the Kings Cloths and Linnen: they have a yearly allowance of 80 Crowns paid them quarterly at the Treasure Royal; and at the years end, the Great Master of the Wardrobe gives them the greatest part of the Cloths his Ma­jesty left off that year. They also have the keep­ing of several wearing things set with precious Stones, as of Swords garnished with Diamonds, Crosses of the Kings Orders likewise set with Dia­monds, [Page 128] and the like rich Cloths. They eat at the Valets de Chambre's Table. All the whole Body of the Wardrobe, that is, all the Officers of it, have the priviledge of the first Entry, that is, they are of the number of those, that first enter into the Kings Chamber, even before the King is out of his Bed, or before he be come out of the Queens Chamber (when there is one) that they may have in readiness his Majesties Cloths.

The Taylors.

Are three in number, their yearly allowance, counting Wages, Gratuities, and all things, is 1200 l.

They make all the Kings Cloths, and one of them is to be always at the Kings rising, to be ready to do any thing belonging to his Function, if there be need, and they always put on the Kings new Cloths the first time he wears them.

There is one Starcher of the Body, whose Sa­lary is 600 l. and he has his Diet at Court.

And two Landrers of the Body serving six Months each, whose Salary is 528 l. 15 d.

There are besides these, several other Officers for the Kings Cloths, as Embroiderers, Furriers, Linnen-Drapers, and others, that furnish the Silver and Platework: His Majesty by a Brief dated the 25th of July 1673. having given leave to the Great Master of the Wardrobe, to entertain Trades­men of all sorts, that contribute to the furnishing of the Wardrobe, to enter them upon the Books of the Establishment, and let them enjoy all the Privi­ledges of Tablers in the Kings Houshold; of which there are about 222 retained, all at the rate of 60 l. yearly Salary.

The Intendants and Comptrollers General of the Chamber-Treasury, and Privy-Purse.

They regulate all the Expences of the Chamber and Wardrobe. There are two of them.

Their Wages and Fees are fixed in the Estab­lishments of the ordinary Expences of the Chamber-Treasury, besides which they are allowed 1200 l. yearly each for their Diet, which is paid at the Chamber of Deniers.

They are called Intendants and Comptrollers of the Chamber-Treasury, and of the Privy-Purse. They examine the particulars of all that is brought into, or delivered out of the Chamber-Treasury, and the Privy-Purse, and all the ordinary and extraordinary Expences thereunto belonging, as well for the per­son, as besides the Person of the King, and keep a Register of them, of which they give an account, first before the Chief Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber, and afterwards to the Chamber of Accompts, in the accustomed manner, according to the Rolls, parti­cular Accounts, and Acquittances comptrolled. The expence for the Kings Person, comprehends all Cloths, Linnen, and Jewels, or other Ornaments for his Majesties own Wearing. The expence, be­sides his Person, comprehends all Furniture, and Silver, or Plate-work for the Kings Apartments, and all Extraordinary Expences made at Balls, Come­dies, Mascarades, Carouzels, Turnaments, and o­ther Divertisements; as likewise at Christenings, Consecrations, and Coronation of Kings and Queens, Marriages, Funeral Pomps, Buryings, Services for them when dead, and Anniversaries.

They take the Oath of Fidelity before the Chan­cellor, and at the Chamber of Accounts, where they are sworn likewise to return into the said Chamber, at the end of every Year, their Comp­trol of the Receit and Expence, both Ordinary, [Page 130] and Extraordinary, of the Chamber-Treasury and Privy-Purse.

Of the Officers of the Cabinets, or Closets; and first, of the Closet of Dispatches.

In the Closet, or Cabinet of Business, and Dis­patches, which by way of Excellence, is simply called, the Cabinet: There are four Secretaries, which in the Book of Establishment are stiled, Se­cretaries of the Chamber, and Closet, who have for their Salary, Diet, and all things, 9250 l. yearly.

They Stile themselves Councellours in Ordinary to the King in his Councils.

They serve the King in all his private Dispatches.

The Couriers of the Closet are appointed by the Secretaries of State, and sent about on several busi­nesses and dispatches.

Of the Closet of Books.

The King has a Closet of Books, called otherwise, the Library of the Kings Person, in the Palace of the Louvre at Paris, to which, by Letters Patents of the Month of August in 1658. All Persons that print any Books by Priviledge, are bound to bring two Copies of the said Books: The Keeper of it has a Salary of 1200 l.

He has likewise one Closet of Rarities, and a Li­brary left him by his Uncle Gaston, late Duke of Orleans, and another Library called the Kings Pub­lick Library, which are both now kept by one Per­son, under the Title of Intendant, and Keeper of the Kings Library, and of his Closet of Manuscripts, Medals, and Rarities, both antient and modern, who has a yearly Salary of 2400 l. and 1800 l. for his Diet.

All that print Books by Priviledge, are likewise [Page 131] bound to bring two Copies more of every the said Books to this Library.

There is likewise, one Master of the Library, stiled otherwise the Great Master of the Kings Li­braries, who has a Salary of 1200 l.

After the Closets and Libraries of Books, it will not be amiss to place the Lecturers, Interpreters and Historiographers kept by his Majesty, his Go­vernours that brought him up, and his Masters of Exercises.

There are two Lecturers of the Kings Chamber and Closet, who are allowed yearly for their Salary and Diet 2600 l. each.

There are several Interpreters of Languages, and Historiographers, who have each 500 l. yearly Stipend.

He who was Governour to this present King in his Minority, had a Salary of 48000 l. yearly; un­der whom there were two Under-Governours, whose Salary was 7500 l. each.

He had likewise several Masters for all sorts of Exercises, as for Mathematicks, Fencing, Writing, Designing, Dancing, Vaulting on Horseback, play­ing on the Lute, Guitarre, &c.

There is one Master of the Tennis, who has a Salary of 1200 l. Next is,

The Closet of Arms.

The Keeper of which, is stiled, the Guardian, and Artillery-Keeper in Ordinary to the King, and has a Salary of 400 l. Then

The Closet of Antiquities.

Where there are a great many rare Marble Fi­gures. The Keeper of which, has 300 l. Salary.

To this belong

One Chief Painter, the Famous Monsieur le Brun, [Page 132] Director, or Super-Intendant of the Kings Closets and Pictures, and of the Manufactures at the Gobe­lins at Paris, and Chancellor and Principal Rector of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture; who has 1200 l. Salary, and 2000 l. for his Diet: And

One Painter in Water-Colours, at 600 l. Salary.

There are still some other Companies reckoned as belonging to the Chamber; as first those that have care of the

Greyhounds of the Chamber.

The Captain, or Serjeant of these, has for his Salary, and keeping the Dogs, 1548 l. paid by the Treasurer of the Privy-Purse.

There are three Yeomen Keepers of the Grey-hounds, that have 120 l. Salary, and 186 l. Bord-Wages. Next are

The Birds of the Chamber.

Consisting of two Flights, one for the Fields, and another for the Mag-Pie; The places belonging to the keeping of which, have been Independant of the Great Falkners Office, from the time of Henry the Great, and upwards.

To the first Flight, viz. For the Fields, belong one Chief, or Serjeant, who is stiled, Captain and Chief of the flight of the Kings Chamber, for the Fields, and has a Salary of 750 l, and 323 l. for the keeping of six Birds.

One Master-Falconer, who has 300 l.

One Pricker, or Marker of the flight, at 250 l. Salary.

One Officer for the buying of Hawks, and their Furniture, at 490 l.

More, allowed for the Hens of the flight, 140 l.

One Groom-Keeper of the Spaniels of the Kings [Page 133] Chamber for the said Flight, who has for his Salary, and for the maintenance of eighteen Dogs, and himself, 1900 l. Belonging to the

Flight of the Magpie.

There is likewise one Captain and Chief, at 500 l. Salary, besides an allowance of 273 l. 15 d. yearly, for the feeding of five Hawks at 3 d. a day a piece.

One Master-Falconer, at 300 l.

One Pricker, at 250 l.

Another Pricker, at 214 l.

One Falconer-Fowler, who has for his Salary, and for furnishing fresh Birds, 450 l. yearly. Besides these,

There was a new Flight of Birds set up in 1676, under the Title of the Falconry in Ordinary, for all sorts of Birds to fly all the year, and at the Army it self, for the maintenance of which, the Captain or Serjeant of them, is allowed out of the Kings own Cash-Box, 16000 l. which is paid by the Chief Va­lets de Chambre. There are likewise,

The little Dogs of the Kings Chamber.

Whose Keeper has 1446 l. Salary, and 200 l. for a Livery-Coat. He keeps the Dogs that are given the King for Hunting, as Setting-Dogs, and Dogs for Shooting, Flying, &c.

The Kings Pastry-Cook delivers out every day, seven Biskets for the Kings little Dogs.

As for those, who in their Certificates of Service, are called the Trumpeters and Drummers of the Chamber, because they are entred in the Books of the Establishment of the great Stable, and are sworn by the Great Master of the Horse; I shall rather speak of them, when I come to treat of the Great Stable.

Of the Anti-Chamber.

Before you come to the Kings Chamber, there is an Anti-Chamber, into which the Usher lets no Body enter, but those he has order to let in, or that have business there.

Note, That no person ought to walk up and down in the Anti-Chamber.

When the King eats in publick, the Table is commonly spread for him in the Anti-Chamber, and there, whether it be at Dinner or Supper, he is commonly served with Ceremony.

After having treated of the Bed-Chamber, Ward­robe, and Bed-Chamber, it will be next most proper to speak of the

Keepers of the Houshold-Stuff, or moveables above Stairs, and their under Officers.

There is one Intendant and Comptroller-General of the Houshold-Stuff and Moveables of the Crown; whose Salary by a Brief of the 16th of May, in 1667. were fixed at 3600 l. yearly.

One Keeper-General of the Moveables of the Crown, who has for his own Salary, and for keep­ing two men under him, 2000 l.

Three Yeomen Keepers, at 200 l. a piece.

Two Pack-Carriers, and a Porter.

One Keeper of the Moveables and Furniture, for the King, and Ambassadours, at 600 l.

There remain still three Articles belonging to the Chamber, which may properly enough follow here, viz. The Musick of the Chamber, the Gen­tlemen in Ordinary of the Houshold, and the Offi­cers of Health, as the Physicians, Chyrurgeons, &c.

Of the Musick of the Chamber.

This Musick serves the King commonly at Nights when he goes to Bed, and at his Dinner; and at Hymns of Praises and Thanks Sung on Festival Days, and on Corpus-Christi Day, they alone Play and Sing at the reposing Altars erected for that Solemnity.

At great Ceremonies, it joins with the Chappel-Musick, as at the Kings Coronation, and Marriage, at the Creation of Knights, at Funeral Pomps and Tenebras, and is placed always on the side of the Epistle.

There are two Super-Intendants of the Musick, that serve by turns, half a year a piece, who have a yearly Salary of 660 l. and an allowance of 131 l. 12 d. a Month, for their Diet.

The Super-Intendant of the Musicks Office, is to examine the Voices and Instruments that compose it, that so his Majesty may have good Musick.

All that is to be sung by this Musick, is first to be concerted in his presence, and he may, if he please, keep a Page with him.

There are two Masters of the Children of the Musick, who have the charge of keeping and in­structing the three Pages of the Musick of the Cham­ber; and have a Salary of 720 l.

These Masters in the absence of the Super-inten­dant, officiate for him.

There is one Composer of the Musick, who may, if he please, be always doing, and beating the Measures of his Works, before they come to be examined by the Super-Intendant; He that now enjoys this place, is the Famous Baptist Lully, an Italian by Nation, whose Salary is 600 l.

There are besides, several Singers and Players on Instruments belonging to this Musick, who have each a Salary of 600 l. and an allowance of 800 l. [Page 136] for their Diet, and 80 Crowns for their Horses to follow the Court.

There is likewise a Band of Violins, called still the great Band of 24, though they be at present 25, who have each a Salary of 365 l. and play at the Kings Dinner, and at Balls and Comedies.

And another lesser Band, called the little Vio­lins, in number 21, who have each 600 l. Salary.

They follow the King along the Country, and commonly play at his Supper, and at Balls, and other his Majesties Recreations; with whom, at certain Ceremonies, as at Coronations, Entries into Towns, Marriages and other great Solemnities and Rejoi­cings, the other Band of the Violins of the great Stables, together with the Hoboys, and other Mu­sick, of which we shall speak in their place, are made to play.

There is likewise one Usher in Ordinary, and Advertiser of the Balets, and one Keeper of the Musick-Instruments, instead of the two Dwarfs which were used to be specified in the Book of Establishment, who have each a Salary of 300 l.

Note that, whether it be to insinuate the Gran­deur of the Kings and Sons of France, above all other Soveraign Princes, or for some other reason, is uncertain; it is the Custom in the Court of France, that when the Musick of the Kings Cham­ber, by his Majesties Order, goes to play before any of the Princes of the Blood, except the Sons of France, or before any other Princes, though they be Soveraign, if those Princes put on their Hats, the Musick of the Kings Chamber put on their Hats too. Thus they did, before the Duke of Lorrain, at Nantes, in the year 1626. but at Perpignan in the year 1642. the Prince of Morgues, being told of this Priviledge, choser rather to hear the Musick Bare-headed: The same thing was observed at the Palace of Mazarin, before the Princes of Modena and Mantua, in presence of the late Cardinal Ma­zarin.

Of the Gentlemen in Ordinary of the Kings Houshold.

They were Created by Henry the Third to the number of 48; but Henry the Great reduced them to 24.

They are entred upon the Book of Establishment, and divided into two Bodies, as serving each their half year, although they observe not so exactly that Order in Waiting.

The last King Lewis the XIII. having exiled one of these Gentlemen, and given his place to another, the Queen Anne of Austria being Regent, re-estab­lisht him that was Exiled, without Discarding the other that held his place, so that, and since that, another place was added, by way of recompense, to a Gentleman for Voyages he had made to Con­stantinople, both which places are still continued, so that there are at present 26, but the number to which Henry the IV. reduced them, was but 24.

They ought to keep near the Kings Person, to receive his Commands; and when the King has any business to negotiate in Foreign Countries, any Troops to be conducted to the Army, or to be dis­posed of into Winter-Quarters; when he has oc­casion to have his pleasure Communicated in the Provinces of his Kingdom, and in the Parliaments and Soveraign Courts, he commonly makes use of these Gentlemen in Ordinary. He likewise makes use of them in all Complements of Congratulation or Condoleance he has a mind to send to other Kings and Sovereign Princes upon any subject of Joy or Affliction befallen them; or when he would sound their intentions in any actions that seem to have been done by their Ministers, and owned by them; as also when he is pleased so far to honour any of the Princes and great Lords of his Kingdom, so far as to send to visit them, or to present them [Page 138] any Dignities, Offices, or Marks of Honour from him. When the King goes to the Army, they have the honour to be his Aids de Camp, and if any Prisoners of note be taken, his Majesty charges them with the Conduct of them so far as to the Fortresses where his pleasure is to have them kept. They are also appointed by the King to attend on Princes and Princesses Exiled, that come into France. At the Funeral Solemnities of any Children of France, they have the Honour to hold up the Corners of the Pall. The King usually commits to them the Government of some young Prince or other.

They have every of them a Salary of 2000 l. a year which is paid them at the Treasure-Royal, upon an establishment apart.

They had formerly too, a Table to themselves; but at present they eat at the old Table of the Great Master, otherwise called the Table of the Masters of the Houshold.

They had once a Chief over them, who was the Constable of Luynes, who had been one of them, but they desired his Majesty, they might have no more.

Nor has this Order of Gentlemen onely produ­ced one Constable, but several Marshals of France, and Knights of the King Orders; as the Marshal de Toiras, the Marshal de Marillac, and several others.

And because in all Books of Establishments made for the Kings Houshold, the Physicians and other Officers relating to the preservation or recovery of health, are always placed next after those of the Chamber; we shall therefore observe the same Order, and speak now

Of the Kings Physicians, and other Officers of Health.

Under these two Titles are comprehended, First, The Physicians. 2. The Chyrurgions. 3. The Apothecaries.

1. The Physicians are

The Chief Physician has a Salary of 3000 l, 2000 l. Board-Wages, at the Chamber of Deniers, 16000 l. for his Maintenance, 3000 l. for his Coach, and abundance of other Gratuities and Per­quisites.

He has a very great Power, and can License any to practice Physick, though they never passed the formalities of taking Degrees in that Science.

Note, That the Chief Physician sometimes gives Orders in the Kitchin, what Diet shall be provided for his Majesty, and how, when he is under a Course of Physick.

The first Physicians of the King, the Queen, the Dauphin, and Dauphiness, though they be not Doctors of the Faculty of Paris, as very frequently they are not, yet when they go to the Physick School at Paris, in their White-Sattin Robes, are received at the Door, by the Dean of that Body, accompanied with some Batchellors of Physick, with the Beadles before them.

There is one Physician in Ordinary, who is to attend on the Kings Person, in the absence of the Chief Physician; who has 1800 l. Salary upon the Establishment, paid at the Treasure Royal, and 1500 l. Board-Wages paid at the Chamber of De­niers.

And eight other Physicians, serving two every Quarter, who have each of them a Salary of 1200 l. paid at the Treasury Royal, and 1098 l. Bord-Wages, [Page 140] at the Chamber of Deniers, at the rate of a Crown a Day.

These in their several turns of Waiting, are al­ways to be present at the Kings rising and going to Bed, and at his Meals, though he be never so well.

And when the King touches for the Evil, and washes the poor peoples Feet on Maundy-Thursday, they or their Superiours, are first to visit the Per­sons that present themselves for Cure: And every time the King Touches, these Physicians have at the Chamber of Deniers, each of them an allowance of 17 l. 9 d. and 4 Deniers, in lieu of a former allowance of a dozen of Bread, two Quarts of Ta­ble-Wine, and six Larded Fowls.

There are besides, four Spagyrical, or Chymical Physicians, who have each a Salary of 1200 l. and several Honorary or Titular Physicians.

2. The Chyrurgions are,

1. The Chief Chyrurgion, who is like wise Guar­dian of the Charters and Priviledges of the Chy­rurgions and Barbers of the whole Kingdom; and has a very great Power. He has a Salary of a 1000 l. paid by the Treasurers of the Houshold, and 1277 l. Board-Wages, paid at the Chamber of Deniers; besides large and frequent Gratuities and License-Money, and Presents, from all the Chyrur­gions of the Kingdom. He has an Apartment in the Kings own Lodgings.

One Chyrurgion in Ordinary, who has a Salary of 1000 l. paid by the Treasurers of the Houshold, and 500 l. Board-Wages at the Chamber of De­niers.

Eight Chyrurgions waiting quarterly, two every quarter, who have every of them 600 l. Salary, 300 l. gratuity at the Treasure Royal, and 200 l. Board-Wages, at the Chamber of Deniers; Besides [Page 141] what is paid them by those that rent the Shops of them, they have Priviledge to keep in Paris, or in any other Town they shall chuse their dwelling House in. And every time the King Touches, they have the same allowance that the Physicians have, as we have said on the same occasions.

The Chyrurgions are likewise to be present at the Kings Meals, and at his rising and going to Bed, as are the Physicians; and besides, are obliged to follow his Majesty on Hunting, for fear of any acci­dent: and when he is upon the march into the Country, or the Field; they are always to keep­nigh the Kings Coach.

There is one Chyrurgion-Major, of the Kings Armies, and Camps, and many others that are only Titular, and never wait as such.

The Kings Chyrugions and Apothecaries have the Priviledge to keep open Shop in Paris, or else­where, which they commonly let out, as we have said, to others.

3. The Apothecaries.

Are four Chiefs, who have a Salary of 1000 l. and 600 l. more allowed them for their Groom. They serve quarterly, every one their quarter, and have every one his Aid or Helper.

These Aids, or Helpers, being likewise four, have every one of them a Salary of 200 l. paid by the Treasurers of the Houshold, and 266 l. 13 d. four Deniers Board-Wages, at the Chamber of De­niers.

Note, That a Denier is the twelfth part of a penny, or the third of a farthing. Besides which, both the Chiefs and they have other allowances, as followeth.

1. The Head, or Chief Apothecary that waits the first quarter of the year, beginning at Newyears Tide, is allowed, instead of his Diet and some other [Page 142] things he used to have, 1070 l. in Money, and 42 l. more for furnishing Sugar to the Kings Kitchin, on the 42 Fish-Days that happen in his quarter, at 20 d. a day; and his Aid, 180 l. Augmentation Money at the Chamber of Deniers.

2. He that waits the second quarter, is allowed for the same Considerations, 940 l. and 43 l. for furnishing Sugar to the Kings Kitchin, on the 43 Meager, or Fish-Days that happen in his quarter, at the rate of 20 d. a day; and his Aid is paid 182 l. at the Chamber of Deniers.

3. He that waits the third quarter, has upon the account aforesaid 940 l. and 29 l. for Sugar on the 29 Fish-Days in his quarter. His Aid has 184 l. at the Chamber of Deniers.

4. He that waits the last quarter, has for Board-Wages, and other things, as abovesaid, 1000 l. and 29 l. for Sugar, for so many Fish-Days happening in his quarter.

And his Aid has an augmentation of 184 l. at the Chamber of Deniers.

It is only since 1682. that the Ordinary, for­merly allowed the Apothecaries in specie, was turned into Money.

The Apothecary that attends on the Duke of Burgundy, or any other of the Dauphins Children, is allowed, during the time of his Waiting, 100 d. a day for his own, and his Mans Diet.

Note, That in the Books of the Establishments, the Physicians, Chyrurgions, and Apothecaries, are stiled only Maitres, or Masters, which is a Title beneath that of a Gentleman, so much less esteem do they put upon the Science of Physick in France, than they do in England.

The Apothecaries furnish, not only Medicines, but also some kind of Comfits into the Coffers of the Chamber, and other Compositions of Aniseed, of Fennel, and of Citron-Peel, and Spirit of Wine, and some other necessary Liquors, without being [Page 143] obliged to the Formality of tasting any of them: They make Sweet-Bags for the Kings Cloths, Lin­nen, and Perriwigs.

There is always a Carriage of Apothecaries Ware, that follows the King.

There are besides these, several Apothecaries Distillers, and other Supernumeraries, who have no certain times allowed them for waiting, but only serve occasionally; And many Operators, Herba­lists, and others.

Of the Barber-Chyrurgions, &c. that serve the Houshold, and the Chamber, we have already spoken.

CHAP. XVII.

Of the Great Master of the Horse, and of the Kings Stables.

THE Present Great Master of the Horse is Louis de Lorrain Count of Armagnac, his Standing Salary is 3600 l. besides which, he has 2400 l. Board-Wages, upon the Establishment of the Great Stables, and 6000 l. Board-Wages more, upon the Establishment of the Chamber of Deniers; and many other Fees and Perquisites.

It was formerly the Great, or High Constable of Antiquity of this Of­fice. France, that had the Super-intendance over the Kings Stables, who therefore was called Comes Sta­buli, that is, Count of the Stable; but when that Great Officer came to be entrusted with the general Command of the Armies, the Care of the Kings Horses was wholly left to him who then was called Escuier, that is, Usher or Squire, who was an Officer, that under the said Count of the Stable, or Constable, took care of the Horses.

[Page 144] For some time, there were several of these Squires, or Master of the Horse, of equal Command in the Kings Stables, as in the time of Philip the Long, when there was no Great Master, but only four Masters of the Horse entred in the Book of the Establishment; for though the same King in 1319. made one Henry de Braybant, Great and Chief Mar­shal of his Stables, yet he had not the Title of Great Master, neither do we find any mention of the said Title, till the reign of Charles the Seventh, who made Pothon de Saintrailles, and Tanneguy du Chatel, Great Squires, or Masters of the Horse of France.

The Great Master of the Horse, or Grand Squire, Present Functions and Privi­ledges. or Querry of France (for so his Title imports in French,) carries, as a Mark of his Office, the Royal Sword in the Scabbard, with the Belt, both which are covered with Purple-Velvet, set with Flower deluces of Massy Gold, and the Handle of it is of Massy Gold, with Flower-deluces of the same: the Buckles of the Belt are likewise of Gold: And he bears the Figure of the said Sword on each side of his Coat of Arms.

He takes the Oath of Fidelity to the King Himself, Oath. and he receives it from almost all the rest of the Officers of the Stables.

He has, by his place, the power of Deposing of almost all the vacant Offices in the great and little Stable, of the Haras, or Nursery of Horses, and their Dependencies: As of the Places of Gentle­men of the Horse, or Querries of his Majesties Great Stable, of Bearers of the Swords of State, of Heralds, and Pursuivants at Arms, of Cloak-Car­riers, and Carriers of Gabans, or Felt-Coats, or Cloaks, of Governour, Under-Governour, and Tu­tor of the Pages of the Stables, of the Almoners, Chief Valets, Harbingers, Coach-men, Farriers, Great Foot-men, Grooms, and other places of Offi­cers that actually serve in the great and little Sta­bles, [Page 145] and in the Haras, or Nursery of Horses; of the Ordinary and Extraordinary Riders of both Stables; of the Hoboys, Violins, Bag-Pipers, Trum­peters, Drummers, and Flutes, and of all Trades­men and Workmen, that make or furnish any thing to either of the Kings Stables. And though the Great Master happen to be imployed elsewhere, out of Court, or out of France it self; nay, though he should happen to fall under the Kings Displeasure, and be made a Prisoner of State, yet till the very Day of his Death, he has ever been known to re­tain the power of Disposing of the said places; the Respect of the Kings of France, to the dignity of this Office being so great, that they have not yet taken it from any in possession of it, till they took their Lives; as was well seen in the time of the late King Lewis the Thirteenth, during the Disgrace of Monsieur de Belle-garde, and the Imprisonment of Monsieur de Cinq-mars.

The Great Master of the Horse, has the manage­ment of all Monies allowed for the Expences of the Kings Stables, and Nursery of Horses, as likewise for the maintenance of the Gentlemen-Querries, Pages and Officers serving, and retained in the Sta­bles, and of the Great-Horses, Race-Horses, and Horses belonging to the Kings Coaches and Wag­gons; and for the Wages, Fees, Gratuities, and Payments of all the Officers of the Stables, and of the Merchants or Tradesmen, for necessaries they have furnished for any use thereunto belonging; as also for Liveries and other Cloths order'd for any of the said Officers; and for the Hoquetons, or Coats, Strait-Coats, and Cloaks of the Kings Life-guard-men, for the Coats of his Guard of 100 Suissers, for the Strait-Coats of Guards of the Gate, for the Coats called Hoquetons of the Guards, of the Provost of the Houshold, and for the Campagn-Coats of the Musketeers; and lastly, for the Ex­pences of Coaches, Waggons, and Coverings of the [Page 146] Mules of the Kings Chamber, and of the other Offi­ces of his Houshold.

All the Officers above-named are sworn by him, and cannot enjoy any Priviledges and Exemptions annexed to their places, till they be Entred upon the Establishments that are fixed and signed by him.

No Querry, or Professor of Horsemanship, can set up an Academy to instruct young Gentlemen in Warlike Exercises, or any other things proper for noble persons to learn, without the Order and Per­mission of the Great Querry, or Master of the Horse of France, first obtained.

The Office of Post-Master General was annexed to that of Great Master of the Horse, but was dis­membred from it by Henry the Great, and still re­mains so, being at present enjoyed by the Great Secretary of State, Monsieur Louvois, who has, as Post-Master General, 1200 l. a year Board-Wages, paid at the Chamber of Deniers.

The late King had once promised Monsieur Cinq-mars, then Great Master of the Horse, to re-annex the Post-Masters Office to that of the Great Master of the Horse; but the said Monsieur Cinq-mars be­ing afterwards Imprisoned and Executed for High-Treason, that intention came to nothing.

The Great Master of the Horse has the Honour to have place in his Majesties Coach, next the Princes of the Blood; and when he is abroad on Horseback, he rides next his Person. He makes use of the Pages, Footmen and Horses of the Kings Stables, at his pleasure.

When the King is on the march for any Warlike Expedition, or in the Body of an Army, the Great Stable is lodged nearest him, before the little Stable, but in any Journey, wherein he marches not upon any Warlike design, nor in a Body of an Army; the little Stable is placed nearest his Majesties Lodgings.

[Page 147] When the King makes his first Entry on Horse-back; into any City within his Kingdome, or into any Conquered Town, where he is to be received with great Ceremony, the Great Master of the Horse rides directly before the Kings Person, car­rying his Majesties Royal Sword in a Sheath of Pur­ple-Velvet, set with Flower-deluces of Massy Gold, hung in a Belt of the same Stuff and Colour, and on a Horse Caparison'd with the same. And the Canopy born over his Majesties Head; on that occa­sion, is his Fee.

He rode in this manner, at the Solemnity made for the Majority, and at the Entry of their Maje­sties into Paris; and it is to be noted likewise, that at the Ceremony of the Majority, he took his Seat in the Palais, or Parliament-House, on the right hand of the Great Chamberlain, who always sits at the Feet of the Kings Bed of Justice.

He also bears the said Sword at Funeral Solem­nities. At the publick Entries of Kings, and other great Solemnities.

He Orders the Trumpeters, Hoboys, Violins, Flutes, Tabourins, Sackbuts, Cornets and Drums, to sound and Play, for the greater State and So­lemnity of the Feast.

At the Kings Death, all the Horses of the Stables and Nursery, and all the Harness and Furniture be­longing to them, fall to the Great Master of the Horse.

Every time the King Orders any Money for ma­king any new Coaches for himself, he grants out a Warrant for a thousand Crowns, to the Great Ma­ster of the Horse, for a new Coach for him too.

All new Horses that are brought to Paris, do, or ought to go and do homage to the King, at his Great Stables, that is, ought first to be carried and shown to the Great Master of the Horse, before they are offred to Sale, who retains such of them, [Page 148] as he thinks his Majesty may have need of, or that may be useful for his Service; paying very justly a good price for them to the Owners.

There are, as we have already hinted, two Sta­bles, a greater and a lesser, we shall first speak

Of the Great Stable.

He that has charge of the Great Stable, next under the Great Master of the Horse, and Officiates in his absence, is called the first or chief Querry, or Master of the Great Stable. He has a Salary of 600 l. and 265 l. Board-Wages.

He is Sworn by the Great Querry, or Master of the Horse, and is put in by him, as are the other Officers of the Kings Stables, in the Book of Esta­blishment. He is stiled only Querry, or Gentleman of the Horse in Ordinary, of the Great Stable.

He has his Lodgings in the Buildings belonging to the Great Stable.

The other Officers of the Great Stable, may be divided into three ranks, or sorts, 1. The per­sons and Officers that daily serve at the Great Sta­ble; 2. Those that belong to the Haras, or Nur­sery of Horses; And 3. The Officers of Ceremony, or those Officers of the said Great Stable, that are made use of only at Great Ceremonies.

1. Then the Officers actually serving at the Great Stables, are

Three Querries or Gentlemen of the Horse in Ordinary, who have each, a Salary of 400 l. and 500 l. Board-Wages.

They instruct and teach the Pages, and one of them had the Honour to teach the Dauphin to ride.

There are a great number of others so called, but seldom any are seen to serve but these.

[Page 149] Three Under-Querries.

Nineteen Pages, for there is pay allowed but for so many in the Books of the Establishment, though there be commonly many more, that they be aug­mented and diminished at pleasure.

The Pages are instructed in Riding, Fencing, and all other Exercises fit for Gentlemen.

One Governour in Ordinary of the Pages.

Two Under-Governours.

One Tutor in Ordinary.

One Almoner, or Chaplain, in Ordinary.

They have besides, for other things,

A Master of the Mathematicks, a Master to teach them Fencing, and other Warlike Exercises; a Dancing-Master, a Vaulting-Master for both Sta­bles, a Writing-Master, and a Master to teach them to design.

One Cash-Keeper, and Provider.

And one Genealogist of the Stables.

This last Office was Created by Letters Patents bearing date the 22th of September, 1643. To draw up and examine the proofs of all the Pages admitted into the Kings great or little Stable: Which Letters express, that his Majesty had set up that Office, to prevent for the future, the introdu­cing of any abuses in the admission of the Querries and Pages, that the service and honour of his Royal House, obliged him to retain in his Stables, and to know by that means, the true Extraction of all such as should present themselves to be admit­ted; who by the Exercises there practised, were to add the happiness of being useful to him, and the State, to the goodness of their Birth; that so ac­cording to the intention of the Kings Predecessors, no person might be admitted into that Body, unless he were a Gentleman both by Name and Arms, at least by four Paternal Descents, or Generations. Next, there are

Four Chief Valets, or Waiting-men of the Pages.

[Page 150] Two Ushers of the Kitchin, with their

Two Aids, or Helpers.

One Chief, or Head of the Office; with his Aid, or Helper.

Forty two Great Footmen, of the Great Stable, who serve two quarters in the year, by turns, twenty one every other quarter, having a Salary for every quarter they serve, of 250 l. 10 d. a piece, so that in all they have every one 501 l. a year.

These Footmen sometimes carry up the Kings Meat, as in the Army, at little Huntings, or Hunt­ings of small Game, and on all Days and occasions of Ceremony, as on Twelfth-Day, and when the King treated the Popes Legat, and the Suisser Am­bassadours; and then the Pages fill the Drink, and serve as Cup-Bearers.

Eight Harbingers, who have a Salary of 165 l. Ten Coachmen, and Conductors of Waggons, and Coach-Waggons, at 180 l. Salary; and three Po­stilions, who are allowed 2600 l. for their Cloaths; and eight Farriers.

Forty Masters, or Head-Grooms, at 180 l. and fifty Aids, or Helping-Grooms, and several Ri­ders.

There are besides many other Officers and Re­tainers belonging to the Kings Stables, as Physicians, Chyrurgions, Apothecaries, Fencing-Masters, Vault­ers, Cooks, Landrers and others.

There are 160 Horses in the Great Stable, the keeping of which, with what is expended in Me­dicines for them, and Spurs, Shoes, Harness, Sadles, Caparisons, Horse-Cloaths, Bits, Bridles, and other Furniture, must needs amount to a very consider­able summ.

There is one Keeper of the Moveables, of the Great Stable, and a vast number of Tradesmen that furnish necessaries to both Stables, as Horse-Mer­chants, Sadlers, Coach-Makers, Wheel-wrights, Armorers, Sword-Cutlers, Drapers, Taylors, Lin­nen Drapers, and others.

[Page 151] Some Officers of the Houshold have Livery Horses kept for them at the Great Stable, as the Mail-Car­rier, or else they are allowed Money for their Hor­ses, and Stabling, as the Conductor of the Hackny, the Advertiser, the Yeoman or Groom of the Bot­tles, the Groom of the Vessels, and the Groom of the Fruitry.

2. The Haras, or Nursery

Of Horses, consists of a great number of Horses of the Kings own Breed, and reared under the care of his Officers for that purpose, viz. of Stallions, Mares, Colts and others, which are kept at a place called St. Leger, near Montfort L' amaury.

Over these there is one Chief Querry, or Master, who is called the Captain of the Haras, or Nursery of Horses.

Fourteen Keepers of the Haras, or Nursery, who have 130 l. 18 d. yearly Salary, two Grooms, at 128 l. 15 d. and their Aids or Helpers, and the Farriers that shoe the Horses, who have each 50 l. Chyrurgions and Apothecaries, at 100 l. and se­veral other Officers of the Nursery, and one Physi­cian of the Officers.

3. The Officers of Ceremony, or that serve at Ceremonies, are

First, The Heralds at Arms, who are thirty in number, whereof the first is King at Arms, and is Stiled Mont-joye St. Denis.

The other twenty nine are Dukes at Arms, and take the Names of several Provinces, in the Order following.

Titles of Heralds.
  • [Page 152]Of Burgundy.
  • Of Alençon.
  • Of Brittany.
  • Of Poitou.
  • Of Artois.
  • Of Angōuleme.
  • Of Berry.
  • Of Guienne:
  • Of Picardie.
  • Of Champagne.
  • Of Orleans.
  • Of Provence.
  • Of Anjou.
  • Of Valois.
  • Of Languedoc.
  • Of Tolouze.
  • Of Auvergne.
  • Of Normandie.
  • Of Lyonnois, or the Coun­ty of Lyons.
  • Of Dauphiné, or the Dau­phinate.
  • Of Bresse.
  • Of Navarre.
  • Of Périgord.
  • Of Xaintonge.
  • Of Tourain.
  • Of Bourbonnois, or the Country of Bourbon.
  • Of Alsatia.
  • Of Chorolois.
  • Of Roussillon.

Their Wages are different. There are besides, several Pursuivants, whose Salaries are likewise dif­ferent.

At all publick Ceremonies, the King at Arms, and the rest of the Heralds, are clad with their Coats of Arms of Violet-Coloured Velvet, died up­on Crimson, set before and behind, with three Flower deluces of Gold, and as many on each Sleeve, whereon the name of their Province is Embroider­ed in Letters of gold: And the King at Arms, Mount-joye St. Denis, wears on his Coat, for distin­ction, a Crown Royal over the said Flower-deluces. They wear Bonnets of Black-Velvet, with a golden Hat-band, and in Ceremonies of Peace, they use only Buskins, but in those of War, they wear Boots. At Funeral Pomps of Kings or Princes, they wear over their said Coats of Arms, long Mourning Robes, trailing on the ground, and bear a Staff cal­led a Caducée, covered with Blue-Velvet, and Em­broidered [Page 153] with Flower-deluces of gold: They also bear every of them one of the Kings Medals about their Necks: The Pursuivants are habited almost in the same manner, only they bear no Staves, as having no Commands themselves, but being only the Aids and Assistants of the Heralds.

Their Office is to Declare War, or publish Peace, to Summon Towns to yield, to assist at solemn Oaths, in the general Assemblies of the three Estates, at the Swearing of Treaties of Peace, and renewing of Alliances; at Coronations, where they bestow Largesses on the People, of Gold and Silver Pieces; and at Funeral Solemnities of Kings, Queens, Princes, and Princesses of the Blood.

They march before the King, when he goes to make his Offering, on his Coronation-Day: They assist at all Marriages of Kings and Queens, at the Ceremonies of the Knights of the Holy Ghost; at Royal Feasts, as also at all Christnings of the Chil­dren of France, where likewise they make Larges­ses to the people, of pieces of gold and silver: And at the Obsequies of Kings, or Royal Persons, there are always two Heralds that wait day and night at the Feet of the Bed of State, where the Body of the Deceased, or his Effigies in Wax, lies, to present the sprinkling Brush to the Princes, Pre­lats, and others of the Quality, required for that Ceremony, that come to throw holy Water on the said Body or Effigies. They have likewise many other Functions at those Funerals.

There is likewise one Judge of the Arms and Blasons of France, who is likewise Yeoman at Arms in the great Stable, in which latter quality, he has a Salary of 450 l. yearly.

Secondly, There are several Sword-Bearers of State, who have each, a Salary of 500 l. Cloak-Carriers, who have 300 l. and Porte-Gabans, or Felt-Cloak Carriers, who have 220 l. yearly Salary.

[Page 154] Thirdly, There are twelve Trumpeters, called the Trumpeters of the Chamber, as likewise are the Drummers, of which there is a like number, who have every one 180 l. and the Cromorns, or of the Chamber, twelve Violins, Hoboys, Sack­buts and Cornets, at the like pay. Eight Players on Flutes, Tabours, and Bagpipes, serving two every quarter, at 120 l. one Player on the Base Cromorne, and Trumpet Marine, and one Treble Cromorne. They have all Livery-Coats, and are em­ployed at all Balls, Balets, and Comedies, and in the Apartments of the Kings House, or elsewhere, where there is occasion: There are also two of them in the Musick of the Chappel, at present, the six Cromornes are, 1. The Basse-Cromorne. 2. The Counter-Tenour-Cromorne. 3. The Treble-Cromorne. 4. The Tenour-Cromorne. 5. The fifth of Cromorne. 6. A Base-Cromorne.

Of the little Stable, and first, Of the first or chief Querry, or Master of the Horse, and of the other Querries, or Gentlemen of the Horse, quarterly Waiters.

The first or chief Querry, or Master of the Horse here, has the charge of the Kings lesser Stable, that is to say, of all the Horses, Coaches, Caleches, run­ning Chairs drawn by Men, and Sedans, that he uses upon his daily and ordinary occasions. He Commands the Pages and Footmen of the little Sta­ble, and makes use of them as he pleases; He takes the Oath of Fidelity to the King himself.

This Office is almost as antient as that of the Great Querry, or Master of the Horse, it self: For, as we find, that under Charles the Seventh, one Pothon de Santrailles, was made Great-Querry, or Master of the Horse; so we read too, that Lewis the Eleventh, his immediate Successour, had at his [Page 155] Coronation, in 1461. one Joachim Rouauld, that was his Chief-Querry, or Gentleman of the Horse. The present Salary of the Chief-Querry, is 3000 l. and 876 l. more, Board-Wages. The other

Querries, or Gentlemen of the Horse, are

One Querry in Ordinary, who has 1200 l. Salary upon the Establishment of the Houshold, and 1765 l. at the Great Stable, Board-Wages for himself, and two Pages; and a Pension of 2000 l. at the Trea­sure Royal.

Twenty Querries Quarterly Waiters, who have every one a Salary of but 350 l. though they are Entred on the Books at 700 l. They wait five every Quarter, and are Sworn by the Great Master of the Kings Houshold.

The Querry that is in Waiting, is to attend at the Kings waking, to know of his Majesty, whether he will please to ride out that day, or no; And if the King be to ride a Hunting, and to wear Boots, he is to put on his Spurs, and he likewise pulls them off most commonly.

As soon as his Majesty has his Spurs on, it be­longs to the Querry in Waiting to take his Sword, when he puts it off, as we have already mentioned in speaking of the Cloak-Carriers.

The Querry in Waiting, together with the Lieu­tenant or Ensign of the Guards, eat at the old Ta­ble of the Great Master, as do the rest of his Com­panions, during their Quarters Waiting; and he that waits on the Dauphin, has his Diet at his High­nesses Serdeau's, or Water-Servers.

They follow the King all the day long, and enter with him every where, unless it be into the Coun­cil Chamber, or when his Majesty has a mind to be private, in a Chamber by himself, and then they wait in the next Chamber to it.

When the King rides abroad, a Horse-back, or [Page 156] in a Coach, the Querry follows next after the Kings Horse, or Coach, that in case his Majesty should fall, or otherwise need his help, he may be ready to help him up, and remount him, or lend him his hand when he has a mind to alight, or remount; which is his peculiar Office; so that when his Majesty passes through any narrow pas­sage, whether it be in Hunting, or otherwise, the Querry is to follow immediately after the King, and to pass in those Rencounters, before the Captain, or Officer of the Guards himself, then upon Duty.

The Querry likewise often leads his Majesty, when he is walking.

Upon a day of Battel, 'tis the Querries Office, to put on the Kings Armour.

At Funerals of Kings, one of the Querries carries the Spurs, another the Gantlets, a third the Coat of Arms of France, Encompassed with the Collars of the Kings Order, and a fourth holds up the other end of the Coat of Arms; And the chief Querry, or in his absence the eldest Querry, car­ries the Helmet, or Head-piece, adorned with a Crest-Royal.

The five Querries in Waiting that Quarter, march a breast, all in Mourning, next after the Herse, or Waggon of Arms, which is drawn with Horses co­vered with Black-Velvet, set with Crosses of White-Satin; having about them, several Pages in Mourn­ing.

There are in the little Stable almost the same kind, and the same number of Officers as in the great one, viz.

Three Querries in Ordinary, where the Court is, and a fourth, at Paris.

The Pages there, at present, are twenty five, besides two Hunting Pages.

All the Pages the King has, in his Chamber, Stables, or elsewhere, serve in the Armies as Aides [Page 157] de Camp, under His Majesties own Aides de Camp.

The Pages of the little Stable, when it is dark, always carry before the King, a white Wax-Flambo, and when he goes a Hunting, they help the Arque­buse, or Arms-Carrier, to carry his Majesties Fowl­ing-pieces, or Fusils.

One Governour of the Pages.

One Tutor of the Pages, who has a Salary of 225 l. and an annual gratuity of 200 l. and his Lodging and Diet at the little Stable, a Horse at command, and a Servant in a Livery to wait on him.

One Almoner, or Chaplain of the little Stable, who has a Salary of 400 l. and his Lodging and Diet, with a Horse and a Servant, at the little Stable.

Four chief Valets, or Waiting-men of the Pages, waiting Quarterly, who have every one 75 l. Wa­ges, and 50 l. gratuity.

One Cash-Keeper or Pay-Master, who has a Sa­lary of 300 l. and an annual gratuity of 1200 l. besides his Diet, Lodging, and Horse in the said little Stable.

One Physician, four Chyrurgions, one Apothe­cary, one Vaulting-Master, two Dancing-Masters, two Fencing-Masters.

One Ambling-Master, one Porte-Gaban, or Felt-Cloke Carrier.

They have also other Masters to teach them all other necessary Exercises, as for the Mathematicks, Designing, Blazoning and Writing, and handling the Pike and Musket, &c.

Four Harbingers, Quarterly Waiters; who have every one of them a Salary of 165 l. and a gratuity of 100 l. with their Diet, Lodging, and each of them a Horse.

One Usher in Ordinary, of the Kitchin.

Two Servants or Grooms of the Pages in Ordinary.

[Page 158] Seventeen Footmen in Ordinary of the little Sta­ble, which are only so by Commission, and not as standing Officers.

Four working Farriers quarterly Waiters; twelve Masters or Head-Grooms, Quarterly Waiters, by six every other Quarter, and 50 Aids, or Help­ers.

Several Chair-men, or Sedan-men.

The King has at present, twenty five gallant Sets of Horses, consisting of ten Horses apiece, and as many Master-Coachmen, or Drivers of Coaches and Calcehes, with their Postillions and Servants.

To know what Livery Officers belong to the Great, and what to the little Stable, as well Pages, as Foot-men and others, you must take notice which way their Coat-Pockets are made; for the Officers of the Great-Stables Pockets are slit Cross­ways their Liveries, and the others long-ways, downward.

CHAP. XVIII.

Of the Chief-Surveyor, or Super-Intendant of the Royal Buildings, and of the Architects and other Officers under him; and of the Keepers of the Kings Houses, Parks, and Forests.

THE Super-Intendant is stiled Super-Intendent, and General Orderer of the Buildings of the Royal Houses, and of his Majesties Gardens and Tapstries, and of the Arts and Manufactures of France; of which last, he is the Great Monopoli­zer under the King, and is at present, Monsieur Louvois, Secretary of State.

[Page 159] He is sworn at the Chamber of Accounts, in which he has both Voice, and Place; Monsieur Louvois, when he was sworn, took his place there above the Dean of the Masters of the Ac­counts.

There are three other Intendents, or Surveyors of the Building, that serve yearly, every one his year, at 6000 l. Salary.

Three Comptrollers of the Buildings, who have each of them a Salary of 5500 l.

One Chief Architect, who has a Salary of 6000 l. and a gratuity of 4000 l.

Two Treasurers.

Of the Royal Houses, and first, of the Louvre.

This Palace was called the Louvre, that is to say, as some will have it L'oeeuvre, that is, The Work, by way of Excellence, as if it were a Master-piece of Architecture; and from that the French call all their Kings Palaces, and those of other Kings in other Countries, Louvres, in ordinary Speech.

The old Palace of the Louvre at Paris, was begun by the Predecessors of Philip Augustus, and was fi­nished in his Reign, in the year 1214. of which Building there still remained in the time of Francis the First, a Tower called the Iron Tower, which was in the middle of the Court, which the said King caused to be demolished, because it darkened the Palace.

In the year 1364. Charles the Fifth rebuilt and enlarged that Palace, of which the Porches are still remaining.

About the year 1545, Francis the First begun to build the Great Hall of the Louvre, which was fi­nished by Henry the Second in 1548 Charles the Ninth, and Henry the Third, continued this Build­ing; but Henry the Great built those Magnificent [Page 160] and long Galleries that go from the Louvre to the Tuilleries, by the Water-side, and the Gallery of the Painters, which was burnt down by a Fire that hap­ned on the 6th of February, 1661. which likewise did some dammage to the other Galleries; but all has been since repaired.

Queen Catharine of Medicis, built the Apartment that Fronts the Tuilleries in 1564. Lewis the Thirteenth built the other side of the old Court of the Louvre, and the Continuation of it from the Great Dome in the middle, under which the Coun­cel of Finances, and of the Farms is held.

Lewis the Great, at present happily reigning, has built on both sides of the old Louvre, what remained unfinished; He likewise has built a Dome at the Corner of his Chamber, and of the Gallery of the Painters, which is, as we have said, at present, re­built, and larger than it was before: Besides, he has rebuilt the whole Palace of the Tuilleries, and the Hall of the Machines, or Engines: And he has likewise caused much to be done in the inclosure of the first Court of the Louvre, at the Portal, and in several other places.

There are at the Palace of the Louvre, as at all other Royal Houses,

A Captain of the Palace, who has a Salary of 1200 l. upon the Revenues of Paris.

A Lieutenant, at 400 l. Salary out of the same Revenues.

A Keeper of the Palace of the Louvre, who is Porter of the first and second Gates, who has a Salary of 120 l. paid out of the Crown-Revenues of Paris.

A Keeper of the Tennis-Court.

One Gardiner.

Four Morte-Paies, or Standing Guards, that wear the Kings Livery, who have every one a Salary [Page 161] of 90 l. upon the general Revenue of Paris: seve­ral Porters, and a Clock-Keeper, that have Wages and Diet, and enjoy the usual Priviledges of the Kings menial Servants.

A Captain of the Tuilleries, and two Keepers. A Gardiner and Designer in Ordinary of the Tuillery-Garden, a Keeper of the Orange-Garden of the Tuilleries, a Porter of the Gate of the Queens Walk, towards Chaillot: A Gardiner of the Nursery of Trees, at Roüle, established there in 1670, who is Director of all the Designs or Plots of Trees in the Royal Houses.

In the Warren of the Louvre, are these following Officers.

A Bailiff and Captain of the Game of the War­ren of the Louvre, a Lieutenant General, and one other Lieutenant of the Game of the said War­ren.

The Kings Proctor or Attorney for the Game of the said Warren. One Deputy Lieutenant-General, and one Exempt; and one Keeper of the Palace Royal, built by Cardinal Richelieu.

The Captains and other Officers belonging to the other Royal Houses are, as follows.

1. The Palace or Castle of Madrid, which was built by Francis the First, in 1530. at his return from his Imprisonment in Spain, after the Pattern of the Palace at Madrid, that had been his Prison; has these Officers,

A Captain, who is stiled Captain of the Game and Castle of Madrid, of the Wood of Boulogne, the Bridge of St. Cloud, the Plain of St. Denis, and its Appurtenances and Forrestes of the said places.

A Lieutenant-General of the said Game, with a Deputy-Lieutenant.

[Page 162] The Kings Proctor, and his Substitute.

An Exemt, thirty Guards of the Game, Horse and Foot, for the Wood of Boulogne, and three Leagues round about it.

Four Porters of the Park, or Wood of Boulogne.

Of St. Germains en Laye.

2. The old Castle of St. Germains en Laye, was founded by Charles the Fifth, but the Church and the Priory were built before, by King Robert, who died in 1080. In it are these Officers.

A Captain and Governour of the Castles, Parks, Forests, Woods, and Thickets of St. Germain en Laye, of the Plains and places depending thereon, of the Pack of Hounds of St. Jamme, of the Town and Bridge of Poissy, who is also Captain and Judge of the Game, within the extent of the said Cap­tainship, who has a Salary of 1200 l. paid by the Treasurers of the Game.

There is likewise, under the Super-intendant, a Comptroller of the Building of St. Germain en Laye.

The Castle of St. Germains en Laye, consists of two Castles, so called, the old and the new.

To the old one, which was lately very splendid­ly rebuilt and enlarged, belong these Officers.

A Keeper of the said Castle, and of the Clock and other moveables of the same, who has a Salary of 400 l. paid by the Treasurers of the Buildings.

One Chaplain, who has a standing Salary of 2000 l. yearly, 900 l. for Tabling, two Priests un­der him, instead of two Clerks allowed formerly, and 400 l. for a Servant in the Vestry: Which two Priests, besides their Diet, have a yearly al­lowance each, of 400 l. The said two Priests, by turns, say Mass for the King, after the Chaplain has said his, on his day, and have their Lodging in the said Castle, or Palace.

[Page 163] One Porter, at 100 l. Salary, paid by the Trea­surers of the Buildings.

Twelve Morte-Paies, or standing Guards, at 60 l. a piece yearly Salary, paid by the Treasurers of the Game, and two Gardiners.

In the New Castle of St. Germain en Laye, are,

A Keeper of the said Castle, and Moveables of the same.

A Governour and Keeper of the old Great Cage, who has a Salary of 1455 l. paid at the Treasure Royal.

Another Keeper of the new Cage, with the same Salary.

Two Porters at 100 l. Salary, paid by the Trea­surers of the Buildings.

An Intendant or Surveyor of the Grottoes, who has a Salary of 3600 l.

A Gardiner of the Garden-Plots and Hillocks, or Mounts, at 700 l. Salary, paid by the Treasurers of the Buildings; another Gardner of the Garden next the Park, at 400 l. Salary paid by the same Treasurers: and a Gardner of the Bowling-Green, at 900 l. Salary, paid by the same Treasurers.

A Keeper of the Park, and of the Pleasure-House called le Val, or the Vale, who has a Salary of 300 l. paid likewise by the same.

A Painter at 200 l. a Carpenter, a Joyner, a Lock-smith, and a Mason, at 30 l. Salary, each.

A Keeper of the Dog-Kennel, who has 240 l. Salary.

A Keeper of the Tennis-Court, who has no Sa­lary, but only his Lodging, and the profits of the said Tennis-Court.

A Keeper of the Hall, and moveables of the Chancery there, who has a Salary of 1000 l. paid him by the Treasurers of the Seal, out of the profits of the said Seal: this Office was established in 1631. [Page 164] and is in the Kings Gift. This Keeper has both his Lodging and Diet there.

A Keeper of the little Stable, at 400 l. Salary.

A Lieutenant, and two Deputy-Lieutenants of the same, whereof the first has a Salary of 600 l. and the two others of 300 l. a-piece, paid by the re [...]s of the Game.

A Proctor for the King.

Four Exempts, a Recorder, an Inspector or Overseer by Commission: several Huntsmen, and twenty eight Guards of the Game on Foot, and twelve on Horse-back.

A Master of the Waters and Forests, a Lieute­nant, a Proctor for the King for the said Waters and Forests, a Hammer-Keeper, a Recorder, and about sixteen Guards of the Forest.

Of Fountain-Bleau.

We find in History, that Lewis the Seventh, called the Young, built the Chappel of St. Satur­nine, in the Oval-Court of the Palace of Fountain-bleau, in the year 1160. In it, there is one Cap­tain or Governour, who is stiled Captain, Keeper, and Governour of the Forest of Biévre, and of the Burrough and Castle-Royal of Fountain-bleau: par­ticular Master of the Waters and Forests of the Bailywick of Melun, and Provostship of Moret; and Captain of the Game of the said places, and of the Woods and Thickets of Brie, and Captain, Master, and Keeper of the Keys of the House, Castle, Gar­dens, Parks, Fountains, and Channels, or Canals of Fountain-bleau. Next are, First, Several Officers of the Buildings, and Keepers of the Apartments and Pavillons, or distinct Bodies of Buildings there­unto belonging: Secondly, For the Game; and Thirdly, For the Waters and Forests of the same.

The Officers of the Buildings, and Keepers of the Apartments and Houses;

Next under the General Super-intendant of the Buildings, of the Royal Houses of France, are the three Comptrollers-General of the said Buildings, and under them one particular Comptroller of the Buildings established at Fountain-bleau.

One Keeper of the Apartments of his Majesty, and of the Dauphin, for the Oval-Court, for the Court of the Fountain of Perseus, and for the new Apartment of the Queens towards the Court of the White Horse.

One Scavenger, or Sweeper of the Courts, at 400 l. Salary.

Two Keepers of the Garden-Plot of Orange-Trees.

One Keeper of the White-Horse-Court.

One Clock-Keeper, and one Keeper of the Ten­nis-Court, next the said White-Horse-Court; and one Porter of the said Court.

In the House of the Reverend Fathers Maturins, there are,

One Minister, or Superiour, and seven Religious Men, whereof five are to be Priests, and are al­lowed 300 l. apiece, yearly, for their Cloaths, besides their Diet: But the Reverend Father Mini­ster takes care generally to keep a greater number there, especially when the Court is there. The said Reverend Father Minister is titulary so of St. Sa­turnins Chappel, which is the low Chappel in the Oval-Court, and in that Quality has his ordinary allowed him in specie, when the Court is at Foun­tain-bleau.

There is one Keeper of the Court of the Kitchins, one Keeper of the Lord Chamberlains Pavillon or House, behind the said Court, at the Corner of the Garden-Plot of the Tyber, who has a Salary of 900 l. [Page 166] for keeping the one half of the said Garden-Plot; one Keeper of the Foundery, or Founding-House, belonging to the said Palace, or Castle-Royal.

One Keeper of the Hotel, or House of Condé, joining to the said Foundry, or Founding-House. One Keeper of the Buildings of the Gate towards the Pell-mell, at the end of the Causey of the Moat, or of the House of the Colonel-General of the In­fantry, since the suppression of the said Office in 1661, who is allowed 900 l. for maintaining the other half of the Garden-Plot of the Tyber, and 50 l. for maintaining the Causey. This Pavillon, or Bo­dy of Building, was formerly called, the Constableship, and was the Lodging of the Lord High Constable.

One Keeper of the little Stable, one Keeper of the Hounds and Dog-Kennel; and a Keeper of the Pell-mell.

One Gardiner of the Gardens of the Moat, and of the Pines and Keeper of the Hotel, or House of St. Aignan, in the same place.

One Gardiner of the Gardens of the Queens Sta­bles, formerly called the Gardens of the Trout-Ponds, or Canals, round about the Fountain that gives the name to Fountain-bleau; and one other Gardner of the Gardens of the Queens Stables behind the said Fountain; and one cleanser of the Channels, or Canals of the Garden of Pines, and of the said Gardens of the Queens Stables.

One Keeper of the Hotel of the Great Ferrara, towards the great Gate of the Court of the White-Horse, where lodge several Officers of Monsieur the Kings Brother.

One Keeper of the Hotel de Guise, where the In­tendant, Comptroller, and Treasurer of the said Buildings lodge.

One Keeper of the Queens Stables in the Bur­rough.

One Keeper of the Chancery-House, on the back of which, are several Shops, of which, one of the [Page 167] Kings Officers has the letting. One Keeper of the Great Falconers Lodging and Office, called, La Coudre, which joins to the Park, and is without the Walls of it, towards the Borough, or Town of Fountain-bleau.

The Great Stable, which used to be placed at La Coudre, is now lodged at the Heronrie.

In the Park,

There is one Porter and Keeper of the Park.

There are eight Gates to go into the Park, and in it are these Buildings,

1. The Heronrie, where the Great Stable is, of which, there is one Keeper. The Great Falconer lodged there formerly, but now, at La Coudre.

2. The Mid-Way House, or the Pheasant-House, where the Hay made in the Park, is laid up; of which there is a Keeper under the Captain of the Castle.

3. The House of the Gardner of the Fruit-Trees of the Park.

4. The Menagerie, or Bird-House of the Park, of which there is a Keeper, who is likewise Master of the Game or Chace of Cormorants.

There is likewise a Gardiner of the Great Palisa­do's of the Park, that lodges at the Heronrie.

5. At the end of the Canal, towards the Parish of Avon, is the House of the Fathers of the Charity: there are ordinarily in it four religious men, and two extraordinary, when the Court is at Fountain-bleau, and a single man Gardiner. There are six Beds founded and maintain'd for sick people.

There is a Captain of the Boats upon the Great Canal, who is Keeper also of the Flags, Ornaments, and other necessary moveables for the said Ves­sels:

Besides, There is one Keeper of the Antiquities, one Painter to take care of all the Pictures there, [Page 168] who is lodged with the Secretary of State for Fo­reign Affairs; one Glasier, one Joiner, one Lock-Smith, one Plummer, and one Mason and Co­verer.

Besides the abovesaid Buildings, the Kings of France, have built several Hotels, or Houses, de­signed for the residence of several Offices, or Bodies of Offices: as the Hotel or House for the Life-guards, on one side of the Chancery, the Scotch-House behind the Church for the first Company of the Life-guards, which is still called the Scotch-Com­pany and Colonebrie: The Kings Gensd' armes, or Men at Arms, have likewise a House at Fountain-bleau.

The Guards of the Provostship of the Kings Hou­shold, have likewise a House at Fountain-bleau, which was given them by some former Kings, and is called the Hotel, or House of the Provost-ship: The Officers of the said Guards have nothing to do with the said House, but it belongs only to the Souldiers of that Guard that put in a Keeper, who is to look after it, and do all smaller Reparations to it; the said Keeper has the profit arising, by the disposal of the vacant places in the Stable there­unto belonging; and when the said Keepers place comes to be vacant, the Guards quarterly Waiters for that quarter, dispose of it.

The Officers for the Game, and for Hunting, are,

One Lieutenant of the Game.

Another Lieutenant in Brie, where there is a particular Court of Justice under the Captain of the Game or Chaces of Fountain-bleau, for the Commodity of those that cannot so conveniently come to plead at Fountain-bleau.

A Deputy-Lieutenant of the Game, at 400 l. Salary.

The Forest of Fountain-bleau, or of Biévre, is [Page 169] divided into eight several Cantons, or Quarters, every one of which, has its particular Keeper of the Wood for the Game. There was formerly too, a particular Wolf-Hunter for the Forest of Biévre.

The Officers for the Waters and Forests, are

A Lieutenant.

A Proctor for the King.

A Hammer-Keeper.

A Register, or Recorder.

A General-Keeper of the Woods and Forests, or Serjeant Traverser, at 300 l. Salary.

A Fountaneer, to look after the Fountains, Grottes, and Cascades; one Keeper of the Swans and Carps, in the Canals, Ponds, and Basons there.

Forty six Guards, viz. Sixteen Horse, and thirty Foot; whereof the Horse are paid an allowance of 300 l. and the Foot 60 l. each, yearly, by the Cap­tain: and

One Usher Auditor, called otherwise the Serjeant dangerous.

The Castle of Compiegne

Was Rebuilt by Charles the Bald, in the year 876, because his Father Lewis the Debonnaire, or the Gracious, his Grand-Father Charles the Great, and his Great-Grand-Father Charles Martel, used often to reside there. It appears too, that even before that, Clotaire, the first Grand-Child to Clo­vis, retired into the Town of Compiegne, and died there in the year 564. There are belonging to it, a Captain, who is called Captain, Keeper and Go­vernour of the House, City, and Castle-Royal of Compiegne, and Captain of the Game, or Chaces, of the Forest of Cuise lés Compiegne. A Master of the Waters and Forests, a Keeper of the Tennis-Court, and other Officers.

Of the Castle of Vincennes.

In 1183. Philip Augustus inclosed the Park of Vincennes with Walls: The Castle of Vincennes was afterward begun to be built by Philip de Valois in 1337. and continued in 1361. from the height of the Causey to the third Story, and was at length finished by Charles the Fifth. Belonging to this, there are a Captain and Governour of the Castle and Park of Vincennes, and of the Game and Chaces there: This Government was created in 1676. The twelve Officers and Keepers of the Game here­under mentioned, are put in all by his nomina­tion, viz.

A Lieutenant, and a Deputy-Lieutenant, four Horse, and three Foot-Guards, a Fox-Hunter and Cooper.

A Proctor for the King, a Register, or Recorder.

They enjoy their places by Patent from the King, though they be named by the Captain-Governour, and their Jurisdiction extends it self over eleven Villages, and their Territories. Lastly, There is one Keeper of the Castle and moveables.

In the Castle of the Bastille at Paris, where Prisoners of State are kept, there are

One Captain-Governour, several standing-Guards, one Chaplain, one Physician, one Apothecary, which Office was Created the 17th of February, 1647. with power of ordering a Committimus, un­der the Great-Seal; and one Chyrurgeon. Over the Arsenal which belongs to it, there is likewise one Great Master of the Artillery, and several other Officers.

Of the Palace of Versailles.

This is a Palace, in a manner, wholly reared by this King, chosen in a situation naturally bad, the better to shew his Magnificence: For there is no Water naturally comes thither, but all forced, yet are there the most sumptuous and magnificent Wa­ter-Works perhaps in the World, and in the great­est number, which are all fed by Water brought by Wells, Machines and Pipes, a prodigious di­stance.

There is one Intendant of the Palace of Versailles, of Trianon, of the Parks, and of the other Lands and Lordships of Versailles and Marly. The De­scription of it would take up a Volume it self, it being the glory of all the Royal Buildings and Gar­dens of France: It has a Canal, where there are several Gallies, Ships, and Gondola's, and has a­bundance of like Officers and Keepers belonging to it, as there is at Fountain-bleau; which it was made to out-vie. Here is all the present Kings delight.

In the Month of April in 1682. The King esta­blished there twelve Clergy-men to serve the Chap­pel of the Palace, and two other persons, of which, six were to be Priests, and six Clerks, and two Lay-Brothers. All these fourteen persons, are at present, of the Congregation of the Mission. And in 1683. the King retained and setled a Printer there, who has a Salary of 300 l. a year.

Of the Castle of Monceaux.

Catharine of Medicis, Wife to Henry the Second, who was not King of France, till the year 1547. Built at Monceaux, a House truly Royal, and made a Magnificent Seat of a Country place it was before. There is belonging to it, a Governour-Captain, and [Page 172] Keeper of the Castle of Monceaux, and Captain of the Game of the Warren of Meaux, and the Plains belonging to it; and under him, a Keeper of the Castle, and moveables of the same: And another Keeper of the Great Lower Court.

Of the Castle of Chambor.

There was a Castle at Chambor, built in old time, by the Counts of Blois: But the Castle now stand­ing, was built by Francis the First.

There is a Governour of it, and Captain of the Game: A Lieutenant, and a Deputy-Lieutenant.

One Keeper, and one Porter of the Castle.

One Master of the Waters and Forests.

One Provost, who is Counsellour and particular Lieutenant of Blois.

One Proctor for the King.

A Recorder.

Four Ordinary Guards, and one Huntsman, and the Porters of the several Gates of the Park, in number six.

One Keeper of the Decoy, or Duck-Pond.

And under the Super-intendant of the Buildings, there are two Surveyors or Comptrollers.

Of the Castle of Blois.

Though this Palace belongs to Monsieur, the Kings Brother, yet his Majesty disposes of all the Offices and Places belonging to it. There are in it,

One Keeper of the Castle, one Porter, one Keeper of the Keys of the Lower-Court, four Horse-Guards, two Foot-guards; one Pheasant-Hunter; two Gardners and Keepers of the upper and lower Gardens.

Of Plessis les Tours.

In this Palace, died Lewis XI. in 1483. There is belonging to it, a Governour, and some other Officers.

There are several other Royal Houses and Palaces, which are at present slighted, and not lookt after.

The present King bearing the Sun for his Devise, Monsieuer le Brun, his Chief Painter, has represen­ted in a piece of Tapistry of twelve pieces, so many Royal Houses, alluding to the several Celestial Hou­ses that King of Planets passes through; with the name and sign of each Month.

1. For January, on the top of the whole Tap­stry, is exprest the Louvre, with the Sign Aqua­rius.

2. For February, the Palace Royal, with the Hall of the Balls; and the Sign Pisces.

3. For March, the Castle of Madrid, in the Wood of Boulogne, with a representation of the Hunting of the Deer, with the Sign Aries.

4. For April, Versailles, with the Sign Taurus.

5. For May, that side of the New Castle of St. Germain en Laye, towards the River, with the Sign Gemini.

6. For June, that side of Fountain-bleau towards the Garden-Plot of the Tyber, with the Sign Cancer.

7. For July, the Castle of Vincennes, with the Sign Leo.

8. For August, the Palace of Marimont in Flan­ders, near Mons; which was the House of Arch-Duke Leopold, with the Sign Virgo: But this House was restored again to the Spaniards, by the Treaty of Nimeguen in 1678.

9. For September, the Castle of Chambor, with the Sign Libra.

[Page 174] 10. For October, the Palace of the Tuilleries, with the Sign Scorpio.

11. For November, the Castle of Blois, with the Sign Sagittarius

12. For December, the Palace of Monceaux, with the Sign Capricorn: There are several Royal Houses not exprest there, as that of Compiegne, Plessis les Tours, &c.

Besides the particular Officers of all these Palaces, and their Appurtenances, there are two other Ge­neral Officers for all of them, viz.

1. An Intendant or Surveyor-General of the Kings Waters and Fountains in all his Houses Royal: He it is that gives out all the Orders to the Work­men about all Works to be done to the Waters, Grottes, and artificial Water-works in any of them; He has Officers under him at Paris, that take care of the Aque-ducts: He has a Salary of 3000 l.

2. An Intendant of the Devises and Inscriptions upon Royal Edifices: which was an Office of great esteem in the time of Francis the First.

In his Patent he is stiled Intendant of the In­scriptions of the Royal and publick Buildings, of inventions of Trophies, designs and draughts of Painting, Emblems, Descriptions, and other De­corations, made in the Chambers, Closets, Galle­ries, Gardens and Houses Royal; as also of those which are to be made upon the Portals, and of Triumphal Arches and other Works for the solemn Entries of their Majesties into any Towns, or upon any other account whatsoever. He has a Salary of 1800 l. paid Quarterly at the Treasure Royal.

CHAP. XIX.

Of the Great Marshal of the Lodgings, or Knight-Harbinger, and of the other Mar­shals of the Lodgings, and Harbingers.

THE Great Marshal of the Lodgings is Monsieur Lewis Doger de Cavoye; he has 3000 l. Salary, 4000 l. Board-Wages at the Chamber of Deniers, 600 l. a Month extraordinary allowance, and seve­ral other perquisites.

His Office is, to receive the Kings Orders con­cerning his Lodging, and those of his Court, and to communicate them to the other Marshals of the Lodgings and Harbingers.

There are twelve Marshals of the Lodgings, or chief Harbingers, who have every one a Salary of 800 l. a yearly gratuity of 400 l. and 900 l. ex­traordinary; and when the Court is on the march, a hundred pence a day for their Diet, which is paid them from the day they have Orders to set out. They serve quarterly, three every quarter, and in the time of their Waiting, have their Diet at three different Tables; the first at the old Table of the Great Master, the second at the Table of the Masters of the Houshold, and the third at the Al­moners Table. They have besides, in the Armies, every one their rations, or allowances of Ammuni­tion-Bread.

They are sworn by the Great Marshal of the Lodgings, or Knight-Harbinger, and bear in the Kings House Canes after the fashion of a Majors Staff, or else a Staff garnished with Silver at top and bottom, with the Arms of his Majesty on the Pommel, and this Inscription, N..... Marshal of [Page 176] the Kings Lodgings. The Staff of the Great Mar­shal of the Lodgings is garnished with Silver, both on the handle and the top, having on the Pommel or Handle, the Arms of France, and the rest of the Handle set with Flower-deluces, wrought in Dia­monds.

Three Marshals of the Lodgings, or chief Har­bingers, and four other Harbingers, when they come out of Waiting with the King, enter into Waiting with the Dauphin, and have there the same allow­ance they had with the King.

There were formerly four Harbingers of the Bo­dy, but they were suppressed in 1680. in whose room, the King established eight Harbingers in Or­dinary, quarterly Waiters, who wait two every quarter, so that whereas there were before but forty, there are now forty eight Harbingers quarterly Wai­ters, serving by twelve a quarter, which have every of them, a Salary of 240 l. 120 l. gratuity, 450 l. extraordinary, and when the Court is on the march, a Crown a day for their Diet, from the day they set out; and in the Armies their rations of Ammunition-Bread.

The places of all these are in the Kings Gift, and they are all sworn by the Great Marshal, or Knight-Harbinger of the Lodgings.

At the beginning of every quarter, the three Marshals of the Kings Lodgings in Waiting, agree together, to separate the twelve Harbingers for that quarter into three Bands, allotting four to each Band.

1. One of these Harbingers, who is ordinarily the eldest or Foreman, makes according to the stile of this Court, the Body, or the Gross, that is to say, 'tis he, that in the presence of the Marshal of the Lodgings, or chief Harbinger, marks out with Chalk; First, The Kings, or the Kings and Queens joint Apartments. Secondly, The Offices. Thirdly, The eating Halls, or Dining-rooms, and Fourthly, [Page 177] The Apartments of those that are preferred in the Kings Lodgings.

First, By the Kings Apartments, are meant, the Kings Bed-Camber, Anti-Chamber, Closet, Ward­robe, Guard-Chamber, and other necessary Apart­ments for the Kings or Queens persons.

Secondly, By the Offices, are meant the seven Offices, as the Goblet, the Kitchin, &c. afore-de­scribed.

Thirdly, By the Eating-Halls, or Dining-rooms, are meant, the Hall of the new Table of the Great Master, otherwise called the Hall of Monsieur the Duke; and that of the Great Chamberlains Table; which two Tables ought to be within the Kings Lodgings, when there is room enough, or else, as near as may be: Next the Hall of the Great Ma­sters old Table, and that of Masters of the Hou­sholds, which are sometimes called the first and second Tables of the said Masters; The Serdeau's Hall, or the Kings voiding Hall, the Almoners Hall, the Quarterly Waiters, Valets de Chambers, or Bed-Chamber-mens Hall: There was likewise the Chief Valets de Chambres, or Bed-Chamber-mens Hall, but it was taken away on the first of January 1681.

Fourthly, Under the name of the Preferred in the Kings Lodgings, are comprehended, the Great or High Chamberlain, the Chief-Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber, the Great Master of the Wardrobe, the Captain of the Guards, and the Master of the Wardrobe. In case the Lodging be so scanty, that after the King is Lodged, there remain but one single Apartment, the Captain of the Guards ought to have the preference of it before all others, and if there remain two, then the Chief-Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber is to have the First, and the Captain of the Guards the second; but if there be three, then the Great Chamberlain is to have the preference before the two others.

[Page 178] When the Queen marches with the King, the Marshals, or chief Harbingers of the Kings Lodg­ings, after they have given Order for marking out Apartments for the Queen, are to cause other Apartments to be Chalked out in their Majesties Lodgings, for her Ladies, in this Order; viz. First, For the Super-intendant, or Stewardess of the Queens Houshold. Secondly, For the Lady of Ho­nour. Thirdly, For the Tire-Woman, or Dressing-Lady. Fourthly, For the Ladies of the Palace. Fifthly, For the Chief-Gentlewoman of the Bed-Chamber. And sixthly, For the other Gentlewo­men of the Bed-Chamber: And if after the Queen be lodged, there remain but one Apartment more, then the Chief-Gentlewoman of the Bed-Chamber, ought to have it before any of the other Ladies, and Female-Officers.

The Harbinger which makes the Body, when there is room enough, marks out to in the same House, Apartments for the Chief-Physician, Chy­rurgion and Apothecary of the Body.

The Harbingers of the Queens Body, or of the Dauphins, or Monsieurs, cannot Chalk out any thing that belongs to that they call the service of the Body: But it belongs to the Kings Harbinger that makes or heads the Body to do it, so that they cannot mark any places for the seven Offices, but those that are appointed them by the Kings Harbin­ger that makes the Body, that is, as is above ex­plained, that is, the Eldest, or Foreman of the Band, or Company.

2. Another Harbinger is to take care to chalk out all the Ranks, and Preferred, without the Kings Lodgings: By the Ranks, are meant, First, The Lodgings for the Princes. Secondly, For the Great Officers. Thirdly, For the Dukes and Peers. Fourthly, For the Marshals of France, the Secre­taries, Ministers of State, and other Persons of Quality: And by the preferred without the Kings [Page 179] Lodgings, are meant those Lords, or other Great Persons, who are recommended to be lodged in the Town, by the Kings express order.

Note, That the same Harbinger that makes the Body, very often marks to the Lodgings, for the Ranks, and abovesaid preferred persons.

3. Another Harbinger marks out the Ordinary of the Kings Houshold, that is, Lodgings for the Offi­cers of it, viz. For the first or chief Almoner, for the chief Master of the Houshold, for the Master of the Houshold in Ordinary, for the Captain of the Guards of the Gate, for the Lieutenant and Ensigns of the Life-guards, and generally, for all the other Officers of the Kings Houshold.

It often happens, that besides the Harbinger that marks out the Stables in the Town, there is another that takes up Stables in the Neighbouring Villages, and provides Lodgings for the Equipages.

The King generally is prevail'd on, with much facility, to grant to the Marshals of his Lodgings, and his other Harbingers, Reversions of their Pla­ces, in favour not only of their Sons, but of their Grand-Sons, Sons-in-Law, Brother, and Ne­phews.

He also grants them Briefs, impouring them to retain or stop a certain summ to be deducted out of the yearly Revenue of their places, and paid by their Successours, for their Wives, if they have no Children, for their Daughters; if they have no Sons, or if they have neither Wives nor Children, for the younger Brethren of their Family.

At the first Entries made by Kings into any Cities of their Kingdom, the Officers of the Town are to pay a certain summ as a Fee, to the Marshals and Harbingers of the Kings Lodgings, or else the one half of the profits of the Triumphal Arches, Porches, Tapistries, and all the Decorations, is to fall to the Marshals, and the other to the Harbingers of the said Lodgings.

[Page 180] The Marshals of the Queens Lodgings, and of those of the Dauphiness, of Monsieur, of Madame, and the particular Harbingers of the Princes of the Bloud, of the Chancery, and of other Bodies, as also the Men or Messengers sent by other Princes, Dukes and Peers, and other great Lords, to take up their Lodgings, receive their Quarters or Lodgings from the Marshals and Harbingers in Ordinary of the Kings Houshold.

Whenever Monsieur, or Madame, happen to be travelling in Company with the Queen, or the Dauphiness, when the King is not there, then the Marshals or Harbingers of the Queen or Dauphines­ses Lodgings, are to appoint Monsieurs, or Madams Harbingers, what Lodgings and Quarters they are to take up.

The Marshals and Harbingers in Ordinary of the Kings Lodgings, are reputed to be of the Body of the Kings Gend'armes, or Men at Arms, as having been formerly drawn out of the antient Companies of the said Gend'armes; and the late King Lewis the Thirteenth, (who under-stood exactly well the original of all the different Offices of his Houshold) gave the Marshals of his Lodgings place in, and in­corporated them into his Company of Gend'armes, at the Head of which, his Majesty usually fights on a day of Battel, or on any other occasion; and made the Harbingers serve in his Company of Muske­teers, at the Siege of Corbie, to which service he summoned all his whole Houshold, that is, the Ar­rire-ban of his Houshold, which he placed by them­selves in his Army.

This said number of Gend'armes detached out of the antient Companies, was usually sent before, to provide Lodging and Quarters for his Majesty, and the Troops that were with him: And still to this day, the Marshals of the Kings Lodgings, both in Town and Country, give out the Orders for the quartering of the French Life-guards, of the hun­dred [Page 181] Suissers of the Gend'armes of the light Horse, of the Musketeers, of the Regiments of the French and Swisse-guards, when all the said Troops at­tend the King in his march.

And in effect, the Marshals of the Lodgings in France, are what the Quarter-Masters are in Ger­many, who rise to the Highest Commands in Ar­mies.

The Marshals and Harbingers of the Kings Lodg­ings, were formerly likewise Marshals or Quarter Masters of the Camps and Armies, and the same persons that provided Lodgings for the Kings Hou­shold, always took up Quarters to for the Armies, as have done several of them that are still living: But some of their Body, in the time of the late King Lewis the Thirteenth, got themselves made Marshals, peculiarly of the Camps and Armies, and got Patents of it, as of a distinct Office; notwith­standing which, the Marshals and Harbingers of the Lodgings of the Houshold, serve still in the Armies, either in the absence of the others who have Pa­tents, as is said, for being Camp-Marshals, or Quar­ter-Masters, or when the number of these others is not sufficient for all the Armies the King has on Foot. When the King is in an Army, the Mar­shals of the Lodgings of his Houshold, have privi­ledge to take at least two thirds of the room, to lodge his Majesty, and all the Officers of the Royal Houses; and it was Ordered by the King, that the remaining third should be disposed of by the said Marshals of the Lodgings, or Quarter-Masters of the Camps and Armies, for the general Officers and other Officers in the Army, necessary to be near his Majesties Person: I say, the Marshals of the Kings Lodgings have power to take up at least two thirds for the King, because, if after they have divided the whole into three equal parts, there should re­main two, or but one Lodging over and above; those one or two so over and above, or supernu­merary, [Page 182] are to be taken up likewise for his Majesty and his Court, that they may be scanted. As for Example, It is true, that where there is but thirty Lodgings, the Marshals of the Lodgings of the Houshold are to take but twenty, and the general Officers of the Army are to have the other ten; but of fifty Lodgings, or Lodgments, the Marshals of the Kings Lodgings will take thirty four, and the general Officers of the Army will have but sixteen, and of forty Lodgments, the Kings Marshals will have twenty seven, and leave the general Officers but thirteen.

By the antient Order, according to the Rules made for that purpose, none but the Kings Harbin­gers can mark out Lodgings with white Chalk, those of the Princes and others being obliged for distin­ctions sake to mark out theirs with a yellow Crayon; with this further difference, that the Kings mark only is put upon the Street-Doors, and the others only upon the Doors of particular Chambers within side the House.

The Order observed in Quartering in an Army.

In an Army, where the King is Present, the first Quarter is for him, or where he is not, for the General, and the next belongs to a Marshal of France to chuse, or if there be two Marshals of France there together, then he that Commands that Day or Week, is to have the Choice, for some­times they agree to Command by turns, one one Day, or one Week, and another another: But if there happen to be more than two together, without having any Command there, then they chuse their Quarters according to their standing; And next to the Marshals of France, the Dukes and Peers take place; for in Armies, Dukes and Peers are Lodged always after Marshals of France. But in following the Court, out of an Army, this [Page 183] Order is observed; First their Majesties are Lodg­ed, then other Royal Persons, then the Princes and Princesses, then the Great Officers of the Crown, after them the Dukes and Peers, and lastly, the Marshals of France. The Chancellour is Lodged next after the Princes, and in marking his Lodging, the word Pour, or for is used, the meaning of which, we have already explained; Besides all which, which are called the Ranks, there are the Preferred, of which we have spoken.

The Marshals and Harbingers of the Kings Lodg­ings, are also employed by his Majesties special Command, to provide Lodgings for the Assemblies of the States General of the Kingdom, when any are called, or for the States of any particular Pro­vince, when the King is to be present at them; as likewise for the Assemblies of the Clergy, which is to be understood when they assemble in any other place but Paris, for there no Lodgings are marked for them.

Likewise when the persons composing any So­veraign Courts, or other publick Bodies, are to meet at St. Denis in France, by the Kings Order, and according to Custom, to assist at the Funeral Pomps or Solemnities made at the Burials, or An­niversary Services for Kings, Queens, and Princes, or Princesses of the Blood, or others, the Marshals and Harbingers of the Kings Lodgings go thither some dayes before to provide them Lodgings.

The King too usually sends the said Marshals and Harbingers of his Lodgings, to meet Foreign Prin­ces, and Princesses, that come into, or pass through his Kingdom, to order and prepare Lodg­ings for them every where as they pass.

The Title and Quality of Squires has been con­ferred and confirmed upon the Marshals and Har­bingers in Ordinary of the Kings Lodgings, by se­veral Orders of the Council of State. Next, the Marshals and Harbingers of the Lodgings, is the [Page 184] Captain of the Guides, with his Company, who is a necessary Officer in Journies.

Of the Captain of the Guides.

The Office of Captain of the Guides, for the Conducting of his Majesty, formerly enjoyed by one, is now exercised by two Brothers, who part between them the following Salary and Profits, viz. 2000 l. Salary paid quarterly by the Treasurers of the Houshold, 600 l. a Month extraordinary du­ring any Voyage or Journey, and 300 l. when the Court is at any of the Royal Houses; they eat at the Kings Serdeau's, or Water-Servers Table, with the Gentlemen Waiters.

The Captain of the Guides, when the King is on his march along the Country, is always to keep by one of the Boots or Portals of the Kings Coach, to be ready to tell his Majesty the names of the pla­ces, Cities, Castles, Towns and Villages upon the Road, if he ask them, or resolve any other Question concerning them.

There are commonly at least two Guides on Horseback, that wear the Kings Livery, that ride a little before his Majesty to Conduct him, and place themselves ordinarily at the head of the Light-Horse.

If there be any need of repairing the High-ways for the Kings Passage, the Captain of the Guides usually lays out what is needful for that purpose, and is repaid again at the Treasure-Royal.

For fear the Officers of the Goblet, or of the Mouth, should fail to come up to the place where the King is to eat, when he is travelling along the Country, the Captain of the Guides sometimes gives them notice, in what part of the Way his Majesty has a mind to Dine.

He has power to settle Guides, to Conduct his Majesty in every Town of the Kingdom, and after [Page 185] he has given his Grants to the said Guides, they are admitted as such, before the Marshals of France.

These Guides wear the Kings Livery, and are ex­empted from Billeting of Souldiers.

The Captain of the Guides is sworn by the High Constable of France, when there is one, or other­wise, by the Eldest Marshal of France.

Of some other Officers necessary in Journies, which de­pend on the Great Master of the Houshold, viz.

One Waggon-Master of the Kings Equipage, that Conducts all the Equipage, and commands all the Captains, and takes his Orders from the Office of the Houshold.

This Office was Created in 1668. He has an al­lowance of 100 l. a Month out of the Chamber of Deniers when the Court is on its march along the Country, and 50 l. a Month when it is at Paris; and 400 l. besides, extraordinary Wages, for the extraordinary pains he takes for the Kings Service, in doing what is order'd him by the Office, allowed him upon the last Bill of every Quarter.

One Aid, or Helping Waggon-Master, whose Office was also Created the same year 1668. who has, when the Court is at Paris, 25 l. a Month, and when it is on the march, 50 l. a Month al­lowed him at the Chamber of Deniers: We have already spoken of the Captain of the Mules of the Chamber, in speaking of the said Chamber, of which he depends.

Two Captains of the Carriages of the Kings Houshold, who have a Salary of 300 l. a piece paid by the Treasurers of the Houshold; and be­sides, at the Chamber of Deniers, an allowance to them, for the maintenance of fifty ordinary Hor­ses, at the rate of 23 d. a day, for each Horse 57 l. 10 d. a day, or 21045 l. a year.

[Page 186] They Conduct all the Carriages of the seven Offi­ces, when the Court marches, either in Person, or by their Servants.

One Captain-Keeper, and Guardian-General of the Tents and Pavilions of the Court, and of his Majesties Pavilions of War, who has a Salary of 800 l. and 50 l. a Month extraordinary in time of Service; and

One Keeper of the Tents of the Courts of the Kitchins, and of his Majesties Stables, who is al­lowed 50 l. a Month at Paris, and 100 l. a Month in the Country, at the Chamber of Deniers.

CHAP. XX.

Of the Judge of the Kings Court and Reti­nue, who is the Provost of the Houshold, or Great Provost of France.

THE Provost of the Kings Houshold, or Great Provost of France, is the ordinary Judge of the Kings Houshold.

The Title of Great Provost implies two things: For first, He is Judge of the Kings Houshold, and Secondly, He is Captain of a Company of a hun­dred Guards, called the Guards of the Provostship, which is another part of his Office in the Kings House: We shall speak of him here only as in the first quality, reserving the latter till we come to the Military Officers of the Houshold.

His Office is one of the ancientest of the Kings Houshold, and one may say, that in the Jurisdiction which he retains of administring Justice to all the Kings Officers, and other Persons that follow the Court, he has succeeded the antient Count, or Mayor of the Palace, which was an Office that be­gun with the Monarchy it self.

He is sworn by the King himself, and is received into the Great Council, where he takes place as Se­cretary of State.

[Page 187] He has the Priviledge to chuse his Lodging after the Princes, Dukes and Peers, and Marshals of France have chosen theirs; for which reason, he is called, the last in the Ranks.

He has a Salary of 2000 l. and an annual Gra­tuity of 8000 l.

All the Officers of the Provost-ship are received by his Majesty upon the nomination of the Great Provost, and afterwards take out Letters from the King, under the Great Seal, directed to the Great Council, where they are admitted upon those Let­ters, and qualified Judges.

The Great Provost Judges of all matters, both Civil and Criminal, hapning between the Officers of the Kings Houshold among themselves, or be­tween them and others which are not so.

The Jurisdiction of the Provostship of the Hou­shold, is the ordinary Court of Justice for the Kings Houshold, and therefore from the beginning was ordered to be kept in the Louvre, that so the Kings Officers, and others of his Court and Retinue, ha­ving their natural Judge within the Kings House, might not be diverted from the service of his Ma­jesty; for some years, the place where the Pro­vosts Court used to be kept, being taken up by the Queen-Mother, it was transferred to the Fort-Eveque, or Bishops-Fort. At present, the Officers of the Provostship, have their Auditory, in the in­closure of the Great Council-Chamber; there they have their Hall of Audience, their Council-Cham­ber, their Civil and Criminal Records, or Registers, and there is the Office of the Ushers of the Pro­vostship.

The present King, by a Brief bearing date the 8th of September, 1658. declared, that he would set­tle the Seat or Court of the Jurisdiction of the Pro­vost of the Houshold, re-established in the Louvre, and that he would cause a convenient place there to be marked out, and set apart for that pur­pose.

[Page 188] The said Court is kept there three times a Week, viz. on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday-Morn­ings.

People plead there by a Proctor, as in other Courts, but in a more summary and concise way. In civil matters there lies an Appeal from it, to the Great Council, but in matters Criminal, the Great Provost Judges without Appeal, as well as the Masters of Requests, and those of the Great Council.

The Officers of the Kings Houshold, and those of his Court and Retinue, may by special priviledge, bring all their Causes into this Court, whether they be Civil or Criminal, since the Court was chiefly erected in their favour: There needs no Committi­mus to cite any one that belongs to, or follows the Court, but only an assignation, or warning, taken out of the Provosts Court, by vertue of a Commis­sion out of the Registry there. But as the said persons have the priviledge to bring their actions against their Debtors in this Court, or to appeal from their Prosecutors, thither they may do it, if they please, by vertue of their Committimus, and at their choice, bring their Causes, either before the Masters of the Requests of the Palace, or of the Requests of the Houshold, or before the Provost of the Houshold.

The Great Provost only has power to apply Seals, make Inventories, and do all other acts of Justice in the Louvre, and in the Galleries and other places thereunto belonging, and in other Royal Houses within fourteen Leagues distance of Paris, as it was determined a Contradictory Sentence of the Council of the 25 of March 1650. given in favour of the Officers of the Provostship of the Houshold, against the Officers of the Chatelet. He may also take cognisance of all crimes and particular offen­ces, and other Causes, pro or con, any way rela­ting to the people of the Court, and of the Kings [Page 189] Retinne, and belonging to the Royal Houses, and against Vagabonds, and of several other Cases, with the consent and advice of the other Provosts.

When he follows the Court any where, he Taxes and sets a price upon all Provisions, gives assistance for taking of Lodgings, if any resistance be made, and doth other things necessary for the civil Go­vernment there, by his Lieutenants of the Long Robe, or in their absence, by the Lieutenants and Exempts of the short Robe, who call to their as­sistance, the Officers or Magistrates, and chief In­habitants of the place.

When the Court takes a Journey, the Great Provost Commands a sufficient number of Trades­men and Handicrafts-men to follow it, to whom he grants Letters of Priviledge, by which they are ob­liged to furnish the Court, and its Retinue, with all necessaries, who are called the Priviledged Trades­men, and by vertue of the said Letters, are im­powered to keep open Shop in Paris, or elsewhere, and enjoy several other Exemptions.

Of the Officers of Judicature belonging to the Pro­vostship of the Houshold.

For the better administration of Justice to the Officers of the Kings Houshold, and to the rest of his Court and Retinue, the great Provost has under him two Lieutenants which are put in by the King, but named by the Great Provost, and are admitted as such, in the Great Council, where they are sworn.

There was formerly but one Lieutenant-General, the other being but a particular Lieutenant, but by an Edict of the Month of September, registred in the Great Council the 7th of November following, the King made these two Offices equal; so that at present, there are two Lieutenants-General for both Civil and Criminal matters, they have [Page 190] each of them 400 l. Salary, and 600 l. gratuity.

The first of these exercises his Office the first six Months of the Year, where the Kings Court is, and the other six Months he keeps the Provosts Court at Paris, within the Inclosure of the Great Coun­cil-Chamber when the King is abroad, and the Great-Council at Paris.

The other serves the latter six Months of the Year at the Kings Court, and the first six Months keeps the Provosts Court at Paris, for the causes of those that are Officers of any Royal Houses within his Precinct, and priviledged persons and others.

So that there is always two Seats or Courts of Justice of the Great Provost, one at Paris, for the better expedition of the Causes of the Officers, and priviledged Persons belonging to the Royal Houses, and another where the Court is, when his Majesty is not in Paris, as he never is to stay.

Note, That the two Lieutenants, the Kings Pro­ctor, and the Register of the Provosts Court, are allowed each of them, at the Salt-Granary at Paris, two Minots of Free-Salt, that is, for paying only some ancient Duties.

The Kings Proctor there, has a Salary of 400 l. 75 l. Augmentation-Money, and a gratuity of 1200 l. He serves all the year round, and has a Substitute. There is one Register in chief, both for Civil and Criminal matters, who has 104 l. Salary, and 400l. gratuity. He has under him two Commis, or De­puties, that have the priviledge to wear both Gowns and Caps, at Audiences; and two other Deputies, to take informations under the Lieute­nants of the Short-Robe, in the Field, and out of the Kings Quarter; and then they are obliged within twenty four hours, to put up their informa­tions into the Registry or Recorders Office, and to cause their Prisoners to be brought up to be Exa­mined by the Lieutenants of the Long-Robe, and [Page 191] in their absence, by the Lieutenants and Exempts of the short one, who only have power to take cognisance of, and judge criminal Causes among the Kings Retainers, and in his Quarter.

All the Officers above-mentioned are Commoners or Tablers in the Kings Houshold, and on the four chief Festivals of the year, are allowed Bread, Wine and Meat, Candles on Candlemas, and Corpus Christi days, and Prayer-Books and Cloth in the Holy Week.

There are also twelve Proctors called Postulants. One Chief Usher, and twelve other Ushers that wear the Kings Livery, and carry in their hands a blue Wand, with Flower-deluces at the end. They are Exempt from Taxes, Subsidies, and Loans, and enjoy all the other Priviledges of the Commoners of the Kings Houshold.

There are likewise two Notaries, and Keepers of the Royal Notes, that follow the Court; And

One Usher Trumpeter at 272 l. 10 d. Salary. And

One Executioner of Criminal Sentences.

Besides these, there are other Officers as they call them, of the Short-Robe, that are a kind of Medium between Civil and Military Officers, which we shall add here, viz.

One Lieutenant-General.

Four Lieutenants, officiating each two quarters in a year, who have a Salary of 400 l. and a gra­tuity of 600 l.

Four other Lieutenants quarterly Waiters.

The Lieutenant of the quarter, beginning in Ja­nuary, has the liberty, if he will, to serve and bear the Staff in the quarter beginning in July, he of July quarter in January, he of April in October, and he of October in April.

In the absence of the Great Provost, they receive Orders immediately from the King.

When the Lieutenant of the Sword, or of the Short-Robe, of the Provosts Court, has a mind to [Page 192] go up to the Seat of the Audiences at Paris, he sits on the right hand of the Lieutenant-General that is of the Long-Robe, and that presides there, and the Kings Proctor, as a Counsellour by his place, sits on his left: This has been practised several times, and lately, on Saturday the 30th of August, 1681. When the Sieur Barbier, Lieutenant-General of the Long-Robe, had at his right hand, the Sieur Tour­nier, Lieutenant of the Short-Robe, and the Sieur Le Roy de Gomberville, Proctor for the King, on his left; and in the absence of the Lieutenant-Ge­neral of the Long-Robe, the Lieutenant of the Sword presides, and has the Kings Proctor on his left hand.

There is likewise another Lieutenant of the Pro­vostship, that ordinarily waits on the Chancellour, where he has his Diet, and 5500 l. Salary and gratuity.

They are likewise Commoners of the Houshold, and enjoy the same Priviledges with other Officers of the same.

As for the Exempts and Guards belonging to the Provostship, we shall speak of them among the Military Officers of the Kings Houshold.

There are belonging to the Provostship, besides these, one Chaplain, called the Chaplain of St. Barbara.

One Marshal, or Harbinger of the Lodgings.

Three Treasurers of the Provost-ship, that pay all the Officers of it, both Civil and Military; they serve by turns, each one his year.

CHAP. XXI.

Of the Great Master, the Master, and Aid or Assistant, of the Ceremonies.

THE Great Master of the Ceremonies of France is Jule Armand Colbert, Marquiss of Blainville, he was sworn the 30th of January, 1685. His Salary is 3000 l.

He is sworn by the Great Master of the Houshold, under him there is

One Master of the Ceremonies, who has 2000 l. Salary, and is likewise sworn by the Great Master of the Houshold; and

One Aid, or Assistant of the Ceremonies, at 600 l. Salary.

The Great Master, Master and Assistant, or Aid of the Ceremonies, exercise their Offices jointly at Royal Solemnities, bearing in their hands, a Staff of Ceremony, covered with black Velvet, with the handle and top tipt with Ivory.

The Assistant of Ceremonies is also sworn by the Great Master of the Houshold.

They are to be present at Coronations of Kings, and at the opening of Assemblies of the Estates, at Christnings, and Marriages of Kings and Princes, at the first and last Audiences of Ambassadours, both Ordinary and Extraordinary, at the conducting of Queens or Princesses, and at their Obsequies and Funeral Pomps, where they order all, and take care to give every one their Rank and Precedence due to their quality.

They are clad in different habits almost at every one of those different Ceremonies.

When the Great Master, the Master, or the Aid [Page 194] of the Ceremonies, go to carry any Order or Mes­sage to any of the Soveraign Courts, after they have saluted them, they take their place among the Counsellours, but with this difference, that if it be the Great Master of the Ceremonies himself, he takes place above the last Counsellour, but if it be the Master in Ordinary, or his Aid, he takes his Seat after them all; and then upon a sign made to him by the chief President, he speaks to them from his Seat, with his Head covered, his Sword by his side, and his Staff of Ceremonies in his hand.

At the first and last Audiences of Ambassadours, the Great Master, the Master, or Aid of the Cere­monies, marches on the right hand of the Ambas­sadour, a little before him, from the bottom of the Stairs, to the Guard-Chamber, where being come, he advances before him to give notice to his Majesty.

There is likewise an Exempt of the Kings Guards appointed to wait at Ceremonies, who in the Book of the Establishment is called Major of the first Company of the Guards, Commanded at present, by the Duke of Noailles.

CHAP. XXII.

Of the Introductour of Ambassadours.

THere were formerly two of these Introductours or Conductours, but by the present King, they were reduced to one, who is stiled the sole Intro­ductour of Foreign Princes and Ambassadours to his Majesty, who at present is Monsieur Michael de Chabenat, Knight and Count de Bonneville, &c.

His Salary is 1200 l. But he has another under him, at a like Salary.

[Page 195] The Introductour of Ambassadours, both for Au­diences and all other things relating to his Office, receives Orders only from the King: He conducts, receives, and introduces into the Chamber of their Majesties, or of the Children of France, and Prin­ces and Princesses of the Blood, any other Kings, Soveraign Princes and Princesses, or Cardinals, Am­bassadours, Ordinary and Extraordinary, Gentle­men Envoys, Residents, Agents, Heads of the Or­ders, Foreign Deputies, bearing any Character, or making any publick Figure; and generally all Fo­reign Persons of Quality, when they come to the Kings Palace for Audience: He likewise Conducts the Wives of any such persons abovesaid, to the like Audience of the Queen.

CHAP. XXIII.

Of the Secretary of the Houshold, and the Treasurers that pay the Officers of it.

THE Secretary of the Houshold, who is at pre­sent, the Marquiss of Seignelay, the late Great Colberts Eldest Son, who has as Secretary of the Kings Houshold, 3000 l. Salary, and 1200 l. as Secretary of the Chamber, besides 6000 l. Board-Wages, and 1200 l. for his first Commis, or Clerk. In all the Books of Establishment, the Treasurers are placed after all the rest of the Houshold, in this Order;

1. There are three Treasurers of the Epargne, or Spare Treasure, that is to say, the Treasure of the Kings clear Money, all charges of the state born, that are intituled Keepers of the Treasure Royal, they wait by turns, and pay all the Treasu­rers of the Kings Houshold.

[Page 196] 2. Three Treasurers of the Kings Offrings, Alms and Devotions; These Treasurers have no Comp­troller.

3. General Treasurers of the Houshold, that serve by turns every one his year, they are allowed each 1800 l. Board-Wages, at the Chamber of De­niers.

'Tis upon the Certificates of these Treasurers, that credit is given in all the Provinces throughout the Kingdom, for maintaining the Kings Officers in their Priviledges, as Exemption from Taxes, Com­mittimus, &c.

They take the Oath of Fidelity in the Chamber of Accounts.

To these belong two Comptrollers.

Three Treasurers of the Cash, or Pay-Office of the Chamber, serving by turns.

Three Treasurers of the Kings Pocket, or pri­vate Expences, and of the affairs of his Cham­ber.

They pay the Expences of the Kings Cloaths and Furniture, and the Fees allowed several Officers for their Cloathing.

We have already spoken of the Masters of the Chamber of Deniers, and the Comptrollers-General, of the Cash or Pay-Office of the Chamber, and of the private Expences, in treating of the Cham­ber.

Two Treasurers of the Stables, that pay all the Expences and Officers of the Stables; and one Comptroller of the same.

Four Treasurers of every Company of Life-Guards, which make twelve in all, besides the Qua­driennial ones.

Three Treasurers of the hundred Suissers. Three Treasurers of the Provostship of the Houshold, three Treasurers of the Gend'armes, or Men at Arms.

The Treasurers of the other Companies, as of [Page 197] the light Horse, the Musketeers, the Gentlemen au bec de Corbin, or Gentlemen Pensioners.

Three Treasurers of the French-Guards, and their Comptrollers.

Three Treasurers of the Suisse-Guards.

The Treasurers of the casual Revenues.

Two General Treasurers of the Ordinary of the Wars, that pay all the old Regiments.

The Treasurers of the Extraordinary of the Wars, that pay all the new Regiments.

Three Treasurers of the Game, and of Hunting.

Three Treasurers of the Buildings.

One General Treasurer of the Vessels, or Navy.

One Treasurer of the Gallies.

A Treasurer of the Bridges and Causeys, and ma­ny others.

All these Treasurers receive their money every Month, at the Treasure Royal, except those of the Life-Guards, who receive theirs once a Week; for as for their other appointments, they are not paid till the Years end.

Note, That the Salaries and appointments of the Kings Officers cannot be stopt in the hands of the Treasurers, according as it has been determined by several Orders, and among others, by an Order of the Privy-Council, of the 5th of June, 1657.

CHAP. XXIV.

Of the Kings Pleasures, and the Officers there­unto belonging.

FOrmerly, instead of the Great Huntsman, the Great Falconer, and the Great Wolf-Hunter, there were only entred upon the Books of Establish­ment of the Houshold, Hunters, Falconers, Par­tridge-Catchers, [Page 198] Fowlers, Wolf-Hunters, and other Officers necessary for the Game. And there used to be two great Hunting-Seasons observed in the Year, viz. at the risings of the Parlement, or Assises, which were held but twice a year.

I. Article.

Of the Great Hunter, or Huntsman.

This Officer has a Salary of 1200 l. 10000 l. ap­pointment, and for his Dogs 6387 l. 10 d. which is in all 17587 l. 10 d. a year; besides other Gifts from the King. Almost all the Offices and places here under-named are in his disposal, when vacant.

He is sworn by the King himself, and gives Grants to the other Officers of the Venery, or Hunt­ing-Office.

He was formerly called, The Great Forester.

He has the super-intendance over all the Officers of the Kings Hunting-Office. The first Great Hun­ter, was William de Gamaches, under Charles the Sixth, or long before, as some will have it, one Hugues Sire, or Lord of Lesigems.

Under him are these Officers, viz.

One Lieutenant in Ordinary of the Hunting-Office, whose Salary is 1000 l.

Four Lieutenants Quarterly-Waiters, put in by the King, whose Salary is 1000 l.

Four other Lieutenants ordinarily Waiting at the said Office.

Four Deputy-Lieutenants Quarterly-Waiters, at 500 l. Salary.

One other Deputy-Lieutenant.

Forty seven Gentlemen Hunters, and four other Gentlemen Hunters in Ordinary.

One Servant of the Dogs in Ordinary, on Horse-back, Salary 400 l.

Four Servants of the Dogs in Ordinary, on Horse-back, Quarterly-Waiters, Salary 200 l.

[Page 199] Eighteen Servants of the Bloodhounds, at 150 l. Salary.

Fifteen Servants of the Dogs, Quarterly-Waiters, at 100 l. and two other Servants of the Dogs, at 60 l.

Four Harbingers, at 150 l.

Four little Servants, or Boys in Ordinary, to look after the Dogs, that lie under the same roof with them, at 80 l. apiece.

Two Pages, at 600 l.

Two Farriers, at 75 l.

One Chyrurgion, at 150 l.

One Gelder of Dogs, and Curer of Madness, at 75 l.

One Porter, or Carrier of the Hunting Bed.

Three General Treasurers before-mentioned, whose Salary, with all other profits, amounts yearly to 9300 l. each. They take the Title of Counsel­lours to the King.

Three Comptrollers of the Hunting-Office, of Hunting-Nets, and of the Falconry, who have each 2065 l. 13 d. 4 deniers, Salary.

  • 1. The first and chief Hunting of France, is that of the Red Deer.
  • 2. That of the Wild-Goat, and Fallow-Deer.
  • 3. That of the Hare, and Fox.
  • 4. That of the Wolf.
  • 5. That of the Wild-Boar.

There is a Pack of Hounds for the Wild-Goat, to which belong two Lieutenants, who have 800 l. apiece yearly allowance.

One Baker, who has 60 l. Salary, and 4925 l. for feeding and maintaining the Dogs.

Three Prickers, or Markers, who have 683 l. 6d. and 8 Deniers, or a half-penny.

Three Foot-Servants of the Dogs, at 275 l. each, and several other Servants of the Dogs, at 300 l. apiece.

One Page, at 600 l.

[Page 200] There is a Company of Horse-Guards of the Kings Pleasures, within the extent of the Plains, Woods, and Thickets near, or within ten Leagues of the City of Paris, under the Command of the Great Hunter, under whom there is

Lieutenant at 600 l. and a Deputy Lieutenant at 300 l. yearly Salary;

And six Archers, or Horse-Guards, at 150 l. a Man.

There is likewise, a Pack of Scotch-Hounds, for the Hare; to which belong

A Lieutenant, who has 1000 l. Salary, and 150 l. for a Page.

A Baker, at 60 l. a Pricker, or Marker of the Dogs, who has 647 l. 10 d. Salary, and 70 l. for Cloaths. A foot Servant of the Dogs, at 216 l. and a Page as abovesaid.

Other Offices relating to Hunting, are

1. Those that belong to a Pack of Running-Hounds, to the number of 70; of which there is a Captain, whose Appointments, besides his Pensions, amount yearly to 13338 l. 10 d. He has also his particular Officers under him; he has likewise the Fallow-Deer Dogs, and other Dogs for the Hare, which have been established under the care of this Officer, ever since the last Kings time, under the name of the Roasters, whereas before, it was the Fox-Dogs.

2. The Greyhounds of Champagne, or Champain, to which belong a Captain, who has a yearly al­lowance of 2567 l. for himself, his Dogs, and four Servants to look after them.

Article II.

Of the Captain-General of the Hunting-Nets, and of the Equipage for Hunting the Wild-Boar.

The Title of this Officer is, Captain-General of the Kings Hunting-Nets, Tents, and Pavilions, and of the Equipage of the Wild-Boar.

He is sworn by the King himself; He has 1200 l. standing Salary, 3972 l. 12 d. Appointment, 3200 l. for maintaining the Carriage of the Nets, 1500 l. for Cloathing fifteen small Officers, 1400 l. for Coating fourteen Guards 2196 l. for feeding forty Running-Hounds, 1464 l. for keeping twelve Great Grey-hounds, or lusty Dogs, in all, 14932 l. 10 d. He is allowed besides, several other summs for par­ticular Expences.

He delivers out the Grants to all the Officers of the Hunting, and of the Equipage for Hunting the Wild-Boar, all those places being at his disposal.

The Hunting of the Wild-Boar, may be managed four several ways. 1. The first way is to kill them with Swords and Darts when they are taken in the Nets. 2. The second, is to take them with Grey-hounds, when they are in the said Nets: The Ladies may take their part of the Divertisement, either of these two first ways; for they may be placed out of danger, within the small inclosure of the Nets. 3. The third way is to hunt the Wild-Boar with the Dog called Vautray, or Tumbler. 4. And the fourth and last way is to take him by force; but these two last sorts of Hunting are very toilsome, and not without danger.

When the King is a Hunting the Wild-Boar with­in the inclosure of the Nets, it belongs to the Cap­tain-General of this Equipage, to present his Ma­jesty a Sword, or Darts to kill him; and none of his Courtiers are to take any Darts, unless expresly Commanded by the King.

[Page 202] The Captain of this Equipage, goes or sends by the Kings Order, into all the Forests and Thickets of France, where he thinks fit, to take with his Hunt­ing-Nets, Red-Deer, Does, or Fawns, to stock the Parks of any Royal House.

There are two Lieutenants of this Equipage ser­ving each half a year by turns, at 900 l. Salary apiece; and * two other Lieutenants in Ordinary, * two Deputy-Lieutenants half yearly Waiters, at 600 l. and * two Deputy-Lieutenants in Ordi­nary.

Eight Gentlemen in Ordinary of the Equipage, the two first of which have 360 l. and the six o­thers 300 l. apiece.

All the above-named Officers of the Nets, may use the Title of Esquires.

* Four Prickers, or Markers in Ordinary, at 300 l. each.

Six Servants of the Blood-hounds, at 360 l.

Three Keepers of the Greyhounds, at 200 l. and * four other Servants of the Dogs ordinarily looking to them, who are to lie in the Dog-Kennel, and two Keepers of the Great Greyhounds, at 300 l. Two other Keepers of the Great Greyhounds, at 200 l.

One Commissary of the Nets, at 300 l. and one Commissary Net-mender, at 200 l. one Harbinger, 200 l. one Captain of the Carriage, 400 l. one Ba­ker, and one Farrier, at 200 l. each. Twenty Archers, or Guards of the Hunting-Nets, whereof the six first have 300 l. and the other fourteen but 250 l. apiece, * one Gelder of the Dogs, and Cu­rer of Madness; * fifteen small Officers ordinarily Waiting, and fourteen Keepers of the Hunting Nets.

Note, The Officers above-marked with a Star, are not mentioned in the Establishment of the Court of Aids.

When the King goes a Hunting, he has always [Page 203] by him his Arquebuse, or Arms-Bearer, that prepares him Arms ready charged. We have already men­tioned them among the Officers of the Chamber.

It is remarkable, that when the Dogs are to run, the Captains of the Packs then to run, are to pre­sent the Staff or Wand, the mark of their Office, to the Great Hunter, and he, to the King; as also, when the Deer, or any other Game is taken, the Pricker cuts off the Foot, which he gives to his Captain, the Captain, to the Great Hunter, and he presents it to the King.

There are besides the Great Hunter, and those under him, several other Captains of the Game established in several Forests and Warrens, of which we have spoken in the Chapter of the Royal Build­ings and Houses.

There is likewise a Lieutenant of the Long-Robe, belonging to the Court of Justice of the Captain­ship of the Waters and Forests.

The other Captains of Forests are to be seen at length, in the Sieur de Salnove's Book of Hunting.

By a Declaration of the first of January, 1644. the King established, besides these, three General Keepers of the Game and Pleasures of his Majesty, throughout the whole extent of the Kingdom of France.

The Officers of the Hunting-Office, or the Game, enjoy the same Priviledges as the Commoners or Tablers of the Kings Houshold.

Article III.

Of the Great Falconer.

The Great Falconer of France has the super-in­tendance over all the Kings Falconers, and is sworn by the King. He has 200 l. standing Wages, 3000 l. Appointment, 6000 l. as chief over a Flight of Hawks for the Crow, and for maintenance of the said Flight, 4000 l. for keeping four Pages, 3000 l. [Page 204] for necessary Furniture and Implements for the Hawks, and 6000 l. for buying of Hawks. In all 22200 l.

He disposes of all the vacant Offices of Chiefs, or Captains of the several Flights of Hawks, and 'tis by his consent, that those who have them, resign them, excepting only those of the Heads or Chiefs of the Flights of the Kings Chamber and Closet, already spo­ken of, which are in the Kings Gift. The Great Fal­coner also disposes of all other vacancies of places en­tred in the Books of Establishment of the Falconry, as also, of the Keepers of the Hawks Nests in the Fo­rests of Compiegne, Aigue, Val Dragon, and Grand Trempo, and of Lions, Ardennes, Perseigne, and Descouves, and other Forests: And he Commissio­nates what persons he pleases, to lay Snares for, and take Birds of Prey, in all places, Plains, and Thick­ets, in the Kings Domain, or Crown Lands.

All Hawk-Merchants, both French and Foreigners, are bound under pain of Confiscation of their Birds, to come and present them to the Great Falconer, for him to take his choice out of, for the King, be­fore they can have permission to sell any else­where.

If his Majesty, being a Hawking, has a mind to have the pleasure to fly a Hawk himself, the Chiefs or Heads put in by the Great Falconer, present the Bird to the Great Falconer, who places it on the Kings Fist; and likewise, when the Prey is taken, the Pricker gives the Head of it to his Chief, and he to the Great Falconer, who presents it to the King.

An Account of several Flights of Hawks, belonging to the Kings Falconry. And first

1. Of the Flight for the Kite, there is a Captain, or Chief, who is also Lieutenant-General of the Great Falconry, who has for this, and the following Flight, 1400 l.

[Page 205] A Lieutenant-Aid, at 300 l.

One Master Falconer, at 300 l. five Prickers, at 250 l. and one Porte-Duc, or Decoy-Bearer, at 250 l.

A second Flight for the Kite,

With the same number of Officers, and like Sa­laries and Appointments.

When the Captain of these Flights of Hawks, takes a black Kite, in the Kings Presence, then he is to have the Kings Horse, his loose Gown, and his Slippers, for his Fees, which are redeemed of him for 100 Crowns, or about 25 l. English in mo­ney.

The Flight at the Kite, is performed with Ger-Falcons, Tiercelets, or Tassels, and sometimes Sa­kers; and there is always a Decoy to draw the Kite to a reasonable height, to give him to the Hawks.

When after the Kite is taken, the Hawks, as u­sually, are to have their Fees given them with all the speed imaginable, a Hen is put into their Ta­lons, and the Kites Legs broken, that he may not hurt them. The Kite is very rare in France.

2. Of the Flight of Hawks for the Heron,

There is a Chief, or Captain, at 700 l. Salary, who is also Captain of the Guards, or Keepers of the Hawks-Nests in Burgundy and Bresse, and Com­mands over all the Flights, for Heron, throughout the Kingdom; a Lieutenant-Aid, and two Master Falconers. at 300 l. each, and eight Prickers, at 250 l. which amounts in all, to 3600 l.

The Flight at the Heron, is performed with the same kind of Hawks as that at the Kite; it is done two several wayes;

To make the Herons Mount when there found on the ground, two or three Pistols, or Fowling-Pieces are let off, to force them to rise, and then a Bird is let fly at him, which is called in French, Hausse­piéd, or a Raise-Foot, and when he is mounted a [Page 206] good height, other Birds are let out, which go and fight with the Hausse-piéd, and draw the Heron downward; thene are always shagged Grey-hounds in readiness too, bred up to this sort of Game, to go into the Water, and fetch the Heron to the Fal­coner, when it fall there, or to kill him when he falls on dry ground, for fear he should hurt the Hawks; this first Heron being thus killed, whilst the Falconers of the first Flight are curing their Hawks, and giving them their usual Fees, other Falconers, who are to have a second Flight always ready, are to let them fly at the other Herons, which commonly keep hovering over the place where they are curing or feeding their Hawks: the second way is, to flie Hawks at the Heron in her passage, as they term it, that is, at a reasonable height, while she is going to, or coming from Fishing, to her young ones. When a Heron is discovered upon the ground, or upon the Wing, the usual cry is, à la Volte, that is, to the Vault.

3. There are two Flights for the Crow, of the first of which, there is

A Captain, at 700 l. a Lieutenant-Aid, and a Master Falconer, at 300 l. each, twenty Prick­ers, at 250 l. apiece, which amounts in all to 6300 l.

Of the second Flight, there is likewise,

A Captain, at 700 l. a Lieutenant-Aid, at 300 l. seven Prickers, at 250 l. each, a Decoy-Bearer, a­mounting in all, to 3000 l.

The Flight at the Crow is performed with a Fal­con, or a Tassel of a Gerfalcon. The Crow is inticed and drawn into the Plain with a Decoy, and as soon as she is got into the Plain, the Falconers cry out, Corneille en bean, that is, the Crow flies fair, and then as the Crow turns back on the Decoy, they commonly let flie at her, first a Tassel of a Gerfal­con, which is the Guide, and then two Falcons af­terward. The Crow being attacked, endeavours to [Page 207] save her self, either by soaring aloft, or retiring towards her hold; when she soars aloft, no luring, or any other term is to be used; and when she gets to her hold, if she can be forced out of it, then the cry is, Hal, Hal, Hal.

4. There is one Flight for the Fields, or for the Partridge, to which belong,

A Captain, at 700 l. a Master Falconer, at 300 l. and three Prickers, at 250 l. which amounts in all, to 1750 l.

The Flight for the Fields, or at the Partridge, is performed with Falcons, Tassels of Falcons, Sakers, Sakerets, Lanners, Lannerets, Alets, Goshawks, Tassels of Goshawks, Spar-Hawks, Tassel Sper-Hawks, Merlins, and Malots. There are two ways of flying at the Partridge; first, with a sort of Hawks that turn and maintain the flight along with the Dogs, and that will hold out half a League out­right, continually upon the Wing; Secondly, with Hawks called Blockers, which are let fly as soon as the Partridges rise, and drive them full sweep to their hold, where they light upon a Branch, or on the top of a House, and where the Falconer goes and serves them with Dogs. Every time the Par­tridge rises, the cry is, Guereaux.

4. A Flight for the River, or at the Duck, to which belong

A Captain, or Chief, at 500 l. a Lieutenant Aid, at 300 l. and four Prickers, at 250 l. each, which amounts in all, to 1800 l.

The Birds that are used for the Flight at the Duck, are the strong Hawks, and Haggard Hawks, that are let flie into a Moat, or Brook where Ducks are. First, the cunningest and most staid Bird is let flie to chase the Change, and then two others, and when they are well turned, the Ducks are let out which the Hawks knock on the Head, or force into another Moat. Every time the Ducks move away, the cry is, Ila, Ila, Ila, or Stou, Stou, Stou, [Page 208] like the Flemings, and for fear any should go too nigh the Water, they cry, hors l'eau, that is, keep off the Water.

5. A Flight for the Mag-Pie, to which belong

A Captain, or Chief, at 500 l. and two Prickers, at 250 l. each.

The Flight at the Mag-Pie is performed with Tassels of Gerfalcons. First, the most beaten and staid Tassel is let fly to chase likewise the change, and then the other Hawks are let out, and the Mag­ple is shown them, that endeavours to save her self from Tree to Tree, or from Bush to Bush, from which she is forced away, and every time she is forced out, the cry is, Hoüya, Hoüya.

In speaking of the Flight at the Mag Pie, Pigeon, or Crow, by the term of chacing the change, is meant forcing the said several Birds out of the Plain.

6. A Flight for the Hare, to which belong

A Captain, or Chief, at 500 l. a Lieutenant-Aid, at 300 l.

The Flight at the Hare is performed with a Ger-falcon, and any sorry Greyhound to help the Hawk sometimes.

The Hawks and Flights belonging to the Kings Cabi­net, entred on the Establishment of the Great Fal­conry, are

1. A Flight for the Crow, to which belong

A Captain, or Chief, at 700 l. a Lieutenant-Aid, at 300 l. a Master-Falconer, at 300 l. six Prickers, at 250 l. each, and a Porte-Duc, or Decoy-Bearer, at 250 l.

Allowed besides, for the keeping of sixteen Hawks, at 3 d. apiece a day, 873 l. 5 d. And to the Keeper of the Perch of the said Flight, and that looks after the Hawks that are not carried out, at the rate of 15 d. a day, 273 l. 15 d. besides 36 l. [Page 209] more for Shoes, which amounts in all, to 4233 l.

2. A Flight for the Mag-Pie, to which belong

A Captain or Chief, at 700 l. a Lieutenant-Aid, and a Master-Falconer, at 300 l. each, three Prick­ers, at 250 l. apiece.

More allowed, for the feeding and keeping of eight Hawks, and for buying them 838 l.

And to the Keeper of the Perch of the said Flight, who likewise looks after the Hawks that are not carried out, 273 l. and 36 l. for Shoes, which amounts in all, to 3197 l. 15 d.

3. A Flight for the Pigeon, to which belong

A Captain or Chief, at 700 l. a Lieutenant-Aid, at 300 l. and three Prickers, at 250 l. apiece. More allowed for

Keeping eight Hawks and buying them 838 l. and keeping eighteen Spaniels, at 4 d. a day each, 1314.

To the Servant that looks after the said Spaniels, 273 l. 15 d. besides 36 l. for Shoes, and

To the Keeper of the Perch of the said Flight, and of the Hawks that are not carried out 273 l. 15 d. and 36 l. for Shoes; which amounts in all to 4521 l. 10 d.

4. A Flight of Merlins, to which belong

A Captain, or Chief, at 700 l. a Lieutenant-Aid, and a Master-Falconer, at 300 l. each, two Prick­ers, at 250 l. each, more allowed for keeping and feeding eight Hawks, 438 l. and to the Keeper of the Perch, and of the Hawks that are not carried out, 273 l. 15 d. and 36 l. for Shoes; which a­mounts in all to 2547 l. 15 d.

The Merlins are made use of to flie at the young Partridge, whilst the light Hawks are mewing or casting their Feathers; they are used likewise for the Quail, the Black-bird, the Sky-Lark, and other small Birds, as likewise to fly at the Pigeon Brow-strung.

The Flight with the Merlins is particular to the [Page 210] Kings Cabinet, being in no other Royal Falconry but that of the Cabinet. This Flight is performed from the Fist, that is, when they are minded to let flie at a young Partridge, they attack her not till the Dogs have raised her, and there is no dif­ference in the way of flying this little Bird, and the Falcon called a Blocker, but only that one may carry a Merlin without Hood-winking, upon the Fist, whereas a Falcon must be always carried Hood-winked, whether it be let flie one way or the other. In flying at the Black-Bird, and other small Birds, they use Poles to beat them out of the Hedges, and Cross-Bowes to have the pleasure of killing them, when they cannot be got out of their holds, or shelters, where they are at­tacked. Of all the several sorts of Birds that the Merlins are used to fly at, none is more delightful, gives more diversion, or shows more the eagerness and courage of the Merlins, than the Sky-Larks; because they commonly endeavour to save them­selves by soaring aloft, and so draw the Couragi­ous Merlins up to the very Clouds, from whence they force them to descend, and to endeavour to light in some Thicket, or some other shelter, which before they can reach, the Merlins commonly take them. The manner of flying them at the Pigeon Brow-strung, is thus: two strings are pas­sed through the lower Eylids of the Pigeon, and then tied so together above her Head, so that her Eylids are drawn up, that she cannot see downwards at all, but only upward, and then she is thrown with the hand as high into the Air as a Man can throw her, where seeing no way but upward, she is forc'd to soar upwards by spirts, and when she is mounted reasonably high, the Falconers send the Merlins, who overtake her, and never leave pursuing her, till they have fastened on her, and brought her down; which sort of scuffle lasts very often a great while, and gives the most pleasure.

[Page 211] The total summ of the expence of the four Flights belonging to the Cabinet amounts to 14500 l. be­sides what is allowed for the buying of the Hawks, for the Crow, and the Merlins, the Hens, and other charges.

Other Officers of the Great Falconry.

After the Great Falconer, and the Captains or Chiefs of the different Flights of Hawks above-men­tioned, there are besides,

Twenty five Gentlemen of the Falconry, of which the five first have 300 l. yearly Salary, and the others but 90 l.

A Secretary of the Falconry, at 300 l. a Marshal of the Lodgings, or Chief Harbinger, 400 l. He commonly goes and receives Orders of his Majesty when he pleases to go a Hunting, two other Har­bingers, at 300 l. each, one Chyrurgion, at 250 l. and one Apothecary, at 300 l.

All the Officers above-named enjoy the same Pri­viledges as those that are Commoners in his Maje­sties Houshold.

Article IV.

Of the Great Wolf-Hunter.

The Great Wolf-Hunter has the super-intendance over the Wolf-Hunting. He has 1200 l. standing Salary, and 8500 l. by way of Pension, Appoint­ments, and Wages, as Counseller of State. Under him, there are two Lieutenants, and one Deputy-Lieutenant of the Wolf-Hunting, who have each 1000 l. Salary.

Other particular Lieutenants and under Officers in be­ing, divided into four Provinces, are
  • [Page 212]1. A Lieutenant of the Wolf-Hunting in the Provostship of Paris.
  • 2. A Lieutenant within the extent of the Coun­tries of Anjou and Maint.
  • 3. A Lieutenant for the Bayliwick of the Coun­try of Auxerre, all which have a Salary of 150 l. each.
  • 4. Besides which, there is a fourth Lieutenant without Title, who has 450 l. Salary.

Two Wolf-Hunters, at 300 l. each, two Servants of the Bloodhounds, at 150 l. two Servants of the Fleet-hounds, 120 l. one Head-Servant to keep and teach the young Blood-hounds, 90 l. two other Servants to keep and feed the young Greyhounds, and other young Dogs, 90 l. each, eight Keepers of the Great Greyhounds, or Irish Greyhounds, of which four belong to the Kings Chamber, 260 l. Salary each, and 1095 l. for keeping the said Dogs, four Serjeants Wolf-Hunters, at 80 l. each, a Baker to make the Dogs Bread, 60 l. and a Captain of the Carriage, at 180 l. Salary, and 1035 l. for maintaining his Carriage.

Besides these several Hunting Games, there is ano­ther Hunting, or rather Fishing Divertisement, which is performed with Cormorants, of which there is one that has the oversight in the Park at Fountain-bleau.

After the several Divertisement of Hunting, we may place that of the Tennis-Court.

There is one sole Master Palmer, or Tennis-Court Master, and Racket-Bearer to the King in his Royal Houses, who presents the Racket to the King, but when the Dauphin is there, he gives it to the Dauphin, who presents it to the King.

He has a Fee of 50 l. paid by him by the Chief [Page 213] Valet, or Yeoman of the Chamber, every time the King or the Dauphin playes, and a Lewis of gold, being about the value of 17 s. 4 d. English, every time the King or the Dauphin changes Rack­ets. There are likewise five Markers of the Court, or Racketeer-Palmers to the King, following the Court.

They have a golden Lewis profit, every time the King or the Dauphin plays, paid by the Chief Valet, or Yeoman of the Bed-Chamber: Besides, they are paid out of the Privy-Purse, four Pistols on New-Years-Day, as much on May-Day, and as much on St. Lewis's Day, each Pistol consisting of but 7 l. French, or 11 s. 8 d. English.

Note, That the same Palmers and Markers wait too when the King or the Dauphin play at Shittle-Cock with Rackets.

CHAP. XXV.

Of the Priviledged Tradesmen and Handi­craftsmen following the Court, and fur­nishing it with all kind of Merchandises.

FIrst, There are twenty Wine-Merchants selling Wine, both by Whole-Sale, and Retail, Four­teen Vintners, or Sutlers, Four Glassmen, Twenty Butchers, Twenty six Poultrers, Rosting-Cooks, and Fishmongers, Eight Pastry-Cooks, Twelve Sellers of Hog-meat, Ten Bakers, Two Sellers of Ginger-Bread and Starch, Ten Verdurier-Fruitrers, or Sel­lers of Herbs and Fruits, Four Confectioners, Four­teen Cooks for Extraordinary Entertainments, and to work in the Houses of the chief Courtiers. Eight Violins; Four Chyrurgions, Six Apothecaries, Twenty six Taylors, Twenty six Mercers, Jewel­lers, [Page 214] and Grocers, Eight Linnen-Drapers, Nine Glovers and Perfumers, Fourteen Shoemakers, Nine Coblers, otherwise more decently by them named Solers of Shoes, Eight Skinners, or Furriers, Six Curriers and Belt-makers, Six Embroiderers, Eight Lace-Sellers, Four Haberdashers of small Wares, or Jacks of all Trades, Two Feather-men, Six Sellers of second-hand Stockings, Four Brokers, Two Far­thingale-makers, Two Sellers of Parchment, Five Hatters, Six Girdlers, Eight Sword-Curlers, Three Spurriers, Ten Sadlers, Four Cutters and Scratch­ers, Two Joiners, Two Clock, and Watchmakers, Two Goldsmiths, Two Booksellers, Twelve Fur­nishers of Hay, Straw and Oats, Four Armorers, Six Arquebusiers, or Gun-smiths, Two Painters, and two Guilders and Engravers.

All these Tradesmen have their Grants from the Provost of the Houshold, who is Great Provost of France, who is Judge, Guardian and Conservatour of their Priviledges, and in their Grants, they are declared free, acquitted and exempt from all Du­ties exacted at Bridges, Ports, Passages, Importa­tion, Exportation, and all Gabels, and other Du­ties or Impositions whatsoever.

The first priviledged Merchants that follow the Court, are the twelve Wine-Merchants, called, the Celler of twelve, besides their Deputy, or Depu­ties, which they keep at the Celler called, the Celler of twelve: These Wine-Merchants commonly at­tend very diligently at Paris, and at the Royal Hou­ses nigh Paris; but in Journies, and at Fountainbleau it self, which passes with them for a Journey, two of these Master Wine-Merchants, serve either two whole Months together, or else, the space of two Months at several times; as for Example, if the two in Waiting, had served but one Month at Fountainbleau, the same two are obliged to serve out another Month the first Journey that is taken.

[Page 215] These places are sold for about 25000 l. apiece, and the Officers possessing them, have so confirmed them to themselves by agreement with the Great Provost, that when they die, he disposes not of their places, but gives leave to the next Heir, either to succeed in them, or to sell them; but for this Pri­viledge, every one of the twelve pay him an an­nual Tribute of 400 l. which is a kind of a Paulette, or Continuation-Fee.

They have the sole Priviledge of selling Wine in Bottles to those that follow the Court.

The twenty five Vintners or Sutlers that follow the Court, are lodged always at the Sign of the White-Cross, and are bound to dress Victuals for people, as well as to sell Wine, whereas the Wine-Merchants of the Cellar of twelve, sell only Wine. Their Places are sold at about 12000 l.

There is a Chaplain of all the Merchants follow­ing the Court, commonly called, the Chaplain of St. Barbara, which says Mass for them every Sun­day, at present, at the Convent of the Penitent Wo­men, or of the Order of St. Mary Magdalen at Paris; where every of them, in his turn, presents the Holy-Bread.

Note, That none of these Priviledged Merchants and Artisans, nor those neither of the Kings Ward­robe, and other Royal Houses, can enjoy their Pri­viledges any otherwise but from the day their Grants or Commissions were registred in the Regi­ster-Book of the Provost-ship of the Houshold, as it has been determined by an Order of both the Privy and Great Council.

There are likewise several other Tradesmen set down in the Book of Establishment, as the Printer for Musick, and others.

Before we end this Chapter of the Priviledged Merchants, it is not amiss to add this remark, that besides these there are others called Veterans, or old Standers, who after a long times service, though [Page 216] they quit their places, still enjoy the same Privi­ledges as when they were actually in Office, as some do that were formerly the Kings Barbers, who still enjoy their Priviledges, and by vertue of the same, keep open Shop. But they commonly, when they go off, get Letters from the King, whereby they are declared Veterans.

CHAP. XXVI.

Of the Priviledges of the Commoners, or those that are tabled in the Kings House­hold.

THE Domestick Officers and Commoners of the Kings Houshold, and other Royal Housholds, have from all Antiquity, enjoyed several Priviledges and Immunities, but because it would be too tedi­ous to recite all the Decrees and Declarations made and repeated several times, in confirmation of their Priviledges, we shall only quote some of the latest date, which will be as significant as if they were all inserted at length.

Priviledges common to all the Kings menial Officers and Servants in general.

First, As to their exemption from Taxes, though that priviledge has been sometimes suspended in time of War, but it was re-established again by a De­claration of the 26th of November, 1643. which was verified in the Court of Aids, the 10th of De­cember the same year; which exempts the said Offi­cers from paying Taxes, Taillons, or lesser Taxes, Subsistance-money, in lieu of Billeting Souldiers, and all extraordinary Impositions for any thing of [Page 217] their own growth: But he that would enjoy this exemption, must get an Extract of his being entred on the Establishment, which is at the Court of Aids, Signed by the Register or Recorder of that Court in the usual manner; and he must be registred as such in the Office of his Election, and published in his Parish Church.

The Declaration runs thus.

Having considered that it would be in some sort to debase the Lustre of the Royal Family, and of our Blood, to retrench the Priviledges of the Officers there­unto belonging, and deprive them of that mark of honour to the tenderness of their affection, and the fide­lity of their services, for these causes, notwithstand­ing the Edict of November, 1640. We Declare, that all our Domestick Servants and Commoners, the four Companies of our Life-Guards, the Archers, or Guards of the Provostship of our Houshold, the hundred Suissers of our Guard, the Officers of our Stables, Hunting, Falconry, and Wolf-Hunting; those of the Queen Re­gent, our most honoured Lady and Mother; of the late Queen Mary, our most honoured Lady and Grand­mother; of our Dearest Brother, the Duke of Anjou; of our Dearest Ʋncle, the Duke of Orleans, and of our Dearest Aunt the Dutchess of Orleans, his Wife at present living, and of his former Wife deceased, of our Dearest Cousin her Daughter; and of our Dearest Cou­sin, the Prince of Condé; of our Companies of Gensd­armes, or Men at Arms, and light Horsemen, consist­ing of two hundred Men apiece; the Company of our Guard of Musketeers on Horseback, and that of the Guards of our said Lady and Mother, named and comprised in the Establishments to be by us Signed and agreed to, and Counter-signed by our Secretary of State, and of our Commandments, who has the depart­ment of our Houshold, shall enjoy the Priviledges and Exemptions granted and given to them in all times, [Page 218] and from all Antiquity, because of their Services; and the same we grant to their Widows as long as they shall continue so.

Provided nevertheless, that if any of the aforesaid Officers shall make any Traffick with Merchandises, and keep Inns, or manure any more than one Farm of their own, and that with their own hands; or hold any Farms of others, whether in their own Names, or in those of their Domesticks, or Servants, they shall be liable to be taxed towards our Taxes in every of the Parishes where the Lands or Heritages, by them so manured, shall lie.

In another Declaration given at Poitiers, in the Month of January, 1652. His Majesty says, We con­firm by these Presents, all the Priviledges, Franchises, Liberties, Immunities, Exemptions, and Affranchise­ments granted to the Officers of the Royal Housholds entred upon the Establishments of the Court of Aids, and to their Widows during their Widow-hood: Wil­ling, that they be henceforward held, quit, and ex­empt from all manner of contributions, whether it be Loans general, or particular, made or to be made, as well by us, as by any of the Cities of our Kingdom; likewise for furnishing Provisions or Ammunition for the War, for Fortifications, Reparations, Charges, and Conducts, Taxes, Aids, and Impositions, &c. and of all other Subsidies, Dues, charges and subventi­ons in general whatever they be, made or to be made, in any sort, and on any occasion whatsoever, though it be not here particularly specified and declared.

They are exempt from the Duty, called the Duty of Aids, for the Wines of the product of their own grounds, by a Decree of the Council of State of the 16th of December, 1654.

By a Decree of the Council of State of the 20th of January, 1644. The King declares his intentions to be, that no Officers shall enjoy Priviledges and Exemptions from Taxes, but those that actually serve, and that receive at least 60 l. for their Wa­ges [Page 219] and Appointments; and not a great number of honorary and titular Officers that have obtained Briefs of some Offices, but serve not, and have no Wages; nor the Keepers of the Plains, and of the Game which his Majesty pretends shall be taxed with the common Taxes, excepting the Keepers of the Game of St. Germains, Fountainbleau, Blois, Li­mours, Mont [...]hery, and Boisgency.

There are a great many other Decrees and Or­ders, that say almost the same thing; the Decree of the Counsel of State of the 14th of March, 1654. maintaining the Kings Officers, those of the Queen Mother, the Duke of Anjou, and of the Duke and Dutchess of Orleans, exempt from the greater and lesser Taxes, Subsistance money, &c. and other publick charges. There are other Decrees of the Great Council, in Conformity to the Edicts and Declarations of the King of the 22th of February, 1673. and the first of March, 1675. importing an Exemption from Lodging or Billeting of Souldiers, for the Officers of the Royal Housholds, their Per­sons, their Houses, Farms, Tenements, Farmers, Domesticks and Servants.

There are likewise several Decrees and Declara­tions in favour of the Queens Houshold in particu­lar, and of that of Monsieur, and of some of their Officers, as also for those of the late Duke of Orleans.

The Kings Declaration of the last of January, 1647. which was Registred in the Court of Aids, the 19th of March the same year, imports a re­establishment of the Priviledges and Exemptions of the Widows and Veterans of the Officers of the Royal Housholds in the same manner as the Com­moners of his Majesties own Houshold enjoy the same.

In a Declaration set forth by the King in the Month of July, 1653. It is said, that the said Offi­cers possess fully and entirely their Officers, so as [Page 220] that the Coheirs with them, in other things, can­not pretend any share therein, either upon their Salaries, or upon the value of their Offices, if sold; which being in the Kings sole Disposition, cannot be reputed of the nature of those goods that are liable to be divided among the Heirs and Successours of Families.

As for what concerns the point of Precedence of the Kings Officers; and of the rank they ought to have in publick Assemblies, whether general or par­ticular; several Kings by their Declarations, and Decrees, have Order'd, that they shall march and place themselves immediately after the Counsellers of the Bailiwicks, Seneschals, and presidial Courts, before the Officers of the Elections, of the Salt-Gra­naries, Judges not Royal, and all others that are in­feriour in degree to the said Counsellers, as it was Ordained by Henry the Fourth, by a Declaration of the 22th of March, 1605. in favour of the Valets, or Yeomen of the Bed-Chamber, and other Officers of the Chamber, Cabinet, and Anti-Chamber; and by Lewis XIII. First, By a Declaration of the 27th of July, 1613. in favour of the Marshals of the Lodgings, the Harbingers of the Body, and the Harbingers in Ordinary to his Majesty; Secondly, By another of the 20th of December, verified in the Great Council, in favour of the Life-Guards; And thirdly, By his Letters Patents of the 12th of February, 1618. and by a Decree of the Great Coun­cil, dated the 27th of May, 1630. and by the pre­sent King, by another Decree of the said Council, of the 29th of May, 1653.

The Priviledges of the Court-Clergy.

The Clergy of the Kings Houshold, and other Royal Housholds, have the Priviledge to be always reputed resident at their Benefices, during the time of their Service, and are allowed two Months to [Page 221] go to and come from their Benefices; and that, by several Bulls of Popes, Declarations of Kings, De­crees of Parliament, of the Great and Privy-Coun­cil, &c. And they are paid the full Revenues of their Canonries, though they have not the Stage, that is, the usual time of Residence, and Officiating there, from which they are exempt.

The Priviledges of the Chyrurgions.

By a Declaration of Lewis the Thirteenth, in fa­vour of his Chyrurgions, viz. to his Chief Chyrur­gion in Ordinary, and to eight other Chyrurgions in Ordinary, quarterly Waiters, they are priviledged to keep, or cause to be kept open Shop, and set out a Chyrurgeons Sign with the Kings Arms, Ex­clusive to all Chyrurgeons, who are forbid to molest them under pain of being fined 3000 l. and pay­ing all Costs, Dammages, and Interest, in Case of Contravention, which concludes thus; Given at Paris, the 26th of August, in the year of our Lord, 1636. and of our Reign the Twenty Seventh. Signed Lewis, and Lower, De Lomenie. And on the side is written the Registring of it in the Parliament of Paris, the 28th of March, 1637. Collationed, or Compared, and Signed, Farcette. Which is con­firmed by a Decree of Verification in Parliament, the 18th of July, 1637.

There is a Declaration of the late Queen Mother, for her four Chyrurgions, of the 20th of October, 1637. Verified by a Decree of the 20th of April, 1638.

Another Declaration of the late Duke of Orleans, for five of his Chyrurgeons, of the 26th of February, 1638. Verified by a Decree of the 7th of September, 1638. And lastly,

Another Declaration of the late Prince of Condé, for four of his Chyrurgeons, of the 29th of Ja­nuary, 1639. Verified by a Decree of the 23d of March following.

[Page 222] Besides which, there is an Order of the Court for the Master-Chyrurgeons at Paris, Importing a Confirmation of the Declarations made in their favour in 1642.

The Priviledges of the Life-guard Men.

By a Decree, or Order of the Privy-Council, bear­ing date the 27th of June, 1651. given against the Court of Aids of Rouen, after several Suits of Law, the Kings Life-guards are maintain'd in their Quality of Squires, and in their exemption from Taxes, and all other Impositions.

A like Sentence was given by the Council of State, the 4th of June, 1653. in favour of the Guards of the Gate.

Other Priviledges belonging to all the Officers of the Kings, and other Royal Houses.

All the Officers, and menial Servants of the Kings, and of other Royal Housholds, excepting a few, whose Offices are too mean, are noble, that is, are Gentlemen by their Places, if they be not so otherwise, as long as they are in Place, and may bear a Crest above their Coats of Arms.

All the Officers of the seven Offices of the Cham­ber, and others, wait always with their Swords by their sides, unless it be when they are troublesome to them; and may wear them always, both in the Louvre, and elsewhere.

Most of the Officers have the Quality of Squires, if they be Sword-men, or of Counseller, if Gown-Men, and are called, Officers in Ordinary, though they are but Quarterly, or Half-yearly Waiters. They enjoy all the Priviledges of Gentility, Safe­guards, exemption from Taxes, and other Duties, Committimus, &c. as we have shewn above.

CHAP. XXVII.

Of the Military Officers, and Troops of the Kings Houshold.

THE Kings of France have always kept several Guards for their Security, and to preserve a Life, that is, the Lives of their Subjects.

We read in Gregory of Tours, in the eighth Chap­ter of his seventh Book, that Gontran King of Or­leans, or of the Burgundian part of France, seeing his two Brothers, Sigebert King of Mets, or Austra­sia, being that part of France towards Germany, including Lorrain and the Neighbouring Provinces, and Chilperic King of Paris, and of Soissons, had been assassinated, placed a great Guard about his Person, about the year 587. without which, he never went to Church, or to his Recreations.

So upon different occasions, the Guards have been reinforced and augmented.

Philip Augustus being in the Holy Land in the year 1192. established Serjeants at Arms, or Mace-Bearers, as may be seen in the Great Chronicles, where the Old Historian, La Montagne, speaking of the Assasines, or rather Arsacides, a Desperate sort of people of Syria, whom their Princes used to send to assasinate the most couragious and active Princes among the Christians, uses these words: When the King (says he) heard this news, be began to be fearful of himself, and by advice of his Council, resol­ved to have his Person well guarded, and chose Ser­jeants with Macis, well armed and accoutred, who were night and day to attend him, to guard his Per­son. The said King made use of the said Serjeants, at the Battel of Bouvines, who behaved themselves [Page 224] that day so valiantly, that St. Lewis in the year 1229. founded for them, in memory of that action, the Church of St. Catharine du Val, of the Scho­lars of Paris, according to an Inscription to be seen upon two Stones at the entring into the said Church, which contains these words: At the in­treaty of the Serjeants at Arms, Monsieur St. Lewis founded this Church, and laid the first stone of it, for Joy of the Victory obtained at the Bridge of Bou­vines, in the year 1214. The Serjeants at Arms, then in being, had the keeping of the said Bridge, and vowed to God, that if he would give them the Victory, they would found a Church, and dedicate it to St. Catharine, which was performed accordingly: Where it is remarkable, that there are four Serjeants at Arms, represented upon those two Stones, but in a different manner: There are two upon one of them, holding in their hands their Maces at Arms, and armed Cap-a-pee to represent the Serjeants at Arms, as they were in the Army, and upon the other stone, there are two more, whereof one is Clothed with a Coat with great Sleeves, cut in La­bels, wearing a Collar hanging down upon his Breast, and I suppose that signifies the Usher at Arms, Waiting at the Door of the Chamber, (for still to this day, the Ushers of the Chamber bear Maces on Festival days) to guard the Kings Person in the Day-time; The other is wrapped up in a long Cloak well furred with shaggy furr, with a Bonnet on his Head, and his Mace in his hand, which re­presents the Serjeants at Arms that watched by night.

And Du Tillet, in his Chapter of the Marshals, pag. 282. writes, that some of them were appointed to carry Maces before the King in the day time, and were called Ʋshers at Arms, whose place is now supplyed by the Ushers of the Kings Chamber, and others to guard his Chamber in the night time.

[Page 225] These Guards then took their name from the Arms they used, and so when they quitted the Mace to take the Bow they were called Archers.

Charles the Seventh entertained a Guard of Scotch selected out of the Auxiliary Forces brought over to him by the Earls of Bucan, Douglas, and other Scotch Lords, to drive the English out of France, Philip de Comines calls them the Silver Guards, be­cause their Coats or Jackets, called Hoquetons, were set with spangles of Silver, and Goldsmiths Work.

Lewis the Eleventh, being at Puiseaux, on the 4th of September, 1474. established a Company of a hundred Lanciers for his Guard, under the Com­mand of one Hector de Golart, who were every one of them to have in their Retinue, one Man at Arms, and two Archers: But afterwards he dis­charged the Lanoiers of their Archers, and took them to himself, composing of them a little Life-guard of two hundred Archers, making one Lewis de Graville their Captain.

In the year 1479. when the same King began to grow Melancholy, and suspitious, he set up another French Company of Guards, of which one Claudius de la Chatre was Captain.

The same Lewis the Eleventh too, at the Recom­mendation of Charles the Seventh, retained the Suissers in his Service, and in the year 1481. being at Tours, he made an Alliance with them, and took a Company of that Nation, for the Ordinary Guard of his Person.

Charles the Eight in 1497. set up a new Com­pany of French Guards, of which, James of Ven­dome, Vidame of Chartres was Captain.

Francis the first likewise in the year 1514. raised another Company of sixty Archers, to which the next year, he added forty five more, under the Command of Raoul de Vernon. But at length all these Companies were reduced to those now in be­ing [Page 226] whose Denominations differ as much from the others, as the Arms now in use from those then in Mode.

The Kings Guards now in being, may be divided into two Bodies, according to their Posts, viz. Into the Guards within the Louvre, or Palace, and the Guards without the Louvre.

The Guards within the Louvre, are
  • 1. The four Companies of the Life-guards, both Scotch and French.
  • 2. The Company of the hundred Suissers, who also are Guards in Ordinary of the Kings Body.
  • 3. The Guards of the Gate: and
  • 4. The Guards of the Provost of the Houshold.
The Guards without the Louvre, are
  • 1. The Company of Gensdarmes, or Men at Arms.
  • 2. The Company of Light Horsemen.
The Foot, are
  • 1. The two French and Suisse Regiments of Guards.
  • 2. The two Companies of Musketeers on Horse-back: besides which,
  • 3. There is a Band of a hundred Gentlemen cal­led the Gentlemen au bec de Corbin, or of the Ra­vens Beak, so called from the Cutle-Axes they carry, which are like our Gentlemen Pensioners.

Of the Guards within the Louvre, and first, of the Life-Guards.

There are four Companies of Life-Guards, that wait by turns every one their quarter. The first [Page 227] of these is the Duke of Noailles, who is likewise Captain of the Scotch Company, which is the first and antientest Command in the Kingdom; the se­cond is the Marshal Duke of Duras, the third the Marshal Duke of Luxemburg, and the fourth the Marshal de Lorges. The year in France beginning always from New-Years-Day, the Duke of Noailles Commands the first quarter, that begins then, and the rest successively, the other three quarters in the order they are above-named in. Under them,

There are twelve Lieutenants waiting quarterly, three every quarter, besides two others, whereof the first is a Major, received as a Lieutenant, who precedes all the other Lieutenants, admitted since himself, and twelve Ensigns serving in like manner, three every quarter.

Note, That the Ensign, or Lieutenant of the Guards, keep generally the old Table of the Great Master of the Houshold, jointly with the Usher that day in Waiting; and that the Officers above-named, viz. The Major, the three Lieutenants, the three Ensigns, and the two Aid Majors then in Waiting, and four Exempts eat at the said Old Table of the Great Master, or at that of the Masters of the Houshold: But the Lieutenant, or Ensign that waits at the Dauphins, is allowed half a Pistol a Day, for his Diet: There is also Diet allowed at the Kings Serdeau's, or Water-Servers Table, for one Ex­empt more of the Life-Guards, and for two Guards de la Manche, or of the Sleeve, and the Dauphins Serdeau's, for the Exempt of the Guards that waits on him.

The Lieutenants and Ensigns are heads of Bri­gades in their Company.

There are two Aid-Majors, and four other Aid-Majors, Exempts of the Guards: Forty eight Ex­empts being twelve to each Company, as many Bri­gadeers, and as many Sub-Brigadeers.

There are several reformed Exempts, which yet [Page 228] enjoy the Priviledges of their Places during their Lives, and receive the same pay, but cannot sell their Places.

These Guards wear Bandiliers of the same Colour with the Banners of their Company.

For those of the Company.
1. Of Noailles,wearWhiteBandiliers.
2. Of Duras,Blue
3. Of Luxemburg,Green
4. Of De Lorge,Yellow

There are four Comptrollers Clerks of the Watch, and Secretaries of their Companies, who have sometimes their Servants under them, who call the Watch every Night. Every one of the said Clerks receives at the Chamber of Deniers 160 l. standing Wages, and 240 l. augmentation Money for Straw, Straw-Beds, and paying the Carriage and Passage of themselves, and their necessary things.

There are twenty Trumpeters, five to every Com­pany, whereof sixteen remain in the said Compa­nies, and the four others, called the Trumpeters of the Kings Private-Pleasures, always follow the Watch about his Majesty, and never stir from him; five Kettle-Drummers in Ordinary, of which one always follows the Watch about his Majesty, the four o­thers being equally distributed one to each Com­pany.

One Almoner in Ordinary to the four Compa­nies.

One Chyrurgeon in Ordinary to the same Com­panies, who has 400 l. Salary, and Priviledge to keep open Shop, and

Four Treasurers, or Pay-Masters, viz. one to every Company.

The four Companies being thus described, we [Page 229] shall proceed to shew next what Order they observe in doing duty.

To take away all suspition, and to make it im­possible for a Captain to have intelligence, or any secret Combination with all the people he has with him, they are so intermixed, that the Captain that is in Waiting, has the Lieutenants and Ensigns of ano­ther Captain; and the Guards themselves are com­posed of a Medley of a certain number of Souldi­ers taken out of every Company, to serve that quarter.

The Captains, the Major, the Lieutenants, En­signs, Aid-Majors and Exempts of these Compa­nies, bear all a Staff of Command in their Hands in the Kings House, and accompany his Majesty all the day long, a Foot, and a Horseback.

The Brigadeers have Partizans.

Note, That those that were formerly Great Ex­empts, had besides their Wages and Gratuity, an allowance of fifty Crowns, which they went and received at their quarters end, at the Epargne, or Spare-Treasure.

The King allows the Guards every day twenty four Quarts of Wine, and twenty four Loaves, which the Clerk of the Watch of every Company causes to be brought them, which was formerly distributed to them by equal Portions, Morning and Night, viz. Twelve Quarts of Wine, and twelve Loaves every Morning, and as much every Night when the King was in Bed, but now it is all dealt out to them in the Morning, which Wine is called the Watch-Wine. They have allowed them, besides this, on the four Great Feasts of the year, to every Company, two Gallons of Table-Wine, twelve Loaves out of the Kings own Pantry, a Side of Veal, a whole Sheep, and four Fowls; And in the Holy Week they have Prayer-Books, and Linnen-Cloth given them; and on Candle-mass and Corpus-Christi Days, Wax-Gandles; they enjoy the same Privi­ledges [Page 230] as Commoners of the Kings Houshold, and are Squires by their Places, that Quality having been confirmed to them by several Declarations and Decrees.

Of the Guards, called the Guards de la Manche, or of the Sleeve.

They are twenty five in number, counting the Chief, or first Man at Arms of France, who has 300 l. Salary. The other twenty four have 570 l. yearly allowance, and their Diet at the Kings Ser­deau's, or Water-Servers Table. They are divided into six Brigades, allowing six to each Brigade.

When any of these Guards de la Manche, fail to come and do Duty, the King causes their Places to be supplied by some of the Gentlemen of his Life-Guards. They wait two and two always at the King's Sleeve, whence they have their Name, only at Great Ceremonies, they are six. They are cho­sen out of the Scotch Company of Guards.

Their particular Functions are as follows.

When the King is to go to any Church or Chap­pel, to hear Mass, Vespers, Tenebres, or Sermon, or to assist at any Christning or Marriage, two Guards of the Sleeve, or Manche, always goes thi­ther before, and wait for the King, in their white Hoquetons, or Jackets, set with Gold and Silver Spangles, with Partisans, fringed with silver in their hands, with Damaskt Blades: When his Majesty is come, they keep on each side of him, always standing, but only just at the time of the Elevation, with their Faces towards the King, to have an Eye on all sides, upon his Sacred Person.

When the King eats in publick at home, either alone, or with the Queen, or any other Royal Person, whether at Dinner or Supper, two Guards [Page 231] of the Sleeve, Habited and Armed after the same manner, keep always on each side of him, in the same posture, that is to say, standing upright, with their Faces turned towards his Person.

Every two Nights in three, one of the Guards de la Manche, or of the Sleeve, goes at Midnight to the Principal Gate of the Louvre, or of any other of the Kings Palaees, some time before the Watch is called, that is to say, the Officers and Guards that are to compose the Court of Guard, that are to do Duty that Night at the Gate, where he receives the Keys from the hands of one of the Guards of the Scotch Company, to whom only the Guards of the Gate deliver the Keys at six a Clock every Night: And he is to keep these Keys till the Watch be called, and then he is to shut all the Doors; and when he is called by the Clerk of the Watch, to answer in Scotch, I am here, and at the same time, to present the Keys to the Captain of the Guards then in Waiting, if he be present when the Watch is called, or in his absence, to the Comman­der in Chief. But it often happening, that after the Watch is called, there are still several persons to go out of the Louvre.

The Guard of the Sleeve, opens it to all that would go out, and shuts it again till it be time to shut it for good and all; which being come, after the Brigadier, with a Torch in his hand, and ac­companied by the Aid-Major, has visited all places, and warned every one with a load Voice to go out, the Guard of the Sleeve shuts all the Doors, and then taking with him the said Brigadeer that carries the Torch, and the Aid-Major. He carries all the Keys to the Captain then in Waiting, or in his absence, to him that supplies his place, and puts them under his Bolster, in their presence: I say they do this every two Nights in three, because, every third Night 'tis a Scotch Brigadeer that does those Duties, and then the Guards of the Steeve [Page 232] begin again, till it come again to the Brigadeer, and so all along. It is likewise a Scotch Brigadeer that goes and takes the Keys again of the Captain or Commander every Morning, at six a Clock.

The Guards of the Sleeve wait Monthly, two every Month.

On Maundy-Thursdays they wait for the King at the Door of the Hall, where the usual Ceremony of the Day is performed, keeping always on each side of his Majesty, during the time of the Sermon, and Absolution, and following him along the Hall, while his Majesty is washing the poor Peoples Feet, and serving up their Meat to the Table. When the King assists at any Processions, as on Corpus Christi Day, Candlemas, Palm-Sunday, and at the Assumption of our Lady, and when he touches for the Evil, two Ushers of the Chamber bearing Maces, march only before his Majesty, but the Guards of the Sleeve march close by his sides, and when the Sacrament was carried in 1666. to the Queen Mother, Anne of Austria, these Guards Accompanied the King all the way as he went on Foot from the Louvre to the Church, and back again.

At Extraordinary Ceremonies, as when his Ma­jesty is pleased to appear in an Extraordinary man­ner in Parliament, at the Creation or Instalment of Knights, at Coronations and Marriages of Kings, at the Christning of their Children, and at Royal Fu­nerals.

When his Majesty is minded to sit in Parliament, they go to the Palace, and wait at the Door at the top of the Great Stairs called the May-Pole Door, and conduct him as far as the Entry of the Bar in the Great Chamber.

And when the King hears Mass at the Holy Chap­pel, as he commonly does before he goes to Parlia­ment, they wait on him at his sides in the manner above-described, and when Mass is done, conduct him thence to the Great Chamber, where they stay [Page 233] for him at the Entry of the Bar of the said Cham­ber, whence when he comes out, they reconduct him to the top of the said Great Stairs, or else to his Coach: At the Creation or Instalment of Knights, six of these Guards wait for the King three days one after another, at the Door of the House where the Assembly of the Knights is held, and Ac­company the King step by step, from thence, to the Church, and every time he moves from his place, they march always close by his sides.

At the Coronation of any King, six Guards of the Sleeve, having under their Hoquetons, or upper Jackets, short-truss'd white Satin-Coats, with Bon­nets and Silk stockings answerable, wait without the Door of the Kings Chamber, from eight in the Morning, till his Majesty comes out to go to Church, whither, and where-ever else he goes, they conti­nually accompany him.

At the Kings Wedding, they have new and very rich Hoquetons, or Jackets.

At the Kings Funeral, they wear Mourning Suits under their Hoquetons, or Jackets, and keep guard night and day about the Body or Effigies of his Majesty as long as it lies in State: They onely are to put his Body into the Coffin; and when the Body is transported to St. Denis Church, which as West­minster-Abbey here is the place of the Sepulchres of the Kings of France, they go before and wait for it in the Chappel where it is to be deposited, and keep Guard about it, till it be put into the Vault, down into which, they only are to carry it.

In all the Ceremonies and Solemnities above-men­tioned, they have always their Partisans in their hands, and their Hoquetons, or Jackets on their backs, on which, both before and behind, a Her­cules's Club was wrought with these words about it, Erit haec quoque cognita Monstris; And the Mon­sters shall also know, or feel this; which was the Motto of Henry the Great: But in the year 1671. [Page 234] Lewis the Fourteenth of that Name, at present Glo­riously Reigning, caused his own Devise and Motto to be wrought on the said Jackets, which is the Fi­gure of a Sun giving light to the World, with this Motto, Nec pluribus impar, that is, Neither is he an unequal Match for many.

When the King makes his first Entry into any of the Cities in his Dominions, there is due to each of the two Guards of the Sleeve then in Waiting, from the Magistrates of the City, a Silver-Hilted Sword; The same Fees are due to them from any Bishops or Prelates when they take the Oath of Fidelity to the King.

They are allowed the same allowance of Bread and Wine every day, as they have that are upon the Watch, and have their Diet at the Kings Ser­deaus, or Water-Servers Table, with the Gentle­men-Waiters, and a little Chamber to lie in, in the Guard-Chamber, if there be convenience for it.

The particular Duties and Prerogatives of the Cap­tains of the Guards.

The Captains of the Guards are sworn by the King himself, and receive the Oath themselves in the Guard-Chamber, from the Officers and Souldi­ers of the Companies of Life-Guards under their Command.

The Captain of the Guards that is in Waiting, never leaves the King from the times he rises, or goes forth of his Chamber, until his Majesty be in Bed, and then he goes out into the Guard-Chamber, to see the Watch called, where upon his Arrival, the Clerk of the Watch, with a loud Voice, calls over the Names of the Guards that are to lie that Night in the Guard-Chamber; and then the said Captain having taken notice who are wanting, he goes down to the Gate, and sets the Watch, and then is Conducted to his own Apartment. The [Page 235] same Clerk of the Watch calls over too the twelve Suissers, that are to lie at the upper end of the said Guard-Chamber, in presence of the Officers of the Company of a hundred Suissers, who after that, is in like manner Conducted to his Lodging.

The Captain of the French-Guards marches and keeps always immediately next the King, and near his Person, where ever he be or goes, whether at Table, on Horseback, and in a Coach, and any where else; without suffering any to step between the King and him, that so nothing may hinder him from having always his Eye upon His Majesties Sa­cred Person. It's true, that in a very narrow pas­sage, the Captain of the Guards lets the Querry pass before him, and nearer the Kings Person, because he may have the conveniency to assist his Majesty upon any accident requiring his service.

The Lieutenant of the Guards marches almost al­ways before the King, because the Captain of the hundred Suissers, to whom-that Place is assigned, is most commonly not there; but when he is there, then the Lieutenant of the Guards places himself on the Kings right hand, and the Ensign on his left; but in the absence of his Captain, he takes his place, and follows immediately behind his Ma­jesty.

The King honours the Captain of the Guards with a place in one of the Coaches, or Caleches of the Body, and sometimes in the same Coach with him­self; and if his Majesty rides out on Horse-back, the Captain of the Guards takes Horse in the very Court of the Louvre, and at present, both the Offi­cers and Souldiers of the Life-Guards, wait for the King, ready mounted, in the Court of the Louvre, for fear whilst they are waiting for him at one Door, he should go out at another.

The Captain of the Guards in the time of his Waiting, always Lodges in the Kings Palace, as [Page 236] near as may be conveniently to his Majesties Cham­ber; and in any of the Kings Palaces has the very first Apartment next the Kings, and before all other Officers: At Night he keeps the Keys, as we have said, under his Bolster.

When the King gives Audience to an Ambassa­dour, the Captain of the Guards receives him at the Guard-Chamber Door, and conducts him to the Audience-Chamber; during the Audience he stands near the Rails, and when it is done, he conducts the Ambassadour back again, all along the Guard-Chamber, as far as the Door, the Guards making a Lane for them all the way.

The Captain and Lieutenant of the Scotch Com­pany may always take their place near the King though they be not in Waiting.

When the Guards that remain of the four Com­panies of Life-Guards, that are not in Waiting, or upon Duty, are drawn up (which is commonly called a Cornette of the Guards) whether it be to follow the King, or for any other Service, they are Commanded by the Scotch Lieutenant, as was seen when the King was going to Marsal.

At the first Entries the King makes into any Ci­ties of his Dominions, the Scotch Officer in Wait­ing, takes for his Fees, the Silver Keys that the Magistrates of the City come to present his Ma­jesty; and besides, the said Magistrates are to give two pieces of Velvet to the Scotch Captain, and one to his Lieutenant, or in their absence, to such other Scotch Officers as Command in their places.

The Guards of the Scotch Company only keep the Keys of the Doors of the Quires of the Churches where his Majesty is, as also those of the Louvre, at Night, which when the King is in Bed they carry to their Captain.

When his Majesty passes the Water in a Ferry or Boat, no other Guards but those of the Scotch Com­pany, are admitted into the Boat with him.

The Functions and Duties of the other Life-Guards.

The Life-Guard men are always to keep Guard immediately before the Kings Anti-Chamber.

There is always a Sentinel upon Duty at the en­tring into the Guard-Chamber, to take notice of those that go in. This Sentinel stands there with his Carbine, and sets open both the leaves of the Door when the King, Queen, any Royal Person, or Ambassadours on Audience Days, are to pass in or out: Note likewise, that when any Great Persons, as those of the Quality above-named, or the Princes of the Bloud, the Captains of the Life-Guards, or any other Lords of high quality are to pass in or out, the Guards that are in the Guard-Chamber, as soon as the Sentinel has given them notice of their ap­proach by stamping with his Foot on the Boards, betake themselves presently to their Arms, and make a Lane towards the Entry, into the said Guard Chamber, to do honour to those Great Persons as they pass; and as for their Captains, they Conduct them also all along the Guard-Chamber, as far as the Door of the Anti-Chamber.

The Sentinel is not to suffer any Souldier of the Regiment of Foot-Guards, to come into the Guard Chamber with his Bandoleer, nor any of the Great Provosts Guards, with their Jackets, or Hoquetons, nor any Lackeys, or Livery-men.

If a Guard keep a Door through which one has a mind to pass, one ought not to open it ones self, though the Guard be at a distance from it, but to call civilly to the Guard to open it.

The Life-Guards go every Morning at six a Clock, and take the Keys of the Gates of the principal Court of the Royal Palace where the King lies, which they keep from that time till six at Night, when the Guards of the Scotch Company take it of them, as we have already shewed.

[Page 238] At six a Clock at Night, the Exempt leads up the Company to the Gate, that is, to keep Guard there all night, with a Tierce of the Scotch Com­pany; and then all the other Guards retire, as well those of the Gate, as those belonging to the Provost of the Houshold.

They lie all in the Court of Guard, and from six a Clock at Night, that the Guards of the Gate are relieved, there is but one Scotch Sentinel at the Gate, till the King be in Bed, after which, the Bri­gadeer adds another Sentinel out of a French Com­pany, and this double Sentinel that is to watch all Night, is to be relieved every hour by the Briga­deer.

There is also a Sentinel placed every night at the Door of the Guard-Chamber, which should be re­lieved every hour, but commonly by agreement a­mong themselves, he that is first placed there, ha­ving watched half the night, wakes another Guard, who is to do Duty the remaining part of the night, and so goes to Bed. Always, both day and night, there are Sentinels drawn out of the Foot-Guards, placed without the outward Gates of the Kings House, as we shall show in due place.

If in the night time when all the Gates and Doors are shut, there happens to come a Courier, or any other person charged with business of con­sequence to the King, that is not to be delayed, the Guard that stands Sentinel, is to tell it the Ex­empt, who is to go and tell the Captain; and then the Brigadeer, with a Torch in his hand, and the Exempt and the Captain with two other Torches carried before them, go all together to the Kings Lodgings, and calling upon the Chief Gentleman of the Bed Chamber, desire of him, to know of his Majesty, whether he be pleased to admit the said Courier, or other Person, to his Speech and Pre­sence.

When an Exempt goes to relieve the Watch, [Page 239] he is allowed half a Pistol a day for his Diet.

The King ordinarily allows the Queen twelve of his French Guards, with an Exempt, and six Suissers.

There are several Boys and Servants belonging to the Life-Guards, to make their Beds, go on Er­rands, and fetch necessaries, &c.

After having spoken of the Life-Guards, it will not be improper to insert in this place,

The Order observed in the Kings March, when he goes abroad, either a Foot, in a Coach, or on Horseback, and the rank and place then observed, by the seve­ral Officers about his Majesty.

When the King goes forth of his Palace in a Coach with two Horses, and Accompanied with his Officers, this is the Order observed by them,

1. First, The Guards of the Gate, with their Officers at the head of them, betake themselves to their Arms, and draw themselves up towards the Gate within the nearest Court to the Palace, making there a Lane for his Majesty to pass through.

2. Secondly, The Souldiers of the Foot Compa­nies then upon Duty, both of the French and Suisse-Guards, with their Officers at the head of them, and their Colonels with their Pikes in their hands, make a Lane for the King to pass in the middle of them, from the going out of the nearest Court to the Palace on the out-side, as far as ever they can reach, the French Guards placing themselves on the right hand, and the Suissers on the left.

3. Thirdly, The hundred Suissers march in two Banks at the head of the Coach-Horses, and before them march the Guards of the Provost of the Houshold.

And the Porte-Manteau, or Cloak-Bearer marches alone at the head of the Horses, between the two Suissers, that close the two Ranks of the hundred Suissers.

[Page 240] The Footmen march on both sides the forepart of the Coach, from the Horses heads to the fore­part of each Boot or Door of the Coach, and two of them hold up only the two Fore-Buttons of the said Boots or Doors, unless it be when the Life-Guards are on Horseback, and then four of them hold up all the four Buttons: And when the Queen is in the Coach with the King, the Kings Footmen keep at the right Boot or Door, and the Queens at the left; and when the King sends the Footman that holds one of the Buttons, any where, his next Companion takes it up.

The Life-Guards march behind, and on each side the Coach, from the hinder-part of each Boot or Door, backwards, and if they be on foot, the two foremost of them hold up the hinder Buttons, or Tassels of each Boot, or Door.

The Officer in chief of the Life-Guards, marches behind the Coach, on the right hand, having the Querry in Waiting for that day, on his left.

At Entries made into Cities, the Trumpeters of the Chamber march likewise at the head of the Kings Coach-Horses.

The Pages of the Chamber get up behind the Coach, or if it be night, the Pages of the little Stable, ride on Horseback before the Coach-Horses, with each of them a Flambo in his hand; because the King commonly marches something fast, he is pleased to permit some of his own, and of the Queens Footmen, to get up behind his Coach.

When the King makes any solemn Cavalcade, and rides in State, as at his Majority, and at his publick Entries into any great Towns or Cities, his Footmen run on each side of him, from his Stirrup to his Horses head, and the Life-Guards march likewise on each side, from his Stirrup backwards. When the King walks on Foot, through the Courts of his Palace, or in the Streets, he is Accompanied by a good number of his French, and Suisse Life-Guards, [Page 241] and of the Great Provosts Guards, but when he is going into any of his Gardens to walk there, all the said Guards withdraw and let him go, save only some few French Life-Guards, and some Officers that follow him. But when the King goes out in his Coach, or on Horseback, as he most com­monly does, the Life-Guards, both French and Suissers, come out of their Guard-Chambers in the Palace, and make a Lane about the Coach or Horse, while his Majesty is getting up, or when he is a­lighting at his return. The Great Provosts Guards place themselves likewise in a rank on one side of his Majesty, with their Officers, and sometimes the Great Provost himself at the head of them, holding the Staff of Command in his hand. In Journeys, besides the French and Suisse Life-Guards, that al­ways assist at the Kings setting out, there are a great number of the Foot French and Suisse-Guards, with their Officers, that place themselves round about the Coach the King ears in, while he is taking his Repast, and that keep off the people, and make Room for the Waiters to serve up the meat. When the King goes out to any place, a little distance from his Palace, in the Town where he is, as at Paris, when he goes from the Louvre, to Nostre Dame Church, or to the Palace, or out upon any visit, or to any Opera, or Comedy abroad, the Guards go thither first, and the Suissers wait for him at the great Gate of the place he is to go to, making a Lane on both sides of it, for his Majesty to pass through when he comes.

Of the Company of the hundred Suissers.

The Commander in Chief of the Company of the hundred Suissers, who is called the Captain Co­lonel of the hundred Suissers of the Kings Ordinary Guard, is at present, the Marquiss of Tilladet, Lieu­tenant-General of the Kings Armies, &c. who was [Page 242] in the Month of July 1683. sent Envoy Extraordi­nary into England, to Compliment his late Majesty of Great-Britain, upon the Discovery of the last Conspiracy against his Royal Person. He has 1200 l. standing Salary, 6000 l. Board-Wages, 226 l. Pen­sion, 300 l. at the Pay-Office of the Great Stable, 168 l. for the pay of three Suissers places allowed him, besides a considerable Salary, as Counsellour of State.

The better to comprehend the pay or Salary of the Officers of this Company, you must Note, That they are paid by so many Suissers places, counting each place at 14 d. a day, which is 256 l. a year, besides 4 d. a day paid by the Captain, being 72 l. a year, and forty Crowns for a Suit of Cloaths.

Upon solemn days, the Captain of the French Life-Guards marches behind his Majesty, the better to have an Eye always on his Majesties Person, and the Captain of this Company of Suissers marches before him, so that they two secure his Majesties Person, both before and behind.

The Captain of the hundred Suissers is sworn by the King himself, and receives the Oath of Fidelity from the other Officers of his Company, to whom he gives grants of their places under his own Seal, excepting only the two Lieutenants, that are put in by the King, and take out their Grants under the Great Seal.

There are under the Captain two Lieutenants, that do duty all the year round, whereof one is a French, and the other a Suisse Lieutenant.

They are each of them allowed the pay of four Suissers places, which amounts to 1024 l. and 480 l. each, for four Suits of Cloaths, besides which, the French Lieutenant is allowed 265 l. for his Diet, the Suisser Lieutenant having his in specie, at the Masters of the Housholds Table.

There are two Ensigns half yearly Waiters, where­of one is French and the other a Suisser, each of [Page 243] which, have 512 l. Salary, or the pay of two Suissers, and 240 l. for two Suits of Cloaths. The Lieutenant and Eusign of the hundred Suissers, eat at the Table of the Masters of the Houshold. Eight Exempts doing duty quarterly, two every quarter, whereof four are French, and four Suissers.

The first of these has 754 l. yearly allowance, being French, the second 256 l. and 120 l. for a Suit of Cloaths, being a Suisser; the third being French, has 460 l. and 360 l. for three Suits of Cloaths, which is in all 820 l. the fourth being a Suisser, has 256 l. for one Suissers place, and 120 l. for a Suit of Cloaths; the fifth being also a Suisser, has 378 l. Salary, and 180 l. for a Suit of Cloaths and a half; the sixth being French, has 256 l. Sa­lary, and 120 l. for a Suit of Cloaths; the seventh being a Suisser, has 666 l. Salary, and 240 l. for two Suits of Cloaths, which is in all, 906 l.

This Office in the Company of the hundred Suis­sers, was formerly called in their tongue, Statthalter, that is to say, Deputy, or Vice-Lieutenant, and till the year 1627. there, no other Exempt in this Com­pany but one natural Suisser, so called; the eighth and last, being French, has 256 l. Salary, and 120 l. for a Suit of Cloaths; the two Exempts that are up­on Duty, eat at the Masters of the Housholds Table, and one of them has the liberty, if he please, to go and eat at that of the Serdeau, or Water-Server.

Four Harbingers quarterly Waiters, the first of which, that waits the first quarter of the year, be­ginning in January, [...] 359 l. Salary, and sixty Crowns for a Suit of Cloaths and an half, which amounts in all, to 539 l. the second has 384 l. Sa­lary, and 60 Crowns for a Suit of Cloaths and an half, which is in all, 564 l. the third has 281 l. Salary, 72 l. more paid by the Captain, and 120 l. for a Suit of Cloaths, being in all, 473 l. the fourth and last has 512 l. being the pay of two whole pla­ces, 240 l. for two Suits of Cloaths, and 144 l. more, paid by the Captain.

[Page 244] When these Harbingers meet all together at any Ceremony, the Harbinger for the quarter, beginning in January, takes place of the other three, after whom follows he that waits in the quarter beginning in October, then he that waits in that beginning in April, and in the last place, he that waits in the quarter beginning in July, during any Journey, the Harbinger in waiting is allowed a Crown a Day for his Diet, which is paid him at the Chamber of De­niers, from the day the King sets out, otherwise, he eats at the Serdeau's, or Water-Servers Table.

There are besides these Officers, a hundred Suisse Souldiers, the pay of each of these, is 14 d. a day and 4 d. more, paid by the Captain; and over and above the said hundred, there is the same pay, and Livery-Coats allowed to ten more, which pla­ces are filled up by those among the hundred, which being grown old, and thought fit to be discharged from Service, are thus taken care for in their latter days.

There is one Clerk of the Watch, who is to be a Suisse by Nation; who has 512 l. Salary, being two Suissers pay, 140 l. for two Suits of Cloaths, and 160 l. Board-Wages at the Chamber of De­niers.

This Company of Suissers then, is composed of a hundred Souldiers of that Nation, reckoning in three Drummers and one Flute, besides the Clerk of the Watch, and the abovesaid Officers; where­of the 96 that are Souldiers, discounting the Drum­mers, and the Flute, are divided into six Divisions, or Parcels called Escouades, consisting of sixteen men each, whereof one is chosen by the Captain to be Corporal of the rest. There are two of these Di­visions ordinarily in Waiting at a time, that is to say, one by day, and the other by night, which are relieved every Sunday, by two other Divisions, so that in three Weeks time, the whole Company does Duty round, of which, each Couple of Divisions [Page 245] are a Week upon Duty, and rest the other Fort­night.

The Division that does duty in the night, is cal­led, the Division of the Watch, whereof twelve are called the Suissers of the Straw-Bed, because in the night they lie on the Straw-Beds, in the Guard-Chamber, among the French Life-Guard Men. Those of the other Division, appointed for the Day-guard, a little before night, go off the Guard in order out of the Kings Palace, with an Officer at the head of them, and go and lie at their own Quarters; and the next Morning, precisely at eight a Clock, they Rendevouz again at the Captains Door, or some other place appointed them, and march in the same order back again into the Kings Palace, with an Of­ficer at the head of them, where they are received by the twelve Suissers of the Watch, that have lain with the French Life-Guard Men the foregoing Night, who receive them in Arms, making a Lane for them to pass through in their Guard-Chamber: they are intermixed with the French Guards out of Policy, to prevent Treachery; that if one Nation should be corrupted, the other might discover them, or defeat their purpose. They lie but twelve of them at a time in the French Guard-Chamber, be­cause, by reason of their number, there is hardly convenience for more; the others have a Hall a­part, and separated, as far as convenience will per­mit, from the French Guard-Chamber, and remain there only in the day time, upon Sundays, and o­ther Holy-Days, observed in the Diocess, where the Court happens to be, as likewise at some Ex­traordinary Solemnities, as at the first and last Au­diences of Ambassadours, and other like occasions; all the six Divisions wait all together in a Body on the King.

Out of this Company, the Captain, by the Kings Order, Selects six to wait on the Queen (when there is one) viz. one out of every Division, who [Page 246] are then Commanded by the Officer of the French Life-Guards then in Waiting on her Majesty, which fix, besides their allowance in the Kings Service, have every one 18 d. a day from the Queen, be­sides their Watch Bread, and Wine, and Wood and Candle; and they always wear the Kings Livery, except when the Queen is a Widow, and Regent of the King, and then they wear Mourning, and their number is augmented to twelve. These places are commonly purchased of the Captain, by six of the Company.

The Dauphiness is likewise allowed six Suissers, viz. one out of every Division, drawn out for that purpose every Month by the Captain, who in the time of their duty in that Service are allowed, be­sides the Kings pay, 10 d. a day.

When the Court removes to any distance, leaving the Duke of Burgundy, or other of the Dauphins Chil­dren behind, the Captain of this Company detaches six Suisser's to wait on each of them.

One Suisser is likewise appointed by the King, to wait on the Lord High Chancellour, who upon that account is exempted from going upon the Watch, and other Military Functions of this Company.

The Great Master of the Horse also, who is the sole Orderer of all the Liveries of the Kings Hou­shold, may keep a Suisse of his own in the same Li­very with the Kings, or if he pleases, he may take one of the hundred, but if he take one of them, he so taken by him, must either in Person, or by some of his Companions, perform his Watch, and other duties of the Company, when it comes to his turn.

When the Chancellour dies, he that succeeds him is not obliged to make use of the same Suisser that waited on his Predecessour, but may, if he please, ask the King for any other he has a mind to.

The Captain of this Company has always one of the said Company too, to wait on him.

[Page 247] There are three Treasurers that are paid by the King, to pay the hundred Suissers every Month, their Months pay beforehand, so that on the first, second, or at furthest, on the third day of every Month, the hundred Suissers receive their full pay for the Month then begun, wheresoever the Court happens to be.

There belong besides, to this Company, one Al­moner, one Physician, one Chyrurgeon, one Apo­thecary, one Merchant furnishing Cloth, Stuff, and other necessaries for their Cloaths, and three Tay­lors.

The Chyrurgeon, Apothecary and Taylors, have the priviledge to keep open Shop at Paris, or else­where, though not Masters, and the Taylors are allowed ten Crowns for making each Suissers Suit.

At the Kings Coronation, the Commission Officers of this Company are Clothed in White-Satin, with Cloth of Silver underneath the Slashes. The Har­bingers are in Blue, and the rest of the Suissers in Velvet. They are likewise allowed Extraordinary habits at other great Solemnities, when their Co­lours march, as at Kings Marriages, and Christnings of the Dauphins, or first Sons of France, and at the first Entries of Kings and Queens into any of their great Towns or Cities.

Ever since the year 1679. they have reassumed their ancient Habit, which they wear every Sunday and Holy-Day.

They wear Velvet Bonnets incircled round with Plumes of White Feathers, with little tufts before, composed of four Sprigs of Feathers of the same Colour; starched Laced Ruffs, and Cloths flashed upon Taffety, which swells out of the slashes; the Hilts of their Swords are gilt, and very large, and fastned to them with E [...]s, or rather other kind of Sword-Supporters, after the ancient Mode, fringed on the sides, they wear Fringed-Gloves, Blue and [Page 248] Red Garters, and Roses of the same Coloured Rib­bands on their Shoes; their great Coats called Bran­denburgs, are garnished with red and white But­tons, with Tails, all of the Kings Livery; in one of their hands they bear Halbards, upon which is wrought a golden Sun, which is the Kings Devise, or particular Emblem, and in the other hand, great Canes garnisht with Silver at both ends.

They, with their Officers, march before the King when he is walking on Foot, or passing leisurely along, either in his own House, or in the Town, where he for the time being resides.

Every day when the King goes to Mass, the Suis­sers of this Company, place themselves in two ranks, making a Lane from the Quire to the out­ward Door of the Church or Chappel where he is; and on Sundays and Holy-Days, they appear in the same order, with their Velvet Bonnets, and Habits of Ceremony, or Holy-Day Cloaths, with their Drums and their Flute, which they sound as soon as the King comes, and march thus to the middle of the great Churches into which the King goes, and to the very Door and inclosure of the Quire: the same Ceremony they observe when his Majesty comes from Mass, or when he goes to, or comes from Sermon.

Note, That the Drummers of this Company, beat full out for the King, and only beat a Call for the Dauphin, or Dauphiness. When an Ambassadour goes to his Audience, the hundred Suissers, upon notice given them by the Introductour of Ambassa­dours, place themselves in two Ranks, on each side the French Guard-Chamber Door outwards, and all along the Stairs going up, and when the Ambassa­dour is coming, the Drummer gives two or three little strokes upon his Drum, to give them notice to betake themselves to their Arms.

Upon Days of great Solemnity, such as Corona­tion-Days, &c. they display their Colours.

[Page 249] Every time the King goes out in a Coach, or on Horseback, or when he comes back into the Court of his Palace where he there Lodges, these Suissers with an Officer at the head of them, place them­selves in ranks about his Majesties Coach or Horse, and keep off the people, if need be.

When a Te Deum is order'd to be sung at Nostre Dame Church at Paris, though the King goes not thither, yet he customarily directs a private Letter to the Captain, or Chief Officer, to send thither so many of this Company, as are necessary for that occasion, as he does likewise on the same occasions, to the Captain of the French Life-Guards.

At the Feasts the King makes at the Creation of the Knights of his Orders, upon the second day of that Solemnity, the hundred Suissers serve up the Meat to the Table, and have what comes off again for their pains.

Those of them that are upon the Watch, have their Watch-Bread, and Watch-Wine every Morn­ing and Evening, Candle, Wax, and a Watch-Torch every day, and extraordinary allowances of Meat, on the four great Festivals of the Year: Wax-Can­dles on Candlemas Day, some Linnen-Cloth on Maundy-Thursday, Prayer-Books in the Holy Week, and Torches with the Kings Arms on them, on Corpus Christi Day.

This Company of the hundred Suissers is one of the most ancient Companies of the ordinary Guards of the Kings Body, and first Company composed of them since their alliance with his Majesty; they having been established in France, ever since the year 1481. when Lewis XI. Entertain'd them into his Service; being very useful, both for their known Fidelity to their Trust, and the Manly pro­perness of their persons, both for the security of a King, and for the setting forth his Grandeur.

This Company being a Corporation apart of it self, has its peculiar Court of Justice within it self, [Page 250] kept by their own Officers, from whom their last Appeal is to the Colonels and Captains of the Re­giments of Guards of their own Nation.

They enjoy the same Priviledges as do the French the Kings born Subjects: they may purchase, in­herit, and dispose of their Goods or Estates, by Sale, Deeds or Gifts while living, or Wills at their Deaths, and their Wives, Children, or next Kin­dred, may Inherit what they leave: Both them­selves, and their Widows and Children, are free from all Taxes, Subsidies, and Impositions, laid or to be laid on the subject, under what name soever, and under what pretence soever, though the King himself should have expresly order'd them himself, his Majesty being unwilling to make use of his Power and Prerogative against them, because of their great Services, and singular Fidelity: They are also free from Watching and Warding, and keeping of Gates, as the Kings of France have always been pleased to let them be ever since their first Alliance with them, which have still been confirmed by all succeeding Treaties.

When any of the Officers of this Company dies, he is buried with the Ceremonies and Solemnities used to Military Persons; his Sword and Comman­ders Staff are placed something Cross-wise, on the top of the Biere, which is carried in the midst of the Company, who all Accompany the Body, the Drums and Flute making a mournful sound, as is usual at Funerals; when any of the common Soul­diers of them die, they are buried much after the same manner, only with proportionably less Cere­monies, according to their Quality: The Swords of the deceased belong to the Harbinger then in Waiting.

Besides the above-mentioned Priviledges en­joyed by this Company, there are two other very particular and remarkable ones; the first is the right of being lodged gratis all the year at Paris, [Page 251] and the second, the priviledge of selling Wine.

That Part or Quarter of Paris, that comprehends the Streets of Montorgueil, of Montmarire, and o­ther Neighbouring Streets, is allotted for Lodging this Company, though the King be not at Paris: And the Owner, or chief Tenants of the Houses in those Streets, if their Houses be small, are bound to find a Chamber ready furnished, at most but two stories high, for a common Suisse, and to fur­nish all necessary Utensils, and those who have big­ger Houses, are to find an Officer two Chambers ready furnished, with a Stable and Coach-House, if need be, and with all necessary Utensils, as Linnen, Dishes, Pots and Pans, &c. But generally the King having not for a long time resided at Paris, not being like to do, the Owners, or chief Tenants of the said Houses, agree with the said Suissers and Of­ficers, for a certain yearly payment in Money, in consideration of which, their Houses are free from this subjection, and the Suissers, upon occasion, like Lodgings where else they please.

The Kings of France have granted to this Com­pany thirteen Priviledges, or an Exemption to be enjoyed by thirteen Persons of their Body, from the Duties usually paid by Vintners and Wine-Mer­chants. These thirteen Priviledges are enjoyed by twelve Suissers, among whom, are some Officers, and the Clerk of the Watch: They are by vertue of the same, exempt from paying the Duty called the Eighth, and generally from all other duties upon Wine, except the duty of the Entry or Importation of those Wines they sell by retail. The Jurours of the Wine-Sellers, pretend, that the number of Buts, or Pieces of Wine, which these Priviledged Suissers are to sell, is limited to 150, and they on the other side say, they are not limited to any definite num­ber, which is a Controversy as yet undecided; the King abates 1400 l. a year to the Farmers of the Aids, for every one of these thirteen Priviledges, [Page 252] and yet they let them out but for 1000 l. or there­about, to those that hire them of them.

Formerly those of this Company that sold Wine, paid no more for selling Wine with Napkins and Plates, that is, for selling Wine and Victuals too, than for selling of it only by the Pot, so that they paid 27 d. on every Piece of Wine less than the Vintners; but in the year 1658. the Company sold this Priviledge, which was called the little Privi­ledge, to the Farmers of the Aids, for a certain An­nuity to be paid to their Captain, which is distri­buted among them at the rate of 4 d. a day each Man, so that ever since that time, the hundred Suissers, that before had but 14 d. a day, have now 18 d. a day.

Of the Guards of the Gate.

Of these Guards, there is a Captain, who has a Salary of 3000 l. paid by the Treasurers of the Houshold, and 4000 l. Board-Wages, at the Cham­ber of Deniers.

He is sworn by the King himself, and receives from him the Staff of Command. Under him are

Four Lieutenants quarterly Waiters, who enjoy their Places by Patent from the King, but are sworn by the Great Master of the Houshold, and have each of them 500 l. Salary, and 50 l. Gratuity, and during the time of their Waiting, eat at the Masters of the Housholds Table.

Fifty Guards of the Gate, that serve by Quar­ters, viz. Thirteen of them each of the two first Quarters, and but twelve of each of the two last Quarters of the year. They enjoy their Places too by Patent, and are sworn by their Captain.

They are reckoned among the first and most an­cient Guards of the Houshold, which is the reason that this Company is yet to this day entred upon the Book of the General Establishment of the Hou­shold, [Page 253] and accordingly receive their pay from the Treasurers of the Houshold, and not from peculiar Treasurers of their own, as do the other Compa­nies of Guards.

Every day, at six in the Morning, the Guards of the Gate, receive from the hands of the Life-Guard Men, the Keys of the Gates of that Court where the Kings Lodgings or Apartments are, within which, they place Sentinels, and at six at Night they return the said Keys again to the Life-Guards; By the Court where the Kings Lodgings are, I mean the principal Court of the Palace where he is, as the Oval Court at Fountain-bleau.

He that stands Sentinel at the Gate, holds a Car­bine on his shoulder, as do all the rest of this Com­pany that are on the Guard, who likewise stand to their Arms, and place themselves in Ranks, making a Lane near the Gate, when his Majesty, any other Royal Persons, or any Ambassadours in going to, or coming from their first and last Audiences, are to pass by. They also stand to their Arms in the same manner about the Gate, within the Court of the Louvre, or other Royal Palace where the King is exercising the Company of Gentlemen Musketeers, during the whole time of the said Exercise in that Court.

The Guards of the Gate are to let none pass into the Palace with Arms, but the Life-Guards only; but are to stop all that offer to go in with Blunder­busses, Firelocks, Pikes, Powder, or any other Arms but Swords.

They all wear blue Coats laced with large gold and silver Galoon, and trimmed with Buttons of Massy Silver. Formerly they used to wear Jackets, or Hoquetons, like those worn at present, by the Great Provosts Guards, save only, that upon the four great Skirts of them, they had two Keys Em­broidered Salter-wise, and Swivels, which are both of Buff.

[Page 254] Their Belts, at present, are edged about with gold and silver Galoon; and in the middle of their Swivels, there is before, and behind, a golden Flower deluce, and an L of the same, for Lewis, being the Kings Name, and above them two Keys placed Salteir-wise, and tied with a red Ribband, all which is wrought in Embroidery, enterlaced with Palms and Lawrels, and Crowned with a Crown Royal.

The Guards of the Gate, in the time of their Waiting, never take off their Swivels wherever he goes, unless it be when he goes into the Kings An­ti-Chamber, or into the other Chambers, Closets, and Apartments of his Majesty.

At the end of their Quarters Waiting, they re­ceive 200 l. Wages from the General Treasurer of the Houshold, and 40 l. Gratuity at the Treasure Royal.

At Easter, Whitsontide, All-Saints, Christmas, Martlemas, and on Shrove-Tuesday, they have Por­tions of Bread, Wine and Meat, from the King, which gives them the priviledge of Tablers, or Commoners of the Kings Houshold; they that are in Waiting, at the like times, on the Queen, or the Dauphin, have the same allowance from them.

At New-Years Tide, the King gives them that are in Waiting that quarter, 50 l. 5 d, the Queen 32 l, and the Parliament of Paris as much, for which, they give an Acquittance. The other Sove­reign Courts likewise, and the Guildhall of Paris, pay them some certain summs, for they give also Acquittances.

Upon St. Lewis's Day, which is his Majesties pe­culiar Festival, the Kings allow them 40 l. out of the Privy-Purse of the Chamber; Besides which, they have a Fee of ten Crowns from the Treasurer of the Offrings every time the King touches for the Evil: But however, on the four great Festi­vals [Page 255] of the year, they are paid the said allowance on that account, whether the King touches or no.

Those that are in Waiting, share amongst them, the Gifts and Liberalities made to them, by the New Dukes, and Peers, and Marshals of France, and other Officers of the Crown, at their first Entry into the Kings Palace in their Coaches or Sedans, by vertue of their new Dignity.

They have likewise Wax-Candles at Candlemas, Torches on Corpus Christi Day, and Prayer-Books in the Holy Week, given them.

They are Exempt from Taxes, and from the Im­position on Salt in those Provinces where it is esta­blished, and from all Subsidies and Billeting of Soul­diers: They have the Priviledge of Committimus, and take out Letters of State when they have need of them.

By an Order of the Privy-Council dated the 19th of November, 1668. the King has confirmed the quality of Esquires to the Guards of the Gate; and by a Declaration of the 17th of June, 1659. and Letters Patents of the 3d of May, 1675. registred in the Great Councel on the 27th of July following. The King was pleased to Order, that the Guards of the Gate should have the precedence in all honours done in the Church, and in all other places and Assemblies, before all the Officers of the Elections, of the Granaries of Salt, and Judges not Royal, and in general, before all others inferiour in degree, to the Counsellers of Bayliwicks, Seneschalsies, and Presidial Seats, or Courts of Judicature.

Now, it being the Duty of the Guards of the Gate, in the Day time, and of the Life-Guard Men from six a Clock at Night, to distinguish those to whom the King is pleased to permit the Honour of going into the Louvre, or other of the Kings Pala­ces, in their Coaches or Sedans, and to keep all others from entring in that manner. It will not be amiss to subjoin in this place,

The Order and Rank of Precedence observed in ad­mitting and placing of those to whom the King per­mits the honour of entring into his Royal Palace in their Coaches or Sedans.

No Body is to enter into the Kings Palace in a Coach, in the Morning before their Majesties be awake; and at Night, as soon as the King is in Bed, all the Coaches within the Palace, are to go out, and Monsieurs is set up under the Gate, or Porch of the Palace.

Next to the first Coaches, or Coaches of the Body of their Majesties, and other Coaches belonging to them, none but such Persons of the several Qualities underneath specified, are priviledged to enter into the Palace, in their Coaches, or Sedans, viz.

1. All Princes, that is to say, Children of France, and their Children, the other Princes of the Blood, the Bastard Princes that are Legitimated, and Sove­reign Stranger-Princes, and the Princesses their Wives, their Daughters, and their Sisters, who may have a Coach covered with red Velvet, or black Velvet, if they be in Mourning, with Covers of the same, and are allowed the priviledge of the Tabouret, that is, of sitting down on a low Stool in the Queens Presence.

Lastly, Cardinals, as Princes of the Church, are comprehended likewise under this Title.

2. Ambassadours, both Ordinary and Extraordi­nary, of Crowned Heads, that is to say, of the Emperour, of all Kings, of some Sovereign Dukes, of some Republicks, and the Ambassadours Extra­ordinary of Malta, ever since the time of Monsieur Souvray, and the Popes-Nuntio's or Legats; as like­wise the Wives of all such Ambassadours, who also may have Coaches covered with Velvet, and are al­lowed the Honour of the Tabouret, or of sitting on a low Stool so called, before the Queen Consort, or Dowager.

[Page 257] 3. All Dukes and Peers of France, whether they be so by Letters Patents, verified in the Parliament of Paris, or so only by Briefs and Patents not veri­fied, and the Dutchesses their Ladies, who may have Coaches covered with Velvet, and have the honour of the Tabouret before the Queen.

And the six ancient Ecclesiastical Dukes and Peers, and Counts and Peers, which you will find in the List of them in their proper place, as like­wise later ones, who are Dukes and Peers, as the Archbishop of Paris, &c.

4. The great Officers of the Crown, the Chancel­lour, the Keeper of the Seals, the Marshals of France, and the Great Master of the Artillery: Where

Note, That the Wives of these great Officers have the priviledge to go into the Louvre in their Coaches or Sedans, but are not allowed the Honour of the Tabouret before the Queen, though in the Queens Tiring-room, the Chancellours Lady indeed is allowed a Tabouret, and the other great Officers Ladies only Cushions to sit on before her Ma­jesty.

The chief Officers likewise of both Sexes, have also the priviledge of going into the Palace, even in their own Coaches, as her Lady of Honour, her Tiring-Lady, her Gentleman-Usher, or Knight of Honour, and the Persons who have the grant of the Reversions of the said Offices; as likewise the chief Officers of both Sexes, of the Children of France, and even after any Queens Decease, or after the Decease of any of the Children of France, the King being pleased to continue, to their said chief Offi­cers, their former Salaries, is pleased likewise to continue to them withal, the priviledge of going into his Palace in their Coaches or Sedans.

Besides these, there are some, to whom by par­ticular favour, the King permits the same Honour.

When any of the abovesaid persons have a mind to go into the Palace in a Chair, or Sedan, they [Page 258] may go in when they please, though it be before Day, or though the King or Queen be sick or asleep; because Chairs make no noise as Coaches do. And since the coming up of the Sedans or Chairs called Royal Chairs, almost any private person is suffered to go in in those kind of Chairs, as far as the bot­tom of the Kings Stairs.

When there is a Queen, her Maids of Honour go into the Palace in her Majesties Coach, as do now those belonging to the Dauphiness, in hers. And the Kings or Queens Confessours, being in their Ma­jesties Coaches, enter likewise.

Note, That any of the forementioned persons, that have the priviledge to go into the Kings Palace in their own Coaches, may likewise go in any other Coach as well as their own; and if their own Coach comes afterward to the Gate, the Guards let it pass in with all those that are in it, but then as soon as that is come in, the borrowed Coach, unless it be one belonging to a person of equal Quality, is immediately to retire.

All the Coaches that enter into the Kings Palace, place themselves within the Court of the Palace, nearer or further off the Stairs Foot of the Kings A­partment, according to the Rank of Precedence the Masters or Ladies to whom they belong, enjoy in France. So that if there chance to come a Prince, a Dukes and Peers Coach must put back to give him place. They are sometimes placed in several Ranks according to their different Qualities, but that is not very exactly observed: the same Order and Ce­remony observed in entring into the Kings Palace, is in most particulars observed in going into any of the Palaces belonging to the Children of France, or any other Royal Persons; But at the Palaces of the other Princes, these Punctilio's are not so much in­sisted on. Next the Guards of the Gate are

The Guards of the Great Provost of the Houshold.

We have already spoken of the Gown-Men, and other Officers under the Great Provost, as Judge of the Kings Houshold, we must now treat of his Military Officers and those under them.

The Great Provost is Captain of a Company of a hundred Men, who are called the Guards of the Pro­vost of the Houshold; these, are either Exempts, who are twelve in number, one whereof is called the Exempt in Ordinary, and 88 common Guards, who have all of them Salaries of 272 l. 10 d. apiece.

The Exempts serve quarterly, three every quar­ter, whereof four who are the four first, or Fore­men of every quarter, are called ancient Exempts, and have besides their standing Wages, a gratuity of fifty Crowns, at the Treasure-Royal; the four second, and next to them in every quarter, are likewise allowed a gratuity of fifty Crowns out of the profits of the Provostship of the Houshold, but the four last have onely their bare Wages, viz. 272 l. 10 d.

The other Guards serve quarterly too, 22. every quarter, and are allowed 60 l. each, Extraordinary, when the King goes any Journey, and every one a certain gratuity when the King touches for the Evil.

When the King goes forth of his Lodging, either on Foot, in a Chair, or in a Coach with two Hor­ses, the Great Provosts Guards march with their Officers at the head of them, on Foot before his Majesty, immediately before the hundred Suiffers, who march before the Coach-Horses, and when the Life-Guards mount on Horseback, the Provosts Guards mount on Horseback too.

When the King goes out in a Coach with six Hor­ses, [Page 260] these Guards Accompany him not, but only place themselves in Ranks with their Officers at the head of them, just by the Gate of the Kings Lodg­ings without, and make a Lane for his Majesty to pass through; Sometimes on those occasions the Great Provost himself is there, with his Comman­ders Staff in his hand: At St. Germains en Laye, and at Fountain-bleau, there is a little Plot of ground, about the breadth of the Ditch, before the Principal Gate of the chief Court of the Palace, where these Guards, with their Officers, place them­selves in Order, and make a Lane for his Majesty to pass through when the King goes out in a Coach with six Horses: But when the King is at any Pa­lace, or other place, where no such conveniency of ground is to be found, then the Officers and Guards of the Provostship, mark out for themselves, as much ground next without the Gate, as extends to the length of a Pike, which the Regiments of French and Suisse-Guards, or other Guards, are ob­liged to leave them, where they Post themselves in the manner aforesaid.

Note, That the Sentinels already placed without the said Gate of the Palace, whether they be taken out of the Regiments of French and Suisse-Guards, or sometimes, in their absence, out of the Muske­teers, the Gensdarmes, or Light Horsemen, or out of any other Foot-Company, keep still in the same Post they were placed in, close by the outside of the Gate, and the Officers and Guards of the Provostship place themselves in Ranks on both sides of the way, from the said Sentinels forward as far as a Pikes length, as is abovesaid, and next them, stands the Colonel of the Regiment of Foot-Guards, or such other Head-Officer, that Commands the Troops then upon the Guard without the Palace, and then his Souldiers or Troopers placed in Ranks on each side the way.

These Guards wear Jackets, or Hoquetons, Em­bossed [Page 261] with massy silver upon a ground of the Kings Colours, which are, Carnation, White and Blue, with the Devise, or Emblem, of Henry the Great, being a Hercules's Club, with this Motto, Erit haec quoque cognita Monstris, i. e. And the Monsters shall also know, or feel this.

They go up and down the Kings House, to Exe­cute the Orders relating to the Policy and Govern­ment of it, and to clear it of Vagabond and suspici­ous Persons that can give no good account of them­selves, and attend to see whether the King will send them into the Town, or any where out of the place where the Court resides, to arrest any Body, or take them into Custody.

There are likewise two supernumerary Guards of the Provostship, that wait constantly on the Chan­cellour, who have the same Salary as the others.

There is one Trumpeter, at 272 l. Salary, as for the other Officers, we have named them in the other Chapter, where we have spoken of the Great Provost, as Judge of the Houshold.

CHAP. XXVIII.

Of the Guards without the Gate, and

I. Of the Gensdarms, or Men at Arms, of the Kings Guard.

THIS Company ought to consist of 220 Men at Arms, that do duty quarterly.

Their Captain is the King himself, under whom there is

A Lieutenant Captain, his pay in that quality, is 1380 l. besides which, the King allows him the [Page 262] Captains pay, being 3280 l. and 2700 l. Extraor­dinary, during their quarter.

Two Deputy-Lieutenants, who have each of them 410 l. by the quarter, and 1350 l. Extraor­dinary during their quarter.

Three Ensigns, who have each of them 135 l. quarterly pay, and 1080 l. Extraordinary during their quarter.

Three Guidons, who have the same pay.

Note, That the King in lieu of the Fees the Offi­cers of this Company used to have at the reception of any new Officers or Souldiers among them, and of the right of disposing the places vacant by Death, gives them 26000 l. in Pensions, viz. 13000 l. to the Lieutenant Captain, 5000 l. to the Deputy-Lieu­tenant, 4000 l. to the Ensign, and 4000 l. to the Guidon: So that for the future the places in this Company will be given gratis upon any vacancy by Death; yet notwithstanding that, the places of Men at Arms, are fixed places, and during their Lives, they may dispose of them, and resign them to o­thers, which the Light Horsemen cannot do.

There are two Marshals of the Lodgings, or chief Quarter-Masters, that have each 85 l. pay, Quarterly, and 600 l. Extraordinary, Yearly.

One Commissary of the Conduct, or Muster-Ma­ster, whose ordinary pay is 3600 l. besides 240 l. for Taxations, Ordinary and Extraordinary.

This Commissary Musters the Troop, and re­ceives the Oaths, both of the Officers and Souldiers of it.

When a Horseman, or Officer of Horse, is sworn by him, his Horse and his Pistols are his Fees, and if he be a Foot-Officer, his Corslet and Sword. And when he himself is sworn by a Marshal of France, he is to give the Captain six Ells of Black Velvet for his Fee.

The Commissaries of the Conduct, or Muster-Masters, have their place always fixed on the left [Page 263] hand of the Commander in Chief, the Commissaries Horses Head advancing as far as the Commanders Stirrup, both when they are on the march, or en­gaged in a Battle: And whether they be in the Field, or quartered in Town or Country, these Commissaries quarters are always next the Comman­ders, so that they have always the second place in the Company; about which there are many Rules and Orders.

Eight Brigadeers, there being four Brigades, and two Brigadeers to each. Besides the pay, they have as other Horsemen of this Company, which is 680 l. apiece, they have every one 600 l. Pension, and 300 l. gratification at the end of their quarters ser­vice; And the eldest among them, that still does Service, has 1000 l. Pension.

Eight Sub-Brigadeers, who besides the common pay of 680 l. have every one a Pension of 500 l: Besides these, there is one Major.

Four Trumpeters, one Kettle-Drummer, one Harbinger, or Under-Quarter Master in Ordinary, and another Extraordinary; one Almoner, or Chaplain, one Chyrurgeon, one Sadler, one Far­rier, all at 90 l. Salary apiece.

To pay all which, there is one Treasurer, and one Comptroller.

The whole Company consists of 220 Horsemen, besides the great and small Officers, and the Foot-men at Arms, and their pay is 680 l. apiece.

There are added to them, upon a new Roll, twenty others, who have the same pay.

The Devise or Emblem they bear in their Colours, is thunder falling from Heaven with these Latin words, Quo Jubet Iratus Jupiter, i. e. Where angry Jupiter Commands. The King has, besides these, other Companies of Gensdarmes in his Armies, of which he is likewise Captain, but these only are re­tained for the guard of his Person.

2. Of the Company of Light Horse.

This Company is likewise composed of 220 Ma­sters, or Horsemen, that serve quarterly. To this belong,

A Captain, who is the King.

A Lieutenant Captain, and two Deputy-Lieu­tenants.

Four Cornets, whose pay is 187 l. 10 d. Two chief Quarter-Masters, or Marshals of the Lodgings, whereof, the first has 62 l. 10 d. and the other, 125 l. a Month.

Two other Harbingers, or Quarter-Masters, at 30 l. a Month each; one Commissary of the Con­duct, or Muster-Master; four chief Brigadeers, who besides the ordinary pay of 30 d. or half a Crown a day all the year round, and 20 d. a day more when they are upon actual duty, have every one 600 l. Pension, and 300 l. gratification at the end of their quarters Service: But the eldest of the four has a Pension of 1000 l. Five other Briga­deers, who have the same pay as the precedent ones, bating the 300 l. gratification. Eight Sub-Brigadeers, who have every one 500 l. Pension, 30 d. or half a Crown a day, constant pay, and 20 d. a day more extraordinary, when they are actually on duty. Four Standard-Bearers, who have the same pay as the Sub-Brigadeers.

One Aid-Major, and honorary Brigadeer, who Commands in no Quarter, but as Brigadeer, has a Pension of 600 l.

Four Trumpeters, whose pay is 66 l. a quarter, and one Kettle-Drummer, at 200 l.

The Cavaliers, or Troopers of this Company, have 30 d. or half a Crown a day ordinary pay, and 20 d. a day extraordinary, when they are upon duty.

There belong to them besides one Almoner, or [Page 265] Chaplain, who has 30 l. a Month besides the ordi­nary pay; two Chyrurgeons, one Farrier, and one Sadler, at 30 l. a Month, each.

Their Extraordinary pay is paid out of the Kings own private Coffer; and their ordinary pay by three Treasurers belonging to the Company.

The Devise or Emblem born in their Standards, is Thunderbolts destroying the Giants, with this Motto, Sensere Gigantes, i. e. The Giants felt them.

3. Of the Regiments of Foot-Guards.

There are two Regiments of Foot-Guards, viz. First of French, and secondly, another of Suissers.

The French Regiment consists of thirty Compa­nies, of a hundred Men in a Company, besides four Serjeants. These Companies are called by their Captains Names. To this Regiment belong these Officers, viz. A Colonel, who is at present, the Duke de la Feuillade, whose yearly pay is 10000 l. Each Company has a Captain, a Lieutenant, a De­puty-Lieutenant, an Ensign, and four Serjeants; and the Colonelry has three Lieutenants, three De­puty Lieutenants, two Ensigns, and six Serjeants; there are likewise a Major, four Aid-Majors, four Sub-Aid-Majors. The Captains being thirty in num­ber, have 3000 l. a year each, the Major as much, the two eldest Aid-Majors, 2500 l. each, the two others but 2000 l. the Sub-Aid-Majors, have each of them 1100 l. pay, and 900 l. gratuity, the Lieu­tenants 1100 l. the Deputy, or Sub-Lieutenants 900 l. the Ensigns 660 l. The first Lieutenant of the Colonelry, who is called the Lieutenant-Captain, besides his Lieutenants pay, has also the pay of a Captain, and the Captain of the first Company fol­lowing, besides his Captains pay, has the pay of a Lieutenant, as being Lieutenant-Colonel. More be­longing to this Regiment are, two chief Muster-Ma­sters, or Commissaries of the Conduct, and four [Page 266] other Muster-Masters, two Marshals of the Lodg­ings, or Quarter-Masters, called the Marshals of the Lodgings of the French Guards, and of the Regi­ment of Guards, one Provost of the French Bands, and of the Regiment of Guards, one Lieutenant-Pro­vost, one Register, twelve Archers, or Serjeants belonging to the Provost, and one Executioner. One Auditour-General of the French Bands, two Drum-Majors, one Serjeant appointed, or Pensioner, one Physician, with an Aid, or Assistant, one Apo­thecary, one Chaplain, six Commissaries, and Comp­trollers for the War, two other new created Comp­trollers, two General Treasurers of the Extraordi­naries for the War, and their Clerks or Deputies, and three other General Treasurers for the ordinary pay of the said Regiment.

Note, That the French Regiment of Guards takes always the right hand of the Regiment of the Suisse Guards, and when two Sentinels are placed, one French, and the other Suisser, the French-man stands on the right hand side, which is to be reckoned with relation to the Kings right hand, which chan­ges, as he may be going or coming; and on all oc­sions, when his Majesty, or other great Persons, to whom they owe honours, pass by, the French make a Rank on the right hand, and the Suissers on the left hand of them: It is likewise remarkable, that the Officers of the French Regiment wear gilt Cor­slets, and the Suissers their only washt over with Silver. This Regiment is quarter'd in the several Suburbs, and Neighbouring Villages about Paris.

Of the Suisse-Regiment.

The Regiment of Suisse-Guards is composed of Suissers and Grisons, consisting in all of ten Compa­nies, to which is lately added a new Company, though they have not yet been on duty near his Majesties Person.

For the Conduct and Government of these,

There are Officers general, and Officers particu­lar. The Officers general have Command, not only over this Regiment, but over all those of this Na­tion in the service of France.

The Officers General, are a Colonel-General of the Suissers and Grisons, who is at present the Duke de Maine, the Kings Natural Legitimated Son by the Dutchess of Montespan, who has for himself, and twelve Halbardeers, that always attend on his Per­son, 74088 l. a year, under whom, there is a Lieu­tenant-Captain, a Lieutenant, a Deputy-Lieutenant, an Ensign, a Marshal of the Lodgings, and another, called the Great Harbinger, or Quarter-Master, an Interpreter, a Chyrurgeon Major, and an Almoner, or Chaplain.

The General Company has likewise a Court of Justice apart from the Regiment, which is the su­preme one the Suissers have in France, and to which lies their last appeal from other particular ones, as we have elsewhere noted, to which belong a Great Judge, and other Assistants and necessary Offi­cers.

To the Regiment of Suisse-Foot-Guards, belong, a Colonel, a Lieutenant-Captain, or Colonel, ano­ther Lieutenant, a Deputy-Lieutenant, and an En­sign; besides which, because in honour of the se­veral Cantons and places whence they come, the King is pleased to join several Captains and other Officers of the same denomination with equal Com­missions in one Company, because the number of men many times brought by each singly, is not sufficient to make a compleat Company alone, there are eleven Captains, nine Lieutenants, nine Deputy Lieutenants, and as many Ensigns, two Majors, one Muster-Master, with title of Commissary of the Conduct, another Muster-Master called Commissary [Page 268] of the Review or Muster of the ten Companies; one Marshal of the Lodgings, or Quarter-Master, and an Aid, one Interpreter, two Almoners, or Chap­lains, one Physician, one Chyrurgeon-Major, and one Auditour of the Bands.

This Regiment has likewise a peculiar Court of Justice, to which belong,

A Great Judge, a Great Provost, a Registrer, or Recorder, the particular Judges of every Company, the little Provosts, twenty Archers, or Serjeants belonging to the Great Judge, and an Execu­tioner.

There are likewise three Treasurers, and four Comptrollers of the Regiment.

The Colonels pay of this Regiment, is 1160 l. a Month for himself, and 800 l. 8 d. a Month for the Officers of Justice, and each Captain receives Monthly for himself, and his Officers, and to keep his Company compleat, 4202 l. 2 d.

All the Officers and Souldiers, both of the French and Suisse Foot-Guards, are obliged to stand to their Arms, and to place themselves in two Ranks, from the Gate or Draw-bridge outward, the French on the right hand, and the Suissers on the left; the Captains appear at the head of their Companies, and as soon as his Majesty comes, the Suisse-Captains put on their Back, and Breast-Pieces.

Note, That the Captain either of the French or Suisse Foot-Guards, whose turn it is to be upon duty, or in his absence, one of his Officers, it is to take care the Watch-word be received and com­municated in convenient time, and for that end, he is, if he be a French Captain, to go to the Colonel General of the French Foot-Guards, if a Suisser, to the Colonel-General of the Suissers, to know of him whether he be pleased to go and wait on the King for the Word, himself, if he Answers, Yes, he is to wait till he comes back, and take it of him. if no, he is to go and take it of his Majesty Himself, [Page 269] and at his return, to Communicate it first to the Colonel-General, and then to the rest of the Officers concerned to know it.

When any Souldier of either of these Regiments of Foot-Guards, not being upon duty, desires to enter into the Kings Palace, he is to to leave his Bandiliers or Swivel with the Sentinel at the Gate.

4. Of the Musketeers on Horseback of the Kings Guard.

There are two Companies of Musketeers on Horse-back, viz. The first Company called formerly the Great Musketeers, which are 250 in number, and a second Company formerly belonging to Cardinal Mazarine, whose number is not fixed.

Of the first Company of Musketeers.

This Company is divided into four Brigades: The Officers are, a Captain, who is the King, a Lieutenant-Captain, a Deputy-Lieutenant, whose pay is 200 l. a Month, an Ensign and a Cornet, whose Monthly pay is 150 l. to each; six Marshals of the Lodgings, or chief Quarter-Masters, the three first of which, have every of them, besides the Monthly pay of 75 l. 400 Crowns yearly Pen­sion, and the other three only their bare pay. One Commissary of the Conduct, or Muster-Master, four Brigadeers, who besides their ordinary pay, which to every Man is 20 Crowns a Month, or 40 d. a day, have every of them a yearly Pension of 500 l. Sixteen Sub-Brigadeers, who have the like pay as the former, and 300 l. yearly Pension, a Major, and an Aid-Major, two Standard-Bearers, who have the same pay and Pension as the Sub-Brigadeers. Besides which there are three other Harbingers or Quarter-Masters, six Drummers, four Hoboys, one [Page 270] Almouer or Chaplain, one Chyrurgeon, one Apo­thecary, one Farrier, one Sadler, and one Armorer, whose pay is but fifteen Crowns a Month, or 30 d. a day.

The pay of the 250 Musketeers, is to every Man twenty Crowns a Month, or 40 d. a day.

There are three Treasurers that belong to both the Companies, and under them, one Pay-Master peculiar to this Company.

The Musketeers of the first Company have their Hats edged with gold Galoon, and those of the second, with gold and silver.

Of the second Company of Musketeers, The Officers of this, are

A Captain, who is the King, with the like num­ber of other Officers as the first, with the like pay, bating only the three Fouriers, or Under-Quarter-Masters, the Sadler, and the Armorer, which I find not in the List of the Officers of this Company. They have likewise a Pay-Master of their own, but the Treasurers are the same with those of the for­mer. Their present number is above 250. who have the same pay as those of the first Company.

The Musketeers of the first Company, are moun­ted all on white Horses, and those of the second on black ones.

When the Musketeers do duty, or stand Sentinel in any of the passages about the Kings Palace, they are allowed their diet in specie, that is to say, Bread, Wine, and Portions of Meat.

Every Night the Lieutenant-Captain, the Deputy-Lieutenant, or other Commander in chief of the Musketeers for the time being, waits on the King, to know of his Majesty, whether he intends to go abroad the next day, that he may give timely no­tice of it to the other Officers, and to the rest of the Company.

5. Of the Band of the Hundred Gentlemen, Au Bes de Corbin, or Gentlemen Pensioners.

These Gentlemen, who are reckoned likewise among the Gentlemen in Ordinary of the Kings Houshold, and are commonly called Becs de Corbin, or Ravens Beaks, from the Falcions so called, they carry in their hands, were the first of all others, in­stituted and established for the more secure and ho­nourable guard of the Kings Person; and because at first, and for a long time, their number was but 100, though now for several Reigns together, they have been augmented to, and continued at 200. compleat, yet they still return the old name of the hundred Gentlemen.

Upon days of Ceremony and Solemnity, they march two and two before the King, with their Swords by their sides, and their Falcions called Becs de Corbin, or Ravens Beaks in their hands. They attended and served in this manner at the Corona­tion, and Wedding of the present King, and since at the Ceremony of the Creation and Instalment of Knights in 1661. on which occasion, six of them marched two and two before his Majesty, and went into the Quire of the Augustins; the rest of them marcht on each side of the Knights.

In any Battel, they are always to keep near the Kings Person; they are divided into two Compa­nies, the old one, and the new one, who have each of them their Captain, Lieutenant, and other in­feriour Officers.

CHAP. XXIX.

Of the other Royal Housholds.

AFter the Kings Houshold, follow the other Roy­al Housholds, which are regulated ad instar, or according to the Model of the King's.

Both the Queen Mother, and the late Queen be­ing dead, we shall say nothing of their Housholds, save only, that their surviving Domesticks, and me­nial Servants, as we have already remarked, still do, and will enjoy their old Priviledges as long as they live.

Note, That the Queen Mother, Anne-Marie-Mau­ritte of Austria, of happy Memory, died at the Louvre, the 20th of January, 1666. at the Age of 64 years; and the late Queen Marie-Teresa of Austria, Daughter to Philip the Fourth of Spain, of happy Memory, died at Versailles, the 30th of July, 1683. at the Age of 45 years.

CHAP. XXX.

Of the Dauphins Houshold. To which belong,

1. FIrst, or chief Gentleman of his Bed-Chamber, and Master of his Wardrobe, formerly his Governour, who is the Duke of Montausier, whose Salary is 4000 l. a Month, i. e. 48000 l. per Annum.

A Sub-Governour sworn by the Governour, whose [Page 273] Salary is 7500 l. A Tutour sworn by the King, who is the Famous Bishop of Meaux, formerly Bishop of Condom; his Salary is 12000 l.

A Sub-Tutour, at 6000 l.

Two Gentlemen of the Sleeve, who are sworn by the Governour, who have each of them a Salary of 6000 l.

One Secretary.

One chief Valet de Chambre, or Waiting Man, one chief Physician, that attends all the year, who is Monsieur Petit, Doctor Regent of the Faculty of Paris, sworn by the Kings Chief Physician, In his Patent, he is stiled Councellour of State, he has for standing Wages, Board-Wages, and other Fees, above 13000 l. yearly; for he has 1800 l. yearly standing-Wages, paid by the General Treasurer of the Kings Houshold, half a Pistol a day, or 1825 l. yearly Board-Wages, paid by the Master of the Chamber of Deniers, 8000 l. Pension, paid at the Treasure Royal, which amounts in all, to 11625 l. Besides which, he has Meat for his Broth, consist­ing of twelve pounds of Meat, viz. Beef, Mutton and Veal in equal portions, and a Fat, valued at 37 d. and six deniers, or a half-penny, the King allowing for the whole, 4 l. 17 d. half-penny a day, which he receives all in money, on those days the Officers of the Dauphins Mouth make ready no Victuals for him, as usually in Journies, &c. But upon other days when they dress Victu­als for him, the said Officers give him but a Crown a day, and a certain portion of Meat for his Dinner and Supper, agreed upon between him and them: He has likewise a Loaf, called the Loaf of Essay, or tasting Loaf, and a Bottle of Wine, called the Bot­tle of Essay, or the tasting Bottle, every day, from the Kings Baker and Wine-Merchant.

One Chyrurgeon in Ordinary, who has 1000 l. standing Wages, and half a Pistol a day, or 1825 l. Board-Wages.

[Page 274] One Barber in Ordinary, who has 700 l. stand­ing Wages, and a Crown a day; or 1098 l. Board-Wages.

One Cash-Keeper, or Pay-Master, for the Dau­phin, and all the Children of France, at 400 l. standing Wages, and 1464 l. Board-Wages.

One Arquebuse, or Armour-Bearer, whose ap­pointments amounts to 2200 l.

For Hunting, one chief Hunter, a Pack of Hounds with Officers belonging to it, for the Hare; and his Highness taking a fancy lately for Wolf-Hunting, since the year 1682. maintains for that sport, a Pack of a hundred Hounds, and twenty Saddle Horses, four Lieutenants in Ordinary, four Prick­ers, or Huntsmen, two Servants of the Blood-Hounds, &c.

The four Lieutenants in Ordinary have each of them 1500 l. yearly appointments paid them out of the Dauphins own private Money-Box, or Privy-Purse, by the hands of his said Highnesses chief Valet de Chambre, or Waiting-Man: Both they, and the rest under them, are Commanded by the Grand Louveteer, or Wolf-Hunter of France.

Two Yeomen, or Grooms of the Bed-Chamber, who have each of them 400 l. standing Wages out of the Privy-Purse of the Kings Bed-Chamber, 180 l. gratuity, at the Treasure-Royal, and 732 l. Board-Wages, at the rate of 40 d. a day.

One Master of the Mathematicks, at 1500 l. Sa­lary, who is the Famous Monsieur Blondel, who was formerly Envoy Extraordinary to the Northern Kings, to the Princes Electours of the Empire, and the Grand Signior.

One Reader.

One Master Designer, who has 300 l. standing Wages paid by the Treasurer of the Houshold 1200 l. Board-Wages, at the Chamber of Deniers, and 1200 l. Gratuity, at the Treasure Royal.

One Writing-Master 1200 l. one Fencing-Master [Page 275] 1800 l. one Dancing-Master, who has 2000 l. stand­ing Salary out of the Privy-Purse, and 100 Crowns Extraordinary, when his Highness is abroad in the Country, or in the Field.

One Musick-Master, who has 600 l. out of his Highnesses own Privy-Purse.

Three Yeomen, or Grooms of the Wardrobe, who have every one 732 l. Board-Wages, at the rate of 40 d. a day, and 240 l. gratuity at the Treasure Royal.

One Landress of the Body, 600 l. and

One Starcher of the Body, at 1000 l. yearly Sa­lary, standing and Board-Wages.

One Porter, or Burden-Carrier of the Bed-Chamber, who has 30 d. or half a Crown a day, or 549 l a year Board-Wages.

The King being minded to place several Persons of Quality about the Dauphin, continually to attend him, as his Gentlemen in Ordinary, without creat­ing any fixed Offices or Places of that nature, made choice for that purpose of nine Lords of his Court, viz. the Count de Torigny, the Marquiss of Floren­sac, the Count of St. Maure, the Chevalier de Grig­nan, the Marquiss of Dangeau, the Count of Chi­vergny, the Marquiss of Thiange de ChalenCay, the Marquiss d' Ʋrfé, and the Marquiss d' Antain.

His Highness had three chief Pages, called the Children of Honour, of whom there remains but one, who is at present Bishop and Duke of Laon, and one of the antient Ecclesiastical Peers of France. These Lords, or Gentlemen of Honour, have every of them a Pension of 2000 Crowns: When the Marshals of the Lodgings, or chief Harbingers, mark them out Lodgings when they follow the Court, they stile them Gentlemen of Honour to the Dau­phin. Besides these, there are two Gentlemen, that have been Pages to his Highness, to whom the King gives 3000 l. Pension, and two present Pages of his Bed-Chamber, a Governour of the Pages, who [Page 276] has 2000 l. out of the Privy-Purse, one Servant or Groom of the Pages, and a Sub-Groom, one chief Master of the Horse, and twelve Footmen.

Other Officers belonging to the King, that after their Quarters Service to his Majesty, go and serve the Dauphin. Officers under the Great Almoner,

An Almoner, a Chaplain, a Clerk of the Chappel, and a Groom of the Chappel.

Ʋnder the Great Master of the Houshold.

One Master of the Houshold, two Gentlemen Waiters, the Masters of the Chamber of Deniers, and the Comptrollers-General of the Kings Houshold, are likewise so at the same time to the Dauphins, and send thither one Comptroller, one Clerk or De­puty of the Chamber of Deniers, and two Clerks Deputies of the General-Comptrollers, serving six Months each. Two Chiefs of the Goblet, viz. One Chief Pantler, and one Chief Butler of the Mouth, and one Aid to them both.

The Officers of the Goblet are allowed 3 l. or a Crown augmentation for every Meal the Dauphin eats in private.

The said Officers are moreover allowed for Salt, Pepper, Herbs, and other things for the dressing of their own diet, because his Highness keeps no com­mon Kitchin, 45 l. every Quarter.

There are two Grooms, or Yeomen of the Gob­let, who have for furnishing Cups, Glasses, and other things for his Highnesses Table, 36 l. a quar­ter, and 50 l. a piece for Cloaths every year.

An Usher of the Mouth, who has 150 l. Wages, and 40 d. augmentation to furnish inter-Messes at every Meal his Highness eats at his own private Table.

[Page 277] One Master Cook, at 150 l. Wages, one Rosting-Cook, and one Boiling-Cook, at 100 l. Wages, each; these three have besides, for looking after the Vessels, 30 l. quarterly, and the Rosting-Cook 6 l. a quarter more for furnishing great Knives; one Porter of the Mouth, who has 75 l. standing Wages, and 36 l. quarterly, for furnishing and looking after Pots and Pans, Cords, Pails, and Brooms, &c.

The Grooms and Porters of the Goblet, and of the Mouth, are allowed 6 l. a quarter for Straw; and the three Grooms of the Kitchin have each of them 50 l. a year for Cloaths.

They that serve under them, as Children of the Kitchin, have each of them 8 l. a quarter, for Lard­ing Pins, and Packthred.

An Usher of the Hall.

A Serdeau, or Water-Server, who is allowed for Salt, Knives, Cups, Glasses, and other things for the last Course, together with his Wages, 600 l. And his Servant under him, is allowed 50 l. more for a Suit of Cloaths.

One Chief, or Head of the Wood-Yard, or Fuel-Office, and one Aid, or Helper.

The Officers of the Fuel-Office, or Wood-Yard, are allowed for Straw every Month, 6 l. each, which is 144 l. a year, and for Salt, Pepper, Herbs, and other things necessary for dressing their Diet, be­cause his Highness has no common Kitchin, 45 l. a quarter; And the Aid of the Fueller, or chief of the Wood-Yard, having no standing Wages assigned him in the Establishment, is allowed in lieu thereof 50 l. a quarter; and the Groom of the Wood-Yard has 50 l. yearly, for a Suit of Cloaths.

One Linnen-Draper and Landrer for Table-Lin­nen, and other Linnen belonging to the said Offices, that waits all the year, and a Servant under him who is allowed 50 l. a year for Cloaths.

Officers that come out of the Kings Chamber, and Wardrobe.

Two Ushers of the Chamber, four Valets de Cham­bre, or Waiting-men of the Chamber, one Cloak Carrier, one Barber in Ordinary, and one other every four Months from among the Kings.

They have every one 466 l. 13 d. 4 Deniers, standing Wages, and 200 l. gratuity, but their Board-Wages are different, he that waits the four first Months, which are reckoned from October, has 369 l. the second 360 l. and the third and last, 366 l. Board-Wages.

One Upholster, one Chief Valet, or Yeoman of the Wardrobe, and two other Valets, or Yeomen of the Wardrobe.

Officers of Health.

One Chyrurgeon, who has 600 l. Wages, or gratuity, and 5 l. a day for his Diet, which is in all 455 l. a quarter.

One Apothecary, who has likewise 5 l. a day, and an Aid or Helper, whom he is to Diet.

Officers under the Kings Great Master of the Horse.

One of the Kings Chief Querries, and two of his Querries in Ordinary of the Great Stable, and some time ago the four Eldest Pages of the Kings Great Stables, used to attend at the Dauphins Stable, and Exercise the Horses.

Officers of the Kings Guards, attending the Dauphin, are

Either a Lieutenant, or an Ensign of the Life-Guards by turns, who are allowed half a Pistol a day, or 450 l. a quarter for their Diet.

One Exempt, one Brigadeer, one Sub-Brigadeer, Fifty French Life-Guard-Men, and six Suissers.

The Clerks of the Watch too, both of the French Life-Guards, and of the hundred Suissers, are al­lowed for furnishing Straw, and Straw-Beds, and for Carriage of things and persons for the Dauphins Service, 50 l. a quarter, i. e. 200 l. a year.

Four Guards of the Gate, one Exempt, and four or six Guards of the Provostship, when his Highness is not with the King. Besides these Guards drawn out of the Kings, the Dauphin has

One Company of Gensdarmes, or Men at Arms, and one Company of Light-Horse, of whom he is Captain, who have their Lieutenant-Captains, their Deputy-Lieutenants, and other inferiour respective Officers.

Both these Companies are called Dauphins, the Company of Men at Arms, being called, the Dau­phin-Men at Arms, and that of the Light-Horse, the Dauphin Light-Horse: He has likewise a Regiment of Horse, a Regiment of Foot, and a Regiment of Dragoons.

CHAP. XXXI.

Of the Dauphinesses Houshold. Her Ecclesiastical Officers, are

A Chief Almoner, who is the Bishop of Meaux, Wages 200 l. An Almoner in Ordinary, 180 l. Four other Almoners, 150 l. each. A Confessour in Ordinary, 180 l. His Brother, or Companion, 90 l. One Chaplain in Ordinary, 120 l. Four other Chaplains, at 120 l. each. Four Clerks of the Chappel, 100 l each. A Confessour for the Houshold, 120 l. Four Grooms of the Chappel, 100 l. each.

The Ladies and other Female Officers of her Bed-Chamber, are

A Lady of Honour, who is the Dutchess of Arpa­jon, of the Family of Harcourt, whose Salary is 1200 l.

Two Tiring Ladies, who are the Marshal of Ro­cheforts Lady, and the Famous Marchioness of Maintenon, who have 600 l each.

The Mother or Governess of the Maids, 600 l. who is the Marchioness of Montchevreuil.

Two Under Governesses, who have each of them 400 l. standing Wages, and a gratuity or Pension of 1000 l.

The Lady of Honour of the Dauphiness, has the priviledge to put in one of her Daughters, as Chief Maid of Honour to her Highnesses, who is not sub­ject to the Governess or Sub-Governess of the other Maids of Honour, and takes Place above the rest in the Coach, and at all Ceremonies and Solemnities.

[Page 281] Her Highnesses Chevaliers, or Knight of Honours Daughter, may likewise place her self among her Maids of Honour, especially at Great Ceremonies; And accordingly we find, that the Princess of Har­court, Daughter to the Count de Brancas, Knight of Honour to the Queen-Mother, often assisted with her said Majesties other Maids of Honour, at the Ceremony performed by her Majesty, of washing the poor Peoples Feet, and serving them on Maundy Thursdays.

Six Maids of Honour.

One Chief Waiting Gentle-Woman, at 300 l. Salary, eleven other Waiting Gentlewomen, at 120 l. each, and one Landress of the Body.

Other Officers of her Chamber, of the Male Sex, are

A Knight of Honour, or Chief Gentleman Usher, whose Salary is 1200 l. of whom we shall speak further, under the Article of her Highnesses Sta­bles: He that at present enjoys this place, is the Marquiss d'Angeau, one of the Gentlemen of Ho­nour to the Dauphin.

One Usher in Ordinary of the Chamber, whose Salary is 300 l. Four Ushers quarterly Waiters, at 180 l. each. Two Ushers of the Cabinet, or Clo­set, half yearly Waiters, 150 l. each. Two Ushers of the Anti-Chamber, who have the same Salary. One Chief Valet de Chambre, at 300 l. One Valet, or Yeoman of the Chamber in Ordinary, 200 l. Sixteen other Valets, or Yeomen of the Chamber quarterly Waiters, at 180 l. each.

One Porte-Manteau, or Glove-Carrier in Ordi­nary, 180 l. Three Grooms in Ordinary of the Chamber, and of the Closet, at 100 l. each.

The Officers of the Wardrobe, are

A Master of the Wardrobe, at 300 l. Salary; A Yeoman of the Wardrobe in Ordinary, and three other Yeomen of the Wardrobe, who have each, 150 l. Salary, one Womans Taylor, four Uphol­sters, one Keeper of the Moveables or Furniture, 180 l. one Player on the Virginals, 400 l. one Sing­ing Master, one Dancing-Master, at 400 l. Salary each. One Clock-Maker, and Clock-Keeper in Ordinary, 300 l, one Shoomaker 110 l, two Joyn­ers, at 60 l. each, one Chair-man for business, 300 l. two Porters, or Burden-Carriers of the Chamber, at 60 l. each, one Groom or Servant in Ordinary, to rub the Floors within the Rails in her Highnesses Apartments.

Her Officers of Health, are

One Chief Physician, who has 600 l. standing Wages, and 6000 l. Pension; His name is Monsieur Moreau, Doctor of Physick, of the faculty of Paris, and one other Physician for the Houshold, at 300 l. One Chief Chyrurgeon, or Chyrurgeon of the Body, 200 l. One Chyrurgeon in Ordinary, and two other Chyrurgeons waiting by the half year, at 120 l. Sa­lary every one; One Apothecary of the Body, who has 300 l. Salary for himself, and 80 l. for his Ser­vant, and one Apothecary for the Houshold, at 300 l.

Of the Masters of the Houshold, and other Officers of the Houshold, and of the Offices called the seven Offices.

The Chief Master of the Houshold is the Count de Chamarande, under whom there are

One Master of the Houshold in Ordinary, whose [Page 283] Salary is 600 l. Four other Masters of the Houshold quarterly Waiters, at 500 l. each.

One Gentleman-Waiter in Ordinary, 800 l. Twelve other Gentlemen-Waiters, waiting quar­terly, four every quarter, who have every of them 400 l. Salary.

Two General Comptrollers, waiting half-yearly, 350 l. each.

One Comptroller in Ordinary, who has 400 l. standing Wages, 1800 l. Board-Wages, his Diet at Court all the year round, and 240 l. as a Fee for Paper; and four Comptrollers of the Offices, at 200 l. each. In the Offices called

The seven Offices, are these Officers.

1. In the Office of the Goblet, which consists of the Pantry of the Mouth, and the Buttry of the Mouth, are these Officers.

To the Pantry of the Mouth, or her Highnesses own Pantry, belong

Four Chiefs, at 180 l. yearly Salary to each; Four Aids, or Helpers, 120 l. each; Four Grooms 150 l. each; One Landress of the Goblet, and Pantry of the Mouth, at 120 l. Salary.

In the Buttry of the Mouth, are

Four Chiefs, four Aids, and four Grooms, who have the same pay as those of the Pantry; and four Wine-Couriers, at 75 l. each.

2. In the Kitchin of the Month, or the Dauphinesses own Kitchin, are

Two Ushers in Ordinary, waiting by the half year, 400 l. each; four other Ushers quarterly Waiters, at 160 l. each; two Master-Cooks, 140 l. [Page 284] each; four Boiling, and four Rosting-Cooks, 120 l. each; four Pastry-Cooks, 100 l. each; four Chil­dren of the Kitchin, at 60 l. each; four Galopins, or Under-Cooks in Ordinary, at 60 l. each; one Keeper of the Vessels in Ordinary, who is to give security for, and to make good what Vessels shall be lost; four other Ushers, 60 l. each; two Grooms, or Yeomen in Ordinary, 300 l. each; One Landress to wash the Linnen belonging both to the Kitchin of the Mouth, and the Common Kitchin of the Hou­shold, whose Salary is 120 l. Four Serdeau's, or Water-Servers, 80 l. each; One Master of the Houshold to take care of the Table of the Chief Master of the Houshold, or the Dauphinesses Table of Honour, whose Salary is 400 l.

3. In the Common Pantry, or Pantry of the Houshold, are

Eight Chiefs, at 160 l. and eight Aids, at 120 l. yearly Salary to each; One Groom, or Yeoman in Ordinary, at 300 l. and one Landrer, at 120 l.

4. In the Common Buttry, are

Eight Chiefs, and eight Aids, who have the same pay as the former; one Groom, or Yeoman in Ordinary of the Vessels, and one Groom or Yeo­man in Ordinary of the Bottles, at 300 l. each.

5. In the Common Kitchin, are

Four Ushers, at 160 l. each; four Masters, or Head-Cooks, at 140 l. four Boiling-Cooks, and four Rosting-Cooks, all at 120 l. each; four Chil­dren of the Kitchin, and two Galopins, or Under-Cooks in Ordinary, at 60 l. each; four Porters, who serve by the half year, viz. Two each half year, whereof one waits at the Great Common, and [Page 285] the other at the little Common, with each of them a Servant; they have each of them a Salary of 30 l. paid by the Treasurers of the Houshold, and an allowance besides of 6 l. a Month, and Bread and Wine. Two Verduriers, or Herbmen, serving by the half year, at 80 l. each; and one Herbman in Ordinary, that waits all the year, and holds his place by Commission, who has 30 l. yearly paid by the Treasurers of the Houshold, 9 l. a Month, and Bread and Wine all the year; one Keeper of the Vessels, who is to give security, and make good what is lost, at 360 l. four other Ushers of the Kitchin, 60 l. each; one Yeoman, or Groom of the Cupboard, and one Yeoman of the Spits; 300 l. each; and one Merchant Brasier, or Tinker, 60 l.

Note, That the Officers of the little Common, or little Kitchin of her Highnesses Houshold, dress the Meat for her Highnesses Table of Honour, kept by the Chief Master of her Houshold, for that of the Ladies of Honour, and for that of Mrs. Besola, Waiting-Gentlewoman to her Highness.

6. In the Fruitry, are

Eight Chiefs, at 100 l. eight Aids, at 60 l. and one Yeoman in Ordinary, at 300 l. Salary.

7. In the Wood-Yard; or Fuel-Office, are

Four Chiefs, at 100 l. eight Aids at 60 l. and one Chair and Table-Carrier in Ordinary, at 360 l. Salary.

After the seven Offices, it will not be improper to place the following Officers, viz.

One Baker at 60 l. one Captain, or Master of the Carriage belonging to the seven Offices, and to the Chamber of Deniers, at 60 l. four Ushers of the Hall, at 120 l. four Ushers of the Office, or Count­ing-House, at 100 l. two Marshals of the Hall of [Page 286] the Maids of Honour, at 80 l. one Marshal of the Women belonging to the Maids of Honour, at 60 l. one Usher of the Hall of the said Maids of Honour, at 60 l. and four Taylors belonging to the Maids of Honour, who have also 60 l. each.

Of the Officers of her Hignesses Stable.

Though the Knight of Honour, or Chief Gentle­man Usher to her Highness, belongs properly to her Privy-Chamber, yet because his Function of hand­ing her Highness, is sometimes performed by the Chief Querry, or Master of the Horse, and other Querries belonging to her Stables; and because he not only receives the Oath of Allegiance from the Querry in Ordinary, and the other Querries; and on certain occasions gives Orders to the Officers of the Stables, he likewise may be reckoned the Chief Officer there, as well as in the Privy-Chamber, and her Highnesses whole Houshold.

The Knight of Honour, or Chief Gentleman Usher, receives likewise the Oath of Allegiance from the Master of the Houshold in Ordinary, and from the other Masters of the Houshold, or Stewards quar­terly Waiters, from the Gentlemen-Waiters in Or­dinary, and those Waiting quarterly, from the Ge­neral-Comptrollers, and from the Comptrollers-Clerks of Offices, waiting both in Ordinary and Quarterly, from the Almoner of her Highnesses Houshold, called the Almoner of St. Roch; from the Marshals of the Lodgings, or Chief Harbin­gers, from the other Harbingers, both of the Body, and of the Houshold, and from the Porters; and in the Book of the Establishment of her High­nesses Houshold, he is placed before the Chief Master of the Houshold, and is the first Offi­cer of the Masculine Sex belonging to her Highness.

The Chief Gentleman, or Master of the Horse to [Page 287] her Highness, has a Salary of 800 l. and is at pre­sent, Marshal of Bellesonds. He keeps four Footmen in the Dauphinesses Livery, which are allowed 365 l. apiece Wages and their Diet, and 120 l. towards Cloaths and other little things; under the Chief Querry, or Master of the Horse, there are,

One Querry in Ordinary, at 600 l. and four Querries quarterly Waiters, at 400 l. yearly Salary; one Querry Cavalcadour, or Rider, who Commands in the Stable in the absence of the Chief Master of the Horse, and that tenders his hand to the Dauphi­ness in the absence of the Querry in Ordinary, and of the other Querries quarterly Waiters: He has 400 l. standing Wages, 800 l. Board-Wages, 200 l. for a Servant, and 600 l. in lieu of Fees at the ad­mission of Pages; and is allowed a Horse out of her Highnesses Stables every time he has a mind to ride out.

One Cash-Keeper, or Pay-Master of the Stable, who has 90 l. standing Wages, and 800 l. Board-Wages: Four Manteau-Carriers waiting quarterly, who have each 150 l. yearly Wages, 91 l. 5 d. for their Diet during their Quarters waiting, and 60 l. gratuity; and while they are in waiting, they have Horses allowed them out of the Stable.

Four Harbingers quarterly Waiters, who have 150 l. standing Wages, and 20 d. a day, or 91 l. 5 d. during their quarters waiting for their Diet, and 60 l. gratuity, and in their Waiting time they are allowed Horses out of the Stable when her Highness goes abroad into the Country.

One Head Groom in Ordinary, who has 600 l. for his Wages and Diet, and 84 l. more in lesser Fees.

Four other Head-Grooms, who have each 365 l. for Wages and Diet, a Livery-Coat once in two years, and 86 l. more in other little Fees and Al­lowances. Under them there are several other helping Grooms.

[Page 288] Four Farriers, at 90 l. each: they serve quar­terly, and during their quarters service, are allowed besides 450 l. for Shoing and Physicking the Hor­ses, and 16 d. a day for a Journey-Man, or Ser­vant; and both they and their Servants, wear her Highnesses Livery, and are allowed Horses out of her Stable, when her Highness Travels.

One Keeper of the Moveables, and of the Keys of the Wardrobe of the Stables, who has 240 l. standing Wages, and 365 l. Board-Wages, and is lodged at the Stables, and is allowed a Horse when her Highness Travels.

Other Officers belonging to the Stables, are

Two Chyrurgeons serving by the half year, at 200 l. One Upholster, who is to furnish 71 Beds, at 3 d. a Bed, who holds his place only as long as no Body shall offer to do it cheaper. Four Tay­lors by Commission, who are paid at a certain rate for all the Cloaths they make for the menial Ser­vants of the Stable; and six other Tradesmen, who are allowed only 110 l. apiece bare Wages, without any further allowance for their work.

Of her Highnesses Coaches, Chairs or Sedans, and Litters, and the necessary Servants belonging to them.

The Dauphiness had from the beginning two Coaches called the Coaches of the Body, and since the Queens Death, the King has added a third: To the first belong two Coachmen, and one Posti­lion, and to the two others, one Coachman, and one Postilion to each. The two Coachmen belong­ing to the first, serve quarterly, every other quar­terly: Both the Coachmen and Postilions of her Highnesses Body, and those of her other Coaches, have all the same standing Wages, Profits and Ap­pointments; [Page 289] that is to say, the Coachmen have 365 l. each, standing Wages, a Suit of Cloaths every year, and a great Coat or Cloak every two years, and 125 l. in other little Fees and Profits, and the Postilions the same standing Wages, the same allowance of Cloaths, and 82 l. besides in other little Fees and Appointments.

Her Highness has one Chair or Sedan, to which belong four Chair, or Sedan-Men, who have every of them 365 l. standing Wages, a Suit of Cloaths every year, and a Coat or Cloak every two years; 50 l. in other little Fees, and 60 l. gratuity, by an Order for that purpose.

Two Litters of the Body, and another, to each of which belong two Muleteers, who have the same Wages and Appointments, the one as the other; viz. 365 l. standing Wages, a Suit of Cloaths every year, and a great Coat or Cloak every two years, and 66 l. in other small Fees and Appoint­ments.

Her Highness has besides, one Coach called, the Querries Coach, one called the waiting Gentle wo­mens Coach, one called the Maids of Honours Coach, one called the Maids of Honours Womens Coach, and three other Coaches, who have each of them a Coachman and Postilion, with the same Wages and Appointments as abovesaid.

To the Waiting Gentle-Women belong four Foot-men, who have every of them 72 l. standing Wa­ges, a Doublet and Trunk-Breeches every year, and a Coat or Cloak every two years, and 50 l. in other little Fees and Allowances.

To the Maids of Honour belong likewise two Footmen, who have the same Wages, and other profits, as her Highnesses own Footmen.

Of her Highnesses Pages and Footmen.

There is one Governour of the Pages, who has 200 l. standing Wages, 200 l. Gratuity, and 600 l. in lieu of the ancient Fees allowed at the admission of new Pages, now taken away; besides which, he has a Table all the year long, a Servant and a Horse maintain'd, and his Firing and Candle.

The Pages are twelve in number, who have all their Diet, Firing, Washing, Lodging, and Horses at the Stable, where they are also waited on and instructed in all gentile and noble accomplishments, and have every of them besides, 260 l. standing Wages, besides their Livery-Suits every year, and Cloaks every two years.

Note, That the Queens and Dauphinesses Pages have hanging Sleeves behind their Doublets, as have the Pages of the Kings Bed-Chamber.

There is one Tutour of the Pages, who has 320 l. standing Wages, and his Lodging, Diet, and wash­ing with them; he is allowed two Billets, or Logs, and two Fagots, during the six Winter-Months, and two Faggots only during the six other Months, and every day, a quarter of a pound of Candles: He has for his Fees, what the Pages leave off, and 20 l. out of what is allowed for every of their Shoes and Stockings.

One Almoner or Chaplain of the Pages, who has his Diet there, and his Fire and Candle all the year, and a Servant and a Horse maintain'd for his Ser­vice.

One Professour of the Mathematicks, 300 l. One Fencing-Master 180 l.

One Vaulting-Master, one Writing-Master, and one Dancing-Master, at 180 l. each.

There are two Servants of the Pages; they have a Suit and Cloak out of those the Pages leave off, and what the Pages please to give them at their [Page 291] Admission, and the profit of the Flambeaux.

One Landrer of the Pages, who holds his place by Commission.

One Master of the Houshold, or Marshal of the Table of the Pages; Sixteen Footmen serving quarterly, eight every other quarter, who have every of them 365 l. standing Wages, one Doub­let, and one pair of Trunk-Breeches every year in Summer, one Cloak every two years, and 130 l. in other little Fees and Perquisites, besides their Fees for Ʋmbrellas, their New-Years Gifts, &c.

And lastly, There is one Porter of the Stable.

Of the Marshals of the Lodgings, and Harbingers.

There are four Marshals of the Lodgings, or Chief Harbingers, at 400 l. each. Four Harbingers of the Body, at 200 l. and eight Harbingers in Or­dinary, at 150 l. each; four Porters 120 l.

Of the Officers of the House, Treasure, Lands, and Business.

There is one Intendant-General of all these, whose Salary is 6000 l. One Intendant of the House, who has in Wages, and other Appointments, 8000 l. One Secretary of the Commandments, House, and Finances or Treasures, at 3000 l. Pen­sion. The Secretary of the Commandments, is sti­led in the Brief, or Grant of his Place, Councellour of State.

And lastly, One General-Treasurer of the Hou­shold, whose Salary is 4000 l.

Of her Highnesses Guards.

The King allows the Dauphiness for her Guard, one Exempt, and eight of his Life-guards, and two of his hundred Suissers.

CHAP. XXXII.

Of the Servants and Domesticks belonging to the Dauphins Children.

Though there remain commonly above six or se­ven of the hundred Suissers with these Princes, yet there are but four of them allowed every one their Loaf and Quart of Wine out of the Common Pan­try, and Buttry, or Cellar; But the Courts of Guards, whether of French or Suissers, are always allowed Wood according to their number; if they be a whole Company, or half a one, or but the third part of one, they are allowed Wood proportionably.

[Page 293] The Duke of Anjou has an Under-Governess, one Chief Waiting-Gentlewoman, and four Waiting-Gentlewomen, that till his Birth, belonged to the Duke of Burgundy, and four others, who have all the same Salary as the Duke of Burgundy's, two Nur­ses, one Porter of the Moveables of the Chamber, one Kitchin-Woman, one Valet de Chambre, and one other Servant of the Chamber, who have all the same pay as the like Officers at the Duke of Bur­gundies: Besides these Domesticks, there are di­vers other Officers belonging to the King, that in their turns wait on the Dauphins Children, viz. One Chaplain and Clerk of the Chappel, and Oratory of his Majesty, who assist at the Mass, that is said every day in the Chamber of the said Princes.

The Chief Physician, or some other in his place, visits them every day; the Ushers of the Kings Chamber, keep the Doors of their Chamber too: the Exempt in Ordinary remaining with his High­ness of Burgundy, is Monsieur de Coeurlis, Exempt of the Kings Life-Guards; besides whom there are some Life-guard Men, and several Footmen.

When the Dauphins Children stay at Versailles, or at any other Royal Palace, when the King re­moves from thence to any other of his Houses, his Majesty leaves with them, a Brigadeer in Ordinary, a Brigadeer in Waiting, a Sub-Brigadeer, and six Life-guard Men. What the Functions and Duties of these several Officers and Servants are, we have in other places of the Book, already described.

Though there remain commonly above six or se­ven of the hundred Suissers with these Princes, yet there are but four of them allowed every one their Loaf and Quart of Wine out of the Common Pan­try, and Buttry, or Cellar; But the Courts of Guards, whether of French or Suissers, are always allowed Wood according to their number; if they be a whole Company, or half a one, or but the third part of one, they are allowed Wood proportionably.

[Page 294] The Duke of Berry has Domesticks and Servants of the same nature, and their pay is the same with those belonging to his Elder Brethren, after whose Models all the Housholds of the Dauphins Chil­dren, how many soever he may have, will be framed.

CHAP. XXXIII.

Of Monsieurs, or his Royal Highness the Duke of Orleans his Houshold, and First,

Of his Ecclesiastical Officers, who are

A Chief Almoner, who is the Bishop of Manse, whose Salary is 2000 l.

One Confessour 2000 l. One Master of the Ora­tory 1200 l. One Master of the Chappel and Mu­sick, 900 l. standing Wages, and 600 l. Board-Wages: One Almoner in Ordinary, 700 l. stand­ing Wages, and 500 l. Gratulty; Four Almoners quarterly Waiters, at 240 l. each, and four other Honorary, or Titular Almoners at the same allow­ance: One Preacher in Ordinary 600 l. One Chap­lain in Ordinary 400 l. Four other Chaplains quar­terly Waiters, at 200 l. each; One Clerk of the Chappel in Ordinary, 240 l. Four Clerks of the Chappel quarterly Waiters, at 100 l. each; Two Grooms of the Chappel serving by the half year, at 300 l. each; and one Almoner, and one Con­fessour for the Houshold, 60 l. each.

Of the Officers of the Bed-Chamber, and above Stairs.

There are two Chief Gentlemen of the Chamber, that wait by turns every other year, whose Salary is 3000 l. each. They are at present the Count of Tonerre for this year, and the Marquiss of Châtillon for the next.

One Chief Chamberlain in Ordinary, at 2400 l. who is the Chevalier de Liscouet: Four other Chief Chamberlains Quarterly Waiters, 2000 l. each: Nine Chief Chamberlains for Business, at 2000 l. each: Nine Gentlemen of the Chamber, 1000 l. each: One Introductour, or Conductour of Ambas­sadours, 2000 l. One Chief Gentleman in Ordina­ry, 1800 l. Thirty six other Gentlemen in Ordinary quarterly Waiters, at nine a quarter, 500 l. each; One Governour of the Pages of the Chamber 400 l. Four Servants of the Pages 200 l. each, and one Dancing-Master for the Pages.

The Officers of Health, are

One Chief Physician, whose Salary is 2000 l. Four Physicians waiting quarterly 500 l. each: Three other consulting Physicians, 400 l. each. One Apothecary, both of the Body and of the Houshold, 1800 l. and his Aid 600 l. One Chief Chyrurgeon 1800 l. One Chyrurgeon in Ordinary 800 l. Eight other Chyrurgeons waiting quarterly, 300 l. each. One Chyrurgeon for the Houshold, 300 l. One Operatour for the Teeth, 600 l. One Barber in Or­dinary of the Chamber, 500 l. Four other Barbers of the Chamber quarterly Waiters, at 300 l. Wages, and 100 l. for what they furnish, as Rasors, Washballs, and one Barber for Bathes and Stoves, 150 l.

Other Officers of the Chamber.

Two General Comptrollers of the smaller Expen­ces of the Chamber, private Coffer, and Stable, 1200 l. Four Chief Valets de Chambre, or Waiting men in Ordinary serving quarterly, and lying in the Chamber, and keeping the Keys of it, 600 l. each. Eight Ushers of the Chamber, 400 l. One Usher of the Closet in Ordinary, 500 l. One Usher of the Chamber in Ordinary, and four Ushers of the Closet, at 500 l. each. Four Ushers of the Anti-Chamber, 300 l. Valet de Chambre, or Waiting-man in Ordi­nary of the Chamber, 500 l. Sixteen other Valets de Chambre, waiting quarterly, 400 l. One Painter in Ordinary, 600 l. One Cloak-Carrier in Ordi­nary, 600 l. Four other Cloak-Carriers waiting quarterly, 400 l. Four Servants of the Chamber, 200 l. Two other Servants of the Chamber, 200 l. paid out of the Privy-Purse. Four Upholsters, 150 l. Four Chairmen for business, 150 l. Four Carriers of the Beds and Coffers of the Chamber serving two each half year, 75 l. Two Landrers, 100 l. each: Two Semstresses serving by the half year, 60 l. each; Four Arquebuse, or Arms-Bear­ers, 400 l. One Keeper of the Closet of Arms, 200 l. and one Captain of the Mules, 450 l.

In the Musick of the Chamber, there are

One Master and Intendant of the Musick, 1000 l, and twelve Musicians in Ordinary, 600 l. viz. Two Counter-Tenours, two Low-Tenours, two High-Te­nours, two Base, two Treble-Viols, one Base-Viol, and one for the Harpsichals.

In the Wardrobe.

Two Masters of the Wardrobe, who have each a Salary of 4500 l. and a third under them. Four Chief Valets, or Yeomen of the Wardrobe, who keep the Keys of the Coffers, 600 l. Twelve other Valets or Yeomen, 300 l.

One Starcher. Four Servants or Grooms of the Wardrobe, 200 l. each; Two Taylors of the Body, 120 l. and two other Taylors: One Mall-Carrier in Ordinary, 600 l. One Keeper of the Closet of Rarities, 1200 l. One Sweeper, 500 l.

Of the Masters of the Houshold, Gentlemen-Waiters, and of the Officers of the Chamber of Deniers, seven Offices, &c.

There is one Chief Master, or Steward of the Houshold, 2000 l. One Master in Ordinary, 1200 l. Four Masters quarterly Waiters, 800 l. Two Gene­ral Comptrollers, 700 l. One Gentleman-Waiter in Ordinary, 800 l. Twelve other Gentlemen Waiters serving quarterly, 600 l. each: One Comptroller in Ordinary, 1000 l. Four Comptrollers Clerks of Offi­ces, 300 l. Four Ushers of the Hall waiting quar­terly, 200 l. each.

In the seven Offices, and 1. In the Pantry of the Mouth, and of the Houshold,

Are eight Chiefs, or Head Pantlers, at 200 l. Sa­lary a piece, and as many Aids, or Helpers, at 150 l. each. Two Grooms or Yeomen of the Pantry, 600 l. One Yeoman of the Vessels in Ordinary, 600 l.

Note, That the Heads and their Aids, or Helpers, both of the Pantry, and Buttry of the Mouth, and the Ushers, or their Aids of the Kitchin of the Mouth, when Monsieur eats in his Chamber, or in [Page 298] his Bed, have the honour to serve him in his Cham­ber or Bed, in case neither his Highnesses Chief Gentleman of his Highnesses Chamber, nor the Ma­ster of his Wardrobe chance to be there; and would not yield the performance of that Function to the Chief Valet, or Yeoman of the Chamber; and besides, even in those very places, they wait with their Swords by their sides, at least, the Chiefs and their Helpers of the Pantry and Buttry of the Mouth.

In the Kitchin of the Mouth there are

One Usher in Ordinary, and four other Ushers, at 170 l. each. Four Aids 160 l. Two Children of the Kitchin of the Mouth, 100 l. One Keeper in Ordinary of the Vessels, both of the Kitchin of the Mouth, and the common Kitchin, 600 l. Four Port­ers in the Kitchin of the Mouth, 100 l. Four Ush­ers of the Kitchin of the Mouth, 100 l. One Yeo­man-Keeper of the Cupboard, 600 l. One Yeoman or Groom of the Spits in Ordinary, 600 l. Two Pastry-Cooks of the Mouth, 60 l. and some other Servants.

In the Kitchin of the Houshold, or Common Kitchin, are

Four Ushers, at 340 l. each, and four Aids, at 170 l. Two Children of the Kitchin, 100 l. Four Porters, 100 l. Four other Ushers, 100 l. A Yeo­man of the Spits in Ordinary, 600 l. Four Serdeau's, or Water-Servers, 120 l. Four Verduriers, or Herb-men, 600 l. and two Falotiers, or Carriers of great Fagots so called, 75 l.

In the Fruitery, are

Four Chiefs, 260 l. Four Aids, 150 l. and four Yeomen, or Grooms, 600 l.

In the Fuel-Office, or Wood-yard, are

Four Heads, 260 l. Four Aids, 160 l. Four Ush­ers of the Offices, to serve the Tables, 200 l. Four Carriers of Tables and Chairs, 100 l. Four other Table-Carriers for the Houshold, 100 l. Two Bakers, 60 l. and two Purveyours, 60 l.

Officers belonging to his Highnesses Stables, are

One Chief Master of the Horse, or Qeurry, who is the Marquiss of Effiat, whose Salary is 2400 l. Two Querries in Ordinary that Command in the Stable in the absence of the Master of the Horse, or Chief Querry, at 2000 l. each; and four Querries waiting Quarterly, at 700 l. each. One Almoner, 200 l. Twelve Pages One Governour and Tutour of the Pages, who has 450 l. standing Wages, and 600 l. gratuity. One Dancing-Master. One Fencing-Master. One Lute-Master, and one Ma­thematick-Master, at 200 l. each: Two Ser­vants of the Pages, 75 l. Seventeen Footmen who are allowed 22 d. a day, or 401 l. 10 d. a year for their Diet, Linnen, Shoes and Stockings, and all other things, but their Livery-Cloaths, which are given them by his Royal Highness; when any of them shall die, their number is to be reduced to sixteen. Besides which, there are two other Foot-men that are allowed but 16 d. a day, and their Livery-Cloaths, as above: Four Master, or Head-Grooms, serving two each half year, 100 l. Four Farriers, 60 l. One Captain, or Serjeant of the Car­riage, 200 l. Four Captains, or Serjeants of the Guides 300 l.

[Page 300] His Highness has two Coaches, a first Coach called the Coach of the Body, or Monsieurs own Coach; and a second, to each of which belong two Coachmen and one Postilion; the Coachmens Salary is 200 l. and the Postilions, 150 l.

There is likewise a Coachman of the Isabella Hor­ses, who has 100 l. and a Postilion, who has 75 l. Salary. One Conductor, and one Postilion of the Waggon, who have each of them 100 l. Three Taylors 60 l. One Pay-Master, or Cash-Keeper, 400 l. One Physician, 600 l. Two Apothecaries serving by the half year, 60 l. One Chyrurgeon in Ordinary, 200 l. Four other Barber-Chyrurgeons, serving Quarterly, 60 l. Two Ushers Cavalcadours, or Ri­ders, 400 l. One Cuirasse, or Armour-Bearer, 200 l. One Keeper of the Stables, and of the Moveables thereunto belonging, 300 l. Two Sadlers and Mail Carriers, 100 l. Four Harbingers of the Stable, 200 l. Two Chair-men, who are allowed 20 d. a day, or 370 l. yearly, besides their Liveries; Two Sho-Makers, 60 l. One Wheel-wright, and one Spurrier, at 60 l. each.

Of other Tradesmen and Artificers furnishing necessa­ries to his Highness and his Houshold.

There are twelve, viz. One Embroiderer, one Joyner of the Chamber, one other Joyner, one Silk-man, one Clock, or Watch-Maker, one Lace-Merchant, one Hatter, one Sword-Cutler, and En­richer of Arms, one Feather-man, one Draper, one Grocer, one Sho-maker in Ordinary, and one Prin­ter in Ordinary to the King, and his Royal High­ness, at Orleans.

The Marshals and Harbingers of the Lodgings for his Highness, and his Houshold, are

One Chief Marshal of the Lodgings, who has 2000 l. Salary. One Marshal of the Lodgings in Ordinary, 800 l. Eight other Marshals of the Lodg­ings Quarterly Waiters, 500 l. Four Harbingers of the Body, 250 l. Eight other Harbingers for the Houshold, 200 l.

Officers belonging to his Highnesses Councel, are

One Chancellour and Keeper of the Seal, whose Salary is 8000 l. One Chief Counsellour in the said Councel, 2000 l. Six other Counsellours, 1200 l. Six Masters of Requests, 300 l. One General Pro­ctor, 1000 l. One Advocate in his Highnesses Privy Council, 400 l. One Advocate in Parliament, 300 l. Two Substitutes of the General Proctor, 100 l. Two Ushers of the Councel, serving by the half year, 300 l. Two Audienciers, or Auditors, Keepers of the Rolls of the Chancery, waiting by the half year, 400 l. One Chafe-Wax, 500 l. One Harbinger of his Royal Highnesses Chancery and Councel, 60 l. Two Sollicitors of business, 1200 l. Two Secreta­ries of the Commandments of the Houshold, and of the Treasury, 1800 l. Two Secretaries of the Clo­set, 600 l. One General Super-Intendant, or Sur­veyor-General of his Highnesses Lands and Reve­nues, 8000 l. One Interpreter for Foreign Langua­ges, 200 l. One Historiographer, 600 l. Three Couriers of the Closet, 360 l. Ten Secretaries of the Finances, or Treasury, 600 l. Two Intendants of his Royal Highnesses Houses, Lands and Revenues 2400 l. One Comptroller General of the Finances, or Revenues, waiting by the half year, 2400 l. and one General Treasurer of the Houshold and Re­venues, whose Salary is 4800 l. Besides which

Over the Waters and Forests, there is

One Super-Intendant, or Overseer, great Master Inquisitour, and General-Reformer of the Waters and Forests belonging to the Apanage, or Portion, and other Lands belonging to his R. Highness, who is Mansieur Rose, Secretary of the Kings Cabinet, and President of the Chamber of Accounts, whose Salary is 4000 l.

Over the Buildings, there is

One Chief Super-Intendant, or Surveyor of the Buildings and Gardens, 3000 l. one other Inten­dant of the Buildings and Gardens, 600 l. One Ge­neral Comptroller, 1000 l. One Architect, 600 l. there was likewise formerly, a Carpenter, a Mason, and a Chief Gardiner.

Other Expences his R. Highness is at for his Houses and Gardens, are

To the Keeper of the Palace of St. Clou, 3600 l. to two Gardiners, 8000 l. To the Gardiner of the Kitchin, or Pot-Hearb Garden, 3200 l. To the Gardiner of the Garden Plot of Apollo, 1000 l. To the Dean of St. Clou, for Lands inclosed within the Park, 100 l. To the Chapter of St. Clou, 100 l. To the Chaplain of St. Eustace's Chappel, 46 l. To the Curate of Sevre, in lieu of Tythes, 100 l. To the Receiver of the Rents of the Archbishoprick of Pa­ris, for the Rent of the little Mill, called le Moulin du Tillet, 425 l. for keeping in repair the Tiling and Slates of the said Palace of St. Clou, of the Tillet, of the Dependances of Colombe, and of the House at St. Germains, and at Versailles, 1500 l. To the Keeper of the House at Sevre, 500 l. To those that look after the Gardens of the said House, 1000 l. [Page 303] To the Keeper of the Gate and Grate of the Palace and Garden of St. Clou, 300 l. To a Mole-Catcher, 600 l. To the Gardiner of the Great House at Co­lombe, 600 l. and to the Gardiner of the little House at the same place, 200 l. The total amounting to 21271 l.

Officers of Hunting, and of the Game, belonging to his R. Highness, are

First for the Deer.

One Chief Hunter, or Huntsman, 1000 l. Four Lieutenants, 800 l. Three Gentlemen in Ordinary, 1200 l. Three Gentlemen Prickers in Ordinary, 273 l. 15 d. One Servant of the Dogs on Horseback, 547 l. 10 d. Six lusty Servants of the Dogs in Or­dinary, 273 l. 15 d. Two little Boys to look after the Fleet-Hounds, 219 l. Three Servants in Ordi­nary of the Bloud-Hounds. Four Harbingers, 150 l. One Chyrurgeon in Ordinary, 200 l. Three Horse-Grooms in Ordinary, 219 l. and one Farrier, 150 l.

For Wild Goat-Hunting.

One Chief Hunter, 1000 l. Two Lieutenants wait­ing by the half year, 800 l. Three Prickers in Ordi­nary, 273 l. 15 d. One Servant in Ordinary of the Dogs, on Horseback, 540 l. and 10 d. Four lusty Servants in Ordinary, of the Dogs, avg l. 15 d. Two little Boys to look after the setting Dog, 519 l. Three Servants of the Blood-Hounds, 273 l. and 15 d. One Horse-Groom in Ordinary, 219 l. and one Farrier, 150 l.

For Fox-Hunting.

One Chief Hunter. And for

Wolf-Hunting.

One Chief Hunter, at 1000 l. Salary each. One Lieutenant, 600 l. One Pricker, 547 l. and 10 d. Two Servants of the Dogs, 219 l. Three other Ser­vants to lead on the three Brace of Gray-Hounds, 273 l. 15 d. Two Servants of the Blood-Hounds, at the same Wages.

For the Toils, or Nets.

One Captain, or Serjeant of the Toils, 1200 l. and one Servant of the Dogs, 273 l. 15 d.

For the Hare.

One Chief, or Serjeant of the Pack of Hounds, 1200 l. Two Servants of the Gray-Hounds, 60 l.

For Hawking.

One Chief Falconer, 1000 l.

For Flying at the Crow.

One Master-Falconer, 250 l. Five Prickers, 250 l. One Decoy-Carrier, 250 l. One Chirurgeon of the Falconry, 250 l.

For Flying at the Magpie.

One Master-Falconer, 300 l. and two Prickers, 250 l.

For the Flight in the Fields, or at the Partridge.

One Chief, or Serjeant of the Hawks, 1000 l. One Master-Falconer, 300 l. and one Pricker, 300 l.

Of the Hawks of the Closet.

There is one Chief, or Serjeant, whose Salary is 2000 l.

CHAP. XXXIV.

Of his R. Highnesses Military Officers, and first of his French Life-Guards.

OF these there are two Captains, serving by turns, every other Quarter, who are the Mar­quiss de Maulny, and the Marquiss de la Fare, who have each of them 6000 l. for Wages and Pensi­ons, 2000 l. by way of Supplement to their Wages, and 3000 l. toward the new mounting themselves: Four Lieutenants who have each of them 250 l. standing Wages, and 750 l. Pension; Four Ensigns, at 300 l. standing Wages, and 900 l. Pension. Four old Exempts, at 400 l. standing Wages, and 150 l. Pension. Four other Exempts, at 400 l. standing Wages. Two Exempts waiting by turns, six Months apiece, on Madame his Highnesses Lady, at 600 l. and four other Exempts of his R. Highnesses Life-Guards, waiting ordinarily on the Duke of Chartres, their R. Highnesses Son, at 400 l. Wages; Four Marshals of the Lodgings, or chief Harbingers at 400 l. Ninety six Life-Guard Men in two Com­panies: over whom there are two Brigadeers, who [Page 306] have 1200 l. each, and two Sub-Brigadeers, at 1000 l. each.

On New-Years Day in the Year 1669. Monsieur the Duke of Orleans, took into the number of his Guards, twelve Knights of the Order of St. Lazarus, who are as 'twere the Cadets, or younger Brethren of the Life-Guards. Besides all these, there is a Clerk of the Watch, who has 200 l. Salary, and 1000 l. to furnish Straw-Beds, one Receiver and Pay-Master, and one Treasurer of this Company, who have each a Salary of 1000 l. One Chirurgeon 200 l. and two Trumpeters, who have for Wages, and to mount and remount them, 1000 l. each; and one Kettle-Drummer, who has likewise 1000 l. They all are Esquires by their Places.

In his Suisse Life-Guards there are

Two Captains, who have each 3200 l. standing Wages, and 1500 l. Pension; they are at present, the Chevalier de Liscouet, and the Marquiss de Foix de Rabat. Three Lieutenants, at 1000 l. each. Two Ensigns, one French, and the other a Suisser. Eight Exempts, of which, there are but sour en­tred upon the Establishment, viz. Two French, and two Suissers; they serve quarterly, two every quar­ter. Two Harbingers, or Quarter-Masters, whereof the first has 332 l. and the other but 256 l. Salary. One Clerk of the Watch, who has 662 l. and one Chirurgeon, 200 l. The Company consists of 36 Suisse Souldiers, which are divided into two Divi­sions, their pay is 21 l. 6 d and 8 deniers, or a­bout three Farthings a Month, being 256 l. a year; and lastly, There is one Drummer, one Flute, and one Taylor.

To the Guards of the Gate, There belong

One Captain, at 2000 l. Salary. Two Lieute­nants, 600 l. each; and sixteen Guards of the Gate, at 200 l. each.

CHAP. XXXV.

Of Madame's Houshold.

IN the Houshold of Madame, or of her Royal Highness the Dutchess of Orleans, according to the Establishment, order'd by her Self in Person for this present year. There are

First, These Ecclesiastical Officers, viz.

One Chief Almoner, who has for standing Wages, Board-Wages, and Pensions, 3000 l. One Almoner in Ordinary, for standing and Board-Wages, 1380 l. Four Almoners waiting quarterly, at 140 l. apiece: One Confessour and Preacher in Ordinary, 1200 l. who is the R. Father Jourdan, a Jesuit. One Chap­lain in Ordinary, and four other Chaplains waiting quarterly, at 100 l. each. Four Clerks of the Chap­pel waiting quarterly, 90 l. each. One Groom of the Chappel, who has for his Wages, and to hire Horses when her Highness Travels, 400 l. One Al­moner of the Houshold, who has 100 l. Wages, and 66 l. for what he furnishes: One Confessour of the Houshold, who has 100 l. and one Preacher of the Houshold.

In her Highnesses Chamber, and above Stairs, are these Officers of the Female Sex:

Viz. First, In Quality of Ladies.

One Super-Intendant, or Chief Stewardess of the Houshold, who is the Dutchess of Vantadour, First Lady of Honour. who for standing Wages, Board-Wages, and Pension, has 8000 l. yearly, and is in that quality, first Lady of Honour.

2. One Tiring Lady, who is the Lady Durasfort, who has for all things 6000 l. Salary; being the second Lady of Honour.

2. Mother or Governess of the Maids, who has 800 l. and an Under-Governess, who has 550 l. Sa­lary, and five Maids of Honour, who have 150 l. each.

Secondly, In Quality of Waiting-Gentlewomen.

One Chief Waiting-Gentlewoman, and thirteen others, who have every of them 100 l. Salary. One Landress for Madames own Linnen, at 75 l. One Starcher, 500 l. and four Women to wait on the Maids of Honour, 90 l. each.

After these of the Male Sex, are

One Usher in Ordinary of the Chamber, at 200 l. Four Ushers of the Chamber, at 160 l. each. Four Ushers of the Closet, at 150 l. each. Four Ushers of the Anti-Chamber, at 160 l. each. Two Valets de Chambre, or Yeomen of the Chamber in Ordi­nary, 300 l. Eight other Valets de Chambre, quar­terly Waiters, 160 l. each.

Three Boys, or mean Servants of the Chamber, 140 l. each. Two Semstresses and Landresses ser­ving by the half-year, at 60 l. each. One Chief [Page 309] Physician, who has 6000 l. Salary. One Physician in Ordinary of the Houshold, 1500 l. One Apothe­cary of the Body, of the Houshold, and of the Sta­ble, who has for standing and Board-Wages 1800 l. One Chirurgeon of the Body, who has for Wages and Board-Wages, 2000 l. Two Chirurgeons of the Houshold, 150 l. each.

In the Wardrobe, are

One Master of the Wardrobe, 600 l. One Valet, or Yeoman in Ordinary, 200 l. Four other Yeomen of the Wardrobe, at 140 l. each. Two Tailors, viz. One for her Highnesses own Person, and the other for her Maids of Honour: One Manto, or Glove-Carrier, 600 l.

Officers paid out of the Chamber of Deniers, are

The Knight of Honour, or Chief Gentleman Usher, who is the Marquiss of Rongere, whose Salary is 6000 l. One Chief Master, or Steward of the Houshold, 4000 l. One Master of the Houshold in Ordinary, 2000 l. Four Masters of the Houshold waiting quarterly, at 600 l. each. Two General Comptrollers of the Houshold, and of the Treasury of the Chamber, or Privy-Purse, 1000 l. each. One Gentleman-Waiter in Ordinary, 1200 l. Eight Gen­tlemen-Waiters serving quarterly, 300 l. each. Three Comptrollers-Clerks of Offices, serving by turns four Months apiece, 400 l. each. One Comptroller in Ordinary, 800 l. Four Ushers of the Hall, 100 l. each: In the Pantry, four Chiefs serving quarterly, 160 l. each. Four Aids, 100 l. each; and one Yeoman, or Groom of the Pantry, 400 l. In the Buttry, four Chiefs, 150 l. each; Four Aids, 100 l. each, and one Groom, or Yeoman, 400 l.

In the Kitchin.

Four Ushers waiting by the half year, two each half year, 150 l. each, whereof two are for the Kitchin of the Mouth, and two for the Common Kitchin. Four Aids, viz. Two for the Mouth, and two for the Common Kitchin, 100 l. each. Three Children of the Kitchin in Ordinary, whereof two are for the Mouth, and two for the Common Kitch­in, 60 l. apiece. Four Porters in the Kitchin, two for the one, and two for the other Kitchin, 60 l. each. Four other Ushers of the two Kitchins, two for the one, and two for the other, 60 l. each. Two Keepers in Ordinary of the Vessels, 400 l. each; whereof one is for the Mouth, and the other for the Common Kitchin: In the Common Kitchin, One Yeoman Keeper of the Cupboard in Ordinary, 400 l. One Wine-Courier, 250 l. One Yeoman of the Spits for the Mouth, and another for the Com­mon Kitchin, whereof the first has a Salary of 400 l. and the other but 60 l. One Pastry-Cook, and two Verduriers, or Herb-men, who have each 60 l. The Verduriers, or Herbmen serve by turns, each his half year. Four Serdeaus, or Water-Ser­vers, 100 l. each: In the Fruitery, two Chiefs serving each their half year, 120 l. Two Aids, 60 l. each. One Groom, or Yeoman of the Fruitery, 400 l. Four Ushers of the Office, waiting quarterly, 100 l. each. In the Woodyard, or Fuel-Office, Four Chiefs waiting quarterly, 100 l. each. Four Aids, at 60 l. each. Two Table, and Chair-Car­riers of the Body, 160 l. each; they serve by turns, half a year apiece: Two Table-Carriers for the Houshold, 160 l. each. Two Marshals of the Ladies of Honour, 100 l. each. Two Ushers of the said Maids of Honours Hall, 100 l. each. One Valet de Chambre, or Waiting-man of the Maids of Ho­nour, 75 l. One Keeper of the Moveables, and Jew­els, [Page 311] 160 l. Two Upholsters, 100 l. each. One Chair-man for business, 100 l. Two Porters, or burden Bearers of the Chamber, and two Purvey­ours, all at 60 l. each. Two Faloteers, or Carriers of great Fagots, 60 l. each. Eleven Tradesmen and Artificers, dwelling at Paris, that furnish several necessaries to her Highnesses Houshold, who have 60 l. Salary apiece, viz. One Shomaker in Ordi­nary, one Shomaker of the Wardrobe, one Jew­eller, one Shomaker of the Stable, one Joyner, one Linnen-Draper, one Needle-Maker, one Herb-man, and Orange-Merchant, one Grocer, one Pin-Maker, and one Baker.

There are four Marshals of the Lodgings, or Chief Harbingers, at 150 l. each.

In the Stable, are

One Chief Querry, or Master of the Horse, who has in all, for his Appointments and Board-Wages, 5445 l. Two Querries in Ordinary, 2000 l. each. Four Querries quarterly Waiters, 500 l. each. Six Pages. Two Querries Cavalcadours, or Riders, 546 l. each. One Comptroller-General of the Stable, 1200 l. One Secretary of her R. Highnesses Com­mandments, 4200 l. One Intendant, or Surveyour of the House and Revenues. Six other Secretaries, 300 l. each. Two Sollicitours of Affairs, 500 l. One Treasurer of the Houshold, whose Salary is 3000 l.

Other Officers of the Stable.

Ten Great Footmen, who have every of them 20 d. a day, that is 366 l. a year, besides their Summer and Winter Cloaths. One Footman be­longing to the Maids of Honour, who is allowed 20 d. a day, or 366 l. a year. Two Manto-Carri­ers, at 292 l. each. Two Coaches, the first called [Page 312] the Coach of the Body, and a second Coach, who have each of them one Coachman, and one Posti­lion; the Coachman of the first Coach, has 200 l. Salary, and he of the second, 150 l. and the Posti­lions have each of them 100 l. Besides which, there is a Coach for the Maids of Honour, and another for the Waiting-Gentlewomen, to each of which, belong one Coachman and one Postilion, who have every of them 100 l. Salary: One Head-Groom in Ordinary, 100 l. Two Chair-men 365 l. each. Two Farriers 100 l. each. One Keeper of the Moveables of the Stable, 100 l. Two Taylors, one Flock-Bed-Maker, one Wheel-wright, at 60 l. each. One Chirurgeon, 220 l. One Barber to trim the Pa­ges, 100 l. One Dancing-Master, and one Fencing-Master, at 200 l. each. One Governour of the Pa­ges, 300 l. One Almoner in Ordinary, and Tutor of the Pages, 200 l. One Servant of the Pages, 100 l. And lastly, One Pay-Master, or Cash-Keeper of the Stable, whose Salary is 100 l.

We have already spoken of the Duke of Chartres.

THE Present State OF FRANCE. PART II.
Of the Nobility of France.

CHAP. I.

Of the Nobility in General.

IN France, as in most other Countries, not only those which are Princes, Peers, and Great Lords, but all Gentlemen of ancient Descent, and that are enobled by the King, are reck­oned into the Body of the Nobility; and there the King often gives Letters of Nobility, as they are cal­led, whereby he constitutes the person receiving them Noble, or makes him a Gentleman, without Conferring upon him any particular Title of Ho­nour, 1 contrary to the practice used in England: It is to be noted too, that there, neither Arts nor Sciences ennoble, neither Lawyers, nor Physicians, [Page 314] nor Divines, being accounted noble, or Gentlemen, unless they be otherwise so, or enjoy some Place, or Dignity, that gives them the Title of Lord, which is only temporary and personal.

The Chief Priviledges of Nobles, or Gentlemen, are to be Exempt from Taxes, and to enjoy some other immunities, and be capable of enjoying Dig­nities, and rising to Honour. If they take Church Dignities, or addict themselves to the Law, they derogate not from their Nobility, though they in­crease it not, but if they follow any Trade or Com­merce, or marry with any Family, not Noble, they derogate and lose their quality; and till of late, those that medled with Sea-Affairs, were reckoned to derogate likewise, but that being found prejudi­cial to the Improvement of the Power of France by Sea, It was Order'd by the present King, having concerns in publick Companies, such as the East-India Company, that studying or practising Sea-Experience, should not only not derogate, but be encouraged with Priviledges; and accordingly ap­pointed publick Schools and Nurseries in several Marine Places, with good Endowments, wherein a considerable number of the younger Sons of the meaner Nobility, might be instructed in Naviga­tion and Maritime Affairs, and trained up to make useful Sea-Officers: So that now the younger Sons, or Cadets of the Gentry, are either provided for in the Church, with Ecclesiastical Dignities, or raise themselves by Military employs, by Sea or Land, not so many as formerly affecting the civil ones, because they are such as are often enjoyed by the Sons of rich Citizens, or Farmers of Taxes, whom they a little disdain for Companions.

The Nobility or Gentry in France is the most numerous of any Kingdom of the World, they being reckoned above ten thousand able Bodies, and ge­nerally well educated in all accomplishments that may make them serviceable to their Country, and [Page 315] in them consists the Kings chief Force; and he is, in some respects, as absolute over them, as over the Peasants: for though they pay no Taxes, and cannot be legally compelled to take Arms, unless upon an Invasion, or imminent danger; yet it is by Custom, thought so disgraceful for any Principals or Heads of greater Families, not to attend the King, and spend what they have in his Court, or Service; or for Cadets, or younger Brothers, not provided for in the Church, to follow any thing but the Wars, by which only in a manner all Nobility was ever acquired there, that the King can never want Souldiers among them: It being almost impracti­cable for a Gentleman, any thing considerable, to live privately, or retired there, unless he thrust himself into a Convent.

CHAP. II.

Of Dukes and Peers.

OF Dukes and of Peers severally, and of such as are both Dukes and Peers, there are six or seven sorts.

1. The Antient Dukes and Peers: 2. The Dukes and Peers, verified in the Parliament of Paris, as both Dukes and Peers. 3. Such as are verified in the said Parliament, only as Dukes. 4. The Dukes, or the Dukes and Peers that are verified as such in other Parliaments than that of Paris, which is the only true Court of Peers. 5. Those who are Dukes and Peers only by Patent under the Great Seal, not verified, or past yet in any Parliament. 6. The Dukes and Peers by Brief, as the House of Clermont-Tonnerre.

Besides which, there are some Dukes of Foreign [Page 316] Creations, as in the County of Avignon, under the Pope; and several other Persons, who though they be no Princes nor Princesses, yet are suffred by his Majesty, to enjoy the Honours of the Louvre, as to enter into the Louvre in their Coaches, and their Ladies have the priviledge of the Low-stool, or Ta­bouret, before the Queen, without having any Dutchy, or Patent for any.

CHAP. III.

Of the antient Peers of France.

THE Antient Peers were formerly twelve, viz. Six Ecclesiastical Peers, and six Secular ones: The six Ecclesiastical ones are still in being, and are these; viz. 1. The Archbishop and Duke of Reims, and first Peer of France, who is at present Charles-Maurice le Teliier, Brother to the Marquess of Louvois, first Minister of State: 2. The Bishop and Duke of Langres, who is Louis-Marie-Armand de Simianes de Gordes. 4. The Bishop and Count of Beauvais, who is named Toussaint de Fourbin de Janson. 5. The Bishop and Count of Chaalons in Champain, Lewis Antony of Noailles, of the Family of the Duke of that Name: 6. The Bishop and Count of Noyon, named Francis of Clermont-Ton­nerre.

The six secular ones that are now only represented, were
  • The Dukes of
    • Burgundy,
    • Normandy,
    • Guyenne.
  • And Counts of
    • Toulouze,
    • Flanders, and
    • Champain.

[Page 317] The Quality of the twelve antient Peers of France, is at present but a kind of Ceremonial Dignity, by vertue of which, those that possess it, have a cer­tain Rank or Precedence in France, at the Conse­cration and Coronation of Kings, have Place in Par­liament, and in the general Assembly of Estates, and enjoy the Honours of the Louvre: Their first In­stitution is so uncertain, that it is impossible to ga­ther out of History their true Original, some attri­buting it to Hugh Capet, and some to Charlemaine, or Charles the Great: But the Original of the Name and Functions of the Peers of France can pro­perly be derived from nothing else, then from the common use and custom of Fiess and Tenures, which is, that the Vassals holding moveable Fiefs fully and directly of the same Lord, are called Pares Curiae aut Domus, which is as much as to say, Peers of the Fiefs, or of the Court, that are to assist when the Lord takes possession of his Land; to be present at those days, when causes relating to the Fiefs, are pleaded and judged, and have several other rights which are analogically common to them with our Peers of France, who in like manner assist at the Consecration and Coronation of the King, who is the supream Lord, are Counsellers in his Court of Parliament, which for this reason is called the Court of Peers; so that in a word, the Peers of France are but as Tenants that hold of the Monarchy, and depend immediately on the Crown; such as were the seven Peers in the time of Lewis the Young, in the year 1179, or in the time of Hugh Capet, who reunited to the Crown, the Dutchy and Peerage of France, or of Paris, which he possessed before he was King: So that there remained after that, but six ancient Peers, that were Seculars, to which at several times, by degrees, were afterwards added six other Ecclesiastical Peers, over whom, Lewis the Young, gave the Primacy to the Archbishop of Reims, with the Prerogative of Consecrating and [Page 318] Crowning the Kings: Since the time of the said Lewis the Young, the number of twelve Peers, at those great Ceremonies, has been always continued till the present; But the Secular Peers are as we have said, only represented on that occasion, there being none now that bear any of those Titles, but only now lately the Duke of Burgundy, Eldest Son to the Dauphin, and the Count of Toulouze, one of the Kings Natural Legitimated Sons.

Their several Functions at the Kings Consecrati­on, and Coronation, are these:

The Archbishop of Reims Consecrates, or anoints the King with the Oil of the Holy Ampull, or Viol, kept in the Cathedral of that Name, from Age to Age, only for that purpose: The Bishop of Laon carries the said Viol; the Bishop of Langres carries the Scepter; the Bishop of Beauvais, the Mantle Royal, the Bishop of Chaalons, the Ring; the Bishop of Noyons, the Belt: The Duke of Burgundy carries the Crown Royal, and girds on the Kings Sword; the Duke of Guyenne carries the first square Banner, the Duke of Normandy the Second; the Count of Toulouze, the Spurs; the Count of Champain, the Banner Royal, or Standard of War; the Count of Flanders, the Kings Sword.

On the day of the Consecration and Coronation, and during the Ceremony, these Peers wear a Circle of gold in form of a Crown: Now because of the six Secular Peerages, there are now five reunited to the Crown, and that of Flanders is likewise in part reunited, and in part remains still in foreign hands, therefore there are on such occasions six Princes, or great Lords chosen to represent them, and to perform their Functions.

The Order observed at the Coronation of the present King Lewis the Fourteenth, now happily Reigning, which was on the 7th of June, 1654. was as follows.

The Ecclesiastical Peers, that officiated on that occasion, were

1. Anne-Marie de Levis de Ventadour, late Arch-bishop of Bourges, instead of the Bishop and Duke of Laon. 2. Francis de Harlay, then Archbishop of Rouen, and at present of Paris, for the Bishop and Duke of Laugres. 3. Nicholas Choart de Buzanval, late Bishop and Count of Beauvais. 4. Henry de Baradat, late Bishop and Count of Noyon. 5. Felix Vialar de Herse, late Bishop and Count of Chaalons. 6. The late Bishop of Soissons, as first Suffragan of Reims, anointed the King, being assisted by the Bishop of Amiens, as Deacon, and by Monsieur de Bourlon, now Bishop of Soissons, but then but Co­adjutour to the said Bishoprick, as Sub-Deacon: The other Bishops that were likewise assistants there, were the Bishops of Rennes, Coutances, of Rhodes, of St. Paul irois Chateaux, or three Castles, of Agde, and of Leon.

Cardinal Grimaldi, performed the Office of Great Almoner of France, because of the absence of Cardi­nal Barberin: The Hostages given for the Holy Ampull, or Viol, were the Marquesses of Vardes, of Richelieu, of Biron, and of Coislin, since Duke; and Monsieur de Manciny, at present Duke of Nevers, held up the Kings Train.

Those who represented the Secular Peers, were

1. The Duke of Anjou, now Duke of Orleans, represented the Duke of Burgundy. 2. The late Duke of Vendome, the Duke of Aquitain, or Guy­enne. 3. The late Duke of Elbeuf, the Duke of Normandy. 4. The late Duke of Epernon, the Count of Champagne. 5. The Duke of Rouanez Gouffier, the Count of Flanders. 6. The Duke of Bournorville, the Count de Toulouze.

[Page 320] The late Marshal d' Etrées performed the Office of High Constable; the late Marshal d' Hospital car­ried the Scepter; the late Marshal du Plessis-Pralin, the Crown; the late Marshal d' Aumont, the hand of Justice: The late Chancelour Seguier, officiated his own place; the Marshal Duke of Villeroy, per­formed the Office of Great Master, or High Steward of France; the late Duke of Joyeuse, did his Office of High Chamberlain: and the Count de Vivonne, who had the Reversion of one of the places of chief Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber, after the Duke of Mortemar his Father, performed the Function of First or Chief Chamberlain. He is at present Marshal Duke de Vivonne.

CHAP. IV.

Of the particular Lords, that are at present Dukes and Peers, according to the Order of their Verification, being in all 29.

Names of the Dukedoms, and the date of their Verification.
  • 1. USês, in 1572.
  • 2. Ventadour, in 1594.
  • 3. Suilly, in 1606.
  • 4. Luynes, in 1619.
  • 5. Les diguieres, in 1620.
  • 6. Brissac, in 1620.
  • 7. Chaunes, in 1631.
  • 8. Richelieu, in 1631.
  • 9. St. Simon, in 1635.
  • 10. La Rochefoucault, in 1637.
  • 11. La Force, in 1637.
  • 12. Aiguillon, in 1638.
  • [Page 321] 13. Rohan, in 1645.
  • 14. Piney de Luxemburg, in 1662.
  • 15. Etrées, in 1663.
  • 16. Gramont, in 1663.
  • 17. Mazarin, in 1663.
  • 18. Villeroy, in 1663.
  • 19. Mortemar, in 1663.
  • 20. Poix Crequy, in 1663.
  • 21. St. Aiguan, in 1663.
  • 22. Rendan de Foix, in 1663.
  • 23. Tremes, at present Gêvres, in 1663.
  • 24. Noailles, in 1663.
  • 25. Coislin, in 1663.
  • 26. Plessis Prâlin, in 1665.
  • 27. Aumont, in 1665.
  • 28. Seneterre, in 1665.
  • 29. Montausier, in 1665.
Names of the present Dukes of the aforesaid Dukedoms.
  • 1. Emanuel de Crussol.
  • 2. Lewis-Charles de Levis.
  • 3. Maximilian Peter Francis de Bethune.
  • 4. Lewis Charles d' Albert.
  • 5. John Francis Paul de Bonne de Creqy de Blanchefort, &c.
  • 6. Henry Albert de Cosse.
  • 7. Charles d' Albret, alias d' Ailly.
  • 8. John Armand de plessis de Vignerod.
  • 9. Claudius de St. Simon.
  • 10. Francis de la Rochefoucault.
  • 11. James Nompar de Caumont.
  • 12. Marie-Magdalen Teresa of Vignerod.
  • 13. Lewis de Rohan Chabot.
  • 14. Francis Henry de Montmorency.
  • 15. Francis Hannibal d' Etrées.
  • 16. Antony Charles de Gramont.
  • 17. Armand Charles de la Porte de Mazarini.
  • 18. Francis de Neuville.
  • [Page 322] 19. Lewis Victor de Rochechouart.
  • 20. Charles de Creqy.
  • 21. Francis de Beauvilliers.
  • 22. Henry-Charles de Foix.
  • 23. Leon Potier.
  • 24. Lewis Anne Julius of Noailles.
  • 25. Armand du Cambout.
  • 26. Augustus de Choiseul du plessis pralin.
  • 27. Lewis-Marie de Aumont de Roche-baron.
  • 28. Henry de Senneterre.
  • 29. Charles de St. Maure.

Rouanez en Forets was Erected into a Dutchy, and the Letters verified in Parliament, in 1567. There are also Patents making the same a Peerage, which are not verified.

This Dukedom is possessed by Francis d' Aubusson de la Fenillade. Marshal of France.

The Dukedom of Chevreuse, is confirmed as such by Letters Patents, verified the 16th of May, 1668. which confirm to the present Duke the Enjoyment of all Honours and Precedences due to it when it was first Created.

CHAP. V.

Of Dutchies, or Dutchies and Peerages, verified as such in other Parliaments, and not at Paris.

Dukedoms.
  • 1. LOngueville and Estouteville, verified in the
  • 2. Parliament of Roüen, 1505. and Estouteville, in 1534.
  • 3. Villars Dutche and Peerage, verified in the [Page 323] Parliament of Provence, the Dutchy in 1628, and the Peerage in 1657, and presented the same year in that of Paris, but not verified.
  • 4. Pondevaux, verified in the Parliament of Dijon.
  • 5. Carignan, verified at Mets in 1662.
Present Dukes of the aforesaid Dukedoms.
  • 1. John Lewis Charles of Orleans, called the Abbot of Orleans.
  • 2. Lewis de Brancars.
  • 3. Philip Eugenius de Gorrevod.
  • 4. Lewis Thomas of Savoy, Count of Soissons, and Duke of Carignan.

CHAP. VI.

Of Dukes and Peers whose Patents are not yet verified.

THere are several Letters Patents for Dutchies and Peerages, which are not yet verified, notwith­standing which non verification, because the persons possessing them, will during their Lives enjoy all Honours belonging to them, we shall insert them, being 11. in all.

Dutchies.
  • 1. Bournonville, Erected in 1600.
  • 2. Cardonne, in 1642.
  • 3. Arpajon, in 1651.
  • 4. Pavan la Vieville, in 1652.
  • 5. Nogent le Rotrou d' Orval, in 1652.
  • 6. Duras, in 1668.
  • [Page 324] 7. Bethune Charots, in 1672.
  • 8. The Archbishoprick of Paris, in 1674.
  • 9. De Lude, in 1675.
  • 10. La Roche Guyon, in 1679.
  • 11. Roquelaure, in 1683.
The present Dukes.
  • 1. Ambrose of Bournonville.
  • 2. Lewise de Prie, Dutchess Dowager, and Heiress.
  • 3. Lewis d' Arpajon.
  • 4. Charles de la Viéville.
  • 5. Francis de Bethun.
  • 6. James Henry de Duras-fort.
  • 7. Armand de Bethune.
  • 8. Francis Harlay de Chanvallon.
  • 9. Henry de Daillon, dead last year without Issue.
  • 10. Francis de la Rochefoucault, Great Hunter of France.
  • 11. Antony Gaston.

There is still one Dutchy, which is only so by Brief, which is that of Clermont Tonnerre, now Ex­tinct: But all the foregoing ones are so by Patent under the Great Seal.

CHAP. VII.

Of all the Dutchies and Peerages more exactly, as well of those extinct as not extinct.

WE have named all those that are present Dukes, Dukes and Peers of France; but for more am­ple satisfaction, we shall set down all the Dutchies, and Peerages, as likewise, all the Dutchies and Peer­ages, and all the simple Dutchies, whether enjoyed [Page 325] at present, or reunited to the Crown, or Extinct, according to the Order of their Erection.

For there are some Lands, as we have already noted, that are Erected only into simple Dukedoms, or into both Dukedoms and Peerages, according to the Tenour of the Patents of their Erection.

Ordinarily none but Heirs Male succeed to these Honours, and if the Lands, so Erected, fall to Fe­male Heirs, they return to the quality they had be­fore so Erected, and the Honour reverts to the King, and to revive it, new Patents must be ob­tained from the King; yet there are some Dutchies, that by special Favour of the King, expressed in the Patents of their Erection, that descend likewise to Females, as that of Nevers, at its first Erection, and those of Beaumont le Vicomte, of Mayenne, of Mercoeur, of Rethelois, of Joyeuse, of Epernon, of Elboeuf, of Richelieu, of Aiguillon, and of Biron, which is Extinct.

A List of the Dutchies and Peerages, with the time of their Creation, and the persons that possess such of them as are not either extinct, or reunited, ac­cording to the Order of their verification in the Par­liament.

Philip the Fair Erected

Britany into a Dukedom and Peerage, in 1297. which was united by the Marriage of Anne the last Heiress to the French King.

Charles the Fourth, called the Fair, Erected

La Marche into a Dutchy, in 1327. which was made a County and Peerage by Philip the Long, in 1316. It is reunited to the Crown.

Philip of Valois Erected

Bourbon into a simple Dutchy, in 1329. It was gi­ven to the late Prince of Condé, whose Grandchild now bears the Title.

Orleans, into a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1344. It [Page 326] was given in Apanage to the Kings only Brother King John Erected

Anjou into a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1350. It is now the Apanage and Title of the Dauphins second Son.

Bar le Duc, made a simple Dutchy in 1357. and reunited to the Crown by a Donation verified in Parliament, in 1662.

Berry, a simple Dutchy, and antient County, Ere­cted in 1360. and given to the Dauphins third and last Son.

Touraine, made a simple Dutchy, and reunited to the Crown.

Auvergne, made a simple Dutchy, in 1360. It was reunited to the Crown, but since given to the House of Boüillon, under the Title of County, in ex­change of the Principalities of Sedan, &c. by a Contract verified in 1652.

Charles the Sixth Erected

Valois into a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1402. and is a part of the Apanage of the Duke of Orleans, the Kings Brother.

Nemours, made a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1404. It was bought by the Dukes of Nemour, of the House of Savoy, for 100000 Livers, of Francis the First, in 1528. It now belongs to the Duke of Orleans.

Alençon, of an antient County, made a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1413. It belongs at present to the Dutchess Dowager of Guise.

Lewis the Twelfth Erected

Longueville, into a simple Dutchy, of which we have spoke already.

Francis the first Erected

Vendome into a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1514. It is at present, possessed by the Duke of that Name, of whom we have spoken among the Princes.

Chatelleraud, of an ancient County, made a Duke­dom and Peerage in 1514. which was given to, and sometime possest by the Hamiltons of Scotland, but [Page 327] is now enjoyed by Madamoiselle of Montpensier, the Kings Aunt.

Angoulême, made a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1515. Extinct.

Dunois, Erected into a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1525. by the Queen Regent, Mother to Francis the First, but not verified in Parliament.

Guise, made a Dutchy and Peerage in 1527. and verified in 1528. It belongs to Madamoiselle de Guise, of whom, among the Princes.

Chartres, Erected into a simple Dutchy, by Francis the First, in 1528. together with Montar­gis and Gisors. It belongs to the Duke of Orleans.

Estouteville, a simple Dutchy Erected in 1534. of which already.

Etampes, a simple Dutchy, made a County and Peerage in 1326. and afterwards, a Dutchy, in 1536. It belongs now to the Duke of Vendome, given to that House first by Queen Margarite.

Montpensier, made a Dutchy and Peerage in 538. confirmed as to the Peerage in 1608. It be­longs to Madamoiselle Anne-Marie Lewise of Orleans, the Kings Aunt.

Beaumont le Sonnois, or Beaumont le Vicomte, made a simple Dutchy in 1543. It is now reunited to the Crown.

Henry the Second Erected

Aumale into a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1547. and verified the next year, and confirmed in 1631.

Albret Erected in 1556. which was reunited to the Crown, but since given to the House of Boüillon, by a Contract verified in 1652.

Beaupreau, a simple Dutchy, Erected in 1562. it belongs to the Duke of Brissac.

Chateau Thierry, together with Chatillon sur Marne, and that of Epernay, Erected in 1566. given like­wise to the House of Boüillon, without reverting to the Crown for want of Heirs Male.

Penthiêvre, in Britany, made a Dutchy and Peer­age [Page 328] in 1569. It belongs to the House of Vendome.

Evreux, first a County and Peerage in 1316. and since made a simple Dutchy in 1569. reunited since that to the Crown, and lastly, given to the House of Boüillon in 1652.

Ʋses, of which we have spoken.

Mayenne, formerly a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1573. It now belongs to the Duke Mazarin.

Mercoeur, Erected first into a Principality, in 1563. and after into a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1569. but not verified in the Parliament of Paris, in 1676. It belongs now to the Duke of Vendome.

St. Fargeau, made a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1569. and Registred in Parliament the same year: It belongs now to Madamoiselle of Orleans, of Mont­pensier.

Henry the Third Erected

Loudun into a simple Dutchy, in 1589. It belongs to the House of Tremouille.

Joyeuse, made a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1581. It belongs to the Dutchess Dowager of Guise.

Epernon, made a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1581. and verified in Parliament the same year: This Ho­nour is now extinct, but the Lands belong to M. John B. de Goth de Rouillac.

Elbeuf, made a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1581. and verified in 1582. the present Duke of Elbeuf is mentioned among the Princes.

Brienne, is a simple Dutchy, Erected in 1587. but the Patents are not yet verified.

Montbazon, made a Dutchy and Peerage in 1588. and verified the next year: It was an ancient Baro­ny: It belongs to M. de Montbazon Prince of Gui­mené, at present, head of the Eldest Branch of the House of Rohan.

Ventadour, of this we have spoken.

Henry the Fourth Erected

Beaufort into a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1578. and [Page 329] after into a Dutchy and Peerage, in 1597. It be­longs now to the Duke of Vendome.

Croüy, Erected into a Dutchy, in 1598. now extinct. But the Lands belong to the Descendants of Charles de Croüy, Duke of Arscot.

Thoüars, an ancient Vicounty, made a Dutchy by Charles the Ninth, and a Peerage by Henry the Great in 1595. and verified as such in 1599. It be­longs to the House of Tremouille.

Suilly sur Loire: of which we have spoken.

Lewis the Thirteenth Erected

Damville, into a Dutchy and Peerage in 1610. the Honour is now extinct, but the Lands belong to the Duke of Ventadour.

Chateau-roux, made a Dutchy and Peerage in 1616. It belongs to the Prince of Condé.

Maillé Luynes, of which we have spoken.

Les diguieres, already mentioned.

Brissac, spoken of before.

Magnelers, was made a Dutchy and Peerage in 1587, and 1588. under the name of Halwin, and revived in 1611. under the name of Candale: It is now Extinct.

Chaunes, of this we have spoken. As likewise of Villars, Richelieu and Pondevaux.

La Valette, made a Dutchy and Peerage in 1622. and verified as such, in 1631.

Montmorency, made a Dutchy and Peerage in 1551. by Henry the Second, together with Ecoüan, Chan­tilly, &c. and verified in Parliament the same year: It belongs to the Prince of Condé.

Rais, a Dutchy and Peerage, revived in 1634. by Lewis the Thirteenth, verified the same year, in favour of Peter de Gondy, General of the Gallies, upon his Marrying his Cousin Frances de Gondy, Heiress of the Dutchy.

Fronsac, a Dutchy and Peerage, Erected, or ra­ther revived in 1634. and Registred the same year. It belongs to the Duke of Richelieu.

[Page 330] Of the Dutchies of St. Simon, La Rochefoucault, La Force, and Aiguillon, we have already spoken.

Valentinois, was a Dutchy and Peerage united to the Crown, but given by Lewis the Thirteenth to the Prince of Monaco, by Letters Patents verified in Parliament in the year 1642.

Rohan, is a Dutchy and Peerage, Erected first by Henry the Great, in 1603. and revived again in 1645. It belongs to Madam de Rohan, Widow of Henry de Chabot.

Nevers, is a Dutchy and Peerage revived in 1660. in favour of Cardinal Mazarin, and belongs now to M. de Mancini.

Of Piney Luxemburg we have spoken, as like­wise, of the Dutchy of Carignan.

Verneuil, a Dutchy and Peerage, Erected in 1652, and verified in 1663. Extinct.

Of Etrées and Gramont, we have treated al­ready.

La Meilleraye, verified in 1663. It belongs to Duke Mazarin.

Rethelois Mazarini, revived again in favour of Armand de Mazarini, and verified in Parliament, in 1663.

Of Villeroy, Mortemar, Creqy, St. Aignan, and Foix-Rendan, we have spoken above.

Liancourt, was verified as a Dutchy and Peerage in 1663. but Erected in 1643. It belongs to the Prince of Marsillac.

Of Tremes, or Gevres, and of Noailles, and Coi­slin, we have treated elsewhere.

These fourteen last Dukes have all place in the Order abovesaid, as if their Patents had all been verified on the 15th of December in 1663. though there be some days difference in the date.

Of Polizy, called otherwise Choiseul, and Plessis Prâlin, and of the Dutchies of Aumont, Senneterre, and Montausier, we have already spoken.

La Valiere, otherwise called Vaujours, is a Dutchy [Page 331] and Peerage, Erected in 1667. in favour of Mada­moiselle de la Valiere, and verified in Parliament the same: It now belongs to her Daughter the Princess of Conti.

Of Rouanez, and Chevreuse, we have likewise spoken apart.

CHAP. VIII.

Of the Ancient Counties and Baronies, Ere­cted formerly into Peerages, most of which since reunited to the Crown.

POitou, a County and Peerage, Erected by Lewis Hutin, in 1315.

The County of Beaumont le Roger, made a Peer­age by Philip de Valois, in 1338. Given to the House of Boüillon.

The County of Mortaigne, made a Peerage in 1331. by Philip de Valois.

The County and Peerage of Clermont, by the same, in the same year.

The County and Peerage of Macon, in 1359. by Charles Dolphin and Regen, while his Father was absent in England.

The County and Peerage of Maine, in 1360. by King John.

The County and Peerage of Soissons, by Charles the Sixth, in 1404. enjoyed by a Prince of the House of Savoy.

The County and Peerage of Saintonge, or Xain­tonge, in 1428. by Charles the Seventh.

The County and Peerage of Auxerre, by Charles the Seventh, in 1435, and verified in 1436.

[Page 332] The County and Peerage of Foix, by Charles the Seventh, in 1458.

The County and Peerage of Eu, by the same, in 1458. It belongs to Madamoiselle of Orleans of Monpensier.

The County and Peerage De Foret, held by the Dukes of Bourbonnois.

The County of Perche, Erected into a Peerage, by Charles the Ninth, in 1566.

The County and Peerage of Dreux, Erected by the same in 1569.

The County and Peerage of Evreux, given to the House of Boüillon, in 1652.

Baronies and Peerages reunited to the Crown.

Chateauneuf in Timerais, held so by Charles of Valois, and Charles his Son, in 1314.

Mante and Meulan, Erected by Philip de Valois, Coucy, Perone, Montdidier, Roye and Ham, by Charles the Sixth, in 1404.

Mortaigne near Tournay, by Charles the Sixth, in 1407.

Beaujolois, held in Peerage by Peter Duke of Bourbonois.

La Fêre in Tartenois, Erected by Lewis the Twelfth, in 1507.

Colomiers, is an ancient Peerage, and a principal Member of the Dutchy of Nemours. It was lately revived again in favour of the late Duke of Longue­ville, but now Extinct.

CHAP. IX.

Of the Orders of Knighthood in France.

THE Orders of Knighthood were always used as honourable recompenses, and marks of the Kings favour to such as had signalized their service to their Prince and the State: Kings likewise have been used to confer them on such as have the ho­nour to be of Kin, or allied to them, or consider­able persons in the State.

It being needless to speak here of all the Orders of Knighthood that have been instituted in France, it will be sufficient to tell you, that there was for­merly the Order of the Star Instituted, [in memory of the Star that Conducted the three Kings, or wise Men of the East to Bethlehem] by Robert the Devout, King of France, in the year 1022. which is attri­buted to by some, to Hugh Capet, but more com­monly to King John, because after a long disuse, he reestablished it in the year 1351.

The Knights of this Order were the Figure of a Star wrought in gold, with five rays upon their left Breasts: The Great Collar of the Order was made like a Chain of gold wreathed with three Links, fastned or knotted together with Roses of the same, Enamel'd with white and red; and in the time of King John, the Knights wore at the end of the said Collar, or upon their Cloaks, a golden Star with this Inscription or Motto, Monstrant Regibus :stra viam. This Order growing common, as some say, even in the time of King John, the Restorer of it, and others, in the time of Charles the Seventh, and thereupon observed by Lewis the XI. to be grown into contempt with the people, the said King to­totally [Page 334] supprest it, by taking the Collar of the Or­der, in presence of several of the Knights of it, and putting it, with a Black Ribband, about the Neck of his Captain of the Watch, which is even to this day a badge of that Office, from whence he is stiled, le Chevalier du Guet, or Knight of the Watch; upon which, nobler persons disdaining to own it any longer, the Order ceased.

CHAP. X.

Of the Orders of Knighthood, at present sub­sisting, called, the Kings Orders.

AT present there are only two Orders of Knight­hood subsisting, viz. of St. Michael, and of the Holy Ghost, which are usually called, the Kings Orders.

The Order of St. Michael was Instituted the first day of August, in the year 1469. by King Lewis the XI. in honour of St. Michael the Archangel. He Ordained, that this Order should consist of thirty six Knights, which should be obliged in ac­cepting it, to quit all other Orders they might have received from Foreign Princes, unless they were Emperours, Kings, or other Sovereign Princes, who only were priviledged to wear it together with the other Orders, of which themselves were Chiefs or Soveraigns; with a Proviso nevertheless, that the Brotherhood, by common consent, might modifie this regulation, according to their pleasure: And in like manner, he provided, that the Kings of France should be. free to wear the Orders of other Princes with this Order.

The Knights of this Order wear a golden Collar, wrought all in the form of double Sea-Shells, inter­laced [Page 335] one with another, in true Lovers Knots, com­posed of double points of silk tag'd with gold, at the end of which, hangs a Medal, on which, is En­graven a Rock, upon which is figured St. Michael Fighting with the Dragon: But Francis the First chan­ged these Laces, called true Lovers Knots, into Cords of gold of the fashion of those worn by the Corde­lier Fryers, because he bore the name of the Foun­der of that Order.

All the Knights of the Holy Ghost are obliged by way of preparation, to take this Order the Eve before they are to take that of the Holy Ghost; for which reason, their Arms are Encompassed with the Collars of both the Orders, and they are called Knights of the Kings Orders, in the plural num­ber.

Of the whole number of those that had formerly received the Order of St. Michael, the King selected and retained a hundred on the 12th of January, 1665. of which a List was Printed, since which, his Majesty has reformed several of them, as you may see in the following List.

The Order of the Holy Ghost was Instituted at Paris, on New-Years Day, in the year 1579. by Henry the Third, King of France and Poland, as an Eternal-Mark of! his Piety, and thankful acknow­ledgment he desired to render to Almighty God, for the repeated and signal Favours he had received from him on the day of Pentecost, or of his sending the Holy Ghost; for that on that day he was Born, was Elected King of Poland, and succeeded to the Crown of France by the Death of Charles the Ninth. He likewise stinted the number of these Knights to thirty six; but their number has now been a long time unlimited: the late King Lewis the Thirteenth in the year 1633. at Fountainbleau, gave the Or­der to fifty of his Lords; and at the last Promotion that was made in 1662. there were Installed three­score and ten.

[Page 336] The Knights of this Order wear at present a silver Cross set on Orange-Coloured Velvet upon the left side of their Cloaks and Suits, in the midst of which, is a Dove Embroidered in silver, with rays of Sil­ver, and at the Corners, Flowerdeluces also of Silver, with another Cross all of gold hung about their Necks with a Sky-Coloured Ribband, which Cross is En­ameld with white on the sides, having at the Cor­ners Flowerdeluces, and in the middle, the Figure of a Dove on both sides.

The Great Collar of this Order is composed of Flowerdeluces of gold Crowned with golden Flames, Enameld with red, enterlaced with three Cyphers likewise of gold, Enamel'd with white: The first Cypher is an H and a double A all double, which may be read upward or downward, the H standing for Henry the Third, the Letter L for Lewise of Lorrain his Wife, and another for something, which is as yet a mystery. The Cross of the Order is of Gold, in the midst of which, there is a Dove Ena­meld with white on one side, and on the other side, the Image of St. Michael. On the last of June, in the year 1594. Henry the Great took out of the Collar of the Order, the Cyphers of Henry the Third his Predecessour, and caused to be put in their place, Trophies of Arms interlaced together, and intermingled with Crowned H's. Some assert, that this Order was first Instituted by King Lewis of Scicily, and that Henry the Third did but re­new it.

The Knights upon the day of their reception, or Instalment, are clad in Cloth of Silver with Breeches tuckt up, white Silk Stockings, and Pumps of white Velvet, their Bonnets of Black-Velvet, and their Cloaks made with a Cape after the ancient Fashion, of Black-Velvet uncut, and their Ruffs stiff-starched: When they are received, their Capes are taken off, and a long Green-Velvet Cloak is put on their Shoulders, trailing on the ground, wrought all over [Page 337] with Trophies of gold for the Knights, and Flames for the Officers, and lined with Orange-Coloured Satin.

They kneel down before the King, who taking their joined hands between his own, strikes them gently over the Shoulders with his Sword, and Kisses them on the Cheek.

When the King Confers this Order in any Church, he goes and sits down near the Altar, in the middle of the Officers of the Order; then the Great Master of the Ceremonies of the Order, Accompanied with the Usher and the Herald, goes and gives notice to the Lords which are to receive the Order, who pre­sently advance towards his Majesty, one after the other, or else by two and two, and kneeling down, take the usual Oath, holding their two hands be­tween his Majesties, in the manner aforesaid, and touching the Book of the Holy Gospels, which is held by the Chancellour: After which, the Provost and Great Master of the Ceremonies, present the King with Cloaks and Mantles to Invest the Knights, and then his Majesty taking the Collars of the Order from the hands of the High Treasurer, puts them about the Knights Necks, saying to them these words, Take from our hand the Collar of our Order of the blessed Holy Ghost, &c. In the Name of the Fa­ther, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

CHAP. XI.

Of the Knights of the Order, and Militia of the Holy Ghost.

1. THE King, Soveraign of the Order.

2. The Dauphin, to whom the Officers of the Order carried the Blue-Ribband, presently after [Page 338] his Birth, on the first of November, 1661. Since which, the King made him Knight on New-Years Day in 1682.

3. The Duke of Burgundy, to whom the Great Treasurer of the Order, being the Marquiss of Seigne­lay, carried the Cross and Blue-Ribband, presently after his Birth, on the 6th of August, 1682.

4. The Duke of Anjou had it likewise presently after his Birth, on the 19th of December, 1683. And

5. The Duke of Berry, soon after he was Born, on the last of August, 1686.

6. The Duke of Orleans, who had likewise the Blue-Ribband soon after his Birth, and was after­ward made Knight.

Where note, that the Kings Sons, Grand-Chil­dren, or Brothers, are Born Knights, and wear the Blue-Ribband presently after their Birth, though they be not fully and actually received as such, till the King thinks fit.

The last King made a Promotion of Knights of this Order, in the year 1633. of which, remain only two Knights, viz. the Duke of St. Simon, and the Mar­quiss of St. Simon.

Of the Knights promoted in 1662.

The Present King, with the greatest Ceremony, that perhaps was ever practised on the like occa­sion, made a Promotion of several Knights of this Order, in the year 1662. in which number were two Princes of the Blood, nine Prelates, and fifty nine other great Persons and Commanders: Besides, the King sent the Collar of his Orders of his Ambas­sadours at Rome and in Spain, to Julius Cesarini, Duke of Castel-Nove, a Roman Baron, and to the Prince of Conty, Father of the present Prince of that Name, and to the seven other Lords, absent in the Southern Parts of France, who repairing immedi­ately, to the then Prince of Conty, who was Gover­nour [Page 339] of Languedoc, and kept his Residence at Peze­nas, were Installed the same year in Nôtre-Dame Church at Pezenas, with the same Ceremonies that had been used in the Great Augustines Church at Paris; the Order being Confer'd on them by the Duke d' Arpajon, who was sent thither on purpose by the King, where Monsieur Martineau, and des Prés, as Herald and Usher of the Orders, officiated their Places.

Some dayes before the Ceremony of Installing the said Knights at Paris, the King gave the Cross of the Order of the Holy Ghost to the late Duke of Beaufort in the Month of December 1661. who was then going out upon an Expedition to Sea, who upon his return in 1663. received the Collar of the Order from his Majesty, upon the Feast of the As­sumption in the Chappel of Germains en Laye.

Those of them that are still alive, are

  • 1. Prince of the Blood.
    • 1. The Prince of Condé.
  • Prelates.
    • 1. The Archbishop of Arles.
    • 2. The Bishop of Mets.
    • 3. The Archbishop of Paris.
    • 4. The Archbishop of Lyons.
  • Other Commanders are
    • 1. The Duke de Chaunes.
    • 2. The Duke de Luynes.
    • 3. The Duke de Crequy.
    • 4. The Duke of Nevers.
    • 5. The Duke of St. Aignan.
    • 6. The Marquiss de Vardes.
    • 7. The Count de Beringhen.
    • [Page 340] 8. The Duke de Montausier.
    • 9. The Marquiss de Polignac.
    • 10. The Marquiss de Pompadour.
    • 11. The Marquiss de Gamaches.
    • 12. The Marshal, Count d' Estrades.
    • 13. The Count de Guitault.

The rest are dead.

Since that, his Maiesty was pleased to Confer the said Order on the Duke of Mecklenburg, on the first of November, 1664. in the Chappel of the Louvre.

The Great Almoner of France, who is a Com­mander of the Kings Orders by his Place, and who is at present the Cardinal of Bouillon, took the Oath in that quality, the 12th of December, 1671.

On the 29th of September, being St. Michaels Day, in the year 1675. the Duke of Nevers, by Commission from the King, gave the Order of the Holy Ghost, to the Duke of Bracciano, of the House of the Ʋrsini, to the Duke of Sforza, and to the Prince de Sonnino, Brother to the Constable of Co­lonna, at Rome.

On the 17th of December, 1675. the King, and the Knights of his Orders, begun to wear the Blue Ribband over their Coats, whereas before they al­ways wore it underneath; and the next day, the King held a Chapter of the Order, wherein the Present King of Poland, and the Marquiss of Be­thune, who has the Honour to be his Brother-in-Law, were proposed and admitted into the Order, and the latter of the two received the Order from the Kings hand on Sunday the 22th of December, in the Chappel, at the Palace of St. Germains en Laye.

You may please to observe, that formerly those two Lords that held up the two ends of the Com­munion-Cloth, on his Majesties side, whilst his Ma­jesty was kneeling before the Altar to receive the Sacrament, were ordinarily two Knights of the Or­ders, but now it is not so much regarded, whether [Page 341] they be Knights or no; And if the Dauphin hap­pen to be in presence, then he alone holds up both the ends of the said Cloth on the Kings side; and did so several times before he was made Knight, and when he was but a Blue-Ribband Man, and but a Candidate of the Order.

All Knights of these Orders, Assistant at the Kings Consecration and Coronation, especially the next day after, when his Majesty receives the Habit, and the Collars of the Orders, from the hands of the Archbishop of Reims, or such other Prelate that Consecrated him.

The Knights of the Kings Orders, upon the Fe­stival Days of the Order, go in the Morning, to the Kings Chamber, and march two and two before him, from his Chamber to the Chappel: And if upon such days, his Majesty chances to go to some Church, that is any thing distant, then the Knights go beforehand to the said Church, where they re­ceive the King at the Door on the inside; and then all the Knights march by two and two before his Majesty, with their Officers at the head of them, accompanying him to his praying Desk; and the King commonly giving them leave to sit down, they go and seat themselves in the places prepared for them.

CHAP. XII.

Of the Officers of the Kings Orders.

1. THere is the Chancellour of the Order, who is M. de Louvois.

2. The Provost and Master of the Ceremonies, M. the President Meme, Brother to the Count d' Avaux.

[Page 342] 3. The Great Treasurer, the Marquiss of Seigne­lay.

4. The Secretary, M. Chateau-neuf.

These four Great Officers wear the Cross of the Order fastned to a Blue-Ribband, and put about their Necks, and Embroidered on their Cloaths, as do the Knights.

5. The Herald King at Arms of the Order, is Bernard Martineau, called M. du Pont.

6. The Usher of the Order is M. des Prés.

7. The Under-Treasurer of the Order is M. Da­mond.

Besides which, there are two General Comptrol­lers; Their Office is, to receive the Deniers of the mark of gold of the Offices of France, of which the Under-Treasurer gives up an account every year be­fore the Great Treasurer of the Order.

They are also Officers of the Order, and may wear the Cross of the Holy Ghost, though with some distinction, and enjoy the same Priviledges as do the other Officers that were Created at the first In­stitution of the Order.

There is likewise a Genealogist of the Kings Or­ders, who is M. Cotignon de Chauvry, Chief Presi­dent of the Court of Monies.

CHAP. XIII.

Of the number of the Knights of the Kings Order, under the Title of the Order and Militia of St. Michael, in the Year, 1678. with other things concerning both this Or­der and the Additional Orders of Nôtre Dame de Mont-Carmel, and of St. La­zarus of Jerusalem.

THE Knights of the Order of St. Michael, in the year 1678. were seventy four in number.

The two eldest of these, enjoy the Priviledge of Committimus, under the Great Seal.

The King has named since other Knights in the room of those Deceased, and to compleat the num­ber of a hundred, to which his Majesty reduced it, by the reformation he made in the year 1665. who will be received in the first general Chapter, which shall be held by the Kings Order, when they have made proof of their Nobility and good Services.

His Majesty has been pleased to honour some Strangers with the Collar of this Order, and among others, the Count of Padua, M. Ʋbaldo Cima d' Ozimo, at Rome, and the late Dutch Admiral Ruy­ter: But Strangers are not comprehended in the said number of a hundred.

In the year 1666. The King Commissionated the late Duke of Noailles, Peer of France, and Captain of his Life-guards, M. de Beringhen, Chief Querry, and Commander of his Orders, and the late Mr. Colbert Secretary of State, Comptroller-General of thē Finances, and then Commander, and great Trea­surer [Page 344] of his Orders, to survey and examine the Proofs and Evidences of the Nobility of the Knights of the Order of St. Michael, which were put into the hands of Mr. Cotignon de Chauvry, Genealogist of the Kings Orders.

The King commonly Commissionates one of the Knights of his Orders to assist at the general Chap­ters of his Order of St. Michael, and to receive those which are to be received, with the usual Ce­remonies, according to the intention of his Majesty, after they have made due proof of their noble Ex­traction, and of their Services: And at the hold­ing of every General Chapter, the King sends a new Commission to one of the Knights of the Holy Ghost; and though his Majesty be pleased to continue sometimes the same Person, yet he may change, if he please, at every new Chapter; for he of the said Knights of the Holy Ghost that is named for that purpose, can plead no prescription from thence, for his being continued perpetual Commissioner of this Order of St. Michael.

In the year 1608. King Henry the Great Institu­ted an Order, which he named the Order of Nôtre Dame de Mont-Carmel, i. e. of our Lady of Mount-Carmel, in memory of the ancient Order of the Dukes of Bourbon, dedicated to the B. Virgin; and in the Month of October the same year, he joined thereto, the ancient Order of St. Lazarus of Jeru­salem.

It is composed all of French Gentlemen.

They wear a Golden-Cross Cantoned, or quar­ter'd with four Flower-deluces edged with a white Hem, in the midst of which, on one side, upon a white Enamel, is represented the Virgin, and on the other, a St. Lazarus upon an Enamel of Green. This Cross is tyed to a Flame-Coloured Ribband.

The Great Priors, and other great Officers of this Order, wear this Cross tyed to a great large Flame-Coloured Ribband tied Scarf-wise, and on the left [Page 345] side of their Cloaks, or Coats, another Cross, com­posed of four Flames, Cantoned with four Flower-deluces, and in the middle, the Image of the B. Vir­gin, Environ'd with Rays of Gold, all in Em­broidery.

The Present King, Confirmed the Rights, Estates, Commanderies, Priviledges and Exemptions of this Order, in the Month of April, 1664. and in De­cember, 1672.

The King is likewise Chief, and Soveraign of this Order.

On the 8th of January, 1668. the Marquiss of Nerestang took the usual Oath to the King, for the Office of Great Master of the Royal Order of Nôtre Dame de Mont-Carmel, and of St. Lazarus of Jeru­salem, both on this side of, and beyond the Seas: After which, his Majesty put on upon him the Col­lar and Cross, in the Presence of his principal Lords; and at the same time, he took his leave of his Majesty, to go and Command a Squadron of Ships designed for the Guard of the Coasts of Brit­tany: But he voluntarily resigned this Office into the Kings hands again in 1673.

The Marquiss of Louvois was received Vicar Ge­neral of this Order the 18th of February, 1673. at the Carmelites Convent, called les Carmes des Bil­lettes, where the Assemblies and Ceremonies of the Order are kept and Celebrated.

On New-Years Day, in the year 1669. the Duke of Orleans received into the number of his Life-guards twelve Knights of St. Lazarus, which are as 'twere the Cadets, or young Noblemen of his Guards.

There are five great Priories, and 140. Comman­deries of this Order, viz. 28 Commanderies to each Great Priory, to which his Majesty commonly no­minates some of his Land, or Sea-Officers, or Com­manders, which have been wounded, or which have render'd him considerable Services.

[Page 346] The General and Conventual House of this Order, is the Commandery of Boigni near Orleans.

The Great Priories are as follows.

1. The Grand Priory of Normandy: the Grand Prior is the Chevalier de Montchevrueil, Colonel of the Kings Regiment, and Brigadier; his Seat is at the Mont aux Malades, or Mount of the sick peo­ple, near Roüen.

2. The Great Priory of Brittany: the Great Prior is the Chevalier de Chateau Regnaud, Com­mander of a Squadron of Men of War: He resides at Auray, and has annexed to his other Commande­ries, that of Blois.

3. The Great Priory of Bargundy: the Great Prior is M. de Bullonde: His Seat is at Dijon.

4. The Great Priory of Flanders: the Great Prior is M. de la Rabliere, Marshal in the Camps and Ar­mies of the King and Commander of Lile, where his Seat is.

5. The Great Priory of Languedoc: the Great Prior is M. de Rivarolles.

The Council established for taking cognisance of the affairs of this Order, sits in the Arsenal at Paris, those that compose it are

  • 1. The Marquiss of Louvois, Vicar-General, and President of the Order.
  • 2. Florent d' Argouges, Chancellour of the Order, received in 1685.
  • 3. M. Du Verdier, Proctor-General of the Order received in 1672.
  • 4. De Turmenies Sieur de Naintel, Treasurer of the Order.
  • 5. Camus de Beaulieu, Secretary and Recorder of the Order.
  • 6. M. William Seguier, Dean of the Order, recei­ved in 1638.
  • [Page 347] 7. The R. Father TousseinT St. Luke Carmelite, Almoner of the Order, received in 1664.

And five Counsellours.

Besides this, there is also a Chamber-Royal esta­blished at the same Arsenal, that takes cognisance of the reunion of Estates, and of the property of stocks of Money, Heritage, and other rights which have been usurped upon this Order, and alienated from the designed use; which said Royal Chamber is composed of nine Counsellours, to whom are sub­servient, one General Proctor, who has his Deputy, or Substitute, and one Registrer or Recorder.

Besides these abovesaid Orders of Knighthood, there are in France, many Knights of Malta, and Great Priors and Commanders of that Order, that possess there many rich Lordships, with great Pri­viledges and Immunities, for that they are obliged, by their Order, to expose themselves continually for the common defence of Christendom against the Turks and Infidels: But there being Books enough that treat ex professo, very largely and particularly of them. It will be needless for me to insist upon any further description of them, in this small Book.

In old time, before these particular Orders of Knighthood were instituted, this word Chevalier, or Knight, was used to signifie some great precedent merit, from whence it comes to pass, that Gentle­men of Quality, and of ancient Families, still to this day, assume that Quality, and write themselves Messire, N. Knight, and Lord of Messire, being a Title intimating Nobility, and Chevalier, or Knight, being reckoned a worthier Title than that of their Mannours, or Seignieuries, of which they are Lords.

And of these Knights, there were two sorts, or Orders, viz. Bannerets, and Batchellours: the Ban­neret was he that could raise men enough of his own Vassals to follow his Banner; the Batchellour was [Page 348] such a one as went to the Wars under another Mans Banner: and under these, was the Esquire, which is a quality still taken by the last and lowest rank of Nobility there.

CHAP. XIV.

Of the general Dignities of the Kingdom; and first, of the High Constable.

THE High Constable was the first of all the Offi­cers of the Crown, and next to the King, was Sovereign Head of the Armies of France, and took place immediately next after the Princes of the Blood, chiefly in Parliament. At first, he was no more than the Great Master of the Horse is now, as appears by the Etymology of the word, which is, Comes Stabuli, i. e. Count of the Stable: On the sides of his Coat of Arms, he bore as a mark of his Dignity, two naked Swords, with the points upward, held by a right-hand armed, with a Gant­let coming out of a Cloud: He was sworn by the King himself.

At publick Entries of Kings, the Constable marched foremost before his Majesty, on his right hand, holding a naked Sword; And when the King sate on his Bed of Justice, or in the Assembly of the general Estates, he sate before him on his right hand.

The Power of this Officer was much augmented by the Successours of Hugh Capet, when the Office of Mayor of the Palace was supprest, and though there were Constables before Hugh Capet, yet they had till then, no power in the Armies: If we may believe M. du Tillet, who sets down the Constables, according to their Succession, the first to be found [Page 349] in History, was Froger of Châlons, under Lewis the Gross, who therefore may well be called the first Constable, he being the first that ever enjoyed that large power the Constables enjoyed after that time, to whose Command in the Armies, the very Princes of the Blood were subjected.

He that first Exalted the Power of Constable to a Soveraign Command over all the men of War, not excepting the Princes of the Blood, was Mat­thew the second, Baron of Montmorency.

The Constable had right to take a days pay, as his Fee, of all Military Persons entred into the Kings pay, at the first payment they received, and of the Horse and Foot that were under the Command of the Master or Clerk of the Cross-Bow-men, and in general, of all those that were paid by the Treasu­rers of the Wars, except only the Princes of the Blood and their Domesticks, that served in the War at their own Expences, and the Officers and Soul­diers at Sea.

It was Treason to offend the Constable, as it was Judged in the Case of Peter de Craôn, who had attempted upon the Life of Oliver de Clisson, High Constable.

The Jurisdiction, or Court held at the Marble Table, is called the Constablerie and Marshalsey, and though the Office of Constable was supprest by a De­claration of the last King, in 1627. after the Death of the then Duke de Lesdiguieres, the last Constable, yet so much of his Jurisdiction and Power, as was exercised at the Marble Table, remains still in the hands of the Marshals of France, that were formerly but his Lieutenants.

The number of Constables is differently related by the Annalists, who as little agree in the Order of their Succession. There is still, always in the Armies, a Provost of the Constablery, that gives out Passports, and has jurisdiction and power to take cognisance of all Disorders of Men of War, and [Page 350] to decide all differences arising among them, as likewise over all Traytors and Deserters of the Ar­my: He also sets the price of Victuals, and enjoys many other Priviledges.

By an Order of the 13th of March, 1627. and another of the 23d of April, in 1643. The late King supprest the Offices of High Constable, and Colonel-General of the Infantry of France, with a Provision for the future, that they should never be renewed again upon what pretence soever: and the suppression of that of Colonel-General of the Infan­try, was again confirmed the 23d of July 1661.

The first or eldest Marshal of France Officiates the duty of Constable, and may as such, bear on one side of his Coat of Arms, a naked Sword, and the Commanders Staff on the other, as Marshal.

The other Prerogatives belonging to this Office, may be seen in the relation of M. du Tillet.

Before we conclude this Chapter, it will not be impertinent the following Article of the Priviledges of this High Office found in the Registers of the Chamber of Accounts in a Bag called Spalia, and exprest in old French.

Item, The Constable is to have his Chamber at Court, near the King, where-ever his Majesty be; and in his Chamber, is to have twelve Stools, and twelve Cushions, and Billets for his fire; and he is to have a certain allowance of Wine, and two pound of small Candles, and a Torch by Night, to conduct him to his House, or into the Town, which are to be redelivered next Morning to the Fruiterer: And he is to have thirty six Loaves, and one Pot of Wine for himself placed near the Stand, and two Barrels for his Chamber, one towards the Door, and the other towards the ends, and of every Mess, cookt or raw, as much as is necessary, and a Sta­ble for four-Horses.

Item, If a Castle, or Forteress be taken, or do yield, the Horses, Harness, Provisions, and all o­ther [Page 351] things found therein, belong to the Constable, except the Gold, and the persons that belong to the King, and the Artillery that belongs to the Master of the Cross-Bow-Men.

There has been sometimes made a Lieutenant-General, representing the Kings Person throughout the Kingdom, which is an Authority almost equal to the Constables, though held only by Commission: There was one of these made in 1560. under Charles the Ninth, and the late Duke of Orleans en­joyed the same Dignity in the Minority of the pre­sent King Lemis the Great.

CHAP. XV.

Of the Marshals of France.

IT will be no easy matter to tell you precisely, at what time the Office of Marshal of France was first Instituted, because the Historians that have made mention of it, are not agreed about that point. John le Feron, that writes their History, makes them to have begun under Clovis the second, Son of Dagobert, in the person of one Girard Count of Dammartin; some others attribute their first Creation to Hugh Capet: But I can subscribe to neither of these opinions, my first reason is, because John de Feron has not the approbation of all those well skill'd in History; my second, that after having perused over the most part of the French Annalists, I can find no mention made of any Marshals of France till the time of Philip the First, neither was it by History that I found out the name in that Reign, but by reading the Records of the Founda­tion of the Church of St. Martin des Champs, or of St. Martins in the Fields, in Paris, dated in the [Page 352] year 1067. Signed by his Majesty and other Lords, and afterwards by Guy and Anselm, Marshals of France, without the addition of any other Sur-names.

This Charter which cannot be charged with For­gery, induces me to believe, that there were always some of that name and Dignity, ever since their first Creation, which agrees with the opinion of M. Du Tillet; but because it is more commonly be­lieved, that they were always the Lieutenants of the Constables, I shall not absolutely contradict it, and because the Office of Constable was then but the fourth Dignity in the Kingdom, and that their Command extended but over a part of the Kings Cavalry, I cannot be persuaded that the Marshals of France have always been Generals of Armies: The Office of Constable became the first Dignity of France, by the Valour of Matthew of Montmorency, who in the time of Philip Augustus, gained the Bat­tle of Bovines, against the joint Forces of the Em­perour Otho, and the King of England, who were then Armed and Leagued together against that Great Prince: And then it was, that the Dignity of Mar­shal of France raised it self to that Lustre which it keeps to this day; for whereas they were before but Lieutenants of the Constable in the Kings Stables only, they from that time his Lieutenants also in the Command of the Armies, and since the suppres­sion of that Dignity, exercise the whole remainder of the Authority annexed to it, which is conferred upon them, by putting a Staff of Command into their hands.

The Marshals of France bear, as a mark of their Dignity, two Azure Staves, set with Flower-deluces of gold, passed Salteir-wise, behind their Coats of Arms.

Their Offices depend wholly of the Crown, and they are Sworn for them by the King himself: They are commonly given as recompences to Eminent [Page 353] Commanders, for some great Military Exploits, and are not Hereditary: They cannot be deprived of the Title of their Dignities, but with the loss of their Lives, only they may be suspended from the Exercise of their Office. They are not obliged to take any Oath in Parliament no more than was the Constable.

The Provosts of the Marshals, or Provost Mar­shals, are Royal Judges, established in every Pro­vince under the Authority and dependance of the Marshals of France.

They have Jurisdiction over all Vagabonds and people that are no House-Keepers; and in many Cases, over them that are House-Keepers too, if they commit any Robberies on the High-way, if they be Incendiaries, Coiners of false money, or be guilty of wilful Murther, and other Crimes.

The Marshals of France were at first but two in number, but since that, the necessity of Affairs has given occasion sometimes to the doubling of that number. There were four under Charles the Se­venth, who were afterward reduced to the old number: Francis the First, finding himself obliged to maintain three or four Armies, to oppose the great Enemies, which he had always to deal with, revived again the number of four, and soon after added a fifth, who was Francis of Montmorency, Son of the Constable of that Name, by way of recom­pence to his Father, for the Office of Great Master of France, which he had resigned by his Orders to the Duke of Guise, but with this condition, that this fifth place should be supprest upon the Death of the First of the five that should die: The Duke of Mayenne made three during the time he was head of the League; and Henry the Great, when by the acknowledgment of his Subjects he came to be peaceable Possessour of the Kingdom, Created two of those three Marshals of France, viz. Ʋrban de Laval, Sieur de Bois Dauphin, and Claudius de la [Page 354] Chartre: Lewis the Thirteenth never limited the number of them, and the Present has augmented it with several new ones: Those of them that are still alive, and that keep the Court of the Consta­blery at the Marble Table; are these that follow, according to the years of their Promotion: Being

The Marshals.
  • De Crequi, in 1668.
  • De Bellefonds, in 1668.
  • D' Humieres, in 1668.
  • De Schonberg, in gone now to Portugal. 1675.
  • De Duras, in 1675.
  • De Vivonne, in 1675.
  • De la Feuillade, in 1675.
  • De Luxembourg, in 1675.
  • De Lorge, in 1676.
  • D' Etrées, in 1681.

Every of these Marshals is stiled Monseigneur-Messire, or My Lord Messire, in the List of them in the Court of the Constablerie, and Marshals of France, in the Palace at Paris, which Title of Mes­sire implies antient Nobility, personal and eminent worth, and something of a Soveraign Command.

The Marshals of France deceased, whose Memory is still fresh, were

The Marshals.
  • De Guebriant, deceased in 1643.
  • De Bassompiere, in 1646.
  • Two Marshals de Chatillon, whereof one died in 1646, the other in 1649.
  • De Gassion, in 1647.
  • De Chaune, in 1649.
  • De Brezé, in 1650.
  • De Rantzau, in 1650.
  • De la Force, in 1652.
  • [Page 355] De Schonberg, in 1656.
  • De la Mothe Houdancourt, in 1657.
  • De Hocquincourt, in 1658.
  • De Castelnau, in 1658.
  • De Foucault, in 1659.
  • De l' Hopital, in 1660.
  • De Fabert, in 1662.
  • De la Meillerage, in 1664.
  • De Clerambaut, in 1665.
  • D' Estampes, in 1668.
  • D' Aumont, in 1669.
  • D' Etrées, in 1670.
  • De Schulembergz, in 1671.
  • The Famous de Turenne, in 1675.
  • De Plessis Prâlin, in 1675.
  • De Rochefort, in 1676.
  • D' Albret, in 1676.
  • De la Force the Son, in 1678.
  • De Grammont, in 1678.
  • De Grancy, in 1680.
  • De la Ferté Senneterre, in 1681.
  • De Navailles, in 1684.
  • De Estrades, in February, in 1686.

There are several Widows of Marshals of France, which still enjoy the Honours of the Louvre, and other Priviledges we have mentioned to belong to them.

CHAP. XVI.

Of the Colonels-General, Camp-Masters, &c.

AFter the Death of the Duke d' Epernon, which hapned on the 23d of July, 1661. the Office of Colonel-General of the Infantry, was sup­prest.

The Colonel-General used to bear behind his Coat of Arms, as a mark of his Office, four or six Stan­dards of the Kings Colours, which are White, Car­nation, and Blue.

The Colonel-General of the light Horse, is the Count of Auvergne, Marquiss of Bergopzoom, Lieu­tenant-General of the Kings Armies: And the Camp-Master General is at present the Baron de Monctar, the Lieutenant-Colonel, is M. John d' Estampes, Baron of Bellebrune.

The Colonel-General of the Suissers and Grisons, is the Prince de Maine.

Monsieur de Mazarques, was Colonel-General of the Corsicans, but at present there are no Corsicans in the service: And the Baron D' Eguenfeld was Colonel-General of the Foreign Troops, but since his departure, there has been no other substitu­ted.

CHAP. XVII.

Of the Troops of the Kings Houshold, of the Gensdarmes, of the Light-Horse, and of the other Regiments of Cavalry, and In­fantry.

THE first Troops of Cavalry are those of the Kings-Houshold, of the Life-Guards, Gensd­armes, the Light-Horse of the Kings Guard, and the Musketeers on Horseback, which is called the Kings Houshold, to which there is lately joined a Company of Granadeers on Horseback, Commanded by Mr. Riotort: We have set down before, the four Companies of the Life-Guards, the Company of Gensd'armes, or Men at Arms, that are of the Kings Guard, of which the King is Captain, and the Prince de Soubize, Lieutenant-Captain, as likewise, the Company of Light-Horse of the Kings-Guard, and another Company of Gensd'armes, Commanded by the Duke de Chevreuse, as Captain-Lieutenant, and the two Companies of Musketeers on Horseback.

We come now to the other Forces.

First there is the little Gend'armerie, or that which is simply called, the Gend'armerie, without other addition, which comprehends, 1. The Scotch Gensd'armes. 2. The English Gend'armes. 3. The Burgundian Gend'armes. 4. The Flemish Gend'armes. 5. The Queens Gend'armes. 6. The Queens Light-Horse. 7. The Dauphins Gend'armes. 8. The Dau­phins Light-Horse. 9. The Gend'arms of Anjou. 10. The Gend'arms of Orleans. 11. The Light-Horse of Orleans. Monsieur de St. Germain, is Provost of the little Gend'armerie.

[Page 358] The Princes, or eldest Sons of the Kings of Great Brittain, having as Princes of Scotland, a right to the Command of a Cavalry in France, there was a Company of the Kings Scotch Gensd'armes, Comman­ded by the Duke of York, as Duke of Albany, and in his absence, by the Marquiss of Livourne, as Cap­tain-Lieutenant: The Baron of Thauriac, was Sub-Lieutenant, the Ensign the Count d'Onseigne, and the Guidon, Monsieur Champrond.

2. The English Gensd'armes, which are now most Irish, whose Captain-Lieutenant, the Count de la Guette, the Sub-Lieutenant, the Chevalier de Crollis, the Ensign Mr. O Brian, and the Guidon, the Mar­quiss of Beavau.

3. The Burgundian Gend'arms, whose Captain Lieutenant, is the Marquiss of Flamanville.

4. The Company of Flemmish Gensd'arms, Created the 22d of November, 1673. the Count de Masin, is Captain-Lieutenant, M. Gouffier de Rosamelle, Sub-Lieutenant.

The King is Captain of all the abovesaid Compa­nies, whose Captain-Lieutenants Command over all the Camp-Masters.

The Queens have also their Companies of Gensd'­arms, and Light-Horse, and so has the Dauphin, be­sides which, there are the Gensd'arms of Anjou, and the Gensd'arms, and Light-Horse of Orleans.

The Marquiss of Lanion, Governour of Vannes in Brittany, is Captain-Lieutenant of the Queens Gensd'arms: Next, are the Light Horse of Burgundy and Flanders.

Note, That the Light-Horse Men are so called, be­cause they formerly wore only Back and Breast-Pie­ces, to distinguish them from the Gensd'arms, or Men at Arms, that were compleatly Armed with Back, Breast, Arms, and Thigh Pieces.

The other Regiments of Light-Horse, are likewise Armed in the same manner as the aforesaid Light-Horse.

[Page 359] When they march in Battle Array, five or six Re­giments of Cavalry are formed into a Brigade, under the Command of an old Camp-Master, who is then called a Brigadeer.

There is a Brigadeer General of the Cavalry.

Every Regiment of Cavalry contains nine Com­panies more or less, and in every Company, there is a Captain, a Lieutenant, and a Cornet.

The Regiments of Light-Horse are called by the Names of their Camp-Masters.

There is a Commissary-General of the Cavalry, who is the Count of Montrevel.

There are thirteen Regiments of Dragoons; the Marquiss of Boufflers, Lieutenant-General of the Kings Armies, is Colonel-General of the Dragoons; the Count de Tesse is Camp-Master General; the other Colonels of the Dragoons, are Monsieur de Til­ladet, M. de Roncherolles, M. de Longueval, M. de Barbezieres; the Marquiss de la Breteche, Governour of Hombourg, the Chevalier de Tesse, M. de Chevilly, M. N. And the Major-General is M. Bruyset.

As for the Infantry, or Foot, after the two Regi­ments of Guards, the French and Suissers, the other Regiments are divided; first into old Bodies, that bear the Names of the principal Provinces of France, as the Regiments of Picardie, Champagne, Piemont, Navarre, Normandy, the Sea Regiment: Where Note, that the Regiment of Picardie has always the Precedence, and those of Piémont, Champagne and Navarre, have each their year one after ano­ther, and after them is the Norman, or Sea Regi­ments: Next are the little old Bodies, viz. The Regiments of Auvergne, Bourbonnois, Sault, Le Roy, Feuquieres, and Vaube-Cour; and after them the New Regiments. The old Regiments are kept al­ways standing in time of Peace, only the number of Men is reformed and reduced to thirty or forty in a Company; but the Officers are retained, that they may be always in readiness to compleat their Com­panies [Page 360] again to their full number, whenever occasion shall be. The new Regiments, which almost always bear the names of their several Camp-Masters, con­sist commonly of fewer Men then the old ones, and are often-times reformed or disbanded in time of Peace.

Besides these, the King has several Regiments of Foreign Foot, which are composed of Germans, Scotch, Irish, Italians, Liegeois, and others, and particularly of Suissers, of which, there are six, or seven thousand in France.

And lastly, There is the Company of Fuzileers of Flanders, consisting of sixty Men, Commanded by the Chevalier de Montelet.

The Kings Field Regiment consists of sixty seven Companies.

We have already spoken both of the French and Suisse Regiments of Guards, and of their Officers. We shall now speak of the others.

Colonels of the Infantry.

Of the Regiments of
  • Picardie, the Marquiss d' Harcourt-Beuvron.
  • Champagne, M. le Bailly Colbert.
  • Navarre, the Duke de Rocheguion.
  • Piémont, the Marquiss de Rebé.
  • Normandie, the Count de Guiscard.
  • Feuquieres, the Marquiss of Feuquieres.
  • The Sea Regiment, the Marquiss of Liancourt.
  • Bourbonois, the Marquiss de Refuge.
  • Auvergne, the Marquiss de Prêle Nicolaii.
  • Sault, the Duke de Lediguieres.
  • Vaube-Court, the Count of that Name.
  • The Kings, the Chevalier de Montchevreüil.
  • Royal, the Marquiss de Crequi.
  • Poitou, M. de Guenegaud, the Marquiss of Biville.
  • Lyonnois, the Marquiss d' Alincourt.
  • Dauphin, the Marquiss d' Ʋxelles.
  • [Page 361] Crussol, the Duke d' Ʋzais.
  • Touraine, the Marquiss d' Ʋsson.
  • Anjou, the Marquiss d' Hautefort.
  • Le Maine, the Duke, or Prince of that Name.
  • Dampierre, the Marquiss of that Name.
  • Louvigni, the Duke of Grammont.
  • Grancey, the Marquiss of that Name.
  • The Queens, the Marquiss de Crenan, Brigadeer, and Surveyor-General of the Infantry.
  • Bouligneux, M. de Bouligneux.
  • Royal, of the Fleet, or Vessels, the Marquiss de Gandelu.
  • Orleans, M. de Bailleul.
  • Crown, the Chevalier de Genlis.
  • Brittany, the Marquiss de Novion.
  • Soissons, the Count of that Name, and under him, M. Salieres.
  • Artois, the Marquiss d' Escots.
  • La Châtre, the Marquiss of that Name.
  • Vendôme, the Duke of Vendôme.
  • La Saâre, M. de Braque.
  • La Fêre, the Marquiss de la Fayette.
  • Alsace, the Prince Palatin of Birkenfeld.
  • Roussillon, M. de Chimene.
  • Condé, the Marquiss de Nêêle.
  • Anguyen, M. de Vilandry.
  • Vieubourg, M. de Vieubourg.
  • Rouergue, the Marquiss of Malauze.
  • Burgundy, the Count de Chamilly.
  • Royal of the Sea, the Marquiss de Nangis Brichan­teau.
  • Vermandois, the Marquiss de Soyecourt.
  • Kings Fusileers, the Marshal d' Humieres, Great Master of the Artillery, and under him, M. de Barville, with a Colonels Commission.
  • Languedoc, the Marquiss de Puzingnan.
  • Plessis-Belliere, the Chevalier, or Knight of that Name.
  • Jarzé, the Marquiss de Jarzé.
  • [Page 362] Clerambaut, the Marquiss of that Name.
  • Castres, the Marquiss de Castres, Governour of Montpelier.
  • Le Royal-Comtois, the Marquiss de Bellefonds, Son to the Marshal.
  • Larré, the Marquiss de Larré.
  • Provence, M. de Magny de l' Anglée.
  • Vivonne, the Marshal Duke of that Name.
  • Faméchon, a Walloon Regiment, M. de Faméchon.
  • Royal Italian, M. de Magalotti, Lieutenant-Ge­neral of the Kings Armies, and under him, his Ne­phew, M. de Albergoti.
  • Furstembourg, Count Ferdinand of Furstemburg.
  • St. Laurence, M. St. Laurence.
  • L' Allemand, M. l' Allemand.
The Colonels of the six following Regiments, being all Suissers, give names to their several Regiments as follows.
  • Herlac.
  • Salis.
  • Phipfer.
  • Stoupp.
  • Greder.
  • Stoupp, the Younger.

Coningsmark, a German Regiment, Count Charles John of Coningsmark.

Guien, M. de Blanzac, Son to the Count de Roye.

Lorrain, the Marquiss d' Hoquincourt.

In February, in the year 1684. the King raised three Regiments of Infantry more, being those of Toulouze, under the Count de Toulouze, Great, or High Admiral of France.

There were seven Regiments more Created the 30th of August, 1684.

  • Flanders, the Marquiss of Folleville.
  • Berry, the Marquiss de Goezbriant.
  • Bearn, M. de Monchevrueil, Count of Mornay.
  • Hainaut, M. de Pompone.
  • Boulonois, the Marquiss de Vibrage.
  • [Page 363] Angoumois, M de Proüy.
  • Perigord, the Count de Chamarande.

The Regiment of Bombardeers, Created the 31th of August, 1684. Whose Colonel is the Great Master of the Artillery, and the Lieutenant-Colonel, M. de Vigny, with a Colonels Commission.

The six following Regiments were Created the 4th of September, 1684. viz. those of
  • Saintonge, the Marquiss de Bligny.
  • Bigore, the Chevalier Pelot.
  • Forêts, the Count de Chemerault de Barbezieres.
  • Cambresis, the Marquiss de Chateaurenaud in Tou­rain.
  • Tournesis, the Marquiss de Broüilly de Pienne.
  • Foix, the Marquiss de Blainville, Great Master of the Ceremonies.
The fourteen following Regiments were Created the 5th of September, 1684. viz. those of
  • Bresse, the Count de Kercado.
  • La Marche, the Marquiss of Bi on.
  • Quercy, the Count d' Amanzé.
  • Brie, the Marquiss de Charrôts.
  • Nivernois, the Count de Lusse, of the Family of Montmorency.
  • Soissonnoīs, the Duke de Valentinois.
  • N...... de Grimaldi.
  • Isle of France, the Marquiss d' Antin.
  • Vexin, the Chevalier d' Hautefort de Montignac.
  • Aunis, the Marquiss de Polignac.
  • Dauphiné, or Dauphinate, the Chevalier de Ker­cado.
  • Vivarais, M de St. Pater.
  • Luxemburg, M. de Brancas.
  • Bassigny, the Count de Mailly.
  • Duke of Villars.
  • [Page 364] Beaujolois, Created the 17th of June, 1685. M. de Berulle.
  • Beausse, M. de Pompadour, Marquiss de Lauriere.
  • Ponthieu, Created in the Month of September, 1685. M. de Lomont.

So that in all, counting the two Regiments of Guards before-mentioned, there are 102 Regiments of Infantry, or Foot.

A List of the Camp-Masters of the Cavalry.

There are forty Regiments of Cavalry, whereof twelve consists of twelve Companies apiece, and the rest but of eight. Those that consist of twelve, are the Colonels Generals, those of the Camp-Master and Commissary-General, the Kings seven Regi­ments, and those of Tilladet and Coningsmark. The Regiments of Cavalry take place according to the Eldership of the date of the Commissions of their Camp-Masters, excepting the three general ones, and those that go under the name of his Majesty, or of some of the Princes of the Blood.

The Camp-Masters of the Cavalry.
  • 1. In the Colonels Regiment, the Count d' Au­vergne, Colonel-General of the Cavalry, and under him the Marquiss de Musse.
  • 2. In the Commissary-Generals Regiment, the Marquiss of Montrevel, Commissary-General of the Cavalry.
  • 3. In the Camp-Master Generals Regiment, the Baron de Monclar, Camp-Master General of the Light-Horse.
  • 4 In the Royal Regiment, the Count de Bourg, Lieutenant Camp-Master.
  • 5. In the Kings Regiment, the Marquiss de Beau­fort.
  • 6. In the Royal Foreign Regiment, the Count de Coligny.
  • [Page 365] 7. In the Regiment of the Kings Cuirassiers, the Marquiss de Mongon.
  • 8. In the Royal Regiment of Cravots, or Croats, the Count de Roucy.
  • 9. In the Royal Piémont Regiment, the Marquiss de Rivarolles.
  • 10. In the Royal Regiment of Rousillon, the Count de Montfort.
  • 11. In the Queens Regiment, the Count de Rou­sillon.
  • 12. In the Dauphins Regiment, the Marquiss de St. Gelais.
  • 13. In the Dauphins Foreign Regiment, the Che­valier de la Ʋrilliere.
  • 14. In the Duke of Burgundies Regiment, the Marquiss de Houdetot.
  • 15. In the Orleans Regiment, the Marquiss de Vatteville.
  • 16. In the Regiment of Condé, the Marquiss de Toiras.
  • 17. In the Regiment of Anguien, Monsieur de Saintrailles.
  • 18. In the Regiment of Tilladet, the Marquiss de Tilladet.
  • 19. In the Regiment of Villeroy, the Duke of that Name.
  • 20. In the Regiment of Grignan, the Chevalier de Grignan.
  • 21. In the Regiment of St. Aignan, the Duke de Beauvilliers, Chief of the Council-Royal of the Fi­nances, or Revenues.
  • 22. In the Coningsmark Regiment, Count Otho William of Coningsmark, Marshal of Suedeland, &c. and under him M. la Mote-Paillas.

In the other Regiments there are several Camp-Masters incorporated, whose Companies are re­formed, or reduced into one.

Colonels of the Dragoons.
  • [Page 366]The Colonel-General, the Marquiss de Boufflers.
  • The Camp-Master General, the Count de Tesse.
  • The Regiment of the Colonel-General, is Com­manded by the Count de St. Florentin.
  • The Regiment Royal, by the Marquiss d' Alègre.
  • The Queens Regiment, by the Marquiss de Murcé.
  • The Dauphins Regiment, by the Count de Lon­gueval.
The following Regiments, viz. those
  • Of Gramont of the County of Burgundy, by the Count de Gramont.
  • Of Barbeziéres, by the Marquiss de Barbesiéres.
  • Of Peissonel, by M. de Peissonel.
  • Of Lande, by M. de la Lande.
  • Of Chevilly, by M. de Chevilly.
  • Of Tesse, by the Chevalier de Tessé.
  • Of Asfeld, by the Baron d' Asfeld, Brigadeer of the Dragoons.
  • De Fimarcon, by the Marquiss of that Name.

The aforementioned Regiments of Foot consist some of more, and some of fewer Bataillons, and every Bataillon is composed of fifteen Companies, and of one Company of Granadeers, except only the two Regiments of Guards, French and Suissers, and the six other Suisse Regiments.

As to the Order observed in the Command of the Armies of France, they are always Commanded by one General in Chief, who has under him two Lieu­tenant-Generals, who Command by turns every o­ther day, and under them there are two Camp, or Field-Marshals, that change in the same manner, beginning with the Elder of the two. When the [Page 367] King Commands his Armies in Person, he has always two, or four Marshals of France under him: And when any Prince of the Blood Commands them, he has commonly two Marshals of France under him.

Every General has four Adjutants, or Aids de Camp, to carry about his Orders, which are com­monly young Noblemen, or sometimes old Offi­cers.

A Lieutenant-General has at least two Aids de Camp, and the Marshals de Camp, or Field-Marshals, have each of them one: Formerly there were Bat­tle-Marshals in every Army, but at present there are none, only Mr. de Fougerais is one, as being such by Title of a standing Office, though without act­ing as such: Next are the Brigadeers, who are cho­sen from among the Camp-Masters of oldest stand­ing, to Command Brigades composed of five or six Regiments of Horse, Foot, and Dragoons: Next them are the Camp-Masters that Command over the several Regiments of Horse, and the Colonels in the Foot-Regiments, and then the Lieutenant-Colonels, a Major, and the Aid, or Adjutant-Majors, in the Foot-Regiments, but in the Cavalry, the Major is the second Person; Next are the Captains of every Company, and in Companies of Light-Horse; under every Captain there is a Lieutenant and a Corner, but in Companies of Gensd'arms, or of Foot, there are Lieutenants, and after them Ensigns instead of Cornets.

As for the Quarter-Masters, or Marshals of the Lodgings of the Armies; There is one Quarter-Master General of the Cavalry, who is M. de St. Martin, who enjoys it by Title of a standing Office, who has under him several Adjutants, and Fouri­ers, or Under-Quarter-Masters: In the Body of the Infantry of every Army, there is a Major-General of the Brigades, from whom the Majors of every Brigade receive their Orders; Then there is a Quarter-Master for every Regiment, who having [Page 368] known from his Superiours the Quarters allotted to his Regiment, divides and shares them out among the several Companies, and Orders the Quarter-Ma­sters of each Company to lodge the Captains, Offi­cers, and Souldiers accordingly.

The four Quarter-Masters General at present of the Kings Camps and Armies are, M. Fougueux, M. de l' Anglée, M. Bolé, and M. du Verger: when they are in the Armies, they have every one two Harbingers, or Quarter-Masters under them, who are paid by the King.

There is likewise one standing Fourier, or Har­binger of the Kings Camps and Armies, who is the Sieur de Couty. Now, because there often have happened differences and contests among the Offi­cers of Horse, and those of Foot concerning place, and precedency of Command. It is ordered, that when they are both Incamped on a Plain, the Offi­cers of Horse shall have the Command, but when they are Posted in any Inclosure, Retrenchment, or Barricado, in any place, then the Foot-Officers shall have the chief Command.

Note, That in former time, when the French King went to Fight, they marched under the white Cornet of France, Accompanied with several Lords Voluntiers: But now it is no more in use. This white Cornet was different from the Colonels Cornet of the Cavalry, which is also white.

CHAP. XVIII.

Of the Great Master of the Artillery.

THE Present Great Master of the Artillery of France, is Lewis de Crevant de Humieres, Mar­shal of France, who is stiled, Great Master of the Artillery of France, and Super-Intendant General of [Page 369] the Powder and Salt-Peter; he is likewise Gover­nour and Lieutenant-General of Flanders, and of the other Conquests made in the Low-Countries since the Pyrenean Treaty; He took the usual Oath for this Office in September, 1685.

The Great Master of the Artillery, bears for a mark of his Office, under his Coat of Arms, two Canons, or Culverins, mounted on their Car­riages.

Before the Invention of Canon, there was a Great Master of the Cross-bows, and Battery-Men, called Cranqueneers, who had the Super-intendance over all the Officers and Machines for Battery: The Cranquins were certain Engines then in use for Bat­tering the Walls and Gates of Towns, not unlike those we read of in the stories of all Nations of those and elder times. It is the common opinion, that this Office has been ever since the time of St. Lewis, and in 1411, under Charles the Sixth, the Sieur de Hangest was Great Master of the Crossbow-Men; in lieu of which afterwards was substituted a Captain-General of the Powder of the Artillery; which Title was used till the time of Henry the Great, who in the year 1610. Erected it into an Office of the Crown, under the Title of Great-Master, in fa­vour of Maximilian de Bethune, Duke of Suilly, his Favourite.

At present in every Army of France, there is a Lieutenant of the Artillery, that has Command over all the Equipage of the Artillery, and takes care of its conducting, who depends of the Great Master.

The Great Master has the super-intendance over all the Officers of the Artillery, as Canoneers, Pio­neers, Wheel-wrights, Rope-Makers, and other small Officers, of which he keeps a Muster-Roll in all the Kings Armies, in every one of which, he has his Lieutenants, although in Cases belonging to their Offices, the Marshals of France have likewise a Com­mand [Page 370] over the said Officers: It is the Great Master of the Artillery that gives Order for making all works in the Armies, as well at Sieges of Towns, and in their Marches, and he has power over all the Arsenals of France: He has also the charge of most of the Tents and Pavilions of the Army, and has the Seat of his Jurisdiction in the Arsenal at Paris.

The Great Master of the Artillery is always Colo­nel of the Kings Fusileers.

All cast Mettal found in Conquered Towns, or rebellious places, at their taking, belongs to the Great Master of the Artillery, as his Fee, who some­times commands the very Bells to be taken down from the Steeples.

There are Lieutenant-Generals of the Artillery in the several Provinces, and in every Army, the prin­cipal at present, are the Marquiss de la Frezeliere, M. de Vigny, Lieutenant-Colonel of the Fusileers, and Bombardeers, and M. de Mets, Lieutenant-Ge­neral of the Artillery of Flanders.

There is likewise, a Comptroller-General of the Artillery, M. Camus de Clos, Intendant of Catalo­nia; a Treasurer-General, M. Stephen Landais; a Guard-General, M. Michael Pelletier; a Commissary General of the Powder, M..... a Secretary-Gene­ral, M. Joachim Fautrier; another Secretary, M. Lewis Rousseau; and lastly, one Bayliff of the Ar­tillery, and of the Arsenal, M. Noel Eustace Pean de Chesnay.

And because the King of France has his Wars by Sea, as well as by Land, having treated of the Con­stable and the Marshals of France, who have succeed­ed in his Authority, who are the chief Commanders of his Armies by Land, we shall now proceed to speak of the Admiral, who has the chief Command over the Naval Forces, and all Maritime-Affairs.

CHAP. XIX.

Of the Admiral, and of the Maritime Forces.

THE present Admiral of France is the Count of Toulouze, Lewis-Alexander of Bourbon, Legiti­mated of France, who is stiled Admiral, or Great Master of the Seas, and chief and super-intendant of the Commerce and Navigation of France, being Constituted so in the Month of November, 1683.

The Great Admiral bears, for a mark of his Charge, two Anchors passed Salteir-Wise, behind his Coat of Arms.

The Admiral is one of the Officers of the Crown, and Commands in the Wars at Sea with the same Authority as did the Constable formerly, and at present the Marshals of France, in those by Land; The Power of this Office is very Great, and was much augmented by King Henry the Third, in fa­vour of the Duke de Joyeuse, one of his Favourites, that was then Admiral.

The Admiral grants out Commissions to Priva­teers to Arm and put out to Sea against the Ene­mies of the State, and has Power to make Truce with them upon the Sea, for three Weeks, of his own private Authority; without his leave no Vessels can enter into any Port; he has the tenths of all the spoils taken at Sea: He is Judge in all Maritime Causes, and the Appeals from his Sentences are brought to the Parliament of Paris; but he has no Place there by vertue of his Office. His Chief Court is kept at the Marble Table in the Palace at Paris, whither Appeals are brought from the Judges of his inferiour Courts; and he has his Officers, that [Page 372] take cognisance of all Delinquencies and Differences that arise, as well about Contracts and Agreements, made either for Warlike Affairs, or for Merchan­dise, Fishing, and all other things whatever, whe­ther Civil or Criminal, putting in under him what Lieutenant he pleases, he gives safe Conducts and Pass-Ports by Sea, and Licenses for Herring-Fishing and other Fishing, and causes Watch and Ward to be kept on the Sea-Coasts, when there is occasion, by those who are subject to that Duty; and appoints Men of War to guard the Fisher-Boats in time of Herring-Fishing.

The Name of Admiral was borrowed from the Arabians, who came by Sea, pouring in like an In­undation, on the Christians in Europe, and after having roved over all the Seas of this Quarter of the World, Conquered Spain, and from thence made descents into France, by the Coasts of Guienne and Poitou; during the space of such long Wars, the French had frequent Communication with them, and he that Commanded in Chief over all the other Commanders of that so potent and formidable Na­val Army, being commonly called in the Arabian Tongue, Amiral Musulmin, that is to say, Prince of the True Believers, (for so those Infidels affect to call themselves) the French, who retained only the first Syllables of that Name, took occasion out of the corruption of it to form the name of Amiral, i. e. Admiral, which is the Title they have ever since applied to their chief Commanders, or Gene­rals at Sea.

All Ships of War are to bear their Admirals Colours, and the Admirals own Ship bears a square White Flag, upon her Main-Mast, and a Lanthorn in his Poop.

He has a Sovereign Command over the Seas of France, especially over all that part of the Ocean, and of the Mediterranean, near the Coasts of France, and over all the Ships of War, and Naval Forces.

[Page 373] The first Admiral that we read of was one Lehery, or according to some, one Rotland, under Charles the Great, called by Eginard, Praefectus Maris. This Office was formerly held only by Commission, and the first that possest it by Patent, as a standing Of­fice, was Enguerrand, Sire, or Lord of Coucy, un­der Philip the Hardy, in 1273. though according to some others, it was not made a standing Office, till the year 1369, under Charles the Fifth, and the first Admiral, according to that account, was Amaury Vicount of Narbon.

There were several Admirals belonging to France, whilst the Kings of France remained unpossest of many of the Maritime Provinces, for there were the Admirals of Normandy, Brittany, Guienne, and Pro­vence: the Admiral of Normandy, who was since the Re-union, called the Admiral of France, Com­manded from Callis, to St. Michaels Mount; He of Brittany from St. Michaels Mount to Raz; He of Guienne, from Raz to Bayonne; and he of Provence, from Perpignan, to the River of Genua: About this Admiralty of Provence there arose a great contest in the last Kings time, between the Duke of Guise, who pretended to that Admiralty, and the Cardinal of Richelieu, who put an end to the Dispute, by prevailing with the King, totally to suppress the Office of Admiralty, and to Erect instead of it another, under the Title of Great Master, Chief, and Super-Intendant General of the Navigation and Commerce of France, which he did by a Declara­tion in the Month of January, 1627. The said Cardinal gave it afterward by his Will and Testa­ment to the Son of the Marshal de Brezé, Duke of Fronsac, who when he took the accustomed Oath for it in Parliament, in the year 1648. reassumed the Title of Admiral, but he being killed at the Siege of Orbitello, this Office was exercised in the Name of the Queen Regent, under the Title of Great Master of the Navigation of France; but [Page 374] since that, the Title of Admiral has been reannexed to those other newer ones.

The Admiral of France, as having Command over two Seas, viz. the Ocean, and the Mediterra­nean, bears as a mark of his Dignity, two golden Anchors passed Salteir-wise behind his Coat of Arms, hanging upon, and fastened to two Cables; the Vice-Admiral likewise bears the same. The Great Admiral has 30000 l. yearly appointment, raised out of the duties of Anchorage, and other Revenues.

Next to the Admiral, there is likewise a Vice-Admiral of France, who is at present the Marshal d' Etrées, and his Son in Reversion.

There are three Lieutenant-Generals of the Naval Forces, viz. 1. Abraham du Quêne, Marquiss du Bouchet Valgrand, under the name of Du Quêne. 2. The Marquiss de Preuilly d' Humieres. 3. The Chevalier de Tourville.

And seven Chiefs, or Commanders of Squadrons, viz. 1. Monsieur Gabaret. 2. The Count de Cha­teaurenaud, Great Prior of Brittany, of the Order of St. Lizarus. 3. The Marquiss d' Amfreville. 4. The Chevalier de Sourdis. 5. The Chevalier de Bethune. 6. M. Villette de Murcé. 7. M. Forant, who was lately the eldest among the Captains of single Vessels.

Besides the Marquiss de Seignelay, who as one of the four Principal Secretaries of State, has the Ma­ritime Affairs under his department; there are two Intendant Generals of the Marine Affairs; under whom, there are two Intendants of the Levant, or East, who are M. Brodard for the Galliet, residing at Marseilles, and M. Girardin Sieur de Vauvray, re­siding at Toulon; likewise four Intendants for the Western Sea, or Ocean, viz. 1. M. Arnoux de Muin, residing at Rochefort, Rochelle, and Broüage. 2. M. de Champy Desclouzonne, residing at Brest in Brittany. 3. M. Patoüillet, at Dunkirk, and 4. M. de Fargis Montmor, at Havre de Grace.

[Page 375] The Secretary General of the Admiralty, or Ma­ritime Affairs, is M. de la Grange. The Treasurers General of the Admiralty, are 1. M. Lubert for the Men of War, and 2. M. de Bellinzani, for the Gallies.

There are likewise Comptrollers of the Admi­ralty.

The Admiral has, upon any Vacancies hapning, by Death or otherwise, the nomination of all Judges, Lieutenants general or particular, Counsellors, Re­ceivers, Advocates, Proctors, Registrers or Recor­ders, Serjeants, and other Officers of the Admiral­ty, both at the Supreme Court of Admiralty held at the Marble Table, and at the particular ones held in Picardy, Normandy, and Brittany.

The King has at present, 150 Ships of War, and 30 Gallies, besides tenders, &c. The Royal Docks for Building Ships in France, are only at Brest, Ro­chefort, and Toulon.

For the better furnishing the Royal Fleet with Almoners, or Chaplains, the King has established a Community, or Seminary of Priests, in the Burrow of Folgoet in Brittany.

CHAP. XX.

Of the General of the Gallies.

THE Kingdom of France being washed with two Seas, viz. on one side with the Great O­cean, and on the other, towards the South, with the Mediterranean; upon this last are kept the Gal­lies, as a more proper Shipping for that Sea, whose Port and Harbour is Marseilles, over which, there is a Chief, called the General of the Gallies.

The General of the Gallies is sometimes called [Page 376] the Admiral of the Levant, or East, as says the Sieur de la Popeliniere, who has composed a Book parti­cularly of the Admiral of France.

The present General of the Gallies, is Lewis Victor de Rochechoüard de Mortemar, Duke de Vi­vonne, Marshal of France, Governour of Champain, and late Viceroy in Sicily, during the Revolutions of Messina: He is as such, stiled General of the Gallies, and Lieutenant-General in the Seas, and Naval Armies of the Levant, he was sworn General of the Gallies in the Month of December, 1669. His Son the Duke of Mortemar, Married a Daughter of the late M. Colbert, Minister of State, has the Re­version of his Fathers Place, and in the year, 1681. Commanded alone himself the Gallies of France.

Charles the Ninth, by an Order of the 6th of A­pril, 1562. Verified the 8th of June, 1563. Decla­red Messire René of Lorrain, General of the Gallies, as well in the Levant, as in the Western Seas, ma­king him Chief General of all his Gallies, Galiots, Fregats, Fusts and Brigantins; and giving him Command over all Vessels and Ships, whether long or round, and authorising him to cause due obedi­ence to be given him by all manner of ways, and in all places, where it should concern the Duty of his Office.

The Lieutenant-General of the Gallies, is the Chevalier de Noailles, Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, &c.

Thus having treated of the Military Officers, we come now to the Officers of Justice, in the Kings Councels, which are likewise Officers General of the whole Kingdom.

CHAP. XXI.

Of the Kings Councels, and Ministers of State.

Of the Chancellour of France.

THE Chancellour is the Head-Officer of Justice, and of the Kings Councels, and into his hands he has wholly deposited it, that he may distribute and dispence it impartially to all his Subjects, with the same Power and Authority as he might do him­self in Person: for this reason the Seals of France are committed to his Custody, which he makes use of in the Administration of Justice, and in confer­ring of Gifts, Graces and Offices, as he thinks most reasonable for the good of the State. He presides in the Kings Councels. 'Tis he that on all occasions declares the Kings Pleasure; and when his Majesty goes to Parliament, to sit on his Bed or Throne of Judgment, he sits before his Majesty on his left hand. He wears a Robe of red Velvet lined with Scarlet Sattin; and at publick Ceremonies, a Cap fashioned like a Mortar, covered with gold, and adorned with Pearls and precious Stones: Before him march the Ushers of the Chancellery, carrying on their Shoulders Maces of guilt Silver, and the rest of the Ushers after them.

The present Chancellour is M. Lewis de Bouche­rat, Knight, Lord of Compans, and other places, who after having Officiated the Places of Corrector of the Accounts, of Counsellour in the Parliament, and Commissary in the Requests of the Palace Master of Requests, Intendant of Justice, or Lord Chief Justice in Languedoc, Honorary Counsellour in the [Page 378] Parliament of Paris, and both Counsellour of State, and Counsellour in the Councel Royal several years, and rendred very considerable Services to the State, and so acquired the universal approbation of all peo­ple by his indefatigable Industry, and his great Ca­pacity and Zeal for the service of his Majesty, and of the publick, was at length, upon all these Con­siderations named to the Chancellorship, by his Ma­jesty, on the Feast of All-Saints, in the year 1685. who was pleased to Seal his Patents, deliver him the Seals, and swear him into the said high and impor­tant Office the 3d of November following.

The Chancellour of France bears, as a mark of his Dignity, a Mortar-fashioned Cap of Cloth of gold set with Ermines, upon the Crest of his Arms, out of which, with the Figure of a Queen coming out of it, representing the Kingdom of France, holding in her right hand, a Scepter, and in her left the Great Seals of the Kingdom: and behind his Coat of Arms, two great Vermilion gilt silver Maces, passed Salteir-wise, with a Scarlet Mantle set with rays of gold towards the top, and furred with Ermines.

This Office was instituted, as some say, by Clotair the First, and the first Chancellour was Bodin in the year 562. He was antiently called the Great Refe­rendary and Keeper of the Royal Ring and Seal.

When a Keeper of the Great Seal is made at any time, he has the same Authority given him as a Chancellour, only with this difference, that a Chan­cellour is not deposable, but by arraigning him at the Bar, and taking away his Life, whereas the Keeper of the Seals is an Officer changeable at the Kings Pleasure.

The Original of the word Chancellour comes from this: All Letters Patents and Charters for­merly passing through his hands, when they were not well drawn up, or that any thing were found in them not conformable to Law and Custom, he [Page 379] used to cross them out, by drawing certain strokes and bars cross them, Lattice-wise, which in Latin are called Cancelli, from whence comes the word Cancellare, and the English word at this day used to signify making void any Writings, viz. to Cancel, and from thence, the word, Chancellour: Some­times he is called for distinctions sake, Summus Can­cellarius, i. e. High Chancellour, because there were and are several other Chancellours.

We shall speak of the other Officers of the Chan­cery, when we have described the Kings Coun­cils.

CHAP. XXII.

A general State and account of the Kings Councils, and of the persons that compose them.

THE Affairs hapning daily, being different and various, different Councils have been provided to debate and resolve them in; as the Council of War, the Council of Dispatches, the Council of State, and of the Finances, or Revenues.

Of the Council of War.

The Great Council of War sits commonly in the Kings Chamber, where he himself, unless some great indisposition hinder him, is present, with such Prin­ces of the Blood, Marshals of France, and Great Lords, as he thinks fit, for their experience in Mili­tary Affairs, to assist thereat.

Of the Council of Dispatches, and the Secretaries of State.

This Council is kept in the Kings Chamber, in his Majesties Presence, and at it are usually present, the Dauphin, Monsieur the Duke of Orleans, the Lord Chancellour, the four principal Secretaries of State, and those that have the grant of the reversion of their Offices. The matters there treated of, are the affairs of the Provinces, and all other things, both Foreign and Domestick, of which the Secretaries of State then present, make their Reports, who like­wise are to keep Memorials of all the resolutions taken there; and are afterward to see them duly dispatched, according to their several Departments, or Provinces.

There are four Principal Secretaries of State, and of the Commandments of his Majesty, who divide among them all the affairs of the Kingdom, and have every one their several Functions and business, according to their respective departments.

These four Secretaries at present are

1. Michael-Francis le Tellier, Son to the late Chancellour of France, Marquiss of Louvois: He is likewise Knight Commander, and Chancellour of the Kings Orders of Knighthood, Great Vicar Ge­neral of the Order of Nôtre-Dame of Mount Carmel, and of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, Post-Master Gene­ral, and Super-intendant, and Orderer General of the Royal Buildings, and Protector of the Royal Academy of Painting, and Sculpture.

2. John-Baptist Colbert Knight, Marquiss of Seigne­lay, &c. Son of the late great Minister of State of that Name. He is likewise President, perpetual Chief, and Director-General of the Company of the Commerce of the East-Indies, and Great Trea­surer of the Kings Orders of Knighthood.

[Page 381] 3. Peter-Baltasar Phylippeaux de la Ʋrilliere, Mar­quiss of Chateau-neuf upon the Loire.

4. Charles Colbert Knight, and Marquiss of Croissy, who is likewise Secretary of the Kings Orders and Finances, President à Mortier, or President, wear­ing the Mortar Fashioned Cap in the Parliament of Paris, formerly Ambassadour in England, and since Plenipotentiary at the Treaty of Nimmeguen, and in Bavaria for the Marriage of the Dauphin.

Their Departments are as follows.

The Departments of the aforesaid four Principal Se­cretaries of State, are thus laid out.

1. Mr. Louvois has for his Department,

The three Months of February, June, and October, and the affairs of

Poitou, la Marche, Catalonia and Rousillon, Pig­nerol, Lorain, and the three Bishopricks, Alsatia, the places yielded, or Conquered in Flanders, Artois and Hainaut, the Fortifications of the Places Con­quered or recovered: all affairs relating to War, the Tax called the Taillon, the Artillery, the Forti­fications of the said Generalities, the Buildings and Royal Houses, and the Arts and Manufactures of France.

In this Department are the Parliament of Mets, the Soveraign Councils of Perpignan, Pignerol, Tour­nay, Alsatia, and the Provincial Council of Ar­tois.

2. M. Seignelays Department comprises,

The Months of January, May and September, and the affairs of

Paris, and the Isle of France, and Soissonnois, as far as Noyon, the Countries of Orleans and Blois, the Fortifications of all Maritime Places, and other Places within the Kingdom, the Kings Houshold, the Clergy, the Admiralty and Sea-Affairs, Commerce both within and without the Kingdom, Manufa­ctures [Page 382] out of the Kingdom, the Gallies, the East and West-India Companies, and the Company of Se­negal, and other Countries within the Limits of their Patents, the Breeding Horses and Pensions.

In this Department there is only the Parliament of Paris.

3. Monsieur de Chateau-neufs Department com­prises,

The Months of April, August, and December, and the affairs of

Languedoc both higher and lower, and the Coun­ty of Foix, High and Low Guienne, as far as Fon­tarabie, Perigort, Rouerge, and Quercy; Broüage, the Country of Aunix, the Town and Government of Rochelle, Ré and Oleron; Tourain, Anjou, Maine, Perche, and the County of Laval, Bourbonnois, Ni­vernois, High and Low Auvergne, Picardie and the Country of Boulogne, Normandie, Roüen, Caen and Alençon; Burgundy, Bresse, Bugey, Valtomey and Gex; and in general, all Affairs relating to the Reformed Religion.

In this Department are the Parliaments of Tou­louze, Bourdeaux, Roüen, Dijon, and Besançon.

4. Monsieur Colbert de Croissy's Department con­tains,

The Months of March, July, and November, and the affairs of

Champagne and Brie, Provence, Brittany, Berry, Li­mousin, Angoumois, Xaintonge, Lyonnois, and Dau­phiné, Navarre, Bearn, Bigorre, the Principality of Sedan, Foreign Countries, and Pensions.

In this Department, are the Parliaments of Aix, Grenoble, Rennes, and Pau.

The Months set down under the name of each Se­cretary of State, are those in which their turn is to dispatch all Letters, or Patents, for all the Libera­lities, Gifts, and Benefices granted by the King in those Months.

The Parliaments contained within each Depart­ment [Page 383] are set down likewise under them, to show, that the Dispatches the King sends to any of the said Parliaments, must all pass through the hands of that Secretary of State, in whose Department they are; and that the Deputies sent by the said Parlia­ments, or States of the Provinces therein specified to the King, are Conducted to their Audiences, by the Secretaries of State, to whose Department they belong.

In the time of Henry the second, for the speedier Expedition of the many Affairs of State then de­pending, there were six Secretaries of State chosen, with this Proviso, that the two first Vacancies a­mong should not be filled up: In that manner were the Secretaries of State established, and reduced to the number of four, as they continue to this day.

Rules made by the King at Fountainbleau, for the Establishment of a Council-Royal, for his Finances, or Revenues. With an account of the persons it con­sists of, and the Order kept and observed in it.

The King having, after it had pleased God to give Peace to his People, seriously consider'd the ill condition of the Revenues of his Kingdom, and the Causes from whence it proceeded, His Majesty be­ing willing to prevent the same inconvenience for the future, resolved upon the present Regulation, and Declaration of his will and pleasure therein.

First, His Majesty has supprest for ever the Com­mission of Super-intendant of his Finances, or Re­venues, with all the Functions annexed to it.

And his Majesty well knowing, he could no way give greater marks of his love to his People, than by taking to himself the care and administration of his Revenues, for the more effectual retrenching of all the abuses crept thereinto, and practised till now; His said Majesty has resolved to call to his [Page 384] assistance a Council, composed of Persons of known Ability and Honesty, by whose advice he will act in the said Administration, and Execute all those Affairs which were used to be formerly resolved on and put in Execution by the Super-intendant alone.

The said Council shall be called the Council-Royal of the Finances, or Revenues, and shall be compo­sed of one Chief, under the Authority, and in the Presence of his Majesty, (when the Chancellour shall not be present in the said Council) and of three Counsellers, whereof one shall be Intendant of the Finances, His Majesty reserving to himself, the power to call in the Chancellour when he shall think fit; at which times he shall take Place and Precedence there, according to his Dignity, as Chief of all the Kings Councils.

His Majesty reserves to himself the Sealing and Passing of all Orders, touching the Expences ac­countable, and the Monies employed, as well for private Expences, or Bills remitted any where, and Interest, and all other Expences whatever.

The Books and Accounts of the Disbursement of his Revenues, as well those arising from the general Receits, as from the Farms, Woods, Crown-Lands, and all other Monies of what nature soever, shall be returned by the Intendant of the Finances, under whose Department they shall be, with his Advices and Reasons concerning the Changes fit to be made therein, into the hands of the said Council-Royal, who are to make report thereof to his Majesty, and receive his Orders thereupon, after which the said Accounts shall be passed and signed by the said In­tendant, and returned into the hands of him that made the Report, in Order to be Signed by his Ma­jesty, and by the Honourable Persons of the said Council, in such Place and Order as his Majesty shall appoint.

The Intendant of the Finances, that shall have [Page 385] the Honour to be of the said Council-Royal, shall have the Exchequer, or Treasure-Royal, under his Department, and consequently shall keep the Regi­ster of the whole, that shall be received, or disbur­sed, which he shall Communicate to no Person what­ever, without express Order from his said Ma­jesty.

All Orders shall be returned into his hands, to be reported to his Majesty, and shall be Registred, and Paraphed, or marked on the sides by him, and af­terwards passed by the Treasurers of the Exchequer, whose turn it shall be to be in Office that year.

The said Intendant shall take all the Accounts of the Farms, of the general Receits, of the Woods, Crown-Lands, Extraordinary Affairs, and all other Receits of what nature soever, in order to making a Report thereof himself to the said Council-Royal, that the said Accounts may be ratified and signed first, by his Majesty, and then by those of the said Council-Royal.

All Demands that shall be made of any new Offi­ces within his Majesties Dominions, shall be report­ed to, and resolved on in the said Council-Royal.

And as to all those Affairs which used to be de­debated and determined in the Council of Finances, and which were customarily signed by the Lord Chancellour, his Majesty will hold the said Council on such a day as he shall think fit to appoint, at which the Lord Chancellour shall be present, in or­der to the Examination and Determination of the said Affairs, viz.

The Brevets concerning the Taxes which shall afterward be signed by his Majesty, and by all those who shall have the honour to be present at the said Council.

All Ordinances for laying any Impositions on the people, of what nature or quality soever they be, shall be reported to the said Council, in order to be passed.

[Page 386] The Printed Papers to be posted up, containing the Conditions of letting out the Farms, shall be ex­amined and agreed on in the said Council-Royal, and after that, the Farms shall be published, the offers received, and the said Farms adjudged to the fairest Bidders, in the Ordinary Council of the Fi­nances.

All Treaties or Bargains for Extraordinary Af­fairs, All Orders of Loan, and other Orders of like nature, shall be reported, examined, and agreed on in the said Council-Royal, and afterwards signed and passed in the same form that has been always hitherto practised.

The Rolls of the Exchequer, as well as of the Expences accountable, as of the ready Money, shall be Examined and stated in the said Council-Royal, at which, at that time, shall be present the same Persons that used to be present on such oc­casions; after which, they shall be signed by his Majesty, and all those that shall be present thereat.

No Diminution shall be granted upon the Farms, general Receits, and extraordinary affairs, of what nature soever they be, unless it be in the presence of his Majesty in the said Council-Royal.

All which affairs shall be examined and resolved on in the said Council-Royal, which shall be com­posed, as is abovesaid, of the Lord Chancellour as Chief, and of three other Counsellours in the said Council.

His Majesty wills, and means, that the President or Chief of the said Council shall assemble all those that shall have the honour to be of it, once a Week, together with the other Directors, Comptrollers General, and Intendants of the Finances, to exa­mine all Affairs relating to the Finances, as was wont to be practised in the lesser Directions under the Super-intendants, excepting only those above reserved to the said Council-Royal; and particu­larly [Page 387] to examine and deliberate on all the means imaginable to increase the ordinary Revenues of his Majesty, to diminish, and if it be possible, wholly to remove all the Causes of the Diminutions of the Fanners, and the insolvencies that happen in the general Receits, and to use all careful indeavours, that the said Impositions may be collected and brought in within the time prescribed by the Or­dinances; that so those Expences, whose payment his Majesty shall assign upon the said Impositions, may be punctually paid and discharged.

All the affairs that shall be examined in the lesser Directions, shall be afterwards reported in the Grand Directions, in order to be therein resolved on, in the accustomed Form, and that has been hitherto used.

The Councils of the Finances, and Grand Dire­ctions shall be held as formerly, provided however, that none of those matters be treated on there, that are here above-reserved to the Council-Royal of the Finances.

In all the Councils, the Chief or President of the said Councils shall take the same place, that the Super-intendants of the Finances were wont to take there, and as for the other Councellours of State, they shall take place, according to the order of date of the Brevets, or Patents, by which they are constituted Councellours of State.

All the Orders, and other Dispatches of the Council of Finances, shall be signed by the said Pre­sident, or Chief, and three Councellours belonging to the said Council-Royal.

His Majesty wills, that at the opening of every Session of his Council-Royal, Report shall always be made of the accounts of some one of the Farms, of the general Receits, in order to the Examination of the impediments the Farmers meet with, in Collecting the Revenues of their Farms, and of what just and reasonable means, there may be used [Page 388] to augment them, that so his Majesty may inter­pose his Royal Authority for making the best of them.

His Majesty reserves to himself the Power to Change, Augment, or diminish this present Regu­lation, as the necessity of his Service shall re­quire.

Given at Fountain bleau, the 15th of September, 1661. Signed Lewis, and Lower de Guenegaud.

The Persons of which the Council-Royal of Fi­nances is composed at present, are the Lord Chan­cellours of France, Chief, or President, M. Pelletier, Comptroller-General of the Finances, who succeed­ed the late Mr. Colbert, Mr. Pussort, and Mr. D' Argouges.

CHAP. XXIII.

Of the Council of State, and of the Masters of Requests.

THE Present King Ordered by the first Article of his Regulation, dated the first of January, 1673. That the Council of State should be compo­sed, of the Lord Chancellour and Lord Keeper of the Seats, of 21 Councellours of State in Ordinary, whereof three are to be Church-men, and three Sword-men; of the Comptroller-General of the Finances, of the two Intendants of the Finances, all of them in Ordinary, and of twelve other Coun­cellours in State, that shall serve half-yearly.

The present Comptroller-General of the Finances, is Claudius le Pelletier, Honorary Councellour in the Parliament of Paris, formerly Councellour of State in Ordinary, who was advanced to this Great Office upon the Death of the late Mr. Colbert.

[Page 389] The two Intendants of the Finances, are

  • Michael le Pelletier de Sousy, Councellour of State, And
  • Francis le Tonnelier de Breteuil, also Councellour of State.

By the 85th Article of the new Regulation, the Advocates of the Councils, that were formerly 200, were reduced to 170, the present Dean of them, is Mr. Caussan.

The new Departments of the Comptroller-General, and of the Intendants of the Finances, are these.

1. To Mr. Pelletier, the Comptroller-General, be­long,

The Revenue of Commerce and Trade.

The united Farms, viz.

The Gabelles of France.

The Aids and Entries.

The Parties Casual, or Casual Revenues.

The five Great Farms.

The Convoy of Bordeaux.

The Patents of Languedoc, and other little Farms.

The Revenue arising from the Barrage and Pave­ment of Paris.

The Revenues of Burgundy, Britany, and Lan­guedoc.

The Turcies and Levies.

The Extraordinary Revenues for the War.

Those of the Artillery.

The Revenues raised on the Clergy.

Of Coinage.

Of the Provostship of Nants.

Of the Bridges and Causeys.

Of the Kings and Queens Domains, or Crown-Lands.

Of the Waters and Forests.

[Page 390] 2. Mr. Pelletier de Souzy, has

The Gabelles of Provence, and Dauphiné, and the Customs of Valence.

The Gabelles of Languedoc, and the Country of Lyons.

The Gabelles and Quarantieme, or fortieth of Lyons.

The Gabelles of Mets, Toul, and Verdun.

The Farm of the nine Livers, and eighteen pence of Picardie.

The Farm of Ingrande.

The Revenue of Fish, Paper and Beer.

That of Ashes.

Of the marking of Iron.

Of the Grants and Gifts of Cities.

The Revenues of Provence, and Navarre.

Of Artois, and other Conquered Places.

Of Mets, Toul, and Verdun.

Of the Parliament of Paris.

Of the Grand Council.

Of the Leagues of the Suiffers.

The Rents upon the Guildhall, or Town-House of Paris.

3. Mr. De Breteuil, has

The eighteen Generalities of the Countries of Election.

The greater and lesser Tax, called the Taille & Taillon.

The Revenue of the Chamber of Accounts, or Counting-Chamber at Paris.

That of the Court of Aids at Paris.

There are four Secretaries of the Council, who are M. Berrier, M. de Beauchamol, M. Ranchin, and M. Coquille: And M. Bartillat, and M. Du Mets, with the Title of Commissionated Keepers of the Treasure-Royal, exercise by turns, what was for­merly exercised by three Persons, with the Title of Treasurers of the Main Treasury, or Exchequer, called L' Epargne, or Spare Revenue.

[Page 391] There are eighty Masters of Requests in Ordinary of the Kings Houshold, that officiate quarterly.

The Officers called les Gens du Roy, are

One Proctor-General M. Lewis Maboul, who like­wise performs the Function of Advocate-General.

One Advocate-General, M. Francis-Nicholas Ber­thelot.

The Secretaries of the Court of Finances, are the same with those of the Council of State.

There are four Secretaries-Registrers of the Privy-Council; four Commissioners of the Register of the Council, and four Registrers-Keepers of the Council-Bags: all officiating quarterly. And one Chief Registrer of the Requests of the Houshold.

There are eight Ushers, or Door-Keepers in Or­dinary belonging to the Kings Councils; and eight other Ushers of the Requests of the Houshold.

There is also held another Council called the Council of Parties, because it was established to take cognisance of the Processes or Suits moved by particular Parties one among another, whether it be upon their Appeals from the Judges of a particu­lar Jurisdiction, or of a Parliament, or any other entire Jurisdiction; or for particular Affairs be­tween City and City; or between one private Per­son and another, that this Council has called before it, or of which it has reserved the cognisance to it self.

The Councellors of State that sit in this Council of Parties, or in the Council of the Finances, are for the most part, Persons that have served a long time in other Courts, or Jurisdictions, as in the Parliament, Grand-Council, and even in the very Body of the Masters of Requests, or in Embassies to Foreign Princes and States: Those of the last sort enjoy the Quality and Pension of Councellours of State, at their return from their Ambassages, but [Page 392] yet have not all Entrance into the Council: Some of them serve there all the year, and some but six Months, their Salary, when they serve all the year, is 2000 Crowns to each: They are sworn by the Chancellour.

Anciently there were three Masters of Requests taken out of the Body of the Parliament, that used to stand at the Door of the Kings Lodgings, leaning with their Elbows on the Rails, ready to receive all Requests or Petitions, that people had a mind to present to the King: And if they were businesses of no great consequence, they commonly dispatcht them immediately, but if they were of Consequence, then they made report of them to the King, when he was in his Chamber, or when he was going to Mass, or a walking: And when business begun to increase, they waited no more at the Door, but near the Kings Person, who committed to their Exami­nation, all the Petitions that were presented him. They usually had Lodgings in the Kings Palace, and were tabled at Court.

They at present, take cognisance in their Court, of Masters of the Requests of the Houshold, of the personal and possessory Causes of the Crown-Officers, and of the Officers that are Commoners and Tabled in the Royal Housholds, and others that have the priviledge of Committimus. There lies an Appeal from them to the Parliament of Paris, unless it be when a Sovereign Jurisdiction is given them by a solemn remission of any cause to them by the Coun­cil of State.

They serve likewise in the Chancery, and in the Council of State, where they report and sign all Petitions that come thither, and have extraordinary Commissions in the Provinces where they are Inten­dants of Justice, of Policy, and of the Finances, or Revenues; as also in the Armies where they have a very great Authority and Power: They have power to preside in the place of the Presidents in all Seneschalchies and Baily-wicks.

[Page 393] The Habit used by the Masters of Requests, at great Ceremonies and Solemnities, is a Scarlet-Gown, as being of the Body of the Parliaments, where they have Entrance, Place, and Voice, or freedom of Suffrage, and opinion deliberative.

When the Masters of Requests march all in a Bo­dy, accompanying the Chancellour, as they did in the year 1660. at the Kings solemn Entry; they wear as they did then, black Velvet-Gowns, with golden Girdles, and Hat-Bands.

CHAP. XXIV.

Of the Grand Council.

THE Grand Council, being at its Original, or first Institution, the only Councils of the Kings of France, the Princes of the Blood, Officers of the Crown, and chief Presidents of the superiour Courts, used to stile themselves Councellours of it. Afterwards the Title of Councellour to the King in his Councils, was taken up instead of it, as soon as a plurality of Councils was erected. The Grand Council was reduced by Charles the Eighth, to 17 Councellours, and one Proctor-General, and since augmented by Lewis the Twelfth, with three Councellours, to make up the number of twenty, and that served by the half year; since that, the Advocates-General, and the Presidents were added thereto, and the number of Councellours augmen­ted from time to time, by new Creations, inso­much, that at present, this Company is composed of eight Presidents, serving by turns, four each half year; 54 Councellours, serving by turns, 27 each half year, two Advocates-General serving half a year apiece; and one Proctor-General who only is per­perpetual. [Page 394] The half-yearly waiting times of the Councellours, begin in October, and April. Besides these there are fourteen Councellours of Honour, or Titular Councellours in the Grand Council, who are Candidates as it were of it, and succeed in the Va­cancies. There are likewise twelve Substitutes; or Deputies, one Registrer or Recorder in Chief, five Secretaries, one Chief or first Usher, twenty other Ushers, and 23 Proctors.

The Jurisdiction of the Grand Council extends throughout all the whole Monarchy and Dominions of the King. At its first beginning, it had power to judge of Appeals from, and of the Regulations of Judges, and of the nullities and contrarieties of Sentences; of which Regulations of Judges, and contrarieties of Sentences, it still takes Cognisance; as also of the Jurisdiction of Presidials, and of the Provosts of the Merchants, and of whatsoever de­pends thereon, concerning the Honour, Function, and Regulation of their Offices. It also takes Cog­nisance of all matters concerning Consistorial Bene­fices, Archbishopricks, Bishopricks, Abbies, and Conventual Priories, and in general, of all other Benefices, that are at the Kings Nomination, Pre­sentation, Collation, or other Disposal whatsoever, as well in respect of the Title to them, as of the Pensions charged on their Revenues, excepting the Regal Right, or Due. It also takes Cognisance of the Duties belonging to the King from Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, upon the account of his joyful arrival to the Crown, and of those due from Archbishops and Bishops, when at their Instalments and Consecrations they swear Fidelity to the King; of those arising from the Indults, or Fees so called, of Cardinals, and other Prelates of the Kingdom; from the Indult of the Officers of the Parliament of Paris. From the appellations of the Provostship of the Houshold, of the Warren of the Louvre, and from those of the Chamber of the General Reforma­tion [Page 395] of the Hospitals, and Houses for the sick in France, from the Commissions of the Chief Physi­an, for the Reports of dead Bodies, drowned and wounded, and all Statutes, or Orders of the said Chief Physician, concerning Pharmacy; from the Execution of, or offences against the Statutes, or Orders of the Kings Chief Barber; and from Ap­peals concerning the Persons, Estates or Priviledges of the Great Orders of the Kingdom, as are those of Chiny, the Cistercians, the premonstrated Monks, Grandmont, the Trinity, the Holy Ghost, Fontev­rault, and St. John of Jerusalem.

From the withdrawing, concealing and imbezel­ing Ecclesiastical Goods or Estates, and Immunities and Franchises, or Liberties of Ecclesiastick Per­sons; and from several Appeals concerning the an­cient Substitutions of the Great Houses of the King­dom.

The Solemn and Ceremonial Habits used in the Grand Council, are Robes of Black-Velvet, for the Presidents, and Black-Satin Robes, for the Coun­cellours, Advocates, and Proctor-General, and the Recorder, or Registrer.

The Great Council is a Court, that Judges with­out Appeal, and that follows the King, whenever it pleases his Majesty.

The place where the Grand Council is held, is in the Cloister of the Church of St. Germains l' Auxer­rois, at Paris, near the Louvre.

And because the Chancellour is not only the Head and Chief of all the Kings Councils, but also the Head of the Chancery, since he has the Seals in keeping.

Now we have treated of the several Councils, it will be most proper in the next place, to speak of the Officers of the Chancery in their order, and to explain what their Offices are.

CHAP. XXV.

Of the Councellours and Secretaries of the King, House, and Crown of France, and of their Finances, or Revenues.

THE Councellours, so stiled as above, are in number 240, and have his Majesty for the Chieftain, and Soveraign Protector of their Com­pany, ever since the first Institution of it; and his Majesty has the first Purse of the profits of the Seal.

The first of them is called their Dean.

These Secretaries-Councellours were reduced and united into one only Body and Company, by an Edict of the Month of April, 1672. by which they are maintained in all their ancient Priviledges and Exemptions: of this number, are the four Princi­pal Secretaries of State, the four Secretaries of the Council of the Finances, or Revenues; the four Registrers of the Council of Parties, and the Chief Registrers, or Recorders of the superiour Compa­nies of the Kingdom. Their principal Function is to be present and assisting at the application of the Seal, and to dispatch and sign all Letters, that are presented to the Lord Chancellour to be sealed; they read to him all Letters of Pardon, Remission, and other Graces and Favours, which he grants or refuses. The Chancellour is Judge of all matters that relate to their Places and Functions, and the Sentences given by them in Council, run in this tenour, The King in his Council, by the advice of the Lord Chancellour, has Order'd, and does Order, &c.

All the Offices of the Chanceries throughout the Kingdom, excepting only those of the great Audi­ancers of France, the 240 Secretaries of the King, [Page 397] and some others, are at the disposal and nomi­nation of the Chancellour, and of his Parties Ca­sual.

CHAP. XXVI.

Of the Great, or High Chancery of France.

FIrst, There are in it, four Great Audiencers that officiate quarterly, each one in their quarter.

The Great Audiencers of France, are the first Of­ficers of the Seal. Their principal Function is to view and examine the Letters that are to be sealed, which are to be carried or sent to them the day be­fore they are to be sealed, by the Kings Secretaries abovesaid, that they may present them and report them to the Chancellour, and tax them at the Con­troll.

The four Great Audiencers of France, the four Comptrollers-General, the four Keepers of the Rolls of the Offices of France, the four Conservatours of the A Secu­rity given to save harmless, or for the true Title of Lands, &c. Hypotheques, and the Treasurers of the Seal, are by their places, Secretaries to the King, per­form the Functions of such, and enjoy all their Pri­viledges and Exemptions.

There are four Comptrollers-General of the Au­dience of the Chancery of France, that serve like­wise quarterly.

The principal Function of the Comptroller-Ge­neral of the Chancery of France, in the time of his Waiting, is to take and lay before the Wax-Chafer, the Letters that are ready for the Seal, and when they are sealed, to receive them again from the hands of the Wax-Chafer, and put them into the Chest for that purpose, without imbezeling or fli­ding aside any one of them. And he is to put to [Page 398] his Comptroll, and Paraphe or Mark all along the sides, after the Great Audiencer has taxed them, as it was Order'd by the Edict of the Month of April in 1664.

There are four Keepers of the Rolls of the Offices of France, that officiate likewise quarterly.

Their Chief Function is, to have and keep the Rolls and Registers of all the Offices of France that are sealed, of what nature soever they be. The Kings Secretaries, that dispatch them, are to send or carry the said Letters to them before they pass the Seal, that they may present them, and make their Report of them to the Chancellour: It is in their hands that all oppositions to the sealing of them, or dispatching them in the Offices, whether it be upon the account of a Hypotheque, or any other title or pretence are, to be made; of which they keep a Register, and for which they are responsa­ble, in Case the Offices be sealed, contrary to those oppositions, because, that if the said Offices, that is, what passes in them, should be sealed without being charged with those oppositions, they would be discharged of all Hypotheques.

There are under these four Deputy-Keepers of the Rolls, whose places are united to theirs.

There are four Conservatours of the Hypotheques, or of the Rents upon the Town-House, or Guild­hall, and on the augmentations of Wages, that offi­ciate quarterly.

Their Duty is to do the same thing in relation to the Rents and augmentations of Wages, that the Keepers of the Rolls do in respect of the Offices; that is to say, to present and report to the Chan­cellour, all Letters of Ratification, of the acquisi­tion or purchase of those Rents, or augmentations of Wages, that the Kings Secretaries have dispatch­ed and signed, to receive the oppositions made against the sealing and dispatching the said Letters, whether it be on the account of Hypotheques, or [Page 399] Titles; and they are to keep a Register of them, and make mention of them upon the said Letters, that they may not be sealed without being charged with the said oppositions, because they are respon­sible for them, and that if they should be sealed without opposition, the Acquirers, or Purchasers, would be discharged of all Duties, and Hypotheques, according to the Edicts and Declarations set forth or that purpose, and have the same Security as they could have by a Decree in a Court of Justice.

These Conservatours have likewise four Principal Deputies, whose places are united to theirs.

There are four Keepers and Depositaries of the Minutes of the Expeditions of the Chancery, that serve quarterly.

Their Chief Office is, to keep a Register of the Letters that are sealed in the Chancery of France, and to keep the Minutes of them that are signed by the Kings Secretaries, that dispatched them, and to place the Registring of them, and the date, on the backside of the principal Letters, and to put the Visa, or attestation of view, on the backside of the ordinary, and common ones, as it was or­der'd by the Edict of the Creation of the said Offices.

There is at present but one Treasurer of the Seal, though there be several Commissioners, or Deputies under him, whose places are united to his.

There are four Wax-Chasers, and Hereditary Sealers, that serve by the quarter in the Great Chan­cery of France, and by the Month, in the Chancery of Paris.

The Office of these Wax-Chasers, is upon Sealing-Days, to go into the great Chancery of France, and fetch the Seals out of the Chancellours Closet, to carry them thence before him to the Sealing-Table, and when the Seal is open, to Seal with it.

Of the Ʋshers.

In all times, there has been a Royal Usher bearing a Mace, that used to execute the Kings Orders: This Officer was Created and made a standing Officer, under the Title of Usher in Ordinary in the Chancery of France, in the Month of December, in the year 1473. to wait on the Person of the Chancellour, and Execute his Or­ders, as likewise, the Sentences and Ordinances of the Council, and of the superiour Courts: He was then the sole Usher of the Council, the Grand Coun­cil, and the Court of Chancery, being then the on­ly Council the King had; he was afterward made first Usher of the Grand Council: In 1597. there was Created another Usher in Ordinary to the King in the Great Chancery of France, and in the Month of March 1655. two more, with the same quali­ties, Honours, Rights, Powers, Functions and Pri­viledges as the old one. These four Officers, at great and solemn Ceremonies, are to wear Robes of Violet-Crimson Velvet, with double hanging Sleeves; and in their Ordinary Service, Black Vel­vet Gowns, with a Bonnet, or Cap of the same, and a golden Chain about their Necks, adorned with golden Flower-deluces. They carry the four Maces next before the Chancellour. They are to be always attending in his Palace to receive his Or­ders; and on sealing days they meet in his Cham­ber, to accompany him, when he goes to the Seal­ing room, they march before with their golden Chains on, and the Wax-Chafer in the midst of them, carrying the Trunk where the Seals are laid up, into the Hall, where the Table for that purpose is made ready; and as soon as the Chancellour is seated in the Sealing-Hall, they are to shut the Door, and to suffer none to come in but those Officers that are Priviledged so to do. They Command Silence [Page 401] in the said Hall, and when the Sealing is over, Con­duct the Chancellour back again into his Chamber with the same Order.

And because they were antiently the first Ushers of the Council, that always used to execute all Or­ders from the King, and Sentences and Expeditions of the Council, as well whilst attending the Court, as in the Provinces and Superiour Courts, they still hold Society, and keep one common Purse with the now Ushers of the Council, for and of all Fees for signification and other Executions of the Kings and Chancellours Orders. Their Places are in the gift of the Chancellour, and pay him an annual Duty.

There is one Harbinger of the Chancery of France, who is put in by the Great Audiencers and Comptrollers-General of the Chancery, and pays them an annual Duty.

He is to go one of the foremost with the Mar­shals of the Lodgings of France, when the Chan­cellour follows the Court, and takes his Depart­ments or Lodgings from the Marshals of the Lodg­ings of France, which afterward he distributes and shares out among the Great Audiencers, Comptrol­lers-General, and other Officers of the Great Chan­cery: He has a right or share distribution of Fees in the Sealing-Office, but he meddles not with Lodg­ing the Council.

There are two Trunk-Carriers in the Chancery of France, that serve by the half year; who are put in by the Great Audiencers, and Comptrollers General of the said Chancery, and pay them an annual Duty. Their Function is, to go, and take, and receive the Chancellours Order, what day he pleases to pitch on for a Sealing day, and to give notice of it to the Great Audiencer, the Comptrol­ler-General, and other Officers, whose presence is necessary in the Sealing-Office.

They prepare the Table, the Trunks, the Carpets, [Page 402] and the Chairs, on Sealing-Days, they take away and shut the Trunks; they pass the silk and strings through the Letters and Charters, and they have a right to a share in the distribution of the Fees and Perquisites that happen in their six Months wait­ing.

There are two Wax-Furnishers of the Great Chancery. And one Hereditary Servant Wax-Chaser of all the Chanceries of France, who has power to put in Deputies under him in the other Chanceries, although he that now is, has reserved to himself this Priviledge, only in the Chancery of Paris, and some others.

The Function of this Officer, is to take care on Sealing-Days, to heat the Water to soften the Wax, which he tempers and works behind the Wax-Cha­ser, and then lays it in bits before him, big enough for a Seal. As a necessary Officer, he has his Lodging at the Court, and at the Chancellours, when he fol­lows him. He has a share in the distribution of Fees at the Sealing-Office.

There is one Messenger of the Great Chancery, whose particular care it is to go to the Register Office of the Grand Council, and take out the Sen­tences or Decrees that are to be sealed in Chancery. He then carries them to the Seal-Office, takes them out when Sealed, and returns them into the Proctors hands, who give him something for his pains. In time of any Court-Journies, or Voyages. He has priviledge to come and go, to and from Court, and to carry all sorts of Letters and Packets: He is put in by a Patent from the King.

All these Officers of the Great Chancery, enjoy the same Priviledges as the Kings Sec̄retaries, and those that are tabled in his Majesties Houshold, ac­cording to a Declaration, and List, or Account of them verified in the Court of Aids at Paris.

Next to the Great, or High Chancery of France, are those establisht near the Parliaments. The [Page 403] Masters of Requests preside in those Chanceries, and keep the Seals of them, when they are present there.

The Chancery of Paris, is the greatest and anti­entest of them all: It is composed of four Audien­cers, of four Comptrollers, that officiate quarterly, and of twelve Referendaries, and some other Offi­cers.

The Function of the Refendaries, is to make Report of all Letters to that Master of Requests that keeps the Seal, to sign them at the bottom, when they find them civil, and furnished with all the Clauses required by the Ordinances; or to subjoin in the same place the refutata, or Confutations of them, if they contain any unusual Clauses, or be ill digested and drawn up.

King Francis the First, by his Edict of Creation in the Month of February, 1522. gave them the Quality or Title of Councellours-Reporters, and Re­ferendaries: and Henry the Second, in the Month of July, 1556. granted them Place and Voice in the Presidials, in consideration that they were Learned, and had been admitted to the practice of the Laws, before the Masters of Requests.

Note, That the four Wax-Chafers of the Great Chancery, are the same that perform the like Fun­ction in the Chancery of Paris.

The Letters Sealed in the Chancery of Paris, are ordinarily executable only within the Limits of the Jurisdiction of the Parliament: But yet it has some­times hapned, that when the Chancellour was obli­ged to follow the King in a long Journey, and carry the Great Seal with him, that then, by vertue of a Declaration from the King to that end, the Letters which should have passed the Great Seal, were only Sealed in the Chancery of Paris, and thence trans­mitted to, and Executed in the other Parliaments of the Kingdom.

CHAP. XXVII.

Of the Ecclesiastical Division of France, into Archbishopricks and Bishopricks, and of its Clergy.

THE Kings Collates, or Presents within his Do­minions, to 18 Archbishopricks, 107 Bishop­ricks, to about 750 Abbies of Men, besides those that have been united to other Communities, or Benefices, and to above 200 Abbies of Nuns; and as the Conquests of Majesty increase, so the number of Benefices in his nomination, must needs propor­tionably increase too.

The Archbishopricks, and Bishopricks, according to their Alphabetical Order are these.

The 18 Archbishopricks are
  • 1. AIx.
  • 2. Alby.
  • 3. Ambrun.
  • 4. Arles.
  • 5. Auch.
  • 6. Besançon.
  • 7. Bourdeaux.
  • 8. Bourges.
  • 9. Cambray.
  • 10. Lyons.
  • 11. Narbon.
  • 12. Paris.
  • 13. Reims.
  • 14. Rouen.
  • 15. Sens.
  • 16. Toulouze.
  • 17. Tours.
  • 18. Vienna.
The 107 Bishopricks are
  • 1. AGde.
  • 2. Agen.
  • 3. Aire.
  • 4. Alet.
  • 5. Amiens.
  • 6. Angiers.
  • [Page 405] 7. Angoulême.
  • 8. Apt.
  • 9. Arras.
  • 10. Auranche.
  • 11. Autun.
  • 12. Auxerre.
  • 13. Bayeux.
  • 14. Bayonne.
  • 15. Bazas.
  • 16. Beauvais.
  • 17. Bellay.
  • 18. Bethlehem.
  • 19. Beziers.
  • 20. Boulogne.
  • 21. St. Brien.
  • 22. Cahors.
  • 23. Carcassone.
  • 24. Castres.
  • 25. Cisteron.
  • 26. Chaalons.
  • 27. Chartres.
  • 28. Clermont.
  • 29. Cominges.
  • 30. Condom.
  • 31. Cornoüaille.
  • 32. Conserans.
  • 33. Coutance.
  • 34. De Dax.
  • 35. Digne.
  • 36. Dol.
  • 37. Evreux.
  • 38. De Helne, or Perpig­nan.
  • 39. St. Flour.
  • 40. Frejus.
  • 41. Gap.
  • 42. Geneva.
  • 43. Glandeve.
  • 44. Grace.
  • 45. Grenoble.
  • 46. Laitoure.
  • 47. Langres.
  • 48. Laon.
  • 49. Lavaur.
  • 50. Leon.
  • 51. Lescar.
  • 52. Limoges.
  • 53. Lizieux.
  • 54. Lodeve.
  • 55. Lombez.
  • 56. Luçon.
  • 57. Maçon.
  • 58. St. Malo.
  • 59. Mande.
  • 60. Du Mans.
  • 61. Marseilles.
  • 62. Meaux.
  • 63. Mets.
  • 64. Mire-Poix.
  • 65. Montauban.
  • 66. Montpellier.
  • 67. Nantes.
  • 68. Nevers.
  • 69. Nice.
  • 70. Nimes.
  • 71. Noyon.
  • 72. Oleron.
  • 73. St. Omer.
  • 74. Orange.
  • 75. Orleans.
  • 76. Pamiers.
  • 77. St. Papoul.
  • 78. St. Paul trois Chate­aux, or St. Paul 3 Ca­stles.
  • 79. Perigueux, Perpignan, vide Elne.
  • 80. Poitiers.
  • [Page 406] 81. St. Pol de Lion.
  • 82. St. Pons de Tomiers.
  • 83. Le Puy.
  • 84. Rennes.
  • 85. Rieux.
  • 86. Riez.
  • 87. La Rochelle.
  • 88. Rodez.
  • 89. Saintes, or Yaintes.
  • 90. Sars.
  • 91. Sarlat.
  • 92. Senez.
  • 93. Senlis.
  • 94. Soissons.
  • 95. Strasburg.
  • 96. Tarbas.
  • 97. Toul.
  • 98. Toulon.
  • 99. Tournay.
  • 100. Treguier.
  • 101. Troyes.
  • 102. Vabres.
  • 103. Valenco & Die.
  • 104. Vannes.
  • 105. Vence.
  • 106. Verdun.
  • 107. Viviers.
  • 108. Ʋzais.
  • 109. Ypres.

Where Note, That Valence and Die is a double Title, and the Bishopricks of Geneva and Nice, be­long to the Duke of Savoy, and are only named, be­cause part of them lie in the Territories of the King of France.

Now they follow according to the Order they are commonly placed in.

1. And first, because Paris is the Capital City of the Kingdom, the ordinary Residence of our Kings; and of the whole Court, the Seat of the first and most August Parliament, of the first University of Europe, and of so many Famous and Illustrious Men, I have thought fit to so many other Preroga­tives and Primacies, which it has above all other Cities of France, to add that of naming it first a­mong the Archbishopricks, though it be but of late Creation, with its three Suffragans, which could not well be separated from it.

In placing the rest we shall follow the Ancient Division, Secundum Notitiam Imperii, and the Or­der of that considerable Book called, Gallia Chri­stiana; [Page 407] or Description of France since made Chri­stian.

1. The Archbishoprick of Paris, has three Bish­opricks within its Jurisdiction, viz. Chartres, Meaux, and Orleans. The present Archbishop is Francis de Harlay, Duke and Peer of France, Provisour of the Sorbonne, &c. A Person of noble Extraction, Learned, Eloquent, and very Courteous.

The Bishop of Chartres, is Ferdinand de Neufville, Councellour of State in Ordinary, &c.

The present Bishop of Meaux, is James Benigne Bossuet, late Preceptor, or Tutor, to the Dauphin, Famous for Controversy.

The Bishop of Orleans, is Peter de Cambout de Coislin, first Almoner to the King, &c.

There are in this Archbishoprick, 39 Abbies of Men, besides five united to others, and 32 Nun­neries.

2. The Archbishoprick of Lyons comprehends four Bishopricks, viz. Autun, Langres, Chaalon, and Macon.

The Archbishop, is Archbishop, and Count, and Primate of the Gauls; and is at present, Camillus de Neufville de Ville-roy, Lieutenant Governour for the King in the Country of Lyons, &c. The Cathe­dral of that City is very considerable, the Canons of it being stiled Counts of Lyons, and being obli­ged for their admission to make proof, that they are noble by five Generations, both on their Fathers and Mothers side.

The Bishop of Autun, who is by his Dignity perpetual President of he States of Burgundy, and Administrator of both the Spiritualties and Tempo­ralties of the Archishoprick of Lyons, when the See is vacant, &c. is Gabriel de Roquette, &c.

The Bishop of Langres, who is Bishop and Duke of Langres, and one of the ancient Peers of France, is at present, Lewis Armand de Simianes de Gor­des, &c.

[Page 408] The Bishop of Châlons, on Saone, being both Bishop and Count, is Henry Felix de Tassy, &c.

The Bishop of Mâcon is named Michael Cassagnet de Tilladet, &c.

In this Archbishoprick, there are 49 Convents of Men, besides four united, and sixteen Nunneries, besides one united.

3. The Archbishoprick of Rouen contains six Bishopricks, viz. Those of Bayeux, Auranches, Ev­reux, Sais, Lisieux, and Coutance.

This Archbishop is Primate of Normandie, &c. and is at present named Rouxel de Medavy de Grancey, and is one of the Councellours of State in Ordi­nary.

The Bishop of Bayeux, is Francis de Nesmond, Dr. of Sorbon, &c.

The Bishop of Auranches, is Gabriel Philip of Froulay de Tessé, &c.

The Bishop of Evreux, is James Potier de Novion.

The Bishop of Sais, is Maturin Savary, &c.

The Bishop of Lisieux, being Bishop and Count, is named Leonard Govion de Matignon.

And lastly, the Bishop of Coutance, is Charles-Francis de Lomenie de Brienne, &c.

In this Archbishoprick, there are 66 Convents of Men, besides one united, and fourteen Nunne­ries.

4. The Archbishoprick of Tours contains eleven Bishopricks: The present Archbishop is Michael Amelot, &c. The other Bishops, are.

1. The Bishop of Du Mans, Lewis de la Vergne, Montenar de Tressan, &c. 2. The Bishop of Angers, Henry Arnaud, &c. 3. The Bishop of Rennes, John Baptist de Beaumanoi [...] de Lavardin, &c. 4. The Bishop of Nants, Giles de Beauvau du Rivau. 5. The Bishop of Cornouaille, who is both Bishop and Count, and is named Francis de Coetlogon. 6. The Bishop of Vannes, Peter-Lewis, Caset de Vautorte. 7. The Bishop of St. Pol de Leon, who is both Bishop [Page 409] and Count, Peter Neboux de la Brouss: 8. The Bishop of Treguier, being both Bishop and Count, whose name is Francis-Ignatius de Bagliou de Sail­lant, formerly a Priest of the Oratory: 9. The Bishop of St. Brieu, Lewis-Marcellus of Coetlogon: 10. The Bishop of St. Malo, Sebastian de Guémaduc: 11. The Bishop of Dol, who is both Bishop and Count, Matthew Moreau.

This Archbishoprick has within its extent 71 Convents of Men, and 13 Nunneries, among which is the famous Collegiate Abby of St. Martin of Tours, of which the Kings of France are Abbots.

5. The Archbishoprick of Sens contains four Bi­shopricks: the present Archbishop, who is stiled, Primate of the Gauls, and of Germany, is Hardouin Fortin de la Hoguette, &c. The other Bishops are, 1. The Bishop of Troyes, Francis Bouthillier de Cha­villy, Doctor of Sorbon, &c. 2. The Bishop of Auxerre, Andrew Colbert, likewise Doctor of Sorbon, &c. 3. The Bishop of Nevers, Edward Vallot, &c. 4. The Bishop of Bethleem, Francis de Bataillet. This Bishop has his Seat of Residence in the Town of Clamecy, otherwise called Bethleem, situa­ted in Nivernois, within the extent of the Diocess of Auxerre.

In this Archbishoprick, there are 44 Convents of Men, besides two united, and 15 Nunneries, be­sides one united.

6. Under the Archbishoprick of Treves in Ger­many, are three Bishopricks belonging to France, which are,

1. Mets, of which George Aubusson de la Feuillade, Prince of the Holy Empire, is Prince and Bishop. 2. Of Toul, of which James de Fieux, Doctor in Divinity of the Colledge of Navarre, is Bishop and Count. 3. The Bishoprick of Verdun, of which Hippolyte de Bethune is likewise Bishop and Count, and Prince of the Holy Empire.

[Page 410] In the extent of these three Bishopricks, there are 42 Convents of Men, and 9 Nunneries.

6. In the Archbishoprick of Reims, there are eight Bishopricks.

The Archbishop of Reims is Duke of the same, and first of the Peers of France, that Consecrates and Anoints the Most Christian Kings, and is Le­gate, by his Dignity, of the Holy Apostolick See, and Primate of Gaul Belgick. He that now is, is named Charles Maurice le Tellier, Son to the late Chancellour, and Brother to Mr. Louvois. The other Bishops are, 1. The Bishop of Soissons, Peter Daniel Huet, Under-Preceptor, or Sub-Tutor to the Dauphin. 2. The Bishop of Châlons, on the Marne, who is also Count and Peer of France, and is named Lewis Anthony de Noailles. 3. The Bishop of Laon, who is Bishop and Duke of the same, and Peer of France; whose name is John d' Etrées. 4. The Bishop of Senlis, who is Denis Sanguin. 5. The Bishop of Beauvais, who is Count and Chatelain too. of Beauvais, &c. and is named Toussainr de Fourbin, who has been twice Ambassadour in Poland. 6. The Bishop of Amiens, who is Francis Faure, Preacher formerly to the late Queen. 7. The Bishop and Count of Noyon, and Peer of France, is Francis de Clermont de Tonnerre. 8. The Bishop of Boulogne, is Claudius le Tonnelier de Breteuil.

In this Archbishoprick, there are 118 Convents of Religious Men, and 30 Nunneries, besides seve­ral ruined by the Wars.

Note, That the Prior of St. Remy of Reims in this Diocess, is obliged to carry the Holy Viol to the Ceremony of Consecrating, or Anointing the Kings of France.

8. The Archbishoprick of Cambray, includes four Bishopricks.

The present Archibishop, and Duke of Cambray, who is likewise Prince of the Empire, and Count of Cambresis, or the County of Cambray, is James [Page 411] Theodore de Brias. The other Bishops are, 1. The Bishop of Arras, who is President by his Dignity, of the States of Artois; his name is, Guy de Sève de Rochechouart. 2. The Bishop of Tournay, Gilbert de Choiseul du Plessin Prâlin. 3. The Bishop of St. Omer, Lewis-Alphonsus de Valbelle. 4. The Bishop of Ypres, James de Liéres.

There are in this Archbishoprick, 48 Convents of Men, and 29 Nunneries.

The Archbishoprick of Besancon in the Franche County, has under it but one Suffragan Bishop.

The present Archbishop is Antony-Peter de Gra­mant. The Suffragan being called the Bishop of Bel­lay, is Peter de Laurens.

There are in this Archbishoprick, 23 Convents of Men, and four Nunneries.

9. The Archbishoprick of Vienna, contains four Bishopricks.

The present Archbishop is, Henry de Villars, Prior and Lord of Aispagnac. The other Bishops are, 1. The Bishop and Count of Geneva, John d' Aran­ton, d' Alaix. His Residence at present is at Anecy. This Bishoprick is in the Gift of the Duke of Savoy. In it is the Abby of Hautecombe, which is the place where the Dukes of Savoy are Intombed. 2. The Bishop and Count of Grenoble, who is President by his Dignity, of the States of the Dauphinate, is Stephen le Camus. 3. The Bishop and Count of Vi­viers, &c. is Lewis Francis de la Baume de suze. 4. The Bishop and Count of the double Bishoprick of Valence and Die, is Daniel de Conac.

In this Archbishoprick there are 23 Convents of Men, and eight Nunneries.

10. The Archbishoprick of Arles comprehends four Bishopricks.

The present Archbishop, who is stiled Prince and Primate, is Adheimar de Monteil de Grignan. The other Bishops are, 1. The Bishop of Marseilles, Charles-Gaspar-William de Vintimille de St. Luc.

[Page 412] 2. The Bishop and Count of St. Paul Trois-Cha­teaux, or St. Paul-Three-Castles, Lewis Aube de Roquemartin. 3. The Bishop and Lord of Toulon, Armand-Lewis Bonnin de Chalucet. 4. The Bishop of Orange, John-James d' Obeillo.

In this Archbishoprick, there are three Convents of Men, and four Nunneries.

11. The Archbishoprick of Bourges, has under it five Bishopricks.

The present Archbishop, who is stiled Patriarch and Primate of the Aquitains, is Michael Phelippeaux de la Ʋrilliere; the other Bishops are, 1. The Bi­shop of Clermont, who is N...... 2. The Bi­shop of Limoges, Lewis d' Ʋrfé. 3. The Bishop of Puy, and Count of Velay, who is an immediate Suf­fragan to the See of Rome, Armand de Bethune. 4. The Bishop and Count of Tulles, Humbert Ance­lin. 5. The Bishop of St. Flour, Jerome de la Mothe Houdancourt.

There are in this Archbishoprick, 66 Convents of Men, comprehending some united, and 17 Nun­neries.

12. The Archbishoprick of Alby contains five Bishopricks.

The Archbishop is lately dead.

This Archbishoprick was Erected in 1678. The other Bishops are, 1. The Bishop and Count of Rodes, Paul-Philip de Lezay de Lusignan. 2. The Bishop of Castres, Augustin de Maupeou. 3. The Bishop of Cahors, who is likewise Count and Baron of the same, Henry-William de Jay. 4. The Bishop and Count of Vabres, Lewis de Baradat. 5. The Bishop of Mande, and Count of Givaudan, Francis-Placidus de Baudry de Piencourt.

In this Archbishoprick, there are sixteen Con­vents of Men, and eight Nunneries.

13. The Archbishoprick of Bourdeaux, has under it nine Bishopricks.

The present Archbishop, who is likewise Primate [Page 413] of Aquitain, is Lewis de Bourlemont d' Anglures The other Bishops are, 1. The Bishop and Count of Agen, Julius Mascaron, Preacher in Ordinary to the King. 2. The Bishop of Angoulême, Francis de Perigard. 3. The Bishop of Saintes, William de Plessis, de Geté de la Brunetiere. 4. The Bishop of Poitiers, Armand de Quinçay. 5. The Bishop of Perigueux, William le Boux, Preacher in Ordinary to the King. 6. The Bishop of Condom, James de Matignon. 7. The Bishop of Rochelle, Henry de Laval Bois-Dauphin de Sablé. 8. The Bishop and Baron of Luçon, Henry de Barillon. 9. The Bishop of Sarlat, Francis de Salagnac de la Mothe-Fe­nelon.

In this Archbishoprick there are 95 Convents of Men, and eight Nunneries.

14. The Archbishoprick of Auch comprehends ten Bishopricks.

The present Archbishop, is Anne-Tristan de la Baume du Suze. The other Bishops are, 1. The Bishop of Dax, Leon de la Lâne. 2. The Bishop of Laitoure, Hugh de Bar. 3. The Bishop of Cominges, Lewis de Rechignevoisin de Guron. 4. The Bishop of Couserans, Gabriel de St. Estêve. 5. The Bishop and Lord of Aire, Armand Bazon de Bezons. 6. The Bishop of Bazas, James Joseph de Gourgues. 7. The Bishop of Tarbes, Francis de Poudeux. 8. The Bi­shop and Lord of Oleron, Charles de Sallettes. 9. The Bishop of Lescar, Dominick Desclaux de Mesplées; this Prelate is President of the States of Bearn, first Councellour in the Parliament of Na­varre, and first Baron of Bearn. 10. The Bishop of Bayonne, Gaspar de la Roque Priellé.

In this Archbishoprick, there are 32 Convents of Religious Men, and four Nunneries.

16. The Archbishoprick of Narbon, has under it nine Bishopricks.

The present Archbishop, is Peter de Bonzi, Car­dinal of that Name. The Archbishops of this Sec. [Page 414] are Primates and Presidents by their Dignity, of the States of Languedoc. The other Bishops are, 1. The Bishop of Bezieres, John-Armand Rotondi de Biscaras. 2. The Bishop and Count of Agde, Lewis Foucquet. 3. The Bishop of Carcassone, Lewis-Jo­seph Adhémar de Monteil de Grignan. 4. The Bishop of Nîmes, John Seguier la Verriere. 5. The Bishop of Montpelier, and Count de Melguel, and Mont-ser­rant, Charles de Pradel. 6. The Bishop of Lodeve, and Count of Mont-brun, Charles Antony de la Garde de Chambona. 7. The Bishop of Ʋsais, Michael Pon­eet de la Riviere. 8. The Bishop of St. Pons de Tomitrs, Peter-John-Francis de Persin de Mont-Gail­lard. 9. The Bishop and Count of Alet, Victor Me­liand.

In this Archbishoprick, there are 24 Convents of Men, and seven Nunneries.

17. The Archbishoprick of Toulouze contains se­ven Bishopricks.

The present Archbishop, is Joseph de Montpezat de Carbon. The other Bishops are, 1. The Bishop of Pamiers, Francis de Camps. 2. The Bishop of Montauban, John Baptist Michael Colbert de Villacerf. 3. The Bishop of Mire-Poix, Peter de la Broüe. The Bishop of Lavaur, whose name is Esprit, or Spirit Flechier, Almoner in Ordinary to the Dau­phiness. 5. The Bishop of Rieux, Antony-Francis de Berrier, Provost of St. Stevens of Toulouze. 6. The Bishop of Lombes, named Don Côme Roger, formerly General of the A sort of Cistercian Monks. Feuillantines. 7. The Bishop of Papoul, Francis de Barthelmy de Gramont.

In this Archbishoprick, there are fourteen Con­vents of Men, and but one Nunnery which was ruined by the Civil Wars.

18. The Archbishoprick of Aix comprehends five Bishopricks.

The present Archbishop, is Charles le Goulx de la Berchere. The other Bishops are, 1. The Bishop and Prince of Apt, John de Gaillard. 2. The Bishop [Page 415] of Riés, N...... de Marais. 3. The Bishop of Frejus, Luke D' aquin. 4. The Bishop and Count of Gap, Charles Benigne Hervé. 5. The Bishop of Ci­steron, Lewis de Thomassin.

In this Archibishoprick, there are five Convents of Men, and three Nunneries. There was another Nunnery, but it is now demolished.

19. The Archbishoprick of Ambrun contains six Bishopricks.

The present Archbishop, who is stiled Prince of the same, is Charles Brulart de Genlis. The other Bishops are, 1. The Bishop of Digne, Francis le Tellier. 2. The Bishop of Grace, John Baltasar de Cabanus de Viens 3. The Bishop of Vence...... 4. The Bishop of Glandéve, Francis Verjus. 5. The Bishop of Senés, Lewis-Anne Aubert de Villeserin, Commander of the Order of St. Michael. 6. The Bishop of Nice, under the Duke of Savoy, N..... Moret, who is also stiled Count de Drap. Besides these, There are in Spain, Germany, and America,

1. The Bishoprick of Helne in Rousillon, within the Archbishoprick of Terragona in Spain, now transferred to Perpignan: The present Bishop is Lewis Habert de Montmort, Grand Inquisitour for the King in those parts. In this Bishoprick there are six Convents and Abbies.

2. The Bishoprick of Strasburg; whose present Bishop and Prince, is William Egon of Furstemberg. The Abby of Munster in the Gregorian-Vally, in the Diocese of Basil, is likewise in the French Terri­tories.

3. Kebec, being the Capital Town of New France in the West-Indies, was Erected into a Bishoprick in 1674. by Pope Clement the Tenth, and the Abbies of Maubec, and of l' Etreé in France, were united to it, for its better support: The Bishop of it, is the Abbot of Chevrieres of St. Valier.

Other French Bishops, in partibus Infidelium, are 1. The Bishop of Heliopolis, Francis Pallu, Vicar [Page 416] and Missionary Apostolick, and Administrator-Ge­neral of China; who with the Abbot de Lyonne, the younger, and eight other Ecclesiastical Persons, Em­barked at Brest the 25th of March 1681. for Surat, intending thence to go to the Kingdoms of China, Tunquin, Siam, Camboya, Lao, and Cochinchina. 2. The Bishop of Caesaropolis, Francis Piquet, Native of Lyons, who was formerly Consul for the French Nation at Aleppo, for nine years space: He is now Apostolical Vicar in the Levant, and chiefly at Bag­dat, or Babylan on the Tigris, where he at present is, with M. Casmont de Nerac, Priest of the Ora­tory: They Embarked at Toulon, the 11th of Sep­tember, 1679. to go for Aleppo, the Capital City of Syria.

The Gallican Church is composed of these Pre­lates, who all of them stile themselves Councellours of the King, in both his Councils, viz. Of State, and his Privy-Council, though they have no ordi­nary right to sit there, unless they be called by an express Commission: They are all Doctors, either in Divinity, or Law: The manner how they swear Allegiance to the King, and the Form of their Oath we have already described.

Once in five years the Clergy hold Assemblies, which they call the Lesser Assemblies, and once in ten years their greater Assemblies, which are more numerous: Besides these, the King, upon Directi­on to the Chief Prelates, calls extraordinary Assem­blies of them, as lately; and sometimes a National Synod is Convoked: These Assemblies consist of some Prelates, and some Deputies of the Clergy, chosen out of the most qualified among them. In these Assemblies most affairs relating to the Church and Clergy are debated, and Represented, if need be, to the King, to whom at every Session, they give a considerable summ of Money.

The last Assembly was held in 1685. There are also besides these, in France, the Great Priours of [Page 417] Malta, which are the Great Priour of France, the Great Priour of St. Giles's, or of Provence, the Great Priours of Champagne, Aquitain, and Auvergne, and the Knights and Commanders of Malta, all which are of the Body of the Clergy.

CHAP. XXVIII.

Of the Governments in France.

HAving spoken of France, as divided into Arch-bishopricks and Bishopricks, being next to speak of it as divided into Governments, I shall observe the same Order, that was Decreed and ob­served in the Assembly of the General Estates held in 1614. after several Contestations concerning this point, as thinking it better and more authentick than any other I could follow. And as for the New Conquests, I have ranked them according to the Order observed by the Ministers and Secretaries of State. According to which Order, they are in all 17 Governments, besides some other particular Go­vernments, and those in America. And are thus Ranked.

The general Governments in France, and its Acquisitions.
  • 1. PAris, and the Isle of France.
  • 2. Burgundy, Dutchy and County.
  • 3. Normandie.
  • 4. Guienne.
  • 5. Britanny.
  • 6. Champagne.
  • 7. Languedoc.
  • 8. Picardie, and Flanders.
  • [Page 418] 9. Dauphiné, or Dauphinate.
  • 10. Provence.
  • 11. Lyonnois, or Country of Lyons.
  • 12. Orleans, and the Dependances.
  • 13. Navarre, and Bearn.
  • 14. Alsatia.
  • 15. Three Bishopricks.
  • 16. Lorrain.
  • 17. Rousillon.

1. Paris, and the Isle of France.

  • Countries,
  • Towns,
  • Places,
  • and Governours.

1. Town, Provostship, and Vicounty of Paris. The Duke of Gêvres.

2. The Hospital Royal of Invalides, or Maimed Souldiers.

The Sieur St. Martin, Knight of the Royal and Military Orders of Nôtre Dame de Mont Car­mel, &c.

3. Isle of France, and Country of Soissons.

The new Duke D' Etrees, and the Count de Chamel, Lieutenant-General.

4. The Provost of Paris.

M. de Bullion de Bonelle.

5. Valois.

The Duke de Gêvres Bayliff.

6. Of the Towns and Cittadels of Laon, Neyon, and Soissons: and Kings Lieutenants, at Laon, at Soissons.

The Duke D' Etreés, Governour.

M. de la Simonie.

M. Fourcher.

7. Beauvais, and Country of that Name.

The Count de Marêts, Governour of the Town, and Lieutenant of the Country.

8. Marle.

M. Moreau.

[Page 419] 9. Ribemont.

M. De la Tour.

10. Town, Castle, and Captainry of Compiegne.

The Marshal d' Humieres.

11. The Captainry, or Captainship, of Villiers Coterets.

The Duke D' Etrées.

12. Senlis.

The Marquiss de St. Simon.

Note, That all Governours of Provinces, are sti­led Lieutenants-General, though there be under them another Lieutenant-General of the same Pro­vince, and sometimes several.

2. Of the Government of Burgundy.

  • Countries,
  • Towns,
  • Places,
  • and Governours,
  • Captains, &c.

1. Burgundy and Bresse, Bugey, Valtomey, and Gex.

The Governour General, is the present Prince of Condé.

2. In the Bayliwick of Dijon, Chatillon, Barsur­seine, La Montagne, and the Vicounty of Aux­onne, which is the first Lieutenant-General of Burgundy.

The Count d' Amanzé, Lieutenant-General.

And the Count d' Armagnac, Seneschal.

3. In the Bayliwick of Châlon.

James Dublé, Marquiss of Ʋxelles, Lieutenant-General.

And the Marquiss of Tavanes, Seneschal.

4. In the Bayliwick of Maçon.

The Marquiss d' Antragues, both Lieutenant-Ge­neral, and Seneschal.

5. In the Bayliwicks of Auxois, Auxerrois, and Autunes.

[Page 420] Nicolas de Chaugy, Count of Rousillon.

6. Of Bresse, Bugey, Valtomey, and Gex.

The Marquiss d' Entremons, Lieutenant-General and Seneschal.

Of the County of Burgundy, or Franche Comté, which though lately Conquered, is placed with the former.

The Marshal Duke of Duras Governour-General.

And René de la Tour de Gouvernet, Lieutenant-General.

7. Besancon, taken in 1674.

Duke of Duras Governour.

M. de Clerans, Lieutenant.

8. Cittadel of Besançon.

M. de Moncaut.

9. Fort of St. Steven.

M.......

10. Fort Griffon.

M. Polastre.

11. Dole, taken in 1674.

M. de la Feuillée, Governour.

M. Philippe, Lieutenant.

12. Salins.

The Marquiss de la Freziliere, Governour.

M. de Salieres, Lieutenant.

13. The two Forts of St. Andrew.

M. de Bartin d' Escarlian, Governour.

M. de Bourbitou, Lieutenant.

14. Fort of Belin.

M. Olivier, Commander.

15. Castle of Joug, and Town of Pontarlier.

M. de la Platier, Governour.

M. de St. Maurice, Lieutenant.

16. Castle of Blamont.

M. Bertrandi, Commander.

17. Castle of Montheliard.

M. de Lansberg.

[Page 421] 3. Government of Normandy.

  • Countries,
  • Towns,
  • Places,
  • Governours,
  • Lieutenants, &c.

1. Province of Normandie.

The Duke of Montausier, Governour-General.

2. High Normandie.

The Marquiss de Beuvron, Lieutenant-General.

3. Low Normandie.

The Count of Torigny.

There are five Under-Lieutenants for the King, viz.

1. In the Baylywicks of Rouen, and Caux.

The Duke of Gevres.

2. In those of Evreux, and Alençon.

The Marquiss de L' aigle.

3. In that of Cotentin.

The Marquiss de Canizy.

4. In that of Caen.

The Marquiss de la Luzerne.

5. In that of Gisors.

The Marquiss de Flavacourt.

Of other particular places here follow the Go­vernours.

1. Rouen.

The Duke de Montauzier.

2. Old Palace of Rouen.

The Marquiss of Beuvron.

3. Bayliwick of Rouen.

The Count of Torigny.

4. The Bridge of the Arch called the Pont de L' Arche.

M. Druel, under the Duke of Montausier.

5. Dieppe, and Fort de Polet.

Under the same, M. de Tierceville Mahaut, Lieutenant.

6. Fecamp.

M. de Ratabon, Lieutenant.

[Page 422] 7. Havre de Grace, which is Independant, and has the Rank of the Government of a Pro­vince.

The Duke of St. Aignan, who is also Lieute­nant-General of Montiervilliers, and Har­fleur.

8. Honfleur.

The Marquiss of Esears.

9. Caen, Town and Castle.

The Count de Congny, Lieutenant and Bayliff.

10. Cherbourg, and St. Lo.

M. de Matignon.

11. Coutance.

M. de Bellouze, Governour:

12. Granville.

M. d' Estienville.

13. Auranche.

M. de Carbonel, Governour.

The Marquiss of Ranes, Bayliff.

14. Falaise.

The Marquiss of Putange.

15. Argentan.

The Count de Grancé.

16. Alençon.

M. de Boulemer de Laré, Governour and Bayliff.

4. Government of Guienne.

  • Countries,
  • Towns,
  • Places,
  • Governours,
  • Lieutenants, &c.

In this Government there are two Lieutenants, and a Sub-Lieutenant General, viz.

1. In the generality of Bourdeaux, or Lower Guienne.

The Count of Montalgu.

2. In the Ʋpper Guienne, or generality of Mon­tauban.

The Marquiss d' Ambres.

[Page 423] 3. In the Countries of Agen and Condom, and one or two additional Elections.

The Count de la Serre d' Aubiterre, also Se­neschal of the said Countries.

The Governours of the particular Places are as follows.

1. Bourdeaux.

N...... perpetual Mayor of the same.

2. The Seneschal of the same is,

The Marquiss of Montferrant, Great Seneschal of Guienne.

3. The second Seneschal of Guienne, of Albret and Bazas, is

The Count de Lauguac.

4. Castle-Trumpet, or Chateau-Trompette.

The Count of Montaigu.

5. Castle, Town, and County of Blaye.

The Duke de St. Simon.

6. Laitoure, Town and Cittadel.

The Duke of Roquelaure, Governour.

M. de Savaillant, Lieutenant.

7. Dax.

The Marquiss de Poyane, Governour.

M. St. Pée, Lieutenant.

8. Bayonne, Capital of Biscay, and the adjacent Places.

1. Of the Town and Castle.

The Duke of Gramont.

2. Lieutenant of the Town, and Commander of the Cittadel.

M. Denou de St. Martin.

3. The Seneschal of Biscay.

The Duke of Gramont.

4. The Seneschal of the Country and County of Bigorre.

M. Le.....

5. The Seneschal of Armagnac.

The Marquiss de la Valette.

[Page 424] 6. The Seneschal of Albret.

The Duke de Boüillon.

Of Xaintonge, and Country of Angouleme.

1. The Governour-General.

The Duke of Ʋsais.

2. The Lieutenant-General in both.

The Count of Jarnac.

3. The Seneschal of Xaintonge.

The Count de Blenac.

4. The Seneschal of the Country of Angouleme.

The Count de Blenac.

The Governours of the principal Places in these are

1. Of Angouleme and Xaintes.

The Duke of Ʋsais.

2. Of Coignac.

The Count of Aubigny.

3. Of the Limosin, or Country of Limoges, Upper and Lower.

The Count of Auvergne.

4. The Lieutenants-General.

The Marquiss of Pompadour, and the Marquiss D' Ʋrsé.

5. The Seneschal of the same.

The Marquiss of Saillant.

6. The Governour of Limoges.

M. de Niert.

7. The Governour and Seneschal of Perigord.

The Marquiss de Laurieres.

8. Of Quercy, the Seneschal.

The Marquiss de St. Alvere de Lostanges.

9. The Lieutenant-General.

The Marquiss de Bournazel.

[Page 425] 5. Government of Brittany.

  • Countries,
  • Towns,
  • Places,
  • Governours,
  • Lieutenants, &c.

In this Government there are

1. A Governour-General.

The Duke de Channes.

2. A Lieutenant-General of