CLAUDIUS AELIANUS His Various History.

LONDON, Printed for Thomas Dring at the George in Fleetstreet near St Dunstan's Church. 1666.



HAving in obedience to a Father's command made his first attempt upon Learning, [...]y duty next directs me to lay it [...]t your Ladiship's feet. The Ori­ginal I received from a Person [...]hose loss can never be too much [...]mented by any but your self, [...]y dearest Cousin and your in­ [...]omparable Son Mr Newton. Par­ [...]on me, Madam, that I have awa­ [...]ed a Grief which is alwaies too [Page] busie in disturbing your rest: I will therefore forbear those prai­ses due to his memory, which upon any other account it were a kind of Sacrilege to suppress; and shall onely beg your Ladiship's pardon for this Address, which affords me the honour of being known to be,

Your Ladiship's Most obedient Nephew and most humble Servant, THOMAS STANLEY.


TO pass by that Aelian (if his name were such, for some Copies reade Helian, others Hadrian) whom Mar­tial, lib. 12. Epigr. 24. mentions as his con­temporary and friend: The first eminent person of this name was the Author of the Tacticks, who appears to have been (not a Roman but) a Grecian, in regard he ac­knowledgeth in his Preface that he had no knowledge of the Roman Tacticks. The time wherein he lived is manifestly collected from the same Preface, which he addresseth to the Emperour Adrian, and in it saith that he met Nerva at Formiae.

Later in time (as being contemporary with Philostratus the Lemnian who lived under Severus) was Aelian the Sophist, of whom Philostratus gives this account;

Aelian was a Roman, but spoke Greek as purely as those who lived in the midst of Attica: This man seems to me worthy of praise; First, because though he lived in a City which used another Language, yet he arrived at the purity of the Greek: Next, because being honoured by the Title [Page] of Sophist by those who used to confere such attributes, he was nothing the more confi­dent of himself, nor conceited of his own opinion, nor exalted with so great a title, but making scrutiny into himself, and find­ing himself not proper for publick declama­tions, he gave himself to writing, in which he was admirable▪ His style is unaffected, with a gracefulness beyond Nicostratus. Sometime he imitates Dion and his way▪ On a time Philostratus the Lemnian found him intent upon a Book, and reading it with anger and eagerness, he asked him what he was about; He answered, I am making a declamation against Gynnis, for so I name that Tyrant who so lately by his infamous life dishonoured Rome. Philostratus re­plied, I should have admired you, if you had declaimed against him whilest he was li­ving; for to oppose a living Tyrant is man­ly, but every one can revile him when dead. This man said that he never went out of Italy, that he never went on Shipboard, or saw the Sea; for which he was much respe­cted by the Romans, as one that loved their manners. He was a hearer of Pausanius: but he admired Herod as the most florid of all Oratours. He lived above threescore years, and died without issue; for he ap­proved [Page] not the having of Children or mariage.

Suidas more briefly of the same Aelian of Preneste in Italy, chief Priest and So­phist, surnamed Claudius called Meliglos­sus and Melipthongus taught Rhetorick in Rome in the times after Adrian. Suidas implieth that he lived under Antoninus who succeeded Adrian, but that he was not the same with the other Aelian, Author of the Tacticks.

This last Aelian in all probability, was the Author of this Treatise, as also of that concerning living Creatures; both which are one style, and that much different from his who wrote the Tacticks. In his Trea­tise concerning living Creatures he cites Dion (Cassius) who lived under Severus: In this, he takes many passages out of A­thenaeus, not Athenaeus out of him; for A­thenaeus is very punctual in citing his Au­thors omitted by the other.

ON Aelian his Various History, Translated into English by Mr Thomas Stanley, the hopeful and onely Son of my dearest Friend Thomas Stanley of Cumberlow, Esquire.

AELIAN, as if affecting to be known
To others in a Language not his own,
This Curious Piece thought fit at first t' express,
Though native Roman, in a Grecian dress.
You, kind to him and us, what lay conceal'd
In a learn'd Tongue, have in our own reveal'd;
And taught our generous Youth by this Essay,
T' improve those hours they vainly cast away.
Your blooming years forth early Vertues shoot,
And ere we Leaves expected, shew us Fruit;
Such, and so various, as must needs invite
The dull, and please the curious appetite.
Not to know what was done ere we were born,
Is to live Children still; the too-just scorn
Of many an aged head: This slothful crime
Your industry refells; looks back on Time,
And shews as present in old Aelian's Glass
What-ere of rarest note long since did pass;
And that transmitted in a style and phrase
As pleasing as the * Tempe it displaies.
[Page]Goe on (dear Sir,) Goe on, and nobly trace
(Iülus-like) though with unequal pace,
Your learned Father's steps, who does engage
By so much Worth this too ungrateful age:
And think it still your best concern, you shou'd
Be like him in Variety of Good.
Edw. Sherburne.

To Mr THOMAS STANLEY, ON His Translation of AELIAN's Various History.

IF from a Glorious Morn we justly may
Take a Prognostick of th' ensuing Day;
What do these early glories promise, when
You shall arrive at your Meridian?
When at an Age others scarce read their own,
The Roman and Greek Tongues to you are known;
Which, like some subtle Merchant, coasting o're,
(Not in the search of Spices or of Ore)
You at a Noble way of Traffick aim,
Bring Learning home, to barter here for Fame.
Y' have made a fair Return, let your success
Tempt you to Sea again: Nor could we less
Expect from you, whose happy Birthright laies
Hereditary claim unto the Baies:
For to be much and early learn'd's your fate;
Not to be so, were to degenerate.
[Page]Goe on in your Paternal tracks of Fame,
T' entail the style of Learned on your Name:
And let the Trophees of your Labours be
As Various as your Aelian's Historie.
But I these vain Encouragements might spare,
What we would have you be, is what you are.
Richard Stokes, M. D.



AELIAN's Various History.
The First BOOK.

CHAP. I. Of the Polypus.

THE A Fish so named from ha­ving many feet. Polypusses are so rave­nous that they devour all they light on; so that many times they abstain not even from one another. The lesser taken by the greater, and falling into his stronger nets, (which are usually called the hairs or grasps of the Fish) becometh his prey. They also be­tray Fishes in this manner; lurking under the Rocks they change themselves to their colour, and seem to be all one with the Rock it self. When therefore the Fishes swim to the Rocks, and so to the Polypus, they intangle them in their nets, or grasps.

CHAP. II. Of Spiders.

The art of weaving and the gifts of the Goddess Minerva. Ergane, Spiders neither know nor require: for what should such a Crea­ture doe with woven garments? The web is onely spred as a net for such things as fall into it, whilest she standing still, im­movable, keeps watch: whatsoever falls in she eats; it being as much as the web can hold, is enough to satisfie her hunger.

CHAP. III. Of the Aegyptian Frogs.

The Aegyptian kinde of Frogs hath a peculiar wisedom, and farre excelleth all other: For if a Frog meeteth a Serpent bred in Nilus, she biteth off a piece of reed and holds it as fast as she can cross-wise, and will not let it goe. The Serpent is not able to swallow the reed, because his mouth is not so wide as the reed. Thus the Frog by wisedome overcomes and masters the strength of the Serpents.

CHAP. IV. Of the Aegyptian Dog.

This also is wise in the Aegyptian Dogs: they drink of the River not greedily or freely, stooping and lapping till they have at the same time satisfied their thirst, for they are afraid of the Creatures in it; but run along the bank, and catch up drink by stealth at times, till at last they have al­layed their thirst by snatches without re­ceiving harm.

CHAP. V. Of the Sea▪Fox.

The Fox, not onely the Land-beast is wily, but the Sea-Fox very cunning: for she scruples not the bait, neither, being gree­dy, refrains from it, but contemneth the hook; for before the Fisher can pluck up the reed, she leaps up, and gnawing the line asunder, swims away. So that many times she swallows two or three hooks, yet the Fisherman cannot get her for his Supper.

CHAP. VI. Of Sea▪Tortoises.

The Sea-Tortoises lay upon land, and having laid, they immediately bury their eggs in the ground, and returning to their usual abode, swim there: They are so good accomptants, that having reckoned forty daies, (in which time the eggs are hardned and become living creatures) they retur­ning to the place where they hid what they laid, and digging up the earth which they had cast upon them, lead their young away, now able to follow them.

CHAP. VII. Of wild Swine.

Wild Swine are not wholly ignorant of Physick and Medicine; for if unwittingly they have eaten Henbane, whereby their hinder parts are contracted with a kinde of Palsie, though thus shrunk up, they make to the waters, where they get Crabs and eat them with all haste. These afford re­medy of their ill, and make them sound again.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Phalangium.

The A kinde Spider. Phalangium is as hurtful to Deer as to Men: If they bite the Deer, they are in danger of dying quickly after it; yet if they tast Ivy, the bite will not harm them. But it must be wild Ivy.

CHAP. IX. Of the Lion, sick.

When a Lion is sick, nothing will cure him but to eat an Ape.

CHAP. X. How the Cretan Goats cure themselves when shot.

The Cretans are excellent Archers; they shoot the Goats which feed on the tops of mountains, which being hurt, immediately eat of the herb D [...]ttany, which as soon as they have tasted, the Arrow drops out.

CHAP. XI. That Mice have Praescience.

Mice also are to be reckoned among creatures of greatest Praescience; for when a House decaieth and is ready to fall, they first perceive it, and leaving their holes and former dwellings, run away as fast as they can, and remove to new.

CHAP. XII. Of Pismires.

Pismires also, as I am informed, have some kinde of Praescience; for when there shall be a Famine, they take pains extra­ordinarily to carry in provision, and lay up corn and other grain on which they feed.

CHAP. XIII. Of Gelo.

Gelo the Syracusian dreaming that he was thunder-st [...]uck, cried out, not with a soft or low voice, as is usual in dreams, but aloud, being exceedingly affrighted. The dog which lay asleep by him, wakened with the cry, went round about him, and [Page 7] fell a barking fiercely and eagerly: By which means Gelo was at once delivered from sleep and fear.

CHAP. XIV. Of the Swan.

Aristotle saith that the Swan begets a fair and numerous offspring; but that they are prone to anger, fighting and kil­ling one another. He also affirms the Swans warre with the Eagles, but so as that they resist onely, not begin the assault. It is commonly reported they sing sweetly; but I never heard a Swan sing, nor perhaps any man else: yet it is believed she sings, and then especially (as is said) she sings most sweetly and pleasantly when she draws near her end. They cross the Sea and fly too over it, yet their wings never are tired.

CHAP. XV. Of Pigeons.

They report that Pigeons (the male and the female) sit upon their eggs by turns; which being hatched, the male bedews them with a kinde of spittle to avert envy, and (as it is said) that they may not be li­able [Page 8] to fascination. The female laies two eggs, of which the first alwaies proveth a male, the second a female. They lay all the year long, so that they bring forth young ten times in the year. Of Aegypt it is re­ported, that Pigeons lay twelve times [a year] in that Countrey. Aristotle asserts that wood-pigeons are d [...]fferent from house­pigeons, these being bigger, those lesser: besides, house-pigeons are tame, wood­pigeons wild. He also affirms that the male couples not with the female till he hath kiss'd her, for she will not admit his society without a kiss. * * * But if we credit Callimachus, the Phassa, the Py­rallis, the House-pigeon and the Turtle are nothing alike.

The Indian Relations tell us that in In­dia there are yellowish Pigeons: Charon of Lampsacus affirms that about Athos there were seen white Pigeons when the Persian Gallies coasting about Athos were defeated there. At Eryx in Sicily is the renowned and sacred Temple of Venus; where when the Erycinians celebrate the [Feast] Anagogia, (at which time they say Venus removes from Sicily to Libya) all the Pigeons disappear, as if they went along with the Goddess. At all times else it is [Page 9] certain that a great number of these Birds are about the Temple. Moreover the A­chaeans report that Jupiter falling in love with a Virgin named Phthia, turned himself to a Pigeon: Phthia lived at Aegium.

CHAP. XVI. Of Socrates drinking Hemlock.

When the Ship returned from Delus, and Socrates was now to die, Apollodorus (a friend of Socrates) coming to him in Pri­son brought him a Vest of fine cloth and rich, with a Gown of the same, desiring him that he would put on that Vest and Gown when he was to drink the poison; since he should not fail of handsome Fune­ral-Robes if he died in them. ‘For it is notReading [...]. unfit that a dead body should be co­vered vered with decent ornaments.’ Thus A­pollodorus to Socrates. But he would not permit it, saying to Crito, Simmias and Phaedo, ‘How high an opinion hath Apol­lodorus of us, if he believe that after I have pledged the Athenians, and taken the potion, he shall see Socrates any more? For if he thinks that he which shall shortly lie at your feet extended on the ground is Socrates, it is certain he knows me not.’

CHAP. XVII. Of a very little Chariot, and an Elegiack Distich.

The admired little works of Myrmecides a Milesian, and Callicrates a Lacedemonian. They made Chariots with four horses which a flie might cover; They writ an Elegiack Distich in golden letters in a Sesamum: Neither of which a wise man (I think) will praise; for what are these but a vain waste of time?

CHAP. XVIII. Of Women vain in apparel.

Were not many Women [among the Ancients] luxurious in apparel? They wore on their heads a high Coronet, on their feet Chiappines: They had also long Ear-rings hanging at their ears. That part of their Gowns which reacheth from the shoulder to the hand was not sowed toge­ther, but fastned all along with buttons of gold and silver. Thus did the women a­mong the Ancients: The vanity of the A­thenian women let Aristophanes relate.

CHAP. XIX. The Luxury of the Sybarites, Colopho­nians, and Corinthians.

It is a common saying and known to all, that to the Sybarites and the City Sybaris the cause of destruction was their great lu­xury. But I will relate what is not com­monly known: They say that the Colopho­nians also were ruined by excessive luxury; for they also went proudly attired, were lavish at their Tables farre beyond need, and apt to affront others. Likewise the reign of the Bacchiadae at Corinth (when they had arrived to great power) was destroyed by immoderate luxury.

CHAP. XX. Of Dionysius his Sacrilege.

Dionysius plundered all the Temples of Syracuse of their Treasure. From the Statue of Jupiter he took the Robe and Orna­ments, valued at fourscore and five Ta­lents of gold. The publick Artificers not being forward to touch the Statue, he first laid hands upon it. He likewise robbed Apollo's Image of a golden Periwig, which [Page 12] he commanded to be cut off. Sailing thence to TroeZene, he impiously took away all the Treasure of Apollo and Leucothea. He also having drank a [...], a cup which they used to drink after meals, after which the Tables were taken away. grace-cup, commanded a silver Table which stood by Apollo to be taken away.

CHAP. XXI. How Ismenias without dishonour adored the King of Persia.

I cannot omit the wise and t [...]uly Graecian action of Ismenias a Theban: Being by his Countrey sent Embassadour to the King of Persia, he went thither, and would have spoken himself to the Persian about his bu­siness; but the Captain whose office it was to report business to the King, and to con­duct such as were admitted to his presence, told him, Theban, (he spake this merrily by an Interpreter, the Captain's name Ti­thraustes) the Law of the Persians is, that he who cometh into the King's presence, shall not speak with him till he hath firstFalling prostrate. adored him. If therefore you will goe in person to him, you must doe what the Law requires; otherwise your business may be done by us, though you adore not.’

‘'Conduct me, ’said Ismenias. When [Page 13] he came into the King's presence, he pluckt off a Ring which he had upon his finger, and letting it secretly drop, stooped down as if he had adored, and took it up again, making the King believe that he adored; yet he did nothing that might dishonour the Greeks. By this means he obtained all that he requested, and was not denied any thing by the Persian [Emperour.]

CHAP. XXII. The gifts which the Kings of Persia used to bestow upon Embassadours.

The gifts which the King gave to Em­bassadours who came to him either from Greece or elsewhere were these: To every one a Babylonian Talent of finest silver; two silver Cups,Read [...]. each weighing a Ta­lent. The Babylonian Talent makes twen­ty two Attick pounds. He gave them also a Scimitar and Bracelets, and a Chain, all which were valued at a thousand Daricks. Likewise a Median Vest which they called a Dorophorick.

CHAP. XXIII. Of Gorgias and Protagoras.

Among the ancient Greeks, Gorgias the Leontine son of Philolaus, and Protagoras son of Democritus, were famous as to Rhe­torical opinion; yet were they as far short of others in wisedome as boies are of men▪ For opinion neither hears nor sees clearly: whence it oftentimes erres, overprizing some things, undervaluing others.

CHAP. XXIV. Of the Contest betwixt Hercules and Lepreas.

Glaucon [or Caucon] son of Neptune had by Astydamia, daughter of Phorbas, a son named Lepreas, who counselled Au­geas to cast Hercules in bonds when he came to demand the reward of his labours▪ Hereupon, as it seems, Lepreas was hated by Hercules for this advice. Afterwards the son of Jupiter [Hercules] went to To de­mand re­venge on h [...]s son: so Schess [...]r. Caucon; but at the intercession of Asty­damia laid aside all enmity towards Le­preas. Then there happened a youthful emulation between them, and they challen­ged [Page 15] one another at the Discus, and to draw Wate [...], and which of them could first eat an Oxe. In all which Lepreas was over­come.

Hereupon another contention arose, which of them could drink most; in which also Lepreas was worsted. At last, moved with anger and indignation, he challenged Hercu­les to single combate. Thus he received punishment for his counsel to Augeas, for he was slain in the fight.

CHAP. XXV. Of Alexander's magnificence to Pho­cion, and his to Alexander.

Alexander the son of Philip, (or, if any one likes it better, of Jupiter, for to me it is all one) to Phocion the Athenian Cap­tain onely began his letters with the usual form of salutation, Hail; so much has Pho­cion won upon the Macedonian. He also sent him a hundred Talents of silver, and named four Cities, of which he might chuse any one to receive the revenues and pro­fits thereof for his own use. These Cities were Cius, Elaea, Mylasa, Patara: thus did Alexander liberally and [...]gnificently. But Phocion farre more, wh [...] accepted neither [Page 16] the City nor the Silver; yet that he might not seem to dis-esteem and contemn the offers of Alexander, he expressed his respect to him thus: He requested that they who were kept Prisoners in the Tower of Sar­dis might be set at liberty; Echecratides the Sophist, Athenodorus of Himera, De­maratus and Sparto: these two were bre­thren and Rhodians.

CHAP. XXVI. Of Aglais a great eater.

I have heard of a woman that could sound a Trumpet, which art was her way of living, by name Aglais, daughter of Me­gacles; she wore a Periwig and a plume on her head, as Posidippus relates. At one meal she did devour twelve pounds of flesh, and four Peck loaves. Choenixes of bread, and drank a Nine pints. Congius of wine.

CHAP. XXVII. Other great eaters.

These are reported to have been extra­ordinary great eaters; Pityreus a Phrygian, Cambletes a Lydia [...], Thus a Paphlagonian, Charidas, Cleony [...]us, Pisander, Charippus, [Page 17] Mithridates of Pontus, Calamodorus of Cyzicus, Timocreon a Rhodian, both a Wrastler and Poet, Cantibaris a Persian, Erysichthon son of Myrmidon, who for that reason was nick-named So reade▪ [...], as Scheffer. Aethon. It is said also that there is a Temple in Sicily dedi­cated to Gluttony, and an Image of Ceres the Corn-giver. Likewise Alcman the Poet attests of himself that he was a great eater. And Anaxilas the Comick Poet saith that there was one Ctesias an extraordinary Glutton.

CHAP. XXVIII. Diet of Fish much esteemed by the Rho­dians.

I will tell you a Rhodian opinion. In Rhodes, they say that if a man looks upon Fish with a great liking, and loves [...]. Fish above all other meat, they esteem him an extraordinary person: But such as like the diet of Flesh better are reproched by the Rhodians as clownish and gluttonous; whe­ther justly or wrongfully, I not examine.

CHAP. XXIX. Of an Ewe which eaned a Lion.

The Coans report that an Ewe in the pa­stures of Nicippus the Tyrant did ean, not a Lamb, but a Lion. By which sign it was portended to Nicippus (as yet but a pri­vate person) that he should be King.

CHAP. XXX. That Galetes was beloved of Ptolemee not more for his beauty then his prudence.

King Ptolemee loved a youth named Ga­letes: he was very beautiful, but of a mind transcending h [...]s form; which Ptolemee fre­quently testified of him, saying, ‘Oh thou sweet of d [...]sposition! thou never wert author of harm to any, but on the con­trary hast done several good offices to many.’ On a time this youth rode forth with the King, and beholding afarre off some Malefactors led to execution, he rea­dily said, (speaking to Ptolemee) ‘O King, since it is our chance to be on horse-back according to some good Genius of those wretches, come, if you please, let us spur on and overtake them, that we may ap­pear [Page 19] to the unhappy men as the Castor & Poll [...] Dioscuri, preservers and succourers:’ (so those Gods are called.) Ptolemee much pleased with his sweet disposition and proneness to mer­cy, embraced him, and not onely saved the Malefactors, but confirmed and increased the affection he bare him.

CHAP. XXXI. The Persian custome of presenting Gifts to the King.

The Persians have a custome which they observe most strictly; When the King rides abroad in Persia, all the Persians make him Presents according to their several abi­lities. They who live by the labour of their hands in husbandry and tillage, give one nei­ther too mean, nor too rich or too magni­ficent, but either Oxen or Sheep; some also Corn or Wine. These are presented to him by every one as he rides along, and are called Presents, by which name he also ac­cepts them. The poorer sort bring Milk, Palms, Cheese, ripe Fruits, and other deli­cacies which grow in that Countrey.

CHAP. XXXII. Of Water presented as a gift to the King of Persia.

This also is a Persian story. They report that a Persian called Sinetes, being far from home, met Artaxerxes surnamed Mnemon; being thus surprised, he was much per­plexed with fear of the Law and respect of the King. Having nothing at that time to give him, and being much troubled to be exceeded in duty by the rest of the Persi­ans, unwilling that he alone should be infa­mous for not making a Present, they say that with all speed he ran to the River hard by, which was named Cyrus, and hastily lying down took up water in both his hands. ‘O King Artaxerxes, (said he) reign for ever. I make you at this time such a Present as I can get, and in such a manner as I can, that as farre as lies in me you may not pass by unpresented. I pay you homage in the water of Cyrus. But when you shall come at night to your station, I will bring from my house, and present you, the best and richest things that I have, according to my ability: I shall not come behind any of those who now offer [Page 21] you gifts.’ Artaxerxes was much pleased herewith. ‘Man, (saith he) I accept thy Present kindly, and reckon it amongst the most precious, declaring that it is of equal value with them; First, because Water is the best of all things; next, because it bears the name of Cyrus: And I will that you come to me where I shall lodge to night.’ This said, he comman­ded the Eunuchs to take the Gift from him; who instantly running to him, recei­ved the Water out of his hand into a golden Cup. The King, as soon as he came to his lodging, sent him a Persian Vest, a golden Cup, and a thousand Daricks; withall, gave the Bearer order to say thus; ‘The King commands you to delight your mind with this, because you have delight­ed his, in not suffering him to pass by unpresented and without homage, but paid him such respect as necessity would then allow. He wills also that you drink water from that River in this Cup.’

CHAP. XXXIII. Of an extraordinary great Pomegranate presented to the same King.

Misus presented an extraordinary great Pomegranate in a Basket to Artaxerxes as he was riding in Persia. The King admiring the largeness of it, ‘From what Paradise (said he) did you take this gift which you bring me?’ He answered, out of his own grounds, and that it was of his own grafting. The King was exceedingly plea­sed, and sent him royal gifts, saying, ‘By [...]e Sun, [...] Deity of the [...]. Mithra, this man by like care and di­ligence might also in my opinion make a little City great.’ This speech implies, that by continual industry and labour all things may be made better then Nature hath produced them.

CHAP. XXXIV. Of a Father, who accused his Son of a Capital crime.

A certain man, by Countrey Mardian, by name Rhacoces, had seven sons, the youngest of which, named Cartomes, did [Page 23] many harms to theScheffer, to the Mar­di [...]ns. Magi. His Father first tried to reform his manners by admo­nition and instruction: but he not obeying, and the Judges coming to the place where this young man's Father lived, he taking his Son, and binding his hands behind him, brought him before the Judges, where he accused his Son of all the several outrages which he had committed, and desired the Judges to put the young man to death. They amazed hereat, would not condemn him, but brought them both before Ar­taxerxes; where the Mardian persisting in his plea, the King interrupting him said, ‘Then you can endure that your Son should be put to death before your eies.’ He answered, ‘Most willingly: For when in my Garden I prune and cut off the lower branches which grow about the Lettice, the mother and root of them is so farre from being grieved thereat, that she flourishes the better, and be­cometh both fairer and sweeter. In like manner, O King, when I shall see him who wrongeth my Family, and consu­meth the means of his brothers, lose his life, and be prevented from doing them farther injury, I shall thrive the better, and behold the rest of my Family thrive [Page 24] with my self.’ Which Artaxerxes hea­ring, praised Rhacoces, and made him one of the Royal Judges, saying to those who were present, that he who had determi­ned so justly concerning his own Children, would towards all others be an upright Judge. He dismissed the young man with­out punishment, threatning to put him to a most cruel death if he should offend again for the time to come.

The End.

AELIAN's Various History.
The Second BOOK.

CHAP. I. How Socrates taught Alcibiades con­fidence not to be daunted at the people.

SOcrates discoursed thus to Alci­biades. The young man was much perplexed and abashed, be­ing to appear before a publick Assembly. But Socrates encouraging and exciting him, Do you not despise (saith he) that Shoe-maker? (naming him.) Al­cibiades assenting: and so likewise (conti­nueth Socrates) that publick Crier? and that Tent-maker? [Alcibiades] the son of Clinias granting this; And doth not, said Socrates, the Athenian Commonwealth consist of these? If you contemn them [Page 26] single, fear them not in an Assembly. Thus [Socrates] son of Sophroniscus and Phe­nareta prudently instructed [Alcibiades] son of Clinias and Dinomache.

CHAP. II. Of Pictures praised amiss.

Megabyzus highly commending some Pictures that were meanly and ignorantly painted, and finding fault with others that were made with great art, the boies of Zeuxis that were grinding Colours laughed at him; whereupon Zeuxis said, When you hold your peace, Megabyzus, these boies admire you, for they look on your rich gar­ments and attendants; but as soon as you say any thing concerning this Art, they laugh at you: therefore preserve your self in esteem by holding your peace, and cen­sure not the work or skill of any which is not in your way.

CHAP. III. Of Alexander not giving due commen­dations of a Picture.

Alexander beholding his own Picture at Ephesus drawn by Apelles, did not give [Page 27] it such praise as it deserved; but a Horse which was brought in neighed to the pain­ted horse, as if it had been a true one. King, said Apelles, this Horse seems to un­derstand painting much better then you.

CHAP. IV. Of the Friendship betwixt Chariton and Melanippus, and the Tyrant's mercy to­wards them.

I will relate to you an action of Phalaris not agreeing with his disposition: for it expresseth a great humanity, and therefore seemeth not to sute with him. Chariton an Agrigentine loved Melanippus passionately, who was also an Agrigentine, of a sweet disposition and excellent form. Phalaris had injured this Melanippus in a certain bu­siness; for he having brought an Action against a Favourite of Phalaris, the Ty­rant commanded him to surcease the Suit: He not obeying, the Tyrant threatned him with death unless he submitted. So being compelled he gave over the cause, and the Judges under Phalaris null'd the procee­dings; which the young man taking ill, said that he was wronged, and discovered his resentment thereof to his friend, pray­ing [Page 28] him to joyn with him in a Plot against the Tyrant, intending also to ingage some other young men, whom he knew proper and ready for such an attempt. Chariton seeing him inraged and inflamed with fury, and knowing that none of the Citizens would joyn in the design through fear of the Tyrant, said that he also had formerly the same intention, and should ever be rea­dy above all things to free his Country from Slavery; but it was dangerous to com­municate such things to many persons: wherefore he intreated Melanippus to con­sider it more deliberately, and to permit him to finde out an opportunity proper for the attempt. The young man yielded. Cha­riton thereupon undertook the whole bu­siness himself, not willing to engage his friend in it; that if he were taken and dis­covered, he alone might bear the punish­ment, and his friend not share in the dan­ger. He provided himself of a Falchion to assault the Tyrant when he should see a fit occasion. This could not be carried so privately, but that he was apprehended by the Guard, watchful of such things. Be­ing carried to Prison, and tortured to make discovery of his Complices, he couragiously endured the torment. But this continuing [Page 29] a long time, Melanippus went to Phalaris, and confessed that he was not onely a Con­spirator, but Author of the Treason. The King demanding the cause that moved him to it, he declared the whole business from the beginning; how he was obstructed in his Suit, and that this was it which provo­ked him. The Tyrant wondering hereat set them both at liberty; but commanded them immediately to depart, not onely out of all Cities belonging to the Agrigentines, but quite out of Sicily. Yet he allowed them to receive the full benefit of their estates. These and their friendships Pythia afterwards commended in these Verses:

To men, true patterns of celestial love
Blest Chariton and Melanippus prove.

The God calling this love of theirs a divine friendship.

CHAP. V. Of well husbanding Time, and that among the Lacedemonians Walking was not per­mitted.

The Lacedemonians conceived that Time above all things ought to be husbanded, employing it diligently in serious business, [Page 30] not allowing any of the Citizens to wast i [...] in idleness or play; that it might not be thrown away upon things of no vertue. A testimony hereof amongst the rest is this: The Lacedemonian Ephori hearing that they who had taken Decelia used to walk in the afternoon, sent this command to them, Walk not: (As if they did it for recreation rather then exercise of the body) It behoveth the Lacedemonians to get and preserve health not by walking, but by ex­ercise.

CHAP. VI. An instance that we ought not to please the Vulgar.

Hippomachus, (they say,) one that taught to wrastle, when the people that stood about as one of his Scholars was wrastling gave a great shout, struck him with a wand, saying, ‘You did amiss and not as you ought, it should have been done better. For if you had done according to Art, these men would not have applauded you.’ Implying, that they who perform every thing well and handsomely, must not please the multitude, but those who are understanding in the Art. Socrates also [Page 31] seems to contemn the Common people in his discourse with Crito, who came to him in the Prison, and counselled him to make an escape, and avoid the sentence of the A­thenians against him.

CHAP. VII. That the Thebans expose not Children.

This is a Theban Law most just and hu­mane; That no Theban might expose his Child or leave it in a Wilderness, upon pain of death. But if the Father were extremely poor, whether it were male or female, the Law requires that as soon as it is born it be brought in the swadling-clouts to the Magistrate, who receiving it, delivers it to some other for some small reward, condi­tioning with him that he shall bring up the Child, and when it is grown up take it into his service, man or maid, and have the benefit of its labour in requital for its edu­cation.

CHAP. VIII. Of Xenocles and Euripides contending at the Olympick Games.

In the ninety first Olympiad, wherein Exenetus won the race, Xenocles and Euri­pides [Page 32] contended. Xenocles (whosoever he was) got the first Victory by these Trage­dies, Oedipus, Lycaon, Bacchae, and Athamas a Satyre. It is ridiculous that Xenocl [...]s should not be worsted, and Euripides get the better, especially▪ in those Tragedies▪ One of these two must have been the rea­son, either that they who gave the votes were ignorant and void of clear judge­ment, or corrupt. But both are dishonou­rable, and unworthy the Athenians.

CHAP. IX. Decrees of the Athenians against some Revolters.

What Decrees did the Athenians make, and those in a Democracy? That every one of the Aeginetae should have his thumb cut off from his right hand, so that he might for ever after be disabled from holding a Spear, yet might handle an Oar▪ That all the young men of Mitylene should be put to death: Which Decree was made at the instigation of Cleon son of Cleaene­tus. That such as had been taken Priso­ners by the Samians should be branded in the face with the mark of an Owl. This also was an Athenian Decree. I wish, O Mi­nerva, [Page 33] Guardian of the City, and Jupiter Eleutherius, and all the Gods of the Gre­cians, that the Athenians had never done these things, and that it might never have been said of them.

CHAP. X. Timotheus having heard Plato dis­course, judged himself to be less happy.

I have heard that Timotheus (son of Co­non) General of the Athenians, when he was in height of felicity, and took Cities with great ease, so as the Athenians knew not how they should honour him sufficient­ly, met accidentally with Plato son of Aristo▪ as he was walking with some Scholars with­out the City wall, and seeing his reverend presence, his proper person and graceful aspect, hearing him also discourse, not of Contributions, Gallies, Naval affairs, Sup­plies, Reliefs, Confederates, Islanders, and the like matters, but of those things which he professed, and in which he employed his studies, said, ''O this life and true felicity! Whence it appears, that Timotheus did not conceive himself absolutely happy, as not enjoying this, though otherwise in highest honour and esteem with the Athenians.

CHAP. XI. What Socrates said of those that were put to death by the Thirty Tyrants.

Socrates seeing that the Thirty Tyrants put many eminent persons to death, and betrayed the rich to excessive punishments, said to Antisthenes, ‘Doth it repent thee that we have done nothing in our whole lives great and remarkable, as those Mo­narchs who are described in Tragedies, Atreus's, Thyestes's, Agamemnons, and Aegisthus's? They are in those Plaies beheaded, feasted with their own flesh, and generally destroyed: But no Poet was ever so bold or impudent as to re­present a poor man kill'd upon the Stage.’

CHAP. XII. Of Themistocles giving over Prodiga­lity.

I know not whether this speech of The­mistocles son of Neocles be commendable or not. After that his Father had cast him off, giving over Prodigality, he began to live temperately, and to refrain from Curtezans, being taken with another affection, that of [Page 35] governing the Athenian State; and conte­sted eagerly with the Magistrates, endeavou­ring to make himself the chief. He said (as is reported) to his friends, ‘What will you give me, who never yet was envied?’ He that loves to be envied, hastens, accor­ding to Euripides, to harm himself: But that this is folly, Euripides himself declares.

CHAP. XIII. Of Socrates abused in a Comedy by Ari­stophanes.

Anytus and his Companions studied to doe Socrates a mischief, for those reasons which are related by many; but feared the Athenians, doubting, if they should accuse Socrates, how they would take it, his name being in high esteem for many respects, but chiefly for opposing the Sophists, who neither taught nor knew any solid learning. Wherefore they began, by making trial in less things, to sound how the Athenians would entertain a Charge against his life: for to have accused him upon the very first, he conceived unsafe, as well for the reason already mentioned, as lest the friends and followers of Socrates should divert the anger of the Judges upon them, for falsly [Page 36] accusing a person so farre from being guilty of any wrong to the State, that he was the onely Ornament of Athens. What then do they contrive? They suborn Ari­stophanes a Comick Poet, whose onely business was to raise mirth, to bring Socra­tes upon the Stage, taxing him with crimes which most men knew him free from; Im­pertinent discourse, making an ill cause by argument seem good, introducing new and strange Deities, whilst himself believed and reverenced none: hereby to insinuate an ill opinion of him even into those who most frequented him. Aristophanes taking this Theme, interweaves it with much abusive mirth & pleasant Verses; taking for his sub­ject the best man of the Grecians. The argu­ment of his Play was not against Cleon; he did not abuse the Lacedemonians, the Thebans, or Pericles himself; but a per­son dear to all the Gods, especially to Apollo. At first (by reason of the no­velty of the thing, the unusual persona­ting of Socrates upon the Stage) the Athe­nians, who expected nothing less, were struck with wonder: Then (being natu­rally envious, apt to detract from the best persons, not onely such as bore office in the Commonwealth, but any that were [Page 37] eminent for learning or vertue) they begun to be taken with the CLOUDS, [so was the Play named] and cried up the Poet with more applause then ever any before, giving him with many shouts the victory, and sending word to the Judges to set the name of Aristophanes in the highest place. Socrates came seldome to the Theatre, un­less when Euripides the Tragick Poet con­tested with any new Tragedian, then he used to goe: And when Euripides conten­ded in the Piraeum, he went thither also, for he loved the man as well for his wise­dome, as the sweetness of his Verse. Sometimes Alcibiades son of Clinias and Critias son of Callaeschrus would invite him to a Comedy, and in a manner compell him: for he was so farre from esteeming, that he did greatly contemn those persons that were abusive and scurrilous in their language, (being himself a temperate, just, good and discreet person) which hugely troubled the Comedians. And this was the ground (as well as other things sugge­sted by Anytus and Melitus) of Aristopha­nes his Comedy; who, it is likely too, got a great summe of money by it, they being eager in prosecution of their design, and he prepared by want and malice to re­ceive [Page 38] their impression: But this he best knows. In fine, the Play got extraordi­nary credit, that of Cratinus being verified,

The Theatre was then
Fill'd with malicious men.

It being at that time the Feast of Bacchus, a multitude of Grecians went to see the Play. Socrates being personated on the Stage, and often named, (nor was it much the Players should represent him, for the Potters frequently did it upon their stone Juggs) the strangers that were presen [...] (not knowing whom the Comedy abused) raised a humme and whisper, every one asking who that Socrates was. Which he observing, (for he came not thither by chance, but because he knew himself shoul [...] be abused in the Play, had chosen the most conspicuous Seat in the Theatre) to pu [...] the strangers out of doubt, he rose up, an [...] all the while the Play lasted continued i [...] that posture. So much did Socrates despis [...] the Comedy and the Athenians themselves

CHAP. XIV. Of a Plane-tree beloved of Xerxes.

Xerxes deserves justly to be laughed at, who after he had contemned the works of Jupiter, and made himself new waies to travel by land and water, fell in love with a Plane, and doted upon the Tree: for see­ing (as it is reported) in Lydia a tall Plane­tree, there he stayed a whole day, no ne­cessity requiring, and pitched his Tents in the Wilderness about the Plane-tree: he also hung upon it many rich ornaments, honou­ring the boughs with chains and bracelets, and left it a Keeper, as the Guardian and Protectour of a Mistress. But what did this profit the Tree? the apposititious ornament nothing suiting with it, hung there in vain, not adding any thing to the beauty of the Tree. For to the beauty of a Tree are requi­site fair branches, leaves thick, a body strong, roots deep and plaint, yielding to the winds, wideness of shadow, the successive seasons of the year, the nourishment of the water by chanels and rains. But the Robes of Xerxes, the gold of the Barbarian, and his other gifts, contribute nothing to the Plane, or any other Tree.

CHAP. XV. Of those who besmeared the Seats of the Lacedemonian Ephori with Soot.

Certain Clazomenians coming to Spar­ta, through abuse and insolence besmea­red with Soot the Seats of the Ephori, in which they used to give judgement, and determine publick affairs. This being known, the Ephori were not incensed, but calling the publick Crier, commanded him to make this strange Proclamation openly through the City, ‘Let it be lawful for the Clazomenians to doe unhandsome things.’

CHAP. XVI. Of Phocion.

I esteem this action of Phocion (the son of Phocus) commendable also. Coming before a publick Assembly of Athenians, after he had reproved them for some ingra­titude, he said, both wisely and sharply, ‘I had rather receive ill from you, then doe ill to you.’

CHAP. XVII. Of the wisedome of the Persian Magi, and of Ochus.

The wisedome of the Persian Magi was (besides other things proper to them) con­versant in Prediction: They foretold the cruelty of Ochus towards his Subjects, and his bloudy disposition, which they collected from some secret signs. For when Ochus, upon the death of his Father Artaxerxes, came to the Crown, the Magi charged one of the Eunuchs that were next him to ob­serve upon what things, when the Table was set before him, he first laid hands; who watching intentively, Ochus reached forth both his hands, and with his right laid hold of a Knife that lay by, with the other took a great Loaf, which he laid upon the Meat, and did cut and eat greedily. The Magi, hearing this, foretold that there would be plenty during his reign, and much bloud shed. In which they erred not.

CHAP. XVIII. Of magnificent Suppers.

Timotheus (son of Conon) General of the Athenians, on a time retiring from magni­ficent [Page 42] Suppers and Military entertainments, was invited by Plato to a Treat in the Aca­demy; where being entertained with a frugal Supper and with Musick, when he returned to his friends, he said, ‘They who sup with Plato are better for the next day also.’ From thence forward Timo­theus dispraised sumptuous and chargeable Suppers, of which there is no benefit the next day. There is a speech much to the same purpose reported of him, that Timo­theus meeting Plato on the morrow said to him, ‘You, O Plato, sup better the next morning then over night.’

CHAP. XIX. Of Alexander, who would be called a God.

Alexander, when he had vanquished Da­rius, and was possess'd of the Persian Em­pire, being high-conceited of himself, and puffed up with his success, writ to the Gre­cians, that they should decree him to be a God: Ridiculously; what he had not by nature, he thought to obtain by requi­ring it of men. Hereupon several people made several Decrees; the Lacedemonians this, ‘Forasmuch as Alexander woul [...] [Page 43] be a God, let him be a God.’ Thus with Laconick brevity, according to the manner of their Countrey, the Lacedemonians re­prehended the Pride of Alexander.

CHAP. XX. Of the meekness of King Antigonus.

It is reported that King Antigonus was popular and meek. He that hath leisure to make enquiry after him and his actions, may satisfie himself elsewhere. I shall re­late onely one act of his full of Clemency and void of Pride. This Antigonus, perceiving that his Son behaved himself rigidly and se­verely towards his Subjects, ‘Do▪ you not know, Son, said he, that our Reign is but a glorious Servitude?’ This speech of Antigonus to his Son express'd much Mild­ness and humanity. He who conceiveth otherwise of it, seems in my opinion not to understand either what belongeth to a King or a Subject, but rather to have lived under some Tyrant.

CHAP. XXI. Of Pausanias his friendship with Aga­tho the Poet.

There was great friendship betwixt Pausanias a Ceramean and Agatho the Poet: This is generally known; but I will relate what is less common. On a time the two friends came before Archelaus: He observing the frequent differences betwixt Pausanias and Agatho, and thinking that one friend despited the other, asked Aga­tho what was the reason that he had such frequent quarrels with him who loved him so well. He answered, ‘O King, I will tell you: It is not that I am froward to­wards him, neither doe I this through ru­sticity; but if I understand any thing of behaviour, as well by Poetry as other things, I finde that the greatest plea­sure of friends is, after some falling out to be reconciled; and I am of opinion that nothing can happen to them more de­lightful: Therefore I make him partake often of this pleasure, by falling out with him frequently. For he is over-joyed when I end the difference and am reconciled; whereas if I should use him alwaies alike, [Page 45] he would not understand the difference.’ Archelaus (as they say) commended this an­swer. It is reported that Euripides also the Poet exceedingly loved this Agatho, and in favour of him composed his Tragedy inti­tuled Chrysippus. But this I cannot cer­tainly affirm, yet know it to be attested by many.

CHAP. XXII. That the Mantineans were just Law­makers.

I am told that the Mantineans were just Law-givers, no less then the Locrians and Cretans, and the Lacedemonians them­selves, and the Athenians. For though the Laws of Solon were most excellent, yet the Athenians soon after his death abroga­ted the Laws which they received from him.

CHAP. XXIII. That Nicodorus the Wrastler became a Law-giver.

Nicodorus, an excellent and famous Wrastler among the Mantineans, in his later years giving over wrastling, became a [Page 46] Law-giver to them, benefitting his Coun­try farre more in Civil affairs, then when he was publickly proclaimed Victor in the Lists. Some say that Diagoras the Melian, who loved him much, composed those Laws for him. I have more to say of Ni­codorus, but lest I should seem to intermix any commendations of Diagoras, let this suffice: For Diagoras was a hater of the Gods; neither do I take any pleasure in making farther mention of him.

CHAP. XXIV. That Milo was strong in Body, but not in Mind.

Some have undervalued the famed Strength of Milo the Crotonian, relating thus of him; None of Milo's Antagonists were able to force away a Pomegranate which he held in his hand; but his Mi­stress, with whom he had frequent differen­ces, was much too hard for him. Whence it is manifest, that Milo was of a strong Body, but an effeminate Minde.

CHAP. XXV. That the sixth of the Month Thargelion was fortunate to the Greeks.

It is observed, that on the sixth day of the month Thargelion many good fortunes have befallen not onely the Athenians, but divers others. Socrates was born on this day, the Persians vanquished on this day; and the Athenians sacrifice three hundred Goats to Agrotera upon this day in pursuit of Miltiades his vow: On the same day of this month was the fight of Plataeae, in which the Grecians had the better: (for the former fight which I mentioned was at Artemisium) neither was the Victory which the Greeks obtained at Mycale on any other day; seeing that the Victory at Plataeae and Mycale happened on the self-same day. Likewise Alexander the Macedonian, son of Philip, vanqu [...]shed many Myriads of the Barbarians on the sixth day, when he took Darius Prisoner. All which is obser­ved to have happened on this moneth. It is likewise reported that Alexander was born and died on the same day.

CHAP. XXVI. Of Hyperborean Apollo, and certain wonders concerning Pythagoras.

Aristotle saith that Pythagoras was call'd by the Crotonians Hyperborean Apollo. The son of Nicomachus [Aristotle] far­ther saies, that he was at the same hour of the same day seen by many at Metapon­tium and at Croton, where he stood up at the Games. There also he shewed one of his Thighs, which was of Gold. The same Author saies, that as he was passing over the River Nessus it called him, and that many heard the call.

CHAP. XXVII. That Anniceris was a good Charioteer; and that he who bestows much pains up­on little things, neglects the greater.

Anniceris the Cyrenian was proud of his Horseman-ship and Chariot-driving. He on a time desired to let Plato see his skill: wherefore having made ready his Chariot, he drove many courses round the Academy, keeping his track so exactly, that the wheels never went out of it. All who [Page 49] were present admired it much. But Plato reprehended his too much industry, saying, That it was impossible that he who imploy­ed so much pains about things of no value, could bend his study to things of greater concernment. For being wholly taken up with those things, he must necessarily neg­lect such as are truly worth admiration.

CHAP. XXVIII. Upon what occasion Cock fighting was first instituted.

After their Victory over the Persians, the Athenians made a Law that Cocks should one day in the year be brought to fight in the Theatre. The occasion of which Law was this: When Themistocles went forth with an Army of the Citizens against the Barbarians, he saw some Cocks fighting; neither did he behold it slightly, but turning to the whole Army, ‘These (saith he) undertake this danger, neither for their Country, nor for their Country Gods, nor for the Monuments of their Ancestours, nor for Fame, Liberty, or Children; but that they may not be worsted, or yield one to the other.’ With which words he incouraged the Athenians. [Page 50] This therefore which was at that time an occasion of inciting them to Valour, he would have to be ever after had in remem­brance.

CHAP. XXIX. How Pittacus made an Embleme of Fortune.

Pittacus at Mitylene made stairs to the Temples, which served for no use, but as a dedicated gift; hereby signifying the ascent and descent of Fortune: those whom For­tune favours ascending, the unfortunate de­scending.

CHAP. XXX. Of Plato.

Plato son of Aristo was at first extremely addicted to Poetry, and wrote Heroical Verses; which afterwards he burnt, per­ceiving them to be farre inferiour to Ho­mer's. Then he betook himself to wri­ting Tragedies, composing a Tetralogy; which Poems he gave to the Players, in­tending to contest at the Games. But be­fore the Bacchanalian Feast he heard So­crates discourse, and was so much taken [Page 51] with that Siren, that he not onely forbore his design of conten [...]ing, but from thence forward wholly gave off writing Trage­dies, and addicted himself to Philosophy.

CHAP. XXXI. That no Barbarian is impiou [...]

And who extolls not the wisedome of the Barbarians, since none of them have fal­len into any Atheism, or question whether there are Gods or not, and whether they take care of us or not? None of them ever held such Opinions as Euemerus the Mes­senian, or Diogenes the Phrygian, or Hip­po, or Diagoras, or Sosias, or Epicurus; not any Indian, Celt, or Aegyptian. For these Barbarians which I have named attest that there are Gods, and that they have a providential care of us, and that they pre­signifie events by birds, Omens, entrals, and by other observations and rules, which do teach men the providence of the Gods to­wards them. They say also that many things are signified before-hand by Dreams and by the Starres. Being firmly setled in this belief, they sacrifice purely, live holily, perfo [...]m divine rites, observe the rules of the Orgia and all the rest: whence [Page 52] it must be acknowledged that they wor­ship and reverence the Gods firmly.

CHAP. XXXII. How Hercules his name was changed, and of the Oracle of Apollo concerning it.

Some Pythian relations affirm that Her­cules, son of Jupiter and Alcmena, was at his birth named Heraclides; but that afterwards coming to Delphi to consult the Oracle about some business, he obtai­ned that for which he came, and received farther privately from the God this Oracle concerning himself,

Thee Hercules doth Phoebus name,
For thou shalt gain immortal fame.

CHAP. XXXIII. Of the Images of Rivers.

We behold the nature of Rivers, an [...] their Channels; but they who worship them and make Images of them give them some the shape of Men, others of Oxen In the shape of Oxen the Stymphalians re­presented Erasinus and Metopus; the La­cedemonians, Eurotas; the Sicyonian [Page 53] and Phliasians, Asopus; the Argives, Ce­phissus: but in the shape of Men the Pso­philians represented Erymanthus; the He­raeans, Alpheus; so likewise the Cherro­nesians that came from Cnidus, represent the River Cnidus. The Athenians wor­ship Cephissus as a horned man. In Sicily the Syracusians represent Anapus in the shape of a Man, and Cyane a fountain as a Woman. The Aegestaeans worship Por­pax, Crimissus and Telmissus under the Fi­gures of Men. The Agrigentines repre­sent the River which beareth the same name with their City by the image of a [...]eautiful Boy, to which they sacrifice. They [...]ikewise dedicated an Ivory Statue at Del­ [...]hi, and inscribed the name of the River [...]pon it, which Statue was of a Boy.

CHAP. XXXIV. Of Old age.

They say that Epicharmus being very [...]ld, sitting and discoursing with some of [...]ike age, and every one of them saying, [...]ne, I could be content to live but sive [...]ears longer; another, three years; a third, [...]our; he interposing said, ‘O good men, why do you contest and wrangle about a [Page 54] a few daies? All we that are here met tend by some fate or other to our end. Therefore it is time for us all to die with the soonest, before we feel any of the mi­series which attend Old age.’

CHAP. XXXV. That Sleep is the Brother of Death; and of the decease of Gorgias.

Gorgias the Leontine being at his latter end, and being of a great age and surprised by sickness, fell by degrees asleep: and when one of his friends coming to visit him asked him how he did; ‘Just now, saith he, Sleep is going to deliver me up to his Brother.’

CHAP. XXXVI. Of Socrates falling sick in his old age.

Socrates being very old fell sick; and one asking him how he did, ‘Well, saith he, both waies: sor if I live longer, I shall have more Emulators; if I die, more Praisers.’

CHAP. XXXVII. Of a Law which prohibited the sick to drink Wine.

Zaleucus the Locrian made many excel­lent and convenient Laws, of which this was not the worst. If any of the Epizephy­rian Locrians, being sick, drank pure Wine, unless by prescription of the Physi­cian, though he returned to his former health, yet he was to be put to death for drinking it without leave.

CHAP. XXXVIII. A Law of the Romans and other people not allowing Wine to all persons, nor of all ages.

This was also a Law of the Massilians, That no Women should tast Wine, but of what age soever they were they should drink water. Theophrastus affirms that this Law was of force also among the Mile­sians, which not onely the Ionian Reading [...]. but Milesian Wives observed. But why should we not speak of the Law of the Romans? Or how can I avoid being reproched of neglect, if having mentioned the Locrians, [Page 56] Massilians and Milesians, I omit to speak of my own Country? Amongst the Ro­mans this Law was strictly observed, that no free Woman or she slave should drink Wine; nor any of Noble birth, from their childhood till five and thirty years of age.

CHAP. XXXIX. The Law of the C [...]etans concerning Learning.

The Cretans commanded all free-born children to learn the Laws with a kind of melody, that their minds might be inticed by their Musick, and they get them by heart the more easily: so that if they com­mitted any thing contrary to Law, they could not plead ignorance. The second thing which they were appointed was, to learn the Hymns of the Gods: The third, Encomiums of good men.

CHAP. XL. That Beasts love not Wine, and of some Beasts that will be drunk.

Every irrational creature naturally ab­horreth Wine, especially those who being over-fed with Grapes become drunk. [Page 57] Crows if they eat the herb Oenutta, as also Dogs, run mad. If the Ape and the Ele­phant drink Wine, the one forgets his strength, the other his subtilty, and both are easily to be taken.

CHAP. XLI. Of some who were lovers of Drink, and great Drinkers.

Lovers of Drink were Dionysius in Sicily, and Nisaeus a Tyrant also, Apollocrates son of Dionysius the Tyrant, Hipparinus kins­man of Dionysius, Timolaus a Theban, Cha­ridemus an Orithean, Arcadion, Erasixenus, Alcetas a Macedonian, and Diotimus an A­thenian. This last was called a Tunnel, because putting a Tunnel into his mouth, he could drink wine poured into it with­out taking breath. They relate of Cleome­nes the Lacedemonian, that he was not onely a great Drinker, but that he also used the ill custome of the Scythians to drink Wine unallai'd. They say also that Io of Chios, the Poet, was an immoderate drinker of Wine. Likewise Alexander the Macedo­nian, in honour of Calanus the Brahman, an Indian Sophist, that burned himself, insti­tuting Games of Musick, Horse-racing and [Page 58] Wrastling; to gratifie the Indians, he ad­ded another part proper to that Country, which was Drinking. To him that should be Victor he appointed a Talent for his re­ward, to the next thirty Minae, to the third ten. Promachus got the Victory. More­over Dionysius, at the Feast which they call Choae, proposed a golden Crown as a re­ward to him that drank most. Xenocrates the Chalcedonian was Victor, and taking the Crown when he went away after Sup­per, put it upon a Statue of Mercury which stood at the door, according to his custome: for he used to lay there Garlands of Flow­ers, Myrrhe, Ivy, and Laurel, and leave them. Also Anacharsis, as it is said, drank much at Periander's house. He brought this custome from his own Country, for it is proper for the Scythians to drink pure Wine. Lacydes and Timon, Philosophers, are said to have drank much. Likewise My­cerinus an Aegyptian, a Prophecy being brought him from Buta, foretelling that he should live but a little while, to delude the Oracle by doubling the time, turning nights into daies, watched and drank continually. To these adde Amasis the Aegyptian, of whom Herodotus attests enough. And Ni­coteles a Corinthian must not be severed [Page 59] from these. And they say also that Scopas the son of Creon and Antiochus the King were much addicted to Wine: for which reason he put the whole Government of his Kingdome into the hands of Aristaeus and Themisto, Cyprians, whilest he, given over to Drunkenness, bare onely the Title of King. Likewise Antiochus Epi­phanes, delivered as pledge to the Ro­mans, used to drink Wine immoderately. As also his name-sake Antiochus, who wa­ging Warre with the Medians against Ar­saces, was a slave to Drunkenness. Amongst these may be reckoned Antiochus the great. Immoderate drinking cast Agro King of the Illyrians into a Pleurisie, and kill'd him. Likewise Gentius another King of the Illy­rians was a great Drinker. What shall we say of Orophernes King of Cappadocia, who was also a great Drinker? And if we must mention Women, (in whom to love drink is a great vice, to drink much a greater) Clio, as they say, contended in drinking, not with Women onely, but with Men; for she was a great Drinker, and had the better of every one, carrying in my opinion a shame­ful victory.

CHAP. XLII. Of Plato's renown, and of his Laws for equal Distribution.

The fame of Plato and renown of his Ver­tue came to the Arcadians and Thebans, who thereupon sent Embassadours earnestly to request him to come over to them, not onely to instruct their young men in Phi­losophy, but, which was a higher concern­ment, to ordain Laws. They were ready to have obtained what they desired of him; for the son of Aristo was pleased with the invitation, and intended to yield to them. He asked the Embassadours how they stood affected to Equality of estates: when un­derstanding by them that they were so averse from it, as not to be by any means induced thereto, he refused to goe.

CHAP. XLIII. Certain eminent persons among the Gre­cians very poor.

There were most excellent persons a­mong the Grecians who lived in extreme Poverty. Aristides son of Nicomachus, and Phocion son of Phocus, Epaminondas son of [Page 61] Polymatis, Pelopidas a Theban, Lama­chus an Athenian, Socrates son of Sophro­niscus, and Ephialtes son of Sophonides.

CHAP. XLIV. A description of a Picture made by Theon a Painter.

Amongst other things which witness the excellent art of Theon the Painter was this Picture: An armed man ready to charge the Enemy, who had made an Incursion and wasted the Country. The young man seemed ready to fall on with sprightliness and courage: you would have said he were transported with rage and the fury of Mars. His eies seemed to sparkle fiercely. Ha­ving taken up his Arms he appeared snatch­ing, as if eager to assault the Enemy with all speed. He held forth his Shield, and waved as it were his Sword, as ready to fight, with a killing look, his posture ex­pressing that he meant not to spare any. Theon painted not any thing more, no com­mon Souldier, no Centurion, no Company, no Horseman, no Archer; this armed man onely being sufficient to compleat the ex­cellence of the piece. But before he would discover this Picture to publick view, he [Page 62] got a Trumpeter, and bade him to sound a Charge as loudly and fiercely as he could, and to give it all possible spirit of encou­ragement to fight. Assoon as this shrill and dreadful noise was heard, the Trumpet sounding as if there were a sudden incursion of the Enemy, he discovered his Picture, and the armed man appeared, after that the sound of the Trumpet had excited the fan­cy of the beholders.

The End.

AELIAN's Various History.
The Third BOOK.

CHAP. I. Thessalian Tempe described.

LET us now describe and paint out in discourse the Thessalian Tempe: for it is acknowled­ged that speech, where the fa­culty is free, can represent whatsoever it pleaseth as fully to the life, as men that are excellent in handy-work. It is a place situated betwixt Olympus and Ossa. These are Mountains of extraordi­nary height, and disjoyned as it were by providence. They include a Plain whose length extends to forty▪ Furlo [...]gs. Stadia; its breadth in some places is a Plethrum, in others somewhat more. Through the middle runs [Page 64] the River Peneus, into which other Rive [...]s flow, and by communicating their waters make Peneus great. It affords various pla­ces of delight of all kinds, not wrought by the hand of man, but spontaneous works of Nature, which contributed much to the beauty and glory of the place from its first beginning. For Ivy full of down a­bounds and flourisheth there, which like generous Vines creepeth up the high trees, and groweth with them. There is also plenty of Smallage, which climbing up the Hill shadoweth the Rock, so that it lies hid under it, nothing being seen but the green Herb, which yields a pleasant entertainment to the eye. In this Plain there are divers Groves and large Cupbords, which in the Summer afford grateful shelter to Travel­lers and refreshment. It is full of little Brooks and Springs of water, cool and pleasant to the tast. These waters, they say, benefit such as wash in them, and con­duce much to health. Birds are dispersed about every-where, especially the Musical, which yield extraordinary pleasure to the ear, and by continual warbling invite and delight the very passenger. On each side of the River are those pleasantnesses which I mentioned before, and places fit for re­pose [Page 65] and diversion. Through the middle of the Tempe runneth the River Peneus gently and smoothly like oil. This is much shaded by the thick branches of the adjoy­ning Trees, which for the greatest part of the day keep off the Sun's beams, and af­ford to those that sail a cool passage. All the neighbouring people meet with one another there, and offer sacrifice, converse▪ and feast. Whence there being many that sacrifice and perform Divine rites conti­nually, it happeneth that such as travel thi­ther either on foot or by water perceive very sweet odours. This unintermitted worship of the Gods makes the place sa­cred. Here the Thessalians say that Apollo Pythius, having slain Pytho with his arrows at that time possessed of Delphi when the Goddess Earth held the Oracles, was by Jupiter's command purified; and that then the son of Jupiter and Latona crowned with this Tempian Laurel, and bearing a branch thereof in his hand, came to Delphi and took possession of the Oracle. There is also an Altar in that place where he was crowned, and took away the branch. Whereupon even to this time the Delphians every ninth year send youths of Noble birth with an Architheorus, who is one of their own. [Page 66] These coming to Tempe sacrifice magnifi­cently, and having made Garlands of that Laurel which the God then so loved as to Crown himself with it, depart. They pass that way which is called Pythias, and goeth through Thessaly, Pelagonia, Oeta, and the Countries of the Aenians, Melians, Dori­ans, and Hesperian Locrians. They carry these youths thither with no less respect and reverence, then those who with sacred presents from the Hyperboreans pay homag [...] to the same God. Likewise at the Pythia [...] Games the Victors are presented with [...] Crown of the same Laurel. Thus muc [...] concerning the Thessalian Tempe.

CHAP. II. Of Anaxagoras bearing the death of hi [...] Children with courage.

When one coming to Anaxagoras th [...] Clazomenian (as he was discoursing wit [...] his friends) told him that his two onely Sons were dead; He nothing troubled o [...] disordered at the news, answered, ‘I knew that they were born mortal.’

CHAP. III. Of Xenophon bearing the death of his Son unmovedly.

A Messenger from Mantinea told Xeno­phon (as he was sacrificing) that his son Grillus was slain. He taking onely his Gar­land off, continued to sacrifice. But when the Messenger added that he died victori­ously, he took again the Garland to put it on his head. This is generally known.

CHAP. IV. That Dio was not troubled at the loss of his Son.

As Dio, son of Hipparinus, a Disciple of Plato, was treating about publick affairs, his Son was killed with a fall from the house top into the Court. Dio was nothing trou­bled at it, but proceeded in what he was about before.

CHAP. V. Antigonus seeing his Son dead, was no­thing troubled.

They say that Antigonus the second, when his Son was brought home slain in [Page 68] battel, did behold him without changing colour, or shedding a tear: but having commended him for dying as a stout Soul­dier, gave order that he should be buried.

CHAP. VI. Of the Magnanimity of Crates.

Crates the Theban is known to have been a magnanimous person, as well by other things, as by his despising what the Vulgar admire, as also his Wealth and Country▪ That he gave the Thebans his estate is gene­rally known. But this other action perhaps is less notorious. He quitted Thebes newly restored, saying, ‘I have no need of a City which Alexander or some other may sub­vert.’

CHAP. VII. Of the Calumny of the Vulgar.

Demochares Nephew to Demosthenes, to shew that he nothing valued the disprai­ses of the Vulgar, seeing certain Detractors together sitting in a Physician's Shop, and wholly bent upon calumniating others, ‘What doe you say (said he) you Dysmeni­dae? discovering their disposition by that compellation.

CHAP. VIII. [...]hat Phrynichus was chosen General for a certain Poem.

The Athenians made Phrynichus Gene­ [...]l, not out of favour, nor for Nobleness of [...]irth, or for being rich; for which men [...]e commonly esteemed at Athens, and pre­ [...]rred above others: But he having in a cer­ [...]in Tragedy composed Verses sutable to [...]med Dancers, did win so much upon the [...]heatre, and please the Spectators, that [...]ey immediately chose him General; be­ [...]ving that he would behave himself ex­ [...]llently and advantageously in Martial af­ [...]irs, who had in a Play composed Verses [...]d Songs so proper for armed men.

CHAP. IX. Of Love.

Who is able to fight with a Lover, that not a Lover himself, and when the busi­ [...]ss is to be decided by the Sword? For [...] who loves not, alwaies shunneth and de­ [...]neth a Lover, as being himself prophane [...]d uninitiated with the God: he dares as [...]uch as the courage of his soul and strength [Page 70] of his body will bear; yet fears the other as one transported with divine fury; ani­mated not by Mars onely, which is com­mon to both, but likewise by Love, For they who are excited with other of the Gods, whereof one (as Homer saith) rageth equal with Mars; they, I say, which are possessed onely with one, fight with as much courage as one God inspireth: But the ser­vants of Love being inflamed with Mars and Love, serving both Deities, have accor­ding to the opinion of the Cretans a double share of Courage. But none therefore fin [...] fault if a Souldier who fights onely by in­stigation of one God, refuse to encounte [...] with him who is assisted both by Man and Love.

CHAP. X. Of Lacedemonian Friendship.

Of the Lacedemonian Ephori I could re­late many excellent things said and done at present I shall onely tell you this: If a­mongst them any man preferred in Friend­ship a rich man before another that [...] poor and vertuous, they fined him, punish­ing his avarice with loss of money. If an [...] other that were a vertuous person profe [...] [Page 71] particular friendship to none, they fined him also, because being vertuous he would not make choice of a friend: whereas he might render him he loved like himself, and perhaps divers; for affection of friends con­duceth much to the advancement of vertue in those whom they love, if they be tem­perate and vertuous. There was also this Law among the Lacedemonians; If any young man transgressed, they pardoned him, imputing it to want of years and ex­perience; yet punished his friend, as conscious and overseer of his actions.

CHAP. XI. Of the Soul.

The Peripateticks assert that the Soul in the day-time is inslaved and involved in the body, so that she cannot behold Truth; but in the night, being freed from this ser­vitude, and gathered together, as it were, in a round about the parts that are in the breast, she is more Prophetick, whence proceed Dreams.

CHAP. XII. Of Friendship amongst the Lacedemo­nians.

Friendship among the Spartans was truly innocent: if any thing unlawful happened, both persons must either forsake their Country or their lives.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Drunkenness of the Tapyrians.

The Nation of the Tapyrians is so ad­dicted to Wine, that they live in Wine, and bestow the greatest part of their life and conversation upon it. Neither do they abuse it by drinking onely, but by anointing themselves therewith, as others do with Oil.

CHAP. XIV. Of the Drunkenness of the Byzantines.

The Byzantines (as is reported) live in Taverns, quitting their own houses, and letting them to strangers. Nor leave they their houses onely to them, but their wives also. Thus they by one act are guilty of two Crimes, Drunkenness and Prostitu­tion. [Page 73] Moreover, flowing in Wine and Drunkenness, they delight to hear the Pipe, and make Piping their chiefest busi­ness. But they cannot endure to hear the least sound of a Trumpet; whence it is ma­nifest that the Byzantines are wholly averse from Arms and Warre. Wherefore Leoni­des their General, in a strict siege, seeing that when the Enemy was assaulting the Walls they left the Works, and went to their usual entertainments, commanded that Taverns should be set up for them upon the Walls. This Damon relates of them, which Menander seems to confirm, saying, Byzan­tium makes the Merchants Drunkards; they drank all night long.

CHAP. XV. Of the Drunkenness of the Argives, Corinthians, Thracians and Illyrians.

The Argives also and Corinthians have been reproched in Comedies for being in­temperately addicted to Wine. Of the Thra­cians it is at this time reported for certain, that they are great Drinkers. Neither are the Illyrians at present free from this vice. To which they adde another dishonesty, in­asmuch as at a Feast they permit the Guests [Page 74] to drink to their Wives, every one as he pleaseth, though nothing related to them.

CHAP. XVI. A comparison betwixt the two Generals, Demetrius and Timotheus.

Which of these two was the better Ge­neral, Demetrius Poliorcetes, or Timotheus the Athenian? I will tell you the nature of both, and then you may judge which de­serves to be preferred. Demetrius by force and avarice, and oppressing many, and com­mitting injustice, took Cities, battering their Walls with Engines, and undermining them: But Timotheus by discourse, persua­ding them it was most to their advantage to obey the Athenians.

CHAP. XVII. That Philosophy is not inconsistent with Political Government, and that some Philosophers have governed Common­wealths.

Some Philosophers have governed States, though studying onely the good of their own minds they lived privately. Of those who managed publick affairs were Zaleu­cus, [Page 75] who reformed the State of the Locri­ans, Charondas that of Catana, and of Rhe­gium when he was banished Catana. Archy­tas much benefited the Tarentines, Solon the Athenians; Bias and Thales greatly profited Ionia, Chilon the Lacedemonians, Pittacus the Mitylenaeans, Cleobulus the Rhodians, and Anaximander brought a Colony from Miletus to Apollonia. Xeno­phon also was an excellent Souldier, and proved the best General when he went up along with Cyrus, at what time Cyrus and many others with him was slain. Necessity then requiring a person that might bring the Greeks off and conduct them safe home, he was the man. Plato son of Aristo brought Dio back to Sicily, whom he counselled and taught how to subvert the Tyranny o [...] Dionysius. But Socrates would not meddle with the Athenian State, because the De­mocracy of the Athenians did at that time more resemble a Tyrannical and Monar­chick Government. Neither would he joyn in sentencing the ten Commanders to death, nor partake of the injustices committed by the thirty Tyrants. But when occasion cal­led him forth, he was a Souldier. He fought at Delium, and at Amphipolis and Potidea. Aristotle, when his Country was not decli­ning, [Page 76] but quite dejected, raised her up again. Demetrius Phalereus governed the Athe­nian Commonwealth with much honour, until envy, customary with the Athenians, threw him out. In Egypt also, living with Ptolemee, he was chief in making Laws. And who will deny that Pericles son of Xan­thippus was a Philosopher? or Epaminon­das son of Polymnis, and Phocion son of Pho­cus, and Aristides son of Lysimachus, and Ephialtes son of Sophonidas; and long after these Carneades and Critolaus? For they were sent by the Athenians Embassadours to Rome, and procured a Peace; so much did they prevail with the Senate, that they said, ‘The Athenians have sent Embas­sadours, that not persuade, but compel us to doe what they please.’ I must instance also the skill of Perseus in Politicks, for he taught Antigonus: and of Aristotle, who instructed Alexander Son of Philip from his youth in Philosophy: And Lysis Disciple of Pythagoras taught Epaminondas. There­fore if any shall say Philosophers are unpra­ctical, he speaks inconsiderately and igno­rantly, though, for my own part, I should much more willingly embrace the contem­plative quiet life.

CHAP. XVIII. Of the Discourse betwixt Midas the Phrygian, and Silenus; and the incre­dible relations of Midas.

Theopompus relates a discourse between Midas the Phrygian and Silenus. This Si­lenus was son of a Nymph, inferiour by nature to the Gods onely, superiour to Men and Death. Amongst many other things, Silenus told Midas that Europe, Asia and Africk were Islands surrounded by the Ocean: That there was but one Continent onely, which was beyond this world, and that as to magnitude it was infinite: That in it were bred, besides other very great Creatures, Men twice as big as those here, and they lived double our age: That many great Cities are there, and peculiar manners of life; and that they have Laws wholly different from those amongst us: That there are two Cities farre greater then the rest, nothing like to each other; one named Machimus, Warlike, the other Euse­bes, Pious: That the Pious people live in peace, abounding in wealth, & reap the fruits of the Earth without Ploughs or Oxen, ha­ving no need of tillage or sowing. They [Page 78] live, as he said, free from sickness, and die laughing, and with great pleasure: They are so exactly Just, that the Gods many times vouchsafe to converse with them▪ The Inhabitants of the City Machimus are very Warlike, continually armed and fighting: They subdue their Neighbours, and this one City predominates over many. The Inhabitants are not fewer then two hundred Myriads: they die sometimes of sickness, but this happens very rarely, for most commonly they are kill'd in the Wars by Stones or Wood, for they are invulne­rable by Steel. They have vast plenty of Gold and Silver, insomuch that Gold is of less value with them then Iron with us. He said that they once designed a Voiage to these our Islands, and sailed upon the O­cean, being in number a thousand Myri­ads of men, till they came to the Hyperbo­reans; but understanding that they were the happiest men amongst us, they con­temned us as persons that led a mean in­glorious life, and therefore thought it not worth their going farther. He added what is yet more wonderful, that there are men living amongst them called Meropes, who inhabit many great Cities; and that at the farthest end of their Countrey there is a [Page 79] place named Anostus, (from whence there is no return) which resembles a Gulf; it is neither very light nor very dark, the air being dusky intermingled with a kinde of Red: That there are two Rivers in this place, one of Pleasure, the other of Grief; and that along each River grow Trees of the bigness of a Plane-tree. Those which grow up by the River of Grief bear fruit [...] this nature; If any one eat of them, he shall spend all the rest of his life in tears and grief, and so die. The other Trees which grow by the River of Pleasure produce fruit of a contrary nature; for who tasts thereof shall be eased from all his former desires: If he loved any thing, he shall quite forget it; and in a short time shall become younger, and live over again his former years: he shall cast off old age, and return to the prime of his strength, becoming first a young man, then a child, lastly, an infant, and so die. This, if any man think the Chian worthy credit, he may believe. To me he appears an egregious Romancer as well in this as other things.

CHAP. XIX. Of the dissension betwixt Aristotle and Plato.

The first dissension betwixt Aristotle and Plato is said to be thus occasioned; Plato did not approve of his life and habit, for Aristotle wore rich garments and shoes, and cut his hair after a manner not used by Plato▪ He also wore many Rings for or­nament; he had a deriding kind of look, and was peremptory in discourse: all which mis-became a Philosopher. Plato seeing this rejected him, and preferred before him Xenocrates, Speusippus, Amyclas, and o­thers; to whom he shewed respect, and ad­mitted them to his conversation. On a time, Xenocrates being gone into his Coun­try, Aristotle came to Plato, accompanied with a great many of his Disciples, of whom was Mnason the Phocian, and the like: Speusippus was then sick and unable to be with Plato: Plato was fourscore years old, and through age his memory much im­paired. Aristotle assaulting and circumvent­ing him by propounding arrogantly some questions, and arguing with him, discove­red himself injurious and ingrateful. Here­upon [Page 81] Plato retiring from his outward Walk, walked privately with his friends. After three months Xenocrates returned from his Journey, and found Aristotle walking where he had left Plato, and seeing that he and his Disciples went not from the walk to Plato, but directly to the City, he asked one of the Walk where Plato was, doubting that he was sick. He answered, He is not sick, but Aristotle troubling him hath made him quit the Walk, and now he teacheth Philosophy privately in his own Garden. Xenocrates hearing this went presently to Plato, whom he found discoursing with such as were pre­sent, who were young men of eminent quality, and some of the Noblest. When he had ended his discourse, he saluted Xe­nocrates kindly, according to his usual man­ner, and Xenocrates did the like to him. When the company was dismist, Xenocra­tes, without speaking a word to Plato, or acquainting him with it, got his friends to­gether, and sharply reproved Speusippus for having yielded the Walk to Aristotle. Then to his utmost he opposed the Stagirite, and so farre proceeded the contention, that at last Aristotle was thrown out, and Plato restored to his former place.

CHAP. XX. Of Lysander, and some Gifts presented to him.

To Lysander the Spartan going to Ionia, some of his acquaintance there sent, amongst many other presents, an Oxe and a Cake▪ He looking upon the Cake, asked what Dainty it was. To which he that brought it answered, ‘It was made of Honey, Cheese, and some other things.’ ‘Give this then, said Lysander, to theSlav [...]s. Hilots; for it is not meat for a free person.’ Bu [...] the Oxe he commanded to be sacrificed, killed, and drest according to the fashion of his Country, and did eat of it with de­light.

CHAP. XXI. Of the Magnanimity of Themistocles.

On a time Themistocles, yet a boy, re­turning from School, his Master bade him, meeting Pisistratus the Tyrant, to go a littl [...] out of the way. Whereto he generously an­swered, ‘Is not here way enough for him▪’ So much did somthing ingenious and gene­rous appear in Themistocles at those years.

CHAP. XXII. Of the Piety of Aeneas, and compassion of the Greeks to the Trojans.

When Troy was taken, the Grecians (as it becomes Greeks) commiserating the con­dition of the Captives, made Proclamation by a Herald, that every free Citizen might carry away with him any one thing he plea­sed. Hereupon Aeneas, neglecting all other things, carried out his houshold Gods. The Grecians pleased with the piety of the man, gave him leave to take something else. He then took up his Father of a very great age upon his shoulders, and bore him away. They not a little astonished hereat, gave him back all that was his; confessing that to such men as were pious towards the Gods, and honoured their Parents, even those who were by nature their Enemies become merciful.

CHAP. XXIII. Of Alexander.

Great were the actions of Alexander at Granicus and Issus, and the fight at Arbe­la, and Darius subdued, and the Persians [Page 84] subjected to the Macedonians; all Asia con­quered, and the Indies reduced under his power. Great were those things which he did at Tyr [...], and among the Oxydracae, and many others. Why should we endeavour to comprehend within the narrow expres­sion of words the unlimited courage of this person in Warre? Or if any detractor will rather impute these things to the Fortune which attended on him, so let it be. But he was doubtless excellent in that he was never worsted by Fortune, nor at any time deserted by her. Other things there are not commendable in him. That on the fifth day of the Month he drank excessively at Eu­maeus his house, on the sixth day he slept after his debauch, and recovered so well as to rise and give order to his Captains for the Expedition of the next day, saying that they should set forth very early. On the seventh he feasted with Perdiccas, and again drank freely. On the eighth he slept. On the fifteenth day of the same Month he made another debauch, and the next day slept. On the four and twentieth he supp'd with Bagoas. (The house of Bagoas was from the Palace ten Stadia) The day following he slept. One of these two therefore must needs have been; Either that Alexander [Page 85] did prejudice himself exceedingly by im­ploying so many daies of the Month in drinking, or that they who write these things have belied him. We may likewise imagine that they who relate other things of the same kinde concerning him, wrong him also, of whom is Eumenes the Cardian.

CHAP. XXIV. How much Xenophon was delighted with Bravery.

Xenophon amongst other things took great delight to have rich A [...]ms. For he said that if he should overcome the Enemy, the best ornaments would suit with him: If he died in fight, he should be laid out decently in a rich suit of Arms: this be­ing the proper winding-sheet for a man of courage, and which best adorns him. They say therefore of this son of Gryllus, that his Shield was Argolick, his Breast-plate Attick, his Helmet wrought in Boeotia, his Horse Epidaurian. I must needs say he was a Person delighted in Bravery, and merited it.

CHAP. XXV. Of [...]eonides, and three hundred more, who gave themselves up to death volun­tarily for the preservation of Greece.

Leonides the Lacedemonian, and three hundred more with him, voluntarily under­went the death at Pylae which was prophe­sied of them: and fighting stoutly and gallantly for Greece, obtained a glorious end, leaving a deathless renown and eter­nal fame behind them.

CHAP. XXVI. Of Pindarus the Tyrant.

Pindarus, Son of Melas, Grandson o [...] Alyattes the Lydian by his daughter, being Tyrant of the Ephesians, was severe in pu­nishments & inexorable, but othe [...]wise cour­teous and wise. He took great care that his Country might not be brought into servi­tude by the Barbarians, of which this is a testimony. When Croesus his Uncle by the Mother's side invaded Ionia, he sent an Em­bassador to Pindarus, requiring the Ephesians to be subjected to him: to which Pindarus not yielding, Croesus besieged the City. [Page 87] But one of the Towers being undermined, (which was afterwards called the Traitour) and destruction appearing before their eyes, Pindarus advised the Ephesians to fasten Ropes from the Gates and Walls to the Pil­ [...]ars of the Temple of Diana, by that means making the whole City an Anatheme to her, thereby to preserve it secure. Farther he advised them to goe forth and make suit to the Lydian. Upon the Ephesians de­claring the case and their suit, it is said that Croesus laughed, and was pleased with the Stratagem, granting the Ephesians liberty, on condition that Pindarus should be ba­nished the City: which he opposed not, but taking along such friends as would goe with him, left his Son and the greatest part of his estate in the City, committing them both to the care of Pasicles one of his friends. He departed to Peloponnesus, pre­ferring Banishment before Regal power, that his Country might not be subjected to the Lydians.

CHAP. XXVII. Of Plato's Poverty, and how he betook himself to Philosophy.

This also I have heard, but whether it be true or not I know not: They say that Plato son of Aristo was driven by Poverty to betake himself to the Warres; but in­tercepted by Socrates, while he was buying his Arms, and instructed in that which con­cerns mankind, he through his persuasion addicted himself to Philosophy.

CHAP. XXVIII. How Socrates reformed the Pride of Alcibiades.

Socrates perceiving Alcibiades to be ex­ceeding proud of his riches and lands, he shewed him a Map of the World, and bid him find Attica therein; which done, he desired that he would shew him his own lands. He answered, ‘They were not there▪ Do you boast, replies Socrates, of that which you see is no (considerable) part of the Earth?’

CHAP. XXIX. Of the Poverty and Pride of Diogenes.

Diogenes the Sinopean used to say of himself, that he fulfilled and suffered the imprecations mentioned in the Tragedy, being a Vagabond, destitute of a house, de­prived of his Country, a Begger, ill clothed, having his livelihood onely from day to day: And yet he was more pleased with this condition, then Alexander with the command of the whole World, when ha­ving conquered the Indians he returned to Babylon.

CHAP. XXX. Of certain persons extremely Modest.

Amoebeas the Lutenist was extremely continent, insomuch that having a very beautiful Wife, he never lay with her. So likewise Diogenes the Tragedian Player. Clitomachus, one that had been Victour in all exercises, was extraordinary modest. At Feasts, if there were any loose discourse, im­mediately he arose and departed.

CHAP. XXXI. Of the diligence of Nicias in his Art.

Nicias the Picture-drawer was so in­tent upon Painting, that he many times for­got to eat, his thoughts being wholly ta­ken up with his employment.

CHAP. XXXII. Of Alexander and Hercules, learning to play on the Lute.

Alexander son of Philip, whilest yet a boy, not of Mans estate, learnt to play on the Lute. His Master bidding him strike such a string as suted with the Tune, and the Air required; ‘And what imports it, said he, if I strike this?’ pointing to ano­ther. He answered, ‘It imports nothing to him that shall be a King, but to him that would be a Lutenist it doth.’ Doubt­less he feared, that if he behaved himself not discreetly he might suffer as Linus; for Linus taught Hercules (yet a Boy) to play on the Lute, who touching the Instrument unmusically, Linus rebuked him; whereat Hercules incensed struck Linus with the Lute and killed him.

CHAP. XXXIII. Of Satyrus a Player on the Flute.

Satyrus a Player on the Flute heard ma­ny times Aristo the Philosopher, and being much taken with his discourse, said,

Into the fire my glittering Bow
Why do I not as useless throw?<

So mean did he esteem his own Art in com­parison of Philosophy.

CHAP. XXXIV. A Law common to the Romans and Lacedemonians.

The Lacedemonians and Romans had a Law, That no man might eat of whatsoever things, or as much as he pleased. They re­duced the Citizens to Temperance, besides other waies, principally by diet.

CHAP. XXXV. That it was not permitted to laugh in the Academy.

There is a general report amongst the Athenians, which saith, That it was not per­mitted [Page 92] to laugh in the Academy: for they endeavoured to preserve that place free from contumely and levity.

CHAP. XXXVI. Why Aristotle left Athens.

When Aristotle left Athens, fearing to be attainted, to one that asked him What kinde of City is Athens? he answered, ‘Very beautiful; but in it Pears upon Pears and Figs on Figs do grow: meaning Sycophants. And to one who asked him why he left Athens, he answered, ‘Because he would not the Athenians should sin twice against Philosophy;’ re­flecting on the death of Socrates, and his own danger.

CHAP. XXXVII. A Law of the Ceans concerning Old men.

It is a custome of the Ceans, That all such amongst them as are very Old, as if they invited one another to a Feast or some so­lemn sacrifice, should meet together, and be­ing crowned drink Hemlock; because they are no longer fit to doe their Country ser­vice, their Minds now doting by reason of Age.

CHAP. XXXVIII. Some things first found out at Athens.

They say that at Athens were first found out the Olive and Fig-trees; which the Earth also first brought forth. Also that the Athenians invented Judiciary Pleas, and first instituted coporal Exercises, and un­cloathed and anointed themselves. And Erichthonius first harnessed Horses toge­ther.

CHAP. XXXIX. What things some of old did eat.

The Arcadians fed on Acorns, the Ar­gives on Pears, the Athenians on Figs, the Tyrinthians on wild Figs, the Indians on Canes, the Carmans on Dates, the Mae­otians and Sauromatians on Millet, the Persians on Turpentine and Cardamum.

CHAP. XL. Of Satyrs, Tityri, and Silenes.

The Satyrs companions of Bacchus in dancing are by some named Tityri; which name they had from Teretisms (wanton Dances) in which Satyrs delight: Satyrs, [Page 94] from the wideness of their mouths; Si­lenes, from Sillos, which is a scoff with an unpleasing jest. The Silenes were cloathed in coats with sleeves, hairy on both sides; which Robe signified the planting of Vines by Bacchus, and the downy thickness of the leaves.

CHAP. XLI. Many Surnames of Bacchus.

The Ancients called to bring forth fruit plentifully [...] Phluin, whence they named Bacchus Phleon, as also Protryges, and Sta­phylites, and Omphacites, with divers other names.

CHAP. XLII. Of [...]ertain Women that fell Mad.

Elege and Celaene were Daughters of Proetus. The Queen of Cyprus work'd them to prostitute themselves; insomuch as in some parts of Peloponnesus they ran up and down, as it is said, naked and raging. They roved also mad into other parts of Greece, transported with this distemper. It is like­wise reported that the Wives of the Lace­demonians were transported with Baccha­nalian [Page 95] fury; as also those of the Chians: And that those of the Boeotians were trans­ported with divine frenzies, the very Tra­gedy manifests. They say that onely the Minyades, Leucippe, Aristippe and Alcithoe declined the Dance of Bacchus: the cause whereof was, that they desired to have Hus­bands, and therefore would not be Maena­des to the God; whereat he was incensed. And when they were working at their Looms, and very busie in weaving, on a sudden branches of Ivy and of Vines twi­ned about their Looms, and Dragons made nests in their Baskets, and from the roof distilled drops of Milk and Wine. But when by all this they could not be persuaded to serve the Deity, then fury possessed them, & they committed a foul crime out of Cithae­ron, no less then that in Cithaeron: for the Minyades, seised with frenzy, tore in pieces a young Infant of Leucippe's, thinking it a Kid; then went to the rest of the Miny­ades, who persecuted them for this mischief, when they were turned into Birds. One was changed into a Crow, the other into a Bat, and the third into an Owl.

CHAP. XLIII. Of a Lutenist murdered by the Syba­rites.

At Sybaris a Lutenist singing at a Fe­stival which they celebrated in honour of Juno, and the Sybarites falling together by the ears about him, and taking up wea­pons to assault one another, the Lutenist afraid fled with his long Robe to the Altar of Juno: But they spared him not even there. A little while after bloud was see [...] to spout up in the Temple of Juno, as if it had been from a Spring. The Sybarites sent to Delphi: Pythia said,

Goe from my Tripods, for thy hands pro­phane
Distilling bloud my sacred pavements stain:
From me expect no answer, who didst slay
The Muses Son; Thou for his death must pay.
None that transgresseth, vengeance can decline,
Not though descended from Jove's mighty Line.
He & his children, & their children must
Expect due vengeance for that act unjust.

CHAP. XLIV. Of one who might have assisted his Com­panion, but would not: And of another that did assist, but unfortunately.

Three young men of the same City be­ing sent to Delphi to consult the Oracle, [...]ell among Thieves: One of them ran away and escaped; the second having killed all the Thieves but one, missed the last, and [...]an his sword through his companion. To him that ran away Pythia gave this Oracle;

Thou sufferedst thy companion to be slain:
I will not answer thee, goe from my Fane.

To the other demanding an answer Pythia gave this;

Thou slew'st thy friend by chance in his defence:
Clearer then ever is thy Innocence.

CHAP. XLV. An Oracle given to Philip.

They say that Philip received an Oracle [...]n Boeotia at the Trophonian Cave, That he should take heed of a Chariot. Fearing therefore because of the Oracle, it is repor­ted [Page 98] he would never goe in a Chariot. Th [...] success is related two waies. Some sa [...] that the Sword of Pausanias wherewith [...] killed Philip had a Chariot carved in Ivor [...] upon the Hilt: Others, that he was slain [...] he went round the Thebaean Lake name [...] Harma, a Chariot. The first report is mor [...] generally received, the other is less frequen [...]

CHAP. XLVI. A Law of the Stagirites.

This was a Law of the Stagirites, trul [...] becoming the Greeks; What you laid no [...] down, take not away.

CHAP. XLVII. Of Timotheus and some others, who [...] their Vertues availed nothing.

The Athenians first magnified Tim [...] ­theus; but afterwards when he was thoug [...] to have offended, neither did his own me­rits avail him in the least, nor those of h [...] Ancestours. Themistocles was nothing be­nefited either by the Sea-fight at Salam [...] or his Embassy to Sparta: I mean that Em [...] bassy by which he gave the Athenian means to build up their Walls again. Fo [...] [Page 99] [...]e was banished, not onely from Athens, [...]ut quite out of Greece. Pausanias the La­ [...]edemonian was nothing helped by his Vi­ [...]tory at Plataeae; for when affairs were new­ [...]odelled at Byzantium, and they were [...]ck of the Persian Disease, he lost that fa­ [...]our which he formerly had. Phocion was [...]ot saved by the general title of Phocion [...]e Good, nor by his age of seventy five [...]ears, in which time he never injured any [...]thenian in the least; for the Athenians [...]agining that he would have betrayed the [...]yroeum to Antipater, condemned him to [...]eath.

The End.

AELIAN's Various History.
The Fourth BOOK.

CHAP. I. Several Customes of Nations and Peopl [...]

ACertain Law of the Lucani [...] saith, That if after Sun-set Stranger come and request [...] lodge under the roof of any on [...] if he entertain not the man, let him be p [...] nished, and pay the penalties of Inhospi [...] lity. As I conceive both to the person th [...] came to him, and to hospitable Jupiter.

I am informed that the Dardanians in [...] lyria wash but thrice in their whole li [...] at Birth, at Marriage, and at Death.

The Indians do not let out money use, neither do they receive any: Neith [...] is it lawful for an Indian to give or ta [...] [Page 101] [...]rong. Hence they neither make Bonds, [...]r give Pawns.

It is a Sardinian Law, That when Pa­ [...]nts grow very old, their sons should by eating them with Clubs kill them, and [...]en bury them; they conceiving it unfit [...]at a man at extraordinary old age should [...]ve any longer, he frequently failing by rea­ [...]n of his bodie's being opprest with old [...]ge. There was also this Law amongst [...]em, They punished Idleness; and he who [...]ved slothfully was to be arraigned, and to [...]ive an account of his manner of life, and to [...]ew where were his means of subsistence▪

The Assyrians gathered together in a cer­ [...]in City such Virgins as were fit for Marri­ [...]e, proclaiming a Fair of them; and who­ [...]ever buyes one carries her away as his [...]ride.

The Biblians, if they light upon any [...]ing by chance in the way, take not up [...]hat they laid not down; for such a thing [...] not esteemed the right of the finder, but theft.

The Berbiccans put all persons to death [...]at are above threescore and ten years [...]ld; the Men by Sword, the Women by [...]alter.

The Colchians intomb their dead in [Page 102] Skins, in which they sow them, and hang them up on trees.

It was a custome of the Lydians to pro­stitute their Women before Marriage: bu [...] being once married they must live conti­nently; and she who transgressed was no [...] capable of pardon.

CHAP. II. Of the difference betwixt Nicostratus who plaied upon the Lute onely, and Lao­docus, who both plaied and sung to th Lute.

It is reported that Nicostratus a Fidle [...] arguing with Laodocus a Lutenist abou [...] Musick, said, That he in a great Art wa [...] little, but that himself in a little Art w [...] great. It is therefore a commendable thin [...] not onely to improve a Family and Estate but an Art also, if we believe Nicostratu [...] who in this said excellently.

CHAP. III. Of Polygnotus and Dionysius, Pai [...] ­ters.

Polygnotus a Thasian and Dionysius Colophonian were two Painters, Polygnot [...] [Page 103] [...]rought to the full bigness, and most com­ [...]only descriptions of Games: Dionysius opied the same things in little, alike exact­y in every thing but their bigness; as the pirit, air, posture, habit, and the like.

CHAP. IV. A Theban Law concerning Artificers and Painters.

I am told there is a Law at Thebes, which [...]ommands Artificers, both Painters and [...]otters, to make the Figures as good as may be. This Law menaceth to those who [...]ould or paint them not well a pecuniary [...]ulct.

CHAP. V. Persons that were mindful of Benefits.

Persons that were mindful of Benefits [...]eceived, and gratefully requited them. Theseus to Hercules: for Aidoneus King of the Molossians having cast Theseus into bonds because he came along with Pirithous, to steal away his Wife, (not intending to marry her himself, but doing this onely for the sake of Pirithous) Hercules coming to the Molossians set Theseus at liberty, for which Theseus erected an Altar to him. And [Page 104] those seven Captains that besieged Thebes were grateful to Pronax, for Pronax being killed in their Cause, they instituted Games in memory of him; which most think were celebrated for the Captain Archemorus.

And Hercules was grateful to Nestor: for when Neleus would not entertain him, and the rest of his sons were of Neleus his minde, Nestor onely dissented; for which reason Hercules, having taken the City, put Neleus and the rest of his sons to death, but not onely spared Nestor, but bestowed on him the Kingdom of his Ancestours. And the Athenians expressed a publick grati­tude to the children of Hercules; for be­cause their progenitour had deserved well of Theseus, the Athenians did therefore con­duct them to Peloponnesus. And Hercules was grateful to the three hundred and three­score Cleonians: For they having aided [...]im against the Molionidae, and dying gene­rously and honourably, he transferred to them the Honours which the Nemeans be­stowed on him for subduing the Lion which over-ran and wasted their Country.

And Menestheus son of Peteus was not ungrateful to the Tyndaridae: for they ha­ving cast out the sons of Theseus, and taken Aethra the Mother of Theseus. Prisoner, [Page 105] they bestowed the Kingdome upon Mene­stheus; for which reason Menestheus named them Kings and Preservers.

And Darius son of Hystaspes having (whilest he was yet a private person) recei­ved in gift a Garment from Syloson, when he was possessed of the Empire, bestowed on him the Government of his own Coun­try Samos, Gold, as we may say, for Dross.

CHAP. VI. An Oracle concerning the Athenians.

When the Lacedemonians would have utterly destroyed the City of the Atheni­ans, consulting the Oracle, they brought answer in this manner; ‘Do not remove the common Altar of Greece.

CHAP. VII. That sometimes the Dead rest not even after Death; and of Pausanias.

Not Death it self benefits wicked persons, since even then they cannot rest: But ei­ther they are wholly destitute of Sepul­chres; or, if buried, yet fail of the latest honor, and common port of all Bodies. So when Pausanias took part with the Medes, [Page 106] the Lacedemonians not onely famished him, but threw his carcase out beyond their Bor­ders, as Epitimedes reports.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Vicissitudes of Fortune.

Who knows not the sudden and swift changes of Fortune? The Lacedemonians, when they were Masters of the Thebans, were again so subdued by them, that the Thebans came not onely into Peloponnesus, but passed Eurotas, and wasted the Coun­try of the Lacedemonians, and had taken their City, if Epimonandas had not feared that all the Peloponnesians should conspire and fight for Sparta.

Dionysius the Tyrant being besieged by the Carthaginians, having no hope of re­lief, did quite despair, and intended to run away; but one of his friends, named Ello­pides, coming to him, said, ‘O Dionysius, the Title of King is an excellent Funeral ornament.’ Hereat ashamed, he took heart, and with a few overcame many My­riads, and enlarged his Empire.

Amyntas the Macedonian being worsted by the neighbouring Barbarians, and losing his Kingdome, took his resolution to quit [Page 107] the Country wholly, thinking he did e­nough if he saved himself. Whilest he was in these thoughts, one told him the say­ing of Ellopides: whereupon seizing a little place, and gathering many Souldiers toge­ther, he recovered the Kingdome.

The Aegyptians in their own language called Ochus an Ass, reproching his sloth by the dulness of that Beast. For which he seizing Apis sacrificed him to an Ass.

Dio son of Hipparinus being banished by Dionysius, with three thousand Souldiers conquered him, and reduced him to his own estate, a banished person.

The Syracu [...]ians with nine Gallies assaul­ting an hundred and twenty of the Cartha­ginians, overcame them.

CHAP. IX. Of the Humility of Plato, and Ingratitude of Aristotle.

Plato, son of Aristo, at the Olympick Games fell into company with some stran­gers who knew him not, upon whose affe­ctions he gained much by his affable con­versation; dining and spending the whole day with them, not mentioning either the Academy or Socrates, onely saying his name [Page 108] was Plato. When they came to Athens, he entertained them courteously. ‘Come, Plato, said the strangers, shew us your name-sake, Socrates his disciple, bring us to the Academy, recommend us to him, that we may know him.’ He smi­ling a little, as he used, said, ''I am the man: whereat they were much amazed, having conversed so familiarly with a person of that note, and not knowing him, who used no boasting or ostentation. Whence it appears, that besides his Philosophical discourse, his ordinary conversation was extremely win­ning.

Plato called Aristotle a Colt: What is meant by that name is manifest: a Colt as soon as it is satisfied with the milk of the Dam kicks at her. Plato therefore hereby signified some Ingratitude of Aristotle; for he having received the greatest seeds of Philosophy from him, and introduction thereto, as soon as he was replenished and satisfied with the best things thereof, revol­ted from him, and, getting his friends toge­ther, set up against him Peripateticism, pro­fessing himself Plato's adversary.

CHAP. X. What respect Pericles had for the Athe­nian people.

Did not Pericles, son of Xanthippus, bear a great respect to the Athenian people? To me it appears so; for as often as he was to speak in publick, he wished that no word might fall from him which might exaspe­rate the people, as being contrary to them or their opinion.

CHAP. XI. Of the Luxury of Socrates.

Diogenes said that Socrates himself was luxurious: for he was too curious in his little House, and in his little Bed, and in the Sandals which he used to wear.

CHAP. XII. Of the Picture of Helena drawn by Zeuxis.

Zeuxis the Heracleote having drawn He­lena, got much money by the Picture; for he admitted not every one that came acci­dentally, or out of a desire to see it, but [Page 110] made them first pay money before they saw it. Hereupon the Heracleote gaining much money by the Picture, the Grecians of that time called this Helena a Curtezan.

CHAP. XIII. The saying and happiness of Epicurus.

Epicurus the Gargettian said, that to whom a little is not sufficient, nothing is sufficient. The same said, that he was ready to contend with Jupiter in felicity when he had bread and water. This being the opinion of Epicurus, what he meant when he praised Pleasure we shall know else­where.

CHAP. XIV. Of sparing and keeping Riches.

Many times Riches gathered together peny by peny, with much labour, as Ar­chilochus saith, are poured into the lap of a Curtezan. For money is as the Sea Hedge­hog, easier to be taken then kept. Anax­agoras also in his Book of Kingly Govern­ment saith, It is hard to get Money, but much harder to keep it.

CHAP. XV. Of some who in sickness learned Musick and other Sciences, in which recovering they became eminent.

Hiero Tyrant of Sicily is said to have been first a private person, and of all men the most averse from learning Musick, and nothing inferiour to his brother Gelo in Ru­sticity. But falling sick he became extra­ordinary learned, imploying the leisure of his infirmity in hearing learned Discourses. Hiero therefore recovering heard Simoni­des the Cean, Pindarus the Theban, and Bacchylides the Juliet; but Gelo was il­literate to the last.

They say also that Ptolemee the second falling sick became very learned. And Plato affirms that Theages studied Philosophy upon no other occasion then the leisure of sickness, which hindring him from Civil affairs forced him to the love of Learning. What man of understanding wisheth not that sickness had befallen Alcibiades, Cri­tias, Pausanias the Lacedemonian, and others? To Alcibiades and Critias, that they might not have revolted from Socrates. One becoming insolent, and sometimes ta­king [Page 112] part with the Boeotians, sometimes with the Thessalians, the Medes and Persians, ad­hering to Pharnabazus. But Critias became most Tyrannical and bloudy, and much opprest his Country, and led a hated life.

And Straton son of Corrhagus seems to have fallen sick advantageously. For be­ing of an old family and rich, he used no exercise; but falling ill of the Spleen, and exercise being requisite for his cure, he ad­dicted himself to it, and making progress therein, he in one day at the Olympick Games was Victor in wrastling and the Pancratium, as also in the following Olym­pick and Nemean and Isthmian and Py­thian Games.

Likewise Democrates the Wrastler, ha­ving a pain in his feet, went to the Games, and standing in the Stadium made a Circle about himself, and challenged his Antago­nists to force him beyond the line; which they not able to doe, were worsted: And he, for continuing firmly in his station, went away crowned.

CHAP. XVI. Qualities of some of the Ancients.

If any man imitate Callias, he will make him a great Drinker; if Ismenias, a Player on the Flute; a Boaster, if Alcibiades; a maker of Broths, if Crobylus; an excellent Oratour, if Demosthenes; Warlike, if Epa­minondas; Magnanimous, if Agesilaus; Good, if Phocion; Just, if Aristides; and Wise, if Socrates.

CHAP. XVII. Wonders and Opinions of Pythagoras.

Pythagoras taught men that he was be­gotten of a better kind then mortal nature. For on the same day, and at the same hour, he was seen at Metapontium and in Crotona. Likewise at Olympia he shewed one of his Thighs which was of Gold; and did make Myllias the Crotonian call to mind that he had been Midas son of Gordius a Phrygian. He also stroked a white Eagle which [...]ame to him of her own accord; and as he pa [...] ­sed over the River Cosa, the River saluted him, saying, ‘Hail Pythagoras.

He afsi [...]med the leaf of Mallows to be [Page 114] most sacred. He said that Arithmetick is the wisest of all things: Next, he who im­posed names on things. And that Earth­quakes were nothing else but Conventions of the dead: And that the Rainbow is the beams of the Sun: And that the sound which frequently strikes the ear is the voice of Daemons. It was not lawful to doubt of any thing he said, or question him about it, but to acquiesce in what he said as in a Divine Oracle. And when he came to Ci­ties, a report was spread that he came not to teach, but to heal.

The same Pythagoras commanded to ab­stain from the Heart, and from a white Cock, and from all things that died of themselves, and not to use Baths, nor to goe in the common Road; it being doubtful whether these things were pure.

CHAP. XVIII. Of the respect and honour which Dio­nysius gave to Plato.

When Plato, invited by the frequent Letters of Dionysius, came to Sicily, the young Dionysius placed him in a Chariot, whilest he himself played the Coachman: whereupon a facetious Syracusian well ver­sed [Page 115] in Homer, pleased with the sight, spake these Verses out of the I [...]iads, with a little alteration:

The Chariot groan'd beneath the weight,
Proud that the best of men there sat.

Whereas Dionysius was jealous of all others, he had so great respect for Plato, that he suffered him onely to come to him un­searched (although he knew him to be Di­o's intimate friend.)

CHAP. XIX. That Philip honoured Learning; and of Aristotle.

Philip the Macedonian is not onely said [...]o have been a good Souldier, and an excel­ [...]ent Oratour; but he likewise honoured Learning exceedingly. Wherefore supply­ [...]ng Aristotle with much money, he was [...]he cause of his great and various Experi­ [...]nce, and of his knowledge in living Crea­ [...]ures. Whose History the son of Nicoma­ [...]hus acquired through the wealth of Philip. He honoured Plato also and Theophrastus.

CHAP. XX. Of Democritus, and of the Renown of him, Theophrastus, Hippocrates, and others.

It is reported that Democritus the Ab­derite was wise, besides other things, in desiring to live unknown, and that he wholly endeavoured it. In pursuit whereof he travelled to many Countries; he went to the Chaldaeans, and to Babylon, and to the Magi, and to the Indian Sophists. When the estate of his Father Damasippus was to be divided into three parts amongst the three Brothers, he took onely so much as might serve for his travel, and left the rest to his Brethren. For this Theophrastus com­mends him, that by travelling he had gai­ned better things then Menelaus and Ulys­ses. For they wandred up and down no otherwise then Phoenician Merchants, fo [...] they gathered money, which was the oc­casion of their travel by Se [...] and [...]and. The Abderites called Democr [...]us, Philosophy; but Protagoras, Discourse.

Democritus laughed at all people, an [...] said they were mad; whence his Country­men called him Gelasinus. They likewis [...] [Page 117] [...]ay, that Hippocrates at his first meeting with Democritus thought him mad: But [...]fter they had conversed together, admired [...]he man. They say that Hippocrates, though [...]e were Dorick, yet for the sake of Demo­ [...]ritus he composed his Writings in the Io­ [...]ick Dialect.

CHAP. XXI. Of those who were beloved of Socrates and Plato.

Alcibiades was beloved of Socrates, Dio of Plato. But Dio received advantage by [...]he love of his friend.

CHAP. XXII. Of the Luxury of the Athenians.

The ancient Athenians wore purple gar­ments, and various coloured Vests. They [...]ikewise tied their Hair in Knots, to which [...]hey put golden Grass-hoppers, and other [...]rnaments of Gold. When they went [...]broad, their servants carried Folding-stools, [...]hat when they pleased they might sit down. It is cert [...]in also, that their Tables and Diet were very Luxurious; and yet Whi­est they did this, they were Victors at Ma­ [...]athon.

CHAP. XXIII. Of certain Prodigal persons.

Prodigality and volup [...]uous life reduced Pericles, and Callia [...] son of Hipponicus, and Nicias of Pergaseus to indigence. When money failed them, these three drank Hem­lock, their last draught, to one another, and died as at a Feast.

CHAP. XXIV. How Friendship may be best preserved.

Leoprepes the Cean, Father of Simoni­des, chanced on a time to sit in the Wrast­ling-place: Two young men, intire Friends, came to him, and asked him how their F [...]iendship might best be preserved. He said, ‘If you yield to one anothers anger, and not by opposition provoke each other.’

CHAP. XXV. Of the strange Madness of Thrasyllus.

Thrasyllus the Aexonian fell into a strange and new kind of Madness; he left the City and went to Pyraeum (the Heaven,) and dwelling there, he fansied that all the [Page 119] Ships which came in were his, and registred them, and so dismissed them. When any came safe into the Haven, he rejoyced ex­ceedingly. This Infirmity held him many years. At length his brother, coming from Sicily, put him to a Physician to be cured, and so his Madness ceased. He many times mentioned his actions during his Madness, and said that he never had so much Joy, as when he was pleased with [...]eing Ships come in safe which nothing belonged to him.

CHAP. XXVI. Of Electra.

Xanthus a Lyrick Poet (he was ancienter then Stesichorus the Himeraean) saith that Electra daughter of Agamemnon was not named so at first, but Laodice. Afterwards when Agamemnon was slain, and Aegisthus marrying Clytemnestra reigned, she lived unacquainted with the Marriage-bed, and grew old a Virgin: for which reason the Grecians called her Electra, as having ne­ver had a Husband, and living unacquainted with the Marriag [...]-bed.

CHAP. XXVII. Of the Gift of Pamphaes and Dioti­mus.

Pamphaes a Prienian gave to Croesus, whilest his Father was yet living, thirty Minae, who coming to the Crown sent him a great Chariot filled with Silver.

Diogenes [...]eiving a little money of Di­otimus the Carystian said,

The Gods immortal grant
To thee what thou dost want,
A Man and House.

It seems that this Diotimus was effeminate.

CHAP. XXVIII. That Pherecydes fell into a Phthiri­asis because of his Atheism.

Pherecydes the Syrian ended his life the most miserable of men: his whole body be­ing consumed by Vermine, and his counte­nance becoming loathsome, he declined the conversation of his acquaintance. And wh [...]nsoever any one coming to visit him demanded how he did, putting out his fin­ger through the hole in the door, the flesh [Page 121] whereof was quite eaten off, he said, that his whole body was such. The Delians af­firm, that the God in Delus displeased with him wrought this: for as he sate in Delus with his Disciples, he spoke many things concerning himself, amongst the rest this, That he had sacrificed to none of the Gods, and yet led a life no less pleasant and void of grief then they who offered Hecatombs. For this vain speech he suffered severe pu­nishment.

CHAP. XXIX. That Alexande [...] ridiculously believed there are infinite Worlds.

I cannot forbear to laugh at Alexander the son of Philip, who seeing that Demo­crit [...]s in his Writings asserted that there are infinite Worlds, was troubled that he had not quite subdued one. How much Demo­critus himself would have laughed at him, what need I say? whose custome that was.

The End.

AELIAN's Various History.
The Fifth BOOK.

CHAP. I. That Tachos died upon using more de­licate Diet.

TAchos the Aegyptian, whilest he used the Diet of his Country, and lived sparingly, was the most healthful of men; but when he went to the Persians, and fell into their Luxury, not able to bear their unaccustomed Diet, he ended his life by a Dysentery, and changed Luxury for Death.

CHAP. II. Pherecydes how he died.

Pherecydes, Master of Pythagoras, falling [Page 123] sick, first had a very hot Sweat, viscous-like Phlegm, afterwards like that of Beasts; then little Vermin grew in him: and his flesh corrupting into them, he wasted away, and so ended his life.

CHAP. III. Of Hercules his Pillars.

Aristotle affirms that those Pillars which are now called of Hercules, were first called the Pillars of Briareus; but after that Her­cules had cleared the Sea and Land, and be­yond all question shewed much kindness to men, they in honour of him, not estee­ming the memory of Briareus, called them Heraclean.

CHAP. IV. Of some Trees growing in Delus.

It is reported that in Delus there grow­eth an Olive and a Palm, which Latona touching was immediately brought to bed; whereas until then she could not.

CHAP. V. Of Epaminondas his Indigence and Magnanimity.

Epaminondas had but one Vest, and that sordid, so that whensoever he sent it to the Fuller, he was forced to stay at home for want of another. Whilest he was thus in­digent, the Persian King sending him a great summe of money, he would not ac­cept it. And, if I mistake not, he that refu­sed the Gift was more Magnanimous then he that offered it.

CHAP. VI. Of the voluntary death of Calanus.

Likewise the end of Calanus the Indian is worthy to be praised, another would say to be admired. It was on this manner; Ca­lanus the Indian Sophist, having bid a long farewell to Alexander and the Macedoni­ans, and to life, when he would free him­self from the Fetters of the Body, caused a Pyre to be made in the fairest Suburb of Ba­bylon; the wood thereof was dry, and cho­sen for fragrancy, Cedar, Thyum, Cypress, Myrtle and Laurel. He having performed [Page 125] his accustomed exercise (which was to run a course) came and stood in the middle of the Pyre, crowned with reeds. The Sun shone upon him, and he worshipped him, which was the sign he had given the Mace­donians, that they should kindle the Pyre, which they did; and continued standing up­right in the flame, and fell not till he was quite consumed. Hereat Alexander (as is reported) much astonished, said, that Cala­nus had vanquished greater Enemies then he. For he warred with Porus, and Taxiles, and Darius; but Calanus with Pains and Death.

CHAP. VII. Of Anacharsis.

The Scythians wander up and down their own Country; but Anacharsis, being a wise man, extended his travells farther: for he came into Greece, and Solon admired him.

CHAP. VIII. How some have born Scoffs.

Scoffs and Reproches to me seem of no force: for if they meet with a solid minde, they are shattered in pieces; but if with a mean and low, they have power, and many [Page 126] times occasion not onely grief, but death: whereof take this instance; Socrates being derided in a Comedy, laughed; but Poliagrus hanged himself.

CHAP. IX. Of Aristotle.

Aristotle having prodigally consumed his Patrimony, went to the Warres; which succeeding ill with him also, he then traded as an Apothecary. But coming by chance in­to the Peripatus, and hearing the discourses there, being of better natural parts then most of them, he acquired that habit which af­terwards he put in execution.

CHAP. X. The number of some Ships and Arms which the Athenians lost.

The Athenians were diligent in taking care for their Navy. Sometimes having the better, and sometimes being worsted, they lost in Aegypt two hundred Galleys, with all that belonged to them; at Cyprus a hundred and fifty; in Sicily two hundred and forty; in the Hellespont two hundred. Of compleatly-armed Souldiers there were [Page 127] slain in Sicily forty thousand, and at Chae­ronaea a thousand.

CHAP. XI. The Cruelty of a King of Thrace to­wards his Children.

A King of Thrace, (his name let some other tell) when Xerxes warred against Greece, fled to the Mountain Rhodope, and advised his six Sons not to fight against Greece. But th [...]y not obeying him, when he returned, he put out the eyes of them all; an act unlike a Grecian.

CHAP. XII. That D [...]mades wa [...] fined for making a [...] [...]at Alexander should be accoun­ted a God.

I cannot but love this act of the Athe­nians; In a publi [...]k Assembly of the Athe­nians, Demades rising up decreed that A­lexander should be the thirteenth Deity. But the people not enduring his excessive impiery, fined him a hundred Talents, for enrolling Al [...]xander, who was a mortal, amongst the Celestial Gods.

CHAP. XIII. That the Athenians were inclined to Novelties.

The Athenians were very changeable as to Government, and exceedingly inclined to alteration. They patiently suffered Kingly Government under Cecrops, Erechtheus and Theseus, and afterwards under the Codridae; they experimented Tyranny under the Pisistratidae; they used Aristocracy four hundred years; after which they chose yearly ten Citizens which governed the City. At last there happened an Anarchy by the Sedition of the Thirty Tyrants. This ready change of customes, whether it should be commended or not, I know not.

CHAP. XIV. An Attick Law concerning the Interr­ment of Bodies, and killing of Oxen.

This was an Attick Law; Whosoever happens to light upon the Car [...]ase of any man, he must throw earth all over it, and bury it as looking towards the West.

This also was observed by them; A ploughing Oxe, that laboureth under the [Page 129] yoak, either with Plough or Cart, sacrifice not. For he also is a Tiller of the earth, and partakes with men of their labour.

CHAP. XV. Places of Judicature in Athens for Murthers.

Attick Courts of Judicature, for wilfull Murthers in the Areopagus, for involuntary in the Palladium; for those who confessed the Murther, but pleaded the lawfulness of it, in the Delphinium.

CHAP. XVI. That a little Boy was condemned for Sa­crilege.

A little Boy carried away a Plate of Gold which fell from the Crown of Diana. It was discovered. The Judges caused play­things and Dice to be set before him, as also the Plate. He again laid hold of the Plate: whereupon they put him to death for S [...]crilege, not sparing his age, but pu­nishing the act.

CHAP. XVII. Of the Superstition of the Athenians.

The Athenians were so Superstitious, that if any one felled a little Oak out of the Heroes Grove, they put him to death▪ And Atarbes, for that he killed the Spar­row sacred to Aesculapius, they spared not, but executed him: Not pardoning either his ignorance or madness, but preferring the concernment of the God before both these. For some said he did it by chance, others, through fury.

CHAP. XVIII. Of a Woman with child condemned to death.

The Court of Areopagus having tried a Woman poisoner, and it being judged she should die, they would not put her to death until she were delivered of the Infant wherewith she was great. Then saving the innocent Child, they executed the guilty person.

CHAP. XIX. How Aeschylus condemned for Impiety was preserved.

Aeschylus the Tragick Poet was by rea­son of some Play condemned [...]or Impiety. Whereupon the Athenians being ready to stone him, Amynias his younger Brother, throwing back h [...]s Vest, shewed his Arm without a Hand▪ Amynias had the reward for fighting best at Salamis, where he lost his Hand, and was the first of the Athenians that was rewarded. The Judges seeing the trouble of the man, called to mind his acti­ons, and dismist Aeschylus.

CHAP. XX. Of the Fasting of the Tarentines and Rhegians.

The Tarentines being besieged by the Romans, and ready to surrender through Famine, the Rhegians ordered a Fast to be kept every ten daies; and with the allow­ance of that food supplied the Tarentines. Hereupon the Romans raised their si [...]ge; and the Tarentines, [...]n [...] of their d [...]stress, kept a Feast, which they called The F [...]st.

CHAP. XXI. That Medea did not kill her own Chil­dren.

Some say that the relation concerning Medea is false, and that she did not kill her Children, bu [...] the Corinthians. This Fable concerning Colchis, and the Tragedy (Medea) they say Euripides made at the re­quest of the Corinthians. The falsity pre­vailed above the truth, by reason of the excellency of the Poet. But for the Mur­ther of the Children, they say that even to this day the Corinthians offer exp [...]atory Sa­crifices to them; which they render as a kind of Tribute.

The End.

AELIAN's Various History.
The Sixth BOOK.

CHAP. I. Of the Wrath, Inhumanity, Contempt, In­justice, and Violence of some towards others.

THE Athenians having over­come the Chalcidenses, distri­buted that part of their Coun­try which is called Hippobo­tus into forty Lots; but med­led not with the ground consecrated to Mi­nerva in the place named Lilantus. The rest of the Country they let out, and brought away the Pillars which now stand at the Royal Piazza, on which they set up the Bills of Sale. The Prisoners that they took they cast into Fetters: neither did [Page 134] this s [...]tisfie their rage against the Chalci­denses.

T [...]e Lacedemonians having overcome the Messenians, took to themselves the half of every th [...]ng in Messenia, and compelled the Free-women to goe to Funerals, and to bewa [...]l the de [...]d, such as were Strangers, and not [...]ing related to them. Of the men, they imp [...]oyed some [...]n Husband [...]y, some they sold, some they slew.

[...] the Athenians were insolent in this [...]. Having good success, they used not their good [...]ortune moderately: For they compelled the forein Virgins that inha­bited the [...]r Country, to carry Umbrella's in publick Solemn [...]ties before their own Vir­gins, and the Women before their Wo­men; and the Men to carry Spades.

The S [...]cyonians having taken Pellene, prostituted publickly the W [...]ves and Daughters of the Pellenians. This was most savage, O you Gr [...]ian Gods, and unseemly, I think, even in Barbarians.

Philip having gained the Victory at Chae­ronaea, was exalted with the success, as were also all the Macedonians. The Grecians, sea­ring him exceedingly, surrendred them­selves according to their several Cities, as [...]ast as possible to him. The same did the [Page 135] Thebans, and the Megarenses, the Corin­thians, Achaeans, Elei, and the Euboeans, that dwelt upon the Sea-side. Philip kept not the agreement he had made with them, but subjected them all to Servitude, con­trary to right and equity.

CHAP. II. Of the Valour of the Son of Harma­tidias.

The Son of Harmatidias the Thespian, going with others of his Country to aid the Athenians, fought at [...]irst stoutly and gal­lantly; then having lost his Arms, fought with his bare hands against the armed men, and so died honourably. I have named the Father of the young man, and celebrated him after the manner of Homer. His own name, if any is inquisitive to know, let some other tell.

CHAP. III. Of [...]sadas a Boy.

The Lacedemonians crowned Isadas, yet but a Boy, and not obliged by the Law to take Arms, for leaving the Gymnasium, and behaving himself gallantly in a Fight. Yet [Page 136] because he engaged with the Enemy be­fore his age required it, and before he had received Arms from his Country, they fined him.

CHAP. IV. Of him that was betrothed to the Daugh­ter of Lysander.

Lysander dying, one that was betrothed to his Daughter in his life-time, because she was fatherless, and that Lysander at his decease proved poor, cast her off, and said he would not have her to Wife; hereupon the Ephori fined him: not like a Lacede­monian or Grecian, to forget his Friend dead, and to preferre Wealth before a Con­tract.

CHAP. V. Of the Athenian Embassadours.

The Athenians, because the Embassa­dours which they sent to Arcadia took another way, and not that which they ap­pointed, though they performed their charge well, put them to death.

CHAP. VI. Laconick Laws.

Are not these Laconick? There is a Law amongst the Spartans, That he who hath had three Sons should be exempt from Watch and Ward; he who five, should be discharg'd from all publick Offices and Taxes. That Marriages should be contracted without Portions. No Lacedemonian might learn a Trade. They must goe to Warre clothed in Scarlet: For besides that the co­lour had something of awfulness in it self; the bloud which was spilt upon it from wounds did much more daunt the Enemy, appearing more sharp to the sight and more dreadful.

It was not lawful for a Lacedemonian to strip a slain Enemy. They who died fight­ing stoutly, were carried crowned with O­live and other Branches. But they who had fought best, had a Scarlet-Robe thrown over them, and so were buried honou­rably.

CHAP. VII. Of the Earthquake which happened at Sparta.

When the Lacedemonians had treache­rously expelled the Taenarian Servants, (these Servants were of the race of the Hi­lotes) through the anger of Neptune there happened an Earthquake at Sparta, which threw down the City, so that there were but five Houses left standing of the whole City.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Murther of Artaxerxes.

They say that Artaxerxes surnamed O­chus, being by Bagoas the Eunuch, who was an Aegyptian, slain and cut to pieces, was thrown to Cats, and some other buried in his stead was laid in the Regal Monu­ments. The Sacrileges which are repor­ted of Ochus are many; especially those committed in Aegypt. Neither was Bagoas satisfied with killing Ochus, but he also made Hilts for Swords of the Bones of his Thighs: thereby signifying his bloudy dis­position. He hated him, because when he [Page 139] came into Aegypt he slew Apis, as Cam­byses had done before.

CHAP. IX. Of a Treasure sought by the Delphians in the Pythian Temple.

There coming a report to Delphi, that the Temple of Apollo was anciently very rich (grounded upon these Verses of Homer,

Not so much wealth as Phoebus marble Fane
Founded in rocky Pytho doth contain,)

They say that hereupon the Delphians began to digg about the Altar, and the Tri­pod; but there happening violent Earth­quakes about the Seat of the Oracles, they gave over the attempt.

CHAP. X. A Law concerning Citizens made by Pe­ricles.

Pericles General of the Athenians made a Law, That he whose Parents on both sides were not Citizens, might not enjoy the pri­vileges of a Citizen. From this Law there happened a revenge upon himself; for his [Page 140] two legitimate Sons, Paralus and Xanthip­pus, died of the common Pestilence. There remained onely to him his natural issue, who by their Fathers Law were deprived of in­terest in the State.

CHAP. XI. Of Gelo offering to resign the Govern­ment.

Gelo having overcome the Carthaginians at Himera, reduced all Sicily to his obe­dience. Then coming into the Market-place unarmed, he declared that he would resign the Government to the Citizens. But they refused, knowing him to be more loving to the people, then desirous of Monarchick power. Hence in the Temple of Sicilian Juno there is an Image representing him unarmed; which pictures this action.

CHAP. XII. Of the Happiness of Dionysius, and what end it had.

Dionysius the second had an Empire ex­cellently fortified after this manner. He possessed Ships no less then four hundred, of five rows and six rows of Oars. His [Page 141] power of foot-souldiers was a hundred thou­sand, Horse-men nine thousand. The City of Syracusa was adorned with exceeding great Havens, and encompassed with a very high Wall. He had store for five hundred Ships more. His provision of Corn which was laid up was a hundred Myriads of Me­dimnae. His Magazine was furnished with Shields, Swords, and Spears, many Legg­Arms, Breast-plates, and Slings. The Sling was Dionysius his own invention.

He had also many Auxiliaries; and con­fiding in these Dionysius thought he posses­sed an Empire bound with Adamant. But he first put his Brothers to death; then saw his Sons cruelly murthered, and Daughters first ravished, then killed. Not one of those that descended from him had the rite of Sepulture: for some were bur­ned alive, others cut in pieces and cast into the Sea. This happened to him, when Dio Son of Hipparinus invaded his Kingdome. He himself died old in extreme poverty.

Theopompus saith, that through excessive Drinking he had so great an infirmity in his Eyes, that he grew blind; and that he sat in Barbers Shops, and talked jestingly to move laughter; and that in the midst of Greece he led a dishonourable and wretched life.

[Page 142]No light argument to persuade men to moderation and temper, is the change of Dionysius his fortune, from so high, to so low a condition.

CHAP. XIII. Of Tyrannical Governments in Greece, which have continued in Posterities.

It is excellently ordered by Providence, that Tyrannical Governments last not to the third Generation; but either the Ty­rants are rooted out like Pitch-trees, or their Children devested of Power. But amongst the Greeks these Tyrannical Go­vernments are known to have lasted so long; that of Gelo in Sicily, of the Leucani­ans in Bosphorus, and of the Cypselidae at Corinth.

CHAP. XIV. Of a Conspiracy against Darius.

I am told an extraordinary meek act of Darius Son of Hystaspes. Aribazus the Hyrcanian, with many other persons, not inconsiderable, in Persia, conspired against him. The Plot was laid at a Hunting: which Darius understanding, was not daun­ted, [Page 143] but commanded them to betake them­selves to their Weapons and Horses, and to fix their Arms. And looking sternly upon them, ‘Why then doe you not that, said he, which you designed?’ But they see­ing the undaunted look of the man, gave over the attempt. And so great fear seized them, that they threw away their Spears, leaped from their Horses, adored Darius, and delivered themselves up to doe with them as he pleased.

He separated them from one another, and sent some to the confines of India, others to the borders of Scythia; and they conti­nued ever afterwards faithful to him, being mindful of this favour.

The End.

AELIAN's Various History.
The Seventh Book.

CHAP. I. Of Semiramis, and how she obtained the Assyrian Empire.

OF Semiramis the Assyrian seve­ral things are related. She was the fairest of Women, yet neg­lected her Beauty. When she came to the King of Assyria, whether she was summoned through the renown of her Beauty, as soon as he saw her, he fell in love with her. She requested of the King that he would grant her a Royal Robe; and that she might have the command of Asia five daies, and the ordering of all things du­ring that time. She failed not of her re­quest. But as soon as the King had seated [Page 145] her upon the Throne, and that she knew all things were at her power and disposal, she commanded the Guard to kill the King, and so possessed herself of the Assyrian Empire. Dinon relates this.

CHAP. II. Of the Luxury of Strato and Nicocles.

Strato the Sidonian is said to have stu­died to exceed all men in Luxury and Mag­nificence. Theopompus the Chian compares his life to the Feasting of the Phaeacians, which Homer according to his great wit, as he useth to doe, highly magnified. This man had not a single Musician at his Feast to delight him, but there waited many Wo­men-Musicians, and players on the Flute, and beautiful Curtezans, and Women-dan­cers. He emulated exceedingly Nicocles the Cyprian, and Nicocles him. This emu­lation was about nothing serious, but con­cerning the things we spoke of. For each of them hearing from those who came from the other what was done there, emulated and endeavoured to exceed the other. But this lasted not alwaies, for both died vio­lent deaths.

CHAP. III. A Consolatory Saying of Aristippus.

Aristippus, to some of his friends bein [...] exceedingly afflicted, besides many othe [...] Consolatory speeches, said thus at first t [...] them; ‘I come to you not as to condol [...] with you, but to suppress your grief.’

CHAP. IV. Of the praise of a Mill.

Pittacus exceedingly commended a Mill making an Encomium upon it, for that ma­ny persons may exercise themselves in little compass. There was a common So [...] hence called the Mill-Song.

CHAP. V. Of the hand-labour of Ulysses and A chilles in many things.

Even Laertes was by his Son surprize labouring with his hands, and pruning Tree when he was very old. Ulysses like wise confesseth that he knew many things and how to doe them with his own hands.

There is not any man alive so good
At making fires, & cleaving out the woo [...]

[Page 147]He also quickly made a little Ship by his own labour, without any Ship-wright. And Achilles himself, who was the third from Jupiter, did cut the meat and dress the Supper for the Embassadours that came from the Achaeans.

CHAP. VI. The answer of a Scythian concerning Cold.

On a time there falling a great Snow, the King of the Scythians asked one whom he saw walk naked, whether he were not frozen. He again asked the King whether his Forehead were not frozen. To which he answering, No; the other replied, ‘Nei­ther am I, for I am Forehead all over.’

CHAP. VII. Of Demosthenes his Watchfulness.

Pytheas scoffed at Demosthenes Son of Demosthenes, saying that his Arguments smelt of the Lamp, because he sat up all the night, meditating and considering what he should say when he w [...]s to come before the Athenians.

CHAP. VIII. Of Alexander's grief at Hephaestion's Death.

When Hephaestion died, Alexander cast into the Pyre his Arms, and Gold and Sil­ver, to be burnt with the dead body; as also a Vest of great esteem amongst the Persians. He likewise caused all the chie [...] Souldiers to be shaved, himself acting a [...] Homerical passion, and imitating his A­chilles. But he did more eagerly and fierce­ly, laying waste the Castle of the City Ec­batana, and throwing down the Wall. A [...] to the shaving of his Hair, he did in my o [...] pinion like a Greek [...]: but in throwing dow [...] the Walls, he exprest his mourning like [...] Barbarian. He also changed his Vest, giving all over to grief, love and tears.

Hephaestion died at Ecbatana. It is repor­ted that these things were intended for th [...] Burial of Hephaestion, but that Alexande [...] used them dying, before the mourning wa [...] over for the young man.

CHAP. IX. Of a Modest Woman.

Was not this a singular token of Mo­desty? To me it seems such. The Wife [...]f Phocion wore Phocion's Vest, and requi­ [...]ed not a A thin Sasfron­coloured Gown. Crocotum, or A thin fringed or laced Gown. He­sych. Tarentine, or Cloak, or Mantle, or Veil, or Hood, or co­ [...]oured Robes. But she first put on Mode­ [...]ty, and then such things as were at hand.

CHAP. X. Of the Wife of Socrates.

Xanthippe, Wife of Socrates, refusing to [...]ut on his Vest, so to goe to a publick Spectacle, he said, ‘Do you not perceive that you goe not to see, but rather to be seen?’

CHAP. XI. Of the Shoes of the Roman Women.

Of the Roman Women many have used [...]o wear the same Shoes as Men.

CHAP. XII. An Apophthegm of Lysander or Philip concerning Perjury.

Children must be cheated by Dice, Men by O [...]ths. Some ascribe this Saying to Ly­sander, others to Philip the Macedonian. But which soever it was, it is not well said, in my opinion. Neither is it perhaps strange that Lysander and I differ in our opinions, for he was a Tyrant: but my mind may be guess'd by this, that I have declared that this Saying pleaseth me not.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Tolerance of Agesilaus.

Agesilaus a Lacedemonian, now an old man, very often went forth without Shoes and Coat, in his Mantle, and that in the Winter mornings. And when a certain per­son reprehended him, that he did more youthfully then became his age, he answe­red, ‘But the young Citizens cast their eyes on me,’ as Colts on their Sires.

CHAP. XIV. Of Philosophers that went to War, and administred Civil Government.

Were not the Philosophers skilful in Warlike affairs? To me they seem such. For the Tarentines chose Archytas their Ge­neral six times. Melissus was their Admi­ral. Socrates fought thrice, and Plato him­self at Tanagra, and at Corinth. The War­like actions and Generalship of Xenophon many celebrate; and he himself acknow­ledgeth, in his Discourses concerning Cyrus. Dio son of Hipparinus subverted the Ty­ranny of Dionysius: and Epaminond [...]s, be­ing made chief Commander of the Boeoti­ans, at Leuctra overcame the Lacedemoni­ans, and was chief among the Romans and Grecians. Zeno much advantaged the A­thenian State, whilest he was with Anti­gonus. For there is no difference if a man benefits others, whether it be by his Wise­dome or Arms.

CHAP. XV. How the Mitylenaeans revenged them­selves upon their revolted Confederates.

The Mitylenaeans being absolute Masters of the Sea, imposed as a punishment upon their Confederates which had revolted from them, That they should not teach their chil­dren to read, nor suffer them to be instructed in any Learning; conceiving that to be bred Ignorantly and Illiterately was of all punishments the greatest.

CHAP. XVI. Of Rome, Remus, Romulus, and Servia.

Rome was built by Remus and Romulus, sons of Mars and Servia. She was of the Race of Aeneas.

CHAP. XVII. Of Eudoxus coming to Sicily.

When Eudoxus came to Sicily, Diony­sius largely congratulated his arrival. But he neither flattering nor concealing any thing said, ‘I come as to a good Host [Page 153] with whom Plato liveth.’ Declaring that he came not for his sake, but for the others.

CHAP. XVIII. That the Aegyptians are courageous in Torments; and of the Indian Women.

They say that the Aegyptians behave themselves stoutly in Torments. And that an Aegyptian being put to torture, will sooner die then confess the truth. Amongst the Indians, the Wives resolutely goe into the same fire with their dead Husbands. The Wives of the man contest ambitiously about it; and she to whom the Lot falls is burned with him.

CHAP. XIX. Of Solon's Stratagem against the Me­gareans, and how afterwards he overcame them by Argument.

Solon was made General in the Warre concerning Salamis. Having taken two Me­garean Ships, he manned them with Athe­nian Souldiers, and caused them to put on the Enemies Armour, and passing undisco­vered slew many of the Megareans unar­med.

[Page 154]He also overcame them by Reason; not by specious words, but weight of Argu­ment. For causing some Monuments of the dead to be opened, he shewed that they were all Athenians, being laid towards the West, according to the manner of their Country; for the Megareans used to be buried disorderly, and as it happened. The Lacedemonians judged the Controversie.

CHAP. XX. Of an old man, a Cean, that Died his Hair.

There came to Lacedemon a Cean, an old man, conceited of himself and ashamed of his age: For which reason he endeavoured to conceal the grayness of his hair by Dying it. Coming in this manner before the Lacede­monians in publick, he declared his busi­ness. But Archidamus King of the Lacede­monians rising up, ‘What truth, said he, can this man speak, who doth not onely lie in his Heart, but in his Hair?’ So he rejected what he had alledged, from his out­ward appearance arguing the unsoundness of his Mind.

CHAP. XXI. Of the sedulity and care of Caesar and Pompey, to learn such things which are requisite to govern rightly.

Caesar disdained not to frequent the School of Aristo, and Pompey that of Cratippus. For their great power did not make them despise those persons that might most ad­vantage them; and of these they had need notwithstanding their great Dignities. For, as it seems, they desired not so much to com­mand, as to command well.

The End.

AELIAN's Various History.
The Eighth BOOK.

CHAP. I. Of Socrates his Daemon.

SOcrates said of his Daemon to Theages, Demodocus, and many others, that he many times per­ceived a voice warning him by Divine instinct, which, saith he, when it comes, signifieth a dissuasion from that which I am going to doe, but ne­ver persuades to doe any thing. And when any of my friends (saith he) impart their bu­siness to me, if this voice happens, it dis­suades also, giving me the like counsel: Wher [...]upon I dehort him who adviseth with me, and suffer him not to proceed in what he was about, following the Divine [Page 157] admonition. He alledged as witness hereof Charmides son of Glauco, who asking his advice, whether he should exercise at the Nemean Games; as soon as he began to speak, the voice gave the accustomed sigh. Whereupon Socrates endeavoured to divert Charmides from his purpose, telling him the reason: But he not following the ad­vice, it succeeded ill with him.

CHAP. II. Of Hipparchus his Wisedome, his care of Learned men; and of Homer's Poems.

Hipparchus, eldest son of Pisistratus, was the wisest person among the Athenians. He fi [...]st brought Homer's Poems to Athens, and caused the Rhapsodists to sing them at the Panathenaick Feast. He sent also a Gally of fifty Oars to Anacreon the Teian [Poet] that he might come to him. To Simonides the Cean [Poet] he was very kind, and kept him alwaies with him, obli­ging him (as is probable) by great gifts and rewards: for that Simonides was a great lover of money, none will deny. This Hip­parchus made it his business to favour Lear­ned men, and endeavoured by his authority to reduce the Athenians to Learning, and [Page 158] to better his Subjects; conceiving that no man ought to envy Wisedome, who him­self is just and honest. This Plato relates, if A Dia­logue so nam'd in the Works of Plato. Hipparchus be truly his.

CHAP. III. The Athenian Custome of killing an Oxe, and of the Diipolian and Bupho­nian Festival.

This is an Athenian Custome when an Oxe is killed: By Proclamation they ac­quit all severally of Murther, onely they condemn the Knife, and say that killed him. The day on which they doe this they call the Diipolian and Buphonian Festival.

CHAP. IV. Of the Luxury of Poliarchus.

They say that Poliarchus the Athenian arrived at so great a height of Luxury, that he caused those Dogs and Cocks which he had loved, being dead, to be carried out solemnly, and invited friends to their Fune­rals, and buried them splendidly, erecting Columns over them, on which were engra­ved Epitaphs.

CHAP. V. Of Neleus and Medon, and the Twelve Ionian Cities.

Neleus Son of Codrus, being deposed from the Regal [...] Government, left Athens, (for the Pythian Oracle assigned the King­dome to Medon) and intending to settle a Colony came to Naxus, not by design, but driven thither by Tempest: willing to de­part thence, he was hindred by contrary winds. Whereupon being in suspence what to doe, the Soothsayers told him that his Company must be expiated, there being amongst those who came along with him many persons whose hands were defiled with bloud. Hereupon he pretended that he had killed some servant, and needed Ex­piation; whereby he induced such as were conscious of ill to the same. Which done, having now discovered who were the pro­phane persons, he left them. They conti­nued at Naxus; but Neleus came to Ionia, and first setled at Miletus, having turned out the Carians, the Mygdonians, the Le­leges, and the rest of the Barbarians, For [...] perhaps should be read [...]. who built the Twelve Cities in Ionia. The Ci­ties are these; Miletus, Ephesus, Erythrae, [Page 160] Clazomenae, Priena, Lesbus, Teos, Colophon, Myus, Phocaea, Samos, and Chios. He also built many other Cities in Epirus.

CHAP. VI. Of the ignorance of Learning and Insti­tution amongst the Barbarians.

They say that none of the ancient Thra­cians knew any thing of Learning. Even all the Barbarians that inhabited Europe thought it dishonourable to understand Li­terature. But those in Asia (as is said) used it more. Whence some forbear not to affirm, That not Orpheus himself, being a Thra­cian, was wise; but that his Writings are false and fabulous. This Androtion asserts, if he be credible, concerning the ignorance of Learning and Institution amongst the Thracians.

CHAP. VII. Of the Marriages solemnized by Alexan­der, after his Victory over Darius.

Alexander having taken Darius, solem­nized Marriages of himself and friends. The men that were married were ninety, and the Marriage-beds as many. The Hall in [Page 161] which they were entertained had a hundred Couches, such as they used to lie on at Meals: The feet of every Couch were of Silver; but of that on which he lay, they were of Gold. They were all covered with various-coloured Carpets of rich Barbarian work. He admitted to the Feast some par­ticular Friends, whom he caused to sit over against him. In the Court were feasted the Foot-souldiers, Mariners, Horsemen, Em­bassadours, and Forein Greeks. Before Sup­per the [...]. Trumpets sounded, to give notice that it was time to come to the Table; and again when Supper was ended, that they should rise to depart. He solemnized these Nuptials five daies together. Very many Musicians, and Players, Tragedians and Comedians, came thither. There came also many Jugglers out of India, of which kind those of that Country exceed all others.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Art of Painting.

Conon the Cleonaean (as is said) perfected the Art of Painting, which until then was but rude, and very indifferent, and as it were in its infancy. For which reason he also re­ceived a greater reward then the Painters that were before.

CHAP. IX. Of a Tyrant killed by his Friend.

Archelaus, Tyrant of Macedonia, (for so Plato calls him, not King) loved Crateuas exceedingly, who no less loved the supreme Command, and therefore killed his Friend Archelaus, hoping thereby to obtain the Tyranny, and make himself happy. But having possest the Tyranny three or four daies, he was also betraied by others and slain. To this Macedonick Tragedy aptly suit these Verses,

Who snares for others laies,
Himself at last betraies.

They say that Archelaus had betrothed one of his Daughters to him: but marrying her to another, he out of indignation slew Archelaus.

CHAP. X. Of Solon, and the Laws written by him and Draco.

The Athenians chose Solon their Archon; for that Office was not conferr'd by lot. After he was chosen, he beautified the City, [Page 163] besides other things, with Laws which he writ for them, and are observed to this day. Then the Athenians gave over using the Laws of Draco, which were called Thesmi, retaining onely those which concerned Ho­micides.

CHAP. XI. Of the decay and dissolution of things, and of the World it self.

It is not to be wondred at, that Humane Nature being mortal and transitory, neces­sitates them to perish, if we look upon Ri­vers that fail, and consider that even the highest Mountains diminish. Travellers say that Aetna appears to be much less then it was formerly. They relate the same of Parnassus, and Olympus the Pierican Mountain. And they who seem to under­stand the nature of the Universe, assert that the World it self shall be dissolved.

CHAP. XII. Of Demosthenes, Aeschines, Theo­phrastus, and Demochares.

It is a strange thing, if true, that Demo­sthenes failing of Rhetorick in Macedonia, [Page 164] Aeschines the Cothocidean, son of Atromi­tus, flourished amongst the Macedonians, and farre transcended the rest of the Em­bassadours in wit. The cause whereby this happened to Aeschines, was the friendship of Philip and his gifts; and because Philip heard him patiently and pleasingly, and looked upon him with a mild and benevo­lent aspect, thereby discovering the good will he had for him; all which were great incitements to Aeschines of confidence and fluent Language. This happened not onely to Demosthenes in Macedonia, though a most excellent Oratour, but also to Theo­phrastus the Eresian; for he likewise was at a loss before the Council of the Areopagus, for which he alledged this excuse, That he was daunted with the grave presence of the Senate. To which speech Demochares answered bitterly and readily thus, Theo­phrastus, the Judges were Athenians, not the twelve Gods.’

CHAP. XIII. Of some who never laughed.

They say that Anaxagoras the Clazo­menian never laughed, nor so much as smi­led. They say also that Aristoxenus was a [Page 165] great enemy to Laughter. And that Hera­clitus bewailed all things in life.

CHAP. XIV. Of the death of Diogenes.

Diogenes the Sinopean, being sick to death, and scarce able to goe, cast himself from a Bridge which was near the place of exercise, and charged the Keeper of the place that as soon as he was quite dead, he should throw him into the [River] Ilissus; so little did Diogenes value Death or Burial.

CHAP. XV. Of the Moderation of Philip upon a Vi­ctory; and of what he would be minded continually.

Philip, when he had vanquished the A­thenians at Chaeronaea, though exalted with his success, yet subdu [...]d his passion, and be­haved himself not insolently. Therefore he thought it requisite to be put in mind by one of his Servants that he was a Man: wherefore he appointed this office to a Ser­vant; neither did he goe forth before that, as is said; nor was any that came to speak with him admitted before the Servant had [Page 166] cried aloud thrice to him, which he did dai­ly. He said to him, Philip, thou art a Man.’

CHAP. XVI. Of Solon and Pisistratus.

Solon son of Execestides now grown old, began to suspect Pisistratus as aiming at Tyranny, when he came before a publick Convention of the Athenians, and required a Guard of the people. But seeing the A­thenians, not regarding his speeches, went to Pisistratus, he said that he was wiser then some, and more valiant then others: wiser then those who perceived not that as soon as he had gotten a Guard, he would become Tyrant; more valiant then those who per­ceived it, but held their peace. Pisistratus having gotten this power made himself Ty­rant. Then Solon hanging out his Shield and Spear before his Gate, said, That he had taken Arms and defended his Country whi­lest he was able; and now, though no lon­ger fit by reason of his age to be a Souldier, he still was in mind a well-willer. Not­withstanding Pisistratus, whether respecting the man and his wisedome, or mindful of their acquaintance in his youth, did no harm to Solon

[Page 167]Not long after Solon being very old died, leaving behind him a great renown of Wisedome and Fortitude. They set up his Image of Brass in the Market-place, and buried him publickly near the Gates of the Wall on the right hand as you come in His Monument was encompassed with a Wall.

CHAP. XVII. Of Oenycinus Monarch of the Zan­claeans.

Oenycinus a Scythian, Monarch of the Zanclaeans, came up into Asia to King Da­rius, and was esteemed by him more just then all the persons that had come up out of Greece to him: For having obtained leave of the King, he went into Sicily, and came back again from thence to the King. This Democedes the Crotonian did not; and therefore Darius much reproached him, calling him a Deceiver, and a most wicked man. But the Scythian lived very happily in Persia till he was old, and died there.

CHAP. XVIII. Of Euthymus and the Hero in Te­mese, and a Proverb.

Euthymus a Locrian, of those in Italy, was an eminent Wrastler, and reported to have been of admirable Strength. For the Locrians shew an extraordinary great Stone which he carried and set before his Gates. He quelled the Hero in Temese, who ex­acted Tribute of all that lived thereabout; for coming into his Temple, which to most persons was inaccessible, he fought with him, and compelled him to give up much more then he had plundered: whence arose a Proverb of those who get any thing whereby they receive no benefit, that the Hero in Temese is come to them. They say that Euthymus going down to the Ri­ver Caecis, which runs by the City of the Locrians, was never after seen.

CHAP. XIX. The Epitaph of Anaxagoras, and his Altar.

Here lies, who through the truest waies did pass
O'th' world Celestial, Anaxagoras.

There was a double Altar erected to him; one inscribed of the Minde, the other of Truth.

The End.

AELIAN's Various History.
The Ninth Book.

CHAP. I. That Hiero loved Learning, and was liberal, and lived friendly with his Bro­thers.

THEY say that Hiero the Syra­cusian was a lover of the Gre­cians, and esteemed Learning exceedingly. They affirm also that he was most ready to conferre bene­fits; for he was more forward to bestow them, then the suiters to receive them. His soul likewise was of great courage, and he lived together with his Brothers, who were three, without any jealousie, loving them, and beloved in like manner of them exceedingly. With him lived Simonides [Page 171] and Pindar; neither did Simonides, though of extraordinary age, decline coming to him. For the Cean was naturally very co­vetous, and that which chiefly allured him was (as they say) the Liberality of Hiero.

CHAP. II. Of the Victory of Taurosthenes.

To Aegina from Olympia on the same day news of the Victory of Taurosthenes was brought to his Father, some say by an Ap­parition; others report that he carried along with him a Pigeon taken from her young (not yet fledged,) and as soon as he gained the Victory, let her loose, having tied a little purple about her, and then she came back to her young the same day from Pisa to Aegina.

CHAP. III. Of the Luxury and Pride of Alexander and some others.

Alexander made his Companions effe­minate by allowing them to be Luxurious. For Agno wore golden nails in his Shoes. Clitus, when any came to ask counsel of him, came out to his Clients clothed in [Page 172] Purple. Perdiccas and Craterus, who loved exercise, had alwaies brought after them Lists made of Skins of the length of a Sta­dium, which upon occasion they pitched on the ground, and exercised within them. They were attended with a continual cloud of dust raised by the Beasts that brought these Carriages. Leonnatus and Menelaus, who were addicted to Hunting, had Hang­ings brought after them which reached the length of a hundred Stadia. Alexander himself had a Tent that held a hundred Cou­ches; the partitions made by fifty Pillars of Gold▪ which upheld the Roof: the Roof it self was of Gold curiously wrought. Within it round about were placed first five hundred Persians, called Melophori, clothed in purple and yellow Coats. Next those a thousand Archers in flame-colour and light red. Withall a hundred Macedonian Squires with silver Shields. In the middle of the Tent was placed a Golden Throne, upon which Alexander sate and heard suits, en­compassed round about with this Guard. The Tent it self was surrounded with a thousand Macedonians, and ten thousand Persians. Neither might any man with­out much difficulty get access to him, for he was much dreaded, being raised by For­tune [Page 173] and exalted with Pride to so large a Tyranny.

CHAP. IV. Of the diligence of Polycrates in hearing Anacreon, and of his Jealousie.

Polycrates the Samian was addicted to the Muses, and much respected Anacreon the Teian, and took delight as well in his Verses as Company: but I cannot com­mend his intemperate life. Anacreon made an Encomium of Smerdias.

CHAP. V. Of Hiero and Themistocles.

Themistocles, when Hiero brought Hor­ses to the Olympick Games, forbad him the Solemnity, saying, It was not fit that he that would not share in their greatest Danger, should partake of their Festivals. For which Themistocles was commended.

CHAP. VI. Of Pericles and his Sons dying of the Pestilence.

Pericles, when his Sons were taken away by the Pestilence, bore their death with [Page 174] great fortitude: By whose example the rest of the Athenians were encouraged to suffer patiently the loss of their nearest friends.

CHAP. VII. Of Socrates his Equanimity in all things.

Xanthippe used to say, that when the State was oppressed with a thousand mise­ries, yet Socrates alwaies went abroad and came home with the same look. For he bore a mind smooth and chearful upon all occasions, farre remote from Grief, and a­bove all Fear.

CHAP. VIII. Of Dionysius his Incontinence.

Dionysius the younger coming to the City of the Locrians, (for Doris his Mother was a Locrian) took possession of the fairest houses of the City, and caused the floors to be strewed with Roses, Marjoram, and other Flowers. He also sent for the Daugh­ters of the Locrians, with whom he con­versed lasciviously. But he was punished for this; for when his Tyranny was subver­ted by Dio, the Locrians seized on his Daughters, and prostituted them publickly [Page 175] to all persons, especially to such as were of kin to the Virgins whom Dionysius had abused: This done, they pricked their fin­gers under their nails, and so killed them; then they pounded their bones in a Mortar, and whosoever tasted not of the flesh that was taken from them, they cursed. What remained they cast into the Sea. As for Di­onysius, he suffered the vicissitude of For­tune at Corinth, in extreme poverty, be­coming a Metragyrta, and begging Alms, beating a Tabour and playing on a Pipe till he died.

CHAP. IX. That Demetrius also was Incontinent.

Demetrius Poliorcetes, having taken Ci­ties, abused them to maintain his Luxury, exacting of them yearly one thousand and two hundred Talents. Of which summe, the least part was employed for the Army, the rest expended upon his own Disorders: for not onely himself, but the floors of his House were anointed with sweet Unguents; and according to the season of the year, Flowers strewed for him to tread on. He was lascivious also; he studied to appear hand­some, and Died his hair yellow, and used Paint.

CHAP. X. Of Plato's little valuing Life.

Plato, when it was told him that the A­cademy was an unhealthful place, and the Physicians advised him to remove to the Lyceum, refused, saying, ‘I would not, to prolong my life, goe live on the top of Athos.

CHAP. XI. Of Parrhasius the Painter.

That Parrhasius the Painter wore a Purple Vest and Crown of Gold, besides others, the Epigrams on many of his Images attest. On a time he contested at Samos, and met with an Adversary not much infe­riour to himself; he was worsted: the sub­ject was Ajax contending with Ulysses for the Arms of Achilles. Parrhasius being thus overcome, said to a friend who bewailed the misfortune, that for his own being wor­sted he valued it not, but he was sorry for the son of Telamon, that in the same con­test had been twice overcome by his Ad­versary. He carried a Staff full of golden Nails: His Shoes were fastened on the [Page 177] top with golden Buckles. They say he wrought freely and without trouble, and chearfully, singing softly all the while to divert himself. This is related by Theophra­stus.

CHAP. XII. Of the Epicureans banished by the Ro­mans and Messenians.

The Romans expelled Alcaeus and Phili­scus out of the City, because they taught the young men many dishonest pleasures▪ Likewise the Messenians expelled the Epi­cureans.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Gluttony and excessive Fatness of Dionysius.

I am informed that Dionysius the Hera­cleote, son of Clearchus the Tyrant, through daily Gluttony and intemperance, increased to an extraordinary degree of Corpulency and Fatness, by reason whereof he had much adoe to take breath. The Physicians orde­red for remedy of this inconvenience, that Needles should be made very long and small, which when he fell into sound sleep should be thrust through his sides into his belly. Which office his Attendants per­formed, [Page 178] and till the Needle had passed quite through the fat, and came to the flesh it self, he lay like a stone; but when it came to the firm flesh, he felt it and awaked. When he had business, when any came to speak with him for advice or orders, he set a Chest before him, (some say it was not a Chest, but a little kind of Turret) which hid all of him but his face, which was seen out of the top, and so talked with them: an ex­cellent Garment, farre fitter for a Beast then a Man.

CHAP. XIV. Of the extraordinary Leanness of Phi­letas.

They say that Philetas the Coan was ex­tremely lean; insomuch that being apt to be thrown down upon the least occasion, he was fain, as they report, to put Lead with­in the soles of his Shoes, lest the wind, if it blew hard, should overturn him. But if he were so feeble that he could not resist the wind, how was he able to draw such a weight after him? To me it seems impro­bable. I onely relate what I have heard.

CHAP. XV. Of Homer.

The Argives give the first Palm of all Poetry to Homer, making all others second to him. When they sacrificed, they invo­ked Apollo and Homer to be present with them. Moreover they say, that not being able to give a portion with his Daughter, he bestowed on her his Cyprian Poems, as Pindar attests.

CHAP. XVI. Of Italy, and of Mares both Man and Horse.

The Ausonians first inhabited Italy, be­ing Natives of the place. They say that in old time a man lived there named Mares, before like a Man, behind like a Horse, his name signifying as much as Hippomiges in Greek, Half-horse. My opinion is, that he first back'd and managed a Horse; whence he was believed to have both Natures. They fable that he lived a hundred twenty three years; and that he died thrice, and was restored thrice to life▪ which I con­ceive incredible. They say that more seve­ral [Page 180] Nations inhabited Italy then any other Land, by reason of the temperateness of the Country and goodness of the Soil, it being well watered, fruitful, and full of Ri­vers, and having all along convenient Ha­vens to harbour Ships. Moreover, the hu­manity and civility of the Inhabitants allu­red many to remove thither. And that there were in Italy one thousand one hundred and ninety seven Cities.

CHAP. XVII. Of Demosthenes his Pride.

Demosthenes seems to be argued of Pride by this relation, which saith, that the Water-bearers raised a Pride in him, when they said something of him softly to one another as he passed by. For he who was puffed up by them, and proud of such com­mendations, what must he be when the whole publick Assembly applauded him?

CHAP. XVIII. Of Themistocles.

Themistocles son of Neocles likened him­self to Oaks, saying that men come to them for shelter, when they have need of them in [Page 181] rain, and desire to be protected by their boughs; but when it is fair, they come to them to strip and peel them. He also said, ‘If any one should shew me two waies, one leading to the Grave, the other to the Tri­bunal, I should think it more pleasant to take that which leads to the Grave.’

CHAP. XIX. That Demosthenes refused, being cal­led by Diogenes to goe into a Cook's Shop.

As on a time Diogenes was at Dinner in a Cook's Shop, he called to Demosthenes who passed by. But he taking no notice, ‘Do you think it a disparagement, Demo­sthenes, (said he) to come into a Cook's Shop? your Master comes hither every day;’ meaning the Common people, and implying that Oratours and Lawyers are Servants of the Vulgar.

CHAP. XX. Of Aristippus.

Aristippus being in a great storm at Sea, one of those who were aboard with him said, ‘Are you afraid too, Aristippus, as well as we of the ordinary [...]ort?’ ‘Yes, answe­red [Page 182] he, and with reason; for you shall onely lose a wicked life, but I, Felicity.’

CHAP. XXI. Of Theramenes.

It happened that as soon as Theramenes came out of an House, the House fell down immediately: The Athenians flocked to him from every side to congratulate his escape; but he, contrary to all their expecta­tions, said, ‘O Jupiter, to what oppor­tunity do you reserve me?’ And not long after he was put to death by the Thirty Ty­rants, drinking Hemlock.

CHAP. XXII. Of some that studied Medicine.

They say that Pythagoras was much ad­dicted to the Art of Medicine. Plato also studied it much. So did Aristotle son of Ni­comachus, and many others.

CHAP. XXIII. Of Aristotle being sick.

Aristotle on a time falling sick, the Phy­sician prescribed him something. ‘Cure [Page 183] me not as if I were an Oxe-driver, (saith he) but shew me first a reason, and then I will obey:’ Implying, that nothing is to be done but upon good grounds.

CHAP. XXIV. Of the Luxury of Smindyrides.

Smindyrides the Sybarite advanced to so high degree of Luxury, that though the Sybarites themselves were very luxurious, yet he farre out-went them. On a time be­ing laid to sleep on a bed of Roses, as soon as he awaked he said, That the hardness of the Bed had raised Blisters on him. How would he have done to lie on the Ground, or on a Carpet, or on the Grass, or on a Bull's skin, as Diomedes? a Bed befitting a Soul­dier.

‘And underneath him a Bull's skin they spread.’

CHAP. XXV. How Pisistratus behaved himself to­wards his Citizens.

Pisistratus having obtained the Govern­ment, sent for such as passed their time idlely in the Market-place, and asked them the [Page 184] reason why they walked up and down un­employed, adding, ‘If your yoke of Oxen be dead, take of mine, and goe your waies and work; if you want Corn for seed, you shall have some of me.’ He feared lest being idle, they might contrive some Treason against him.

CHAP. XXVI. Of Zeno and Antigonus.

Antigonus the King loved and respected Zeno the Cittiean exceedingly. It happe­ned, that on a time being full of Wine, he met Zeno, and like a drunken man embra­ced and kissed him, and bade him ask some­thing of him, binding himself by an Oath to grant it. Zeno said to him, ‘Goe then and sleep;’ gravely and discreetly repro­ving his Drunkenness, and consulting his Health.

CHAP. XXVII. Ingenuity of Manners.

One reprehended a Lacedemonian Ru­stick for grieving immoderately. He answe­red with great simplicity, ‘What should I doe? It is not I that am the cause, but Nature.’

CHAP. XXVIII. Of Diogenes.

A Spartan commending this Verse of Hesiod,

Not so much as an Oxe can die,
Unless a Neighbour ill be by;

and Diogenes hearing him, ‘But, saith he, the Messenians and their Oxen were de­stroyed, and you are their Neighbours.’

CHAP. XXIX. That Socrates was fearless, and despised Gifts.

Socrates coming home late one night from a Feast, some wild young men know­ing of his return, lay in wait for him, atti­red like Furies, with Vizards and Torches, whereby they used to fright such as they met. Socrates as soon as he saw them, no­thing troubled, made a stand, and fell to question them, as he used to doe to others in the Lyceum, or Academy.

Alcibiades, ambitiously munificent, sent many Presents to Socrates. Xanthippe ad­miring their value, desired him to accept them. ‘We (answered Socrates) will con­test [Page 186] in Liberality with Alcibiades, not ac­cepting by a kind of munificence what he hath sent us.’

Also when one said to him, ‘It is a great thing to enjoy what we desire;’ He an­swered, ‘But a greater not to desire at all.’

CHAP. XXX. Of the Providence of Anaxarchus.

Anaxarchus when he accompanied A­lexander in the Warres, the Winter coming on, foreseeing that Alexander would en­camp in a place destitute of wood, buried all his Vessels and other Utensils in his Tent, and laded his Carriages with wood. When they came to the Rendezvous, there being want of wood, Alexander was forced to make use of his Bedsteds for Fuell. But being told that Anaxarchus had gotten fire, he went to him and anointed himself in his Tent. And having understood his Pro­vidence, commended it; bestowing on him Utensils and Garments double in value to those he had thrown away, for the use of his fire.

CHAP. XXXI. Of a Wrastler who, having gained the Vi­ctory, died before he was Crowned.

A Wrastler of Crotona having gained the Victory at the Olympick Games, going to the Judges to receive the Crown, was sud­denly seized with an Epileptick fit, and died with the fall.

CHAP. XXXII. Of the Statues of Phryne a Curtizan, and the Mares of Cimon.

The Grecians erected a Statue of Phryne the Curtizan at Delphi upon a high Pillar: I say not simply the Grecians, lest I seem to involve them all in that crime whom I chiefly love, but those of the Grecians who were most addicted to Intemperance. The Statue was of Gold. There were also at Athens Statues of the Mares of Cimon in Brass proportioned to the life.

CHAP. XXXIII. The Answer of a young man to his Fa­ther, demanding what he had learned.

A young man of Eretria, having heard Zeno a long time, returning home, his Fa­ther asked him what Wisedome he had learnt. He answered that he would shew him. His Father being angry, and beating him, he bore it humbly. ‘This (saith he) I have learnt, To bear with the anger of a Father.’

CHAP. XXXIV. Of persons richly clad.

Diogenes coming to Olympia, and seeing at the Solemnity some young men, Rhodi­ans, richly attired, laughing said, ‘This is Pride.’ Then meeting with some Lacede­monians clad in Coats course and sordid, ‘This (said he) is another Pride.’

CHAP. XXXV. Of Antisthenes taking pride in a torn Cloak.

Socrates seeing that Antisthenes alwaies exposed to view the torn part of his Cloak, [Page 189] ‘Will you not (saith he) lay aside Ostenta­tion amongst us?’

CHAP. XXXVI. Of Antigonus and a Lutenist.

A Lutenist shewed his skill before Anti­gonus, who often saying to him, ‘Scrue the Treble;’ and again, ‘Scrue up the Tenor:’ The Lutenist angry said, ‘The Gods divert such a mischief from you, O King, as for you to be more skilful herein then I am.’

CHAP. XXXVII. How Anaxarchus derided Alexander, who would be esteemed a God.

Anaxarchus, surnamed Eudaemonicus, laughed at Alexander for making himself a God. Alexander on a time falling sick, the Physician prescribed a Broth for him. Anaxarchus laughing, said, ‘The hopes of our God are in a Porrenger of Broth.’

CHAP. XXXVIII. Of Alexander, and the Harp of Paris.

Alexander went to Troy, and making [Page 190] there a curious Scrutiny, one of the Trojans came to him, and shewed him the Harp of Paris. He said, ‘I had much rather see that of Achilles then this of Paris. For he desired to see that which belonged to the excellent Souldier, and to which he sung the praises of great persons. But to that of Paris, what were sung but adulterous Airs to take and entice Women?

CHAP. XXXIX. Of ridiculous and extravagant affections.

Who can say that these affections were not ridiculous and extravagant? That of Xerxes, when he fell in love with a Plane­tree. Likewise a young man at Athens, of a good Family, fell desperately in love with the Statue of good Fortune, which stood before the Prytaneum. He often would em­brace it and kiss it; at last transported with mad desire, he came to the Senate, and de­sired that he might purchase it at any rate. But not obtaining his suit, he Crowned it with many Garlands and Ribbons, offered Sacrifice, put upon it a very rich Garment, and, after he had shed innumerable tears, kil­led himself. * * * *

CHAP. XL. Of the Pilots of the Carthaginian Ships.

The Carthaginians appointed two Pi­lots for every Ship, saying, that it was not fit a Ship should have two Rudders; and he who did chiefly benefit the Passengers, and had command of the Ship, should be desolate and alone without an assistant.

CHAP. XLI. Of Pausanias and Simonides.

Simonides the Cean and Pausanias the Lacedemonian (they say) were at a Feast together. Pausanias bade Simonides speak some wise thing. But the Cean laughing, said, ''Remember you are a Man. At that present Pausanias slighted this, and valued it not; siding then with the Medes, & proud of the Hospitality which the King shewed him; perhaps also transported with Wine: But when he was in the Temple of Minerva Chalcioecus, and struggled with famine, and was ready to die the most miserable of men, he then remembred Simonides, and cried out thrice, ‘O Cean Guest, thy speech [Page 192] imported much, though I ignorantly un­dervalued it.’

CHAP. XLII. Of Artaxerxes and Darius.

Artaxerxes having put his eldest Son Darius to death for conspiring against him; the second, his Father commanding, drew his Scimitar and slew himself before the Palace.

The End.

AELIAN's Various History.
The Tenth BOOK.

CHAP. I. Of Pherenice admitted to behold the Olympick Games.

PHerenice brought her Son to con­tend at the Olympick Games: the Judges forbidding her to behold the Spectacle, she went and argued with them, alledging she had a Father who had been Victor at the Olym­pick [...], as also three Brothers, and she had now brought a Son to be one of the Con­tendours. Thus she prevailed with the people, contrary to the Law, which forbids Women the Spectacle, and beheld the Olym­pick Games.

CHAP. II. Of the Continency of Eubatas.

Lais seeing Eubatas the Cyrenaean, fell deeply in love with him, and made a pro­posal of Marriage to him: which he (fea­ring some treachery from her) promised to doe; but forbare her company, and lived continently. It was agreed they should be married assoon as the Games were over. Assoon as he had won, that he might not seem to break his contract with her, he cau­sed her Picture to be drawn, and carried it along with him to Cyrene, saying he had ta­ken Lais, and not broken the Agreement. For which she that should have married him caused a great Statue to be erected for him in Cyrene, to requite this Continence.

CHAP. III. Properties of some Creatures.

Young Partridges, assoon as their feet are at liberty, can run nimbly. Young Ducks, assoon as fledged, swim. And the Whelps of Lions, before they are brought forth, scratch their Dam with their Claws, eager to come into the light.

CHAP. IV. Of Alexander's quickness in action.

Alexander Son of Philip marched in his Arms thrice four hundred furlongs, and before he rested fought the Enemy, and over­came them.

CHAP. V. Of Tyrants, out of Aesop's Writing.

This is a Phrygian saying, for it is Aesop's the Phrygian. The Sow when any one takes her, makes a great cry, and not with­out cause, for she hath no Wooll or the like, and therefore presently dreams of death, knowing that so she may benefit those who make use of her. Tyrants are like Ae­sop's Sow, mistrusting and fearing every thing, for they know, as Swine, that their life is owing to every one.

CHAP. VI. Of Little men.

For Leanness were derided Sannyrio the Comick Poet, and Melitus the Tragick Poet, and Cinesias who made Songs for [Page 196] round Dances, and Philetas the Poet that wrote Hexameters. Archestratus the Pro­phet, being taken by the Enemy, and put in a pair of Scales, was found to weigh but one obolus. Panaretus also was very lean, yet lived free from sickness. They report likewise that Hipponax the Poet was not onely low of person and deformed, but very slender. Moreover Philippides, against whom is extant an Oration of Hyperides, was very lean. So that to be of a very spare constitution, they commonly called to be Philippified. Witness Alexis.

CHAP. VII. Of some Astronomers, and of the Great Year.

Oenopides the Chian, an Astronomer, set up a brass Table at the Olympicks, having written thereon the Astronomy of fifty nine years, affirming this to be the Great Year.

Meton the Laconian, an Astronomer, ere­cted Pillars on which he inscribed the Tro­picks of the Sun, and found out as he said the Great Year, which he affirmed to con­sist of nineteen years.

CHAP. VIII. Of Benefits.

Aristotle the Cyrenaean said, that we ought not to receive a Benefit from any; for ei­ther you must take pains to requite it, or seem ungrateful if you requite it not.

CHAP. IX. That Philoxenus was a Glutton.

Philoxenus was Gluttonous, and a slave to his Belly. Seeing a Pot boiling in a Cook's Shop, he pleased himself all the while with the smell; at last his appetite increased, and nature prevailed (O Gods, a beastly nature) so that not able to forbear any longer, he commanded his Boy to buy the Pot. Who answering that the Cook valued it at a great rate; he replies, ‘It will be so much the sweeter, the more I pay for it.’ Such things ought to be remem­bred, not that we may imitate, but avoid them.

CHAP. X. Of the ancient Painters.

When Painting first began, and was as it were in its Infancy, they drew Creatures so rudely, that the Painters were fain to write upon them, This is an Oxe, That a Horse, This a Tree.

CHAP. XI. Of Diogenes having a pain in his Shoulder.

Diogenes had a pain in his Shoulder by some hurt, as I conceive, or from some other cause: and seeming to be much trou­bled, one that was present being vexed at him, derided him, saying, ‘Why then do you not die, Diogenes, and free your self from ills?’ He answered, ‘It was fit those persons who knew what was to be done and said in life, (of which sort he professed himself one) should live. Wherefore for you (saith he) who know neither what is fit to be said or done, it is conveni­ent to die; but me, who know these things, it behoveth to live.’

CHAP. XII. An Apophthegm of Archytas concerning Men.

Archytas said, that as it is hard to find a Fish without sharp bones, so is it to find a Man who hath not something of deceit and sharpness.

CHAP. XIII. That Archilochus defamed himself.

Critias accused Archilochus for defaming himself: For (saith he) if he himself had not brought this report of himself into Greece, we could never have known either that he was son of Enipo a Woman-servant; or that he left Parus through want and penury, and came to Thasus; how that after he came thither he bore them enmity; nor that he spake ill of friends and foes alike: nor (said he) had we known that he was an Adulterer, if we had not been told it by himself; nor that he was luxurious and in­solent; nor (which was the basest of all) that he threw away his Shield. Wherefore he was no good Witness of himself, lea­ving so bad a Record behind him. This [Page 200] is laid to his charge, not by me, but by Critias.

CHAP. XIV. Of Idleness.

Socrates said that Idleness is the Sister of Liberty, alledging in testimony hereof the Indians and Persians, people most valiant and most free, but as to work most sloth­ful: The Phrygians and Lydians very labo­rious, and servile.

CHAP. XV. Of those who were betrothed to the Daugh­ters of Aristides and Lysander.

Some of the most eminent of the Greci­ans betrothed themselves to the Daughters of Aristides, whilest he was yet living; but they looked not upon the life of Ari­stides, nor admired his Justice. For if they had been emulators of these, they would not afterward have broken their contract. But as soon as he was dead, they disenga­ged themselves from the Virgins; because at his death it was known that the Son of Lysimachus was poor, which deterred those miserable men from so worthy (in my opi­nion) and honourable a Match. The like [Page 201] happened to Lysander, for when they knew that he was poor, they shunned his Alli­ance.

CHAP. XVI. Of Antisthenes and Diogenes.

Antisthenes invited many to learn Phi­losophy of him, but none came. At last, growing angry, he would admit none at all, and therefore bad Diogenes be gone also. Diogenes continuing to come frequently, he chid and threatned him, and at last struck him with his Staff. Diogenes would not goe back, but persisting still in desire of hea­ring him, said, ‘Strike if you will, here is my head, you cannot find a Staff hard e­nough to drive me from you, until you have instructed me.’ Antisthenes over­come with his perseverance, admitted him, and made him his intimate Friend.

CHAP. XVII. Of those who grew rich by publick Im­ployments.

Critias saith that Themistocles Son of Neocles, before he had a publick Com­mand, was Heir to no more then three Ta­lents: But having had a charge in the Com­monwealth, [Page 202] and happening afterwards to be banished, his estate being exposed to pub­lick sale, was valued at more then a hundred Talents. Likewise Cleon, before he came to be engaged in publick affairs, had not means enough for a free person; but after­wards left an estate of fifty Talents.

CHAP. XVIII. Of Syracusian Daphnis, and of Buco­lick Verses.

Some say that Daphnis the Neatherd was Mercurie's Friend, others, his Son; and that he had this name from an acci­dent: For he was born of a Nymph, and as soon as born exposed under a Laurel-tree. The Cows which he kept (they say) were Sisters to those of the Sun, mentioned by Homer in the Odyssees. Whilest Daphnis kept Cows in Sicily, being very beautiful, a Nymph fell in love with him, whom he enjoyed, being in his blooming years, at which time (as Homer saith) the graceful­ness of Youth appeareth most attractive. They agreed that he should not enjoy any other; but if he transgressed, she threatned him, that it was decreed by fate he should lose his Sight. Hereupon they plighted [Page 203] troth mutually. Afterwards the King's Daughter falling in love with him, he being drunk violated the agreement, and lay with her. This was the first occasion of Bucolick Verses, the subject whereof was to bewail the misfortune of Daphnis, and the loss of his eyes. Stesichorus the Himeraean first used this kind of Verse.

CHAP. XIX. Of Eurydamus.

Eurydamus the Cyrenaean gained the Vi­ctory at the Caestus: His teeth being beaten out by his Antagonist, he swallowed them down, that his adversary might not per­ceive it.

CHAP. XX. Of Agesilaus.

The Persian Emperour sent word to A­gesilaus, that he would be his friend. Age­silaus returned answer, That he could not be a friend particularly to Agesilaus: but if he were friend to all the Lacedemonians, he must consequently be his also, for he had a share in each of them.

CHAP. XXI. Of Plato.

Perictione carried Plato in her arms. Ari­sto sacrificing in Hymettus to the Muses or the Nymphs, whilest they were performing the divine Rites, she laid Plato down among certain thick and shady Myrtle-trees that grew near to the place. A swarm of Hy­mettian Bees lighted about his mouth as he slept, thereby signifying the future sweetness of Plato's Tongue.

CHAP. XXII. Of Dioxippus.

Dioxippus in the presence of Alexander and the Macedonians, laying hold of a Club, challenged Corrhagus a Macedonian armed to single combat; and having broken his Spear closed with the man in armour, and casting him down, set his foot upon his neck, and drawing forth the sword that was girt to him, slew the armed man. Alexander ha­ted him for this. He perceiving that Alexan­der hated him, died of grief.

The End.

AELIAN's Various History.
The Eleventh BOOK.

CHAP. I. Of Oricadmus, and the Art of Wrast­ling.

ORicadmus gave rules for Wrastling, and invented that manner of Wrastling which is called Sicilian.

CHAP. II. Of the Verses of Oroebantius, Dares and Melisander.

The Poems of Oroebantius the Troeze­nian were before Homer, as the Troezenian relations affirm. They [...]ay also that Dares the Phrygian, whose Phrygian Iliad I know to be yet extant, was before Homer. Meli­sander [Page 206] the Milesian writ the Battel betwixt the Lapithae and the Centaurs.

CHAP. III. Of Icchus, and Wrastling.

Icchus the Tarentine used Wrastling, and in the time of his exercise continued most temperate, using spare diet, and living con­tinently all his time.

CHAP. IV. Of the Baldness of Agathocles.

They say that Agathocles Tyrant of Si­cily was Bald-headed even to derision; his hair by degrees falling off, he ashamed made a Myrtle Garland to cover his head and hide the Baldness. The Syracusians were not ignorant of his want of Hair, but they took no notice of it, by reason of his fierce spirit and Tyrannical demeanour.

CHAP. V. Of some persons unjustly condemned for Sacrilege.

Some persons sacrificed at Delphi; the Delphians conspiring against them, private­ly [Page 207] put consecrated Monies into the Baskets wherein was their Frankincense and Cakes for Sacrifice. Hereupon apprehending them as Sacrilegious persons, they led them to the top of the Rock, and, according to the Delphian Law, threw them down.

CHAP. VI. Of an Adulterer.

It happened that an Adulterer was taken in Thespiae, and as he was led fettered through the Market-place, his friends rescu­ed him. This occasioned an Insurrection, wherein many men were slain.

CHAP. VII. Of Lysander and Alcibiades.

Eteocles the Lacedemonian said that Sparta could not suffer two Lysanders: And Archestratus the Athenian said that Athens could not suffer two Alcibiades. So in­tolerable were they both in their Coun­tries.

CHAP. VIII. Of the death of Hipparchus.

Hipparchus was murthered by Harmo­dius and Aristogiton, because he would not suffer the Sister of Harmodius to carry the Basket to the Goddess, according to the cu­stome of the Country, in the Panathenian Solemnity, she perhaps deserving it.

CHAP. IX. Of certain excellent persons, Indigent, yet would not accept Gifts.

The most excellent persons among the Greeks lived in extreme Penury all their lives. Let some then still praise Riches a­bove the best Grecians, to whom Penury was allotted as long as they lived. Of those was Aristides Son of Lysimachus, a man of excellent conduct in War, who also im­posed tribute on the Grecians: Yet this so great a person did not leave enough to buy him Funeral ornaments.

Phocion also was very poor, who when Alexander sent him a hundred Talents, asked, ‘For what reason doth he give me this? They answering, Because he con­ceives [Page 209] you to be the onely Just and Good person amongst the Athenians; he repli­ed, Then let him suffer me to be such.’

Epaminondas also Son of Polymnis was poor. When Jason sent him sive hundred Crowns, ‘You begin (saith he) to doe me wrong.’ He borrowed of a Citizen five hundred Drachms for the Charges of his Journey to Peloponnesus; but hearing that his Squire had got money of a Prisoner, ‘Give me, saith he, the Shield back, and purchase for your self a Cook's Shop to live in: For now you are grown rich, you will no longer fight.’

Pelopidas being reproved by his friends for neglecting Riches, a thing necessary to life; ‘Yes, by Jove, saith he, necessary for that Nicomedes indeed;’ pointing to one lame and maimed.

Scipio lived fifty four years, and neither bought nor sold any thing, with so little was he contented. One shewing him a Shield richly adorned, he said, ‘But it be­hoves a Roman to place his hope on his right hand, not on his left.’

Ephialtes Son of Sophonides was excee­ding poor: his friends offering to give him ten Talents, he would not accept them, saying, ‘These will either make me, through [Page 210] respect of you, to doe something unjust­ly in favour; or if I shew no particular favour or respect to you, I shall seem un­grateful.’

CHAP. X. Of Zoilus.

Zoilus the Amphipolitan, who wrote a­gainst Homer, Plato and others, was Di­sciple of Polycrates. This Polycrates wrote an Accusation against Socrates. Zoilus was called the Rhetorical Dog; his Character this, He wore a long Beard, he shaved his Head close, his Gown reached not to his knees, his whole employment was to speak ill and sow dissension; this unhappy man was wholly given to Detraction. A [...] person asked him why he spoke ill of all: he answered, ‘Because I would doe them hurt, but cannot.’

CHAP. XI. Of Dionysius the Sicilian.

Dionysius the Sicilian practised Physick▪ and did Cures himself, Lancing; Cauteri­zing, and the like.

CHAP. XII. Of a Marchpane sent by Alcibiades to Socrates.

Alcibiades sent to Socrates a large March­pane fairly wrought. Xanthippe angry hereat; after her manner, threw it out of the Bas­ket, and trod upon it: whereat Socrates laughing said, ‘And you then will have no share in it your self.’

If any one think that in relating these things I speak Trifles, he knows not that even in such a wise man is proved, despising those things which the Vulgar esteem as the ornament of a Table, and crown of a Feast.

CHAP. XIII. Of one in Sicily very sharp-sighted.

They say there was a Sicilian of so sharp Sight, that extending his view from Lily­baeus to Carthage he erred not: They say he could tell the number of the Ships ri­ding at Carthage without missing.

The End.

AELIAN's Various History.
The Twelfth BOOK.

CHAP. I. Of Aspasia.

ASpasia a Phocian, Daughter o [...] Hermotimus, was brought up a [...] Orphan, her Mother dying i [...] the pains of Child-birth. Sh [...] was bred up in poverty, but modestly an [...] vertuously. She had many times a Drea [...] which foretold her that she should be mar [...] ried to an excellent person. Whilest sh [...] was yet young, she chanced to have a swe [...] ling under her chin, loathsome to sigh [...] whereat both the Father and the Maid we [...] much afflicted. Her Father brought her [...] a Physician: he offered to undertake t [...] Cure for three Staters; the other said he ha [...] [Page 213] not the Money. The Physician replied, he had then no Physick for him. Hereupon Aspasia departed weeping; and holding a Looking-glass on her knee, beheld her face in it, which much increased her grief. Go­ing to rest without Supping, by the reason of the trouble she was in, she had an op­portune Dream; a Dove seemed to appear to her as she slept, which being changed to [...] Woman, said, ‘Be of good courage, and bid a long farewel to Physicians and their Medicines: Take of the dried Rose of Ve­nus Garlands, which being pounded ap­ply to the swelling.’ After the Maid had [...]nderstood and made trial of this, the tu­mor was wholly asswaged; and Aspasia re­covering her beauty by means of the most beautiful Goddess, did once again appear the [...]airest amongst her Virgin-companions, enriched with Graces far above any of the rest. Of hair yellow, locks a little curling, she had great eyes, somewhat hawk-nosed, ears short, skin delicate, complexion like Roses; whence the Phocians, whilest she was yet a child, called her Milto. Her lips were red, teeth whiter then snow, small insteps, such as of those Women whom Homer calls [...]. Her voice sweet and smooth, that whosoever heard her might justly say he [Page 214] heard the voice of a Siren. She was averse from Womanish curiosity in dressing: Such things are to be supplied by wealth. She be­ing poor, and bred up under a poor Father, used nothing superfluous or extravagant to advantage her Beauty. On a time Aspasia came to Cyrus, Son of Darius and Pary­satis, Brother of Artaxerxes, not willingly nor with the consent of her Father, but by compulsion, as it often happens upon the taking of Cities, or the violence of Tyrants and their Officers. One of the Officers of Cyrus brought her with other Virgins to Cyrus, who immediately preferred her be­fore all his Concubines, for simplicity of behaviour, and modesty; whereto also con­tributed her beauty without artifice, and he [...] extraordinary discretion, which was such, that Cyrus many times asked her advice in affairs, which he never repented to have followed. When Aspasia came first to Cy­rus, it happened that he was newly rise [...] from Supper, and was going to drink afte [...] the Persian manner: for after they have done eating, they betake themselves to Wine, and fall to their cups freely, encoun­tring Drink as an Adversary. Whilest they were in the midst of their drinking, fou [...] Grecian Virgins were brought to Cyrus [Page 215] amongst whom was Aspasia the Phocian. They were finely attired; three of them had their heads neatly drest by their own Women which came along with them, and had painted their faces. They had been also instructed by their Governesses how to behave themselves towards Cyrus, to gain [...]is favour; not to turn away when he came to them, not to be coy when he touched them, to permit him to kiss them, and many other amatory instructions practised by Women who exposed their beauty to sale. Each contended to outvie the other in hand­someness. Onely Aspasia would not endure to be clothed with a rich Robe, nor to put on a various-coloured Vest, nor to be washed; but calling upon the Grecian and Eleutherian Gods, she cried out upon her Father's name, execrating herself to her Fa­ther. She thought the Robe which she should put on was a manifest sign of bon­dage. At last being compelled with blows she put it on, and was necessitated to behave herself with greater liberty then beseemed a Virgin. When they came to Cyrus, the rest smiled, and expressed chearfulness in their looks. But Aspasia looking on the ground, her eyes full of tears, did every way express an extraordinary bashfulness. When [Page 216] he commanded them to sit down by him, the rest instantly obeyed; but the Phocian refused, until the Officer caused her to sit down by force. When Cyrus looked upon or touched their eyes, cheeks and fingers, the rest freely permitted him; but she would not suffer it: For if Cyrus did but offer to touch her, she cried out, saying, he should not goe unpunished for such actions. Cyrus was herewith extremely pleased; and when upon his offering to touch her breast, she rose up, and would have run away, Cyrus much taken with her native ingenuity, which was not like the Persians, turning to him that bought them, ‘This Maid onely, saith he, of those which you have brought me is free and pure; the rest are adulterate in face, but much more in behaviour.’ Hereupon Cyrus loved her above all the Women he ever had. Afterwards there grew a mutual love between them, and their friendship proceeded to such a height that it almost arrived at parity, not differing from the concord and modesty of Grecian Mar­riage. Hereupon the fame of his affection to Aspasia was spread to Ionia and through­out Greece; Peloponnesus also was filled with discourses of the love betwixt Cyrus and her. The report went even to the great [Page 217] King [of Persia,] for it was conceived that Cyrus, after his acquaintance with her, kept company with no other Woman. From these things Aspasia recollected the remem­brance of her old Apparition, and of the Dove, and her words, and what the Goddess foretold her. Hence she conceived that she was from the very beginning particularly regarded by her. She therefore offered Sa­crifice of thanks to Venus. And first cau­sed a great Image of Gold to be erected to her, which she called the Image of Venus, and by it placed the picture of a Dove be­set with Jewels, and every day implored the favour of the Goddess with Sacrifice and Prayer. She sent to Hermotimus her Fa­ther many rich Presents, and made him weal­thy. She lived continently all her life, as both the Grecian and Persian Women af­firm. On a time a Neck-lace was sent as a Present to Cyrus from Scopas the youn­ger, which had been sent to Scopas out of Sicily. The Neck-lace was of extraordina­ry workmanship, and variety. All therefore to whom Cyrus shewed it admiring it, he was much taken with the Jewel, and went immediately to Aspasia, it being about noon. Finding her asleep, he lay down gently by her, watching quietly whilest she slept. As [Page 218] soon as she awaked, and saw Cyrus, she im­braced him after her usual manner. He ta­king the Neck-lace out of a Boxe, said, ‘This is worthy either the Daughter or the Mother of a King.’ To which she assen­ting; ‘I will give it you, said he, for your own use, let me see your neck adorned with it.’ But she received not the Gift, prudently and discreetly answering, ‘How will Parysatis your Mother take it, this being a Gift fit for her that bare you? Send it to her, Cyrus, I will shew you a Neck handsome enough without it.’ Aspasia from the greatness of her minde acted contrary to other Royal Queens, who are excessively desirous of rich Ornaments. Cyrus being pleased with this answer, kis­sed Aspasia. All these actions and speeches Cyrus writ in a Letter which he sent toge­ther with the Chain to his Mother; and Parysatis receiving the Present was no less delighted with the News then with the Gold, for which she requited Aspasia with great and Royal Gifts; for this pleased her above all things, that though Aspasia were chiefly affected by her Son, yet in the love of Cyrus she desired to be placed beneath his Mother. Aspasia praised the Gifts, but said she had no need of them; (for there was [Page 219] much money sent with the Presents) but sent them to Cyrus, saying, ‘To you who maintain many men this may be useful: For me it is enough that you love me and are my ornament.’ With these things, as it seemeth, she much astonished Cyrus. And indeed the Woman was without dispute admirable for her personal beauty, but much more for the nobleness of her mind. When Cyrus was slain in the fight against his Brother, and his Army taken Prisoners, with the rest of the prey she was taken; not falling accidentally into the E­nemies hands, but sought for with much diligence by King Artaxerxes, for he had heard her [...]ame and vertue. When they brought her bound, he was angry, and cast those that did it into Prison. He commanded that a rich Robe should be given her: which she hearing, intreated with tea [...]s and lamen­tation that she might not put on the Gar­ment the King appointed, for she mourned exceedingly for Cyrus. But when she had put it on, she appeared the fairest of all Wo­men, and Artaxerxes was immediately sur­prised and inflamed with love of her. He valued her beyond all the rest of his Wo­men, respecting her infinitely. He endea­voured to ingratiate himself into her favour, [Page 220] hoping to make her forget Cyrus, and to love him no less then she had done his Bro­ther; but it was long before he could com­pass it. For the affection of Aspasia to Cy­rus had taken so deep impression, that it could not easily be rooted out. Long after this, Teridates the Eunuch died, who was the most beautiful youth in Asia. He had full surpassed his childhood, and was recko­ned among the youths. The King was said to have loved him exceedingly: he was in­finitely grieved and troubled at his death, and there was an universal mourning throughout Asia, every one endeavouring to gratify the King herein; and none durst venture to come to him and comfort him, for they thought his passion would not ad­mit any consolation. Three daies being past, Aspasia taking a mourning Robe as the King was going to the Bath, stood weep­ing, her eyes cast on the ground. He seeing her, wondred, and demanded the reason of her coming. She said, ‘I come, O King, to comfort your grief and affliction, if you so please; otherwise I shall goe back.’ The Persian pleased with this care, commanded that she should retire to her Chamber, and wait his coming. As soon as he returned, he put the Vest of the Eunuch upon Aspa­sia, [Page 221] which did in a manner fit her: And by this means her beauty appeared with grea­ter splendo [...]r to the King's eye, who much affected the youth. And being once pleased herewith, he desired her to come alwaies to him in that dress, until the height of his grief were allayed: which to please him she did. Thus more then all his other Women, or his own Son and Kindred, she comforted Artaxerxes, and relieved his sorrow; the King being pleased with her care, and prudently admitting her consola­tion.

CHAP. II. Of the Muses.

No Statuary or Painter did ever repre­sent the Daughters of Jupiter armed. This signifies that the life which is devoted to the Muses ought to be peaceable and meek.

CHAP. III. Of Epaminondas, and Daiphantus, and Iolaidas.

Epaminondas having received a mortal wound at Mantinea, and being brought (yet alive) to the Tents, called for Daiphantus, that he might declare him General▪ When [Page 222] they told him that he was slain, he called to Iolaidas. When they said that he also was dead, he counselled them to make peace and friendship with their Enemies, because the Thebans had no longer any General.

CHAP. IV. Of Sesostris.

The Aegyptians say that Sesostris recei­ved learning and counsel from Mercury.

CHAP. V. Of Lais.

Lais the Curtezan was called (as Aristo­phanes the Byzantine reports) Axine, [] which surname impleads the Cruelty of her disposition.

CHAP. VI. Of the Parents of Marius and Cato.

They deserve to be laughed at who are proud of their Ancestors, since among the Romans we know not the Father of Marius, yet admire him for his parts. To know the Father of Cato the elder would require much scrutiny▪

CHAP. VII. Of Alexander and Hephaestion.

Alexander Crowned the Tomb of A­chilles, and Hephaestion that of Patroclus; signifying that he was as dear to Alexander as Patroclus to Achilles.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Treachery of Cleomenes to Ar­chonides.

Cleomenes the Lacedemonian taking to him Archonides one of his friends, made him partaker of his design; whereupon he swore to him that if he accomplished it he would doe all things by his head. Being possessed of the Government, he killed his Friend, and cutting off his Head put it into a Vessel of Honey. And whensoever he went to doe any thing, he [...]tooped down to the Vessel, and said what he [...]ntended to doe; affir­ming that he had not broken his promise, nor was forsworn, for he advised with the Head of Archonides.

CHAP. IX. How Timesias forsook his Country vo­luntarily.

Timesias the Clazomenian governed the Clazomenians uprightly; for he was a good man: but Envy, which useth to oppugn such persons, assaulted him also. At first he little valued the Envy of the common people, but at last forsook his Countrey upon this oc­casion. On a time he passed by the School just as the Boyes were dismissed of their Master to play. Two boyes fell out about a Line. One of them swore, ‘So may I break the head of Timesias. Hearing this, and imagining that he was much envied and hated of the Citizens, and that if the boyes hated him, the men did much more, he vo­luntarily forsook his Country.

CHAP. X. That the Aeginetae first coyned Money.

The Aeginetae were once most powerful amongst the Greeks, having a great advan­tage and opportunity; for they had a great command at Sea, and were very powerful. They also behaved themselves valiantly in [Page 225] the Persian Warre, whereby they gained the chief prize of valour. Moreover, they first stamped Money, and from them it was called Aeginean Money.

CHAP. XI. Of the Pallantian Hill, and of the Temple and Altar dedicated to Feaver.

The Romans erected a Temple and Al­tar to Feaver under the Pallantian Hill.

CHAP. XII. Of an Adulterer apprehended in Crete.

An Adulterer being apprehended at Gor­tyne in Crete, was brought to Trial, and be­ing convicted, was crowned with Wooll. This kind of crowning argued that he was unmanly, effeminate, studious to please Wo­men. He was by the general vote fined fifty Staters, degraded from honour, and made incapable of publick Office.

CHAP. XIII. How Gnathaena the Curtizan silenced a great Talker.

A Lover came from Hellespont to Gna­thaena [Page 226] the Athenian Curtizan, invited by her fame. He talked much in his drink, and was impertinent. Gnathaena hereupon interposing, said, ‘Did not you affirm you came from Hellespont? He assenting; And how then, saith she, happens it that you know not the chief City there?’ He asking which that was, she answered, Si­geum. By which name she ingeniously si­lenced him.

CHAP. XIV. Of persons excellent in Beauty.

They say that the most amiable and beau­tiful amongst the Greeks was Alcibiades, amongst the Romans, Scipio. It is reported also that Demetrius Poliorcetes contended in Beauty. They affirm likewise that Alexander Son of Philip was of a neglectful handsom­ness: For his Hair curled naturally, and was yellow; yet they say there was something stern in his countenance. Homer speaking of handsome persons, compares them to Trees, ‘—he shoots up like a Plant.

CHAP. XV. Of certain excellent persons who deligh­ted to play with Children.

They say that Hercules alleviated the trouble of his Labours by play. The Son of Jupiter and Alcmena sported much with Children; which Euripides hints to us, ma­king the God say,

‘I play to intermit my Toils:’ this he speaks holding a Child. And So­crates was on a time surprised by Alcibi­ [...]des, playing with Lamprocles, as yet a Child.

Agesilaus bestriding a Reed, rid with his Son a Child, and to one that laughed at him, said, ''At this time hold your peace; when ''you shall be a Father your self, then you ''may give counsel to Fathers. Moreover Archytas the Tarentine, a great States-man and Philosopher, having many servants, took great delight in their Children, and played with them, chiefly delighting to sport with [...]hem at Feasts.

CHAP. XVI. Persons whom Alexander hated for their Vertue.

Alexander hated Perdiccas because he was Martial; Lysimachus, because he was excellent in commanding an Army; Sele [...] ­cus, because he was Valiant. The Liberality of Antigonus displeased him, the Conduct of Attalus, the Fortune of Ptolemee.

CHAP. XVII. Of Demetrius going to the House of a Curtizan.

Demetrius, Lord over so many Nations, went to the House of Lamia a Curtizan in his Armour, and wearing his Diadem. To have sent for her home had been very dis­honourable, [much more was it that] he went amorously to her. I preferre Theodo­rus the Player on the Flute before Deme­trius; for Lamia invited Theodorus, but he contemned her invitation.

CHAP. XVIII. That Phaon was beautiful.

Phaon, being the most beautiful of all men, was by Venus hid among Lettices. Another saies he was a Ferry-man, and exer­cised that employment. On a time Venus [...]ame to him, desiring to pass over: he re­ceived her courteously, not knowing who [...]he was, and with much care conveyed her whither she desired; for which the God­dess gave him an Alabaster Box of Oint­ment, which Phaon using, became the most beautiful of men, and the Wives of the Mi­ [...]ylenaeans fell in love with him. At last being taken in Adultery he was killed.

CHAP. XIX. Of Sappho.

Sappho the Poetress, Daughter of Sca­mandronymus, is (by Plato Son of Aristo) [...]eckoned among the Sages. I am informed that there was another Sappho in Lesbus, [...] Curtizan, not a Poetress.

CHAP. XX. Of the Nightingale and Swallow.

Hesiod saith that the Nightingale above all Birds cares not for sleep, but wakes con­tinually; and that the Swallow wakes no [...] alwaies, but half the night onely. This pu­nishment they suffer for the horrid actio [...] committed in Thrace at the abominable Supper.

CHAP. XXI. Of the Lacedemonian Women.

The Lacedemonian Matrons, as many as heard that their Sons were slain in fight▪ went themselves to look upon the wounds they had received before and behind: and if of the wounds they had received the greater number were before, triumphing and looking proudly, they attended thei [...] Sons to the Sepulchres of their Parents; but if they received wounds otherwise, they were ashamed and lamented, and hastene [...] away as privately as they could, leaving the dead to be buried in the common Sepulchre, or caused them to be brought away secretly and buried at home.

CHAP. XXII. Of the Strength of Titormus and Milo, and of a certain Proverb.

They say that Milo the Crotonian, proud of his Strength, happened to meet Titor­mus a Neatherd; and seeing that Titormus was of an extraordinary bigness, would make a trial of strength with him. Titormus pleaded that he was not very strong; but going down to Euenus, and putting off his Garment, he laid hold of an extraordi­nary great stone, and first drew it to him, then thrust it from him; this he did two or three times: After which he lifted it up to his knees; and lastly, lifting it up upon his shoulders, carried it eight paces, and then threw it down. But Milo the Croto­nian could hardly stirre the stone. The se­cond trial of Titormus was this; He went to his Herd, and standing in the midst of them, took hold of the greatest Bull amongst them by the leg, who endevoured to get away, but could not. Another passing by, he catch'd him by the leg with the other hand, and held him also. Milo beholding this, & stretching forth his hands to heaven, said, ‘O Jupiter, hast thou not begotten [Page 232] another Hercules? Whence they say came this Proverb, ‘He is another Her­cules.

CHAP. XXIII. Of the Boldness of the Celtae.

I am informed that the Celtae are of all men most addicted to engage themselves in dangers. Such persons as die gallantly in fight, they make the subjects of Songs. They fight crowned, and erect Trophies, triumphing in their actions, and leaving Mo­numents of their valour, after the Greek manner. They esteem it so dishonourable to flie, that many times they will not goe out of their Houses when they are falling or burning, though they see themselves surrounded with fire. Many also oppose themselves to Inundations of the Sea. There are also who taking their Arms fall upon the waves, and resist their force with naked Swords, and brandishing their Lances, as if able to terrifie or wound them.

CHAP. XXIV. Of the luxurious Diet and Gluttony of Smindyrides.

They say that Smindyrides the Sybarite was so Luxurious in Diet, that when he went to Sicyon, as a suitor to Agarista Daughter of Clisthenes, he carried with him a thousand Cooks, and as many Fowlers, and a thousand Fishermen.

CHAP. XXV. Many who improv'd and benefitted the most excellent persons.

Ulysses was improv'd by Alcinous, Achil­les by Chiron, Patroclus by Achilles, Aga­memnon by Nestor, Telemachus by Mene­laus, and Hector by Polydamas; the Tro­jans, as far as they followed him, by Ante­nor; the Pythagorean Disciples by Pytha­goras, the Democriteans by Democritus. If the Athenians had followed Socrates, they had been every way happy and skilful in Philosophy. Hiero Son of Dinomenes was delighted in Simonides the Cean, Po­lycrates in Anacreon, Proxenus in Xeno­phon, Antig [...]nus in Zeno. And to men­tion [Page 234] those also who concern me no less then the Greeks, inasmuch as I am a Roman; Lucullus profited by Antiochus the Asc [...] ­lonite, Mecoenas by Arius, Cicero by A­pollodorus, Augustus by Athenodorus. But Plato, who far exceeded me in wisedome, saith that Jupiter himself had a Counsel­lor; but whom and how, we learn from him.

CHAP. XXVI. Of some persons addicted to Wine.

Persons, as 'tis said, most addicted to Drink were Xenagoras the Rhodian, whom they called * Amphoreus, and Heraclides A gr [...]at [...]. the Wrastler, and Proteas the Son of Lani­ca, who was brought up with Alexander the King; even Alexander himself is said to have drunk more then any man.

CHAP. XXVII. That Hercules was mild towards his Adversaries.

They say that Hercules was extraordinary mild towards his Adversaries, for he is the first we know of who without any media­tion freely gave back the bodies of the dead to be buried, the slain being at those times [Page 235] neglected, and left to be a feast for Dogs, for, as Homer saith, ‘He made them unto Dogs a prey;’ and, A feast to Dogs they were.—’

CHAP. XXVIII. Of the Leocorium at Athens.

The Leocorium so call'd at Athens was a Temple of the Daughters of Leos, Praxithea, Theope, and Eubule. These, as is reported, were put to death for the City of Athens, Leos delivering them up accor­ding to the Delphian Oracle, which said, that the City could be no other way pre­served then by putting them to death.

CHAP. XXIX. What Plato said of the Excess of the Agrigentines.

Plato Son of Aristo, seeing that the Agri­gentines built magnificently and feasted highly, said, that the Agrigentines build as if they were to live for ever, and feast as if they were to live no longer. Timaeus af­firms that the Vessels in which they put [Page 236] their Oil and their Rubbers were of Silver, and that they had Beds all of Ivory.

CHAP. XXX. Of the Drunkenness of the Tarentines, and the Luxury of the Cyrenaeans.

The Tarentines used to fall a-drinking as soon as they rose, and to be drunk by that time the people met in the Forum. The Cyrenaeans arrived at so great a height of Luxury, that when they invited Plato to be their Law-giver, he would not vouchsafe it, as they say, by reason of their habitual dis­soluteness. Eupolis also mentioneth in his Comedy entituled Maricas, that the mea­nest of them had Seals of the value of ten Minae. Their Rings also were graven to admiration.

CHAP. XXXI. Of several kinds of Greek Wines.

I will reckon to you the names of Greek Wines much esteemed by the Ancients. One sort they call'd Pramnian, which was sacred to Ceres; another Chian, from the Island; another Thasian and Lesbian: be­sides these, there was one sort called Glycys, [Page 237] Sweet, the Name agreeing with the Tast; another Cretan, and at Syracuse a sort na­med Polian, from a King of the Country. They drunk also Coan Wine, and so called it, as also Rhodian, from the place.

Are not these Demonstrations of the Greek Luxury? They mix'd Perfumes with their Wine; and so drank it by a for­ced Composition, which Wine was called Myrrhinites. Philippides the Comick Poet mentions it.

CHAP. XXXII. Of the Vests and Shoes of Pythagoras, Empedocles, Hippias, and Gorgias.

Pythagoras the Samian wore a white Vest, and a golden Crown and Drawers. Empedocles the Agrigentine used a Sea­green Vest, and Shoes of Brass. Hippias and Gorgias, as is reported, went abroad in Purple Vests.

CHAP. XXXIII. That the Romans would not allow the Treachery of Pyrrhus his Physician.

They say that Nicias, Physician to Pyr­rhus, writ privately to the Roman Senate, [Page 238] and demanded a summe of Money for which he would undertake to poison Pyr­rhus; but they accepted not his offer (fo [...] the Romans know how to overcome by Valour, not by Art and Treachery to cir­cumvent their Enemies,) but discovered the Design of Nicias to Pyrrhus.

CHAP. XXXIV. Of the Loves of Pausanias, and of A­pelles.

Many Affections among the Ancients are remembred, these not the least. Pausanias loved his Wife extraordinarily; Apelles the Concubine of Alexander, by name Pancaste, by Country a Larissaean. She is said to be the first whom Alexander ever enjoyed.

CHAP. XXXV. Of the Perianders, Miltiades, Sibylls, and the Bacides.

There were two Perianders, the one a Philosopher, the other a Tyrant: Three Miltiades; one who built Chersonesus, ano­ther the Son of Cypsellus, the third a Son of Cimon: Four Sibylls; the Erythraean, the Samian, the Aegyptian, and the Sar­dian▪ [Page 239] Others adde six more, making them in all ten; among which they reckon the Cumaean and the Jewish. There were three Bacides; one of Hellas, another of Athens, the third of Arcadia.

CHAP. XXXVI. Of the number of the Children of Niobe.

The Ancients seem not to agree with one another concerning the number of the Children of Niobe. Homer saith there were six Sons and as many Daughters; Lasus twice seven; Hesiod nineteen, if those Ver­ses are Hesiod's, and not rather, as many others, falsly ascribed to him. Aleman rec­kons them ten, Mimnermus twenty, and Pindar as many.

CHAP. XXXVII. Of the want of Victual to which Alexan­der was reduced; and that some Towns were taken by Smoke.

Alexander in pursuit of Bessus was re­duced to extreme want of Victual, insomuch that they were forc'd to feed on their Ca­mels, and other Beasts of Carriage; and, being destitute of Wood, did eat the flesh [Page 240] raw. But much Silphium growing there, it did much avail them towards the digesting their Diet.

In Bactriana the Souldiers took several Towns, conjecturing by the Smoke that they were inhabited, taking away the Snow from their doors.

CHAP. XXXVIII. Of the Horses, and some Customes of the Sacae.

The Horses of the Sacae have this qua­lity, that if one of them casts his Rider, he stands still till he gets up again. If any of them intends to marry a Virgin, he fights with her; and if she gets the better, she carries him away Captive, and commands and has dominion over him. They fight for victory, not to death. The Sacae, when they mourn, hide themselves in caves and shady places.

CHAP. XXXIX. Of the Boldness of Perdiccas, and of the Lioness.

Perdiccas the Macedonian, who fought under Alexander, was so bold, that on a time he went alone into a Cave where a [Page 241] Lioness had whelped, and seised not on the Lioness, but brought away her Whelps: for which action he deserved to be much admired. The Lioness is believed to be the most strong and most couragious of all Creatures, not onely by Grecians, but by the Barbarians also. They say that Semi­ramis the Assyrian [Queen] was very proud, not if she took a Lion, or kill'd a Leopard, or the like Beasts, but if she over­came a Lioness.

CHAP. XL. Of the Provisions which followed Xerxes.

Amongst the Provisions full of magnifi­cence and ostentation which were carried after Xerxes, was some water of the River Choaspes. When they wanted drink in a desart place, and had nothing to allay their thirst, Proclamation was made in the Army, that if any one had some Water of Choaspes, he should give it to the King to drink. There was found one who had a little, and that putrid. Xerxes drank it, and esteemed the giver as his Benefactor; for he should have died of thirst if this had not been found.

CHAP. XLI. Of Protogenes the Painter.

Protogenes the Painter, as is said, be­stowed seven years in drawing Ialysus, at last perfected the Piece: which Apelles seeing, at first stood mute, struck with ad­miration of the wonderful sight; then look­ing off from it, said, ‘Great is the work and the workman; but the grace is not equal to the pains bestowed upon it; which if this man could have given it, the work would have reached to Heaven.’

CHAP. XLII. Of certain Men who were suckled by Beasts.

It is said that a Bitch gave suck to Cyrus, Son of Mandale; a Hind to Telephus, Son to Agave and Hercules; a Mare to Pelias, Son of Neptune and Tyro; a Bear to Paris, Son of Alope and Priam; a Goat to Ae­gisthus, Son of Thyestes and Pelopia.

CHAP. XLIII. Certain persons who of obscure became very eminent.

I am informed that Darius Son of Hy­staspes was Quiver-bearer to Cyrus: The last Darius, who was vanquished by A­lexander, was the Son of a Woman-slave: Archelaus King of the Macedonians was Son of Simicha, a Woman-slave: Mene­laus Grandfather of Philip was registred a­mong the Bastards; his Son Amyntas was servant to Aerope, and believ'd to be a Slave: Perseus, whom Paulus the Roman conquer'd, was by Country Argive, the Son of some obscure person: Eumenes is believed to have been Son of a poor man, a Piper at Funerals: Antigonus, Son of Philip, who had but one eye, whence sur­named Cyclops, was Servant to Polysperchus and a Robber: Themistocles, who overcame the Barbarians at Sea, and who alone un­derstood the meaning of the Oracle of the Gods, was Son of a Thracian Woman, his Mother was called Abrotonos: Phocion, surnamed the Good, had for Father a poor Mechanick. They say that Demetrius Pha­ [...]ereus was a Houshold-servant belonging to [Page 244] the Families of Timotheus and Conon. Though Hyperbolus, Cleophon and Demades were chief men in the Commonwealth of the Athenians, yet no man can easily say who were their Fathers. In Lacedemonia, Callicratidas, Gylippus and Lysander were called Mothaces, a name proper to the Ser­vants of rich men, whom they sent along with their Sons to the places of exercise to be educated with them. Lycurgus, who in­stituted this, granted, that such of them as continued in the discipline of the Young men should be free of the Lacedemonian Commonwealth. The Father of Epami­nondas was an obscure person. Cleon Ty­rant of the Sicyonians was a Pirate.

CHAP. XLIV. Of those who lived a long time in the Quarries of Sicily.

The Quarries of Sicily were near the sur­face of the ground, in length a Furlong, i [...] breadth two Acres; there were in them some men who lived so long there, as to b [...] Married and have children, and some of thei [...] children never saw the City, so that whe [...] they went to Syracuse, and beheld Horse [...] in Chariots, they ran away crying out, be­in [...] [Page 245] much affrighted. The fairest of those Caves did bear the name of Philoxenus the Poet, in which they say he dwelt when he composed his Cyclops, the best of his Po­ems, not valuing the punishment imposed upon him by Dionysius, but in that calami­ty he exercised Poetry.

CHAP. XLV. Of Midas, Plato, and Pindar, their infancy.

The Phrygian Stories say thus; Whilest Midas the Phrygian, yet an infant, lay asleep, Ants crept into his mouth, and with much industry and pain brought thither some Corn. These wrought a Honey-comb in the mouth of Plato. Likewise Pindar being exposed from his Father's house, Bees became his Nurses, and gave him Honey instead of Milk.

CHAP. XLVI. Of a Sign which portended that Dio­nysius should be King.

They say that Dionysius, Son of Hermo­crates, crossing a River on Horse-back, his Horse stuck in the Mire; he leaped off, and [Page 246] gained the Bank, going away, and giving his Horse for lost. But the Horse following, and Neighing after him, he went back, and as he was laying hold of his Main to get up, a swarm of Bees setled on his hand. To Dionysius consulting what this porten­ded, the Sicilian [...]ooth­sayers. Galeotae answered, that this signi­fied Monarchy.

CHAP. XLVII. Of Aristomache Wife of Dio.

Dionysius banished Dio out of Sicily, but his Wife Aristomache and his Son by her he kept in custody: Afterwards h [...] gave the Woman in Marriage against he [...] will to Polycrates one of his Guard, i [...] whom he most confided. He was by birt [...] a Syracusian. When Dio took Syracuse▪ and Dionysius fled to the Locrians, Aret [...] Sister of Dio saluted him; but Aristomach [...] followed aloof off through shame being vei­led, and not daring to salute him as her Hus­band, because by constraint she had not kep [...] the Matrimonial contract: but after Aret [...] had pleaded for her, and declared the vio­lence used to her by Dionysius, Dio receive [...] his Wife and his Son, and sent them to hi [...] own House.

CHAP. XLVIII. Of Homer's Poems.

The Indians sing the Verses of Homer translated into their own Language; and not onely they, but the Persian Kings also, if we may believe those who relate it.

CHAP. XLIX. That Phocion forgave Injuries.

Phocion, Son of Phocus, who had been often General, was condemned to die; and being in Prison ready to drink Hemlock, when the Executioner gave him the Cup, his Kinsmen asked him if he would say any thing to his Son. He answered, ‘I charge him that he bear no ill will to the Athe­nians for this Cup which I now drink.’ He who does not extol and admire the man, is, in my judgement, of little under­standing.

CHAP. L. Of the Lacedemonians not addicting themselves to Learning.

The Lacedemonians were ignorant of Learning, they studied onely Exercise and [Page 248] Arms; if at any time they needed the help of Learning, either in Sickness or Madness, or some other publick Calamity, they sent for Foreiners, as Physicians; according to the Oracle of Apollo, they sent for Terpan­der, and Thales, and Tyrtaeus, Nymphaeus the Sidoniate, and Alcman, for he was a Player on the Flute. Thucydides implies that they were nothing addicted to Lear­ning, in that which he delivers concerning Brasidas, for he saith that he was no good Orator, as being a Lacedemonian; as if he had said, he was wholly illiterate.

CHAP. LI. Of the Pride of Menecrates, and how Philip derided him.

Menecrates the Physician grew so ex­tremely proud, that he called himself Ju­piter. On a time he sent a Letter to Philip King of the Macedonians on this manner; ‘To Philip, Menecrates Jupiter well to doe:’ Philip writ back, Philip to Me­necrates, Health; I advise you to betake your self to the places about Anticyra: hereby implying that the man was mad.

On a time Philip made a magnificent F [...]ast, and invited him to it, and comman­ded [Page 249] a Bed to be prepared apart for him alone; and when he was laid down, a Censer was brought before him, and they burnt Incense to him. The rest feasted highly, and the Entertainment was magni­ficent. Menecrates held out a while, and re­joyced in the honour: but soon after hun­ger came upon him, and convinced him that he was a man, and foolish. He arose and went away, saying he was affronted; Phi­lip having most ingeniously discovered his folly.

CHAP. LII. To what kind of persons Isocrates com­pared Athens.

Isocrates the Orator said of Athens, that it resembled Curtezans: All that were ta­ken with their beauty desired to enjoy them, but none would so much undervalue himself as to marry them. So Athens was pleasant to travel to, and excelled all the rest of Greece, but not secure to live in. He reflected on the many Sycophants there, and the danger from those who affected po­pularity.

CHAP. LIII. Of several occasions of great Wars.

I am not ignorant that the greatest Wars have sprung from very slight occasions. They say that the Persian [War] began upon the falling out of Maeander the Samian with the Athenians; The Peloponnesian War from a Tablet [or Picture] of the Megareans; The War which was called Sa­cred, for the exacting the Mulcts adjudged by the Amphictyones; The War at Chae­ronea from the dispute between Philip and the Athenians, they not willing to accept of the place by way of Gift [but of Resti­tution.]

CHAP. LIV. How Aristotle endeavoured to appease Alexander's Anger.

Aristotle willing to appease Alexander's Anger, and to quiet him being much incen­sed, wrote thus to him; ‘Rage and Anger is not towards Equals, but towards Supe­riours; but to you no man is Equal.’

Aristotle advising Alexander in such things as were fit to be done, did benefit [Page 251] many persons; by this means he re-edified his own City, which had been razed by Phi­lip.

CHAP. LV. Of those who among the Libyans were slain by Elephants, either in Hunting or in War.

Those who were slain by Elephants ei­ther in Hunting or in War, the Libyans bury honourably, and sing certain Hymns. The subject of the Hymns is this; That they were brave persons that durst oppose such a Beast: adding, That an honourable death was a Monument to the buried.

CHAP. LVI. What Diogenes saïd of the Megareans.

Diogenes the Sinopean said many things in the reproof of the ignorance and want of discipline of the Megareans, and would rather chuse to be a Ram belonging to a Megarean, then his Son. He implied that the Megareans had great care of their Flocks, but none of their Children.

CHAP. LVII. Of the Prodigies which appeared to the Thebans, when Alexander brought his Forces against their City.

When Alexander Son of Philip brought his Forces against Thebes, the Gods sent them many Signs and Prodigies, fore-shew­ing misfortunes greater then ever had hap­pened; (but they, thinking that Alexander died in Illyria, gave out many reproachful speeches against him.) For the Lake in On­chestus made a dreadful and continual noise, like the bellowing of a Bull. The Foun­tain which floweth by Ismenus and the Walls thereof, named Dirce, which ever until that time had run with clear and sweet Water, was then unexpectedly full of bloud. The Thebans believed that the Gods threat­ned the Macedonians. In the Temple of Ceres, within the City, a Spider made her Web over the face of the Image, working there as she useth to doe. The Image of Minerva, surnamed Alalcomeneis, was burnt of it self, no fire being put to it: and divers other things.

CHAP. LVIII. Of Dioxippus.

Dioxippus the Athenian, an Olympick Victor in Wrastling, was brought [Plutarch▪ de curio [...] in a Chariot] into Athens, according to the cu­stome of Wrastlers. The multitude flocked together, and crowded to behold him. A­mongst these a Woman of extraordinary beauty came to see the Shew. Dioxippus beholding her, was immediately overcome with her beauty, and looked fixedly upon her, and turned his head back, often chan­ging colour, whereby he was plainly dete­cted by the People to be taken extraordi­narily with the Woman. But Diogenes the Sinopean did chiefly reprehend his passion thus; A Gold Repre­senting the Tri­umph. Tablet of Corinthian Work being set to sale, ‘Behold, said he, your great Wrastler his neck writhed about by a Girl.’

CHAP. LIX. Of Truth and Beneficence.

Pythagor as said that these two most ex­celle [...]t things are given by the Gods to Men; To speak Truth, and to doe Good [Page 254] [to others:] He added, that each of these resembled the actions of the Gods.

CHAP. LX. Of Dionysius and Philip.

On a time Dionysius the Second and Philip Son of Amyntas conversed toge­ther. Besides many other discourses which (as is probable) happened between them, was this; Philip asked Dionysius how it came to pass, that having so great a King­dome left him by his Father, he did not keep it. He answered not improperly, ‘My Father indeed left me all the rest; but the Fortune by which he obtained and kept them, he did not leave me.’

CHAP. LXI. Of honour given to the Wind Boreas.

Dionysius set out a Fleet against the Thu­rians, consisting of three hundred Ships full of armed Men: But Boreas blowing contrary, broke the Vessels, and destroyed all his Sea-Forces. Hereupon the Thurians sacrificed to Boreas, and by a publick De­cree made the Wind free of their City, and allotted him an House and Estate, and [Page 255] every year performed sacred Rites to him. Therefore not the Athenians onely decla­red him their Patron, but the Thurians also registred him their Benefactour. Pausanias saith that the Megalopolites did so likewise.

CHAP. LXII. A Persian Law concerning those who give the King Advice.

This was also a Persian Law; If any one would give advice to the King in difficult and ambiguous Affairs, he stood upon a golden Brick; and if it was conceived that his advice was good, he took the Brick in reward of his counsel, but was scourged for contradicting the King. To a free person, in my judgement, the reward did not coun­tervalue the dishonour.

CHAP. LXIII. O [...] Archedice a Curtezan.

One fell in love with Archedice a Cur­tezan at Naucratis; but she was proud and covetous, and demanded a great price; which having received, she complied a little with the giver, and then cast him off. The young man who loved her, yet could not [Page 256] obtain her, because he was not very rich, dreamed that he embraced her, and was im­mediately quit of his affection.

CHAP. LXIV. Of Alexander dead.

Alexander, Son of Philip and Olympia, ending his daies at Babylon, lay there dead, who had said that he was the Son of Jupiter. And whilest they who were about him contested for the Kingdome, he remai­ned without Burial, which the poorest per­ [...]ons enjoy, common Nature requiring that the dead should be interred; but he was left thirty daies unburied, until Aristander the Telmissian, either through Divine in­stinct, or some other motive, came into th [...] midst of the Macedonians, and said to them▪ ‘That Alexander was the most fortunat [...] King of all Ages, both living and dead▪ and that the Gods had told him, that th [...] Land which should receive the Body i [...] which his Soul first dwelt, should be ab▪ solutely happy and unvanquishable fo [...] ever.’ Hearing this, there arose a grea [...] emulation amongst them, every one desirin [...] to send this Carriage to his own Country that he might have this Rarity the Pledg [...] of a firm undeclinable Kingdome. Bu [...] [Page 257] Ptolemee, if we may credit Report, So Freinsh. stole away the Body, and with all speed con­veyed it to the City of Alexander in Ae­gypt. The rest of the Macedonians were quiet, onely Perdiccas pursued him; not so much moved by love of Alexander, or pious care of the dead Body, as enflamed by the predictions of Aristander. As soon as he overtook Ptolemee there was a very sharp Fight about the dead Body, in a manner a­kin to that which happened concerning the Image [of Hellen] in Troy, celebrated by Homer, who saith that Apollo in defence of Aeneas engaged amidst the Heroes; for Pto­lemee having made an Image like to Alexan­der clothed it with the Royal Robe, and with noble Funeral Ornaments; then placing it in one of the Persian Chariots, adorned the Bier magnificently with Silver, Gold, and Ivory; but the true Body of Alexander he sent meanly ordered by obscure and private waies. Perdiccas seizing the Image of the dead man, and the richly-adorned Chariot, gave over the pursuit, thinking he had gai­ned the prize. But too late he found that he was couzened, for he had not got [...]hat at which he aimed.

The End.

AELIAN's Various History.
The Thirteenth BOOK.

CHAP. I. Of Atalanta.

THE Arcadian relation concerning Atalanta Daughter of Jasion is this; Her Father exposed her as soon as born, for he said he had not need of Daughters but Sons. But he to whom she was given to be exposed did not kill her, but going into the Mountain Parthenius laid her down by a Spring, where there was a Rock with a Cave, over which there was a place full of Oaks; thus the Infant was destined to death, but not deserted by Fortune: For soon after a she­Bear robbed by Huntsmen of her Whelps, her Udder swoln and opprest with fulness o [...] [Page 259] Milk, came by a certain divine providence, taking delight in the Child gave it suck; whereby at once the Beast eased her own pain, and nourished the Infant: and came again, being opprest with Milk; and being no longer Mother of her own, became Nurse to one that nothing belonged to her. The same Huntsmen who before had taken her Whelps watch'd her, and search­ing every part of the Thicket, when the Bear according to her custome was gone to the Pastures to get food, stole away Atalanta, not yet so called (for they gave her that name afterwards) and she was bred up amongst them with wild food: And by degrees her stature encreased with her years, and she affected Virginity, and shunned the conversation of men, and delighted in the desart, making choice of the highest of the Arcadian Mountains, where was a Valley well furnished with water and tall Oaks, as also fresh gales and a thick wood. Why should it seem tedious to hear the description of Atalanta's Cave, more then that of Ca­lypso in Homer? In the hollow of the cliff there was a Cave very deep fortified at the entrance with a great precipice; along it crept Ivy, and twined about the young Trees, upon which it climbed. Saffron also [Page 260] grew about the place in a young thick Grove, with which also sprung up the Hy­acinths, and many other flowers of various colours, which not onely feasted the eye, but the odours which they exhaled round about into the air, did afford a banquet also to the smell. Likewise there were many Laurels, which being ever verdant were very delightful to the sight; Vines also growing thick and full of Bunches before the Cave, attested the industry of Atalanta, springs ever running clear and cool to the touch and tast flowed there abundantly. These contributed much benefit to the Trees we speak of, watering them and en­livening them continually. In fine, the place was full of beauty and majesty, such as argued the prudence of the Virgin.

The skins of Beasts were Atalanta's bed, their flesh her food, her drink water. She wore a careless Vest, such as Diana not disdained. For she said that she imitated her as well in this as in determining to live al­waies a Virgin. She was exceeding swift of foot, so that not any Beast could run away from her, nor any man that layed wait for her, was able (if she would run away) to overtake her. She was beloved, not onely of all those who saw her, but also of those [Page 261] who heard the report of her. If therefore it be not tedious we will describe her per­son. But tedious it cannot be, since hereby we may arrive at some degree of skill in Rhetorick. Whilest she was yet a child, she exceeded in stature those who were Women grown; for Beauty she went beyond all other of the Peloponnesian Virgins of that time. Her look was masculine and fierce, occasioned partly by eating the flesh of wild Beasts, (for she was very couragious) partly by her exercise on the Mountains. She had nothing of an effeminate loose disposition, neither did she come out of the Thalamus, [where Virgins are educated.] nor was one of those who are brought up by Mothers or Nurses. She was not corpulent; for by Hunting and other Exercise she preserved herself in a good Constitution. Her Hair was Yellow, not by any Womanish Art or Die, but by Nature. Her Face was of a ruddy Complexion, somewhat tanned by the Sun. What Flower is so beautiful as the countenance of a modest Virgin? She had two admirable properties, an irresistible Beauty, and an awfulness. No timid person could fall in love with her, for such durst not look upon her, so much did her splen­dour dazle the beholders. That which cau­sed [Page 262] her to be admired, besides other things, was her reservedness. For she exposed not her self to view, unless accidentally in fol­lowing the chase, or defending herself from some man; in which action she broke forth like lightning, then immediately hid herself in the thickest of the wood. On a time it happened that two bold young-men of the neighbouring Country, Centaurs, Hyleus and Rhecus, in love with her, came in a fro­lick to her. They had no players on the Flute in this frolick, nor such things as the young men use in Cities upon the like oc­casion, but took with them lighted Tor­ches, the sight whereof might have frighted a multitude, much more a lone Maiden. Then breaking boughs from the Pine trees, they twined them about them, and made themselves Garlands of them, and with con­tinual clashing of Weapons as they went along the Mountains, set fire on the Trees in their way to her, presenting her with in­juries instead of Nuptial Gifts. She was aware of their Plot, for she beheld the fire from her Cave, and knowing who those revellers were, was nothing terrified with the sight: but drawing her Bow, and let­ting fly an Arrow, chanced to kill the first, who falling down, the other assaulted her, [Page 263] not in mirth, but as an Enemy to revenge his friend and satisfie his passion. But he met with another vindictive Arrow from her hand. Thus much of Atalanta Daugh­ter of Jasion.

CHAP. II. How Macareus was punished for Cru­elty.

A Mitylenaean, by name Macareus, Priest of Bacchus, was of a mild and good look, but the most impious of all men. A stranger coming to him, & giving him a great summe of money to lay up, in the inner part of the Temple; Macareus digging a hole, hid the Gold in the ground. Afterwards the stran­ger returning, demanded his Money; he le [...]ding him in as if he meant to restore it murdered him, digging up the Gold bu­ried the man in the place, thinking that what he did was hid as well from God as from men; but it proved otherwise, for not long after; within a few daies came the triennial solemnity. Whilest he was busied in celebrating the Rites of Bacchus in much state, his two Sons that were left at home, imitating their Father's sacrificing, went to his Altar, where the brands were yet bur­ning. [Page 264] The younger held out his neck, the elder finding a knife left there by accident, slew his brother as a Victim. They of the family seeing this cried out. The Mother hearing the cry, rushed forth, and seeing on [...] of her Sons slain, the other standing by with a bloudy Sword, snatched a brand from the Altar, and kill'd her surviving Son. The news was brought to Macareus, who giving over sacrifice, with all speed and ea­gerness ran to his own house, and with the Thyrsus which he had in his hand, kill'd his Wife. This wickedness was publickly known: Macareus was taken, and being tortured, confessed what he had perpetrated in the Temple. In the midst of thefe tor­tures he gave up the Ghost. But the other who was murdered unjustly, had publick honour, and was interred by the appoint­ment of God. Thus Macareus suffered due revenge, as the Poet saith, with his own head, and his Wives, and his Childrens.

CHAP. III. Of the Monument of Bel [...]s, and the un­fortunate sign which happened to Xerxes there.

Xerxes Son of Darius, breaking up the [Page 265] Monument of ancient Belus, found an Urn of glass in which his dead body lay in Oil; but the Urn was not full, it wanted a hand­breadth of the top: Next the Urn there was a little Pillar, on which it was written, ‘That whosoever should open the Se­pulchre, and not fill up the Urn, should have ill fortune.’ Which Xerxes reading, grew afraid, and commanded that they should pour Oil into it with all speed; not­withstanding, it was not filled: Then he commanded to pour into it the second time, but neither did it increase at all there­by; so that at last failing of success, he gave over; and shutting up the Monu­ment departed very sad. Nor did the event foretold by the Pillar deceive him; for he had an Army of fifty Myriads against Greece, where he received a great defeat, and returning home, died miserably, being murthered in his bed by his own Son, in the night time.

CHAP. IV. Of Euripides drunk at a Feast.

King Archelaus made a great entertain­ment for his friends. And when they fell to drink, Euripides took off unmixt Wine so [Page 266] freely, that by degrees he became drunk. Then embracing Agathon the Tragick Poet, who lay on the couch next him, he kissed him, who was at that time fourty years of age. Archelaus asking him whe­ther he seemed amiable at those years, ‘Yes, said he, of the beautiful not the Spring onely,’ but even the Autumn also is fair.

CHAP. V. Of Laius.

They say that Laius fell in love with Chrysippus Son of Pelops. * *

CHAP. VI. The properties of Arcadian, Thatian, and Achaean Wines.

At Heraea in Arcadia, I am informed there are Vines from which is made Wine, which bereaveth men of the use of reason, and maketh the Arcadians mad, but causeth fruitfulness in the Women.

It is said that in Thasus there are two sorts of Wines; one being drunk procureth sleep, profound, and consequently sweet; the other is an enemy to life, and causet [...] wakefulness and disturbance.

[Page 267]In Achaea about Ceraunia there is a kind of Wine, which causeth Women to mis­carry.

CHAP. VII. Of the taking of Thebes by Alexan­der, and of Pindar.

When Alexander took Thebes, he sold [...]ll the Free-men except Priests. And those who had formerly entertained his Father as their Guest, he set at liberty (for Philip, when a child lived there in Hostage) and such as were a-kin to them. He also respe­cted those who were descended from Pin­dar, and permitted his house onely to stand. He slew of the Thebans ninety thousand, the Captives were thirty thousand.

CHAP. VIII. Of Lysander.

They say that Lysander the Lacedemo­nian living in Ionia, and rejecting the Laws of Lycurgus as burthensome, led a luxufi­ous life.

CHAP. IX. Of Lamia.

Lamia the Attick Curtezan said, ‘Th [...] Lions of Greece coming to Ephesus be come Foxes.’

CHAP. X. Of Dionysius marrying two Wives i [...] one day.

In one day Dionysius married two Wives, Doris the Locrian, and Aristaeneta Daugh­ter [...] of Hipparinus, Sister of Dio, and bedde [...] them by turns: One accompanied him i [...] the Army, the other entertained him when he came home.

CHAP. XI. Of the conquest over the Persians, and of Isocrates.

It was related to me that Isocrates the Oratour was occasion of the conquest of the [...]ersians, whom the Macedonians subdued. For the fame of the Panegyrick Oration which Isocrates made to the Grecians, coming to Macedonia, first excited Philip [Page 269] [...]gainst Asia. and he dying, it also instigated Alexander his Son and heir to prosecute the design of his Father.

CHAP. XII. How Meton freed himself from an ex­pedition; and of the madness of Ulysses.

Meton the Astronomer, when the Athe­ [...]ian Souldiers were upon an expedition [...]gainst Sicily, was registred amongst them [...] the Catalogue. But clearly foreseeing [...]he future disasters, he through fear shun­ [...]ed the Voyage, endeavouring to be quit of the expedition. But when that nothing [...]vailed, he counterfeited madness, and a­ [...]ongst other things, to procure a belief of [...]is infirmity, fired his own house which was next the Poecile. Hereupon the Ar­ [...]hons dismissed him, and in my opinion, Meton much better counterfeited madness then Ulysses the Ithacian; for Palamedes discovered him, but none of the Atheni­ [...]ns Meton.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Munificence of Ptolemee.

They say that Ptolemee Son of Lagus [...]ook greatest delight in making his friends [Page 270] rich; for he said, ‘'Tis better to enrich others, then be rich our selves.’

CHAP. XIV. Of the Verses and Poetry of Homer.

The Ancients sung the Verses of Ho­mer, divided into several parts, to which they gave particular names; as the Fight at the Ships, and the Dolonia, and the Vi­ctory of Agamemnon, and the Catalogue of the Ships. Moreover the Patroclea, and the Lytra, [or redemption of Hector's Bo­dy] and the Games instituted for Patroclus, and the breach of Vows. Thus much of the Iliads. As concerning the other, [the Odysseis] the actions at Pytus, and the acti­ons at Lacedemon, and the Cave of Calypso, and the Boat, the Discourses of Alcinous, the Cyclopias, the Necuia and the washings of Circe, the death of the Woers, the acti­ons in the Field, and concerning Laertes.

But long after Lycurgus the Lacedemo­nian brought all Homer's Poetry first into Greece from Ionia whether he travelled. Last of all Pisistratus compiling them, for­med the Iliads and Odysseis.

CHAP. XV. Of some persons extraordinary foolish.

The Comick Poets say that one Polydo­rus, had a very gross understanding, and a skin scarce penetrable: also that there was another by name Caecylian, who, through excessive folly endeavoured to number the Waves. There is a report that there was one Sannyrion like these, who sought Lad­der-rounds in a glass. They say also that Coroebus and Melitides were very blockish.

CHAP. XVI. Of the Apolloniats and of their Coun­try, and of Epidamnum.

The Apolloniats inhabit a City next Epidamnum in the Ionian Gulf: In the places next them, there is a vein of Brim­stone, which springeth out of the ground as fountains cast up water. Not farre off there is shewed a continual fire. The Hill which burneth is but little, reacheth not farre, and hath but a small circumference, but smelleth of Sulphur and Alum. About it there are many Trees green and flouri­shing, nothing injured by the neighbouring [Page 272] fire, either as to the shooting out young ones, or to their own growth. The fire burns night and day, and never intermitted, as the Apolloniats affirm, until the War which they waged with the Illyrians

The Apolloniats according to the Lace­demonian Law prohibited foreiners. But the Epidamnians allowed any one that would to come and live amongst them.

CHAP. XVII. A Proverb, and of Phrynichus.

Phrynichus feareth a swarm of Wasps like a Cock. It is proverbially said of per­sons that are worsted; for Phrynichus the Tragick Poet acting the taking of Miletus, the Athenians with weeping made him quit the Stage, afraid and daunted.

CHAP. XVIII. Of Dionysius.

Dionysius Tyrant of Sicily, affected and commended Tragedy, and made Tragedies: but he was averse from Comedy, for he lo­ved not laughter.

CHAP. XIX. What Cleomenes said of Homer and Hesiod.

Cleomenes said Laconically according to the manner of his Count [...]y, that Homer was the Poet of the Lacedemonians, decla­ring how men should fight; but Hesiod of the Slaves, declaring how men should till ground.

CHAP. XX. Of one who died chearfully through wil­lingness to [...]ee some of the dead.

A Megalipolite of Arcadia, named Cer­ [...]idas, dying, said to his friends that he par­ted with his life willingly; for that he ho­ped to converse with Pythagoras of the Wise; with Hecataeus of the Historians; with Olympus of the Musicians; and with Homer of the Poets, and as soon as he had said this, died.

CHAP. XXI. Of Phrygian Harmony.

If at Celene any one play on the Flute before the skin of the Phrygian [Marsga,] [Page 274] the skin moves, but if any tune or Hymne of Apollo, it stirs not.

CHAP. XXII. Of the Temple and Statue of Homer.

Ptolemaeus Philopator having built a Temple to Homer, erected a fair. Image of him, and placed about the Image those Ci­ties which contended for Homer. Galaton the Painter drew Homer vomiting, and the rest of the Poets gathering it up.

CHAP. XXIII. Of Lycurgus the Lacedemonian.

Lycurgus the La [...]edomonian, Son of Eu­nomus, willing to teach the Lacedemonians Justice, was not duly requited. For one o [...] his eyes were put out by Alcander, as fome think by a stone cast from an ambush­ment, or as others, by a blow with a stick. This is said to those who aim at one thing and receive another. Ephorus saith that he died of hunger in banishment.

CHAP. XXIV. Of some who have been harmed by Laws, which they themselves made.

Lycurgus the Oratour made a Law, that Women should not goe in Chariots at the festival solemnities call'd the Mysteries, and that she who did so should be fined at his pleasure. The first that transgressed this Law was his own Wife, who being con­victed, payed the fine.

Pericles also made a Law, that none should be a free Athenian, but he whose Parents were both Athenians. Afterwards Pericles, losing his legitimate Children, had onely one natural Son left him. It is mani­fest that he designed one thing, and that the [...]ontrary befell him.

Clisthenes the Athenian first brought in way of banishment by Ostracism, and first felt the punishment of it.

Zaleucus, the Law-giver of the Locri­ans ordained, that whosoever was taken in Adultery should lose both his eyes. It fell out contrary to his expectation, for his Son being surprized in Adultery, was to suffer the punishment decreed by his Father. Hereupon, lest what was confirmed by ge­neral [Page 276] Votes should be violated, he suffered one of his own eyes to be put out, and one of his Sons, that the young man might not be quite blind.

CHAP. XXV. Of Pindar in a contest worsted by Co­rinna.

Pindar the Poet contending at Thebs, lighting upon ignorant Auditors, was wor­sted by Corinna five times. * * *

CHAP. XXVI. How Diogenes in extreme indigence comforted himself.

Diogenes the Sinopean was left alone de­serted by all men, not being able by reason of his indigence to entertain any man, nor would any one entertain him, all avoiding him because of his sower way of reprehen­sion, and because he was morose in all his actions and sayings. Hereupon he became troubled, and did feed on the tops of leaves; for this food was ready for him. But a Mouse coming thither, fed upon some crums of Bread which she found scattered there; which Diogenes diligently observing, [Page 277] smiled, and becoming more chearful and pleasant to himself said; ‘This Mouse re­quires not the plentiful diet of the Athe­nians, and art thou Diogenes troubled that thou dost not feast with them?’ By this means he acquired tranquillity to himself.

CHAP. XXVII. Of Socrates.

It is reported that Socrates was very tem­perate and continent, insomuch that when the Athenians part died, the rest were sick almost to death, Socrates alone escaped the disease. Now he whose body was so well tempered, what an excellent soul must he have!

CHAP. XXVIII. Of the Servant of Drogenes torn in pieces by Dogs.

When Diogenes left his Country, one of his Servants followed him; who not brook­ing his conversation run away. Some per­suading Diogenes to make enquiry after him, he said, ‘Is it not a shame that Manes should not need Diogenes, and that Dio­genes should need Manes? But this Ser­vant wandring to Delphos, was torn in pie­ces [Page 278] by Dogs, paying to his Masters name [Cynick] the punishment of his running away.

CHAP. XXIX. Of Hope.

Plato said, That Hope is the Dream of men that are awake.

CHAP. XXX. Of Olympias grieving for Alexan­der's death, and want of burial.

Olympias, Mother of Alexander, under­standing that her Son lay long unburied, grie­ving and lamenting exceedingly, said, ‘O Son, thou wouldest have had a share in Heaven, and d [...]dst endeavour it eagerly; now thou canst not enjoy that which is equally common to all men, earth and burial.’ Thus she, bewailing her own misfortune, and reproving the pride of her Son.

CHAP. XXXI. That Xenocrates was Compassionate.

Xenocrates the Chalcedonian was not onely kind to men, but often to irrational creatures also. O [...] a time a Sparrow, pur­sued [Page 279] b [...] a Hawk, flew to his bosome, he took it, much pleased, and hid it till the Enemy was out of sight; and [...]when he thought it was out of fear and danger, ope­ning his bosome, he let it goe, saying, that he had not betrayed a suppliant.

CHAP. XXXII. How Socrates refelled the boasting of a Curtizan.

Xenophon relates that Socrates disputed with Theodota a Curtizau, a Woman of extraordinary beauty. He also argued with Calisto, who said, ‘I (ô Son of Sophro­niseus) exccel you, for you cannot draw away any of my followers, but I can whensoever I please draw away all yours.’ He answered, ‘Very likely, for you draw them down a precipice, but I drive them to vertue, which is a steep and difficult ascent.’

CHAP. XXXIII. Of the fortune of Rhodopis a Curtizan.

The Egyptians relations affirm that Rho­dopis was a most beautiful Curtizan; and that on a time as she was bathing her self, Fortune, who loveth to doe extravagant [Page 280] and unexp [...]cted things, gave her a reward sutable, not to her mind, but her beauty. For whilest she was washing, and her Maids look'd to her clothes, an Eagle stooping down, snatched up one of her Shoes, and carried it away to Memphis, where Psam­metichus was sitting in Judgement, and let the Shoe fall into his lap. Psammetichus wondring at the shape of the Shoe, and neat­ness of the work, and the action of the Bird, sent throughout Aegypt to find out the Woman to whom the Shoe belonged; and having found her out, married her.

CHAP. XXXIV. Of Dionysius.

Dionysius having given order that Leon should be put to death, did three times bid the Officers carry him away, and three times changed his mind. Every time that he sent for him back he kissed him, weep­ing, and execrating himself for that when he took the Sword to put him to death, he was overcome with fear. At last he com­manded him to be slain, saying, ''Leon, you must not live.

CHAP. XXXV. What natural remedies the Hart, being not well, useth.

Naturalists affirm that the Hart, when he would purge himself, eateth the Herb Seselis:. and being bitten by Phalangies he eats Crabs.

CHAP. XXXVI. Of the death of Eurydice, Daughter of Philip.

Olympias to Eurydice, Daughter of Phi­lip by an Illyrian Wife, sent Hemlock, a Rope and a Sword; but she made choice of the Rope.

CHAP. XXXVII. Of Gelo, and those who conspired against him.

Gelo Tyrant of the Syracusians, behaved himself in the Government very mildly, yet some seditious persons conspired against him; which Gelo understanding, convoca­ted all the Syracusians, and coming amongst them armed, declared what good things he [Page 282] had done for them, and revealed the Con­spiracy. Then putting off his Armour, he said to th [...]m all, ‘Behold me now in my Coat, I stand unarmed before you, and give my self up to be disposed as you will.’ The Syracusians admiring his Courage, de­livered the Conspirators into his hands, and gave the Regal power again to him. But Gelo remitted them to the people to be pu­nished. Hereupon the Syracusians erected his Statue in a Coat ungirt, [unarmed] in memory of his Oration to the people, and for the instruction of those should reign af­ter him.

CHAP. XXXVIII. Of Alcibiades.

Alcibiades admired Homer exceedingly. On a time coming to a School of Boyes, he asked for the Rhapsody of the Iliads. The Schoolmaster answering, that he had no­thing of Homer, he gave him a sound boxe on the ear, and went away, shewing that he was ignorant himself, and made his Scho­lars such.

The same person being sent for by the Athenians out of Sicily to answer a ca­pital inditement, refused to appear, saying, [Page 283] ‘It is a foolish thing for a man that is ac­cused, if he can escape, to goe to a place whence he cannot escape.’ One saying to him, ‘Will you not t [...]ust your cause to your own Country?’ ‘No, saith he, not to my own Master; for I should fear lest through ignorance or mistake of the truth, he should cast in a black stone in­stead of a white.’ Hearing then that he was sentenced to death by the Citizens But we will shew, said he, that we are alive: and going speedily to the Lacedim [...]nians, he set on foot the Docilian War against the Athenians.

He said, that it was nothing strange the Lacedemonians died fearless in War; for so they escaped the severity of their Laws, and chearfully exchanged labours for death.

He used to say of his own actions, that he led the life of the Dioscuri, dying one day and reviving the next: [...]or whilest he was favoured of the people, he was thought equal to the Gods, but losing their favour, he differed nothing from the dead.

CHAP. XXXIX. Of Ephialtes.

Ephialtes, a certain [...] repro­ching [Page 284] him for Poverty, said, ‘Why doe you not adde thae other thing, That I am Just.’

CHAP. XL. Of Themistocles.

A golden Persian Chain lying by chance on the ground, Themistocles standing by, said to a servant, ‘Boy, why dost thou not take up this Foundling, pointing to the Chain; for thou art not Themistocles.

The Athenians having on a time disho­noured him▪ afterwards invited him to the Generalship. But he said, ‘I commend not those men who make use of the same Ves­sel for the meanest, & for the best Offices.’

To Eurybiades he had said something unpleasing, who thereupon held up his staff. But he, strike so you hear; for he knew what he was about to say was advantageous for the Commonwealth.

CHAP. XLI. Of Phocion.

They who are to die with Phocion ma­king lamentation; Phocion said, ''Then you are not proud, ô Thudippus, of dying ''with Phocion

CHAP. XLII. Of Epaminondas.

Epaminondas returning from Lacede­monia, was arraigned for a capital offence, for having continued the office of Boeotarch four Months longer then the Law allowed. He bad his partners lay the blame on him, as if they had been compelled thereto against their wills. Then coming into the Court, he said that he had not any arguments bet­ter then his actions, which if they approved not, he required that they would put him to death. But withall, that they should write upon a Pillar, that Epaminondas had forced the Thebans against their wills to lay Laconia wast, what had continued five hun­dred years unviolated by Enemies. And to restore Messenia, which had been three hun­dred and thirty years possessed by the Spar­tans. And that he had made the Arcadians their Allies, and restored to the Greeks their liberty. The Judges reverencing him for these things, acquitted him. At his going out of the Court, a little Melitean Dogge fawned upon him; whereupon he said to the standers-by, ‘This thanks me grate­fully for the good I have done it, but the [Page 286] Thebans, to whom I have often done good, arraigned me for my life.’

CHAP. XLIII. Of Timotheus.

[...] General of the Athenians, is reported to have been very successful; he said that Fortune was the cause of all these, but Timotheus of none. Hereupon the Pain­ters, abusing him, drew him sleeping in a Tent, and over his head stood Fortune draw­ing Cities into a Net.

Themistocles being asked, with what in his whole life he was most pleased, answe­red, ''To see the whole Theatre at the Olympick Games turn their eyes upon me as I pass'd into the Stadium.

CHAP. XLIV. Of the emulation betwixt Themistocles and Aristides.

Themist [...]cles, and Aristides Son of Ly­ [...]achus, had the same Governours, they were thus brought up together, and taugh [...] by one Master, but whilest yet Boyes, they we [...]e alwaies at variance; and this emula­tion continued [...]rom their childhood, [...]o ex­ [...]reme old age.

CHAP. XLV. Of the Cruelty of Dionysius.

Dionysius [the younger] put his Mother to death by Poison. His Brother Leptines, whom in a Sea-fight he might have saved, he suffered to be slain.

CHAP. XLVI. Of the Gratitude of a Dragon.

Patrae is a City in Achaia. A Boy there had bought a young Dragon, and brought it up with care, and when it was grown bigger, used to talk to it as to one that unde [...]stood him, and played, and slept with it. At last the Dragon growing to an extra­ordinary bigness, the Citizens turned it loose into the Wilderness. Afterwards the Boy being grown a youth, returning from some Show with other youths his Compa­nions, fell amongst Theeves, and crying out, behold, the Dragon came and slew them; which stung some, slew others, bu [...] pre [...]er­ved him.

The End.

AELIAN's Various History.
The Fourteenth BOOK.

CHAP. I. How Aristotle stood affected as to love of Glory.

ARistotle Son of Nicomachus, a person that really was, as well as esteemed wise. When one took away from him the ho­nours decreed to him at Delphi; writing hereupon to Antipater, said, ‘As to those things that were decreed for me at Del­phi, and of which I am now deprived, I am so affected, as that I neither much care for them, nor care nothing for them.’ This he said, not through love of glory; nei­ther can I accuse Aristotle (who was so great a person) thereof. But he wisely considered [Page 289] that there was a great deal of difference be­twixt not receiving an honour, and after having received it, to be deprived of it. For it is no great trouble no [...] to obtain it, but a great vexation having obtained it, after­wards to be bereaved of it.

CHAP. II. Of Agesilaus, and the Barbarians brea­king their Oaths.

Agesilaus used to commend the Barba­rians who broke their Oaths, because, by perjury they made the Gods their Enemies, but Friends and Assistants to him.

CHAP. III. Of Prodigality.

Timotheus inveighing bitterly against A­ristophontes for being prodigal, said, ''To whom nothing is sufficient, nothing is dis­honest.

CHAP. IV. Of Aristides dying of the biting of a Weezel.

Aristides the Locrian being bit b [...] a Tartesian Weezel, and dying, said, That it [Page 290] would have pleased him much better to have died by the biting of a Lion or Leo­pard, (since he must have died by some­thing) then by such a Beast. He brooked in my opinion the ignomy of the biting much worse then the death it self.

CHAP. V. What persons the Athenians chose for Government:

The Athenians conferred Offices Civil and Military, not onely on native Citizens, but also often preferred strangers before Citizens, and put them in authority over the Commonwealth, if they knew them to be truly good and honest men, and proper for such things. They often created Apol­lodorus the Cyzicene their General, though a stranger, so likewise Heraclides the Cla­zomenian; for having behaved themselves worthily, they were esteemed not unworthy to govern the Athenians. And for this thing the City is to be commended, which betrayed not truth to gratifie the Citizens; but not seldome bestowed the chief dignity even on those who were nothing allied to them, yet in regard of their vertue most worthy of honour.

CHAP. VI. Aristippus his opinon concerning chear­fulness.

Aristippus by strong Arguments advised that we should not be sollicitous about things past or future; arguing, that not to be troubled at such things, is a sign of a con­stant clear spirit. He also advised to take care onely for the present day, and in that day, onely of the present part thereof, wherein something was done or thought; for he said, the present only is in our power, not the past or future; the one being gone, the other uncertain whether ever it will come.

CHAP. VII. A Lacedemonian Law concerning the Complexion and Constitution of the Bo­dy, and such as are too Fat.

There is a Lacedemonian Law which saith thus; That no Lacedemonian shall be of an unmanly Complexion, or of grea­ter weight then is fit▪ for the Exercises; for this seemeth to argue Laziness, that, Ef­feminacy. It was likewise ordered by Law, that every tenth day the young men should [Page 292] shew themselves naked before the Ephori; If they were of a solid strong Constitu­tion, and molded as it were for Exercise, they were commended; but if any Limb were found to be soft and tender by reason of fatness accrued by idleness, they were beaten and punished. Moreover the Ephori took particular care every day that their Garments should be looked into, that they should be no otherwise then exact and fit to the Body. The Cooks at Lacedemon might not dress any thing but flesh. He who was skilled in any other kind of Coo­kery was cast out of Sparta. Nauclidas Son of Polybiades, for being grown too fat and heavy through luxury and idleness, they took out of the publick Assembly, and threatned to punish him by banishment, unless he alter that blameable and rather Io­nick then Laconick course of life: For his shape and habit of body was a shame to La­cedemon and our Laws.

CHAP. VIII. How Polycletus and Hippomachus argued the common people of Ignorance.

Polycletus made two Images at the same time; one at the pleasure of the people, the [Page 293] other according to the rule of Art. He gra­tified the common people in this manner; As often as any one came in, he altered the Picture as he would have it, following his direction. He exposed them both together to publick view, one was admired by all, the other laughed at. Hereupon Polycletus said, ‘Yet this which you find fault with, you your selves made, this which you ad­mire, I.’

Hippomachus a Player on the Flute, when one of his Scholars missed in playing, yet was nevertheless commended by the stan­ders by, struck him with a stick, saying, ‘You played false, otherwise these would not have commended you.’

CHAP. IX. Of the Patience of Xenocrates.

Xenocrates the Chalcedonian, being re­proved by Plato for his want of gratefulness, was nothing angry thereat, as is reported, but prudently silenced one who pressed him to answer Plato, saying, This benefits me.

CHAP. X. How Phocion retorted upon Demades.

The Athenians preferred Demades to be their General before Phocion; who being thus advanced grew high in his own esteem, and coming to Phocion, ‘Lend me, said he, that sordid Cloak which you used to wear in your Generalship. He answered, You will never want any thing that is sordid, whilest you continue what you are.’

CHAP. XI. How a King ought to behave himself to­wards his Subjects.

Philiscus on a time said to Alexander, Study glory, yet be not a Pestilence or great Sickness, but Peace and Health: Affirming that to govern tyrannically and severely, and to take Cities and depopulate Coun­tries is a Pestilence; but to consult the pre­servation of Subjects, is Health; these are the benefits of Peace.

CHAP. XII. How the Persian King employed himself whilest he travelled.

The Persian King whilest he travelled had (to divert the tediousness of his Jour­ney) a little stick, which they call Phily­rium, and a knife to cut it. Thus were the Kings hands employed. They never had any Books, wherein they might read of something great, memorable, and worthy of Discourse.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Tragedies of Agatho.

Agatho used many Antitheses. Where­upon a person that would have corrected his Writings, told him, that all those should be put out of his Play. He answered, ‘But you observed not, excellent Sir, that by this means you blot Agatho quite out of Agatho. So much was he pleased with these, and thought these Tragedies upheld by them.

CHAP. XIV. Of Stratonicus a Lutenist.

A certain person received Stratonicus the Lutenist very civilly. He was much pleased with the invitation; for he had not any friend to entertain him, being come into a strange Countrey. Hereupon he returned great thanks to the man, who so readily had received him under his Roof. But when he saw another come in, and after him ano­ther, and perceived that he had made his House free for all that would come; ‘Let us get away, Boy, saith he to his Servant, for we have got a Wood-pigeon instead of a Dove, we have not lighted upon a friends House, but upon an Inne.’

CHAP. XV. Of the Discourses of Socrates.

It is a saying that the Discourses of So­crates are like the Pictures of Pauson. For Pauson the Painter being desired to make the Picture of a Horse tumbling on his back, drew him running. And when he who had bespoke the Picture, was angry that he had not drawn it according to his [Page 297] directions, the Painter said, ‘Turn it the other way, and the Horse which now run­neth, will then roll upon his back.’ So So­crates did not discourse downright, but if his discourses were turned, they appeared very right. For he was unwilling to gain the hatred of those to whom he discoursed, and for that reason delivered things enig­matically and obliquely.

CHAP. XVI. Of the ambition of Hipponicus.

Hipponicus Son of Callias would erect a Statue as a Gift to his Countrey. One ad­vised him that the Statue should be made by Polycletus. He answered, ‘I will not have such a Statue, the glory whereof will re­dound not to the Giver, but to the Car­ver. For it is certain that all who see the Art, will admire Polycletus and not me.’

CHAP. XVII. Of Archelaus, and of the Pictures of Zeuxis.

Socrates said that Archelaus had bestow­ed fourty Minae upon his House, having hi­red Zeuxis the Heracleote to adorn it with [Page 298] Pictures, but upon himself nothing. For what cause many came from farre out of curiosity to see the House, but none came to Macedonia for the sake of Archelaus himself, unless he allured and invited any by money, with which a vertuous person is not taken.

CHAP. XVIII. How one that was angry threatned to punish his Servant.

A Chian being angry with his Servant, ‘I, saith he, will not put you into the Mill, but will carry you to Olympia. He thought, it seems, that it was a farre greater punish­ment to be spectator of the Olympick Game, in the excessive heat of the Sun, then to be put to work in a Mill.

CHAP. XIX. Of the Modesty of Archytas in speaking.

Archytas was very Modest, as in all o­ther things, so in speech, avoiding all obsce­nity of Language. There happened a ne­cessity of speaking something unseemly, he held his peace, and wrote it on a Wall; shewing that what he was forced to speak, though forced, he would not speak.

CHAP. XX. Of a ridiculous Story.

A Sybarite a Pedagogue (which kind of people were addicted to luxury as well as the rest of the Sybarites,) when a Boy that went along with him found a Fig by the way, and took it up, chid him for so doing; but most ridiculously took it away from the Boy, and eat it himself. When I read this in the Sybaritick Histories, I laughed, and committed it to memory, not envying others the pleasure of laughing at it too.

CHAP. XXI. Of the Poet Syagrus.

There was a Poet named Syagrus, after Orpheus and Musaeus, who is said first to have sung the Trojan War, daring to under­take this which was the greatest subject.

CHAP. XXII. Of a Tyrant forbidding his Subjects to talk together.

Tryzus a Tyrant, that he might prevent Conspiracies and Treasons against him, [Page 300] commanded the inhabitants that they shoul [...] not speak together, either in publick o [...] private; which thing was most grievou [...] and intolerable. Hereupon they eluded th [...] Tyrant's command, and signified thei [...] minds to one another by actions of the eyes of the hand, and of the head. Sometime [...] they beheld one another with a melancholly brow, sometimes with a serene and chearful▪ But from the looks of every one it was evi­dent, that they brooked ill their oppresse [...] intolerable condition. And this also trou­bled the Tyrant who conceived that even their silence, by various gestures and looks, contrived some ill against him. Wherefore he prohibited even this likewise by Law. Hereupon one of them, much troubled at this disconsolate manner of life, and instiga­ted with a desire of dissolving the Tranny, went into the Market-place, where standing he wept bitterly; the people came and stood all round about him, bursting also in­to tears. The news hereof was brought to the Tyrant, that they used not any signs, but wept grievously; who making hast to prohibit this also, and not onely to en­slave their Tongues and Gestures, but even to debarre their Eyes of natural freedome, he went on foot with his Guard to prohibit [Page 301] their weeping. But as soon as ever they saw him, they snatched weapons out of the hands of his Guard, and killed the Tyrant.

CHAP. XXIII. Of Clinias and of Achilles, who used to repress anger by Musick.

Clinias was a vertuous person; as to his opinion, a Pythagorean. He whensoever he grew angry, and perceived his mind ready to be transported with passion, immediately before anger took absolute possession of him, tuned his Lute and played upon it. To those who asked him the reason, he answered, ‘It allayeth my anger.’

Achilles also in the Ilias, singing to the Lute, and commemorating in Song the glo­ries of former persons, seems to me to have thereby asswaged his indignation; and be­ing Musically given, the first thing of the spoils which he seized, was a Lute.

CHAP. XXIV. Of some persons who have nothing valued Money in regard of their Countrymen. And of some who slew their Creditors.

Of those who despised Money, and decla­red [Page 302] their own greatness of mind, seeing that whilest they themselves abounded with wealth, their Countrymen were oppress'd with extreme poverty were, at Corinth Theocles and Thrasonides; at Mitylene, Praxis. These also advised others to re­lieve such as lay under great want. But the rest refusing, they released such Debts as were due to themselves, and thereby recei­ved great advantage, not as to Wealth but the Mind. For they whose Debts were not forgiven rose up in Arms against their Cre­ditours. and excited by rage, invincible po­verty, and necessity, slew them.

CHAP. XXV. How one persuaded a State to concord.

On a time the Chians were exceedingly at variance among themselves, and general­ly infected with that disease. Hereupon, one amongst them, who was naturally a lover of his Country, said to those of his friends, who would that all of the adverse party should be cast out of the City, ‘By no means, said he, but when we have ob­tained the Victory, let us leave some of them, lest hereafter wanting Adversaries, we should War with one another.’ By [Page 303] which words he appeased them, it seeming to all that he spoke discreetly.

CHAP. XXVI. Of Antagoras railing at Arcesilaus.

Antagoras the Poet meeting Arcesilaus the Philosopher in the Forum, railed at him. But he with an unmoved courage went to that place where he saw there were most men, and discoursed with them, that the Railer might make a publick discovery of his folly. They hearing Antagoras, turned away from him, blaming him as mad.

CHAP. XXVII. Of Agesilaus.

I commend those above all who suppre [...]s rising ills, and cut them off before they grow to a head. Agesilaus advised that they should be arraigned and put to death, who had made a Conspiracy privately by night to assault the Thebans.

CHAP. XXVIII. Of Pytheas an Oratour.

One reproched Pytheas an Oratour that [Page 304] he was wicked; he denied it not, being convinced by his conscience; but answered, he had been wicked the shortest time of any that ever had an interest in the Athe­nian Government. It seems he pleased him­self, in that he had not alwaies been bad, and thought it no disparagement to him, so that he were not reckoned amongst the worst. But this of Pytheas was foolish; for not onely he who doth wrong is wicked, but he also in my opinion that hath an in­tention to doe wrong.

CHAP. XXIX. That Lysander brought wealth into Sparta.

Lysander brought wealth into Lacede­mon, and taught the Lacedemonians to trans­gress the Law of God, who charged that Sparta should have no way accessible for Gold or Silver. Hereupon some wise per­sons, who still retained the Laconick inte­grity: worthy Lycurgus and Pythius oppo­sed him, others who gave way were bran­ded with infamy. And their vertue, which had flourished from the beginning until then, perished.

CHAP. XXX. How Hanno would have Deified him­self.

Hanno the Carthaginian through pride would not be contained within the bounds of Mankind, but designed to spread a fame of himself transcending that Nature which was allotted to him. For having bought many singing Birds, he brought them up in the dark, teaching them one Song, Hanno is a God. They hearing no other sound, learned this perfectly, and then he let them loose several waies, conceiving that they would disperse this Song concerning him. But flying abroad, and enjoying their liber­ [...]y, and returning to their accustomed diet, they sung the notes proper to their kinds, bidding a long farewel to Hanno, and to the Song which he had taught them when they were kept up prisoners.

CHAP. XXXI. Of Prolemee surnamed Trypho [...].

Ptolemee Tryphon, (for so he was called from his manner of living) when a beauti­sul Woman came to speak with him, said, [Page 306] ‘My Sister advised me not to admit dis­course with a fair Woman.’ She confi­dently and readily replied, ‘You may re­ceive it then from a fair Man;’ which he hearing commended her.

CHAP. XXXII. Of Pimandridas, who praised not his Son for gathering together Riches.

A Lacedemonian named Pimandridas, being to take a Journey, committed the management of his estate to his Son. At his return finding his means encreased much beyond what he had left, he told his Son that he had wronged the Gods, and those of his Family and Guests: For whatso­ever abounds in our estates, should by such as are free persons be bestowed upon them. But to seem whilest we live, indigent, and being dead, to be found to have been rich, is the most dishonourable thing amongst men.

CHAP. XXXIII. Of Plato and Diogenes.

Diogenes being present at a discourse of Plato's, would not mind it, whereat Plato angry said, ‘Thou Dog, why mindest thou [Page 307] not?’ Diogenes unmoved, answered, ‘Yet I never return to the place where I was sold, as Dogs doe; ’ alluding to Plato's Voyage to Sicily.

It is reported that Plato used to say of Diogenes, ‘This man is Socrates mad.’

CHAP. XXXIV. Of whom the Aegyptians learned Laws, and of their Judges.

The Aegyptians affirm that they learnt their Law of Hermes. Thus all people mag­nifie what belongs to themselves. The Judges amongst the Aegyptians were of old the same with their Priests. Of these the eldest was the Chief, and Judged all; he must be the most Just, and upright of men. He had a Sculpture about his neck of Saphire, which Sculpture was named Truth: but, as I conceive, a Judge should wear Truth not engraved in a Stone, but in his Mind.

CHAP. XXXV. Of Lais.

Lais was called also Axine [an Axe;] which name implies the cruelty of her dis­position, [Page 308] and that she extorted much, espe­cially of Strangers, who were to depart suddenly.

CHAP. XXXVI. That they are ridiculous who think highly of themselves because of their Parents.

They are to be laughed at who think highly of themselves because of their Pa­rents and Ancestors; for we know not the Father of Marius, but admire him for his own actions. As likewise Cato, Servilius, Hostilius, and Romulus.

CHAP. XXXVII. Of Statues and Images.

Statues which the art of Carving affords us, and Images I use to look upon not care­lesly; for there is much wisedome obser­vable in this Art: which may be argued, be [...]ides many other things, from this, that no Carver or Painter did ever represent to us the Muses, in shape feigned, or misbe­coming the Daughters of Jupiter: neither was there ever any Artist so mad as to re­present them in Armour. Which demon­strateth, that the life of those who are addi­cted [Page 309] to the Muses, ought to be peaceful, quiet, and worthy of them.

CHAP. XXXVIII. Of Epaminondas and Pelopidas.

I have been told many excellent sayings of Epaminondas the Theban, amongst the rest this; He said to Pelopidas that he never went out of the form every day, until he had gained a new friend to adde to the num­ber of his old.

CHAP. XXXIX. How Antalcidas found fault with a Present perfumed with Unguent.

A King of Persia, (for I will relate to you somthing pleasant) dipping a Garland which was woven of Roses, in sweet Unguents, sent it to Antalcidas who came to him on an Embassy for Peace. But he, ‘I receive saith he, the gift, and commend the civi­lity; but you have spoiled the native odour of the Roses with the adulteration of Art.’

CHAP. XL. Of the Cruelty of Alexander Tyrant of the Pheraeans.

Alexander Tyrant of the Pheraeans was thought to be extremely cruel. But when Theodorus the Tragick Poet did with much passion act the Tragedy Aërope, he burst forth into tears, and rising up went out of the Theater: He made an Apology to The­odorus, that he went not away through any slighting or disrespect of him, but that he was ashamed to discover compassion at a Play, not shewing any to his Subjects.

CHAP. XLI. Of Apollodorus his Madness in Wine.

Apollodorus drinking Wine more then any man, did not conceal his Vice, or en­deavour to hide his drunkenness, and the ill consequence thereof, but being enflamed and enraged with Wine, shewed himself more bloudy, increasing the cruelty of his nature by this corporeal vice.

CHAP. XLII. A Sentence of Xenocrates.

Xenocrates friend of Plato used to say, That it is all one whether we put our feet or our eyes in the house of another man: for he sins as much who looks upon those places which he ought not, as he who en­ters upon them.

CHAP. XLIII. Of Ptolemee and Berenice.

They say that Ptolemee used to pass his time at Dice. In the mean time one standing by, read the names of condemned persons, and the Crimes for which they were con­demned, that he might decree who of them should be put to death. Berenice his Wife taking the Book from the Servant, would not suffer him to reade any fa [...]ther, saying, That when the lives of men were in questi­on, it should not be so slightly considered, but seriously and not at Play: for there is no comparison betwixt Dice and Men. Pto­lemee▪ was pleased herewith, and would ne­ver after hear Judicial affairs whilest he was pl [...]ying at Dice.

CHAP. XLIV. A Lacedemonian Law concerning Co­vetousness.

A young man a Lacedemonian having bought Land at an u [...]der-rate, was cited be­fore the Magistrates and fined. The reason why he was thought worthy punishment, was this; That being a young-man, he was eagerly bent upon gain. Amongst other things of the Lacedemonians this was very manly, to oppose not onely Enemies but Covetousness.

CHAP. XLV. Of certain Women worthy praise.

We extol of the Grecian Women; Pene­lope, Alcestis, and the Wife of Protesilaus: Of Romane, Cornelia, Porcia, and Cestilia. I could reckon many more, but I will not, having alledged so few of the Grecians, o­verwhelm them with Romane names, lest any one should think I gratifie my own Countrey.

CHAP. XLVI. Of the Battel of the Magnetes against the Ephesians.

The Magnetes who border upon Maean­der warring against the Ephesians, every Horseman took along with him a Hound, and a Servant that served as an Archer. As soon as they came near, the Dogs falling fiercely upon the Enemy, disordered them, and the Servants advancing before their Ma­sters, shot. The Dogs first routed them, then the Servants did them much harm; and lastly, they themselves fell upon them.

CHAP. XLVII. Of Zeuxis his Picture of Helen, and of Nicostratus a Painter.

When Zeuxis the Heracleote had drawn Helen, Nicostratus a Painter was astonished at the sight of the Picture. One coming to him, asked what was the reason he so much admired the Workmanship; He answered, ‘If you had my eyes you would not ask me.’ I may say the same of an Oration, if a man hath not learned ears, as an Artist skilful eyes.

CHAP. XLVIII. Persons of whom Alexander was jealous.

Alexander was jealous of Ptolemee's good fortune, of Arrhius his turbulency, and of Pytho's study of innovation.

CHAP. XLIX. Why Philip made the Sons of the noblest Persons wait on him.

Philip taking the Sons of the noblest in Macedonia, made them wait upon his per­son, not in contempt of them, or to affront them, but that he might make them ready and expedite for action. To such of them as were addicted to Luxury, or performed his Commands remissly, he is said to have been very severe. Thus he did beat Aph­thonetus, because upon a march, being thirsty, he left his rank, and went out of the way to an Inne. Archedamus he put to death for putting off his Arms, when he had commanded him to keep them on.

The End.

The Arguments of the CHAPTERS.

The First BOOK.
  • CHap. 1 Of the Polypus.
  • 2 Of Spiders.
  • 3 Of the Aegyptian Frogs.
  • 4 Of the Aegyptian Dog.
  • 5 Of the Sea-Fox.
  • 6 Of Sea-Tortoises.
  • 7 Of Wild Swine.
  • 8 Of the Phalangium.
  • 9 Of the Lion, sick.
  • 10 How the Cretan Goats cure themselves when shot.
  • 11 That Mice have Praescience.
  • 12 Of Pismires.
  • 13 Of Gelo.
  • 14 Of the Swan.
  • 15 Of Pigeons
  • 16 Of Socrates drinking Hemlock.
  • 17 Of a very little Chariot, and an Elegi­ack Distich.
  • [Page]18 Of Women vain in Apparel.
  • 19 The Luxury of the Sybarites, Colo­phonians and Corinthians.
  • 20 Of Dionysius his Sacrilege.
  • 21 How Ismenias without dishonour ado­red the King of Persia.
  • 22 The Gifts which the Kings of Persia used to bestow upon Embassadours.
  • 23 Of Gorgias and Protagoras.
  • 24 Of the contest betwixt Hercules and Lepreas.
  • 25 Of Alexanders magnificence to Pho­cion, and his to Alexander.
  • 26 Of Aglais a great eater.
  • 27 Other great eaters.
  • 28 Diet of Fish much esteemed by the Rhodians.
  • 29 Of an Ewe which eaned a Lion.
  • 30 That Galetes was beloved of Ptolemee not more for his beauty then his pru­dence.
  • 31 The Persian custome of presenting Gifts to the King.
  • 32 Of Water presented as a Gift to the King of Persia.
  • 33 Of an extraordinary great Pomegra­nate presented to the same King.
  • 34 Of a Father who accused his Son of a Capital crime.
The Second BOOK.
  • [Page]1 How Socrates taught Alcibiades con­fidence not to be daunted at the People.
  • 2 Of Pictures praised amiss.
  • 3 Of Alexander not giving due com­mendations of a Picture.
  • 4 Of the Friendship betwixt Chariton and Menippus, and the Tyrants mer­cy towards them.
  • 5 Of well husbanding time; and that among the Lacedemonians walking was not permitted.
  • 6 An instance that we ought not to please the Vulgar.
  • 7 That the Thebans expose not children.
  • 8 Of Xenocles and Euripides contending at the Olympick Games.
  • 9 Decrees of the Athenians against some revolters.
  • 10 Timotheus having heard Plato dis­course, judged himself to be less happy.
  • 11 What Socrates said of those that were put to death by the Thirty Tyrants.
  • 12 Of Themistocles giving over prodi­gality.
  • [Page]13 Of Socrates abused in a Comedy by Aristophanes.
  • 14 Of a Plane-tree beloved of Xerxes.
  • 15 Of those who besmeared the Seats of the Lacedemonian Ephori with soot.
  • 16 Of Phocion.
  • 17 Of the wisedome of the Persian Magi, and of Ochus.
  • 18 Of magnificent Suppers.
  • 19 Of Alexander who would be called a God.
  • 20 Of the meekness of King Antigonus.
  • 21 Of Pausanias his friendship with Aga­tho the Poet.
  • 22 That the Mantineans were just Law­makers.
  • 23 That Nicodorus the Wrastler became a Law-giver.
  • 24 That Milo was strong in body, but not in mind.
  • 25 That the sixth of the Moneth Tharge­lion was fortunate to the Greeks.
  • 26 Of Hyperborean Apollo, and certain wonders concerning Pythagoras.
  • 27 That Anniceris was a good Charioteer, & that he who bestows much pains up­on little things, neglects the greater.
  • 28 Upon what occasion Cock-fighiing was first instituted.
  • [Page]29 How Pittacus made an Embleme of For­tune.
  • 30 Of Plato.
  • 31 That no Barbarian is impious.
  • 32 How Hercules his name was changed, and of the Oracle of Apollo concer­ning it.
  • 33 Of the Images of Rivers.
  • 34 Of old age.
  • 35 That sleep is the Brother of death, and of the decease of Gorgias.
  • 36 Of Socrates falling sick in his old age.
  • 37 Of a Law which prohibited the sick to drink Wine.
  • 38 A Law of the Romans and other people not allowing Wine to all persons, nor of all ages.
  • 39 The Law of the Cretans concerning learning.
  • 40 That Beasts love not Wine, and of some Beasts that will be drunk.
  • 41 Of some who were lovers of drink, and great drinkers.
  • 42 Of Plato's renown, and of his Laws for equal distribution.
  • 43 Certain eminent persons among the Grecians very poor.
  • 44 A description of a Picture made by Theon a Painter.
The Third BOOK.
  • [Page]1 Thessalian Tempe described.
  • 2 Of Anaxagoras bearing the death of his children with courage.
  • 3 Of Xenophon bearing the death of his Son unmovedly.
  • 4 That Dio was not troubled at the loss of his Son.
  • 5 Antigonus seeing his Son dead, was nothing troubled.
  • 6 Of the Magnanimity of Crates.
  • 7 Of the calumny of the Vulgar.
  • 8 That Phrynichus was chosen General for a certain Poem.
  • 9 Of Love.
  • 10 Of Lacedemonian friendship.
  • 11 Of the Soul.
  • 12 Of friendship amongst the Lacedemo­nians.
  • 13 Of the drunkenness of the Papyrians.
  • 14 Of the drunkenness of the Byzantines.
  • 15 Of the drunkenness of the Argives, Corinthians, Thracians and Illyrians.
  • 16 A comparison betwixt two Generals, Demetrius and Timotheus.
  • 17 That Philosopy is not inconsistent with Political Government, and that some Philosophers have governed Common­wealths.
  • [Page]18 Of the discourse betwixt Midas the Phrygian and Silenus; and the in­credible relations of Midas.
  • 19 Of the dissention betwixt Aristotle and Plato.
  • 20 Of Lysander, and some gifts presen­ted to him.
  • 21 Of the magnanimity of Themistocles.
  • 22 Of the piety of Aeneas, and compassion of the Greeks to the Persians.
  • 23 Of Alexander.
  • 24 How much Xenophon was delighted with bravery.
  • 25 Of Leonides, and three hundred more who gave themselves up to death vo­luntarily, for the preservation of Greece.
  • 26 Of Pindarus the Tyrant.
  • 27 Of Plato's poverty, and how he betook himself to Philosophy.
  • 28 How Socrates reformed the pride of Alcibiades.
  • 29 Of the poverty and pride of Diogenes.
  • 30 Of certain persons extremely modest.
  • 31 Of the diligence of Nicias in his Art.
  • 32 Of Alexander and Hercules learning to play on the Flute.
  • 33 Of Satyrus a Player on the Flute.
  • [Page]34 A Law common to the Romans and Lacedemonians.
  • 35 That it was not permitted to laugh in the Academy.
  • 36 Why Aristotle left Athens.
  • 37 A Law of the Ceans concerning old Men.
  • 38 Some things first found out at Athens.
  • 39 What things some of old did eat.
  • 40 Of Satyrs, Tityri, and Silenes.
  • 41 Many surnames of Bacchus.
  • 42 Of certain Women that fell mad.
  • 43 Of a Lutenist murthered by the Syba­rites.
  • 44 Of one who might have assisted his companion but would not: and of another that did assist, but unfortu­nately.
  • 45 An Oracle given to Philip.
  • 46 A Law of the Stagirites.
  • 47 Of Timotheus and others, whom their vertues availed nothing.
The Fourth BOOK.
  • 1 Several customes of Nations and People.
  • 2 Of the differences betwixt Nicostratus, [Page] who played upon the Lute onely, and Laodacus, who both played and sung to the Lute.
  • 3 Of Polygnotus & Dionysius, Painters.
  • 4 A Theban Law concerning Artificers and Painters.
  • 5 Persons that were mindful of benefits.
  • 6 An Oracle concerning the Athenians.
  • 7 That sometimes the dead rest not even after death; and of Pausanias.
  • 8 Of the vicissitude of Fortune.
  • 9 Of the Humility of Plato, and ingra­titude of Aristotle.
  • 10 What respect Pericles had for the A­thenian people.
  • 11 Of the Luxury of Socrates.
  • 12 Of the Picture of Helena drawn by Xeuxis.
  • 13 The saying and happiness of Epicurus.
  • 14 Of sparing and keeping riches.
  • 15 Of some who in sickness learned Mu­sick and other Sciences, in which re­covering they became eminent.
  • 16 Qualities of some of the Ancients.
  • 17 Wonders, and opinions of Pythagoras.
  • 18 Of the respect and honour, which Dio­nysius gave to Plato.
  • 19 That Philip honoured learning, and of Aristotle.
  • [Page]20 Of Democritus, and of the renown of him, Theophrastus, Hippocrates and others.
  • 21 Of those who were beloved of Socrates and Plato.
  • 22 Of the Luxury of the Athenians.
  • 23 Of certain prodigal persons.
  • 24 How friendship may be best preserved.
  • 25 Of the strange madness of Thrasyllus.
  • 26 Of Electra.
  • 27 Of the Gift of Pamphaes and Dio­timus.
  • 28 That Pherecydes fell into a Phthiria­sis because of his Atheism.
  • 29 That Alexander ridiculously believed there are infinite Worlds.
The Fifth BOOK.
  • 1 That Tachos died upon using more de­licate Diet.
  • 2 Pherecydes how he died.
  • 3 Of Hercules his Pillars.
  • 4 Of some Trees growing in Delus.
  • 5 Of Epominandas his Indigence and Magnanimity.
  • 6 Of the voluntary death of Calanus.
  • 7 Of Anacharsis.
  • [Page]8 How some have born Scoffs.
  • 9 Of Aristotle.
  • 10 The number of some Ships and Arms, which the Athenians lost.
  • 11 The Cruelty of a King of Thrace to­wards his Children.
  • 12 That Demades was fined for making a Decree, that Alexander should be accounted a God.
  • 13 That the Athenians were inclined to Novelties.
  • 14 An Attick Law concerning the Interr­ment of Bodies, and killing of Oxen.
  • 15 Places of Judicature in Athens for Murthers.
  • 16 That a little Boy was condemned for Sacrilege.
  • 17 Of the Superstition of the Athenians.
  • 18 Of a Woman with child condemned to death.
  • 19 How Aeschylus condemned for Impi­ety was preserved.
  • 20 Of the Fasting of the Tarentines and Rhegians.
  • 21 That Medea did not kill her own Chil­dren.
The Sixth BOOK.
  • [Page]1 Of the wrath, Inhumanity, Contempt, Injustice, and Violence of some to­wards others.
  • 2 Of the Valour of the Son of Harma­tidias.
  • 3 Of Isadas a Boy.
  • 4 Of him that was betrothed to the Daughter of Lysander.
  • 5 Of the Athenian Embassadours.
  • 6 Laconick Laws.
  • 7 Of the Earthquake which happened at Sparta.
  • 8 Of the Murther of Artaxerxes.
  • 9 Of a Treasure sought by the Delphi­ans in the Pythian Temple.
  • 10 A Law concerning Citizens made by Pericles.
  • 11 Of Gelo offering to resign the Govern­ment.
  • 12 Of the Happiness of Dionysius, and what end it had.
  • 13 Of Tyrannical Governments in Greece, which have continued in Posterities.
  • 14 Of a Conspiracy against Darius.
The Seventh BOOK.
  • [Page]1 Of Semiramis, and how she obtained the Assyrian Empire.
  • 2 Of the Luxury of Strato and Ni­cocles.
  • 3 A Consolatory Saying of Aristippus.
  • 4 Of the praise of a Mill.
  • 5 Of the hand-labour of Ulysses and A­chilles in many things.
  • 6 The answer of a Scythian concerning Cold.
  • 7 Of Demosthenes his Watchfulness.
  • 8 Of Alexander's grief at Hephaesti­on's Death.
  • 9 Of a Modest Woman.
  • 10 Of the Wife of Socrates.
  • 11 Of the Shoes of the Roman Women.
  • 12 An Apophthegm of Lysander or Philip concerning Perjury.
  • 13 Of the Tolerance of Agesilaus.
  • 14 Of Philosophers that went to War, and administred Civil Government.
  • 15 How the Mitylenaeans revenged them­selves upon their revolted Confede­rates.
  • 16 Of Rome, Remus, Romulus, and Servia.
  • [Page]17 Of Eudoxus coming to Sicily.
  • 18 That the Aegyptians are courageous in Torments; and of the Indian Women.
  • 19 Of Solon's Stratagem against the Me­gareans, and how afterwards he over­came them by Argument.
  • 20 Of an old man, a Cean, that Died his Hair.
  • 21 Of the Sedulity and care of Caesar and Pompey, to learn such things which are requisite to govern rightly.
The Eighth BOOK.
  • 1 Of Socrates his Daemon.
  • 2 Of Hipparchus his Wisedome, his care of Learned men; and of Homer's Poems.
  • 3 The Athenian Custome of killing an Oxe, and of the Diipolian and Bu­phonian Festival.
  • 4 Of the Luxury of Polyarchus.
  • 5 Of Neleus and Medon, and the Twelve Ionian Cities.
  • 6 Of the ignorance of Learning and In­stitution amongst the Barbarians.
  • 7 Of the Marriages solemnized by Alex­ander, after his Victory over Darius.
  • [Page]8 Of the Art of Painting.
  • 9 Of a Tyrant killed by his Friend.
  • 10 Of Solon, and the Laws written by him and Draco.
  • 11 Of the decay and dissolution of things, and of the World it self.
  • 12 Of Demosthenes, Aeschines, Theo­phrastus, and Demochares.
  • 13 Of some who never laughed.
  • 14 Of the death of Diogenes.
  • 15 Of the Moderation of Philip upon a Vi­ctory; and of what he would be min­ded continually.
  • 16 Of Solon and Pisistratus.
  • 17 Of Oenycimus Monarch of the Zan­claeans.
  • 18 Of Euthymus and the Hero in Te­mese, and a Proverb.
  • 19 The Epitaph of Anaxagoras, and his Altar.
The Ninth BOOK.
  • 1 That Hiero loved Learning, and was liberal, and lived friendly with his Brothers.
  • 2 Of the Victory of Taurosthenes.
  • [Page]3 Of the Luxury and Pride of Alexan­der and some others.
  • 4 Of the diligence of Polycrates in hea­ring Anacreon, and of his Jealousie.
  • 5 Of Hiero and Themistocles.
  • 6 Of Pericles and his Sons dying of the Pestilence.
  • 7 O [...] Socrates his Equanimity in all things.
  • 8 Of Dionysius his Incontinence.
  • 9 That Demetrius also was Incontinent.
  • 10 Of Plato's little valuing Life.
  • 11 Of Parrhasius the Painter.
  • 12 Of the Epicureans banished by the Ro­mans.
  • 13 Of the Gluttony and excessive Fatness
  • 14 Of the extraordinary Leanness of Phi­letas.
  • 15 Of Homer.
  • 16 Of Italy, and of Mares both Man and Horse.
  • 17 Of Demosthenes his Pride.
  • 18 Of Themistocles.
  • 19 That Demosthenes refused, being cal­led by Diogenes to goe into a Cook's Shop.
  • 20 Of Aristippus.
  • 21 Of Theramenes.
  • 22 Of Some that studied Medicine.
  • [Page]23 Of Aristotle being sick.
  • 24 Of the Luxury of Smynderides.
  • 25 How Pisistratus behaved himself to­wards his Citizens.
  • 26 Of Zeno and Antigonus.
  • 27 Ingenuity of Manners.
  • 28 Of Diogenes.
  • 29 That Socrates was fearless, and despi­sed Gifts.
  • 30 Of the Providence of Anaxarchus.
  • 31 Of a Wrastler who, having gained the Victory, died before he was Crowned.
  • 32 Of the Statues of Phryne a Curtizan, and the Mares of Cimon.
  • 33 The Answer of a young man to his Fa­ther, demanding what he had learned.
  • 34 Of persons richly clad.
  • 35 Of Antisthenes taking pride in a torn Cloak.
  • 36 Of Antigonus and a Lutenist.
  • 37 How Anaxarchus derided Alexander, who would be esteemed a God.
  • 38 Of Alexander, and the Harp of Paris.
  • 39 Of ridiculous and extravagant affe­ctions.
  • 40 Of the Pilots of the Carthaginian Ships.
  • 41 Of Pausanias and Simonides.
  • 42 Of Artaxerxes and Darius.
The Tenth BOOK.
  • [Page]1 Of Pherenice admitted to behold the Olympick Games.
  • 2 Of the Continency of Eubatas.
  • 3 Properties of some Creatures.
  • 4 Of Alexander's quickness in action.
  • 5 Of Tyrants, out of Aesop's Writing.
  • 6 Of Little men.
  • 7 Of some Astronom [...]rs, and of the Great Year.
  • 8 Of Benefits.
  • 9 That Philoxenus was a Glutton.
  • 10 Of the ancient Painters.
  • 11 Of Diogenes having a pain in his Shoulder.
  • 12 An Apophthegm of Archytas concer­ning Men.
  • 13 That Antilochus defamed himself.
  • 14 Of Idleness.
  • 15 Of those who were betrothed to the Daughters of Aristides and Lysander.
  • 16 Of Antisthenes and Diogenes.
  • 17 Of those who grew rich by publick Im­ployments.
  • 18 Of Syracusian Daphnis, and of Buco­lick Verses.
  • 19 Of Eurydamus.
  • [Page]20 Of Agesilaus.
  • 21 Of Plato.
  • 22 Of Dioxippus.
The Eleventh BOOK.
  • 1 Of Oricadmus, and the Art of Wrast­ling.
  • 2 Of the Verses of Oroebantius, Dares and Melisander.
  • 3 Of Icchus, and Wrastling.
  • 4 Of the Baldness of Agathocles.
  • 5 Of some persons unjustly condemned for Sacrilege.
  • 6 Of an Adulterer.
  • 7 Of Lysander and Alcibiades.
  • 8 Of the death of Hipparchus.
  • 9 Of certain excellent persons, Indigent, yet would not accept Gifts.
  • 10 Of Zoilus.
  • 11 Of Dionysius the Sicilian.
  • 12 Of a Marchpane sent by Alcibiades to Socrates.
  • 13 Of one in Sicily very sharp-sighted.
The Twelfth BOOK.
  • [Page]1 Of Aspasia.
  • 2 Of the Muses.
  • 3 Of Epaminondas, and Diaphantus, and Iolidas.
  • 4 Of Sesostris.
  • 5 Of Lais.
  • 6 Of the Parents of Marius and Cato.
  • 7 Of Alexander and Hephaestion.
  • 8 Of the Treachery of Cleomenes to Ar­chonides.
  • 9 How Timesias forsook his Country vo­luntarily.
  • 10 That the Aeginetae first coyned Money.
  • 11 Of the Pallantian Hill, and of the Temple & Altar dedicated to Feaver.
  • 12 Of an Adulterer apprehended in Crete.
  • 13 How Gnathaena the Curtizan silenced a great Talker.
  • 14 Of persons excellent in Beauty.
  • 15 Of certain excellent persons who de­lighted to play with Children.
  • 16 Persons whom Alexander hated for their Vertue.
  • 17 Of Demetrius going to the House of a Curtizan.
  • 18 That Phaon was beautiful.
  • [Page]19 Of Sappho.
  • 20 Of the Nightingale and Swallow.
  • 21 Of the Lacedemonian Women.
  • 22 Of the Strength of Titormus and Milo, and of a certain Proverb.
  • 23 Of the Boldness of the Celtae.
  • 24 Of the luxurious Diet and Gluttony of Smynderides.
  • 25 Many who improv'd and benefitted the most excellent persons.
  • 26 Of some persons addicted to Wine.
  • 27 That Hercules was mild towards his Adversaries.
  • 28 Of the Leocorium at Athens.
  • 29 What Plato said of the Excess of the Agrigentines.
  • 30 Of the Drunkenness of the Tarentines, and the Luxury of the Cyrenaeans.
  • 31 Of several kinds of Greek Wines.
  • 32 Of the Vests and Shoes of Pythagoras, Empedocles, Hippias, and Gorgias.
  • 33 That the Romans would not allow the Treachery of Pyrrhus his Physician.
  • 34 Of the Loves of Pausanias, and of A­pelles.
  • 35 Of the Perianders, Miltiades, Sibylls, and the Bacides.
  • 36 Of the number of the Children of Niobe.
  • [Page]37 Of the want of Victual to which Alex­ander was reduced; and that some Towns were taken by Smoke.
  • 38 Of the Horses, and some Customes of the Sacae.
  • 39 Of the Boldness of Perdiccas, and of the Lioness.
  • 40 Of the Provisions which followed Xerxes.
  • 41 Of Protogenes the Painter.
  • 42 Of certain Men who were suckled by Beasts.
  • 43 Certain persons who of obscure became very eminent.
  • 44 Of those who lived a long time in the Quarries of Sicily.
  • 45 Of Midas, Plato, and Pindar, their infancy.
  • 46 Of a Sign which portended that Dio­nysius should be King.
  • 47 Of Aristomache Wife of Dio.
  • 48 Of Homer's Poems.
  • 49 That Phocion forgave Injuries.
  • 50 Of the Lacedemonians not addicting themselves to Learning.
  • 51 Of the Pride of Menecrates, and how Philip derided him.
  • 52 To what kind of persons Isocrates com­pared Athens.
  • [Page]53 Of several occasions of great Wars.
  • 54 How Aristotle endeavoured to appease Alexander's Anger.
  • 55 Of those who among the Libyans were slain by Elephants, either in Hunting or in War.
  • 56 What Diogenes said of the Megareans.
  • 57 Of the Prodigies which appeared to the Thebans, when Alexander brought his Forces against their City.
  • 58 Of Dioxippus.
  • 59 Of Truth and Beneficence.
  • 60 Of Dionysius and Philip.
  • 61 Of honour given to the Wind Boreas.
  • 62 A Persian Law concerning those who give the King Advice.
  • 63 Of Archedice a Curtezan.
  • 64 Of Alexander dead.
The Thirteenth BOOK.
  • 1 Of Atalanta.
  • 2 How Macareus was punished for Cru­elty.
  • 3 Of the Monument of Belus, and the unfortunate sign which happened to Xerxes there.
  • 4 Of Euripides drunk at a Feast.
  • [Page]5 Of Laius.
  • 6 The properties of Arcadian, Thatian, and Achaean Wines.
  • 7 Of the taking of Thebes by Alexan­der, and of Pindar.
  • 8 Of Lysander.
  • 9 Of Lamia.
  • 10 Of Dionysius marrying two Wives in one day.
  • 11 Of the conquest over the Persians, and of Isocrates.
  • 12 How Meton freed himself from an ex­pedition; and of the madness of U­lyfses.
  • 13 Of the Munificence of Ptolemee.
  • 14 Of the Verses and Poetry of Homer.
  • 15 Of some persons extraordinary foolish.
  • 16 Of the Apolloniats and of their Coun­try, and of Epidamnum.
  • 17 A Proverb, and of Phrynichus.
  • 18 Of Dionysius.
  • 19 What Cleomenes said of Homer and Hesiod.
  • 20 Of one who died chearfully through willingness to see some of the dead.
  • 21 Of Phrygian Harmony.
  • 22 Of the Temple and Statue of Homer.
  • 23 Of Lycurgus the Lacedemonian.
  • 24 Of some who have been harmed by [Page] Laws, which they themselves have made.
  • 25 Of Pindar in a contest worsted by Co­rinna.
  • 26 How Diogenes in extreme indigence comforted himself.
  • 27 Of Socrates.
  • 28 Of the Servant of Diogenes torn in pieces by Dogs.
  • 29 Of Hope.
  • 30 Of Olympias grieving for Alexan­der's death, and want of burial.
  • 31 That Xenocrates was Compassionate.
  • 32 How Socrates refelled the boasting of a Curtizan.
  • 33 Of the fortune of Rhodopis a Cur­tizan.
  • 34 Of Dionysius.
  • 35 What natural remedies the Hart, being not well, useth.
  • 36 Of the death of Eurydice, Daughter of Philip.
  • 37 Of Gelo, and those who conspired against him.
  • 38 Of Alcibiades.
  • 39 Of Ephialtes.
  • 40 Of Themistocles.
  • 41 Of Phocion.
  • 42 Of Epaminondas.
  • [Page]43 Of Timotheus.
  • 44 Of the emulation betwixt Themi­stocles and Aristides.
  • 45 Of the Cruelty of Dionysius.
  • 46 Of the Gratitude of a Drag [...]n.
The Fourteenth BOOK.
  • 1 How Aristotle stood affected as to love of Glory.
  • 2 Of Agesilaus, and the Barbarians brea­king their Oaths.
  • 3 Of Prodigality.
  • 4 Of Aristides dying of the biting of a Weezel.
  • 5 What persons the Athenians chose for Government.
  • 6 Aristippus his opinion concerning chearfulness.
  • 7 A L [...]cedemonian Law concerning the Complexion and Constitution of the Body, and such as are too Fat.
  • 8 How Polycletus and Hippomachus ar­gued the common people of Ignorance.
  • 9 Of the Patience of Xenocrates.
  • 10 How Phocion retorted upon Demades.
  • 11 How a King ought to behave himself towards his Subjects.
  • [Page]12 How the Persian King employed him­self whilest he travelled.
  • 13 Of the Tragedies of Agatho.
  • 14 Of Stratonicus a Lutenist.
  • 15 Of the Discourses of Socrates.
  • 16 Of the ambition of Hipponicus.
  • 17 Of Archelaus, and of the Pictures of Zeuxis.
  • 18 How one that was angry threatned to punish his Servant.
  • 19 Of the Modesty of Archytas in speak­ing.
  • 20 Of a ridiculous Story.
  • 21 Of the Poet Syagrus.
  • 22 Of a Tyrant forbidding his Subjects to talk together.
  • 23 Of Clinias and of Achilles, who used to repress anger by Musick.
  • 24 Of some persons, who have nothing va­lued Money in regard of their Coun­trymen. And of some who slew their Creditors.
  • 25 How one persuaded a State concord.
  • 26 Of Antagoras railing at Arcesilaus.
  • 27 Of Agesilaus.
  • 28 Of Pytheas an Oratour.
  • 29 That Lysander brought wealth into Sparta.
  • 30 How Hanno would have Deified himself.
  • [Page]31 Of Ptolemee surnamed Tryphon.
  • 32 Of Pimandridas, who praised not his Son for gathering together Riches.
  • 33 Of Plato and Diogenes.
  • 34 Of whom the Aegyptians learned Laws, and of their Judges.
  • 35 Of Lais.
  • 36 That they are ridiculous who think highly of themselves because of their Parents.
  • 37 Of Statu [...]s and Images.
  • 38 Of Epaminondas and Pelopidas.
  • 39 How Antalcidas found fault with a Present perfumed with Unguent.
  • 40 Of the Cruelty of Alexander Tyrant of the Pheraeans.
  • 41 Of Apollodorus his Madness in Wine.
  • 42 A Sentence of Xenocrates.
  • 43 Of Ptolemee and Berenice.
  • 44 A Lacedemonian Law concerning Co­vetousness.
  • 45 Of certain Women worthy praise.
  • 46 Of the Battel of the Magnetes against the Ephesians.
  • 47 Of Zeuxis his Picture of Helen, and of Nicostratus a Painter.
  • 48 Persons of whom Alexander was jealous.
  • 49 Why Philip made the Sons of the noblest Persons wait on him.

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