VINDICIAE SABBATHI, OR, AN ANSWER TO TWO TREATISES OF MASTER BROADS.

The one, Concerning the Sabbath or seaventh Day.

The other, Concerning the Lords-day or first of the Weeke With a survey of all the rest which of late have written upon that subiect, by GEORGE ABBOT.

Psalme 36. 9. In thy Light shall wee see Light.’

LONDON Printed by I. D. for Henry Overton and are to be sould at his shop entring into Popes-head-Alley out of Lumbard-street Anno 1641.

TO HIS MVCH HONORED FATHER IN LAW Mr. WILLIAM PUREFEY OF CALDE­coate in Warwick­shire, Esquire.

SIR.

THe times favoring truth it becomes eve­ry one, now that God hath given o­portunity, to bring out of his store both new and old as he is provided. This which I here present to you and the World is both, for it [Page] deals with our primitive English An­tisabbatarians, Breerewood and Broad, but chiefely with the latter, because none else (that I know of) have undertaken him being not in print, and therefore knowne, but to a few as also with the whole cluster of our moderne Wri­ters upon that subject, which are too many to name except with an &c. For the plot of the times ha [...]s beene against the power of Godlines, which could never been pulled downe whilest the Sabbath stood upright, and therefore our Patrons of impiety have rightly projected to take that out of the way which stood so much in theirs, and to remove that same holy interruption which God in his care and wisedome had put to our dayes and wayes of Worldly natures, that so they might bring all to a levell, by paring away Sabbath [...] and Sermons, which was the onely way to mount them to the height of their designe of bringing Godlines to a forme, and all things [Page] (but Episcopacy) from ius Divinum to i [...]s Humanum, that they may bee all in all; but all this while they have kicked against the pricks for which they now smart, nor could they expect other then that they which opposed the rest of God should have their owne rest molested, for God will find a time to bring truth to light, though she wade through a long Eclipse, and to shut up errour in darknes, and her abetters in disgrace as now they are, for with the froward hee hath threatned to shew himselfe froward, and hee hath made it good, to the praise of the glory of his power.

Your ever obliged Son in Law GEORGE ABBOT.
Deare friend,

I Doubt not that God shall have honour by this Booke from o­thers, let him have the honour of it from your selfe. When we come to give up our accounts, wee must acknowledge our receipts, first as from God,Matth. 25. 20. Master thou deliveredst mee five ta­lents; then our gaine and improvement by and of them unto God, for wee trade for our Master and not for our selves. There is light in the Treatise, more then hath shewne in former times or Authors, as the declaration of Christ to the World was progressive, so is the illumination of the spirit, not only in particular Mens Soules, but in the whole Church, which must have her growth as well as particular Men, and what if somebody in after times may stand on your shoulders, and see further, let God yet be gloryfied, though he make the feete of po­sterity to stand as high as our heads, so wee (blessed be God) have shorter shadowes then our predecessours, and still the more light ari­seth the lesse shall bee the shadowes, till they be none at all. It was Gods providence that [Page] brought Mr Broads Manu-script to your hands, and that thereupon stirred up your spirit to doe something against the fresh forces that should come in now of late, to fight against the Sabbath. God did not tell you his Errand when he sent the Booke to you, but the event is the finger that points to Gods providence, as Time is the Mid wife of Truth. God found out you who being vacant from other imploy­ments might the better worke in this Vine yard, you, who being not ambitious of humane [...] named learning, should keepe close to the Scripture, the spirit, and reason, without doting upon names of Fathers &c. which wee in these times are mad upon, and so hinder our owne growth by putting their old spectacles on ou [...] Noses which dimme our Eyes, and thinke it not Scholler-like to go beyond Aristotle.

This I must needs say, the whole Booke savours of spirituall matter, and argues that it came from the Spirit, and promiseth to breed Spirit in the Reader, and truly all Scripture-knowledge should be written as the Scripture was, and that is by the carriage of the holy Ghost. Holy men wrote (saith hee) as they were carried by the holy spirit, so should, so are holy men carried now, not by selfe-hu­mours and ends. Let the wilfull blind slight it, [...] 2. 15. barke and scorne it, yet the spirituall man is judged of no man though himselfe discerne all things. God will most probably reveale his Sabbath, [Page] to them that best keepe it here, and that shall enjoy his Sabbatisme hereafter, and they are his people. I verily beleeve thus much of the Booke that it overthrowes and confutes the Antagonists, and if they can produce no better reasons and records then they have, it will be Master of the field, for mee thinkes Mr Broad is very weake and loose when compared with yours. I could wish your Booke a speedy birth if any, that it might give pauze to others that intend any thing of that kind to the Presse. Commit it to Gods patronage, for he is the fittest Patron it can have. My Prayer shall be that your spirit may be such as may procure a blessing on the Booke, by giving it to God first, and then his Church, in a spirit of Humi­lity and selfe-deniall; see Gods providence and his assistance, see your end in Writing, Printing; see what a seasonable time and op­portunity of good; and be confident of this that in spirituall men it will breed spirituall knowledge and affection, whether it carry them in all points of judgment or no, Vale.

The Author of this answer de­sireth the Reader to take no­tice of these things:

1 THat herein you have first Mr Broad faithfully transcribed, and my an­swer following, saving that in some places you shall find some things passed by without answer, which I take to be not much materiall, and therefore to avoyd tediousnes I passe them, but I had not dealt faithfully, if I had not transcribed them being his.

2 That the chiefe of my ayme is to deale with his Ar­guments and not with his Authors, and therefore my paines is principally bestowed in the rationall part, so farre as Scripture and Reason (the sword of the Lord and Gideon) lead mee, which are the best satisfiers of godly and reasonable men, though where his Quotations come into my way, I have not utterly balked them.

3 That this Tractate was written long before these late Antisabbatarian Treatises of BP White, Dr Heylin [Page] and Mr Dow came forth, and therefore for their sakes I have in diverse places inlarged my Booke; wherein I have removed those stumbling blockes which seeme to lie in the way of this doctrine of the Sabbath, by answering their colourable arguments against it.

That whereas Mr Primerose hath put out another 4 Booke against the Sabbath of later Edition, I have also perused it, and such things as I found any whit materially to clash (de novo) against some particu­lars in this Answer, I have particularly answered them, not naming him because they are so very few, the rest of his Treatise receiving answer herein, upon the occasion of other mens Arguments.

If perhaps you find not every collaterall Argument 5 answered to your mind, yet let not that prejudice the maine cause, but weigh substances with substances, and pull not downe the whole House for the defect of [...] Tyle or two. Let Circumstances and by-matters have respect accordingly.

VINDICIAE SABBATHI.

Broad.

MAster Breerewood in his Treatise of the Sabbath.

1. Nature teacheth to set apartPage 24. 41. some time for the worship of God, but not one day in seven, nor a whole day, neither yet to forbeare all worke in that time as the Israe­lites were bound to doe on the Sabbath.

2 Gods Commandement touching the Sabbath,Page 64. 40. 41. was first given in the wildernes, it being limited to the Iewes Sabbath, only the Iewes Sabbath is vanished, and Gods Commandment was not, nor could not, be translated from the Iewes Sabbath, to the Lords day.

3 We are bound to keepe the Lords day not byPage 37. any divine Commandement, but by the constitution of the Church onely.

Thus hath Master Breerewood written in his booke, and more I doe not write in mine, but it will be said yet in answer to an objection, he will have the gene­rallity of Gods Commandement to bee morall and perpetuall. Answer. It is true, and I cannot suffi­ciently marvaile thereat.

The Objection he frameth against himselfe is this.Page 4 [...]. If the old Sabbath vanished and Gods Commande­ment was limited, and fixed to that day only; then is one of Gods Commandements perished. Hereun­to [Page 2] to hee answereth that the generality of that Com­mandement is a Law of nature and remaineth.The law of Nature touching the sancti [...]y­ing of some time, and Gods command touching the sanct [...]fying of the seventh day were two divers lawes, The one a generall law on­ly, the other a speciall law only. But if there bee a generallity of that commandement how was that commandement limited and fixed to the Sab­bath only? Further hee should have considered that the like may as well be said of the precepts of Ho­ly-dayes. Nature teacheth to have some times of va­cancy, for one reason God appointed the Sabbath to be a time of vacancy, for other reasons the holy-dayes. Shall not the law of nature now be the generall of all these precepts indifferently, as well of the precepts of the holy-dayes as of the precepts of the Sab­bath.

Answer.

In this thing I must take Master Breerewoods part against you, for hereby is the morallD [...]r. Heylin quoteth the schoolem. n, Patt. 2. pag. 163. saying, that the fourth Com­mandement is placed in the Decalogue, in quantu [...] est preceptum morale et naturale, that is, say they, Quantum [...]d hoc quod homo depu tet [...]uod, tempus vi­t [...]e s [...] ad vac [...] di­ [...]i [...]is. pag. 162 So Bi­shop White maketh the Law o: Nature to be involved in the 4th Commandement pag. 121. and is still obli ga [...]y to the worlds end, Pag. 1 [...]0. law of God kept entire without a mayme, which is very requisite, see­ing that the Decalogue is granted to be an explana­tory reinforcing of the law of entire Nature imprin­ted in us by creation (but much defacedby our fall) and being honoured with those eminences of priori­ty, & signes of perpetuity immediatly from God him­selfe upon Mount Sinai, Such as were his twice writ­ing them with his owne finger,Touching this priority of Gods own writing them, see how emphatically it is expressed by God himselfe, Exod. 24. 12. in way of su [...] eremi­nency, by vertue of that [...]r [...]viledge, to those which Moses had written a little before, ver. 4 Moreover also s [...]e this difference lively intim [...]ed by Moses Deut. 4. 13, where he maketh the Coven [...]nt to consist in the ten Commandements written by God himselfe, and speakes in the following verse, in way of dimination of the other lawesin comparison of them calling them statutes and judgements which were 1. taught by him, and secondly to be observed in the land whither they went to possesse it. and voted also by his Spirit through the mourth of Moses to bee the Tenne Commandements [...] 1 Deut. 4. and put into the Arke as perpetuall rules for the Catholique Church, whereof it was a Type. None of [Page 3] all which Prerogatiues was the Ceremoniall law crowned withall, for that it was as a vanishing shadow sutable only to the Hemispheare of those times. But the decalogue being the very Law of Nature explai­ned and redelivered, must as well now as ever have for its substance a generall ayme at all men; though in some circumstances it may bee more peculiar to the Iewes then others, by reason of the time, place, and people, to whom it was renewed; Like as al­most all other Scripture is for substance common and for circumstances proper, because they were most an end written occasionaly. Put case then that this Com­mandement was given onely to the Iewes (as you affirme) and so were abrogatiue; yet may the Law of Nature bee well presupposed and included in it; (as you your selfe afterwards acknowledge, it is in your 8. Chapter in the answer you give there to the fifth opinion) for who knowes not that in those ten words much more is meant then manifested, So that if so it be granted that the Law of Nature and this Law bee not the same in all points yet are they not two divers lawes but the same in substance And thus much in effect Master Breerewood affirmes in his se­cond Tract: pag. 3. Morall (saith he) is that which pertaineth to manners; 1. Either by the instinct of Nature as belonging to the inward Law written in our hearts: or Secondly, by the instruction of Disci­pline as being of the outward Law pronounced of God, as that of observing the seventh Day: so that it may beetermed Naturall, as being, not of the in­stitution of Nature; but of the disciplining of Nature: Not of Nature as it w [...]s f [...]rst ordained of God, but as after informed by him. For indeed this fourth Com­mandement both as it was at first instituted in Para­dise, and now revived on Mount Sinai, is but the law of Nature explained and enlarged according to [Page 4] the will of God in this particular for reasons and uses, whereof created nature was not capable but by reve­lation. And what though the Law of nature bee the generality, as well to the precepts of the Iewish holy­dayes as of the Sabbath, this shewes the superexcel­lency of the Sabbath above them therefore, and its e­quality with nature seeing God makes use of it so espe­cially, to exhibite the commandement of nature by, amongst the Lawes thereof.

But now in that opinion, wherein you and Master Breerewood jumpe, I must differ from you both, to wit, that now onely the generall Law of nature re­maines (which is that some time is to bee sanctified to Gods worship) and that this fourth commandement, which you call Gods speciall commandement, is ut­terly abrogated. For as for the Law of nature which consisteth onely in an indefinite sequestring of some time to the service of God, it comes infinitely short of that compleatnes and solemnity of time which our necessity requireth, and which God deserveth at our hands, and which (if hee may bee his owne spokes­man) hee commandeth also. Indeed to set apart some time as perhaps an houre in a Day, or some such like time for prayer or meditation, it may bee nature or conscience would affirme it requisite; but to set a part so much time, and in so solemne manner as (it seemes) God lookes for, and our state requires, nei­ther nature nor conscience will so prompt us, either now, or (as I thinke) in innocency. And therefore as I may well conclude that, that first institution of God concerning the Sabbath, was rather a supply to nature then any Law in nature (which our Anti­sabbatarians unnecessarily labour to disprove)Though I must say of some argum [...]nts of some former Writers of this subject of the Sabbath (who not then finding opposition which hath beene an ordinary meanes in the course of Gods providence, for the more diligent inquisi­tion after the truth of God and happy disco­very thereof) as Hie­rome saith of the Fa­thers. How that be­fore Arrius rose up. They delivered some things innocently yet lesse varily, and such as cannot avoid the calumny of pe [...]verse persons. and su­peradded of God after created nature by immediate and speciall revelation; So I have just cause to beleeve that this was for many speciall and perpetuall respects. [Page 5] For left God his solemne and publicke worship to have beene arbitrarily ordered by nature, and not have by himselfe determined a speciall time there­fore, it would have falne out very crosse to Gods in­tentious, either being slenderly and seldomely per­formed, or at least very confusedly and disjoyntedly, seeing that so many men have so many mindes, and so many severall and various occasions, which by man would never have beene determined at once (to have kept so solemne and compleat a portion of time as it seemes God expected, especially seeing nature never suggested it) if God by an over-ruling mandat had not put it past posse and velle: As he did the eating of the Passeover though a man were in a journey or were un­cleane, by a law made, Numb. 9. which hee who is not the God of confusion wisely foresaw and pre­vented. So that though some time even by nature is taught to bee set apart for Gods worship (which I deny not) yet I say, that this is more private and per­sonall, not so solemne and publicke as God would have it, and therefore may bee arbitrary without dis­order and distraction, which the other cannot if left to mans free-will, and therefore is purposely revealed of God, and is no law innate in nature because of the reason aforesaid; for nature doth not discerne of numbers: or why God should chose to be worshipped on the seventh day rather then on the eight or ninth: but a commandement on the by, of equall force, anti­quity and perpetuity with nature, prescribed as a rule coincident with nature for the Church of God in all ages to imitate. And to this purpose speakes Marius; Marius in Gen. 2. Since (saith hee) it is the Law of nature that some time bee peculiarly insinuated for the worship of God, it was meete that that should bee determined by a positive Law.

But against this, it will be objected: Why might not time as well as place, bee left to the disposition and authority of Man to appoint? seeing, that time [Page 6] and place bee alike necessary in nature to all acti­ons.

I answer,Answ. time and place are in nature alike ne­cessary to all actions in genere, but so is not this or that particuler time or place; save where by positive Law it is made so: God did appoint the seaventh day for solemne worship and left all places at liberty, till it pleased him to designe one onely place for Sacrifice-worship under the Law, the necessity whereof being now abrogated by the Gospell, the place is left to choyce. One time may agree to all the world for worship, but so cannot one place.

Againe it will be objected,Obj. that Bishop White, pag. 33. layeth it downe as an essentiall Character, that Lawes and Preceps meerely positively morall ob­lige, onely the Persons or State, or Nation and Re­publike upon which they are imposed by the Lawgi­ver, or to whom they are published by a legall promul­gation. So pag. 38. If it be a precept meerely positive it can oblige those people onely upon whom it was imposed: Also pag. 77. hee saith flatly, that although the seaventh day Sabbath had not beene a legall Ce­remony, yet if it were onely a positive morall pre­cept, the obligation hereof ceased under the Gospell. So that by this rule the Sabbath should not bee of universall obligation being onely positively mo­rall.

To all which himselfe gives the Answer pag. Answ. 27. where hee saith, Lawes positive are common and ge­nerall either for all mankind, as the Law of Polygamy and Wedlocke with in some degrees mentioned, or els for one nation Republicke or Community of people. So that wee see through forgetfulnesse his Character doth not hold, but that a positive morall Law may bee perpetuall and universall (as well as nationall) of which sort we have reason to reckon the [Page 7] Sabbath, because it and the Law of Polygamy (which hee instanceth in) were Twins, both brought forth in the state of Adams innocency.

Broad.

I praise God for the comming forth of Master Breerewoods booke,The difference is in [...] manner onely verball for wee both hold that the generall law of nature remaineth, and againe that Gods speciall Commande­mentis abrogated. for though there bee some diffe­rence betweene us, yet meane Schollers are able to judge of it, might I have spoken with him I doubt nothing, but that wee should soone have accorded in lesse then an hou [...]es space.

Answer.

I could wish you had perused Master Richard Byfields reply to Master Breerewoods booke, before you had sent abroad this Manu-script, that so you might have thanked God for that which had beene thanke worthy. But that you may not bee a stranger to him, I will bee bold to bring you acquainted by putting you the oftner in mind of him in this my An­swer. Touching the substance of your difference mentioned in the Margin, I have already spoken to it, and shall have more occasion as I goe along.

Broad.

I published not long since a treatise of the Sabbath having this Title, Tractatus de Sabbatho in quo doctri­na Ecclesiae primitivae tractatur & defenditur. And for proofe, that the Doctrine of the primitive Church was such, as is therein taught and declared, besides certaine sayings of Augustine and others. I alledged [Page 8] the testimony of Master Calvin in his institutions.V [...]bratile veteres n [...]n­cu [...]are s [...]lent. The an­cients (not onely some of the ancients) ac­counted the fourth commandement sha­dowish (not onely partly shadowish) Inst. lib. 2. Cap. 8. Sect. 28. If any bee able to shew that wee (Master Calvin I meane and my selfe) have mistaken the Doctrine of the primitive Church in this matter. I greatly mar­vaile, that they have not gone about it hitherto. If none bee able to shew this, as it seemeth none are (for doubtlesse many want no will) then is it no lesse to bee marvailed at. That the Doctrine of the primi­tive Church findeth no better entertainment amongst English Protestants. Is it credible that the primitive Church should not keepe one of Gods Commande­ments? That such a greevous errour should befall the godly learned Fathers, as to esteeme that Com­mandement shadowish and temporall, which is morall and perpetuall?

Answer.

Here you would seeme to beg credit to your opi­nion by Master Calvins authority who because hee quoteth the exposition of the ancients in this case, you would insinuatingly perswade to give some coun­tenance to your Tenet. But that the World may know, how he held in this particular, his opinion is sufficiently manifested in his commentary on Gen. 2. where hee saith, that first God rested, and that then hee blessed this rest, that in all ages among men it might be holy, or he de [...]icated every seventh day to rest, that his ex­ample might bee a perpetuall rule. Moreover wee must know (saith hee) this exercise is not peculiar to one either age or people onely, but common to all mankind. Wherefore when wee heare that by Christs comming the Sabbath was abrogated, this distinction must bee taken to. What appertaineth to the ordering of humane life, and what peculiarly agreeth to the old signes. That the Sabbath figured the mortifica­tion [Page 9] of the flesh (I say) was temporall, but that from the beginning it was commanded men that they should exercise themselves in the worship of God it ought deservedly to endure even to the end of the World. And besides this, hee that observeth what followes upon 'his instance of the ancients in his in­stitutions, shall find that there hee saith how that though they say true, yet they touch but halfe the matter. And therefore doth hee largely discusse it afterwards, wherein hee sheweth his opinion to bee thus much, that the institution of the Sabbath for the better and more solemne performance of Gods wor­ship and refreshment of his creature, was with a per­petuall intent, because of necessary use to all men in all times,Sect. 32. but in regard it was againe given to the Iewes it had somewhat peculiar in it, which by Christ is abrogated, and yet the force, use and reason of the commandement in regard of its substance, as it was given both at the first, and as it was repeated doth still remaine. So that hee confesseth that there was some­thing peculiar to the Iewes which hung at it, but that withall there is a substance in the commandement it selfe which it is sacriledge to violate, the use thereof being universall both to persons and times, so that in alledging him you bring in, testem sine testimonio.

And put case there was some what, that was more proper to those people and those times, then to these in this fourth commandement as well as in the first and fifth (for as I have said, almost all scripture had some circumstantiall peculiarity and propriety to those people and those times to whom it was immediately given, which yet nothing hindered the universality of the substance) yet as the reasons in those comman­dements evangelically construed are of present force and being, even in these our times, though the letter [Page 10] strictly construed bee not: so this commandement, or the Sabbath may have somewhat more proper to them in it (for so is that manner of expression the stranger within they gates) or at least belonging to it (such as was their not preparing Mannah, and kindling of fires) which yet is so farre from extin­guishing the whole commandement,For it cannot be de­nied but a comman­dement may bee of force to mee, though every circumstance of it doe not concerne mee. as that the very type it selfe is of lively use to us under the Gospell, and of present force and being also (although not therefore of a like religious nature to us as it was to them) but in an Evangelicall sense, that is in respect of the inward and spirituall holines thereof, not properly of the outward and literall. For though the outward SanctionBy this word (san­ction) I meane posi­tive holines which was in their carnall & externall worship. of that rest being admitted to bee typicall may bee extinct, because that the typicalnes of things are not properly parts but accidents, and conducing helps to our profession and worship that live under the Gospell: which if true and reall is spirituall, Iohn. 4.See Master Hildersham lect. 39. 40 upon the place where he oppo­seth the Spirit where­with wee are to wor­ship God in our times, to the Ceremoniall worship which was in the time of the Iewes, in respect it was an externall and carnall worship see also, Rom. 7. 6. Yet is not the holy use of this rest extinct, either as it is conducing or necessary to the present sanctifying of the Lords day, or as it is significative, pointing us to, and minding us of our heavenly Sabba­tisme.

Obj. But you will say, how can we reject the ty­picall holines and yet retaine the sense?

Answ. 1. We refuse the whole Law as a covenant, and yet wee retaine it as a rule, for the perfection of that Church respectively to the foregoing times (which is called the time of nature) belongs to us; but the imperfection of it respectively with our Church, ended with it selfe, and belongs not to us.

2. If the Sabbath had had its originall after a Iewish manner, to have beene instituted upon the fall, and so to relate to Christ, then wee could have retained it no more then the rest, but wee derive this from the primitive institution in paradice princi­pally, [Page 11] and from the Iewes onely by way of enforce­ment or conveyance, as wee doe water first from the fountaine and then from the pipe. And though this rest had in it a typicall signification at first, yet never a typicall sanction, but onely by accident of the Iewish discipline then, when types were in fashion; (as I may so speake) like a fresh River which running through a peece of the Sea is made brinish, but being quit of it, it re-assumes its owne nature.

So that then the commandement is not abrogated as a speciall commandement, but the specialityI meane not such a speciality as Master Br [...]r [...]wood doth. which belonged to the Sabbath, or to this generall com­mandement is rather ended, which did consist of those occasionall interventions of Mannah, kindling fires, and double sacrifices, and (if you will) of the foresaid sanction of the very rest it selfe (which as I have said being significative, happily had in their times an holines belonging to it) which did peculiarly belong unto the Iewes, and which were no parts of the sub­stance of this commandement, which in that respect is as well common to us as to them, the reason an­nexed being of like and equall force to all from the creation. For the annexing of extrinsecall and ad­ventitious circumstances, doth not any whit harme the nature, and morality of the Sabbath, no more then Pauls circumcising of Timothy (which in respect of the season was needfull) did annull, or doe injury to baptisme: nor then a signe of an Inne or shoppe being pulled downe, annulles or impaires an house.

So that their rest is common to us but in a riper sense, for the grouth and stature of our times so much overtopping theirs, the Lord lookes that wee should answer his expectation, as well as obey his comman­dement, in sanctifying a more excellent and Evange­licall Sabbath to him, then ever they were able to doe. [Page 12] The Church of the new Testament (saith Master Perkins) hath more knowledge and more grace then the people of the old Testament had, and in that re­gard ought to have more zeale and greater alacrity in the worship of God then they had, that it may exceed the Iewes according to the measure of graceGreater mercies re­quire greater and bet­ter duties. received. The Arguments of love being not so for­cible to prompt obedience, in the time of the Iewes, as in ours, they being under the old covenant, and the Spirit not so stirring then, as now, the obedience was rather performed to the commandement then to the commander; For God in their time passed under the name of a Lord, implying them to bee ser­vants, and their obedience to bee serviceable obe­dience, but now in our times hee passeth under the name of a Father, implying us to bee sons and our obedience to bee filiall and spirituall. And yet as spirituall obedience was, even then, due to God, and expected by him, though not with that eminency of expectation, as of us: So the types and Sacramentall umbrages which now are of use to us (being perfor­med in conscience to Gods commandement) have their holines suteable and respective to our times; but not in that degree, not in that kind of positive and intrinsecall holines as in the times of the Iewish non­age. Like as in the spring time while the sappe is weake and but comming, all that wee expect from trees is flowers, but when a riper seasoninsueth, then wee looke for riper fruit; so that then the prime and beauty of these flowers ceaseth, though their vertue remaine. And by the punishment that God so severe­ly annexed to the not performing the rites of the two Sacraments, wee may see the extraordinary nature of things of that kind then, in the time of their Pe­dagogie; for he that was uncircumcised and that eate leavened bread in the passeover, was to be cut off.

[Page 13]And therefore did God intend their rest (as may well bee gathered) to bee a positive part of their sanctification, because of the typicall use thereof, which yet hee doth; not doe to us, and yet hee accounts our not resting a prophanation of the Sabbath, and all imployments which hinder his worship and conduce not to the sanctifying of that day to bee sinnes. Like as Christ who, whilest hee was upon the earth, accep­ted small things at his Apostles hands, but after hee was ascended and had given gifts unto men hee looked for other services: or as a Pater-familias that having a boy and a man to waite at his table, the boy if hee can fill a cup of beere, and shift a trencher, by rea­son of his non-age, hee is willing to take it as a good part of his service, but to his man hee gives better wages, and therefore expects better service at his hands, hee lookes that hee should bee able to furnish and disfurnish the table with grace to his Master, and yet not to neglect those lesser things. Or (which bet­ter expresseth my meaning) as of children wee re­quire a bodily service in saying their prayers and graces and catechisme, and though they have little, or no understanding and sense of that they say, yet wee take it in good part till they attaine to more know­ledge and ripenes of yeares, and then wee looke for sutable performance thereto. Even so the Lord hee expects from us an high degree of sanctifying his Sabbath, even a ravishment of Spirit, which service wee can never performe if wee doe not rest. A Chri­stian and Evangelicall use therefore of this Sabba­ticall rest is still in force to us, though the Iewish sanction may bee determined, for their precise resting was with respect to the formall holines in the rest; but wee are to rest with respect to its finall holines of furthering Gods more substantiall worship, and the spiritualizing our owne mindes by it, and thus doth [Page 14] the whole commandement for substance and use re­maine to us, the difference being onely in some occa­sionall circumstances.Like as one in an­swer to an Anti [...]oni [...]n (that objects because the Tables of stone wherein the Morall Law was written were removed with the Ta­bernacle & other like adjuncts therefore the Mosaic [...]l Law is [...]er­ly abolished) saith: Must it needs follow that because the Ta­bles of stone wherein the Law was written bee abolished, that therefore the Law [...] it selfe is utterly abo­lished together with them, were the Tables of stone so essentiall to the Morall Law, that it had neithe [...] birth before them nor being after them, wee know that the putting them into the Arke was typicall, though the Law it selfe was [...]orall: [...]o that so [...]a [...]re as these Tables of the Covenant had any thing ceremoniall in them, or any thing concerning other circumstances or persons, time, place, terrour, rigor, and the like being peculiar to the Church of the Jewes in tha [...] estate of the Mos [...]cal Pe­dagogy, so farre I say they are removed with the [...]. Bu [...] the morall Law contained in the 10. commandements could not bee ceremoniall (for then should the morall and ceremoniall have beene confounded, whereas even by their writtings in tables of stone, and by the finger of God they were distinguished) neither was there then any thing for the substance of it, nor is now (as now it stands upon record in the booke of God) but it doth concerne us as well as them, and therefore though the Tables of stone bee removed, the morall Law is yet continued, and hath (except is excipiendis (his properuse and force still. as 1. Because the Sabbaths rest was significative from the beginning it might in their times (as I have said) carry with it a typicall or externall holines (as their other types had which notwithstanding were of afarre different nature and institution to this, for they were appointed since the fall and occasioned by it, and in themselves tempo­rary, but this was before the fall, and given for ever to the whole Church for a standing type) which yet it doth not to us, and yet so as the primary force and use of this is no lesse appertaining to us then them. For so, that other ordinance which was instituted in innocency (marriage) it also lasted in respect of diverse circumstances of their times and discipline, which yet wee retaine pure from the first insti­tution. Secondly, wee under the Gospell have also an alteration made of the individuall but not of the nu­merall day, for wee now keepe the seaventh day (according to the commandement, remember that thou keepe holy the seaventh day) but not theirs. Thirdly, in respect also of the reason whereupon the commandement was inforced upon them, to wit, Gods resting from the creation; For whilest the law or first covenant was in force, the creation was in force, which still remaines with us, but subor­dinated [Page 15] to the adequate reason of our Sabbath; where to use Master Dowes words pag. 24. All lawes being on [...]ly positive (though made by God himselfe) admit mutation (at least) when the matter concerning which, or the conditions of the persons to whom, they were given is changed. (For as the Iewish types, so many grosse and sensitive grounds and rea­sons are pilled of, and swallowed up by the com­ming of Christ, and more spirituall ones risen in their stead) As wee see it very apparant in the 65. Isa. 17. I will (saith God) create a new Heaven and a new Earth, and the former shall not bee remembred nor come into mind.Old things are pos­sed away, behold all things are become new. Which to mee seemes a per­tinent prophecy of the alteration of the Sabbath from the Iewes day to ours; it being as much as to say, that in comparison of the excellency of the things that shall bee under the Gospell, the other things shall bee nothing worth: Sence shall bee swallowed up of Spirit, types of truth; And though the creation bee admirable of it selfe, and so also is at this day, the consideration of it being exceeding usefull, yet nothing comparable to our redemption: Our rejoycing in the one is nothing comparable to our rejoycing in the other.So that the [...]ltera­tion of the Iewes Sab­bat [...] into ours, by rea­son of the new crea­ti [...] which God made [...] the time of the Gospell, doth further typis [...]n [...] assure us of the last and best alte­ration of new Heaven and new Ea [...]h [...]o­k [...]n of in th [...] of the first of [...] which we shall be made par­takers of by the Go [...]spell. As a right worthy Doctor (Sibbes by name) observes, Gods last works are his best works, the first being but preparatives and occasions of the later; the new Heaven and the new Earth are the best; the second wine, that Christ created himselfe, was the best: Spirituall things are better then naturall. And Master Dow pag. 27 saith as muc [...] that the reason Drawne from the example of God who rested upon the Sabbath, namely, when the crea­tion was finished, endured onely till the time of the new creation, in which all things were made new by Christ, at which time it ceased, or at least, a second reason taken from the new covenant comming in [Page 16] place, the former both reason and day (become now old) are passed away; And behold all things are be­come new. For this worke of redemption or new creation being the greater may deservedly take place of the other; and as the Prophet Ieremy, spea­king of the deliverance, that God would vouchsafe his people from the Babylonish captivity, saith: Be­hold the dayes shall come (saith the Lord) that it shall no more bee said, the Lord liveth that brought up the children of Israel out of Egypt, but the Lorth liveth that brought them up from the land of the North: so may wee say of the day appointed for his wor­ship, that the day wherein hee finished the worke of creation shall no more bee observed, but the day wherein our Lord Christ, by his resurrection from the dead finished the worke of our redemp­tion.

Thus speakes Master Dow.

And how ever in other things the constitution of the Iewish Church and ours differ, yet in this they are united, the Sabbath being first ordained, before there was distinction made, or wall of partition built, for an ever-lasting signe betweene God and his Church for his sanctifying it, and a perpetuall rule of duty and practise chalked out to his Church, for the di­rection of his more solemne worship. Like as was his marrying of Adam and Eve in innocency, both a perpetuall type of that union which is betweene God and his Church, as also a perpetuall rule for the ordering of that affaire amongst mankind ever after: both which were alike given in innocency, and were alike both perpetuall rules and perpetuall types unto his Church.

Broad.

This booke beeing the last, I intend to write of this Argument, my desire is it should bee read of many before it bee published, that if just exceptions can bee taken to ought I have written, or that an objection of moment bee not here fully answered, I may know it, and afterwards may alter or adde as there shall bee cause, Iohn 3. 21. Hee that doth truth commeth to the light that his deeds may bee made manifest that they are wrought in God.

Broad.

2. Treatises,
  • 1. Concerning the Sabbath or seaventh day.
  • 2. Concerning the Lords day, or first of the Weeke.
Gal. 4. 10, 11.

YEe observe dayes and monthes and times and yeares, I am afraid of you, least I have bestowed on you labour in vaine.

Answer.

You play the Souldier in the On-set, at first dischar­ging your greatest ordinance to impresse the greater feare, but as you use the matter you misse the marke.

For this place of the Galath, fals farre short of your aime, as you might have perceived, if without prejudice you would have perused Master Perkins upon that place, whose whole discourse thereof is worth inserting, if it were not too long.

And if you examine the context you may perceive, [Page 18] how that the Apostle was angry at the Galathians, for leaving Christ the substance, and betaking them­selves, even in point of justification, to the carnall ob­servation of Iewish shadowes and ceremonies, which in comparison hee calleth beggerly Rudi­ments, and hee the rather tearmed them so, because they were then utterly uselesse and insignificative, being fulfilled and so abrogated.

But the Sabbath is, for the equity and substance of it, still of the same use as ever, to wit, fit for the be [...]ter procuring of mans refreshing, and Gods more solemne worship. Nor is it in-significative, or ever shall bee, till wee sing a requiem to our soules in heaven: For as it concluded our creation, so shall it our salvation: And therefore by no meanes to bee numbred with the observation of dayes, and monthes, and yeares (seeing that the Apostles themselves ob­served the Lords day weekely or Sabbatically, and not monthly or yearely, as were the Iewes Sabbaths and Holy-dayes, but in relation to the fourth com­mandement one in seaven, as knowing it to bee a per­petuall rule, not a temporary and vanishing ordinance) which pertained to the bondage and servitude of weake and beggerly Rudiments, of which the Apostle here onely speakes.

And as it was farre from the Apostles thought, to reckon any of the ten commandements as a weake and beggerly Rudiment; so let it bee abhorred of all Christian hearts and eares.

But may some say,Obj. is not the signification of the Sab­baths institution abrogated by Christs resurrection, and the comming of the Lords day?

The Sabbath is altered not abrogated,Answ. and the sig­nif [...]cation subordinated, not annulled, being instituted upon an universall and perpetuall reason, for the Sab­bath was no proper Iewish type, but the Churches [Page 19] type in that wherein it was typicall, (as wee may see in the fourth, Hebr. 9. There remaineth therefore Sabbatismus a Sabbath-rest to the people of God; which words, Willet in 2. Gen. saith, conclude that both the type remaineth, that is a Sabbatisme, and the signification of the type everlasting rest; And as you may further see 12, Matth. 8. in these words, The Sonne of man is Lord even of the Sabbath-day, which words compared with the verses foregoing; shew that the Sabbath is of a ceremonious nature, for Christ there rankes it among things ceremoniall in a ceremoniall sense, but with a note of inequali­ty; (as it is implyed in that word Even of the Sabbath-day) and is, as the rest of the morall Law, of equall continuance with the Church; which for this cause was reviued to the Iewes, because at that time they were the onely Israel and Church of God, but now translated to us under the Gospell (the partition wall being broken downe) with an alteration of circumstance according to the season, as (Isay) was prophecied in the fore [...] quoted place of Isa. 65. 17. And whereas Doctor Heyly [...] part. 2. pag. 27. saith, That it is not probable, that the Apostle Paul, who so opposed himselfe against the Sabbath, would erect a new, this had not beene (saith hee) to abrogate the ceremony but to change the day. I answer, that by the comming of Christ some things suffered altera­tion, as well as others abrogation: wherefore the Apostles were to preach onely the abrogative types and ceremonies to bee abrogated (of which sort I prove the Sabbath to bee none) and according to the nature of the new creation to alter the other, of which sort the Sabbath was, and therefore suffered subordination not abrogation: And therefore hath the Scripture recorded it to us [...] the name of the first day of the weeke, or the first day of seaven (be­fore [Page 20] it stile it the Lords day) in a s [...]gnificant opposi­tion to the old antiquated last day of the weeke. I will conclude this Answer with Master Hookers authority (who was a confident maintainer of the morality of the fourth commandement as you may see in his Eccles. Pol. pag. 377.) who speaking upon this place of the Galath. Hooker. saith: That for as much as the Law of the Iewes by the comming of Christ was changed, and wee thereunto no way bound, Saint Paul, although it were not his purpose to fa­vour invectives against the speciall sanctification of dayes and times to the service of God, and to the honour of Iesus Christ, doth notwithstanding bend his forces against that opinion, which imposed on the Gentiles the yoake of Iewish legall obser­vations, as if the whole World ought for ever, and that upon paine of condemnation to keepe and ob­serve them, such as in this perswasion hallowed the Iewish Sabbaths the Apostle sharply reproveth saying, yee observe dayes and monthes and times and yeares, &c.

Thus you see how Master Hookers opinion was concerning this text of Paul, onely to cry downe those obsolete Iewish observations, and nothing lesse then to impeach the authority of the fourth commandement or the Lords day, as you may plainely discerne by turning over leafe to pag. 378. where hee layeth downe three sorts of holy times, thus, saith hee:Hooker. It pleased God heretofore to exact some part of time by way of perpetuall homage never to bee dispenced withall, nor remitted, againe to require some other parts of time with as strict exaction but for lesse continuance, and of the rest which were left arbitrary to accept what the Church should in due consideration consecrate voluntarily unto religious uses. Of the first kind amongst the Iewes was the [Page 21] Sabbath-day. Of the second those feastes which were appointed by the Law of Mos [...]s; The Feast of Dedication invented by the Church standeth in the number of the last kind. The morall Law re­quiring therefore a seaventh part throughout the age of the World to bee that way imployed, although with us the day bee changed in regard of a new re­volution begun by our Saviour Christ, yet the same proportion of time continueth which was before, because of reference to the benefit of creation, and now much more of renovation thereunto added by him which was Prince of the World to come, wee are bound to account the sanctification of one day in seaven a duty which Gods immutable Law doth exact for ever. Thus you have Master Hookers o­pinion both of this text of the Gal. The morality of the fourth commandement, the perpetuity of the Sabbath, and the authority of the Lords-day.

Broad.

A little leaven leaveneth the whole lumpe, Gal. 5. 9.

Chrysost. on Gal.

Why but they retained the Gospell onely they would have brought in a Iewish rite or two, and yet the Apostle saith that thereby the Gospell is subverted, to shew how but a little thing, being un­towardly mingled, marreth all.

Luther on Gal. 2.

Paul had note here his owne busines in hand but a matter of faith. Now as concerning faith, wee ought to bee invincible and more hard if it might [Page 22] bee then the Adamant stone, but as touching cha­rity wee ought to bee soft, and more flexible then the reed or leafe shaken with the wind, and ready to yeeld to every thing.

Broad.
A treatise of the Sabbath.

FOr as much as I know not, whether taking my booke in hand thou mindest to read it over to the end. I have therefore thought good (by way of prevention) in the beginning to let thee under­stand, that howsoever there bee difference in opi­nion among the Godly learned, yet they all for ought I know agree in this, namely, that the Lords-day had his beginning in the time of the Apostles, and being of so great antiquity, so generally received, and so profitable to the Church of Christ, that it ought to be observed of thee according to the practice of good Christians from time to time, and the godly lawes of our most Christian governour living at this pre­sent. I charge thee therefore as thou wilt answer it before Gods judgement [...]ear, that thou dost not take occasion hence to spend the Lords-day more licentiously; and so to dishonour God the more, when thou hast more cause to honour and praise his holy name. If thou dost, know assuredly that the Son hath not yet made thee free▪ for none dare wil­fully abuse our liberty purchased by Christ, unlesse themselves doe still continue the very bond slaves of sinne and Sathan,

Answer.

Your admiration is worthy commendation, for it is the part of every honest man to preserve the [Page 23] practise of piety, and especially in this point of the Sabbath, in the which God so often in Scripture in­volueth the summe of all Religion, and indeed it is Gods and the Churches ancient Land-marke, which being removed, opens a gappe to all licentiousnes, and that being once let in, which is so much thirsted after by the ignorant and common people, then fare­well all Religion.

For as Doctor Denison notes upon the 13. Neh. 2. That where the Sabbath is not sancti­fied, there is neither sound Religion nor a Chri­stian conversation to bee expected, as hee is quoted by Edward Chetwin D. D. and Deane of Bristow in his second Edition of the straight gate and narrow way to life, Pag. 90. Who himselfe saith in the same page, that the prophaning the holy Sabbath of God (for so hee termes it) is contrary to Gods morall precept still in power. And therefore if you have Faith I wish you would have taken Saint Pauls ad­vice, and have had it to your selfe in this point. For how you will preserve the duties of the Sabbath, Read Master Ri­chard Bifields 13. chap. against Master Breere­woods like protesta­tion. and yet with the same breath cry downe the au­thority of the Sabbath, and how you will maintaine solemne worship without solemne time (which God ever allotted to that end) I see not, nor you know not.

And therefore what you weakely endeavour to build up with one hand, you powerfully pull downe with the other, for an errour in Doctrine (especially tending to libertinisme) is likelier to take place among men (where alwayes the greater part is the worse) then a bare perswasion tending to restriction. It is as if a man should let slip a Gray­hound at an Hare, and then command him to ly downe at his foote.

And therefore you might have done well, like a [Page 24] good Physitian first to have applied that receit (how that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lumpe) upon your selfe before you had prescribed it unto others. But to prevent the spreading of this poisonous lea­ven, I am desirous to give you a timely opposition by contending for the truth.

Broad.
CHAP. I. 1. What day God sanctified in the beginning.

GOd having finished the creation in sixe dayes rested on the seaventh day and was refreshed,Gen. 2. Exod. 31. whereupon hee blessed the seaventh day and sanctified it. The day which God sanctified in the begin­ning was the seaventh and no other, even as the day wherein hee commanded the Israelites to kill the passeover was the fourteenth day and no other of the first month, the one is as expressely set downe as the other, and the reasons wherefore God sancti­fied the seaventh day,The reason of the Sabbaths institution vanished as a shadow with the shadow. and commanded the Israelites to kill the passeover on the fourteenth day of the first month are alike unchangeable. For as it cannot bee that the Angell should passe over the Israelites houses on any other day of the fourteenth, so nei­ther can it bee that God should rest on any other day.

Answer.

It is no doubt but the seaventh day was the day that God onely rested on, and sanctified to a different use from the rest of the dayes, for having imployed these in creating things necessary for mans corpo­rall good, hee designes him this day for his spirituall benefit, and his owne speciall glory, (whereas it is alleadged by some, Bishop White pag. 42. Doctor Heylyn pag. 10. That God imposed no other Law on Adam then that of the forbidden fruit of the tree of know­ledge. To this I answer:

1. That there was another Law imposed upon him even in innocency as appeares Gen. 2. 24. to wit, the Law of having but one wife and loving her.

2. That this Law of the Sabbath was a Law not of the nature of the other where on his estate de­pended, but a Law of indulgence, whereto hee both should and would readily have confented (because of the blessing and benefit which should have re­dounded to him thereby) had hee continued in in innocency and not lost himselfe and it before.)

And questionlesse there was no other reason why hee, that could have made all the World in a mo­ment, should yet contrive and spin out the worke of creation into sixe dayes space, but onely to this end, that hee might give an example to mankind (which was then in Adam) for ever to set a part the seaventh day to his more speciall and solemne worship. And the reason (of Gods resting from the creation) why it is annexed as a reason of the commandement is, because at that time there was no better thing, nor greater commodity, no nor any greater worke for God to rest from, or thing wherein God was more [Page 26] seene then in the creation. And therefore was the Sabbath appointed on that day (having the honour to conclude the creation) in memory of Gods good­nes to man, and upon occasion of his refreshment therein, till a greater good should befall him, and a worke wherein God should bee more glorified, and then that reason to bee subordinated not an­nulled (because the creation still remaineth as a lesse good even unto us under the Gospell) but as the Law is to the Gospell, or the old Testament to the new, or as the Prophets were to the Apostles and Mini­sters; not in the sense as the ceremonies were to Christ, to receive an absolute expiration the one by the other; for it was of no such shadowish nature; and yet not so unchangeable, but that it is as well sub­ject to subordination upon occasion, as the Iewes deliverance out of Egypt was to their after delive­rance out of Babylon; For man was more happy, and God (as I may say) more refreshed in ceasing from the worke of our redemption then of our creation.

And therefore is Anno Mundi worthily changed into Anno Domini: And the name of the Sabbath into the Lords-day; For denominatio omnis fit a ma­jori. And for this cause although in relation to our redemption wee celebrate the first day of the weeke for order, yet it is the creation that makes this first day to bee the seaventh in number, and good reason. For seeing God in the creation divided time into the revolution of seaven, how can or dare any that knowes the creation breake the order of time by God established, and thinke of another division as of. 6. or 8. &c. seeing from the beginning it was not so, especially seeing it was purposely done of God for the Sabbaths sake, who els could have fi­nished the creation in the twinckling of an eye (which solemne contrivement sure was not to [Page 27] create a Iewish abrogative type) and therefore is accordingly observed under the Gospell, onely mu­tatis mutandis.

But to come to that which you would inferre, which is, that onely the last day of the seaven is to bee kept Sabbath: I answer:

First, that in respect of the point of time, I thinke I need not bee large to prove the variation of it: For I thinke it will be granted upon this one instance: 10. Ios. 13. how that the Sabbath was not alwayes observed answerable to the first institution in respect of the point of time; for that by the Suns standing still the weeke was lengthened beyond its due pro­portion.

Doctor Heylin pag. 48. alleadgeth, that a man travailing the World Westward may lose a whole day; now what shall that man doe at his returne, saith hee, if to sanctify one day in seaven bee morall.

I answer first, Let him tell mee what a Iew should have done in that case when the Sabbath was con­fessedly obligatory; and so should that man doe now.

Secondly I answer, that though things that are morall by nature, because they bind alwayes, and in all places alike, are ever the same: Yet things that are morall onely by Discipline admit variety through exigency of time and occasion.

Thus it was lawfull for Adams immediate po­sterity to conjugate with their consanguinity, which now (the exigency of those times being over) is utterly unlawfull by disciplinary morality: (Nay nature her selfe being disciplined from the alteration of time and variety of choyce, now abhorres it as utterly undecent) so the man that having in his law­full calling of merchandizing lost a day, and had during his travell in his particuler practise rent from [Page 28] the Church (in her computation of time) without a schisme, being lawfully necessitated thereunto by the course of nature, may as lawfully at his returne re­duce himselfe againe unto the conformity and practise of the Church to avoid a wilfull rent and disorder; like as they that were in a journey were to keepe the Passeover on a different time by themselves from the Church of the Iewes, but at their re­turne they were to returne to the Churches observa­tion.

Secondly, but in regard of the order which I thinke you labour to maintaine, to wit, that the Sabbath ought to bee the last, and not the first day of the weeke, or else not to bee at all. To that I answer, that some reasons and circumstances even in the morall Law are occasionall and so changeable, and yet the substance of the commandement is perpetuall and immutable:And as one well ob­serves. Diverse positive lawes which are mo­rall & perpetuall and bind all men in their generations, though they bee firme and im­mutable in themselves and in their obliga­tion, yet because the duties of obedience which they impose upon men and the men upon whom the duties are imposed are in their state and condition mutable and changeable, and the changes and alterations of things commanded in times places and other relations and respects doe not at all change the Law, nor prove it ceremoniall and changeable. As for instance, the Law of beleeving in Christ, is firme and unchangeable from the first promise that was made of him, and yet the duty which hee requires is chan­geable, and is changed now under the Gospell from that it was under the Law, in circumstance, for they were to beleeve in Christ to come, but we as come; for the chan­ging of the day now since Christ does not make v [...]id, but establish the Law of the Sabbath. As in the first commandement, where Israels corporeall deliverance is now changed into Israels ghostly deliverance; So in the fifth com­mandement, the land of Canaan is properly the land meant which had that promise belonging to it: But now it is enlarged to all that in the feare of God obey that commandement throughout the World. So this commandement had the reason of Gods re­sting from the creation occasionally affixed unto it, because that then the creation was Gods greatest and eminentest worke, and being occasionall and [Page 29] appointed for commemoration, was therefore chan­geable whensoever he should rest from a greater worke, that better deserved commemoration then that; And yet the substance of the commandement re­maineth unalterable, which substance or unalterable part of the commandement consisteth in the number, as seaven is opposed to all oth [...]r numbers, and not in the order.

But may some say,Obj. those allegations out of the first and fift commandements hold not paralel with this reason of the fourth commandement, because they were onely given in the time of the Iewes, but this was from the beginning.

I answer both the one and the other was given for the Churches sake,Answ. and therefore alterable accor­ding to Gods good pleasure and the state of the Church.

But you will further object: When doe you find any thing altered, that was as this is from the begin­ning?

I answer, I find the curse which was annexed to the fall of man to bee taken away and brought under by the death and resurrection of Christ: And well then may the reason of the then Sabbath bee altered by it, when the curse is annulled, it being the Churches type or ceremony, and that thing changed wherein the ceremony consisted, to wit, the order from last to first according to the different state of the Church. Like as it may bee supposed of the Iewes when they came to bee a sedentary Church, they altered their gesture from standing to sitting, but still retained the Passeover; So wee still retaine the substance of the fourth commandement, though wee have altered the ceremony, which was grounded upon Gods ex­ample; And now God having given us another ex­ample of another rest upon another day, wee imitate [Page 30] his example, and still keepe his commandement, by observing the number but altering the order. For indeed as by Gods ordination and disposition, the Law and Sabbath goe together, so they fare alike; for the Law was to continue in the nature of a co­venant till Christ came, and so the Sabbath on the last day, who b [...] fulfilling the righteousnes of the one, did inherite the rest of the other, being annexed there­unto and entailed thereupon (whereof man failed by his fall) and thereupon changed the natures of both, subordinating the Law to the Gospell; making it, in stead of a cause procuring life, to bee a rule, and an effect of life and grace received; and so the last day Sabbath to the first, changing rest by workes, into working by rest; A happy change (if wee make not our selves unhappy by allowing a rest to the Law but none to the Gospell) for whereas before wee held by a tenure of feare, our happines being all in the future, for wee were, all our life long, to doe this, and then to live, now wee hold by the tenure of faith, and our happines is in present, for saith the Apostle Hebr. 4. 3. wee which have beleeved doe enter into rest; according to Iohn. 17. 3. This is life eternall to know thee, &c. shewing that the life of grace in a man is called eternall life, because it hath its beginning from that life which shall never cease, but increase to ever-lasting perfection.

So that the Sabbath is unalterable in regard of the individuall number, but not in regard of the in­dividuall day. The number being kept, the day upon occasion might bee altered. And of the truth of this wee have good reason to perswade us, for the issue proveth it by the divine authority of the Apostles. For this fourth commandement, being no Iewish ceremony, but a commandement in the Decalogue, and equall with the Law of nature, ought for the [Page 31] substance of it to bee esteemed perpetuall, and espe­cially seeing that now, in one of these senses, to wit, in the number, wee see it preserved inviolable by the example of the Apostles, and the practise of the Church ever since; and yet in respect of the order, by the selfe-same examples, altered from last to first; And▪ which alteration is very agreeable to the time of the Gospell, where many that are first shall bee last, and last shall bee first. Even as Iohn Baptist, who being the last of the Prophets, was therefore the greatest, because nearest unto Christ: yet hee that is least in the Kingdome of Heaven (that is, in the time of the Gospell) is greater then hee: So this seaventh day, though the last in order and greatest in dignity, during the supereminency of the old crea­tion, because of Gods example; yet now, is the num­ber retained, and the order exchanged from the last to the first of the weeke, in honour of the new crea­tion of the new Heaven and new Earth, which com­paratively was prophecied, and promised to ea [...]e out the old, in the 65. of Isa. 17. I will (saith God there) create a new Heaven and a new Earth, and the former shall not bee remembred (that is the so­lemnity of it shall cease, and shall give place to the new, for els remember it wee both doe and must doe, for the memory of both may consist together, and the one confirme the other, in regard that our redemption restores us to a lawfull Dominion (once forfeited) over the whole worke of creation. And why must there bee this change? Why, because of the greater excellency of the second creation, which shall bee solemnized in stead of the first under the time of the Gospell, when Christ shall bee come, and shall have finished the worke of my Mercy, which shall bee greater then was the worke of my goodnes in the creation.

[Page 32]Each creation must have its Sabbath of comme­moration, for els should God magnify his lesser worke of creation before his greater worke of redemption. And therefore this is the day which wee now cele­brate, which the Lord hath made for us to rejoyce in now, like as that was then.

And thus wee see it in all points now fulfilled. But you will object, that this new Heaven and new Earth is meant of the differing state of the Church under the Gospell, to that it was under the Law: Ans. I grant it, whereof the solemnizing of our re­demption (which principally; nay I may say onely, made the change) in stead of our old and first creation (unto which wee lost all right, but that it was re­vived by, and therefore worthily changed into, the second) is a principall part; And therefore hath the holy Ghost expressed this change in those tearmes of old and new creation, rather then any other. And as in the 2. of Peter 3. 13. there, at the perfection of the Kingdome of Heaven, hee prophecies of a reall change of the old Heaven and old Earth by an absolute dissolution of them, by reason of the succes­sion of a better condition to the people and Church of God: So here in Isaiah, at the inchoation of the Kingdome of Heaven (I meane the time of the Go­spell) hee prophecies of a proportionable reall change (leading unto the other) of the old Heaven and old Earth, by way of mitigation, by reason of a more excellent benefit that redoundeth to the Church and children of God. For those words (ac­cording to his promise) in the aforesaid text of Pe­ter, have reference to this of Isaiah; By the compa­ [...]ison of which texts it is evident, that there is as well a literall as a mysticall sense in these words, which was to bee fulfilled gradatim, in the Kingdome under the Gospell (which was the time of the adequate [Page 33] accomplishment of their prophecies) as well, as in the Kingdome of Heaven hereafter, which is the time of accomplishing our prophecies, or theirs, as they are transferred over to us.

So that if you grant it requisite to sanctifie a seaventh day, or the seaventh day in respect of num­ber, I say with you; but now to sanctifie the last day in the weeke, were to memorize our creation above our redemption; our being, above our wel-being, and to contradict promise and prophecy, example and reason; For in commemorations the lesser gives way to, and is enwrapped in the greater. Now then Christs resting, on the first day from a greater worke, then that of the creation was just cause to adjourne the great duty of commemoration, to that day which finished the greater and more beneficiall action.

But on the other hand to keepe no seaventh day, were likewise to goe against the example of the Apostles, and to blot out one of the tenne comman­dements, and so to make a morall Law Iewishly ceremoniall: For there is no reason why the Apostles should weekely celebrate the day of Christs resur­rection, if it were not in reference to the fourth com­mandement; seeing that if they had meant it as a bare institution of the Church, they might have done by the day of Christs resurrection as wee doe by the day of his birth, that is, have kept it yearely.

And lastly, it were to crosse this prophecy of Isa. 65. 17. for what reason have wee to thinke, that God would simply have the remembrance of the creation lessened; nothing lesse; but onely respectively; no more then hee would have the Egyptian deli­verance forgotten, because hee would have the Babylonish deliverance remembred, but onely com­paratively. For hee would have us, that are under [Page 34] the Gospell, to celebrate the worke of our redemp­tion above the worke of our creation, and to ac­knowledge, the day of the consummation thereof, to bee the day which David speakes of, Psalme 118. [...], which the Lord hath made, wherein wee will rejoyce and bee glad. In which words (as one saith) I see not how the making of the day can bee intended for the common regulation of the dayes in the creation, but it appeareth to bee some dedication to an holy use of joy and gladnes (sutable to the description of a Sabbath, which is called a de­light) for our unspeakeable deliverance.

And not as Bishop W [...]ite would perswade pag. 191. that the day of Christs passion, was every way as blessed a day in respect of mans redemption, as the day of resurrection. For the Apostle saith, that if Christ bee not risen wee are yet in our sins.

And so againe whereas hee saith; pag. 298. This great worke of humane redemption was not effected by the resurrection of Christ, but by his obedience and sacrifice on the crosse; and it was fully wrought and finished upon the passion friday, after our Sa­viour had said consummatum est. I aske, how wee had beene redeemed from, and how hee had conquered, our last enemy death, if hee had not risen, And againe, put case it were so, so was the worke of creation fully finished on the sixth day, and yet God sanctified the seaventh day, and on that day. 2. Gen. 2. it is said, Hee ended his worke which hee had made, because that day gave manifest declara­tion of his compleating the works of creation, and so did the day of Christs resurrection manifest the compleating of the worke of our redemption.

And this day, thus prophetically extolled by Da­vid, was answerably honoured by Christ himselfe, and kept by his Apostles. So that in answer to Bi­shop [Page 35] White pag. 302▪ there was at least an implicite, vertuall, and interpretative command in the act of Christs resurrection; For why should not wee thinke, that Christ had a significant meaning in prolonging his resurrection to the third day, which was the first of the weeke, as well as God had, in spinning out his creation to the seaventh day, which was the last of the weeke, seeing Christ could have raised him­selfe out of the grave so soone as hee was in it, like as God could have created all things in the twinck­ling of an eye.

So that then, seeing God by this his resting from the worke of our redemption, hath given us a new reason (in respect of eminency) of a new day, and by the example of his Apostles preserving still the number, wee in doing the like obey his good plea­sure and his Law, which is not destroyed by the comming of Christ (for not one tittle of it shall passe away, till Heaven and Earth passe, which is the time of the Sabbaths period) but fulfilled and explained by him, according to the will of God, and his purpose, though not according to our carnall rea­sonings and opinions. For thus is all kept whole. The reason of the commandement hereby standing still good but not in cheife: For Gods resting from his worke is now the occasion of our Sabbath, not from the worke of his creation, but from the worke of his redemption, wherein hee was most remonstra­ted, and even redoubled in the manifestation of all his attributes to our view, and therefore worthy of a select day, which yet altereth nothing of the sub­stance of the Sabbath, Alexander tertius Pontifex Rom. affirmat, tam veteris quam novi testamenti pa­ginam, septimam diemad humanam quietem speciali­ter deput [...]sse; id est, (Interprete suarez de diebus festis cap. 1.) utrumque testamentum approbavit more [...] [Page 36] deputandi ad quietem humanam septimum quemque diem hebdomadis: qu [...]d est formaliter deputare septi­mum diem, licet materialiter non idem dies fuerit sem­per deputatus, & hoc modo verum est, septimum [...]llum diem in lege v [...]teri esse Sabbathum, in nova vero esse diem Dominicum.

For as our changing of the bounds of the Sabbath (which in the Iewes time was from evening to eve­ning, and now in our time is from morning to mor­ning, in relation to the time of Christs resurrection) is no materiall change, but that still the day remaines entire, even so the change of the Iewes seaventh day, to our seaventh day, altereth not any whit the sub­stance of the Sabbath or fourth commande­ment.

But you will say,Obj. why was the day translated, and not rather both the dayes celebrated?

Because that would have crossed the good plea­sure of God,Answ. who from the beginning thought it a meet [...] proportion to afford man sixe dayes for his ne­cessary labour, and to exact one of seaven for his more solemne worship, which also is the reason, why the Lords day was continued in the same num­ber, but not in the same order, so that it was not transp [...] ­sed to bee observed in any other number, but onely in another order in the same number; that so the will of God in that commandement might bee observed, and yet his resting from the wonderfull worke of our redemption worthily celebrated.

And therefore whereas Bishop White saith pag. 277. that if the fourth commandement concerning the keeping of the seaventh day bee morall and per­petuall, then it is not such in respect of the first and eight d [...]y, but of that one onely day which it speci­fieth in the commandement. I answer. Neither of both is morall and perpetuall, as considered in [Page 37] the order, but occasionall and changeable, (as the event hath shewne) and that each of both is morall and perpetuall, as considered in their number being unchangeable to any other number, and therefore still so continueth by vertue of the morality of the Law of the Sabbath given to Adam, and re-given in the fourth commandement.

Now whereas you urge the appointed day of the Passeover to bee unalterable, in paralel to the day of Gods rest from the creation; wee clearely see the contrary: for upon occasion the precise individuall day of the Passeover was altered, as in the 9. of Numb. where hee that was uncleane, or in a jour­ney was not to eate it till the fourteenth day of the second month, where the number is preserved en­tire (whereof God was ever curious) but the day is changed; even thus upon occasion is the Sabbath altered, the number of seaven being kept entire in this, as in the other the number of fourteene, and yet a change made, and so both the Sabbath and Passeover for substance preserved, notwithstanding the circumstantiall alteration upon occasion. Yea Hezekiahs great Passeover was kept in the second month, upon the exigency of the times, 2 Chro. 30. 2, 3.

And now that you have made mention of the Passeover▪ besides this foresaid liv [...]ly illustration, which it affords to set forth my meaning in this thing, I would commend it as a notion worthy your consideration, whether Gods ordaining the first and seaventh day of the Passeover) as also of other feasts) to bee kept holy, might not prophe [...]y [...] Sabbath of the true▪ Paschall lambe Christ Ies [...] after his being slaine, as well as theirs under the typi­call, the one to bee the first of the seaven as the other was the last.

Broad.
2. When in likely hood God sanctified the seaventh day.

VVHen God sanctified the seaventh day,Some con [...]idently teach that Ad [...]a kept the first seaventh day, whereas it is probable that God sanctified it not till about the end thereof. I meane whether as soone as it began or about the end thereof, is doubtfull; of the two the latter s [...]emes most probable, for God blessed and sancti­fied the seaventh day, because therein hee had rested (not would re [...]) and was refreshed.

It is the manner of men to blesse that day or houre wherein some great good hath befalne them,And contrary-wise to curse that day that bringeth woe Ier. 10. 14. thus God having felt, as it were, the sweetnes of rest on the seaventh day in comparison of his labour in the sixe former, and being well re­freshed is hereupon moved to blesse and sanctifie it.

Answer.

You say its probable, God pronounced the Sab­bath sanctified at the end thereof, when hee had re­sted, which for my part I assent unto, for [...]o in the 2 Gen. 3. it appeares to bee most likely. Besides that Moses his manner of expression in that verse, com­pared with the like in the first chapter, doe much perswade it: for you shall find there, that when hee hath related Gods five and sixe dayes workes as fi­nished and compleated by him, then followeth the blessing upon them, so in this second chapter he [...] makes the blessing to follow upon his resting as be­fore upon his working. But what you would gather hence I doe not well perceive, yet two things in my opinion follow very naturally.

[Page 39]1. That hereby God would give to Adam as well a president as a precept to regulate and invite his subsequent duty in the particular of the Sabbath. That seeing God had chosen the seaventh day to finish his creation in, and to rest there from, and had thus made it knowne to Adam; with a promise of a blessing thereunto for after-time upon due ob­servance. That therefore Adam and his posterity should bee moved thereby, to dedicate the seaventh day from the sublunary imployments of the other sixe to bee a perpetuall Sabbath unto the Lord, not by a bare rest (for what honour hath God by that) but by a sanctified rest.

2. That it was not meant that Adam should keepe the seaventh day Sabbath which God rested on, for though it was Gods seaventh day, yet it was Adams second day, which is another reason to prove your probability, for it is likely that God himselfe did first rest the seaventh day, that so hee might by his example (being revealed to that end) give man­kind a patterne for ever after to doe the like, which is very apparant, and more confirmed by the Law concerning the Sabbath, as it was afterwards renewed upon mount Sinai to the Israelites, where wee are commanded after sixe dayes labour to dedicate a sea­venth to holines, & to that end to rest from our worke on the seaventh day, as God did from his; that so by following his example wee might the better obey his commandement; not that wee were to rest the selfe-same day that hee did, but onely in similitude and imitation, that is, to employ sixe dayes in our necessary labour and the seaventh to rest according to his example, that so wee might sanctifie it accor­ding to his commandement.Which Adam had not done, if hee had ke [...]t Gods seaventh day Sabbath. Which Argument do [...]h much disprove that over-strict tying the Sab­bath to the precise seaventh day after the creation, [Page 40] and proves the [...]umerall day to bee onely morall and perpetuall, or the proportion of time which the Lord exemplifieth there, which is the seaventh day for number not that seaventh day for time.

But you will say,Obj. did not Gods example as well oblige the order as the number, as well the last as the seaventh day?

Yes,Answ. during the supereminency of the worke of creation, but when a more excellent worke was fi­nished, the worke of our redemption, from which it also pleased him exemplarily to rest, not on the last but on the first day of the weeke, and as exemplarily by his Apostles ever after to preserve th [...] number and proportion of time according to the comman­dement, the substance of the reason which constitutes the commandement still remaining entire (to wit Gods resting from, or accomplishing his worke) one­ly the terminus à quo varieth the case in respect of order.

For the transcendency of the latter displaceth the former, as the presence of the King doth the Major of a Towne.

I say, at this time did the order vanish, and the day of Gods creation give place to the day of Gods re­demption as the more worthy worke; And if God may bee said, in any manner of speech, to bee refre­shed in his resting from the powerfull worke of crea­tion, much more from the painefull worke of re­demption.

Broad.
3. When God first commanded man to san­ctifie the seaventh day.

IT is not said in Scripture that God presently com­manded Adam to sanctifie the seaventh day,If the word (sancti­fied) Gen. 23. impor­teth commanded Adam to sanctifie it, why shall not the word (blessed) import also commanded A­dam to blesse it. and [Page 41] it is one thing for God to sanctifie a day and another thing to command men to sanctifie it.

Indeed it is probable that this example of God, in working sixe dayes and resting the seaventh, Adam and his posterity should alwayes have followed had they continued in the state of innocency; But when Adam had now eaten of the forbidden fruite God thrust him out of Paradice, cursed the Earth for his sake, and set him to get his living in the sweat of his face.

Answer.

You say, it is not said in Scripture that God pre­sently commanded Adam to sanctifie the seaventh day, and that it is one thing for God to sanctifie a day, and another thing for him to command man to sanctifie it: To which I answer. That God here at the institution of the Sabbath did, as Christ by his Apostles did at the institution of the Lords-day, that is, by a declaratory example appoint it as a duty unto the Church for ever after, teaching them to set aside the seaventh day (which was then the last, and is now the first day in the weeke) from all secular commerce and imployment wholly to trade with God in giving and receiving spirituall commodities. Nor is there any difference in this case, betweene Gods sanctifying it and his commanding it to bee sanctified by man. For besides that, to sanctifie, ever signified to set apart to an holy use, wee see it to bee the very voyce of of the Scripture, how that the Sabbath was made for man; that is, for his good and benefit. For man was to learne from it, that all his happines consisted not in his owne labour but also in Gods blessing; so that, though hee laboured sixe dayes together, yet the seaventh day well observed, might doe him more [Page 42] availe then all his sixe dayes labour; And therefore, by Gods blessing that day, is implied a reciprocall respect both of our blessing him, and his blessing us; and by his sanctifying is intended, his setting apart that day, for a more speciall communion betweene him and us, by his more speciall blessing of us, and our more solemne worshipping of him: For surely you will not say hee sanctified it, and blessed it, that wee should superstitiously thinke any inherent ho­lines or blessednes to bee in the very day it selfe; And if not, what followes then? but that it must needs bee meant, that wee should ever after use the seaventh day to a blessed and holy end, and expect a blessing from God thereon in so doing; for els to what use was it that God did thus reveale himselfe, and his resting, and not rather conceale it, if hee had meant it onely for a bare narration; But it is evident by the second giving of the Law, what, and how hee meant it, at the first thus Master Breerewood in his second tract. pag. 9. The Sabbath (saith hee) is called holy, not formally, for any peculiar inherent holines it hath above other dayes, but finally, because it was ordained and consecrated to holy exercises in the service of God: which gives answer to Bishop White pag. 40▪ who saith, that the second Gen. 2. 3▪ expresseth not the manner how the Lord sanctified this day, whether by imparting any speciall vertue to it above other dayes, or by dedicating the same to any religious service to bee performed by Adam in the state of innocency &c. You onely affirme that it is one thing for God to sanctifie a day, and another to command man to sanctifie it, but shew not the difference. But you would imply, as if the sencible refreshment of that day (in a grosse sence) were the cause that made God, fall so farre in love with it, where as both you and every man knowes that there [Page 43] are no passions of wearisomnes and refreshment in God, that they should bee meant by his resting; but that it is spoken ad captum vulgi for our better un­derstanding.

1. To exemplarize unto us how that spirituall and heavenly employments should bee a refreshing unto us in comparison of earthly imployments; and so farre wee were capable of wearisomnes, even in innocency, at to have found other manner of refresh­ment in divine and spirituall things then in worldly affaires.

2. To signifie the sensible refreshment and happy alteration, that wee should have had in our heavenly rest, from the state and condition that wee were in here on Earth.

But perchance you are of opinion with some, that thinke Adam should not have beene translated, but have lived immortally upon Earth had hee not falne: But to this I answer, that by the curse which was annexed to the tree of knowledge, wee may know è contrario, what manner of blessing was promised and intended by the tree of life, now the curse involued both the first and second death, here and in hell, so &c.For a further argu­ment I wish them to consider and compare Rom. 3. 23. with Rom. And they indeed that are of this opinion must prove the Sabbath not to sig­nifie our rest in heaven, nor to bee given in inno­cency.

As for your criticisme in the Margin it is not worth the weighing: The substance of Gods institution in those words being thus much: Hee blessed the seaventh day,Pag. 202. that is (saith Master Richard Bifield) hee appointed it to bee a fountaine of blessing to the observer [...] of that day, and sanctified it, that is, com­manded it to bee set apart by men from common bu­sinesses, and applied to holy uses.

Thus Calvin on the place, this blessing (saith hee)Calvin [...] [Page 44] was nothing els but a solemne consecration, whereby God claines to himselfe the studies and imployments of men, on the seaventh day.

Thus MasterHildersham. in his lectures upon the 51. Psalme pag. 704. saith, it is worth the observing that our Saviour saith Marke 2. 27. That the Sab­bath was at first made for Man, for the great bene [...]it and behoofe of Man. Man could not (no not Adam in innocency) have beene without it but with great danger and losse unto him. So that the holy Ghost saith, that twice of the Sabbath Gen. 2. 3. and Exod. [...]0. 11. that hee never said of any other day. That the Lord blessed that day, that is, appointed it to bee a meane of a greater blessing to man (if hee keepe it as God hath commanded him to doe) then any other day, or any of the ordinary workes of any other day can possibly bee.

So Marius on Gen. Marius. 2. Hee blessed it, that is, hee consecrated it to his blessing to bee kept of men, and sanctified it, that is, not as if hee stamped holines upon it (as you would imply) but because hee ap­pointed it to his sanctification and praise, and to the holy conversation of men.

In short, Hee blessed the seaventh day and hallowed it, that is, hee digni [...]ed it with this priviledge above the sixe dayes, that it should bee exempted from their prophane and civill actions and negotiations, and dedicated to holy and sacred imployments.

And now whereas you say that Adam should have observed Gods example in innocency had hee stood; I thinke so too▪ Wherein you mightily con­tradict your selfe; for why should Adam imitate that, which even now you would have to bee onely an action in God, but of no exemplary use to man. But why should the Sabbath bee usefull to Adam in innocency (who was so perfect) and not much more [Page 45] usefull to Adam in innocency (who was so perfect) and not much more usefull to the Church of God after? I would faine know. But you goe on and say, that Adam was thrust out Paradise, what then? God had his Church still which was principally respected by God in the giving of the Sabbath. As appeares, in that as soone as God had taken and selected to himselfe a noted Church of the Israe­lites out of the World, he renewes his insti­tution and command of the Sabbath to them. As it is said in the 4. Hebr. 9. There remaineth a Sabbatisme to the people of God, that is to his Church, for they are they which in the Scripture sense shall rest from their labours, and therefore was the Sabbath still in force though pethaps not in use; although they then, and wee now ought to bee so much the more care­full to keepe it, by how much wee stand in need of the blessing of God, since the curse falne upon our selves and the whole creation.

Broad.

Neither did hee, or his posterity sanctify any Day in an holy rest a long time after for ought that wee doe certainly find, or may probably conjecture.

1 The Iewes acknowledge that they doe not read of Abrahams keeping the Sabbath, and I may adde neither of any others keeping or breaking it, both be­fore and a good while since Abrahams time, although wee doe read of Circumcision, Sacrifices and the breach of other Commandements together with pu­nishments for the same.

2 Before the Israelites comming out of Egypt I find no mention of Weekes (which distinction of time the Sabbath causeth) as of Dayes Moneths and Yeares, whereas after their comming forth, and in­stitution of the Sabbath mention is made as well of Weekes as of any other.

3 Tertullians judgment is that Adam,Lib▪ advers, I [...]d.Noah, Abra­ham, &c. kept not the Sabbath, and of the same opi­nion [Page 46] are many others, so Peter: on Gen. 2.

After that God had delivered the Israelites out of the Egyptian captivity (a figure of our deliverance from Satans bondage) as he led them through the Wildernes towards the Land of Canaan (a Type of the Heavenly Paradise) he gave them Mannah to to eate,1. Cor. 10. 3. so that they did eate the same Spirituall meate with us, even the Lambe Christ Iesus, slaine from the beginning of the World, who though he be not called the Tree of Life, yet tearmes himselfe the bread of Life that came downe from Heaven. This Mannah they gathered sixe Dayes; and on the seaventh Day Moses commanded them to rest (for this Comman­dement was first given by the hand of Moses for ought that wee do find in the Scriptures) and not long after God called it againe to their remembrance:Consider that the word (Remember) is not used Deut. 5. nor else wherein the Law or the Prophets. saying, Remember the Sabbath Day to sanctify it.

Answer.

The summe of this your objection is, that, nor A­dam, nor his posterity, for any thing we can find, san­tifyed the Sabbath day, till it was given the Israelites by the hand of Moses I could reply, that throughout the Hi­story of Ioshua, Iudges & Samuel, we find not the observation of the Sabbath. And touch­ing that you say you finde no mention of Weekes before the Is­raelites comming out of Egypt; I could put you to answer that Gen. 29. 27. fulfill her Weeke: but it is truth and not victory that I seeke, and therfore I rather desire to re­solve my Reader, then to pusle my opposer.

To which I answer, that whether the Sabbath was observed, or not observed, yet notwithstanding it was of force. For 1. I aske, whether you thinke, those words of Gods sanctifying the Sabbath in Innocen­cy, were but a bare narration without any use or effi­cacy towards man? Yes say you, they were spoken to man as considered in Innocency, and had he still remained in Innocency then had he kept the Sabbath. Wherto I reply that there was nothing that was in­stituted to Adam before his Fall, but it was of force after his Fall, excepting such things from which he was expresly debarred by manifest voyce of Scrip­ture [Page 47] (by the curse and fiery sword) whereof the Sab­bath is none.

Againe I say if this Institution were proper only to the state of Innocency, how comes it to be renewed un­to the Israelites? and that upon the primitive reason. Which indeed shewes it to be a thing given unto his Church for speciall use, and to be coequall with the Law of Nature: for wee see that so soone as God had chosen out of the world a remarkeable and established Church, to which he renewed the Law of Nature; he also, as coincident there with, reneweth the Law of the Sabbath; including and determining, in this positive Commandement of the Sabbath, the Law of Nature: like as other Commandements in the Law directly forbid the actions of sinnes, inclusively the habits. 2. Exconcessis. Putting the case the Sabbath never was kept by the Patriarchs. I answer to it two things.

First that neither did they keepe for the most part the Law of Marriage, for generally they lived in Po­ligamy, and yet was that Law of force even in their times, for one man to marry but one Woman. And therfore when the Pharises alledged Moses his Law of Divorcement for the priviledging them to put a­way their Wives (which might better authorize their practice therein, then the Patriarchs omission can ju­stify our neglect of the Sabbath) but how did Christ answer them? saith he, how was it from the begin­ning? as who say, tell not mee of Moses his Law, which you plead only to maintaine your licentious­nes, and which was only a concessary Law granted for the hardnes of your hearts; but looke beyond Mo­ses at God, what he did in the state of Innocency, for that must be the rule of your practice. So say I, looke not at the errours of the Patriarchs, to do what they did, when wee have Gods example to the con­trary. [Page 48] Secondly that to draw an argument, de facto, from mans not keeping the Sabbath, against the right and institution of the Sabbath is improper:For by the same reason you may as well argue against the second exhibition of it, because of the in­terruption which for any thing wee find, it received in the time of the Babilonish Capti­vity, as against the first, because it ap­peares not that the Patriarchs observed it in their time. Especi­ally if wee consider man falne, whereby the very Law of nature suffered, but doubtlesse the Sabbath being grounded upon the covenant of works, and having by the fall lost its vertue, being thereby made void, its Law was blotted out and quite raced, by the speciall hand and permission of God, and noe wonder, seeing that even in innocency, nay and after his Fall too, du­ring his abode in Paradise he remembred not to eate of the Tree of Life, where by he should have lived for ever, Gen: 3. 22. by a like secret but just worke of God, (the cause wee shall further see anon) being no Law of Nature, but a necessary improvement and de­termination of the Law of Nature in that particuler, for the better accomodating Man for the publicke and more solemne service and worship of his Creatour, (and therefore was renewed when Gods Church came to be publicke and nationall:)Damascen: de fide Orthod: lib. 4. cap. 24. sayth, that when there was no Law nor Scrip­ture, that then there was no Sabbath nei­ther, but when the Law was given by Moses, then was the Sabbath set a part for Gods publicke wor­ship. as M. Breerwood implyes from his observation upon the word Remem­ber annexed: either (saith he) it is because it is not meerely morall, and a Law of Nature as the others are, and therefore being not so effectually imprinted by Nature in the heart of man, needed a speciall admo­nition for the observance, least it should slip out of mind &c. as it seemeth it had done of a long time be­fore, and therefore was renewed with a Memento, as who say, doe thou remember to keepe holy the sea­venth Day, which thy Fore-fathers have so long for­gotten. Indeed it is evident that it was lost, and Adam despoiled of it by his Fall, because it was written in Moses his first Tables, which were broken and defa­ced by a Fall, to shew the fruit of Adams fall; and renewed together with the rest of the Law in Moses his second Tables, to shew that it suffered as well as [Page 49] the rest, they in the Conscience, it in the memory at the first ordeyning them, and therefore is renewed together with the rest in the second, with a Memento prefixed, for this Memonto imports more then a bare Memorandum, even a different quality of this Law from the rest, els it was as requisite to have beene prefixed to the second as to the fourth Commande­ment; considering the Israelites were as inclinable to Idolatry as they were averse from the Sabbath: see Deut. 31. 16. And as touching Circumcision and Sa­crifices and the other Commandements, of the breach and punishment whereof, you say wee read: I answer, that they were either the very Lawes of Nature, or els Lawes given since the Fall and upon that occasion (for so was Circumcision and Sacrifices) neither of which is the Sabbath. Not the Law of Nature (as I have said) for that is only to sanctify some indefi­nite time to the service of God, as it is likely all those did in that time of nature betweene Adam and Moses (where by the way take notice of the necessarines of the Sabbath to be in the nature of a Law, for the bet­ter performance of Gods solemne worship, and not to be left at mans liberty) nor is it a Law instituted since the Fall, for its roote groweth in Paradice; and therefore not of force with either in that time of little light; but lay dormant all that while, till it pleased God againe to reveale his more solemne worship to his more solemne Church:Nehem: 9. 13. 14. And not without good reason too; for besides that our rest was lost by our Fall till our deliverer (tipified in Moses) renewed it unto us the Sabbath was significative in its manner of exhibition, for during the time of the Covenant of workes, wee see how it was appointed in order after them, following the workes foregoing, both in the pri­mitive institution from Gods owne example, and also in the second exhibition of it to the Israelites, to sig­nify [Page 50] and imply our Heavenly Sabbatisme, then to be as well the reward of workes, as cessation from workes; and now the Covenant of Grace is come, it is made to precede the working Dayes, being cele­brated now on the first Day of the Weeke, as before on the last, to signify that now Heaven is no longer, the reward of workes (ex [...]ept in an Evangelica [...] sence, and so wee still rest from our Labours and our Workes follow us) now who seeth not a speciall pro­vidence (like that of Adams not eating of the Tree of Life during his abode in Paradise implied, Gen. 3. [...]2.) in the non ens of the Sabbath during the interim betweene the Fall and Moses, which was a time when the World (as the Apostle Paul saith) was without the Law, that is, without the Covenant of the Law openly revealed to them, as afterwards it was to Israel: so in the same sence, I may say too, it was without the Gospell, that is, without the Cove­nant of Grace openly revealed to them, as not it is to us; because therein it had beene clouded and in­significative. Which signification Bishop White Pag: 120, 121. doth even now commend to us from the fourth Comman­dement: for (saith he) it is not now a Cypher, but the letter of the commandement figureth, representeth, and consequently teacheth, the leading of an holy and religious life, that wee may at last enter the Rest of Heaven Heb. 4. 11. &c. Againe I would aske you, where you find the breach of Wedlocke found fault withall for their multiplicity of Wives, or punish­ment executed therfore; which being no Law of na­ture, but a positive Law appointed in Innocency by God, as also was the Sabbath, not by instinct but by revelation, therefore in those times of darknes were they alike winked at by God, for herein they sinned not against any knowne commandement, (after A­dams transgression) but of simple ignorance. And [Page 51] therfore as the Apostle speaketh, Sinne was not im­puted when there was no Law. Here by the way let mee take in a passage of Dr. Heylins pag. 123. hee sayth, that the Iewes thought the Sabbath to be no part of the Morall Law, because they brake it by Cir­cumcision, as thinking Circumcision to be the older Ceremony, and therfore gave precedency to it (not because it was of Moses but of the Fathers) Nay (saith he) the Iewes so farre prized the one above the other, that by this breaking of the Sabbath they were perswaded verily they kept the Law.

These things he observes out of that text, Iohn, 7. 22. Moses (saith Christ) gave unto you Circumcision (not because it was of Moses but of the Fathers) and you on the Sabbath Day Circumcise a man, that the Law of Moses should not be broken. To this I an­swer. 1. That from this text it cannot be gathered that the Iewes thought the Sabbath no morall Law (no more then that they can be said to thinke Christs charitable a [...] of healing the Sick man, to be no morall action because they persecuted him for it) or if they did, it was their wilfull blindnes. For Christ makes it plaine (that howsoever Circumcision might, and ought (as a part of Gods service) bee done no doubt on the Sabbath Day, when it fell out to be the eighth Day according to the Law) that it was their errour, so to overvalew Circumcision out of their superstiti­ous respect of Moses, who they made the Author of it to them above other Lawes which are both in their Natures higher then that, and which also Moses gave them as well as that, as wee see in the 19 verse of that Chapter: saith Christ there, Did not Moses give you a Law, and yet none of you keepeth the Law, by which is meant the Morall Law which commandeth Charity and Mercy, which is above Circumcision, and yet you quarrell with mee for observing this Law of Moses or [Page 52] rather of God: and yet for all that are your selves so nice in observing the performance of Circumcision for Moses his sake which is so farre inferiour. So in the 24 verse he exhorts them to consider it better; that if they might and ought to observe the ceremo­niall Law, on the Sabbath, by doing the workes thereof, much more ought he to doe the workes of charity thereon, which are the duties of the Morall Law. 2 By the same rule he affirmes the Iewes not to beleeve the Weekely Sabbath to be a part of the Morall Law; he may affirme them not to beleeve the Sabbaths of Yeares to bee any commandement of God at all; for a man may say of them in that case, as he saith in this, that surely had they beleeved them to be the Commandements of God, that could not b [...] affirmed of them which hee saith Pag: 143. to wit, that they were long neglected, and almost forgotten if observed at all. 3. Neither did they prize Circum­cision, as the ancienter Ceremony, because it was of the Fathers by any thing that can be gathered from that text, for it meanes no such thing but the quite contrary. For Christ brings these words (not because it was of Moses but of the Fathers) in the way of Pa­renthesis in the 22 verse, to shew them their errour in setting so high a price upon Circumcision for Moses his sake, seeing Moses was not the first founder of it, but received it by derivation from the Fathers. So that the Iewes blind conceit of Circumcision in compa­rison of the Sabbath (were it so as Dr. Heylin allead­geth) detracts no more from the morality of the Sab­bath, being a meere misprision, then it did from Christs act of Charity from being a morall action, which may serve a caution, not to make the Iewes superstitious practises and blind conceits a rule and argument to regulate our doctrine and manners by, in this particuler of the Sabbath; which is too much [Page 53] leaned upon by some, Dr. Heylin for one, who in the beginning of his booke layeth downe this Maxime, that wee can have no better Schoolemaster in the things of God, then the continuall and most constant practice of those famous men that have gone before. Amongst which famous men hee brings in the Iewe▪ in their ignorant and superstitious practices, to over­throw Gods cleare precepts, and either shut out the light of the word, to wrest it to his owne and other misguidance, as he doth the text aforesaid; which may yet bee further seene in the third mistake which hee makes in the interpretation of those words of Christ in the 23 verse (because I have made a man every whit whole on the Sabbath Day) which pag: 121. he makes to be spoken by Christ, in his owne defence, in reference to the healing circumstances that accom­panied their worke of Circumcision, that if they might breake the Sabbath, in healing the party hurt by Cir­cumci [...]ion, so might he: whereas it is spoken by Christ in opposition to the greevous and hurtfull nature of their action; for having formerly magnified his worke above theirs from the cause, in that his worke was an act of obedience to the Morall Law, and theirs but to the [...]eremoniall, here he magnifieth it also from the effect, in that his was an action of Mercy restoring to perfect health, and easing of greevous paine a man that was wofully bedrid; and theirs an action of bloud procuring torment: (For where in all the Scriptue do you find the healing part of Circumcision) I meane carnally (meant or spoken of) I will conclude, in ad­vice to such Expositors, both as touching their opinion of the Sabbath and expounding Scripture, as Christ did to the Iewes concerning this matter, in the 24 verse, Iudge not according to appearance but Iudge righteous Iudgement. Now whereas, you say that this Commandement of the Sabbath was first given to [Page 44] the Israelites, when they were delivered out of Egypt by the hand of Moses, intimating hereby as if it should be a Iewish Type and Ceremony, and as if it should have reference to Christ after the manner of their o­ther abrogative Ceremonies. To this I answer. That all the rest of the Morall Law was given them upon their deliverance as well as the Sabbath. And I doe thinke indeed, that God did purposely take that occa­sion, the better to signifie their spirituall deliverance by the concurrence of those things, both by bringing them out of their Egyptian darkenes, and at the same time making the Sun-shine of his Law (which had been so ecclypsed ever since the fall) afresh to rise upon them.

But that the Law of the Sabbath received then a new Institution is no way probable, but only a re­newed one, as did the rest of the Morall Law into which it is incorporated, and with which it was a sha­re [...] in the breach that Adam made,And so was coe­quall or contempora­ry with it in the repa­ration. And as may also appeare by the tenour of the Commandement it self, which for substance is nothing else but the first in­stitution largely repeated, only being better explai­ned to the understandings, and suted to the condition of those people.

Nor againe is the Sabbath a Iewish Type, as ap­peares from the difference of their significations, for the Typs of the Iewes primarily and principally had relation to the State of the Church on Earth under the time of the Gospell,Their Types were promises which have their impletion with us, being shadowes of good things to come in the dayes of the Gospell. and secondarily or remotely to its State in Heaven; but now the Sabbath had an im­mediate and proper respect to Heaven, being Gods rest, as appeares both in the manner of Gods exhibi­ting it in the wildernes, as you may see in due place, and in the 4. Heb.

But if it be objected that Canaan is a Iewish Type,Obi. and that Canaan and the Sabbath signify both of [Page 45] them one and the same rest in that 4. Heb.

I answer. They do signifie the same rest but in dif­ferent respects,Answ. for Canaan properly there signifieth the Rest which wee here enjoyed on Earth through the Gospell, and improperly or analogically the Rest of Heaven, relating only thereto, as True to perfect, as Beatitudo viae to Beatitudo patriae; but the Sabbath properly signifieth the rest that God rested in Heaven from his worldly workes, and which now by belee­ving wee shall rest with him there, and improperly signifies the Gospell-rest here on Earth, relating only to it as Perfect relates to True as Beatitudo Pat [...]iae relates to Beatitudo viae, by vertue of our exchanged condition; for what the Law could not give, that is, any present Rest but all in future, that Faith as a Gospell-priviledge procures us. So that wee which doe beleeve doe enter into Rest, even this Heavenly Rest inchoatively. The summe of the Apostles mea­ning there being thus much, that Israel (according to to the letter) not knowing the way of the Lord, chap. 3. ver. 10. but cleaving to the Law (which was the ministration of death, graven in stones, that is a weake and dead letter, 2. Cor. 3▪ 7. and the ministration of condemnation ver: 9.) forsaking the way of faith, and the Gospell (which is the ministration of the spirit of Power, 2. Cor. 3. 8. and of righteousnes ver: 9.) they therefore lost through unbeleife, both the spiri­tuall Rest on Earth, typified by the temporall rest of Canaan, which is the rest and tranquility of the Soule entred into by faith, justifying us, and procuring us Peace with God, which should have redounded to them by the Preaching of the Gospell (see the 2 and 6 of this 4. Heb.) and also the Rest and Sabbath in in Heaven which God himselfe rested, and signified on the seaventh Day after his worldly workes were finished, which should have ensued and followed [Page 56] thereupon (see the later part of the 3. and 4. verses) whereof wee, that are Gods spirituall Israel, that doe beleeve, are possessed already; both vertually, in our high Priest Christ Iesus vers. 14. and perso­nally in our selves, by being partakers of this Gospel­rest through faith on Earth, which essentially condu­ces or relates to the Sabbath-rest in Heaven (com­pare the beginning and the ending of the 3. verse.) Like as 5. Matth. 6. they are said for present to bee blessed that but hunger and thirst after righ­teousnes, and whats the reason, why, saith Christ they shall bee filled: Christ meanes they are entred into such an estate, as doth give them right, and will bring them to full blessednes; They are therefore for pre­sent truly blessed because they shall bee fully blessed: So here in this 4. Hebr. this Gospel-rest and Sabbath-rest are interwouen, being continuous and of the same nature, relating one to another as true and perfect doe. So that, I say, the Apostle meanes, that God sware, that for their unbeleefes sake, they should not tast nor partake, neither his rest on Earth in the Land of Canaan flowing with milke and hony, and where with reioycing hearts, they should liberally have eaten the good things of the Land; (idest) the rest of the Gospell, making their soules flow with the milke and hony of peace of conscience and joy in the holy Ghost, and wherein are bid to come, and eate that which is good, and to drinke the wine on the lees, and to fill themselves with marrow and fat things the spirituall Israel of God: Neither that rest, by which God himselfe rested from his works of creation verse 4. and which they also should have rested with him in Heaven, when all things were or should bee fini­shed by consummation, verse 3. as once they were by perfection.

By their unbeleefe they made themselves unca­pable [Page 57] both of the rest of Christ here, who should have led their soules into a land of uprightnes, flowing with the milke and hony of righteousnes, peace and joy in the holy Ghost, and of the rest of God hereaf­ter, that everlasting rest and Sabbath, which they should have held with him in Heaven, resting from their workes as hee did from his. They should par­take neither the one nor the other, neither Christs rest nor Gods, indeed no rest at all, neither temporall spi­rituall nor eternall, neither Canaans rest, nor the Gospels rest, nor the Sabbaths rest; For verse 3. God sware in his wrath, that they should nor enter into his rest, no not although the works were finished from the foundation of the World, neither beginning nor end, lesse nor more, first nor last of his rest should they tast or partake of by the works of the Law, re­fusing the righteousnes of God by faith; For hee in­largeth his enraged malediction from one part to the whole rest. And thus much Mayer expresseth in short, in his exposition of the 12. and 13. verses of this 4. Hebr. saying, that those words cohere with the former thus, Let us take heed that wee perish no [...] for want of beleeving the word, being deprived of inward rest and peace here, and shut out from the eternall rest hereafter, For the word of God is full of life, &c.

And here note by the way from those words (al­though the workes were finished from the founda­tion of the World in the third verse) how the Sab­bath keeps and is expressed in its supereminency (which it had before, in its preferment to a place among the 10. commandements, and precedency of rest in the wildernes) for what doe they signifie, but that they should not partake of his last and greatest rest hereafter with himselfe in heaven, no more then of his lesse and present rest of Canaan and the Gospell.

[Page 8]Likewise also it appea [...]es, [...]o bee no Iewish type, from the different relations they had to Christ: For the Iewish types did relate to him properly as the shadow to the body being created for his sake, but the Sabbath (as the Law) accidentally to bee fulfilled and accomplished by him, because they had miscarried by us. And in this doth the supereminency of the Sabbath appeare, in that Christ for himselfe as well as for us is a sharer in this types signification; For in respect of this rest, is hee said to sit now at Gods right hand, by which gesture signifying rest, is intimated, as well his resting from the labours and paines hee underwent here, as any other thing, for whereas hee had the evill and wee the good of other types, of this hee tasteth the sweet as well as wee. And therefore hee saith to his Disciples, If yee loved me, yee would rejoyce because I goe to my Father. Indeed Christ onely inherited the last day Sabbath, according to the first covenant, and hath left the first day Sabbath for us to inherite by the second covenant.

But you will say,Obi. surely there cannot chuse but bee somewhat in it, that the Sabbath was instituted by Moses upon the occasion of Mannah, as it ap­peares in the 16. of Exod. before God gave the morall Law on mount Sinai.

I acknowledge,Ans. though the Sabbath bee of a trans­cendent nature to the other types, yet as all other things so also the Sabbath hath reference to Christ, in regard of the state of the Church since the fall: For as now the whole morall Law is fulfilled by Christ for us, and therefore was given upon their deliverance out of their Egyptian bondage: so also is the Sabbath, in its celestiall signification, made good to us now by a new accomplishment, to wit, onely by Christ: Hee it is now that doth onely make [Page 49] us righteous in the sight of God, and hee also it is that now alone maketh us partakers of the rest of God; For as they were to enjoy and feed upon Mannah in Heaven with rest; so they were to have this rest by Mannah (id est) Christ.

And therefore I confesse that there is very much matter in it; that thus the Sabbath doth precede the giving of the LawThere was almost nothing that befell the Israelites in the time of their being in the wildernes, but it was typicall. (like as there was in Gods gi­ving the promise to Abraham before circumcision Rom. 4. 11.And indeed they should have made that use of this order of the Sabbath, being instituted upon Man­nah, before the giving of the Law: That the law which was to fol­low did not frustrate the promise of salva­tion, and life, which long before was made in Christ, Gal. 3. 17▪ 18. and therefore fol­lowed as conducing to it which went before, but that the same rest or eternall Sabbatisme, which should have beene by the Law is now to bee had by Christ.) and doth also follow so immediatly the gathering of Mannah (and that a double portion of Mannah) for hereby is signified, how that now our heavenly rest is not procured by our owne righ­teousnes of the Law (though once it was annexed to it) but that hee onely, who by faith doth gather, and lay up a large proportion of Christ, shall certainely have this Sabbatisme of everlasting rest in Heaven succeed unto him, See. Rom. 5. 17. (and for the very selfe same cause it is, that now our Sabbath is cele­brated after the day of Christs resurrection) See also Doctor Taylor in his Christ revealed pag. 268. where hee saith, that Mannah fell on the evening of the Sabbath in a double quantity, signifying the double diligence that wee must use to get Christ while wee are in this life, which is as the even of our eter­nall Sabbath. And that upon condition of our di­ligence and care here below, wee shall have supply enough of all grace without labour and gathering, when Christ shall bee all in all to all Israel gathered unto him.

So that, I say, the duty of the Sabbath followed as a Law, together with the Law, for us alwayes to observe, and that the signification of it went before, to signifie that our claime to this heavenly Sabbatisme is now onely by Christ.

And thus you may see, how you have laid your [Page 60] foundation upon a false ground or principle, by mistaking the Sabbaths, signification, and in what manner it referreth to Christ.

And thus by consequence your whole building falleth to the ground, although it bee granted that the Sabbath is both typicall, and (rebus sic stantibus) hath relation to Christ also.

Broad.
What God requireth on the Sabbath.

THe duties which God required of the people of Israel, Hee required another of the Priests namely to offer two Lambs, Num. 28. but this I will not stand upon. on the Sabbath were two especial­ly.

(I.)

To rest from worke,By servile the Scrip­ture meaneth all worke except that is bestowed about things to eate, Lev. 23. 7. 8. compared with Exod. 12. 16. that is, to forbeare the doing of every thing which is commonly so called and ac­counted, as the killing [...]of beastes, kindling of fires, going to plow, travailing &c. on the first and last dayes of the feast of Passeover, and some other holy­dayes onely servile worke is prohibited Levit. 23. 7. 8. 21. &c. Num. 28. 18. 25. so that they might provide things to eate,Consider that the Sabbath was ordained for a memoriall of Gods resting whereas the holy-dayes were instituted upon other occasions. Exod. 12. 16. No manner of worke must bee done in them, save that which every one must eate, that onely may bee done of you. But now on the Sabbath-day they might not doe so much: For G [...]d never (that I find) mentioning the word servile, both in the commandement and other places saith in it, Thou shalt not doe any worke.

They might not bake nor seeth their Mannah, Exod. 16. 23. though on the other Holy-dayes they might both ga­ther and dresse it, yet they might not so much as dresse it on the Sabbath.

[Page 61]They were forbidden to kindle a fire which when a man belike would have done,Exod. 35. 5. and therefore gathered stickes, hee was put to death, and bee it (as some say) though without any ground, that the manner of doing did aggravate the offence, yet sure I am that it did not make that an offence which had other-wayes beene none, they might not then ordinarily picke up a few stickes.

(II.)

A second speciall duty which God required o [...] the Sabbath was to have an holy convocation, for it was not enough to worship God privately, they must goe to the assemblies and praise him in the congre­gation. To worship God privately was every dayes duty, as likewise to doe works of charity, for the Iew (as wee) was bound by the Law of nature to fulfill the nine morall commandements to the ut­most of their power every day, though indeed hee might performe the duties of piety and charity in greatèr measure (and therefore was bound so to doe) on the Sabbath, as having then more opportunity, idlenes being unlawfull at all times.

Answer.

By the first of these duties you seeme to mee to insinuate a Dilemma, intimating by it that either the Sabbath is meerely Iewish, or else that in all respects both of the duty and strictnes of rest it belongeth to us as to them. Which strictnes you prove by com­paring it with the other Sabbaths, which had onely servile worke forbidden in them. The proofe I graunt, and the thing [...]roved. But that the Sabbath is therefore onely Iewish, or that wee are bound so to observe it, I deny upon these grounds.

[Page 52]1. I deny that therefore the Sabbath is onely Iewish. 1. Because that though this strict rest was typicall, yet not properly Iewish, because not of the same nature with Iewish types: For that those which were properly types in a Iewish sence, had relation to Christs and the constitution of his Church, as conside­red properly and primarily upon Earth in its militant being, in the time of grace during Christs regiment: For though Aarons bearing the names of the Tribes on his shoulders and breast, signified Christ doing the same (for his e­lect) in Heaven, yet it is his elect still on Earth, not for his elect when they shall bee triumphant in Heaven & sic de caeteris. but the signification typified in this rest was of a dif­ferent nature, for propetly it signified the Church triumphant in Heaven it selfe; which typicall diffe­rence may easily appeare, onely by comparing this Sabbath with the other Sabbaths as shall bee seene anon; And secondly, because that this strict rest was no part of the substance of the Sabbath, but onely an occasionall circumstance proper for the season of their prer [...]grination; For so sooone as Mannah failed that strict rest failed, so that you never after knew them condemned for providing their necessary food on the Sabbath-day, although you find them often com­plained on for other breaches.

2. And although that thus I deny this strict rest to be properly Iewish, yet I deny it not to bee proper one­ly to the Iewes, but affirme it, both in respect of the dutyI meane here by (duty) sanction or po­sitive holines, else to rest is our duty as well as theirs. of this rest, as also in respect of the precisenes of it. 1. For the duty of this rest, I say that, that was proper to the Iewes, and not to us now; Because that types in the time of their DisciplineWhich was the time that the letter bare sway, and (compara­tively) not the Spirit. carried with them a positive holines, being (for its continuance) ordinances and not accidents: But now that externall religion which consisted in types, is properly no part of our worship (although the thing it selfe (in this particuler being a perpetuall type) remaineth in the use and signification of it, but as I say not in its tempo­rary holines or occasionall precisenes (for the King­dome of Heaven now consists in righteousnes, peace [Page 35] and joy in the holy Ghost, and not in typicall sanctions.

For wee must understand that the Sabbath, in it selfe considered without accidents was of a perpe­tuall typicall meaning, intending the absolute rest that should bee to the Church of God in Heaven, as is notoriously evident in the fourth of Hebr. by com­paring the 4. verse with the 9. and 10. For which cause it may well bee conceived to bee holy, even with an externall holines, as other types were, in the minority of those typicall times, in respect of the bare rest therein commanded; which yet in that sense is no part of our sanctification (for our sanctification, in respect of this rest, properly consisteth in the signi­fication thereof spiritualized in our hearts, and in the privative sense thereof; because our resting from worldly affaires is a necessary privative meanes to our sanctifying the Sabbath) Like as (in the Anti­type) our rest in Heaven it selfe from Worldly works will bee then no part of our positive happines, but onely a privative helpe to our absolute glorifying God there, as it is to our better sanctifying of the Sab­bath here.

And yet for all this (as I have said before) not to rest on that day, but to imploy our selves worldlily, in inward or outward works of mind or body, in thought word or deed, [...]ill prove our sinne,To prove that the Lords day is to bee observed with the like strictnes of us, as the ancient Sabbath was among the Iewes, a neighbour Minister brings this argument. If (saith hee) the rea­sons of the command of strict rest, to the Iewes, on the Sabbath belong as well to us as to them; Then the command it selfe be­longs as well to us as to them: But the rea­sons (rendered in the 4. commandement, & in the 58. of Isa. 13. Because it is the Sab­bath of the Lord, and because it is the Lords Holy-day, and other reasons also, as be­cause carnall works an [...] imployments are impediments to the solemne and spiritu­all performance of Gods holy worship and service; and againe all those duties which were commanded them as essentiall to a Sabbath, such as were abstinence from car­nall labours and plea­sures, which destroy the nature of a Sab­bath, (which is 1. to rest. 2. to rest a spirituall and holy rest to God) These reasons (saith hee) belong as well to us as to them (if any Sabbath or holy-day of the Lords remaineth to bee ob­served of us, which there doth, Revel. 1. 10. Where by the way take notice it is cal­led the Lords day, and not the Lords time, to answer an objection of some that say wee are not bound to keepe a whole day holy-day or Sabbath, and therefore not to rest saving in the time of publicke assemblies, besides wee find not any time in all the Scriptures set apart as holy-day to the Lord but a whole day was the space of time) Therefore the commandement it selfe both in the negative part thereof, not to follow labour, not to follow pleasure, and in the affirmative part, to follow holy exercises is required of us Christians, not onely by way of Analogy, but as precise commands by just consequence. For be­cause hereby wee both falsifie our present duty which wee owe to the commandement, which injoyneth it us as a significant privative meanes for sanctifying the Sabbath, and also make void the usefull signification of the typicall sense, which consisteth in our resting from all Worldly affaires, that wee may the more fully devote our selves to things spirituall and hea­venly, such as are praising God, meditating of the life and rest to come &c. for of that nature shall bee our heavenly imployment, Wee know the Israe­lites [Page 64] separation from the heathen, did not make them the true Israel of God, for they were made such one­ly by their faithfull and true serving of God; and yet if they intermixed themselves with the heathen it was a prophanation and sin unto them: So a cessation or separation of the Sabbath-day from Worldly im­ployments is no positive part of our sanctifying the Sabbath (though it might bee in the time of the Iewes) for that our sanctification consisteth in Spirit and truth, not in the literall and outward performance of rest, and yet must wee of necessity and duty cease that wee may sanctifie it. For it is with the Lords-day as with all other things, that if it bee sanctified to the end, then it is sancti­fied to the meanes: And as the Scripture saith, a man cannot serve God and Mammon especially on this Day, but wee should utterly forsake the one, that wee may more compleatly cleave to the other: By Mam­mon I meane, as well our carnall pleasures all profits, for on that day (according to the Anti-type) all should bee heavenly; If ever wee did the will of God as it is done in heaven, it should bee on that day.

And as Master Hildersham observes Lect. 51. Psalme pag. 710.Hildersham. God hateth rioting on the Sabbath, much more then hee doth working on the Sabbath: as it is plaine by Isaiah 58. 13. where in one verse [Page 65] hee names and forbids twice the following of our pleasures, as the chiefe prophanation of the Sabbath-day. If thou turne away thy foote from the Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on mine holy-day, and call the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honou­rable, and shalt honour him, not doing thine owne wayes, nor finding thine owne pleasure, nor speaking thine owne words &c.

But Bishop White pag. 257.Obi. objects against Sunday Sabbatizers precepts (as hee calleth them) concerning the crying downe of carnall recreations, and setting up spirituall duties to bee actually and without inter­mission continued the whole space of a naturall day, which saith hee can bee no branch of the Law of Christ, nor yet consentaneous thereunto, for this rea­son: Because the Law of Christ is sweet and easie, Matth. 11. 30. and his commandements are not greevous, 1. Ioh. 5. 3.

I answer,Ans. I never knew that this was to bee ex­pounded after the flesh, but after the Spirit: By the same rule hee may cry downe all fasting, all abstai­ning from beloved lusts, and heavenly mindednes now under the Gospell, and quite blot out the Apo­stles advice, to use the things of this World as if wee used them not.

But may some say,Obi. if rest bee no part of sanctifying the Sabbath, how then are wee said to sanctifie it at night when wee goe to bed?

Not that your rest is any sanctification of it,Answ. no more then your spirituall labour is a breach of it, but because that in so doing, thou dost an act of mercy to thy body when thou sleepest, as well as when thou ea­test at due times, & in a due measure: And indeed thou oughtest to doe it with this or some such like conside­ration, and not meerely sensually as an oxe or an asse, for God should have speciall glory by every thing [Page 66] wee doe that day; And whatsoever wee doe, with­out a speciall and spirituall relation to God on that day, that may properly bee called our worke, and so our sin: For though things necessary bee lawfull to bee done, yet not as on the weeke day, but with much more spiritualized affections and heavenly min­dednes.To the same purpose speaks one that writ upon this subject, say­ing, men may not doe the lawfull works of their calling neither in providing meat, drinke, cloaths, or o­ther necessa [...]ies on the Lords-day, with a bare respect of natu­rall good, and worldly p [...]ofit, because this is doing of his owne wayes and works, and not the worke of God, unto which Gods Holy-day it wholly consecrated and set a­part. So no bodily sports, recreations and pleasures are to bee used meerely to che­rish the flesh and re­fresh the body, but on­ly such as are in very deed needfull in themselves, and used and intended by Gods people with this pur­pose and [...]o this end, that they may with more ability, alacrity, and cheerefulnes doe the holy works and duties of Gods wor­ship and service which are proper to that day.

2. For the precisenes of the rest which you here speake of, I also affirme that that was proper onely to the Iewes (as also to that time of their preregri­nation in the wildernes) and not to us, for because it was no part of the substance of the commandement or Sabbath, but onely an adventitious or temporary circumstance (for illustration sake) begun and ended in the wildernes.

For the Iewes being a people in their time under a typicall discipline, God chose that time and this occasion of feeding them with Mannah in the wil­dernes (which the Scripture calleth Angels food be­cause it came so immediatly from Heaven) the more clearely to exemplifie the lively signification of the Sabbaths rest, which being alwayes typicall, should bee much more so in their time; For they having o­ther Sabbaths commanded them with strict rest, this must bee imposed upon them with stricter rest; else they should not learne its proper meaning and diffe­rence: And for this cause did hee command it with so much strictnes at that time, even to their not gathe­ring nor preparing Mannah (when as yet their other Sabbaths were commanded them with liberty to make ready what they should eate) the better to testi­fie the different nature, and eminent signification of that Sabbath above the other; For the rest of the Iewish Sabbaths were not so absolute, because they were onely appointed to signifie the rest which every beleever, and the whole Church hath here by Christ [Page 67] on Earth▪ to wit, a rest but an interrupted rest, like to their rest in the Land of Canaan, not absolute, but in­terrupted and of a mixt nature, in regard of such things which are necessary to befall us in this life; whereas the weekely Sabbath signified the rest which the company of beleevers should have in Heaven (as it is in the fourth of Hebr. 9. There remaineth a rest therefore to the people of God) which is absolute and without any mixture, because that in Heaven wee shall bee at Gods immediate finding, as they were th [...]n whilest they were in the wildernes, but never after.

And therefore did so much of that rest, as wherein it surpassed the other Sabbaths, cease for after time both to them and us, because that God ceased to raine Mannah, which gave life to that circumstance of strict rest, commanded them at that time. (So that Doctor Heylins observation pag. 145. How that after their returne from the Babylonish captivity, in their redresse of their Sabbath sins, they had no lesse care of the annuall Sabbaths, and Sabbaths of yeares, then of the weekely; and the markets were no more restrained on the weekely Sabbath then on the annuall, might have beene spared, as making no­thing for his purpose.)

And therefore so to rest now in our dayes, as not to provide our necessary food,And we have Christs example to warrant it in the 14. Luke by comparing the 8. 12. 13. verses. seeing God ceaseth to raine Mannah were to create types to our selves, and to cloud that light with a vaile of our owne making: For the extraordinary strict rest was by God then onely commanded, when by him they were extraordinarily accommodated to observe it, which shall bee fulfilled onely in Heaven, when againe wee shall onely bee at Gods immediate finding, and shall againe eat Angel food as they did in the wil­dernes. Saith Doctor Tailor, Christ revealed, pag. 269. the not gathering [Page 68] Mannah on the Sabbath signified, that in that e­ternall Sabbath wee shall enjoy Mannah without meanes.

So that in the meane time wee are not forbidden to bee charitable to our bodies by preparing necessary food.Iustin Martyr. Nei­ther thinke it greevous that we drinke some warme thing on the Sabbath, seeing God also governeth the World on this day in like manner as he doth another dayes. Although I could wish with all my heart, that wee were more charitable to the soules of our servants, then many of us are, and not on that day so to pamper our bodies, as to starve their soules that are under our charge, and for whom we must give ac­count; especially if wee consider that other meaning which God had, in prohibiting the gathering and pre­paring Mannah on the Sabbath-day, so much in­culcated by divines, to wit, that it is not earthly but heavenly Mannah, that is, the food and welfare of our soules, which on that day our appetite ought chiefely to stand to, as wee see by the example of Christs Disciples, Matth 12. 1.

And that this strict rest was onely proper to that season, and not to us, I further prove it by two con­texts

The first is out of the 16. Exod. 29. compared with the 27. where when the people went to gather Mannah contrary to Gods commandements, Moses rebuked them saying: Behold how the Lord hath given you the Sabbath, therefore hee giveth you bread for two dayes, tarry therefore every man in his place, let no man goe out of his place (to wit, to gather Man­nah) on the seaventh day; where wee see the reason of that extraordinary rest was because of Gods ex­traordinary provision,See Tunius his rea­son in his comment upon the 26▪ verse of this chap. so that when the one ceased the other which depended on it ceased also.

The second place is Numb. [...]5. 32. where it is said, that (whilest the children of Israel were in the wildernes) they found a man that gathered stickes upon the Sabbath-day; marke the phrase (whilest [Page 69] they were in the wildernes) how it seemes to restraine that strict kind of rest to that place and that time, for many worse breaches were made after they were out of the wildernes, and yet noe such punishment inflicted.

Besides it is a rule, that every morall duty may bee performed of all men, but under the North-Pole they cannot bee one day without fire, and they neare the equinoctiall cannot keepe their meate for heate, therefore this cannot take place among them, and so not generall to all, nor perpetuall to bee obser­ved for ever.

Whereas some interpret, that Law of the Israelites not kindling fires, to bee meant in relation to the buil­ding of the Tabernacle, which though in it selfe it bee true, that being one end happily of that inhibi­tion; yet it is not the onely meaning of that Law, for they were not to bake nor seeth their food on that day, as appeares Exod. 16. 23. as also by the exam­ple of the man that was stoned for gathering stickes on the Sabbath-day, which it is propable was not for the Tabernacles use, but to bake, seeth or warme some food, neither was it lawfull for them to kind [...] fires after the Tabernacle was finished, during their abode in the wildernes. But there are others that interpret those words of Exod. 16. 23. (Bake [...] yee will bake to day, and seeth that yee will [...]) in this manner, that is say they, bake and boyle accor­ding as you use to doe, what you thinke sufficient for the present day, and for the rest let it bee laid up to bee baked or boyled to morrow. Which [...] bee the meaning for these reasons.

1. Because of the example of the man aforesaid, that was stoned for gathering stickes, it is probable, to that end.

2. [...] the difference betweene this [Page 70] Sabbath and their other Sabbaths would bee con­founded, whereas they were distinctly in expresse termes allowed to make ready what they should eate.

And thirdly, because it would have clouded the significancy of their gathering and preparing a large proportion of Christ, to assure them of the Sabba­tisme to come.

And fourthly, because when the Sabbath day came Moses in the 25. verse of 16. Chap. said not as before in the 23. vers [...], Bake that yee will bake to day, and seeth that yee will seeth, But hee saith, onely eate that to day, to wit, which they had layed up baked or sod­den since the day before.

And fifthly, Those words bake what yee will bake to day, and seeth what yee will seeth; and that which remaineth, lay it up, is not meant in respect of the in­differency of proportion, as if hee had said bake what proportion and seeth what proportion yee thinke good; and lay up the rest raw; but it respects the in­differency of their cooking it, intimating that they might either bake it and seeth it, or bake it or seeth it as their fancy liked best, so that they did it on that day before the Sabbath, for on the Sabbath they were not to alter the property, but to eate what they had le [...], as they left it. In this new-sangled fancy you shall find Doctor [...] Brahourne agreed, part. I. pag. 100. 101. where to backe this exposition Doctor Heylyn object [...], that it were no wonder if being baked it purified not.

To which I answer, that the wonder was that [...] kept it untill the morning [...] to the command) [...] either raw or baked, a great deale longer time without putrifying: Though it having the formerly [...] [Page 71] first (which among so many it is like was reserved of all sorts, some raw, some baked, some boyled all which yet purified alike) it was then indeed a wonder, that it did not the like the second time when they kept it lawfully; which sheweth that it was of God, and not of the nature of the thing, both that it putrified the first time, and that it putrified not the second time that it was kept. But to put this upstart exposition utterly out of question, besides the reasons aforesaid: Let them compare the 23. verse with the 5. verse whither Moses relates, and there they shall find God commanding them to prepare that which they bring in on the 6. day; and what was that? why it followeth, twice so much as they gather daily. So that they were to prepare all they brought in, and they brought in all they gathered, and they gathered twice as much as they gathered on the other dayes. So that in summe▪ it is euident that on the sixth day they were to pre­pare, that is to cooke, or make ready by seething or baking the whole double proportion which they had gathered on that day.

Nor is it without ground (as you affirme) to say, of this mans gathering stickes, that his manner of do­ing it did aggravate his offence, for there are these grounds to induce it.

1. Because, if it had beene necessary, it had not beene unlawfull, no more then Davids eating the Shew-bread, for Christ sayth in this very case of the Sabbath, That God will have mercy and not Sacrifice.

2. It is more then probable by the context, that his Sinne was out of Presumption; for in the verses immediatly foregoing it is said, Hee that doth ought presumptuously shall bee cut off from his people, and then followeth the instance of this mans fact, as it were an example of this fault and this punishment, which wee never read afterwards to be inflicted up­on any.

[Page 72]3. Wee find no excuse he made for his fact, so that it either was not necessary; or if necessary, yet occa­sioned by his wilfull and carelesse neglect of making his Mannah ready the day before, according to the Commandement and so not excusable.

Now as touching your marginall consideration, how that the Sabbath was ordained in memoriall of Gods resting.

To this I answer, That wee doe not celebrate on the Sabbath the memory of Gods bare resting, no more then wee do Christs bare rising; but wee cele­brate the consummation of the worke of Gods good­nes in the Creation, and of his Mercy in our Redemp­tion, for Gods resting on that Day from the Creation, was no part of the Sabbaths sanctification, but a cause in him why he appointed the seaventh Day to be a sanctifyed Sabbath unto us; no more then Christs Re­surrection on the first Day of the Weeke was a part of the sanctification of that Day, but only the cause why wee sanctify it, or dedicate it to Rest and Divine imployment ever since.

And therefore in vaine doth B. White object p. 302. that Christs Resurrection was no Commandement containing an institution of a new Sabbath, in that he erringly saith (as elsewhere I shew) that it was not spent in resting but in action; seeing saith he, the ground of the old Sabbath was Rest. But wee doe not simply celebrate Gods rest; but his Rest or accomplishment of our Creation, as it hath relation to us, not as that rest simply respecteth God, for so it is, meant only as a patterne, and serves as an occasion to beget this or­dinance of the Sabbath, as wee may see by the man­ner of expression that is used to set forth the Sabbaths first institution, Gen. 2. 2. 3. where Gods rest is not only mentioned to be on the seaventh Day, but also his compleating the worke of Creation verse. 2. [Page 73] upon both which joyntly, followeth the institution of the Sabbath verse. 3. and as wee may also see by the prophecy in Isai. 65. 17. where the commemora­tion of the benefit of one Creation shall eate out the other.

Indeed Gods resting the seaventh Day was of two­fold use. The one of illustration, for thereby was sig­nified the Rest of Gods Church in Heaven, as appea­reth in the 4 of Heb. The other was to give us an ex­ample of retiring our selves from earthly things on that Day,For so on that Day God (as it were) re­turned to Heaven a­gaine, only to be con­versant there for ever after, having (as it were) been absent du­ring the Creation. As it is said Gen. 17. 22. And he left of talking with him and God went up from Abram. that so wee might devote it to his glory: for this Resting of God was only set as an example for us to imitate, the better to obey his Comman­dement.

But more are willing to observe his example, then to obey his precept, that is, to cease from bodily la­bour; then to be spiritually imployed in the sanctify­ing of that Day, by making it a Day of holy businesses, and consequently a day of blessing. Thus using their Rest either swinishly or superstitiously as the Iewes did theirsIgnatius ad Mag: saith let us not Sab­batize after the Iew­ish manner, as rejoy­cing in Idlenes, for hee that doth not la­bour let him not eate sayth the Scripture, but let every one of us keepe the Sabbath spiritually rejoycing in the meditation of the Law, not in the ease of our bodies; admiring the workemanship of God, not ea­ [...]ng things of the Day before, nor drinking things luke-warme nor walking measured paces, nor rejoycing in Dancings and mad Shoutings, and clapping of the Hands and Feete.

But such ought to know that Gods example in re­sting, was not the summe of his commandement con­cerning the Sabbath, nor the proper duty injoyned therein, but only the occasion of his Commandement, and a meanes appointed for the fulfilling of it, as ap­peareth in the tenour of the fourth Commandement, where it is said that because God rested the seaventh Day from the worke of Creation, Therefore he bles­sed the seaventh Day and hallowed it.

What you say of the second Duty, is true, both in [Page 74] the letter and in your meaning, as I conceive it; except you meane that the sanctifying of the Sabbath con­sisteth only of the time of publicke Duties, which I cannot beleeve you doe, because you speake of pri­vate, as well as publicke worship: and againe because of your adjuration prefixed to your Treatise.

Herein you give an Answer to some of your Par­tizans, as B. White pag. 140. &c. and Dr. Heylin. pag. 113. 114. who sayth, that two things the Lord com­manded concerning the keeping holy of the Sabbath. The one in relation to the people which was to rest, and the other in reference to the Priests which was to offer sacrifice, but of any Sabbath duties which were to be performed betweene them joyntly (saith he) wee find not. And againe (saith he) of any reading of the Law, or exposition of the same unto the people, or publike forme of prayers to be presented to the Lord in the Congregation, wee find no footestep till Ne­hemiahs dayes, after their returne out of the Babilonish captivity. And againe though resting from work [...] were a thing commanded, yet (sayth he) the imploy­ment of this Rest to particuler purposes, either of contemplation or devotion, that is not declared unto us in the word of God, but left at large to the liberty of the people. So also Bishop White pag: 144. saith. That there should bee any publicke or solemne rea­ding or expounding of the Law, every Weekely Sabbath Day, is not expresly required and comman­ded in the Pentateuch, And againe he sayth Pag: 146. After the captivity the Iewes frequented their Synagogues upon the Sabbath Dayes, and Moses was read: but (saith he) this was not commanded in the Decalogue, or by any expresse sentence or Mandat of Moses Law.

Answer. These Antisabbatarians discover a strange partiality, for where as they jeere others, for their too [Page 75] precisely calling for a Scriptum est for the proofe of every circumstance; yet now when the point comes in issue for themselves, they fly to the same way of argumentation, Non invenimus, non scriptum est. So Bishop White pag: 41. cannot find the will of God in the 2. Gen: touching the sancti [...]ying the Sab­bath, but brings this as an argument to justify 3 Pr [...]lepsis. That there is no other meanes for us to know what the will and act of God was Gen: 2. but only divine revelation, and the holy Scripture nei­ther makes mention of any Commande­ment of God given to Adam concerning his resting upon the Sab­bath Day, &c. And a­gaine pag. 43. There are no commanding or imperative words, nor any sentence de­claring or signifying a precept in Gen 2. And yet wee plainly find an example of God in that Gen: 2. 23. 24. pa­ralel to this of the Sabbath (nay sōewhat short) to passe for a Law, and to have a binding in [...]erence in­ferred thereupon, as I have more at large observed in the begin­ning of my Answer to M. Broads 7. chap.

And yet in the practice of our Church, there are some things for which not having expresse Scripture, wee lawfully build them upon proper deductions; as for Baptizing of Children; we find in Scripture that the Apostles Baptized whole Families, amongst which say wee, its most likely there were some Children.

But in this matter of the Sabbath, no consequences must be allowed by our Antisabbatarians. There must be nothing but a bare rest commanded by God to the People, no private contemplation nor publicke devotion; although (as M. Broad sayth) God required as a speciall Duty on the Sabbath to have an holy Convocation (and so it is expresly called Levit. 23. 3.) for it was not enough, sayth he, to worship God privately, but they must goe to the Assemblies and praise him in the Congregation: Idlenes being unlaw­full at all times. And indeed if God may be suffered to tell his owne meaning, wee find it plaine enough what he meant (which sure must be his command, else the Iewes erred not in seeking salvation and life by the right cousnes of the Law, though God meant it as a [...]choolemaster to bring the unto Christ) Isa [...]ah 58 13 where he sayth, If thou turne away thy foote from the Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my Holy Day, and call the Sabbath a delight, the Holy of the Lord, hon [...] ­rable, and shalt honour him not doing thine owne waies, nor finding thine owne pleasure, nor speaking thine owne words, then shalt thou delight thy selfe in the Lord, &c. which sheweth us the meaning of those words of the Commandement, Remember that thou keepe holy the Sabbath Day, and the end of that Rest which in the following words of the Commandement is enjoyned, [Page 76] which (as the other Commandements) implyed more then is expressed. And Bishop White saith pag. 146. That some other religious actions were intended by God as the end of the precept, notwithstanding that no other, but Rest, was formally commanded. If then religious actions were the end of Gods com­mand, surely then rest must be properly enjoyned as the subordinate meanes usefully and significantly con­ducing to fulfill that end. And what a perversencs this sheweth in men to dispute upon Chimeraes, and to frame ac [...]y arguments of supposition [...]s in matter of fact among the Iewes, when Gods purpose (which ought to give meaning to his Lawes, and to sway our judgements) is both knowne and acknowledged.

Which place of Isaiah Dr. Heylin pag: 174 will have to signifie a spirituall Sabbath in abstaining from doing evill, which in the Page foregoing he sayth was figured unto us in the fourth Commandement. But it is apparant that the workes and pleasures there prohibited are so our owne, as that wee have intima­ted a liberty to use them at another time which is our owne, though not at this time which is so especially and extraordinarily Gods, so as the imployment of that time ought to be Gods in like manner (like as the workes mentioned in the fourth Commandement, are such as may be done on the sixe Dayes though not on the seventh) but the imployments and pleasures of Sinne wee have no liberty to owne and use as ours.

And had he consulted, Bishop Hall in locum, he might have beene better informed of the true mea­ning of this text, who thus sences it. If thou shalt re­fraine thy foote from walking (farre or servdely) on the Sabbath, and refraine thy selfe from doing thine owne workes, or taking thine owne carnall pleasures on my holy day, and shalt contrarily take delight in a conscionable sanctifying of that Day of the Lord, as [Page 77] that which is by thee accounted a Day of consecration to the Lord, and worthy of great reverence and ho­nour &c. Wherein he gives Bishop White the shocke Pag: 232. who sayth, That honest and moderate re­creations were not forbidden either in the Law, or in the Prophets in literall and expresse termes (for no other will be allowed) as also Pag: 237, sayth he, I find no formall or expresse prohibition either in the text of the fourth Commandement, or in any other sentence of Moses Law simply restraining the Iewes and Israelites from the use of honest recreations upon their Weekly Sabbath Day.

Besides, wee find the Levites were dispersed a­broad throughout all the Tribes, and so were many of the Priests among the People, whose office it was to teach the Children of Israel the difference betweene cleane and uncleane things, and all the Statutes which the Lord had spoken by the hand of Moses. Levit. 10. 11. So that it was their office to teach the People (whether with the booke of the Law or without it I will not dispute) but as it was their office to teach, so it was the Peoples duty to learne,Both which are im­plicd Esi. 30. 20. in those words. Yet shall not thy teachers be re­moved into a corner any more, but thine eies shall see thy tea­chers. which was the fittest to be performed, on both parts, on holy times (appointed to that end by God for holy Convocations) and accordingly we find the practices of the religious Shunamite to be, who (it seemes by her Husbands que­stion) was wont to make the new Moone and Sabbath Day the ordinary times of her repairing to the Pro­phet, for the due celebration of them. And though it fall out for her to be named alone, yet it is like it was the practice of others also that feared God (though perchance through corruption of manners among the Iewes there was no order taken for solemne mee­tings) to repaire and meete together, for the celebra­tion of those times, according as they could most con­veniently accommodate themselves for that purpose.

[Page 78]And to mend the matter D. Heylin Pag: 141 bringeth the authority of Gaudentius Brixianus and Cyrill against himselfe making them speake thus. The Iewes (sayth Gaudentius) neglecting those spirituall Duties which God commanded on that Day, abused the Sabbaths rest unto ease and Luxury. For whereas (sayth Cyrill) they being free from temporall cares ought to have imployed that Day to spirituall uses, and to have spent the same in modesty and temperance and in repetition and commemoration of Gods holy word, they on the other side did the contrary wasting the Day in Gluttony and Drunkennes and idle deli­cacies.

Moreover by his Rule wee should thinke the Le­vites sanctifyed no Sabbath, neither the Priests that were scattered among the People. 1. Because wee find nothing thereof recorded. 2. By this rule of separation of Priest and People, they should indeed have nothing to doe towards it, for they did not offi­ciate in the duty of sacrificing, nor were they Laicke People to whom rest was commanded. Neither should wee beleeve that Prophecy of Simeon and Levi (I will divide them in Iacob and scatter them in Israel) to be performed as concerning Simeon, because wee find not to our understandings how he was scattered, as wee do of Levi. But it is enough for sober minds to know, that now wee are ignorant of many things in circumstance that were cleare to them that lived in those times.

But sayth D. Heylin Pag: 148. &c. They had no Synagogues therefore they had no Congregations before Nehemiahs time.

To which I answer, That Godwins In his Moses and A [...]ron pag: 86. opinion is, that they had Synagogues before, even so soone as the Tribes were setled in the promised Land: but that they were in Davids time (saith he) appeareth Psal: [Page 79] 74. 8. where it is said That they burnt up all the Sy­nagogues of God in the Land, which Dr. Heylin an­swers Pag: 149. and saith. This was but a Prophecy or prediction of David touching the future State of the Church under Antiochus.

To which I rejoyne. That it is true, that this is Pro­phetically spoken by David, but it is likely that Da­uid (as other Prophets were wont to doe) tooke his hint from things in present being to expresse future events and things by: like as one saith of Similies, Pa­rables, and Examples, that have beene alledged by the wise, to represent the truth, that they have beene derived from the custome and nature of things, ac­cording to the knowne truth in that Time an Place. But put case they had no Congregations before the Captivity, nor did not celebrate the Sabbath spiritually in holy imployments, but carnally in meere Rest, what doth this advantage D. Heylin and his party or damnify the Sabbath? seeing that D. Heylin himself Pag: 143. confesseth that the breach of the Weekly Sabbath was one cause of their Captivity, and proves it also Neh: 13. 18. who also (he confesseth) were a people so averse to the due observation of the Sab­bath, as that when God had brought them againe out of Captivity into the Land of Canaan, and hereupon they had bound themselves by Covenant to a due ob­servation of the Sabbath, yet notwithstanding when Nehemiahs back was turned they brake promise with God Pag: 145. an unfit People to make a president: who also (by his owne confession) were as regard­lesse of annuall Sabbaths and Sabbaths of yeares. Pag: 143. as of Weekely Sabbaths. And againe seeing that after their returne from their Captivity, the truly religious seeing these Sabbath-sinnes reformed them (which is the time that wee are to take notice of them,As wee are in like manner to take notice and of those times and [...]ges of the Church since Christ, which being better setled, and freed from Gen­tilisme and heresies, gave best improve­ment to the Lords Day, and not of those which either through distraction or igno­rance give us not so faire a president. for the better and not for the worse,) [Page 80] and then wee see all these imaginary arguments confuted by their practice: for then when they saw their errour and had [...]marted for it, they tur­ned over a new leafe, then they made them plenty of Synagogues, and holy convocations, and the Law read and expounded, and the Statutes of the Lord taught them accordingly as it was the Priests and Levites duty; all which shewes what they should have done before they were led captive, and therfore if they did it not at all, or if but a few of them were disposed after this manner to keepe the Sabbath before the Captivity, the greater was their Sinne, and the more they deserved to be punished of God as they were, and the lesse to be regarded of us, who ought to be followers of men and esteemers of men as they are followers of God.

Hereunto I will annexe and abstract of Mr. Hilder­shams upon this point of sanctifying the Sabbath han­led in his Lectures upon 51. Psal. Lect. 135.Hildersham. which though long yet not tedious to a Godly reader be­cause profitable. It is (sayth he) a singular good thing to be strict in the observation of the Sabbath, and such a thing as God is highly pleased with, and hath beene wont to reward wheresoever he finds it. To keepe a bodily rest upon that Day from all our owne workes, is but one particuler that is required of us in the ob­servation of the Sabbath, nay that is (as I may say) but the outside of the Commandement, and concerneth only the outward man, the outward and bodily ob­servation of it. Of the fourth Commandement, (as well as of the rest) that may be truly said which the Apostle speakes Rom. 7. 14 of the whole Law. Wee know (saith hee) that the Law is spirituall. The spi­rituall observation of it by the inward man when wee call the Sabbath a delight, the Holy of the Lord, ho­nourable as the Prophet speaketh Isaiah 58. 13. That [Page 81] is when wee can joy in that Day, as in the Lords own Holy Day, and esteeme it in our Hearts a farre greater and more honourable Day then any other Day, keep­ing the rest and performing the Duties of the Day cheerefully, reverently, conscionably, spiritually. This spirituall observation of it I say by the inward man is the chiefe thing that God requireth of us in the fourth Commandement, the outward and bodily ob­servation of it (which may be performed by a man that hath no truth of Grace in him at all) is nothing in Gods account in comparison of this. And yet of this bodily observation of the Sabbath by the outward man, the resting from our owne workes is but the least part. The exercising of our selves upon that Day in doing of the Lords worke, and spending of it in such holy duties both publicke and private, as may breed and increase grace and sanctification in us is a greater matter and more pleasing to God a great deale then that is. No man may thinke he hath kept the Sabbath well because he resteth from all his Labours of his calling upon that Day. So farre forth the brute beast thy Oxe and thy Horse keepeth the Sabbath as well as thou. For so is the expresse Commandement Deut. 5. 14. Neither thine Oxe nor thine Asse nor any of thy Cattle shall do any worke upon that Day. Of thee that art a man and a Christian man God re­quireth more then so, he will have thee not only to rest from thine owne Labours, but to spend the Day (so farre as thy bodily necessities will permit) in such religious duties as may make thee a more holy and a better man. The Hebrew word Sabbat (from whence the Sabbath Day receiveth his name) signifieth not such a rest as wherein one sitteth still and doth nothing (as the word Noach doth) but only a resting & ceasing from that which he did before. So God is said Gen. 2. 2. to have rested the seaventh Day, not that he re­sted [Page 82] from all workes, for my Father worketh hither­to and I worke, saith our Saviour Iohn, 5. 17. but be­cause he rested from all the workes that he had made as Moses saith there. As if he had said he rested from Creating any thing more. And so wee likewise are expresly commanded to rest upon the Sabbath, not from all workes, but from such workes as wee did and might do upon the sixe Dayes. God never al­lowed us any Day to spend in Idlenes, and doing of nothing especially not that Day. But he hath appoin­ted us workes and duties for that Day, which hee would have us as carefully to goe about them, as wee are upon other Dayes to goe about the workes of our calling, and when wee are at them to performe them with every whit as much diligence, and care to doe them well as wee doe any worke wee take in hand upon the sixe Dayes.

Let no man say, what would you have us to doe if we doe no busines upon the Sabbath Day? would you have us spend the time in sleeping or talking, or sit­ting at our doores or walking abroad? How will you have us passe the time for the whole Day? To such I answer. Thou hast so much worke to doe, as if thou wert as thou shouldest bee, thou wouldest complaine that thou wantest time to doe it. And yet this worke, that God hath injoyned us to spend this Day in, hath such interchange and variety in it, as no good heart hath cause with these carnall professors Mat. 1. 13. to snuffe at it, and to cry behold what a wearines it is, how tedious and toylesome a thing it is to keepe the Sabbath as these men would have us to doe. But the true Christian findeth just cause to call the Sabbath a delight (as the Prophet Isaiah speakes 58. 13.) for all this worke and labour that God hath injoyned us in it. Wee have publicke duties to performe on that [Page 83] Day in Gods House. And both the family duties, and secret duties which wee are bound to performe every Day (by the equity of that Law, Numb. 18, 9. 10.) to be doubled upon the Sabbath Day, that wee might the better attend upon the profit by these holy workes, these duties of Piety and Religion, which are the pro­per workes of that Day. For that is the chiefe end that the Sabbath was ordained for. Remember the Sab­bath Day to keepe it holy (saith the Lord in the fourth Commandement) Keepe the Sabbath Day to sancti­fie it. I gave them my Sabbaths (saith the Lord, Ez: 20 12.) to be a signe betwixt mee and them that they may know that I am the Lord that sanctify them. As if he had said. He remembreth not nor keepeth the Sabbath, he regardeth it not nor careth for it (how strict soever he be in resting from his owne labours) that keepeth it not holy, that spendeth it not in such religious duties as wherein he may know and feele by experience, that it is the Lord who (by his Ordi­nances) doth sanctifie him, who both doth begin and increase grace in the Soule &c.

And pag. 704. saith he, and if it so well please God to see men rest from their owne workes on that Day (which yet as I told you is but the least thing that be­longeth to the right observation of it) you may bee sure he is much more pleased to see men spend that Day in doing of his worke in exercising themselves in those duties of Piety and Mercy which hee hath appointed to be done upon that day, especially in see­ing them keepe his Sabbaths spiritually and conscio­nably. Certainely they that doe so shall be sure to be blessed and rewarded of God for it. To this purpose it is worth the observing that as our Saviour sayth, Marke. 2. 27. That the Sabbath was at the first made for man, for the great benefit and behoofe of man. Man could not (no not Adam in Innocency) have [Page 84] beene without it, but with great danger and losse unto him. So the Holy Ghost sayth there twice of the Sab­bath Gen. 2. 3. and Exod. 20. 11. that he never said of any other Day. That the Lord blessed that Day, that is, appointed it to be a meane of a greater blessing to man (if hee kept it as God had commanded him to doe) then any other Day, or any of the ordinary workes of any other Day can possibly be.

Two sorts of blessings there be which the conscio­nable observer of the Sabbath shall be sure to receive by it.

1. The first are spirituall, and they indeed are the chiefe blessings of all, because they are durable and lasting, and because they concerne the Soule which is the chiefe and most pretious part of man. And for these was the Sabbath chiefely ordained, that God might by it in the use of his Ordinances enrich our Soules with spirituall blessings in Heavenly things. So the Lord saith, Ez: 20. 12. that he gave his Sabbaths to his People to that end that they might know that he was the Lord that sanctified them. Wee shall find and know that the Lord will sanctifie us, both begin and increase saving grace in our Hearts, if wee keepe the Sabbath conscionably. Yea the Lord hath pro­mised, Isaiah 56. 6. 7. to every one that keepeth his Sabbath from polluting, that he will make them joyfull in his House of Prayer. And Isaiah 58. 13, 14. That if a man shall keepe the Sabbath heartily and spiritually, then he shall delight himselfe in the Lord. By these two places it appeareth that God hath bound himselfe by promise to them that keepe his Sab­bath (not only to worke sanctification, increase of ho­lines and power over their corruptions which he pro­fesseth in that former place of Ezekiel, was the very end he gave his Sabbaths for, but also) by his spirit of adoption to encrease in their hearts a lively sence of [Page 85] his favour, assurance that he heareth and accepteth their Prayers, Peace of Conscience, Ioy in the Holy Ghost which are blessings the Christian Soule pri­zeth above all things in the World.

Ob. Why (may you say) may not a man receive increase of grace and spirituall comfort in the use of Gods ordinances on any other Day, but only on the Sabbath?

Ans. Yes verily, but these promises may give him assurance to receive them more richly and plen­tifully upon the Sabbath then on any other Day.

2 The second sorts of blessings that the conscio­nable observers of the Sabbath receive by it are tem­porall, for concerning them also wee have a promise, Isaiah 58. 4. Gen. 18. 13: 48. 4. Psa: 1. 19. To con­clude this point with the authority and judgment of a learned Bishop now living Bishop Hall: Decad: 6. Epis: 1. Gods Day (sayth he) calleth for another re­spect then doe common Dayes. The same Sunne ari­seth on this Day and enlightens it, yet because the Sun of righteousnes arose upon it, & gave a new life unto the World in it, and drew the strength of Gods mo­rall precept unto it. Therefore justly do wee sing with the Psalmist, This is the Day which the Lord hath made. Now I forget the World and in a sort my selfe, and deale with my wonted thoughts as great Men use, who at some time of their privacy forbid the accesse of all suters. Prayer, Meditation, Rea­ding, Hearing, Preaching, Singing, good conferences are the businesses of this Day, which I dare not bestow on any worke or pleasure but Heavenly. I hate su­perstition on the one side, and loosenes on the other. But I find it hard to offendin too much Devotion easy in [...]rophane [...]es. The whole weeke is sancti­fyed by this Day, and according to my care of this is my blessing on the rest.

Broad.
CHAP. III. I. Whereby the Sabbath was Sanctified.

THe Sabbath was sanctifyed by resting from worke.Thus Zan [...]hy in effect likewise Vicest, and D. Boys and this Analys­ [...] naturall. Some make two parts the one affirmative, the o­ther negative but they are out of the way. In the fourth Commandement we have to observe.

1. The Commandement it self brief­ly delivered, and is thus Remember the Sabbath to Sanctify it.

2. Then followeth the explication in order, God shewing what is the Sabbath, the seaventh Day is the Sabbath to the Lord thy God.

And after how it is sanctified. In it thou shalt not doe any worke. I do not write as ma­ny doe that the Sab­bath was sanctified by praying, hearing of word and if thou mar­vailest thereat see at the end of the Booke.

3. A reason is yeelded why God requireth this ser­vice, For in the sixe Dayes the Lord made Heaven &c. Here thou seest that God himselfe being expositor, to sanctifie the Sabbath Day is not to doe any worke on the seaventh Day, read also, Ier: 17 24.

II. Whereby the Sabbath was profaned.

The Sabbath was prophaned by worke as Exod: 31. 14.Profanare sine vio [...]are; v [...]cat [...]o die operari, per­in de at que professo. Mart: in Math: 1 [...], 8.

Every one that defileth the Sabbath shall sure­ly bee put to Death, for whosoever doth any Worke therein, that Soule shall bee cut off from a­mong his People. Further the Sabbath was profaned by the least worke, and thus hee prophaned it who only gathered stickes therein. As he that [...]ateth the [Page 87] least food may be said to breake his fast as well as he that eateth his belly-full. So hee that did the l [...]ast worke brake the rest or Sabbath as well as he that laboured all Day.

Some would have the Sabbath prophaned by Drun­kennes, Lasciviousnes, Dauncing &c.In it God said, Thou shalt doe noe Worke, not in it thou shalt not worship Idols, thou shalt not drinke exces­sively &c. for he nee­ded not these things being forbidden by o­ther Commande­ments.

Ans: 1. If by one Sinne then by another and then every man profaned the Sabbath.

2. Any Day in the Weeke was as well defiled by Sinne as the Sabbath, for every Day was alike ex­empt from Sinne.

The punishment for prophaning the Sabbath was Death. If then such as haunted the Ale-house and the like prophaned the Sabbath, as well as he that ga­thered stickes they should much rather in reason have undergone the punishment.

Now although the Sabbath was defiled by worke and whosoever wilfully or carefully did any worke therein was to be put to Death. Yet in two cases worke was to be done on the Sabbath. In what cases the Sab­bath might be propha­ned.

1. In case of necessity Thus the Disciples being hungry pulled the Eares of Corne and rubbed them in their Hands, Math: 11. which was a kind of reaping and thresh­ing. Where their Fingers were in stead of Hookes, and their Hands of Thresholds. Thus againe the Iewes pulled Oxen out of Pitts, and thus in the time of the Maccabees they determined to fight in their defence on the Sabbath.1 Mac: 2.

2. When they had Commandement from God or Christ,Iosh: 6. thus the Israelites by Commandement from God compassed Iericho, & thus the man by Comman­dement from Christ caryed his Bed, Ioh: 5. some say that the carying of the Bed was a meanes of publish­ing the miracle, and thus defend the fact, but there was other meanes to make the miracle knowne, and they will not say (I thinke) that the Man on the next [Page 88] Sabbath might have done so againe on his owne [...]ead, that then which made his fact lawfull was only the Commandement of Christ, who being Lord of the Sabbath could cause any man to prophane the same when he saw good.

Answer.

Herein you go about to prove' that the' Sabbath was either only or chiefely sanctified by resting from Worke.

First, by your owne Analys of the fourth Com­mandement wherein you would make God to put the chiefest part of the Sabbaths sanctification in Rest.

Secondly, by your proofe out of Ier: 17. 24.

Thirdly, by proving the Sabbath to be prophaned by workes, which againe you prove by shewing how he that gathered Stickes on that Day was more se­verely punished, then many a one that other wayes see­med more to prophane it.

1. For your proposition it selfe, which is that the Sabbath was sanctified by resting from worke.

To this I answer. I wish the Geneva note upon the title of the 92 Psal: which is a Psalme or Song for the Sabbath Day, that this teacheth that the use of the Sabbath standeth in praising God and not only in ceasing from Worke. Whereunto I adde Mr. Calvin upon the 2. of Gen: saith he, God did not simply com­mand man to keepe the seaventh Day holy as if he were delighted with rest, but to the end he being free from all other businesses might more willingly and quietly apply his mind to the Creator of the World. Furthermore saith he it is an holy rest which delive­reth Men from the impediments of the World, that they may wholy bend themselves to the service of God.

[Page 89]Secondly, I answer that it was neither only nor principally sanctified by resting, for then any labour even about the worship and service of God had beene unlawfull, and by this doctrine the best way for them to have sanctified it, had beene to have laine all Day in their Beds,But as one observes upon Gods comman­ding Adam to worke in Innocency, that Idlenes was never Mans happines, much lesse his holines. and they had sanctified it better in the Night then in the Day, and every man in his owne House then in publicke Congregations, which but e­ven now you your selfe contradict.

Which Dr. Heylin would have us beleeve it is, whilest every where he would perswade us. That holy labours and necessary were breaches of it among the Iewes, such as were Circumcision offering sacri­fices, and fight or flight in time of danger &c.

Whereas hee ought to know that rest from our owne workes is only enjoyned (Isai: 58. 13.) that so wee may be imployed in Gods.And therefore Exod: 35. 2. It is called a Sabbath of rest to the Lord, that is, to the Lords use, like as the same phrase in the 5 verse shewes, where they are bid to take from among them an offring to the Lord.

And therefore was not the worke of Circumcision unlawfull though a painefull one, nor the worke of offering Sacrifices though a toylesome one, much lesse workes of mercy and Charity. For Christ sayth, Math: 12. 12. That it is lawfull to doe well on the Sabbath Day. No worke was a breach of the Sab­bath, which was either in it selfe (as were religious actions) or upon occasion lawfull to be done upon the Sabbath. And therefore in the beginning of that chapter he makes the Disciples rubbing the Eares of Corne for hunger (occasioned in his service on the Sabbath Day) to be equall with the Priests sacrificing in the service of the Temple, which was in it selfe no prophanation of the Sabbath (though in the 5 verse Christ said, Have yee not read in the Law how that on the Sabbath Day the Priests in the Temple prophane the Sabbath) for wee read no such thing in the Law, that they prophaned the Sabbath.

But he meanes they did that on the Sabbath which [Page 90] the Pharisees might, through their superstitious mis­prison, as well call a prophanation of the Sabbath, and count unlawfull as that action of his Disciples. I deny not, but Rest from worldly workes was a positive part of the Sabbaths sanctification in the time of the Iewes, because of the holines which did then accompany it being a Type (and that transcendent to all the rest) as I have often said.

But that it was ever meant to be either the whole or principall part of the Sabbaths sanctification I ut­terly deny: although they abusiv [...]ly made it so, even to the neglect of acts of mercy (for which they were blamed by Christ the Lord of the Sabbath as you say) by a superstitious misinterpretation of Gods com­mandement (agreeing with selfe-love and sensuality) as you doe by falsifying the true sence of the word Sanctifie.

2. To come to your Analys whereby you would prove your position to it I answer. That in it you con­found the end and the meanes by making the Com­mandement it selfe which consisteth in the first and last words to be expounded by the middle part, as if sanctification which alwayes signifieth to set apart to an holy use should be properly interpreted by resting from worke: as if God would put up with negative service only; or as if that which is negative could be the principall matter of a precept affirmative. But in­deed the rest which you would make to be the only interpretation, is chiefely and properly of a subser­vient nature, serving as a significant accomodation to the maine duty of holines commanded as may ap­peare.

First, by the Rest which was commanded them on their other Sabbaths was it not chiefely removendo prohibens, by removing an impediment the better to devote them to services which was then enjoyned [Page 91] them, of feasting and sacrificing and humbling their Soules, and doth not the same hold good to us in our Sabbath, which is to be sanctified by all these at once in a spirituall sence. That it was so to them is evi­dent in the 23. Levit: 27. 28. 29. 30. Where God having instituted the day of attonement, telleth them how they were to sanctifie it in the 27 verse, to wit, it shall be an holy convocation to you, and yee shall afflict your Soules, and offer an offering to the Lord: and then in the 28 and 29 verses he bids them, yee shall doe no worke in that same Day, and what's the reasons why, it followes, for it is a Day of atonement to make an atonement for you before the Lord. For whatsoever Soule it is that shall not be afflicted in that same Day hee shall bee cut off from among the people. As who say, yee have other matters in hand (then worldly busines) on that Day, which yee must wholy intend, and therefore surcease such things and such imployments as may take you of from such mat­ters, or hinder the fitnes of your hearts in them (which is a thing too well knowne to them that worship God in spirit, how that a small carnall imployment is found oft times an hurtfull distraction to their spirit) and therefore it followes in the 30 verse whatsoever Soule it bee that doth any worke on that same Day &c. Which is a lively demonstration of the nature of the Sabbath Rest in i [...]s first and chiefe respect. And ob­serve by the way, how here at large, as in the fourth Commandement in briefe (though in other places of Scripture it also is manifested at large) God first layeth downe the maine sanctification of the Sabbath before he prescribe the meanes.

Secondly, in that this rest is so farre approved of God as it conduceth to spirituall labour, and againe spirituall labour is no where condemned though it bee a breach of rest. For rest (take it as it was pri­marily [Page 92] intended in its first institution, without the intervening holines which it contracted in the time of the Iewes) is no ordinance or part of Gods wor­ship abstractively considered, for so it neither a [...] ­swereth the Antitype nor fulfilleth the commande­ment, but relatively, for it relateth to Gods solemne worship on the Sabbath, as fasting doth to prayer, upon solemne occasions,And this you may see to bee Master Breere­woods opinion in his second tract. pag. 15. The commandement of the Sabbath (saith hee) enjoy [...]eth. 1. outward worship of God. 2. Cessation from works as a ne­cessary preparation for that worship, that as thee end, this as the meanes. which if it bee used is no part of prayer, and yet omitted is an impeachement to it, because joyntly considered it is an ordinance, and of necessary) and seasonable use at that time: And as in fasting wee must not onely fast from things nourishing (reall necessity ever excepted) but much more from things pleasing; so in keeping the Sabbath, wee ought not to rest onely from profitable labours, but more especially from distracting bodily recrea­tions, because the Sabbath should bee both our full delights and full imployment as Heaven shall be hereafter: For the commandements being Synec­dochicall, as therefore in the commandements touch­ing adultery and murder the thoughts and words con­ducing thereunto are forbidden: So in this comman­dement touching the Sabbath, as works are forbidden so worldly thoughts whence worldly works issue (as adultery from lust) and the discourse of worldly things, so likewise paritate rationis, pleasure must needs bee included; For labour being forbidden as an impediment, consequently therefore whatsoever proveth an impediment is forbidden. This com­mandement as the rest being Synechdochicall.

And thus Musculus least (saith hee) God should seeme to speake of some prophane idlenes, hee saith not remember that thou keepe the Sabbath day, but that thou hallow the Sabbath-day. Now to hallow (saith hee) that day is to make the rest of it devout, holy, and imployed to godly exercises, whereby the [Page 93] mind may bee instructed, exercised, and grounded in things concerning godlines. And Cyrill (quoted by Doctor Heylyn pag. 141.) in Amos 8. and Gauden­tius Brixianus speake to the selfe same purpose.

The Iewes (saith Gaudentius) neglecting those spi­rituall duties which God commanded on that day abused the Sabbath rest unto ease and luxury. For whereas being free from temporall cares (saith Cyrill) they ought to have imployed that day to spirituall uses, and to have spent the same in modesty and temperance, and in the repetition and commenmora­tion of Gods holy Word, they on the other side did the contrary wasting the day in Gluttony and Drun­kennes and idle delicacies.

And whereas you would bring the reason which God alleadgeth from himselfe in the commandement to make it good: That to rest on the Sabbath is the adequate sanctification, with this I would have you compare that speech of Christ (who by your owne acknowledgement was Lord of the Sabbath) I will have mercy and not sacrifice; where hee blameth the Iewes, notwithstanding the typicall holines of this rest in their times, for their not sanctifying the Sab­bath with acts of mercy, through their superstitious misprison of this rest. Also consider how that God intended his spirituall service and worship in the very commandements of the second Table, much more then in those of the first. Againe I oppose hereunto the reason which God giveth from his owne example, in the fourth of Deut. to wit, his not appea­ring to them in any likeness, to cry downe their ma­king of Images to worship them, which yet is no ar­gument to prove that their not making of Images (though hee was to bee obeyed and imitated therein) was his proper worship or any part thereof, but onely in a negative sense, which doth exclude some thing but conclude nothing.

[Page 94]And therefore that which Zanchy saith of stran­gers rest is proper to the busines in hand. Isti jube­bantur non simpliciter quiescere, sed quiescere ut ipsi suo modo Sabbatum sanctificare possent. Whereby you may see how hee se [...]v [...]th your turne, though put in your margent. This (suo modo) is of different sense to different sorts and con­ditions of people, for the strangers that knew not the true worship had their suo modo, nay and the Cattle theirs, and so the Iewes that knew it under types and figures had also their suo modo, and so have wee now ours.

And indeed if that rest was principally respected; why was not other cattle and creatures commanded to bee kept from labouring as well as the Oxe and the Asse: Why were they not as well to stoppe up the Bee-hives on the Sabbath-day to keepe them from working like as they doe in Winter, to preserve them from destroying; But wee see that onely the labours of those beasts are forbidden, which might bee a distraction to mans better imployments and sanctified rest; which appeareth in that for the better accommodating us to holy duties (as for the hearing of a Sermon) wee may interrupt the rest of our Cattle (though other wayes commanded) and use their labour on that day; as in the example of the Shuna­mite, 2 Kings 4 22. 23.

Lastly I would aske you wherein wee shall san­ctifie our everlasting Sabbath in Heaven, whether by a bare resting from our works or by positive worship. Surely you will say by positive worship; And yet I deny not, but our rest will bee an happy meanes thereunto; And so much is signified now by our Sabbaths rest: For such as is the Antitype, such is the type.

Thirdly touching your proofe cut of Ier. 17. 24. I answer.

1. That the reason of Gods taxing them with this [Page 95] was, because it was a fault most obvious (as may ap­peare in that amongst other workes, hee instanceth most their bearing of burthens as the thing most fre­quent and abusive) so doth hee complaine of their prophaning the Sabbath by working in it, because that being a fault most obvious they would bee the soonest convinced thereby; For man can naturally better conceive of his outward grosse and sensitive errours, then of his spirituall ones, which notwith­standing was implyed therein. Like as at the day of judgement hee will judge us by our works, and yet therein wee shall answer for our infidelity, for in the one hee involues the other.

God tooke the same order with the Iewes under the Law that Christ did under the Gospell, that is, still to blame them for those faults which were either most apparant or most proper to those times and per­sons; knowing that if they failed in those they must needs faile in the more materiall; But when they were diligent to doe the outward duty, and neglected the inward then God blameth them in that respect also: As wee may see by that which hee telleth them touching their sacrifices, how that hee that sacrificed a sheepe, was as if hee cut of a dogs necke: whereas had they neglected to have sacrificed hee would first have called on them for his outward service; because without that the inward could not bee performed: So of the Sabbath-rest; hee must first bring them from prophaning the Sabbath, before hee could bring them to a due sanctifying of it: For except they made good their bodily rest, according to the comman­dement, they could never meditate rightly their rest in Heaven.

Againe in the second place, I say, that though God in this 17. Ier: did thus sharpely reprove their pro­phaning the Sabbath by working, yet hee never meant [Page 96] that in resting consisted its chiefest sanctification, as may appeare by the 58. of Isa. 13. Which Master Calvin in his institutions upon the fourth comman­dement bringeth to prove that we were to rest from our works that day, that God might worke his works in us, and that the Prophets did call backe the Iewes from thinking themselves discharged by their carnall rest.

In the third place I answer, that this rest being a transcendent type, and of speciall sanctitie in those times, could not bee neglected, no not in the letter of it, without grosse prophanation of the Sabbath, be­sides the injury done to the usefull signification of it; because that then it was a part of the Sabbaths san­ctification, I meane, of its very positive sanctification: And therefore had God just cause to complaine his Sabbaths were not sanctified, when they were so no­toriously prophaned.

Fourthly, now I come to speake to your third proofe touching the prophanation of the Sabbath; which is say you by working, to which I an­swer.

First, that a man by working (if it bee seasonable) sanctifieth the Sabbath, and againe by resting, if it bee carnall and unfruitfull, he may prophane it.

Secondly, to argue from the prophaning to the sanctifying is no good argument, as because works prophane it, therefore rest onely sanctifieth it. It may as well bee argued from the second commande­ment, that hee that doth not make Images to bow to them, is consequently a true worshipper of God. For though it bee most true, that every one, that re­steth not from worldly imployments on the seaventh day, doth prophane the Sabbath and breake the com­mandement. Yet on the contrary, every one that doth rest cannot bee said to sanctifie it, no more then every [Page 97] one, that doth not make Images to bow to them, may bee said to worship God aright, and yet every one that doth make Images to bow to them, doth prophane the true worship of God. So Master His­dersham, to keepe a bodily rest on that day from all our owne works is but the outside of the comman­dement, and concerneth onely the outward man, and the outward and bodily observation of the fourth com­mandement (which, as the whole Law, is spirituall) and may bee performed by a man which hath no truth of Grace in him at all. Thus also Musoulus on the fourth commandement after hee hath shewne how those words of the commandement (Thou shalt in it doe no manner of worke) doe forbid all manner of lets which may hinder the sanctifying of the Sab­bath, because (saith hee) that is to bee done not with a patched mind, but with all our indeavour, and with a whole mind. In his conclusion, speaking against such as prophane the Sabbath by licentiousnes, the very cattle (saith hee) doe use the Sabbath-day bet­ter then wee, which though they doe nothing to­wards the sanctifying of it, yet their rest is so farre forth to bee preferred, that they doe nothing where­by the holy rest is prophaned and defiled, and the eyes of Gods Majesty offended.

As concerning the proofe you bring to backe this last argument withall, to wit, the example of Gods severe punishing worke though but a small one, when yet sins and other things which might seeme more to prophane it were passed over, I answer:

First, that God was curious in maintaining in violate their discipline in their dayes, which was then both his owne ordinance and the proper meanes of their instruction (for shadowes were then substances) so that if they were remisse in observing to doe the type, such as was this rest, they sinned both against God [Page 98] and their owne soules, and under went a double guilt of punishment and losse, like as wee, under the Gospell▪ doe sin more in not beleeving in Christ, then in brea­king the whole Law.

Secondly, I say, that God was the severer in mena­cing and punishing this, because else they would have beeue apter to thwart it, judging of it rather by mat­ter of fact, then by matter of duty or command, which I thinke was a notable aggravation of his sin that ga­thered stickes, judging the offence by the thing; As its like Adam did (and as you doe afterward) when hee ate the apple, which happily God fore seeing imposed the greater judgement to over-awe him.

And this Sabbath-rest (as that of eating the apple) not being a Law written in the conscience, and there­fore they not having their conscience so lively in that as in other sins, had need of the stronger barre to keepe them of from breaking it.

Thirdly, this instance you give was whilest they were in the wildernes (as the Scripture phraseth it Num. 15. 32.) when the type was more lively and significative, and they better in abled to observe it, and therefore was the sin so much the more offensive and presumptuous, and consequently worthy of se­verer punishment.Hee himselfe typi­fying that the neglect of Gods rest brings certaine and unavoi­dable ruine. Which you never read of, to bee executed after they came out of the wildernes, and yet were their prophanations in regard of their works farre greater.

As for the mans carrying of his bed, I answer to it two things.

First, that it was no breach of the Sabbath, but a manifestation of the miracle by a lawfull action (I meane lawfull though Christ had not commanded it) being necessary, because happily hee had never a one else (being a poore man) to ly on at night: Or els in [Page 99] his absence his bed might have beene wronged or stolne.See pa [...]alell to this Matth. 9. 6. And put case hee had left it and in his ab­sence it had beene stolne, and hee meeting the theife, the theife threw it downe and runne away, might not hee in your opinion have then taken it up and carried it home? And why then might not hee law­fully carry it home before to prevent stealing, as after it was stolne: And wee have reason to beleeve it to bee commanded by Christ to one of these ends: For it is like hee was poore or had no body to watch it, nor yet to carry it for him; for then hee might have had some man to have put him into the Poole when the water was troubled, but hee had none. In like case I appeale to your opinion whether you thinke it a breach of the Sabbath▪ for a Iew in his Sabbath-dayes journey finding a cloake-bagge or a bagge of money, to take it up and carry it away least if hee leave it there till the next day, to avoide carriage on the Sabbath, another that hath as little right to it as hee, find it and carry it for him.

Secondly I answer, that Christ neither could nor did command him to breake the Sabbath or prophane it. First, I say hee could not, for that tye which the Law hath upon us, by the condition of our nature, be­cause wee are borne under it; it had upon Christ by the condition of his office and voluntary susception because hee was made under it: So that it behoved him to fulfill all righteousnes: And therefore hee is said in that respect to have beene obedient to his parents, though hee were not onely the Son of Mary but the Lord of Mary: Therefore when Scripture denieth all sin to have beene in him, it implieth that hee was exactly conformable to the Law, in doing all that it requires, and in leaving undone all that it forbids. Secondly, I say hee did not, upon that reason which you alleage, to wit, as being Lord of the Sab­bath: [Page 100] For 1. Though indeed hee was Lord of the Sabbath, yet in his humane nature, wherein hee was under the Law, hee was not to shew his fove­raigne authority to the breach of any part of it, ei­ther morall or ceremoniall, for so it behoved him to fulfill all righteousnes. Secondly, that place of Scripture whence you borrow your reason is mi­staken by you; For those words, the Son of man is Lord even of the Sabbath-day, doe not intend that Christ is Lord of it as you meane, for him to keepe or breake it at pleasure; But Son of man signifieth mankind, as is evident. 1. by comparing the 27. and 28. verses of the second of Mar. The 27. verse saith, The Sabbath was made for Man, and not Man for the Sabbath, and then in the 28. verse it followeth with this word of coherence, therefore the Son of Man is Lord &c. where the one and the other doe intend man in genere and for Christ if you will se­condly because that in that action it was not Christ himselfe that Lorded it over the Sabbaths-rest, but his Disciples, for though it was done in his service yet not by his commands as you reason, but of them­selves for the releife of their necessity.

But to conclude I see not then by these arguments how your firstTo wit in the sense. proposition can be made good. For if so bee rest sanctifieth the Sabbath then doth man and beast sanctifie it alike, then is there no difference betweene the stranger and the Israelite, nor betweene the Israelite and his oxe.

If you had said that not resting in the prophaning of the Sabbath, as bowing to Images is the propha­ning of Gods worship wee had easily agreed: But that by the sense of the fourth commandement it is properly or principallyThough occasio­nally and by accident I acknowledge it to be a part of the Sabbaths sanctification in the [...] of the Iewes. the sanctifying of the Sab­bath, I can no more yeild you, then that not bowing to Images is properly or principally the wor­ship [Page 101] of God by the sense of the second commande­ment.

Ohi. But you will say, is not Gods commande­ment kept in both these, when they doe not bow to Images, and when they doe not labour but rest.

Ans. I answer that the things, which the com­mandements properly and principally strike at are not observed thereby; For these are rather preventions of Gods dis-worship then any parts of his worship; And hee that knoweth these commandements aright, knoweth they intend doing as well as not doing: And therefore hee that out of a good conscience for­beareth to doe the one (wherein indeed he negatively keepeth the commandement) will by vertue of the same conscience set you the other. For otherwise hee should give but a poore account to his Master at the last day, who when hee asketh him what hee hath done, answereth him with what hee hath not done, and when hee asketh him an account how hee hath imployed his Sabbaths, and what glory and worship hee hath done him in them, hee answereth him, I never prophaned thy Sabbaths with bodily labour but alwayes rested on that day, neither did I ever bow to an Image, surely his wayes shall bee as his that hid the talent in a napkin, for hee hath reason to looke for no better, thinking of God as hee did, that hee was hard in his commandements and therefore hee kept them as hardly in the negative and not in the affirmative.Whereas Bishop Lake in his Sermons pag. 213. saith, that nega­tives are but to attend affirmatives and God doth not reward the ferbearance of [...]vill but the doing of good. Master Dod pag. 74. saith, one may forbeare the sins of the second commandement, and yet bee a damnable breaker of that commandement: for God commands not onely to turne from dumbe Idols, but also that wee should serve the true and living God 1 Thes. 1. 9. else such are as well guilty of the breach of this Law as Idolaters, they for [Page 102] doing that they should not wee for not doing that wee should. So of the fourth commandement.

And for authority sake take notice what Thomas Aquinas saith to this purpose. In the observance of the Sabbath saith hee two things are to bee con­sidered, one whereof as the end, and this is, that man bee vacant to divine things, which is signifi [...]d in that which hee saith (remember that thou sanctifie the Sabbath.) for those are said to bee sanctified in the Law which are applied to divine worship; But the other is the cessation of works signified when it [...] added, on the seaventh day of the Lord thy God thou shalt not doe any work [...]. And againe saith hee Spiri­tuall works are not forbidden on the Sabbath-day, for therefore doth a man abstaine from other works on that day, that hee might bee vacant to works per­taining to the service of God. And saith hee yet further, servile works as they respect either the service of sin, or the service of man doe contrary the obser­van [...]e of the Sabbath, in so much as they hinder mans application to divine things.

For a closure to perswade the spiritualizing of the Sabbath observe what one speaking of the word re­member as it is prefixed to the fourth commandement, saith.

To remember the keeping of the Sabbath (saith hee) is so to keepe it in mind as to prevent worldly busines falling on that day, to desire after it, to prepare for it; to delight and glory in it, as wee doe in those things wee keepe much in remembrance: for when hee speaks▪ of remembrance hee cals on us for such affections and actions as become remembrance, there­fore when God bids you remember the Sabbath hee commands you to desire it; Thus David still explain [...] himselfe by the word remember in the Psalmes as Psalme 44. 4. and in other places. For it is a rule [Page 103] amongst the Hebrewes in e [...]pounding of Scripture, that verb [...] se [...]su [...] cum affect [...] [...] so that by remembring the Sabbath wee should desire it, delight in it, and account the busines and imployment thereof honourable to us, glorifying God in the con­secrating it to him, being joyfull in it and the duties of it, both as the soules market day to provide it ne­cessaries, like as the Husband man is glad of the mar­ket to buy and sell in, and as the soules holy-day for to procure it refreshing; as Schoole-boies joy in a play-day, and not bee weary of the day nor heavily doe the dutie [...] of it.

Broad.
CHAP. IV. Wherefore God ordained the Sabbath.

THe ends and purposes for which God ordained the Sabbath were many.

1. That the Israelites might celebrate the memoriall of the Worlds creation, as Exod. 31. [...]. It is a signe betweene me and the children of Israel for [...]ver: for in [...]ixe dayes the Lord made Heaven and Earth, and on the seaventh day rested and was refreshed.

2. That they might remember their deliveranceConsider whether God commanding the Israelites to keepe the Sabbath, because hee had brought them out of Egypt, this bee an Argument that the Sabbath was then first enjoyned. out of Egypt where [...] doubt they might not rest any day from their burdens. And remember that tho [...] w [...]st a servant in the Land of Egypt and that the Lord thy God brought the [...] out thence through a mighty hand and outstretch [...]d arme therefore the Lord thy God [Page 104] [...]

3. [...] That Servants and [...] might rest and bee re­freshed after their hard labour in the weeke before as Exod. 23. 12. sixe dayes thou shalt doe thy worke▪ and [...] the seaventh day thou shalt rest, that thine O [...]e [...] Asse may rest and the Son of thine hand [...] and the stranger may bee refreshed.

4. That the Israelites might have more leisure to serve God, who on this day as also on festivall dayes, commanded them to have an holy convocation. Sixe dayes shall worke bee done but the seaventh day is a Sabbath of rest, and holy convocation.Levit. 23.

5. That they might know, how that hee was the Lord that did sanctifie them, as Exod. 31. 13. Verity my Sabbaths yee shall keepe, for it is a signe betweene mee and you throughout your generations, that yee may know, that I am the Lord that doth sanctifie you.

6. By some mens Doctrine the legall Sabbath served to put the Israelites in mind of keeping a spirituall Sabbath; as the legall circumcision served to put them in mind of the spirituall circumcision of the heart, hereof now in their understanding the Pro­phet Isaiah speaketh Chap. 58. 13. truly this spiri­tuall Sabbath is the onely Sabbath in the judgement of Augustine, Tertullian, Chrysotome &c. which Christians ought to keepe.

7. The legall Sabbath was a type of the heavenly Sabbath, it was a shadow of the blessed rest to come, of which matter in the next Chap.

Answer.

To the first of these I answer:

That the Israelites were a people contenting them­selves with the outward part, not savouring the in­ward [Page 105] and spirituall strength of things (which is na­turally the fault of all men till they bee better taught of God) and for this reason God ever and anon made the Sabbath to follow as a Counter-checke to their carnall zeale.

And therefore when the making of the Tabernacle was commanded, the Sabbath was even then exemp­ted from its very worke, to shew them, that it was other worship that hee expected, and that they were not to repose their happines and confidence in out­ward things, but in God: And as therefore in the time of Mannah hee commanded his Sabbath, to shew them, how that it was hee, and not that, which nourished them: So likewise when the Tabernacle was commanded the Sabbath was urged upon them in this 31. Exod. to shew them, how that it was God and not it that sanctified them: And therefore did the one give place to the other.

So that the end of the Sabbath as it is expressed in this portion of Scripture betweene the 12. and 18. verses seemeth rather to consist in these words of the 13. verse, for it is a signe betweene mee and the children of Israel, for ever that yee may know, that I the Lord do sanctifie you (Those words which in the 17 verse make mention of the Worlds crea­tion and Gods rest, being rather added as a reason in this place to enforce this end) For here it is not the meaning of the holy Ghost to discourse of the Sabbath simply, but onely occasionally, as appeareth by the coherence of the 11. 12. and 13. verses, where the Sabbath is urged with a verily or a notwithstanding as it is in the Geneva, that though hee had comman­ded the making of the Tabernacle; yet hee would not have them repose their Religion or content in this outward Tabernacle or Temple (for God dwelleth not in things made with hands) but that [Page 106] they should looke to the spirituall part the Temple of their hearts, that they should bee more carefull to build up and keepe that in repaire, which did more properly distinguish them to bee the sanctified Israel of God. Whosoever therefore is an Israelite indeed let him looke to make good this signe of his sancti­fication, the sanctifying of the Sabbath by spirituall worship and service, which doth excellently approve it to his conscience that God hath sanctified him, that is chosen him to bee his, and thus it is made holy to him (as it is phrased in the 14. verse) that is, a day of blessing and sanctification, for therein God bestoweth the best of his blessings, because on that day wee are or ought to bee wholly imployed in the best of his ordinances, such as belong to our soules and not to our bodies. Therefore ought not this day to bee de­filed with bodily imployments (by such as are the Israel of God) but to bee dedicated, from earthly labour to an heavenly rest, after the example of God: For when the hands cease from one imployment, the heart is fittest for another. And as one well ob­serveth. The Sabbath-day signified that they them­selves were the Lords, and therefore they abstained from their owne works to doe the Lords.

To the second end gathered out of the 5. of Deut. That they might remember their deliverance out of Egypt.

I answer, that this is an Argument to incite them to the better observance of this duty of sanctifying the Sabbath, and their more willing allowance of it in their servants; For the 15. verse is thus much, That whereas when thou wast a servant in the Land of E­gypt, thou couldst not have sanctified a Sabbath unto mee, having no rest for thy selfe, because of thine into­lerable pressures, which I who am the Lord thy God have set thee free from, and therefore command no more [Page 107] then I have enabled thee to fulfill, therefore doe I now expect that according to my commandement, and for my mercies sake shewne to thee in working thy deli­verance, thou shouldest observe the Sabbath to sancti­fie it.

For Gods mercie thus preached unto them must needs conduce much to the gaining backe from them both mercy and obedience. And for this cause it is that this their deliverance is made the Preface to the whole Law, sutable to that in the Gospell, that wee being delivered from the hands of our enemies might serve him without feare.

And both this (which was a signification of our redemption) and that other example of Gods resting from the creation, are propounded as fit Theames for them to improve and exercise their minds upon, to the glorifying of him, and bettering themselves on that day; both which were much to one purpose to shew forth the wonderfull loving kindnes of God to his people and Church, in that hee made all things for them, even for them whom hee had delivered out of Egyptian thraldome: which admirable mercies of his, hee would have them take speciall notice of, and turne to praisefull Haleluiahs on that day, (which hee hath sanctified to himselfe) without wearisomnes, cheerefully and with delight, as the Angels and Saints in Heaven keepe their Sabbath.

If this typicall and corporall deliverance of the Iewes bee such a perswasive reason of their sancti­fying the Sabbath; shall not our deliverance much more stirre us up to doe the like?

The substance of your marginall consideration hath beene handled before, onely I adde this, that a commandement is not made speciall by every motive, but that it may bee in force to mee, though every mo­tive brought to enforce it, properly concerne not my [Page 108] particular. Else a man may oppresse a stranger that hath not beene himselfe stranger in the Land of Egypt: Though this motive bee onely proper to them in the letter, yet common to us in the spirituall and better sense, and therefore enforceth the commandement upon us, as well as on them.

Touching your third end deduced from Exod. 23. 12. where God commanded the Iewes to rest from their sixe dayes worke on the seaventh day, that so their Cattle, Servants, and Strangers might bee re­freshed.

To this I answer, that this commandement doth neither imply that a bare rest doth sanctifie the Sab­bath, nor that they were to use the Sabbath as a Pa­renthesis betweene two weekes the better to passe from labour to labour, but the intent of it was.

1. The better to set forth the heavenly rest which the Sabbath signified, for it being thus absolutely and universally commanded both to them and every thing that was properly theirs, it sheweth the abso­lute and universall rest which every one that be­longeth to God shall bee possessed of in Heaven, as well as God himselfe. For as God rested from his works so shall they from theirs, to enjoy an ab­solute and perpetuall refreshment with him in Hea­ven.

2. That to the practices of piety (which they were to performe towards God on this day) they should adjoyne the practices of charity humanity to man and beast, (not that mercy was the proper end of the Sabbatical-rest, for so you confound the two Tables, the first whereof immediatly respects God, the se­cond Man.) And in this respect was God curious of the due observance of his Sabbaths, because the right keeping of them did involue the whole Law of God.

[Page 109]Your fourth end drawne from the 23. Levit. doth refute your position of the Sabbaths being sanctified by rest. For if so bee this rest of the Sabbath served properly as a meanes to further the holy duties of that day, how can the holines of that day bee proper­ly or principally said to bee included in the rest it selfe? which if it bee not an holy rest, that is, used to an holy end and purpose, it neither fulfilleth the duty of the commandement (which commandeth us as well to sanctifie the Sabbath as to forbeare worke) nor the signification of the Sabbath it selfe; For in Heaven when there shall bee the convocation of the univer­sall Church of God, the perpetuall Sabbath shall thenbee sanctified not in that wee shall rest, but in that wee shall holyly rest.

Your fifth end fell out to bee discoursed of in your first, which shall suffice concerning it, onely thus much further, that I suppose, it cannot bee proved, that all signes of covenants were abolished by Christs comming. For the Rainebow was given for a signe of Gods covenant with Noah. The Sabbath for a signe of Gods covenant with Israel, from which I inferre that this cannot therefore bee judged abolished because a signe, because the other signe as wee see is yet remaining. Catonus pag. 45. De iride autem si concedemus (quod doctissimi nonnulli negant) illam, ante diluvium fuisse, induisse à postea ra [...]ionem signi, sequetur tamen inde (quòd nos contendimus) essentiam iridis non à signo dependisse, imo si promissio Dei ad certum tempus restricta fuisset, expleto tamen illo, iridis natura non minus integra remansisset. Similiter & de Sabbatho dicendum est.

And to give further light to that same place of Scripture, Exod. 31. 3. I will here insert the discourse of a divine of prime note upon the word (remember) shewing the reasons wherefore it is prefixt to the [Page 110] fo [...]rth commandement, wherein he handles the afore­said text.

This word remember (saith hee) is prefixed to the fourth commandement rather then to the rest for 2. reasons.

1 1. Because wee are apter to forget it then any of the rest, for marke it in Scripture and where any duty is charged by God with Remember, it argues a pronenes to forget it, as that, Remember thy Creator in the daies of thy youth, when many lusts are ready to draw us of. And the reasons why wee are so apt to forget this Commandement, and why there is need of a Memento are foure.

1. Because the rest of the Commandements are written in our Hearts by light of Nature, but this only was given by outward ordinance of divine instruction, & we are apter to forget instructions then inclinations.

2. Because this more restraineth the naturall liber­ty then all the rest, they restraining only sinfull things, this lawfull things, yea our very words and thoughts about them.

3. Because of the multitude of our sixe daies busi­nesses which had need bee remembred to bee seaso­nably finisht, else they will breed distractions.

4. Because the Devill prompts us to forget it, so to quench the Memory of the Creation and the Creator, and so to bring in the Eternity of the World, as he did amongst the Heathen and there with Athisme: to pre­vent which wee are bid to remember to keepe this Commandement as a meanes to preserve the me­mory of God and to keepe a foote his worship.

2 2. Because it is of most weight to bee remem­bred and that for three reasons.

1. Is taken from the dependancy of the observa­tion of all the rest of the Commandements on this, for in keeping of the Sabbath the Lord is wont to san­ctifie [Page 111] his People to the keeping of all the rest of the Commandements, so that keeping this wee keepe all, and neglecting this wee neglect all, hence God saith Exod: 31. 3. Verily my Sabbaths you shall keepe for it is a signe betweene mee and you throughout all your Generations that you may know that I am the Lord that doth sanctifie you; moreover saith God Exod: 20. 12. I gave them my Sabbaths to bee a signe betweene mee and them that they might know that I am the Lord that doth sanctifie them, Looke all the conversion of sinners and you shall see where one hath beene converted on the Weeke Daies 7 have beene on the Sabbath, 7 to one nay 10 to one if not a 100 to one. God doth delight most to dispence his grace on that Day, so that keepe that Day and you keepe an oportunity where God doth bestow his graces on the Sonnes of men, but neglect it and you neglect an oportunity of getting grace of God. Heathen Princes are wont on their coronation Day to shew them­selves to their People in all their rioalty and cast about Silver and Gold, so doth God sometimes in these his solemne Daies shew himselfe to be present with us in holy duties, he scatters abroad his holy graces and delights so to do, wee are not to appoint God the time when to come downe and speake to his People, but they must waite the time he hath appointed, now God doth delight to sanctifie Men on this Day of all the rest, therefore the text saith, He blessed it and hal­lowed it, that is, he did blesse it to be a meanes to san­ctifie it to his People; for else the Sunne shines no hot­ter on this Day then any other but that God hath bles­sed it, as he blessed the bread, to make us blessed, to ob­serve it therefore is a means to bring ablessing on our Family, Towne, Kingdome where wee live, take many Men that are dejected for Sinne and [...] tell you one of the first and chiefe in their neglect of the [Page 112] Sabbath though it be not written in their Hearts by nature. On this Day God drawes nigh to his People, and they to him, by whom he will be found sooner on this Day then any of the rest, and if wee get grace any Day its a thousand to one it is on this Day, or else something added to it. Esa: 36. 4. The way to lay hold of the Covenant is to keepe the Sabbath, there is some hope of a Mans salvation when he makes con [...]cience of keeping the Sabbath. If thou turne away thy feete &c. and consecrate it as glorious &c. thou shalt delight thy selfe in the Lord saith Esay, implying that a man that hath no delight in keeping of the Sabbath, hath no delight nor pleasure in God, but the way to get pleasure in God is to keepe the Sabbath.

2. Reason why this cómandement is of most weight to be remembred, is taken from the efficacy of it, in it wee are made most spirituall and heavenly minded, it frames our spirits to be fit for every good busines, by keeping the Sabbath wee are kept from idle thoughts, and by this meanes are moulded up into a Heavenly frame, wee are not even of this World, there is nothing of it doth hang about us. There re­maines a Rest to the People, Heb: 4 9. implying that the Saints in Heaven keepe a Sabbath rest, medita­ting divine things, learning from Christ, Singing prai­ses and are in a spirituall manner wrapt up in all spi­rituall busines and minding Heavenly things. And wee by keeping it are wrapt up from all incumbran­ces otherwaies lawfull, but now not fitting our spi­rits.

3. Reason is taken from the memory of those things are kept in memory by it, for by keeping in mind the Sabbath wee keepe in mind Gods chiefest benefits to us, as our Creation and our Redemption by its translation from the seaventh to the eight Day, and Ezech: 20. 12. that it is a signe that God doth san­ctifie [Page 113] us implying thus much, that whereas there are three Persons who shew themselves in three Works tending to our Salvation. This Sabbath is sanctified to us to put us in remembrance of them, and their works, as of the Father that Created us, of Christ that Redee­med us, of the Holy Ghost that Sanctifies us.

Thus are our chiefest blessings remembred by our keeping of this fourth Commandement and therefore it is of most weight to be remembred.

The legall Sabbath as you call it, and which you speake of in your sixth end, was more then to put them in mind of the spirituall Sabbath, for it was the pro­perst meanes of bringing it about to cause them actu­ally to keepe a spirituall Sabbath, for when as they were not to do any of their owne works nor to thinke any of their owne thoughts, what could they construe hence but that they were to doe Gods, and thinke GodsLike as the Apostle collects Heb: 11. 14. from our Fathers say­ing, they were stran­gers and Pilgrims on the Earth, that they that say such things, declare plainly that they seeke a Coun­trey.? And therefore doth not that 58. Isaiah 13. intend only the negative part (for so God should al­low of Idlenes, and take away the nature of the mind, which is ever to be in motion) but also the spirituall part, which also is expressed there: but if it had not, it being delivered in the Negative, they both ought and might thence have deduced the Affirmative and better part: (like as was done to them in their Typi­call ordinances, wherein the shell was to be cracked before they could find the kernell.It was Gods ord [...]na­ry way of delivery in those times.) like a skilfull Logitian, that only mentioneth the Major and the Minor of a Syllogisme, and leaveth the Conclusion to be gathered, as a thing so easy because so necessary, as none but Fooles and Dunces can be ignorant of, and thus doth Christ deale with us also under the Gospell, he giveth generall Rules for us thence to de­duce particular Conclusions.

To your last End I answer. That it is most true that the Sabbath was a Type of the Heavenly Sabbath, [Page 114] and a shadow of that blessed Rest to come; and there­fore transcendent to those Types which were pro­perly lewish and of a Temporary nature; whereas this Sabbath had its beginning with time, and shall receive its ending with time, when the workes are finished from the foundation of the World. When as the Church of God is possessed of the Antitype, then shall this universall Type vanish by the second comming of Christ, as the Iewish Types have already vanished by his first comming.

Broad.
CHAP. V. 1. The Sabbath was a shadow.

SAint Paul in his second Chapter of the Epistle to the Coloss. hath these words, Let no man judge you in Meat, Coloss: 2. 16. 17. or Drinke, or in respect of an holy Day, or of the new Moone,Hoc est, figurae fuerunt quae portenderent ea quae post essent verè ex­bīhenda à Christo. Mar­lor. or of the Sabbaths, which are a shadow of things to come, but the body is of Christ. Here by Sabbath the Weekely Sabbaths are meant as I gather.

1. Because St. Paul useth another word which doth most properly signifie the festivall Dayes, [...].

2. Vnles by Sabbaths in this place the weekly Sabbaths be meant,Vide Tract [...] de Sab. cap. 2. erg: 1. wee have not the least warrant in Gods word for working on the Iewes Sabbath. The Sabbatarians heretofore might with more colour have put of any Text then this.

3. Taking it for granted that wee [...] not keepe [Page 115] the Iewes Sabbath, how it is credible that S. Paul being Christs only Doctour about Dayes,Rom: 14. Gal: 4. Coloss: 2. and hand­ling this matter purposely in three Epistles, should not give us to understand as much in one of them, and if in any in this.

4. Thus it is taken by very many great Divines S. Aug: termeth the Sabbath Sacramentum ambratile spir: & lit: Instit: lib: 2. cap. 8. sect. 28. cap: 14. Calvin speaking of the fourth Commandement sayth umbratile veteres nuncupare solent, so that it seemeth the Fathers generally for Sabbaths here understood the Weekely Sabbaths, and therefore tearmed the fourth Commandement umbratile shadowish.

5. I know no more but two or three in Print who take it otherwise, and all that they can say, is that it is Sabbaths in the plurall number,See Math: 28. 15. Acts 13. 14 & 16. 13. but Sabbaths im­porteth the Weekely Sabbath in many places. Againe that with Sabbaths are adjoyned Meates and Drinkes, and therefore that S. Paul speaketh of such Sabbaths as are in ranke with them, which manner of arguing is tearmed Petitio principis: This is all that ever I knew alledged by any, which is so little, that it only argueth a will to say something, it is not so much as a shadow of sound proofe.

Besides this Text Coloss: 2. There are other preg­nant enough to prove, that the Sabbath was a sha­dow, Type or Ceremony, as that Exod: 31. 13. and and the like may be gathered by Heb: 4.See what I have written of this Text [...] my questions. but of these Texts more shall bee said hereafter.

Answer.

1. However there may be another word used to signifie Festivall Dayes, yet you cannot deny, but it is frequent to name their festivalls, Sabbaths: Because of the Rest and analogy which they had common [Page 116] with the Weekly Sabbath. Like as Magistrates are called Gods, though there be other words to signify them. And such is the sence of this Text, as may probably appeare by these follow­ing reasons which you so slightly evade.

1. Because it is Sabbaths in the plurall number, for the Greeke word [...] where it signifieth the Weekely Sabbath, and not the Weeke it selfe, is for most part either expressed in the singular number, or if in the plurall, then it is joyned with a word singu­lar, as [...], and after this manner it is also every where translated both in English and Latine, but in this 2. Coloss: 16. there are none of all these.

2. Because Sabbaths are adjoyned with such things (in this place of the Coloss:) which are indispu­tably abrogative and meerly Iewish, Such as are termed in the 14 verse the handwriting of ordi­nances, and in the 17 verse are termed the shadowes of such things to come, whose body is of Christ, that is, which are fulfilled in Christ, and whose significations end when hee commeth. But we know the sig­nification (as you your selfe confesse out of 4. Heb:) of the Sab­baths Rest is Heaven, our Rest there which remaineth unfulfilled yet to the People of God as the same 4. Heb: sheweth. and therefore are these the likelier to be such. For as Dr. Andrewes saith of the Sabbath, how that it had beene folly to have put a ceremoniall Law amongst the Morall; so say I in this case, that it were strange if God, who is the God of order and not of confusion, should by his Apostle in this place mixe one of the ten Morall Com­mandements with the hand writing of Ordinances, things meerely ceremoniall and abrogated.

To which two Reasons I adde these which follow.

1. The Apostle himselfe did condescend to keepe the Weekely Sabbath with the Iewes (not only for a time, as he did some of the Iewish Holy-dayes as also their other rites, but at all times and in all places as occasion offered) as being a thing of a different na­ture from their Sabbaths which he taught.

2. These three Holy-dayes, New-moones and Sabbaths are but (as I may so say) Synonimies in sence signifying as it were one and the same thing, in the intention of the Apostle by divers expressions: for were not New moones Holy-dayes, and Holy-daies Sabbaths, so that if you disp [...]e from a seeming Tau­tology [Page 117] you may as well argue against New-moones as Sabbaths. And I would know why Holy-daies and Sabbaths may not be as well one and the same in this place of the Coloss: as in the 58. Isa: 13. both of them in the one place signifying the Weekely Sabbath, and in the other place the Iewish Sabbaths. Which Synominy doth the rather appeare from that 4. Gal: 16 (which is the same in effect with this of the Coloss:) where the Apostle by Dayes, Moneths, Times and Yeares, meaneth things of the same nature and Ordination, to wit, the Iewish abrogated Types and Ceremonies such as begun with Mans Fall (or rather with Moses) and ended with Christs Resur­rection (unto which the converted Gentiles did too much adhere) not such as began in Paradice, and shall end in Heaven.

But whereas it may bee objected: that doubt­lesse had not the Apostle intended all Sabbaths in the word plurall, he would have made some particular exception of the Weekely Sabbath, considering how considerable it was so to do, if he would have had the Weekely Sabbath to bee understood to bee still of force.

To this I answer. That the first Day of the Weeke or Lords Day having taken footing among the con­vert Gentiles to whom the Apostle wrote, he might with lesse scruple use the word Sabbaths absolutely without exception; considering that all Sabbaths (eo nomine) were outlawed. Though now as the case stands we in these times are forced to re-assume the name Sabbath (not thereby to shoulder out the more worthy name of Lords Day, but) to vindicate the authority of the fourth Commandement, and to testify our judgements touching the new Sabbath; like as the primitive times are reported to take up the wearing of the Crosse to testifie their profession [Page 118] and Confession of a Crucified Christ against their op­posers.

2. To your second Reason I answer. That our warrant to worke on the Iewes seaventh Day is the fourth Commandement, which proportioneth us out sixe Dayes for our worldly affaires, and the seaventh for an holy rest, which is the totall and morall sence and summe of that Commandement, and which wee still observe, the order being occasionall and tempo­rary, but the number morall and perpetuall, as I have proved before. And therefore the Apostles did imply a nullity of the one by the bringing in of the other, according to the nature of the Commandement and the Prophecy of Isaiah 65. 16.

So that if you thinke it meet to retaine the Lords Day in our Church (as you do in your premonition) then must you grant the order to be changed. For it was never the Apostles meaning nor in their power, when God by a perpetuall Law from the beginning had given us sixe Dayes for labour and destined the seaventh to an holy Rest, to have turned it into five Dayes labour and two Dayes Rest. For amongst the Iewes, when Holy-dayes were so frequent, there was never any weekely Holy day ordayned, to go cheeke by jole with the Sabbath, but either Moneth­ly or Yearely. So that as Moses his Serpent eate up the Sorcerers, so hath our seaventh Day eaten up theirs.As the Apostle sayth in another case, 2 Cor: 3. 10. Even that which was made glorious had no glory in this respect, by reason of the glory which ex­celleth. Generatio unius est corruptio alterius. Our new Heaven and new Earth have given us a new Sabbath and new Rest. For old things are passed away, and all things are become new.

3. To your third reason I answer. That Paul in like case speaketh in divers places of Ministers main­tenance, and yet saith never a word to cleare the con­troversy of Tythes, whether they bee or bee not Iure divino, but he preacheth the substance, to wit, [Page 119] a meet maintenance to be necessary. So in Pauls discourse of times and Dayes (as also of other things) although he satisfy not our Fancies, who cannot see af [...]rre of, yet doth he answer the will of the Holy Ghost, who for reasons whereof wee are uncapable spareth to doe what wee expect. And indeed the reason of Pauls not Preaching the Sabbaths altera­tion might be because it was neither safe nor conve­nient. For it must needes have given great offence to the Iewes, (seeing it had a place amongst the morall Commandements) who were so precise in the pun­ctisioes of times, as that they would have beene of your opinion, that either their seaventh Day or none was morall: and so would have taken advantage to vilifie his doctrine, as if he had gone about to overthrow as well the Morall as Ceremoniall Law; the sun shine of the Gospell being too bright for their weake Eyes to behold all at once. And therefore the Aposile, con­descending to their infirmities, chose rather to insinuate the Lords Day t [...]citly by his practice, then by his do­ctrine. For so i [...] behoved him in those times, where­in hee became all to all that he might win some. And therefore did he take occ [...]on on the I [...]ish Sabbaths to Prea [...]h the Gospell in their Synagogues, when yet wee see how that privately hee sanctified the Lords Day with Ch [...]istians.

Therefore I conclude that this Scripture is nothing concerning the Weekely Sabbath (whereof he wri­teth nothing at all directly for the reasons aforesaid) but of the Iewish Ceremoniall Sabbaths which hee must needs cry downe, if he set up Christ. The sha­dow must vanish, when the substance comes in place. And of this the converted Iewes were mostly as well perswaded without offence as the converted Gen­tiles. But of this sort was not the Weekely Sabbath, as I have proved elsewhere, and as further is evident [Page 120] from the 92. Psal: which is dedicated to the Sabbath Day, but none of the rest of the Psalmes to any of the legall Ceremonies, from which I may thus rea­son.

That seeing the Booke of the Psalmes, was ordained for the consolation of the militant Church unto the Worlds end, (as may appeare by the Apostles exhor­tation) it seemeth not consonant to reason, that a part of Gods perpetuall worship should be dedicated to a temporary Ceremony.

To your fourth and fifth I answer, that how the Sabbath is said to be shadowish, wee have shewne before, and shall have more occasion hereafter to en­large it.

Amongst those two or three which justifie the mo­rality of the Sabbath. I would have you take in Dr. Andrewes in his exposition of the fourth Comman­dement, and Mr. Hooker in his Eccles: Pol: and Bishop Hell whom I have already alleadged.

Broad.
2. The Sabbath was a shadow from the beginning.

FOr Gods very Resting was Typicall as appeareth Heb: 4. 4. observe that the Apostle there speaketh os the seaventh Day as rested upon by God, and not as sanctified by him or enjoyned to be sanctified by Man, so that the seaventh Day then became a Type when God rested therein, the seaventh Day in order if not in time before it was sanctified was Gods rest, and Consequently a shadow of the Rest remaining to the People of God. Consider further that it doth not appeare by the Scripture when the Sabbath be­came a shadow; and which was the first Sabbath that was such if the first of all were not.

[Page 121]Againe that all other shadowes and Types were such from their first institution.

If any thinke there was no shadow or Ceremony of Christ before Sin.

Ans: Suppose that before there had beene no shadow or Type at all, yet might the Sabbath bee a shadow or Type from the beginning thereof, for it is very profitable that Adam fell the Day before. Againe though there were no Ceremony of Christ before Sinne, yet might there be a shadow of things to come, that now shall be exhibited by Christ, which had not Adam sinned God would have exhibited by himselfe.

There were it seemes three Types or shadowes in the beginning, Paradice, the Tree of Life, and the seaventh Day Gods Rest, of the comfort of all which Adam for his Sinne was deprived. But afterwards God being mercifull to the posterity of Abraham they had the same Sabbath, Mannah for the Tree of Life, and the Land of Canaan for Paradice, which was as it were another Paradice, and a figure also of the Kingdome of Heaven.

Answer.

In the 4. of Hebrewes it is beyond the Apostles scope to treate upon the sanctification of the Sabbath, for that there he only disputeth upon the typicall use of it. So that thence I easily grant you the significary or typicalnes of the Sabbaths rest even from the be­ginning: so you take it not in a Iewish sence as abro­gative by Christ his first comming: for though Christ then came to destroy the ceremoniall Law, yet came hee to fulfill the Morall Law, in which the Sabbath hath his seate, and whose typicalnes doth not so pro­perly relate to Christ, or to our present Rest in him, [Page 122] as to our Rest in Heaven,As appeareth in the 4 Hev: where by Gods 6 Dayes worke and re [...]ting on the seaventh i, signified the travell of Mans Life, and his Rest in Heaven, if he be of the People of God, and thus hath eveu Christ himselfe rested before us (as is there also spe­cified) is partaker, as well as procurer of the benefit of this Type. which in Innocency wee were capable of without him, although that now our capacity and interest in that Rest being lost, and only recovered in and through Christ, it may by accident referre to Christ (as the Tree of Life is made to doe.) because he is become our Intermedium to that Rest which yet at first it signified without him, and thus is Marriage made a Type of Christ, and his Church, which in Innocency was properly a Type of the Vni­on and Vnity betweene God and his Church imme­diately till sinne made a divorce, and therefore are they not as other Types occasionally taken up and occasionally laid downe, but begun (as I may say) before Christ, and shall end after him, that is, when hee shall give up his Kingdome into the hands of his Father, to whom the Creation being appropri­ated, this Type of the Sabbath being grounded there­upon, must needs begin and end in him. Yet so, as that by reason of Christs intervention, and the new Creation which he hath made, it is (by accident) of use also towards him; because that in and by him only, wee now enjoy this Rest, and are given in Mar­riage unto God. So that, if wee can here prove our Rest and Marriage unto him by Fayth, then are wee inchoatively possessed of our everlasting Rest and Marriage, which shall be consummated with God in Heaven, * whereof these two Institutions in Inno­cency were figures.

Touching the time of Adams Fall for my part I cannot thinke it was before Gods seaventh Day, and my reason is from Moses his method for he putteth it after, and yet I doe beleeve hee never kept Sab­bath in Innocency, but fell before his owne seaventh Day.

Touching Adams deprivation I answer. That al­though it be evident by Scripture and the fiery Sword, [Page 123] that Adam was deprived of Paradice, and the Tree of Life, as being properly annexed to the Commande­ment concerning the Tree of Good and Evill: yet doth not the same appeare concerning the Sabbath, for that it did partake as well of duty as of commo­dity, and was a coadjutor to the Law of nature: be­sides we see it renewed in its proper kind, and upon its primitive reason: which the other are not, but ex­empt by a fery Sword; also wee see the Scripture saith, the Sabbath was made for Man, which indefi­nitely signifieth all Mankind, though properly the People of God. For God having still a People he hath for them a Rest in Heaven, towards which the Sabbath is as helpfull as the Sacrament of the Lords supper is to our Faith in Christ. For as one sayth. Even now in this marveilous light of the Gospell, wee have our divine Ceremonies and Sacraments, God reser­ving the greatest for the Kingdome of glory.

Broad.
3. The Sabbath was a shadow of our bles­sed Rest in Heaven.

SAint Paul saying Coloss: 2. that Meate, Drinke, Holy-dayes and Sabbaths are a shadow of things to come, doth not there tell us of what things to come they are a shadow.

And the only place (in my knowledge) whereby wee may gather of what the Sabbath was a shadow, is Heb: 4. by which Chapter it appeareth that the Sabbath was a shadow or Type of the Rest in Hea­ven. The Rests or Sabbaths mentioned in that chap­ter are three, one, the first seaventh Day verse 4. ano­ther the Land of Canaan verse 8. a third the King­dome of Heaven verse 9. of the latter Rest the two [Page 124] former were shadowes. Some tell us of a legall spi­rituall and Heavenly Sabbath, and the legall with them was a Type of both the other, which I dis­like not.

Answer.

You may well imagine of what things to come Paul meaneth in that 2. Coloss: if you consider the context, for after he had handled Circumcision both in its Type and Antitype, then he concludeth of other things of that nature in these words, let no man there­fore condemne you in Meat or Drinke &c. As if he had said; like as Circumcision, so all things of that na­ture and institution, are extinguished through Christ, the substance of these shadowes, and the end of these Ceremonies. Amongst whichby an Argument ex non concessis, you would draw in the Weekly Sabbath to bee one, (as if the Iewes had not other Sabbaths which more properly are to bee reckoned in that number) and yet confesse it to signifie our Rest in Heaven, and to have none other signification but that: which sig­nification is still in force also, as wee see in the 4. of H [...]b. which properly is true of none of the abrogated Shadowes. Which signification I say is still in force and consequently the Sabbath: for how should it be other, seeing that they are Christs owne words, Math: 5. 18. That till Heaven and Earth passe one jot or one tittle shall in no wise passe from the Law till all bee fulfilled. Now how can the Sabbath be abrogated, seeing by your owne confession it signi­fieth our Rest in Heaven, which is not yet fulfilled nor will not be till the second comming of Christ. whereas the Iewish Types therefore vanished at the first comming of Christ, because they received the fulfilling in him properly and adequately.

[Page 125]But perchance it will be objected.Ob [...]. That the abo­lishment of all the signes of the Old Testament was by this, that Christ hath actually acquired all the be­nefits figured by them, though the Elect inherit them not yet totally and perfectly; and thus he hath also acquired the benefit of the Sabbaths signification for us, though not yet accomplished it to us.

I answer. 1. It is true that the benefits of both are acquired by Christ, Answ. but in a different kind. For the Iewish Types were since the Fall created de novo for his sake, to shadow him forth, and so he properly accomplisheth and soe abolisheth them, Coloss: 2. 17.Whence D. Taylor observes (in his Christ revealed pag: 4) But this of the Sabbath was created in the be­ginning, and was since then (things so falling out by the Fall) only renewed for his sake: like as was the Law also (for God makes them go hand in hand and so should wee) to the end that both of them may ap­peare,1 That as the body is the cause of the sha­dow so Christ was the cause of those Cere­monies. by the accident of our Fall, to bee now only fulfilled and accomplished on our behalfes through and by Christ. 2 That as the sha­dow representeth the shape of the body with the actions and mo­tions: sod those rites and Ceremonies re­semble Christ in all his actions, passions, motions.

I say 2ly. It may as well bee said that the whole Law is utterly abolished by Christ, as the Sabbath [...] for that he hath fulfilled the righteousnes therof for us; and yet we know that to us under the Gospell the Law is still binding in a Gospell sence, requiring a willing and an upright, though not an absolute and perfect o­bedience unto it: And so are we to celebrate a Gospell Sabbath, though not the last of seaven as expecting Rest by workes, yet the first day of seaven as having and expecting Rest by Christ for still the Law and the Sabbath fate alike. So that (as one sayth) Christ hath both accomplished and abolished the Ceremo­niall Law, the [...] Law he hath accomplished but not abolished; for Christ is the End of the Daw. But as Augustine well distinguisheth, the perfecting not the destroying End.

[Page 126]But by the way I must in this place the better to cleare the truth take in two objections that are made against our acceptation of this 4. Heb:

First, they object that Gods Rest (there spoken of) on the seaventh Day is not meant as typifying our Rest in Heaven, but only is mentioned in way of similitude.

1 Ans: 1. If the Sabbath be at all a Type it must bee so from the beginning: for as M. Broad observeth it appeares not else, by Scripture, when the Sabbath became a shadow, and which was the first Sabbath, that was such, if the first of all was not. And againe, that all other shadowes and Types were such from their first institution.

2 If the Sabbath be no Type, why is it disputed to be no Morall Commandement, but abrogated?

3 That it is the Churches Type appeares two wayes.

1 From the olteration and change which it hath undergone since Christ.

2 By the inference which is made, in way of con­sequence from Gods resting unto his Peoples resting, in the connexion of the 9 and 10 verses of this 4 chap. Heb:

4 The Sabbath its said was made for Man, that is, for his benefit and here to signify his happines hereafter: so Mayer in locum saith, that in Gods being said to rest, there must needs be an alluding to a most joyfull Rest to be had by Man, seeing he was never weary neither had he need of Rest: so Anselm. to prove the rest of the seaventh Day, and that it prefigured a further rest to come, hee aleadgeth the words (saith hee) of the history in Genesis▪ (The seaventh Day God rested from all his Workes) for in that immediately after the making of Man these words were added, it is plaine, that the resting of man who was last made was meant hereby. For as Augustine saith, God was not weary [Page 127] so that he had need to rest in regard of his great labour, but in those words he hath promised Rest to the la­bouring, or because he made all things very good and then it is said, he rested, thou maist understand also that after thy good workes thou shalt rest, and rest without end.

Secondly, they object, that by Rest there is not meant our Rest in Heaven, but our Rest from Sinne here upon Earth, or our Gospell rest.

To this I answer, It cannot properly beare that sence; for,

1. It must bee such a Rest as God rested, which was not from Sinne, but an everlasting Rest in Heaven from the Works of Creation.

2. It must be such a Rest as is spoken of in the fourth Commandement, which is not properly a Rest from Sinne, but a Rest from workes.

3. As Mayer observeth it is there called Sabba­tismus which signifieth a time of everlasting joy and festivity which cannot bee expressed, which is only proper to Heaven.

4. To put all out of doubt in the 14 verse of this 4 chap. Heb: it is expresly called Heaven, and Christ himselfe is implyed to rest it when he ascended into Heaven. Nor doth the Apostles speaking in the pre­sent tense in the third verse of this chap: saying, (Wee which have beleeved doe enter into Rest) afford any Argument against it, for that is only a speech of fayth, implying the certainty thereof, as also intimating the inchoation or entrance which the People of God make into this Heavenly Rest or everlasting Life even in this Life. For the Apostles dispute there sheweth that God hath a Rest of everlasting Happines for his People, as for himselfe, and which now wee are be­come capable of only by the promise of the Gospell through Faith, by reason of Christ our high Priest, [Page 128] who is gone thither before us, but for farther satis­faction see mi [...]e Anal [...] pag▪ 38.

Broad.
4. The Sabbath was a shadow in as much as it was a Sabbath, that is, a day of rest and refreshing.

THe Sabbath (as hath beene said) was a shadow of the blessed rest to come, and hereof now it was a shadow in respect it was a Sabbath or day of rest, even as the Land of Canaan was a type of Hea­ven in as much as it was a place of rest. Some will not have a Sabbath it selfe to bee a shadow, but would Saint Paul have said the holy dayes new Moones and Sabbaths are shadowes, if not these but circum­stances onely about them had been a shadow, where is the word Sabbath taken in such a sense? The word Sabbath is to bee taken in such a sense Col. 2. as it is to bee taken in other places, The Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath. Matth. 12. Mar. 2. The Sabbath was made for Man, was the strict rest, precise seaventh day or the like made for Man? was the Son of Man Lord of the Sabbath onely in such respects? but let us examine their Do­ctrine better.

The Sabbath they say was shadowish or ceremo­niall in some respects:The Sabbath was not a shadow in as much as it was the seaventh day, but the seaventh day was a shadow in as much as it was the Sabbath or day of rest: consider that the thing shadowed is the rest spoken of Hebr. 4. 9. as first, in respect it was the seaventh day, and here they say, that the number of seaven is mysticall, that it is the number of perfection, and tell of seaven dayes, and of seaven times seaven yeares &c. Ans.

1. Why may not I say also that the number of three is mysticall, I am sure that three Persons in one God is the greatest mistery of all others, and I can tell them of three Persons in one God, of three Angels appearing to Abram.

[Page 129]2. Supposing that the number of seaven bee mysti­call, it followeth that wee are freed from it, and not from the seaventh day onely, for what have wee to doe with the Iewish darke mysteries, in this cleare Sun-shine of the Gospell. The weeke by this Doctrine should rather bee a mystery or shadow then the Sabbath, for the Sabbath was but one day of the seaven, as the first was or any other. Indeed the Sab­bath was the last of the seaven but what of that? Saint Paul tearming the Sabbath a shadow joyneth it with the Holy-dayes and new Moones, if now they will have the Sabbath be a shadow in regard it was the last of the weeke, the New-moone (maysome say) was a shadow in regard it was the first of the Month, and the holy-dayes in regard they fell at other times.

3. If the number of seaven or last of seaven bee mysticall, must it not bee so from the beginning. And thus must the Sabbath bee a mystery or shadow from the first institution, as all other shadowes were. Secondly, in respect of their strict rest, but I know nothing of any moment,God himselfe rested strictly, for hee rested from all his works Gen. 2. 2. unlesse Gods example teacheth us to rest strictly, it teacheth us nothing. which they bring for proofe hereof, and why of the strict rest and not of the whole? Certainely wee shall rest wholly in Heaven. And if the Sabbath was ceremoniall in respect of the strict rest, then it seemeth hee that laboured all day or a good part thereof brake the morall part and so sinned. Moreover the holy-dayes (joyned with the Sabbath Col. 2.) may seeme to want the cere­mony, seeing no such strict rest was in joyned in them as was shewed before Chap. 2. 3. in respect of the sacrifices offered therein. Ans.

First, If sacrifices offered on such a day made the day a shadow, then every day of the weeke was a shadow as well as the Sabbath, for sacrifices were by the Law to bee offered every day.

Secondly, Then shall wee have three Sacraments [Page 130] for the administration of the Lords supper is as well a part of sanctifying the Lords day, as the offering of sacrifices was a part of sanctifying the Sabbath. If then the sacrifices made the Sabbath a ceremony like to themselves, the Lords supper maketh the Lords day a Sacrament like to it selfe also.

Thirdly, If a ceremoniall duty enjoyned on the Sabbath made it partly ceremoniall, a morall duty enjoyned on the holy-dayes made them partly morall. And thus should the feast of Passeover bee partly morall as well as the Sabbath.

Answer.

I grant you, that the Sabbath was a shadow or sig­nification of the blessed rest to come, and that not as it was a seaventh day,In respect of any mystery contained therein. but as the seaventh day was a Sabbath. But hence you would deduce a wrong conclusion, that therefore it is as was the Iewish sha­dowes, abrogative in the comming of Christ, and that wee are not bound to darke mysteries (say you) in this cleare sun-shine. Ans.

Wee are not bound indeed to any mystery, but to the duty contained in the number of seaven. Yet to the signification of the Sabbath wee are bound, which is not darke but cleare for so the Scripture hath made it to bee in the fourth Hebr. And although this Sabbath was shadowish, yet was it neither of like nature with their other Sabbaths, nor yet with other things whose signification reached to Heaven as well as it.

First I say, it differed from other Sabbaths be­cause it properly signified our rest in Heaven (as wee see in the fourth Hebr. where it alone is mentioned) and they properly our rest on earth by Christ; and therefore were they so many (and it but one and [Page 131] the same from the beginning) to signifie that our rest here was to bee with manifold intermissions and in great variety.

Secondly I say, it also differed from other things whose signification reached to Heaven as well as it: For mostly they had a double signification, the one proper and proximate, as Iewish types, signifying the rest and flourishing prosperity, that the Church should have in the time of the Gospell; the other Analogicall and remote, intimating that in the end, Heaven should bee the accomplishment of our Gospell graces and benefits, like as in the mid way they were the accom­plishment of their types and shadowes.For all the Iewish types being ordained for Christ, must bee fulfilled in and by Christ in the time of grace, which is his time of regiment, by admi­nistring grace as now hee doth being our high Priest entered into the holy of holies with blood to make intercession for us, and by compleating grace which hee shall doe hereafter, when as­king hee shall come in glory to set us at li­berty from all our e­nemies in that great Iubilee, when the day of refreshing shall come from the pre­sence of the Lord: and then after that wee have done our part and Christ his, wee shall (a compleate Adam in soule and body and cloathed with perfect innocency) enter into our Masters everlasting rest and joy. But the Sabbath had precedency of these having for its sig­nification properly and adequately one rest in Hea­ven, and the other abrogative Sabbaths subservient to it for the abrogative part (as appeares by the sig­nificant difference of rest that was imposed upon them in the wildernes, as I have else where observed more at large) it being Catholicall and (the) Churches inheritance beginning with it and ending with it; and they being (that) Churches inheritance in like manner receiving their beginning and ending with it.

If it bee objected, that the Sabbath is as much ful­filled on earth as many other Iewish types, for many of them have not their perfect signification accom­plished here but in Heaven, (as the Iewish circumci­sion shall not bee perfected till wee bee in the King­dome of Heaven) and our everlasting rest hath its in­choation here in the soules of Gods elect, what dif­ference then?

Ans. The difference consisteth in the immediate object which the types primarily and principally eyed. For the Iewish types primarily eyed the happy estate of the Church on Earth under the time of the [Page 132] Gospell, thereby to invite and bring their soules into a Gospell state by beleeving (so that though they are perfectly fulfilled in Heaven, yet they are properly fulfilled on earth) and secondarily or remotely its perfection in Heaven; For the time of the Gospell was (as I may say) properly their Heaven as it may appeare in that it is said, the Prophets and righteous men have desired to see (to wit looking through their types and shadowes) the things that you see &c. Matth. 13. 17 these being their primary and proper object, and as may appeare in the second place by the faultines of their covenant Hebr. 8. 7. and the fault­lesnes of the Gospell covenant. But this type of the Sabbath contrarywise primarily and principally eyed the happy estate of the Church in Heaven Hebr. 4. whereby their minds were to bee elevated above the Mannah, that they should partake of on earth, which they must enjoy with paines taking, even to the Mannah which they should feed on in Heaven with rest from all labour, and so is not yet fulfilled neither properly nor perfectly. For wee must note that the Sabbath signified properly Gods rest, or our rest with God, not first Christs rest and then Gods, though by reason of the admixtion of the Gospell in that time of the Law, it signified Gods rest to bee by Christ (as in its succession to Mannah hath beene shewne) I say that properly it signified not Christs rest; neither literally, in respect of the time of the new covenant under the Gospell, wherein we are set free from the burden which neither we nor our Fathers were able to beare, nor spiritually, in the soules of the regenerate freed from the Law (for this their other Sabbaths did in regard this weekely Sabbath could not properly doe it, at that time) though now under the Gospell, the Sabbath-day that attended the Law being done away, this weekely Sabbath now supplieth the place [Page 133] of all their Sabbaths, and now it selfe alone signifies our already entrance into our eternall rest inchoatively, by being possessed of our soules spirituall rest in Christ, a thing which whilest the Law was afoote it could not properly imply; Because the Law gave no present rest but all future, though in the time of the Law (as aforesaid) it was signified to bee made good to us by Christ. Yet it never properly signified the rest of Christ in the soule, for then it had signified a present rest which was contrary to the Law, and is now our priviledge under the Gospell; The Sabbath-day being changed for that end from last to first. For 4. Heb. 3. Wee which have beleved doe enter into rest, where this rest of God is spoken of in a double respect, to wit, as denied to carnall Israel that sought to possesse themselves of it by works, but gran­ted to Gods spirituall Israel that seeke it of Grace through faith, who shall not onely have it here after, but even for present are possessed of it in their soules, which happines the Law or first covenant never could afford.

So that although the Sabbath bee shadowish, yet is it not the Iewes proper freehold but common with them and us, being theirs onely, as they were the elect Church and people of God to whom it universally belongeth, and therefore was instituted even to Adam in innocency. For the Church of God in the clearest state of it never was nor never shall bee upon earth, without shadowish Sacraments and Sabbaths, being her proper inheritance, which were even in inno­cency, where our eyes were clearer then they are now.

And seeing that the Sabbath is not properly Iewish it cannot bee said to bee abrogated, because the sub­stance is yet not come, which is Heaven it selfe; or our absolute rest and inablement to serve God there; [Page 136] As was signified by that strict rest commanded to the Iewes on this Sabbath in the time of Mannah, above other rests and other Sabbaths; but onely changed, to prove to us that the Gospell estates us in that rest (and that presently) which the Law should, but could not.

And now in our dayes the stricter that wee rest from worldly distractions, and the more sanctifiedly that wee keepe the Sabbath, the nearer wee imitate Gods example,Who yet on the sea­venth day that hee re­sted, ceased not to cherish and maintaine, all things that hee had made, by his provi­dence, and in necessa­ry and mercifull provi­dence wee are to imi­tate God on that day as well as in resting. and fulfill his intention in the insti­tution of the Sabbath, and the better wee performe our duty in glorifying God (as the Iewes did in doubling their sacrifices on that day) and the more comfort wee reape to our selves, in lively moralizing thence our heavenly rest which we shall have here­after, free from all corruptions, interruptions, tempta­tions. Doing God double service in Heaven, to that wee doe him here. For in proportion all that belong unto the Iewes concerning their resting and sanctifying the Sabbath, belong likewise to us consideratis conside­randis.

Broad.
CHAP. VI.

ARguments prooving that the precept of the Sabbath is not morall nor perpe­tuallDid some men teach onely that the precept of the Sabbath was greater, and of longer continuance then the precepts of the holy-dayes, it were not so strange, but that the precept of the Sabbath and the precepts of the holy-dayes should bee of different natures the one morall, and the other not, is incredible.

Answer.

A pitifull shift that these Antisabbatarians and the Papists are driven to for the maintenance of their opinions, even to the downe right adventuring to blot out that which God himselfe hath written with his owne hand; (a greater boldnes then King Belshazzar durst attempt touching the writing on the wall) witnes Master Broad here, and Vasquez the Iesuite else-where, who being driven to acknow­ledge (by comparing the words of the second com­mandement with the fourth of Deut.) that the Scripture doth forbid the adoration of the true God himselfe in an Image, and confessing with all that hee and his fellow Catholicks doe other wayes, what saith hee then to the commandement? why, because it will not bee obeyed it must bee repealed, and not admitted to have any place amongst the morall pre­cepts of God, it was (saith hee) a positive and cere­moniall Law, and therefore ought to cease in the time of the Gospell, thus making the commandemen of God of none effect to keepe their owne traditions Gab. Vasquez. lib. 2. disput. 4. cap. 4. sect. 84. But the Iesuites come short of the subtilties of our age, for they bluntly explode the second commandement, whereas they might have let it stand still with a di­stinction: Like as some of our Antisabbatarians (For they cannot all agree upon the point) doe, let the fourth commandement stand though not for its owne sake, or as a Law (though wee must pray, Lord en­cline our hearts to keepe this Law, as wee doe to the rest) but onely for some other causes and considera­tion dictated by our Antisabbatarians, some one, some another; to keepe the ten commandements from a blancke. I wonder what one man of a thou­sand [Page 138] hath wont to pray that prayer after the reading of the fourth commandement in their sense; which if they will have passe for Doctrine, they must either alter the frame of the commandement or else explode it as Master Broad doth.

But Doctor Heylyn part. 2. pag. 241. objects, that if this ejaculation bee to bee understood in a literall sense, according as the words are laid downe in terminis, it then must bee the meaning of it, that wee should pray unto the Lord to keepe the Sabbath of the Iewes, even the seaventh day precisely from the Worlds creation and keepe it in the selfe same manner that the Iewes once did.

To which I answer, that our praying that prayer in a literall sense now in our times doth force no such conclusions. Not to keepe the Sabbath of the Iewes: For though the commandement expresse a seaventh day for number yet it doth not in terminis expresse the order saying, Thou shalt keepe the last day in the weeke, or of seaven, and not the first, &c. (though I acknowledge from other reasons proper to these times the commandement had then that meaning onely) so that now the letter of the com­mandement is intended in our prayer onely with a circumstantiall variation according to the practice of the Church (derived from the Apostles) which ex­plaines it to the meanest: Againe, not the seaventh day precisely from the Worlds creation, for that hath suffered many variations, nor did Adam keepe it, but he meanes the seaventh day from the first gathering of Mannah.

Nor yet in the selfe same manner, that the Iewes once did, If by (once) hee meane in the strict time of the wildernes for reasons aforesaid. So that by the letter of the commandement wee now may pray the Lord to encline our hearts to keepe holy a Sab­bath, [Page 139] and not the Iewes, a seaventh day and not the last of seaven (For the Law in the letter respecteth properly and principally the number implying onely the order occasionally, for the season sake, because the creation was then the greatest good; which number it still retaines in the same letter, and upon a new season implies a new order, the reason whereon the order was built being circumstantiall, as I have proved before) nor the day that God rested on after the crea­tion, nor the extraordinary rest in the wildernes. I say, wee may ejaculate this prayer in a literall sense to the fourth commandement as well as to the fifth, where weepray, Lord encline our hearts to honour our pa­rents, that according to thy promise, the dayes may bee long in the Land which thou givest us: Now wee all knew that by Land there and then is implicitely meant the promised Land, or Land of Canaan. Yet the manner of expression which God useth in the penning of that Law (as of that of the Sabbath) ad­mits a latitude (Ephes. 6. 2. 3.) not appropriating the promise to the Land of Canaan onely (by saying, that thy dayes may be long in that Land of Canaan which the Lord thy God giveth thee) so that the Tribe and the halfe which planted on this side Iordan might have prayed this prayer at the reading of the fifth commandement, as well as they with in the Land of Canaan, by vertue of the letter of that Law; and so in like manner may wee now: So excellent is the wisedome of the Lawgiver. That though in some temporary implicite circumstantiall sense, his Lawes might more properly belong to those people to whom they were immediately given then to us and our times; yet hee hath so ordered it that the Law is still usefull and binding for the substance of it, even in the letter. And therefore they that pray this eja­culation with understanding hearts, doe not pray, [Page 140] Lord encline our hearts to keepe a Sabbath which [...] no Sabbath, but Lord encline our hearts to keep a Christian Sabbath, a Christian seaventh day, and a Christian rest.

But in the conclusion Doctor Heylyn saith, wee may thus expound this prayer. viz. to pray unto the Lord to encline our hearts to keepe that Law as farre as it containeth the Law of Nature, &c. (which yet Master Broad his partizan will not allow) a pitifull shift to keepe all whole: And such is Bishop Whites pag. 159. 160. The generality of whose conclusion there upon this ejaculation (saving his private expo­sition) may well serve to set forth the use of it now; For (saith hee) our prayer to God, prescribed in the Liturgy, is not to beseeth him to encline our hearts to keepe the Law according to the speciall forme and circumstance of time commanded in the old Law, (which say I is the last day of seaven in memory of our creation) but in such a manner as is agreeable to the state of the Gospell and time of Grace, which say I is the first day of seaven in memory of our redemp­tion, and not as hee interprets it, to wit, according to the equity and mistery of the fourth commandement, and according to the rule of Christian liberty, which hath freed Gods people under the Gospell from the observation of dayes, months, times and yeares (saith hee) upon legall and ceremoniall principles; true, if hee meane judaicall ones, and then hee cannot meane the Sabbath; For to bee freed from it is no part of Christian liberty, because not yet fulfilled by Christ, Hebr. 4. 9. 10.

But to returne to Master Broad, by your Marginall note it seemes you could allow the Sabbath (not in respect of the Iewes weakenes, but of its owne worth and greatnes) to bee of longer continuance then the holy-dayes but not perpetuall; wherein you exceed­ingly [Page 141] wrong your cause: for if of longer continuance why not perpetuall? and if not perpetuall, why of longer continuance? the Holy-dayes and Iewish Sab­baths, say you, expired in Christ, and if this common Sabbath be no other then a Iewish Holy-day, why doth not it expire with the rest? and if you can allow it beyond Christ, I pray you, what should hinder it for being perpetuall? neither is it incredible to thinke that the common Sabbath, and Iewish Holy-dayes bee of different natures; when as they had different institutions, different significations, different locations and different extensions.

Broad.
ARG. I. No morall Commandement may be broken in case of necessity: but the fourth Com­mandement may; Ergo, it is not morall.

THe Major is evident, for a man may not Ly, Steale or the like to save his Life; The Minor is no lesse evident,In case of necessity the whole Rest may be broken and not the strict only. for to save the Life of his Cattle a man may labour all the Sabbath, in seeking them covered with Snow, in lifting them out of Pits &c.

Workes of necessity are not forbidden in the intention of the Lawgiver,Obj. and therefore such do not breake the fourth Commandement.

Suppose the King by a generall Law shall forbid the eating of Flesh in Lent,Answ. a sicke Man eating Flesh breaketh the Law, though no doubt it be in the Kings intention, that in such case Flesh may be eaten: as it is in the Lawgivers intention that Worke in case of [Page 142] necessity may bee done,David brake the Law of shew-bread: Math: 12. so is it in the Lawgivers inten­tion that the fourth Commandement in case of neces­sity may be broken, as other Ceremoniall precepts might in the time of the Law.

The whole Rest (not the strict Rest only) is Cere­moniall,Obj. so that if a Man labour all the Sabbath in lift­ing his Cattle out of Pits, in saving his goods from Burning, in Fighting against the Enemy &c. Yet he breaketh only the Ceremoniall part of the fourth Com­mandement.

Vnlesse such breake the morall part,Answ. none ever did, nor can do, and consequently there is no morall part: consider that to breake the fourth Commandement, and to profane the Sabbath are the same, and now that the Sabbath is profaned only by worke was shewed beforeChap. 3. those Lawes only are to bee tearmed Morall whereby the observation of Morall duties, such as are Prayer, Almes &c. are prescribed as for Time and Place, they are necessary circumstances about the performance of Morall duties, and their Lawes are to be tearmed Cir­cumstantiall.

Mr. Iacob in his reply to some notes of mine above twenty yeares since acknowledged that the fourth Com­mandement was circumstantiall and not morall. And I suppose that many other when they have a little con­sidered the matter will easily acknowledge as much, but yet as he, so they, will have it perpetuall neverthe­lesse: wherefore I come to prove that the fourth Com­mandement is abrogated.

Answer.

In answer to your Argument, I say, that the fourth Commandement can be no more broken then the first second or third. For as in the first other things may be loved, but not unlawfully loved, and as in the se­cond [Page 143] Images may be made, but not unlawfully made, and in the third the Name of God may be used and taken, but not abused and taken in vaine: so in this fourth Commandement wee may do worke, and [...]et breake this no more then the other, if so be not un­lawfull worke, but such as agreeth with the sence of the Lawgiver, and may bee gathered by comparing places of Scripture, which wee find to bee such as may promote Piety, Mercy and Charity. And there­fore is that following Objection of moment. For in all Lawes the meaning of the Lawgiver, and sence of the Law it selfe is principally to be respected, not the Letter: for that thing may be contradictory to the Letter of the Law, which yet is no breach of the meaning of the Law, if so bee it bee agreeable to the rules of Right, Reason and Piety.For it is supposed that all Lawes ought to bee such, and if o­therwayes then they cannot in a right sense be said to bind, and so consequently not to bee broken. As where wee are comanded not to Sweare at all, you might well ima­gine what would follow thence, if this doctrine of yours might take place, that therefore to Sweare at all is to breake this Commandement, and so in this fourth Commandement where wee are bid to doe no manner of Worke, if you will cleave to the Letter, you may soone find your errour to your cost. But God giveth his Lawes and Commandements to rea­sonable Creatures, who should therefore be able to judge of them according to the Rules of Truth and Reason. A London Marchant chargeth his Appren­tice upon a Shrovetuesday that all that Day he stirre not out of his House, if so bee the Apprentice upon occasion goe into the backe Court, you will not say hereupon he breaketh his Masters commandement. That therefore which one affirmes of mens writings is true touching Lawes, to wit, that wee must seeke for the meaning by the matter, as well as by the Let­ter; and lend our Eares to listen and observe what they desire to speake, and not make them speake only [Page 144] what w're desire to hea [...]e, unlesse wee will be like [...] Children, who having some fancy running in their Heads, imagine the Bells to ring and sing as they thinke and speake.

See that where Christ sayth Math: 12. 5. That the Priests profaned the Sabbath in the Temple, and [...]ere blamlesse, it is spoken according to the Capacity and misprision of the superstitious Pharisees, See [...] Ioh: 15. 16. 18. the better to convince their errour, [...] that if they counted the actions which his D [...]ples did in his ser­vice to be a breach of the Sabbath, they must by the same Reason account the actions which the Priests did in the service of the Temple to be a breach of the Sab­bath (for he had more authority to use their service, then the Temple had to use the service of the Priests) but that they did not, therefore nor ought they to thinke this a breach of the Sabbath, for indeed such workes as tend to Mercy and PietyI conclude workes of necessity within these termes of Piety and Mercy, wherto I limit the works of the Sabbath; because what­soever works are done on that Day (though they be workes of ne­cessity as [...]dering Beasts &c.) ought to bring forth some spe­ciall glory to God, by some Sabbaticall and holy use, under one of these two heads; and therefore doth Christ turne that Act of ne­cessity (when his A­postles for hunger sake rubbed the Eares of Corne) into an act of Mercy, saying I will have mercy and not sacrifice. are so farre from breaking the Sabbath (which commandeth an holy Rest) as that they are the proper fulfillings of it, even as to do the will of our Father in Heaven will be no impeachment to our Rest there▪ And indeed the just intermission of Rest on the Sabbath, is most impro­perly called a dispensation of the keeping of the Sab­bath, for in nothing ought Rest to bee intermitted on the Sabbath, but in such things as tend more to the sanctifying of the Sabbath (such were Christs Sab­bath Day cures which he might else have suspended till the next Day) for Rest being principally ordained to remove the impediments of the Sabbaths sancti­fying ought of right to give way to its furtherances: whereas the dispensing with a duty is to prejudice that for the advantage of some other.

But by the way take notice that, from the Phari­ses reproving Christs Disciples, in the beginning of this [...]. Math: for rubbing the Eares of Corne on the [Page 145] Sabbath Day, Ob [...]. it is objected by some, that that Law given in the W [...]dernes in the time of Mannah, touch­ing their not preparing their Food on the Sabbath Day, was then of force and a foote in the opinion and practice of the Pharises, else they would not have reproved the Disciples for so doing, to which I an­swer.

That they did not reprove this action of Christs Disciples in reference to that Law,Answ. or with any such opinion that it was of force, or in respect of any such practice of their owne: but as a worke and so a breach of Rest (as Mr. Broad rightly observes in his third chapter) nay as a needlesse and cursory worke or acti­on, as may appeare.

1. In that they themselves were not so ill instructed in the lawfulnes of workes of mercy and necessity (seeing they led their Oxen to watering on the Sab­bath Day) that they would have found fault with it had they conceived it to have beene a worke of ne­cessity.

2. In Christs excuse or justification of them, from the necessity of what they did, implying, first that it was not needles and superfluous, as they by their Pha­risaicall carping and misprision conceived, but neces­sary, and secondly that it was not unlawfull, because not needlesse.

2ly. I answer, it was not their practice as you may see Luke 14. by comparing [...]verse with 12. 13 ex­cept of some superstitious ones, such as Ignatius ad Mag: mentioneth.

3ly. I answer, it was not their opinion, for then the Pharises would have replyed upon Christs argument, that necessity made it not lawfull to them, in regard that that necessity was begot by their improvidence, in not preparing and making ready their viands be­forehand on the Day before, according as that Law [Page 146] enjoyned: for so it is likely through the improvi­dence of the man that gathered Stickes on the Sabbath Day (probably for to seeth or bake some Mannah unprovided the Day before) his action became neces­sary and yet he was stoned for it.

But here it will be said that if this action of Christs Disciples was a breach of Rest,Obj. and so judged to bee unlawfull, then in like manner it is unlawfull for us going through a Corne Field on the Sabbath Day to do the like.

It is as well unlawfull to us as to them needlesly and cursorily performed,Answ. but with a distinction of un­lawfulnes for it was literally unlawfull to them, but it is spiritually unlawfull to us: For it was of a positive holines to them in their times, but to us it is only of a relative holines: so that such an action is unlawfull to us, not properly as a breach of Rest, but as it is a distra­ction, or a fruit and effect of empty carnall and earth­ly minds on that Heavenly Day: for else in case of ne­cessity (for mercy sake) it is lawfull, or as an helpe and furtherance of the spiritualizing or sanctifying of that Day it is also lawfull: as if a man for the helpe of his mind in meditation, or to deduce some point of in­struction do pluck an Eare of Corne, and anatomize it by rubbing it in his hand, the better to see the wis­dome and power of the Creator in it. For thus even in the time of Israel, the Temple sanctified workes to it owne service, even on the Day of Rest: as Christ sheweth after in this 12. Math: intimating that the principall end of the instituting the Sabbaths rest from carnall workes, was for the service and helpe of the Temple of our minds and Hearts in the workes and wayes of God Isaiah 58. 13. Levit. 23. 27. 28 &c. And therefore did the godly-wise among the Iewes make no scruple of working on the Sabbath Day to this end, as the Priests in the Temple, nor to travell [Page 147] further then a Sabbath Dayes journey for this pur­pose, as wee see by the godly Shunamite her going to the Prophet a Kings 4. 22. 23. For spirituall and holy ends make spirituall and holy actions, so that the action bee not unlawfull but indifferent. To this pur­pose its worth our observation to consider how that the building of the Tabernacle (and Temple) gave place to the rest of the Sabbath, Exod. 31. intima­ting that distracting bodily labours, or the carnall part or imployment of or about even holy things, their opus operatum must give place to the spirituall rest of heavenly mindednes, and spirituall worship or worshipping of God in Spirit: And againe on the contrary the Sabbath-rest gave place to the servicea­ble works of the Temple (and Tabernacle) implying that our carnall rest must give place to his spirituall worship and service. And hereupon let mee in an holy Iealousy annexe an exhortation to some of the Ministers of this Land (for blessed bee God it needs not to all) that they would carefully provide, and looke that they doe not build the Tabernacle on that day, I meane that they rest not in the opus operatum of their holy imployments, and busying themselves about the carnall part of holy things, in putting off the studying of their Sermons, or getting them by heart (except it bee to worke them upon the heart, and not barely to commit them to memory) till that day, and so though they take care to build the Ta­bernacle of Gods Church, yet they in the meane time neglect the Temple of their owne hearts, in serving God in the Spirit and not in the letter or outward performance onely. But it were well if they would gather and prepare their Mannah, seeth it and bake it the day before, that when the Sabbath came, they might have nothing to doe, but to chew and conc [...]ct it into their owne Spirits,Doctor Taylor in his expe-Christ revealed pag. 148. The Minister must not onely set the Word and Sacraments before others, but himselfe must feed on on them as the Priests did on the Shew-bread all the weeke and yeare long, least it be­fall him, as that Prince which saw plenty of food with his eyes but tasted not of it, 2 Kings 7. 20. and so spiritually in the [Page 148] experience of their owne hearts (not heads) dish it out to their hearers; which would bee an happy meanes to make them see better fruits of their labours: For commonly that which is notionally delivered is notionally received, and that which is spiritually and powerfully delivered in the evidence of the Spirit, is spiritually and savingly received (though I know to the pure all things are pure; a good stomacke can digest good meat, though the cooke perhaps never licke his owne fingers, how ever it bee cooked or dished: it may bee as the yolke of an egge to the hearer, when it is as the white to the speaker without tast or life) for Spirit begets Spirit, as fire begets fire; And as a worthy Writer of this Church saith to this purpose, that it can hardly sinke into an hearers heart, that never went further then the speakers head. This fault in part is to bee suspected in some Ministers by their absenting themselvesIn the vestry or else­where. from the publicke prayers of the congregation, not comming in till the Psalme bee almost at an end (of ill president, the congregation losing the Doctrine of their example and the assistance of their Spirit) not but that some men at some times may bee justly and really straitned and necessitated to study or get by heart their Sermons on the Sab­bath-day, others also may bee of weake memories and must bring it fresh: To such I speake not, but one­ly to make them their afflictions, and to watch and pray against them; but to them to whom God gives Mannah for gathering and preparing, that they doe not put up with the worse, and neglect the better part of the duty, satisfying themselves with this that they are in their Divine calling, conversant about holy things, and so gather Mannah when they should eat it. It is an easie thing to take great paines in the out­ward part or performance of holy things, which oft proves a snare, causing the neglect of the Spirit of [Page 149] the inner man: For many are great labourers in the worke of the Lord, that are starvelings in the Spirit of the Lord, satisfying themselves with a Popish peace of conscience in the deed doing, in stead of joy in the holy Ghost, bringing indeed meat to their nests, but through hast or lazines eating none themselves; or like Taylors make cloathes for other men to weare, so they never assaying their owne points how they fit or may fit their owne Spirits, but thinke it is their duties to teach, and other mens duties to doe. And let mee also admonish the People that they take not scandall or offence by carping or misprision at the Ministers absence in time of publicke prayer, as the Pharises did here at Christs Disciples, but rather judge them necessitated to it.

But it will bee said,Obj. that it is beyond flesh and blood, thus to spend a whole day in heavenly min­dednes.

It is indeed hard to flesh and blood,Answ. but where the Spirit is there is liberty: A Gentleman that handles a flale for novelty sake thinks it an hard thing to thresh an houre together, but the Country Husband­man, that is called to it, and by frequent use hath made it another nature, to him thinks it no hard thing to thresh a whole day together. So flesh and blood wanting the skill to handle spirituall tooles, and feeding on spirituall things with a forced and not a naturall palate, digesting divine truths but as other truths of other arts, onely into a notionall medita­tion to improve his understanding or outward pra­ctice a little, to such a man it must needs bee hard: But hee that is begotten of God, and hath a new nature put into him, hee is skilled in the way of the Lord, and findeth such sweetnes in digesting divine truths into his Spirit, and in renewing and maintaining his spirituall acquaintance with God [Page 150] in giving and receiving, and in the variety of Gods spirituall ordinances as that it is not hard to him; for when flesh and blood knowes it shall have no liberty it will looke for none and then the Spirit easily beareth rule. I wish by the way that such men as talke of keeping every day Sabbath, to cry downe the weekely Sabbath [...]thereby, doe know their owne meaning whilest withall they say, to spend a whole day in heavenly mindednes and spirituall imploy­ments is an heavy yoke; and implyingly make it part of our Christian liberty to bee redeemed unto earthly mindednes and not unto heavenly, whereas it is both the best and cheifest part of our Christian liberty, to bee redeemed and inabled unto heavenly mindednes, and to a willing, powerfull, spirituall performance of holy things, in this time of the ministration of the Spirit, being delivered from the ministration of the dead letter, which embondaged them to the outward and carnall part, and unwilling weake performance of them through the weakenes of the flesh: For the Spirit is therefore a free Spirit, not because hee freeth us from the Law, but because hee sets us free to the performance of it: Thus David looked to bee a free man and set at liberty, not from obeying but to obeying and doing the commandements Psalme 119. 32. I will run the wayes of thy commandements when thou hast enlarged my heart▪ I wish wee were lesse guilty of this Iudaisme in our dayes viz. making our holines consist rather in rest, then in resting to bee holy. Sure I am those that walke the most exactly and strictly in this way of heavenly mindednes on that day, find the benefit and sweet thereof to their soules, and good reason: For that promise Isaiah 58. 14. Then shalt thou delight thy selfe in the Lord is not onely made to, but also to bee fulfilled by the performances of the duties injoyned us in the fore­going [Page 151] verse, of not doing our owne wayes, not finding our owne pleasure, not speaking our owne words, the Spirit of God working this unspeakable de­light and comfort in the soules of them that so walke.

Now I come to speake to your answer to the se­cond objection, and therein to shew you when wee are said to breake the morall part of the Sabbath, which is, when wee either doe our owne works, or Gods worke to our owne ends. For had rest beene properly or onely the morall part of the Sabbath, then had the superstitious Iewes kept it, none better. But a man may rest and not keepe the Sabbath, and a man may worke and not breake the Sabbath: And indeed that man that both resteth and worketh to wit, from his owne works to doe the works of God, is the onely true Sabbath keeper: And therefore as wee are advised in another case, that whether wee eate or drinke &c. So in this case, say I, whether wee rest or worke let it bee done to the glory of God, else our rest is but the rest of brute beasts, and our works the works of prophane Men and Hypocrites. So that on the Sabbath our rest must give place to all Gods good works, and on the contrary all our works must give place to Gods rest: For whether wee rest or worke, it must be unto God, and not unto our selves, for so onely wee fulfill the Sabbaths sig­nification.

Lastly, for answer to that which you say in proofe hereof, how that those Lawes are onely to bee tearmed morall &c. I aske you what prayer or Almes &c. is there commanded in the third com­mandement, Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vaine, and yet this you cannot deny to bee a morall Law. If you say there are, then I answer, no more then in the fourth commandement where [Page 152] wee are to keepe holy the Sabbath, or to sanctifie it with an holy rest: by which is not meant a bare rest, no more then by an holy convocation is meant a bare meeting together, but it is meant in regard of the holy duties that were to bee done thereon of praying, praysing God, reading Moses Law, sacrificing &c. And why is not, remember that thou keepe holy the Sabbath-day as well morall also, as, thou shalt not make to thy selfe any graven Image, in the sense in hand. And whereas you say, that time and place are circumstantiall (implying them thereby to bee indif­ferent things) I answer, that in themselves they are so, but if God please to alter their natures, hee may; Thus hee disposed of the Temple for a time, and the Sabbath for ever to bee his proper ordinances. Con­sider how inconsistent you make it, for resting to bee the sanctifying of the Sabbath, and yet the Law of the Sabbath to bee but circumstantiall to other du­ties.

Broad.
ARG. II.

BY Sabbaths Col. 2. 16. the weekely Sabbaths are to bee under stood, by ordinances then in the 14. verse the Law of these Sabbaths must needs bee meant as well as the Lawes of new Moones and Holy-dayes, and now these ordinances, that is, precepts of the Sab­bath, new Moone and Holy-dayes are here said most manifestly to bee blotted out.

Though Saint Paul here saith that the precept of the Sabbath is blotted out,Obj. yet his meaning is not that it is wholly blotted out, but onely in part.

So any one may say of the precepts of the new Moone and Holy-dayes,Answ. and would it not trouble them to shew [Page 153] by the Scriptures how much is blotted out, and what is left uncancelled?

The received division of Moses Law hath been [...] into morall, ceremoniall, and judiciall.

That any commandement should bee partly cere­moniall, and partly morall, partly an ordinance and partly not, partly nayled to the Cresse and partly re­maining in the Arke, partly blotted out and partly left to be read and observed; I could never yet find in any part of Gods word.Master Dod and Ma­ster Cleaver on the com. And this no doubt some of late perceive well enough, and therefore teach that the precept of the Sabbath is wholly morall, or (as their words are) no more ceremoniall then all the rest.

They see plainely that hee which will have it partly blotted out and partly not, had need bee greater then an Angell, as teaching in part another Gospell then Saint Paul did. Consider that Saint Paul here saith as much of the Sabbath and the precept thereof, as hee doth say of the New-moone and the precept of the same, and againe that hee saith as much here of the New-moone and its precept, as is said of them in any other place.

Though the precept of the Sabbath bee wholly blotted out,Obi. as the precepts of the New-moone and Holy dayes ioyned with it, yet not the fourth commandement in the Decalogue. Wee grant the fourth commande­ment is ceremoniall and blotted out so far forth as itTouching the suppo­sed substance and mo­rality of this comman­dement, see chap. 8. sect. 4. 5. enioyneth the Sabbath (not onely the seaventh day and strict rest) but this commandement is of a larger ex­tent then this commeth to.

The fourth commandement and the commande­mentAnsw. of the Sabbath are the same after the Scrip­tures, so that Saint Paul here saying the commande­ment of the Sabbath is blotted out, it is all one as if hee had said, the fourth commandement in the Deca­logue is blotted out, you have no colour of proofe to the [Page 154] contrary. As touching the fourth commandement, being blotted out so farre forth as it enioyneth the Saboath, consider that the fourth commandement must needs enioyne the Sabbath, Such as [...]each (and this is the common Doctrine) that the fourth commande­ment is partly cere­moniall, doe say in ef­fect that it is partly blotted out. so farre forth as it is contained in these words, Remember the Sabbath-day to sanctifie it, &c. If God had made this Law bath for Iewes and Christians, is it credible but that hee would have set it downe in words fitting both sorts, so that Christ at his comming should not have blotted out any part thereof? Certainely Christ would not have written that againe which hee had once blotted out, suppose that hee also had left Ta­bles.

In a word the Sabbath is the onely thing spoken of in the fourth commandement, and no Law of God or Man ever stood in force longer then it bound to doe the thing mentioned in itMany in England so doe, yea the last Parliament may well bee thought to dislike it, for neither in their title of the act for­keeping the Lords-day, nor yet throughout. The body thereof is this name used, although the heathenish name Sunday bee in both, yea and although the commande­ment read in the Church of speaketh of sanctifying the Sabbath. as many as dislike the name Sabbath for the Lords-day, have cause to dislike this commandement for the Law thereof, for the one is as well Iewish as the other.

Answer.

By Sabbaths in that 2. Col. 16. is to bee under­stood the Iewish ordinances, which properly be­longed to them and their time, such as were their solemne fealts,Se [...] Isa. 1. 13. com­pared with the 14. verse. which although they were Iewish Holy-dayes, yet did they also carry the name of Sabbaths, and holy convocations, because of the A­nalogy they had with the weekely and morall [Page 155] Sabbath, as wee may see Levit. 23. In the beginning of which Chapter you shall find the weekely Sabbath most gloriously intituled (THE SABBATH OF THE LORD) and remarkeably paled out from among those Iewish Holy-dayes, Feasts, and Sabbaths. For God, in that Chapter instituting his solemne Feastes, or Iewish Holy-dayes, in the first place no­teth out his weekely Sabbath (in the third verse) to bee none of them, by a glorious and sublime title, and pregnant difference, which s [...]emeth to bee di­stinctly penned by the holy Ghost, to prevent con­fusion and unequall mixture.Which very thing is your fault and la­bour. And, having first done this, then hee in the rest of the Chapter proceedeth to shew what Feasts hee meaneth, which hee also calleth Sabbaths, but in a farre different sense. And thinke you, that the Apostle would so carelesly and slightly have jumbled together (in this place of the Col.) what God, even in the time of the Iewes, was so carefull to distinguish▪ as in this 23. Levit. appea­reth, as also in the exhibiting of his Lawes, which were of severall natures, ceremoniall and morall, amongst which this was one, and which with the rest was put into the Arke.

And as in your answer to the first objection you say, that you cannot find in any place of Gods word why anyIndeed the Sabbath is both wholly ceremo­niall and wholly mo­rall, as was signified▪ by its double exhibi­tion to the Iewes, once by the hand of Moses and another time to­gether with the Law shewing that though it was of a typicall, and ceremonious signification, yet notwithstanding it was of equall condition with the morall Lawes, by Gods speciall appointment. For when I say the Sabbath is cere­moniall, I meane not in an abrogative, but in a significative sense. commandement should bee partly cere­moniall, partly morall, partly nailed to the Crosse, and partly remaining in the Arke, partly blotted out, and partly left to bee read and observed; I affirme the same of the Decalogue or ten commandements as Moses numbers them Deut. 4. 13. Not but that in the delivery and exhibition of this Decalogue [Page 156] (this rejoyneth upon your following answer to the second objection) there were things (as I have said before) which were more proper in regard of circum­stance to the Iewes then to us, and yet God made the De­calogue as a Law both for Iewes and Christians, and hath set it downe, though not altogether in words and letters, yet in sense and substance fitting both sorts: So that the Law may still bee truly said to remaine, although Christs comming and the state of the Church differing, may vary some circumstances; as by changing the Egyptian deliverance into the antitype thereof, to wit, our spirituall; and the Land of Canaan meant in the fift commandement, into England where wee dwell; and so likewise the memory of our creation into the memory of our redemption; and their gates into our jurisdictions; and thus though there is an al­teration made, yet doth the Law remaine the same in sense.

Broad.
ARG. III.

IN the 31. of Exod. wee read thus, Verely my Sab­baths yee shall keepe, for it is a signe betweene mee and you, throughout your generations, that yee may know, that I am the Lord that doth sanctifie you. The like was signified by cleane meats, Levit. [...]. 24, 25, 26. Act. [...] 12, 13, 14, 15, 20. Here by sanctifying is meant separating from other Nations to bee a peculiar people to himselfe. In this sense Aaron and his Sons are said to bee sanctified. Exod. 29. 44. Aaron and his Sons were sanctified and severed from the other Levites to bee the Lords Priests, and the Israelites were sanctified and severed from other Nations to bee the Lords people, of which san­ctifying the Sabbath was a signe, in as much as it was [Page 157] a day sanctified and seperated from other dayes of the weeke for the Lords service.

Now if God gave the Sabbath for a signe to the Israelites, the Sabbath could not bee common to other Nations, and consequently was a meere ceremony as was circumcision. Abraham received the signe of circumcision, and the Israelites received the signe of the Sabbath. Hence I thus argue, such as is the Sabbath such is the precept thereof, The Sabbath is a signe, therefore the precept thereof is significative or cere­moniall and is abrogated. Here consider, that if Noah had taught his household, and Lot his Sons, Abraham his Sons by Hagar and Keturah, Isaack his son Esau, and Melchisedech his people to keepe the Sabbath, the Sabbath could have beene no signe to the Israe­lites, for the World would have beene replenished with Sabbath-keepers at that time, and a long time after, so that no doubt wee should often read of this matter in Heathen writers.

Answer.

You say the Sabbath was given to the Israelites as a signe of their peculiar sanctifying or seperating to bee the people of God from all others, and hence you fallaciously conclude, that therefore it cannot bee common to others.See this confuted in: Master Richard Bifield pag. 87 88. where hee sheweth how every signe of separation or consecration is not ceremoniall. Nor doth every seperating or sanctifying marke ob­lige onely those that ha [...]e that marke, pag. 1▪ [...]0.

For though it be true, that as a signe it was proper to them onely in their times, and so also was the whole Law, as it was renewed and given of God for a covenant betweene him and themThe giving them to the Israelites was a signe the Lord was nigh to them, and there­fore in vaine doth Master Dow alledge pag. 15. That in that the Sabbath is called a signe betweene God and the Israelites, that hee was their Sanctifier and Deliverer out of Egypt, which it could not bee, if it were given to all Nations in Adam, seeing the Law was the like. (and therefore [Page 158] doth hee say Psalme 147. 19, 20. Hee hath shewne his word to Iacob, and to Israel his judgements, and statutes, and that hee hath not dealt so with every Nation, (that is with any Nation) neither have they knowne▪ his judgements) so that the Sabbath and the whole Law are alike significative, and indeed have somewhat of signification in them in this se­cond exhibition: For as the Church it selfe was then typicall, signifying the Church of Gods elect; So was the Law, as given to them, as may appeare in that it was twice written; to shew the double writing of it, by nature and grace in the hearts of the elect.

So that both the Sabbath, and the rest of the De­calogue, as they are morall Lawes, are forever com­mon to the universall Church of God; being not onely bare signes, but of a double nature. For the same thing may bee both proper and common in diverse respects: As the Land of Canaan was pro­per to the Iewes, as it was the Land of promise, and yet it was common to many Nations in the use thereof, to wit, as it was a place of commerce and habitation, and so is to this day. And so the whole Decalogue wee know was common, as it was the Law of nature, to all Nations and People, even in those times of the Iewes, but yet is it in the fourth Chap. of Deut. 13. verse, appropriated to the Iewes; because it was given, in a speciall manner, as a Covenant betweene God and them, and in that respect it is opposed to things that are com­mon to all People, in the 19. verse of that Chapter, as the thing, wherefore and whereby God will bee especially worshipped, even for that very cause, because (as hee himselfe layeth downe the reason there) they are distributed unto all People under the whole Heaven: And yet is this Law no [Page 159] man will deny in the morall sense of it common to us now [...] (whereof the Sabbath is a part) nay,For though wee re­fuse the Law as a Co­venant, yet wee enter­taine and honour it as a rule of obedience. Nor surely are wee to say, that the Law be­cause it was given to the Iewes must bee in the same respect to us as to the Iawes, else it bindeth not at all, if so bee it bee qualified ac­cording to our times, and turned from a co­venant to a rule. Then granting this change and yet retention of the whole, why not also of that part there­of which concernes the Sabbath. and was also common to them that were not Iewes even in the time of the Iewes, though not in nature of a speciall Covenant, yet so as it was a Law of nature (which the precise Sabbath, I confesse is none, but onely made equivalent by revelation) and therefore did they then observe (though set times of worshipping God, yet happily) not the whole day, or at least not every seaventh, for that most pro­perly is the Churches right and rite. Moreover the very Sabbath it selfe was of force, by vertue of the fourth commandement, to all that came with in the cognizance of it as well stranger as Iew: And there­fore could it not bee meant a signe of separation in your sense, so as to appropriate it solely to them, and thereupon to create it a meere ceremony. Many things there were indeed, among the Iewes, that bare this sense expressely, as the Paschall-Lambe, whereof by expresse words no stranger was to eate, untill hee was made as one that was borne in the Land by circumcision, Exod. 12. 48. But it was other wayes in the commandement of the Sabbath, for the stranger (quatenus stranger) was [...]o observe it, if they were within their gatesNehem. 13. 16, 19, 20, 21. (Iu­bebantur feriari eo die, q [...]emadmodum & Iudaei, indigenae, saith Zanchy) And not as the Anti­sabbatarians of our age would perswade, that it be­longed to the proselite stranger onely.

Againe I argue against you out of your owne place. 31. Exod. That if God menat it as a bare signe peculiar to the Iewes, why then doth hee fly backe to the primitive institution of it; in the seaven­teenth verse, re inforcing the commandement there, upon that reason which is common to all mankind. The words are these: It is a signe betweene mee and [Page 160] the children of Israel for ever; For in sixe dayes the Lord made Heaven and Earth, and in the seaventh day hee rested.

Now wee know, it was never the property of the Iewish types to looke backward to the state of innocency, but forward.

But you will say, that the first institution of the Sabbath was but a prophecy or fore-runner of the second.

To this I answer, That it is very ill likely, that any thing that was proper to the Iewes as a cere­mony, and not common to the whole Church of God (for whose sake the World was made) was prophecyed or fore-ordained in innocency; For all the things that are made use of in Scripture from the state of innocency, are spoken of as ap­pertaining to the whole Church of God, and not proper to any one People or time: And so is the Sabbath made use of in the fourth Hebr. to signifie an everlasting rest, to whom? but to the People of God.

But you will aske mee, how I know that this Law of the Sabbath was given in innocency, and not after the fall?

I answer, that this one reason may serve for all; Because that whatsoever Moses maketh mention of before the fall, wee have good reason to thinke it to bee done in innocency, and to allow as well his Method as his matter in that particuler. But hee placeth the Law of the Sabbath before the fall: Ergo &c. Besides your owne Hypothesis stoppeth this objection.

For if Adam should have kept the Sabbath had he continued in innocency (as you suppose hee should) its like it was revealed to him in that state.

[Page 161]And the rather was the Sabbath given in inno­cency, that it might bee understood to bee equall with the Law of nature, and to appertaine to the whole Church of God, which afterwards was to bee of a double condition, and so the Sabbath serves for a double end answerable to these conditions, to wit, in memoriall of the creation as it is in the 20. Exod. 11. and also in memoriall of our re­demption as in the 5. Deut. 15. and as is the Sabbath such is the Law, of a double obliga­tion to us in respect both of our creation and re­demption.Note.

It is very observable in those two places how an order is kept (which giveth authority to our second Sabbath and to the reason thereof) for in the first giving the Law Exod. 20. the Sabbath is inforced by the creation, and in the repetition or second giving of it in the 5. Deut. it is altogether inforced upon the redemption, the creation not being once named or mentioned there in the Law of the Sabbath or fourth commandement, lively in­timating the subsistence of the fourth commande­ment under the Gospell, and the binding authority of it in our dayes, by the incorporation and addi­tion of the reason of our new creation or spirituall deliverance by Christ, into the commandement, in stead of the old reason which is utterly omitted as if it were forgotten, or at least overtopped and trium­phed over by us that are the second generation of Israel. Answerable to that 65. of Isaiah 17. I will create new Heavens and a new Earth, the [...]ormer shall not bee remembred nor come into mind.

[Page 162]I wish our Antisabbat [...]rians to consider well, that such a repetition of the fourth commandement (not seorsim or by it selfe, but together with the whole Decalogue in its proper place) with such a materiall omission and addition or alteration, cannot but bee significantly and doctrinally meant by the holy Ghost there.

But some argue, from this connexion of the Sab­bath to their deliverance out of Egypt, that the Sabbath was therefore given to them for a me­moriall of a particuler benefit to them, and so be­longed to the Ecclesiasticall Government of the Iewes, and therefore though it were not typicall, yet for that cause it ought to bee done away.

To whom I answer, that upon the same reason they may as well abolish the whole Law (and turne Antinomians) if they ponder it connexed with its preface.

I will borrow Master Richard Bifield to con­clude this point pag. 88. who saith, that the Sab­bath in those places of Exod. 31. 13. and Exod. 20. 12. 20 is called a signe in two re­spects.

First, in that it is an Argument and Document betweene God and Israel, and so betweene God and his People for ever, whereby they may know, that God hath sanctified them.

Secondly, it is a signe not of any future thing▪ but of a thing present, as every adjunct that is a visible concomitancy is a signe of the subject pre­sent.

For in the observation of the Sabbath there is a publicke profession of that communion which intercedeth betweene God and us. As then every solemne profession is a signe of that thing [Page 163] of which profession is made, so also is the Sabbath called in this respect a signe.

Broad.
ARG. IV.

GOd resting on the seaventh day, it became his Sabbath or Day of rest, as wee tearme that a mans birth-day wherein hee was borne, and as the other dayes of the Weeke were Gods working dayes▪ This his resting (as I have shewed before Chap. 5.) was typicall, and it was the reason, why God did sanctifie the day, and commanded men to san­ctifie it as appeareth by Gen. 2. 3. and Exod. [...]0. 11.

Hence I thus reason, such as the foundation is, such is the building; The foundation (Gods resting on the seaventh day) was typicall,The Sabbath doctrin is builded on the sands. and therefore his sanctifying it presently, and mans sanctifying it after­wards was no lesse.

Finally consiner whether more then this may bee not spoken of Sion, and the Temple, then is spoken of the Sabbath. This is my rest for ever. Psalme 132. 14. My house shall bee called an house of prayer for all People, Isa. 56. 7.

I doe not know where the Sabbath is tearmed Gods rest for ever, and for all People.

Answer.

My former Arguments have beene sufficient to give this its answer, for I have alwayes gran­ted the Sabbath to bee typicall from the fourth Hebr.

Your comparison of the Sabbath, with those phrases belonging to the Temple and Sion in holy writ, is a meere flourish, and readily answered out of the fourth of Hebr. where the typicall rest of the Sabbath is extended farre beyond the typicall rest of Canaan wherein Sion was, for the holy Ghost saith there, that the Sabbaths-rest still remaineth to the People of God, implying the contrary of the other rest.

Broad.
CHAP. VII.

THE chiefest Arguments of the adverse part answered. I come now to answer the chie­fest Arguments of the adverse part, I say the chiefest, for with a cloud (not of witnesses seeing they prove nothing, but of Arguments) such as they are, whereby some go about to obscure the light, I will not at this time have any thing to do, hoping that as a mist it shall of it self vanish away, from before the eyes of all those that read this Treatise with under­standing.

ARGVMENT I.

ADam was commanded to sanctifie the seventh day in the state of Innocency; therefore it is morall to sanctifie one day in a weeke, I thinke it best to make answer to this Argu­ment particularly.

1. Adam was commanded to sanctifie the seventh day.

Answ. It doth not appear that Adam received such a Command as is said before,As I commanded your fathers, Ier. 17. 22. rather we would thinke as I con­manded Adam in the beginning, if it had been true. Con­sider also this saying, and made known to them thy holy Sab­bath, N [...]hem. 9 14. Chap. 1. And had God given such a Command, why should it not be recorded? He that will have us believe more then is set downe, must alledge some Scripture or some reason why it was not set down.

It will be said unlesse Adam was commanded to san­ctifie the seventh day, wherfore did God sanctifie it in the beginning.

Answ. Because thou a man knowest not a reason of [Page 2] Gods doings, this is not a sufficient reason or warrant for thee to affirme that he did more then thou findest that he did in the Scriptures. And consider that others may know some reason hereof, though thou and I do not.

This that followeth, whether they be reasons or not I leave it to thy consideration, I dare not say so, I was not with God when he laid the foundations of the earth.

1. It appeareth by Heb. 4. (as is said before) that Gods Resting the seventh day wherein God rested and which he sanctified, was a Type of the Rest that remain­eth to the people of God.

2. God might sanctifie the seventh day in the begin­ning for a purpose not present but to come, namely that the Israelites should sanctifie the same when they came into the land of Canaan, another Paradise as it were, and a Type also of the kingdome of heaven; A blessed time and a blessed place, an holy day and an holy land sort well together.

When a man shall stand before Christs judgement seat and being demanded, wherefore didst thou say, that God commanded Adam to sanctifie the seventh day when the Scripture saith not so in any place? Consider whether this answer, I could see no other reason of Gods sancti­fying the seventh day will not prove like Adams breeches of fig-leaves. I am well assured it will.

Answer.

To your answer I rejoyne, That this example of God, thus declared by himself, was in the nature of a Com­mand, as appeareth plainly by the paralel case. We see Gods creating Man male and female was a law justly in­ferred thence, obligatory enough to binde one man to marry but one woman at once, and to love her and live with her as appeareth, Gen. 2. 23, 24. compared with Marke 10. 6, 7. where there is concluded, from this ex­emplary [Page 3] action of God, a perpetuall binding dutie to all mankinde, without any expresse Commandement to that purpose.

But Gods blessing and hallowing the seventh day must needs enforce a Command, if we consider, that (as Christ saith) the Sabbath was made for man, that is saith Mr. Hilder sham for the great benefit and behoofe of man; so that man could not (no not in Innocency) have been without it.

And if this of the Sabbath were of no obligatory [...]orce, I pray you then, why doe you (as before) say that Adam, if he had continued in Innocency, should have kept it? Me thinks he should rather then have kept eve­ry day Sabbath then we now; and yet you say, It is like­ly he should have wrought sixe dayes and sanctified the seventh. Therefore as Christ saith in the case of separa­tion, it was not so from the beginning; So say I in this case of the Sabbath, that it was so from the beginning, on Gods part actually, and on mans part it both should and would have been so, had he continued upright.

And therefor [...] as well in this of the Sabbath, as in that of Marriage, ought it to be so now. Nor did mans fall abrogate the Sabbath (any more then it did the rest of the morall LawKnow that all the Commandements given in Innocency were morall, either by a naturall or posi­tive moralitie. as you would seeme to perswade in your first Chapter. For God used the self same authoritie to reinforce it when he gave the Law the second time, to wit, his own example and the Creation, both which he used in his first institution.

And therefore however we may think of the Sabbath in our corrupt reasonings, or by other mens examples, as the lewes might doe of Marriage from the example of the Patriarchs polygamy, or the toleration of Moses, y [...]t it was other wayes from the beginning, and let God be true though men be lyers.

As touching your marginall note, God (as I may so speake) had no reason to goe so farre of for an inforce­ment, [Page 4] as to Adam, (especially it having been so long in­termitted) when he might have it fresh and neerer hand; which he the rather chose to use, for that this iteration of the Law was more peculiar, and a greater Demonstration of his speciall love to them in way of Co­venant, and so more pressing and remarkable.

And yet doth he not utterly omit to make use of the first institution, for he useth the same Arguments to them, as to Adam, for the observing it, to wit, his own example, and the memory of the Creation: which shew­eth that it was to be understood as a Commandement laid then upon Adam, as well as now upon the Israelites. And by this rule you may say, The promise and Cove­nant of Grace was not given to Adam, because Gal. 3. 17. The Apostle draweth his Argument of refutation from that Covenant which God confirmed with Abraham 430 yeeres before the Law was given, and not from the Covenant made with Adam at the first. Touching the latter part of your marginall note I have answered it a little before, from Psal. 147. 19, 20.

It may well be said, (as a Rejoynder to your se­cond answer) that unlesse the sanctifying of the Sab­bath was instituted as an Ordinance for Adam to ob­serve, wherefore did God sanctifie it? for Christ saith, The Sabbath was made (that is appointed or crea­ted in the beginning) for man; And if God had a re­served and secret intent in this, why was it revealed (especially when the thing was done and past) seeing things revealed belong to us and to our children? And from your own reason, That the Sabbath was a Type of the Rest that remaines to the people of God, a man may justly argue the use of it to the Church, and consequently the necessitie and universalitie of it. For by the people of God is not meant any visible particular, but the whole Catholike Church.

And why God, who (instrict sense) rested no more on [Page 5] that day then on others, did yet so declare himself to have done, ad captum vulgi, and did also spin out the creation into six dayes, which else he could have done in a trice, if it were not for example sake, I leave to any indifferent judgement.

And as touching your second reason, why God should thus antedate the Sabbath, and have such a speciall eye to Israel, in the time of Innocency, when there was no par­tition wall built up, I see no reason, nor could the ancient Iewes ever dreame of such an interpretation, neither can you produce the like example in any thing else, from all the Scripture, to give some colour of probability to your conceit.

But some there are, who screw their wits further then you to foyle this Doctrine of the Sabbath, Ob. and for want of other objections stick not to say that those words, Gen. 2. ver. 3. were not at all delivered by God in Innocency, but are onely by Moses, speaking there of Gods rest, aptly in­troduced in way of Anticipation, declaring what God did then the better to give authority to the Sabbath, that was instituted in his time.

To which I answer three things as followeth:Ans.

1. That they may as well (and better) affirme the the foure and twentieth verse of that Chapter to be a de­duction drawn and inserted (orbiter) by Moses. Had these objectors lived in the time of the Iewes, before this Gos­pell of Math. 19. 5. was written, they would doubtlesse readily have sided for the maintenance of Moses his bill of divorce, and have invented tricks against the law of marriage mentioned, Gen. 2. vers. 24. as now they doe against the law of the Sabbath, mentioned vers. 3. In both which Moses doth alike couple the example and duty, whereas had it not been then preceptive, why should Moses pussle our faith, and transgresse the rules of method, not contenting himselfe with the relation of the history alone as it is penned, vers. 2. especially seeing he needed [Page 6] not have begged any credit to the duty of the Sabbath, by inserting it into that place: For God had sufficiently war­ranted it under his owne hand in the Tables of stone from mount Sinai. I say they have farre lesse reason to make this a Prolepsis of Moses his inserting, then that of 24. vers. of this second of Genesis, which rather seemes to be an inference of Moses his owne collecting from Adams for­mer words in the verse foregoing, then this a Prol [...]psis of his inserting from Gods resting on the seventh day; And the reason likewise is the same, for whereas it was done (saith D. Heylyn, pag. 10.) by Moses, because of the Iewes adversenesse to observe that day, and therefore they are minded of it by an intimation of the equity and reason of it, even in the entrance of Gods book, derived from Gods first resting on that day after all his works: So in like manner, they may alleadge this to be a minding of them of their duty in this, from the equity and reason of Gods making them male and female at first, because of the aversenesse of the Iewes to this conjugall law; seeing that Moses was faine to grant them a bill of divorce for the hardnesse of their hearts, besides the Polygamy that even the Patriarchs gave example of. But I know no man af­firme this later, and if any doe let them compare this 24. verse with Math. 19. 4, 5. and their mouthes will soon be stopped; and as little reason have they to affirme the former, but to grant this its being from the beginning, as well as that.

2. I answer, That if these words, Gen. 2. 3. were onely inserted of Moses, and were not institutive, but that Gods giving the law of the Sabbath to the Iewes, was the first institution of it, then these words of the fourth Commandement mentioned, Exod. 20. 11. would have run in the present tense, thus; therfore the Lord blesseth, or doth now blesse the seventh day, and halloweth it, and not in the preter tense, thus; therefore the Lord blessed the seventh day and hallowed it, for this hath a reference with [Page 7] it, implying it to have been done aforetime of God, as in­deed it was (like of those last words of the third verse of the second of Gen. (which God had created and made) imply a precedent Creation, in Innocency, not referring to its institution upon the fall of Mannah, as some object, for then there was no mention made of blessing and hal­lowing.

3. I answer, That this appeares plainly to be the mea­ning of the Church of England (though opposed by our late Doctors) which in the Bible allowed by Canon (Ca­non 80.) in the contents prefixed to the second chapter of Gen. calleth it peremptorily, the first Sabbath.

But Bish. White brings in this objection, p. 42. That the Law of the fourth Commandement was not agreeable to the state of Innocency. 1. For that in that happy estate, there was no toylesome labour, &c. Sweat of face entred into the world after the fall, and before the fall mans la­bour was matter of delight and pleasure. To which I an­swer:

1. That this is a good argument with those that grant him, rest to be either the onely or principall sanctification of the Sabbath.

2. That there was labour enjoyned Adam, which though it was not toylesome, yet (as we have elsewhere observed) it must necessarily take him off from immedi­ate contemplation and more solemne service and wor­ship, and that he was so farre capable of wearisomnesse, even in Innocency, as to have found other manner refresh­ment in divine and spirituall things, then in worldly af­faires.

3. No more was Gods labour in the worke of creation toilesome, but delightfull, and yet he saith of himselfe that he rested the seventh day.

Secondly he objects, That Adam being a free man, might have intermitted labour at any time, when himself pleased. To which I answer:

[Page 8]1. So no doubt might God in his worke of Creation.

2. And so Adam by voluntary worship in keeping every day Sabbath and not this, should have lost an excel­lent and significant ordinance (as I have proved the Sab­bath to be.) Iust as they would now have an every day Sabbath under the Gospell, to blow up the weekly. Sab­bath; As if because that under the Gospell God hath pro­mised that he will teach us,Or as if because it is promised that now under the time of the Gospell, wee shall have the Law written in our hearts in opposition to it, as it was graven in stone, and so given to the Isra [...]lites. We should turne Anti­nomians, and not al­low the Law in a sutable sense to our times (viz. as a rule of obedience, and a repaire to decayed nature) to belong to us. Ier. 31. 31, 34. therefore we might cast away the use of meanes, whereby we are to get knowledge. But as the best way to be taught of God is to use the meanes whereby he workes knowledge: So the best way to keep this every day Sabbath, is to sanctifie the Sabbath of the Lord, that so the Lord of the Sabbath may sanctifie us as he hath promised: And those that most truly and conscionably desire to keep an every day Sab­bath to the Lord, finde most need of a Sabbath, being built up sensibly thereby the better to performe that duty.

Thirdly, he objecteth, There was no necessity of ha­ving one set day in every weeke for performing religious offices, for man lived in Paradise in a fruition of God. To which I answer:

1. By the same rule seconded by their position. The Church need appoint no Holy-dayes now under the Gos­pell Which theile hard­ly yeeld to. for say they, we are to keep every day Sabbath or Holy-day to the Lord, which surely we cannot doe with­out spirituall fruition of God.

2. That though Gods children enjoy now a constant fruition of God as a friend, yet is this fruition much main­tained, increased, and inlarged by their sanctifying the Sab­bath: And so doubtlesse should Adams, it representing to him and us the perfection of our happinesse and his.

Fourthly, he objecteth, All Gods creatures were as li­ving books to preach to man the majesty and bounty of the Creator.

To which I answer. We account it not a needlesse acti­on in God when he had made his creatures which we [Page 9] knew and saw well enough, so solemnly notwithstand­ing to overlook them, as is recorded, Gen. 1. 31. Neither is there any cause why Adam should not have a solemne day of contemplation and service appointed him, because of the time and meanes he had of serving God on other dayes: seeing the Sabbath intimated most doctrinally, what we ought to God, to wit, our whole selves, and what service we should doe him in heaven, to wit, abso­lute without any interruption, the better to enamourus of our change.

To conclude, it is evident that the Sabbath was a Law in Commandment in time of Innocency, else it could not have suffered losse and detriment by Adams fall, which it did, as is evident in that. First, It was one of the Lawes written in Moses his first Tables, which were broken and spoyled to signifie as much. Secondly, Be­cause there were renewed in the second Tables the very self same lawes which were at first, whereof the Sab­bath was one. For the Sabbath waites as an handmaid on the morall Law, in which respect chiefly it was made for man (that is, given to mankinde) to be helpfull to his obedience: So that seeing, as a Law, the Sabbath is con­comitant with the Law in the second exhibition of it, consequently it was so at first, especially seeing it is re­ported, that God writ the same things in the second Ta­bles as he did in the first; which signifyeth Gods twice giving the Law once in Adam which was defaced, and so the Sabbath as well as the rest, which he repaired as before.

And again work was commanded in Innocencie and consequently the Sabbath.

It is true, that an Holy land and an Holy day suite well together, but an Holy Church and an Holy Sabbath suite better, and you shall finde this Holy Church keeping the Sabbath in the wildernesse, before they came into the Holy land, and more strictly too.

[Page 10]When God (lastly) asketh me that reason why I thought the Sabbath to be a Commandement. I think it good to answer him, [...] his own example, especially see­ing he grounded an expresse Commandement thereupon afterwards. And if God like not this answer, he will then doe by it as he did by Adams breeches, give me a better. In the meane time I will chuse rather to erre by obeying then [...]y disobeying, and I am sure I shall give a better account of the one, then you shall of the other.

Broad.

2. In the state of Innocencie.

Answ. It hath been I suppose the generall opinion un­till of late yeers, that Adam fell the day before, and other­wise his first childe had not been conceived in sin, again the Devill doubtlesse would be [...]empting as soone as might be, his malice was so great that every houre seem­ed a twelve moneth before he could become a murderer, and the sooner he set upon our first parents after they were created, the likelier he was to prevaile the more easily, should he have ta [...]yed a day or two, the woman might have learned by experience that the Creatures could not speake of themselves, which had Eve known, she would rather have been affrighted then deceived. Further who (and without curiositie) would not be desi­rous to heare, how Adam and Ev [...] carryed themselves in that first Sabbath. Had not this bin a notable pattern to all his posteritie? In mans reason Adam should be ill dealt withall, to have his evill deeds and not his good deeds committed to History.

Answer.

Let us herein be wise with Sobrietie, and be content to receive it as God by Moses delivereth it, to wit, what [Page 11] was done before the fall, as done in Innocency, whereof the Sabbath was a part, which silenceth your conjectu­rall reasons. And therefore I will forbeare to refute con­jectures with conjectures, and satisfie my self with di­vine authoritie.

Though I could tell you that it is very unlikely, that, seeing in Gods dayes works in the first Chap. of Genesis, (who did yet but command and it was done) so few things are recorded to be done on every day, That Adam besides the businesse of his temptation, fall and punish­ment (together with the circumstances belonging to them which you may read in the third of Genesis: took up no small time) could receive his blessing, Gen. 1. 28. and his regiment and libertie, 29, 30. and his putting in­to Paradise, Chap. 2. 8. and his law of Commandement, 16, 17. and could give names to all Cattle, fowles of the heaven and beasts of the field 19, and all on the day of his own Creation, especially if we consider how much time God spent of it (proportionably to the work that Moses allotteth to other dayes) in creating the living things of the earth according to their kinde, as Cattle, creeping things, and beasts, and Adam himself, and casting him in­to a sleep and creating Eve out of him, and the view he took after of all that he had made.

Nor is it so considerable concerning. Adam and [...] keeping the first Sabbath, seeing they kept none, for God (as your self observed) made known his example at the evening of his seventh day, and Adam fell before the the seventh day cam [...] about.

If you aske [...] he fell,Obiect. if [...] [...]

[...] Answ. but the third, which was the first day of the weeke follow [...]ng, and [...] which leads me thus to thinke [...] [Page 12] Adam in opposition to the firstAnd is opposed to his [...]all even in his resurrection it selfe in the 1 C [...]r. 15. 21. Since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. I rose on that day [...] I thinke Adam fell, And that he fell not on the first of his Creation, which was Gods sixth and last day, appeareth not only by the Sabbaths institution in time of innocen­cie as aforesaid, but also by the last verse of the first Chap­ter of [...] Where after God had finished the works of that Day, he viewed every thing that he had made, and seeing all was Good; presently there followeth upon that, as upon the other dayes of Creation (when they were finished) this Conclusion, And the Evening and the Morning were the sixth day. Besides that it is likely God could not be said to be refreshed on the seventh day, and Adam new fallen, for whom all things were made and by whom all things were accursed, which would have been a displeasure to God, and would have taken of his refreshment.

Broad.
3. And therefore it is Morall.

Answ. Suppose that it had been commanded,Consider that there need not any Morall Commandement be given to Adam in the state of Innocency. and in the state of Innocency, yet would it not follow that this Commandement was Morall, for Adam received a Com­mandement concerning the Tree of Knowledge of good and evill, and yet was not that a Morall Commandment.

Answer.

To this I answer; That all the Commandements which were given in Inno [...]encie were Morall, they were both common to all mankinde and perpetuall to all ages, The Jewish [...]awes were neither com­mon nor perpetuall but expressely co [...] ­trary. and so was that of the forbidden Tree (Though Mr. D [...]w, pag. 15. saith he, supposeth no man will affirme it, And therefore did Eve sinne a particular sinne in eating of it,The woman was first in the trans­gression. and so should conceive whosoever of Adams po­ste [...]itie had eaten thereof, though none but Adam could [Page 13] sin the publicke and Epidemicall sinne, because the Cove­nant was made with him, in the day that he should eat thereof, &c.) but with this difference, that some of them in Gods intention were proper to that state, and were not to be renewed by Christ after the fall, of which sort this of the forbidden Tree was one, and therefore was Adam thrust out upon his fall by God, from having to doe with any thing that is peculiar to that state.

But other Commandements there were, which were intended to remaine as common to man falling or stan­ding, by meanes of Christ, and of this sort was the created Law of nature in the mind of man, the ordinance of mar­riage, and then why not this of the Sabbath? For this is most true, that whatsoever God giveth as a law after­wards, we have no reason to thinke that to be utterly abolished by the fall, for from all such things we are kept by the fiery sword, never to have commerce with them againe: For thus we are utterly deprived of something, which in Innocency signified Heaven, to shew us our de­sert and Gods justice; And something againe is renewed unto us, which likewise did and doth signifie Heaven, to manifest our hope and his mercy through Christ. So that then if the Sabbath be not abolished by the fall, neither is it abrogated as a Type, because not yet fulfilled: For the Rest which it did signifie doth yet remaine to the people of God.

To your marginall note, I answer, That there was no need of a Morall Commandement to be given, so farre as nature was capable; but if Gods will extended further as it did in this particular of the Sabbath, as I have for­merly shewne, then it was necessary it should be revea­led as positively Morall, and part of natures discipline.

Broad.
4. To sanctifie one day in a weeke.

[Page 14] Answ. Nay rather to sanctifie the seventh day.Note. God commanded Adam to sanctifie the seventh day,Arguments drawne from Gen. 2. & Exod. 20. prove it morall & perpetuall to sanctifie the seventh day, wherein God crea­ted, and which the Iewes sanctified, or nothing. ergo it is morall to sanctifie the seventh day, is a neerer inference then thus, ergo it is Morall, to sanctifie one day of the seven or weeke. And now if any deny the neerer inference, the further of may better be denyed. Why (I marvell) shall the sanctifying of one day of the weeke be rather Morall then of the seventh day? What reason can they alleadge of the least moment? As for Text of Scripture they can produce none.

Answer.

For your full answer to this, I refer you backe to your first chapter,Were the Sabbath morall, naturall, then the Iewes Sabbath were to be kept of us Christians, but be­ing morall positive, it is alterable to the will of the law-giver. For nature being one without change to all of necessity prescribeth no bin­ding rule to any in particular, but to all in generall, No man being able to say, This natures L [...]w commands me to do, and yet b [...]nds not a­nother [...]o do the like. onely with this summary addition.

That the Sabbath being the Churches perpetuall Type, it is to vary according to the constitution of the Church, even as the shadow of a man doth according to the dispo­sition of his body, or the Sunnes shining, The substance of the Commandement, and the signification of the Sab­bath being still kept inviolate, though circumstances alter in this as in other Commandements, as hath already been observed in the first Chapter. And so it is with us Christi­ans, in whose time, since the consummation of our re­demption by Christs resurrection, the last day hath been changed into the first of the weeke, only to take in better loading, and to fignifie how that by Christ we are ass [...]red­ly possessed of that heavenly Rest, even now in this life before our works be ended: For whereas formerly by the Covenant of the Law we were to doe this and live, now we must first live, and then doe.

Broad.
ARGVMENT. 2.

THe Commandement of the Sabbath is placed among the Morall precepts in the Deoalogue, therefore it is Morall like unto them. Ans. Then must it be wholly Mo­rall, and then must the Iewes Sabbath be kept of us Christi­ans. Againe, the Commandement of the Sabbath is placed among the Ceremoniall pr [...]cepts, Levit. 23. therefore (be like) it is ceremoniall like unto them also.

Answer.

You doe wrongfully conclude us necessarily to keep the Iewes individuall seventh day, from the morality of the Sabbath▪ For though they were bound to observe that order, because they were under the Covenant of works, like as Adam was when it was given him in Innocency, (in which time the work of Creation was the thing most worthy commemoration) yet notwithstanding we being freed f [...]om the one, are likewise freed from the other▪ for as the [...]ast day of seven was significative to them, so is the first to us. So that our new Creation being finished the first day of the weeke, it hath priviledged us to sanctifie a new seventh day, though an old Sabbath: For in this case alteration is no dissolution, no more then to adjourne the Parliament to another time is to dissolve it, especially con­sidering the Sabbath is not naturally but positively morall. And whereas you say, That the Sabbath is found in Scrip­ture among the ceremoniall precepts, and specially in that Levit. 23. (where yet it is spoken of, Paramount, although because of Analogy it is reckoned amongst them.) I an­swer, That I deny not but there may be found in Scrip­ture a mixture of morall and ceremoniall Lawes, without [Page 16] danger of confounding their natures after they had been once formally instituted. But that the ten Commande­ments which God himselfe both spake and gave, after such an extraordinary manner, with such majesty and ter­rour, and in regard of the place for all the world to take notice of it, and which he calleth his Covenant, and him­selfe in a speciall manner recordeth them to be ten in number, Deut. 4. and with his owne finger wrote them twice in Tables of stone (signifying as well their lasting nature as any other thing) and commanded them to be put into the Holy of Holies in the Arke under the Mercy­seate, and which were all of them institute in Innocen­cy, either by created Nature or immediate Revelation, whereas all other Ordinances were delivered by the me­diation of Moses a mortall man, but that immediately by the immortall God, as witnesseth Iosephus in his Iewish antiquities: Moses (saith hee) received the ten Commandements from the high and unexcessible moun­taine Sinai, with thundrings, but other Lawes he received in the Iewish Tabernacle, ascending no more the moun­taine. Now that one of these should be temporary, and the other nine perpetuall, is doubtlesse in any reasonable mans opinion very ill likely. I am sure Bishop Andrewes in his Chatechisticall doctrine saith, That it were not wise to set a Ceremony (he meanes a Iewish abrogative Ceremony) in the midst of morall precepts. And one saith, Certainly God did intend something extraordinary by this great odds of conveyance, and what more proper then that these were mortall and dependant upon those, those im­mortall and independant, especially if we weigh the man­ner how Moses concludeth his repetition of the ten Commandements with these words. God added no more but wrote them in Tables of stone, to shew that these words be valued of a greater rate, then those which should be added by the hands of Moses, which were ei­ther to be explanations of these, or shadowes of Christ: [Page 17] And as God did not adde, so man may not diminish from these words, and so consequently there is no reason without sacriledge to suspect the morality of the fourth Commandement.

Broad.

One heretofore required me to shew a satisfactory rea­son, why if the fourth Commandement be of no higher rancke then the other temporary constitutions of Moses, Touching Gods gra­cing the fourth com­mandement, as much as the nine morall. God should grace it as much as the nine morall. Ans. I dare not take upon me to yeeld a reason of Gods doings: And I would gladly know what reason themselves can yeeld, wherefore God should use so many words tou­ching abstinence from worke on the Sabbath, and not one word of comming together to pray, and to heare the word preached. Yet this I say, In mans judgement it is great reason, that one Ceremoniall Commandement at the least should be placed amongst many morall precepts, in the Tables of the Covenant; seeing God made a Co­venant with the Israelites, after the tenour of both sorts indifferently, as is to be seen, Exod. 24. There we read how that Moses having written in a book sundry Lawes, as well Ceremoniall as other, the booke is called the booke of the Covenant, vers. 7, 8. Behold the blood of the Covenant, which the Lord hath made with you concer­ning all these words. See also Chapter 34. from the 10. verse to the end of the 27.

Answer.

You say you da [...]e not give a reason of all Gods doings, I could with you were as modest in not reasoning against God, as you are in reasoning for him.

As concerning your question, why God speaketh so much of rest, and so little of holy duties. Answ. You are [Page 18] sufficiently answered out of the Commandement it self. For those words (Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath day) are a most plenary expression of the sancti­fying of that day, with the duties of holinesse, which being thus premised, then followeth after in the Com­mandement the urging of Rest or abstinence from work, both as a meanes to further the Sabbaths sanctification (like as in the Sabbath of Atonement, Levit. 23. 27, 28.) and as a significant part thereof, conjunctively considered and spirituallyTh [...]ugh by reason of the mino [...]tyof the Iewish pedagogy (as aforesaid) there was then (interpretat [...]vely by God, [...] ab [...]tract holinesse of this Rest, being s [...] ­cowish and signifi­cative, as of other Types. improved. For as fasting joyned with prayer is a necessary medium of Gods extraordinary wor­ship by removing impediments, and also a significant me­dium concerning our extraordinary humiliation: So is the Sabbaths Rest both a medium and a significant me­dium to Gods extraordinary worship and our extraordi­nary happinesse: And it is not rare to finde fasting urged in Scripture without expresse mention of Prayer, as in Ester 4. 16. Where when Ester gave Mordecai in charge to assemble the Iewes, and to fast for her three daies and nights, there is no mention of prayer; And yet no man can deny but it is most necessarily understood and imply­ed, though it be not expressed. So it is.

As for your Arguments drawn from the Covenant, which because it consisted both of Morall and Ceremo­niall Lawes, therefore (say you) it is reason that one Ce­remoniall Commandement at least should be placed a­mong many Morall precepts in the Tables of the Co­venant. Answ. Nay rather it is good reason that both the Lawes should be written together in the Booke of the Covenant, as indeed they were, in regard that the two Tables were to be laid up in the Holy of Holies, and so not to be come by, but the copies of that Book were of continuall use. And again seeing the Covenant of the Iews consisted of both, it is the more reason that they should be carefully distinguished (as likewise they were) then confounded, seeing you cannot deny but [Page 19] that which was Morall was to appertain to after ages, and if they had then been undistinctly mixed, how could after ages tell which was which; But this was prevent­ed through Gods good providence, by their disjunction and distinct exhibition at the first.

Broad.

If this will not satisfie him or any other (then as Christ answered some Questioners, Matt. 21.) let them first tell me wherefore God should appoint a greater punishment for the breach of a Ceremoniall Law, then he did of some Morall▪ And I will afterwards tell them wherefore he should grace a Ceremoniall Commandement as much as a Morall.

Answer.

There may be very good reason for it, for though some­times God doth inflict the most grievous temporall pu­nishment upon the greater sins, to aggravate the danger of committing them; So other some times he ordaineth a great punishment for a lesser sinne, least according to our corrupt judgements we should thinke it small, and if it were not for the punishment threatned, be the carelesser to observe it. And secondly to shew that it is not so much the Nature of the thing commanded, as the Will of the Commander that gives weight to the Command­ment. And thirdly, A man may commit some morall offence with lesse guilt, then the Iewes might a Cere­moniall: As if a man should steale a loafe of bread for pure need, he was not so great a sinner, as he that through contempt or wilfull neglect omitted, or carelesly per­formed the Sacrifices of the Law or other Ceremonies.

Broad.

Againe,Touching Gods gra­cing of the fourth [...]ommandement above the other tem­porary Constituti­ons. He would needs know a reason why God should grace the Commandement of the Sabbath above the other temporary Constitutions. Answ. The reason happily was because the Sabbath served more then any of the other (I thinke I may say then all the other) Ce­remonies, to the furtherance of the Morall Law. True, that on the first and last dayes of the Passeover the Israe­lites were to have holy Convocations as well as on the Sabbath, but this Feast as other came but once in the yeere, whereas the Sabbath was once in the weeke.

Answer.

If the Commandement of the Sabbath had had its be­ginning with the rest of the Ceremonies, you might have had some colour for what you say; But seeing it was first set on foot in Innocency, and afterwards revived as an equall among, and contemporary with the Morall Lawes, why now it should only be preferred to be the Master of the Iewish abrogative Ceremonies, and so Moses his tale of ten Commandements, brought by us into the number of nine. I can see small reason to perswade. And I know no use the Sabbath was of then for advantage to the Mo­rall LawIn conf [...]ssing the Sabbath to be of such furtherance to the Morall law, he must needs imply (a­gainst himself) that the Sabbaths Rest was a significant me­dium to the sanctifi­cation of the Sab­bath, and not the sanctification it self properly and only., but it is of the same use to us now, (especially if it should have been usefull (as it should) in Innocency.) So that if the Sabbath faile, which is the sinewes of Reli­gion, then farewell the power of Godlinesse. For doubt­lesse it was the very reason why it was given of God as a perpetuall and absolute necessary Concomitant and Ap­pendix to the Morall Law, superadded by him in the time of [...]nnocency to the Law of Nature, as I have said before, that it might be a perpetuall help thereto; and therefore as it begun with it, so it shall end with it.

Broad.

Not to stand longer hereupon. Consider that the Sab­bath was instituted for divers weighty purposes as no other Ceremony the like, whereof before Chapter 4. Se­condly, that it concerned all the Israelites generally, both Priests and People, and also very often as few Ceremonies the like. Thirdly, that as soone as it was instituted, it was prophaned, the like whereof I doe not finde did befall any other Ceremony. And if this last consideration did mini­ster sufficient occasion unto God to grace the Sabbath above other Ceremonies (seeing the people had already disgraced it more then the other, and thereby bewraied what they were likely to doe in time to come) how much more the two former considerations concurring herewithall? This much to give him and others satisfacti­on if it may be.

Answer.

You say very true of the Sabbaths super-excellency above all other Ceremonies, and let me adde one which is, That as it was before them in dignity & time, so shall it be after them to the end of the world. But for your third reason of the prophanation of the Sabbath, as soone as it was instituted, which you say you finde not to befall any other. I answer, that you need not goe farre to seeke one, for their gathering Mannah was prophaned with cove­tous gathering and disobedient keeping of it, before the Sabbath: And you may as well say, that therefore it was commanded to be put into a golden pot, and laid up be­fore the Testimony, as that because the Sabbath was pro­phaned, therefore it was put among the ten Commande­ments: Besides, offering of incense was prophaned in the very first exercise of Aarons Priesthood by strange fire, Levit. 10. 1.

Broad.

Now out of that hath been here said, an answer may be taken also unto these words of the Prophet Isaiah, 58. 13. 14. No more can be gathered from that Text then from the placing of the fourth Commandement among the morall Commandements in the Decalogue, which is that God much respected the keeping of the Sabbath. And this I acknowledge, but this he did likewise, the pay­ing of tythes and offerings, Mal. 3. and doth the partaking of the Lords Supper, 1 Cor. 11.

Broad.
ARGVMENT 3.

SOme of late would fetch an argument from Christs words, Matth. 5. 18. where by the Law they understand the Decalogue only.

Answ. Then shall the word Law be taken in one sense, vers. 17. and in another, vers. 18. for by the Law in the 17. vers. is meantThe five bookes of Moses, Gen. Exod. Le­vit, &c. the whole Law of Moses, as like­wise, Matth. 11. 13.

It is altogether improbable, that where there is a di­stribution of Scripture into parts, by the Law should be signified the Decalogue only. Againe, when Christ com­eth to instance afterward in many particulars of the law, some of the instances are taken out of other places as vers. 33. 38. 43. If it be said, these particulars may be referred to some Commandements in the Decalogue. Answ. So it would be said if Christ had instanced in any Ceremo­niall precept throughout the whole Law. The instances (as also that which is said vers. 16. and 20.) doe shew that Christ spake of the Law Morall, or that which is to [Page 23] be kept of Christians, but seeing the instances are taken out of divers places, it cannot be gathered by them (nor by ought else here) what is morall in Moses law,Five books. and to be kept of Christians, and what not, were it that by the law the Decalogue is only meant, yet seeing no more is said of the law, vers. 18. then is said of the Law and Prophets,If every tittle of the Decalogue (in their meaning) be perpe­tuall, then are we to blame that we keepe not the Iewes Sab­bath, and forbeare all worke therein. This text might bet­ter have been urged by the Sabbatarianis heretofore. vers. 17. the meaning cannot be that every thing that is enjoyned in the Decalogue is perpetuall, for then it should follow that every thing enjoyned like­wise in the Prophets is perpetuall and to be observed of Christians, Now that no more is said of the law, vers. 18. then is said of the Prophets, vers. 17. is manifest, for there Christ saith that he came to fulfill the Prophets, which is as much as one tittle of the Prophets shall not passe till all be fulfilled. That Christ spake thus as it were, vers. 17. The Law and the Prophets shall be fulfilled in part, and thus vers. 18. The Law shall be fulfilled wholly is not to be imagined. It would aske a long discourse to shew Christs meaning. Let it then suffice to have shewn that this Text maketh nothing for the perpetuitie of the fourth Commandement.

Answer.

It is true that these 17. and 18. verses of the 5th. Matt. doe intend as well the Ceremoniall as the Morall Lawes, for Christ going about to bring himself into liking with the Iewes by removing the impediment of their Law, shewing that he made for and not against it. First con­cerning the Ceremoniall, whereas they thought Christ had meant to have made those Laws to be no laws, but to have brought in a new way of Righteousnesse and Salva­tion into the world, he telleth them, his coming was not to disparage or annihilate those lawes, but rather to ratifie them by fulfilling them, not so much to take away their being as to give them a better being.

[Page 24]Secondly, concerning the morall Law, whereas they trusted to it to their own destruction, and misinterpreted it in favour to their carnall and corrupt mindes, he came to shew them the true sence and meaning of God in it, to wit, that they were not to be saved by their own but by his fulfilling it, and that God will as well be served in spirit as in letter: So that he was so farre from abolishing this Morall law, as that he did more enforce it, and gave life to that which they had made to be but a dead letter. And thus this text maketh for the perpetuitie of the fourth Commandement, for that Christ fulfilled both the Lawes, the one by adding the substance to the sha­dow, the other by delivering men from the curse of it through grace, and confirming it (by a new exposition New I meane to them and a manifestation of the spirituall part of it) as a rule of manners for all ages; which is evinced out of the 19. verse, where notwithstanding he had formerly said how that he had fulfilled the Law, yet doth he there presse them to obedience, which must needs be of the Morall Law.

Moreover as Christ meant not to destroy the law, so neither did he meane to confound the natures of lawes perpetuall and temporary (which was a way to destroy them) and consequently not to annihilate the use and being of any thing, save only such as did help to build the partition wall, and were ordained for the state and time of the Iewish Church before Christs coming: Much lesse the Sabbath, which sprung out of Paradise, before any promise of Christ was made, and which now in our State or Church is every whit as usefull and proper as ever, serving to cherish the Morall law, and to help us to heavenly mindednesse by its signification.

Nor doe we say as you would force upon us in your Margine, that every tittle in the Decalogue is perpetuall, to wit stri [...]tly (for that the Law like other Scripture be­ing occasionally written, in the strictnesse of the Letter, [Page 25] did partake of those times, and of the state of the Church to which it was then given) but Evangelically, and in a sutable sence to our times it is perpetuall.

Broad.
ARGVMENT 4.

A Fourth Argument is taken from Christs words, Mat. 24. 20. but this Text being rightly understood, maketh nothing for them neither.

An exposition of Christs words,Math. 24. 20. Pray that

Your, not of the Apostles only, who were all well nigh dead, or departed out of Iury before that time, not of the Disciples alone, who before the siege departed to Pella, but of the Citizens of Ierusalem, and generally of all the Iewes.

Flight, that is calamity from which I councell you to fly, there being no hope by any meanes to avoid the same. He tearmeth it flight, to note the certainty of their over­throw.

Be not in the Winter, neither

On a Sabbath, [...] not [...] that is, a feast, or festivall Sabbath, and I am induced thus to expound this Text.

1.Did Christ mean the weekly Sabbath, yet this Text would stand them in no stead. See M. [...]. Tract pag. 73. Because Christ seemeth not to meane any one par­ticular day, for he speaketh of daies, as before vers. 19. and again after ve. 22. except those daies should be shortened.

2. Because he counselleth them to fly as soone as they see Ierusalem besieged, Luk. 21. 20.

And indeed it had been a great folly (knowing that the City should be destroied) not to shift for them­selves whilest they might, but to tarry untill the last brunt.

3. Because the calamity befalling at the Passeover, be­came [Page 26] came farre more grievous then other wayes it would have been, for a great number repairing to Ierusalem at that feast were shut in by the Romanes, and thus Tot [...] gente velut in carcerem conclusa (as Iosephus speaketh) it came to passe. 1.B [...]ll. lud. lib. 1. cap. 1. That the aire was infected and many died of the pestilence. 2. That they sooner wanted food, and many miscarryed through famine. 3. That there was greater dissention among them (for quot homines tot sen­tenti [...]e) and many perished by this meanes.

[...]

Some of late restraining Christs words to the Disci­ples, onely hold the reason of his counsell to be, that so they might not be hindred from the sanctifying of one Sabbath, which say they would be grievous to the soule, as to [...] in winter would be grievous to the body.

Answ. As though they might not be as well hindered from sanctifying the Sabbath, in defending themselves against the Romans▪ as in flying from them, and againe in hiding themselves after their flight, being scattered here and there as the manner is of such.

If the Disciples following Christs counsell, Luke 21. would depart out of Ierusalem as soone as it began to be besieged, it is likely that they might then depart in what day almost best pleased themselves, or rather indeed in what night they would, which is the time wherein men usually seeke to depart out of Cities besieged. If they would tar [...]y untill the city were ready to be taken (which in them had been extreame folly) there is no likelihood that they could fly and escape at all. But not to stand lon­ger hereupon, the verses both before and after doe suffi­ciently convince, that Christ gave this counsell for the better avoiding of bodily calamities, and the event hath manifested the same.

Answer.

I will not much dispute what Sabbath was meant by Christ in these words of his, Math. 24. 20. For admitting the conclusion, how that Christ gave this counsell for the better avoiding of bodily harmes and calamities, and the increase of those troubles, which (at the least) was such as was not from the beginning of the world to this time, nor ever should be. For that they were to typifie the cala­mities that should befall the wicked and unbeleevers at the last day; I confesse this exposition of yours to be in my conceit very genuine, and yet it may for that very reason intend the weekly Sabbaths as well as any of their festi­vals: For as by the one the Iewes should be multiplyed at Ierusalem at that time, and so should their misery be increased: So againe by the other might their consciences be so straitned in regard of their superstitious resting, which they used upon the Sabbath, as that they would rather endure to dye then fly, especially considering the Religion they put in that tradition of a Sabbath daies journey, which was but two miles as they accounted it; So that had they fled [...]ut two miles further then their stint, they would have thought themselves more to have violated the Sabbath, then if they had spent the whole day in contentions and seditions within the City: For of such force is zeale, when it is not according to knowledge of Scripture, as that, through our corrupt nature, it bindeth the conscience more straight then any command of God rightly understood; As we may see by those souldiers, who when they were besieged, rather then they would drinke of the well into which a dog was throwne, they would starve or render the CityTurkish History.. And so doubtlesse would many of the Iewes chuse to dye before they would fly further then their superstitious tradition gave them leave.

[Page 28]But as I have given truth its due in commending your exposition, so give me leave to discover the fallacy of your marginall sophisme, by comparing [...] with [...] already spoken of in the 2 Col. 16. There because it maketh for your advantage, you will have it to be meant the weekly Sabbath, and yet the Article is not prefixed, and in this place you will have it to be meant the lewish Sabbath, because the Article [...] is not prefixed. This is scarce good dealing. But I pray you let one and the same defect beget one and the same sense in both places, and so let them both passe alike, for the Iewish extraordinary fe­stivals, and so your Argument shall not only prevaile with us, but evince the truth.

Broad.
CHAP. VIII.

VVHat would follow were the fourth Comman­dement morall or perpetuall.Such as give a diffe­rent sense of the same Law at sundry times make it like a nose of waxe.

Were the fourth Commandement morall or perpetu­all, it would follow that we Christians ought to keep the Iewes Sabbath, for the meaning of this Commandement must needs be the same as heretofore it was: A Law can­not say one thing to day and another to morrow, though a Law-giver may: And now the meaning of the fourth Commandement heretofore wasGod sanctified the seventh day, Gen. 2. not one day of seven, or the like, the fourth commandement en­joyned the same. that the seventh day wherein God rested should be sanctified, other meaning this Commandement could have none, as the words thereof doe manifestly declare, they import this and no­thing else.

Such I know among us, as urge the perpetuity of the fourth Commandement, will have it bind now to sancti­fie the Lords-day, but they cannot agree among them­selves show this strange matter [...]hould come to passe, I say [Page 29] this strange matter, for there being an old statute for fa­sting on the Friday, if it should be said that hence forward we should be bound thereby to fast upon Saturday, would it not seeme wonderfull strange? A strange matter it is that the fourth Commandement should bind to sanctifie the Lords-day, and how it may come to passe many strange opinions there are, which I thinke needfull here briefly to examine

1. Opinion.

There are who teaching that the fourth Commande­ment bindeth to sanctifie the Lords-day, will have it thus to come about. They say that those words in the begin­ning, Remember to sanctifie the Sabbath, are for substance the whole fourth Commandement, that which followeth being only an explication and a reason, and here they take the word Sabbath in a generall sense, so that this (with them) is a more generall Commandement, then if God had said, Remember to sanctifie the seventh day.

Ans. I acknowledge that these words are for sub­stance the whole fourth Commandement as you teach, but whereas you put a difference betweene Sabbath and seventh day,Consider further. 1. That once onely be­fore, mention is made of the Sabbath, and that Sabbath was the seventh day. 2. Remember saith God to sanctifie the Sabbath, and what Sabbath should they remember to sancti­fie but that before mentioned. 3. That the word Sabbath is not to be taken a­gaine in such a gene­rall sence throughout t [...]e Scripture. this I cannot approve of for these reasons.

1. Because then the word Sabbath should be taken in one sense in the beginning of the Commandement, and in another towards the end; for towards the end by Sabbath must needs be meant the seventh day onely. And rested the seventh day, wherfore the Lord blessed the Sabbath and sanctified it. Here Gods resting on the seventh day is the reason why he sanctified the Sabbath, and can it be a reason of sanctifying another day besides the seventh day, especially seeing he laboured on all the other. Suppose that we had the like speech in the new Testament, as thus. He rose again on the first day, wherefore he blessed the day of resurrection, and sanctified it; Who would not take the day of resurrection here for the first day on­ly?

[Page 30] Reas. 2. By this your Doctrine the fourth Com­mandement should be of larger extent, then that Com­mandement in the beginning (suppose it were a Com­mandement as you would have it) for there it is said, God blessed the seventh day not the Sabbath.

Answer.

In stead of answer to this in this place, I referre you to a review of your first Chapter and mine, where the selfe same point is largely discoursed, Onely a word or two more.

1. Touching your consequence of the unchangeable­nesse of the Iews day into ours, if the fourth Comman­dement be admitted morall. See for this Eat [...]nus de Sab­bato, pag. 40. de Moralitate Sabbathi. Neque enim (saith he) mut [...]bile cum ceremoni [...]li bene est coniunctum, aut cum eo convertendum, Quamvis enim omne ceremoniale sit mutabile, non é contra tamen, Multa enim sunt positiva [...]tabilia quae non sunt Ceremoni [...], huius generis sunt leges Iudiciales, Exod. 21. &c. Sic etiam totu [...] Decalogu [...], aliquo modo mutabilis fuit, ut disertè Apostolus expri [...]it, in 3 ad Gal. 13. Christus redemit nos ab execratione legis, & cap. 4. 30. Ejice ancillam & filium eius, qu [...] ancilla (ut vers. 25. apparet) mo [...] Sicai erat, qui est in Arabia. Hoc est lex; quae ibi pronunciata fuit. Hisce liquet, quod lex & male [...]ctio eius, in Christo sunt abrogata, quatenus aliquo modo erant murabilia, totam autem legem ceremonialem esse, nemo est qui dixerit.

2. And touching your instance or similitude of fasting Friday by Statute. I answer, That indeed it were strange to turn Friday into Saturday by vertue of the letter of the same law, Rebus sic stantibus, but put case we had some extraordinary Deliverance fell out on Friday (as the Gun-powder Treason) and were to keepe it weekely as we are the Sabbath, then if either the Parliament sedente cu­ria, [Page 31] should alter the law, or the King by a non obstante should for this cause publish an alteration, or by his and the Courts example should change the day from Friday to Saturday, in memory of that Deliverance, Friday be­ing made thereby rather a Day of Feasting then Fasting, I thinke no wise man will say that the law was repealed or suffered any detriment by this: So &c.

Christ came not to give new lawes but to renew the old upon a new condition, and in this sense was it a new Commandement, to love one another. And thus is the Lords Day a renewed Sabbath, not given as a new law, but altered by example. For ours is a new Sabbath, as the Covenant is said to be a new Covenant, which is only in exhibition, not in substance: For there was nothing but by the coming of Christ it was ground under one of these two wheeles, either it suffered abrogation or qualifica­tion: But the Sabbath suffered not abrogation: There­fore Qualification: And which was proper to Christ, who though he came not to give new lawes, yet he was to qualifie and renew the old upon Evangelicall tearmes.

Broad. 2. Opinion.

By this first opinion, though the fourth Commande­ment bindeth to keep the Sabbath yet not the seventh Day, but others teach that it bindeth to keep the seventh day as heretofore it did. Those have then to prove that the Lords-day is the seventh or last of the weeke. Now how can they prove this?They deale wisely herein, for they have not the least shew of proofe. Nay I know not any that hath so much as gone about it hitherto, and to save their pains hereafter, I would have them know that the Scriptures, Fathers, and Reason are against them in this matter.

1. The Scriptures are against them, for they terme the Lords-day the first of the weeke in two places: Act. 20. 2 Cor. 16. It is imagined that Christ before his Ascen­sion [Page 32] or the Apostles, presently after commanded to keep the Lords-day for Sabbath, which if Christ or his Apostles had done, and it had been needfull that the Lords-day should be the seventh day,Either the Sabbath was not so soone changed into the Lords-day, or it was not then needfull that the Lords day should be the seventh day. doubtlesse order should have been taken for this also, and then Saint Paul would not have tearmed it the first of the weeke well-neere twen­tie yeeres after this time writing especially unto the Gentiles.

2. The Fathers are against them, for they tearmed Wednesday the fourth of the weeke. Si dies observare non licet, Origen. Nicephorus have the like saying. & menses, & tempora, & annos, nos quo (que) simile crim [...]n incurrimus, quartum Sabbati observantes & para­scenem, & diem Dominicum, &c. Hieron. in Gal. 4.

3. Reason is against them, for if the Iews Sabbath un­till the change were the seventh day, how should the next day be the seventh also?Consider that the name seventh hath reference to other dayes going before. Either there must be once; two seventh dayes together, or there must be one mon­strous weeke consisting of eight dayes, or else one day must be in no weeke.

Answer.

It is not needfull to prove the Lords-day to be the last day of the weeke; It is enough to hold correspondencie with the Commandement, if we prove it to be the seventh day, not in order, but in number: For though the Commandement bindeth perpetually to the number, it was and is the present condition of the Church, in regard of our benefit from God and Gods Covenant to us, which bindeth us to the order first or last. In which adjourn­ment we, as is requisite, retain and observe the scope and equitie of the Commandement, since God hath afforded us sixe dayes for the dispatch of our own businesses, that we should willingly dedicate the seventh to his worship: For the altering of the circumstance of time doth not abolish the substance of the Commandement. This dif­ference [Page 33] is evident and usuall in other matters, as for in­stance: It was one thing to have the Tridentine Councell translated to Bolonia, and the ending of it was another thing: So there is a difference between the adjourning of the last to the first, and the dissolution of the Sabbath day. And although the Sabbath be now the first day of the weeke in one respect, to wit, according to order, yet it remaines still the last in another respect, to wit, as they are seven in number: And that it was thus, even in the Christians account, the last as well as the first, appear­eth in the 1 Cor. 16. where Paul biddeth them, that eve­ry first day of the weeke every one should contribute as God had prospered him, to wit, in the sixe fore-going work-dayes.

And as touching your reason I answer, that every thing must have a time of institution and beginning. Had God made Adam the first day, then had he kept Gods seventh day Sabbath, but God making him the sixth day, and he being first to spend sixe dayes in one kinde of imployment, and the seventh in another, there­upon it is more then likely he was to keepe the thir­teenth day from the first day of the Creation as his first Sabbath, and not the fourteenth day as his secondHad Adam kept Gods seventh day Sabbath, then had he kept a Sabbath in In­nocency, for it was instituted before his fall.

Againe, if to be God did raine Mannah, on the first day according to the computation of the Creation, then they kept that seventh day Sabbath; But if he did not be­gin to raine Mannah on that day, but on some other in the weeke, then was that computation broken, and yet the Sabbath rightly kept.

So, had Christ risen on the last day of the weeke, (but then had not Isaiah his prophecie been fulfilled 65. 17.) then had we observed that day; but the Sonne of man (as you say) being Lord of the Sabbath, its fit the Sab­bath should waite on him, and not he on the Sabbath, and therefore as he chose the first day to rise on, as like­wise the morning and not the evening to rise in; so have [Page 34] we done well, after Saint Pauls rule, in imitating him as he imitated Christ, in keeping the Lords-day Sabbath ever since: which, as I have noted before, was not dark­ly prefigured in the keeping the first and seventh day in the time of the Passeover: As like wise to being the Sab­bath in the morning and not in the evening (which yet cannot be done without some losse of time, being that the Iewes Sabbath ended at the evening) for if we change the day because of Christs resurrection, and by Pauls example; why not then the terminations of the day, according to the time of Christs resurrection, and example of Paul in his practice at Tro [...]s. I speake this as an argument against some, that are of opinion the Sabbath still beginneth at evening, as in the time of the Iewes, and first Creation, when indeed evening and morning made the day, and darknesse was to goe before light.

As for the disorder which you say this innovation must needs produce, let it lye upon the Apostles who can an­swer it well enough; and so may we building on the foundation of the Prophets and Apostles: In the meane time Pauls example, which is not in vaine set downe in the 20. Acts 6, 7. (where no day of the seven, but only the last, which was the first day of the weeke, is thus disposed of) is a sufficient warrant for us hence forwards to observe it, from the 4th. Phil. 9. The things which you have seen in me, doe, and the God of peace shall be with you.

And as for that in your margin, where you say that the number seven hath reference to other going before; I answer you in this figure 7000007: where you see, the first as well as the last in some respect may be the seventh, to wit in number, though not in place and order.

Broad.

But let it be imagined (although I can scarce see how it can be imagined only) that our day is become the seventh and last of the weeke, what would follow hereupon? That God might well be said to have rested on our day, and to have enjoyned one day on Mount Sinai; But then it might not be said, that Christ rose upon one day. He that saith both God rested and Christ rose upon one day, may as wel say▪ that God both rested and began to make the world upon one day, which I will not beleeve any man will say, untill I know it.

Answer.

I know none that goeth about to make Gods Rest and Christs Resurrection to be upon one and the selfe­same day: Nor need it, for it is enough that the one was, and the other is observed holy, as the seventh day in oppo­sition to the six work-daies: The change not onely being granted by us, but argued as necessary and significantly materiall.

Broad. 3. Opinion.

Others there are which by the seventh day in the be­ginning of the Commandement,Am [...]s Theol. li [...]. 2. cap. 15. sect. 8. v [...]l unus è s [...]ptem, but doth the Scripture so speak, or doth he so much as goe about to prove [...]. He and others doe wisely to take that for granted which they cannot prove. understand one of the seven daies; but the seventh day is the Sabbath, that is (say they) but one of the seven daies is the Sabbath, and the first day is one of the seven daies as well as the seventh.

Answ. 1. Then shall the words seventh day have one sence in the 2. Gen. and another here. Will any man say that God ended his worke upon one of the seven daies, and not upon the seventh day only?

[Page 36]2. Then shall the words seventh day have one sense in the beginning of the Commandement, and another af­ter, for after it is said that God rested on the seventh day.

3. Then had the Israelites sanctified our day or any other, and not the seventh, they had not broke the fourth Commandement.

Answer.

This opinion, of the seventh day to intend one of seven, is doubtlesse most true, and is therefore spoken in the Commandement exclusively, implying thus much, That thou art not to keep the sixth day, or one of six, or the eight day or one of eight, but the seventh day or one of seven.

For the substance of the Commandement hath respect unto the number, for it opposeth seven to sixe; as if it had said, six daies shall be for labour, and the seventh for Rest: although I deny not, but the example of God in respect of order, was then significātly binding during the inforcemēt of the reasonof the creation: I would not be mistaken; and be thought (when I say one of seven) to meane any one, but as Ames. in that place being rightly understood, and set downe, dies septimus vel unus è septem, that is, the se­venth day, or one of seven, not of six or eight. For I know the Iewes were to celebrate the seventh day, the last in order both for example and signification sake, during the Covenant of works: For the order both was and is ex­ceeding usefull in respect of its signification, and helpeth much to the fulfilling the duty of sanctifying the Sab­bath. And therefore hath God been ever carefull, not only to give the generall Commandement to his Church, for the observation of the seventh day; But he hath likewise prescribed them a terminus a quo, a day or an occasion whence and whereby they were to number their seven daies (which yet was not alwaies one & thesame seventh [Page 37] day) As unto Adam he gave the first day of his being crea­ted to number from, and therefore was he carefull to give him this Commandement in due time, to wit, the second day of his Creation, so soone as he had given an example, that so he might remember it against the seventh day came: So likewise to the Iewes he appointed by Moses the first day of Mannah for them to reckon upon: And so to us by his owne and the Apostles examples he hath gi­ven the day of the Resurrection to be the ground of our Computation.

Broad. 4. Opinion.

Some of late tell us of the substance and circumstances of the fourth Commandement,Give way to this new doctrine of the substance and circumstance of a divine law, and open a wide gap to mani­fold errors, we shall now have seeking after the substance, as there was after the Allegory heretofore. by the substance they meane the sanctifying of one day in the weeke, by cir­cumstances the keeping of the seventh day, and strict re­sting. Answ. 1. That the sanctifying of one day in the weeke is the substance of the fourth Commandement you have not learned from the words thereof, for they speake only of sanctifying the seventh day. 2. No Prophet nor Apostle (nor Father I beleeve) hath thus interpreted the Commandement either in cleere or darke termes. 3. No other Commandement of God is to be interpre­ted after such a manner. 4. Then had not a Iew broken the Commandement though hee had laboured on the seventh day, so that before he had sanctified one of the six daies.

If God had said, Remember to sanctifie one day of the week six daies thou shalt labour, and the seventh thou shalt sanctifie, ye had some colour for your doctrine, although this had bin nothing in very deed. For God said, thou shalt keep a Feast to me,Neither was the re­sting of the land one yeare in seven the substance of that Law, Exod. 23. 10. 11. thrice in the yeare thou shalt keep the Feast, &c. Exod. 23. 14, 15, 16. and yet the keeping of the Feast thrice in the yeare was not the substance of that [Page 38] Law who ever so imagined? But onely God there first telleth the Israelites in generall what hee would have done, and afterwards acquainteth them with his minde particularly and fully. You your selves I am sure will ac­knowledge that the keeping of a feast thrice a yeare is as well the substance of the foresaid Law, as the keeping of the Sabbath once in a weeke is the substance of the fourth Commandement; and the worshipping of God was one end of the feast, as well as of the Sabbath. Yet Christ hath blotted out that whole Law. The like may be said of that Law, Exod. 23. 10, 11.

By this opinion not the substance, but only the circum­stances of the fourth Commandement are mentioned in the Decalogue, which circumstances also are not to be ob­served.

Answer.

That in the fourth Commandement is both substance and circumstance is evident: By substance, I understand the sanctifying the seventh day, not as it is last in order, but as it is opposed to all other numbers, by circumstance I understand the order and the reasonFor the reason did as well bind to ob­serve the order, as to establish the Com­mandement it selfe, til I there was a new reason of a new or­der, but never of a new commandement: Which two (that I may use your phrase in the conclusion of your seuenth Chapter) have been manifested to have been circumstan­tiall by the event.

I say the very reason of the Commandement as it did bind the order was circumstantiall and changable. Wee see how it received an addition, in that their remem­brance of their deliverance out of Egypt (which was a Type of our spirituall deliverance) was made a reason of this fourth Commandement as well as the Creation; And so is now our redemption it selfe by Christ, and yet nothing of the substance abolished or altered, but the maine duty of sanctifying the seventh day is still obser­ved. And the reason (as I conceive) why this Commande­ment [Page 39] was more circumstantiall then others, was because it was preter-ordained to the Law of Nature for the con­tinuall use of the Church in all states and conditions: And therefore was it to be brought to the state, and made su­table to the condition of the ChurchIn regard of the cir­cumstantiall parts of it, the morall part fit­ting all states as an help of their obedi­ence.; and not the con­dition of the Church to be brought to it, as were also the Sacraments, and yet so as that God hath himselfe ever or­dered these changable circumstances in it, either by the doctrine or example of his Prophets or Apostles, notvery darkly.

Indeed as touching the seventh day to be any other then the last in the time of the Prophets, is not to be ima­gined, because then that order was in force, but now in the Apostles time, the event doth cleerly manifest the contrary in the practice of the Apostles, which giveth sufficient authority for oursIt is altogether an unlikely thing, that the Church without a pregnant Com­mandement (which there is none in scripture) would take upon them to abo­lish the fourth com­mandement (enjoy­ning a duty upon an universall and perpe­tuall benefit) and yet of their owne autho­rity bring up a cu­stome equivalent. And whereas you say that no other Commandement is to be interpreted with cir­cumstances and substance. I answer, That be [...]ides that cir­cumstance of the Israelites deliverance prefixed to the whole Law, me thinks you should acknowledge this to be true in the fifth Commandement, where there is a promise made of a reward in Canaan to them that keep it, which yet is a changable circumstanceAnd in answer to your marginall note, if it were not a chan­gable circumstance, you m [...]y imagine what absurdity would follow. in respect of the precise meaning: For though in that respect it be void, yet it is still of force and use according to the present state and residence of the Church, as appeareth in the 6. Eph. 2. And notwithstanding the cessation of the Egyp­tian Deliverance, and the precise meaning of this promise in the fifth Commandement, and their alterations into a more spirituall & proper meaning for the present Church, yet do the Commandements themselves for their sub­stance remaine to this day the same: For the change of significant circumstances may be upon good grounds without impeachment to the being of the law: as the Israelites supposed changing the gesture from standing to sitting, when they were a Sedentary Church did no whit [Page 40] abolish the Passeover. And thus did David change the order that God had appointed among the Levites (how that till thirtie yeeres old they were not to officiate) when the reason of it failed, and the Arke had rest, then without prejudice to the Ordinance, he ordained that they should officate at twentie, as is 1 Chron. 23. As a man may alter his temperament and yet continue a man still, so long as for substance he remaineth the same in soul and body. So if so be the Sabbath had been changed, from being kept every seventh day, to every sixth, then the whole frame of the fourth Commandement had suffered shipwrack: But in the change of one seventh day to an­other upon such a ground and reason the substance suffer­eth not.

For as Bishop White observes, pag. 136. (against T. B. who affirmes that in all Divine lawes whensoever any part is taken away the whole is abolished) That if by part he understand such a part as is substantiall and consti­tuent his position is granted, but if he understand a cir­cumstantiall or accidentall part the position is false; For (saith he) the Law of Prayer or Divine worship is still in force, as it was in Davids and in Daniels time, in re­spect of substantiall actions, but many circumstances of time, place and gesture, are abolished in the time of the Gospel: as Daniels praying with windows open toward Ierusalem, &c. And therefore, a little to vary the words and sence of his conclusion against T. B. the substance of the fourth Commandement may be continued and yet the Circumstance altered.

As touching your following instance of the three feasts a yeere, I see not that it holds good Analogie with the Sabbath: But your marginal instance of the [...]arths seventh yeere Sabbath is proper. In which Commandement (I say) there is both circumstance and substance. The sub­stance is the Law it selfe of resting the seventh yeere in opposition to the other sixe: But the precise order is added [Page 41] by the God of order, for the better execution of this Law without confusion, which must needs follow if it were left arbitrary. Like as in the Law of Tythes, God chose to himselfe one in ten, which for orders sake, and that they might have a rule to walke by, he appointed to be every tenth as it passed under the rod. And so of the Sabbath, wherein for order sake God did not only appoint the se­venth day to be the last, but also gave a computation from Mannah, that so they might also know which should be that last, and so avoid confusion: Which yet doth nothing hinder, but that the same God may upon occasion, appoint another order by his Apostles, as he did that by Moses, and not harme the Law it selfe, or the substance of the Com­mandement in so doing. Nay I thinke, if the case were put to you of a man in a farre countrey, who by some or other accident losing that computation of Mannah) should not­withstanding have dedicated every seventh day (which yet happily might be the first, second, or third of the week as well as the last) to an holy rest, in obedience to tho Commandement: (I thinke I say) you would grant this man to observe the fourth Commandement in substance.

Broad. 5. Opinion.

Others speake of the Morality and Ceremonies of the fourth Commandement,By this opinion only the Ceremonies are mentioned in the Decalogue, the fourth Commande­ment hath as it were a peece of Moses vaile on the face thereof, when it is read in the Church. by the Ceremonies they meane the seventh day and strict rest, by the morality the sanctify­ing of some times, or the having of set & appointed dayes.

Ans. There is no Morality of the fourth Commande­ment as is said before: Indeed I acknowledge the Law of Nature; here Nature taught the Gentiles, and doth teach Christians to set apart some times (as places) for the pub­like worship of God: But there is aSuppose that God had said to Sem thou shalt sanctifie some time, to Ham thou shalt sanctifie one day in a week, and to Iaphet thou shalt sanctifie the seventh day, had he not given divers Lawes to them there? Should Sem have kept the morality, Ham the substance, and Iaphet the ceremony or circumstance of one and the same Law, this were presently doctrine I trow. difference betweene [Page 42] the generall Law of Nature written in mans heart at the Creation, and the peculiar precept of the Sabbath writ­ten since in Tables of stone.

Should God now say to the Iewes, you shall sanctifie the seventh day, wherein I rested, and to us Christians you shall sanctifie the first day wherein my Sonne rose. The Iewes sanctifying their Sabbath, and we the Lords-day, should doe that is enjoyned by the Law of Nature in a generall manner, but as they should not doe that were enjoined by our particular Law, so then neither should we doe that were enjoined by their particular Law.

Answer.

That there were some intervening Ceremonies befell the Sabbath in the Iewish Church, you (I thinke) will not (I am sure cannot justly) deny, which now like an old suit of clothes are dropt offNay even in the very time of the Iewes, the extreame strict Rest ceased when Mannah ceased (for Christ hath pruned the Law of her Mosaicall branches) and the Sabbath remaineth na­ked and pure. For as the Sabbath it selfe was a super-addi­tion or handmaid to the Law of Nature, that is of necessa­ry use and service to preserve our obedience to the will of God revealed in it (and especially to the first Table (as I have observed in the beginning of this Tract: So had it selfe also many additions, which were proper to the state of the Iewish Church (in which time it was reinfor­ced) as likewise had every thing else: Which additions were some of them Ceremonies, some meere occasionall circumstances (and thus was the strict rest in the wilder­nesse, and the stranger within thy gates mentioned in the fourth commandement) some whereof were abrogative, some changable, according to the severall natures, as ap­peares by their severall events in this new created Church of ours. In the Commandement it selfe, as it is laid downe in the Decalogue, I know nothing properly Ceremoniall in a Iewish sence, and to bee abrogated properly by Christ; For whatsoever was abrogated by [Page 43] Christ, was ordained by reason of Christ since the fall, which the Sabbath was not.Heb. 4. Yet is it no other then a Ce­remony (and for this cause it is so changable in diverse particulars upon occasion) but of that nature and so annex­ed to the Church, as the shadow to the body, inseparable, though alterable, according to the condition of the party and degree of the Sunne.

Touching your first marginall note, with which I will couple your conclusion of the fourth Opinion, You say, That by these two opinions, Not substance, but either cir­cumstance or ceremony, are only mentioned in the fourth Commandement, and hath as it were a peece of Moses his vayle when it is read in the Church.

Answ. In the order there is included the substanceIn the first Table it is ordinary to in­clude the greater in the lesse, the affirma­tive in the negative; like as in the second Table the lesse is mostly included in the greater.; For the seventh day cannot be commanded, but one of seven must necessarily and principally be intended, as when God commanded the Tenth, surely any man will thinke he hath more respect to the number then to the order.

Neither can the fourth Commandement be said any more, nay not so much (for the one was common and the other proper, to have a peece of Moses his vayle over it, for the seventh day being a Ceremony, then all the Law hath by its preface of the Egyptian deliverance. I wish you had considered what a vayle you cast upon the fourth Commandement, when it is read with the Prayer.

As concerning your secōd marginal note, I have formerly shewne in what relation the Sabbath and the Law of Na­ture stand. And as touching the difference of the com­manding of one day in a weeke, and the seventh day I an­swer, That in substance they are the same, and the diffe­rence is only in manner of exhibition. For Ham hath only the substance it selfe mentioned and commanded him, and the order left arbitrary, which if he of his own accord should designe to be every seventh or last day, then I pray you what difference for substance: But Iaphet hath both [Page 44] the substance and order assigned him of God, so that the difference lyeth only in manner of exhibition. Like as the Covenant of Grace was both one to the Iewes and us in substance, onely as it was given to them, it was cloathed with many circumstances and ceremonies (though they were Lawes they were no better) but to us naked: All which circumstances (I grant) did bind during their signi­ficancy, and though now the Ceremonies be annulled, and the Sacraments changed, which were Appendices to the Covenant, yet is the substance of the Covenant the same, and distinct from its circumstances: So though the Sab­bath admit an annulling of some additaments, and a change of some circumstances or ceremonies, yet may and doth the fourth Commandement in substance remain the same distinct and unconfounded. Nay this very change doth discover to us the substance from the circumstances and ceremonies, as well of the Sabbath, as of the Cove­nant if we had not understood them before.

And though the Morality and Ceremonies of the fourth Commandement relish not with you, yet your Partizans of later Edition passe it in Verbo Magistrî. That it is abrogated in the speciality of it, because it was ceremonious, and so serve their turnes to pull downe the Sabbath, and yet affirme it stands good in the morality or equity of it, to keep unraced the ejaculation annexed to it in our Liturgy. And Mr. Dow, pag. 9. saith in absolute tearmes. They more fully expresse the nature of this Commandement who say, It is partly Morall, and partly Ceremoniall.

Broad. 6. Opinion.

Mr. Cleaver will have this strange matter come to passe by a Trope, whereby one part is put for the rest. He saith, That in the precepts and prohibitions more [Page 45] is meant then in words is expressed. Moral. of the Law. Chap. 4.

Answ. I acknowledge that in the other nine Com­mandements more is meant then is expressed in words, but here in the fourth Commandement that which is ex­pressed in words is not meant. It is a kind of Trope to put one part for the rest, but when no part is put for the rest, what manner of Trope may that be? For this thou shalt sanctifie the seventh day wherein I rested, is no part of Gods Law in these dayes, and yet this in effect is all that God spake from Sinai.

Answer.

Although the fourth Commandement be a Law still in force, yet (as I said) it bindeth us not to keep Sabbath the last day of the weeke, though the seventh. For the order was foretold to be altered in the 65. Isaiah 17. where it is prophecyed, that Gods creating new heavens and a new earth shall make the old to be forgotten, that is, there shall be a wonderfull alteration, and that which now men make most account of, to wit, the Creation, then they shall account it the least, sanctifying the memory of my resting from their Redemption in stead of my resting from their Creation. And thus you wilfully slander us when you say, that, Thou shalt sanctifie the seventh day wherein I rested, is no part of Gods Law in these dayes, for we grant it but with an Orthodox distinction of Rest. For the Commandement it self looketh with a double face both wayes, both to the Iewish Church and ours, both to the old and new Creation; And beareth his Title in the very front in that word Remember. And as one well observeth, There is no Commandement ushered with such a Memento as that of the Sabbath, wherein (saith he) I thinke we may discerne Gods providence, forearming weake Christians against the strong assaults of [Page 46] their own affections, strugling against the restraint of a whole dayes libe [...]tie, and of mans inventions oppugning Gods institutions, for it is a Commandement of Re­membrance; so that as once we were to remember our Creation by it, as appeareth b [...] the first promulgation of it in Exodus, for there the Creation is only mentioned: so like wise are we now to remember our Redemption by it, as appeares by the second pro [...]nulgation of it in Deu­ [...]eronomie, where the old Creation is quite forgotten not a word mentioned of it, and the new set forth in its Type of their [...]gyptian deliverance. Which observation (taken from the various reasons annexed at severall times, and in such an order, for the inforcing of this Commandement) compared with this Text of Isa [...]ah 65. 17. and the present event sutable, doth both very much illustrate the perpetuitie of the Sabbath, and yet prophecie the change both in one, which also (if we con­sider the nature of those times) doth well prove the thing: For though Christ speaketh plainly to us now, yet to them he spake and prophecyed (as I may so say) in para­bles, which rightly understood are no lesse proofes then ours, And thus is the substance of the fourth Commande­ment preserved, that is, the dedicating of the seventh day to duties of Pietie and Mercy, and sixe dayes to our other affaires, as also prophecie fulfilled, and the Apostles imi­tated.

But may some say,Object. Our Redemption was not finish­ed on that day, for that it still remaineth in acting by Christs intercession, which is Bishop Whites objection, page 299.

Christs intercession after his dying and rising, is as Gods providence was,Answ. and is, after his sixe dayes Crea­tion; And as (notwithstanding his continuall providence) his Creation was finished on the last day of the week: So Now (notwithstanding Christs intercession at Gods right hand) our Redemption was finished on the first day of [Page 47] the weeke by his Resurrection. And whereas Bishop White further objecteth, pag. 299. That the day of Christs resurrection cannot properly be called a Sabbath or day of Rest, because our Saviour was in action on that day about the necessary works of perfecting mans Redemption, by applying, teaching, inspiring, authorizing his Disciples. I answer. They were all Sabbath-day works, and so was the seventh day a working day to God in many such like respects sutable to the first Creation, and yet it was his Sabbath for this reason, because he rested and ceased from that which he did before, (as Mr. Hildersham noteth up­on the Hebrew word Sabbat in his 135. Lect. on the 51. Psalme) which holds in respect of Christ. Furthermore page 300. Bishop White saith, That the Primitive Church devoted the first day of the weeke to the honour and ser­vice of Christ, not because of Christs cessation from re­demptive actions, but because it was primus dies laetitiae, The first day of joy and gladnesse for the resurrection of the Lord: True; But the cause of this joy was the per­fection of our Redemption and Deliverance, which we celebrate with a congratulatory commemoration on the first day, like as we were to doe the perfection of our Creation on the last day of the weeke. And pag. 303. h [...] saith, That Christ rested upon his resurrection day, no more then he did upon every day after untill his ascension, and since his ascension untill the worlds end. Answ. So he may say that God rested no more from his worke of Creation on the seventh day, then he hath done ever since, where by the way take notice, That it is the consumma­tion of the Creation and Redemption, which is meant by their Resting, and which we celebrate, for else if Rest should respect barely their cessation, then all the after time should be of equall estimation with the last day in respect of the Creation, and with the first day in respect of the Redemption.

And now indeed I wonder why the Egyptian delive­rance [Page 48] being in Deut. annexed by the dictate of the spirit, as a reason to inforce the duty of the fourth Commande­ment or Sabbath in its second promulgation, should not be thought a sufficient reason to inforce the same duty & law upon us, as well as the obedience of the whole Law is urged upon us by the same reason contained in the Pre­face Deny the one and [...]eny both, but re [...] ­son and sobrietie will deny neither. seeing that in both places it signifieth alike our spi­rituall Redemption and deliverance. Especially seeing the holy Ghost, in the fifteenth verse of the fifth of Deut. after he hath there affixed to the fourth Commande­ment, our deliverance out of spirituall Egypt in its Type, as the reason of it, concludeth upon it mandatorily a duty (not a libertie) imposed upon us therefore, in these words, Therefore the Lord thy God commanded thee to keepe the Sabbath day. A place of Scripture if soberly consulted (especially considering withall the preterition of the Creation in that place, whereby this becomes not only a motive but the sole reason) not easily answered by our Antisabbatarians. For as one saith well, In the 5. Deut. The reason of the Redemption from Egypt is put as a cause of sanctifying the Sabbath, so that there begin­neth a translation, though not of the day it self, yet of the use and sanctification of the day, as to be kept in an holy and thankfull memory of the Redemption from Egypt, which was but a Type and figure of our spirituall Re­demption by Christ: which their Redemption from Egypt, if taken only literally, was not to be compared to the worke of Creation, that it should challenge to it selfe a right in the Sabbath before the Creation, but only as it typified and prefigured that glorious worke of Redemp­tion. Now if the Redemption from Egypt, which was but a Type, were so glorious a worke, as that the Sabbath day should be kept rather in memory of that, then of the Creation, then what shall we say of the worke of Re­demption it selfe, which doth so farre exceed in glory that from Egypt, as the Sunne doth the shadow? If [Page 49] therefore Gods ancient people were to keep the Sabbath day in memory of their Rest from Egypt, how much more (when a greater Rest from a greater worke of Re­demption even the true and eternall Rest is come in, and we in Christ doe enter into it as Heb. 4. 3.) ought that day of the weeke be kept holy, wherein the Lord rested from his most glorious and gracious worke. And this may serve to answer your unanswerable conclusion fol­lowing, if you will weigh it without prejudice.

Broad.

To conclude, By no wayes or meanes yet found out can it be, That the precept of the Sabbath should bind to sanctifie the Lords-day, And I could wish my brethren not to busie their braines to finde out more wayes, as ha­ving busied them too much hereabouts already. Were the fourth Commandement a law in force still, it should bind to sanctifie the Iewes Sabbath and none other.

Broad.

But suppose that the fourth Commandement did bind to sanctifie the Lords-day,What would follow were the fourth Commandement a law still in force, and did bind to sanctifie the Lords-day, See my Latine Tract. Chap. 5. what would follow thereupon? That we might doe no more work on our dayes then the Iewes might doe on theirs; for there is not the least co­lour of dispensation in Gods word for doing of more, and indeed after some mens doctrine we may doe no more, not picke up a few sticks, nor buy a little oyntment, nor step over the doore sill to gather up Mannah, &c. See Mr. Dod, and Mr. Cleaver on the fourth Commandement.

Answer.

It matters not what would follow now, no more then what did follow when the Commandement was confessedly of force. For certainly if we be to keepe a [Page 50] Sabbath to the Lord, if we could herein doe the will of God on earth as it is done in heaven, by keeping it here in the Type, as they keepe it in heaven in the Antitype, it were so much the better, wholly heavenly, free from all carnall and earthly distractions, so farre as necessitie will give leave, and to doe even these necessary things with such heavenly mindednesse, as that the rules both of Pie­tie to God and charitie to our selves are fulfilled therein. If at any time, much more on that day, [...]it ought to be our meat and drinke to doe the will of our heavenly father in earth, as it is done in heaven. And it is apparent, in Chri­stian experience, that he which that day keepeth himself and his heart diligently from terrene thoughts, words, and actions, imploying them contrarily, groweth most in grace, hath the sweetest Communion with God, the greatest measure of Divine comfort, (for a Christian never feeleth such sound comfort as when he spiritually observeth it) and is the ablest to long after his dissoluti­onFor God blessed the Sabbath day, that is, appointed it to be a day of blessings to them that sanctifie it, which they doe that observe to d [...]e these three things. 1. That they keep it delightfully, not with tediousnesse & grudging. 2. That they busie themselves in all holy things act­ing them in the spi­rit. 3. That they spend the whole day wholly and not part­ly thus. These (as M. D [...]d rightly ob­serveth) only inh [...]rit the blessings entail­ed upon the Sabbath by promise., which shew it to be Gods ordinance, for he is wont to give a blessing to his own ordinance: Whereas those that fight so much against it, it is like never felt the sweet­nesse of it (as for your self, I will passe no censure of you, for I know you not) but some I am able to produce, that are of this licentious opinion concerning the Sabbath, and are as little strict in other things which are uncontrover­sably naught, to the scandall of the Ministery, and to the palpable arguing, that because they entertaine not the truth in the love of it, God hath either given them over to beleeve a lie, or else that they take up this opinion more to countenance their corruptions, then to maintaine Truth. For non-residency, a formall and lazy ministery, and such like follow as naturally upon this, as falling away doth upon free-will. Your manner of instancing is naught thus to goe about to lessen the Commandement it self, and our obedience to it, by a sleightie expression of the things commanded. Had Adam thus excused himself to God, [Page 51] when he accused him of rebellion, and told him, why, it was but a mouth-full of an apple, &c. the aggravation had been worse then the fault, a few sticks, a little oyle, &c. is it the fewnesse of the sticks, the littlenesse of the oyle; that give ens and non-ens to the Sin? He that hath his eyes anoynted, though but with a little of Gods eye­salve, knoweth that the thing commanded is to be judged by the commandement, and not the commandement by the thing commanded.

Me thinks that Memento or watchword set at the be­ginning of the Commandement (and so usefully expoun­ded by M. Dod and M. Cleaver) to quicken our circumspe­ction in providing for the sanctifying of the Sabbath, by prevention and foresight, should have answered this Ar­gument in the hatching, especially in these petty things you speake of, considering that the lesse the temptation the greater the sin.

But to your instances themselves I answer. That in all things whatsoever a lawfull necessity granteth a lawfull liberty on the Sabbath, as for gathering of Mannah I have formerly shewed you, why it did bind and for what time. And therefore, instead of further answer, I will insert for a conclusion, the positive truth of such workes as may be done on the Sabbath day, as you shall find it in Mr. Richard Byfeild, pag. 95, 96. There are (saith he) foure sorts of works lawfull on the Sabbath. 1. Works of holinesse. 2. Works of mercy. 3. Works that are in their nature ser­vile, yet doe directly respect the present worship of God, as our travell to the places of Gods worship, for these works become now holy workes, and are not ours but Gods workes. 4. Works of common honesty, that is, works that make to the comely decent and orderly per­formance of Gods worship, and our carriage and behavi­our therein. Such are the tolling of a bell for the calling of the assembly, the comely and modest dresse of the body provided that it be not vaine, curious, nor aske much time, [Page 52] but be thrust into the narrowest roome that may be: The spreading of our table, so that state be not taken up, and all things be prepared before, as much as may, with the like. By works of mercy, I meane not onely necessary labours in the help of the sicke, and of women in travell, and of beasts out of a pit with the like: But also all those which are called works of necessity, which I rather call workes of mercy, because they are therefore necessary, as they tend to the preservation of things, not from feared or sus­pected, but from eminent and imminent and present danger, and the worke it selfe must be done in mercy, not in covetousnesse or other respects. Now of this sort are these workes, labour in provision of convenient food, ten­dance of cattell, fight for defence of our countrey being assailed, riding of posts on the affaires of the state in causes of present and imminent danger. In all these the Master hath power to command, and so hath the superiour ove [...] him that is under his charge, and the servant is bound to obey. The Master may command him the workes of mercy, and the works servile, which directly looke to the worship of God, or to goe with him to the Sermon, though many miles off (if it cannot be had neerer hand) and as his Master may take his horse and ride thither, his servant going on foot, so may he command his servant for this purpose to saddle his horse, as in 2 King. 4. 22, 23. the question of the Shunamites husband sheweth, who to his wife desiring one of the Asses to be made ready, and a servant to be sent her that she might goe to the man of God, saith on this wise, wherefore wilt thou goe to him to day? It is neither new Moone nor Sabbath. It was then their custome so to doe on the Sabbath and new Moone.

In like manner the Master may enjoyne the servant such works as tend to necessary provision of food, and ten­ding of children in the family, &c.

Yet here againe some things seeme to fight with the [Page 53] sanctification of the day. First, if the Master shall strictly stand upon his state and distance, for if the family-neces­sities in respect of young children should necessarily re­quire the presence of some constantly at home, the Ma­ster may not hereby keep his servant constantly from pub­like worship, but rather sometimes change turnes with him. Much lesse may he desire such unnecessary superflui­ties, as may cause absence from the Assemblies, for this is to feed the carkasse on the life-blood of the soules of thy servants. Deale in all plainnesse of heart, and know that thou hast to deale with God. The servant must be sure the worke is unlawfull before he offer to withdraw his obe­dience, but thou mayest sin in that in which thy servant sinneth not, because thou art bound to search more into the nature of thy necessities. Secondly, if the Master set not his businesse in so wise and discreet an order, that without all unnecessary hinderances, he and all his house­hold may sanctifie the day and keep it holy. Thirdly, if the Master remember not that he is a God, and that both by communication of name and power, to provide for, and see to the servants and his housholds rest, and therein re­spect the mercy which God would have shewne to his servants, yea to cattle on that day.

Broad.
CHAP. IX. The Doctrine of the Primitive Church.

AFter the Doctrine of the Primitive Church the fourth Commandement is ceremoniall and abroga­ted, and for proofe hereof [...] say,

(1.)

That I have seene many sayings of Fathers and others, shewing this to have been the Doctrine of the Primi­tive [Page 54] Church, whereof I will set downe some in this place, more may be found in my other books.

Tertull. lib. adversus Iud.

Denique doceant Iudaei, Though the Iewes cannot prove this, yet some Christians can in their imagi­nation. Adam sabbatizasse, &c. Lastly, let the Iewes prove if they can, that Adam, Abel, or Noah kept the Sabbath, or that Melchisedech received the Law of the Sabbath in his Priesthood. But the Iewes will re­ply and say, since this precept was given by Moses, it was to be observed. It is manifest then that the Law of the Sabbath was not an eternall nor spirituall, but a temporary precept, which at length should cease and have an end. By this and other like sayings in his booke against the Iewes, it may not onely appeare what was Tertullians owne judgement in this matter: But also what was the judgement of the Christian world in his time. If Chri­stians then had bin Sabbath-keepers, Tertullian would not have written as he hath in that booke.

Euseb. hist. lib. 1. cap. 5.

Eusebius there speaking of Adam, Abel, Noah and other godly ancients, hath these words, Nec corporalis itaque circumcisionis rationem hab [...]erunt, sicut: neque nos▪ nec sabbatorum observantiae quemad [...]odum [...]eque [...]os.

Aug. de spir. & lit. cap. 14

In illis igitur decem praeceptis, excepta Sabbati observati­one dicatur, &c. Among the ten Commandements, except the observation of the Sabbath, let any man tell me, what is there that is not to be observed of a Christian, whether of not making or not worshipping Idols, or any other God, besides the onely true God, whether of not taking the name of God in vaine, whether of honouring parents, whether of abstaining from fornication, murder, theft, false witnes-bearing, adultery, and coveting that which is our neighbours. Which of these CommandementsWill any man say that a Christian ought not to observe the fourth Comman­dement, it seemeth so, and that August. will not gain-say it. will any man say that a Christian ought not to observe. In the 15. Chapter following he tearmeth the fourth Comman­dement, Praeceptum figuratum, a figurative precept.

Chrysostom. in expos. secund. super Matt. Homil. 49.

Legis iustitia prima, & salutaris, decem habet mandata: Primum cognoscere unum Deum, secundum abstinere ab Idolis, tertium non peierare, quartum colere sabbatum spi­rituale, quintum, &c.

Note that our fourth Commandement after Chrysost. is to keep a spirituall Sabbath. There are two sorts of Sab­baths, the one literall or carnall, and the other figurative or spirituall, the former belonged to the Iewes, the later to Christians. This I doubt not was the doctrine of the Primitive Church.

(2.)

That I never saw to my remembrance any saying of Father, Councell, Ecclesiasticall writer, cited by any in their Sabbath discourses, whereby it might certainly be gathered, that so much as one learned man in the Primi­tive Church was ever of other judgement, and took him­selfe bound by this Commandement to sanctifie the Lords-day, one day in a weeke, or any day or time what­soever, note it and search their books.

Answer.

Mr. Cleaver in his booke called the Morality of the Law, hath there given you your answer to this particular objection of the Fathers opinions in this point, where the Reader may see the true meaning of the ancients in this particular, and how Saint Augustine is wronged and perverted by you. I say for plenary satisfaction to the Rea­der, I refer him in this particular of the Fathers opinion in this point, to peruse these pages of Mr. Cleavers booke aforesaid, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136.

Broad. (3.)

That Mr. Calvin speaking of the fourth Commande­ment, hath these words ( [...]nstit. lib. 2. cap. 8. Sect. 28.) Vm­bratile veteres nuncupare solent. The ancients (not onely some of the Ancients) accounted it shadowish, not onely partly shadowish. Of what judgement Mr. Calvin was, may partly appeare by that he writeth afterward sect. 34. It a evanescunt nugae Pseudo prophetarum, &c. Dr. Field excepteth the fourth Commandement out of the number of the Morall Commandements. Booke 5. of the Church. Chap. 22. pag. 101.

Answer.

In the beginning of this worke, you gave occasion to manifest Mr. Calvins opinion, and so I did.

As for Dr. Field he doth not except the fourth Com­mandement from the number of the Morall, but from the number of those that are connaturall with man, and therefore is more subject to change then the rest: His words are these; These Lawes (saith he) are imposed upon men by the very condition of their nature and crea­tion, as the very condition and nature of a man created by God requireth, that he should honour, love, feare, and re­verence him that made him, and therefore touching the precepts of the first Table (that concerning the Sabbath excepted) it is cleare and evident that they cannot be al­tered.

Broad.

Mr. Rogers in his Cathe.A [...]l 7. propos. 3. Doctrine of the Church of [Page 57] England blameth D. B. for teaching (as contrary to the seventh Article) that the Sabbath was none of the Cere­monies which were justly abrogated at the coming of Christ;Note well what h [...] writeth, I write no more. againe that the Commandement of sanctifying every seventh day (as in the Mosaicall Decalogue, is natu­rall, morall, and perpetuall.

Answer.

It is true that Mr. Rog [...]rs blameth D. B. for teaching that the Sabbath was none of the Ceremonies which were justly abrogated at the coming of Christ, for which he is much to blame himselfe, till he can evince it to be one of them which he doth not.

Broad.

Who so readeth what Mr. Rogers hath written in the Preface to his booke,See the Preface be­ginning at the [...]0. Section. shall understand, that I am not the first or onely man that have stirred much in this matter, God grant I be the last that hath need to stir much herein, and that the day of Rest to the Iewes be not the cause of contention among Christians any longer.

The end of the first Treatise.

Answer.

Here you fulfill the Proverbe, you wish all were well so you were not the cause of it, if you may be suffered to speake the last word, you care not, though all keep silent. I did wish (though it be now unseasonable) when I first framed this answer, that it might come to the notice and knowledge of authority, the disturbance of the peace which Mr. Rogers and you have brought into the Church [Page 58] by endeavouring to discover a shamefull nakednesse of contradiction in your Mother, by labouring to set the Arti­cles and the Liturgy at odds one with another: For how cometh it to passe that we are commanded by the church to pray, Lord encline our hearts to keep an abrogated Ce­remony of the Iewes, even in her opinion as he and you would have it.

But the contrary is apparent not onely by the Liturgy, but also by the HomilyOf the place and time of prayer, par [...]. 1. (established and received for the Doctrine of our Church) as you may see it quoted to this very purpose by Mr. Richard [...] in answer to Mr. Breerowood. He [...] thus, You come in with the Edicts of Princes as one that would have the Lords-day depend upon the constitutions of the Church, and Edicts of Princes onely, and so not to differ from another Holy­day: Most wicked popis [...] and worse then popish, and against all famous lights ancient and moderne. Or doe you mention Princes Edicts and Churches-Constitutions to glose with ours? Ours de [...]est your Tenet, and you seeke herein to wound Church and Prince. For how they hold of the Lords day that it is directly grounded on the fourth Commandement, appeareth in the [...], in the booke of Homilies, and in the Statutes and godly provisions for redresse of prophanations. This is the doctrine of the ChurchHomily of the place and time of prayer, part. 1. pag. 125. By this Commandement (speaking of the fourth) we ought to have a time, as one day in the weeke wherein we ought to rest, yea from all lawfull and need­full works: For like as it appeareth by this Commande­ment, that no man in the six dayes ought to be slothfull or idle, but diligently to labour in that estate wherein God hath set him, even so God hath given expresse charge to all men that upon the Sabbath-day, which is now our Sunday, they should cease from all weekly and work-day labour, to the intent that like as God himselfe wrought six dayes and rested the seventh, and blessed and sanctified it, and consecrated it to quietnesse and rest from labour: [Page 59] Even so Gods obedient children should use the Sunday holily▪ and rest from their common and daily businesses, and also give themselves wholly to heavenly exercises of Gods true Religion and service. So that God doth not on­ly command the observation of this Holy-day, but also by his owne example doth stirre and provoke us to the dili­gent keeping of the same Good naturall children will not onely become obedient to the Commandements of their parents, but also have a diligent eye to their doings, and gladly follow the same. So if we will be the children of our heavenily Father, we must be carefull to keep the Christian Sabbath-day, which is the Sunday, not onely for that it is Gods expresse Commandement, but also to de­clare our selves to be loving children in following the ex­ample of our gracious Lord and Father. Thus farre the words of the Homily, which (saith, Mr. [...]yfeild to Mr. [...]) Crosseth all that you hold in this your Trea­tise, and fully speaketh what we hold Consider it.

1. Our Christian Sabbath is Gods expresse Comman­dement in the fourth precept of the Law enjoyned.

2. That it is given of God in expresse charge to all men.

3. That all men are charged to cease from all weekly and worke-day labour, and rest from common and daily businesses▪ and give themselves wholly to heavenly exer­cises of Gods true Religion and service.

4. That all this standeth in force upon all men for the Lords-day, from the example of God himselfe, who wrought sixe dayes, and rested the seventh, and blessed and sanctified it, and consecrated it to quietnesse and rest from labour, which example bindeth us to imitationwhen the Lord [...] said the seventh day is the Sabba [...]h of the Lord, hee enjoyned our Sabbath, which is also the seventh day.

And that this was the proper meaning of our Church, besides the former words, take these that follow in the Homily also, they are these.

This Example and Commandement of God, the god­ly Christian people began so follow, immediatly after the [Page 60] ascension of our Lord Christ, and began to chuseFrom these words (Christain people chose the first day) M. Broad elsewhere [...]ath argued that the doctrine of our Church granteth the observation of the Lords day to be an Eccl [...]siasticall ordi­nance, and not an Apostolical precept, which objection or argument you have fully answered in M. Cleaver his Mora­lity of the Law, pag. 137, &c. whither I refer you. them a standing day of the weeke to come together in, yet not the seventh day, which the Iewes kept, but the Lords-day, the day of the Lords Resurrection, the day after the seventh day, which is the first day of the weeke. Ten times is the sanctifying of the Lords-day in that part of the Homily called the Commandement of God in all meaning no other then the fourth Commandement. Now why should some be bold to say, and be suffered to put forth this wicked doctrine to the casting an aspersion on our famous Church, That to establish the Lords-day upon the fourth Commandement is to encline too much to Iudaisme. This also layeth the like aspersion on the Scot­tish Church,Preface of the assembly at [...]. which teacheth that the sanctification of the Lords-day is of diuine institution, as well by reason of the divine precept commanding the seventh day in gene­rall to be observed, as of the practise of Christ, which hath the force of a divine precept.

Broad.
A Treatife of the Lords-Day. CHAP. I.

THe Church of Christ hitherto consisted of Iews and Gentiles. And as touching the be­leeving Iews at Ierusalem,The Church of the Iewes, Acts [...]. 10. it is out of que­stion that for many yeeres they observed the same day as before, for they were zealous of the Law; one part whereof was the observation of the seventh day. If Baptisme would not serve them in stead of Circum­cision, [Page 61] who can beleeve that the Lords-day would serve them in stead of the Sabbath. Yea Iames and the Elders did not so much as teach them,Acts [...]1. [...]4. that the law of Com­mandements contained in ordinances was abolished, as it is manifest in that they desire Saint Paul to make it ap­peare by his practice, that the report of him was nothing, and that he himselfe also walked orderly and kept the Law.John 5. But were they zealous of the Sabbath or not, when the unbeleeving Iews were so much offended wth Christ afore time for the carriage of a bed on the Sabbath, Acts [...]1. 28. and at this time with Saint Paul for prophaning the Temple as they supposed, it cannot be that they would suffer their Sabbath, and other Holy-dayes to be prophaned by Chri­stians, as long as their Common-wealth stood. It is then out of question that the Church at Ierusalem a long time observed the Sabbath: and now,Mention is thrice made of the Lords-day but alwayes a­mong the Gentiles. that besides the Sabbath and other Holy-dayes▪ enjoyned in the Law, they sanctifi­ed the Lords-day, and so rested from worke two dayes in every weeke I cannot beleeve without some proofe, and [...] I have seene none at all.

Answer.

Here in you fight with your own shadow, for it is easi­ly yeelded all you say; but what you would conclude hence, I see not, or what you can well conclude, from the weaknesse of the beleeving Iewes, to disprove the Lords-day to be the Sabbath; no more then you can prove Baptisme to be no Sacrament, because many of them held themselves still to Circumcision, in all which Paul was [...]aine to comply with them, that by becoming all to all he might win some. Yet still keeping the Doctrine of Christian libertie whole among the GentilesVerse 21. of that 21. Chapter. where there was no stumbling blocke, though in his practice he warped towards the weak Iews amongst them at Ieru­salem. And therefore did those, that advised him to com­ply [Page 62] with the Iewes, declare their faith in the point, and shew him that it was meerely done to winne upon their weaknesse, as appeareth in the 25. verse (which I would have you take notice of, as well as of the 20. and 24. verses Of th [...]t [...]1. Acts.) where they tell him▪ as touching the Gentiles that beleeve we have written and determined that they observe no such thing.

So that from the practice of the Apostles among the beleeving Gentiles we are to gather conclusions for our directions, and not from the practice either of the Iewes, or of the Apostles among the Iewes: For you your self will say, that the Iewes [...] observing the Sab­bath, because (you say) it was then abrogated.

And (I say) they erred in observing that day Sabbath▪ for as Iames and the elders said to [...] in the 25: verse of that 21. Chap. of the Acts, [...] say I concerning the Sabbath. That they had taug [...]t the Gentiles to observe no such thing as to keepe the [...] seventh day, nor yet did they [...]each to keepe no day Sab­bath, but instituted the Lords-day there, where they know they might doe it usefully.

Broad.

As touching the Church of the Gentiles,The Church of the Gentiles. I see no like­lyhood, that for some yeers the beleeving Gentiles came together rather on one day then on another, but esteem­ing every day alike, and assembled as often as they could with conveniency. And thus it continued (as may be thought) untill neere twentie yeeres after Christs re­surrection, for the text of Scripture, were first we finde mention of any such matter is [...]. Car. 16. which Epi­stle was written above twentie yeeres after Christ arose. as is said by some learned;The Epistle was written before the meeting at Troas. againe for a time after the Gospel was preached to the Gentiles, there was no need of an appointed day, some few only in a Citie imbracing the faith of Christ.

Answer.

Happily this is true which you say, concerning the Church of the Gentiles also, That for a long time they used no such Sabbath, but assembled as they could conve­niently; But what doth this argue, against the Lords-day being the Sabbath? no more then that of the Iews afore­said. For we are not to judge of the Church of the Gen­tiles in their worst, but in their better estate. This new Creation had at first its Chaos, as well as the old, without forme, till things were perfected by degrees, now a little and then a little: It was no little while before they were perswaded that fornication was a deadly sinne.

The Lords-day received its Institution at the consum­mation of this new Creation, as the Sabbath did at the consummation of the old; though perhaps this, by reason of the Churches non age had its intermission, like as that had, being also set a foot in its season, as that was.

But let us not pitch either upon the rudenesse of the Iews, or the rawnesse of the Gentiles to take example by, but see the disposing providence, and directing hand of God in the Apostles them selves in those times, who were ordered by the speciall instinct of the spirit, and we shall see that in the 20th. of Iohn, where in the 19th. verse it is said, that the same day at night which was the first day of the weeke, and when the doores was shut, where the Disciples were assembled for feare of the Iews, came Iesus &c. and so again in the 26th. verse: it is said, That eight dayes after, againe the Disciples were within and Thomas with them, Then came Iesus &c. Which shew­eth Gods speciall hand in assembling them on the day of Christ resurrection, and the Spirits care to record it for our learning, together with Christs approbation and bles­sing thereof by his presence.

Neither is there the least mention made of the Iewish [Page 64] Sabbath, but it is reckoned in the Text as the rest, (eight dayes after) and so Paul he passeth over the Iewish Sab­bath as an ordinary day in the 20. Acts 6. and honoureth only the first day of the weeke when he saith, That he abode at Troas seven dayes, and the first day of the weeke the Disciples being come together, &c.

Dr. Heylyn, Part. 2. pag. 22. to make the matter good, biddeth us take notice that Paul had tarryed at [...] seven dayes before this meeting; But we may do better to take notice that he wrongs the Text, which implies no such thing, but that his stay was but seven dayes in all: for the 6. verse having briefly told us Pauls journall from Philippi to Tro [...]s, it also sheweth us the number of dayes that he spent there, which were but seven in all (where we abode seven dayes saith he) and then the 7. verse hi­storizeth to us, the remarkeable example of Paul and the Disciples touching the first day of the weeke only, being silent of the rest. And upon the first day of the weeke, when the Disciples, &c. And as touching that 1 Cor. 16. which you mention. The words of Paul there seeme to take for granted the foreknowledge and acquaintance that the Christian Cori [...]ths already had of that day to be the Lords. And if so be the Lords-day be not the Sabbath, why was it kept of them, and is it now kept of us, in pa­ralel to the Sabbath, weekly, and not anniversarily or yeerely, as Easter-day and other remembrances of Christ are? and as all the times of Commemorations which the Church of her own accord dedicated have ever and only been; as we see by the feasts of Puri [...], and of dedica­tion, among the Iews, and so now amongst us Christ [...] and Easter, &c.

Broad.

We read that the Disciples weré called first Christians at Antioch, though by whose me [...] it be not said in [Page 65] the Acts, but as touching the meeting on the first day of the week,Acts 11. 26. we neither find where it began nor by whom. This (in my judgement) is very probable if not certain, that this manner of assembling on the first day of the weeke, was approved by the Apostles, as was the name of Christians: Yea and Christ himselfe may seeme to approve it likewise, in as much as on this day, he revealed those mysteries to the beloved Disciple.So long it was be­tween the writing of the first Epistle to the Corinths, and the Re­velation. About fortie yeeres after this order began, the name Lords-day was given to the first of the weeke, which name had it been given when Saint Paul wrote his first Epistle to the Co­rinths, and Saint Luke the Acts, it is probable that one of them would have used it, and yet it is not improbable that this name Lords-day was given as soone as the day began to be in any great account.

Answer.

It is true that in Antioch the Disciples were first cal­led Christians, and be the meanes what it will, it was not without the speciall hand of God, nor without a speciall prophecy and promise as appeareth in the 65 of Isaiah 15. Where the name of the Iews is cryed down, and the name of the Christians set upDr. Hall upon the place.. Ye shall leave your name as a curse unto my chosen, for the Lord God shall slay you, and call hisMarke, God him­self was the Father, and gave the name, who [...]ver was the God-father.serva [...] by another name. And as thus God prophecyed the alteration of the old name into a new, in the 15th. verse, so in the 17. verse, he prophecyed the al­teration of the Creation from old to new, together with the forgetfulnesse of the old by reason of the joyfull re­membrance of the new: which was yet further prophe­cyed by the Psalmist in the 118. Psal. 22. 24. The stone which the builders refused, that is, crucified and cast off, is the head of the corner, that is, is raised again of God and made our salvation, for this is the sense thereof, as you may see in the 4th. Acts 10, 11, 12. And what fol­loweth [Page 66] in the Prophe [...] of David? That this worke of raising up Christ againe by his mightie power is a thing marvellous in our ey [...]s. And that therefore this is the Day which the Lord Is not this divine institution, and a sufficient reas [...]n for the denomination of the Lords-day? Dr. Andrews is expr [...]sse for it, in his 13 Ser­mon upon the Resu­rection, pag. 529. Sayes he, How came it to be the Lords day? but that as it is in the Psalme, the Lord made it? And why made he it? but because on it, the stone cast aside (that is Christ) was made the head-stone of the corner, that is, be­cause then the Lord rose. hath made, for us to rejoyce and be glad in it, as it follow [...]th in the 23 and 24 verses of that 118 Ps [...]lme.

Obiect. But it will be objected, that hereby is no par­ticular day denoted, but indefinitely the time of the pub­lication of the Gospel.

Answ. To which I answer, That the promise of the accomplishment of our [...] 3. 15. on the very particular day of Christs [...] is eminently meant hereby, as is evident by comp [...]ring this place with 13 Acts 32. 33. These words. 32. And we declare unto you glad tidings, how that the promise which was made un­to the fathers. 33. God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, in that he hath raised us. Iesus againe, as it is also written in the second Psalme: Thou art my [...]onne this day ha [...]e I begotten thee. As touching the meeting on the first day of the weeke, which you say we neither finde where, nor by whom it began. I have even now shewed you the originall of it, both for time and persons; to wit, on the day of Christs resurrection by the Apostles, and the day fennight after. Had they only met the day of his re­ [...]urrection, we might have thought it had been only acci­dentall, and not of speciall providence; or if it had been recorded, that they had met any other day besides, it might somewhat have weakened the force of this argu­ment: But meeting twice, and it being recorded to be on the same day (together with the effects thereof) it doth wonderfully prove the thing to be of purposed pro­vidence, both on Gods part in assembling them then, and on Christs part in appearing to them, thereby to give ori­ginall to this Ordinance, which accordingly hath been so observed ever since. And therefore it is not likely that the Apostles tooke it up by approbation from inferiour [Page 67] Christians (nor yet that Christ honoured it only by way of approbation but also of institution, for we see what honour he gave to it a principio, by his often appearings thereon, and the gift of the Holy Ghost, Iohn 20. 22. on this day, which you so Sophister like passe over, and only instance in that which seemeth to serve your turne) but that it was taken up from them.

Though this confessed approbation of Christs, granteth it to be of the same authoritie with Baptisme, which was brought in by Iohn Baptist and ratified by Christ. And if the people of the Iews held the Baptisme of Iohn to be from heaven and not of men, though they had no ex­presse command for it but only his practice (and though the chiefe Priests and Elders beleeved him not) only for this reason, because they held Iohn as a Prophet, Matth. 21. 25, 26. and this their beliefe of Iohn and his Bap­tisme, producing sutable fruits of grace and holinesse in them, was approved of Christ, vers. 32. I wonder how any dare deny the Lords-day to be of divine institution, and affirme it humane, that know and acknowledge Paul to be an Apostle (the least whereof was greater then Iohn Baptist) and the thing of such great consequence and benefit to the Church, and otherwayes so backed: But let us labour to imitate these contemned Publicanes and harlots in beleeving this point of the Lords-day to be from heaven by divine institution, and not of men by hu­mane ordination, suffering Pauls practice as an Apostle to overrule [...] as Iohn Baptist as a Prophet did them, and framing our practice to ou [...] faith like them: And so, obeying him and his Ministers, let us not doubt in like case the approcation of Christ in our behalfes, above the over-wi [...]e unbeleevers be they [...].

And you shall [...] second Treatise, pag. 22. [...] that, o [...] taken [...] [Page 68] the Lords-day is in some sort de iure divino, in some sort, namely not by personall but by delegate autho­rity, that is, not prescribed personally and immediatly by God himselfe, but onely by vertue of that authority which by God was committed to the Apostles, for the ordering and governing of his Church, but being taken for divine Ordinance or Commandement it is not de iure divine. And further he saith, To entitle a Commandement divine is required. 1. That the authority be divine wher­by it is ordained. 2. That the Author himselfe that ordai­neth be so also, that is, that both the power whereby, and the person that doth immediatly establish it, be divine. Which divine authority is confessed to be in the Aposto­licall constitutions, but the immediate Authors are deny­ed to be divine.

Now as all other events and actions receive their de­nomination from their immediate not remote causes: so the constitutions of the Apostles, although they proceed originally from the instinct and aspiration of the Holy Ghost, Gods spirit yet proceeding immediatly from the institutions of the Apostles themselves, which delivered them unto the Church in forme of Commandements, they are to be tearmed humane constitutions, and not pro­perly divine. Thus you have Mr. Breerewoods opinion of the divine authority of the Lords-day, much more Ortho­dox then yours, only in answer to this later part, where he saith that Apostolicall actions are to be tearmed humane, from that principle, That all actions are to receive their denominations from their immediate not remote causes. He might have considered how that all the new Testa­ment is called the word of God from the remote Cause the Spirit of God, which inspired it, though the Apostles and Evangelists writ it (which were men) and that by no expresse Commandement that we finde.

Bishop White averreth against T. B. pag. 91. That our [Page 69] weekly observation of the Lords-day in the time of the Gospell is an holy and godly practise, for it is warranted by the example of the Apostles, and those Primitive Churches which were planted by the Apostles, and which received their Ecclesiasticall precepts and consti­tutions by tradition from the Apostles, so that the Apo­stles first founded it, as he further affirmes, pag. 97. saith he, It is an ignorant speech to tearme it a popish tradition, for popish traditions had not their beginnings from the Apostles. So also pag. 189. We beleeve saith he, that the holy Apostles ordained the Sunday to be a weekly Holy-day, because the Primitive Fathers, who lived some of them in the Apostles dayes, and others of them immedi­atly after, and who succeedeth them in Apostolicall Churches did universally maintaine the religious observa­tion of this day. So againe, pag. 192. It is probable that in the Churches at Corinth and Galatia, the Lords-day was made a weekly Holy-day by the Apostles (for they princi­pally governed those Churches at this time) 1 Cor. 16. 1, 2. (And yet Doctor Heylyn laboureth to prove this or­dination of Paul to the Galathians to be upon a Sabbath­day, and not upon the Lords-day.) And againe, pag. 192. It could not possibly have come to passe that all and every Apostolicall Church throughout the universall world should so early, and in the beginning of their plantation, have consented together to make the Sunday a weekly Service-day, unlesse they had been thus directed by their first founders the holy Apostles themselves, &c.

Lastly, it is a true that a long time after Christs Resur­rection was the name of Lords-day given to the first day of the weekeI have shewed be­fore the significant use of the Sabbath, paffing under the name of the first day of the week in scrip­ture before it come to be stiled the Lords-day., to wit, when the first day of the week began to be most currantly received for the Christian Sabbath: As the name of Christians was then given, when Christianity was generally professed and received, and yet was there a Sabbath before professed by many, [Page 70] as well as there were Christians and Christianity before they were so called: So that what you say of the one, you may as well say of the other.

Broad.

Now I have before acquainted thee with the agree­ment betweene divines touching this day, namely that ordinarily (some necessary businesses excepted) it is to be spent wholly in religious exercises. The difference be­ [...]ween them standeth in this point. Some will have the Lords-day to be the Commandement of Christ, or his Apostles, as the Sabbath was of God heretofore. Others will have it to be only an Ecclesiastical tradition or consti­tution, yet such an one as is of greater authority then ma­ny other Zanehius hath this saying, Traditionum enim Ec­clesiasticarum, quaedam sunt Apostolicae, qu [...]dam mere Ec­clesiasticae.He instanceth in the Lords-day.Certe quas constat ab Apostolis fuisse profectas hae plus habeant authoritatis quam relique. Red. de trad. Eccles.

Answer.

It were to be wished that how-ever Divines differ in opinion concerning the Morality, that yet they agreed in the divinity or holy practise of the Sabbath. But there are of your opinion that sticke not to say, how that the Sab­bath is but an ordinary Holy-day; and that the vacant hours which are besides the publike imployments ordained by the ChurchFor number and season. are of the same nature with working dayes, and their practise is accordingly: So that if we may judge the tree by the fruit, then may we judge their opinions by their practise which savoureth of the flesh, and not of the spirit, whose furthest progresse in the practicke part is (like some of the choisest heathens) to regulate their acti­ons [Page 71] by the light of Nature. And happily they have the lanthorne of notionall divinity shining in their heads And so take up a forme of godlinesse, but deny the power thereof, for seeing they see not, and hearing they heare not, but are wholly ignorant of the un­derstanding with the heart, which Christ speaketh of, Matt. 13. 15. They see the Law, but Gods end in it, to bring the soule sensibly senten­ced under sinne and wrath, to need and seeke a Saviour, and to keep the soul rest­lesse till it enjoy him, and accept him on any termes God doth offer him, by the sence of the depth of their filth & misery they experiment not in them, as appeares by their pride and I shmaelitish persecuting the sonnes of the free woman. They being flesh which lusts against the Spirit, and of carnall minds, which is enmity against God, do persecute him that is borne after the Spirit as was prophecyed, Gal. 4. 29. For the flesh despiseth and opposeth spirituall worship and spirituall worshippers, and being spiritually blind, sticketh not to speake evill of things they know not. And profes­sing themselves to be wise, they become fooles. It was ever the lot of truth to be rejected of the builders. Many great Rabbies (professing the key of knowledge) were greatest ene­mies to the truth, as the truth is in Christ, that is, to the sincere pro [...]ession and practice of Christianity. Christ must be set as a signe and butt of contradiction. Offences must come, but woe be to them by whom they come. For carnal Protestants are held off from the true embracing of Christ, because they see the truth and sincerity of Christ every where so resisted and hated, by those that are great and wise in their Generation. For Holinesse in the forehead was a chiefe grace, but now with us it was become a chiefe disgrace, in so much that the despised members of Christ received extreme discourage­ment (except they have such a measure of grace as raiseth them above contempt) to pro­fesse holinesse to the Lord openly, the Devill spewing out after the Church a flood of poison to drowne her But be it as it will. I pray both the scorner and the scorned, to pe­ruse considerately, the one for terrour, the other for encouragement, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. verses of the Epistle of Iude. (a cold clymate for Religion to dwell in) which they (imbracing this present world) use (as workemen doe their tooles) to get money and preferment under the co­lour of an outward calling, for the inward they looke not after; But for the knowledge of that wherein the life and soule of Religion consisteth, to wit, Christ and him cru­cified, in a saving sence, they are as ignorant in it as Nicode­mus was in the doctrine of Regeneration, which though he had read it before in the new Covenant (Ezek. 11. 19.) yet seeing he saw not, no more doe these, and therefore no wonder if they cry downe the authority of the Lords-day, that have no acquaintance with the Lord of the day, but instead of serving him as their Lord and Master, they serve themselves of him, making his Gospell (wherein they should labour in season and out of season) to be their stalking horse, to convey them the more plausibly to their prey of preferment here on earth, and leave that [Page 72] of Heaven for such fooles as they call Puritanes. I meane not non-conformists, except they be such as they meane, that is, Men that make not Religion to consist in know­ledge, but in living according to their knowledge in in­ward and outward holinesse, not being vainly puffed up by a fleshly minde with a voluntary obedience of will­worship, or meere formall holinesse, or morall excellen­cies, or civill and naturall righteousnesse; but holding the Head, labouring to increase with the increase of God, and to grow in the excellent and humbling knowledge of the simplicity of Christ, to the praise of the glory of his grace; in a word, such as the Scripture calleth Saints, and prophane men, Precisians.

No men greater enemies to preaching. A conscionable Minister, that is painfull in the discharge of his calling, la­bouring to save the soules of his flocke, preaching twice a day, and the name of a Lecturer (so called for distinction sake) stinks in ther nostrils, as they doe in Gods. I wonder how such men come to be called Divines or Preachers, that thus defile their owne nest, accounting soule-saving preaching, foolishnesse, and in a spitefull pride calumni­ating those that with conscience and diligence labour in the worke of the Lord.

How necessary is it, thinke we, then to maintaine the Prerogative of the Sabbath, when men of this Coate (like swine) tread holy things under their feet.

But let such ponder that place of the Evangelist, and apply it, Matt. 5. 19. Whosoever shall breake one of these least Commandements, and teach men so, he shall be cal­led the least in the kingdome of heaven.

But to come to the difference it selfe, I answer, That I know no Divines that doe affirme Christ to have left it in expresse mandatory tearmes that that day should be kept Sabbath nor yet Holy-day; for indeed there is no such Commandement extant in the new Testament: But they say, That it is likely Christ did teach it to his Apo­stles [Page 73] before his deathAs he did the place of meeting after his Resurrection, Matt. 28. 16., which though it be more then I know, yet sure I am their meeting thus emphatically re­corded in Scripture to be on that very day, and the day sennight, of Christs Resurrection, and answerably practi­sed after by Paul, is doubtlesse of binding authority, and to an exemplary use and end: And how-ever it be, that Christ did or did not, teach them by word of mouth be­fore his death, questionlesse in that thing, at that time, they were especially taught of God, the instinct and secret gui­dance of the Spirit being in stead of a Commandement to them (though perhaps for present they were ignorant of their owne practice, as Mary was, when she powred the boxe of oyntment upon Christs head, that she did it for his burying) and doing the same thing that day sen­night; We have just cause to thinke that Christ had an hand in it, though it be not expressed in the word, he ha­ving appeared to them the day before, and the same effect ensuing upon the same occasion, to wit, his appearing to them being met againe.

And therefore what though the Puritanes (as Bishop White stiles them, from T. B. pag. 185.) cannot shew the Lords-day to be made a Sabbath by any written Law (he meanes no doubt in the new Testament) may not the un­erring spirit of the Apostles suffice us, seeing that himselfe saith, pag. 119. The inspiration of [...]od is of as great effica­cy and authority as his writing, wherewith the Apostles doubtlesse were directed in the instituting of an exem­plary perpetuall observation to the Church.

And whereas (I say) the instinct of the Spirit was as a Law or Commandement to the Apostles, in this parti­cular of instituting the Lords-day upon Christs Resurre­ction. I would to this purpose commend the considerati­on of Moses his instituting the Sabbath, upon the fall and gathering of a double portion of Mannah in 16. Exod. which yet we doe not finde in termes to be taught him of God then, when that Law of Mannah was commanded, [Page 74] ver. 5. Fulke upon the 1▪ Revel. is peremptory and saith, That for the prescription of the Lords-day before any other of the seven, they had without doubt either the ex­presse Commandement of Christ before his ascension when he gave them precepts concerning the kingdome of God, and the ordering and government of his Church, Acts 1. 2. or else the certaine direction of his Spirit, that it was his will and pleasure it should be so, and that also according to the Scriptures, seeing that there is the same reason of sanctifying that day in which our Saviour Christ accomplished out Redemption, and the restitution of the world by his Resurrection from death, that was of [...]anctifying the day, in which the Lord rested from the Creation of the world. Nor can it be denyed (I thinke) but that the Apostles had many things taught them privately by Christ, which afterwards upon occasion they publi­shed, some by precept, and some by exampleMatt 10. 27.. And wee may be the rather induced that Paul had received it from Christ, if so be we consider how ingenuous he is to ac­knowledge what he had not received in the 1 Cor. 7. 25. As concerning virgins (saith he) I have no Commande­ment of the Lord, but I give you mine advice. And Zanchy observes that he taught them not so much by words, as by the efficacy of the Spirit, which being their unerrable guide in all things concerning the Church, we may well allow to be ours in this matter of the Lords-day by vertue of their exemplary Ordinance. Their practice and example, I doubt not you will say, had been enough without precept (and I remember none they have in any expresse tearmes from Christ) for the ordaining Pastors and Ministers, nor doe I think you will deny them to be iure divino. But granting this is not commanded by Christ, yet are you no gainer by it. For I doe the rather thinke that because no expresse mention is made of it in the new Testament by way of Commande­ment, it should seeme the rather to be the Sabbath. Thus [Page 75] Eatonus de Sabbato, pag. 69. de institutione & iure diei dominicae ait. Non opus erat mandato novo, cum vetus illud mandatum de observando Sabbato in vigore esset, & adhuc est, iam autem novum praceptum ferre de re illa, quae veteri pracepto stabilita fuerat, esset vetus praceptum abolore. Christus autem non venit abolere legem sed implere. And indeed God is most precise as we see, both in Innocency and under the Iewes, to prescribe the dayes of his so­lemne worship by speciall Commandement, and so cer­tainly would he have done this if it had been a new thing; but being not commanded in the new Testament, it ought the rather to be taken for granted in the matter of it, from the fourth CommandementAnd indeed to any sober minde that knoweth the Law of the Sabbath, these things are sufficient to let us know that this is the Sabbath., and in the manner to be regulated by the Apostles example (which should be of force to us, as well as Davids eat [...]ng the Shew­bread was to the Iewes) else God would never have let such a day, which hath ever in the Church been received as a weekly Sabbath, to have been without an expresse Commandement; especially considering how precise he was in that point, even son the dayes that were appointed for the solemning of the Type in the Time of the Iews. And yet as [...] saith, pag. 70. Nulla est conseque [...]ti [...], Non [...] dixit & fecit Dominus noster de quibus [...] [...]pud Ev [...]ngelistas facta est mentio, satis au­ [...] [...]

It is no new thing, both to belee [...]e a thing to be [...] divi [...], for which yet there is none other commandement (expressed then practice, as also to beleeve that it was commanded of God, though there be no specification of any such Commandement in holy writ, as for instance in [Page 76] the sacrificing that was before the Law, where finde you any Commandement to sacrifice, before you finde Abel sacrificing? And yet (I beleeve) you doubt not but there was a command or something equivalent. Neither can you other-wayes thinke, but when Noah at his going into the Arke, tooke with him beasts both cleane and unclean, he was instructed from heaven, which was which, though no such instruction appeare.

Againe did not Christ, in the instituting of the new Sabbath, imitate his father in his manner of instituting the old in the old Creation: For what Commandement did God give at first? Was it any other then a declaration of his owne practice to Adam, whom he had then extra­ordinarily made, that he by his practice should teach it to his posterity? So doth not Christ the like? For because he rested by rising on the first day of the weeke from the worke of our Redemption and re-creation, therefore did he blesse and hallow it, by his example to his Apo­stles, whom he had extraordinarily called (that they by their example should doe the like to others) with those many manifestations of himselfe, and admirable blessings, which he then bestowed on them. Which practice of Christ doth wonderfully make good both the Morality of the Sabbath, and justifieth the alteration of it also to the first day of the weeke. For whereas God at the first bles­sed it, that is, appointed it to be a day wherein he would especially confer spirituall blessings. We see Christ accor­dingly doth still on this day blesse and enlighten his Apostles, by appearing to them being together glorifying God.

Now if you will say that Adams posterity (whom in your first Chapter you say, it is probable, had they continu­ed in Innocency, should alwayes have followed Gods ex­ample in working sixe dayes and resting the seventh) should have sanctified the last of seven by Tradition from God and Ad [...]ms examples, I will easily yeeld you that by [Page 77] the like tradition from Christ and his Apostles example, we doe now keep the first day of the weeke.

Broad.
CHAP. II. The latter Opinion maintained.

THe Primitive Christians for the most part held the latter opinion, as I gather by this that followeth. Iustin Martyr in his second Apologie writeth after this manner.Apol. ad calcem, We hold these assemblies on the Sunday be­cause on that day God began to make the world, and also our Saviour Iesus Christ arose from the dead. Hereby it is manifest that Iustin knew not of a Commandement from Christ or his Apostles, for should a Rabbin yeeld a reason of their meeting on the Sabbath, would it not be because God had so commanded it, who on that day rest­ed after the Creation and sanctified it? And so would Iustin no doubt had he tooke their meeting to be enjoyn­ed by Christ or his Apostles, we hold these Assemblies on the Sunday because Christ hath so commanded, who on that day rose againe from the dead. Thus I am sure some would be ready to write in these dayes.

Answer.

The opinion of the Ancients (how-ever you may force them to speake) was that one day in a weeke, or the seventh day, was still of force by vertue of the fourth Commandement, (and that the individuall first day of the weeke was from Christ or his Apostles or both) as appeareth in that they call the sanctifying of the Lords­day a keeping of the Sabbath. So Ignatius (who ad Mag­nes. chargeth those Christians to worke on the Iewes seventh day) doth yet say. Let every of us keepe Sab­bath [Page 78] spiritually [...] ad Mag­n [...]s. [...]: (speaking in opposition to the Iews manner of superstitious Sabbatizing) so that he cryeth down both their day and manner of hallowing it [...] of this page 50. in margin. [...] temp. [...]51. if his., and yet maintaineth the Sabbath to be yet still on foot, and exhorteth them to the right keeping it. St. Augustine also saith. So we also sanctifie the Sabbath the Lord say­ing, Ye shall not doe any worke therein. And as Mt. Ri­chard Byfeild saith, The Apostle to the Heb. 4. 9. Doubt­ed not to apply the name of Sabbath to the Christian people and our Re [...], saying, That the people of God have their Sabbatisme left unto them. For humane authorities in this point, I further referre you to the 21 and 26. Chap. of Mr. Richard Byfeild.

But to shew your leger-de-maine I proceed to that of Iustin Martyr. In which (I say) he doth as Paul some­times doth concerning his Apostleship, Demonstrating it by such arguments as do properly constitute an Apostle. So Iustin in his Apologie for Christians doth first shew the reason of the Christian Sabbath, i. e. Our new Crea­tion by Christ, who by his resurrection brought light out of darknesse in the first day of the Creation.

But had you looked further (as no doubt you did) you might have seen his opinion to be more then you make it, even witnessing Christ to have taught it to his Apostles, as you shall finde it quoted by Mr. Richard Byfeild Chap. 21. pag. 124.. So that you deale with Iustin Martyr as men deale with Mag-pyes, cut their tongues shorter to teach them to speake what they would have them. And yet a R [...]bbin might have laid down the Reason and concealed the Commandement without solloecisme or errour, unlesse you will say it was a fault in Rabbi Moses, for so he pro­scribeth the Israelites to answer their children, when they should aske them concerning the Passeover, as you may see in the 12. Chap. of Exod. 26. 27. so also in the 13 Exod. 13, 14, 15, 16. You shall see the reason of a dutie delivered from the parent to the children, by precept from [Page 79] Moses, without any specification of the Commande­ment it self.

Broad.

Si dies observare non licet, & menses, [...] lib. Com. [...] E [...]st. ad G [...]. & tempora & annos, nos quo (que) simile crimen incurrimus, quartum Sab­bati observantes & parascenem & diem dominicum & ie­iunium Quadragesima. See the place and note that he doth not yeeld a peculiar reason for the observation of the Lords-day.

Constantinus imperator concessit rusticis,Euseb. de vita Co [...]st. lib. 4. Cap. 19. ut diebus do­minicis agrorum culturae, pro ut ipsi viderint fore necessari­um inservirent. Idoneum vero precationi tempus saluta­rem diem dominicum constituebat, quippe qui tum verè praecipu [...]s est, tum ha [...]d dubie primus.

Note the reason Eusebius rendereth of this constituti­on of Constantine, and consider withall that Constan [...]ine would not have so constituted, if in his judgement our Saviour Christ had before appointed the Lords-day to this end; Did ever a Christian Prince simply decree that the Lords Supper should be administred? As many Christian Princes and Councels as have simply decreed the observation of the Sunday, were doubtlesse of this opinion.

Answer.

For answer to this, I referre you to Mr. Richard By­foild, Chap. 29. where the Reader may herein receive satisfaction.

Broad.

As touching moderne writers Calvin saith, [...] lib. 2 cap. 8. sect. 34. Veteres subrogarunt diem dominicum in locum Sabbati.

[Page 80] Zanchius saith,In 4 Prece [...]t. that the Lords-day, Nullum habet Do­mini mandatum.

Dr. Feild saith,Book 4. Church, Chap. 20. that the Lords-day is an Apostolicall tradition not precept.

The Book of Homilies (not to stand upon other) saith,Homily of the place and time of pray [...]r. That Christian people chose the first day which is as much in effect as that it is not Christs Commande­ment. Will any man say that the people of Israel chose the seventh day? Now of this opinion I am, and these are my reasons.

(1.)

Had Christ or his Apostles commanded to sanctifie the Lords-day, mention should have been made thereof in Gods word, for the Scripture containeth in it all things needfull for our instruction. Seeing then we finde not mention of any such matter, I cannot beleeve that Christ or his Apostles gave Commandement to sanctifie the Lords-day.

Obiect. Every thing to be done by us is not mentioned in Scripture.

Answ. No marvell though some particulars be not mentioned, but consider that were it [...]ods expresse Commandement we should sanctifie a day, this were a matter of great moment concerning all men, and very often, and therefore it may well seeme a wonder, that Christ and his Apostles should be so silent herein, as never to exhort any man to sanctifie the Sabbath or Lords-day, nor to reprove any for the prophaning of either of them. We see how often Moses and the Prophets called upon the Israelites to sanctifie the Sabbath, and how often and earnestly many now cry out for the sanctifying of the Lords-day no man can be ignorant.

Obiect. The Precept of the Sabbath was in force du­ring Christs time, yet Christ never moved the people to sanctifie the Sabbath, nor reproved any for prophaning thereof.

[Page 81] Answ. Though it were then in force, yet its strength began to weare a pace from the dayes of Iohn Baptist, and therefore no marvell, seeing the Sabbath and other Cere­monies were shortly to give up the ghost, though Christ passeth them over as he doth, contenting himselfe to preach the Kingdome of God, which is not meat nor drinke, (nor times nor places) but righteousnesse and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost, Rom. 14.

(2.)

Saint Luke taketh upon him to write the Acts of the Apostles, and it were very strange that if any thing had been done by the Apostles concerning the changing of the Sabbath into the Lords-day, he should wittingly omit such a weightie matter. In the 15 Acts, he giveth us to understand that after the Gospel was preached to the Gentiles, some would have them to be circumcised, and and keepe the Law of Moses, one part of which Law was the sanctifying of the Sabbath or seventh day: Here­upon the Apostles and Elders came together to consult, at which meeting there was not one word (that we find) of changing or observing any day whatsoever, al­though no doubt they which urged Circumoi [...]ion urged the Sabbath in like manner, For Baptisme might serve In stead of Circumcision as well as the Lords-day in stead of the [...]. Had they befo [...]e made a Dec [...]ee, con­cerning the changing of the Sabbath into the Lords-day, [...] just occasion was [...] same,To handle the point and not to in [...]mate so much as any diffe­rence between daies, if any there were, had not beene wis­dome in Paul, especi­ally writing to stran­gers, the Romanes must needs have thought him con­trary to their former teachers. or if they had [...] something concerning this matter. After this time it is not likely that the Apostles [...] met together in Coun­cell [...]gain.

(3.)

Had the [...] would have charged all men to observe the same Decr [...]ee, [...] one man to esteeme of [Page 82] dayes one way, and to another another way as he doth, Rom. 14. 5. One man esteemeth one day above another, ano­ther esteem th everyday alike. Let every man be fully per­swaded in his minde. The Apostles I know used to beare for a time with the weake, but they would not have born with those who held new and ungodly opinions, as he did that esteemed every day alike, if every day had not been alike. He that esteemed every day alike, no doubt used every day alike, and had this been tolerable in any sort, were it Gods Commandement to sanctifie any day? This Chapter doth much trouble some in these dayes, and they feare not to tearme him weake there after Saint Paul that esteemeth every day alike, howsoever he be strong that esteemeth every meat alike. But is he to be tearmed weake that esteemeth a day sanctified by God like unto all other dayes? rather ignorant and ungodly, would not Saint Paul presently have such an one instruct­ed in this matter? The weake brother esteemed one meat above another, and one day above another, the strong bro­ther beleeved that he might eate all things and so esteem­ed every day alike, according to Paul, and it is good hold­ing of Paul herein.

(4.)

Saint Paul alone by way of Doctrine teacheth of dayes,Rom. 14. Col. 2. Gal. 4. he teacheth of them purposely in three severall Epistles, in these he delivereth as much as is needfull to be taught about this matter. And now all that can be ga­thered by his Doctrine is, that there is no more account to be made of one day then of another. Saint Pauls Do­ctrine (saith Mr. F [...]x) putteth no difference nor obser­vation in times and dayes,In the summe of Saint Pauls doctrine before Acts and Mo­numents. It is a true saying and worthy of all men to be received.

In a word Christ and his Apostles never commanded to observe a day, they never reproved for not observing. Saint Paul reproved the Galathians for observing dayes, and writing to the Romanes and Colossians he sheweth [Page 83] the indifferency of dayes as of meats, speaking of one as of the other, among these he had never been. The Ga­lathians turned from the Gospel he had preached to them, so that he had diverse times just occasion to shew his minde fully in this point. Yet doth he never so much as intimate the least difference between dayes, or be­tween dayes and meats. Now what Christ or his Apo­stles could doe more, to make us know that Religion is not placed in the observation of dayes I cannot imagine.

Answer.

I have in the introduction of this Treatise shewne you Mr. Calvins opinion of the fourth Commandement,Com. on Gen. 2. to be universall and perpetuall, and how? but by the succes­sion of the first day of the weeke to the last.

Zanchy saith,In 4. Pracept. Morale est mandatum quatenus praecepit ut è septem diebus unum consecremus, &c. quatenus tale nunquam fuit abrogatum nec abrogari potest. And yet if the fourth Commandement be not observed in the Lords-day it is abrogated.

The Book of Homilies maketh this good likewise of the divinum ius of the Lords-day, as it is the seventh day, from the fourth Commandement as hath been shewed before; and so hath your objection been answered in re­spect of the peoples choosing the Lords-day, by a refe­rence to Mr. Cleaver his Moralitie of the Law, pag. 137.

And now of this opinion am I.

I have ever granted you that the Christian Sabbath is not by any expresse precept from Christ or his Apostles enjoyned, nor is it needfull,Nay it had been prejudiciall as Eato­nus observ [...]th, pag. 69. Novum praecep­tum ferre dere illâ, quae v [...]teri praecep [...]o stabili­t [...] fu [...]rat esset v [...]tus praec [...]tum abolere, quod [...]ristus venit impl [...]re, to be due jure divino, but forsooth the Sabbath must be jure humano. for if upon this ground you will conclude it to be an arbitrary practise and not de iure divino They can allow Tithes, you may as well cry down the writings of the Apostles, and turne Anabaptist in point of baptizing of [Page 84] Infants. For as for the Scriptures, what expresse precept of Christs, have we to his Apostles for writing of them? and [...] the Epistles were most of them occasionally written by the Apostles, and yet who of us for these rea­sons denyeth them to be the work of God, universall and [...] divi [...]o? F [...]urth Po [...]ke Church, ch [...]p. [...]. For as Feild saith in answer to the Papists, [...] the imperfection of the Scriptures because they were written by the Apostles and Apostolicall men of their own motions, and not by Commandement from Christ (which is a paralel argument to this of the Chri­stian Sabbath and the answer equall to both) who know­eth not (saith he) that the Scriptures are not of any pri­vate motion, but that the holy [...] of God were moved, impelled and carryed by the Spirit of truth th [...] the per­formance of this worke, doing nothing without the in­stinct of the Spirit which was [...] the [...] a Commande­ment. And why may not all these reasons and grounds warrant, and give equall force to their practice in the point of our Christian Sabbath or Lords-day as well as to their writing of Scripture. So speaketh Dr. Ames. med. pag. 359. Si dies bac dominica conced [...]ur fuisse Aposto­ [...] [...] author it as [...] est divina, quia divino Spirit [...] agebantur Apostoli, non minus in Sacris institutionibus, quam in ipsa doctrina Ev [...]ngelii, vel verbo vel script is proponenda. Especially seeing that the same things that accompanied the Go­spel, did accompany the Sabbath, the better to approve it to be of God, to wit, The gift of the holy Ghost.

And now we know there is nothing more ordinary in Scripture, then for God to grace the first institutions of his Ordinances, with extraordinary tokens of his savour, which are of an argumentative nature, and of an establi­shing and instituting force. As at the first setting up of the San [...]drin among the Iewes, Numb. 11. 25. Every one of the seventy Elders prophecyed for a while, to testifie that their calling was from heaven. And though divers others [Page 85] besides these have had the Spirit of Prophecy bestowed on them, that yet nothing detracts from Gods sealing the ordination of this Councell or Sanedrin by the Seventies prophecying. So though Christ appeared to his Disciples on other dayes, besides the first day of the weeke, yet it detracteth not from his instituting and authorizing that day by his remarkable apparitions and operations thereon, as Dr. Heylyn would insinuate, part. 2. pag. 13.

Againe at the instituting of the Leviticall priesthood and sacrifices, there came a fire from the Lord, and consu­med the burnt offering: also at Christs baptizing we see how extraordinarily the Spirit came down in likenesse of a Dove; and so at Peters first preaching to the Gentiles, what an extraordinary worke was there wrought, Acts 10. 44. And may not we well conclude the divinity of the Lords-day from these manifold rare occurrences which fell out in the practice or usage of itWe have Davids ex­ample in a like case, for in the 1 Chron. 22. he there concludeth Ieruselem to be the place that God had chosen for his more solemne worship, by that speciall token of Gods favour to it, in delivering it from the destroying Angell., and such as are most remarkably and eminently recorded in Scripture, menti­oning the Time as well as the things themselves, As, That Christ appeared to them on the first day of the weeke, and the first day of the weeke they had the gifts of the Holy Ghost given them, and on the Lords day Saint Iohn was ravished in the Spirit (not any other day in the weeke ha­ving the honour to be denominated the day of his appea­rance in all the New Testament, though no doubt he did appeare to them on other dayes of the weeke, besides the first, in those other times of his appearances) And why is all this? But to give the better authority and estimate to that day: Which we may the rather judge, because that since then God hath shewne extraordinary judgements upon the breakers and prophaners of it, which being fre­quently and remarkably instanced, I will referre you for them to the Martyr-booke, Practice of Piety, and Mr. Ri­chard Byfeild, pag. 99. 100. 101. As also if we consider the benefits, which nationally we have enjoyed therby, above all other Protestant Churches, of Peace, Plenty, and also [Page 86] powerfull Preaching and ProfessingWhich now begin to leave us, and to decline together with the Sabbaths declensi­on. For as one pi­ously observeth, The Ark shaketh through the old Sinnes and new Doctrines of our land. for a long season, and which doe experimentally and personally redound to the due observers of it, how extraordinarily and feelingly they delight themselves in the Lord, according to that promise Isai. 58. ult. So that then beleeve it for the works sake, as Christ saith in another case. And indeed Argumen­tum ab effectis, is an argument of no small evidence and power with those that professe Christianity in the power of it: The want of which medium in the experiences of men (either not at all wrought in them, or else not taken notice of by them) is the cause of so many false conclusions in these dayes, as well as it was amongst the Galathians, till Paul (a man of spirit) put them in minde, Gal. 3. 2. And observe it as a maine argument in this way of experience, That at the first beginning of mens con­versions, when God enlighteneth and convinceth the Conscience, commonly the first thing the Conscience fa­stens on, is the mispending the Sabbath, and the first duty that he conscionably putteth in practice upon his conver­sion, is commonly the better sanctifying and keeping the Sabbath.

Now as touching the baptizing of Infants, there is neither an expresse precept for it, nor yet an example of expresse practise delivered in Scripture; and yet the grounds, causes and reasons of the necessity of that pra­ctice, and the benefit or good that followeth on it, are evi­dently contained in the Scripture, and for this respect it is named a tradition: But yet the grounds of it being in Scripture (as Feild in the fore-quoted place observes) it is not therefore a bare tradition, but is therefore of Divine authority, and unalterable in the Church of God. The same in all respects holdeth good concerning the Sabbath, and with some advantage, for that there is the expresse practice of the Apostle Paul in this point mentioned in the Scripture, which is not so in the baptizing of Chil­dren. And this is apparant, that those things which had [Page 87] their grounds and reasons in Scripture, the Apostles were not curious or exact in commanding them expressely, nor intreating of them largely, except they were then contro­verted and scrupled at, which (it seemeth) the Lords-day was not, but was currantly received and practised among the Gentile converts (the Infant Iewes being born with­all) for on that day they ordinarily were wont to celebrate both the death and resurrection of Christ, the one by the Sacrament, and the other by the Sabbath, as appeareth, Acts 20. 7. And therefore Saint Paul when he speaketh of it, still mentioneth it as a thing granted and not doubted of, although the Ceremoniall or Iewish temporary Sab­baths, as like wise the Ceremoniall meats were, which maketh the Apostle so often and so largely handle that point.

Thus Eatonus, pag. 69. Nullum praeceptum de ritu ali­quo. Iudaico abrogando à Domino nostro Apostolis & Dis­cipulis suis relictum legitur. Nusquam dicitur Pascham, non comedetis, non circumcidemini, & similia, Solum enim controversia in Ecclesiiis de illis orta est ex occasione ista. Apostoliritus illos prohibuerunt, iam autem cum in confess [...] est diem nostrum dominicum à nullo Christiano impugna­tum fuisse, non mirandum est, si nullum de illo observando vel abrogando Sabbato Iudaico mandatum expressum repe­rimus. Est tamen generale mand [...]tum de illo observando comprehensum in illo Apostoli, Estote imitatores mei, sieut & ego sum Christi.

And thus much may serve for answer both to your opinion and reasons, as also for the remainder of your Treatise (excepting some short observations) for what fol­loweth hath been mostly spoken of before both by you and me.

Broad.
CHAP. III. The former Opinion confuted.

1. CHrist did not command us to sanctifie the Lords-day. Such as would have us beleeve that our Saviour Christ himselfe enjoyned the Lords-day, goe about to prove it by his practice.

1. Because he appeared to his Disciples on the first day as they were assembled together, Iohn 20.

Answ. This assembling was for feare of the Iewes, and it was a very strange kinde of teaching them by his practice to observe the day, not to come unto them till late in the Evening, about halfe an houre before the end thereof, for the night following belonged unto the second day, other wise either that first day had two nights belon­ging to it, or else I cannot see how Christ lay three dayes in his grave.

Answer.

Had this record of the Apostles being assembled and Christ appearing at this time been alone recorded, there might have been some probable conjecture that it might be but accidentan (although the Text is very exact and ex­pressive concerning the time: for having in the first verse of the 20. Iohn, spoken of the first day of the weeke, the 19. verse reduplicateth that with a significant explanation (as if the Evangelist would be loth to be mistaken in that point of Time) saying, The same day then at night which was the first day of the weeke, &c.) But being se­conded with the like afterwards, it argueth it to be orde­red by God of a purposed providence, especially if we [Page 89] take along the event and succeeding practice of the Apo­stles and Church ever after, which to all sober minds put­teth it past doubt. And as touching that you say their mee­ting was for feare of the Iewes, happily the privacy of it was so, but why they should feare the Iewes more on that day, then on any other I see no reason, and there­fore can it be no reason of their then assembling.

And now concerning Christs appearing to them at the Evening of the same day, it is so farre from lessening the authority of this institution, as that, being compared with Gods institution of the first Sabbath, which according to your own confession was about the end thereof, it giveth much force thereto.

And although I meane to be briefe in what followeth, yet I must needs by the way shew you M. Breerewoods refutation in this point by Mr. Richard Byfeild, pag. 211. Saith he there. Concerning the authority that translated the Sabbath, you say it is certaine that the translation thereof was actually and immediately prescribed by the Church, deale ingenuously and shew me where, if in Scripture then I answer, that it was not immediately pre­scribed by the Church, for the Apostles were not Authors of the institution, but ministers of Christ and pen-men of the holy- [...]host: If in Ecclesiasticall writers, I answer, they all referre us to the Apostles and the Scriptures. This opinion therefore is so farre from certaine, that it is cer­tainly false. You say againe, That certainly Christ never gave his Apostles particular charge of instituting a new Sabbath, either while he conversed with them on earth; or afterwards by Revelation. How know you this? The Apostles delivered many things that the Evangelists did not set downe, not themselves expressely say, that they re­ceived them from the Lords mouth, That they concealed Christs command from the Church, that is, this particular expression in so many words, that Christ, commanded it, this maketh to prove that it was given them in charge by Christ, for else when the Apostles enjoyned it, they would [Page 90] have said of that their injunction as of other things, 1 Cor. 7. 6, 12, 25. We speake this by permission, and not by Commandement: We have no Commandement of the Lord, but we speake our iudgement, Herein speak we, not the Lord. This institution then (to use your owne lan­guage; of a new day of solemnity instead of an old Sab­bath) was of the [...] and necessity of the Apostles Commission not of the libe [...]ty. The Apestles did nothing in ordering the Church but from and by Christ, either by precept or example or divine inspiration: And it is more then probable they had speciall warrant from Christ in ex­presse change, when we compare together their precept and practice, with these two Texts, Matt. 28. 20, Acts 1. The first enjoyning the Apostles to teach what he com­manded, and to teach and baptize, in which Ordinances teaching such things he would be with them to the worlds end. [...] The later declaring that Christ spake the things pertaining to the kingdome of God to his Disci­ples in these forty dayes before his ascensionBesides this in the 2. verse of 1 Acts, it is said, untill the day that hee was taken up, after that he, through the holy Ghost, had given Commandements to the Apostles whom he had chosen. For all that you say therefore, it is certaine the Sabbath was translated by the same authority that first commanded it.

Broad.

2. Because after eight dayes he came to them againe, Iohn 20. 26. Ans. This were more strange, for how can they prove that a weeke is meant thereby? A weeke after is but seven dayes, and should thy friend departing from thine house on Sunday at night, promise to come again af­ter eight dayes, wouldst thou expect his coming upon that day seven-night? either it was not a weeke, or Saint Iohn dreamt not of such a collection, for otherwise he would have said so plainly. Matthew and Marke have the like phrase,Matt. 17. 1. Mark 92 compared with Luk. 9. 28. and seeing by after six dayes they meane on the se­venth, it is some likelyhood that Iohn by after eight dayes, may meane on the ninth, this is more probable.

Answer.

These words of Iohn after eight dayes,Paralel places to this are, Mark. 8. 31. after. 3. dayes, id [...]est, the third day, and Ie [...]. 25 12. when 70. yeares are accomplished, i. e. in the seventieth yeare. or as it is in the Geneva eight dayes after, what do they intend more then if I should say, Eight dayes hence I will doe such a thing. Surely according to this propriety of speech, the eighth day is the fittest to be understood. So here after eight dayes is as much as if he had said, after eight dayes were come, or after the eighth day was come (signifying there­by that it was the first day of the weeke and not the last,And M Sprint, pag. 138. observes that it is as if he should say, The eighth day after by an Hebraisme, & quoteth further the like speech in Luke 2. 21, and 1. 59. which as I observed before, from comparing the 1. and 19 verses of this Chapter, he is c [...]ious (and sure not without cause) to notifie unto us) againe his Disciples were with­in, &c.

Thus E [...]t [...]nus [...] pag. 71. saith: Parum obstat obi [...]ctioilla [...] The two Evang. speake of 6. daies, and Luke 8. dayes after. Six inclusive, and eight exclusive. non ipso [...]ctav [...] esset sed non s [...]bsequente; Obiectio (in­qu [...]) haeo par [...] [...]alet, quia vel Synechdochicè exponenda [...] verba illa, [...]t alibi saepiu [...] in scriptura,There are 6. dayes in the week; and Sabbath and Sabbath make eight, on the former Sabbath he appeared, and the next succee­ding. sic [...]t Luk. 2. 21. [...]

Broad.

3. [...].

[...] [Page 92] Supper in memory of his Passion, and 3. of the Evange­lists together with Saint Paul make mention thereof, what the least shew of Scripture or reason can be alleadg­ed, where fore if Christ would have a day kept in memory of his resurrection, he should not command so by word of mouth, or commanding so the Evangelists should not commit it so to writing but leave us to picke out his mea­ning in such a sort?

Answer.

So in the instance that you gave even now, from the expression of the Evang. Matt. 17. 1. (After sixe dayes) had it not been as easie for him and the rest to have said the seventh day (if they had meant the seventh day) as after six dayes? But it seemeth had you been in those dayes a follower of Christ, you would now and then have stopped before him, and have given him occasion to have plucked you back, with a Come behind me; Or his councel­lor, Then alwaies when the Iewes had asked a Miracle, he should have shewed them one, and not have suffered them to have gone so farre about, as to finde their desire in the miracle of Ion [...], nor have bid the man carry his bed on the Sabbath, but he should also have given satisfaction to the Iewes in the point, nor have turned the water into wine after they had well drunken, but withall he should have preached sobriety to them. Doe you preach it to your selfe.

Indeed if there had been no footsteps nor grounds for this in the old Testament, or that the Apostles had not had the assistance of the holy Ghost, then it had been somwhat which you alleadge. But as there is nothing so cleerely ex­pressed, but wrangling and perverse spirits will finde some matter of controversie thence, so some things are left purposely to try mens spirits, whether they delight more in sobriety or disturbance.

[Page 93]It seemeth you cannot satisfie your selfe with crying downe the fourth Commandement or old Sabbath, but you would also perswade that the sanctifying of the Lords-day (the day which, as the Psalmist saith, the Lord hath made for us to rejoyce and be glad in) is against Christs will, or at least not with his will, when you say, If Christ would have a day kept in memory of his resurre­ction. &c.

Broad.

2. The Apostles did not command us to sanctifie the Lords-day.

That the Apostles commanded us to sanctifie the Lords-day, some goe about to prove.

1.1 Cor. 16. 2. Because Saint Paul ordained that upon the first day of the weeke collections should be made in the Churches of the Corinthians and the Galathians.

Answ. If they met usually upon the Lords-day, it may seeme strange, that Saint Paul had not rather ordained that a collection should have been made in the Congre­gation, then that every one should lay by him in store (at home) as God had prospered him, thus we would thinke that their benevolences would have been in greater readi­nesse. But be it that they met every first day, yet by whom this manner began is uncertaine. They themselves will have it begun long before Saint Paul tooke this order about the Collection.

Further,See D. Field of the Church, booke 4. Chap. 20. Zanch. de red chap. 10. de trad. Eccles. let Saint Paul be the author thereof, yet every ordinance of an Apostle doth not bind us in these times, yea this very ordinance doth not. Were there the like collection to be made, who would take himselfe to be bound every first day to lay up by him in store, as God had prospered him?

Answer.

Certainly this Ordinance of Saint Paul, doth wonder­fully commend this day, and argue the point in hand. For first they were hereby prompted, to give to the poore members of Christ, as they had received from him a worke becoming an holy day, and conducing to the pious hallowing thereof, like as did those charitable cures which Christ wrought on the Sabbath-day.

If they met usually upon the Lords-day (say you) it may seeme strange, &c. Bishop White telleth you, page 211, 212. That although this Text of Sa [...]nt Paul maketh no expresse mention of Church assemblies on this day, yet because it was the custome of Christians, and likewise it is a thing convenient to give almes upon the Church dayes. It cannot well be gain-said but that in [...] and Galat [...] the first day of every weeke was appointed to be the day for almes and charitable contributions, The same was also the Christians weekely Holy-day for their religious assemblies. Secondly, it argueth their rest on [...] day, from the labours of the [...] dayes, with a re­co [...]ection, and tha [...]kefull calling to minde the blessing of God upon their foregoing week-day labours, and what can there be more Sabbath-like.

Dr. Heylyn, parr. 2. pag. 26. [...] prove this laying up to be appointed by [...] on some Sab­bath day or other (and to a little before doth he labour to make then meeting at Tro [...] to be on the Sabbath- [...] too, and not on the first day of the weeke) and yet pag. 27. he [...].

Acts. That as concerning the Gentiles which beleeve we have written and determined that they observe no such thing as the Law of Moses, whereof the Sabbath was a part saith he. Now these things are very incon­sistent. [Page 95] That Paul should countenance the Sabbath even among the beleeving Gentiles at Troas, and command this laying up thereon also to the Corinthians, and Gala­tians, and yet be an opposer of the Sabbath, and therefore it must needs be upon the first day of the weeke or Lords-day.

Again, in the same place he quarrels [...] in the 1 Cor. 16. 1. to intend the first day of the weeke, under some authorities quoted to countenance his acceptation. But Bishop White being in print before him might have given him better satisfaction (saving that it seemeth he loves to vary) who pag. 196. saith, In the holy Gospel, this day is styled [...] the first day of the weeke following, Matth. 28. 1. Mark. 16. 2. Iohn 20. 1. like­wise, Acts 20. 7. 1 Cor. 16. 2. Besides his quotation of sundry authors to confirme this translation, which phrase is an Hebraisme thus to expresse the first day by one day, and so used in the 1. Gen. and the word Sabbath for weeke, Levit. 25. 8. Luke 18. 12. as Mr. Sprint affirm­eth, pag. 101. And sure I am, the same phrase is used by the Evangelists, to signifie the day of Christs resurrection to be on the first day of the weeke.

Moreover, pag. 211. Bishop White, in positive tearmes upon the argument in hand, saith, That the Apostles themselves at some times observed the Lords-day, and brings (with a for it is written) these very places to prove it, Acts 20. 7. The first day of the weeke, &c. and 1 Cor. 16. 1, 2. Concerning the gathering for this Saints; even as I have ordained in the Churches of Galatia, so do ye: Every first day of the weeke, &c. In that you say. E­very Apostolicall Ordinance doth not bind; I grant it, if the Ordinance be circumstantiall, proper either to times or persons, it cannot be properly said to be cominon, but if it have for substance a Morall Law, for order a Prophe­cy, for confirmation an Apostolique ordinance and example, me thinks, this might be very well allowed to be binding. [Page 96] And all this is (as hath been proved) true of the Chri­stian Sabbath,

Some ordinances (I confesse) there are of the Apo­stles that are not of perpetuall obligation, for that they were done only occasionally, and to an exemplary end, for to authorize their successours (the Governours of the Church) to order things of an indifferent nature to the benefit of the Church, all which things the Church had and hath authoritie, as well occasionally to abolish, as oc­casionally to institute; but this Ordinance of the Sabbath is beyond the authoritie of the Church to abolish or alter, as much as it is to adde or detract from the new Testa­ment.

And therefore is it not of those sorts of Apostolique Ordinances which bind not in perpetuum. For the foun­dation of it is so laid in Scripture (as aforesaid) as nei­ther time nor authoritie can expire nor alter it.

Broad.

2. Because the Disciples at Troas being come toge­ther to breake bread on the first day of the weeke, Saint Paul preached to them.

Answ. Granting that the Disciples assembled every first day, and also by Pauls own ordinance (neither of which can be proved) yet doth it not follow that they kept it Holy-day, and abstained altogether from works of their Callings.

Saint Augustine saith,Tom. 2. Epist. 118. that in some places they com­municated every day, and in others on the Sabbath and Lords-day.

Socrates saith,Hist lib. 1. cap. 21. that in all Churches of Christians (two excepted) they communicated every Sabbath-day.

Sozomenus saith,Lib. 7. cap. 19. that at Constantinople and almost in all other places, they came together on the Sabbath and the day following, that is, the Lords-day: yet no man (I trust) [Page 97] will hence inferre,Certainly such as communicated every day, did not keep every day Holy-day. that these who met and recei­ved the Communion, both on the Sabbath-day and the Lords-day, kept them both Holy-dayes and forbare worke altogether. Ad [...]e that in likelyhood they came together at Troas, late in the Evening, about that time of the day,Consider that many Christian servants had heathens to their Masters, who would not suffer them to keep the Lord-day Holy-day. Againe, this had beene 2 meanes to bewray Christian Masters. wherein Christ did institute the Sacrament, otherwise Saint Pauls preaching till midnight should have been very long, and this they might well doe though they kept it not Holy-day. The Disciples at Troas assem­bled on the first day to breake bread, ergo, Saint Paul or­dained that all Christians should assemble on that day to breake bread is a likelier inference then this, ergo, Saint Paul ordained that all Christians should keep that day Holy-day. If any thing may be inforced from their mee­ting at Troas, this may as well (or rather better) that the Lords Supper must be celebrated every first day.

Answer.

That on that day the Disciples abstained from the workes of their callings exercised on the other sixe, I have even now more then probably proved by a just and pro­per deduction, or collection, from 1 Cor. 2. 16. I have also quoted the authority of Ignat ad Mag. and Aug. serm. de temp. 251. And is it probable that the lewes were to ab­staine from workes on their remissest Holy-dayes, and that we must make a worke-day or a mixed day of our Ca [...]itallest?

And as for the time of the day when they met [...] (though it might bee in the Morning for ought the Scripture saith to the contrary) it is not so materiall to us to know, considering the Natures of those Times.

It sufficeth that that was the only day (being also para­lel with consonant places of Scripture of the same na­ture) that they imployed solemnely in their sacred af­faires.

And if there were diverse observed, as you say, it was [Page 98] because for a time Christians were diverse, consisting of Iewes and Gentiles.

As touching your conclusions whereby you argue hence rather the practice of the Sacrament then the Sab­bath, I answer, That if it was an ordinance, yet it was but temporary; for from those words of Christ (So often as ye shall [...]at it) the times of celebrating the Sacrament are at the disposition of the Church (and it was in the Chur­ches then, occasionally celebrated, for the Christian Sab­baths sake, as a means of its sanctifying, and not the Sab­bath for its sake) whereas the time of the Sabbath and Lords-day is by Precept and practise determined.

Broad.

3. Because Saint Iohn telleth us that he was in the spirit on the Lords-day.

Answ. I acknowledge that whereas Christians in ma­ny places used to assemble on the first day of the weeke. Christ hereby may seeme to approve of their meetings on this day, and this is the most that can be gathered from Saint Iohns being in the spirit: Now whereas from the name Lords-day, some would inferre that therefore the Lord himselfe enjoyned it. Let them consider that this name might well be given, because that upon occasion of Christs Resurrection the Churches held their meetings therein.Psal. 74. 8. The Synagogues in Canaan are called the Syna­gogues of God, and yet we finde not that God comman­ded to build them: Some call the Church Gods house, whose meaning is not, that it is Gods expresse Comman­dement to build Churches now, as it was to build the Temple heretofore.

The most that can be gathered from these Texts is, that after a time Christians used to assemble on the first day of the weeke, and that Christ and his Apostles appro­ved this manner, which I acknowledge, but that Christ or [Page 99] his Apostles would have the observation of the Lords-day be a matter of Religion in the time of the Gospell,Excepting the two s [...]cra [...]ets, there is no outward thing requi­red to make a good Christian. M. Fox in the page before the Acts & Monuments. as the keeping of the Sabbath was in the time of the Law, is not to be beleeved. God is a spirit, and the time is come wherein he will be worshipped in spirit and truth. The kingdome of God consisteth of a matter of another na­ture, Rom. 14. 17.

Answer.

From these Texts may wellbe gathered the laudable and Evangelicall practice of the Apostles, and the excel­lent confirmation, countenance and authority that God gave thereto, in this point of sanctifying the Lords-day, so that God bare witnes thereto by signes and wonders, and gifts of the holy Ghost, according to his owne will; besides the benefits and fruits of it at this day to every mans experience that observeth it conscionably, of peace of Conscience, Ioy in the holy Ghost, and sensible increase of knowledge & grace do also make it good, according to that where it is said, That it is a signe that the Lord doth sanctifie you, as also according to that promise, Isai. 58. 13, 14.

It was by these two Arguments of Christs speciall ap­pearing to him, and the fruits thereof, that Paul proved his Apostleship, and so may we prove the Sabbath.

For the name Lords day, and force of that argument to prove Christ the instituter thereof, see Eatonus, pag. 73. saith he, Arguinus ex appellatione eius, Apocal. 1. [...] &c. sic autem dici non potuit, nisi eam Dominus in­stituisse [...] ut in C [...]na [...] & oratione [...]actum est. Hic respondetur, do [...]inic [...] diem dici potuisse, quia in comme­moratione domini, licet non [...] domino fuerit instituta. Sed assertionis [...] racion [...] non vide [...]s; Cum e [...]im Ecclesia [...] & ascensionis eius memoriam retinuerit, dies ta­men illos [...] non vo [...]it.

[Page 100]Lastly the Iewish superstition we disclaime, but the true spirituall worship of God we retaine, as it is requi­site in the present state of the Church, and why a solemne day should be prejudiciall to solemne service, and why wee stand lesse need of rest and opportunity to serve God, then the Iewes, or Adam in Innocency, I see not.

Broad.
CHAP. IIII.

ENough hath been said to make it appeare that we are not bound to sanctifie the Lords-day, by vertue of that Commandement in the Decalogue, neither by any ex­presse Commandement from Christ or his Apostles, and now if any thinke, though this doctrine be true, yet hap­pily it were better that it were not taught publikely.

Answ. Be the truth alone preached, the greatest good doubtlesse will follow thereupon: Doe not we know, that though Paul plant, and Apollos water, yet it is God alone which giveth the increase? Indeed if any man were able to give increase, it were another matter, but shall I fetch water from the devils well, and looke that God should give increase after such watering? neither is the Church now in the infancy, that we should feare to make knowne the abrogating of Moses Law.

Broad.

The truth being taught, this good will follow. 1. Thou shalt not Iudaize,The good will come of this doctrine. as they will be found to doe who ob­serve the Lords-day in obedience to the precept of the Sabbath. 2. That thou shalt not doe any thing doubtingly on the Sunday, which doubtlesse many in England doe; and if he which eateth doubtingly be damned, shall not [Page 101] he which worketh doubtingly be damned likewise?Rom. 14. 3. That we shall not have such building on the foundation, hay and stubble hence forwards, as hath been heretofore e­specially of late yeres.

Answer.

You will not say he Iudaizeth, that upon his obedience to father and mother shall now in the time of the Gos­pell, expect the fulfilling of that promise in the first Com­mandement of the second Table, because that now we live not in the land of Canaan. And why, pray you, may not this Commandement concerning the Sabbath stand good now, as well as that promise, and challenge obedi­ence, as well as that doth faith. If we observe the one, or beleeve the other as the Iewes did,As in offering double sacr [...]ces, &c. which yet in the Analogy is now also proper. then I confesse we Iudaize, but if according to the present state of the Church, we obey the one and put trust in the other, this must needs be free from Iudaisme, and yet be good Chri­stianity.

For the secōd Good: Call you that Good to work on the Sabbath-day (which yet anon you make to be the pro­perty of such, as belong not to God, but are the children of the devill) so a mans conscience accuse him not, or so he doe it not doubtingly? [...]ndeed you salve the soare well, but take heed of dawbing with untempered morter. Mr. Byfeild giveth a good rule, If we must needs doubt, it is better to doubt and obey, then to doubt and disobey. And for your third Good, That we shall not have such building on the fo [...]ndation hay and stubble. Be you aware betime, lest you bring an old house over your head. For you know what is threatened to him that breaketh one of these least [...]ommandements, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdome of Heaven.

Broad.

As touching the hurt which in some mens imaginati­ons may come of the publishing of this truth,No [...]urt can co [...]e of this [...] It is not to be doubted, but that when Luther preached Iustification by faith, such as were not good trees brought forth lesse good fruit in shew, and be the truth taught concerning the Lords-day, it is (I confesse) likely enough, that such as belong not to the Lord, will serve the Lord the lesse in outward shew too: But shall I conceale any good thing from the children of God, because the children of the devill will shew themselves more in their colours? He that is unjust, let him be (more) unjust still. [...] If a man had not the feare of God before his eyes, and any should preach as formerly they have done, he would not forbeare as formerly he hath not, to follow his worldly businesse, to haunt the Alehouse and the like on the Lords-day. If a man truly feareth God (as I hope gentle Reader thou doest) enough may soone be said to make him spend the Lords-day in the holy exercises of Religion, as, 1. Though in this time of the Gospell God would not have any part of his worship consist in the observation of times or places, neither did Christ or his Apostles command us Christians to any day whatsoever, yet this generall Com­mandement we have.1 Cor. 14. Let all things be done to edifying decently and in order, yea and Nature teacheth that there should be Times and Places set apart for publike mee­tings, as we see the Gentiles had by the very light of na­ture. 2. This order to assemble on the Lords-day, had his beginning in the time of the Apostles, and was approved by them, neither is there the least doubt to be made, but that were Saint Paul now alive, he would approve of it in like manner, onely he would be much more earnest then I have been, a [...], or can be to have all superstition cleere weeded out of mens minds. After the Apostles [Page 103] time the succeeding churches observed the same order as partly appeareth by these sayings of Iustin Martyr, and others before alleadged, and thus it hath continued ever since, and no doubt shall so continue to the second coming of Christ. Some of late have made it a question whether the Church may change the Lords-day into any other day of the weeke, but in my judgement they might well have spared their pains therein, for what can be imagined wherefore any Church should attempt such a matter, un­lesse it be to withdraw some from a superstitious conceit they have of the day? Let this errour be reformed, and there is no feare of a change.

Answer.

To this changing of the Lords-day into another, I an­swer, That as the order of the last day in the weeke was significant in the time of the Iewes: So is the first day now (as I have observed before) and as therefore that was commanded, so was this prophecyed by Isaiah I have formerly shewne how both by Isaiah and David, this was cleerly fore­to [...]dand promised. in the old Testament, and accordingly practised in the new, and therefore can no more be altered now without con­tradiction of divine authority, then the other could in the time of the Iewes; Except you can imagine God here­after to bestow a benefit on us as much greater then our Redemption, as our Redemption was then our Creation. Besides the Church hath no liberty to alter any day, the which hath a cleare ground and warrant in the word, which the Christian Sabbath or Lords-day hath. And moreover you say Christ is Lord of the Sabbath, if so, then sure the priviledge and authority of altering belongeth only to him.

Broad.

The Apostle, Hebrews 13. giveth this charge, Obey [Page 100] [...] [Page 101] [...] [Page 102] [...] [Page 103] [...] [Page 104] them that have the rule over you, and submit your selves, and againe, Rom. 13. Wherefore ye must needs be subject not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake. Some per­adventure hearing that God hath not immediately com­manded us Christians to sanctifie the Lords-day, as he did the Israelites to sanctifie the Sabbath, will be ready to de­mand, what need we then forbeare any worldly businesse on the Sunday? for answer unto whom though unworthy of any, let me also demand, what need you repaire to the Church, the place of prayer? That you may so doe must we teach that God in expresse termes hath com­manded to build Churches, and in such places in every Parish? Had these men lived in the time of the Law, though they had forborne worke on the Sabbath, yet certainly they would not have repaired to the Syna­gogues when they had been called they would have an­swered with Dathan and Abiram, we will not come, for God hath not bidden us come to such a place, nor at such a time of the day.Even in the time of the Law, some things were lest to bee ordered by the Magistrate. Should thy so [...]e being sent of thee into the field, thinke with himselfe, I need not goe, for it is not written in the Scriptures that I should goe plow to day, As God in generall termes hath charged thy sonne to obey his father, so God in generall tearmes hath charged thee an inferiour to obey thy Governours, both spirituall and temporall, by whose joynt Commandement thou art bound to sanctifie the Lords-day, and if thou wilfully breakest this double bond, know that it is by the comming of another spirit upon thee then came upon Sampson heretofore, even such a spirit as the man had that brake the yron chaines and setters in pieces, Mark. 5.

Answer.

Pray you turne the point of this Argument into your owne breast, and consider if the same authority, which commandeth you to sanctifie the Lords-day, doe not like­wise [Page 105] in the Liturgy command you to pray for inablement to keep the fourth Commandement,Have a better nion of your [...] then to think she wil command you to pray for that which you o [...]ght not to be­leeve and practise. but it s [...]emeth whosoever is in authority you will be supreme, binding that authority that should rather bind you. But if the au­thority be thus (as you would make it) in the hand of the Magistrate onely, to appoint the time of Gods solemne worship, and that the fourth Commandement is now of no force, nor yet the prophecy or Apostolicke practice to bind us; then you may say with Ames. in his Medulla, pag. 355. ut si ipsis videatur diem [...] ex viginti, aut triginta huic usui assignare, non posint hoc nomine argui alicuius [...] (aut scripturae.) Nay rather we may hence argue it as a fault in the Apostles and primitive times, that they would take upon them of their authority to create so neere a semblance to the Sabbath, and not rather an annuall remembrance of the Resu [...]ection▪ and by an humane institution to shoulder out a divine one, an [...] yet the substance thereof (to wit the benefit of the Creation) still remaineth to be remembred. But it is strange that the Church should either assume this liberty, or that we should give it to the Church. 1. Seeing the fourth Commandement doth dictate to us, both the proportion of time which we are to celebrate to God▪ and the reason of that celebration, the Time is the seventh day, the reason is Gods resting from or consum­mating his greatest and beneficiallest worke, which Christ, the author and actor of the new Creation, God and Man, hath now fulfilled by his Resurrection, and so poin­ted and appointed us the [...] or the particular seventh day, nothing dissenting from the Commandement nor destroying it, but fulfilling and establishing it upon better tearmes. 2. Seeing God commandeth to labour six dayes and to rest a seventh; And Christ hath not exempted us from labouring in our calling to the end of our lives, ther­fore a seventh day is to be kept for Sabbath weekly to the end of the world. And it is not left in the power either [Page 106] of the Church or any humane authority, doctrinally to shorten or enlarge this proportion of dayes for our labour and holy Rest, or any way to abrogate or alter this Com­mandement.

Broad.

 

Gal. 5. 13.‘For brethren ye have been called to liberty, onely use [...] liberty for an occasion to the flesh.’
The end of the second Treatise.

Answer.

Weigh well the truth of that which the same man Am [...]s▪ Medul. pag. 364. speaketh concerning this unlawfull liberty, which you strive so much to maintaine by good Scripture misused, Saith he there, Experientia docet licentiam & rerum sa­crarum non curantiam, magis magisq [...] invalesc [...]re ubi die [...] dominicae i [...]st [...]ratio non habetur.

Take heed of walking in the Broad way.

Broad.

A question whereabout I will not contend, onely I thinke good to shew mine opinion therein.

The Sabbath as it is said before chapter the third,A Iew sleeping in the night, and were it p [...]rt of the day sanctifi [...]d the Sab­bath for that time. was sanctified by abstaining from all works, which in the time of the Law was an holy duty, as was the abstaining from leavened bread, the offering of sacrifices, &c. and some that only rested from worke sanctified the Sabbath, as did little children their cradles. A childe of twenty dayes old [Page 107] did prophane the Sabbath (no man will say so) and of ne­cessity every one prophaned it or sanctified it, there is no meane.

Quest. Was the Sabbath sanctified by offering sacrifi­ces, praying, hearing the Word, and the like holy Duties, or not?

Answ. It was not, for proofe hereof I propose this briefly to be considered.God first sanctified the seventh day, that is, consecrated it to an holy rest, after he comm [...]nded man to sanctifie it, th [...]t is, to spend it in holy rest, as for morall duties they were enjoyned in other Comman­dements on very day. See bef [...]

1. God commanding to sanctifie the Sabbath, and coming afterwards to shew his meaning, requireth onely to rest from worke: Remember to sanctifie the Sabbath, that is, God himselfe being expositor, Remember to doe no worke on the seventh day, Exod. 20. 8, 10. See before, Chap. 3.

2. God sanctified the seventh day, because therein he had rested and was refreshed, Gen. 2. Exod. 31. not because he had instructed Adam and Eve therein, or that they had called on his holy name.

3. As God commanded to sanctifie the seventh day, so the yeare,Neither was the Temple. which yeare was not yet sanctified by the sa­crifices, prayers, &c. in the same see Levit. 25.

4. God requireth in the first place to worship him, then for the better performance of this duty in the se­cond place he requireth Israel to sanctifie the seventh day, that is, to doe no worke therein, whereby the day be­came fit for this purpose. The sanctifying of the Sabbath then,The order of the Commandements sheweth this, and Nature teacheth the same. Nature [...]e [...]ch­eth in the first place to worship God, and after to have se [...] times for the per [...] ­mance of this duty. as the sanctifying of the Tabernacle in order went before the worshipping of God therein, I meane before praying, hearing the word and such like duties, for the san­ctifying of the Sabbath was it selfe a part of the Ceremo­niall Law.

5. Were the Sabbath sanctified by praying, hearing the word, &c. it would follow that God more respected the sanctifying the Sabbath, then he did praying, preaching, &c.

6. The Sabbath was prophaned onely by working, as [Page 108] is shewed before, Chap. 3. Wherefore it was sanctified only by abstaining from worke.

7. Suppose that Adam had continued in the state of Innocency, Nature then would have taught him to set a part some times and places for holy Convocations, I de­mand now, how Adam sanctified his appointed times, by preaching, hearing of the word, &c. or not.

If not, why then did the Israelites? If yea, then why had he not as well sanctified his appointed places, by the same holy Duties? I dare affirme that when any goeth on the Sunday to the Church, to pray and heare a Sermon, if ther­by he sanctifie the Sunday, that thereby he sanctifieth the Church also. This I will maintaine, though (as I said) I will not contend about the question, for we have nothing to doe with the Iewes Sabbath nor with their sanctifying it.

Answer.

How & in what sense Rest is said to sanctifie the Sabbath we have at large spoken of it before. Yet here I will brief­ly answer one question with another. I aske how the ves­sels What I s [...]y of these may be in [...]a [...]ed in o [...]her thi [...]g [...]. of the Temple were properly said to be sanctified, whether by being not imployed about prophane uses, or rather in a relative sense, by being imployed about holy? Sure you will say, by being imployed in Gods service about holy uses. So the Sabbath was not properly sancti­fied by resting from prophane, but by being imployed in holy businesses. For God hath appointed it to be a day of blessing, now sure it is not our Resting, but our imploy­ment in holy services, and use of the meanes that makes it so. And so had God appointed it to be to Adam in Inno­cency, for no doubt but Adam being enjoyned labour, which necessarily took him off from immediate contem­plation, his spirituall life should have been upheld by due use of meanesAnd therefore had he a Sacram [...]nt insti­tuted, to wit, the tree of life, and also a Sabbath. as well as his temporall, but what those had been besides prayer, and meditation, and praise, and [Page 109] such like meanes, whereby he might enjoy spirituall commu [...]ion with God, I will not take upon me to deter­mine.

Now as for that, which you urge so strongly, of sancti­fying the Places as well as the Time, I answer, That what Places God hath ever specially and solemnly appointed for his speciall and solemne worship, they have been as well sanctified by that worship as the Time so appointed, and so was the Temple in Ierusalem. For as it is the use, unto which Christ hath appointed the bread and wine, in the Lords Supper, that sanctifieth the bread and wine, so was it the use unto which God appointed the Temple that sanctified it. God appointeth one time universally for all people, not so of Place: Because an appointed Time may be Catholicke (as is the Church) which an appointed place cannot. For first it would be of infinite inconveni­ence for the Catholicke Church to repaire to one particu­lar Place, as all Israel did to Ierusalem; and secondly it would contradict the nature of the Church, and make that particular which is Catholicke. But I will conclude with Dr. Ames. opinion in this matter of Rest, Medul. pag. 367. Quies ista quamvis in se absolute considerata non sit, neque unquam fuer it pars aliqua cultus, prout tamen à Deo imperatur, tanquam necessarium quid ad ipsius cultum, & ad illum etiam refertur, eatenus est pars observantiae illius quae pertinet ad religionem & cultum Dei, Sanctificatio hu­ius quietis ac diei est applicatio nostrum ipsorum singularis ad Deum eo die colendum, quod innuitur illis ipsis phrasi­bus. Sanctificavit illum diem & Sabbatum est Iehove Deo tuo.

Pray for the Author:
Praise God the Giver.
FINIS.

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