distinctly divided into The


For the better clearing and manifestation of the truth in this Controversie con­cerning the weekly Sabbath.

By Richard Bernard Rectour of Batcombe.

‘Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy, Exod. 20. 8. ‘as the Lord thy God hath commanded thee, Deut. 5. 12.

LONDON, Printed by Richard Bishop for Edward Blackmore, and are to bee sold at the signe of the Angel in S. Pauls Church-yard, 1641.

To the right Honourable the Lords Tem­porall in the High Court of Parliament. To the Honourable the Knights, Citizens, and Bur­gesses in the House of Commons.

more especially

• To the Grand Committee for Religion. , • To the Committee for the Remonstrance. , and • To the Committee for Ministers maintenance and suppression of scandalous Ministers. 

more particularly,

• To the Knights, and Burgesses of Somerset-shire, or Parliament-men dwelling in that County, namely, • Sir JOHN PAULETT, Knight , • Sir WIL. PORTMAN, Baronet , • Sir JOHN STOWELL, Knight of the Bath. , • Sir RALPH HOPTON, Knight of the Bath. , • Sir FRANCIS POPHAM, K. , • Sir EDWARD RODNEY, K. , • Sir PETER WROTH, K. , • Mr. DIGBY. , • Mr. POPHAM. , • Mr. LUTTERILL. , • Mr. BASSET. , • Mr. SMITH. , • Mr. PHELIPS. , • Mr. PYNE. , • Mr. HUNT. , • Mr. KIRTON. , • Mr. SEARLE. , and • Mr. JOHN ASHE.  

Right Honourable Lords, and you the Honourable Assembly of the House of Commons,

THere hath been no Christian Church be­yond the seas, departed from Rome, which hath given so much honourable respect unto the Lords day (our Christian Sabbath) as [Page] wee here in this our flourishing Kingdome and Nation: And it was our glory so to honour the Lord Christ; and it will be our great unhappinesse to faile in this our Christian duty, so confirmed by Scripture, and the generall practice of all true worshippers of his glorious name throughout the whole Christian world, the space of these six­teene hundred yeares.

Yet in this our time, and of late dayes, are stepped up among us certaine vaine men, prophane enough, who have attempted to deprive Christ Jesus of his glory (in the religious observation of this day, grounded upon his glorious Resurrection) and us of our spirituall consolation, in keeping an whole day set apart for his worship and service.

For this end, books upon books have beene written, and by licence passed the Presse, to take away the morallity of the fourth Commande­ment, never, in any age heretofore, doubted of; to make also people beleeve, that our Christian Sab­bath hath no warrant from thence, and that it is not of divine institution, but alterable from that first day of the week, equallizing their devised ho­ly-dayes with it, and allowing also the like vaine sports upon this day, as upon the other dayes, cal­ling such as religiously set the whole day apart for holy uses, Sabbatarians, and Iudaizers, thus re­proaching, and in their sense, belying those that more truly honour Christ than they doe.

And that they might securely go on in these [Page] their prophane errours without controule, and per­swade the more inconsiderate sort, that what they have written, are truths, and unanswerable; they have stopped the meanes of printing sound Anti­dotes to their empoysoned propositions, where­upon they have beene bold to insult over godly orthodox Divines, with too many words of inso­lency, scorne, and much contempt; which they have borne with great patience, waiting the Lords leisure till he should bee pleased in his good time to give liberty for the publishing of their learned labours, which have of long time lien by them.

And now (blessed be God) the time is come, the way is made open by your honourable wisdomes, goodnesse, power, and authority, for godly and learned men to discover the vaine boastings, and the folly of those evill ones, to the view of all. Some of ours proceed polemically, and have made answer fully to the best esteemed of those prophane writers. Some only write positively, to discover the truth, and to make it knowne in a plaine way, that the meanest capacity may bee rightly enfor­med: This way have I taken in this threefold Treatise, humbly craving pardon for my bold pre­sumption in presenting to your honourable view these my weak endeavours.

But the cause is Christs, and so deserves accep­tation and promotion: God hath appointed you at this time, as his worthiest and meetest instru­ments for this end: I cannot therefore seek for other Patrons in exalting the honour of Christ, [Page] which by these men hath been so dishonoured, and his people so abused. For the redresse whereof, as you have nobly begun, so to proceed on to do ever valiantly in the best service of your God, there shall not be wanting the hearty and earnest prayers of

Your humble Servant and Suppliant RICHARD BERNARD.

Faults to be corrected.

PAge 3. line 21. for grant read ground. pag. 50. l. 24. for raigne read raine. pag. 57. l. 12. for no read only. pag. 59. l. 12. for to read by. pag. 71. l. 6. for fourtum read quartum. pag. 73. l. 31. dele before. pag. 78. l. 28. for John read Josua. pag. 95. l. 22. set and after the word rest. pag. 127. l. 21. for plaucit read placuit.

The rest of the escapes I pray the Gentle Reader to correct.

The Contents of the …

The Contents of the Patri­archall Sabbath.

  • SECTION 1. OF the first Sabbath, and why called Patriarchall.
  • SECT. 2. Of the conceit of an Anticipation or Pro­lepsis, and what it is.
  • SECT. 3. Arguments against this Anticipation or Pro­lepsis.
  • SECT. 4. Of another conceit concerning Destination, and what it is, also confuted.
  • SECT. 5. Of the true understanding of the words in Gen. 2. 3.
  • SECT. 6. That in Gen. 2. 3. is the Institution of the Sabbath.
  • SECT. 7. The Institution was binding, and required the observation of the Sabbath, from the beginning.
  • SECT. 8. The Sabbath was observed of Gods people, before the Law given at Mount Sinai.


Gen. 2. 3.‘And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it.’

SECTION. I. Of the first Sabbath, and why called Patriarchall.

IN these words is the institution of the Sab­bath before the Law given on Mount Sinai.

I call it the Patriarchall Sabbath, be­cause it was known and observed of the holy Fathers, of Adam, and of the other Pa­triarkes, till Moses and Israel received the Law. And to distinguish it from the Mosaicall and Chri­stian Sabbaths, of which in the two Treatises following.

Some there be, and more of late, than heretofore, that do deny the Sabbath to be here instituted.

Because, say some of them, (for they be not all of one minde) that Moses delivered the words by a figure called Anticipation or Prolepsis: Other some, that they be words of destination, that in time to come the seventh day should be blessed and sanctified to Israel for the Sabbath day; and so the words not to be taken for a present Institution of the Sab­bath day then.

So the Question is, whether the Sabbath day in this place of Genesis hath its first ground and establishment, and here its first institution.

Many of the Ancients, some of the learnedst Jewish Rabbies, very many judicious Divines among us Protestants, and divers learned Papists, do hold the affirmative.

Some (few in comparison of the other) do hold the nega­tive, upon the former suppositions; suppositions I call them, for that they have no ground of Reason from either the Let­ter, or Circumstance of the Text.

SECTION II. Of the conceit of an Anticipation or Prolepsis, and what it is.

TOstatus his conceit of an Anticipation in the words, was, saith Catherinus, ineptum commentum; and is in­deed contrary to the plaine meaning of Moses his whole narration, and the letter of text.

Here its fit in the first place to shew what is an Antici­pation.

It's the setting down of a thing in order of story before, which cometh to be so in order of time afterwards.

The Reason of every such Anticipation is from the Penman of the Historie, who writeth down things not as they were of old at the first, but as they then were, when he wrote the story.

Such an Anticipation here, some of them only so say, or do rest on others who affirme it, without allegation of rea­sons for this their conception, and brain birth.

But there is one of late who hath produced his grounds for it.

1. Because, saith he, the words may be thus translated:

And God hath blessed the seventh day, and hath sanctified it.

Ans. 1 None so translate the words, otherwise than the for­mer in verse 2. Perfecit & requievit, no advantage to be ta­ken more in the word hath blessed, and hath sanctified, than in saying, He blessed and sanctified.

Hath, is but an English particle, and not of force in the Hebrew▪ in the Greek, or Latine, which yet if we adde to the other verbs, as, He hath ended, and hath rested, speaking of that same time, would be absurd.

Ans. 2 Thus to devise a Translation from all that have Englished the words, as a reason to build thereon a new con­ceit, is no sound dealing, but a perverting of the true sense.

2. For that diverse places are named elsewhere, by an An­ticipation, saith he.

Ans. This will not conclude, therefore here is an Antici­pation, because there:

For in those other places, there evidently appeareth the grant of the Prolepsis, why of necessitie it should be so taken: there would else manifestly be an untruth uttered, which cannot be here understood, when the words are taken, as they be in the text, as then, and at that time so.

Yet these two reasons, (for no more I finde) are onely the weak under propers of their fancie.

SECTION III. Arguments against this Anticipation or Prolepsis.

Argument 1.

WHere the words may be taken literally without danger of any untruth, contradiction, or absurditie, there is no figure and anticipation.

For in a plain narration, to take the words figuratively, is to abuse the Scripture, and to make it as a nose of wax.

But these words, He blessed and sanctified, applied to that [Page 4] self-same singular day in which he rested, have in them no falshood, no contradiction, no absurdity: Therefore here is no Anticipation.

Let any shew wherein the falshood, the contradiction or obsurditie, in so applying and understanding of the words is; if they cannot, they must give over Abulensis commentum & figmentum.

Argument. 2.

EVery Prolepsis is onely in places, or in the description of things, and actions done by men, but not of Gods divine institution, no instance can be given hereof.

But these words are not spoken of any place, nor act, nor thing of men, but an act of Gods institution, who is said to blesse and sanctifie the day; and are words of his divine in­stitution. And therefore here is no Anticipation till it can be proved, that one may so differ from all other in holy Story.

Argument. 3.

In every Anticipation, the name, act, or thing forespoken of in order of Storie, hath its dependance, and rise from some thing following, yet before in order of time. For this is an Anticipation, as is before shewed: and it is most true, in every such figure: See it in instances.

In Bethel is a prolepsis: Gen. 12. 8. from Gen. 28. 19.

In Gilead is a prolepsis: Gen. 31. 31. from Gen. 31. 47.

In Gilgal is a prolepsis: Iosh. 4. 19. from Iosh. 5. 9.

In Bochim is a prolepsis: Iudg. 2. 1. from Iudg. 2. 5.

In Exo: 16. 33, 34. which act was when the Tabernacle was built, and the Testimony made afterwards: Exo. 25. and 26. and 27. on which the truth of this act of Aaron de­pendeth.

In 1. Sam. 17. 54. is a prolepsis, for the act of David here mentioned could not be true, till afterward he won the strong hold of Zion, and got Ierusalem: 2. Sam. 5. 7.

In all these, and in every other prolepsis, there is such a de­pendance so clear and evident, as none can doubt of the truth [Page 5] of the figure, except we would faultie the narration with an untruth.

But now these words in Gen. 2. 3. have not their truth de­pendant upon any thing after recorded in Scripture, which was before this act of God in time.

For who can say truely, and sollidly prove it, that the words in Exo. 20. 11. were the institution of the Sabbath in time before this in Genesis.

For tis manifest that the Sabbath was kept before the pro­mulgation of the Law. Exo. 16. 30.

And again the words in Exo. 20. 11. shew us, not what new thing God did then, but what he had done, when he rested the seventh day, from his six dayes works in the Crea­tion,

For as God telleth them what he had done in the very first six dayes in the beginning, so he told them what he did that very seventh on which he rested from his work; he blessed, and hallowed it, and made it the Sabbath.

Therefore its to be concluded, from the nature of a true Prolepsis, and the dependance of that which is first spoken, upon that which maketh it so in time, that here is no Antici­pation.

Argument. 4.

IN every Anticipation the thing so spoken of, is generally known to be come to passe before the Penman wrote it: as those former instances do shew.

If here then were a Prolepsis, Gods blessing and sanctify­ing the seventh day, should have been known generally, and the institution before Moses tyme, who wrote this history of Genesis.

If they will not acknowledge it was so known before Mo­ses wrote Genesis, then is there no Anticipation.

If they grant it to be generally known, then must they yeeld that the Sabbath day was before the giving of the Law, and generally so known.

If they say it was known unto all Israel onely after the gi­ving of the Law; then I ask them.

[Page 6] 1. What Sabbath that was, which was knowne to Israel at the raining of Manna?

2. How they know that Moses wrote Genesis after the time of the giving of the Law? If only it was generally knowne from that time, and not before, from whence hee must take occasion (as they say) to insert the words into the second of Genesis and third verse, by way of a Paren­thesis.

Argument 5.

THey have no ground whereupon to settle their Prolep­sis: no Scripture have ever any of them alleadged, but either the sixteenth of Exod. or the twentieth, and eleventh verse.

But in neither of these can they fetch their rise for it Not out of Exod. the sixteenth, for there are no words of Gods blessing and sanctifying the day, mentioned in all that chapter.

Not out of Exod. the twentieth, for the reasons forenamed in the third argument: Therefore in the words Gen. 2. 3. is no Prolepsis.

Argument 6.

EVery Anticipation in holy Story hath its ground for it within some convenient space of time.

Usually and commonly the thing anticipated is recorded within the same book where the Prolepsis is.

Sometime in the same chapter, Jud. 15. 14. 17. and 2. 1. 5. Gen. 31. 21. 47.

Sometime in the same verse of the chapter, as in Gen. 33. 17.

Sometime in the next chapter, as in Josh. 4. 19. and 5. 9.

Most usually in the same book, though somewhat far­ther off in chapters, as in Gen. 12. 8. and 28. 19. yet the space then within a mans age.

Seldome in any other book, though sometime, as that in the first of Samuel 17. 54. and in the second of Sam. 5. 7. [Page 7] when there is a continuation of the story of the same person, whose act is the ground of the Anticipation, as is cleare in this instance of David, where the Anticipation and the act of David are within the terme of his life.

But here is a supposed Anticipation, not of a few yeares, or the age of a man, but the space of one world, for 1657 yeares, and then into another for the space of 450 and odde yeares, in the whole 2450 and more yeares. A monstrous birth of a leaping Prolepsis for so many generations, not to be assented unto.

Argument 7.

IN every true Prolepsis, the very selfe same singular thing is to be understood in the Anticipation, and that whereon it dependeth: As Bethel in Gen. 12. 8. is the selfe same in Gen. 28. 19. not another Bethel.

But the seventh day in Gen. 2. 3. is not the very selfe same singular and individuall seventh day in Exod. 20. 11. as it was confessed, but the same in likenesse, saith one, and in successive revolution; but the nature of an Anticipation doth not admit of such a distinction. And here note fur­ther, that the words of Exod. 20. 11. whence they doe ground their Prolepsis, have not the word seventh day in them: for in Exod. 20. 11. it is said, Wherefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it. But in Gen. 2. 3. it is said, He blessed the seventh day: so as Moses kept not to the word precisely, as he ought, if in Gen. 2. 3. there were a true Prolepsis. Therefore there is none.

Argument 8, and last.

EVery true Prolepsis is raised upon a sure ground, and not upon a meere and uncertaine supposition, as is ma­nifest in all the former instances, and in any other that may be produced.

But this Prolepsis is grounded upon a meere and uncer­taine supposition, which is this, that Moses wrote his story of Genesis after he heard the Law promulgated upon Mount Si­nai, where he heard God to blesse and sanctifie the seventh [Page 8] day to Israel: and therefore in writing of Genesis he occasi­onally Pererius is of opinion, that Moses wrote Genesis in Mi­dian: Euseb. Ca­sariensis holds it written be­fore the Israe­lites comming out of Aegypt lib. 7. cap. 2. de Praepa. Evang. inserted the words in Gen. 2. 3. by way of a Paren­thesis.

But till they can prove this, every one may see their sandy building, and withall admire, that any learned men dare thus to wrastle with their wits to overthrow a divine in­stitution.

Thus much for this Anticipation.

SECTION. IV. Of another conceit concerning Destination, and what it is, also confuted.

IT is cleare that there is no Anticipation in the words, which some perhaps well weighing, have devised another shift to darken the plaine narra­tion, that here should not be conceived a present institution of the first Sabbath: and this is by interpreting the words by way of Destination, which stiffely some maintaine contrary to the opinion and judgement of many learned men, aswell Papist as Protestant Divines as afterwards shall be shewed.

For better proceeding herein, to shew the error, and to cleare the truth: let us see, first what they meane by Desti­nation, to wit, Gods purpose and intention to have the se­venth 1 What is meant by Destinati­on. day mentioned in Gen. 2. 3. to be the Sabbath day in actuall use, after the giving of the Law upon Mount Si­nai, 2450 yeares after Gods creation of the world, and his resting on the first seventh day: this is their conceited Desti­nation of the day.

Next, before I come to their Reasons, let us see what they yeeld us.

First, that God bestowed a speciall prerogative, and pre­ferment 2 Our agree­ment. upon the seventh day, setting it apart from the rest of the week: That this was done (saith a learned Opposite) we all agree, but when it was done is the question.

Secondly, it is said further, that when God had ended his workes, he ordained and appointed that the seventh day, the day of his owne rest, should bee that on which his Church should rest, and follow his example; and this was that great blessing and prerogative bestowed on that day.

Thirdly, it is moreover granted, that the seventh day was from the beginning the day of Gods rest, and might have been imployed as the Lords Sabbath; and some dayes doubtlesse were thus bestowed, and perhaps this.

Fourthly, and lastly, that the cause and reason of the Sabbaths sanctification, (to wit, Gods rest) was from the beginning, though the sanctification it selfe was a long time after

From all this note: First, that the seventh day was the day of Gods own rest; Secondly, that this his rest was the cause or reason of the Sabbaths sanctification; Thirdly, that as God actually rested, so he then actually sanctified the day, deputed and consecrated it unto rest; Fourthly, that this his rest was exemplarie, he ordayning and appointing that the Church should follow his example; Fiftly, that he set it apart from the rest of the weeke; Sixthly, and so bestowed upon it a speciall prerogative and perferment, and a great blessing, which was his appointing it the day of the Churches resting and following his example; Seventhly, that that day might have beene imployed as the Lords Sabbath, that some dayes doubtlesse were thus imployed, and perhaps, the seventh day it selfe.

Thus farre wee accord, and if well weighed, it might easily overthrow their discord from us, and bring them home to us: for our disagreement is only in this:

Wee say, that all this which they yeeld, was for the time present, by way of actuall use and employment: 3. Our discord. They say it was only by Destination, and Gods purpose to have it so, after he should give his Law on Mount-Sinai, after the destruction of the old world, in a new [Page 10] world, (as it were) after the Israelites delivery out of Aegypt 2400 yeeres from the worlds creation: How likely this is, let the indifferent Reader judge. But let us see their reasons.

1 Argum.

Moses wrote Genesis after the giving of the 4. Our Opposites Reasons. Law, as Beda and Abulensis, with others, say: Therefore Moses hearing the Law of the Sabbath, wrote in Gen. 2. 3. of Gods purpose and intention, and of the Destination of the Sabbaths sanctification, after the giving of the Law.

Answer, 1 This is not well proved, that Genesis was written after the giving of the Law, Beda, Abulensis, say so; Porerius and Eusebius Caesariensis say otherwise: Set opinions against opinions. Secondly, there is no consequence from the Antecedent, Moses having heard the Law, wrote therefore in Gen. 2. 3. of the Sabbaths Sanctification, by Destination; here is a rope of sand indeed: for had he written those words in Genesis for the instruction of the Israelites, why mentioned not he the Law of God given at Sinai, to make more plaine the Destination, and the ful­filling of it? for reason would that hee should have done so. Thirdly, if the words in Gen. 2. 3 have reference to the Law, and are not dependent upon the verses going before, why doth not Moses in his writing of Exodus, mention some such thing either in Exo. 16. or 20. where he wri­teth of the Sabbath, or in other places, where hee men­tioneth the seventh day? In Deu [...]ronomie, chap. 5. where he repeated the Lawes, and giveth a reason of the Lords commanding to keep his Sabbath, vers. 15. where this De­stination might aptly have beene mentioned, yet Moses speaketh not a word thereof.

2 Argument,

Musculus doth translate Sanctificatus by Destinatus, and Mr. Byfield observeth that the originall Word signifieth to prepare: Therefore the Sabbath had not an actuall existence in the world from the beginning: The Rest was from the beginning, but the Sanctification it selfe was a long time after.

Answer, 1 For the signification prepare, it signifieth [Page 11] not so properly, but figuratively, and so used somewhere, and so translated, as in Ier. 12. 3. but hardly in any other place in the whole old Testament, taken in this sense. What reason is there to leave the proper and most com­mon acceptation, and take a figurative, and so rare a sig­nification of the word? Againe, a word of many signi­fications, must have the signification given it, as may be approved by the circumstance of the Text, and not (as wee please) to apply it for our own purpose, without proofe. Thirdly, who knoweth not that to prepare, is for present use very often, see in Exo. 16. 5. Num. 23. 1. Ios. 1. 11 and Ester 5. 4. Psal. 147. 8. Mark. 14. 12. 15. therefore it is unsound, from a bare signification to conclude a future Destination for a very long time after.

2 For Musculus expressing of it Destinatus: I answer first, that none translateth the Text it selfe so. Iunius and Treme­lius, Arias Montanus, Pagnine, the Septuagint, the Chaelde paraphrase, the vulgar Edition; all of them translate it by See Avernarius Schindlerus and the rest. Sanctificavit, and none by Destinavit. Secondly, no where do the Dictionaries expresse the Hebrew Word in Gen. 2. 3. by Destinavit, but by Significavit: Why therefore should a singular expression by any on single man occasion any to wrest a Text of Scripture, from its common and plaine sense, to uphold a new device? Thirdly, though Musculus doth thus expresse the Word, doth hee thereforecoyne such an interpretation? He doth not. And therefore his Destina­tion is no more, but the setting apart of the day to bee a Sabbath, to ordaine and chuse it for that end. Fourthly, that none may be deceived by the Word Destination, wee must understand that there is a double Destination.

1 A future Destination for time and imployment, the time longer on shorter, as there is use of the thing de­stinated to future time, because the thing destinated in Gods decree, hath not existence or being before such a time. This was the Destination of Cyrus spoken of by Esai 44. 28. and 45. 1. long before he was borne, and when he was made King, in the first yeere of his raigne, he per­formed that which God had destinated him unto, Esdr. 1. 1. [Page 12] 2 Chron. 36. 22. To this kind of Destination must be refer­red, Ieremie to bee a Prophet before he was borne: So Iohn Baptist Christs fore-runner, and Saint Paul a chosen vessell to beare Christs name before the Gentiles and Kings, and Acts 9. 15. the Children of Israel. And this Destination may be spo­ken of Christ ordained to be the Messias, and to shew himselfe to bee so in his appointed and destinated time. Now this Destination is indeed nothing else, but Gods pre­ordination of a thing to bee which hath not either present being, or not fitly the time come for the use and imploy­ment thereof; but neither of these can be said of the day on which God rested, as is cleare by what is before gan­ted by our Adversaries.

2 Present Destination for time and imployment, so also as the thing Destinated, be for continuance, and may come to a greater solemnity, more at one time than at another: as for example to evidence it in persons, places, and times.

1 For persons, the Levites were destinated to the service of the Tabernacle, and were actually admitted to the service thereof, presently upon their choyce; for they were fit, and the time seasonable for the use the Tabernacle.

2 For places, when the Tabernacle was made, it was destinated to the solemne worship and service of God, and was presently employed; so was the Temple after Solomon had built it.

3 For times, Abib, Exod. 12. 2. was appointed the beginning of Monthes, and the fourteenth day of the Month destinated to the eating of the Passeover; and though it was to be continued for the times to come, and to bee observed with greater solemnity, yet then was it actually in use. So that with the institution, there was the present observation, though with greater solemnity afterwards performed. Thus may we think of the first se­venth day Sabbath, so destinated for a Sabbath to be kept with greater solemnitie, after Israels deliverance out of Egypt; yet nothing hindereth to beleeve, if we take what before is granted, that there was a present observation of the day. What I finde to bee objected against this, [Page 13] is answered in this Section afterwards.

3. Argument,

Solemn Feasts, memorialls of Gods great mercies, were ordained in Sinai, but destinated to be kept ho­ly in Canaan. So that between the institution, and observa­tion may be a great distance. And therefore it is not unrea­sonable to hold the observation of the first seventh day Sabbath to be deferred to the time after the Law given.

Answ. 1 Yet here is a great difference between a few yeers in one age, and many ages through out the old world, and the ages following for above thousands of yeers. Second­ly, There was at the time of the institution of those Feasts, the time and place appointed when they were to be kept, but no such thing in Genesis, touching any future time, for the observation of it, for then the fancied destination had been clear, and the question had been ended. Thirdly, There was no reason for the keeping of some of those solemn Feasts, as the feast of weeks, or of harvest: Exo. 34. 22. because in the wildernesse they did neither sow nor reap: So the Feast of Tabernacles after the gathering in of corn and wine, Deut. 16. 13. because then they dwelt not in houses, to make them boothes, to remember that in the Wildernesse they so dwelt, for as yet they were in Tents in the Wildernesse; nor had they fields of corne nor vineyards to gather in corne and wine. Therefore there was reason for destinating the obser­vation of those Feasts till afterwards. But such sound reasons of destinating the observation of the seventh day Sabbath for so many hundred yeers are yet to seek: The Passeover they kept when it was instituted, and after, in the wildernesse: Num. 9. 1. 5. and so no doubt other holy dayes then insti­tuted, such as then could be kept.

4. Argument,

The reason and ground of the observation of the Sabbath was not till Israels comming out of Egypt; Deut. 5. 15. where it is said, that Israel was a servant in E­gypt, and that the Lord brought him out with a mighty hand; Therefore the Lord his God commanded him to keep the Sabbath day: We see hence, that the keeping of the day did depend on such a deliverance; therefore we may well acknowledge a destination for the observation, till the [Page 14] ground of the observation become to passe, which was not till then.

Answ. 1 It is granted before, that the cause and reason for the Sabbath, was Gods rest. Secondly, in Exo. 20. 11. It is rendered as the only reason why God then commanded the observation of the Sabbath; Nor did God himself give any other reason or ground for the keeping of it holy, but only his blessing and sanctifying of the day on which he did rest: Therefore this was the ground of observing the day; which ground was laid down at the beginning of the world, as be­fore is acknowledged; and therefore there was no need of a destination to expect another ground for the observation of the day so many hundred yeers after. Thirdly, Concerning deliverance out of Egypt, it is prefaced by God himself before all the Commandments, as a strong motive from his mercy, to move Israel to the observation of every Commandment, and not of the fourth alone: For upon the rehearsall of that benefit, the Lord gave them that his whole Law, consisting of ten Commandments. Fourthly, the former part of verse 15. in Deut. 5. is to be read as within a Parenthesis, so as the be­ginning of the later part of it, at therefore, must have relati­on to rest mentioned in the end of the fourteenth verse, and not to the deliverance out of Egypt, mentioned within the parenthesis, as the ground of the Sabbath: for (if it be mark­ed well) it beginneth with remember that thou wast a ser­vant, to move them to pity their servants, as God in mercy pitied them, to bring them out of Egypt with so strong an hand. So thus rightly understanding the text, it is altogether impertinent to be brought for destinating the keeping of the seventh day, till Israels deliverance out of Egypt. It is to be lamented that men of good Learning should wrong Gods word with such a Misinterpretation, to uphold a meere ima­ginary Destination, which neither Wit, nor Learning can make good.

5. Argu.

It is as clear as the Noon-day, from Nehe. 9. 14. that the weekly Sabbath was made known to the Israelites under Moses at Sinai, and not before unto their Fathers: And therefore the place in Genesis must be understood by way of destination.

Answ. 1 Note well, the place in Nehemiah is restrained to Sinai, whereof it is said, that God made there the Sabbath known to Israel; yet before that, Israel knew and kept the Sabbath in the wildernesse of Sin. Exo. 16. 1. 26. before they came to Sinai. Secondly, seeing they knew the Sabbath before they came to Sinai, the words thou madest known must not be interpreted of a knowledge of bare information of that which they knew not before, but of a knowledge of far­ther ratification at Sinai, for there his holy Sabbath was made known to them,

1. By his own person, but before in Exod. 16. by Moses.

2. Now more certainly by a lively voice, and Gods own writing; when before it was delivered by tradition to the Patriarches, and not in writing.

3. More fully concerning the persons which were to ob­serve it, not only the Parents, Masters, and Magistrates, in their own persons, but their Sons, Daughters, Men, and Maidser­vants, their Cattell, and the Stranger within the gates.

4. The manner also prescribed, not to do any servile work on the day. These things he made known unto them, and all this to all Israel at once by his voice of Majestie from heaven, which was never done before, nor so made known to their Fathers.

Lastly, if any yet will conceive it of such an informing them of which neither they nor their Fathers ever knew be­fore, I desire them plainly to shew me, why God should con­ceale from all the holy men of God, from Adam to Moses, his resting on the seventh day, his setting it apart for a Sabbath, destinating it for his Church to rest on, and to follow his ex­ample in time to come? Let any one give any instance at any time where God really destinated any thing, time, place, or person for future use, and did not make any acquainted with it to live in expectation of it? There may be instances given to the contrary. Then this will follow, that God de­stinating the seventh day for Sabbath in time to come, as they say, the destination was made known to the Fathers, and therefore they knew of a Sabbath before the time that [Page 16] Nehemiah speaketh of, especially considering, what an Op­posite doth freely acknowledge.

  • 1. That the seventh day might have been imployed as the Lords Sabbath.
  • 2. That some dayes, doubtlesse, were thus bestowed: And,
  • 3. Perhaps that day: Could then all the Fathers be sim­ly ignorant of the seventh day Sabbath?

Thus have I shewed the strongest arguments for destinati­on that I can read of in any of the last disputers for it. Now I come to the Reasons, against this fained destination.

Reason 1.

EVery History is made of things existent, but if the words in Gen. 2. 3. be to be understood of what God intended to doe, and not what he then did, the words should not bee historically taken, but prophetically interpreted. But Moses wrote in Gen. 2. 3. an history, as all the words before and after, and the words themselves plainely laid downe in the verse, fully demonstrate: Therefore is there no Destination, except the destinated time to come were set downe expresly in the words historically, whereby it might be understood in the history what then God did, and what plainely hee appointed men to doe afterwards: for so it lost not the na­ture of an historicall narration, both in telling of the thing done, and in the appointing of what should be done: if it be, I say, with a cleare expression, as is required in the na­ture of a Story.

Reason. 2.

THere is no Destination of that thing for future time only, which hath actuall being, and aptnesse in it, for present imployment: For future Destination is only for de­ficiency in these two respects.

But the seventh day was from the beginning, the day of Gods rest, and the ground of mans rest; (this is granted.) And that day had its ability, and every way was as fit then for an holy Sabbath as ever it was afterwards. This is true [Page 17] (from the Adversaries grant) to wit, that from the beginning it might have beene imployed as the Lords Sabbath, and perhaps had so; it then had an aptnesse to be an holy Sab­bath.

Therefore Destination for only time to come, is an idle imagination.

Reason 3.

IF it bee, with a doubtlesse, that from the beginning some dayes were imployed as the Lords Sabbaths, and is gran­ted for a truth: Then, without doubt, was the seventh day from the beginning so imployed as the Lords Sabbaths. For what day could they so groundedly take for a Sabbath, as Gods onely rest-day? or what day could they so properly hold to be the Lords Sabbath, as his owne day which him­selfe blessed and sanctified? as the Text saith, and is denied of none.

Therefore the seventh day from the beginning, being be­stowed as the Lords Sabbath, the observers of the day, held it fit for present use, and conceived it not in the words of the text a future destination for so long time, as is groundlessely imagined.

Reason 4.

THat which belonged alike to all, from the worlds be­ginning to be observed by all, the same to bee passed over as not observeable of any, but destinated to a pecu­liar sort, which should bee borne after many generati­ons, is not reasonably conceived to be true, but to bee held as a feigned untruth.

But such a thing is this imagined future destination: For it put off Adam, Seth, all the holy men of God 1600 yeeres before the Floud; Noah and Shem, with the other holy Patriarchs till Abraham after the Floud; and from Abraham to Moses, and to Israels deliverance out of Aegypt, from observing the day of Gods rest, and there­in the remembrance of the worke, and Worlds creation alike, belonging unto all; as if it had only concerned [Page 18] the Israelites, and not the holy Fathers from the begin­ning; which none will averre I suppose. Therefore this Destination is but a fiction.

Reason 5.

THe ground of the future Destination of the observa­tion of the seventh day being false, the Destination it selfe falleth, and is false, as will be granted.

But the ground of this their Destination, which some lay to build it upon, is false, (viz.) the Israelites deliverance out of Egypt; for their proofe out of Deut. 5. 15. faileth them, as before is made manifest: Therefore there is no such Destination as is pretended.

Reason 6.

IF God did on the seventh day actually rest, and at the same time actually sanctified it, as is confessed to bee for the present, the Churches Sabbath: Then he put Adam into the right of actuall use of the day, and not destinated it only for the time to come: But Gods actuall resting, was the ground of his actuall sanctifying of the day, and his actuall sanctifying of the day, made it ready for pre­sent use; neithe was there any thing that could hinder Adam from observing of it at that present, for the Lords owne Sabbath. And if it be perhaps said, that a Father having many sonnes, may determine one to be his heire, yet not presently put him into the possession:

I answer, that may be, because the Father will not dis­possesse himselfe, of that himselfe stands in need of: And also that sonne may perhaps die before him, and before his other brethren. Therefore is not this simily fit for this pur­pose, neither doth it any thing weaken the argument.

Reason 7.

THere is not the least intimation in the Text of any decree of a future Destination, and deed to be done, but a plaine narration of that which then was done. For Moses sayth, God blessed the seventh day and sanctified [Page 19] it. Againe, the words before, in verse second, concerning Gods ending his work, and his resting on that seventh day, and the reason added to the reason in the words, of verse third; why he blessed and sanctified it, binde the act of God to be understood of the time then, and not of a time foure and twenty hundred yeeres after.

Moreover Moses the Penman, wri [...]eth the Storie of Gods resting, as an act done then, as all acknowledge: so he speaketh of his blessing and sanctifying the first seventh day, as then blessed and sanctified. For he holdeth in all, the same forme of speech: He ended, he rested, he blessed, he sanctified: when he did the former, he did the later, as the words shew without any variation, at the first reading of them, to any indifferent judgement. Lastly, no instance in holy Writ can be produced to defend such a glosse, and to make such a comment upon a Text so cleare as this is: Let them bring forth any one Scripture, to warrant such an interpretation in an Hystoricall narration.

Reason 8.

GOds work is ever the ground of every Festivall, or­dained for a remembrance thereof, and solemnly to bee kept of those of that time, when the work was wrought; and not destinated to a day observed for ma­ny ages after: see for this all the Festivalls in Scrip­ture, ordained either by God or man. The work of God had its present remembrance upon the institution of the day, when it was to be observed for the memoriall thereof.

It is absurdly unreasonable, to think that God working a work never to be forgotten, will appoint a day to bee observed for the remembrance thereof, to none then li­ving, but onely to those who should live 2400 and odde yeers after.

Reason 9.

GOds own words in Exod. 20. 11. make Moses dis­course in Gen. 2. 3. to bee understood of the then [Page 20] blessing and sanctifying the day: For God sayth not, Exod. 20. 11. Wherefore I the Lord now at this present doe blesse and sanctifie the Sabbath day: but hee spake (as all reasonable apprehensions may easily conceive) with relation to his acts past, as to his works on the first six dayes, so to his rest on the seventh day, blessing and sanctifying the Sabbath.

Reason 10.

THe six dayes of Gods work, were presently exem­plary, and all men in the Church from the crea­tion, have taken them for present use: What reason is there in the Text, Gen. 2. 3. to conceit a Destination of the use of the seventh day, not examplarie till 2400 yeers after?

Can it reasonably be imagined?

1 That God would informe Adam of his work of creation, and of the space he did take to create all things in, to wit, in six dayes (for Adam could not know that God had made the world in six dayes, except God had so informed him) and not acquaint him with the use of the seventh day also?

2 Can we imagine, that God distinguishing the seventh from the other six, yet would leave it for use in common with the six, for so long a time?

Can wee think, that Gods work in six dayes, put men into the present possession and use of the six dayes, and his rest on the seventh day, not afforded unto them, the present use thereof?

4 Can we suppose in any reason, that the Sabbath day, was only needfull to the Israelits in the Wildernesse, and of no use to Gods people and Church before the Floud, nor after till those dayes?

There are other reasons which are brought out by some for this Destination, but they are without any waight of reason.

Reason 1.

THere is no Historicall narration of the observation of the day.

Answ. Yes, the observation of the Sabbath is mentioned and plainly witnessed, Exod. 16. 30.

Reason 2.

THere was no Commandement given to Adam, con­cerning his resting upon the day.

1 Answ. There was no Commandement for whole six dayes working, but only Gods example propounded for imitation.

2 This reason concludeth not a Destination of the day, till Moses his dayes, nor any Destination at all, for:

3 It was needlesse to give to Adam any Commandement affirmative in his state of innocency, because he was filled with great wisdome, with holinesse, righteousnesse, and up­rightnesse; and it was enough for him to see Gods example of rest, as a pattern before him, to make him to follow him: for he could not but know, by his excellent wisdome and knowledge, that God was to be imitated, and hee bound to take his example for imitation: Hee also knew that God blessed and sanctifled the day, not for himselfe to keep it holy, but for man.

Reason 3.

IT is repugnant to the opinion of the Doctors of the Church, that God imposed upon Adam in his innocen­cy, any more positive precepts but one, which was that of the forbidden fruit.

1 Answ. This reason concludeth not the Destination: It followeth not that in Gen. 2. 3. there is a Destination, because Doctors hold only one positive precept, given to Adam: for the plaine narration hath not its de­pendance upon either one, or more precepts given of God to Adam.

2 This argument imployeth that the words in Gen. 2. 3. [Page 22] should be a Commandment, or else needs must they afford a Destination; but though it should be granted, that there is no Commandment, yet the simple narration of the truth of Gods resting then, and his blessing and sanctifying the se­venth day, preventeth the Conceit of any future Desti­nation.

Reason. 4.

THat the Law of the fourth Commandment was not agreeable to the state of innocency.

Answ. The Circumstances of the fourth Command­ment to men, as they stood under the fall, and as the Law was given to the people to rest, their men, and maid-ser­vants, sons and daughters, with cattell and stangers, after toylesome labour, could not agree with Adams state of in­nocency; but the fourth Commandment to keep holy the Sabbath day might be agreeable to Adam in innocency.

1. It would and did well agree with Adam to be an Imi­tator of God, but God rested on that day, and was refresh­ed. Exo. 31. 17. Therefore it was no whit disagreable to Adams innocency to rest after the example of the Lord his God, and to keep a Sabbath.

2. Adam was to work six dayes (though his labour was delightsome, and not toylesome) in imitation of God, and therefore to rest the seventh day, because God did so: This is reason enough, if no more can be said for it: For albeit Adam toyled not his bodie with payn and sweat, yet his mind was attent to his weekly bussinesse while he laboured, and six dayes were destinated to his labour: but now on the seventh day his bodie was altogether freed from all labour, and his minde also from attending to it, and the whole man set apart for an holy rest unto the Lord, which befitted him well.

3. Though on the other dayes he served God, yet neither the dayes, nor he on those dayes were immediatly consecra­ted to God, as this day was, and held also for holy duties, and to attend upon God immediatly; who in that happy estate did in a visible apparition manifest himself to him: [Page 23] And what know we what Adam did, and should have heard, learned and seen from God on that day; I may think, it should have been such matter, as might be agreeable enough to that his estate of innocency.

4. Adams perfection of knowledge in holynesse and righteousnesse, with uprightnesse and innocency of life, did furnish him with matter of heavenly Contemplation, and made him bold to present himself before God in a speciall manner that day, and was fitted to spend the rest of that day in heavenly meditations, who prepared himself, and streng­thened his faith in the assurance of eternall life in heaven, whither he should have been translated in Gods appointed time; for eternall life was promised from the worlds begin­ning, Titus 1. 2. whereof the Tree of life was a Sacrament, as the Fathers and other learned men do hold. So that in this regard, the seventh day a Sabbath to the Lord, agreed right well to his estate in innocency.

5. If the day was blessed and sanctified of God (which must needs be granted, if the Anticipation and Destina­tions bee removed) then a blessed and sanctified day, agreed well to his holy and blessed state of innocencie, not any jarre or unfittingnesse comming betweene.

6 The day of Gods resting was not only exemplary to Adam, but to all Adams seed, had he and they abode in innocencie. Now then all men labouring the six dayes, had it beene unagreeable to their holinesse and innocencie, to have bestowed the seventh day in meditations, heaven­ly contemplations, praysing God in the beautie of his crea­tures, and the like? This surely would have stood with the very highest degree of their excellencies in their state of perfection.

7 And lastly, Adam had on him, as all men should have, a double calling; one for his body, his particular calling in the duties of righteousnesse, for which he was allowed six dayes; and another for his soule, his generall calling to be performed in duties of holinesse, for which the seventh day was ordained: So that in this respect a seventh day Sabbath, was not disagreeable to the state of innocency.

Reason. 5.

THe most ancient primitive Fathers, as Iustine Martyr, Tertullian, Irenaeus, affirm that none of the Patriarches living before Moses, observed a Sabbath. Therefore in Gen. 2. 3. is a Destination for future time.

1. Answ. There be as many Fathers, who affirm the con­trary, and also Jewish Rabbies.

2. Affirmations are not to be rested on, but the proofes produced.

3. Those Fathers, are to be understood of a ceremoni­ous observation, which they deny to be kept before Moses time. They do not deny any Sabbath to have been kept at all. They d [...]ny what the Jews did stand for (against whom they wrote) to wit, for Circumcision, and a Sabbath cere­monially kept. Such a Sabbath to be kept by the Patriarchs the Fathers deny.

SECTION. V. Of the true understanding of the words in Gen. 2. 3.

HAving cleared the text, Gen. 2. 3. of these two rubs, of a Prolepsis, and of a future Destination, it follows that it must be understood plainely without either of them, and the words to be con­ceived as they be written and delivered, which is, that at that present time, that first seventh day on which God rested, was it which he blessed and sanctified.

How can this be denyed? Doth not Moses proceed or­derly in his historicall narration? First he relates Gods Work every of the six dayes; and having ended that, he then immediatly following speaketh of the seventh day, and what God did on that day, to wit, that God rested on that same seventh day, and sanctified it. That this is clearely so to be understood without a figure, I thus prove.

First, this third verse is connexed to the second by the [Page 25] copulative conjunction and, tying (in the continued narra­tion) with an and, Gods resting, to Gods ending of his work on that seventh day, in verse 2. Then, to his resting, w [...]th ano­ther and, he adjoyneth his blessing and sanctifying the same seventh day. Now, as the ending his work of six dayes, and and his resting from his work on the immediate seventh day following, are coupled together, and not, in any indifferent mans understanding, separable from one the other, in the n [...]ration; so are his resting, and his blessing and sancti­fying of the same seventh day, knit together, and so conceive­ably to every ones common apprehension, tied one to the other, as the other be without any difference in Moses rela­tion. Therefore if the former verse be cleare, so is the later, to any not anticipated with a prejudicate opinion, desti­nated to errour.

Secondly, God himselfe publishing the Law of the Sab­bath in Exod. 20. 11. doth there as Moses doth here in Ge­nesis 2. 2, 3. couple together the same things, his finishing of his work in six dayes (who made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is) with his resting on the seventh day, and then, that he blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it: clearely thus verifying the truth of Moses narration by his conjoyning of the things together, and then by speaking also of all these his acts as then done in the time perfectly past, in the words, made, rested, blessed, and sanctified: therefore may we see God himselfe (if we will see) teaching us to understand Moses plainly, and that without any Anticipa­tion or Destination.

Thirdly, the seventh day in Gen. 2. 3. is that first seventh day in which God rested, and not another seventh day, which should be 2450 yeares after, when the Law should be given at Mount Sinai. For,

First, the conjunction and will not admit of such a distin­ction or division of the day in the third verse, from the se­venth day in the second, to make them to be put asunder as farre as the creation was from the promulgation of the Law, 2450 and odde yeares.

Secondly, the seventh day is three times mentioned: twice [Page 26] in the second verse, which is not denied to be understood of one and the same seventh day; and why not the seventh day in the third verse? For there is no difference in the expression of the day, it is called alike in all the triple mentioning the seventh day, and the later seventh day (as I said before) is by and conjoyned to the other.

Thirdly, the demonstrative ipsum it, referreth us to the same seventh day before spoken of: For the word cannot have reference to a seventh day to come two thousand yeares after.

Fourthly, the reason that is annexed in Gen. 2. 3. tieth us to that first seventh day on which God rested, and not to another seventh day to come after: for if the seventh bee understood of any other seventh day, than that on which he rested immediately after the six dayes work, the reason should not be good.

Lastly, to this first seventh day God hath reference in Exod. 20. 11. and to no other seventh day: Therefore must the words be understood of the first seventh day.

Fourthly, to take the words, he blessed and sanctified it, to be meant of that seventh day on which God rested, hath no absurdity in it, neither in respect of the day, nor in respect of Adam in innocency, as I have proved; nor doth it contra­dict any other place, nor any other Scripture can be brought against it, nor is there any untruth so to conceive it: There­fore are the words without figure plaine and easie, and so to be understood as they be historically delivered.

Obj. The words are to be taken as a Parenthesis, so saith Gomarus, who desires to have it taken notice of in his reply to Doctor Rivet.

Answ. Why hee should make so much of his conceit, I know not. For if it should be granted him, as it cannot, yet a Parenthesis is ever to the purpose and sense of the place, it altereth not the meaning thereof; it weakeneth not, but rather strengtheneth the litterall sense, and tendeth greatly to the matter in hand: See instances in the New Testament, Matth. 1. 18. and 24. 24. and 27. 9. Mark. 5. 8. 13. and 7. 2. Luk. 2. 2. 4. 35. Joh. 1. 14. Act. 1. 18. 19. and 5. 12. [Page 27] Likewise in the old Testament, Gen. 24. 10. and 35. 18. and 38. 16. and 49. 31. Exod. 14. 9. Ier. 21. 2. and 29. 2. with infinite other places: but this conceited Parenthesis, is cleane contrary to all the other, and overthroweth the naturall and proper sense of the place, contrary (I say) to the nature of any Parenthesis.

But I deny here a Parenthesis, for take away a Paren­thesis, and yet the sense remayneth, and the former fol­lowing words are knit without any absurditie: but take away these words, And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, Gen. 2. 3.

First, there is no meaning left to expresse what benefit man should have by Gods resting on the Sabbath day, as Moses telleth us, what benefit accrued to man by Gods working upon every other of the six daies: for as God wrought on them, and distinguished them for mans use, even so must wee conceive of his distinguishing the seventh day, and resting on it for mans good, as well as the other dayes. But if these words be a Parenthesis, and taken away, then had not Moses told us of any use or benefit of this day.

Secondly, take these words away, then the second verse, with the later part of the third verse, will absurdly bee conjoyned. In verse second, it is thus, And he rested on the seventh day from all his workes which he had made. And in verse third, it then should follow immediately, because that in it hee had rested from all his work, which God made and created. So hee rested, because he rested.

But now if the whole third verse be in the Parenthesis, then as I said, the benefit of the day in which God rested is taken from us, that is, the blessing and sanctifying of it for our use. Therefore for these reasons wee may not admit of a Parenthesis, nor is there any such thing in the Hebrew Text, nor in the Greek, nor in Pagine, nor in Ʋatablus translation, nor in the Caldee Paraphrase, nor in Montanus, nor in Tremelius and Iunius, nor in the Vulgar Edition, nor in our last learned English transla­tion. [Page 28] This new Parenthesis, is but an idle conception, brought forth to blunder the cleare streame of the Text.

SECTION. VI. That in Gen. 2. 3. is the Institution of the Sabbath.

THe words in Gen. 2. 3. are the Institution of the first Sabbath.

1 The name Sabbath, doth take its originall from Gods resting on this seventh day: for so the word signifieth, cessavit, requievit. This also wee learne from the fourth Commandement in Exod. 20. 8. where God nameth the word Sabbath, which in the tenth verse, is ap­plyed unto this seventh day, and in the eleventh verse, the reason is rendred, why it is called Sabbath, because God rested on the seventh day: So that Gods owne resting on this day, made it a Sabbath.

2 It being by Gods resting made a Sabbath day, hee did therefore blesse it: Now to blesse a day, is no where spoken of God in the whole Bible, but here; and in Exod. 20. 11. And therefore by that in Exod. 20. 11. wee must seek out the meaning of this in Gensis, which will appeare to bee this, that he blessed it, that is, by sanctifying it; for the later word giveth the sense of the former, the conjunction and comming betwixt benedixit, and sanctificavit, is exegeticall, put expositively, as is usuall in the Hebrew speech, when two verbes come together; and very learned men thus expound the place. So Calvin, Va­tablus, Paraeus, and others; but to come to Gods owne ex­position in Exod. 20. which is this: By his rest he made the seventh day Sabbath; and it being a Sabbath by his rest, he did blesse it, that is, sanctified it, that is, appointed it to be kept holy, as it is in the words of the fourth Com­mandement: For the better confirmation of this exposi­tion, we must understand that the Commandement given, Exod. 20. 8. is deduced from his resting, blessing, and sancti­fying [Page 29] this seventh day, spoken of in Gen. 2. 2. 3. and re­peated, Exod. 20. 11. for the Commandement of God is an inference from it thus: Because I rested, blessed, and san­ctified the Sabbath day; therefore I command thee to keep it holy. Now albeit there be three words in Genes. Rest, blessed, sanctified; yet in the Commandement, hee men­tioneth only the word Sabbath, and the keeping of it ho­ly. First the word Sabbath day, hath relation to his rest; then to keep it holy, hath relation to sanctified, or hallowed it, in which is included the word blessed: For Gods blessing of it, is the sanctifying and consecration of the day to be kept holy to the Lord: And indeed, this was a great blessing of the Lord, for mans heavenly and spi­rituall good many wayes.

This exposition is strengthened by Exod. 16. 23. where it is said, too morrow is the rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord. Here the word blessed, is not spoken of, as to call it the blessed Sabbath, but the word holy is mentio­ned only, having reference to Gods sanctifying of it, and including therein his blessing of it.

Now the words thus cleerely opened, they must needs argue the Institution of the Sabbath. For first, here is a Sabbath made, which Christ telleth us, was for man, Mark. 2. 27. Secondly, here is Gods owne example for mans imitation, as is evident in Exod. 20. by Gods urging his own example for resting on the Sabbath. Thirdly, here are his words of institution, in that it is said, He blessed it, and sanctified it, that is, hee ordained it to bee an holy Sabbath unto the Lord, to bee dedicated to his own service, as Moses informeth us, before the Law was promulgated, Exod. 16. 23. Fourthly and lastly, hee confirmeth it with a reason in the end of the third verse of Gen. 2. Therefore it is the Lords institution for to bee his Sabbath day, and to bee kept holy of us, as the Commandement also teacheth, and appointeth us to doe.

3 The Lord in the promulgation of the Law, doth fetch from this place of Genesis, the originall of the Sabbath, [Page 30] laying the ground of his precept to keep it holy, upon the in­stitution [...] in Exod. 20. 11.

4. In Exod. 31. It is worth our observation, that there the keeping of the Sabbath is not urged from the Command­ment lately given in the Decalogue, as reason would in mans judgement, but from the first seventh dayes rest, and refresh­ment after his six dayes work, as we may read in the 15. 16, 17. verses of that chapter.

5. Moses in Exod. 16. 26. maketh mention of six dayes, and of the seventh day Sabbath, and telleth them, that God had given them the Sabbath: verse 29. speaking of it as a time before: For as six dayes were before, so also was the se­venth day the Sabbath, for when some did break it, ver. 27. the Lord faith, How long will ye refuse to keep my Commandments and Laws? He would not have said, How long for the breach only of the first seventh day Sabbath, if they had not done so long before. Therefore the seventh day was Sabbath long before this time of gathering the Manna.

6. S. Paul speaking of a Rest or keeping a Sabbath to the people of God. Heb. 4. 9. fetcheth from the originall, Gods own rest on the seventh day, even from the Creation, verse 4.

7. Jewish Doctors have been of this opinion: Genebrad in his Chron. citeth foure: Broughton in his consent of Scripture, noteth two, Ramban on Gen. 26. Aben-Ezar on Exod. 20: and Peter Martyr on Genesis alleadgeth Rabbi Agnon, Philo Iudaeus demundi opificio is of this judgement. For he saith the seventh day God vouchsafed to call it holy. And Tertullian cannot deny that the Jews held the day to be sanctified from the worlds beginning, Lib. 4. advers. Iudaeos.

8. Doctor Rivet out of Wallaeus on the fourth Com­mandment, doth reckon up to this purpose, the consent of thirty famous Protestant Divines. Luther, Zuinglius, Calvin, Peter Martyr, Bullinger, Zanchius, Vrsinus, and others, to the number of thirty, I say; yet he mentioneth not learned Paraeus, Mercerus, Perkins, Willet, Amesius, Selnec­cerus Aretius, and Piscator, and very many more which [Page 31] might be named, holding the institution of the Sabbath in Gen. 2. 3.

9. Of this opinion are learned Papists, whom the same Doctor Rivet quoteth also, as August. Steuchus, Eugubi­nus, Gilbertus Genebrad, Iacobus Salianus, Cornelius a lapide, Catharinus, Ribera, hereunto adde Thomas Aquinas on Genes. 2.

10. Ancient Fathers are alleadged for this purpose, Ciprian, Epiphanius, Origen, Chrysostome, Hierome, Atha­nisius, S. Augustine: Some Fathers produced, as of a con­trary opinion, are not to be understood of a bare naturall Sabbath, which we plead for, but as the Sabbath ceremoni­ous, as the Jews held it, and so these Fathers deny the obser­vation of it.

Lastly, our learned Translators of our English Bible are of this judgement, or they who have prefixed the Contents to the second chapter of Genesis, in which are these words: The first Sabbath: And this is allowed to be read in our Churches.

SECTION VII. The Institution was binding, and required the observation of the Sabbath, from the beginning.

THis Institution was virtually binding, as a Law re­quiring abservation of man, even of Adam in his innocency.

1. Though in Terminis the words be not To sanctifie a day, is either to keep it ho­ly, or to make it holy; and seeing God keeps not any day more holy than another, the meaning must be, that he made it holy, which is as much, as to command the keeping of it holy. And this my Lord of Armach justifieth. preceptive, yet had they in them virtually a Commandment: For God in gi­ving his Law deduceth out of this his institution a Com­mandment, as before is shewed: For Gods Commandments do arise and are imposed upon man, not from his absolute authority, as if he commanded, because he would so command this or that, but he doth it upon good reason, which reason carrieth the force of a Commandment. [Page 32] As for instance; God brought Israel out of Egypt, and great bondage; whereupon God frameth to them his first Commandment in the Law, and forbiddeth them to have any other God besides him. Now what if God had not thus in form of words imposed this precept upon them, had not his act of their so great deliverance bound them, as a Law, to have him only to be their God? yes without doubt, it carried with it the force and nature of that Commandment. Even so here, God having rested from his work, made the seventh day a Sabbath, blessing and sanctifying it for man, (for it was made for man: Mark 2. 27.) though the Command­ment of keeping holy the Sabbath had not been published; yet Gods rest, Gods example in resting, and his blessing and sanctifying the day for man, had been as a precept. Paraeus saith, the words are preceptive, and Marius a learned man, saith they were a Commandment. For Gods own example propounded to man for imitation, is as if he had said, Do as you see me do: else it is to no purpose to propound himself to us for an example. And Gods acts in this nature This way our Homily takes, teaching, that as obedi­ent children we should imi­tate our hea­venly Father in this. imitable, and for mans use, binde men to make that same use of his acts, for which use and end he did so; as his blessing and sanctify­ing the Sabbath, for to keep it holy to him, did binde them to keep it holy, as Gods Commandment in the promulgation of the Law, Exo. 20. 8. grounded upon this his act, sufficient­ly evidenceth.

2. The keeping holy the Sabbath day, is called Gods Law, before the Law at Sinai. Exo. 16. 4. For the Law in this place is the keeping of the seventh day holy, as a Law: for what Law in all the sixteenth chapter was there else, by which God would try his people, concerning the keeping thereof, but the keeping holy the Sabbath? as the maine of the chapter touching their Manna, in gathering it the sixt day, in Gods preserving it from Worms and stinking, in Gods not rayning it on the seventh day, in Moses com­manding to have them keep in on the seventh day, tended all to the keeping of the Sabbath to the Lord, which is the Law mentioned in verse 4.

3. Some going out to gather Manna on that day, the [Page 33] Lord rebuketh the people for refusing of a long time to keep his Commandements and Lawes, saying, how long will yee refuse to keep my Commandements and Lawes? Exod. 16. 28. In which words we may observe these things: First, that the people had Commandements and Lawes before this time, and so before the giving of the Law at Sinai. Secondly, that the Lawes and Commandements were not mens, but Gods, for he acknowledgeth them for his owne, saying, my Commandements, and my Lawes. Thirdly, in these words is comprehended the rest of the holy Sabbath to the Lord, of which he maketh mention in the three and twenty, five and twenty, six and twenty verses, before the reproofe of the breach thereof in this twenty eighth verse: For some going out to gather Mannah on this day, he taxeth them for re­fusing to keep his Commandements and Lawes, which hee would not have done, if the seventh day an holy Sabbath had beene none of them. Fourthly, that these his Comman­dements and Lawes they had knowne, and had refused to keep for a long time before; for he saith, How long refuse yee to keep them? Understanding among these, the Com­mandement of the Sabbath, which being reckoned among the Commandements, it must needs be of a binding power.

If any man aske me, where doe we before this time finde mention of any such Commandements and Lawes?

I answer, in Gen. 26. 5. which Abraham kept, and taught his to keep, Gen. 18. 19. and if you would know how they learned them, the Text there tells you, from Gods voyce, which voyce Abraham obeyed: for God never suffered his people to live by the unwritten Law in mans nature, with­out his positive Lawes after the fall; yea, hee gave a po­sitive Law to Adam before, in his estate of innocency.

SECTION VIII. The Sabbath was observed of Gods people, before the Law given at Mount Sinai.

THe Sabbath being instituted of God, Gen. 2. 3. it was observed of Gods people before the Law at Sinai.

1. It must needs bee, that Adam observed it, else he did neglect the institution, and Gods imitable exam­ple to stirre him up to the same. Now if Adam did neglect it, it must needs be: First, either of ignorance, which could not be, for as he knew the Lords work of six dayes, so could he not be ignorant of Gods rest the seventh day, this he saw, being created before, though he must be taught the six dayes work, either by Gods secret inspiration, or by instruction of his voyce: Therefore Adam was not ignorant of this first institution of the Sabbath. Secondly, if he neglected it wit­tingly, it was no lesse than contempt, which to conceit of Adam could neither stand with his state of innocency be­fore his fall, nor with his state of grace after his fall.

Therefore seeing Adam did neither of ignorance nor knowledge neglect it, he then observed it: and if he knew it, and observed it, without all question he would teach others to observe it, he being after the fall one of the holy men of God, a teacher and instructer of Gods people, as hee is reckoned in Gen. 5. amongst the teachers in those dayes.

Some perhaps will here say, it would easily be granted, that the words were binding, if it could bee proved, that Adam knew of this institution.

The works of God are wrought for man to know, and in knowing them, to acknowledge God in them, and to observe them, and to make that use of them, which he in­tendeth by them; This is an universall truth.

Againe, his works wrought, are to bee taken notice of, [Page 35] of the first to whom they may become observeable, and to whom they doe belong: This is undeniable.

All Gods works are documentary, and lead men to some use of them, as the Scriptures doe teach.

Adam, created in the excellency of perfection according to the image of God, saw Gods workmanship of the world, and knew God in them, and well understood how to make use of them.

But now that in six dayes God was creating all things, Adam could not know but by information from God, nor could he know the seventh day, to be the seventh day on which God rested, but by his knowledge of the six dayes before it.

Yet after God made him, he knowing that God wrought six dayes, and hee beholding Gods rest on the seventh day, by his excellent understanding, he could conceive that God in both, to wit, in his six dayes working, and in his seventh dayes resting, made himselfe a patterne for his imitation: for else what needed God to take so many dayes for working, or the seventh day for resting.

But concerning the seventh day, Gods exemplary rest is not only mentioned by Moses, but Gods blessing and san­ctifying of the day, not for himselfe, for so to think were ab­surd, saith learned B. Lakes, but for man, Mark. 2. 27. In his Thes.

If so, then Adam must needs know thus much, else Gods blessing and sanctifying of the day for Adam and his poste­rity had beene of none effect.

Although there bee a dispute about the time, yet on all hands the words are acknowledged to be words of an insti­tution. Now every institution of God is made manifest without delay to them whom it concerneth, no instance can be given to the contrary; but I have proved the institution to have beene upon Gods rest, after the six dayes work, and therefore was it forthwith knowne unto Adam to bee an institution of the Sabbath; for which cause he knew him­selfe bound to observe it, as no doubt, but hee and the Patriarchs did, as followeth to bee proved in the next Section.

[Page 36] 2. The holy men of God, before the Law, knew the space of times, they knew the space of yeares, and reckoned by yeares, Gen. 5. and 7. 11. and 14. 4. They knew the space of a moneth, Gen. 29. 24. and 38. 20. Exod. 2. 2. and could reckon the moneths, knowing which was first, which the second, the third, and fourth, &c. Gen. 8. 13, 14. Exod. 12. 2. and 19. 1. They moreover observed weeks, Gen. 29. 2 [...], 28. and knew how many dayes made a week, else how could Laban say fulfill her week, or Jacob under­stand what he meant by it? But it is said, he fulfilled her week, which was seven dayes, which made the week, as they had learned from God, in working six dayes, and resting the seventh day; and as the Hebrew name sheweth it: for a week was called [...] Shabuah, comming of [...] Septem, seven, which language the Church of God then spake, and the Septuagint translates the words [...], which the Latines call Septimana and Hebdomada, which doth constare septem diebus, as a man learned in the Hebrew tongue delivers it. All doe reckon seven dayes for a week, and so is it taken in the Scriptures where a week or weeks be mentioned, Dan. 9. 27. and 10. 3. Levit. 12. 15. Luk. 18. 12. Now they knowing a week, and taking to them­selves six dayes of the week for work from Gods example, and as God allowed them, as we see by his words in giving the Law, Exod. 20. 9. 11. may it bee in reason thought otherwise, but that they gave God the seventh day accor­ding to his owne institution?

3 The much observing of the number of seven and seventh, may somewhat move us hereto; else, why did God himselfe so observe it? First, in his resting upon the seventh day at the beginning, Gen. 2. 2. 3. Secondly, in his distinction of beasts and foules, commanding Noah to observe the number of seven, in taking in to him the cleane, Gen. 7. 2. 3. Thirdly, in ordering so the Arke, by the hand of his providence, that it (as the Type of the Church) should rest in the seventh Month, on the Moun­taines of Ararat, Gen. 8. 4. and that the earth should be dryed on the seventh day of the second Month, falling [Page 37] out upon no other number but upon the number of se­ven; I say, by the guidance of Gods providence, to teach the godly, that as hee rested the seventh day Sab­bath, so the Arke the Typicall Church, should rest on the seventh day; and as he ending his work of Creation, and blessed the seventh day; so h [...]e ending his work of his judgement, upon the sinfull word, upon the seventh day, on which the earth was dryed: which seventh day might very likely be the seventh day Sabbath; what may bee said to the contrary I know not: For the Sabbath day, as now sometimes it doth, might fall upon the seven­teenth day of one Month, and on the twenty seventh day of another Month. Fourthly, in ordayning the Passeover to bee kept upon a seventh day, Exod. 12. 3, 6. for the fourteenth day was the seventh day; for if wee reckon from the first day of the Moneth, to the tenth, and the keeping up of the Lamb till the fourteenth day, it must be the second seventh day of the Month, which the Jewes began at the evening, and continued to the evening. Fift­ly, in the Lords appointing the feast of unleavened bread, to consist of the number of seven dayes, and the seventh day to be an holy Convocation, Exod. 12. 15, 16. and a feast unto the Lord, Exod. 13. 6. Sixthly, in his not rayning of Mannah on the seventh day, because he would have no gathering on that day. All these put together, doe shew that God did much extoll the seventh day be­fore his people, and those holy Patriarches, to stirre them up to observe the seventh day Sabbath. Seventhly, to adde to all these the Lords speaking to Noah, of the num­ber of seven dayes to bring in the Floud, and opening the windowes of Heaven, and breaking up the fountaines of the great deep on the seventeenth day of the second Month, Gen. 7. 11. and in bringing the Floud upon the old world, upon the seventh day, Gen. 7. 10. as the lear­ned Translatours have it in the Margin. So Tremelius and Innius give us it, from the Hebrew Text: Fuit ip­sorum dierum septimo: Ʋatablus hath it, Cum illuxisset dies septimus, that hereby, among other the wickednesses [Page 38] of the times, God might shew his wrath against those evill men, for profanation of the Sabbath, and the contempt of that his holy institution.

Here I might annex the Patriarch Noah, his observati­on of the number of seven, againe and againe, in send­ing out the Dove; Gen. 8. 10. 12. and likewise (being come out of the Arke) in his sacrificing an acceptable offering to God, on the seven and twentieth day of the Month, in which hee came forth, Gen. 8. 14. 20. 25. like enough to bee the observation of the first Sabbath in the new world; so let me conceive it, till any can shew me plainely the contrarie. Howsoever it was, we see the num­ber of seven was observed herein by him, as being mind­full of the seventh day of Gods resting, and sanctifying it for a Sabbath: For I would faine know, why the number of seven should bee so observed of God, and holy men, not only by Noah, but by Abraham in some cases, except it were to minde them of Gods seventh day; the first time of the mention of seventh, which God so bles­sed and sanctified▪ in making the seventh day his resting day? As for the conceit of perfection in the number of seven, I conceive it to bee without ground of Scripture, except with relation to Gods seventh day, blessed and san­ctified.

4 Saint Paul in Heb. 4. speaketh of Gods rest on the seventh day, when God finished his work, and of the par­ticipation of that rest, as Bishop Lakes saith, two wayes, Typically, and Spiritually: the first by Ioshua, giving the Israelites rest in Canaan; and the second by Christ, a rest from sinne here, and a spirituall blessednesse hereafter. The Apostle telleth us, that an entrance was made into the seventh daies rest, instituted by God, when hee had finished his work, and rested thereon, into which man entred and rested, as also did the Israelites into the Typi­call rest by Ioshua, and so doe the Israelites of God into the spirituall rest by Jesus Christ.

Now as wee Christian beleevers doe partake of our rest, and as the Israelite beleevers enjoyed the Typicall [Page 39] rest, so did the holy Patriarches and Fathers enjoy the seventh day Sabbaths rest, and kept that rest: for to what purpose else is that first rest mentioned?

5 Genebrad in his Chron. saith that the Hebrewes held that Noah and the rest of the Fathers did keep the Sab­bath, once sanctified by God, and citeth Rabbi Iohai, Pa­ter Rabbi Simeonis, Rabbi Moses, Hadarsan, and Rabbi Salomò; Aben Esra on Exod. 20. is also of this judge­ment.

6 It is most cleare, that God gave to the holy men of God, his Lawes to live by, his Charge, his Commande­ments, his Statutes, and his Lawes, and they observed them: so it is said of Abraham, the prime Patriarch, who also was acquainted therewith, Gen. 26. 5. The godly were followers of good things, walking with God, Gen. 5. 22. and 6. 9. They vexed at the sinfull courses of men, 2 Pet. 2. 8. 9. They preached against their impieties, Iude 14. 15. 1 Pet. 3. 20. and God threatned destruction to the world therefore, Gen. 6. 3, 7. and accordingly did destroy them, Gen. 7. 19. Now if God gave his Lawes, and reproved sinne, and punished sinne; would hee amongst these his Lawes (the particulars whereof are not mentioned) suffer his first institution, his blessed and sanctified seventh day Sabbath, to bee unthought of, and to bee neglected? May wee reasonably think that the godly having re­ceived other Lawes, and observed and kept them (as the Text sayth they did) that they would carelessely omit to observe this institution of the Sabbath, amongst those his Lawes, Statutes, and Commandements?

7 Before any feast mentioned by Gods appointment, Moses, and Aaron, and the Elders of the people, Exod. 3. 18. could speak of a feast to be kept unto the Lord, be­fore Pharaoh, Exod. 5 1. on which they were to offer sa­crifices unto the Lord, verse 3. Now what Festivall day could this bee, but the seventh day Sabbath; for as yet, no other Festivalls were instituted. Therefore how ever it was, that in Egypt perhaps in time of their cruell bondage, and only towards the end of it, they could not observe [Page 40] the Sabbath; this hinders not to apply it to the Sabbath, because Moses spake to Pharaoh in the terme of a Feast and Sacrifice, because it was better understood of Pha­raoh, than if peradventure hee had mentioned the name Sabbath, which they might keep in Egypt, in the dayes of those Kings which knew Ioseph, before the extremity of their bondage.

8 The fourth Commandement, and all words thereto added, telleth us that the Sabbath day was kept holy, be­fore the time that it was written in the Tables of Stone.

First, the prefixed Memento, telleth us so much, that it was before observed, and God would still have it care­fully kept: for the Memento, hath respect unto the time past.

Secondly, the manner of this delivery of this Comman­dement, may perswade us to this; for the other Comman­dements are uttered imperatively, so as they inforce the dutie, as in the fifth Commandement, Honour thy Fa­ther and Mother; the duty charged, is Honour: and in the other Commandements, the sin is forbidden, as, Thou shalt not take my name in vaine, Thou shalt doe no mur­ther; and so of the rest. But now in the fourth Commande­ment, the Lord falleth not upon the maine of the pre­cept, as to say, keep holy the Sabbath day; but the im­perative speech is laid upon the word Remember: saying, Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy; cleane otherwise than in any other of the rest of the precepts; and the reason hereof is, for that hee had before instituted it, and it had been before observed of the Israelites, as in the next reason is clearely proved: Therefore hee sayth not, keep holy the Sabbath as now instituted, but thus, Remember to keep holy the Sabbath, as if hee had said, as it hath been before observed of you, and still to bee kept holy.

Thirdly, all the principall words annexed to the Com­mandement, tell us of no new thing then imposed, but what was well enough known and made use of before: as, first six dayes for labour, they were allowed before [Page 41] Exod. 16. 4. 5. Secondly, the seventh day to be the Sabbath; this also in plain words Moses had taught them, Exod. 16 23. 26. Thirdly, of the Lord their God, which they knew, from Abrahams dayes, Gen. 17. 7. and by Moses in Egypt, Exod. 6. 7. Fourthly, That in it they should not doe any man­ner of work; this they were forewarned of, Exod. 16. 29. and some were reproved for offending, vers. 28. Fiftly, that in six dayes God made heaven and earth, &c. This was evident of old time unto the Fathers, Gen. 24. 3. 7. And lastly, that hee rested the seventh day, blessed and hallowed the Sabbath; Gods owne words of the insti­tution, Gen. 2. 2. 3. So that we see it clear from the fourth Commandement, and the words thereto annexed, that this Law was known & practised before it was given in Horeb.

9 And lastly, to make up all sure; Moses telleth us in plain words, that the seventh day Sabbath was kept, Exod. 16. 30. and that the people rested on the seventh day, which he saith was a Sabbath to the Lord, verse 25. the rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord, verse. 23.

Now this Text being so cleare, that it cannot be de­nied, except one dare say Moses lyed. Some have endea­voured to darken the truth, and to becloud the antiqui­tie of the Sabbath, in the former institution, and use there­of, by being pleased to vent their erroneous conception, and to say (but without any ground of reason) that this Chapter Exod. 16. speaketh of the first institution of the Sabbath.

But for answer hereto, I doe deny that any such in­stitution can here be proved; and to make this cleare, looke into the Text, and observe two things; first, what God spake; secondly, what God did to finde an institu­tion: first God himselfe spake of giving of Manna, also of gathering a certaine rate every day, and on the sixth day twice as much, verse 4. 5. 23. but in all this chapter, God speaks not so much as one word of the seventh day Sabbath, nor doth he say, that hee blessed or sanctified it, nor doth Moses write▪ any such thing of God in this chapter as he speaketh of Gods resting, blessing, and san­ctifying [Page 42] it in Gen. 2. 3. as hee should have done, if any anticipation were there, with relation to this place: se­condly, what God spake in verse 28. is implicitly of the Sabbath; first wrapping it up among his Commande­ments and Lawes given before this time, to them and their Fathers; so farre is he from instituting a Sabbath in this place.

Secondly, he reproveth them for the breach of it, as al­ready commanded before with other his Commande­ments and precepts there mentioned. Now if God spake no words of the Sabbath, but what the people were to doe in six dayes, and especially on the sixth, God pas­sing by the very naming of the seventh day, and where he speaketh of it implicitly, it is only by way of reproofe, to the people for transgressing and breaking of it: How can here be the institution of the Sabbath? seeing God doth not so much as name it, but reproves the breach of it, which implyeth it to have beene before this time, else should he have reproved them for a transgression and a sin, where­of there was no Law.

Next let us see what Gods acts were, whether they will afford an institution. First, hee gave them the Manna vers. 15. but this blessing was only on the six working dayes; what is this to the institution of the Sabbath? tru­ly no more than his six dayes work in the Creation for the institution of the seventh day for a Sabbath. Secondly, he preserved the Manna, gathered on the sixth day in the morning, from breeding of wormes, and from stinking, being kept over night to bee eaten on the seventh day: what is this to the institution of the day? The blessing, was not the blessing of the day, but of the eating of the Manna on the Sabbath day, for which cause God did preserve it, that they might keep the Sabbath before this time blessed and sanctified, Gen. 2. 3.

Thus we see, that neither by any words of God, nor by his deeds, can here bee proved the seventh dayes in­stitution for the Sabbath.

Secondly, let us see what may bee gathered from [Page 43] Moses, for institution of the Sabbath here in this time.

True it is, that hee nameth the seventh day, three or or foure times in this Chapter; which he saith was the Sabbath, but not as an institution; neither could Mo­ses institute the Sabbath: for what God here did not, he could not doe: but he mentioneth here the Sabbath;

1 As a reason why hee approved the peoples act, in gathering on the sixth day two Omers; because the next day the morrow after, was the rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord, Exod. 16. 23. Here is no institution, nor reason alleadged for it, as in Gen. 2. 3. but it is brought as a reason for a thing of another nature, to approve of the collection of a double rate of Manna, on the sixth day.

2 He nameth it againe in verse, 25. but occasioned by the Manna, which was, that they should eat the reserved Manna, for that none was to be found that day in the fields; because it was the Sabbath day, on which they were to rest: So here is a reason, why they should not goe and seek Manna, but to eat what was gathered be­fore, but no institution of the day, but an appointment of the meanes used for to rest on the day formerly in­stituted.

3 Hee mentioneth it againe in verse 26. to the same purpose, to keep them within on the seventh day Sab­bath, because six dayes the Lord would give it them to gather, but on the seventh day Sabbath, there should none be found; which words make no institution, but are an information for the preventing of the breach of the Sabbath.

4 He nameth it in verse 29. upon the Lords reproving them for the breach of the Sabbath, by some going forth to seek Manna contrary to so much fore-warning given by Moses; whereupon Moses dealeth a little more roundly with them, as a man having authority: saying, See, for the Lord hath given you the Sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two dayes; abide yee every man in his place, let no man goe out of his place on the Sab­bath day. In these words Moses first commands every [Page 44] man to abide within, and that none should goe out to seek it on the seventh day. These be the only words of any Com­mand about the Sabbath in this chapter, which doe not in­stitute the day, but serve only to prevent the peoples sinning any more in going out to seek it, as they had done. Secondly, Moses giveth two reasons for his so strict a charge laid upon them, which he would have them to see and consider of, for the better restraining of themselves from the breach of the Sabbath. The first is from Gods grace and favour, that he had given them the Sabbath: And the other is, that he al­lowed them on the sixth day the bread of two dayes. Where out of these words let us observe two things. The first is, that the mentioning of the Sabbath commeth only in still occasionally concerning the Manna, and not of purpose to institute a Sabbath; but wholly in all the foure places, it is spoken of, either of gathering the double rate of Manna, or of the eating the Manna reserved, or of gathering Manna on every of the six dayes, or of tarrying within, and not to goe out to seek it when it was not to be found; and all this to this end, that the Sabbath might be kept more care­fully of the people, as the event plainly sheweth: For upon these considerations about the Manna, the people harkened to Moses, and did rest on the seventh day, verse 30.

The second thing, wherewith I will and may conclude my answer, is, (that which may satisfie any, not wilfully averse from the truth) the change of the tense, in the two reasons: Moses speaking of Gods giving of Manna (because it was at this time given whilst the people were in the wil­dernesse of Zin, Exod. 16. 1.) saith in the present tense, Dat vobis, he giveth you in the sixth day the bread of two dayes: but speaking of the Sabbath, he uttereth the words in the preterperfect tense, Jehovah dedit vobis ipsum Sabbatum: The Lord hath given to you the Sabbath, as that same which was of old, which evidently declareth the Sabbath to have beene before this time, and not now at this present in this place instituted: For if it had beene now at this time given, as the Manna was, Moses would have said, he giveth you the Sabbath, and not, he hath given it.

Having thus answered this place of Exod. 16. yet one thing remaineth to be removed as a great block in the way; which is the silent passing over the observation of the Sab­bath from the Creation till the rayning of Manna: and therefore they are bold to conclude from a meere Negative, that there was no observation of the Sabbath.

Answ. 1. I have proved the institution, Gen. 2. 3. which is enough to prove, that they ought to have observed, which if they did not, was sin in them: but the reverence we owe to those holy men of God, bindeth us to think better of them than so.

2. I have shewed my reasons why wee are to bee perswaded that the Sabbath was kept of them, of more force to confirme this assertion, than such a weak argument from the bare silent passing it over historically, can bee of any validity to refell it.

For as the historicall narration of Moses speaketh nothing of the observation of the day, after the institution of it; so we may finde after it was commanded on Mount Sinai, that no mention is made of any observation of the day in all the book of Joshua, nor in the book of the Judges, nor in Ruth, nor in the first or second of Samuel, nor in the first book of the Kings: shall we therefore conclude, that in all this time, valiant Joshua, the Princes of the people, the wor­thy Judges, holy Samuel, zealous David, and others, did not observe the Sabbath? In all the History of Hester no mention is made of God; will we therefore say hee was not then knowne or worshipped of Mordecai, Hester, and the religious Jewes?

God by his spirit directed the holy Penmen to write so, in such manner, and of such things, as he in his heavenly wisdome thought fittest to make rehearsall of to posterities, and not to embolden men to deny such and such things not to have beene, because the Lord was not pleased to mention them. If we should thus reason, what an ill face of a Church would we imagine to have beene in the world till Moses his dayes.

For the better clearing of this point, and to manifest the [Page 46] absurd and impious reasoning from the silence of Scripture in this sort, I will divide the times from the Creation till Moses, and then let men see the silent passing over of many things, and whether men dare to deny the observation of the Sabbath upon that only very selfe same ground.

1. From the Creation to the fall, how long, is uncertain, the Story is only in two chapters and no more: In this space is not one word of Adams worshipping of God, not a word of any holy duties practised: May we think there­fore he performed no such thing to God? If we be ashamed so to conclude from the silence of the Scripture herein, why dare any deny Adams observation of the Sabbath, upon no other ground? seeing he knew it to be instituted, and had Gods example of resting before him for his imitation?

But yee will perhaps say, that Adam could not keep it, because he fell before the Sabbath day.

Answ. Learned Zanchius is confident to affirme, that Christ took an humane shape, and conferred with Adam, and taught him how to keep the Sabbath to the Lord. And it seemes to me somewhat unlikely that God would suffer Adam to fall the very day of his creation.

First, Adam was made the sixth day, what time is not noted; let it be in the morning, it cannot be then; first be­cause of the things to be done before he fell: 1. All sorts of beasts and foules were brought to him to name them, every severall sort according to their natures, which took up some time. 2. He was cast into a deepe sleepe. 3. A rib was taken out of his side, and thereof the woman was made. 4. The Lord brought her to Adam, and married them, who spake of her, and of the conjunction of man and wife. 5. God put them into Paradise to dresse the Garden, and gave them a Commandement: all which took up some space of time.

Secondly, in respect of the time of the temptation, the Serpents comming into the Garden, then the conference betweene him and Eve, and after betweene Eve and Adam: the temptation was not so suddenly begun and ended, as the shortnesse of the Story may seeme to intimate.

Thirdly, the things done after the fall: 1. A confused shame of face to see themselves naked: 2. Their sowing leaves to cover their nakednesse: 3. Their hiding themselves, which was in the coole of the day. 4. Their examination, and an­swer, and then the sentence after upon all.

Fourthly and lastly, the casting of them forth of Paradise. All which may give us to think, that these things could not well happen upon his day of creation.

2. It is not likely, that Eve would so suddenly straggle from her husbands company, and so immediately to be set upon by the Serpent, as soone as they were in the Garden.

3. They could not conceive of the excellency of their state of perfection, nor of the efficacy of Gods blessed image and likenesse in them, if they had enjoyed no time for the ex­pression thereof: For what time could they have had toge­ther to discerne of each others excellency, to contemplate upon Gods creatures, to behold their glorious habitation, and to praise God for his goodnesse, if they had fallen the same day.

4. The words of Gods approbation of all his works: he saw every thing that he had made, and behold, it was very good, Gen. 1. 31. which approbation he gave of them at the end of the sixth day: For upon the words written by Moses of Gods seeing all things very good, he addeth, and the Evening and the Morning was the sixth day, that is, the day naturall was finished, for so the words are to be understood of every of the other five dayes, verse 5. 8. 13. 19. 23.

Now God speaking in the end of the sixth day so well of all his works, if Adam had fallen on that day, and God had cursed the earth for mans sin, how could it be said, that hee saw every thing good, when through the sin of man, all things on a sudden came to be out of frame.

5. It cannot stand with the beginning of the second chapter of Genesis, that Adam should fall the first sixth day: because, when Moses had mentioned in the other chapter the sixth day consisting of the evening and morning; he begineth with a summary repetition of all Gods works. Gene. 2. 1. as yet without crack or flaw in them: secondly with mention­ing [Page 48] of Gods ending his work which he had made, and not marred again by cursing of it, as yet, Gene. 2. 2. Thirdly Moses telleth us, how God rested on the seventh day (to wit) from all his work which he had made. Now what is resting, but the Lords ceasing to create further any other things, than what he had created, and his pleasureable de­light in the full accomplishment of his works done in those six dayes? And his resting was from his work made; so it was from his creating only, and not from punishing, as his resting should have beene, had man fallen before his rest here spoken of, Gen. 2. 2. Therefore from all these reasons it is very likely, that Adam and Eve fell not on the day of their creation. But now to returne againe to the point.

2 From Adams casting out of Paradise unto the restoring of religion by Seth, Gen. 4. 26. which was the space of 235 yeares, which Story is conteined in one only chap­ter, Gen. 4.

In this space of 235 yeares, there is no mention of Adams personall repentance, of his faith, and love to God; not a word of his praying to God, of his worshipping of him, or of any duty performed by him, unto God, or man; can any or will any conclude hence, that Adam failed in all these? No; why then, upon the same reason, dare any conclude no keeping of the Sabbath by Adam, because it is not re­corded, that he observed it: especially, seeing wee read of Gods resting, and of the institution and making it the Sab­bath for man?

3. From the restoring of religion by Seth, unto the Flood, was 1422 yeares, all which long space of time is historied within two chapters and a halfe in Gen. 5. and 6. to verse 17. of the seventh chapter.

Now in all this time, for so many hundreds of yeares wherein lived many holy men, the sonnes of God mentioned in Gen. 5. yet not one word by Moses set downe of any publick worship, in offering sacrifices, as before; not a word of any holy meeting any where, not a word of any good they did one to another, not a word of any thing worthy note of any of them, or of their children, save of Enoch and [Page 49] Noah: will we hence conclude them defective in all things? no, then why judge we them defective in keeping of the Sabbath?

IV. From the day of the floud, and Noahs entring into the Ark, unto the calling of Abraham out of Ʋr, which is the space of 352. yeers, some say 427. yeers comprehended in part of the seventh Chapter from the seventeenth Verse to the end, and in the 8, 9, 10, 11, foure Chapters, and no more.

In this space nothing is spoken of any Divine praises, of any solemn meetings of them together; can we conclude, that so many holy men mentioned in Chapter 11. of blessed Shems race, did fail therein? if not, why dare we say, they kept not the Sabbath?

V. From Abrahams calling out of Ʋr to Jacobs going down into Egypt, is about 215. yeers, this space is storied in many Chapters from Gen. 12. to 46.

In which space, though Morall duties were performed, and that its said in the generall terms, Gen. 26. 5. that Abra­ham kept the Lords charge, his Commandements, his Sta­tutes, and his Laws, yet the particulars of these are not ex­pressed; And therefore here may we include the observati­on of the Sabbath, and can no more seclude it, then we can other duties observed, which yet are not related to be kept by him in particular: especially if we consider how God includeth the fourth Commandement among them, Exod. 16. 28. as before is declared. If any yet deny it to be kept of Abraham, because it is not nominated, why deny they not as well other things to have been performed by him, seeing they are not by name mentioned?

VI. From Jacobs going into Egypt, to the bringing of them out under Moses into the Wildernesse of Sin, spoken of in Exod. 16. 1. The space was also 215 yeers, for they came to this Wildernesse upon the fifteenth day, of the second moneth, after their departure from Egypt, which was at the full end of the 430. yeers, as God foretold Abraham, Gen. 15.

The story of all this time is comprised in the five last Chapters of Genesis, and in the first sixteen Chapters of Exodus. In which space after Jacobs departure from Canaan not one word of their worshipping of God, of no Altar, no Sacrifice, no holy duties in publike; yet I hope we will not say, that all these things were neglected of them, be­cause not mentioned; if not, then no more may we deny to them the observation of the Sabbath; for now at this time they being in the Wildernesse of Sin, Exod. 16. it is plainly said, they rested upon the seventh day, as an holy rest and Sabbath to the Lord.

Thus have I c [...]early shewed, that their negative Argument from the Scripture is no good reason to deny the observati­on of the Sabbath in all this space of time, except they will deny upon the same ground, so many holy men to have sinfully neglected other necessary duties, also, as is before rehearsed.

But before I conclude, I think a Question fit to be pro­pounded and answered.

Quest. Why was now in Exod. 16. the keeping of the Sabbath so plainly spoken off, and not before?

Answ. 1. Now the people hungring after food for the belly, Exod 16. 3. and the Lord determining that he would raigne Mannab, which they should gather every day by a certrain rate, and on the sixt day twice as much, the reason was, because the seventh day was the Lords Sabbath, on which day the Lord raigned no Mannab, nor would he have any to go forth to seek it, for that it was an holy rest unto the Lord: This was the reason of the mentioning of it, as appeareth by all that which is before delivered out of the Text.

II. Because now they were a people openly separated to God from all other Nations, and an holy people, Deut. 7. 6. Exod. 19. 6. Therefore assoone as he had delivered them, (within six weeks space or thereabouts) after they came from Egypt, he took order for their keeping holy the Sabbath day, as a speciall evidence of their holynesse before [Page 51] God; the breach whereof he reproved as the breach of all his Commandments and Laws, both then, Exod. 16. 28. and afterwards; in so high esteem had God his institution of his Sabbath: and no marvell, because by the breach of it God is much dishonoured, and in the observation of it. The three first Commandments of the first Table are kept in publike view before men; for in observing the Sabbath day, we professe the God of Israel as the first Commandment teacheth, Then in assembling together, and worshipping God, we do what the second Commandment bindeth us to do: and when on that day we contemplate upon the crea­tures, take occasion thereby to praise him, and shew an outward holy behaviour to advance his glory, we do what the third Commandment commandeth us to do: so that the holy observation of the day to the Lord, keepeth up a pub­lick practice of all our duties to every Commandment of the first Table: therefore no marvell it was that God took or­der so soon for the keeping of the Sabbath day.

III. Because God intended not untill this time, to set out any glorious face of his Church historically unto us; but rather other things, happening in the course of times, from the fall, as in the Story doth appear unto this time.

1. From the Fall to the Floud, the ill fruits of Adams fall, and the increase of sin to mans destruction is recorded.

2. From the Floud to Abraham, the planting of the world by people, with their presumptuous sinning, causing them to be scattered over the face of the earth, according to their distinct languages.

3. From Abraham to Israels going into Egypt, God moved Moses to record the carriage of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, as private families (upon which the Church consi­sted) living among idolaters, as pilgrims and strangers, while they were in Canaan, till God brought them into Egypt.

4. From the entrance into Egypt to their mighty delive­rance, God was pleased to instruct Moses to set down how Joseph came into Egypt, his troubles and honour; how by [Page 52] him Israel came into Egypt by Josephs means; the peaceable rest, there till another King arose, and then of their heavie bondage, till God sent Moses to free them.

But now God intending to make glorious his people, and his worship more publickly to be observed of all Israel at one set time weekly, Moses relateth the Lords pleasure concerning the Sabbath, not to have it neglected, but so­lemnely to be kept as an holy rest unto the Lord, according to Gods first institution thereof, Gen. 2. 3.

And thus much for the Patriarchall-Sabbath, before the Law published upon mount Sinai.



By Richard Bernard, Rector of Batcomb.

EXOD. 31. 15.

Six dayes may work be done, but in the Seventh is the Sabbath of rest, holy to the Lord, whosoever doth any work in the Sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death.

LONDON, Printed for Edward Blackmore, and are to be sold, at the signe of the Angel in Pauls Church-yard. 1641.

The Contents.

  • 1. WHy it is called so.
  • 2. Of the Law of the ten Commandments.
  • 3. Of the Naturalitie of the Law.
  • 4. Of the Externallitie or Positivenesse of the Law.
  • 5. Of the Spirituallitie of the Law.
  • 6. Of the Moralitie of the Law.
  • 7. That there are ten Commandments.
  • 8. Of the fourth Commandment, in what words con­tained.
  • 9. Of the meaning of the words of the Commandment.
  • 10. Of the rest upon the Sabbath.
  • 11. Of the day for the rest.
  • 12. Of the words annexed to the Commandment.
  • 13. Of the scope of the words.
  • 14. Of the directorie in the words.
  • 15. That one day in seven must be the Sabbath day.
  • 16. Of the seventh day Sabbath.
  • 17. Of the six dayes work.
  • 18. Of the restriction from work on the seventh day Sabbath.
  • 19. Of works which might be done on the Sabbath.
  • 20. Of the rigorous strictnesse supposed to be put upon the Israelites that day.
  • 21. Of the reason added unto the directorie, with the con­clusion.
  • [Page]22. The arguments to prove it ceremoniall, answered.
  • 23. That the fourth Commandment is no part ceremo­niall.
  • 24. The fourth Commandment is a perpetuall Precept.
  • 25. How much of the Mosaicall Sabbath is in the Com­mandment to be kept holy.
  • 26. How the day was kept.
  • 27. Of Judaizing and true understanding thereof.


SECTION. I. Why it is called so.

I Call the Sabbath here Mosaicall, not as any new Sabbath from the former, being the same with the Patriarchall Sabbath, farther now ratified and established.

Nor do I so name it, as if Moses were the institutor of it, or no publisher of it. But because God, the Lord of the Sabbath did give this Commandement of the Sabbath, with the rest of his divine precepts, when he had ordained Moses the Ruler over his people Israel under him: and for that he delivered to Moses the two Tables in which the Commandements were written, to deliver them unto the people.

SECTION. II. Of the Law of the ten Commandements.

THe Law of which the precept of the Sabbath is part, is said by the Apostle to be holy and spirituall, Rom. 7. 12, 14. and if that Commandement Thou shalt not lust, be boly, just, and good, so is the whole Law, and every Com­mandement thereof. His encomiis legem integram or [...]at Apo­stolus, saith Paroeus.

This whole Law hath in it Naturalitie, Positivenesse, Spiritualitie and Moralitie.

SECTION. III. Of the Naturalitie of the Law.

1. THe Naturalitie of the Law is so much thereof, as by the principles of Divinitie in Nature, written in all mens hearts, Rom. 2. 14, 15. and furthered by the common light of Christ, Joh. 1. 9. may be known and assen­ted unto. And this knowledge is more or lesse, as Naturall men partake of that naturall light: for from hence ariseth the difference in naturall men, and not from the common principles, which be one and the same in all men.

From this Naturalitie in the Law, it may be called the Law of Nature, not so as if it were the work of Nature, but for that its in every mans nature, God writing it in every mans heart, Rom. 2. 15. since the fall, at the time of the souls infusion into the body, as God did to Adam before his fall.

This Naturalitie of the Law consists in generalls, and cannot reach to true Specialities, without some further help and better direction, yet by deductions it may go far towards the Specialities.

This serves to make all men inexcusable, Rom. 1. 20.

SECTION. IV. Of the Externalitie or Positivenesse of the Law.

THe Externalitie or Positivenesse of this Law is the openly making known of Gods Will in the Comman­dements given by word of mouth, and after written in the two Tables of Stone.

This Externalitie of precepts, the Lord added for his Church, unto those generall rules, and principles in nature, and to that common light in all men.

For the Lord never suffered his Church to be only di­rected by that light in nature, never since Adams fall, who having it in perfection, could not guide himself to it.

And therefore we read, before Moses days, of Gods Word, of his speaking to Adam, Noah, and to Abraham, viva Voce, giving his charge, Commandements, Statutes, and Laws, of which the Lord maketh mention to Isaac tel­ling him, that in keeping these Abraham obeyed his voyce, Gen. 26. 5.

This Positivenesse or Externalitie is to guide those Ge­neralities, unto more Specialities, which naturall men could never rightly discover without this help of Gods externall precepts.

This consists in the Letter, and written words of the Law in the Commandements, and the farther meaning there­of is to be learned from other Scriptures, to know what is contained in the short precepts.

This Externalitie properly belongeth to the outward man, for the ordering of it.

And this Externalltie may be dispensed with▪ in some precepts, though the naturalitie cannot: for this is written in every mans heart, but so is not this Externalitie.

We see Gods dispensation in some Specialities, as Gods allowing Cain to marry with his Sister: also Polygamie in the Patriarches: In Gods commanding Abraham to kill his [Page 60] sonne: In the Magistrate commanded to kill the offender: Deut. 13. 9. so in warre to kill, Numb. 31. 17. In his allow­ing of the Israelits to rob and spoile the Egyptians, Exod. 3. 22. And what is it but a dispensation, when God raiseth up some to spoile other? And that children may leave their parents in case of Marriage, Gen. 2. 24. and Matth. 19. 5. and that variance may be between them for the Gospel sake? Matth. 10. 35. Luk. 14. 26.

The Commandements of this Law in respect of the meer Externalitie, manifested in Specialities may be called Posi­tive laws, as superadditaments for Specialities of those generals: as for example, Naturalitie teacheth me a God: but the Positivenesse telleth me that I must have only the God of Israel for my god: Nature teacheth to worship God, but the Positive precept forbids to make any graven image or likenesse thereby, to worship him, but to worship in spirit and in truth: Nature teacheth to honour God, the Positive Commandement forbids the taking of Gods name in vaine: Nature It teacheth also that for the proportion of this time, the creature must depend and waite upon his Creator: who alone can make the work of six dayes serve to keep us seven. By light of nature tis no way fit the ser­vant should prescribe unto his Master, but rather the Master unto his servant; especially con­sidering the ground of that distinction of servi a libere na­tura. teacheth to have a time to serve God solemnly, the Positive precept commandeth a Sabbath day, and directeth us to the keeping of a seventh day Sabbath.

SECTION. V. Of the Spirituality of the Law.

THe Spirituality of the Law is the spirituall extension of every precept of the Law beyond all that which the naturality reacheth unto, and above the speciality of the Letter of the Commandements in the externalitie thereof.

I call it the Spiritualitie of the Law, for that this know­ledge is only attained by the spirits speciall illumination, and grace. And consists not in the only bare knowledge of the minde touching the extension, but also in the hearts affection, drawn on along with the utmost extent of the understanding, to love what is commanded, to hate what is [Page 61] forbidden, to joy in obedience, to sorrow for failings, and falls, fearing ever to offend.

This Spirituality is that which is promised of God in his Covenant of Grace, made with his People, to be written in the minde and heart, Jer. 31. 33. Heb. 8. 10.

This is the reparation of that blessed image of God, con­sisting in wisedome, holinesse, righteousnesse, and upright­nesse, Col. 3. 10. Eph. 4. 24. Eccles. 7. 29.

The Naturality is common to all, in and out of the Church.

The Externality belongeth to those in the Church, and in this respect may the Law be said to be given only to the Israelits.

This all the outward children of the Church may attain unto, and others out of the Church by conversing with and coming among them, or these going unto them, or getting some of the wri [...]ngs of the Church; For its not possible, that the learned Heathen got all their knowledge by the Naturality in them, and their common light, but by the accession of the helps from the Church.

Therefore to gather, that whatsoever we finde in their writing concerning God, and the things appertaining to him, to be all from their meer light in nature, will not hold for a sound conclusion.

This Spirituality is proper only to the Elect; The first is by inscription, but bettred by diligent improvement of those principles and helps from the Church: The second is by information, and bettered by good education, and in­struction publikely and privately in the Church. The third is by the speciall inspiration of Gods holy Spirit in a con­stant use of the means, and in the grace of Self-deniall which every one must come with that will be a true obedi­ent observer of the Law.

SECTION. VI. Of the Morality of the Law.

THe Moralitie of the Law properly speaking, and di­stinctly to common understanding is not the Naturali­tie, nor perpetuity of the Law, as if these three indistinctly were all one. But the Moralitie of the Law is the Laws, power, binding the whole man outwardly to the good be­haviour in all good manners concerning holinesse towards God, and righteousnesse towards man, according to the Naturalitie, Externality, and Spiritualitie of the Law.

And from this consideration truely, properly, distinctly, and clearly it is, and may be called the Morall Law; the brief Epitome of Christian Ethick, Oeconomick, Politicks, and Ecclesiasticks, and of whatsoever du [...] we owe to God or man.

SECTION. VII. That there are ten Commandements.

HAving thus prefaced these necessaria praecognita, I come to the fourth Commandement for the right under­standing whereof many things are to be made clear.

First that there are ten Commandements of the Law: I would not speak of this, but that one hath pleased to call this number vulgar Idols.

I. Its the number which Moses recordeth, Exod. 34. 28. Deut. 4. 13. and holdeth Deut. 10. 4. and saith, God added no more, Deut. 5. 22. more then ten there was not, nor fewer may we make them, least we be guilty of the curse, and break the Commandement, Deut. 4. 2. of adding to, and taking from Deut. 12. 32.

II. Its commonly called the Decalogue by the most lear­ned Divines.

[Page 63] III. Our Church in the Catechi [...]me would have children to be taught that there are ten Commandements.

IV. Saint Augustine in Epist. 118. cap. 12. speaks of ten Commandements.

V. The Papists though they rob God of one sacriledgi­ously, yet do not diminish his number of ten.

VI. The number hath thus been reckoned for three thousand and two hundred of years and more, and never either denyed, or lightly disregarded, till the spirit of too much boldnesse in some hath dared without shame to speak contemptuously of the number.

SECTION. VIII. Of the fourth Commandement in what words contained.

THis fourth Commandement is and hath been hitherto accounted one of them, and is a Commandement in forme of speech so delivered unto us.

But here we are carefully to consider which is the Com­mandement, and in what words its comprehended.

The mistake herein hath occasioned all the contention concerning the perpetuity of the Commandement.

The Commandement is contained only in these words: Remember thou the Sabbath day to keep it holy.

I. Moses in the repetition of the Law, Deut. 5. 12. shew­eth us this plainly, who upon the words of the Commande­ment, Keep the Sabbath day to sanctifie it, addeth immedi­ately these words, as the Lord thy God hath commanded thee, between the precept and the next words following, Sixe days shalt thou labour, &c. And so evidently telleth us which be the words of the Commandement, and thereto holdeth our thoughts: so we may not take any of the following words to be any part of the substance of the Commande­ment.

II. The learned have set the Commandement apart by it self in a distinct Verse: Exo. 20. 8. from the words following.

[Page 64] III. The Lord himself in the promulgation of the Law, in every other of the Commandements, where reasons be added, maketh a difference between the Commandement, and the reasons annexed, as we may see in the second, third, and fifth, and therefore so here.

IV. Every reasonable mans understanding giveth him to know a difference between a Commandement, and that which, for some cause, is annexed thereto, as here we may clearly see it.

SECTION. IX. Of the meaning of the words of the Commandement.

THus knowing the Commandement it is fit to under­stand the meaning.

Remember (that is) be mindefull of it, so, that thou for­get it not, call it to minde, think upon it, and consider the Sabbath as a day to be observed, and kept, and therefore Moses putteth keep for Remember. Deut. 5. 12.

The Sabbath day (that is) the rest day: for Sabbath sig­nifieth cessation and rest, taken from Gods rest, Gen. 2. 2. Moses calleth it the Sabbath of rest, Exod. 31. 15. Sabbatum cessationis: and this rest is Requies sancta, Exod. 31. 15. an holy Sabbath, Exod. 16. 23. Nebe. 9. 14. and the day is an holy day, Exod. 35. 2. But not so the rest, nor day, in them­selves; but a rest unto Lord, Exod. 16. 23. 25. and 35. 2. holy to the Lord, Exod. 31. 15. Sanctificata, as some translation hath it, set apart and separated to the service of God, as a sanctified rest and day, which the Lord calleth his holy day, Isai. 58. 31.

To keep it holy: This is the end of remembring the Sab­bath day, to sanctifie it (that is) as God did set it apart, and ordained it for holy uses, and his wo [...]ship, so we are to count it the Lords, seperating it from other days, and be­stowing the rest, and the day of rest, upon the Lord, for that end and use, for which he hath made the rest and the day holy: This is to keep it holy.

From the Commandement thus understood, we may ob­serve.

  • 1. That a Sabbath, a rest, is imposed upon us, Exod. 23. 12.
  • 2. That God hath appointed a day for this rest.
  • 3. That both the rest and day, are holy, sanctified for holy uses to the Lord.
  • 4. That we are to keep holy the rest day, or the day of rest, both the rest, and the day.

SECTION. X. Of the rest upon the Sabbath.

THE Commandement chargeth us with rest, with this must we begin and keep the day, without this no Sab­bath day: It hath it denomination from rest: The day for the holy use of the rest, is said to be blessed: Exod. 20. 11. And from Gods resting he is said to blesse and sanctifie it, Gen. 2. 3. This rest is principally mentioned; the day is called the rest of the holy Sabbath, The rest of the holy rest, Exod. 16. 23. the Sabbath of rest, Exod. 31. 15. Therefore this is the first thing, in the first place to be observed, in the keeping of the day holy unto the Lord, which is, by making our rest holy to him, by imploying our rest holily: For the day is kept for the rest sake, by Gods own example, and be­cause of the holy use of the rest upon that day, wherein we do rest, and not for the days sake, for without the rest we could not keep the day; nor would God have com­manded the day, but for that he rested and made the rest holy for holy uses on that day. The Consideration of this would cut off much prophanesse and make us better ob­servers of the day unto the Lord.

SECTION. XI. Of the day for the rest.

THe Lord having imposed rest upon us, in the next place he enjoyneth us a day for the rest: Time is necessary [Page 66] for all things, and without time we cannot rest: Nature and experience teacheth this.

This time allotted by God is a day, but in the Comman­dement the day is not determinately set down, it pitcheth upon no certain set day; But the Commandement is, Re­member the Sabbath day (to wit) what day soever, to keep it holy, So the holy observation of the day is the substance of the comet. This generality is agreeable to the Naturalitie of the Law.

And thus the Lord delivered the Commandement.

1. To lay down in it the naturality of the Law, aswell as in the rest of the Commandements.

2. And so to hold up the perpetuity of it, with all the other precepts.

3. To teach that no one certain set day is of the very sub­stance of the Commandement: Therefore is it propounded indifinitly without limitation.

4. To inform us that the seventh day from the Creation, (as Bishop Andrews doth hold in his Catechiticall doctrine) is not of the substance of the Commandement.

5. This was for an admittance of the Changeablenesse of the day; For this Commandement being affirmative, and propounded in generall termes maketh it applicative to this, or that day, To this, while it remaineth, and to that which may come in the roome of it, when this is changed, and taken away: as thus.

Honour the King (to wit) whosoever is King. If Saul be See this Simile in the next Treatise more at large. King, honour him, when he is dead, and David be King honour him: So is it in this Commandement, Keep holy the Sabbath day, while the seventh day from the Creation is the Sabbath, keep it holy: if it be changed, and the first day of the week be the Sabbath, then keep it holy: God foreseeing it necessary that the seventh day from the Creation was to be changed, he propounded the Law so, as to make the day alterable, as being for the time, by way of application be­longing unto the Commandement, but not of the substance, no more then S [...]ul was of the substance of this Commande­ment, Honour the King.

If this had been, or were well pondered, the Controversie of the Sabbath had been prevented, and should cease [...]ow to trouble the Church.

SECTION XII. Of the words annexed to the Commandement.

WHen God gave this his Commandement, he himself annexed words unto the Commandement, purpose­ly to guide his people in the right understanding of this Pre­cept, and to binde them by reasons to the obedience thereof, unto the worlds end.

To all the Commandements God made a Preface, to en­force obedience to all of them, even from his Covenant of Grace, made with Abraham to be his God, and the God of his seed after him, Gen. 17. 7. calling himself, The Lord their God, in giving his Law, and remembring them of that their great deliverance, which he had promised also unto Abra­ham, Gen. 15. 13, 14.

To the second, third, and fifth Commandements, he ad­ded reasons, all which the learned take to be for the ratifica­tion of the Commandements, and to urge us to keep them, and so do interpret the words accordingly.

The words of God knit to this Commandement, have, no doubt, been added for the like purpose, even to be a Confirmation, and an establishment of the Precept, and the perpetuity thereof, and to move us to keep it.

Yet neverthelesse of late, divers have endeavoured to fish out of the words, matter to change the nature of the Commandement, from Morall (as they speak) to Ceremo­niall, and to take away so the perpetuity of the Comman­dement, and there withall mens hearts, and consciences from affecting and obeying it, as being no Commandement now obliging any Christian, and so do they rob God of one of his Commandements sacrilegiously.

But the words are so to be interpreted (according to Gods intention) as may uphold the nature and perpetuity of the Precept, as the words annexed to the other Comman­dements do very forcibly, as also to binde us unto a carefull keeping of the Precept, as they do very effectually, and do meet with all that which our corrupt nature may perversly object against our obedience thereunto.

In the words we are to note, 1. The Scope of all the words, 2. The Matter; which is,

1. A Directory guiding to the observation of the Com­mandement in Gods allowing of us sixe dayes, and the reser­ving of the Seventh to himself.

2. A reason of his thus approportionating time between him and us for labour and rest.

3. A Conclusion in the last words, upon which this fourth Commandement is raised: As if God had said, I have from the beginning blessed and hallowed the Sabbath day, there­fore I do command them to remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy: Thus inforcing the Commandement from the prime institution: Note it well; So as the Commandement is a binding Law from the first institution, for the Sabbaths more solemn observation for ever.

SECTION XIII. Of the scope of the words.

THe scope and use of the words, is to take man from his own bottome: For after the Lords Memento, before the Commandement, to forget oblivion and forgetfulnesse of it, through worldly distractions; He closely answereth, and meeteth with mans corruption, which might hinder him, in submitting to this Commandement.

If any man should be unwilling to give God a day, he sheweth his bounty in giving us fix, for fear of repining.

If any man shall think six dayes not enough for his world­ly [Page 69] affairs, the Lord prescribeth a means, which is labour, by which he may finish all that he hath to do, if he loyter not, nor busie himself in other mens matters.

If any man should undervalue the seventh day, as of mans devising, God, to prevent this contempt, here challengeth it to himself, and presenteth himself in his Soveraign autho­rity over us, saying, it is the This is re­markably of great force to direct us aright in our Chri­stian Sabbath. For the day of the Lords rest, must be the day of our rest. Now the day of the Lords rest may be ei­ther the day of the Lord our Creators rest, or the day of the Lord, our Redeemers rest. Sabbath of the Lord thy God.

If any man should suppose that he might deferre off to the Sabbath day some of his week dayes works, the Lord doth inhibite him from doing any such manner of work, for fear of incroaching upon his Sabbath.

If any man should claim any exemption for himself, or a­ny under him, God cometh with his charge upon parents, and masters, upon children, and upon strangers, for fear of any misapplying it onely to some▪ or a conceit of any dispen­sation for other some.

If any man should ask an example of imitation, and per­haps presume to neglect it, because great men little regard it: God hath given us his own example, both for labour on Sixe dayes, and rest on the Seventh day.

If any man should doubt of any good hereby, and en­quire and aske what good and benefit, he might reap by the observation of this day, more than of any other? The Lord telleth him that he hath blessed the day for him.

And lastly, if any man should leave his worldly busi­nesse, and might now follow his vain pleasures: The Lord telleth him that he hath sanctified it to holy uses. Thus God fortifieth his Commandement, and wisely meeteth with mans corruptions, to keep us in a carefull observation of this Commandement.

SECTION XIV. Of the Directory in the words.

THe words are to be a perpetual direction, in what space of time, and what day in that space we are to take for the Sabbath day: For the words of the Commandement being generall, and not appropriated to any particular day, or speciality of time; God would not have his people, either the Israelites then, or the Israel of God in any age, to be ig­norant of the time or day, but to be able certainly to deter­mine, and to be resolved of the day, without any doubtfull disputation concerning the same; as all might, and may, if we will use this Directory for our guide herein: I say, its a Directory, for its not brought as a reason of the Comman­dement, because here is no such connexion of the words to the Commandement, with a For, as the reasons are in the two other Commandements; but here the Lord, without any such connexive word, presently saith, Six dayes shalt thou labour, &c. as if he had said, I will direct thee, lest thou mistake the generality of the Precept in application, how thou must know in what space of time, and on what day in that space, thou maist keep my Sabbath.

SECTION XV. That one day in Seven must be the Sabbath day.

FOr this number God exceedeth not here, first mentio­ning Sixe, and then a Seventh day, and no more: So as within this time limited, is the Sabbath day.

In the beginning of time God made the mensuration of all time to be onely Seven dayes, Gen. 1. 31, & 2. 2, which was afterwards called a week, Gen. 29. 28.

The Week then consisting of seven dayes must be the compasse in which to finde the Sabbath.

The first Sabbath was within a week, to which the words of God here hath reference.

Whether nature doth teach to consecrate one day of se­ven to God as Z [...]nch▪ in [...]tum praeceptum holdeth is not here to be disputed: Its enough that we have Gods exam­ple from the beginning, and here his Word, for a seventh day.

The practice of Gods Church is grounded hereon, which from time to time, from age to age, thousand of yeers have observed one day in a week for the Sabbath.

One Master Dowe saith in his discourse of the Sabbath, that many grave and judicious Divines, both ancient and modern judge the institution of one day in seven to be per­petuall: For this, he, insteed of all, citeth Chrysostome on Gen. 2. 3. and Master Hooker in his Eccl. Pol. pag. 379. Who saith Gods immutable Law exacteth this of us as a duty for ever.

Reason may leade to think that God would not here mention only so many dayes, and no more, upon the giving of the Commandement, if it were not for this end.

Gods will and Commandement saith our Homily of pray­er, was to have a standing day in the week, for people to come together.

Its very reasonable to give God one day of seven.

1. Because God in his wisedome chose his day within that compasse.

2. That this his choice is most fit to be imitated: He knew that a day in this space was most necessary for us to observe.

3. For that a week is the first and principall space of time, and all times of moneths and yeers, are but the revo­lution of a week, from the worlds beginning. For this see Doctor Rivet in his dissertation, De origine Sabbati: which being so, what reasonable man will deny to give God his day within this space, the first, the chief, and the shortest space of all other times, and that which is the fittest: For [Page 72] that the space of a week between Sabbath and Sabbath is not too farre a sunder to make us forget our dutie, nor yet the return too quick to hinder man in his labour, for the necessaries of his life and state, saith Master Dow.

SECTION. XVI. Of the seventh day Sabbath.

AS we see it must be one day in the week so we by the Lord are directed to the seventh day in the week.

1. By God his free donation of six dayes to us, for to labour in, and to do all that we have to do: our common and ordinary businesses must be all done, and ended in this space: which space he presently after the Commandement allotteth unto us. He first telleth us, what and how many dayes in the week are ours, before he tels us which is the day that is his: 1. That so we might learn where to begin to finde out the Sabbath. 2. By appropriating unto him­self the seventh day for Sabbath: The seventh day is the Sab­bath of the Lord thy God.

This seventh day here spoken of is not that one indivi­duall singular seventh day of the Creation on which God rested, but a seventh day after the six dayes given to us: For.

2. As the six dayes allowed us, are not the very six dayes in which God created the world, which were gone and past, but only six dayes in likenesse and revolution, no more is this the self same seventh day, but another in likenesse by revolution. So it is as if he had said I allow the six dayes together for your labour in the week, be those six dayes, what dayes soever begon and reckoned together; But the seventh day following those six dayes is mine, It is the Sab­bath of the Lord thy God.

2. That first seventh day, and the first six dayes mentio­ned in the first and second chapters of Genesis, are understood [Page 73] by God in the words following as a reason added to this di­rection of God, why he giveth us for ever six dayes, and reserveth the seventh day alwayes for himself; because he wrought those six dayes, and rested that seventh day, which words of God are not the reason of the Commandement, but of his giving us six dayes, and his reserving to himself the seventh day.

3. Gods conclusion concerning the fourth Commande­ment helpeth us in this: For in the end he turneth his speech unto the very words of the Commandement: saying, Where­fore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it, He saith not, that seventh day, but the Sabbath day, (that is) the rest of that first Seventh, as a Sabbath for ever, fall it upon another seventh day, whatsoever it be.

The seventh day therefore is ever the Sabbath day.

1. By Gods irrevocable donation of six dayes unto us.

2. By our acceptation of so many dayes in the week to our selves, from all times unto this day: If from Gods words in this direction here we dare without doubt or scruple take our six dayes, are we not then tyed to give him the seventh day by the like authority, who reserved to himself at the same time, when he gave us our six that we should afford him the seventh?

3. By Gods proposing his own example, as a perpetuall pattern to be followed of us, in his six dayes labour, and in his seventh dayes rest; For saith (that ever honoured Bishop Lakes) what time God himself took for his work, and for his rest, the same did he assign to men, and made his pattern a perpetuall Law: In his Thesis the 8.

4. For that the seventh part of time God did chuse to himself before before fall: and so Gods ordinance is ever­lasting as the world, a portion of time eternall, as the same reverend Father affirmeth in his 25 Thesis and 32. See also for this very fully Master Hooker, in his fifth Book of Eccles. Pol. Sect. 70.

5. Because if a man had stood in his full perfection, not only our first parents, but all his posterity, had observed the [Page 74] first seventh day: But sin (not any Ceremony) made that day alterable saith the same Father, as it now is altered up­on the recreation of all things by Christ; But yet is still the same portion of time kept, a seventh day in the week.

This alterablenesse of that seventh day, through sin, is a reason why God, in giving the fourth Commandement de­livered as (I have said) the same in such a generall manner.

SECTION. XVII. Of the fix dayes work:

THese six dayes are called working dayes, Ezek 46. 1. in them men are to labour, which labour is to be im­ployed in doing work; and it must be all, and it must be thy work, so labouring to do all that thou hast to do, that is, which by thy profession, Art, trade, and calling belong­eth unto thee to labour in and to do.

The words are a permission put only by a concession: in six dayes may work be done, Exod. 31. 15. and not precep­tive, but as they have respect to the Sabbath day; for the better observing of it, when we neglect not our businesse on the six dayes, nor deferre any thing thereof unto the seventh day.

For the Lord in the first Table commandeth mans duty to himself, and how to expresse his love to him; which is the sum of the first Table, Matth. 22, 37. and not what man should do for his corporall and outward estate, for that be­longeth to the second Table.

Therefore in these words is a preparation for the Sabbath, and a prevention for hindering our spirituall rest, and also our bodily toyle for our selves, in and about our ordinary calling, when the day of rest is come.

Yet here we are not so tyed to labour in these dayes, but that God must have herein religious duties performed to him of every one privately, Psal. 55. 17. Dan. 6. 10. 13. and [Page 75] some part of the day to his service publikly, if he appoint it, as under Moses he did a dayly worship and offering of Sacrifices morning and evening, yea he may take a whole day, as once in a moneth, once in a yeer, as he ordained Festivalls in Israel: and when he calleth for publike Fast­ing by his judgements, Joel 2. 15. or for publike thanksgi­ving by some singular mercies, we are to set some time apart for the same, as the Jews did. Ester 9. 19, 22.

SECTION. XVIII. Of the Restriction from work on the Seventh day Sabbath.

IN the six dayes we are to do all that we have to do, but on the Sabbath day, neither we our selves, nor any under our power to restrain them, nor our Cattell, are to do any manner of work.

These words being here to be taken as a rule of direction for ever touching the Sabbath: They must so be understood as may stand with the perpetuity of the Commandement for holy rest, and sanctification of the day in holy duties.

The words (we must know) are no Commandement, no more then the former words, Six dayes shalt thou labour: The Lord useth not to adde It was fit, if nor necessary, not only to prescribe the portion of time to be set apart for Gods ser­vice, but also the particulari­ty of the day, or not to leav [...] that to the [...] of man. precepts to his precepts, for obser­vation of them; If they were a precept, it should be nega­tive and so binde from all works for ever: But we finde that albeit some works were forbidden, yet God allowed divers works to be done on the Sabbath day.

The words therefore are only a restriction from some works, but not a negative forbidding of every work with­out exception.

The works from which we are here restrained this day, are such works, as upon other dayes we may do (and not the work of sin, which never ought to be done) such are servile mechanick works of our ordinary profession, trade, occupation, and calling, lawfully to be done in the other six dayes, which thus I prove.

[Page 76] 1. This restriction is from the liberty of our labour, and the doing of all we have to do in the allowed six dayes, Six dayes shalt thou labour, and do all thy work, then presently followeth the restraint, But the Seventh day is the Sabbath, in it no manner of work (to wit) of the nature of the former Six dayes work.

2. Because here is mention of men and maid-servants, and cattell, which commonly are set about such works.

3. For that God propounds his pattern for resting on his Seventh day from his work of his Creation in the severall Sixe dayes.

4. Other Scriptures do strengthen this Exposition, as a restriction from such kinde of weeks work on those work­ing dayes.

In Exod. 34. 21. there Earing time, and Harvest is men­tioned, in which time, about such things, men are not to la­bour on the Sabbath day.

As the work about Husbandry is restrained, so buying and selling of Corne, yea, thoughts and speeches about the same, were forbidden, Amos 8. 5. buying and selling of wares, and of Victuals, Neh. 10. 31. & 13. 16, 17, 18. Carrying of burthens, and doing any such work on the Sabbath, Jer. 17. 21, 22, 24, 27.

All which Husbandry, buying and selling, carrying of burthens, Nebemiah sharply reproved, and called it the pro­phaning of the Sabbath, Neb. 13. 15, 16, 18, 19. These be the works from which they were restrained on the Sabbath day.

But the Prophet Esay concerning the Spirituality of the Commandement goeth further, and telleth them that they were to call the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, ho­norable, and to turn away their feet from the Sabbath: this he expoundeth to be, the not doing of our own pleasure on the Lords holy day; which he sets forth in three things. 1. In not doing our own wayes, 2. In not finding our own plea­sures: 3. In not speaking our own words: Then the Prophet telleth us, that this is to honour God, and that herein we shew, that we delight our selves in the Lord, Esay 58. 13, 14.

Lastly, they were restrained to hold themselves from all that which is,

1. Against the Naturality of the Law, as not to keep the day to the Lord, but to travell the whole day, work the whole day, or play the whole day.

2. Against the Externality, which is in outward holy rest, and sanctity, as to lie lazily at home sleeping, to go to Church unprepared, Eccl. 5. 1. as men go to any other place.

3. Against the Spirituality, delighting in vanity, and not in the Lord that day.

4. Against Morality, when men carry not themselves in a decent, seemly behaviour, becoming holinesse, but rudely either in, or out of the Assemblies.

SECTION XIX. Of the works which might be done on the Sabbath.

NOw lest any should gather from all afore delivered, that not only servile works are restrained, as in Lev. 23. 7, 8, 21, 35, 36. Numb. 28. 25. & 29. 1. but also all other works from Exod. 20. 10. and that upon pain of death, Exod. 31. 14, 15. & 35. 2. Lev. 23. 3. we are to know what works for all this were allowed to be done on the Sabbath day.

1. Works of Piety, commanded to be done on the Sab­bath: which be not our works, but Divine, not humane, as reading and preaching the Word, Act. 15. 21. & 13. the kil­ling of Beasts for Sacrifice, and what work soever was in and about Gods worship and service, Numb. 28. 9, 10. 1 Chr. 23. 31. 2 Chron. 8. 13. the ordering the Lamps, Lev. 24. 3. and putting new bread before the Lord, Lev. 24. 8. 1 Chron. 9. 32. 2 Chron. 2. 4. for as the Jews themselves spake, in the Temple there was no Sabbath: for that the rest on that day gave place to the labour in and about Gods service there: see Fran. Lucas, on Matth. 12. 5. So to Circumcise an In­fant, Joh. 7. 23. when the eighth day fell on the Sabbath.

2. Work or labour, tending to piety and Gods wor­ship: [Page 78] as to blow a Trumpet, Num. 10. 2, 10. for the assembly, as we do ring a Bel. To travell to the Prophet, 1 Kin. 4. 23. Psa. 84. 6, 7. thence was a Sabbath dayes journey, Act. 1. 12. about two miles, fifteen Furlongs, compare these three texts together, this in Act. 1. 12. with Luk. 24. 50. and Job. 11. 18. To go in and out on the Sabbath about the service of the Temple, 2 King. 11. 5, 7, 9. To stand watchmen in time of need by command of authority, to prevent in others the prophaning of the Sabbath, Neb. 13. 22.

III. Works of preservation from Gods own example, Exod. 16. who albeit he rested the seventh day from his works of crea­tion, yet not from his work of preservation of all that which he had made. So although he would not rain Mannah, on the Sabbath day, yet would he preserve it from worms, and from stinking on the Sabbath.

Likewise may we do the works of preservation, which are called the works of Necessity, on this day. But this ne­cessitie must have warrant from the affirmative part of some Commandement of the second Table, requiring this of us, and not what we think, or make a matter of necessity: as for instance;

The fifth Commandement bindeth us to obey authoritie: Now if we be commanded by supream power, to stand watchman on this day, we are to do it, Neb. 13. 22. So may we stand armed for the Kings safety, 2 Kin. 11. 5, 6, 7. 2 Chro. 23. 4, 5, 8. and for our Countrey: 1 Kin. 20. 29. Yea, up­on command we may beseidge and assault the Citie of an enemy, John 6. 8, 16, 20. Also an offender may be attached, be brought before authority, and the Magistrate on this day may send him to the Goale, Num. 15. 34. Its thought that Pharaoh sent the Israelites out of Egypt on the Sabbath day: see Ainsw. on Deut. 5. 14.

The sixt Commandement chargeth me with the keeping of mine own life, and the life of mine neighbour: By a necessity of this Commandement its lawfull;

1. To dresse food for us, as our Saviour warranted his Disciples in rubbing ears of Corne to eat them, Matth. 12. [Page 79] 1, 2, 3, 4, 7. And this is not only in necessitie of meer hun­ger, but for necessity of state, and dependance of many to be fed, Neh. 5. 18. Here is spoken of daily provision, Vno­quoque die, per singulos dies.

2. To seek the Physitian for help, and for the Physitian to prepare his Physick, Luk. 13. 14, 15. Joh. 9. 6, 11, 14. Mat. 12. 10. and to cure diseases, Joh. 5. 3, 5, 9. Luk. 13. 12, 13. & 14. 3, 4. & 6. 10.

3. To fly for safety of life, 1 K. 19. 3. 8.

4. To fight for our lives if need require, 1 Macha. 2. 41.

5. To save the life of another, Luk. 6. 9. These works and the like may we do by warrant of the Sixt Commandement on this day.

The Seventh Commandement requireth Chastity, and comely Decency. Therefore upon necessity of this Comman­dement, it is needfull to put on rayment for common hone­sty, to hide our nakednesse, and decently to clothe our selves, as all ever have done, on this day, so to wash and be clean, to comb the head, brush thy garments, and the like.

The Eighth Commandement is in the affirmative part, that we preserve our own and our neighbours estate: Its hence lawfull; to fodder and water Cattell, Luk. 13. 15. To pull a Beast out of the pit, Luk. 14. 5. To take up that which is our own, if it be without and abroad, to carry it home, Joh. 5. 8, 9, 11. To quench an house on fire, and o­ther things of the like nature: for in all these cases and such like, the Sabbath was made for man, so it giveth place, and admits of such works warr [...]nted by the Commandements of the second Table.

IV. We may do works of Charity and Mercy, and that which is good on the Sabbath day, Luk. 6. 9. Such were all the Cures which Christ wrought on the Sabbath day: which albeit they might have been done upon another day, yet some coming to him to be healed, other occasionally be held of him with the eye of pity, he healed and cured them.

V. And lastly, besides all these works of Piety, and tend­ing [Page 80] to Piety, of necessity and charity, there be deeds of in­differency lawfull, as these;

To walk in the fields, as Christ with his Apostles, and others did, Mat. 12. 1.

To make a Feast, and ye invite Guests to go unto it, Luk. 14. 1.

Thus may we see from authority of holy Scripture, and warrant from Christ, the Lord of the Sabbath, Mat. 12. 8. what was lawfull to be done on the Jewish Sabbath day; So that they had as much liberty, as we have, if the Jews of later times had not mistaken it, and from former prophana­tion of the Sabbath, both before the Captivity, Eze. 20. 12. 16. & 22. 8. 26. &. 23. 38. and after, Neh. 13. 13. had not fal­len to their Jewish and foolish superstition condemned by Christ.

SECTION. XX. Of the rigorous strictnesse supposed to be put upon the Israelites that day.

THat here we may not be deceived,

1. We are not to regard the writings of the Jewish Rabbies of later times, infected with their own superstition, upon mistakes of Scripture.

2. We must have recourse to the Originall Sabbath, which the fourth Commandement propoundeth and main­taineth, as we may observe in the reason of the direction.

Now in that was no restraint unto Adam, but to rest from his week dayes work, dressing the Garden: So now onely servile work in this directory added to the Commandement, is forbidden, as before I have proved, in Sect. 17.

3. The instances of labour in the Old Testament, were not breaches of the Sabbath, nor so were judged, nor can be proved to be so.

4. Our Saviour Christ, the wisest Expositor of his Fa­thers [Page 81] Precepts, and the exactest observer of his Fathers Will, alwayes in all things, both by word and deed, telleth us that the Law of the Commandements laid no such yoak upon them, in any such rigorous strictnesse.

5. We must make a difference between the Commande­ment it self, with the words annexed, uttered by God im­mediately upon Mount Sinai to Israel, and some other precepts given concerning the Sabbath by him afterwards, but mediately by Moses to the people: for the one is per­manent, and admits of works, as I have shewed, but the other are transient, and for some use only for a space occasi­onally delivered, binding to more strictnesse for the time.

They that go about to lay upon Israel a rigorous strict rest on the Sabbath, from every least work which might be done without travell or distraction, do it,

1. To difference them from us by our more supposed freedome and liberty, as if the Israelits had been tyed by vertue of the fourth Commandement it self to a more pre­cise strictnesse, then we now are, so as they might do al­most nothing, no not to go out of their doores on the Sab­bath-day.

2. Hereupon to make the Commandement Ceremoniall in this imagined strictnesse.

3. And so to overthrow the Naturality of the fourth Commandement, and perpetuity of it as nothing belonging now unto us. And for this purpose one of late in his Trea­tise of the Sabbath, and Lords day, in Cbap. 2. of the fourth part goeth about to prove this so great strictnesse: for he saith,

I. That none were to go out of their doores on the Sabbath day, not only not to make a journey, but not to go out to walk although softly: And this he collecteth be­cause that they might not go out to gather Mannah on this day.

Answ. 1. This was not a prohibition simply to go out, but only not to go out to gather Mannah: for they had not sinned in walking out, but they did sinne in going to [Page 82] seek Mannah, which the Lord did not rain on that day, and had forbidden th [...]m to go out to seek for it.

2. If it were not lawfull to go out on the Sabbath day, how was it that some found, in the Wildernesse, a man ga­thering sticks, and yet they blamelesse: They went out, else had they not found him, Num. 15. 32, 33. Yea, if it so fell out, upon the Sabbath day, there were causes of going out of their houses, Deut. 23. 10, 12, 13.

3. Though this gathering of Mannah, seem to this man to be done without paines: its not so, for it was not at their doores, as he saith, but on the outside, about the host, on the face of the Wildernesse, Exod. 16. 13, 14. so as they must go abroad for it; neither was it without paines, to gather an Omer for every one, of such a small thing as it was, like to Coriander seed, Vers. 31.

4. But grant it had been so, yet know, that to labour for food, was in the nature of a weekly servile work; so that here is prohibited the six dayes labour for bodily necessa­ries, which they had then no need to do.

II. He saith, that the Israelites were to prepare their Mannah, to bake and seeth, what they would on the sixt day, that so they might prevent that labour on the Sabbath day, Exod. 16. 23. So they might not belike, dresse, and make ready any food on the rest day.

Answ. 1. The words in Vers. 23. do not undeniably im­ply that: that which remained over and above their baking and seething, was baken, and sodden with the rest: but ra­ther the contrary, as thus, bake what you will bake, and seeth what you will, to day, and that which remaineth o­ver, to wit, not baken, nor sodden, lay it up for you to be kept, untill the morrow; for Moses said nor, seeth, and bake all, and so reserve some for to morrow, but bake and seeth what you will of it, which implyeth, that some was not baked and sod [...]en.

2. Albeit, he seemeth necessarily to inferre, because Moses said. next day, eate that to day, to wit, which was re­served, and had no wormes in it, nor stanke: Verse 24, 25. [Page 83] that it was baken or sodden over night.

But if it had been so, the miracle had not been so great: for that which the people did reserve without warrant and had wormes, and stank, was as they gathered it, and not either baken, or sodden for any thing that can be gathered out of the text.

Again, the only bare mentioning of eating, doth not in­ferre their not baking or seething, more then the bare naming of the peoples baking and seething will inferre their not before grinding of it, of which not a word there in the text: Its most like that which remained over, was ground with the rest, either in Mills, or beaten in Mortars, as they used to do, Num. 11. 8. and so the Meal thereof was reserved to be baken or sodden the next day; which if so, they abstained from no other work, then servile, as we do, from carrying our Corn to the Mill to be ground of the Millerd, which is his weeks dayes labour.

3. But grant all this to be so, yet this was but for the time of the Mannab, let him prove that it was so in Canaan, my instances before do shew the contrary. Nor was this preparation, but about the Mannab, because it required such labour, in the Mill and Mortar, to make it ready, a servile work, not fit for the Sabbath, being so much for so many Thousands.

III. He alleadgeth, Exod. 35. 3. That they were prohi­bited to kindle a fire throughout all their habitations on their Sabbath day, Exod. 35. 3.

Answ. 1. Consider that this Commandement, was given some space of time after the giving of the Law: in which space they making a fire, they offended not, and therefore this strictnesse was not from the nature of the fourth Com­mandement it self.

2. This inhibition must be understood of kindling a fire, for work forbidden to be done on the Sabbath day: for else there is no Coherence of this Verse with the former: in which Moses doth tell them, that God would have no six dayes work done, on the Sabbath, to wit, servile; Therefore [Page 82] [...] [Page 83] [...] [Page 84] for this end not to kindle a fire.

3. Some hold this Commandement to concern only ma­king of fire for the furtherance of the Work of the Taber­nacle; For therefore is here the Sabbath mentioned to shew, that the Work of the Tabernacle, should give place to the S [...]bbath.

4. Learned men both Protestants and Papists hold, that to kindle a fire was not simply forbidden: for being a ne­gative precept, it should not have admitted at any time the making of a fire in any of their habitations. Is it like that in Winter they never made fire on their Sabbath? The sea­son was sometime cold in that Countrey, as we may reade, John 18. 18. And what a Feast was that, to which Christ went on the Sabbath day, Luk. 14. 1. may it be supposed there was no fire?

Lastly note, that had this been a durable precept, these words had been added to it, a Statute for ever throughout your generations: as we may see of forbidding work, in Levit. 23. 31 and it was usuall in a durable Law to adde the word Exod 12. 14. 17. 24. for ever: for which many other texts may be produced, which is wanting here, as but temporary.

IV. He bringeth forth the punishment of him that ga­thered sticks on the Sabbath day, Num. 15. 32, 36.

Answ. 1. That here one was found gathering of sticks upon the Sabbath day, and brought before authority for it, and his sentence was to dye, and he was stoned to death, cannot be denied,

But that it hence is to be collected, that therefore it was an exact strictnesse imposed upon Israel by the fourth Com­mandement, not so much as to g [...]ther sticks upon the Sab­bath day, rest to be proved: For,

1. The fourth Commandement it self is affirmative, and not negative, and therefore necessarily inferreth not the forbidding of such an act for ever to the Israelites.

2. The words in the directory, Thou shalt do no work, are with a restriction, as I have proved.

3. It is manifest that the most zealous for the Sabbath, [Page 85] have had meate dressed then, flesh-meate, and whither that Nehe. 5. 58. could be without fire, and fire without wood stickes or bones, or some other fewell, let any judge.

4. There was no prohibition for such a work before set down expressely, and therefore they knew not what to do, till they asked Councell of the Lord concerning him.

5. This mans sin was great before God: it appeareth by the greatest punishment inflicted upon him, as was stone­ing to death in Israel; but how came it to be so, not simply in breach of the fourth Commandement, but it was as learned men hold a presumptuous sin, a great sin, for such a one despiseth the Word, and reproacheth God, Num. 15. 30, 31.

Now that he sinned presumptuously, it is so to be judged.

1. By the Connexion of the Story: for Moses having set down a Law from God, against presumptuous trans­gressions, Num. 15. 30, 31. He bringeth this for an instance thereof immediately, Verse 32.

2. Because he sinned against two accessory precepts con­cerning the Sabbath. The one that none should go out on that day, about worldly businesse, as to labour for food; Exod. 16. 29. The other that none should kindle a fire then, Exod. 35. 3. Now Contrary to these, this man went out, in­to the Wildernesse to gather sticks, no doubt, to kindle a fire.

Therefore he sinned against the first in going forth about such a businesse, and in his intention, to kindle and make a fire against the second: therefore his sin was great, while these two accessory precepts stood in force: But these being not perpetuall, this punishment on him proveth not the point of such a precise strictnesse of the fourth Commande­ment, to be ever observed of the Israelites.

V. And lastly, He bringeth in the holy women, follow­ers of Christ, who would not annoint Christs body on the Sabbath day: but rested from that work, as the Text saith, according to the Commandement, as thinking themselves bound to so precise an observation by the Commandement.

[Page 86] Answ. I These words, according to the Commandement, may be thus expounded, that is, as they understood it by the Jewes interpretation, superstitiously: For these godly women, being trained up by the then Doctors of the Church, observed the Sabbath as they had learned it from them: And albeit, the work was to the honour of Christ, yet for that it was not of necessity to be done on that day, nor at all, in respect of Christs body, but only a Custome for an honourable buriall, therefore they did rest from do­ing that work on that day.

II. Take the rest according to the true meaning of the Commandement, which imposed rest, this their rest was according to the Commandement; and in that they did not this work, it was according to the Commandement, for­bidding servile work, as the words in the Directory are to be understood.

For they could not annoint him, but they must first buy their spices and oyntments, which they might not do, buy­ing and selling on the Sabbath being forbidden: That they could not buy them on the Fryday, as we speak, is evident: For it was late ere Christs body was taken from the Crosse, at even, Matth. 27. 57. then they did awaite, to see his buriall, Luk. 23. 55. in which space the Sabbath was come on: (for they reckoned, from the Evening, to the Evening) and therefore stayed they till after the Sabbath, to buy them, Mark. 16. 1.

Thus we see his proofes, no proofes to argue any precise strictnesse in the words, (Thou shalt do no work) more to them then to us, by the Law.

SECTION XXI. Of the reason added unto the Directory with the Conclusion.

THe Lord himself addeth a reason unto his former words, why he giveth us Six dayes, and reserveth the [Page 75] Seventh to himself; for that in six dayes he made all things, and rested the Seventh day.

In which words he layeth down, as an unalterable ground of apportionating time between God and us, which is his own example of working six dayes, and resting the Se­venth, in the beginning of the world, which, as they be past and irrevocable, so is this portioning of time between him and us, to be perpetuall, else were his example thus pro­pounded in his Donation, and reservation, to no purpose.

He in this dividing of the dayes of the week, thus between him and us, reflected upon himself, looked onely to what himself had done, and so gave so many dayes to us, and reser­ved onely one to himself.

Now what can be more permanent, than Gods own self, in his own irrevocable Acts, from the worlds beginning, to be laid for the foundation of this his thus apportioning the week to us.

The Lord our God having thus laid down before them his unchangeable reservation of the Seventh day for himself after his irrevocable gift of six dayes to us, he concludeth with these words; Wherefore the Lord blessed the Seventh day, and sanctified it.

Its agreed on all hands, that here are the words of the Institution of the Sabbath: not one of the late Writers gain­sayeth this, that I have read or heard of.

The main of the Controversie is, that here is (say they) the first Institution, the ground of the Prolepsis, in Gen. 2. 2. and we say, they be a repetition of the Institution, laid down before in that place of Genesis, where no Prolepsis is.

For as the Lord here in the former words repeateth what he did in six dayes, and that he rested the seventh day; so he repeateth his Institution of the Sabbath then, what he did with the day on which he rested, that is, because he had finished all his work in six dayes, and rested the seventh day, he blessed and sanctified it, to shew them here by this,

1. The Antiquity of the Sabbath day, from the begin­ning.

[Page 88] 2. The Stability thereof, also grounded so upon Gods rest, not alterable.

3. Why he charged the Commandement of keeping holy the Sabbath day upon them among the other Precepts, and that also with a Memento, above any of the rest.

For in the repetition here of the Institution, the Lord kee­peth the word, Sabbath, in the Commandement, saying, He blessed the Sabbath day, and not as commonly we read it, he blessed the Seventh day, lest any should make that indivi­duall Seventh day, on which God rested, to be of the sub­stance of the Commandement, which God in his wisdom (let it be well observed) left out in the Precept, and here a­gain in the repetition of the Institution, and onely nameth the Sabbath, what Seventh day soever it be, either that for the time, or another in the room of it: which Sabbath is the blessed and hallowed day of the Lord, and so to be account­ed of for ever, as appeareth by all that hath been said, if men be not disposed to wrangle against the truth.

From all which is before delivered, its very apparent, that this fourth Commandement is no way Ceremoniall, True, taking it in an inde­finite notion, commanding the sanctifying of one day in seven. but a permanent Law to the worlds end, and not Ceremo­niall, as in the following Sections I shall make it manifest.

SECTION. XXII. The Arguments to prove it Ceremoniall, answered.

MEn disposed to wipe out this Commandement out of the Decalogue, fain would make it Ceremoniall; but their arguments, brought for this purpose, are of no validi­ty: They say it was Ceremoniall,

I. For the exact strictnesse of it, which they have imagi­ned, but I have proved it to be onely an imagination: For that strict observation which was kept, was but for a time, and from accessory Commandements, not from the fourth Commandement it self.

[Page 89] II. In their keeping of that seventh day: But the Seventh day is not of the substance of the Commandement; and a se­venth day is proved to be perpetuall. Nor was the seventh in the first Institution Ceremoniall: And the Church obser­veth still a Seventh day.

III. For that the Seventh day is abrogated, but this is not so, its changed, but not abrogated, as meer Ceremonies be.

IV. It was a signe (say they) between God and the Is­raelites: Exod. 31. 13, 17. Ezek. 20. 12. God, in giving his Law, saith no such thing: and still we must make a differ­ence between the Law it self, and what after were added for instruction, as the then state of the people required.

Again, every signe is not a Ceremony; for the Rain-bow was a signe, Gen. 9. yet no Ceremony.

Moreover, the reason added why it was a signe, belong­eth to us, For in six dayes the Lord made beaven and earth, and on the Seventh day he rested, Exod. 31. 17.

The end why he made it, a signe doth a like appertain to us, to wit, That they might know him to be the Lord that Sanctified them, Exod. 31. 13. Ezek. 20. 12. And are not we to learn and know as much in keeping our rest-day in holy duties? yea, blessed are they that do learn this lesson, to know the Lord, that he doth sanctifie them in the use of his Ordinances, upon the day of our rest.

V. It was a memoriall, say, they, of their deliverance out of Egypt, Deut. 5. 15. This reason was Moses addition to move the people to pity their servants and cattell: Must Moses his charitable use made of the Sabbath, and his argu­ment to perswade them to mercy, from Gods mercy to them, alter the nature of the Precept, and disannull it? The words in the beginning of the verse, may be conceived in a Parenthesis, and are brought in onely as a memoriall of that great deliverance, as God remembred it in the preface to all the Commandements, to move them to observe the whole Law; and the word, Therefore, is to be annexed to the end of the 14 verse, as indeed it ought in sense and reason: which [Page 90] being so, the words prove not the Sabbath to be instituted for a memoriall of their deliverance from Aegypt, though they had good cause to remember it on this day, and in keeping the fourth Commandement, imposing rest, as also in obser­ving the first and all the other: for, as I said, its in the Pre­face to the whole Law, as never to be forgotten of them, but to be remembred as a strong motive, to stirre them up to obedience.

VI. Say they, its ranked by the Apostle, Col. 2. 16, 17. among shadows.

But the place is not meant of the weekly Sabbaths.

I. The weekly Sabbath is the substance of the fourth Commandement: and therefore durable, not abolished, as the Apostle speaketh of these Sabbaths.

II. The Apostle speaketh here of such things as cannot agree with the weekly Sabbaths.

1. The Tearm, Ordinances, vers. 14. shew where the Sabbath of the week is called an Ordinance?

2. The word, Ordinances, are expounded to be the Commandements contained in Ordinances: and these were the middle partition-wall between the Jew and Gentile, ta­ken away on the Crosse, Eph. 2. 15. But the Sabbath day was no part of the partition-wall between the Jews and the Gen­tiles, for we keep still a Sabbath unto the Lord.

3. They are the hand writings against us, and contrary to us, blotted out, and abolished, Col. 2. 14. Eph. 2. 15. but not so the weekly Sabbath.

4. These were a shadow of things to come, whereof, the body was Christ, vers. 17. but the Generally the Fathers take it to prefi­gure Christs rest, that day onely, full and wholly in his praise: as D. Andr: in his Star-Chamber speech, ac­knowledgeth. Sabbath of the week was no such thing: if we consider it in it originall, and not of the declaratory, cloathed with it accessories, as BP. Lake speaketh: for, saith he, before the fall, the Sabbath was a kinde of rest, shadowing out our eternall rest, but not of that whereof Christ is the Body. To us the Lords day is a foretaste of that eternall rest, and I hold the shadow to be as lasting as the world. Thus this lea [...]ned Father and Do­ctor in our Church, who saith further, that they who al­leadge [Page 91] the Col. 2. 16. are out of the argument, because le speaks of shadows, whereof Christ is the body, which he denieth of the weekly Sabbath, considering it in the origi­nall institution, and not after the fall made a shadow by accessories.

III. Here the Sabbaths are equalized, with meat, drink, holy-day, new Moon, which were the shadow of things to come.

Therefore hereby must be understood other Sabbaths.

Such were these Sabbaths, the first day of the seventh mo­neth, Lev. 23. 24, 32. the seventh yeer, Lev. 25. 4. the yeer of Jubilee, Lev. 25. 8, 11.

So the holy Convocation of the Festivall times, the first day, Lev. 23. 7. the seventh day, vers. 8. the eighth and the tenth, vers. 27, 32. all which were called Sabbaths, 39. the same mentioned with the new Moons, Esa. 1. 13. called ap­pointed Feasts, verse 14.

Those kinde of Sabbaths must be here meant,

  • 1. These were called Ordinances, as the Apostle calleth them here.
  • 2. These were of the partition-wall, and abolished, and taken out of the way.
  • 3. A shadow of things to come.
  • 4. Thus the word, Sabbaths, taken, agree well with meat, drink, new Moon, and holy day.
  • 5. The Apostle varying the number from new Moon and holy day singularly, to Sabbaths plurally, would have us to understand the annexed Convocations, called Sab­baths, Lev. 23. 39. before mentioned.

Thus we see their arguments, what little strength they have to prove the fourth Commandement Ceremoniall.

SECTION. XXIII. That the fourth Commandement, is in no part Ceremoniall.

IT is clear enough that the fourth Commandement is not Ceremoniall not in part, as some do grant it, much lesse [Page 92] the whole, as some of late boldly affirm it to be.

1. The institution of the Sabbath, on which the Com­mandement is grounded, commanding no more, then at the first institution, was before the fall, when there was no need of any Ceremony.

2. God never made himself an example of any Ceremo­niall precept, as he doth in this.

3 A Ceremoniall precept consists wholly, or in part of some Ceremoniall service prescribed by it; but no such ser­vice, neither in whole, nor in part, in this, neither in the day, nor in the strict observation of it, as before is proved.

4. All, and every Ceremoniall precepts, and politicall, were given mediately, only by Moses, Levit. 27. 34. Deut. 4. 14. But this was given immediately by God himself.

5. That which was Ceremoniall was properly and di­rectly the School-master to Christ: For the Ceremoniall Law was that proper, and direct School-Master, Gal. 4. 24. But this precept is not any part of that School-master to Christ, properly and directly.

6. Whatsoever was Ceremoniall, was Carnall, Heb. 7. 16. and a beggerly rudiment, Gal. 4. But Saint Paul speak­ing of the Morall Law, calleth it holy, just, good, and spi­rituall, Rom. 7. 12, 14. of which Morall Law, this is an undelible precept, and not a Carnall and beggerly rudi­ment.

7. All Ceremoniall precepts are abrogated by Christ, as all confesse: But this precept is not abrogated by Christ, but rather established, Matth. 5. 17, 18. who hath ordained us another rest day, in stead of the former seventh day; to uphold the Commandement.

SECTION XXIV. The fourth Commandement is a perpetuall Precept.

THis Commandement to be one of Gods precepts, is undenyable, but some hold it not durable.

To leave the ambiguity of the tearm, Morall, nor yet wholly to tye my self to the word, Naturall, I will hold my self to the word, Durable, or Perpetuall.

That this precept is a perpetuall precept, I thus prove;

I. The Lawes only for a time in Israel, were either the Ceremoniall till Christ, or the Politicall, till the dissolu­tion of the Common-weal of Israel; But this precept and Law, is neither of these: And therefore a perpetuall Law.

II. Ten is the perpetuall number of Gods Commande­ments, so delivered by God, Deut. 4. 13. and 10. 4. So pre­served by Moses, so reckoned in all the Church of God to this day, and by our Church, as before I shewed; But this is one of the Ten; Therefore a perpetuall precept to up­hold the number, else should there not be Ten, except with the Papists we could finde some other precept, to cleave it in two to make up the number: And the Ten Commande­ments being Gods Covenant, Deut. 4. 13. we may not adde thereto, nor take from it. For mans Covenant being once confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto, Gal. 3. 15. may any then take from Gods Covenant? if not, then as this Covenant is perpetuall consisting of the number of Ten Commandements, no fewer in the first Tables, Deut. 4. 13. nor in the second Tables, Exod. 34. 1. 28. nor more added, Deut. 5. 22. Therefore this fourth Commandement one of them, is perpetuall as is the Covenant it self.

III. That which God did make of equall dignity to all the other perpetuall precepts, is perpetuall.

But God did every way make this Commandement e­quall in dignity with the rest: for as the other were, so was this.

1. Commanded immediately at the same time, with the same Majesty, with the same terrour. Exod. 20. 18, 19.

2. With the same preface, uttered under this title, The Lord their God, and with the same motive, of their delive­rance, from Egypt, Exod. 20. 1, 2.

3 Written with the same finger of God, at the same time, in the same Tables of Stone, twice over, Exod. 31. 18. [Page 94] and 32. 16. and 34. 1. Deut. 10. 1. and 5. 22.

4. Its matter of one and the same Covenant of God, Deut. 4. 13. and 9. 15.

5. It was ordained by Angells in the hand of a Media­tor, Gal. 3. 19.

6. It was put into the same Ark, and preserved ever there with the rest, Deut. 10. 5. 1 Kin. 8. 9.

IV. That which Jesus Christ, as God man, or man God, as Mediator, is Lord of, is perpetuall, for what authoritie he so hath from his Father, he never layeth it down unto the end of all things, 1 Cor. 15. 24, 28. But thus is Christ Lord of the Sabbath, Matth. 12. 8.

Therefore is it durable to the worlds end.

V. Its Gods Commandement made upon his own insti­tution, from the worlds beginning as I before have proved: which institution of blessing and sanctifying the Sabbath day, is upon Gods own work in six dayes, and his resting on the seventh day: giving to us the six, and reserving unto himself the seventh unchangeably, as appeareth by our ta­king possession of the six dayes for thousands of yeers. Therefore the Commandement made upon the institution, and the institution settled upon unchangeable grounds, the Commandement must needs be perpetuall.

VI. That Commandement is perpetuall, the breach whereof maketh us guilty of all the other perpetuall pre­cepts, and of the whole Law: for this it could not do, if it, and they were not in an untyable link together.

But the breaking of this fourth Commandement, in not keeping the Sabbath, makes men guilty of the breach of the whole Law, and of all the rest of the Commandements.

1. Before the Law given at Mount Sinai, Exod. 16. 27, 28. where God doth charge them with the breach of his Com­mandements and Laws, becaue they had broken the Sabbath.

2. After the Law given; for all the breach of the Lords Satutes, and despising of his judgements, are concluded with this, They polluted my Sabbaths: This doth the Pro­phet Ezechiel very often, Ezech. 20. 12, 13, 21, 24. and 22. [Page 95] 8. 26. As if the carefull observing of the Sabbath might have prevented all.

And no marvell, for the hallowing of the Sabbath, was a signe, that they knew the Lord to be their Sanctifier, Exod. 20. 12. 10. that they delighted in the Lord, and honoured him, Isai. 58. 13, 14. and that they took hold of the Cove­nant, Isai. 56. 6.

3. Ʋnder the Gospel, Jam. 2. 10. where the Apostle mak­eth him that offendeth in one point, guilty of all the whole Law. Now if we not only break, but take away this fourth Commandement, we are guilty of the whole Law, unlesse we can shew that God hath blotted out, and repealed this Commandement out of his Law, since he put it in, if he have, shew where, if not, then the Commandement remai­neth, and so in breaking it, we offend against the whole Law.

VII. This Commandement is perpetuall, for that the observation of the things therein commanded, are, by Gods appointment, in their use, the publike practise and professi­on of the most necessary duties, of the three former pre­cepts, and the publike upholding of the same: For the and holy rest sanctification of the day, being rightly im­ployed, is in the publike profession of the true God, the God of Israel, as the first Commandement teacheth. In our worshipping of this God, as the second Commandement teacheth. In the glorifying of his holy Name, in the use of all his ordinances in Psalms of praises, in meditation of all his works, to take occasion of thanksgiving, as the third Commandement doth teach.

So that in truth, the keeping of this fourth Commande­ment, is the publike upholding weekly of those Comman­dements, the practice and profession of the principall duties thereof, which be perpetuall as the Commandements them­selves be.

If any say, the Churches observation of this day, from her own ordinance, and other dayes by her appointment, may supply the want of this Commandement though it be taken away.

But here being an immediate Commandement of God for this purpose once given, with so great authority, what reason is there to let this go, and to rest upon an ordinance of lesse force to binde?

VIII. That which the light of nature can finde out of it self for substance, and easily will assent unto for the cir­cumstance, when its holpen by due and right means, that precept is naturall, and then, say I, perpetuall: I read not of any which deny this: see Thomas Aquinas 1oe. 2oe. q. 110. Artic. 1. in the Conclusion, whose words are summed in Master Dow his Discourse, pag. 8. who doth approve of the proposition.

But this precept may be found out by the light of Na­ture it self, for the substance, and will readily assent unto it for the Circumstance, when natures light is holpen by due and right means, and so being naturall, is also perpetuall.

I. Naturall light will finde out the substance, which is to keep holy a Sabbath day: For as it acknowledgeth God, and that he is to be worshipped publikely: So it will en­force a time for this his worship, and reason by naturall light from Common principles in all men to know, and to wor­ship God, will thus proceed.

1. Worship is an action, and every a [...]tion must be allow­ed it time: and a publike act, a publike time.

2. This time of solemne worship cannot be all the time, and the whole time of mens lives: for that there must be a time for other things.

3. That therefore if not all, then some time for such publike service is to be set apart, from the rest of the time of life.

4. That this parting of time, must needs be a set time, that the certainty of a publike service time may be publikely known, else how shall they meet together?

Thus farre naturall light will go, with an unanimous consent in all of any common Capacitie in discourse; and this is the knowledge of the fourth Commandement groun­ded in man by his light in Nature, touching the substance of the Commandement.

[Page 97] II. By the help of instruction it will readily assent unto the Circumstance, both in regard of what space, as also how much within that space, is to be allotted unto God, for his publike service: For let this thing be propounded to a discoursive naturall understanding, and see, if it do not easily yeild.

That the set and lymitted space and quantity of time, must be prescribed either by God or man.

But not by man, for if left to man then,

  • 1. Either to every man severally, and so tot capita, tot sensus, and never an agreement.
  • 2. Or to all mankinde conjoyntly: who can never meet to­gether.
  • 3. Or to some one over all the world, which Monarchicall power never any had yet, for I count not Adam and Noah Monarches in this sense.
  • 4. Or to some speciall persons of equall authority over all: nor did God yet erect such an Aristocratie.
  • 5. Or to severall Princes in their severall Dominions, and here we see a discrepancy.

Therefore seeing men cannot agree, the discoursive naturall understanding will not leave this time to man.

Then will it allow it unto God, as most equall to him to prescribe the same: Now if it be Gods authority to set the time, then will reason perswade further, and think,

  • 1. That certainly God hath set down the time.
  • 2. That I am to seek and make inquiry after the time, when, and how much he hath appointed.
  • 3. That this inquiry must be by the best means, the most sure, and certain, to come to the knowledge of the time determined.
  • 4. That means is, and can be no other, but Gods own re­vealed will.
  • 5. That this revealed will is known by his Word, on which, even naturall understanding maketh a man to rest, as the Hea­then did upon the Oracles of their gods. Now then, if mans na­turall light be informed, that God hath commanded a Sabbath in a week, allowing us first six dayes, and the seventh reserved only for the Sabbath, man in his understanding will acknowledge it great reason to yeild it him. Thus we see how nature infor­med, [Page 98] can reach unto the Circumstance of the fourth Comman­dement, and therefore its perpetuall.

IX. That a perpetuall Law and precept, which we are daily to pray unto God to write in our hearts, and to incline our hearts to keep, and to be mercifull therein unto us.

But thus are we to pray unto God concerning this Comman­dement, and that by the Direction of our Church, every Lords Day publikly: Therefore is it perpetuall, else we mock God in so praying. The holy and learned Bishop Lakes, understands it of our Lords day grounded upon the fourth Commandement.

And who can think them to be of any other minde that added this prayer to this, and every one of the Commandments.

The Authors of the Homilies understood it so, it is more then probable, for that they call the Lords day, our Christian Sab­bath, and affirm it to be the Commandment of God.

It hath been understood of all so heretofore till of late, whose perverse answers to it are but unconscionable perversion of it, and without soliditie; yea, some answers ridiculous and absurd.

X. That Law, is perpetuall, the breach whereof God hath punished heretofore, and yet doth, and lately within these few yeers, with very remarkable judgements: For Gods punish­ments he sendeth for breach of his own Laws; if the Law were not in force, then were there no sin, and there should be no punishment; this our Homily taketh notice of. And albe it such judgements might fall upon other dayes, yet let any sober spi­rit tell me, why such happen on these dayes so frequently, what may be the cause, but sin and breach of this Commandment?

XI. That Commandment which the Church of God hath from the beginning of it unto this day observed, as one of Gods Commandments that is perpetuall: But so hath this been ob­served: For let any shew that any Church since Christ ever re­jected this as none of Gods Commandments: Who are they that ever durst deny it, or ever attempted to expunge it out of the Decalogue? The Papists make it a Commandment of God, so doth our Homily, our Book of Common-Prayer, the Book set out by King Henry the eighth, approved by one and twenty Prelates, and many Doctors, and by the Parliament, alloweth this for a Commandment, affirming that the breach thereof doth [Page 99] much offend God, and provoketh his wrath and indignation a­gainst us. Therefore it being so held to be one of Gods Commandments in all ages hitherto, it remaineth in all sober mens account the Commandment of God. It cannot be perpetu­all say some, because it is a positive precept. But I have shewed:

1. That it is in nature acknowledged both for substance and circumstance.

2. Albeit it were positive, it would not follow, that there­fore it should not be perpetuall. For a precept may be Positivum naturale, and so durable, for the positivenesse taketh not away the naturality of it, but it remaineth perpetuall, although the precept have further revelation, then the naturality thereof can extend unto: For the positivenesse, only accommodateth the naturalitie to some speciall certainty. Again, albeit the precept be meerly positive, yet might it be perpetuall, as the Law to Adam of not eating the forbidden fruit: it was per­petuall to Adam, and all mankinde, as we may see in the bring­ing of death upon us, aswell as upon Adam. Also, is not the institution of Baptisme, and the Lords Supper positive, and not naturall; yet as durable as the world, to the second coming of Christ: For here we must know two things, whether the Law be naturall, or positive, in which they do agree.

1. The authority of both is Divine, of both God is the Author, and both binde the Conscience to obedience.

2. The independancy of both: for neither have any depen­dancy of mans will, either to establish or alter them and both are in dispensable, and unalterable, by mans authority: The Con­tinuance of both, are to be judged by Gods only will and inten­tion, albeit they be not both alike in their Natures, in some things.

SECTION XXV. How much of the Mosaicall Sabbath, is in the Commandment to be kept holy.

THe Sabbath instituted by God, and commanded to Israel in this fourth Commandment, is to be understood not of some part, but of the whole day.

1. The time in the precept, is a day, not a part of a day, nor [Page 48] the greater part, much lesse some few houres in the day, can be counted a day, neither was it so with the Jews.

2. Gods gift of six dayes, we understand for full six dayes, and so no doubt is the day of rest, the Sabbath day to be taken in the Commandment.

3. What God blessed and sanctified, he sanctified wholly, as holy things, vessels, Numb. 31. 6. holy oyntment, Exod. 30. 25. Garments and the like. So holy places, as the Tabernacle, Exod. 29. 44. This, nor those were holy only in part, but wholly. So is Gods holy time, holy, for the whole time.

4. The people of God kept the whole day from the begin­ning to the end, Exod. 16. 30. and this appeareth so in Nehe. 13. 19. and by the holy women followers of Christ, Mark. 16. 1. Luk. 23. 55, 56. and 24. 1.

5. The reproofe of those that went out to seek Mannah, in the morning before the Sun rose, Exod. 16. 27. and the punish­ment of him that did gather sticks, Num. 15. doth shew it, that the whole day is to be set apart for the Lord. And though some works might be done: yet the day was the Lords, the wholeday.

6. If the whole day was not the Lords, then it was partly holy, and partly unholy, sacred, and common too; but in holy writ we reade not of any such partaking stakes with God.

Therefore we are to understand the whole day for Sabbath.

SECTION XXVI. How the Day was kept.

THe people of God, having ceased from their labours, as the Law commanded, Exod. 20. 8. and 31. 14. Luk. 23. 56. and betaking themselves to the holy rest, and to make an holy use thereof unto the Lord, it being an holy day, and the rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord, Exod. 16. 23, and 35. 2. They thus observed the day, and kept it holy.

I. Before the publike meeting.

1. They began with private preparation, as they were com­manded.

  • 1. To look unto their feet before they entred into the house of the Lord, Eccles. 5. 1.
  • [Page 49]2. To reconcile themselves one to another, Matth. 5. 23, 24.
  • 3. To be of a clean Conversation, Ps. 26. 6. else God regarded not their coming, Isai. 1. 12. 16, 17. and 66. 3. Psal. 50. 16, 17.
  • 4. To have an high esteem of their Assemblies: as holy Con­vocations, Lev. 23. 3. and the house, as the house of God, 1 Chr. 9. 27. Ps [...]. 27. 4. such were blessed, as did abide there, Psal. 84. 4.

II. In going. It was

  • 1. With singular affection, of love to the place, Psal. 26. 8. and desire to dwell there, Ps [...]. 27. 4. and vehement longing for it, Ps [...]. 42. 1, 2. and 84. 1, 2.
  • 2. With care for others exciting them to go: the Pastors, the people, Jer. 31. 6. and they one another, Jer. 50. 4, 5, Mich. 4. 2. and the parties excited to be glad thereof, Psa. 122. 1.
  • 3. It was with the voice of joy and praises, Psa. 42. 4.
  • 4. Their end in going was to be taught, and understand, and that they might walk in Gods wayes, Isai. 2. 2. Nehe. 8. 13.

III. At the entring, and in the Congregation.

1. They worshipped at the Gate and entrance, Ezek. 46. 3.

2. They kneeled down before God, Ps. 95. 6. 2 Chr. 6▪ 13. 1 K. 8. 54. and made their prayers, Isa. 56. 7. Esr. 6. 10. Act. 16. 13. Luk. 1. 10. 1 Chr 16. 4: and 23. 30. 1 Cor. 14. 16. Some ap­pointed for it. 1 Chr. 6. 31. 32. and 16. 4. and 3. 1. Num. 6. 23.

3. They gave thanks, Psal. 26. 12. unto God, Psa. 35. 18. and 111. 1. standing, 1 King. 8. 55. to which the people answered, Amen, Amen, and bowed their heads, and worshipped, Neh. 8. 6.

4. They sung Psalms, 2 Chr. 29. 30. Psa. 95. 2. and 92. see the Title, a Psalm for the Sabbath, and it was joy, to some, to be there, Psa. 84. 10.

5. The Scriptures were read, Act. 15. 21. Deut. 31. 11, 12, 13. Luk. 4. 16, 17. Act. 13. 15.

6. With the reading, they had also afterwards the Word preached, for the Priests office was to teach, Mal. 2. 7. Deut. 33. 10. 2 Chron. 30. 22. and 35. 2. And it was a misery, I. to want a teaching Priest, 2 Chron. 15. 2. and II. for them to be igno­rant of the Law in handling it, Jer. 2. 8 or III. to have such as preached the word, and yet not to live thereafter, Mat. 23. 1. And this preaching was either an exposition of the words, as they read them, Neh. 8. 3. 8. or to make an exhortation, or, as we call it, a Sermon upon the words, as Christ did, Luke 4. 16. 31. [Page 102] and 13, 10. Mar. 6. 2. as Saint Paul did, Act. 13. 15, 16. and as it was usuall every Sabbath day, Act. 15. 21.

The peoples behaviour was, they stood up, Neh. 8. 5. They had their eyes upon the Teacher, Luk. 4. 20. and their ears were at­tentive, Neh. 8. 3.

7. There were Offerings, and casting into the Treasury, Mar. 12. 41. Luk. 21. 1.

8. In the Conclusion there was a blessing pronounced upon the people, 2 Chron. 30. 27. Lev. 9. 22, 23. as God commanded, Num. 6. 23, 27. and then did break up the Congregation, Act. 13. Deut. 21. 5. and 10 8. 1 Chr. 23. 13. 43, and the people departed, vers. 42.

IV. After the dismission of the Congregation.

It was the duty of all, and no doubt some did,

1. Meditate upon that they had heard: for if this was day­ly, Psal. 1. 2. then much more on this day: Aben Ezra, on Exod. 20, saith, behold the Sabbath Datum est ad Consideranda [...]pe [...]a dei & meditandum in Lege ejus.

2. They searched the Scriptures afterwards, touching the things taught, Act. 17. 11.

3. They taught their children, for this was a charge upon them dayly, then much more, no doubt, now, when they rested in their houses, Deut. 6. 6, 7. and 11. 19.

4. They were to be mindefull this day,

1. Of their deliverance out of Egyp [...], and how to shew mer­cy to their men and maid-servants, to the strangers, and to their very cattell, Deut. 5. 14, 15.

2. Of the Lord their God, and how he did sanctifie them, Ezech. 20. 20. Exod. 31. 13, 14.

3. Of another rest, spirituall, here, and heavenly hereafter, Heb. 4. 9, 11.

5. They this day were to shew their delight in the Lord, count the day honourable to the Lord, and learn to expresse self denyall of their own thoughts, delights, and work, Is. 58. 13, 14.

6. On this day they did not fast, Judith 8. 6. but made merry, for it was called the day of their gladnesse, Num. 10. 10. wherein they might cheerfully refresh themselves, and send relief unto the poor, after such former duties done towards the Evening; but this mirth was for their understanding of the Word, Neh. 8. [Page 103] 9, 10, 11, 12. It is true, that this holy day to the Lord was the feast of Tabernacles, but why they might not now do so on the Sabbath day, I see nothing to the contrary. For the strict pre­cepts in the Wildernesse were out of date; and the Primitive Church, who observed our Christian Sabbath in the roome of the Jewish did make a feast after the end of Divine service.

See for the observation of that Sabbath, Philo Judaeus de vita Mosis, de vita Contempla: De legatione sua ad Cajum C [...]sarem cited by Wall [...]us de Sab. pag. 127. 134. 135. 136. See also Dav. Kimch [...]on Psa. 92. cited by Goniarus in his Book de Sab. pag. 81.

SECTION XXVII. Of Judaizing, and true understanding thereof.

IT pleased some to taxe others of Judaisme concerning the Sabbath day. And why of Judaisme? know they why? Judaisme was from the Jews, but the Sabbath was long before this name became peculiar to a single tribe in Israel, Judah so called. Seeing they fasten, as they must, Judaisme upon the Jews, let us see (after this Tribe, was separated from the ten tribes of Israel) how they did Sabbatize; for so we shall behold their Judaisme, that we may judge with righteous judgement. For the better understanding hereof, let us consider the Jews as before Christs coming, when he was come, and afterwards in the times following. Of these we must have a twofold consi­deration, as faultlesse, or faulty.

1. As Faultlesse, this is no Judaizing, for in our discourse its taken in ill part. They ever held, and do hold the fourth Com­mandment, perpetuall: and so ought we as is before proved. They held the seventh day Sabbath from the Creat [...]on, which they had a warrant from God to do till the Resurrection of Christ: so farre faultlesse without Judaizing in an ill sense.

As faulty and thus,

I. Before the coming of Christ we shall read, that they were,

1. Observers of the Sabbath in a bare rest, from servile work, but then doing their own waies, finding their own pleasures, not delighting themselves in the Lord, nor labouring for Self-de­nyall on that day: Of this their Sabbatizing, the Prophet Isaiah [Page 104] speaketh, who herein laboured to reform them, Isai. 58. 13, 14.

2. Great prophaners of the Sabbath, as appeareth by the Prophets complaints, Jer. 17. 27. Ezech. 20. 13, 16, 21, 24, and 22. 8. By Gods punishing of them, driving them out of their Land as Captives, for tbe breach of the Sabbath, 2 Chron. 36. 21. as God had threatned, Levit. 26. 34, 35. By the Story in Nebe. 13. 15, 18. where Nehemiah telleth them, that the prophaning of the Sabbath was the sin of their Fathers, and the evill of their captivity befell them for it. Now who with us do so Ju­daize, and Sabbatize both these wayes, let the world judge.

II. At Christs coming, we may read

That the Jews ceasing from such former prophanesse, now were become grosly superstitious, not allowing such things to be done, as might be lawfully done, without the breach of the fourth Commandement, as in former instances are cleared: This foolish superstition our Saviour confuted by word, and by his works. And therefore none of sound judgement with us do so Sabbatize; our onely care is to observe the Commandement, as the godly Jews did, shewed in the former 26 Section, and as the holy rest requireth in keeping the day holy, as set apart for holy ends, without putting any holinesse in the day it self.

III. After Christs Ascension: and his Kingdome erected, the Jews did faulty in their Sabbatizing:

1. In observing the Seventh day from the Creation, which was at that time out of date; and now not to be observed of any Christian, if any do, these be Sabbatarians, and do properly Ju­daize, and not others.

Its a foul sin, to belye and slander men, and to brand them with names of reproach falsly.

2. In carnally keeping the Sabbath, as the Imperiall Edict of Charles the Great doth speak, for these kept it in idlenesse, in dancing and revelling: See Ignatius, in his Epistle to the Magn. St. Augustine de consensu Evangelist. lib. 2. cap. 77.

This Jewish Sabbatizing, let those be blamed for, who are guilty, and the fault be where it is. Thus much for the Mosaicall Sabbath.



also now commonly called SUNDAY.

By Richard Bernard Rectour of Batcombe.

Wee ought to doe all things for the truth, but nothing against it; for hee that striveth against the truth, striveth against God: for God is truth.

‘Let every friend of Christ observe the Lords day, Ignatius in Ep. ad Magnes. ‘In the honour of Christ his Resurrection Clem. Rom. Const. lib. 7. cap. 24.

LONDON, Printed by R. Bishop for Edward Blackmore at the signe of the Angel in Pauls Church-yard.

The Contents of this Treatise.

  • Chapter 1. THe Preface, shewing wherein wee generally consent and agree in one.
  • Chap. 2. Of the title of Lords day, and of the name Sunday.
  • Chap. 3. Of the name Sabbath given to this our Lords day or Sunday.
  • Chap. 4. Of the Reasons why it may be so called, without offence.
  • Chap. 5. In what circuit of time this day hath beene kept, to wit, weekly, with the Reason thereof.
  • Chap. 6. Of the first day of the week, that it is the Lords day, and also the seventh day.
  • Chap. 7. Of the time when this first day began to be the Lords day, and upon what ground.
  • Chap. 8. Of the divers opinions concerning the beginning and ending of the Lords day: and wherein Conscience may rest it selfe.
  • Chap. 9. The authority is divine by which it was established.
  • Chap. 10. It is of divine authority from Christ himselfe.
  • Chap. 11. Of some Objections which may be made against it, answered.
  • Chap. 12. That this day cannot be changed.
  • Chap. 13. Of the honourable esteeme of this our Lords day, and that it is to be preferred before all other festivall dayes.
  • Chap. 14. This day is to be kept holy, and the whole day too.
  • Chap. 15. How this day is to bee kept holy, morally, as the ancient Sabbath was kept.
  • Chap. 16. How our Lords day was kept in the Apostles dayes and the Primitive times.
  • [Page 108]Chap. 17. How our Church would have our Sunday kept holy.
  • Chap. 18. How Christian Emperours would have it kept by their Imperiall Constitutions.
  • Chap. 19. How it was to be kept by the Edicts of Christian Kings in this our Kingdome.
  • Chap. 20. How our late Soveraigne King James, and now our King Charles would have it observed.
  • Chap. 21. What Councells and Synods have decreed touching the observation of this day.
  • Chap. 22. What Popes, the Canon Law, Archibishops, Bishops, and other learned men have said concerning the hallowing of this day.
  • Chap. 23. God would have our Lords day religiously observed, and not to be prophaned.
  • Chap. 24. Of exemplary judgements immediate from God, against the prophaners of the Lords day.
  • Chap. 25. Of exemplary judgements mediate from God, against the prophaners of the Lords day.
  • Chap. 26. Of examples of casuall judgements, against the prophaners of the Lords day.
  • Chap. 27. Of objections which may be, or are made against the producing of judgements in this case, with answers thereto.
  • Chap. 28. Of the serious ponderation of these things.
  • Chap. 29. Concerning sports unlawfull at all times, much more on the Lords day; and why sports lawfull at other times, are on this day to be forborne; with some objections made, and answers to the same.

It is the saying of S. Augustine. ‘Bonum est homini, ut eum veritas vineat volentem, Epist. 174.

To this agreeth a learned mans sentence. ‘Satius foret, à veritate vinci nos, quàm contra veritatem vin­cere posse alium. Bucerus.

Author igitur hujus Tractatus, quodcunque in co scripsit ut veritatis sincerè studiosus pro veritate, non ut contentiosus quicquam contra veritatem scripsit.


CHAP. I. The Preface, shewing wherein wee generally consent and agree in one.

IT will not be amisse (ere I enter upon the Treatise, which for the honour of Jesus, God blessed for ever, I here undertake) briefly to lay before the judicious, a few things, for feare of mistake, while wee maintaine the observation of a set solemn day weekly, for the worship of Christ, and a Christian­like strickt keeping of it holy.

1 Wee hereby reject the loose opinions of the Familists, Anabaptists, and wicked Libertines; who would be free from any time of set solemn dayes, for Gods publick service and worship, contrary to the command of God under the Law; and the constant custome of the Church under the Gospel, among all Orthodox Christians, in all places, throughout the whole Christian world, in all ages, for [Page 110] these 1600 yeers; so that, saith Chemnitius, it is barbarica pe­tulantia, In exam. Tri­dent Concil. most rude impudencie, barbarous folly, as one tran­slateth it, not to observe that day with all due solemnity, which hath so long time beene kept by the Church of God: This wit­nesseth, Ignatius, Iohn the Apostles Disciple, Iustine Mar­tyr, S. Augustine, Tertullian, Athanasius, Maximus Tauronen­sis, Dionysius Bishop of Corinth, in an Epistle of his to Soter Bishop of Rome: Against these Familists, Anabaptists, and Libertines, hath written Ʋrsin in his Chatechisme, Zanchie in his Oper. sex dierum, and Master Rogers in his Display of the Family of Love.

2 Wee renounce all Traskits and Brabornian errours, in their points of Judaisme: Against the Author of the first sort, learned Bishop Andrews hath fully shewed himselfe, by his speech in the Starre Chamber: Against the later, the late learned Bishop of Ely, Doctor White, hath written at large, purposely to confute Brabornes Judaizing, in standing for the Jewish Sabbath: Against which tenent, Musculus, Ʋrsin, and Bellarmine, hath also written: yea, Hereticks, as Irenaeus lib. 1. cap. 26. & Ephan. de Hae­res. cap. 30. the Ebionits and Cerinthians holding this, have been con­demned, as the Fathers witnesse. The seventh day Sab­bath from the Creation, now called Saturday, is changed, and not under the Gospel to be observed of us, as an holy day to the Lord.

3 Albeit we doe hold the fourth Commandement to be perpetuall, yet we conceive it to be so, without any of those See the former Treatise. accessorie percepts delivered by Moses, whereby though it was in it selfe originally not ceremoniall, yet was it by the keeping of those precepts ceremoniously ob­served.

4 As that Law required rest, and the holy use of that rest, to be imployed on that Sabbath day, for the keeping of it ho­ly; so doth it now, by analogie and proportion, for the holy observation of our weekly Sabbath. Rest wee doe hold ne­cessary for the day, yet not like the foolish superstitious rest of the later Jewes, grounded on vaine Traditions, confuted by Christ. Nor doe we require it otherwise than a neces­sary meanes to further us to holy duties, not as a worship [Page 111] of God in it selfe; nor doe wee deny works to be done, works of pietie, and for pietie, works of charity, and those that be works of necessitie; for all were allowed under the Law, as in the other Treatise is proved. Moreover, wee account the day holy, yet not for any inherent holinesse therein, but for that it is set apart for holy uses: And the difference betweene this and other solemn holy dayes, de­dicated to the honour of Christ, we take to be; that this is grounded on authoritie divine, and unchangeable, and so not the other; yet to be observed with rest to religious du­ties, as is ordeyned by the authority of the Church, which is not at any time to be despised.

These things premised, I suppose, wee that desire for the honour of Jesus Christ, that his day be solemnly kept, none of ripe judgement will condemne us of Judaisme, if they well understand either us, or themselves, hereafter. A cha­ritable interpretation would amend all, which were to bee wished, to quench the heat of contention, by either igno­rantly or wilfully misconceiving of us: For we hold no­thing, but what hath beene held by Orthodox Divines, the best, and most in all ages, as in the ensuing chapters of this Treatise, framed to the capacitie of the common sort, will clearly be made manifest.

CHAP. II. Of the title of Lords day, and of the name Sunday.

THis terme of Lords day, though none can deny it to belong to the day, yet some few, and but very few (to shew perhaps more wit, as they think, to be able to say something to any thing, than worth of matter) do make it, as it were, doubtfull to understand what day should be meant by the Lords day in Revel. 1. 10.

But this place of Iohn hath generally beene expounded, and taken for the day which wee now call Sunday, the first day of the weeke, by Aretas, Andreas Caesariensis, by [Page 112] Beda, by out later Divines, and by the suffrage of the De rat. tempo. cap. 6. Church, the best Expositor of the word: which day hath constantly since the time of the Apostle S. John, been honou­red with this name, above all others; under this it hath passed along in the writings of all the ancient Fathers, in Councels, in Histories Ecclesiasticall, in Emperiall Con­stitutions, and Edicts of Emperours, and Kings. Beda on S. Luke saith, It is a Christian custome to call it the Lords day; which custome hath continued hitherto in all reformed Churches. And this name our King and State, giveth it in Statute Lawes, and Acts of Parliament, and our Church in her Ecclesiasticall Constitutions. This therefore may bee used without offence; nor is it fit that any scoffe at such, who constantly call it so, as being the most ancient name, and the most common and usuall religious appellation at the first, in the Primitive time.

This day hath also had another name given it, and hath beene called Sunday: this appellation is very ancient, for Justine Martyr in his second Apologie, cals it diem Sol [...]s. Lib. 4. cap. 22. Lib. 5. cap. 21. So doth Tertullian in his Apologie, cap. 16. This name we may also finde in Eusebius his Ecclesiasticall History, and in Socrates; in the Edicts of Emperours, Constantine, Ʋalen­tinian, Valens, Gratian, Honorius, Arcadius, and Theodosius. S. Augustine telleth us, how it may be used in a tolerable Contra Faust. 18. 5. on Ps. 93. sense: This name hath beene kept in the ancient Lawes of our Land, in King Edgar and Canutus his raigne. Thus it is called commonly in our Statute Lawes, Ecclesiasticall Lawes, in our Homilies, and in our Common Prayer Book, and in the most usuall and common vulgar speech. And though it hath had a note of dislike, even by S. Augu­stine, and of later time by Beza, Doctor Fulke, and Doctor Anot. 1 Cor. 16. 1 In Rhem. Test. Apoc. 1. Synops. contro­vers. 9. quest. 8. Willet; neverthelesse scruple is not to bee made of it, no more than to call a place Areopagus, Mars-Hill, Act. 17. or the signe of the Ship, Castor and Pollux, Act. 28. 11. Nor more than our week dayes, to call them Munday, Tues­day; nor our Months, Ianuary, February, March, &c. which are names from the Heathen: So be it, that none so call the day purposely with contempt and derision of those who [Page 113] use the first title, nameing it the Lords day, as some have done, not many yeers ago, how ever now it passeth for currant without check.

CHAP. III. Of the name Sabbath given to this our Lords day, or Sunday.

GReat offence is taken of late by some at this title Sabbath; first as a new upstart name of Knox and Whitingham, as also for that it is not a bare name, but supposed to have in it a mystery of iniquity: both which a learned man hath been pleased to utter in a D. Pocklington in his Sunday no Sabbath. Sermon preached at a visitation; Master Christopher Dow, moderately handling this controversie, in his discourse of the Sabbath, and Lords day, acknowledgeth to have, in his reading, found it to be sometime called the Sabbath or Sab­bath of Christians. A very reverend Learned and judicious Divine, in his Antidote against Sabbatarian errours, saith, That to call Sunday by the name of Sabbath day (rebus sic stantibus) may for some respects be allowed in the Christian Church, without any great inconvenience. And that therefore men (otherwise sober and moderate) ought not to be censured, with too much severity, nor charged with Iudaisme, if some­times they so use it. Before the dayes of Kings Henry the eighth In Pupilla oc [...]li. psa. 10. ca. 11. Diem Sabbati, ab [...]psa di [...] Sa­turni hora po­meridiana tertia [...]sque in lunaris di [...]i diluculum [...]es [...]um agitari. In Emenda. temp. lib. 7. Synops. sol. 5 [...] Iohn de Burgo Chancellour of the University of Cambridge, held, that the Lords day might be intituled the Sabbath day. King Edgar in his edict for keeping the Lords day, doth there call it the Sabbath and this was in Anno. 959. almost seven hundred yeers ago, before Knox was born hundreds of yeers, Scaliger, that man of Learning, telleth us, that the Habassines, or Ethiopian Christians, call both Saturday and the Lords day, by the name of Sabbaths, the one Christs Sabbath, and the other the Jews Sabbath. Doctor Willet citeth Dama­scene, saying, Sacratum est Deo Sabbatum, speaking of the Lords day: Saint Augustine calleth it the Christian Sab­bath, in 152 Tract de temp. & Ps. 32. The Albigenses [Page 114] and Waldenses, in a Catechisme of theirs, give it this name: In the fourteenth Session of the Synod at Dort, consisting of many Learned Divines, it is called the Sabbath day. Doctor Heylin in his Historicall Search, telleth us, that the first he cap. 5. part 2. pag. 258. found was one Petrus Alfonsus, who called the Lords day our Christian Sabbath: who lived about the time of Ruper­tus, many yeers before Knox and Whitingham took breath.

But come we neerer home, it is called the Sabbath day in King Iames his proclamation 1603. In all our Letters pa­tente till very lately, in our Churches Ecclesiasticall Consti­tutions, Canon 70, in our Homilies very often. Doctor Rainolds, in the Conference at Hampton Court, made a moti­on for the preservation of the Lords day from prophanesse, under the name of the Sabbath day, without offence then, or any exception taken against it. The learned Doctor and re­verend Bishop, Bishop Andrewes, in his speech against Trask [...], calleth it our new Sabbath; some Bishops heretofore, in their Articles of Visitation have called it the Sabbath day: Learned men in our Church of all degrees and sorts, have in their writings, allowed by authority, expressed the Lords day by this name, without any dislike, ever since the reformati­on in the dayes of Queene Elizabeths raign, in all the time of Learned King Iames, and also of this our now gracious So­veraign. Learned Doctor Featley, in his Handmaid to devotion, oftentimes calleth it the Sabbath, and in capitall letters, the Christian Sabbath; Master Primrose, in his very lately published book, concerning the Lords day, calls it often the Sabbath.

And therefore without errour we may with the Ancients, with our Kings, with our reverend Bishops, and learned Di­vines, call it the Sabbath day. And as no man of judgement and charitably minded will condemn them, that among us call the Lords day Sunday, for heathenish Solarians, so should no moderate spirit brand others for Jewish Sabbata­rians, who call the day a Sabbath, nor think a mystery of iniquity to be in it: For will any say that our Kings, reverend Prelates, the Clergie composing the Canons, the Compilers [Page 115] of the Homilies, and learned Divines, as aforesaid, had in their thoughts any mystery of iniquity? No, God for­bid; of which we may well be perswaded, for God pro­phetically speaketh of the Sabbath under the Gospel, in Esai. 66. 23.

CHAP. IIII. Of the Reasons why it may be so called, without offence.

AS it is and hath been so called, so it is not without reason to give it this name: For,

1. It hath no evill in it, nor any such mystery to bring any, as is supposed by some, into Judaisme, Mosai­call bo dage, or to cast a legall burden upon mens Conscien­ces (from which heavy yoak we are freed by the Lord Je­sus Christ) as it would appear, if moderate and sober spirits might have leave to make known the truth which they hold, yea, they would easily, to indifferent men, clear themselves from Judaizing, which unjustly is charged upon them; What though some ignorant and rash, have uttered their monstrous Paradoxes, as some say they have, and so passed the bounds and limits of truth out of inconsiderate zeal, are all others to be censured to be men of the same mould? Brotherly love and Charitie cannot but be better Judges.

2 We see it carrieth antiquity with it, and hath had al­lowance for a long time in the Churches of Christ.

3 It is our rest day, and so, indeed, a Sabbath; for the word Sabbath is nothing else but rest, so the name well agreeth with the nature of the thing.

4 This name best leadeth us to the duty of the day, which is to cease from weekely works, which are not works of pie­ty, works of charity, nor works of necessity, and to imploy our holy rest on this holy day in the publike worship and service of Christ, and in other Christian duties, as is very ex­cellently set forth in our thirteenth Canon.

5 Learned and holy Bishop Lakes saith in his Thesis, that [Page 116] eternali rest was shadowed out in the first Sabbath, which our Lords day continueth, and is a fore-taste of our eternall rest, and a shadow thereof as lasting as the world. This being so, it may well be called the Sabbath day.

6 If the fourth Commandment hath any perpetuity in it, for a weekly day to be kept, and ours being a weekly resting day; then it may be called a Sabbath, the Com­mandment propounding such a day under the name of Sabbath.

7 All holy dayes, appointed by God, besides the weekly Sabbath, were called Sabbaths, and that upon these reasons; because on them they rested to perform holy duties, and had a holy Convocation: Now why may not our Lords day, be­cause of our rest to holy duties, and for the publick assem­blies on that day, be so called? Our Linwood out of Aquinas saith, Dies Dominicus dici potest dies Sabbati, quia est requies & vacatio ad Deum.

8 The very Gentiles gave the name of Sabbath to their Festivalls, as the Learned have observed.

9 Christ lesus is the Lord of the Sabbath, not only as God, but as he is God-man, or Mediatour, for so himselfe saith, the sonne of man is Lord also of the Sabbath. Mark 2. 28. Now this Lordship, as he is Mediatour, he never layeth down 1. Cor. 15. 24. 23 whilest the world doth last; and therefore he claimeth and holdeth the Sabbath for his honour, that all may with a Sabbath honour the sonne, as they have honoured the Iohn 5. 27. Father.

10 If our rest, into which Christ hath brought us, which is a ceasing from sinne, be called the keeping of a Sabbath, as it is. Heb. 4. 9, 10, 11. Then may a certain set day be so called, for that therein we do not only hear and learn how to attain to the spirituall rest, but do especially on this day la­bour, through Gods grace, to expresse the performance of it in holy and spirituall exercises.

CHAP. V. In what circuit of time this day hath been kept, to weet, weekly, with the Reason thereof.

THere is a time for all things, saith Salomon, and no­thing [...] can be done but in time; therefore must we needs have a time for the service of Christ: which time is to be within the circuit of a week. Saint Chry­sostome telleth us, from Gen. 2. 3. that God hath instructed us to set apart one day within the compasse of every week for spiri­tuall exercises: whereto agreeth our Reverend Hooker, say­ing, In his Eccl. Pol. pag. [...]79. that we are bound to account the sanctification of one day in seven a duty, which Gods immutable Law doth exact for ever. Of this judgement, saith Bishop White, are divers Divines; Cyted by Mr. sprim on the Sab. pag. 17. and 34. many of good note in the Church of God, as Junius on Gen. 2. with others: whereto may be added Learned Zan­chius on the fourth Commandment, who saith, that one day of seven; all men are to consecrate to the externall worship of God. Pope Alexander said, that both the old and new Testa­ment Cyted by D. He [...]inca. 5. p. 2 depute the seventh day to rest. Our Church in the Ho­mily of Prayer teacheth us, that Gods will and Commandment was to have a solemn and standing day in the week, wherein the people should come together. But what need I seek herein for consent, when the whole Christian Church hath this 1600 yeers kept within this proportion of time: which Custome is a Law; for saith Saint Augustine, Mos populi Dei & in­stituta S. Aug ep. c. 86. Majorum pro legetenenda sunt.

Now this observation of a day within a week, is from Gods institution before the Law, from the Creation, who Gen. 2. having set down the dayes of a week, took one within the Exo. 20. circuit of the week for his publick worship, which he also commanded his people to observe under the Law; both which hath been proved in the two former Treatises. Now for the finding of proportion of time, who can better proportion it for himself than God himself? That is the fittest that can be imagined, Nature cannot but acknowledge his wisdom and good­nesse [Page 118] in his choyce, saith Master Dow. Hence is it, no doub [...], that Peter Martyr said, that one day of a week be consecrated pag. 24. 25. In loc. Com. ca 7 to Gods worship, is an ordinance of perpetuall force: and Reve­rend Bishop Lakes confidently averreth, that the seventh In his Th [...]sis. part of time is Gods ordinance, as everlasting as the world: for saith the same Father of our Church, the Lords day onely changeth, but altereth not the portion of time prescribed Luther. Dieterius on Dom. post Trin. Among the Scholemen Iacebus de Valen. and o­thers. St [...]ll [...] on Luke 14. Against Brab. pag. 151. by the fourth Commandment, by which we are guided to it: Yea some have held, that one day in seven is the morall part of the Commandment. Sure I am, there is acknowledged an equity in that Law durable for ever, both for a time, as also for the conveniency and sufficiency of time; to which equity it is consonant, saith Learned Bishop White, that one day in seven be an holy day, wherein Christian people ought to rest, and give themselves to religious exercises: who saith further, that the common and naturall equity of that Commandement is morall (to wit) that Gods people are pag. 90: obliged to observe a convenient and sufficient time for publick and solemne divine worship, and for religious and Ecclesiasticall duties: And abstinence from secular labour and negotiation, and keeping holy one day of every week, both for mans temporall and naturall refreshing, and for the spirituall good of his soul, is very agreeable both to naturall and religious equity, and it is groun­ded upon the ancient custom and practise of gods people in time of the Law. And we Christians having obtained a larger mea­sure of divine grace, and our obligation to serve God and Christ, upon his heavenly promises, being greater than in the time of the Iews: If in those former times of greater darknesse the Lords people observed a weekely Sabbath day; then surely we should be ungratefull, and negligent of our own salvation, if we yeld not to God a weekly day, or a sufficient time for his service as well as the Iews did? Thus you see how we agree in the proportion of time, one day in the week, according to Gods designation of time, and the equity of the Law.

CHAP. VI. Of the first day of the week; that it is the Lords day, and also the seventh day.

AS we must have a day within the week, so is it need­full to know which day in the week it is, which we are to observe for the Lords day, else should wee be uncertaine; for one would keep one day, and others another day.

In Scripture the first day in the week mentioned in Mat. 28. 1. Mark. 16. 2. 9. Luk. 24. 1. Joh. 20. 1. 19. Act. 20. 7. 1 Cor. 16. 2.) is that which is called in Rev. 1. 10. the Lords day: So saith S. August. the first day of the week is that day, Epig. 86. qui postea Dies Dominicus appellatus est: S. Cyrill affirmeth In Iohn lib. 8. cap. 58. Apost. 2. the very same. Our Sunday, saith Justine Martyr, is the first day of the week: Our Homily saith the first day after the Jewish Sabbath is our Sunday: It is our Lords day, said the Divines in Ireland. The former Scriptures are interpreted See the many Exposit. ci­ted by Master Spr. pag. 61. by all Expositors, the Fathers Greek and Latine, the later writers, Protestants and Papists, to bee the Lords day: It cannot well be d [...]nyed, saith B. White, that the first day of every week was the Christian weekly holy day; It is manifest, saith Doctor Pocklington, that the first day of the week is the Lords day: and to strengthen more this truth, learned Beza saith, that he hath read in a Manuscript, [...], added to the Text in 1 Cor. 16. 2. so Crispine in his Greek Lexicon.

This first day of the week hath beene observed for our Lords day ever, and no true Christian Church can be named that ever brake off the custome of this day. This universall unity of so Catholique a custome is sufficient to settle any Christian in his faith of this truth, that the first day of the week is the Lords day: For what better Expositor than the Churches continuall practice and observation, which must needs bee from a setled judgement of the truth of the time observed. Our Church telleth us in the Homily, that this custome hath beene kept in all ages, without any gaine-saying.

And although this day, after the Jewish account, bee the first day of the week, yet neverthelesse it keepeth the pro­portion of time, in the Commandement, the seventh part of a week, so as it may be called the seventh day, though not that seventh day, I say the seventh day. Let none here make a stir about the seventh and a seventh, for the seventh day, and not a seventh day, is the Sabbath of the Lord our God: for the particle the and not a is to bee prefixed to se­venth, and not only because of the six dayes in which the world was made, the dayes of the Creation (as is commonly and onely so supposed to bee taken) but for the donation of six dayes to us by God, and that in the promulgation of this Law, and Commandement, as is in the former Treatise shewed. Alwayes in counting of numbers, we our selves, in any ordinary number of seven, when six is ta­ken out, doe not say, there remaineth a seventh, but the seventh; for a should note an uncetainty, but the doth not.

God, of seventh dayes (for there are no more in a week, nor ever was) hath given us for ever irrevocably six of them for to labour in, and to doe all that wee have to doe, Exod. 20. 9. These dayes we take to our selves as Gods gift, from his words in the Law: Now if we have six of the seven cer­tainly knowne unto us, can we reasonably say a seventh is the Lords, or the seventh is his? A seventh may be spoken of whole numbers, where a certainty is not determined, nor pitched upon, nor taken out, but where the number is no more but seven in a week (as none heretofore, nor any now count more) there six being taken out for us, the seventh is left, as a certaine day not to bee doubted of, for the Lord. So as yet the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord our God, both by Gods donation of six to us, and our counting our dayes to come to the seventh, having taken to us the six.

For our first day of the week is Munday, and so wee ac­count forward to the Lords day, as the seventh day, and our Sabbath and resting day.

And most fit it is, that wee should still hold the seventh [Page 121] day for our Sabbath Dies domini­ca representat m [...]moriam Creation is mundi, non minus quam Sabbagim; nam die dominica incepit mundus fieri, unde Iustinus Apo. 2. Et Leo Epist. ad Dioscorum, dicunt diem dominicam colitam ob memoriam mundi Creationis, quàm ob resurrecti­onem Christi: Bellarm. de [...]l [...]u sanct. lib. 3. cap. 110., that we might, whilst we honour the Sonne in finishing the work of our redemption, not forget the honour of his Father for his perfecting of the work of the worlds Creation, and his resting from the same, which cannot bee by observing any other day, but the seventh day.

CHAP. VII. Of the time when this first day began to be the Lords day, and upon what ground.

THis first day observed, was the very first day im­mediately Mat. 28. 1. Mar. 16. 2. 9. Luke 24. 1. Iob. 20. 1. 19. Ad Magnes. after the Jewish Sabbath: so the Scrip­tures confirme it to us. whereto agreeth the exhor­tation of Ignatius, After the Sabbath, let every friend of Christ make the Lords day a solemne Festivall.

And the reason of this was, because of the Lords resur­rection, S. Aug. ad Ian. epi. 119. & 130. De verbo Apo. ser. 15. Epi. 93. by which the Lords day was declared to Christians, and from that time began to be celebrated: and in another place it is said, that the Lords Resurrection promised us an eternall day, and it did consecrate unto us the Lords day: And Leo saith the same, Dominicum diem nobis Salvatoris resur­rectio Lib. 8. c. 33. consecravit. In the constitutions of the Apostles it is Ca. 50. ordained to be kept holy in the memoriall of the resurrection; so a Councell held at Paris in Anno 829 ordeined the like. Bishop White alleadging reasons why the Lords day was Against Brab. pag. 269. 270. preferred before other weekly dayes, saith, that the Primi­tive Church could have made choyce of no other day of the week more proper and convenient for the solemne and religious worship and service of Christ: Great was this work, saith Athanasius, [...]. for we doe celebrate it, as a memoriall of the beginning of a new Creation: Yea, ob excellentiam tanti miraculi propriè In Ps. 23. dies Dominica appellatur, saith another. And indeed the work of the day is the ground, saith Bishop Lakes, of the hal­lowing In T [...]esis 46. 43. 45. [Page 122] of the day, whether it be weekly, monthly, or yeerly; as particulars evince in Scriptures and Stories; now when God doth any rare, great, and remarkeable workes, hee will be honoured with a Commemoration day, for that work; if the work concerne the whole, by the whole Church, and by a part, if it concerne a part: by which practice or work, Gods will is understood, which guideth the Church, where the precept is wanting. This is a sacred rule observeable in the institution of all sacred Feasts, both divine and humane, saith that Father.

Now God raising Christ from the dead, upon the first day of the week, this remarkable work, was to have that day, a day of Commemoration, above and before all other.

1 Because it was the first notable work of God, im­mediately following the Jewish Sabbath; which being to cease, the next glorious work of God following, must needs bee the ground of another Festivall; and in stead of the other, for it is a rule in mortality (saith the reve­rend Father Bishop Lakes, that none in reason can deny due respect unto the worke, and therefore cannot deny the hal­lowing of the day, to wit, on which it was wrought.

2 The raising up of Christ from the dead, declared him mightily to bee the sonne of God, Rom. 1. 4. God fulfilling hereby to the children, the promise made to their Fathers, hee being manifest thus to be the Sonne of God, his begotten Sonne in the day of his resurrection, as the Conquerour of hell, death, the power of the grave, and of Satans Dominion, Act. 13. 31. 32. 13. and pre­ferred above men and Angels, Heb. 1. 5.

3 This is the work above all others, which the Scrip­ture so often mentioneth for the Fathers glory in his Son, in that he raised him up from the dead, Rom. 1. 4. Gal. 1. 5. Act. 2. 24. 32. & 3. 26 & 4. 10. & 10. 40. and in many other Scriptures.

4 This is it by which Jesus is made both Lord and Christ, to sit upon the throne of David, Act. 20. 30, 31, 36.

[Page 123] 5 It is the work of our perfect redemption, and full ju­stification, Rom. 4. 25.

6 This was the act which to beare witnesse of, he prin­cipally chose his Apostles, Act. 10. 41. & 1. 22. which work the Apostles first taught to the Jewes, Act. 2. and to the Gentiles, Act. 10. and for which they first chiefly suffered.

7 This is the act on which dependeth all our comfort, and without assurance whereof S. Paul telleth us, his preaching was in vaine, and our faith in vaine, 1 Cor. 15. 14. and so our Christianitie nothing worth.

8 This his resurection was to his Apostles and Disciples full of comfort: and that which is most joyfull to all Christians, for our justification, Rom. 4. 25. as also for the hope of our eternall salvation, 1 Pet. 1. 3. & 3. 21. for if Christ had not risen, wee had beene all in our sinnes, 1 Cor. 15. 17. his birth, his life, his suffering had done us no good.

Therefore from the beginning hath the Church held this ever for the most remarkable work of Christ, and to keep this day Festivall, on which hee arose from the dead.

For that it being the most remarkable work of God, next and immediately after the Jewish Sabbath, as I said, it re­quired a Festivall, and that within the space of a week, within which space God from the creation reserved a day to himselfe; and its not fit, that under the Gospel, so glori­ous a work of our redemption by Christs resurrection, for the restauration of the world, should be more seldome re­membred upon a set day, then was the work of creation of the world before and under the Law.

CHAP. VIII. Of the divers opinions concerning the beginning and ending of the Lords day: and wherein conscience may rest it selfe.

THere are divers opinions about the beginning and ending of this our Christian Sabbath.

Some hold it from midnight, to midnight; this is the judgement of very learned Divines: some say it beginneth in the Morning, and so holdeth on till the next Morning; not many of this opinion, as being weakest, and farthest from the truth. Some hold it to be­gin at the Evening, and to end at the Evening: and of this judgment are many ancient Fathers, and sundry Councels. And the ancient observation of the Saturday in the after­noone, as a preparative thereto, may seeme to confirme as much.

But I am perswaded, if we keep the day from the Mor­ning to the Evening, the consciences of men neede not trouble them about any other curious search: So that there be a religious preparation to it, and a religious care in ending of it, not rushing into it with unsanctified hearts, nor concluding it with profanesse: For the nights are gi­ven for bodily rest, and the day for labour (as the Psalmist speaketh) When the Sunne ariseth, man goeth forth to his la­bours and work, untill the Evening, Psal. 104. 22. 23. When the night commeth no man can work, saith our Saviour, Joh. 9. 4. Now a day for labour amongst the Jewes was twelve houres, Joh. 11. 9. from six to six, Matt. 20. 1. 2. 8. but otherwise it was from the beginning of the Mor­ning light, Gen. 1. 5. to the darke of the Evening, Judg. 10. 9. 14. 16. Joh. 8. 29. Prov. 7. 9. And wee see in the fourth Commandement that albeit, as it is held, a naturall day doth comprehend the night and day, yet is that time only mentioned in which men are to labour, and to doe all that they have to doe, in the six dayes, which is on the day time, and not in the night. And so, as they do well who [Page 125] labour painfully and honestly in the day light, and take the night for their quiet repose and rest in the six dayes: In like manner do they well, who religiously serve the Lord Christ in the light of the day, though the night before, and the night after, they thankfully take benefit of the same for corporall rest. Neither doe we read, that any were complay­ned of, or punished, as breakers of the Sabbath; but for their transgression and sinne committed in the day time. Our Saviour Christ honoured this our Lords day, with his visible presence among his Disciples and followers on the day time: At the Sun rising early in the morning, Mark. 16. 2. 9. then after in the afternoone, continuing till the day was farre spent towards the Evening, Luk. 24. 29. John 20. 19. upon the same day at supper time; yea, I con­fesse it is probable to bee somewhat late within the Eve­ning, and that space properly called the beginning of the night, but not farre within. And wee read how the Jewes on the day time kept their Sabbath, and God appointed his service in the Tabernacle and the Temple from Mor­ning to the Evening sacrifice, and had no sacrifices in the night time. And thus was the Lords day kept, except up­on some extraordinarie occasions, as in Acts 20. 27. and as afterwards in the time of bloody persecution, but not in setled dayes of peace.

Quest. Here some may aske, Are we then to be carelesse and regardlesse of the night before, and the Evening after?

Answ. Not so: for on other dayes we begin the Mor­ning with prayer for a blessing, unlesse we look for none; and end it in the Evening with prayse and thanksgiving, if we be not unthankfull. If thus we doe, as we ought, on the week dayes, than much more on the Lords day, set apart for holy duties: The night of which day before, and the Evening after, are to bee more piously considered of, than the like times of the week dayes. Our Saturday halfe holy day, our Evening Prayer, as a preparative to the Sabbath, teach us to enter upon the Sabbath holily, and to take the nights rest, not onely for repairing strength of body for labour, as on working dayes, but to bee more [Page 126] fit to doe service and worship unto God, without drowzi­nesse of spirit: And in the end of the day, to behave our selves so, as it may appeare wee have received a spirituall blessing that day, and have increased in knowledge and other holy graces, in the use of Gods holy ordinance.

CHAP. IX. The authority is divine by which it was established.

THis our Lords day can have no lesse than di­vine authoritie for it.

1 Whether it bee conceived to bee foun­ded upon the perpetuall equitie of the fourth Commandement, as is made manifest in the former Treatise, and by that which is said in the first chapter of this. Nor is this any new conception in these our now present dayes: For of this some began to think 600 yeeres agoe, as Doctor Heylin acknowledgeth: but no doubt it was before, for else how could the whole Church In his Hist. o [...] the Sabbath pag. 132. of Christ retaine the fourth Commandement in the Deca­logue, without application to a weekly solemne day, seeing the substance of the Commamdenent is concerning the obser­vation of a rest day for his worship and service every week? whereto else could; they properly and directly apply it, and hold the intention of the will of God in giving his said Law? And if it have no ground from the Commandement, how is it, that in our Homily it is said, wee have Gods ex­presse Commandement to keep it? and lest the Makers of these Homilies might be thought to mistake, they often mention the Commandement: now what other this is than the fourth I desire to know: And let any tell me, in a minde affected with the love of the truth, and not in a contra­dicting spirit, how it truly can bee said, that the Church of Christ hath kept, or rather not broken the said Comman­dement, now these 1600 yeers, if it hath not been observed in our weekly Lords day?

2 Or whether we take the observation of this day, to have its ground from Scripture, as well we may: for this po­sition, [Page 127] that Dies dominicus nititur verbo Dei, was publick­ly maintained by a Doctor at the Commencement in Cam­bridge, in Anno 1603. and by the Vice Chancellour so determined, nor was then opposed by any other Doctors, nor in the Universitie of Oxford any Antithesis put up against it: Neither was there just cause why, for is it not cal­led the Lords day, Rev. 1. 10. and are not also the Christian meetings mentioned on this day in Act. 20. 7. & in 1 Cor. 11. 20 where it is said, When yee therefore are gathered together (in die Domini nostri) on our Lords day, as the ancient Syriack Translation hath it? Sure it is that long since Clotaire Leg. Aleman tit. 39. ap. Brisson. King of France grounded his Edict, about the keeping of this day, upon the Law and holy Scripture. So Charles the great, King of France, in Anno 789 had the same ground in his regall Edict, saying, Statuimus secundum quod in lege Dominus praecepit: And likewise Leo the Emperour of Con­stantinople, Constit. 54. called Phylosophus, in Anno 886 seeking to re­forme abuses upon the Lords day, in his Constitution de­clared, that what he had in that behalfe determined, was, secundum quod Spiritui Sancto, ab ipsoque institutis Apostolis plaucit, according to the minde of the Holy Ghost, and of the Apostles instructed by him.

Now may it reasonably bee thought, that such great Princes should without the advice of the Learned Clergy in those dayes, lay downe such grounds for their procee­dings, considering how Charles the Great caused five se­verall Synods at one time to bee assembled about the same? Scripture there is for it, and so then held: And therefore the keeping of this day is of divine authority.

3 Or whether wee understand Divine, according to that judicious man, the Authour of the Antidote against Sabbath errours, That which may bee by humane discourse upon reasons of congruitie, probably deduced from the word of God, as a thing most conveniently to bee observed, by all such as desire unfeinedly to order their wayes according to Gods holy will: As also it may be proved from equitie, either in the Law of nature, or by vertue of divine institution, or by some Analogy and proportion which the Lawes given to [Page 128] the Jews, so far as reason and equity hold alike, or by some pro­bable insinuations thereof in the new Testament, whereto adde the continuall practice of the Church; for as he saith, Lex cur­rit cum praxi: then may it be said to be de jure divino. Now all these do, as he granteth (and may fully be proved, and easily discerned, from that which hath been said in the two former Treatises, and what in this is already, and shall be delivered) in some measure concurre for the observation of the weekly Sabbath; and therefore is established upon di­vine authority.

4 Or whether we maintaine it to be an institution Aposto­licall, as many do, it is divine: We beleeve, saith that Father of our Church, Bishop White, that the holy Apostles ordained Against Brab. pag. 189. the Sunday to be a weekly holy day, and he addeth his reason, because the primitive Fathers, who lived some of them in the Apostles dayes, and others of them immediatly after, and who succeeded them in the Apostolicall Churches, did universally De bap. contr. Donat. l. 4. c. 23 maintaine the religious observation of this day: For saith Saint Augustine, Quod universalitertenet Ecclesia, nec Conciliis in­stitutum, sed semper retentum est, non nisi authoritate Aposto­lica traditum, rectissimè creditur. Saint Chrysostome affirmeth On 1. Cor. Hom. 43. it, that the Lords day was made a weekly holy day by the Apo­stles: Who, saith Bishop White, at sometimes observed this day themselves, Act. 20. 7. Saint Basill and Isichius numbers Against Brab. pag. 213. the observation of the Lords day among Apostolicall tradi­tions, and Saint Augustine proveth it by his former generall In his Ser. p. 24 see also more rule, saith the same Father, Bishop White. Doctor Pockling­ton saith, that Saint Paul had ordered in Galatia and Corinth, that his Disciples were to have their meetings on the first day of the week, whereunto they submitted themselves, and so did, saith In pag. 5. he, the whole Church of God by their example for ever after; He telleth us also, that the Apostles and Disciples of Christ thought it fit to appoint, and command the day to be kept holy: And, indeed, in the place of 1. Cor. 16. 2. is a plain A­postolicall ordinance, which carrieth the force of a Com­mandment, In Gen. 2. 3. on f [...]urth Com. as Piscator noteth; and Bishop Hooper, which albeit it be about a Collection, yet he appointeth it upon the first day of the week. And heare for this what the Learned [Page 129] Bishop White saith of this place: Although this text of Saint Against Brab. 211. Paul make no expresse mention of Church-assemblies this day, yet because it was the Custome of Christians, and likewise a thing convenient to give almes upon the Church-dayes, it cannot well be gainsaid, but that, if in Corinth and Galatia, the first day of every week was appointed to be the day for almes and charitable contributions; the same was also the Christians weekly holy day for their religious assemblies.

This opinion for the Apostolicall tradition, as it hath the fuffrage of the ancient, so of later writers, men very Learned: Beza saith it is Apostolicae & verae divin [...] traditionis. Apostoli, In Rev. 1. 10. In Gen. Rhem. on Rev. 1. 10. Hos. confes. Rom. Catech. on 3. Com. Ielisins fol. 292. Cat. Rom. on 3. precept. Bell. Tom 1. de cult. sancto li. 3. ca. 10. 11. with o­thers cited by Sprint. pag. 13. saith Mercer, in Dominicum diem converterunt, to wit, the Sabbath: Hereto agree many Papistes, who hold that the Lords day was established by the Apostles, and that Jussu Dominico, as some say, by Christs Commandment: And that these places Act. 20. 7. 1. Cor. 16. 1. Rev. 1. 10. do manifestly confirm the same; Doctor Heylin acknow­ledgeth without doubting, that the religious observation of this day had the approbation and authority of the Apostles, and may very well be accounted amongst Apostolicall traditions.

Now their authority is no lesse than divine. 1. Because they were instructed by Jesus Christ himselfe in all things which he heard from his Father, John 15. 15. who gave them Commandments concerning the Kingdom of God, by the infusion of his spirit, to make them receive the same, Act. 1. 2. Secondly, For that they had this holy spirit to guide them in­to all truth, John 16. 13. in teaching, both for matter, Act. 2. 4. 14. and 4. 8. and manner, 1. Cor. 2. 13. Act. 2. 4. In answering Adversaries Matth. 10. 20. Mar. 13. 11. Luk. 12. 12. In resolving doubts, Act. 10. 19. and 11. 12. In decreeing Canons, and judging of Controversies, for set­ling of mens minds in the Church, Act. 15. 28. In rebuke­ing sharply the wicked Act. 13. 9. In ordering matters in the Congregation, 1. Cor. 14. 37. with cap. 7. 13. In ordi­nation of Ministers, whom they ordained in every Church, Act. 14. 23. and these so ordained by them, are said to be set over the people by the Holy Ghost, Act. 20. 28. no doubt, be­cause the holy Apostles were guided by the Holy Ghost in [Page 130] such ordinations: yea, in their advice about things indifferent they had assistance of Gods spirit, 1. Cor. 7. 40. Now then put all these things together, can it be imagined, that the A­postles observing this day, Act. 20. 7. and setting a glorious title upon it, Rev. 1. 10. that it can be other than divine, they guided herein by the Holy Ghost? who ordained also upon this day, the first day of the week, to prepare for the poor: and why on this day? because; as Bishop White saith, it was the Christians weekly holy-day: which being, as is afore wit­nessed, Apostolicall, and the Apostles so in all things guided by the holy Ghost, this day must needs be of Divine authority.

This the Church of Auspurg, Act. 7. confesseth, that the day was changed by Apostolicall authority, directed by the spirit.

Lastly, as it is in these respects of Divine authority, so far­ther also, because it hath Jesus Christ the Institutor of it: Of which in the next Chapter.

CHAP. X. It is of divine authority from Christ himselfe.

THis sacred day is of so divine authority, as that by many reasons it may be proved to be appointed by Christ himselfe: To hold this is neither a Novelty, nor a tenent of singularity. Apol. 2. [...]. In frontes. Hom. de Semente. Wallaeus citeth other Test. in his dis. de. Sab. See Wil [...]et his Synop. Pap. fol. 500.

1. It is no novelty, for Justine Martyr saith, that the A­postles received it from Christ: Athanasius telleth us, that the solemnity of the Sabbath was translated unto the Lords day, by the Lord himselfe, who sheweth at large, that it is of Christs institution, from the words of Matth. 28. 18. All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth: It is said in the constitution of the Emperour Leo, that the Lord himselfe did chuse it for his honour.

2. It is no singular opinion, for it hath the assent of many learned men; Junius on Gen. 2. saith, it is not by humane tradition, sed ipsius Christi observatione & instituto: Tilenus [Page 131] in Synt. Loc. 44. pag. 276. holds it to bee ab ipso Christo in­stitutus. Bishop Andrews, in his Sermon on the resurrecti­on, pag. 529. saith, how can it be the Lords day, but that the Lord made it? Bishop Lakes in his Sermon on the Eucha. saith, that Christ did substitute the Lords day in the place of the Jewish Sabbath: Doctor Fulk. on Rev. 1. 10. affirmeth, that it is a necessary prescription of Christ himselfe: Of this judgement is Doctor Lindsey Bishop of Brechen, in his preface to the assembly at Perth in Scotland, and many other Divines: And the Arguments to prove it are these following.

Argument 1.

THe day which the Lord made, he is the Authour and [...] sig­nifieth to ad­vance, 1 Sam. 12. 6. so to ob­serve and ce­lebrate, Schin­delerus in his Dict. De Sa [...]. & cir­cumcis. so doth the B. of Ely. D. Andr. so Pro­copius on Gen. 1. Epi. 119. ca 13. ad Ian. Institutor of: But this day which is the day of his re­surrection Psal. 118. 24. is the day which the Lord hath made, it is honoured and preferred before other dayes to be observed and celebrated, therefore he is the Institutor of it. This day Athanasius understandeth of the Lords day, the day of his resurrection, as doth S. Peter, who alleadgeth this Psalme for Christ after his resurrection, Act. 4. 10, 11. and indeed, as the Psalmist saith, it is the day in which wee should rejoyce and bee glad above all other dayes, because of his resurrection, by which saith S. Augustine, Dies Domi­nicus Christianis declaratus est, & ex illo habere caepit festi­vitatem suam.

Argument 2.

WHatsoever in holy writ is said to be the Lords deno­minatively, The altering of the name of the day, argu­eth the Sab­bath was alte­red, D. Pri­deaux pag. 29. that is he the Author and Institutor of: As for instance, the Lords Supper, and the Lords Table, be­cause he ordeined it, 1 Cor. 11. 20. & 10. 21. The Sabbath of the Lord, because he commanded it: the Tem [...]le of the Lord, because he appointed it: the people of the Lord, because he chose them: the Lords messengers, because he sends them: Apostles of Christ, because he put them into that office. No instance can bee given to shew the contrary: But this day is denominatively called the Lords, Rev. 1. 10. and so [Page 130] [...] [Page 131] [...] [Page 132] in the first of Cor. 16. 2. as Beza noteth on the same place, affirming as I have before delivered it, that to explaine the first day he had read in uno vetusto codice [...], which title is very frequent in the Fathers, calling it usually Diem Dominicum, the Lords day; not by Creation, for so every day is his from the beginning, nor is it so called by Destination, as is the last day, 1 Thes. 5. 2. as then and yet now a day to come hereafter; when our Lords day was then so called by an excellency, as also famously at that time knowne in the Church for the Lords day, as the day of their solemne assemblies.

Therefore it is so called by divine institution, for divine worship, and as it hath Jesus Christ for the Authour and Institutor of it.

Argument 3.

IF God, by resting from his work of Creation, and his blessing of that seventh day, made it an holy day for his solemne set worship and service: Then Jesus Christ his resting from the work of redemption, and his blessing of this day, made it an holy day for his solemne set worship and service: For there is the like excellency in the resting of God the Son, and the blessing of his day, as there was in the resting of God the Father, and his blessing of that seventh day: Christ his work of the worlds redemption and the renovation there­of, the making of all things new, a new heaven, and a new 2 Cor. 5. 13. earth, as was foretold, Esa. 65. 17. is equall with the Fa­thers work of Creation: and in the rest of the one, and of the other, can there be no inequallity nor disproportion. The Sonnes blessing likewise of this day is of no lesse excellency, than the Fathers blessing of that day, which blessing of his is not in the particulars expressed, but the Sonnes blessing of this day is, and that at large in many particulars.

First, by his glorious resurrection, by which the Lords day So S. Aug. de Civit. Dei, lib. 22. cap. 30. Lt Scr. 15. de verb. Apost. became sacred and consecrated to us.

Secondly, by his severall apparitions for confirmation thereof.

Thirdly, by his heavenly instructions, Luk. 24. 25.

Fourthly, by the illumination of their mindes, opening their understandings, Luk. 24. 45.

Fifthly, by the inspiration of the holy Ghost, Iohn 20. 22.

Sixthly, by the installation of the Apostles, giving them power to binde and loose in heaven and in earth: Iohn 20. 28.

Seventhly, by his mission in great dignity, sending them, even as his Father had sent him, Iohn 20. 21.

All which blessings Christ bestowed on them this day be­fore his ascension; and afterwards on this day he sent down Act. 2. his holy spirit extraordinarily after a visible manner upon his Apostles, made them speak miraculously with new tongues, to the amazement of the hearers: and on this selfe same day he blessedly converted 3000 soules, Act. 2. 41. and so began on this day his Church to be a separated visible Congregation from among both lews and Gentiles: Lastly, on this day he gave his heavenly Revelation to his beloved Apostle, who was in the spirit upon this day to receive the vision, Reve. 1. 10. Thus we see how Christ did blesse this day.

But God the Father by his resting from the work of crea­tion, and his blessing of that seventh day, made it an holy day for his solemn set worship and service, as the Scripture teach­eth, Gen. 2. 2. and very learned Divines do maintaine for truth: Doctor Rivet cyteth 36 by name, and their own words In disser. de orig. Sab. for it, to this purpose.

Therefore Iesus Christ his resting from the work of re­demption, and his so blessing of this our day, hath made it an holy day for his solemn set time of worship and service.

Argument. 4.

THat which Christ, through the holy Ghost, spake by way of Command to be observed, that he is the Institu­tor of: this I hope will not be denyed: But Iesus Christ by the holy Ghost spake by way of Command, that this day should be observed: For the things appertayning to the king­dome [Page 134] of God, he gave Commandments to his Apostles to be taught and observed, Act. 1. 2, 3. But the day of Christs re­surrection, and the worship therein performed, as it was in the Apostles dayes, and after (as may be collected out of the Scripture, and out of the writings of Justine Martyr, and Ter­tullian) is of those things which do appertaine to the king­dome of God. Therefore he commanded it to be observed, and so was the Institutor of it.

Obj. If any object and say, that this day was not expressed by Commandment,

Ans. I answer, no more are any other of those Com­mandments which in Act. 1. 2. he is said to give, nor any particulars of the things he spake, which appertained to the kingdome of God. And therefore we cannot seclude this day out of the Commandements given by Christ, because not ex­pressed, no more than we can deny other things appertaining to the kingdome of God to be commanded, because they are not expressely mentioned, till it can be proved, that the keep­ing of this day to the honour of Christ in his publicke wor­ship, is none of the things which pertaine to the kingdome of God.

I answer againe, that albeit it is not expressed, yet must it be comprehended within these Commandements: For these Commandements here given, Act. 1. 2. are of those which Christ would have his Disciples to teach his people, that enter into the Church by Baptisme, to observe, Matt. 28. 18. 20. Now we finde the Church to observe this day Act. 20. 7. 1. Cor. 16. 2. The Apostle also to be an observer of it with them, Act. 20. 7. prescribing duties to them on this day, 1. Cor. 16. 1. 2. when they did meet together, 1. Cor. 5. 4. and 11. 20. which was on the Lords day, as the Syriack hath it, as is before noted. And the Apostle telleth the Corinthi­ans, that the things he wrote unto them were the Comman­dements of God, 1. Cor. 14. 37. And it is acknowledged of all, that the whole Catholick Church from that time, till this day hath duly observed the same. Therefore is it one of those things commanded by Christ to be observed and taught by his Apostles, which the whole world hath so religiously kept [Page 135] hitherto: And it will not bee denied, that such an univer­sall religious observation can have any lesse ground for it, than the authority of God himselfe, being so unanimously kept in all ages for these 1600 yeeres without gaine-saying, as our Homily avoucheth very plainely.

Argument 5.

EIther himselfe instituted this day for his publick wor­ship, or left it to others to appoint it, for that end: But he left it not to others: Therefore he instituted it him­selfe for his publick worship.

That he left it not to others to institute, wee may thus reason.

1 God his Father, when he had ordained his worship, did not leave to Moses, nor to Israel his Church, to appoint a solemn day for it, but he himselfe instituted it, Exod. 20. 8.

When the Idolaters in Israel, Exod. 32. did invent a worship, they that invented it, instituted a day for it, verse 5.

Jeroboam devised a worship, which when he had done, he ordained a day for it, 1 King. 12. 32. 33. So did Ne­buchadnezzar devise an Idoll, and a worship for it, and ap­pointed the dedication, and day of the solemne worship, Dan. 3. 2.

The miscreant Prophet Mahomet, as hee gave a Law, and prescribed a worship, so hee himselfe instituted his day for the same, and did not leave it to the arbitrary will and pleasure of his Worshippers to ordaine and appoint.

Therefore from all this I conclude, unlesse Christ should doe as his Father did, and be lesse carefull of a day for the solemnitie of his set worship, than the very Idolaters, hee must bee the Institutor of this day, which we observe to him: For it cannot be proved that at any time, in any age of the world, that any publick worship was ever invented to be observed, but the very Authour and Inventor there­of was also himselfe the Institutor of the day for that worship, not leaving it to any others will to appoint the same for him.

[Page 136] 2 If Christ left it to others, as to his Apostles, then either before his ascension during his abode with them, which is absurd to conceit, or after his ascension; if any doe think so, then it will follow, that from his re­surrection to his ascension, the space of six weeks, the Church had no set day under Christ publickly to doe him solemne service. For the other seventh day hee took away by his lying that whole day in the grave: so that, if he appointed no other day for it himselfe, the Church had then for that space no such day: But as I have proved, Christ blessed the day of his resurrection, and in this space from his resurrecti­on to his ascension, the Apostles and Church observed it. And therefore he ordeined it, and left it not to them.

3 Wee are to understand, that there are some circum­stances about Gods worship, which he hath ever reserved to his own authoritie, and never left them determinable to any, but to himselfe: such bee these which doe concurre about the observation of the Lords day.

The first circumstance of this kinde is, that which con­cerneth the very substance, for time of performing of pub­lick worship, whether one day in a yeere, in a moneth, in a week, or whether a part, or some few houres of the day, be to be set apart for his service, or the whole day bee his. The determination of this time, is substantiall, and God alwayes appointed the same: as the ordaining of the Sab­bath day, and other holy dayes set apart by God, doe ma­nifest.

The second circumstance, is that whereof there is no rea­son to sway or guide the judgement this way, or that way, but the will of God must bee needfull to the determining of it. Such a circumstance is the proportioning of time, and rest on the Lords day for Gods service: For if reason could re­gulate it, then should it bee the Law of nature, but by his written Law, and revealed will, hath God or­dered it.

The third circumstance, is that which is of universall ob­servation by all, which none but God can impose by his su­preme authoritie, to which all are alike equally subject. And [Page 137] such an universall circumstance is this for observation of this day, by all Christian people, and by the generall consent of the whole Church of Christ, in all ages. Therefore this day was not left to the Apostles to be determined, but ap­pointed by Christ himselfe.

Undoubtedly Christ would imitate his Father, and set a day for his publick worship, as he did: And can we suppose our Lord Jesus Christ, to bee lesse carefull than the Tur­kish Mahomet, or other Idoll Worshippers, in ordaining a solemn day for his publick service?

But if this day which we observe be not of his appoint­ment, then have wee none; for all other dayes are the ordinances of the Church, and observed only by humane authoritie.

4 That which the Apostles did observe, not only by in­spiration, but by way of injunction and command from Christ here on earth, through the Holy Ghost, that hee ordained, and left it not to them to ordaine: But the Apo­stles did observe the Lords day not only by inspiration, but by way of injunction and commandement from Christ here on earth, through the Holy Ghost: And therefore he left it not to his Apostles.

The Minor is thus proved from Act. 1. 2. where it is said, that Christ Jesus, through the Holy Ghost, gave Com­mandements to his Apostles, in which Commandements is included the Lords day, as before is proved: which Com­mandement with the rest, he gave them through the Holy Ghost (that is) he in giving them, did convey his holy Spirit into them, to make them to understand them, to retaine them in memory, to make conscience to observe them, and to teach others to observe them as commanded from him: for so much these words, through the Holy Ghost, import, when hee gave them Commandements, and spake of the things pertaining to the Kingdome of God: So that through the Holy Ghost here is not meant, as afterwards the divine inspiration of the Spirit directing them, as occasion served, to ordaine things expedient and profitable for the Churches of Christ, which he himselfe immediately commanded not; [Page 138] but left them to them, as by the wisdome of his spirit, they should be informed.

But here is to be understood, the then operation of his Spi­rit upon them to receive the Commandemets, which at that present in his own person he gave them, which they should observe, and teach others to observe, as his own Commande­ments, and as he himselfe had charged them to doe in Matt. 28. 20. when (as here in Acts 1.) he was to depart from them, and to ascend up to his Father. Of other things after Christs ascension, the Apostles spake from the Holy Ghost by way of inspiration, but of all these things before his ascension, from the Holy Ghost by way of injunction, and Commandement of Christ. Note this well.

Argument 6.

IF Christ himselfe did institute a day for his solemn wor­ship under the Law, then he did institute such a day under the Gospel: But he did so under the Law: Ergo, now under the Gospel. The sequel is apparant, because he is as faith­full, and as carefull for his people now, as then; Now that under the Law hee instituted a day for his publick worship, we must know that he was among the Israelites in the wil­dernesse, 1 Cor. 10. 9. for hee was the Angel on Mount-Sinai, who spake with Moses, Acts 7. 38. even the Lord Jehovah, Exod. 19. 3. 21. for the whole Trinitie gave the Law then. The Father by voyce uttered it, the Holy Ghost wrore it, Exod. 31. 18. for he is the finger of God, Luk. 11. 20. compared with, Matth. 12. 28. and Jesus Christ the Mediator gave by Angels to Moses, the two Tables to Gal. 3. bee delivered to Israel; in which a Commandement was written for a solemne set day for divine worship: Thus did Christ then, and so may wee beleeve his care had for his Church now, till the eternall Sabbath doth come in the highest heavens.

Argument 7.

WHatsoever was prefigured in the old Testament to be of use in the new, that was instituted by Christ [Page 139] when hee came: for the Text, Col. 2. 17. telleth us plainly that the body of those shaddowes is of Christ, (that is) he finished them, he fulfilled them, he did ordaine other things for them. The truth of this might be shewed in particular instances of those shaddowes, but that it is fully laid open by others. But this day the first day of the week called the Lords day was prefigured.

First, by the eighth day of circumcision, S. Augustine Epi. ad Ian. 119. cap. 13. Ad [...]idum. lib. 3. Epist. 10. & 59 Edit. sec. proveth that by it out Lords day was shaddowed; S. Cyprian saith that circumcision was commanded on the eighth day, as a Sacrament of the eighth day, that Christ should rise from the dead.

Secondly, Ignatius saith, it was foreseene in certaine Ignat. ad. Mag­nes. titles of the Psalmes superscribed pro octava the eighth: So hereto agreeth Saint Augustine in his fifteenth Sermon de verbis Apost.

Thirdly, by memorable things done on the first day of Welph. Cron. de tempore li. 2, c. 2. the week, as Wolphius noteth out of an Hebrew Writer of a book called Sedar olam Rabba, chap. 7. as that the cloud of Gods Majesty on this day first sate on Gods people: Aaron and his children first executed their Priesthood; God first solemnly blessed his people: The Princes of his people first offered publickly to God. The first day where­in fire descended from heaven: The first day of the world, of the yeere, of the week, &c. All shaddowing that it should bee the first and chiefe day of the New Testa­ment.

Therefore this day, thus prefigured, to bee of use in the New Testament, was instituted by Christ, when hee came in the flesh: which first day of the week, as it was the first day of time, mentioned in the beginning of the first book of the Bible, so is it mentioned with a glorious Gen. 1 5. Title of the Lords day, in the beginning of the last book of the Bible, to the prayse of our Alpha and Omega Jesus Christ.

Argument 8.

IF the seventh day was by Gods immediate institution, then was the change of it into our Sunday by Jesus Christ his immediate institution: But the antecedent is true, Gen. 2. 2. Exod. 20. Ergo the consequent. For no religious change hath ever beene made of any ordinance of God im­mediately prescribed by him, but by God himselfe, and by his own immediate authority: for if the institution be imme­diate by him, the change into another must be by the like immediate authority also: for he that ordaineth, hath onely power to alter.

1. Man cannot change such an odinance; for, first it is complained of as a sinne, for the people to change Gods ordi­nance, Esa. 24. 5. The Jewish Church, in the time of Christ, and after, held it blasphemy to teach, that it was lawfull for Christ to change the customes of Moses, because they took (but mistook) him to be but a meere man. Secondly, if any but God have authority to change his owne ordinance immediately appointed by himselfe, then that authority is equall with Gods. But there is no such authority, nor ever was (Jesus Christ excepted) upon the earth: The whole Church, if gathered into one place, is of no such authority: And if unstable man could alter such an immediate ordi­nance of God, what stability could there then be in them? or what tie of our consciences?

2. All religious changes of every ordinance of Gods owne immediate institution hath ever beene immediate by God himselfe, and no instance can be shewed to the contrary in holy writ.

The Tabernacle was of Gods owne immediate appoint­ment, Exod. 25. 40. when it was changed, and the Temple erected in stead of it; this Temple was of Gods owne imme­diate appointment. David minding to build it, and Nathan 2 Sam. 7. 2, 3. approving his intention (but without command from God) was after prohibited, 2 Sam. 7. 5. Neither left he it to the wisdome of Salomon, but the Lord gave the patterne, 1 Chro. 28. 11, 12, 19.

The first borne the Lord did chuse for himselfe; when the Levites were taken for them, it was of God himselfe, Numb. 3. 12.

The time of celebrating the Passeover, was the fourteenth day of the first month by God himselfe, Exod. 12. 6. which time durst not Moses dispense with, nor allow any other day for some to keep it, without Gods immediate warrant, Numb. 9. 8. 11. Times and seasons are in Gods hand, Act. 1. 10. Dan. 2. 21. therefore for the month Tishri he appoin­ted Nisan for the first month of the yeare, Exod. 12. 2. And Antiochus Epiphanes (a type of Antichrist) is condemned for changing times, Dan. 7. 25. Thus wee see Gods ordi­nances, for places, for persons, and for time, being immedi­ately appointed by God, cannot bee changed but by God. Therefore the seventh day, being the immediate institution of God, could not be changed into another day, as now it is, but immediately by God himselfe even by Jesus Christ, who is God blessed for ever, Rom. 9. 5. who when he was come in the flesh, changed the place, Joh. 4. 20, 21. the Law, and Priesthood, Heb. 7. into the ministery of the Gospel: Priests and Levites, Esa. 66. 21. into Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, and others, Eph. 4. The carnall worship into spirituall, Joh. 4. 23. Circumcision and the Passeover, into Baptisme and the Lords Supper; and that seventh day into this our Sunday, the Lords day.

Argument 9.

THe Lord of the Sabbath is the only Institutor of the Sabbath: But Jesus Christ is the Lord of the Sabbath, Mat. 12. 8. Ergo the only Institutor of it. Now for the better understanding of Christ his being Lord of the Sab­bath, we must know three things.

1 How he is Lord of the Sabbath, and that is, as he is God-Man, and Man-God; for it is said in the Text, The Sonne of man is Lord of the Sabbath.

2 Whence he hath this Lordship; even from God his Fa­ther, who hath given him the Kingdome, all power in hea­ven, and in earth, Mat. 28. 18. delivering all things into [Page 142] his hands, John 13. 3. and 3. 35. Luk. 10. 22. having committed all judgement to his sonne, and made him both Lord and Christ, John 5. 22. Act. 2. 36.

3 How long he holdeth this his Lordship, Rule and Domi­nion, even till the consummation of all things, till God be all in all, never laying it down untill all things be fulfilled, 1 Cor. 15. 24. 28.

Therefore is he yet the Lord of the Sabbath, the Sabbath is his till the worlds end, and hee retaineth his right still therein; his right in the fourth Commandement, which right must bee shewed, either in retaining of the seventh day, on which God rested, and to which the Commande­ment was accommodated till his second comming by the change of it, or in his substituting another day in steed thereof.

But we see that seventh day altered, and therefore hee sheweth himselfe Lord of the Sabbath, by appointing this his day; for else should the other have remained under the Gospel, or if not, then no other being ordained in its steed by him, he had lost his Lorship over the Sabbath, which here he challenged a right in, and still keepeth untill his second comming.

Argument. 10.

TEnthly and lastly, to these reasons, may be added the judgement of the Parliament, the representative body of all this Kingdome, with his Majesties royall assent in the first yeere of his happy raigne (which is this) That the keeping of the Lords day holy, is a principall part of the true service of God; which words are an acknowledgment that the Lord was the Institutor of the Sabbath: for it is no service to God, much lesse a principall part of his service, for that may be mans will-worship, but cannot be service unto God, unlesse hee himselfe bee the Institutor and Au­thour of it.

CHAP. XI. Of some Objections which may bee made against it, answered.

Object. 1.

IT is not commanded in the New Testament, Ergo, hee instituted it not.

Ans. 1. If it were not, yet might hee bee the Institutor of it, by his resting, blessing, and ob­serving the day, as his Fathers resting, and blessing the se­venth day, was his institution of it, as is proved in the first Treatise.

2. I have shewed, that Christ gave Commandements of the things pertayning to the kingdome of God, whereof the observation of this day is one. And therefore hee gave Commandement concerning this day.

Object. 2. It is not expresly commanded.

Answ. 1. This objection is made before, to which I have in part answered.

2. I answer further, that our book of Homilies telleth In Homily of Prayer. us againe and againe, that there is expresse Commandement for it: The Authors of this book say there is; The Obje­ctors say there is not: set one against the other. To the book all the Ministers in the Church of England have sub­scribed, but not to this Objection against it.

3. I answer, there is in the New Testament no formall expression of any of the other Commandements of the first Table, neither of the first, nor second, nor third, because they stood in force, and therefore no need formally to expresse them: no more need was there for any such expression of this.

First, because the fourth Commandement stood still in force, as well as the rest: for first, Christ did challenge Lordship over this fourth Commandement, in his assumed humane nature, Matth. 12. 8. to shew that in his state of humiliation, hee lost not his authoritie over it: Secondly, because the changing of the seventh day into another day, [Page 144] was not the taking away of the fourth Commandement, but only the accommodation of the same Commandment to our Lords day, for the continuation of it still. For if the fourth Commandement bee not observed in keeping of this our Lords day, then will it follow,

1 That either there is no fourth Commandement, and so not ten Commandements, which number hath bin observed without addition, or diminution, to this day, the space of 3221 yeeres in Gods Church, both of the Jewes, and of the Gentiles: or else if it be one of the Tenne, as God gave it, Exo. 20. for one of them, then have we lived in sinfull neglect of this Commandement now this 1600 yeeres.

2 It will follow that Christ hath lost his Lordship of it, or suffered one of his Fathers Commandements to be care­lesly neglected; neither of which may bee granted without indignitie offered to Christ, and his truth.

3 That Christ had not come to fulfill, but to destroy the Law, contrary to Matth. 5. 17. for if he neither kept the for­mer day, but took it away, nor ordeined certainely in the roome of it another day, he had destroyed this Law.

4 It also will follow, that the Sonne should not be ho­noured of all men as they have honoured the Father with the fourth Commandement, and with a set day by his appoint­ment for his publick worship and solemn service: But all men should honour the Son, as they honour the Father, Ioh. 5. 23. And therefore with this fourth Commandement, and with a set day by his appointment for his publick and solemne worship and service should he be honoured.

Object. 3. The taking away of the seventh day ap­pointed by God, disanulleth the Commandement it selfe.

Answ. Not so, for we must wisely understand and dis­cerne betweene the substance of the Commandement, and circumstance; between the substance of the Commande­ment it selfe, and the accommodation thereof unto a day: See the other Treatise, The Commandement is, Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy: This only is the Commandement, so by Moses it is cleare (note it well) in Deut. 5. 12.

The application and accommodation of the Commande­ment [Page 145] was unto the seventh day, which day may be taken a­way, as not of the substance, but a circumstance of the Com­mandement of the Sabbath & rest day, applyed unto that se­venth day, and yet the Commandement be still of force: As for example in the accommodation of another precept thus;

Honour the King, 1 Pet. 2. 17. This is a Commande­ment, whosoever is King: The accommodation of that may be thus: Saul is King, this is not of the substance of the Commandement, yet while Saul is King, we are comman­ded to honour King Saul, but in time Saul is taken away, neverthelesse the Commandement, Honour the King, is of force to another person in his stead, as David succeeding, the Commandement is, honour King David. The same Com­mandement which bindeth me to honour the King, bindeth me to honour Saul while he is King: And when Saul is taken away, and David appointed in his stead, I am bound by the selfe same Law to honour David.

Even so is the accommodation of this fourth Comman­dement, Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy: this is the Commandement what day soever it be applyed unto. The ac­commodation is, the seventh day is the Sabbath day to keep it holy: this the Commandement doth binde us unto, as long as the day is unchanged and not taken away: But the day being altered, yet the Commandement abideth, and is of forc [...], when another day is appointed in its roome, as is now our Lords day. And therefore the Commandement is, Remember the Lords day to keep it holy.

From whence here note, that as the taking away of Saul took not away the Commandement of honouring the King, and Davids comming in Sauls stead held up the practice of the same Commandement: Even so the taking away of the se­venth day took not away the authoritie of the fourth Com­mandement, and the bringing in of the Lords day in stead thereof, holdeth up the practice of it, and by it we are bound to observe this day, as the Jewes their day: And therefore may we pray as our Church teacheth us:

Lord have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep this Law: And that without any Judaizing at all.

CHAP. XII. That this day cannot be changed.

WEe have heard how that the day is of a divine in­stitution, and therefore is not subject to alteration by man: The Church, saith our learned Doctor On Rev: 1. 10. In Cases of Consc. ca. 16. In his Thesis. Fulk, hath no authority to change it; so holds Master Perkins: Bishop Lakes speaking of Christs resur­rection giveth this reason, saying, as no man can change the work to another day, so no man can therefore change the day: This is an undoubted rule in Theology, saith that learned man.

2. What honour and dignity the Holy Ghost giveth unto a day, cannot by the authority of man be taken from it, to put it upon any other day: but the first day of the week hath by the holy spirit this superscription set upon it, The Lords day; therefore it is not alterable by any, to any other day, to call that the Lords day.

3. If the Church can change it, then hath the Church authority to weaken the grounds on which the observation of the day was first setled, but that she hath not; or else can bring better reasons for the alteration, else it were folly to alter it: but there never was hitherto, nor now is, nor ever shall be, any such reason to alter the day, as there was for setling of the day (to wit) the blessed resurrection of the Lord Jesus; of the excellent glory of which work yee have heard before: Therefore the Church cannot change it into another day.

4. Whosoever changeth one thing for another, in matters of an high nature, must have equall power with the first Institutors, or receive authority so to do from them: But the Church hath not such authority in her selfe, or by de­legation from either Christ, or from his Apostles: And there­fore cannot change the day.

5. It hath beene ratified by many Synods, by ancient Councells, by Imperiall Constitutions, and Edicts of Kings, [Page 147] established by the Lawes of Kingdomes and Countreys, as it cannot be altered.

6. The long continued custome of observing it, from the first day in the Apostles time by the whole Primitive Church, and by all Christian Churches since in all ages, for these 1600 yeares without any gain-saying, maketh it unalterable, it being observed upon such grounds, as is before mentioned.

To conclude, to what purpose is it for any now to hold the change thereof, when never from the beginning, there was ever any one particular Church, any Synod, or Coun­cell, or any Orthodox writer in ancient times, attempted it; Nor ever durst any power on earth goe about it. But all the holy Fathers, and piously learned have with free consent endeavoured the setling and honouring of this day, as may appeare in their writings and praises of the same, as shall be manifest in the next chapter.

It is not therefore changeable, either absolutely or practi­cally; nor have Christians at any time, saith Bishop White, judged it reasonable or convenient to alter such an ancient and well grounded custome, which is commonly reputed to bee an Apostolicall tradition. To this let me adde in the last place, the judgement of that reverend Authour of the Antidote; That seeing the observation of the Lords day hath beene con­firmed by so many Constitutions Ecclesiasticall and Imperiall, and hath withall continued with such uniforme consent through the whole Christian world for so many ages, ever since the Apostles times, the Church (not to dispute what she may or may not doe ex plenitudine potestatis) ought not to attempt the altering of it to any other day of the week.

CHAP. XIII. Of the honourable esteeme of this our Lords day, and that it is to be preferred before all other festivall dayes.

THere be many reasons to manifest the honourable­nesse of this day, and to preferre it before all other Festivalls.

1. The blessed Apostle hath exalted it with the glorious title of the Lords day, Rev. 1. 10. The Lord Christ his day, as Bishop White speaks, a title proper and pe­culiar Page of his book 208. to it; Now things and persons named the Lords, are sa­cred and venerable, saith he, in the highest degree: which day was generally and religiously observed of all Christi­ans. And albeit the Apostles took advantage to goe and teach in the Jewish Synagogues upon their Sabbath, yet (saith Doctor Pocklington) for which he citeth Eusebius and Page 11. of his Sermon. Ignatius; the blessed Martyrs in the Primitive Church, by the doctrine and example of S. Paul and the Apostles, so unfeignedly abhorred the observation of the Jewish Sabbath, that they esteemed the observers thereof, and the contemners of the Lords day, the very sonnes of perdition, and enemies of our Saviour, and sellers of Christ: So dis-regarded they the one, and honoured the other.

2. The ancient Fathers and others have given it tearmes of honour. Justine Martyr called it Sunday, as many others In Orat. ad Anton. after him, no doubt, as the chiefe of dayes, as the Sunne is the most glorious to our eyes above all other planets. In Cod. Just. lib. 3. tit. 12. it is called venerabilis dies Solis, the ve­nerable and much honoured Sunday, as Bishop White ex­presseth Against Brab. page 197. Ad Magnes. it. Ignatius the Martyr, who lived at least thirty yeares in the dayes of S. John, and was his hearer, calleth the day, the Queene and Paramount of dayes: Eusebius See the quo­tation of these in B. [...]hite pag. 209. calleth it, the principall and the first: S. Chrysostome, a royall day: Greg. Nazian. saith it is higher than the highest, and with admiration wonderfull above all other dayes: S. Basil, the first fruits of dayes: Chrysologus, the primate of dayes: A [Page 149] day above all other dayes to be esteemed, saith Bellarmine and Tom. 1. de cult. san [...]t. cap. 10. 11. lib. 3. On Luke 14. fol. 11. cap. 6. Stella. The Councell at Matiscon held it the day of our new Birth: Durand saith, Dominica dies primatum obtinet, & major est inter alios dies, Rational. lib. 7. de festivit. Thus we see it honourably graced with very high titles, which no other Festivall reached unto.

3. The observation of this day is not only of Protestants, but also of Papists, held to be de jure divino, and give reason for it, as is before manifested: But no other holy day so held, by any learned Protestant, in any reformed Church.

4. Easter day, that so esteemed high day, about the observation whereof in former times there was such con­tention (when the consent for the Lords day was univer­sally agreed upon unanimously ever) yet for the more honour to it, it was ordeined to be celebrated on the Lords day only, as we finde it to be observed to this day.

5. Though the often returne of this our Lords day weekly, maketh vaine people lesse to esteem it than other dayes which fall more seldome; yet the truth is, in the judgement of the wise, thi [...] day receiveth the more glory and honour: For by being our weekly holy day, it commeth in stead of the Jewish Sabbath, by the equity of the fourth Commandement, and it is for the great honour of our Lord Jesus, by the up­holding of his Lordship still over the Sabbath; betweene which and our weekly Sunday, there is an analogy and proportion, as Doctor Heylin acknowledgeth at large: Page. 11. which is not so in any other Festivall among Christians.

6 It hath had the start before all other holy dayes, to be first honoured with Christian publick meetings, holy Con­vocations and Assemblies, Act. 20. 7. 1. Cor. 16. 2. and 11. 20.

7 It was the first, for the better observation whereof, that had Imperiall Edicts to grace it, and in those Edicts, for re­straint of work upon other holy daies, yet the cheifest care was for the Honour of this day, as doth appeare by this In Serm. de tempore 251. Page 98. 102. Clause, Maxime in dominicis diebus, on the Lords dayes most specially: For, saith Doctor Heylin, the Emperours [Page 150] and Prelates had the same affections, both sorts earnest, to ad­vance this day above all others. The Emperour Leo, saith he, also by two severall Edicts made it singular above other Festifalls.

Lastly, our Church in Canon 45 preferreth it above all other holy dayes in this, that licensed Preachers are inioyned to Preach either in their own, or in some other Church eve­ry Sunday, which order is not taken for other holy dayes.

Thus wee see this day to have the preheminence a­bove any other, and indeed, it hath before others antiquity, the authority establishing it is divine, the certainty of the day is without alteration, and the unity of judgement, with so full a Consent of all sorts, in all ages, as may well per­swade us, to give it the glory before any of the rest of the Festivalls; which to equall with it, is void both of reason, and religion; as all that which hath been said, sufficiently proveth.

CHAP. XIV. This day is to be kept holy, and the whole day too.

AN holy day is to be kept holy, none will deny it. Our Lords day is an holy day and an high holy day too, before all other, as in the former chapter is proved: and therfore to be kept holy; which very tearm of holy, chal­lengeth a separation of the day unto holy uses; as Gods holy daies all of them in the old Testament were observed, and im­ployed in holy duties, as the Scriptures tell us: the end of the weekly Sabbath, was to keep it holy, as the very Command­ment sheweth, from the mouth of God himselfe, Exo. 20. 8. Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy: and Moses the In­terpreter of the Law, in Deut. 5. 12. saith the same: And our Lords day being our Christian Sabbath in stead thereof, should be kept holy: We keep holy the Lords day, saith, Dionysius, who lived in Anno. 175. Our King, and whole In an Epist. to Soter, Bishop of Rome. State, in a Statute, hath delivered this, as is before noted; That [Page 151] it is a principall part of true service unto God, to keep holy the Lords day: Our Church in the Homily teacheth us, That Gods obedient people should use the Sunday holily, and care­fully keep the day in holy rest and quietnesse, both men, women, children, servants, and strangers, as they have ever done from the Apostles dayes. That the Primitive Churches, Fa­thers, and Christian Princes did in their severall times alwayes observe, and cause to be observed the Lords day with all holy solemnity and godly reverence: read the many learned Au­thours avouching the same, quoted for this by Master Sprint in his book of the Christian Sabbath, pag. 18. To this effect speaketh Bishop White, cited before in chapter 9. affirming, that the Primitive Fathers and their Successours did univer­sally maintaine the religious observation of the day: That it is to bee kept holy, there bee none of sound judgement will deny it.

But the question is, how much of the day is to be set apart unto God? The wisdome of God, which in mans best rea­son is most worthy to be our direction, appointed a day for Exod. [...]0. the celebration of the Sabbath: we ought to rest the whole day, say the Fathers in a Councell at Nice. S. Chrysostome in 3. Hom. on John, exhorts to destinate the day wholly to divine imployments. The Divines in Ireland have held the Lords day to be wholly dedicated to the service of God. And was there ever any thing counted holy, as set apart for holy uses, which was not wholly sacred? The Temple was holy, was it so in part, or in the whole? Set-Festivalls were holy the whole day. King Edgar and Canutus enacted by Fox Acts and Mon. fol. 644. Edit. 1610. fol. 715. [...]echel de De­c [...]et. Ecclesiae Gal. their Lawes, that the Sunday should bee kept holy from Saturday at noon, till Munday morning. Charles the great, ordained to have it kept from evening to evening; so zea­lous were those Princes in those times, for the observation of this day to the honour of Jesus; they held not the whole day too much. S. Augustine in his Sermon de tem­pore 251. and one Leo the Bishop of Rome, who was made Bishop there in Anno 440. almost full 1200 yeares since, See Doctor Heylin Hist. 119. reckon the Saturday Eye a part of the Lords day. And Doctor Heylin citeth also a Synod held at Friuli, in An. 791. In 2 part ca. 5. [Page 152] that all Christians should with all reverence and devotion honour the Lords day, beginning on the Evening of the day before, at the first ringing of the bell. Hee telleth us also how S. Jerome relateth, that the Monkes in Egypt de­signed the Lords day wholly unto prayers and reading of ho­ly Scriptures. Master Brerwood confesseth, That it is meet, that Christians dedicate the day wholly to the honour of God; that we should not bee lesse devout in celebrating the Lords day, than the Jewes in celebrating their Sabbath: Because, saith hee, the obligation of our thankfulnesse is more than theirs: Therefore hee wisheth that it were most religiously per­formed with attendance to holy devotion.

This day (faith Calvin) is wholly to bee dedicated to him, Calv. on Deut. cap. 5. vers. 12. 13. 14. and it is necessarie, that so we may intend wholly to the mind­ing of Gods works, and bestow the day in praysing and mag­nifying Gods name: wee have no cause (saith hee) to grudge the giving of one day to him, seeing hee leaveth us six for one.

Let any man give a reason, if they give any part of the day to Christ, why they should not think him worthy of all the day? Is it too much for him, and whole six little enough for our selves? If wee will take a part from him (for the whole none will, except they be worse than Jewes and Pa­gans in observing their dayes) which part is it? not the morning, for when shall we begin then to serve him? Not the ending of the day; for why, are we weary of well doing? Gal. 6. Gal. 3. 3. shall wee begin in the spirit, and end in the flesh? A libe­rall friend that hath seven pounds in his hands, and giveth me six of them freely, owing me nothing, to imploy the seventh for him; If I should grudge to bestow it wholly, and take without leave any part of it to my selfe, were I not most ungratefull? Againe, every holy thing is holy unto the Lord, and is it not sacriledge to robbe God either of the whole, or of part? Lastly, let us consider this, that hee which willingly gives not God all, would give him none at all, if it were not for by-respects, more than conscience of duty. For conscience will binde to give the whole, where all is due, as well as a part of the due. Therefore God [Page 153] commanding a day, and an whole day, as he giveth us six whole dayes, so let us afford him his owne day, and that wholly.

CHAP. XV. How this day is to be kept holy, morally, as the an [...]ient Sabbath was kept.

FOr the better satisfaction of moderate minds, and to cleare this point, let us consider how the ancient Sabbath was kept morally, how our Lords day was kept in the time of the holy Apostles, how to be kept by the stablished authoritie of our Church, and how Em­perours, Kings, Councels, Synods, Fathers, and others would have it kept, yea God himselfe from profane pol­lutions.

Concerning the first, the ancient Sabbath was kept in rest and in the employing of that rest unto religious du­ties; which what they were, see at large in the other Treatise, Section 25.

For the Ceremoniall and Leviticall Services on that se­venth day, they are abrogated; so all the Jewish supersti­tition, brought in by mens vaine Traditions, are condemned, likewise those accessorie precepts for the more strict rest on that day, belonging only to the Israelites for a time, are taken away and doe nothing concerne us, and are not to be imita­ted of us. But the ancient people of God are to be followed of us, as farre as the fourth Commandement bindeth us in the naturalitie thereof, in the spiritualitie, and in its morallitie, as the holy people of God then kept it, in such common du­ties, as wee are, as well as they were bound to performe for Gods service, and for the benefiting of their owne soules, in the use and exercises of his heavenly ordinances on his holy day. This is farre from any Judaizing at all, so much laid in the dish, and reproachfully cast upon many in these times, but without cause at all: if the matter be well [Page 154] weighed, and they rightly understood, as it were to bee wished.

Their Service was both in the forenoone, and in the after­noone every day, Num. 28. 3. Exod. 29. 38. then much more on the Sabbath day: For in the morning of their Sabbath, they had the Service in the Tabernacle and Temple, and their Sacrifices doubled. Num. 28. 9. and also burning of incense in the morning, Exod. 30. 7. So in the afternoone both Sacrifices and burning of incense, and thus every day continually, Exod. 29. 38. & 30. 7. 8. To this David alluded in Psal. 141. 2. This afternoone Service was about three aclock, and called the ninth houre of Prayer, Acts 3. 1. what time the godly used to pray, Dan. 9. 21. and which Eliah observed in the offering of Sacrifice, 1 King. 18. 29. and we read while the incense was offered, the people were devout in their prayers, Luk. 1. 10. Preaching was also in the Temple, for there Christ preached, Matth. 26. 55. Mark 12. 25. Luk. 19. 47. John 7. 28. of which, as of any strange thing, the chiefe Priests and the Elders did not aske him, but of his authoritie so to doe, Matth. 21. 23. Luk. 20. 1. 2. And into the Temple earely in the morning, came hee to teach, John 8. 2. and the people to heare, Luk. 21. 38. whither the Jewes alwayes resorted, John 18. 20. Here also the Apostles preached, Acts 3. 1. 12. & 5. 21. 23. 42. And in this place, no doubt was it, in which the Scribes and Pharises sate to teach the people, Matth. 23. 2. It is most certaine that on the Sabbath day in the Syna­gogues, there was constant reading and preaching, Acts 15. 21. & 13. 27. In the morning, Christ went in to preach, Mark. 6. 2. in other places it is not so evident what time it was, whether in the forenoone, or afternoone, when hee came into their Synagogues, Mark. 1. 21. Luk. 4. 16. & 13. 10. nor what time of the day the Apostles went into the Synagogues, Acts 13. 14. & 14. 1. & 17. 2. 10. & 18. 4. 19. nor is it certain, whether they did depart home a while, and came againe; It may be they held out from the beginning to the ending, and to the breaking up of the Congregation, as it seemeth probable in Acts 13. 43. so Nehe. 8. but it [Page 155] is certaine that upon their dayes of fasting, they did hold out and continued together, from the beginning to the end, Nehem. 9. 3.

Whatsoever they did for the time, they holily begun their Divine exercises with a blessing, Nehe. 8. 6. and en­ded with a blessing, Num. 6. 23. 26. Lev. 9. 22. 2 [...].

CHAP. XVI. How our Lords day was kept in the Apostles dayes and the Primitive times.

THe Lords day being know [...] to bee an holy day, and to be kept holy, the Church rested on this Histo. pag. 95. part. 2. day, for performance of religious and Christian duties, as Doctor Heylin acknowledgeth.

There was an assembly of Christians, they came toge­ther, saith the Text, Acts 20. 7. who came together? the whole Church, 1 Cor. 14. 23. whither? into some one place, 1 Cor. 11. 20. & 14. 23. for then they had no Temples, but met together where they conveniently might: when, and on what day did they assemble together? On the first day of the weeke, as Luke telleth us, Acts 20. 7. and the Syriack translation of the 1 Cor. 11. 20. hath it in die Do­minico: In Apol. 2. Of this Just. Martyr beareth witnesse; upon the Sunday all of us assemble in the Congregation, all that abide in the Cities or about in the fields, do meet together in some place: Coimus in Caetum & Congregationem, saith Tertul. In Apol. cap. 39. with cap. 14. &. 16. on the Lords day he meaneth: Cyprian telleth us, that the Sunday was the day, wherein they met together. So Saint Augustine also enformeth us; we Christians assemble with Lib. 2. Epist 5. de Civit. Dei. l. 22. cap 8. much diligence on the Lords day, saith Clemens, Rom. constit Apost. li. 2. ca. 36. Into this Congregation would some Gentiles come sometime, 1 Cor. 14. 23. and none professing Christ might forsake it, Heb. 10. 25. Thus wee see clearely without doubting from Seriptures, and Fathers, when and where Christians met to worship Christ.

Being met together, let us see what was done in the Con­gregation.

1. For Prayer.

THey prayed together, thus we read of them in the first Congregation after Christs Ascension, Acts 1. 14. 24. so [...], Acts 4. 23. 24. & 16. 13. For prayer was one pa [...] of their Divine Service mentioned in Act. 2. 42. The Apostles were much addicted to prayer, as well as preaching, Acts 6. 4. and they and the Christian beleevers were frequent in it, as occasions were offered Act. 16. 16. & 8. 15. & 1 [...]. 3. & 20. 36. & 12. 5. 12. To the perfor­mance of this dutie with thanksgiving they were exhor­ted, 1 Tim. 2. 1. 2.

2. For Reading.

THere was reading of the Scriptures, of the Apostles wri­tings, by the Apostles command, Col. 4. 16. a charge by the Lord, 1 Thes. 5. 27. and the Apostles decrees, Act. 15. Tertul. Apol. cap. 39. In Apol. 2. 30. 31. They met together, saith a Father, To heare the holy Scriptures rehearsed: In the Congreation, saith Just Martyr, the Records of the Apostles and the Writings of the Prophets In Ios. Ho [...]. 15. In Civit. l. [...]2. c. 8. are read, and other Scriptures saith Origen, by the Apostles appointment, at the reading whereof all were silent and attentive as S. Augustine, telleth us.

3. For Preaching.

THere was also preaching in the Congregation: S. Paul on the first day of the week, when the Disciples came together preached unto them, Acts 20. 7. The Apostles in this spent their strength, Acts 5. 42. and S. Paul exhorteth to this in vehemence of spirit, and with a thundring charge, 2 Tim. 4. 1. 2. Of this speaketh this same Apostle in 1 Cor. 14. and giveth order for the use of mens gifts in the Congregati­on; The preaching then was with reprehension, with exhor­tation, 2 Tim. 4. 2. admonition, Act. 20. 31. with convincing of errours, Tit. 1. 9. with consolation, 1 Cor. 14. 3. The matter was the word Acts 13. 5. & 14. 25. & 17. 13. Rom. 10. 8. 2. [Page 157] Tim. 4. 2. The manner was, not with entising words of mans wisdome, but in the demonstration of the spirit, and power of God, 1 Cor. 2. 4. 5. The end for conversion, Act. 26. 18. 20. and to save men, Act. 11. 14. Of preaching, and making a Sermon on this day, speaketh Just. Martyr, and Saint Augustine in the fore cited places. When the Sermon was done, they sent up their prayers unto the Lord, saith, Justine Martyr.

4. For receiving of the Sacraments.

ON the first day of the week, or Lords day, they re­ceived the Lords supper, Act. 20. 7. They came to­gether to break bread, saith the Text: So did the Corinthi­ans Apol. 2. Epist. 118. come together to receive the Sacrament, 1 Cor. 11. 20. This Just. Martyr, also certifieth us of, and S. Augustine, in the Primitive times, it was administred every Sunday.

5. For Psalmes.

THey in the Congregation sang Psalmes, so the Apo­stle intimateth to us, 1 Cor. 14. which as they might learne from the ancient people of God, as is observed in the former Treatise: so from our Saviour and his Apostles, who sang a Psalme when the Passeover was received, and the Sacrament instituted and administred, Mark. 14. 26. Plinie secundus in an Epistle to Traian, maketh mention of Christians singing of Hymnes, when they met together to worship Christ before day: How comfortable singing of Psalmes bee when men sing with understanding, and with the spirit, as they ought, 1 Cor. 14. 15. we may see by Paul and Sylas singing Psalmes in prison, Act. 16. 25.

6. For care of the poore.

THe true Church of Christ had ever care for the poore; from the very first Plantation, as we may see, Acts 2. 45. and 4. 34. And for this purpose were Deacons appointed, Act. 6. The Apostles gave a charge for to remember the poore, Gal. 2. 10. and Saint Paul took order for the collecti­on every Lords day, 1. Cor. 16. 2. which Saint Chrysostome Chrys. Hom. 43. on 1 Cor. [Page 158] speaketh much of: And this continued in the Christian pri­mitive Congregations: They made collections for the wid­dowes (of whom care should ever be had, Act. 6. 1. 1 Tim. 5. 3.) for the fatherlesse (as religion teacheth Iames 1. 27) for the sick, poore people, captives, exiles, and strangers, Iusti [...]. Martyr. Apo. 2. which came from farre, as Just. Martyr, witnesseth.

7 For Excommunication and Ordination.

UPon just cause on this day, when they did meet, the Leo. Mag. ad Dioscorum Episc. Alex. Epi. 41. cap. 3. See Tertul. Apolog. Origen and others cited by Bish. [...]hit [...], pag 214. See Dr. Heylin Histor. part. 2. p. 118. sentence of Excommunication was pronounced against some, which were v [...]ry notorious offenders, 1 Cor. 5. 4. 5. On this day it was thought most proper for investing men with holy Orders, for that the holy Ghost descended upon the Apostles this day, and there gave us, as it were, this ce­lestiall rule, that on this day alone we should conferre spiri­tuall Orders, in quo collata sunt omnia dona gratiarum, All spi­tuall graces are conferred. And it was appointed, that such men, as were to receive Ordination should continue fasting from the Even before, that spending all that time in prayer, humbling themselves before the Lord, they might be the better fitted to receive his graces.

8 Of their Love-Feasts.

DIvine Service being ended, Christians observed a Love-Feast, or feast of charity, where all the rich and poore sate downe promiscuously together, recreating themselves with godly conference, and singing of Psalmes, which as Tertullian saith, did admit of Nihil vilitatis, nihil immodestiae, Apolog. and at what time he saith, non prius discumbitur, quam oratio ad Deum praegustetur. Of this speaks also S. Chrysostome, Omnes, commune inibant convivium pauperibus, & qui nihil habebant vocatis & omnibus communiter vescentibus, S. Paul toucheth upon these Feasts, 1 Cor. 11. and S. Jude verse 12. and this came, as there wee finde; to be abused even in the Apostles dayes. Wee may Learne of S. Paul (who was a pattern to them, no doubt, in the end and breaking up of the Congregation) that they departed with prayer, as he did, Acts 20. 36.

9. Of what was done when the Congregation was broken up.

WHen the publick service was ended, S. Paul went into an house where hee was invited, and there prayed, Acts 16. 16. Such no doubt, as were well minded, as the Bereans, searched the Scriptures concerning the things taught them, Act. 17. 11. But for this the Fathers tell us what people ought to do. Saint Ambrose exhorted the people Ser. 33. tom. 3. pag. 259. to be conversant all the day in prayer, or reading, or if any could not read that he should labour to be fed with conference. Saint Chrysostome, on Joh. 3. Hom. was offended with the people that then did not meditate on the word heard, who was earnest with them, that presently upon their comming home, they would take the Bible into their hands, and make rehearsall with their wives and children of that which had been taught them out of the Word of God. But let us come to that which Iustine Martyr saith, and Tertullian, when they were departed out of the Congregation they ever remembred one another of those things which they had heard. They went not, saith Tertulli­an, Apol. ca 30. 39. pag. 692. in Catervas Caesionum neque in classes discursationum, nec in eruptiones lasciviarum, sed ad eandem curam modesti [...], & pudi­citiae, ut qui non caenam caenassent, quam disciplinam: from this Fathers speech we may observe. First, That the Love-feast was a supper, they abode then in the assembly late in the af­ternoone: Secondly, That at that Feast, in the afternoone, as may be gathered from Saint Augustine, and Saint Basiles words they had care of Modesty and Chastity. Thirdly, That they received instruction for their souls, as well as food for their bodies. Fourthly, Being departed from the Congregation they took heed, not to goe into the route of Swash-bucklers, nor into the Company of Ramblers, such as did run up and down, hither and thi­ther, not into the breaking out of the wanton and Lascivi­ous sort. But Fifthly, they had care of the like modesty and chaste behaviour out of the Church, which they shewed, when they were in the Congregation. Thus the primitive Christians kept the Lords day: And if credit may be given [Page 160] to that, which Theodoret writeth, as Doctor Heylin cyteth him, of the Festivalls in those times above 1200 yeeres agoe, how they were Modestae, Castae, Temperantia plenae, performed with modesty, and great sobriety, (not as the Festivalls of the Gentiles in excesse and riot) and also were solemnized with spirituall Hymnes, and religious Sermons, and that the people used to empty out their souls to God in fervent and affecti­onate prayers, not without sighes and teares; what may we think then of such godly Christians, but that they devoutly and with high reverence observed the Lords day, so much to be preferred before Festivalls, as hath been before declared, in Chapter thirteenth? Hear what Durand saith, in Ratio­nal. lib. 5. de vesperis, who telleth us of the Evening meetings, wherein they did conferre of the holy Scriptures: His words are these, Postremò notandum est, quòd religiosi ante Completorium permittunt collationem, quae à sanctis patribus originem traxit, qui dictis vesperis convenire, & de Scripturis sacris conferre solebant ad instar Operariorum ad recreatio­nem, ad invicem confabulantium, ideoque tunc vitas, vel colla­tionem Patrum, quae potius sunt ad recreationem & delectatio­nem legunt, & Eruditiores, si dubium occurrerit, interrogant.

CHAP. XVII. How our Church would have our Sunday kept holy.

OUr Church hath taken order for the keeping holy of the Lords day: For the better understanding whereof, let us look into her certaine judgement evidenced by the undeniable Records established by the supreamest Authority, and subscribed unto by all the Clergy of England.

The first is the book of Common Prayer, confirmed by Act of Parliament.

1. It maketh our Sunday to bee observed for an holy day. 2. It appointeth our Assembling, and therein to per­forme holy duties: as First Prayer: Secondly, Reading the [Page 161] Scriptures, Thirdly, singing of psalmes. Fourthly, Sermons, Fifthly, Collections for the poore. Sixthly, The admini­stration of the Sacraments. Seventhly, Prayers at the depar­ture. 3. And that the day may be well observed, it order­eth this meeting both for the forenoone and afternoone: cal­ling the one Morning prayer, for that it must begin in reason betime and the other Evening prayer, because it must bring the evening with it: So the times of Service should hold us (but for the intermission betweene) from the morning, untill the evening. 4. It ordereth the Ministers distinctly to rehearse all the ten Commandments and the people kneeling, after every Commandment to aske God mercy for their trans­gressing of the same, and grace to have their hearts inclined to keep every one of them, and to write them in their hearts. Now the Fourth Commandment by this rehearsall of ten, and by the peoples prayer (except the Minister mocke the people and the people mocke God, and that by imposed duty from authority, which God forbid we should thinke) is ac­knowledged: First, To be a Law and Commandment of God, not onely heretofore, but now at this day. Secondly, To be one of the ten, which God himselfe spake. Thirdly, That it is a Law and Commandment upon us, that make this prayer: Fourthly, That we are bound to keep it: Fifthly That of our selves we cannot be inclined in our hearts to keep it, till God incline our hearts unto it. Sixthly, That we should have a joynt care together, to observe it from our hearts. Seventhly, That we are to acknowledge our selves transgressours of it, and stand in need to aske mercy of the Lord for the same. Eightly, That it is a mercy of God to en­cline our hearts to keepe it, and to write it in our hearts.

Now the Fourth Commandment requireth a day to be kept holy, as a Sabbath or rest day: and therefore by this prayer are we to acknowledge it a Law to us, and all bound in heart to affect it, and to keepe it, as the Lord hath commanded us.

The second is the Book of Canons or Ecclesiasticall Con­stitutions.

For the religious observation of this day by our Ecclesi­asticall [Page 162] Constitutions. First, All people are tied to resort to the Church. Secondly, Not to depart out of the Church during the time of service or Sermon without urgent cause: Thirdly, That before Evening prayer, Fathers, Mothers, Canon. 59. Masters, Mistresses, should send their children, servants, and apprentices to be Catechised, to be instructed, and taught by the Minister for halfe an houre and more. Fourthly, All Canon. 13. manner of persons within the Church of England shall ce­lebrate and keep the Lords day commonly called Sunday, and other holydayes, as followeth.

1 It must be kept according to Gods holy will and pleasure: Here the Church telleth us where to begin, the principall guide must be Gods holy will and pleasure, which is to be searched after in his Word, from which if we swarve, and have not it for our rule and warrant in doing any thing on this day, we break this Canon.

2 According to the prescribed orders of the Church of England, which is there very piously set down in eight Par­ticulars.

1 In hearing the word of God read and taught: so it is kept as a day of instruction.

2 In private and publick prayer: so it is an especiall day of audience, and putting up our petitions to God: first with our Families before we enter into the holy assembly, to prepare us the better for a blessing, and then with the whole Con­gregation.

3 In acknowledging their offences to God: so it is a day of Humiliation before the Lord, and suing out a pardon for the same.

4 In an amendement of their offences: so it is a day of Re­formation of our evil lives, and sinfull courses.

5 In reconciling themselves charitably to their neighbours where displeasure hath been: So it is a day of Reconciliation, lay­ing aside displeasure, and of charitable seeking peace one with another.

6 In receiving the Communion of the body and bloud of Christ: So it is a day of Confirmation of our faith in Gods blessed Covenant made with us in Christ, and a day of great [Page 163] consolation to behold visibly with the eye the greatest work that ever God wrought, and the greatest mercy that ever he did shew to poor sinners.

7 In visiting the poor and sick: so it is a day of mercifull visita­tion, and beholding of Christ in his poor and sick servants.

8 And lastly in using all godly and sober Conversation: So it is a day, for the expression of a good behaviour towards God and man, in all godly Conversation against prophane­nesse in all sober Conversation, against Intemperance, Riot, and Revelling, Gluttony, and Drunkennesse, Lightnesse, and loose Carriage.

Thus we see how the Canon directeth us in an excellent manner to keep this day. Can there be either required, or bet­ter meanes used, than is here prescribed to keep from sinfull courses on the Lords day?

The third is the Book of Homilies.

In the Homily of prayer we are taught: First, To assem­ble together solemnely having our hearts sifted and clensed from wordly and carnall affections and desires, shaking off all vaine thoughts which may hinder from Gods true service. Secondly, To be carefull to keep the day holily, and to rest from our labours at home, riding and journeying abroad. Thirdly, To give our selves wholly to heavenly exercises of Gods true religion and ser­vice. Fourthly, To have in remembrance Gods wonderfull be­nefits, and to render him thanks for them. Fifthly, To celebrate and magnifie Gods holy name in quiet holinesse and godly re­verence. Sixthly And lastly, besides laying aside the works of our callings the Homily exhorteth to shun ungodlinesse, and filthinesse, pride praunceing prancking, pricking, pointing, pain­ting or to be gorgeous and gay: Likewise, to beware of gluttony, drunkenesse, and other fruits thereof mentioned; to avoide also wantonnes toyish talking, and filthy fleshlines. Thus we see, what a strict observation of the Lords day our Homily prescribeth unto us. It hath been the honour of our Church hitherto to outstrip all Christian Churches in the world in the sanctifing of the Lords day. Our Common prayer book, Ca­non, and Homily would hold us to it, if they had any autho­rity over us.

CHAP. XVIII. How Christian Emperours would have it kept, by their Imperiall Constitutions.

WEe have heard how the godly among the ancient people of God, kept their rest-day morally: How our day was kept in the Primitive Church: How our now present Church of England would have it kept holy. Now we come to the highest powers of Authoritie, abroad and at home, to learne how by them it should bee kept.

1 Imperiall Constitutions.

COnstantine the first Christian Emperour, who thought the chiefest and most proper day for the devotion of his subjects, was the Lords day, declared his pleasure, that every Eusch. de vita Constant. l. 4. c. 13. one who lived in the Roman Empire, should rest in that day weekly, which is instituted to our Saviour, and to lay aside all businesses, and attend the Lord: who therefore forbade keeping of Courts, sitting in judgement, and Artificers to use their trades: In Die Dominico, &c. say Imperiall Constitu­tions, L. [...]mnes [...]a. de feriis. the whole mindes of Christians and Beleevers should be busied in the worship of God.

The Emperour Leo ordained, that the Lords day should be kept holy by all sorts, and to be a day of rest.

It is our will, saith he, according to the meaning of the Holy Ghost, and of the Apostles by him directed, that on the sacred day whereon we were restored unto our integrity, all men shall rest This Constitu­tion reverend Ho [...]ker much approveth of, Eccl. Pol. Sect. 71. pag. 385. themselves and surcease from labour, neither the husbandmen, nor others putting their hands that day to prohibited worke: for if the Iewes did so much reverence their Sabbath, which onely was a shaddow of ours; are not we which inhabite light, and the truth of grace obliged to honour that day which the Lord hath honoured, and hath therein delivered us both from dishonour, and from death; are not we bound to keep it singularly, and inviolably, sufficiently contented with a liberail grant of all the rest, and not incroaching on that one, which God hath chosen [Page 165] for his Service: Nay were it not wretchlesse slighting, and con­tempt of all Religion to make that day common, and think that we may doe thereon as we doe on others?

This worthy Emperour would not have the dayes dedi­cated Cod. l. 3. tit. 12. de feriis & Iustin. li. 3. tit. 12. to the supreme Majestie, to be taken up with filthy pleasures, then much lesse the Lords day: for he highly ad­vanced this day, and so honoured it, that if his birth day, or his inauguration fell upon this day, the solemnities there­of should be deferred to another day, upon danger of losse of dignitie, and confiscation of estate to them which should offend his will herein: He exempted this day from executions, citations, entring into bonds, apparances, pleadings and the like.

The Emperour Theodosius enacted that (faithfull Chri­stian Cod. Theod. peoples mindes might wholly be bent to the Service of God) the Cirques and Theators should bee shut up on the Lords day, &c. and all publick shewes prohibited by Gratian, and Ʋalentinian; Nullus die solis spectaculum praebeat, nec divinam venerationem confecta solemnitate confundat. They Anno 384. forbad arbitrating of causes, and taking recognizance of any pecuniary businesse on the Sunday, and that none should be brought before the Officers of the Exchequer.

For further honour to the Emperour Leo and Anthemius, Insti [...]ian Cod. l. 3. tit. 12. lex. de ferr [...]s. who called the Lords day, the religious day, and held it to be so honourable and venerable; that they forbad all arrests, Law-sutes, and commanded all Advocates, and C [...]yers to be silent, also Apparitours of every Judge were inhibited, nor had allowed them any pretext, private or publick, for doing their office on this day.

The Esterne Emperour Emanuel Comnenus decreed, that Anno 1174. all accesse to the Tribunal should be shut up, and that no Judge should sit on any cause this day.

Charles the Great, in Anno 789. published his royall Edict, saying, we doe ordaine, according as it is commanded in the Law of God, that no man doe servile work on the Lords day, in works of Husbandrie, in dressing of their Ʋines, Plowing, making Hay, fencing Grounds, grubbing and felling Trees, working in Mynes, Building, planting Gardens, Plead­ing, Hunting, Weaving, dressing Cloth, making Garments, [Page 166] needle work, carding Wooll, beating Hemp, washing Clothes, shearing Sheep, but that they come to the Church, to Divine Service, and magnifie the Lord their God for those good things, which on that day he hath done for them.

This Great Charles forbad also Markers, and Law dayes on this day which was confirmed by five Councels, which he caused to be gathered.

Thus we see the care of Emperours.

CHAP. XIX. How it was to be kept by the Edicts of Christian Kings in this our Kingdome.

THe Kings in this Island of Great Brittaine, have from time to time shewed a religious care, con­cerning the observation of our Sunday.

In King Ina's raigne, Anno 688, 900 yeers since, a Master might not force his bond servant to work, if he did, the ser­vant was freed, and the Master was punished, and was to pay thirty shillings; but if the servant wrought without his Masters commandement, hee should bee whipt, or re­deeme his whipping with a price; and if a Freeman, to loose his freedome, or pay three pounds.

King Alured and Edward his sonne, in a league, between Cited by Bi­shop White, pag. 222. him and Gunthran King of the Danes, in this land did pro­hibite all Markets, and other kinds of works whatsoever on the Sunday: The thing bought was forfeited, and to pay money too, and the servant working, being a Freeman, was to bee made a slave, or to redeeme himselfe: if a slave, then to be beaten, and his Master to answer, for causing him to work: None guiltie was to die on this day for his offence, but to be imprisoned till the day was past.

King Athelstan forbad buying and selling on this day, un­der a penaltie.

King Edgar, commanded every Sunday to be celebrated of every one from Saturday at three aclock in the after­noone, till Munday morning at break of the day.

King Canutus, ordained the observation of the Lords day, as King Edgar had done, from three a clock in the afternoon on Saturday till Munday: Hee also inhibited Markets, Courts, and publick meetings for civill businesse, hunting, and that every one should rest from worldly works.

King Edward the Confessor, would have none molested either going to the Church to serve God, or comming from it.

King Edward the Third, in his time the shewing of Woolls should not be made at the Staple on Sundayes, and on the solemne Feasts.

King Henry the Sixth, in his dayes, Fayres, and Markets, were forbidden, as an abominable injury and offence to Al­mightie God. Yea, it was held then by John de Burge, Chancelour of the Universitie of Cambridge, that the Sun­day might be called the Sabbath as before I noted, for that we were then to rest from all servile work, arts mechanick, husbandry, law-dayes, markets, and to bee busied at our prayers, publick service of the Church, in Hymnes and spirituall Songs, and hearing of Sermons.

King Edward the Fourth, in his raigne were forbidden, as unlawfull games, Dice, quoits, tennis, bowling; as also the felling of shooes, bootes, nor was it lawfull for Shoomakers to put upon the feet, or pull on the legges any shooes or boots on Sundayes: In whose time it was judged, That sale made on a Sunday of any thing, was not good, nor altered the propertie of it.

King Edward the Sixth, it was in his dayes manifested by Act of Parliament, that the Sundayes were holy dayes, and other dayes there expressed, wherein Christians should cease from all kinde of labour, and apply themselves only and wholly unto holy works properly belonging to true religion, which holy works were to be called Gods Service, whereunto such times and dayes were sanctified and hallowed (that is to say) separated (marke it well) from all profane uses.

In Queen Elizabeth her reigne, this Statute of King Edward the Sixth was in use and practice: and the observa­tion of the holy day was enjoyned by the twentieth of her [Page 164] [...] [Page 165] [...] [Page 166] [...] [Page 167] [...] [Page 168] Majesties Injunctions, in the same words, with our now thirteenth Canon, which was taken out, of that In­junction.

Thus farre for this Kingdome before the happy uni­ting of the two Kingdomes in one.

CHAP. XX. How our late Soveraigne King James, and now our King Charles would have it observed.

KIng James, the learnedst King that ever this Na­tion Anno 1603. May 7. had, at his entrance of his reigne, sent out his royall pleasure by Proclamation, in which we may observe; First, that hee calleth the day, againe and againe the Sabbath day: Secondly, the drift of the Proclamation was both for the better observing of the day, and for the avoiding of all impious profanation of it: Third­ly, that he forbad Beare-baitings, Bull-baitings, Enterludes, Common Plaies, and other like disordered or unlawfull exer­cises or pastimes.

After this in the Conference at Hampton Court, when that great Scholer Doctor Rainold desired a straighter course for the Reformation of the abuse of the Sabbath; there was found a generall unanimous consent thereto of the King, of the Prelates, and of that honourable Assembly met then in that place.

Furthermore when the Parliament was held, and a Con­vocation of the reverend Clergie the same yeere, the pious Canon before mentioned, agreeing almost verbatim with the Queenes Injunction, was then framed, for the keeping holy the Lords day with other holy dayes: Also in the selfe same yeere at the Commencement in Cambridge, as before hath been noted, a Doctor held this Thesis, Dies Dominicus nititur verbo Dei, and so determined by the Vice-Chancelour.

Lastly, as before in the raigne of Queene Elizabeth, so in King James his time, large Treatises of Celebrating [Page 169] the Lords day, were published under Authority licensing the same; among which was the Practice of Piety by a Bishop, and Bishop Downhams exposition upon the Com­mand [...]ments; to mention no other of lower rank, though some of them learned and reverend Divines.

King Charles, our now gracious Soveraigne, hath with the flower of this whole Land, by Act of Parliament de­clared himselfe with them concerning the holy observation of this day; First, In giving it the title of the Lords day, Secondly, In affirming that in the keeping of the day holy, it is a principall part of the true Service of God: Then un­doubtedly, hee highly pleaseth God, who keepeth holy the whole day: For by the judgment of the King, and the whole State, such a one as keepeth it is performing a prin­cipall part of the true Service of God: Thirdly, In prohi­biting on this day all meetings, assemblies, or concourse of people, out of their owne Parishes, for any sportes or pastimes whatso­ever; All Beare-baitings, Bull-baitings, Common Plaies, En­terludes, or any other unlawfull exercises or pastimes. Also that no Carryer, Waggoner, Waine-man, Car-man, or Drover, travell on the Lords day: Or any Butcher by himselfe, or by any other, with his privitie and consent, kill or sell any victuall on this day.

Hereto may I adde our Common Law, by which as the Sages in the Law have resolved it, That the day is exemp­ted from Law-dayes, publik Sessions in Courts of Justice, and that no plea is to be holden, no writ of a Scire facias, must beare date on a Sunday, for if it doe, it is an errour: so a Fine levied with Proclamations, if the Proclamations bee made on this day, all of them are held erroneous acts: And all this was for the solemnitie of the day, as also the intent that the people might apply themselves to prayer, and Gods publick Wor­ship and Service. Thus we see the honourablenesse of this day, and the high esteeme thereof, as it hath beene, and still ought to bee in our Kingdome amongst all faithfull Christians.

CHAP. XXI. What Councels and Synods have decreed touching the observation of this day.

IT cannot be, but where Emperours and Kings have taken care for keeping holy the Lords day, they had the judg [...]ment of the godly Divines in their times: But to cleare more this point, let us see what hath by the learned beene decreed concerning this.

The Councell of Carthage decreed to petition the Em­perour then, that there might bee no Shewes, nor other See Dr. Heylin pag. 101. 111. pag. 112. Playes on the Lords day, &c. The Councell held at Aragon, would have no sentence pronounced in any cause on the Lords day. The third Councell at Orleance informeth us, that husbandry, reaping, hedging, and such servile works were prohibited. The Councell at Mascon de­creed, that the day should be kept holy, calling it the Lords day, the day of our new birth, the everlasting day of rest, insinuated unto us, under the shadow of the seventh day or Sabbath in the Law and the Prophets. On this day none were to meddle in Litigious Controversies, in actions or Law Suits, nor prepare his Oxen for daily labour; but to goe to the Church, and there powre out his soule in teares and prayers, celebrate the day with one accord, offer unto God their free and voluntary service, exercise themselves in Hymnes and singing praises unto God, being intent thereon in minde and body, &c. The Councell at Dingulosinum in Bavaria determined, that upon Sunday, every one being intent upon Divine rest, should abstaine from prophane or common businesses. In the Councell of Angiers trades­men were appointed to lay by their labours, and among those the Miller, and the Barber. The Councell at Coleine de­creed, that the people should be diligently admonished, why other holy dayes (but especially the Lords day, which hath beene alwayes famous in the Church from the Apostles time) were instituted (to wit) that all might [Page 171] equally come together, to heare the Word of the Lord, to receive the Sacraments, to apply their mindes to God alone, to be spent only in Prayers, Hymnes, Psalmes, and spirituall Songs. And here were prohibited Playes, Dances, wicked Discourses, filthy Songs, all Luxurie, and Victualling Houses were commanded to be shut up. Concilium Bituriense, exhorteth saying, Let them practice nothing but that which savours of pietie, and there are prohibited prophane Assemblies, ryotous Feasts, Dances, Morices, disguises Stage Playes, and going to Alehouses. Concilium Basiliense, forbad Dice and Tables, and would that such as did walke with chaste eyes, modesty, and gravitie, should not goe to Dancing.

In a Synod held at Friuli, it was decreed, That all Chri­stian men, should with all reverence and devotion, honour the Lords day, and abstaine from all carnall acts, Etiam So S. Augu. in 244. Serm. de tempore, à pro­priis conjugibus, and all earthly labours, and goe to the Church devoutly. A Synode held in Aken or Aqui [...]gra­num 800. yeeres agoe held, that in reverence to the Lords day, it should no more bee lawfull to marry, or bee married. In a Roman Synod under Leo the fourth, it was decreed, that no Market, no not for meat should be kept, and no person should receive judgment on that day. And under Alexander the third, in a Coun­cell of Compeigne it was ordained; that none should bee doomed to death, or condemned to bodily punishment. In a Synod at Coy, it was decreed, that men should doe no servile work, nor take any journey. A Synod at Petricow in Poloniae, forbad Taverne-meetings, Dice, Cards, and such like pastimes, as also instrumentall musick and Dancing.

CHAP. XXII. What Popes, the Canon Law, Archbishops, Bishops, and other learned men, have said concerning the hallowing of this day.

1 Popes.

POpe Alexander the third saith that both the old and new Testament depute the seventh day unto rest. Pope Gregory the ninth commanded a re­straint from labour both of man and beast. In Pope Eugenius his time the Princes and Prelates (as Doctor Heylin confesseth) did agree together to raise the Lords day to as high a pitch as they fairely might, and a Canon was made by that Pope in a Synod at Rome 800 yeares agoe to forbid businesses and works of labour, criminall causes and vaine sports on the Lords day, and other Festivalls. Pope Gregory in Epist. 3. lib. 11. held it not lawfull for any to See Ios. Ben­tham his socie­ty of Sects, pag. 154. citing Leo the first, and Leo the third, their decrees for carefull observation of the Lords day. bath themselves out of luxury and pleasure on the Lords day, but that wee should rest from our earthly labours, and by all meanes abide in prayers, &c.

By the Canon Law grinding hath beene inhibited, and by the same Lawes travelling hath beene forbidden, and counted a mortall sinne: See at large Doctor Heylin out of Tostatus, the strictnesse of the observation of the Lords day and holy dayes; let me adde one thing out of Summa Angel. tit. interrogationes in confessione: The Priests did ask the con­fitents as a sinne, whether they had used pastimes and dancings on the Lords day. Our Linwood the Canonist de Consecr. Dist. 3. ca. Jemina saith, Die Dominico nihil aliud agendum, nisi Deo vacandum, nulla operatio in illa die sancta agatur, nisi tantum Hymnis, & Psalmis, & Canticis spiritualibus dies illa transigatur.

2 Archbishops and Bishops.

ARchbishop Islips with the assent and counsell of the Pre­lates assembled in a Synod 1349, decreed that there should bee a generall restraint from all manner of servile work, and that the Sunday should begin at the Saturday at Evening. Cuthbert Archbishop Daroberniae in a Synod Anno 747 with the rest, decreed that the Lords day should bee celebrated with the reverence most meet, and to be dedica­ted only to the service of God. Our last Archbishop Doctor Abbot so honoured the Lords day, as he by his Chaplains licensed divers Treatises for observation of the Lords day; and when a Minister presented him with a book to bee li­censed, which was made for liberty on that day, he took it of him, and before his face burnt it in the fire.

For Bishops, S. Ambrose telleth us, it is well knowne, saith he, how carefully the Bishops doe restraine all toying, light, and filthy Dances, if at other times, then on the Lords day. Bishop Babington on Exod. 16. saith, that Drinkings, Dances, Wakes, Wantonnesse, Beare-baiting, and Bull-baiting were wicked prophanation of the Lords day. Bishop Down­ham on the Commandements saith, They that keep the day for idle rest, make it Sabbatum Boum or Asinorum: They that defile it with drunkennesse and the like, make it Sabba­tum Diaboli: and they that prophane it with sports, make it Sabbatum aurei vituli: Bishop Hooper, that Godly Martyr On the ten Commande­ments. saith, The Lord sanctified the Sabbath day, not that wee should give our selves to illnesse, or to such Ethnicall pastimes, as is now used amongst Ethnicall people, &c. Bishop Bayly in his Practice of Piety saith, We are this day to abstaine from the works of our callings, carrying burdens, Faires, and Mar­kets, studying any Book but Scripture and Divinity, all re­creations and sports, grosse feeding, liberall drinking, and talking about worldly things: Bishop White hath uttered an Against Brab. holy speech, who saith, that all kinde of recreations which are of evill quality in respect of their object, or, are attended with evill and vicious circumstances, are unlawfull, and if used on the Lords day, are sacrilegious; for they rob God of his [Page 174] honour, to whose worship and service the holy day is devoted, and they defile the soules of men, for the clensing and edifying whereof the holy day is appointed

3. Learned Divines.

NIcho. de Clemangiis de novis celebritatibus, non institu­endis, tells us, that especially the Lords day and solemne Festivalls should be wholy and onely consecrated to more speciall worship and spent in duties of Devotion, in lauding and blessing him for his more speciall favours: Doctor Pock­lington In his Serm: pag. 13. hath a right speech (howsoever it be that a little after he varieth) saying, If the first day of the week be the Lords day, (as he in another place yeelds it) we must look to do the Lords work on it, and not trench upon him by doing our own worke thereon: yea, he cyteth Saint Augustine for this, Page 5. that men should leave all worldly businesses on Saints dayes, Et maximè Diebus Dominicis, especially on the Lords dayes that they betake themselves wholly to the Lords service. Reve­rend Hooker saith, that the voluntary scandalous contempt In Eccl. Pol. ca. 5. pag. 385. of the rest from labour wherewith God is publickly served, wee cannot too severely correct and bridle: Master Dow teacheth a cessation from ordinary labours, and holds them In his d [...]s­course of the Sab. pag. 28. unlawfull on this day, as they hinder a man from applying himselfe to divine duties, and therein are contrary to the divine precept and the morality thereof. He requireth first, A morning preparation in private. Secondly, Warneth men that they doe not by improvidence, or negligence, or forgetful­nesse draw upon themselves a necessity to omit or hinder the dutyes to which this day is consecrated. Thirdly, that the hindrances and our defects bee supplied by private Devotions and Meditations. Fourthly, that it is good and commendable to spend the rest of the day in holy meditations, private prayer, reading, and calling to minde what we have read or heard. Vincentius Bellovecensis and Bellarmine have condemned Specul. morale lib. 3. Concio 6. de Dominic. 3. advent. Stage-playes, Enterludes, Masques, mixt-Dancing, which they call lascivious, to be especially on the Lords day most execrable. Alex. Fabricius in his destructorium vitiorum pars 4 saith, That the Sabbath by dancing is prophaned. [Page 175] So did the godly Albigenses and Waldenses, who also in a short In the History of the Walden. part. 3. b. 2. Catechisme upon the Commandments would have the Chri­stians keep the Sabbath in ceasing from worldly labours, from sinne, and idlenesse, and to doe things as might be for the good and benefit of their soules.

It were tedious to recite the learned in the later times, teaching the holy observation of this our Lords day: I will Sect. 16. cap. 24. end only with the harmonie of Confessions, where it is said, that the Lords day ever since the Apostles time was consecra­ted to religious exercises and unto holy rest.

CHAP. XXIII. God would have our Lords day religiously observed, and not to be prophaned.

GOd doth informe us by his word, by which wee finde his institution of one day in a week from the creation (as in the first Treatife have beene proved) to bee sanctified to holy uses: wee finde also the same established by his Law gi­ven on Mount Sinai, as is manifested in the former Treatise: And from the word in the New Testament, we finde one day, the first day of the week, to have been observed, and the observation continued now this 1600 yeeres: So that one day in a week hath beene given to God as sacred and holy for holy rest in his worship, and for holy duties to be performed publickly & privately, now above five thousand five hundred & fourescore yeers, some count 6000, a time long enough to settle this truth, to observe such a day: and as the holy people in the former times before Christ kept their day holily, morally, so should wee our day too.

But as God inctrusteth by his word, so doth hee also by his works; he is said to speak by the work of his providence: Geness. 24. 50. 51. And when his judgements are in the Esai. 26. 10. earth, the inhabitants of the world are to learne righteous­nesse thereby: and even in this for not observing his holy day; for as before he punished his people for the propha­nation [Page 176] of their Sabbath, as the Scripture witnesseth in many places: So hath the Lord punished the prophanation of our Christian Sabbath dedicated to his honour, and ser­vice, and hath pleaded by his punishments for the sanctifi­cation thereof, and to deterre men from the prophaning of it.

This we must know that there is no evill in a City but the Lord doth it, (to wit) the evill of punishment; and the same commeth for sin, of what nature or kinde soever the judge­ments be: which are three fold.

1 Immediate judgements wherein Gods hand is clearely seene, which all will easily acknowledge with feare; Such a judgement was the drowning of the old world, the burning of Sodome and Gomorrah with fire from heaven: So that of Nadab and Abihu, with the 250 Princes also with fire from heaven; such a judgement was that of Lots wife turned into a pillar of salt, Miriam and Gehezi made leprous: such were also the ten plagues of Egypt on Pharaoh, and many judgements on the Israelites in the wildernesse; and on other in Israel, and Judah afterwards.

Secondly, Mediate judgements, which fall out upon men by some instruments, as by the hand of one man against ano­ther, where one is the death of another: but these are not so deeply laid to heart, as to behold Gods anger therein, as men are bound to do, yet the Scriptures telleth us of such, as Gods very hand in punishing men for sin, as we may read of the falling out of great friends at first the Sichemits and Abime­lech, Iudg. 9. 23. 56, 57. who at length flew one another, God sending an evill spirit between them to render upon their heads their wicked­nes and evill they joyntly committed against the house of Gi­deon. So hapned it with the three Armies of Moab Edom 2 Chr. 20. 22. 23 and Ammon and their gathering together like friends, yet fell out one with another, to the ruine of themselves, and this is attributed to be Gods hand upon them.

Thirdly, Judgements commonly called Casual, which happen not seldome, too many slight, and say, some, tush it was but an accident, as if Gods hand were not in it. When we reade of one killing another at unawares in Num. 35. [Page 177] 22, 23. Deut. 19. 5. that such a one so killed is delivered by God into the mans hand that killed him: Exo. 21. 13. By this kind of way came wicked Ahab to his death, 1 Kings 22. 34. even by a man shooting an arrow at an adventure: So Ahaziah his idolatrous sonne by falling downe through a Lattesse came to his end. 2 Kings 1. 2. and 27000 by the fall a of wall in Aphekr. 1 Kings 20. 30. which no doubt the Lord overthrew and caused to fall upon them to slay them. And we must know that casuall harmes, and death come for sin, so our Saviour tells us, Luk. 13. 4. that they were sinners on whom the Tower of Siloe fell, though others were not to judge them the greatest sinners above all: yea, casuall losses in outward things come for sin. 2. Chron. 20. 37.

Therefore be the judgements of God of any kinde, they are to be taken notice of, and we are to make use thereof, to beware of sin, and to repent least we likewise perish, and not to slight the least casuall harme as most doe: For Moses remembreth the people of Miriam, and our Saviour willed Deut. 24. 9. Luk. 17 32. 1. Cor. 10. his hearers to remember Lots wife: and Saint Paul sets the examples of the punishment of the Israelites before the Co­rinthians, and tells them that these things hapned to them for ensamples, and were written for our admonition. Where­fore what punishments have heretofore fallen out, or now happen amongst us, we are to observe them, and lay them to heart; For saith the Psalmist, All men shall feare and de­clare the work of God, for they shall wisely consider his doing, Psal. 64. 9.

That the abuse of this our sacred Lords day, hath pro­ked Hem. in Mart. 162. in Mark. 28. so in Luk. Ioh. and Acts Concio. 6. 9. &c. God to wrath is aknowledged; Gualter saith, it is not to be doubted, but that the prophanation of the Lords day is not the least cause of the evills and calamities of our age. And Bellarmine confesseth also that the Disorders, Dances, Revells, and the like, on the Lords dayes and other Feastivals, were the occasion of all publick calamities, and judgments, which they suffered; and reckoneth up, famine povertie, pe­stilence, sedition, & concludeth thus in general, all plagues and scourges. Of this sin speaketh our late learned King James, [Page 178] and our now Soveraigne King Charles, in the exhortation added to the books of the two former Fasts, and to this now also, and doe with the reverend Prelates acknowledge that among other sinnes, the not-keeping holy of the Lords day, but polluting it, is the cause of the plague breaking out upon us: yea, our Homily telleth us, that God hath declared himselfe much grieved for the prophanation of this day. This is further acknowledged by many learned men, who have beene speciall observers of the judgements hapning as well in times heretofore, as in our dayes: which may be reduced to the three heads before mentioned.

CHAP. XXIV. Of exemplary judgements immediate from God, against the prophaners of the Lords day.

IN a Councell held at Paris, in Anno 829, 800 yeers agoe, the reverend Bishops there assembled, some by relation, others of their own knowledge, af­firme, that some men following their husbandry, were slaine with Lightning and Thunder, other some pu­nished with a strange convulsion of their joynts, and si­newes, and miserably perished for their dishonouring of so great a day.

Gregorius Turonensis, who lived a 1000 yeeres since, in the end of the fifth Century, or in the very beginning of the sixth, as Bellarmines Chronicle hath it; said, that for the dishonour done to the Lords day in working, fire from heaven, burned both men and houses in the City of Lomages.

Doctor Beard of Huntington, telleth us in his Theatre of Discipul. de tempo. Ser. 117. Gods jugdements how fire from heaven burned up a worldlings Barne, and all the graine in it, for conveying his corne on a Sunday in Sermon time out of the field.

To these may be added many other of the like nature: One would needs, though diswaded by others, ring an Hogge on the Lords day in the morning, but in the ringing, [Page 179] staggered, fell downe, and never spake more, though hee lived eight dayes after.

A great man using every Lords day to hunt in Sermon Thea [...]r. histor. time, had a child by his wife, with an head like a dog with eares, and chaps, and cryed like an hound.

A Grasiers Servant, would needs drive his Cattell on the Lords day in the morning, from the Inne where he lay Saturday night, when he might have stayed in the Inne, but hee was not gone a stones cast from the Towne but fell downe dead suddenly, though before in good health.

A man on the Lords day though intreated to the contra­ry by his wife, would take his Hatchet and Shovell to make an end of his work left before undone: but he was suddenly struck dead in the ditch and so ended his work and life to­gether.

One serving a Writ of Sub paena on another, comming from Gods Service on this day: he after somewords of re­proofe for so doing, and his light answer thereto, dyed in the place without speaking more words.

Certaine disorderly youths would in despite of the Church-wardens ring on this day, but the principall Com­panion, who had gathered them together, was strucken with giddinesse, as if he had been drunk, whilst he was ring­ing, whereof he sickned, and dyed of that sicknesse shortly after.

A scoffer rejoycing at others evils, and the licentious li­bertie which many took upon the Lords day, was strucken with a dead palsey, all over one side, and with blindnesse, and dumbnesse, so as he could neither goe, see, nor speak: and ly­ing thus in miserable paine, died within a short time after the stroke of God upon him.

These few instances may serve for the immediate hand of God upon prophaners of the Lords day. I passe by, how fil­thy drunkards have felt the Lords hand against them on this day.

CHAP. XXV. Of exemplary judgements mediate from God, against the prophaners of the Lords day.

CHristians in name should be Christians indeed, and one further another unto goodnesse, especially on the Lords day, which should bee provoca­tive to good duties, and to the stirring of us up to shew the vertue of Christ his resurrection in us, and our Christian love one to another, as at all times, so chiefly on this day: but where lusts rule and persons are pro­phane, the Lord leaveth them to themselves, to become his instruments to punish their prophanation of this day; as appeareth by these examples.

Some on the Lords day would goe to Bowles (a forbid­den game to the common sort) at which play two falling out, the one threw a bowle at the other, and struck him so on the head, as the bloud issued out, of which blow hee dyed shortly after.

Certaine youthes (contrary to the order in the declarati­on) would goe out of their owne Parish on the Lords day, into another to play at Fives, the Mother of one of these earnestly diswaded him, but goe he would, and returning homewards at night, with his companions, they fell first to justling, after to boxing, so as their bloud being moved one of his fellowes stabbed him in the left side, and so wounded him, as he dyed the next day at night.

At a Wake on the Lords day, among others, two sitting and drinking, till late at night fell out, but at first they were parted a while, after commeth one of them in againe, and seeing the other sitting by the fire, with his back towards him, commeth behind him, and with an hatchet chineth him downe the back, so as his bowels fell out: the cruell murtherer flying, and being hotly pursued, leaped into a river and drowned himselfe.

A wanton Maide hyred on the Lords day, a fellow to go to the next Parish to fetch thence a Ministrell (not war­ranted [Page 181] by the Declaration) that shee, and others might Dance: but that night was shee gotten with child, which at the time of its birth, she murthered, and was put to death for the same, confessing the occasion of her ill hap, to be her prophanation of the Lords day.

Upon a Whitsunday in the afternoone two fellowes meet­ing at the Ball (again not allowed by the Declaration) the one killed the other: Also upon a Lords day in the after­noone, one with much contempt against his Minister, as appeared by his words, would take up Cudgells to play with another (a sport not allowed them) but at the second or third bout, one of his eyes was struck out of his head.

A fellow drunk at the Church-house where he dwelt, on the the Lords day (a foule sin both for the time and place) was the next day, so given over of God, as hee became his owne executioner, and hanged himselfe.

One d [...]posed to revell-rout, without due bounds of pre­scribed order, would in the Church-house keep an Ale on the [...]ords-day and other dayes both night and day without controule: But see the Lords hand, on the Sunday night, his youngest sonne was taken for stealing of a purse out of anothers pocket, while he lay drunk in the Church-house on the board and that week his eldest son was by one stabd to death.

A poore man after hee had heard a good Sermon (as hee said) when he came from the barre unto a Minister, would go to a Revell (an ill name for Christians meeting together) into another Parish, where occasionally falling out with one he killed him; running out of the Church-yard to doe the bloody fact, for which at the next Assisses, he was excu­ted, lamenting his ill hap, that he could not tarry at home.

More instances of quarrelling, fighting, and killing of one another, might bee given to terrifie men from such sinfull wayes, and from such prophanesse of the Lords day; especi­ally consecrated to the laud and honour of Jesus Christ our blessed Lord and Saviour.

CHAP. XXVI. Of examples of casuall judgements against the Prophaners of the Lords day.

OF such like judgements as happen as it were at una­wares, unexpectedly, I have given instances in holy writ: And therefore by the recording of them, God would have us not only to take notice of such, but also to make good use of them, as the Lord shall direct us in wisedome, in charity, and well-mindednesse so to doe.

For it must indeed bee acknowledged that in this sort of judgements the particular application to particular persons for this and that act is not easie, but requireth prudency of circumspection, and carefull observation of all circumstances concurring to make a true use of them in the application to others, though not the like difficult in all, nor yet so hard for the parties upon whom such casuall judgements doe fall, to apply them home to themselves for instruction. And therefore have they beene observed and recorded: Among very many, take these few examples.

Famous and memorable is the fall of the Scaffold in Paris garden, where many were gathered together on the Stowes Chron. Lords day to see the rude sport of Bear-baiting, the fall whereof flew eight persons, and many others were hurt and sore bruised.

A great number gathered on this day to see a Play acted Doctor Beard in his Theatre. in a chamber; the floore fell downe, by meanes whereof many were hurt, and some kild.

Stratford upon Avon was twice on fire, and both times on the Lords day, whereby it was almost consumed, chiefly for prophaning the Lords day, and for contemning the word of God out of the mouth of his faithfull Mi­nisters. These two in­stances are ci­ted by Bishop Bayly.

Teverton, (whose remembrance, saith mine Authour, made his heart to bleed) was twice also almost utterly con­sumed with fire, 400 houses at once in a flame; and in the [Page 183] first fire were about fifty persons consumed; which was for the horrible prophanation of the Lords day, occasioned chiefly by their Munday-market. Of the first judgement they were fore-warned by their Preacher, telling them that some heavy judgement God would bring upon the Towne, as it hapned, not long after his death.

Two brethren on the Lords day in the forenoone came from a Market-towne to an Uncle they had, there to dine; after dinner they took horse againe, but had not gone farre, but one of the horses fell downe dead: who going back againe to their Uncles house, the other horse being put up into the Stable, within an houre or two after died in the place.

One would ride after dinner on the Lords day, about a worldly businesse, which he needed not then to have done; and therefore was diswaded from it, but goe hee would, his way was over a bridge, on which when he came, a puffe of wind blew his hat into the river, which he seeking to re­cover by going into the river, both he and his horse were drowned, nor could he be found till fishes had foulely de­voured his flesh.

The Magdeburgenses report, that a husbandman grinding his corne on the Lords day, the meale was set on fire: And it is knowne to many, that a Millers wife setting her Mill on going, and she busie in her Mill on the Lords day, in the morning the Mill-house fell upon her, and kild her; of which by the fall of a Stone there, but a few dayes, or but a week before, shee had a faire warning given, yet not ma­king good use of it, she there ended her dayes.

Fourteene youths adventuring to play at foot-ball upon the river of Trent on the Sabbath day, when it was, as they thought, hard frozen, meeting together in a shove, the Ice brake, and they were all drowned.

I might here rehearse many more casuall judgements of many sorts, which have hapned upon such as have propha­ned this day. Fires have beene kindled, it not being known how, in time of peoples ryoting on this day, which burnt downe many houses: Some in one place, some in another, [Page 184] on this day some going out to swimme have beene drowned: Some riding to merriments (which commonly neglect di­vine service) have fallen from their horses and broken their necks: More of this kinde might be rehearsed, but let mee conclude with the words of the Authour of the Practice of Piety: If these be not sufficient to terrifie thy heart from the wilfull prophanation of the Lords day, proceed on in thy prophanation, it may bee the Lord will make thee the next example to teach others to keep his Sabbaths better.

CHAP. XXVII. Of objections which may be, or are made against the produceing of Judgements in this case; with answers thereto.

AS mens understanding leadeth them, so are their hearts affected more or lesse, seeme the thing never so dreadfull, or terrifying to our common appre­hensions; as I finde in this particular case. Some reject these and other like relations as fabulous, and so give no credit to them, holding them perhaps for Piae fraudes, as formerly were the Popish legends to move feare in peoples hearts with telling of tales.

These fore-mentioned examples are none such; it is a foule sinne to bely God, nor need his cause any lies to streng­then it: we live now in a clearer light, than to be led away altogether with fabulous relations.

Others, because some of the judgements seeme casuall, and so commonly held in this very respect, make a tush at the al­legation of them: But however some be apprehended as casuall, many being immediate from God, none but the Heathen Philistimes Priests will judge them meere chances: And for such as be casuall, let us consider, that a Sparrow cannot light on the ground without the will, and providence of our heavenly Father. And are the haires of our head numbred? Certainly then, things which seeme most con­tingent, and such acts as these judged so casuall, must needs [Page 185] fall out by the will of God, and the guidance of his speciall providence, and his divine hand. And therefore not to bee lightly passed over with a tush, and slighted as a meere ac­cident without due observation, and use.

Some think, that there is not much heed to be taken of these judgements concerning this day, for that the selfe same may bee found to fall out at other times, and other holy­dayes: And therefore nothing can be concluded more pe­culiarly for this day, than for any other, from these judgements.

No doubt, but it may so happen and fall out, that a Drunkard may fall from his horse and break his neck aswell on any other holy day, as on the Lords day: A Cud­gel-player may on another day be hurt, and have his eye struck out as well as on this day: One may kill another, houses may bee on fire, and men by swimming may bee drowned aswell at other times, as on the Lords day: The like accidents may fall alike at all times; for God though he punish the prophanation of his owne day with his judge­ments, yet he reserves not any speciall judgements to be in­flicted upon Sabbath-breakers, as peculiar to them for that sinne: For if so, men would not thus dispute the case, and sleight the argument; for the judgement would clearely decide the controversie, and put men to silence. But as I have said, the same punishments may light upon all sorts of offenders alike at any time: Neverthelesse, wee may not neglect to take good notice of Gods hand, not only in gene­rall to conceive where such hurts, and harms happen, that there is sinne which hath procured it, upon such persons as vaine, and ill disposed (for we are to judge otherwise of af­flictions on the Godly, which happen upon a Job for triall) but also to endeavour to finde out the sinne in particular in a sober search and godly humility. And thus much must we doe for the work of Conscience, which stirreth not upon an only generality; but upon knowledge of this or that par­ticular sinne applyed home to our selves, upon the breach of some precept: Thus shall we instruct our selves by obser­ving judgements, to take heed of particular sinnes.

Now to finde out the sinne, and the sinner in his sinne, which God pointeth out by his hand upon him.

1 Enquire into the transgression of the Law, for by it commeth the knowledge of sinne, which is the transgressi­on of the Law: upon this ground we cannot misse of the sinne.

2 In the next place, ponder seriously all the concurring circumstances concerning the punishment happening: And here note

1 The notorious qualities of the person upon whom the judgement lights; whether he be a common swearer, drun­kard, fornicator, a despiser of holy duties, or grossely care­lesse of them. 2 What evill he was saying or doing when the punishment befell him. 3 Where hee was, in what place prohibited. 4 His intention discovered to be nought, ungodly, or unjust. 5 How he did, or speake in an evill manner. Lastly, the time is very considerable when any such thing was done, at what time the judgement hapned.

By all these concurring circumstances duely weighed with mature deliberation, the divine hand may be observed very usefully, even in common, and such as be called casuall ac­cidents: As for instance,

A May-pole set up on the Lords day, falleth and killeth one; one is set up upon a holy day in time of divine service, which killeth another, as instances may be given: The first hapneth for the prophanation of the day, because they brake the divine ordinance of God, who hath appointed the obser­vation and keeping holy of the day: The other, for the pro­phane contempt of Gods divine service on that other day. To play at foot-ball on the Sunday, the example is fearfull of fourteene drowned together playing on the ice, for that they prophaned the day: At Chidlington in the edge of Hertford-shire, not farre from Hitchin, upon an holy day a company of fellowes intended a match at foot-ball, some of them were come into the Church, and to call the rest together, one tolled the Bell; presently it began to thunder, and on a sudden was seene a black ball to come tumbling downe a hill neare by, and came directly to the Church, [Page 187] and there flew into the Bell-Free, and first slew him that tolled the bell, then flustred about the Church, and hurt di­vers; and at last did buise in sunder, leaving behinde it a fil­thie stinch like to brimstone. Now albeit this was not on the Lords day, yet were they thus fearefully punished. First, In plotting an unlawfull sport, on that day against the authori­ty of the Magistrate. Secondly, By making the Church, a con­secrated place, their randevouze. Thirdly, by prophanely tol­ing a Bell, the principall use whereof, was to give notice to the people to come and serve God, and not to draw youths to vaine and unlawfull sports. Fourthly and lastly, in purpo­sing to spend the time, dedicated to sacred uses, in their boiste­rous, rude, and harmeful spo [...]ting.

Thus we see how we may take notice of the judgments for breach of the Sabbath, though punishments of the like na­ture, (yea sometimes worse) happen upon other daies. To Conclude this, it is not good to take off our awefull thoughts from Gods hand, upon breakers of the Sabbath, least we grow presumptuous and fall into sinne, and so procure to our selves the deserved judgements which have light upon others: And let us consider, how God threats to destory such Psa. 28. 5. as regard not his workes, and the operation of his hand.

Lastly, some are so farre from having any regard at all to this argument drawne from the judgements of God, as they hold the allegation of them, in this cause, to be impious rash­nesse, impious, and rash presumption, vaine observations, next allied to superstition, yea, a prophane kinde of observa­tion: a strangly presumptuous and dareing manner to perke up into Gods throne, and a taking upon men to reade the darke and divine Characters of the causes of his inscrutable judgements, and an unsufferable arrogancy in such as pro­duce them, making God to beare false witnesse, foolishly triumphing before the victory, with saying, Loe the judge­ments of God, Loe the judgements of the Lord, out of Heaven, making them speake Gods indignation against the propha­nation of the Lords day.

What should move any thus to condemne, and censure [Page 188] such as bring Gods judgements against the prophaners of the Lords day; They may perhaps better know with in them­selves, than they yet have expressed unto others. If any have failed in trueth of Story, or related examples not to purpose (or what if but common, and ordinary, yet true yet may examples be memorable, though common and ordinary; for God makes them so common, because he would not have them forgotten) or that have put Causam, pro non Causa, they are left to answere for themselves. For my part, I sup­pose, without feare of mens fore-mentioned heavie doome, that we may with lowly reverence, and with an holy awe­fullnesse of divine Majesty soberly observe his judgements: and for those Reasons.

First, the Scriptures are full of examples of Gods judge­ments, to teach us to observe them now, as then they were: For whatsoever is written, is written for our learning, ac­cording to the nature of the things left us to read, and un­derstand.

Secondly, Our Saviour Christ minded his Hearers of the destruction of the old world, of Sodome, and of Lots wife to make use thereof for their instruction.

Thirdly, Saint Paul mentioneth fore-past judgements, not 1. Cor. 10. to the Jewes among whom they happened, but to converted Gentiles, the Corinthians: He nameth the sinnes, and then the punishments, and telleth them, that they were written for ensamples, and for our admonition, that we should not doe as they did. If judgements past, serve for this use, are we not to make the same use of judgements present, which dayly happen among us? I doubt not but we may, and ought so to doe.

Fourthly, The holy Psalmist layeth it down as a sin, and threatneth destruction as a punishment, because they regard­ed not, they did not consider, nor understood, as the word Psal. 2 [...]. 5. signifieth, the works of the Lord, nor the operation of his hands; The like doth the Prophet Esai in his time complain Esay. 5. 12. of, they were given to fcastings and wine, and to the Pipe, and other musicall instruments, but they regarded not the work of the Lord, neither Considered the operation of his [Page 189] hands, as many in our times, and especially on the solemne We are taught to magnifie his worke, which men behold. Iob 36. 24. Pro. 21. 11. daies, set apart for Gods worship: At which times, if evills befall any of them, are wee slightly to passe them by? Should we not learne by other mens harmes to take out a lesson for our selves? when the Scorner is punished, the Simple is made wise, saith Salomon.

Fifthly, It is a duty, yea, a grace commended in the God­ly, Esa. 26. 9. 10. that they will learne righteousnes, when they see the judgements of God in the earth: but it is cleane contrary to the wicked, they will not behold the Majesty of the Lord, when he [...] [...]hem, and when they behold others puni­shed, yet they [...]ill not learne righteousnesse. Marke, how the Prophet here [...]dgeth them for wicked, who from judge­ment; on others, and from his favour towards themselves, will not learne righteousnesse.

Sixthly, I have shewed that 800 yeeres ago, how the Re­verend Prelates at the Synod in Paris, laid to heart the feare­full judgements which befell some, for the prophanation of the Lords day: Gualter, as you have heard, durst averre boldly, confidently saying, that it was not to be doubted, that the prophanation of the Lords day, was not the least cause of the evils, and calamities in those times: Bellarmine durst say as much. In the exhortation added to our Fast-Booke, is it not acknowledged, that the plague hapned (a­mong other sinnes) for the polluting, and not keeping holy the Lords day? Learned men from time to time have made Catalogues of such judgements as have hapned upon this day. The Authour of the Practise of Pietie (a book thirty five times reprinted, allowed by authority, and dedicated to our Now Dread Soveraigne, when he was Duke of Yorke, and after when he was Prince of Wales) rehearseth many judge­ments upon Sabbath-breakers, as he calleth them, and is bold in the Conclusion to affirme, that those judgements which he mentioneth may be sufficient unto them (whose hearts are not seared) how wrathfully God is displeased with them, who are wilfull prophaners of the Lords day.

What shall we say of all these Reverend Fathers afore­time, [Page 190] of our Reverend Prelates in their exhortation, of Lear­ned Divines, aswell Papists, as Protestants in their obser­vation of judgments, and applying them for the breach of the Lords day, that herein they were strangely presumptu­ous, that their observation was rash, vaine, and impious, and they in so doing deserved to be censured for insufferable arro­gancy? now God forbid. I presume, the spirit of wisedome will not suffer any moderate minde to think it: nor ever did let any such a condemning censure and deadly doome, passe the pen of any upon them for so doing. Nor indeed, was there cause, nor yet is, if the judgements be wisely ap­plied.

For is it not acknowledged by a learned Opposite, that in some cases, it is lawfull to apply particular judgements to par­ticular sinnes of particular persons? Then why not in this case, if the case be put right, to wit, for the prophanation of the day, and not hailed and drawn to other by-ends, and by-respects, not intended in the production of these judgements? For another learned Opposite saith thus, without all questi­on, (whether the observation of the Lords day stands by ver­tue of Gods immediate precept in the fourth Commande­ment, or otherwise: or onely by Apostolicall, or Ecclesiasti­call Constitution) the prophanation of the day (marke the words) must needs bee a greivous sinne, and powerfully-attractive of Divine vengeance, seeing it is acknowledged by all, that in the prophanation of that day, both Gods precept (as farre as it is morall in the fourth Commandement) is violated, and the authority (which God hath commanded all Christians to obey) is contemned. If then the propha­nation of the day be a greivous sinne, and powerfully-at­tractive of Divine vengeance, when God layeth his hand upon the prophaners of the day, what letteth any sober spirit to apply the judgement?

Gods wayes, are not our wayes, Esa. 55. 8. saith one; true, not in his mercies, of which the Prophet there speaketh; and yet we feare not to apply his mercies to our comfort, and to the comfort of others.

But the judgements of God are unsearchable, Rom. 11. 33. [Page 191] what judgements? such judgements as we speake of? The A­postle speaketh not of the works of his justice for sin, imme­diate, mediate, or casuall, which happen in the sight of men, and are so made manifest, and are not unsearchable. But the Apostle by judgements understandeth the hidden determina­tions of Gods meanes to bring about the manifestation of his justice, and mercy to this and that people, as to the Jews, and to the Gentiles; which made the Apostle to cry out, Oh the depth of the riches of the wisedome, and knowledge of God, &c.

If the sinne be manifest, and the punishment visible, here is not an unsearchable judgement, nor such, his way past finding out. These two places alleadged, that of Esay for judgements of mercies, and this of the Romanes mis-under­stood, and mis-applyed to our matter in hand, do not hinder the applying soberly Gods judgements when they fall out upon men, in their sinfull courses.

Our Saviour sufficiently (will some say) taketh us off from this rash attempt: 1. In the blind mans case, John 9. 2. In the fall of the tower of Siloam, and massacre committed on the Galileans: And 3. the whole booke of Job serves to shew the folly of vaine men.

First, For the place of John 9. concerning the blinde man, there is no application of any judgement by the disciples, they doe only ask him a question, saying, Master, who did sinne, this man or his parents? They knew not the cause, they only supposed, there might be some sin, in the one, or in the other, why the man was borne blinde: Our Saviour answers them, and directeth their thoughts to an higher considera­tion upon the occasion of his healing: but he condemneth them not of any rashnesse as in some other cases he did, when sometimes they asked him a question. This text taxeth not the sober minded for observing sinnes, and applying of judge­ments, when they happen.

Secondly, Concerning, Luke 13. 1, 2, 3, 4. it is to as little purpose: for here some tell Christ of that which befell the Galileans, and our Saviour himselfe bringeth in the fall of the tower: but here is no mention of the peoples apprehending [Page 192] of any sinne, for which they might apply to them the judge­ments: nor doth our Saviour finde fault with them for any such conceit: but hee onely maketh a supposition, if any thought them to bee the greatest sinners aboue all others that dwelt in those places, they erred in so thinking, and taught them the right use thereof, to wit, to repent, least they themselves should perish: This Text is against such as rashly judge such to be the greatest sinners, who perish by either mediate, or casuall judgements; but who doe so judge of those whom God hath punished for prophaning his day? for my part I know none of so presumptuous a spirit: we speak of the sinne, wee apply the judgement, and desire men to make the use thereof, which Christ doth here, to re­pent, that they may not likewise perish; and this we have warrant to doe.

Thirdly, for the whole book of Job, which is said to serve for this purpose, to shew the folly of vaine men, presuming to particularize the foot-steps of the Lord, as if hee proceeded in justice according to our fancies. I answer, all might well have been spared in this matter, for it maketh nothing against the observation, and ap­plication of Gods judgements, against the prophanation of the Lords day. Job was a very holy man, his friends could not convince him of any open crime: and yet for the strange manner of Gods afflicting him, they rashly con­demned him. They reasoned from Gods hand upon him, to make him guiltie of foule offences, which they could not justly taxe him of, for which Elihu reproveth them: But we reason from the sinne, the prophanation of the day, (which is acknowledged a grievous sin) to the punishment, that God is offended, and therefore the sin to be a avoided. In this, is neither folly, nor we vaine men, nor led by fancie, nor doe wee darken counsell by words without knowledge, for Iob 33. 2. which God reproved Job, not Elihu for finding fault with Job; for Elihu his reprehension of Job was sound, and good, Iob 42. 3. against which Job made no reply.

Oh, but yet some may say, if it bee denyed, that either the evill inflicted is a judgement, or that it was for this (to wit, [Page 193] the prophaning of the Lords day) inflicted, wee are forth­with put to shame, and silence.

Sooner said than proved: Can any deny the evill befallen to be a judgement? For the better understanding hereof we must know the word judgement to be taken, two wayes; First, for the extraordinary vindicative Justice, the dread­full revenging hand of God, in his wrathfull vengeance, plaguing some notorions wicked ones, as the Sodomites, Egyptians, Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat with a rotting disease incurable, so that he stank above ground, and the like; Secondly, for ordinary punishments, which may happen to any, so as the word judgement taken in 1 Cor. 11. 29. where the word translated damnation is [...], judicium, judgement: so also in 1 Pet. 4. 17. it is used for any kinde of punishment which God infflicts upon men for sin: In this later sense the evill befalling the Sabbath-breakers, is a judgement, and a due deserved punishment, as the word is expounded by the learned in Gal. 5. 10. Shall not fire from heaven, thundering and lightning, by which some have been killed, be held a judgement? was not the fall of Paris-gardens Scaffold, which hurt and kild so many, a judgement? These and other evils hapning, such as be before mentioned, have been held to be judgements; and why any should deny them to be so now, they give no reason, nor indeed, can they, if they take the word judgement aright, as in this case some Opposites doe; who affirme that irreligious contempt of Gods ordinances, appointed on this day, by the Church, and law of the Land, may pull down Gods judgements: yea, that if this day were changed into another, there would be as exemplarie judgments of God from heaven against this kinde of ungodlinesse of men, as ever were in any ages upon the Lords day. It is no shame we see to call them judgements.

And we may without shame say that these evils befell them for prophaning the Lords day, and not keeping it holy. Our Church in the Homily, and in the fore-mentio­ned exhortation, the Fathers in that Synod, and learned men have averred as much, whose affirmation may be op­posed to any private mans negation, if we had no reason to [Page 194] strengthen the assertion. But is it not granted that the prophanation of the day is a grievous sin? And doth not the fourth Commandement impose a morall dutie, which is to keep holy the day of rest? The sanctification of the day is imposed upon us, and this are we pressed to remem­ber. Let the day be what it will, appointed by divine au­thoritie, as our Lords day is acknowledged to be, wee are to keep it holy. To keep the day set apart by a divine institution, holy, is the maine substance of the fourth Commandement, and a morall dutie: And therefore the not keeping holy the Lords day, but polluting it, is a sinne, against the fourth Commandement, and the breach of a mo­rall dutie, and therefore for this did the evills befall those, that prophaned the day.

But some will peradventure say, that it was the propha­nation, and irreligious contempt of Gods ordinances ap­pointed upon this day by our Church, and the lawes of [...]he land (sinnes highly provoking Gods wrath) [...] brought such evils upon them.

It may be so, for vaine and prophane enough are [...] persons, with whom the Lord is displeased, who may adde one sinne to another, to the prophaning of the day, an irre­ligious dis-regard of holy duties, with dis [...]bedience to Au­thoritie: but this sinne maketh not the other to [...] no cause of the evills hapning to them, but serveth rather the more to aggravate the other sinne, and so more speedi [...]y to hasten their judgement.

And to this, some, it may be, will adde an other cause, to wit, the licentiousnesse of such, as have bin punished, swar­ving from those dirrections & limitation prescribed to them.

I will not deny this neither, for certaine it is, that almost all the instances which lately have beene given, are of those which have runne out beyond their bounds in the Declaration: and no marvell for such as care not for Gods Commandements, will easily transgresse the limits prescribed by man▪ But yet here is no discord in the assign­ment of the cause of their punishment, the prophanation of the day: for in one and the same action, where God is [Page 195] dis-obeyed, the Church dis-regared, and authority neglected; and for all this together the parties punished, yet the principall cause is the sinne against God: as in this cause it is cleare enough.

Neverthelesse, some cannot peradventure be satisfied with all this, that it is lawfull to apply these judgements to par­ticular persons, except certaine rules be observed herein, such as themselves lay downe for guidance in the same. These rules I will write downe, and then give answer to them as I may. The rules which I finde laid downe for this purpose are these following.

1 Rule.

We must have either extraordinary revelation of the punishments for the sinne, of which now there is no expectation in the wise: or immediately by the word wee must find those particular sins threatned with those particu­lar judgements, which we see to be executed upon them.

Sometime we finde in Scripture particular judgements threatned for some particular sinnes, which some have com­mitted, and beene punished for. But there be above a thou­sand sinnes mentioned in Scripture, and five hundred of them without any particular threatning added. This rule is not alwayes observable. Wee see severall kindes of pu­nishments inflicted for some particular sinnes, which were not threatned before, to light upon the offenders. Uzziah for attempting to offer incense, was smitten with an incu­ble Leprosie: Nadab and Abihu were burnt with fire from heaven for their sinne: Ananias and Saphira for their lying to the Holy Ghost kild immediately in the place: Jeroboams arme withered for stretching it out against the Prophet: A­maziah for silencing a Prophet, given over to seck his owne overthrow: Judas for betraying Christ left to be his owne executioner: Herod eaten with wormes for his finne, yet none of these particular judgements were threatned for these particular sinnes.

What therefore though we have no threatning that God would punish prophanesse on this day with such particular judgements as have befallen them; must we not think those evills to have happened to them for that sinne? A sinne de­serves [Page 196] punishment, but what way and how God will punish, that hee reserves to himselfe, and seldome hath revealed it, though sometimes as we see by Nathan to David, 2 Sam. 12. 11, 12. and by Moses to the Israelites, against Korah and his company, Numb. 16. 30.

2 Rule.

That which we suppose to be punished, must bee truly, and indeed a sinne, and not a point disputable, but re­creations on the Lords day, whether lawfull, or unlawfull, are disputable: and therefore without unsufferable arrogancy we cannot apply the evils happening as judgements for sin.

No truth is so cleare, but by agitation, siding, and exercise of wit, may become disputable. This might bee shewed in many things evident enough, till they come into question. The morality of the fourth Commandement was heretofore very manifest, and the keeping holy the Sabbath day was of the morality, and the not-keeping holy the Sabbath day, but polluting it, was a sinne. The Lord in the old Testament threatned to punish, and did severely punish the breach of that Law; and the same sinne hee yet punisheth in some, though not in all that prophane the Lords day, observed of us Christians, as our Christian Sabbath, as hath been proved.

If these judgements come not for the prophanation of the day, (as before I shewed it hath been acknowledged) where­fore hath God so long, and so often laid his hand on ma­ny? If God be not provoked to anger, hee will doe us no hurt. Ier. 25. 6. Hee doth not willingly afflict nor greive us. Lam. 3. 33. Therefore when hee doth hurt, and af­flict these vaine, loose, and licentious sort of persons on this day, what sinne (for they doe sinne) evidenced by Gods hand against them, what sinne, I say, may wee suppose it to bee, but their prophanesse? and if the case bee so doubtfull as some would make it, yet whether is it not better to make this use of these judgements, to sanctify the day with due re­verence, rather than in doubtfull case to take our pleasurable liberty? for the rule is good, Quod dubitas, ne feceris, for so we are sure not to sinne.

3 Rule.

That we find it by observation to have ever been, and continually, or for the most part so.

What sinne is there that may agree with this rule, that hath ever, and continually, or for the most part some judgement to set it out by, and by which it may be dis­covered? For as an Opposite in this our case, saith, are there not thousands (more is the pitty) that prophane the Lords day in greater measure, than any of those in whom instances have been made, which never felt any exemplary evill? So may I say of many other sinnes, and sinfull men wallowing in their filthinesse; where finde we that ever and continu­ally, or for the most part, that vengeance suffers not a mur­therer to live? Have not many lived, and do not many live guilty of bloud? hath ever, and continually, and for the most part, the drunkard, the glutton, the adulterer, the cruell extor­tioner, and the like wicked ones, been made exemplary by judgements upon them, that any should expect ever, conti­nually, or for the most part, judgements upon Sabbath breakers?

But it is a pretty cunning for men to devise rules out of their owne braines, and lay them downe as Maximes to try their Adversaries tenents by, and to reject them as not sound, because they agree not to their crooked rule.

Yet concerning the matter in hand let me say thus much, the so frequent accidents as some call them in so great varie­ty, and happening so thick together in many places, may worke amazement, and do answere better to the rule, than what other sinne with following judgements up­on the offenders may be produced: It is said, (and but said,) that such accidents fall out as frequently upon other dayes: Let them that so say be pleased to take the paines to observe, and gather a Catalogue, and present them to the view of the world to give satisfaction.

4. Rule.

When the sinner is taken in the very manner, the Lords hand may be observed therein, the sinne co-operating with the judgement, either naturally, or morally.

When the sinne, and the judgement meet together, it is ve­ry certain, that the judgement then points out the sin, which is at that time committed, to be the cause of that punish­ment. Whilst Ʋzzah was laying his hand upon the Arke, [Page 198] he was struck dead, therefore the touching of the Arke, was the cause of the judgement: Nadab and Abihu offered strange fire, and whilest they were offering, fire from hea­ven Num. 10. 1. 2. light upon them, therefore the offering strange fire was the cause why this fire from above was sent down upon them. Plagues fell upon the Philistimes whilst they deteined 1. Sam. 5. the Ark therefore the withholding the Ark was the sin which made God so to plague them, and was not a Chance. Jeho­shaphat joyned himselfe with Ahaziah to make ships to go to Ophir for gold, but were broken at Ezion-Geber, which 1. Kin. 22. 48. 49 casuall crosse befell him for that sin as appeareth by the use Jehoshaphat made of it afterwards, for he made not a tush of it but refused to joyne any more with Ahaziahs servants: the Prophet also applyed that casuall punishment to that sin. The Holy Prophet did not lightly reckon of such a hand of God, but was taught by the Lord to observe it, and to apply 2. Chr. 20. 37. it to the particular sinne. Many other instances might be brought to confirme this trueth if need were out of the Scrip­tures. Therefore this being a rule certaine, then the hand of God may be observed against our Sabbath-breakers; for their prophanations did co-operate to the hurt of many, and to the death of some: They were punished in their actes and deedes doing. It is not the questioning to make the mat­ter doubtfull, that can overthrow the rule laid, nor sicknesse, nor death happening when any are about a good thing; for the good thing, co-operateth not with the sicknesse, nor with the death following: preaching and praying procure not hurts, nor evils, and therefore cannot be produced fitly for this case, to take the sober minde off from observing Gods punishments upon such as we speak of in this discourse.

It is a truth undeniable, that the true estimation of things dependes not upon the events or accidents following it: for where the acts be apparantly good, the ill events and acci­dents concurring, cannot make the good to become evill, nor to be so judged in any wise mans understanding, nor the party afflicted to be judged ill of, in his good act, by men charitably-minded. But on the contrary, if evill events, and ill accidents meet with ill deedes, there the offenders may [Page 191] without the breach of Charitie, be judged to bee justly pu­nished. And I suppose that evill events and ill accidents, happening very often where acts be done which be ill, in great probability, may probably witnesse Gods displeasure against such as so doe evill without prophanely making the Lord to beare false witnsse with us in such a case.


For the rule of retaliation, it is not applyable to our purpose, and therefore I passe it by, as neither furthering, nor hindring the cause in hand. Though upon the Lords day God may proceed against prophane men by retaliation, as for instance known to my selfe to be a truth: A lewd fel­low tall and strong, in a Market Town upon a Lords day drinking in an Ale-house with his fellow, they fell out about sprink [...]ing of the Cup with an Orenge-pill, and were so in [...]aged, as this bigge fellow wounded the other deadly, whereupon he fled into the Low-Countries; a yeere after the selfe same day twelve-month on the Lords day, in the same Town returned he home; as soone as he was come, one skilfull in fencing (but a little fellow) would goe and drink with him, and in drinking, they two quarrelled about the sprinkling of the Cup with an Orenge-pill, who could doe it best; but when the little fellow stood upon his skill, the other said, that if hee durst say he could sprinkle it either better, or as well as hee, hee he would fight with him, the other apt enough thereto they agreed, fourthwith into the field they went taking their swords; the little fellow after a few bouts, ranne the other quit thorough, who being tall, closed with him, and stuck his sword in the little fellowes back, and broke it, whilst the sword was in his owne body, and then fell down and dyed in the place, the other went back into the Town, but dyed also that day.

6 Rule.

The conscience of the sinner is many times a good directer to point out to us that cursed thing: If so, then what shall we say in this case? for divers Prophaners of the Lords day, have upon their hurts felt withall the accusation of conscience, and acknowledged, that those harmes befell them for doing such things as they did on the [Page 200] Lords day. Some dying bewailed their sinnes, others li­ving made good use thereof, and herein reformed them­selves, of which examples may bee brought to make this good.

From all this which hath been delivered, it may appeare I hope that it is not rash presumption, nor any vaine, and prophane observation, to take notice with reverence of the immediate, the mediate, and casuall judgements which happen upon the Lords day, for the better stirring of us up to the sanctification of the whole day, with readinesse of will, to the honour of our Lord Jesus, so it be without superstition, and hypocrisie; which such as understan­dingly know to observe the day aright, are farre from both in their intention and practice.

CHAP. XXVIII. Of the serious ponderation of these things.

CHristian Reader, that lovest thine owne soule, lay aside all prejudice in the cause, labour for selfe­deniall, and be in love with the truth: Behold the Primitive times, weigh the records of our Church, the care of Emperours, and Kings, take notice of the Decrees of Councells, and Synods, the judgement of the learned in the Church, both the Ancient and Moderne, the many to the few of a contrary minde, and lay to heart these severall kinds of Gods judgements, by all which we may see, what God, and all good men, would have us to doe, and what to avoid on this day without any Judaizing at all; For we doe not put, as the Jewes did, holinesse in the day, as holy in it selfe, but as a day set apart by divine authority, for holy duties: Nor doe we make our rest holy, but in the use of it requisite to holy performances of the sacred duties of the day: for without cessation from our own profits and pleasures, we cannot apply our selves to Divine Services; and therefore it being both as a meanes to take us off, from the hinderances of holy duties, as also a furtherance [Page 221] to the exercises of holinesse, which on this day are publick­ly and privately to be performed, we presse the keeping of a Rest: If we be well understood, I suppose none would say, wee did Judaize, nor call us by the new reproachfull name of Sabbatarians: we hold no more for restraint, than holy men have done in former ages. Doctor Heylin doth tell us that the fifth and sixth Centurie were fully bent to give the Lords day all fit honour, not only in prohibiting all unlawfull pleasures, but in commanding a forbearance of some lawfull businesses, such as they found to be most hinderance to religious duties. S. Augustine long before, allowed on the Lords day no wandring about woods, and In Serm. de tempo. 251. fields, with noyse and clamours, no telling of tales, no playing at dice, nor dancing on this day: yea, he findes fault, that whilst they rested from a good work, the work of their calling, they rested not from vaine and trifling works, as if (saith he) one time of the day were set apart to the Service of God, and the rest of the day and the night, to their owne pleasures. Tertullian, before him telleth us, how holily the Sabbath was kept after the breaking up of the Congregation, as before hath beene delivered. And it is worthy to be marked out of Doctor Heylin, though he make mention of recreations, cap. 3. pag. 84. & cap. 4. pag. 123. in his Historie of the Sabbath; yet hath he not produced any one testimonie of any one Father for the now conceit of Christian libertie concerning recreations, of which he saith, after dinner until Evening Prayer, and after Evening Prayer untill the time of Supper, there is no question to be made, but all were practised, which were not prohibited: But had there beene proofes, hee surely would have produced one Father or other for them. But come we now to our Oppo­sites, See before Mr. Brerewood. and see what they say for us without Judaizing, and insteed of all the rest, I take only here the learned, Bishop White, who saith thus, so farreforth as secular labour, and Pag. 226. 227. 261. pastime, or recreation, are impediments to sacred and religi­ous duties publick or private to bee performed upon holy dayes, they are to be avoided, and abstinence from them must be used according to the equitie of divine law, and the [Page 222] precept of the Church, otherwise they are sacrilegious (ci­ting Cyrill for his purpose) because they are meanes to robbe God of his honour, and to hinder the spirituall edifi­cation of Christian people; and because abstinence from la­bour, and from recreation upon the holy day is subservient to the exercise of religious duties; and on the contrary, se­cular labour, and pastime, are impediments thereunto, and if they be acted at such times, as the precept of God, and the Church prohibit, they are prophanations of Gods holy day: The same learned Father in another place in his book against Braborn, saith, that because the Lords day, and other holy dayes are devoted to the Service of God, and ap­pointed to the exercise of religious and spirituall duties; Chri­stian people are to perferre their religious offices of those dayes before their wordly pleasures, and profit, and the more observant they are hereof, the more they please God, if other actions of their life, be sutable to their devotions: yea, he saith further (and so much as we may say, and no more) that devout Christians, who are so piously affected, as that upon the Lords day, and other holy dayes, they doe resolve to sequester, and retire themselves from secular bu­sinesses, and ordinary pleasures and delights, to the end they may more freely attend the service of Christ, and apply their mindes to spirituall and heavenly meditations, are to be commended, and encourged: For the doing thereof, is a work of grace, and godlinesse, pleasing and acceptable to God: for which he quoteth, Col. 3. 2. Joh. 6. 27. Object. Let none say, that flesh and blood cannot apply it selfe so holily, an whole day together: Answ. For, first, flesh and blood shall not inherit the kingdome of heaven, 1 Cor. 15. 50. Secondly, we must strive to doe by grace, what wee cannot doe by nature, else we shall never doe at any time true service to God, ac­cording to any of his Commandements. Thirdly, God must not loose his right of service from us, because we have pro­cured to our selves wretched natures, soone weary of all spi­rituall duties. Fourthly, lazie servants can hardly undergoe any labour, much lesse to hold out a day, yet the awe they beare to their earthly Masters maketh them to doe it: so [Page 223] should Gods feare move us to this. Fifthly, Imperfections through corruption of nature are one thing, for they bee in the best: but to nourish them, and willingly to yeeld unto them, is another: I cannot doe what I ought by nature, will I therefore not endeavour to doe what I should doe by grace? God forbid. Sixthly and lastly, let me ask any pious heart, any conscionable Christian, why should men be more indulgent to weak nature, yeelding to flesh and blood, in and about the fourth Commandement, for keep­ing of a day wholly to him, than in and about our whole service and obedience to any of the other nine? Seeing God hath made his displeasure so remarkable in many judgements against Sabbath-breakers, both aforetime under the Law, and now since under the Gospel.

Let me againe ask, is there any true Christian and lover of Jesus, but will out of conscionable and mature delibera­tion approve of such a pious and heavenly observation of the day, as the before mentioned reverend father speaketh of, yea and count them most happy that could delight themselves in so heavenly a manner, for the only honour and glory of Christ?

If so, then let me once more be bold here to ask: First, why are any derided, mocked, and abused with the oppro­brious name of Sabbatarians, who seek thus to extoll and magnifie the Lord of life without Jewish superstition? Se­condly, why should any bee offended with the endeavour in any to keep strictly the day, though they cannot attaine to the perfection of it? seeing it is not reprehensible; no Scripture against it, no Fathers reproving it, no Councell con­demning it, nor any holy men censuring it, as Judaizing in any age, since the glorious Ascension of Jesus Christ? Third­ly, why may not men bee taught thus to doe? why may they not be exhorted to put to their best endeavoures to at­taine unto it in the best manner they can, so it be without superstition and putting any holinesse in the day it selfe? Fourthly, why should wee not on this day, one day in the week, give Christ all the glor [...] we can possibly, in our love to him, and most solemnely shew it forth to the further [Page 224] gracing and magnifying of his name? If any be desirous to answer these questions, let them first turne their thoughts to Christ, and hearken then what conscience will say, and thereafter make their answer.

CHAP. XXIX. Concerning sports unlawfull at all times, much more on the Lords day; and why sports lawfull at other times, are on this day to be forborne; with some objections made, and answers to the same.

COncerning sports, games, and pastimes, it is agreed See Master Benham his So­ciety of Saints pag. 160. 176. his religious and l [...]rge d [...]s­course about sports and re­creations. upon, that they are not all of one sort: Therefore let us consider what those be which are to be for­borne on the Lords day.

1 All sinfull vanities, which bee unlawfull by Gods word, as foolish talking, and jeasting, Eph. 5. 4. Idle words, Mat. 12. 36. corrupt communication, Eph. 4. 29. toying wantonnesse, Rom. 13. 13. Compotations, excesse of wine, or strong drink, lasciviousnesse, either in words, songs, ge­sture, or action, banquettings, 1 Pet. 4. 3. Revellings rec­koned among the sinnes of the flesh, which seclude from heaven, Gal. 5. 29. and practised amongst the Heathen, and condemned by S. Peter, as Heathenish, with other sins ac­companying 1 Pet. 4. 3. it, 1 Pet. 4. 3. Ryoting, Rom. 13. 13. These so condemned by God himselfe, none may use at any time, and much lesse on the Lords day, or any holy day: And yet if our pastime-followers bee with-held from all these, their rude sporting would be no delight to them: For the common Rusticks doe horribly defile themselves with these things, as the fruits declare in their drunkennesse, fighting, quarrel­ling, bastard-breeding, and the like, besides murthers com­mitted sometimes.

2 All sports, games, pastimes, and pleasures, which bee made unlawfull by the Lawes of our Land, and Canons of [Page 225] our Church, are not to be used at other times, then not on the Lords day, by the rude vulgars and common multitude, who are prohibited, first all Beare-baiting, Bull-baiting, Interludes, common Playes, Bowling, Diceing, Carding, Tables, Coits, Cailes, Luggets, Shove-groat, Foot-ball, Fencing, and all meetings out of their owne parishes on the Lords day, for any sports or pastimes whatsoever. Secondly, All such sports and pleasures as cannot be done, but by such persons as are prohibited to wander abroad, and by the Law judged to be vagabonds, and wandering rogues: such bee Jugglers, Fortune-tellers, Fencers, Gipsies, Players, Pipers, Harpers, and wandering Minstrels, Players upon Tabors, and Timbrels, Souldiers tossing the pike, going as wanderers to get money on this day. Thirdly, all pleasures in prohibi­ted places, as Gaming-houses, Bowling-alleys, and Tip­ling-houses. Fourthly, all sports whatsoever in the Church or Church-yard forbidden by the Canons of our Church in those places; and here, methinks, the reason is good, if sports and playes pollute an holy place, then sports and pastimes pollute an holy time.

3 All sports, games, playes, pastimes, and pleasures, as have been condemned by the consent of ancient Fathers, Im­periall Constitutions, edicts of pious Kings, by the learned Fa­thers, and Divines in Councells and Synods, and many grave and worthy Clerks, Protestants, and Papists, have spoken a­gainst it, in honour and due reverence to their persons, and learned judgements, we should forbeare on the Lords day: For that in other things they are much regarded, their judge­ments are approved, and their authorities alleadged. And may it not seem reasonable unto us in this thing, which men acknowledge to be only matter of recreation, to condiscend unto them? especially considering that no ancient Father, no Councell, no Synod, can be produced for allowance of sports, games, playes, and pastimes to be used upon the Lords day: nor can be exercised on this our Lords day within the bounds of the Apostolicall rules, made by the holy directi­on of Gods spirit, for the use, and practise of indifferent things which may not be done to greive another uncharita­bly, [Page 226] Rom. 14. 15. nor whereby another may stumble, be of­fended, or made weak, verse 21. 1 Cor. 8. 13. For we must give no offence, 1 Cor. 10. 32. nor must we look what simply in it selfe is lawfull, but what is convenient, or expe­dient, or profitable, 1 Cor. 6. 12. and 10. 23. and that the same be to the glory of God, 1 Cor. 10. 31. These rules are holy and heavenly, and binde the Conscience though up­on conceit of Christian liberty, few make conscience of ob­serving them, when yet notwithstanding, the Christian li­berty which some talke of, if it be not rather licentious loosenesse, is either restrained within the limits of these rules; Of which the Apostle Saint Paul made great Conscience; 1 Cor. 8. 13. but many in these dayes make a very jeast and mock of, as too precise, a nicitie, and a losse of Liberty. What the sports, games, pastimes and pleasures be, which the Fathers have de­claimed against, what the edicts of Kings and Emperours have disanulled, what Councells and Synods have decreed against, and what Learned and Godly men have both writ­ten and spoken against, have been before set downe, to which I adde here Concilium Antisiodorense in Anno 614. a thousand yeares since, at which were 45 Bishops and others of the Clergie, learned men, who did forbid, and expell pub­lick dancing of women: Synodus Turonensis in Anno 158 [...]. prohibited on the Lords day, rioting, publick Feasts, Galli­ards, Dancing, Clamours, Morices, Hunting, Hawking, to serve wine or victualls in Innes, or victualling houses, to any but strangers, the playing of Prize, Comedies, Tragedies, and other spectacles. In France, in the raigne of Charles the ninth, and Henry the third, all dancing was prohibited un­der paine of imprisonment: For what doth dancing produce in the rude vulgars, but lascivious wantonnesse, and the fruit, the begeting of bastards, and sometime thereupon hath en­sued unnaturall murthers by Mothers, thereby thinking to hide the former sin: Of which there be too many examples, and of which one instance before of one gotten with child on the Lords day at night, after dancing.

4 All sports may well be judged to be forborne on the Lords day, which God hath by his hand shewed his displea­sure [Page 227] against, upon the actors on this day: for the reverence we owe to God, in beholding his handy work by which he lessons us, and giveth us instruction; if it be not to observe the day better, to what then? if we shall make this use of it, I am sure we doe not offend. Thus we see what sports are on this day to be laid aside; And if so, I hope well, the day will be better employed of many.

Let it not be offensive to any that I propound these Rea­sons to their pious considerations, to leave their pastimes this day.

1 The Scripture forbidding the doing of our own waies, finding our owne pleasures, and speaking of our owne words Esay. 58. 13. By our owne he doth meane what we do please to doe, or speake without warrant from him, of our owne heads, from our owne worldly or carnall desires, for all this is properly our owne: But if we doe what God com­mandes, Heb: 4. 10. Iudg. 2. 19. and what he warrants us, that is not properly our owne, but Gods: For in the former we doe serve our selves, and are our own: in this we serve God, and are his. This scripture is the only place in holy writt which teacheth us how to keep a Sabbath spirituall unto God, by teaching first what to avoide, and then what we should be taken up with, on this day (to wit) with an honourable esteeme of the day, in considering whose day it is, Gods holy day; then what de­light we take in it, as a Sabbath day, and count it honoura­ble, and so doe him honour, shewing that we delight our selves in the Lord, verse 14. This text speaketh first, of no­thing proper to the Jewes, but what is common to us, in keeping our Christian Sabbath with them. And therefore the Prophet doth mention onely the Sabbath day, and not their seventh day. Now Christ is still Lord of the Sabbath, Matt. 12. 2. Here is nothing spoken but what is durable for ever, in keeping an holy day to the Lord: which is, First, That the day be held an holy day. Secondly, That it be of the Lord. Thirdly, That it be a rest day. Fourthly, That we delight in it and esteeme it honourable. Fifthly, That on this day we honour him, not doing what we please, but for­saking our selves, do what he would have us to doe, and [Page 228] so to manifest our delight to be, that day in the Lord: In all which I would faine know what is there that doth not be­long to us in keeping our Christian Sabbath? Thirdly, the scope of the Prophet tendeth as well to us, as to them: for as in the former part of the Chapter, he had laboured to re­forme the abuse in their Fasts, so here the abuse in their Jewish keeping of the Sabbath externally in an outward service, and rest, mixing withall their own wayes, pleasures, and speeches, but did not keep it as holy to the Lord, in a spirituall manner, with delight to honour God, as they ought to have done. Doth not this tend to the reformation of keeping our Sab­bath, as most doe, as the Jewes did theirs, externally, mixt with our own wayes, pleasures, and speeches, but not inter­nally with a spiritually delight in the Lord? Therefore this Text is fitly urged by our Learned Divines for the religious observation of our Sabbath day.

2 The force of the fourth Commandement, is yet of continuance, and bindeth us, as in the former Treatise hath been proved, on our Lords day; and first to a rest, then to the imployment of that rest to an holy use, and so to keep the day holy. But sports and pastimes are not (to speak properly) any rest, nor are they any holy duties for which we rest, thereby to keep the day holy to God: Therefore to be forborn this day.

3 It is reasonable in all equitie, to give God one day whol­ly to him for spirituall worship and service, and for the spiri­tuall good of our own soules for ever, who hath given us six whole dayes for our own service, and for our outward and worldly estate concerning our bodies, which be here but for a time: why should wee then grudge to forbeare sports for one day, denying God his own right, and our poore soules their spirituall good, for to satisfie the corrupt minde with corporall delights on this day?

4 The libertie of sports, pleasures, and pastimes, on this day, steale away the heart from God in time of Divine Wor­ship: The thoughts of these pleasures choak the seed of the Luk. 8. 14. On the fourth Commande­ment. word, for pleasures as well as worldly cares choak them, saith Saint Luke, and more too, saith Learned Bishop [Page 229] Downham, for nature, saith he, presseth youth more to plea­sure, than others to their wordly profits. So that the thoughts of them doe not only hinder in time of hearing, but doth quite take away the heart, from after-meditation, private prayer, and conference, without which hearing for the most part becommeth fruitlesse. Now if this libertie were restray­ned, and they set to singing of Psalmes, and other Christian, and heavenly recreations (as Durand before calleth them) they knowing whereto they should hold, they would bee more attent in the Church, and better exercised out of it: especially, if they were made to know, that not to serve the Lord God with joyfulnesse, and with gladnesse of heart, doth not a little anger, and provoke God to wrath, Deut. 28. 47.

5 If sports, and pastimes have any allowance from God, it is either Legally or Evangelically. But not Legally, for the letter of the Law bindeth strictly: Not Evangelically, for albeit the rigour of the Law, be mitigated by the Co­venant of grace, and wee by Christ freed from the curse thereof, yet neverthelesse we are tyed in love, and in thank­fulnesse to the uttermost of our power, withall our hearts, mindes, soules, and strength, to serve him, and to take the benefit of such times, as bee set apart for his glroy, and wor­ship, and to be taken up therein with spirituall delight in such service to the Lord our God. For grace is more binding by the Gospel upon the regenerate, than the Law can bee forceable upon naturall men: If therefore the Law doth not admit of idle sports on the Sabbath, then much lesse the Gospel, which doth more enlarge our hearts with the love of Christ, and more forceably takes us off from making any provision for the flesh, to fulfill the lusts thereof, if in truth it be powerfully in us.

6 All sports, and pastimes on the Lords day are to be for­borne, whilst the lawfulnesse and unlawfulnesse is in questi­on by the most judicious and greatest Divines at home and abroad, and the same not decided for lawfull, by any of the Fathers, Councells, or Synods, but rather held un­law [...]ull: for in such a case to forbeare is safe without sin, but [Page 230] if any one shall sport, play, or use pastimes, on this day, must either side with the one sort, or with the other, and yet unresolved, because the controversie stands undetermined by some indifferent Umpire, or he doth presume of his own knowledge, to be able to judge in such a doubtfull case, to lead his conscience to doe such things, which is both too high a conceit, and very dangerous, or else is daringly over­bold in love to sports and pastimes to follow his pleasure and will, whilst his conscience must needs remaine in suspence and doubting, which is no little sinne, Rom. 14. 23. and is no small signe, that such a one is a lover of pleasure more than a lover of God, in that he dareth to attempt the woun­ding of conscience, and the breaking off of his sweet peace between God and him, by so short a time of carnall de­lights: For acts in doubtfull cases cannot be without sinne, and to sport with sinne is folly, which without pardon is the soules deadly wound, and destruction of the whole man.

7 Nothing is more warrantable to be done on this day, and on this our day under the Gospel, than was on their day under the Law; understanding the Law in its originall, and set apart from the accessory precepts added thereto, and durable only for a time. But under the Law, no sports or pastimes for corporall pleasure were allowed on their Sab­bath day; and therefore to be forborne on this day: For, concerning sports on their Sabbath, wee read not in any place of the old Testament, either for allowance or practice thereof. Indeed, we read in Exod. 32. 6. 18, 19. of eating, drinking, and rising up to play, singing, and dancing; but it was upon a day made for the service of the golden Calfe, and honour thereof, but condemned by S. Paul 1 Cor. 10. 7. and greivously punished by the command of Moses, Exod. 32. 28. we also read (but when there was no King in Israel, Iudg. 17. 1. & 18. 1. & 19. 1. & 21. 25. and when every one did that which seemed good in his owne eyes) that the daughters of Shilo, on a Festivall day of the Lord, came out in dances, Quod erat, saith Peter Martyr on this place, Die Festo abuti: Neither doe wee read, that it was a mixt dancing of men and women together, as our [Page 231] dances pleaded for commonly be, contrary to all the in­stances in holy writ. We may also heare what that learned Bishop White telleth us, how the Rabbins out of the Page 138. Talmud affirme, that it was permitted yong people to re­create and sport themselves upon some part of the Sabbath, with running, leaping, or dancing, provided that it bee in honour of the Sabbath: Note this well, then not for meere corporall recreation, as our youths use their sports. But what credit can be given to these late Rabbins? For it is well knowne, that the Jewes in the time of the Fathers, be­came prophaners of their Sabbaths, by revelling, and the like, as learned Doctor Prideaux witnesseth; and therefore their example not to be imitated or regarded.

8 Needlessely to doe on the Lords day, what may (if out propably) hazard sinning, and so the provoking of God to anger, is a great presumption that the hearts of such are not possessed with that holy feare, which maketh men ever jea­lous of their doings, lest peradventure they should at any time offend God. But for such to sport on the Lords day, as have vigour, strength, and health, to expresse the bodies acti­vity in their pleasurable delights (for of such the controver­sie only is) it is needlesse, whether you respect their bodies, or their mindes, and spirits. And therefore of such are sports to bee forborne this day.

1 They are not needfull for the body: If the body hath lost any strength by weekly labour, stirring sports, and pastimes which are commonly performed with violent mo­tion, cannot repaire the lost strength. First, they are not the ordinary meanes appointed by God for recovery thereof, but wholsome food, quiet rest, moderate sleep, good physick, and the like, as the cause shall require. Secondly, sports, and pastimes are commonly so violently pursued, as mens bodies grow thereby the more weary, and so in stead of re­payring, decay their strength. Thirdly, for ordinary and common refreshment, for the reviving of the body to returne with more lightsomenesse and alacrity to work, God hath given the painfull labourer rest and sleep in the night, for eve­ry dayes labour a nights rest, for six dayes, six nights, as in [Page 232] his wisdome he thought fit; and sufficient, according to that in the Psal. 104. 22. 23. Man works on the day, and rests at Evening. But now for bodily strength, if weakned by la­bour in the weeke before, to refresh it for the weeke follow­ing, a man hath first the Saturday night, then the whole Sunday from servile labour, and lastly Sunday night, two nights and a day for corporall rest, so that to an healthy body apt for labour recreations, sports, and pastimes this day are needlesse, for if every nights rest in the week day can by Gods blessing preserve strength, recover the decay of it, and make it apt for new labour, then much more two nights and a day, if we pray for a blessing thereon. Fourthly, The per­sons addicted to sporting may be reduced to three sorts, either to industriously-painfull, or to slack-handed, idle and lazy in worke, or to the holy day persons, such as either have little or nothing to doe, living idlely like Droanes in an Hive upon the sweat of other mens brows, inordinate livers not worthy to eat: These last neede no recreations but rather a whip for correction. The second sort are either rich mens children, 2 Thess. 3. (not wearied with worke whose labour is rather a loytering than painfull diligence) or slouthfull servants; sports, and pastimes to these two rather increase in them idlenesse than a will to work, for these commonly are they which follow most after sports: And experience telleth us, that such as most love pleasure, are the least takers of pains, the greatest Loy­terers, and the laziest work-men, and labourers. The third sort which get hardly their living with the sweat of their brows, poore men, and their poore children crave qui­et rest, and not painfull pastime. For sports are often perfor­med with greater labour of the body than the work of a mans vocation. Rest is best for these; and sporting, and pastime needlesse in respect of their bodies.

2 They are not needfull for the minde and spirit: For what good can sports, gameing, and pastime, afford man in this respect on this day, after he hath been in Gods house? Can they sharpen his desire to returne more chearefully to delight in holy duties? It is impossible, and the clean con­trary is found by experience in such as turne the Sabbaths [Page 233] holy rest, and their time, which should be for meditation, into pleasureable recreations.

They cannot this day set an edge on, nor sharpen the spi­rit to make the body more vivacious, chearfull, and lively to goe about a mans calling, trade, art or profession, in the week following.

1 Sports and pastimes on one day have no such vi­gour and force to hold up the spirits for an after dayes worke.

It is the nights rest, and not the sporting on the Lords day, that doth it.

2 They are not seasonable recreations on this day, to quicken the spirits by them: For seasonable recreations is in labouring time, and is to be intermixt betweene labour, and labour, for to refresh the wearinesse of the spirits, to returne speedily againe to labour. Recreation is, or should be, as a baite to a Traveller, a bit, and away, as a whetting to a Mowers sithe to cut afresh, or as an houres sleepe in the day time, short and sweet, to a wearied man, that must hold to his work: But the Lords day is not the time of Labour, but of rest: There is a rest a night before, there is a rest on the day, and the nights rest following: What needs then recreation in the time of so much rest, when recreation hath ever relation to labour, and not to ease.

3 There is no cause of the dulling and blunting of the spirits on this day, that there should need sports, and pastimes for recreation: For if the spirits be wearyed this day, it is one of these waies following.

1 Either with bodily labour about worldly businesse, which ought not to be done, which rather men should with tears bewaile, than leaving labour to runne to sports for re­creation.

2 Or with the rest of the body in doing nothing, but ei­ther standing idlely, sit chatting, or lying asleep like beasts, and so become drowzie, or lazie.

Because most persons ignorant of the heavenly use of an holy rest, know not how to bestow the time, but either about the world, or about pleasures, when they are out of the [Page 234] Church. But the well instructed know how to spend it bet­ter, and if slouthfull drowsinesse should take hold on them, they know how to stirre their bodies by walking, and in walking to meditate on Christ and his benefits alone, or to have some to conferre with, or to goe else alone to prayer, or having a family to instruct them, and so shake of their slouth, and not by gaming, sporting, and playing.

3 Or else the spirits are dull by going to the Church, and there continuing for the time: If this be alledged;

1 I aske, how long are such persons in the whole dayes space at the Church? In some Parishes (and too many of them) one houre in the forenoone, and lesse in the after­noone, or an houre and halfe in the forenoone, and as much in the afternoone, and grant to the utmost in the whole day, three houres and a halfe, or foure houres, and that also at divided times, with a long pause betweene, perhaps of three or foure houres. Can foure houres in and about Christs Service and Worship, in twenty foure, dull and weaken the spirits of any, which carry the name of Christians, and have any life of saving grace in them?

2 I aske againe of these lovers of pleasures, first, whether they come soone to Church, and are at the begin­ning, and so abide to the end? Secondly, while they stay there, doe they not sleep? or doe they not sit idlely gazing about? or are they not carryed away with many by­thoughts? If so, as too true, can they then plead the dulling of their spirits by so staying sinfully in the Congregation, drawing neare with their bodies, but in soule and heart be farre from God?

3 I aske them, are they indeed devout Worshippers, and attentive hearers? and doe they so understand them­selves, that they know what they have beene doing, what they have reaped thereby? then surely they cannot depart away dull in spirit, but bee glad of that they have heard, Act. 13. 48. Neh. 8. 12. glorifying the word of the Lord, and so depart away with joy, because they have understood the words declared to them. Neither is it possible, that they should be so possessed with such prophane dotage and folly, that they should [Page 235] think (if they found any dulnesse in hearing) that sporting and playing, gaming, and pastime, to be the meanes to re­move such spirituall dulnesse, and to recover their spirits to a more chearfull and quicker attendance to Gods word, with joyfulnesse of minde and heart in the use of Gods or­dinance? So to think is both without religion, and also void of very reason it selfe.

Therefore from hence, and from the substance of all that hath beene said, I conclude, that on this day, sports, games, and pastimes, are needlesse, and to be forborne.

And here I end, praying thus for my selfe and others.

Oh Lord have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep thy Law; And this our sacred day, to the ho­nour of thy Sonne our Lord Jesus Christ: And from Judaizing and Pagani­zing; And from all prophanesse good Lord de­liver us.

JOHN 7. 17.‘If any man will doe his will, hee shall know of the Doctrine whether it be of God, or no.’
Finis hujus Operis.

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