A BRIEFE DESCRIPTION OF THE WHOLE WORLD.

WHEREIN Is particularly described all the Monarchies, Empires and Kingdoms of the same, with their Academies.

AS ALSO, Their severall Titles and Scituati­ons thereunto adjoyning.

Written by the Reverend Father in God, George Abbot, late Archbishop of Canterbury.

The Fifth Eddition.

LONDON, Printed for Margaret Sheares, at the Blew Bible in Bedford-Street in Coven-Garden, and John Play [...]ere at the White-Beare in the upper Walk in the New-Exchange.

1664.

A Briefe Description of the whole World.

THe Globe of the Earth doth either shew the Sea or Land. The SeaOf the seas. general, is called by the name or Ocean, which coasteth all the World, and taketh his name in speciall, either of the place neareThe divers names gi­ven to the seas, and the reason why. which it commeth, as Oceanus Bri­tanicus, Mare Germanicum, Sinus Perficus, Mare Atlanticum, of the Hill Atlas, in the West part of A­fricke: or of the finder out, as Fretum Magellanicum; or of some other accident, as the Red Sea, be­cause the sand is red, Mare Medi­terraneum, because it runneth be­tween the lands of Europe and A­fricke, Mare Icarium, because Ica­rus was drowned there, or the like. [Page 2] There be some few Seas which have no intercourse with the Ocean, as Mare Mortuum, neare Palestina, Mare Caspium sive Hircanum, not far from Armenia: and such a one is said to be in the North part of America.

The Straits or Narrow Seas, areOf the straits or Narrow Seas. noted in the Latine by the name of Fretum, as Fretum Britannicum. The English Narrow Seas, Fretum Herculeum, the Straights between, Barbary and Spaine; Fretum Ma­gellanicum, &c.

The Earth is either Islands,Of the Earth. which are those which are wholly compassed by the Sea, as Britannia, Sicilia, Corsica; or the Continent, which is called in the English, The firme Land, in the Latine, Continens.

The old known firme Land was contained only in Asia, Europe, and Africa. Europe is divided from Africa by the Mediterranean Sea; from Asia by the River Tanais: whereby appeareth, that the North parts of Asia and Europe in old [Page 3] time were but little known and discovered.

Africa is divided from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea; from Asia by the River Nilus: and so Asia by Tanais and Nilus, is severed from Europe and Africke.

Of Spaine.

TO say nothing of Eng­land and Ireland, the most Westerne Country of Eu­rope, How Spain is bounded. is Spaine, which is bounded on the South with the Mediterranean, on the West with the Atlanticke, on the North with Oceanus Cantabricus, or the Spanish Seas, on the East with France, from which it is severed with certaine Mountaines, called Montes Pyrenei, or the Pyrenay hils.

If we should enquire into the times that were before the com­ming of the Carthaginians and Ro­mans into Spaine, we shall find [Page 4] nothing but that which is either fabulous, or neare to sables: here itThe origi­nal name of the Country of Spaine. was first called Iberia, ab Ibero flu­mine, afterwards Hispania, ab Hi­spane, we may take as a traditi­on: but their Gargoris their Ha bis, their Geryon exceed beleefe of any, but those that will take all reports on trust. It is certain that the Syrians planted a Colony there in the Isle of Gades, corruptly now called Cadiz, or Cales: These trou­bled by their Neighbours desired aid of the Carthaginians, a flouri­shing neighbour Common-wealth, descended of the Syrians, as well as themselves, who sent first to defend the Gaditanes against their neigh­bours, afterwards heartned on byCarthagi­nians sent to defend the Gaditanes. their successe in their first Expedi tion; these Carthaginians succes sively sent thither three Captaines, Hamilcar, Hasdrubal, and Hanibal who for the most part subdued the Province and held it, till by Scipio's and the Romans Forces they were dispossessed of it: Yet for many [Page 5] years after the fortunes of the Ro­mans stuck as it were in the subdu­ing of that▪ Province, so that from the time of [...]he second Punick war, untill the time of Augustus, they had businesse made them in that Country continually, nei [...]her could they till then bring it peaceably in­to the forme of a Province.

It continued a Province of theSpaine once a Province of the Ro­man Empire Roman Empire untill the time of Honorius the Emperour, in whose dayes the Vandals came into it, conquering and making it theirs; then the Goths (the Vandals either driven out, or called over into Africk▪) entring erected there a Kingdome, which flourished for many yeares, till by the commingSarazens and Moores erected it a Kingdome. of the Saracens and Moores, their Kingdome was broken, who set­ling themselves in Spaine, erected it a Kingdome, changed the names of many places and Rivers and gave them new names, such as they re­taine to this day, and continued for the space of some hundred of [Page 6] yeares mighty in that Countrey, till they were first subdued by Fer­dinand: They were utterly ex­pelled by Philip the T [...]ird. afterwards, and that now lately utterly expelled by Philip the Third.

After the comming in of these Africans in this Country, there were many Kingdomes, as the Kingdome of Portugall toward the West; the Kingdome of Granado toward the South; the Kingdom of Navarre and Arragon toward the East; and the Kingdome of Ca­stile in the middle of the Land: but the whole Dominion is now under the King of Spaine.

As Damalanus à Goes doth write in the Treatise intituled, Hispania, Spaine in [...]ormer time twelve se­veral King­domes. there were in times past twelve severall Kingdomes in Spain, which he nameth thus: Castellae antiquae & novae, Leonis, Aragoniae, Portu­galliae, Navarrae, Granatae, Va­lentiae, Toleti, Galitiae, Algarbi­ [...]rum, Murtiae, Cordubae: which is not to be wondred at, since in Eng­land, a farre lesse Country, there [Page 7] were in the time of the Saxons se­ven severall Kingdoms and Monar­chies.

In the best Maps of Spaine, the Armes of these severall Kingdomes do yet distinctly appeare: where for the Armes of Leons is given a Lion, which manifestly argueth, that whereas by some it is called Regnum Legionis, that name is false, for it is Leonis, surable thereunto: for the Armes of Castile is given a Castle, which was the cause that John of Gaunt, Son to Edward the Third, King of England, did quarter with the Armes of England, the Ca­stle and the Lion, as having married Constance Daughter to Peter King of Castile; and at this day the first and chief Coat of the King of Spain is a Castle quartered with a Lion, in remembrance of the two King­domes of Castile and Leons.

In Corduba (as in times past it was called) standeth Andaluzia, neare unto which the Island cal­led properly Gades, but since; by de­pravation [Page 8] of the word Cadiz, and commonly Cales, which was late­ly surprized by the English. The Kingdome of Granada, which liethGranada 700. yeares Possessed by the Moores Sarazens. nearest to the Mediterranean, was by the space of seven hundred years possessed by the Moores and Sara­cens, who do professe the Re [...]igion of Mahomet: the reason whereof Rodericus Toletanus in the third [...]. book of history doth shew to be this; that whereas the Sarazens af­ter Mahomets time, had spread themselves all along Africke, even unto the Westerne part of Barbary, a King of Spaine called Rodericus, employed (in an Embassage to them) one Julian, a Nobleman of his, who by his wise Demeanour, procured much Reputation amongst the Moores; but in the time of his ser­vice, the King Rodericus defloured the Daughter of the said Julian; which the Father took in such in­dignation, that he procured those Saracens to come over into Spaine, that so he might be revenged on his [Page 9] King; but when those barbarous people had once set foot in there, they could never be removed, un­till the time of Ferdinando and Eli­zabeth, King and Queen of Spaine, about a hundred years since.

The Author before named wri­teth, that before the comming of those Moores into Spaine, the King Rodericus would needs open a part of a Palace which had been shut long before, and had by descent from hand to hand been forbidden to be entred by any: yet the King, supposing there had been great Treasure therein broke into it, but found nothing there, saving in a great Chest, the Pictures of Men, who resembled the proportion, At­tire, and Armour of the Moores, A strange and unex­pected pro­phesie. and a Prophecy joyned therewith­all, that at that time, when the Pa­lace should be entred, such a peo­ple as was there resembled, should invade and spoyle Spaine, which fell out accordingly.

The Spaniards that now are, be [Page 10] a▪ very mixt people, descended of the Goths, which in former times possessed that Land, and of those Sarazens and Jews, which are the basest people of the World.Portugal added to the King­dome of Spaine.

The Kingdome of Portugall d [...]d containe under it Regnum Algar­bi [...]rum, but both of them are now annexed unto Castile by the cun­ [...]ing of the K ng of Spaine, Philip he Second, who took the advan­tage after the death of Sebastian, who was slaine in Barbary; in the year 1578. Then after him raign­ed Henry who sometimes was Car­dinall, and Uncle to Sebastian; in whose time, although shew was made that it should be lawfully de­bared, unto whom the Crown of Portugal did belong, yet Philip mea­ning to make sure worke, did not so much respect the right, as by maine force invaded, and since (to the great griefe of the Portugals) hath kept it. The chief City of Por­tugal Lisbone the chiefe City of Portugal is Lisbone, called in Latine Olysippo, from whence those Navi­gations [Page 11] were advanced, by which the Portugals discovered so much of their South part of Africk, and of the East-Indies, possessed by them to this day. The City from whence the Castilians do set forth theirSevill. ships to the West-Indies is Sevill, called in Latine Hispalis. AnotherToledo. great City in Spain is Toledo, where the Archbishoprick is the richest spirituall dignity of Christendome, the Papacy only excepted.The Mag­nificent greatness of Spaine and Portugal.

In the time of Damianus à Goes, there were reckoned to be in Spain foure Archbishopricks of great worth, three other inferiour, and forty Bishopricks; as also in Portu­gal, three Archbishopricks, and eight Bishopricks. He reckoneth up also in Spaine (besides the great Of­ficers of the Crown) 17 Dukes, 41. Marquesses, 87. Earles or Counts, and 9. Vicounts: as also in Portugal (besides the Officers of the Crown) fix Dukes, four Marquesses, nine­teen Earles, and one Vicount. In Spaine he saith are seven Universi­ties. [Page 12] The Country is but dry, and so consequently barren, in comparison of some other places. What com­modities it doth yeeld, it may be seen in a Treatise of Damianus à Goes, which he calleth his Hispa­nia.

Not only this great and large Country heretofore divided into so many Kingdomes, is now under one absolute King, but that King also is Lord of many other Territories: as namely, of the Kingdome of Naples in Italy and the Dutchy of Millain, of the Isles of Sicily, Sardinia, Ma­jorque, Minorque, Evisa, in the mid­land sea; of the Islands of the Canaries in the Atlantique, besides di­vers strong Towns and goodly Ha­vens in Barbary, within and with­out the Straits On the back side of Africk he commands much on the Frontiery, besides the Islands ad­joyning to the maine Land. In the Westerne Indies, he hath Mexico, Brasil, large Territories, with the Islands of the South, and the North [Page 13] Sea. And Philip the second getting Portugall as a Dowry to that so [...]ct Marriage, got also all the depen­dances of that Crown in Africke the East-Indies, and the Atlantique Sea, the Towns of Barbary, and the East-Indies, willingly submitting themselves unto him, but the Terce­ras he won by force at the first and second Expedition: so if we consi­der the huge tract of ground that isThe Em­pery of the Kingdome of Spain the greatest in the [...] [...] ­an world. under the Kings Dominion, we will say that the Empery of the King of Spaine is, in that respect, the lar­gest that now is, or ever was in the World.

Of France.

THe next Country is France France how bounded. which is bounded on the west with the Pyrenay hils, on the North with the English Seas, on the East with Ger­many, on the South-east with the Alpe-hils, on the South-west with the Mediterranean Sea.

The Kingdome of France is forFrance one of the most absolute Kingdoms of the world. one entire thing, one of the most rich and absolute Monarchies of the World, having both on the North and South side the Sea stan­ding very convenient for profit of Navigation, and the Land it selfe being ordinarily very fruitful. The consideration whereof caused Fran­cis the first King of France, to com­pare this Kingdome alone to all the Dominions and Seigniories of Charles the fifth Emperour; for when the Herauld of the said Charls, bidding Defiance to the King Fran­cis, [Page 15] did give his Majesty the title of Emperour of Germany, King of Ca­staile, Arragon, Naples, Sicily, &c. Francis commanded his He­rauld to call him so often King of France as the others had Titles by all his Countries; implying that France alone was of as much strength and worth as all the Coun­tries which the other had.

Concerning this Argument, see the warlike and politick Discour­ses of Monsieur de la Nove. He who writeth the Commentaries of Re­ligion, and state of France, doth shew, that when there had been of late in France, in the daies of Francis the Second, and Charles the Ninth, three Civill Wars,Civill wars in France. which had much ruinated the glo­ry and beauty of that Kingdome, when a little before the great Mas­sacre, in the yeare One thousand five hundred seventy two, there had been peace in that Countrey scant full two yeares, yet so great is the riches and happinesse of that [Page 16] Kingdome, that in that short time, all things were renewed and repai­red again, as if there had never been any such desolation.

The Revenue of the Crowne ofRevenue of the Crown of France exceeding great. France is exceeding great, by rea­son of the Taxes and impositions, which through the whole King­dome are laid upon the Subjects: for their Sizes and Toules do ex­ceed all the Imposts and tributes of all the Princes of Christendome; in as much as there are few things there used, but the King hath a commodity issuing out of them; and not only for matters of Luxury, as in other states, but from such things as be of necessity, as Flesh, Wood, Salt, &c. It is supposed at this day, that there be in the King­dome thirty thousand men, who are under-officers, and make a good part of their living by gathe­ring of the Kings tribute: This is much increased no doubt in these latter times: but yet of old it was in so great measure, which caused [Page 17] that speech of Maximilian the Em­perour, as Iohannes Eventinus wit­nesseth, De Bello Turcico, who said, that the Emperour of Germany was Rex Regum, meaning that his Prin­ces were so great men.

The King of Spaine was Rex Ho­minum, because his People would obey their Prince in any reasona­ble moderation.

The King of England was Rex di­abolorum, because the subjects had there divers times deprived their Kings of their Crowns and Digni­ty. But the King of France was R [...]x asinorum, in as much as his people did beare very heavy B [...]thens of Taxes and Impositions. In this King­dome of France is one great MiseryIn France the Offices of Justice bought and sold. to the Subjects, that the places and Officers of Justice are ordinarily bought and sold, the beginning whereof was this: Lewis the twelfth, who was called a Father of the Country began to pay the debts of his Predecessor, Charls the seventh, (which were very great) and intend­ing [Page 18] to recover unto France the Dukedome of Millain, and minding not to burden his people further than was need, thought it a good course to set at sale all the Offices of the Crown; but with the places of Justice he did not meddle. But his successors after him took occasion also to make great profit of them, witness the Author contra Machi­avel. The Custom of France for muste­ring and pressing Souldiers. l. 1. c. 1. By the customes of that Country, the King of France hath not that absolute power to muster and presse out Souldiers as in Eng­land, and some other places of Chri­stendome the Princes have: But the manner is, when the King will set forward any Military Service, he sendeth abroad his Edicts, or cau­seth in Cities and good Towns, the Drum to be strucken up, and who­soever will voluntarily follow, he is enrolled. Notwithstanding he wan­ted few Souldiers, because the No­ble and Gentlemen of France do hold it their duty, and highest ho­nour, both to attend the King unto [Page 19] the wars, and to beare their own charges yearely for many months. The person of the King of France hath in former times been reputed so sacred, that Guicciardine saith of them, that their people have regar­ded them in that respect of devo­tion, as if they had been demi-gods. And Machiavel in his Questions upon Livie, saith, that they doted so much upon their Kings, that they thought every thing did become them which they did, and that no­thing could be more disgracefull, than to give any intimation, that such or such a thing was not well done by their King. But this opi­nion is much now decayed, the Princes of the bloud are in the next ranke under the King himself.

There be many and very rich goodly Cities in France, but the chiefest of all is Paris, called Lute­tia, Paris the chief City France. quasi Luto sita, as some have merrily spoken: which place is especially honoured, first by the presence of the King, most com­monly [Page 20] keeping Court and Resi­dence there. Secondly, by the great store of goodly houses, whereof part belong to Noblemen, and part are houses of Religion. Thirdly, by the University which is incomparably the greatest, most ancient, and best filled of al [...] France. Fourthly, in that it is the chiefe Parliament City of that Kingdome, without the Rati­fication of which Parliament at Pa­ris, Edicts and Proclamations com­ing from the King are not held au­thenticall. Fifthly, by the great Traffique of all kind of Merchan­dize which is used in that place.

The Parliament Cities in France, are places where their Termes are kept, and in severall Provinces are seven, unto which the causes of inferiour Courts within their di­stinct Provinces. may be brought by appeale; but the Parliament of Paris hath that Prerogative, that appeales from all Courts of the Kingdome do lie there. That which we call our Parliament in [Page 21] England, is amongst them tearmed Conventus Ordinum, or the States.

France in ancient time▪ (as Caesar reporteth in the first of his Com­mentaries)The King­dome of France di­vided into three parts. was divided into three parts; Aquitania, which was to­wards the West; Celtica towards the North and West; and Belgica which is towards the North. Belgi­um is sometime called Gallia inferi­or, and sometime Germania infori­or, but we commonly call it the Low-Countries: the Government whereof at this day, is not at all un­der France, but Gallia Celtica, and Aquitania, are under the French King.

The ancient Inhabitants of thisGaules, the ancient in­habitants of France. Country, were the Gaules, who possessed not only all that we now call France, being the greatest part of that the Romans called Gallia Transalpina, but also a good part of Italy, which they call Gallia Cisal­pina, a people whose beginnings are unknown: this of them is certaine, [Page 22] that they were a Nation of valour [...] for they not only sackt Rome, bu [...] also carried their conquering arme [...] into Greece, where they sate down [...] and were called by the Name o [...] Gallogrecians, or Galathians.

Some report also, that they en [...] tred into Spaine, and subdued an [...] inhabited that part which was cal [...] led Lusitania, now Portugallia; bu [...] howsoever their former victori [...] and greatnesse, they were by Iuli [...] Caesar subdued, and made a Provin [...] of the people of Rome, and so co [...] tinued under the Romane Empi [...] till about four hundred yeares af [...] ter Christ, when in the ruine an dismembring of the Roman Empir [...] the French invaded Gaule, and er [...] cted a Monarchy, which hath co [...] tinued to this day in the successio [...] of sixty four Kings, of three sev [...] ral races; that is to say, the Mer [...] vingians, Carolovingians, and Cap [...] vingians, about twelve hundre years, and now flourisheth unde [...] Lewis the 13. the now raigning K [...] of France.

[Page 23]Although the French have done many things worthily out of their own Countrey, in the East against the Saracens, although they have [...]or a while held Sicily, the King­dome of Naples, and the Dutchy of Millaine, yet it hath been observed of them, that they could never make good their footing beyond the Alpes, or in other for reign Regions; How­beit in it self, France is one of the strongest Kingdomes in all Europe at this day.

That which we commonly call the Low-Countries, containeth se­venteen several Provinces, where­of the most part have several titles and Governours, as the Dukedome of Brabant, the Earledome of Flan­ders, &c. Of which the inheritance at several times, did fall on Daugh­ters, who being married unto the Heire of some of the other Provin­ces, did in the end bring the whole Country into one entire Govern­ment, which was commonly called [Page 24] by the name of the Dukedome of Burgundy; and yet so, that in the uniting of them together, it was by composition agreed, that the seve­rall Provinces should retaine their severall ancient Laws and Liberties, which is the reason yielded, why some of those Provinces in our age, thinke themselves freed from obe­dience unto the King of Spain, untoNote. whom by inheritance they did de­scend, because he hath violated their liberties, to the keeping whereof, a [...] the first composition, he was bound. When this whole Country did be▪ long unto the Crown of France, the▪ Dukedome of Burgundy was bestow­ed by Philip de Valois, K. of France, unto John de Valois, a younger So [...] of his, from whom by descent i [...] came at last to Charles the Bold, o­therwise Proud Duke of Burgundy, who left one only Daughter, and she was married to Maximilian the Emperour, of the house of Austria, from, whom the inheritance descen­ded unto Charles the fifth, Empe­rour, [Page 25] who yeelding it over to his Son Philip the second, did charge him to intreat that people well; which he forgetting to do, under pre­tence of rooting out the profession of Religion did intangle himselfe, and all that Countrey with a very long, bloudy, and wearisome warre.

There is no part of Europe, whichThe riches of the states in General. for the quantity of the ground doth yeeld so much riches and commo­dities, as the Low-Countries do, be­sides their infinite store of shipping, wherein they exceed any Prince of Christendome. They were in time past accounted a very heavy dull people; and unfit for the Wars, but their continual combating with the Spaniards, hath made them now ve­ry ingenious, ful of action, and ma­nagers of great causes appertaining to fights, either by sea or land. The 17 Provinces are these; Brabāt, Gel­derlād, The names of the 17 Provinces. Artois, Valencois, Luxenburg Flanders, Henault, Lile, Namurce, Holland, Zeland, Tornabū, Tornace­tium, [Page 26] Mechlin, Utrecht, and the East and West Freezeland.

France hath many petty Govern­ments that do border upon it; as the Dukedome of Savoy, the State of the Switzers, the Dukedome of Lorraine, the Burgundians, or Wal­loons, against all which, the King is forced to keep his frontier Towns.

There is nothing more famous in this Kingdome then the Salique law, whereby it is provided, that no woman, nor the heire of her (as in her right) shall injoy the Crown of France, but it goeth alwaies to the Heire Male.

The Author of the Commentaries against Machiavel, reputeth it a great blessing of GOD, that they have the Salique Law in France, and that not so much (saith he) because Woman by the infirmity of their Sex, are unfit to govern, for there­in many men, who have enjoyed Kingdomes, have been, and are ve­ry defective: but because by that [Page 27] meanes the Crowne of France is never endangered by Marriage of a forraigner, to come under the subje­ction of a stranger. And this is the opinion of Philip de Comines, in the 8 Booke of his Commentaries, This Law is very ancient among them, so that it cannot certainly be defined when it was Enacted, butBy this Law Ed. the 3▪ K of England, was put by the Crown France. by vertue thereof, Edward the 3. King of England, and his Heires, were cut off from inheriting the Crowne of France, whereunto by marriage of a Daughter, he was Heire in generall. And by reason of this Law, Henry the fourth, late King of France, rather injoyed that Dominion, than the Sonne of the Duke of Lorraigne, who-was neerer of blood by descending from the Elder Daughter of King Henry the second.

The Switzers are a People calledThe Swit­zers Go­vernment. in old time, Helvetii, who have no Noblemen, or Gentlemen among them, but only the Citizens of their Townes, the yearely Officers [Page 28] whereof, and their Council, do go­vern their State.23 Cities or Cantons in Switzer­land.

There are in Switzerland 23 Ci­ties or Towns, which they call their Cantons; although some ra­ther think that name properly doth signifie the Rulers of those Towns, and of them some do retain to this day the Romish Religion, but some o­thers have embraced the Gospel. The Country where they live, is not ve­ry fertile, and being farre from any Seas, they have no vent for their people, but by sending them forth as hired souldiers, which for their pay do fight oftentimes in Italy and France, and sometimes in Germany. Neare unto one part of them, stan­deth Geneva, which is challenged byGeneva: the Duke of Savoy, to have hereto­fore belonged to his Dominion; but they pretend themselves to be a free City; and by the help of Pro­testant Princes, but especially by some of the Helvetians, do so main­tainA rare and excellent Law. it. In this place there is a rare Law, that if any Malefactor who [Page 29] hath fled out of his own Country, be convinced of any grievous crime he suffereth there, as if he were in his own Country: Which they are forced to do, because their Cities would be full of all sorts of Runna­gates, in as much as they stand on the confines of divers Princes and States.

Of Germany.

THE next Countrey unto France, on the East side, is Germany, which is boun­dedGermany how boun­ded. on the West with France, and the Low-Countries; on the North with Denmark, and the Danish Seas, on the East with Prus­sia, Polonia, and Hungary; on the South-East, with Istria and Illyri­cum; on the South with the Alpe­hils, and with Italy.

The Governour General of this [Page 30] Country, is called the Emperour of The Empe­ror Gover­nor of Ger­many. Who be the seven Electors. Germany, who is chosen by three spiritual Princes; the Archbishop of Collen, called Coloniensis, the Archbi­shop of Ments, called Moguxtinus, and the Archbishop of Trevers, called Treverensis; and three temporall Princes, the Duke of Saxony, the Marquesse of Brandenburgh, and the Count Palatine of Rhene; which if they cannot agree, as to make a ma­jor part in their election, then the King of Bohemia hath also a voice, whereof it commeth to be said, that there be seven Princes Electors of the Empire.His manner of Election.

The manner of the choice of the Emperor, was established by a De­cree, which is commonly called Bulla Aurea, which was made by Charles the 4 Emperor of Germany, and King of Bohemia, wherein he doth set down all the circumstan­ces of the Election of the Emperor, and appointeth the King of Bohemia to be Sacri Imperii Archipincerna, which is the Cup-bearer.

[Page 31]The 3 Bishops of Colen, Ments, and Trevers, to be the Arch-Chan­cellours, of the three several parts of the Empire; the Count Palatine of the Rhene, to be Sacri Imperii, Archidapifer, which should have the setting on of the first dish, the Duke of Saxony to be Sacri Imperii Archimariscallus, whose office is to beare the sword, and the Marquesse of Brandenburgh to be Sacri Imperii Archi-Camerarius, or great Cham­berlaine; all which Offices they sup­ply on the day of the Emperours Coronation.

It appears by all the RomaneThe Empire went some­times by succession and some­times by election. Stories, that in times past, the Em­pire went sometimes by succession, as unto the Sons of Constantine and Theodosius, sometimes by Election, and that either of the Senate, or of the Souldiers, who oftentimes also in mutiny did elect men unworthy, yet such as fitted their purpose: But now of late, the Electors do choose some Prince of Christendome, who hath otherwise a Dominion of his [Page 32] own, which may helpe to back out the Empire, and therein of late hath appeared the great cunning of that which we call the house of Austria▪ whose greatest title within this 300 yeares, was to be a mean Count of a mean place, namely the County of Haspurg. But since that time, they have so planted and strengthened themselves, that there have been 7 or 8 Emperours lately of that family; but the Empire is not tied unto them, as may appeare by the possibili­ty, which the Duke of Saxony, and Francis the great King of France, had to ascend to that Dignity.

When Charls the fifth was cho­sen Emperour, one of the meanes whereby the possession hath been continued to that house hath been the electing of some one to be Rex Romanorum, whilest another of his Family was Emperour, which Charls the fifth effected in his life time for his Brother Ferdinandus, Ferdin Em­ [...]eror. who after succeeded him; and that [Page 33] hath been the attempt of Albertus late Cardinal, and now Arch-Duke of Austria, that he might be establi­shed in the hope of the Empire, du­ring the life of his brother [...] the Second, now Emperour and King of Bohemia: Rex Romanorum is he, who is f [...]rre already invested in title to the Empire, so that upon the death, resignation, or deposition of the then being Emperour, he is imme­diately to succeed.

He who is, now Emperor of Ger­many, is called Caesar, or Romani Im­perii Caesar, or Romani Imperii Imperator. Imperator, but very improper­ly, in as much as the case is farre dif­ferent from that which was when the Romane Empire did flourish; for then the Territories thereof were very great, all under the Regiment of one man, unless it pleased him to associate to himself some other. ButThe Empire divided by Theodosius. Theodosius did divide the Empire into two soveraignties, which were called the East and West Empires, & made Constantinople to be the chief seat of Arcadius, one of his sons, and [Page 34] Rome to be the principal City, of Honorius, the other; which We­sterne Empire continued in his glo­ry but a while; for the Gothes and Lombards, and other barbarous People, did both over-run it, and as good as extinguish it; in the which case it continued to the dayes of Charles the Great, who revived it again: but although there was some shew of Dominion, belonging unto him in Italy, yet his principal residence was in France, and his successours after him, re­movedA great po­licy in the Bishops of Rome. it into Germany; so that pro­perly he is now to be called Impe­rator Germanorum. It was a great policy of the Bishops of Rome, that the Emperour was wrought to leave Italy, and keep himselfe in Germany; for the Popes did not like to have a strong Neighbour so near, who might at his pleasure chastise or depose them, if he saw good.

And the eunning of those Popes was such also, that they weakned the state of the Emperor exceeding [Page 35] much in Germany, by giving great exemptions to the Princes thereof, insomuch, that Munster rightlyMunsters complaint. complaineth. The Emperor beareth the Spread Eagle with two heads, no­ting the East and West Empire; but (saith he) one of the heads is quite pulled off; and so be almost all the feathers, and in the other head, al­though life remaineth, yet there is little spirit or vigour.

Surius in his Commentaries of the year 1530. reporteth, that to the Emperour of Germany belong­eth three Crownes: The one of Silver, which intendeth the King­dome of Germany: The second of Iron, which is for the Kingdome of Lombardy: And the third of Gold, which is for the Sacred Romane Empire.

In Germany all are at a kind ofMost of the Princes of Germany, take onthem as absolute Governours commandement of the Emperour: but most of the Princes otherwise take on them as absolute Gover­nours in their Dominions: so that they have liberty of Religion; they [Page 36] do make Lawes, they do raise soul­diers, they do stampe money with their own pictures, as absolute Prin­ces? so doth the Duke of Saxony, the Arch-Bishop of Colen, and the rest.

The Princes of Germany came to that great strength of theirs, by meanes of a base and inferior man, who aspiring to the Empire (where­ofHow they came by a great strength. he was unworthy) was content to release unto the Princes, almost all kind of their service and duty; so that their subjection since that time, is little more then titulary, yielding only very small mainte­nance to the Empire, either in tri­bute, souldiers, or otherwise: and albe­it sometimes they refuse not to come by themselves, or their Agents to the Diets, and Parliaments, hol­den by the Emperour, yet that is as much for the safeguard of them­selves from the invasion of the Turk, who is not farre from them, as for any other respect; and the pay which they allow in such cases, is rather held by them to be a contribution, [Page 37] than any imposition to be admitted by duty: & yet there is extant a book where the particulars are mentio­ned, how the Princes and free Ci­ties are bound to maintaine upon their own charge, three thousand eight hundred forty two horses, and sixteen thousand two hundred foot, for the service of the Emperour, when he shall see cause; but how smal a trifle is that, in respect of the strength of so huge a Country?

The Princes themselves are soThe strengh of the Prin­ces of Ger­many. strong many of them, that they dare encounter with any who oppugn them, insomuch, that whereas Charls the fifth, was doubtless the greatest Emperour that had been from the daies of Charles the Great, yet the Duke of Saxony, and the Lantsgrave of Hassia, with some few Cities which were confederate with them, did dare to oppose themselves against the said Charles: and entring the field with him did oftentimes put him to great inconveniences: yea, it is [Page 38] supposed by some, that howsoever he had a hand upon these two, yet his inability to match the rufling of some of those Princes, was not the least cause, why he resigned the Empire to his brother Ferdinan­do. The titles of their Nobility.

The manner of Germany is, that the Title of Nobility which is in the Father, commonly is imparted to all the Sonnes: so that every Sonne of a Duke of Saxony, is cal­led Duke of Saxony; and every Child of the Count of Mansfield, is honored by the name of Count or Countes [...]e of Mansfield: but in the eldest House the chief Livelyhood doth remaine, for keeping upright the dignity of the Family.Free States and Cities▪

There are also Free States and Cities, which have the same Autho­rity, as Argentine, Franckeford, and others.

This is to be noted of the Ger­manes; A Note worthy of observation. that they may boast this a­bove other more Westernly Nati­ons of Europe, that they are an un­mixed [Page 39] Nation: for whereas the Lombards and Gothes at severall times, have set down in Italy, and mixed themselves with the people thereof, the Gothes, Vandals, and Saracens in Spaine, the Francks in Gaule or France, and the Normanes also; the Saxons, Angles, Danes and Normanes, in Great Britaine; they have been free from such inundati­on and mixture; yea, many of the people that have afflicted and in­habited these other Nations, have come from thence, so that therein Germany hath an advantage of these other Nations that have been subject hereunto.

Of Italy.

ON the South side of theScituation of Italy. Alpes and Germany, lyeth Italy, stretching it selfe out at length toward the South and East. It hath on the South side, the Iland of Sicilia; on the East that part of the Mediterranean which is called Mare Adriaticum, or Mare superum, which severeth Italy from Grecia: on the West side that part of the Mediterranean, which is called Mare Tyrrhenum, or Mare Inferum; and the upper or more Northen part of it neer Li­guria, Mare Ligusticum.

This Country for the figure thereof, is by some likened unto a long leafe of a tree. It hath in the middle of it, which goeth all in length a mighty mountain, named Mons Apen [...]inus, which is likened unto the Spina, or Ridge-bone of the back. Out of this Hill spring [Page 41] divers Rivers, which run on both sides of it, into the Adriaticke, and Tyrrhene, or Tuscane Seas.

As in other Countries, so in Italy in times past, there were divers se­verall people, and severall Provin­ces, like our Shires in England, and so there be at this day: but the mainItaly divi­ded into four parts. division of Italy, is properly into four parts, as in our age we doe ac­count it. The first Lombardy, which lyeth to the North. The second Tuscane, which boundeth toward the Mediterranean Sea, which way Corsica the Iland lieth. The third is the Land of the Church, which is the Territory of the Bishop of Rome, and containeth in it that which is called Romania. The fourth is Na­ples, and in this division, now is all Italy comprehended.

The North part of this Italy, is that, which in ancient time was called Gallia Togata, or Gallia Cisalpina, inhabited then by French men. It is now called Longobardia, or Lom­bardia, wherein stand many rich Go­vernments, [Page 42] as the Dukedome of Millain, of Mantua, of Florence, & others. It is for the pleasantness thereof, in respect of the soile, aire▪ waters, and great variety of wines, and fruits, likened now by some toLombardy the Gar­den of God. Paradice, or the Garden of God.

In this Italy, which was hereto­fore one entire Government, in the flourishing estate of the Romans, are now many absolute States and Princedomes, by the great policy o [...] the Bishop of Rome, who thoughtThe policy of the Bishop of Rome. it the best way to make himselfe great, to weaken the Empire. So he hath not only driven the Emperor out of all Italy into Germany▪ but [...]ath diminished his Majesty in both by making so many petty Go­vernments, which hold themselves soveraigne Rulers, without relation to any other.

As there are many States in Italy, The States of Venice. so one of the chiefest are the Vene­tians, called Resp Venetorum, or the State of Venice, because they are not governed by any one, but by their [Page 43] Senate and Gentlemen, although whey have a Duke, with those stampe their mony is coined, and in whose name all their executions of Justice are done. But this Duke is every way limited by the State.

This City of Venice which joineth to a corner of Lombardy, standeth in Estuarium, or shallow of Earth, in the North part of the Adriaticke Sea, so safely, that it is held invinci­ble. There is in it but one street of firme Land; into the other, the Sea doth flow at every tide. They have been a great and rich State, not only possessing much in Italy, as Padu [...] their University, and other things which still they do, but a great part of Illyricum, and many rich Ilands in the Mediterranean, as Candy cal­led commonly Creta, Cyprus, Zazin­thus, and others.

But Cyprus was taken from them a little before that fight at sea, where­in Don John of Austria, together with the Venetians, had so renow­ned a victory against the Turke, at the fight neer Lepanto.

[Page 44]The impoverishing of their State,The Vene­tians impo­verished. hath partly been by the incroaching of the Turk, but especially by the decaying of that Traffick which they had to Alexandria in Egypt for their spices, and other riches of Per­sia, Arabia, and the East Indies since the course of the Portugals to those Eastern Countries hath been by Sea, by the backside of Africa.

These Venetians, which in times past were great Warriours, do now altogether decline enmity or hosti­lity with all other Princes adjoy­ning, and therefore by all meanes do take up quarrels, and cease controver­sies, by wisdome and patience, tempo­rising with the Turke, the King of Spaine, and the Emperour, who are most like to offend them.

The manner of their GovernmentThe ex [...]l­lency of their Go­vernment. and the excellent course which they have in chusing their Duke is writ­ten by Contarenus, and some others of their Country-men. When they do make any warres, they seldome send forth any General of their own [Page 45] but entertaine some Prince of Italy, who is renowned for the wars.

In Lombardy standeth also the Dukedome of Millain, a most rich and pleasant thing, which sometime had bin govern'd by a Duke of their own, but of late hath been possessed by the Spaniard & sometime by the French, and is now in the Govern­ment & possession of the K. of Spain. Tuscany. Florence.

In Tuscany the Chiefe City, and Commander of all the rest, is Flo­rence, where is supposed to be the best Language of Italy, called the vulgar Italian, and the most circum­spect policy of all the Governments of Christendome, which hath much bin increased since the time of Ma­chiavel, who was Secretary or Re­corder to that State. This was in times past [...] free City, but of late by the policy of the Family of the Me­dices, it is brought under the subje­ction of a Duke, which raig [...]eth as an absolute Prince, and by little and little, hath so incroched on his own Citizens and Neighbours round a­bout [Page 46] him, that he hath gotten to be called (and that not unworthily) Magnus Dux Hetruriae, or the great The great Duke of Tuscany. Duke of Tuscany. A great part of the rising of the Family of the Me­dices, which are now Dukes of Flo­rence, may be ascribed to the cun­ning carriage of themselves; but it hath been much advanced forward by their felicity, in having two Popes together of that house, which were Leo the Tenth, and Clement the Seventh, who by all means labored to stablish the Governments of their Country, upon their Kindred▪ and it made not the least accesse thereunto, that affinity was contra­cted by them with the Kings of France, when K [...]erine de Medic [...]s Neece to Pope Clement the Seventh, was married to the younger Sonne fo Francis the first, whose Elder brother dying, that younger came to be King of France, by the name of Henry the 2d. for as in the time of her husband she laid the founda­tion of her aspiring, so after the [Page 47] death of the said husband, when she bare the name of the Queen Mo­ther. This Queen Mother swayed all at her pleasure in France, during the successive reigne of her three Sons, Francis the second, Charls the ninth, and Henry the third: in all which time no doubt, she promoted Flo­rence, and the Florentines to her ut­termost.

A good part of Italy is under theA great part of Italy under the Bishop of Rome. Bishop of Rome, which is common­ly called, The land of the Church: where the Pope is a Prince absolute, not onely Spiritual as elsewhere he claimeth, but also Temporall, ma­king Lawes requiring Tribute, rai­sing Souldiers, and executing Ju­stice as a Monarch.

The Bishops of Rome do pretend, that Constantine the Great, did be­stow upon them the City of Rome, together with divers other Cities and Towns, near adjoyning and the Demeans of them all to be as the Patrimony of Saint Peter, as many times they do tearme it. But Lau­rentius, [Page 48] Valla, in his set Treatise of this Argument, hath displaied the falshood of that pretence; and i [...] truth, the Greatness of the PopesThe manner of the rising of the Popes greatnesse. hath risen first by Phocas, who kil­ling his Master the Emperour of Rome, and being favoured by the Bishop of that Sea, and so aspiring himself to the Empire, did in recom­pence thereof, suffer the Bishop of Rome to be preclaimed Universal Bishop, and of likelyhood gave unto him somewhat to maintaine his E­state. And afterward King P [...]pin o [...] France, and Charls the Great his Son, getting (by means of the s [...]d Bishop) the Kingdome of France, and the one of them to the Empire, did bestow good possessions upon the Papacy; and since that time the Popes have had so much wit, as by destruction of the Princes of Italy, by encroaching on the favour of o­thers, the great Monarchs of Eu­rope and by their waries and other devices, to keep and encrease that Land of the Church. which in our [Page 49] time is well inlarged by the policy of Clement the 8. late Pope▪ who hath procured that the Dukedome of Ferrara, is, or shall be shortly added to his Dominion.

The chief residence of the Bishop of Rome, is Rome it self, which was first founded by R [...]mulus, and after­ward; so increased by others who succeeded him, that it was built up­on▪ 7. hils, and hath had onely raig­ning in it 7. Kings, and hath been ru­led by 7. severall sorts of Chiefe go­vernment: that is, Kings, Consuls, Dec [...]m-viri, Tribunes of the People, Dictators, Emperours and Popes.

They first incroached on the neighbours about them in Italy, af­terward; on all Italy, Sicily, & some of the [...]ands, till at length it proved to be the Lady and chiefe Mistress of the world: whose incredible wealth and greatness in men, treasure, ship­ping and armor, was so huge, that it did eve [...] sink under the weight of it self. Whereupon after divers civill wars, as between Marius and Sylla, [Page 50] Pompey and Caesar, with o [...]hers, it was at length revoked unto one ab­solute and Imperiall Government. The Majesty whereof notwithstan­ding, was afterward somewhat im­paired by the building of Constanti­nople, which was erected, or rather inlarged by Constantine the Great, and called Nova R [...]ma. But when the division was made of the East and West Empire, it received a greater blow, yet the maine over­throw of it was, when the Gothi and Vandals entred Italy, sacked it, and possessed it at their own plea­sure; so that it was (for a time) al­most quite forsaken and had no in­habitants, till the Bishops of Rom [...] did make means to gather together some to people it again: and since those times, a good part of the old building upon the Hils, hath bee [...] quite decaied and rui [...]ated, and th [...]t, Rome, which now may be called (in comparison of the old) new Rome is built on a lower ground, where the place was, which in times past [Page 51] was termed Campus Martius, very neer unto Tyber the River, which too well appeareth by the sudden inundation of that Tyber; destroy­ing and spoiling, Men, Cattell and Houses, as very lately to their great losse was experimented.

The Bishops of Rome, as some­times for their pleasure or profit, they do withdraw themselves unto [...], or some other Townes of Italy: so the time was when they removed their Court unto Avignon a City in France, standing near the Mediterranean sea, and not far from Mersiles in Province, where conti­nuing for the space of seventy years, they so afflicted the City of Rome, for l [...]cke of resort (which is very great when the Pope is there) that the Italians to this day, do remem­ber that time by the name of the Captivity of Babylon, which conti­nued (as appeareth by the Scripture) for seventy years. Who so looketh on the description laid down by the Holy Ghost in the Revelation, shall [Page 52] see that the Whore of Babylon there mentioned; can be understood of no place but the City of Rome.

In the South part of Italy, lyeth the Kingdome of Naples, which is a Country very rich, and full of all kind of pleasure, abundant in Nobi­lity; whereof commeth to be said that Proverb▪ Naples for [...], Rome for Religion, Millain for beau­ty, Florence for Policy, and Venice for Riches.

This was heretofore ruled by a King of their owne, till the time of Joan Queen of Naples, who by deed of gift, did first grant that Kingdom to the Kings of Arragon in Spaine; and afterwards by will, with a Re­vocation of the former Grant, did bequeath it to the house of Anj [...]u in France. Since which time the Kingdome of Naples hath some­times been in the hands of the Spa­niard, sometimes possessed by the French, and is now under the King of Spaine: unto this is annexed also the Dakedome of Calabria.

[Page 53]This Kingdome of Naples lieth so neare to some part of Graecia, which is now in possession of the Turke, that i [...] may justly be feared, lest at some time or other the said Turk, should make an invasion thereinto, as in­deed he hath offered divers times, [...]nd sometimes hath landed men to the great terror of all Italy; but for the preventing of that mischief, the King of Spaine is inforced to keep a good Fleet of Gallies continually at Otranto, where is the neerest pas­sage f [...]om Italy into Greece. This part of Italy was it, which in times past was named Magna Graecia, but in [...]ter ages it hath been unproperly called one of the Sicilies, which was reproved long since by Aeneus Sil­vius in his twelfth Epistle; and yet till of late time, the Kings of Spaine have been termed Kings of bo [...]h [...]he Sicili [...]s▪

There be moreover in Italy ma­ny other Princedomes and States, [...] the Dukedom of Ferrara, the Duke­dome of Mantua, the Dukedome [Page 54] of Urbine, the Dukedome of Parma and Placentia, the State of Luca, the State of Genua, commonly called the Genowaies, which are [...] by their Senate, but have a D [...]ke, as they have at Venice. There be also s [...]me others, by which meanes the gl [...]ry and strength of Italy is decayed.

Of Denmarke, Sweden, and Norway.

AS Italy lie [...]h on the S [...]uelDenmarkes [...]. side of Germany, so Den­marke lieth on the North, i [...]to the middle of which Land, the sea breake [...]h in by a place called the Sound. The Impost of which pass [...]ge [...] g [...]eat rich­es, as an ordinary Tribu [...]e unto the Ki [...]g of Denmarke. This is a King­dome, and ruled by an absolute Go­ve [...]nour.

O [...] the North and East side of Denmarke, lieth Suezia, commonly ca [...]led Sw [...]den or Swethe [...]; which [...]. [Page 55] is also a Kingdome of it self: Where the King professeth himself to be Rex Suecorum, Gothorum & Vanda­lorum: whereby we may know that the G [...]thes and Vandals, which in times past did waste Italy, and o­ther Nations of Christendome, did come out of this Countrey.

This whole Countrey which con­taineth in it, [...] Su [...]zia, and some part of Denmarke is Peninsu­la, being very much compassed a­bout with the Sea: and this is it, which in Ol [...]s Magnus, & Joannes Magnus, is termed Archiepisco [...] us Upsalensis; as also in some of the [...] ancient Writers, is called S [...]ā ­dinavia: on the North a [...]d We [...]t side of Sweden, lieth Nor [...]egia, or Norway, which is at this day under the Governme [...]t of the King of Denmarke, al [...]hough heretofore it hath been a [...]ee Kingd [...]me of it self.

Beyond Norway toward Russia on the Northern sea, lieth [...] ­via, beyond that Biarmia, then Hap­pia or Hapland, a poor and cold [Page 56] Countre [...], neare Sin [...]s B [...]ddicus: whereof there is little to be spoken but that it is said to be subject to the great Kn [...]z, or Duke of Mosco­vie. But of these afterwards.

Within the Sound, on the East part of the Sea, lieth Dantzicke, a­bout which are the Towns of the Haustmen, Confederates and Allies unto the King of Denmarke.

These are very rich Towns by rea­son of Merchandize, which down the Rivers they rece [...]ve out of Po­lonia, and transport into other parts of Christe [...]dome, through the Sound of the King of Denmarke. They li [...]e [...] f [...]ee pe [...]ple keeping amity and [...] with the Kings of Sweden and Denmarke, and with the Empe­ [...]our of Germany: but within these late years, Stephen Bacour, the King of Polon, doth challenge them to be members of his Crown and Digni­ty, and by war [...]e forc [...]d them to ca­p [...]tulate [...]ith him.

There is no great thing to be no­ted in these Countries, but that from [Page 57] Denmark commeth much corn, to the supply of other parts of Christendom; and that from all these Countries, [...] brought great furniture for warre, or for shipping, as Masts, C [...]bles, Steele, Riches of Denmarke. Saddles, Arm [...]ur, Gunpowder, & the l [...]ke: And that in the seas adjoy­ning to these parts, there are fishes of much more monstrous shape than el [...]e-where are to be found. The peo­ple of those Countries are by theirTheir Re­ligion. [...]rofession Lutherans for Religion.

Of Russia, or Moscovia.

ON the East side of Sweden, Russia s [...]tuate. beginne [...]h the Dominion of the Em [...]eror or R [...]ssia, although Russia or Mos­covia it self, do lye somewhat more into the East, which is a great and mighty Monarchy, ex­tending it selfe even from Lapland, and Finmarke, m [...]ny thousand miles in length, unto the Caspian sea: so that it containeth in it a great part [Page 58] of Europe, and much of Asia also.

The Governour there, callethEmperor of Russia. himselfe Emperour of Russia, Great Duke [...]f M [...]scovia, with many o­ther Titles of Princedomes and Ci­ties, whose Dominion was very mu [...]h inlarged by the Emperor not long since dead, whom in Russia they [...]ll Ivan Vasiliwich, in the La­tine, Iohannes Basilides, who raign­ing long, and being fortunate in warre, did ve [...]y much inlarge this mighty Dominion.

This man, [...]s in his younger [...] he was ve [...]y fortunate, and added very much unto the Glory of his Ancestors, winning something from the Tartars, and something from the Christi [...]ns in Livonia, and Litu­a [...]ia, and o [...]her confines of his Coun­trey: so in his latter age growing more unweld [...], and lesse beloved of his Subjects, he proved as unfo [...]tu­nate, whereby it came to passe, that Stephen Bacour, King of [...], had [...]very great hand of him, winning from him▪ large Provinces, which [Page 59] he before had conquered. Greg [...]ry the thirteenth Bishop of Rome, thin­king by his in [...]reaty for peace, be­tween those two Princes, to have won the whole Russian Monarchy, to the subjection and acknowledg­ment of the Papacy, sent Rober [...]us Possevin. a Iesuit sent by the Pope to the Em­peror. Possevi [...]us, a Jesui [...]e (but yet a great States-man) as his Agent to take up Controve [...]sies▪ between the Mosco­vit [...], and the King of Polone, who prevailed so farre, as that [...]e d [...]ew them to torlerable conditions, for both parties; but when he began to exhort him to the accepting o [...] the Romish Faith, the [...] being therefore informed by the English Embassadors (who he very much favoured, for his Lady, and Mistresse, Queen Elizabeths sake) that the Bishop of Rome was [...] proud Pr [...]late, and would exercise his pretended authority so far, as to make Kings▪ and Princes hold his stirrop, yea to kisse his very feet; he utterly and with much scorne reje­cted all obedience to him. Where­unto, [Page 60] when Possevinus did reply,A fine ex­cuse for the Popes pride that the Princes of Europe indeed in acknowledgement of their sub [...]e­ction to [...]im, as the Vi [...]ar of Christ, & successor of S. Peter, did offer him that service, as to kisse his feet, but that the Pope remembring himselfe to be [...] mortall man, did not take that honor as due unto himself b [...] did use to have on his Part [...]phie the Caucifix, or Picture of Christ, hanging upon the Crosse, and that in truth he would have the Reve­rence don [...] thereunto; the Emperor [...]he Empe­rours rage [...] the P [...]pe. did grow into an exceeding r [...]ge, re­puting h [...]s pride to be so much th [...] greater, when he would put th [...] Cru­ci [...]ix upon his shooe; in as much as the Russians do hold, that so h [...]ly a thing as that is highly prophaned, if any resemblance of it be worn above th [...] girdle.

Possevinus in a Treatise written of his Embassage into that Country where he discourseth this whole matter, confesseth that he was muchPossevinus fear of the Emperor. afraid, lest the Emperor would have [Page 61] strucken him, and beaten out his brains with a shrewd staffe which then he had in his hands, and did ordinarily carry with him: & he had the more reason so to fe [...]r, because that Prince was such a Tyrant, that he had not only [...]laire, and with cruel torture put to death very ma­ny of his subjects, and Nobility be­fore, shewing himselfe more bru­tishly cruel to them, than ever Nero and Caligulu were among the Ro­manes; but he had with his owne hands, and with the same staffe, upon a small occasion of anger, ki [...]led his eldest Son, who should have succee­ded him in his whole Empire.

The people of this Countrey are rude and unlearned, so that there i [...] very little or no knowledge a­mongst them of any liberall or in­genious Art: yea, their very Priests & Monks (whereof they have many) are almost unlettered▪ so that they can hardly do any thing more then read their ordinary Service: And [Page 62] the rest of the People are, by reason of their ignorant Education, dull and uncapable of any high under­standing; but very superstitious, ha­ving many Ceremonies, and Idola­trous Solemnities; as the consecra­ting of their rivers by their Patri­arch at one time of the yeare, when they think themselves much sancti­fied by the receiving of those hal­lowed waters; yea, and they bathe their horses and Cattell in them; and also the burying of most of their people with a paire of shooes on their feet, as supposing that they have a long journey to go, and a letter in their hand to St. Nicolas, whom they reverence as a speciall St. and think that he may give them entertainment, for their readier admission into heaven.

The Moscovites generally have received the Christian Faith; but yet so, that rather they do hold ofDifference between the Greek and Latine Church. the Greek and the Eastern, then of the Western Romane Church.

The doctrines wherein the Greek [Page 63] Church differs from the Latine, are these. First, they hold that the holy Ghost proceeds from the Father a­lone, and not from the Sonne. Se­condly that the Bishop of Rome is not the universall Bishop. Thirdly, that there is no purgation. Fourth­ly, their Priests do marry: and fifth­ly, they do differ in divers of their Ceremonies, as in having 4 Lents in the yeare, whereof they do call one Lent, their great Lent.

At the time of the Councill of Florence, there was some shew made by the Agents of the Greek Church, that they would have joy­ned in opinion with the Latines: but when they returned home, their Countrey-men would in no sort as­sent thereunto.

In the Northern parts of the Do­minion of the Emperour of Russia, which have lately been joyned unto his Territories, as specially Lap­land, The people of Lapland very hea­thenish. Biarmia, and thereabouts, they are people so rude and heathe­nish, that (as Olaus Magnus wri­teth [Page 64] of them) looke whatsoever living thing they doe see in the morning at their going out of their doors, yea, if it be a bird, or a worm▪ or some such other creeping thing, they do yield a Divine W [...]ship, and Reverence thereunto for all that day, as if it were some inferiour God. Da­mianus à Goes h [...]th written a pretty Treatise, describing the manner of those Lappians: The greatest part of the Country of Russia, is in the winter so exceeding cold, that both [...]he Rivers are frozen over, the land covered with snow, and such is the sharpnesse of the aire, that if any go abroad bare-faced it causeth their flesh in a short time to rot, which befalleth to the fingers and toes of divers of them: therefore for a great part of winter, they live in stoves and hot-houses, and if they be occasioned to go abroad, they use many furs, whereof there is great plenty in that Country, as also wood to make fire; but yet in the summer time, the face of the soyle and the [Page 65] aire is very strangely altered, inso­much, that the Countrey seemeth hot, the birds sing very merrily, and the trees, grasse and co [...]n, in a short sp [...]ce do appear so chearfully green, and pleasant, that it is scant to be be­leeved, but of them which have seen it.

Their building is most of wood, even in the chiefe City of Mosco, insomuch, that the Tartars (who lie in the North-east of them) brea­king oft into their Countries, even unto the very Mosco, do set fire on their Cities, which by reason of their woodden buildings, are quickly destroyed.

The manner of government which of late years hath been used in Russia is very barbarous, and little less than tyrannous: for the Emperour that last was, did suffer his people to be kept in great servility, and permitted the Rulers and chief Officers at their pleasures, to pil and ransack the com­mon sort; but to no other end, but that himself might take occasion when he thought good to call them [Page 66] in question for their misdemeanor, and so fill his own coffers with flee cing of them: which was the same course the old Roman Empire did use, calling the Deputies of the Pro­vinces, by the name of Spunges, whose property is to suck up wa­ter, but when it is full, then it selfe is crushed, and yi ldeth forth liquor for the behalfe of another.

The passage by Sea into this coun­try,The passage by sea into this Coun­try. which was wont to be through the Sound, and so afterward by land, was first discovered by the English: who with great danger of the fro­zen Seas, did first adventure to saile so far North, as to compass Lapland, Finmark Scricfinia & Biarmia, and so passing to the East by Nova Zem­bla, halfe the way almost to Cathaio, have entred the River called Ob, by which they disperse themselves for Merchandize both by water and land, into the most parts of the do­minion of the Emperor of Russia.

The first attempt which was madeThe first attempt. by the English, for the entrance of [Page 67] Moscovia, by the North seas, was in the daies of King Edw. the sixt, at which time the Merchants of Lon­don procuring leave of the King, did send forth Sir Hugh Willoby, with shipping and men, who went so far toward the North, that he Coasted the corner of Scricfinia & Biarmia, and so turned toward the East: but the wheather proved so extream, the snowing so great, and the freezing of the water so vehement, that his ship was set fast in the ice; and there he & his people were frozen to death, and the next year some other com­ming from England, found both the ship, and their bodies in it, and a per­fect Remembrance in writing of all things which they had done and dis covered; where amongst the rest, mention was made of a land which they had touch'd, which to this day is known by the name of Sir Hugh Sir Hugh Willobies Land. Willobies Land. The Merchants of London did not desist to pursue this discovery, but have so far prevailed, as that they have reached one halfe [Page 68] of the way toward the East part of Chyna and Cathaio; but the whole passage is not yet opened.

This Empire is at this day one ofThis Empire one of the greatest in the world. the greatest dominions in the world, both for compasse of ground, & for multitude of men; saving that it ly­eth far North, and so yieldeth not pleasure for good Traffick, with ma­ny other of the best situated nations.

Among other things which do argue the magnificence of the Em­perour of Russia, this one is recor­ded by many who have travelled into those parts, that when the great Duke is disposed to sit in his magnificence, besides great store of Jewels, and abundance of massie plate, both of Gold and Silver, which is openly shewed in his Hall, there do sit as his Princes, and great Nobles, cloached in very rich and sumptuous attyre, divers men, ancient for their yeares, very seem­ly of countenance, and grave, with white long beards, which is a good­ly shew, besides the rich state of the [Page 69] thing. But Olaus Magnus, a man well experienced in those Northern parts, doth say (how truely I cannot tell) that the manner of their sitting is a notable fraud and cunning of the Russian, in as much as they are not men of any worth, but ordinary Citizens of the gravest, and seem­liest countenance, which against such a solemnity, are picked out of Mosco, and other places adjoining, and have robes put on them, which are not their own, but taken out of the Emperours Wardrobe.

Of Spruce and Poland.

IN Europe, on the East andPrussia hew scituated. North corner of Germany ly­eth a Countrey called Prussia, in Latine most times Borussia, in English, Pruthen, or Spruce, of whom little is famous, saving, that they were governed by one, in a kinde of order of Religion, whom they call the Grand-Master: and that they are a meanes to keep the [Page 70] Moscovite, and the Turke from some other parts of Christend me.

This Country is now grown to be a Dukedome, and the Duke there­of doth admit traffick with our English, who going beyond the Hance Townes, do touch upon his country; and amongst other things, doe bring from thence a kinde of leather, which was wont to be used i Jerkins, and called by the nameSpruce Leather. of Spruce-Leather-Jerkins.

On the E [...]t side [...] Germany, be­tween Russia and Germany, [...]eth Polonia or Poland, which is a [...]g­domeP [...]lands sci tu [...] ion. diffe [...]ing from others [...] Eu­rope; because the King there is [...]o­sen by Election out of some of the Princes neere adjoining, as la [...]ely Henry the third King of France. These Elections often [...]mes doe make great factions there, so that in taking parts, they grow often there into Civill warre.

The King of Polonia is almost continually in warre, either with the Moscovite, who lyeth in the East and North-East of him; or [Page 71] with the Turke, who li [...]th on the South and South E [...]st, and some­ [...]imes also with the Princes of Ger­many; whereupon the Poles doe commonly desire to chule war­riours to their King.

In this Country are none butTheir ii ves Reti gons. Christians: but so, that liberty of [...]ll Religion is p [...]rmitted, insomuch, [...]hat there be Papists, Coil [...]dges of [...], bo [...]h [...] [...] & [...] i [...] opinion, [...], Ar [...], and di [...]ers others

But of [...] years there [...] beenThey hate the Iesuites [...] ea nest m [...]tions in their Par [...], that their Co ledges of J [...]suites sh [...]uld be dissolved, and they ban [...]shed our of that K [...]ng­dome, as of la [...]e they were from France. The [...]eason of i is, because that under colour of Religion, they doe secretly deale in [...] causes, and many times sow sedi [...]ons. and some of them have given cou [...]sell to murther Princes: and [...] ­ever they be, they are the only in telligencers for the Pop [...], besides that, many of the Papi [...]s, but espe­cially [Page 72] their Fryars and orders of Religion) do hate and envye them: first, for that they take upon them with such pride to be called Jesuits, as if none had to do with Jesus but they, and are more inward with Princes then the rest are. Se­condly, because many of them are more learned then common Monks and Fryars. And thirdly, because they professe more strictly and se­verely, than others do, the Capu­shins only accep [...]ed.

This is that Country, which inTh [...]ir chief City. Craco­via. times past was called Sarmatia, the chiefe City whereof is named Cra­covia.

Of Hungaria and Austria.

ON the South-East side ofHungary [...]. Germany, lyeth Hungaria, called in the Latine Pan­nonia, which hath been heretofore divided into Pannonia superior, & Pannonia inferior: it is an absolute Kingdome, and hath been [Page 73] heretofore rich and populous. The Christians that do live there, have among them divers sorts of Religi­on, as in Poland.

This Kingdome hath been a great obstacle against the Turkes com­ming into Christendome; but espe­cially in the time of John Hunnia­des, who did mightily with many great victories repulse the Tu [...]ks. Here standeth Bunda, which wasBunda. heretofore a great Fortresse of Christendome: but the glory of this Kingdome is almost utterly de­caied, by reason that the Turk who partly by policy, & partly by force, doth now possesse the greatest part of it; so that the people are fled from thence, and the Christians which remaine there are in misera­ble servitude: Notwithstanding some part of Pannonia inferior doth ye [...] belong to Christendome.

The Turks for the space of these forty or fifty years last past, have kept continuall garrisons, and many times great Armies in that place of Hungary, which yet remaineth [Page 74] Christned; yea, and sometimes th [...] great Turks themselves have come thither in person with huge Hosts▪ accounting it a matter of their re ligion, not only to destroy as ma­ny Christians as they can, but also to win their land, by the revenue [...] whereof, they may maintain some Religious house, which they think themselves in custome bound to erect: but so, that the maintai ning thereof is by the sword, to be wonne out of the hands of some of those whom they hold enemie [...] to them.

Hungary is become the onely Cockpit of the World, where the Turkes doe strive to gain, and the Christians at the charge of the Em­peror of Germany (who entituleth himselfe King of Hungary) doe la­bour to repulse them: and few sum­mers do passe, but that something is either wonne or lost by e [...]ther party.

That corner of Germany which lieth neerest to Hungary or Panno­nia Austria. inferior, is called Austria, or Pan­nonia [Page 75] a superior, wh [...]ch is an Arch­Dukedome. From which house (be­ing of late much sprung) come ma­ny of the Princ [...]s of Germany, and of other parts of Europe: so that the Crown Imperiall of Germany, hath lately oft besallen to some one of this house.

In this Country standeth Vienna, Vienna. that noble City, wh [...]ch is now the principle Bulwarke of Christen­dome against the Turke: from whence S [...]liman was repelled by Ferdinandus King of Hungary, in the time of the Emperour Charles the fift. It was in this Country, that Richard the first, King of England, in his return from the Holy Land, was taken prisoner by the Arch­Duke of Austria, and so put to a grievous ransome.

There were lately divers bro­thers of the Emperour Rodolphus the second, which were all called by the name of Arch-Dukes of Austria Arch Duks of Austria. [...]ccording to the manner of the Ger­mans, who give the titles of the Fa­thers nobility to all the children. [Page 76] The names of them were Matthias, Ernestus, & the youngest Albertus, who for a good space held by dis­pensation from the Pope the Arch­bish oprick of Toledo in Spaine, al­though he were no Priest, and had then also the title of Cardinall of Austria, and was imploied for Vice­roy of Portugall, by Philip the 2d. King of Spain: but after the death of the Duke of Parma, he was sent as Lievtenant general, & Governor of the Low-Ciuntries for the K. of Spaine, where since he hath attained to the marriage of the Infanta Isa­bella Eugenia Clara, eldest daugh­ter to K. Philip the second, and last King of Spaine, and by her hath he the stile of Duke of Burgundy, al­though peaceably he cannot enjoy a great part of that Countrey.

Thorow both Austria and Hun­gary, doth runne the mighty River Danubius, as through Germany The River of [...]. doth runne the Rheinc: whereon groweth Vinum Rhenanum, com monly cal [...]ed Rhenisir wine.

Of Greece, Thracia, and the Coun­tries neere adjoining.

ON the South side of Hun­gary, and South-East, lieth a Country of Europe, cal­ledScitu [...]tion of Dacia Transylva­nia, Wala­chia Mol­davia, Ser­via. in old time Dacia, which is large and wide, compre­hending in it Transylvania, Wala­chia, Moldavia, & Servia. Of which little is famous, save that the men are warlike, and can hardly bee brought to obedience. They have lately been under the K of Hungary. These Countries of Transylvania, Walachia, and Moldavia, have cer­taine Monarchs of their owne, whom they call by the name of V [...]gnode, which do rule their Coun­tries with indifferent mediocrity, while they have the sway in their own hands, but confining upon the Turke, they are many times oppres­sed and overcome by him, so that of­ten they are his Tributaries: yet by the wildnesse of the country, and un­certaine disposition of the Rulers [Page 78] and their people, he never hath a­ny hand long over them, but some­times they maintain warre against him, and have slain down some of his Bassaes, comming with a great Army against them; by which oc­casion it falleth out, that he is glad now and then to enter confederacy with them: so doubtfull a kind of regiment is that, which now adaies is in those Countries.

The River Danubius doth divide this Dacia from Mysia, commonly called Bulgaria and Russia, which lyeth on the South from Danubius, and is severed from Graecia, by the Mountaine Haemus. The moun­tain Hamus

This Mountain is that, whereof they reported in times past, though but falsly, that who so stood on the top thereof, might see the sea four severall waies, to wit, East, West, North and South: under pretence of trying which conclusion (not Philip Alexanders Father, but a lat­ter Philip King of Macedonia) did go up to that Hill, when in truth his meaning was secretly to meet [Page 79] with others there, with whom he might joine himself against the Ro­mans, which was shortly the over­throw of that Kingdome. It should seem, that about this mountaine it is very cold, by reason of that jest which Athenaeus reported Strato­nieus to have uttered concerning that Hill, when he said, that for eight months in the yeare it was very cold, and for the other foure it was winter.

From Haemus toward the South,Grecia bounded. lieth Grecia, bounded on the West by the Ad iaticke sea, on the East [...] Thracian [...] sea, and Ma [...]e A [...]geum, on the South by the main Mediterranean sea. This contained an old time four speciall parts, Pelo­ponnesus, Achaia, Macedonia, and Epirus.

Adjoining whereunto was Illyri­cum, Peleponnesus, which is now called Moreah, in the south part ofMoreah. Grecia, being Peninsula, or almost an Iland, for that it is joined by a little strait called Ist [...]es, unto the rest of Graecia. Herein stood Spar­ta, Sparts. [Page 80] and the ancient state of Lacede­mon; the lawes thereof were made by Lycurgus; by the due observati­on of which, Tullie could say in his time, that the title of Sparta in La­cedemon, had continued in the same means and behaviour, for the space of 700. yeares.

This Sparta was it which so of­ten made warre against the Atheni­ans, and this and Athens were cal­led the two edges of Grecia.

Neare the Isthmos, or Straits, stood t [...]e famous City of Corinth, Corinth. which was in old time called the Key of Greece, and whether St. Paul wrote two of his Epistles.

Aereus Sylvius in his Cosmogra­ph call Treatise, De Europa, cap. 21 saith, that the straits which divide Moreah from the rest of Grecia, are in bredth but five miles; and that divers Kings and Princes did go about to dig away the earth, that they might make it to be an Iland. He nameth King Demetrius, Julius Caesar, Caius Caligula, & Domitius Nero; of all whom he doth note, [Page 81] that they not onely failed of their purpose: but that they came to vio­lent and unnaturall deaths.

From the Isthmos, which is the end of Pelopennesus or Moreah, be­ginneth Achaia, and spreadeth itAchaia. self Northwards but a little way, unto the Hill Othris, which is the bounds between Achaia and Ma­cedonia: but East and West▪ much more largely, as Eastward even unto the Island Eu [...]oea. with a greatEuboea. Promontory, and Westward boun­ding unto Epirus.

The inhabitants of this place, were they which properly are called A­chivi; which word is so oft used by Virgil. Here towards the East part stood Beotia, and upon the Sea-coast,Beotia. looking South-ward towards Mo­reah, was Athens, which was fa­mousAthens. for the lawes of Solon, for the warres against Sparta, and many o­ther Cities of Grecia; and for an U­niversity of learned men, which long continued there.

In this part of Greece, stood Per­nassus Pernassus & Helicou. and Helicon, so much tal­ked [Page 82] of by Poets, and Phocis, and Thebes, and briefly all the Cities whereof Livie speaking, doth term by the name of Achai, or [...] Archaeorum.

The third Province of Graeci [...], Epirus. c [...]lled Epirus, lyeth Westward from Achala, and ex [...]en s it self for a good space that [...]av; but toward the North and South it is but nar­row, lying along the sea-coast, and looking Sou [...]hward on the Islands of Conegra and Cephalonia. This was be Coun [...]ry wherein Olympias wife unto Philip of Maced [...]nia, and Mother unto Alexander the g [...]ea, was born. This also was the King­dome of that noble Pyrrhus, which made such great warres against the Romans; and in our l [...]tter age it was made re [...]owned by the valiant Scand rberg, who was so great a scou [...]ge unto the Turke, whose life is so excellently written by Marti­nus Partesius. From the East part o [...] Epiru [...] Northward, lyeth a Coun­try, which was never noted by an [...] famous name; but as it should seen [Page 83] was sometime under Epirus, from which it lieth Northward: some imes under Macedonia, from which it lyeth Westward; and sometime [...] under Illyris, or Dalmatia, from which it lyeth Southward; and i may be that there was in old time divers free Cities there. Illyricum Illyricum▪ which confineth upon Graecia to­ [...]ard the North and West, near un [...]o the top of the Adriatick sea, and not far from Venice, is for a good part of it at this day under the Ve­ne i [...]s.

The so [...]rth and greatest part o [...] Macedonia. [...]ld Grecia, was Maced [...]nia, which is fa [...]sty by the Maps of the R [...]man Emp [...]re, placed on the West side of G [...]aecia; for in truth it [...]yeth on the East side, looking toward Asia the lesser, being bounded on the East side by the Sea called Mare Egeum on the South side by Achaia, and the Hill Othris, and part of Epirus: and on the West side, by certaine great mountains: but on the North by the Hill Haemus.

This was the Kingdome so famous [Page 84] in times past for Philip and Alex­ander his son, who conquered the whole world, and caused the name of the third Empire to be attributed unto this place. Here stood the hill Athos, whereof part was digged down by the army of Xerxes the great King of Persia, who warred against the Grecians. Here was the Hill Olymp [...]s, the City of Philipai, [...] he e the Philippians dwelt, to whom Sr. Paul wrote. Here was Ampollonia, Amphipolis, Ed [...]ssa, Pel­la, Thessalonica and B [...]rea; yea, and the whole Cou [...]try of Thessalia, lay on the South side of this part o [...] Greece.

In this Country of Grecia, were in ancient times many Kingdomes and States, as at this day there are in Italy: as the Maced [...]nians, the Kingdome of Epirus, the State of Athens, the government of Sparta [...]he City of Thebes, and very many other places; insomuch that almost every Town had a peculiar govern­ment: But now it is all under one [...] Monarchy.

[Page 85]From Grecia (in old time) didMany fa­m [...]us things from Greece almost all famous things come. These were they that made the wa [...] against Troy; that resisted Xerxes the mighty King of Persia, that had the famous Law-makers, as Solon Famcus Laws. in Athens, and Lycurgus of Lacede­mon; that took away the Monar­chy from the Persians, that brought forth the [...] famous Captaines, asFamous Captaines. Themistceles, Mil [...]iades, Alexan­der, and many others that were the Authours of civility unto the We­stern Nations, and to some in the East; as Asia the lesse: that gave to Italy and to the Romans, the first light of learning: because from themThe first­Poets. arose the first Poets, as [...] He­siodus, Sophocles, and divers others. The great Ph [...]losophers, Socrates, Pla [...]o, Aristotle, and all the Sects of the Academicks, Stoicks, Peripate­ticks, Epicure [...]ns, and almost all theirThe great Oratours. Scholars. The great Oratours, De­mosthenes, and Aeschines, and in one word (the Mathematicks excepted, which came rather from the Chal­deans and the Egyp [...]ians) the wh [...]le [Page 86] flowers of Arts and good Learning. On the North-East part of Graecia standeth Thracia, which tho [...] Thracia. here [...]ofore it hath been distingui­shed, yet now is accounted as the chiefe part of Greece. Here on the edge of the sea-coast very near unto Asia, st [...]deth the City called Bi­zantium, but since Constantinople, be cause Constantine the Great did new build it, and made it an ImperiallConstan­tinople. City. This was the chiefe resi­dence of the Emperour of Graecia, sometimes called New Rome, and the glory of the East; where the ge­nerall Council was once assembled; and one of the seas of the Patriarks, who was called the Patriark of Con­stantinople. But by the great discord of the Christians, all Graecia, and this City are fallen into the hands of the Turk, who now maketh it his place of imperiall aboad. It was won [...] the time of Constantine the last Emperor; so that by Constantine it obtained his honour, and by Con­stantine it lost it. In this City lyeth resident with the Turk, an Ambas­sadour [Page 87] or Agent for the King of England.

The Christians that do now live in Grecia, are in miserable servitude unto the Turke. They disagree in many things from the doctrine of the Church of Rome.

Of the Sea running between Europe and Asia.

IF there were no other Argu­ment,Northerne parts were not discove­red in times past. that the Northern parts of the World were not disco­vered in times past, by any that travelled that way, yet this would sufficiently avouch [...], that there was never thought upon an [...] land between Asia and Europe, higher than the River Tanais; which doth not extend it selfe very fa [...] into the North, but is short of the uttermost bounds that was by the space of foure thousand miles; but this river which by the Tartarians is now called Don, where it doth [Page 88] run, it leaveth Asia on the Eastside, and Europe on the West, but going forward towards the South, it dis­burtheneth it self into a dead Lake or Fen (for so it seemeth) which isMeotis Pa­lus Iustine Ovid. called Meotis Palus, spoken of in the second book of Justine, and not forgotten by Ovid de Ponto: and at this day in the dead of winter, it is usually frozen, that the Scythians and Tartarians neer adjoining, do both themselves and their cattel, yea, sometimes with sleads after them, passe over, as if it were dry land. On the Southern part of this Meotis is a narrow strait of the Sea, which is commonly called by the name ofBosphorus Cimmerius. Bosphorus Cimmerius, because (as it is thought) sometime Oxen have ventured to swim crosse there from Asia to Europe, or backward. When the water hath run for a pretty space i [...] so narrow a passage, there beginneth [...] great and wide Sea, named Pontus Euxinus, whether (asPontus Euxinus. Josephus reporteth) the whale did carry the Prophet Jonas, and there did disburthen himselfe of his car­riage, [Page 89] by casting him upon the land. At the mouth of this Sea, is a very great strait, knowne by the name of Thracius Bosphorus, where theThracius Bosphorus. breadth of this sea is not above one mile, serving Asia and Europe. O [...] the side of Europe standeth Constan­tinople. On the side of Asia, the City called Pera or Galatae, which for the neerenesse is by some, reckoned a part of Constantinople. When anyA strange custome among the Turks. of the Turks Janizaries have com­mitted ought worthy of death, the custome is, is to send the same party in the night time over by boat from Constantinople to Pera, whereby the way he is thrown i [...] to the wa­ter with a great stone about his neck, and then there is a piece of O [...]dnance shot off, which is a to­ken of some such execution. The Turke is forced to take this course, lest the rest of his Janizaries should mutiny when any of their fellowes is put to death.

By reason of the standing of A­sia and Europe so neare together, and the sea running between them, [Page 90] which serveth each place with all manner of commodities, it appea­reth that Constantinople is marve [...] ­lously, richly, and conveniently sea­ [...]ed, a [...]d therefore a fit place from whence [...]e Turke may offer to at­c [...]ieve att [...]mps.

After this st [...]ait, the sea openeth it self more large toward he [...], & [...]is called by the name o [...] [...] But then it groveth again into a [...]other stra [...]t, which they write to be [...] b [...]ead [...] two in [...]: This is called H [...]ll sp [...]ntus having on the one side [...] in Asia, on the otherside S [...]stus on the side of Eu­ [...]pe. This is that place whereHellespon [...]us X [...]rxes b [...]idge. [...]rxes the great King o [...] Persia, d [...]d [...]ike his bridge over the Sea, so mu [...]h renowned in ancient history; which was not impossible, by rea­son of the narrownesse, the foun­dation of his bridge being rested on ships. Here also may appeare the reason of the story of Leander and Hero: which Leander is reported for the love of Hero, to have often times swum over the Sea, till at last [Page 91] he was drowned. From this stra [...] [...]outhward, the Sea groweth more wide, and is called afterwards by the name of Mare Aegeum, and soMare Ae­geum. descendeth to the full Mediterra­nean.

Of Asia, and first of Tartary.

ON the South side of Asia, [...] unto the Domini­ [...] the Emperour of R [...]ssia, is Tartary, in anci­entTartary b [...]unded. time [...] Scy [...]hia, the bou [...]ds whereof did then extend them­ [...]es into a good part of Europe; and therefore was called Scythia Europea: but the greatest part of [...]t lyeth in Asia, a mighty large Country, extending it self on the North to the uttermost Sea, on the [...]ast to the Dominion of the Great Cham, or Prince of Cathaie; on the South down to Mare Ca­spium. The Tartarians which now inhabit it, are men of great stature, rude of behaviour, no [Page 92] Christians but Gentiles; neitherTheir Reli­gion. do they acknowledge Mahomet, They have few or no Cities a­mong them, but after the manner of the old Scythians, do live in Wildernesses, lying under their Carts, and following their droves of Cattell, by the milke whereof they do nourish themselves. They sowe no corne at all, because they abide not long in any one place; but taking their direction from the North-pole-starre, they remove from one coast of their Countrey, unto another. The Countrey is po­pulous, and the men are great war­riours, fighting alwaies on horse­back with their bow, arrowes, andTheir man­ner of wars a short sword. They have amongst them infini [...]e store of horses, where­of they sell many into the Coun­tries neere adjoining. Their ordi­nary food in their warres is horse­flesh, which they use to eat raw, being chafed a little by hanging at their saddle.

They have great wars with the Countries adjoining, but especially [Page 93] with the Moscovite, and sometimes with the Turke: from hence came Tamberlain, who brought 700000.Tamberlain the Great, [...] Tartarian. of the Tartarians at once into the field, wherein he distressed and took prisoner Bajazet the great Turke, whom he afterward forced to feed as a dog under his table.

They have now amongst them many Princes and Governours, as those have one, whom they call the Crim Tartars: and those have ano ther, which are the Tartars of Ma gaiae, and so divers others.

The English have laboured (to their great expences) to finde out the way by the North Seas of Tar­taria; to go into Cathay and China; but by reason of the frozen Seas, they have not yet prevailed: al­though it hath been reported, that the Flemmings have discovered that passage: which would be (very likely) to the great benefit of the Northern parts of Christendome; yet that report doth not continue, and therfore it is to be thought; that [Page 94] the Flemmings have not proceeded so farre.

Of Cathaie and China.

NExt beyond Tartaria, on the North-East part of Asia, lyeth a great Coun­try called Cathaie, the bounds whereof extend themselvesScituation of Cathaie. on the North and East, to the ut­termost Seas; and on the South to China. The people are not much learned, but more civill then the Tartars; and have good and ordi­nary traffick with the Countries adjoining.

This Country hath in it many Kings, which are tributaries, and do owe obedience unto one, whom they call the great Cham or Can ofThe great Can of Ca­thaie. Cathaie, who is the chief governor of all the Land, and esteemed for multitude of people and large­nesse of dominion, to be one of the greatest Princes of the World: but his name is the lesse famous, [Page 95] for that he lyeth so far distant from the best Nations, and the passage into this Country is so dange­rous, either for the perils of the sea, or for the long space by Land. HisCambalu the chiefe City of China. chief Imperiall City is called Cam­balu. On the South side of Cathaie, and East part of Asia, next to the Sea, lyeth China: and the people thereof, Osorius describeth by the name of Sina, and called their Countrey Synarum Regio. This is aA very rich Country. fruitfull Countrey, and yieldeth as great store of rich commodities, as almost any Country in the World. It containeth in it very many se­verall Kingdomes, which are abso­lute Princes in their Seats. The chief City in this Countrey is called Quinsay, and is described to be ofQuinsay the [...]hiefe City. incredible greatnesse, as were wont to be the ancient Cities in the East, as Babylon, Ninive, and o­thers.

This Countrey was first disco­vered by the late Navigation of the Portugals into the East In­dies.

[Page 96]The people of China are learnedThe people skilfull in Ar [...]s. almost in all Arts, very skilful work­men in curious fine Workes of all sorts, so that no Country yieldeth more precious Merchandise then the workmanship of them. They are great souldiers, very politick and crafty, and in respect thereof, contemning the wits of others u­sing a Proverbe, That all other Na­tions Their Pro­verbe. do see but with one eye; but they themselves have two.

Petrus Maffaeus Historiogra­pher to the King of Spaine for the Eastern Indies, doth report of them, that they have had from very anci­ent time among them, these two things, which we hold to be the miracles of Christendome, and but lately invented: The one is the useTwo rare wonders in­vented in Chinai, guns and printing. of Guns for the wars, and the other is Printing; which they use not as we do, writing from the left hand unto the right; or as the Hebrewes and Syrians, from the right hand unto the left: but directly down­ward, and so their lines at the top do begin again.

Of the East Indies.

ON the South side of China, toward the Molucco l­lands, and the Indian Sea, lyeth the great Country of India, extending it self from theThe situ [...] ­tion of the Indies. South part of the Continent, by the space of many thousand miles west­ward unto the River Indus, which is the greatest River [...] in all the Country, except Ganges, one of the greatest Rivers in the World; which lyeth in the East part of the same Indies.

This is that Country so famous in ancient time, for the great riches thereof, for the multitude of peo­ple, for the conquest of Bacchus o­ver it: for the passage thither for Alexander the Great, throughout all the length of Asia; for his ad­venturing to go into the South O­cean with so mighty a Navy, which [...]ew or none had ever attempted [Page 98] before him. And certainly thither it was that Solomon did send once in three yeares for his gold and o­ther rich Merchandise: for the Scripture saith, that he sent his fleet from Ezion-geber, which stood upon the mouth of the Red Sea, and it was the directest passage which he had unto the Eastern Indies; whereas if his purpose had been to send to Peru, as some lately have imagined, his course had been thorow the Mediterranean Sea, and the Straits of G [...]lbraltar.

This Countrey had in ancient time, many absolute Kingdomes and Provinces: as in the time of Alexander, Porus, Taxiles, and di­versIn India are many Kingdomes others. In it were many Phi­losophers, and men of great Lear­ning, whom they called Gymnoso­phistae, of whom was Calanus, who burnt himself before Alexander.

The men of the South part of India are black, and therefore are called men of Inde. The cattell of all sorts that are bred there, are ofTheir Cattle v [...]ry big. incredible bignesse, in respect of [Page 99] other Countries, as their Elephants, Ap [...]s, Monkies, Emets, and others.

The riches hereof have been ve­ryTheir Richs great, with abundance of gold, insomuch that the Promontory, who is now called Malacha, was in times past named Aurea Cher­sonesus. The commodity of spice is exceeding great that comes from thence.

The Portugals were the first,The Portu­gals first discovered the Indies. which by their long Navigations beyond the Equinoctiall, and the farthermost part of Africke, have of late yeares discovered these Countries to Christendome: as heretofore to the use of the King of Portugall, so now of the King of Spaine, who is reputed owner of them.

The Portugals did finde diversFour King­doms by the Portugals discovered. Kingdomes at their first arrivall in those parts, as the Kingdome of Cal [...]cut, the Kingdome of Cam­baia, the Kingdome of Cananor, the Kingdome of Cochin, and very many other, with the Kings where­of they first entring League and [Page 100] Traffick, and having leave given to build Castles for their defence, they have since by policy incroached in­to their hands a great part of the Countrey, which lieth neer unto the Sea-coast, and are mighty now, for the space of many thousand miles together. The K. of Spain hath there a Vice-Roy, whose residence is commonly in the Imperiall City called Goa. They do every year sendThe City of Goa. home great store of rich commodi­ties into Spaine.

The people of the Country when the Portugals came first thither, were for the most part Gentiles, The Indi­ans Religi­on. beleeving in no one God: yea, at this day there are divers of them who do adore the Sunne as their God, and every morning at the ri­sing thereof, do use very supersti­tious Ceremonies, which our Mer chants, who do trade to Aleppo do oftentimes see; for divers o these Indians do come thither wit [...] Merchandize But the Saracens wh [...] reverence the Prophet Mahomet from the Bayes or Gulphes of Per­sia, [Page 101] and Arabia, do traffick much thither, so that Mahomet was known among them: but in one Town called Granganor, they found certain Christians dissenting in ma­ny things from the Church of Rome, and rather agreeing with the Pro­testants, which Christians had re­ceived (by succession) their Reli­gion from the time of Thomas the Apostle; by whom (as it is recor­ded in the ancient Ecclesiasticall History) part of India was con­verted.

In this Countrey of India, are many great and Potent Kings and Kingdomes, which had been alto gether unknown and unheard of in our part of the World, but that we were beholding to the Portugals for their discovery, and before their Navigation thither, by the back side of Africk [...], to some Relations that we had from the Venetians, who traded and travelled thither by land out of Turkie. The [...] of these Kings and Kingdomes are these; The King of B [...]arme, the [Page 102] great Mogol, the King of Narsing, Six King­domes. Pegu, Siam, the forenamed King of Calecut, and others.

Of Persia.

THere be divers Countries between India and Persia; but there are not famous.

Persia is a large Coun­try, [...] of Persia. which lyeth far West from In­dia: it hath on the North, Assyria and Media, on the West Syria and the Holy Land, but next unto it Me­sopotamia: on the South the main Ocean, which entreth in notwith­standing by a Bay called Sinus Per­ficus.

This is that Countrey, which in ancient time was renowned for the great riches, and Empire thereof. These were they that tooke from the Assyrians the Monarchy, and did set up in their Countrey the se­cond great Empire, which began under Cyrus, and continued unto [Page 103] that Darius, who was overthrown by Alexander the Great. In this Countrey reigned the great Kings,The great and famous Kings of Persia. Cyrus, Cambyses, Darius the Son of Histaspes, the great Xerrxes, Arta­xerxes, and many others, which in prophane writings are famous for their wars against the Scythians, E­gyptians and Grecians, and in the Scripture, for the delivery of the Jews from Babylon by Cyrus, for the building of the [...]. Temple at Jeru­salem, and for many things which are mentio ed of them in the Pro­phency of Daniel,

The [...] of this Nation, al­though they were in former times very riotous, by reason of their great wealth; yet after they had lost their Monarchy by the Mace­donians, they have grown greatPersians great Soul­diers. Souldiers: and therefore as they did ever strongly defend themselves a­gainst the old Romans; so in the time of Constantine, and the o­ther Emperours, they were feare­full Neighbours to the Romane Go­vernment: and of late Time, [Page 104] they have strongly opposed them­selves against the Turkes, ever ma­king their party good with them. And yet notwithstanding, in the daies of Amurath the third, father to Mahomet the Turke now reig­ning, the Turke had a great hand upon the Persians; going so farre with his Army, as that he took the strong City Taunus standing within the Persians Dominions, neer unto the Caspian sea, but this losse was to be attributed partly to the great dissentions which were a­mong the Persians themselves, and partly to the multitude of the Turke his Souldiers, who by fresh supply did overthrow the Persian, although he slew down many thou­sands of them.

They fight commonly on horse­back,Sophy of Persia. and are governed as in time past by a King, so now by an abso­lute Ruler, and a mighty Prince, whom they terme the Shaw or So­phy of Persia. He hath many Coun­tries and small Kings in Assyria and [Page 105] Media, and the Countries ad jo­ning, which are tributaries.

Among other the Sophies of Persia, about a hundred years since, there was one of great power, cal­led Ismael the Persian, who procu­red unto himself great fame by his many and valorous attempts against the Turk Surius in his Commen­taries, writting upon him, saith that upon some fond conceit, the Jewes were strongly of opinion, that he was that Messias, whom unto this day they expect; and therefore ho­ped that he should have been their Deliverer and Advancer: But he addeth in his report that it fell out so clean contrary, that there was no man who more vexed and grieved them, than that Ismail did.

The Persians▪ are all at this dayTheir Re­ligion. Sarazens in Religion, beleeving in Mahomet: but as Papists and Pro­testants do differ in opinion, con­cerning the same Christ, so do the Turks and Persians about their Ma­homet: the one pursuing the other, [Page 106] as Herericks, with most deadly ha­tred, insomuch that there is, in this respect, almost comin [...] all war be­tween the Turk and the Persians.

Of Parthia and Media.

ON the North-East side of Persia; lieth that Countrey which in old time was called Parthia, but nowScituation of Parth [...]a. named Arach; of whom, those great wars of the Romans with the Me­dians or Armenians, in Tacitus, and ancient Histories are true.

This Country aboundeth on Me­dia by the West, and it was in anci­ent time very full of people: whose fight as it was very much on horse­back,Their man­ner of fight. so the manner of them conti­nually was for to give an Onset, and then to return their waies, e­ven to return again like to the Wild-Irish, so that no man was sure when he had obtained any victory over them.

[Page 107]These were the people that gaveGreat wars of the Per­thians a­gainst the Romanes. the great Overthrow to that rich Marcus Crassus of Rome, who by reason of his covetousnesse (inten­ding more to his getting of gold, than to the guiding of his Army) was stain himself, and many thou­sand of the Romanes: The Par­thians with exprobration of his thirst after money, poured molten gold into his mouth after he was dead. Against these, the great Lucul­lus fought many battles; but the Ro­manes were never able to bring them quite to subjection.

On the West side of Parthia, (having the Mare Caspium on the North, Armenia on the West, and Persia on the South) lyeth that Country, which in time past was called Media, but now Shirvan or Sirvan; which is at this day go­verned by many inferiour Kings and Princes, which are tributaries, and do owe subjection to the So­phi of Persia. So that he is the Soveraign Lord of all Media, as our English men have found, who [Page 108] passing through the Dominion of the Emperour of Russia; have cros­sed the Mare Caspium, and Mer­chandized with the Inhabitants of this Media.

This Nation in former times wasA famous Nation. very famous; for the Medes were they that removed the Empire from the Assyrians unto them: which as in themselves it was not great, yet when by Cyrus it was joyned to that of the Persians, it was very mighty, and was called by the name of the Empire of the Medes and Persians. Here it was that Astyages reigned, the Grand­father of Cyrus and Darius▪ of the M [...]des.

The chief▪ City of this King­dome, was called Ecbatana, as the chief City of Persia was Baby­lon.

It is to be observed of the Kings, of Media, that in the summer time they did use to retire themselves Northward unto Ecbatana, for avoiding of the heat; but in the winter time they came down, [Page 109] more South unto Susis, which as it seemeth was a warmer place: but by this meanes they were both ta­ken for Imperiall Cities, and chiefe residences of the King of Media; which being known, takes away some confusion in old stories. The like custome was afterward used also by the Kings of Persia.

Of Armenia and Assyria.

ON the West side of theSituation of Armenia. Mare Caspium; and of Media, lyeth a Countrey called by a generall name, Armenia; which by some is dist­inctly divided into three parts. TheDivided in­to three parts. North part whereof being but lit­tle, is called Georgia; the middle part Turcomania; the third part, by the proper name of Armenia. By which a man may see the reason of difference in divers Writers; Some saying, that the Countrey whence the Turkes first came, was [Page 110] Armenia, some saying Turcomania, and some Georgia; the truth being, that out of one or all these Coun­tries they did descend. These Turks are supposed to be the issue of them whom Alexander the Great did shut up within certain mountaines neer to the Mare Caspium.

There is this one thing memora­bleA memora­ble Note. in Armenia, that after the great Flood, the Ark of Noah did [...]est it self on the Mountaines of Armenia, where (as Josephus wit­nesseth) it is to be seen yet to this day, the hils whereon it resteth, [...]re called by some N [...]ae Montes.

The people of this Nation have retained amongst them the Chri­ [...]tian faith, as it is thought from the [...]ime of the Apostles; but at this say it is spotted with many ab­surdities.

Among other Errors which theBathing of th [...]ir chil­dren. Church of Armenia hath been no­ted to hold, this is one, that they lid bathe their Children; waving them up and down in flames o [...] [Page 111] fire, and repute that to be a neces­sary circumstance of Baptisme: Which errour ariseth by mistaking that place of John the Baptist, where he saith, That he that came after him (meaning Christ) should bap­tize them with the holy Ghost, and with fire. In which place the word doth not signifie materiall fire, but expresseth the lively and purging operation of the Spirit, like to the nature of fire.

On the South part of Armenia, bending towards the East, lieth theAssyria bounded. Country of Assyria, which is boun­ded on the West with Mesopo­tamia. This Country was that Land wherein the first Monarchy was setled, which began under Ninus whom the Scripture calleth Nim rod, living not long after Noahs Flood, and it ended in Sardanapalus continuing a thousand and three hundred yeares.

The King of this Country was Senacherib, of whom we read [...]n the book of the Kings; andKings of Assyria. here reigned Nebuchadnezzar, who [Page 112] took Jerusalem, and led the Jewes away prisoners unto Babylon.

In this Countrey, is the swiftThe swift River Ty­gris. The City Ni­nive. River Tygris, near unto the which was Paradise. Upon this River stood the great City Ninive, cal­led by prophane Writers, Ninus; which was almost of incredible bignesse, and exceeding▪ populous, by the nearnesse of the River, and marvellous fruitfulnesse of the soil; which, as Herodotus writeth, did return their Corn sometime two hundred, and sometimes three hun­dred fold, and did yield sufficiency for to maintain it. This City for a long time, was the Imperiall Seat of the Monarchy; but being destroi­ed (as God foretold it should be by the Chaldeans) the residence of the King was afterwards removed unto Babylon, a great City in Chal­dea, first built by Semiramis.

Of Chaldea.

NExt unto Assyria lye [...]hSituation of Chaldea. Chaldea, having on the East side Assyria; on the West, Syria, or Palestina; on the North, Armenia; on the South, the Desart of Arabia.

This Countrey is often called by the name of Mesopotamia, which name it hath, because it lieth in the middle of two great Rivers, Tygris and Euphrates. It is called also by the name of Babylonia, which word of it self properly taken, doth signi­fie only that part of the Countrey which standeth about Babylon.

The chief City whereof was Ba­bylon, Babylon be chief City of Chaldea. whose ruines do remain unto this day. It was a rich and most pleasant City for all kind of De­light; and was in the latter time of that Monarchy, the Imperiall City of the Assyrians, where Nebu­chadnezzar, and other their great Kings did [...]ye.

[Page 114]It was to this City that the chil­dren of Israel were carried captives, which thereof was called the Capti­vity of Babylon.

The Kings of Persia also did keep [...]heir residence here, it was built upon the River Euphrates, some part of it standing on the one side, and some part on the other, having for its foundresse, Semiramis, the wife of Ninus.

Ammianus Marcellinus repor­teth one thing of this Countrey, wherein the admirable power of God doth appeare; for he writethThe admi­rab [...] power of God in prese [...]ving the pe [...]ple. that in these parts are a huge num­ber of Lyons, which were like e­nough to devour both men and beasts throughout the Countrey▪ but withall he saith, that by rea­son of the store of water and mudd thereof, there do breed yearly an innumerable company of Gnats, whose property is to flye unto the eye of the Lyon, as being a bright and orient thing; where byting and stinging the Lyon, he [...]eareth so fiercely with his clawes, [Page 115] that he putteth out his own eyes, and by that meanes many are drowned in the Rivers, others starve for want of prey, and many the more easily killed by the Inha bitants.

It is supposed by Divines, that in this Mesopotamia, between the River Tygris and Euphrates, Para­diseNote. did stand. This was the Coun­try wherein Abraham the Patri­arch was born: unto which the Romanes could very hardly ex­tend their Dominion: For they had much to do to get the Go­vernment of any thing beyond the River Euphrates. From this people it is thought the wise men came which brought presents to Christ, by the guiding of the Starre.

For as in India, and all the Ea­stern parts, so especially in this Country, their Noblemen and Priests, and very many people, do give themselves to all Arts of Di­vination. Here were the great Southsayers, Enchanters, and wise [Page 116] men, as they call them. Here wereHere were the fi [...]st A strologians. the first Astrologians, which are so described and derided in the Scri­pture: and against the Inhabitants of Babylon and Chaldea were the Lawes of the Romans made, which are against divining Mathematici­ans, who in Tullie de Divinatione, & Cornelius Tacitus, as also in the Lawes of the Emperors, are Ordi­narily collected by the name o [...] Chaldeans: and indeed from these and from the Egyptians, is supposed to have sprung the first knowledge of Astronomy.

It is thought that a great reason whereof these Chaldeans were expert in the laudable knowledge of Astronomy, was partly because the Countrey is so plain, that being without hils, they might more ful­ly and easily discover the whole face of the Heaven, and partly, because the old Fathers which lived so long not only before, but in some good part also after the flood of Noah, did dwell in, or near to these parts, and they by observation of their [Page 117] own, did find out and discover many things of the heavenly bo­dies, which they delivered as from hand to hand to their posterity: But as corruption doth staine the best things, so in proces of time, the true Astronomy was defilled with superstitious Rules of Astrology (which caused the Prophets, Isaiah and Ieremiah, so bitterly to inveigh against them.) And then, in their fabulosity they would report, that they had in their Records, Obser­vations for five and twenty thou­sand yeares, which must needs be a very great untruth, unlesse we will qualifie it as some have done, ex­pounding their yeares not of the Revolution of the Sun but of the Moon, whose course is ended in the space of a moneth.

Of Asia the lesse.

ON the North-west side of Mesopotamia, lyeth that Countrey which is now called Natolia, but in times past, Asia minor, having on the North side Pontus Euxinus, on the West, the Hellespont, and on the South, the maine Mare Mediterra­neum. In the ancient writings both of the Grecians, and of the Ro­mans, this is oftentimes called by the single name of Asia, because it was best knowne unto them, and they were not so much acquainted with the farther places of Asia the Great.

This Countrey in generall, for the fruitfulnesse of the Land, stan­ding in so temperate a Climate, and for the convenience of the Sea every way, and so many good Havens, hath been reputed alwaies a very commodious and pleasure­full Countrey. It is wholly at this day under the Turke. The moun­taine [Page 119] Taurus goeth along from the West unto the East part of it.

The greatnesse of this Countrey is such, that it hath comprehended many Kingdomes and large Pro­vinces, besides Cities of great fame. On the South-East part thereof, neare to Palestina lyeth Cilicia; Cilicia. The City Tarsus. the chiefe City whereof is Tarsus, the Countrey of Saint Paul, the place whither Solomon sent for great store of his gold, and provisi­on for the Temple, whither Jonas also fled, when he should have gone to Niniveh.

In the straits of the Cilicia, neare to the mountaine Taurus, did A­lexander Alexanders overthrow of Darius. give a great overthrow in person to Darius, in the joining of their first battell.

This place seemes to have been very fortunate for great Fights; in as much as there also neare un­to the straits, was the ba [...]ell fought out between Severus the Emperour and Niger; who being Governour of the Romanes of Sy­ria, would needs have aspired to [Page 120] the Empire, but in a battell which was very hardly fought out, he was overthrown in the straits of Cili­cia.

In the very corner where Cili­cia is joined unto the upper part of Syria, is a little Bay, which in times past was named Sinus Isicus, near unto which Alexander built one of his Cities, which he called by his own name. But howsoever in times past it was named Alexan­dria, The City of Alexandria it is now by the Venetians and other Christians, called Alexandret­ta; who should say, little Alexan­dria, in comparison of the other. In Egypt the Turkes do call▪ it Scandarond, and it is a petty Haven, where our Merchants do land most of their goods, which are after­wards by Camels carried up to A­leppo. At this day the City is so de­cayed, that there be onely a few houses there.

Westward from Cilicia, lieth the Province called Pamphylia: where­inPamphylia. [...]he City of Seleuchus. stands the City Seleucia, built by Seleuchus, one of the foure [Page 121] great successours of Alexander the Great.

On the West of this Pamphylia, standeth Lycia, and more west fromLycia. thence confining upon the Ile of Rhodes, is Caria; one of the Sea­TownesCaria. whereof, is Halicarnassus, which was the Countrey of Hero­dotus, who is one of the most anci­ent Historians that is extant of the Gentiles, and who dedicated his nine bookes to the honour of the Muses.

Here also was that Dionysius borne, who is called commonly Dionysius Halicarnassus, one of the Writers of the Romane Story, for the first three hundred yeares after Rome was built.

The whole Countrey of Caria is sometimes signified by the name of this Halicarnassus, although itHalicarnas­sus. was but one City; and thereupon Artemisia, who in the dayes of Xerxes, came to aid him against the Graecians, and behaved her selfe so manfully in a great fight at sea, when Xerxes stood by as a coward, is in­tituled [Page 122] by the name not of Queen of Caria, but of Halicarnassus. Al­so in the daies of Alexander the Great, there was another Queen, named Ada; who also is honoured by the title of Queen of Halicar­nassus.

We have thus farre described those Cities of Asia the lesse, which do lie from that part that joineth unto Syria, along the Sea coast Westward; but being indeed the Southern part of Asia minor.

Now upwards towards theIonia. North, standeth Ionia, where those did dwell, who had like to have joined with Xerxes, in the great battell at sea, but that Themistocles by a policy, did winne them from him, to take part with the Gr [...]ci­ans. Diodorus Siculus writeth, that the Athenians, who professed to be of kin to those Ionians, were on a time marvellous importunate with them, that they should leave their own Country, and come and dwell with them: which when the Ioni­ans, hardly, but yet at length did ac­cept, [Page 123] the Athenians had no place to put them in, and so they returned with great disgrace to them both.

A little within the Land, lying North and East from Ionium, was Lydia, which sometimes was theLydia. Kingdome of Croesus, who was re­puted so rich a King; when he was in his prosperity, making best of his happinesse, he was told by So­lon, that no man could reckon upon felicity so long as he lived, because there might be great mutability of Fortune, which he after ward found true: For he was taken prisoner by Cyrus, who was once mindedCroesus o­verthrowne by Cyrus. to have put him to death, but hea­ring him report the advertisement of Solon formerly given to him, he was moved to thinke that it might be his own case, and so took pity on him, and spared his life.

These Lydians being inhibited afterward by Cyrus, to use any Armour, and give themselves to Bathes and Stewes, and other such effeminate things.

[Page 124]Upon the sea-coast in Ionia stan­deth the City Ephesus, which wasEphesus. one of the seven Cities, unto which John in his Revelation did write hi [...] seven Epistles: and Saint Paul also directed his Epistle to the Ephesi ans, unto the Church which was in this place.

This was one of the most renow­ned Cities of Asia the lesse, but the Fame thereof did most arise fromThe Temple of Diana. the Temple of Diana, which was there built, and was reputed for the magnificence thereof, one of the seven wonders of the world. This Temple was said to be two hundred yeares in building, and was burnt seven severall times, whereof the most part was by lightning, and the finall destruction thereof came by a base person, called Herostratus; who to purchase himself some fame, did set it on fire.

This was the place of which it is said in the Acts of the Apo­stles, that all Asia, and the whole World doe worship this Diana.

[Page 125] Tully reporteth, De natura De­orum, that Tin [...]us being asked the reason, why the Temple of Diana was on fire that night when Alex­ander the Great was born, gave that jest thereof, that the mistresse of it was from home; because she being the Goddesse of Midwives, did that night wait upon Olympias the Mother of Alexander the Great, who was brought to bed in Mace­donia.

Another of the seven Cities un­to which John did write, is Smyr­na, City of Smyrna. standing also in Ionia, upon the Sea coast, but somewhat more North then Ephesus; which is the place where Polycarpus was Bi­shop,Polycarpus, Scholar to St John the Evangel st. who sometimes had been Scholler unto Iohn the Evange­list, and living till he was of great age, was at l [...]st put to death for Christs sake, when before he had been moved by the Governour of the Countrey to deny his Sa viour, and to burn Incense to an Idoll: But he answered that [...]ourescore and six yeares he had [Page 126] served Christ Jesus, and in all that time he had never done him harm: and therefore now in his old age he would not beginne to deny him.

The third City unto which the Epistle is directed in the Apoca­lyps, is Sardis: which standethCity of Sardis. within the land in Lydia, as is de­scribed by the best Writers; and it was a City both of great pleasure and profit unto the Kings in whose Dominion it stood: which may be gathered hereby, that when once the Grecians had wonne it, Durius Histaspis, or Xerxes, who were Kings of Persia, did give charge, that every day at dinner, one speaking aloud, should re­member him, that the Grecians had taken Sardis, which inten­ded, that he never was in quiet till it might bee recovered a­gain.

There stood also in the In-land, Philadelphia, Thyatina, Laodicea, Four Cities of [...]ote. and most of all to the North Per­gamus: which were the other [Page 127] foure Cities, unto which St John the Evangelist did direct his Epi­stle.

Going upward from Ionium to the North, there lyeth on the Sea­coastEolis. a little Country called Eolis: and beyond that, although not up­on the Sea, the two Provinces cal­ledMysia ma­jor, &▪ My­sia minor. Mysia Major, and Mysia Mi­nor; which in times past, were so base and contemptible, that the peo­ple thereof were used in speech as a proverb, that if a man would de­scribe one meaner then the mea­nest, it was said, he was Mysiorum postremus.

On the West part of Mysia ma­jor, did lye the Countrey called Troas, wherein stood Ilium, and the City of Troy, against which asThe City of Troy. both Virgil and Homer have writ­ten, the Grecians did continue their siege for the space of tenne yeares, by reason that Paris had stollen away Helena, the wife of Menelaus, who was King of Spar­ta.

Eastward both from Troas and [Page 128] Mysia major, a good space within the land was the Countrey called Phrygia, where the GoddessePhrygia. which was called Bona Dea, or Pes­sinuntia, or Cybele, the mother of the old gods, had her first abiding, and from thence (as Herodia [...] wr­teth) was brought to Rome, as im­plying that good fortune should follow her thither.

In this Countrey lived that Gondius, who knit the [...]ot called for the intricatenesse thereof, Nodus, Gordianus; and when itGordianus knot. could not be untied, was cut in sunder by Alexander the Gre [...]t, supposing▪ that it should bee his fortune, for the loosing of it so to be the Conquerour, and King of Asia, as by a prophecy of the same Gordius had been before spo­ken.

Yet North-ward from Phrygia, lyeth the Countrey of Bythinia; Bythinia. which was sometimes a King­dome, where Perusias raigned, that had so much to do with the Ro­manes.

[Page 129]In this Countrey standeth the City Nicea, where the first GeneralCi [...]y of Nice. Councill was held against Arius the Hereticke by Constantine the Great, thereof called the Nicene Council [...] ▪ Here standeth also Chal­cedon, Chalcedon. where the fourth Generall Councill was held by the Empe­rour Marcianus, against the Here­tick Nestorius.

From Bythinia Eastward, on the North side of Asia the lesse, stan­deth the Countrey of Paphlago­nia, Paphlagonia where was the City built by Pompey the Great, called by his name, Pompeiopolis. On the SouthPompcio­polis. of Paphlagonia, toward the Iland of Asi [...] minor, di [...] stand the Countrey of Galatia, whereuntoGalatia. Saint Paul wrote his Epistle to the Galathians. And this also was one of those Countries where the Iewes were dispersed, unto which Saint Peter wrote his first Epistle; as also unto them which were in Pontus, Cappadocia, and Bythinia, from whence Southward lyeth the Province termed Lyeaoni: AndLyeaonia. [Page 130] from thence, yet more South, bor­dering upon Pamphylia, which touches the Mediterranean sea, ly­eth Pisidia, concerning whichPisidia. Countries we find oftentimes men­tion made in such stories as do touch Asia the l [...]sse.

From these Sourthern parts, if we returne back againe unto the North and East of Asia major, lieth the Kingdome of Pontus, confiningThe King­dome of Pontus. upon that which is named Pontus Euxinus. In this Pontus did reigne Mithridates, who in his youngerMithridates daies had travelled over the grea­test part of Asia, and is reported to have been so skilfull, that he could well speak more then twenty Lan­guages. His hatred was ever great towards the Romans, against whom, when he meant first to put his ma­lice in practise, he so combined with the Naturals of those parts, that in one night they slew more than threescore and ten thousand of the Romans, carrying their intendment so close, that it was revealed by none till the execution was done.

[Page 131] Pompey the Great was the manPompey brought Mi­thridates to distresse. who distressed this Mithridates, and brought him to that extremity, that he would gladly have poison­ed himselfe, but could not; in as much as his stomack had been used so before unto that kind of Treacle (which by reason of his inventing of, unto this day is called Mithri­date) which is made of a kinde of poyson allaied, that no venome would easily work upon him.

Southward from this Pontus, standeth the old Kingdome of Cap­padocia, Cappadocia. which in times past was observed to have many men in it, but little money: Whence Horace saith, Mancipiis locuples eget aris Cappadocum Rex.

Eastward from this Cappadocia, as also from Pontus, is Armenia mi­nor, Armenia minor. whereof the things memorable are described in the other Arme­nia. And thus much touching Asia the lesse.

Of Syria, and Palestina, or the Holy Land.

SOuthward from Cilicia andSy [...]ia boun­ded. As [...]a the lesse, lyeth Syria; a part whereof was called Palestina: having on the East Mesopotamia, on the South Arabia, on the west, Tyre and Sidon, and the end of the Mediterranean Sea.

The people of this Syria wereTheir [...]i­ent [...]ames. in times past called the Ardmites. In their language is the transl [...]ion of the New Testament, called Sy­riacke.

In this Countrey standed An­ [...], Ci [...]y of [...]. which was sometimes one of the ancient [...] See, and is a City of reckoning unto this day. Here also standeth now the City ofAl [...]ppo. Aleppo, which is a famous M [...]rt Towne for the Merchandizing o [...] the Persians, and others of the E [...]st, and for the Turks, and such Coun­tries as be adjoining. Here standeth [...]th also Tripolis. Tripolis.

[Page 133]The South part of Syria, lying downe toward Egypt▪ and Arabia, was the place where the Children of Israel did dwell, being a Country of small quantity, not 200. Italian miles in length: it was so fruitfull flowing with Milke and Honey, (as the Scripture calleth it) that it did maintaine above thirty KingsThirty Kings. and their people, before the com­ming of the children of Israel out of Egypt, and was sufficient after­wards to relieve the incredible number of the twelve Tribes of Israel.

It is noted of this Countrey,Note. that whereas by the goodnesse of the Climate wherein it stood, and the fertility of the soyle (but e­specially by the blessing of God) it was the most fruitfull L [...]nd that was in the World: Now ou [...] Travellers by experience do finde the Countrey, in respect of the fruitfulnesse, to be changed, G [...]d cursing the Land together with the Iewes, the Inhabitants of it. It is observed also for all the [Page 134] Easterne parts, that they are not so fertile as they have been in former Ages, the Earth (as it were) growing old, which is an Argument of the Dessolution to come by the day of Judge­ment.

Through this Countrey dothThe River Iordan. run the River Jordan, which hath heretofore been famous for the fruitfulnesse of the trees standing thereupon, and for the mildnesse of the Aire, so that (as Josephus writeth) when snow hath been in other places of the Land, about the River it hath been so calme, that men did go in single thin linnen garments.

In this Countrey standeth the Lake, called Lacus Asphaltites, be­causeAsphaltites of a kinde of slime called Bi­tumen, or Asphaltum, which daily it doth cast up, being of force to joine stones exceeding fast in buil­ding: And into this Lake doth the River Jordan runne.

This Lake is it which is calledMare mor­num. Mare Mortuum, a Sea because [Page 135] it is salt; and Mortuum, or Dead, for that no living thing is there­in. The water thereof is so thicke, that few things will sinke therein, in so much, that Josephus faith, that an Oxe having all his legges bound will not sinke into that water.

The nature of this Lake (as it was supposed) was turned into this quality, when God did de­stroy Sodome and Gomorrah, and the Cities adjoining, with fire and brimstone from Heaven: for Sodome and the other Cities did stand near unto Jordan, and to this Mare Mortuum: for the de­struction of whom, all that Coast to this day is a witnesse, the Earth smelling of brimstone, being deso­late, and yielding no fruit sa­ving apples, which grow, with a faire shew to the eye, like other fruit; but as soon as they are touched, do turn presently to soot, or ashes, as besides Josephus, Soli­nus doth witnesse in his 48 Chap­ter.

[Page 136]The Land of Palestina had forTwelve Tribes of Israel. i [...]s Inhabitants, all the Twelve Tribes of Israel, which were un­der one Kingdome, till the time Rehoboam the Sonne of Solomon; But then were they divided into two Kingdomes, ten Tribes being called Israel, and two Iudah, whose chiefe City was called Ie­rusalem. Ierusalem.

The ten Tribes after much I­dolatry,Twelve Tribes di­vided. were carried prisoners un­to Assyria, and the Kingdome dis­solved, other people being placed in their roome in Samaria, and the Country adjoining.

The other two Tribes wereThe Iews. properly called the Iewes, and their Land Iudea; which continued long after in Ierusalem, a [...]d therea­bout, till the Captivity of Baby­lon, where they l [...]ved for seven­ty-ye [...]es. They were afterward restored, but lived without glo­ry, till the comming of Christ: But since that time for a curse upon them and their children, for putting Christ to death they are [Page 137] scattered upon the face of the earth, as Runnagates, without cer­taine Country, King, Priest, or Pro­phet.

In their chiefe City Ierusalem, was the Temple of God, first most gloriously built by Solomon; andIerusalem destroied. afterward destroied by Nebuchad­nezzar. By the commandement of Cyrus King of Persia, was a second Temple built▪ much more base than the former. For besides the poverty, and smalnesse of it, the [...]e wanted five things which were is the former, as the Jewes write.Note. First, the Arke of the Covenant: Secondly, the pot of Manna: Thirdly, the Rod of Aaron: Fourthly, the two Tables of the Law, written by the finger of God: And fifthly, the fire of the Sacrifice, which came down from Heaven. Herod the Great, an Edo­mite stranger, having gotten the Kingdome, contrary to the Law of Moses, and knowing the people to be offended therewithall, to pro­cure their favour, he built a third [Page 138] Temple, wherein our Saviour Je­sus Christ and his Apostles did teach.

The City of Jerusalem wasJerusalem twice de­stroied. 1 By Nebuchad­nezzar. 2. By Vespasi­an. twice taken, and utterly laid deso­late; first by Nebuchadnezzar at the Captivity of Babylon: and se­condly, after the death of Christ, by Vespasian the Roman (who first began the Warres) and by his sonne Titus, who was afterward Empe­rour of Rome, who brought such horrible desolation on that City, and the people thereof, by fire, sword and famine, that the like hath not been read in any History. He did afterwards put thousands of them (on one some day) to be devoured of the Beasts, which was a cruel custome of the Romans Mag­nificence.

Although Numbers and Times be not superstitiously to be obser­ved (as many foolish imagine) yet it is a matter in this place, not un­worthy the noting, which Josephus reporteth in his seventh booke and tenth Chapter, de bello Judaico, [Page 139] that the very same day whereon the Temple was set on fire by the Babylonians, was the day whereon the second Temple was set on fire by the Romanes, and that was upon the tenth day of August.

After this destruction, the Land of Iudea, and the ruines of Jerusa­lem. were possessed by some of the people adjoining, till that about six hundred yeares since, the Sa­racens did invade it: for expelling of whom from thence, divers French men and other Christians, under the leading of Godfrey of Bullen, did assemble themselves, thinking it a great shame, that the Holy Land (as they called it) the City of Jerusalem, and the place of the Sepulchre of Christ, should be in the hands of Infidels.

This Godfrey ruled in Jerusalem by the name of a Duke: but his suc­cessours after him, for the space of 87. yeares, called themselves Kings of Jerusalem: About which time, Saladine (who called himself King of Egypt and Asia the lesse) did [Page 140] winne it from the Christians. For the recovery whereof, Richard the first, King of England, together with the French King, and the King of Sicilia, did go in person with their Armies, to Ierusalem; but although they wonne many things from the Infidels, yet the end was, that the Saracens did retaine the HOLY LAND.

Roger Hoveden, in the Life of Henry the second King of Eng­land, doth give this memorable note, that at that time when the City of Ierusalem and Antioch, were taken out of the hands of the Pagans, by the meanes of Godfrey of Bullen, and others of his Com­pany, the Pope of Rome that then was, was called Urbanus; the Pa­triach of Ierusalem, Heraclius; and the Roman Emperour Frede­ricke; and at the same time when the said Ierusalem was recovered again by Saladine, the Popes name was Urbanus; the Patriarke Ierusalem, Heraclius, and the Ro­man Emperour Fredericke.

[Page 141]The whole Countrey and City ofJerusalem in the Turks dominion. Jerusalem, are now in the domi­nion of the Turke, who notwith­standing for a great tribute doth suffer many Christians to abide there.

There are now therefore two or more Monasteries and Religious houses, where Fryars do abide, and make a good commodity of shew­ing the Sepulchre of Christ, and other Monuments, unto such Chri­stian Pilgrims as do use superstiti­ously to go in pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

The King of Spaine was wont to call himselfe King of Jerusa­lem.

Of Arabia.

NExt unto the Holy Land, Arabia bounded. lieth the great Country of Arabia, having on the North part, Palestina, and Mesopotamia; on the East side the Gulph of Persia; on the South, [Page 142] the maine Ocean of India, or E­thiopia: on the West Egypt, and the great Bay, called Sinus Arabi­cus, or the Red Sea.

This Countrey is divided into three parts: North part where­of is called Arabia Deserta, theArabia di­vided into three parts. South part, which is the greatest is named Arabia Foelix: and the middle betweene both, that (which for the abundance of Rocks and stones) is called Arabia Petrea, or Petrosa.

The Desart of Arabia, is thatOf the De­sart of A­rabia. place in the which God after the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt, by passing thorow the Red Sea, did keep his people under Moses, for forty yeares, because of their rebellion; feeding them in the mean time with Manna from Heaven; and sometimes with wa­ter miraculously drawn out of dry Rocks: for the Country hath very little water, almost no trees, and is utterly unfit for tillage or corne.

There are no Towns nor inha­bitants [Page 143] of this Desart: in Arabia Petrosa are some, but not many.

Arabia Foelix, for fruitfulness of ground, and convenience standing every way toward the Sea, is one of the best Countries of the world: and the principall cause why it is called Foelix, is, for that it yieldeth many things in abun­dance, which in other parts of the world are not to be had; as Fran­kincense especially, the most pre­cious Balmes, Myrrhe, and many other both Fruits and Spices, and yieldeth withall, store of some precious stones.

When Alexander the great was young, after the manner of the Macedonians, he was to put in­cense upon an Altar; pouring on great store of Frankincense one of the Nobility of his Coun­trey told him, that he was too prodigall of that sweet perfume; and that he should make spare, untill he had conquered the Land wherein the Frankincense did grow. But when Alexander after­ward [Page 144] had taken Arabia, and had possession thereof, he sent a ship load of Frankincense to the Noble man, and bad him serve the gods plentifully, and not offer incense miserably.

This is that countrey whereinMahomet born in Arabia. Mahomet was borne, who being of mean parentage, was brought up in his youth in the trade of Merchandise; but afterward joyn­ing himself with thieves and rob­bers, his life was to rob such Mer­chants as passed thorow Arabia; and to this purpose having gotten together many of his own Coun­trey-men, he had afterward a whole legion or more of the Ro­man Souldiers, who being offen­ded with Heraclius the Roman Emperour, for want of their pay, joined themselves to him; so that at length he had a great Army, wherewith he spoiled the Coun­tries adjoining: And this was a­bout the yeare of Christ 600.

To maintaine his credit and au­thority with his own men, he fai­ned [Page 145] that he had conference with the Holy Ghost, at such times as he was troubled with the falling sick­nesse: and accordingly he ordained a new religion, consisting partly of Jewish Ceremonies, and partly of Christian Doctrine, and some other things of his own invention, that he might inveigle both Jewes and Christians, and yet by his own fan­cy distinguish his own followers from both.

The Booke of his Religion isThe Turks Alcaron. called the Alcaron. The people which are Sectaries (where­as indeed they came of Hagar, the Hand-maid of Sarah, Abrahams wife, and therefore should of her be called Ishmaelites or Hagarens) because they would not seeme to come of a bond-woman, and from him whom they suppose a bastard; they terme themselves Saracens, as comming from Sarah; they are called by some Writers, Arabi­ans instead of Saracens, their name being drawn from their first Coun­trey.

[Page 146] Mahomet did take something ofThe Turks Religion. his doctrine both from the Jewes and Christians: as that there is but one God; that there is a life eter­nall in another world; and the ten Commandements, which they do admit and beleeve; but from the Jewes alone, the false Prophet did borrow divers things, as that all his males should be circumcised, that they should eate no swines flesh; that they should oftentimes bathe, purge and wash themselves; which divers of their people, which are more religious than the ordinary sort, do five times in the day, and therefore they have neare to their Churches and Houses of Devotion divers Baths; whereinto when they have entred and wash­ed themselves, they do perswade themselves that they are as cleare from sinne, as they were the first day they were born.

In this Country of Arabia stan­deth a City called Mecha, where isThe City Mecha. the place where Mahomet was bu­ried, and in remembrance of him [Page 147] there is builded a great Temple, unto which the Turkes and Sara­cens yearely goe on pilgrimage, (as some Christians doe to the Holy Land) For they account Mahomet to be the greatest Pro­phet that ever came into the world; saying that there were three great Prophets, Moses, Christ, and Mahomet: and as the doctrine of Moses was better by Christ, so the doctrine of Christ is amended by Mahomet: In this respect as we reckon the computa­tion of our yeares from the incar­nation of Christ, so the Saracens account theirs from the time of Mahomet.

The Turkes, whose fame began now about 3000 yeares since, have imbraced the opinions and religion of the Saracens, concerning Maho­met. Some of our Christians doe report, that Medina a City, stan­ding three daies journy from Me­cha, is the place where Mahomet was buried, and that by order from himself, his body was put into an [Page 148] Iron Coffin, which being carried into a Temple, the roofe or vault whereof was made of Adamant, or perhaps of the Loadstone, is attra­cted unto the top of the vault, and there hangeth, being supported by nothing. But there is no certainty of this Narration.

This false Prophet (as Lodovicus Vives, de veritate fidei, doth write) being desirous in some sort to imi­tate Christ Jesus, who foretold that he should rise again within the space of 3. dayes, did give out that himself should rise again; but he appointed a larger time, that was after 800. yeares, and yet that timeThe blasphe­mous pro­phecy of Mahomet. also is expired, but we heare no newes of the resurrection of Ma­homet. As the Deviil hath ever some device to blinde the eyes of unbelievers, so he hath suffered it to be reported and credited among the Turkes, that as Moses did allude to the comming of Christ, so Christ did foretell somewhat of the ap­pearing of Mahomet. Whereupon it is ordinarily received among [Page 149] them, that when Christ, in St Johns Gospel, did say, That although he departed, he would send them a Com­forter, it was added in the Text, and that shall be Mahomet: But that the Christians in malice to them, have raced out those words.

Their own bookes do mention that. Mahomet (while he lived) was much given to lasciviousnesse,Mahomet a lascivious person. and all uncleannesse of body, even with very beasts; and his followers are so senslesse, that in imitation of him, they think no such wicked­nesse to be unlawfull: For they are utterly unlearned, and most receive whatsoever is delivered unto them out of the Alcaron, Mahomet ha­ving made it a matter of death to dispute, sift, or call in question any thing which is written in his Law.

On the West side of Arabia, between that and Egypt, lieth the Gulph called of the Country, Sinus Arabicus; by some, Mare Eri­thraeum, but commonly the Red sea, The red sea not from the rednesse of the water, [Page 150] but because the land and bankes thereabout, are (in colour) red. This is the Sea, through the which (by Moses the people of Israel were led, when they fled out of Egypt from Pharaoh, God causing by his pow­er, the waters to stand on both sides of them, that they passed through as on dry land.

This is that Sea, through which the spices of the East Indies were in times past brought to Alexandria in Egypt, and from thence dispersed in­to Christendome by the Venetians: which spices, and Apothecaries drugs, are found to be farre worse than before time they were, by reason of the great moisture which they take on the water, by reason of the long navigation of the Portu­gals, by the back parts of Africa.

This is the sea, through the which Solomon did send for his gold, and other precious Merchandise unto the East Indies, and not to the West-Indies, as some lately have disputed. Whereout the vanity of that opinion may appeare that A­merica, [Page 151] and the West Indies, were known in the time of Solomon. For if he had sent thither, his course had been along the Mediterranean, and through the straits of Gibraltar, commonly called Fretum Herculi­um, between Spain & Barbary: But the Scripture telleth, that the Navy which Solomon sent forth, was built at Ezion Geber, which is there also said to stand on the Red Sea. So his course might be East-ward or South-ward, and not West-ward.

In the Desart of Arabia, is theMount Horeb. Mount Horeb, which by some is supposed to be the same that is cal­led Mount Sinai, where they think it was that Abraham should have offered up his sonne Isaac. But this is certaine, that it is the place where God in the wildernesse did give unto the people of Israel his Law of the ten Commandements, in thundering, lightning, and great earth quake, in most fearefull manner.

Of Africke and Egypt.

FRom Arabia and Palestina, Situation of Africke. toward the West [...] A fricke, having on the North side, from the one end of it to the other, the Mediterranean sea. The greatest p rt of which Coun try, although it hath been guessed at by Writers in former time, yet because of the great heat of it, lying for the most part of it under the Zona Torrida, and or the Wilder­nesses therein it was in former time supposed by many, not to be much inhabited: but of certainty by all, to be very little discovered, till the Portugals of late began their navi­gation on the backe side of Africa to the East Indies. So exact a de­scription is therefore not to be loo­ked for, as hath been of Asia and Europe.

Joining to the Holy Land, by a little Istmos, in the Countrey of E­gypt, The Country of Egypt. which is a land as fruitful as [Page 153] any almost in the world, although in these daies it doth not answer to the fertilty of former times.

This is that which in the time of Joseph did relieve Canaan, with corne, and the family of Jacob, which did so multiply in the land of Egypt, that they were grown to a huge multitude, when God by Mo­ses did deliver them thence.

This Countrey did yield excee­dingIn fertility. abundance of corne unto the City of Rome, whereupon Egypt as well as Sicilia, was commonly cal­led Horreum populi Romani.

It is observed from all antiquity, that almost never any raine did fall in the land of Egypt. Whereupon the raining with thunder and light­ning, and fire running on the ground was so much more strange when God plagued Phara [...]h in the daies of Moses: But the flowing of the River Nilus over all the Countrey, their Cities onely, and some few hils excepted, doth so water the Earth, that it bringeth forth fruit abundantly.

[Page 154]The flowing of which river year­ly,The flowing of Nilus. is one of the greatest miracles of the world, no man being able to yield a sufficient and assured reason thereof; although in Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, many probable causes and opinions are assigned thereof.

That there doth not use any rain to fall in Egypt, besides other hea­then testimonies, and experiences of Travellers, may be gathered out of the Scripture, for in the 10 Chapter of Deuteronomy, God doth make an Antithesis between the Land of Canaan, and Egypt, saying that Egypt was watered as a man would water a garden of herbes, that is to say, by the hand: But they should come into a Land which had hills and mountaines▪ and which was watered with the raine of Heaven: and yet some have written, that ever now and then▪ there is mists in Egypt, which yield, though not raine, yet a pretty dew.

It is noted of this River, that if [Page 155] in ordinary places it doe flow un­der the height of fifteen cubits, that then for want of moisture, the earth is not fruitfull, and if it doe flow above seventeen cubits, that there is like to be a dearth, by rea­son of the abundance of moisture, the water lying longer on the Land than the inhabitants do de­sire.

It is most probably conjectured, that the falling and melting of snow from those hils which be called Lunae Montes, do make the increase of the River Nilus. And the custome of the people in the Southerne parts of Arabia is, that they do receive into ponds and dams, the water that doth hastily fall, and the same they let out with sluces, some after some, which causeth it ordinarily to come down into the plaines of Egypt.

For the keeping up of these Dammes, the Countrey of Egypt hath time out of mind paid a great tribute to Prester-John▪ Which when of late it was denied by the [Page 156] Turke, Prester John caused all the sluces to be let go on the sudden; whereby he marveliously annoied, and drowned up a great part of the Countrey of Egypt.

In Egypt learning hath been veryLearning very ancient in Egypt. ancient, but especially the know­ledge of Astronomy and Mathe­maticks, whereof before the time of Tully, their Priests would re­port, that they had the discent of 1500 yeares exactly recorded with observations Astrological; which as it is a fable, unlesse they do rec­kon their yeares by the Moone, as some suppose they did every month for a year, so it doth argue knowledge to have been among them very ancient.

Their Priests had among them a kinde of writing and describing of things by picture, which they did call their Hieroglyphica.

This in times past was a King­dome,Their Py­ramides one of the won­ders of the world. and by the Kings thereof were built those great Pyramides, which were held to be one of the seven wonders of the world, being [Page 157] mighty huge buildings, erected of exceeding height, for to shew the magnificence of their founders.

There is part of two or three of them remaining unto this day.

Divers learned men are at this day of opinion, that when the chil­dren of Israel were in Egypt, and so oppressed by Pharaoh, as is men­tioned in the beginning of the booke of Exodus, their labour in burning of bricke, was partly imployed to the erecting of some of those Pyramides, but the scrip­ture doth onely mention walling of Cities.

The founders of these Pyramides were commonly buried in, or un­der them: and it is not unfit to remember, that the Kings, and great men of Egypt, had much cost bestowed upon them after they were dead.

For in as much as Arabia was neare unto them, whence they had most precious balmes, and other costly Spices, they did with charge embalme their dead, and that with [Page 158] such curious art, that the flesh there­of and the skin, will remaine un­putrified for divers hundred years: and all learned men think thousands of yeares: Whereof experiments are plentifully at this day, by the whole bodies, hands, or other parts, which by Merchants are now brought from thence, and doth make the Mummia which the A­pothecaries use: the colour being very black, and the flesh clung unto the bones.

Moses doth speak of this, when he saith, that Jacob was em­balmed by the Physicians; after the manner of embalming of the Egyptians. But this manner of embalming is ceased long since in Egypt.

In Egypt did stand the great CityThe City Memphis. Memphis, which at this day is cal­led Caire, one of the famous Cities of the East.

Here did Alexander build that City, which unto this day is of his name, ca led Alexandria: being now the greatest City of Mer­chandized [Page 159] in all Egypt: of which Ammianus Marcellinus doth ob­serve, that there was never any, or almost have ever been, but that once in the day the Sun hath been ever seen to shine over Alexan­dria. This City was one of the four Patriarchall seas. which were ap­pointed in the first Ni [...]ene Coun­cill.

This Countrey was governed byGood Laws made by the King of Egypt. a King, as long agoe as almost any Countrey in the World. Here reig­ned Amasis, who made those good Lawes spoken of by Herodotus, and Diodorus Sioulus: in whose wri­tings the ancient customes of the Egyptians are worthy to bee read.

After Alexanders time, Ptolo­meus one of his Captaines, had this Kingdome, of whom all his suc­cessors were called Ptolomeis, as before time all their Kings were called Pharaohs, they continued long friends, and in league with the people of Rome, till the time of Julius Caesar, but after wards they [Page 160] were subjects to the Romanes, till the Empire did decay.

When they had withdrawne themselves from the Romanes go­vernment, they set up a Prince of their owne, whom they termed the Sultan or Souldan of Egypt; of whom, about 400 yeares since, Saladine was one. But when the race of these were out, the Mama­bucks (who were the guard of the Sultaine, as the Janizaries be to the Turke) appointed a Prince at their pleasure, till that now, about an 100 yeares ago or lesse, the Turk Solimus possessed himself with the sole government of the Countrey: so that at this day Egypt is wholly under the Turke.

There be Christians that now live in Egypt, paying their tribute unto the Turke, as others do now also in Graecia.

Aeneas Sylvius doth report in his History, de mundo universo, cap 60. that divers did go about to dig through that little Istmos or strait, which at the top of the Red Sea, [Page 161] doth joyne Egypt to some part either of Arabia, or of the Ho­ly Land; imagining the labour not to be great, in as much as they conceived the space of ground to be no more then one thousand five hundred furlongs. Sesostris the King of Egypt (as he saith) did first attempt this. Secondly, Darius, the great Monarke of the Persians. Thirdly Ptolomy, one of the Kings of Egypt, who drew a ditch a 100. foot broad, 30. foot deep, and 37. miles and a halfe long; but when he intended to go forward, he was forced to cease, for fear of inun­daiton, and over-flowing the whole land of Egypt; the Red Sea being found to be higher (by three Cu­bites) than the ordinary plaine of Egypt was. But Pliny affirmeth, that the digging was given over, lest the Sea being let in, should marre the water of Nilus, which alone doth yield drinke to the Egypti­ans.

Pet. Maffaeus in his Indian story, doth tell, that there was a Portugal [Page 162] also, that of late yeares, had a con­ceit to have had this work finished, that so he might have made the third part of the old known world Africa, to have been an Iland compassed round with the Sea.

Men commonly in the descrip­tion of Egypt, do report that whole Country to stand in Africk, but if we will speake exactly, and repute Nilus to be the bound be­tween Asia and Africa, we must then acknowledge that the East­erne part of Egypt, from Nilus, and so forward to the Red Sea, doth lye in Asia; which is observed by Peter Martyr in that pretty Treatise of his Delegatione Babylonica.

Although this Country of Egypt doth stand in the selfe same Climat that Mauritania doth, yet the inha­bitants there are not black, but ra­ther dunne, or tawny. Of which colour Cleopatra was observed to be; who by inticement, so won the love of Julius Caesar, and Antonie. And of that colour do those run­nagates (by devices make them­selves [Page 163] to be) who go up and down the world under the name of Egyp­tians, being indeed but counterfets and the refuse of rascality of many Nations.

Of Cyrene, and Africke the lesse.

ON the West side of E­gypt, The Coun­try of Cy­rene. lying along the Me­diterranean, is a Country which was called in old time Cyrene, wherein did stand that Oracle which was so famous in the time of Alexander the Great, cal­led by the name of the Temple or Oracle of Jupiter Hammon, whi­ther when Alexander did repaire, as to take counsell of himselfe, and his successe, the Priests being be­fore taught what they should say, did flatteringly confesse him to be the Sonne of God, and that he was to be adored: so that as the Ora­cle of Delphos, and some other, [Page 164] were plaine delusions of Sathan, who did raigne in that darke time of ignorance: so this of Jupiter Hammon, may be well supposed to be nothing else but a cousenage of the Priests.

In this Countrey, and all neare about where the Oracle stood, are very great wildernesses: where did appeare to Alexander for foure daies journy, neither Grasse, Tree, Water, Man, Bird, nor Beast, but onely a deep kind of Sand: so that he was enforced to carry water with him for himself and his com­pany (and all other provision) on Camels backs.

At this day, this Countrey hath lost his old name, and is reckoned as a part of Egypt, and lieth under the Turke.

In dry Countries, as in Africa, and the Wildernesse of Arabia, they have much use of Camels. First, because they can carry a huge burthen of water and other provi­sion. Secondly, because that them­selves will go a long time without [Page 165] drinke travelling (as Solinus wri­teth) foure daies together without it, but then drinking excessively, and that especially of muddy and pud­dle water: And thirdly, because that in an extremity, those that travell with them do let them blood in a veine, and sucke out the blood; whereby as the owner is much re­lieved, so the Camell is little the worse.

Westward from this Countrey, along the Mediterranean, lieth that which in ancient time was called Africa minor: for as in Asia one part above another, was by an ex cellencie called Asia or Asta the lesse, so this part of Africa, was termed by the Romanes, some­times Africa simply, some Africke the lesse.

In this Countrey did stand that place so famous mentioned by Sa­lust, under the name of Philiono­rum aroe; which was the bound in that time, betweene Africke and Cyrene.

On the North and East part, [Page 166] hereof, in the Sea neere unto the shore, was the Quick-sand, which in times past did destroy so many ships, and was called Syrtis magna as also on the North and West part, was the other sand called Syr tis parva. Some part of this Coun­try was heretofore under the Sul­tan of Egypt, whose Dominion did extend it self so farre to the West, and there was divided from the Kingdome of Tunis: but it is now wholly under the Turke, and is commonly reputed as a part of Barbary. For now, by a generall name, from the confines of Cyrene unto the West, as farre as Hercules Pillar, is called Barbary▪ though it containe in it divers Kingdomes, as Tunis, Fessa and Morocco.

Of Mauritania and Caesariensis.

A Part of that Countrey, which by a generall name is called at this day Bar­bary, hath in old time been called Mauritania, which was divi­ded [Page 167] into two parts: The East part whereof next to Africa minor, was called by the Romanes, Mauritania Caesariensis, as the other was called Mauritania Tingitania. In Mauri­tania Caesariensis was the Countrey of Numidia, the people whereof were used in the warres of the Car­thaginians, as Light-horse-men, and for all nimble services were very active.

In the East part of this Countrey standing in the sea, was that fa­mous City of Carthage, supposed toCarthage a famous City be built by Dido, who came from Ty [...]us.

This City was it, which for the space of some hundred yeares con­tended with Rome for the Empire of the world. In the Romane histo­ries are recorded the great warres which the people of Rome had with the City of Carthage.

In the first war of the three, the contention [...] the Iles of Sici­lia, Corsica, and Sardinia: when the victory fell to the Romans, and the Carthaginians were glad to re­deem [Page 168] their peace with the leaving of those Ilands.

The second warre was begun by Hanniball, who brake the league, and after he had taken same part of Spaine from the Romanes, and sac­ked Sagantum, a City of their friends, came first over the Pyrena hils to France, then over the Alpes to Italy, where he overthrew the Romanes in three great battels, and much endangered their estate; he continued in Italy with his Ar­my, sixteen yeares, till Scipio at­tempting on Carthage, forced Han­niball to return to rescue his own Countrey. There was Hanniball overthrowne, and his City put to a great pension by Scipio, who for his victory there, was named Afri­canus.

In the third warre (because the people of Carthage still brake the league) their City was razed to the very ground by the earnest and continuall counsell of Cato the elder, fearing evermore so dange­rous a Neighbour, though Scipio [Page 169] Nasica counselled to the contrary; fearing lest if the dread of that ene­my were taken away, the Romanes would grow either to idlenesse, or civill dissention; which after they did. It is reported of Cato, that he never spake his judgement of any thing in the Senate, but his conclu­sion was thus: Thus I think for this matter, and withall, that Carthage is to be razed down. And Scipio Na­sica would reply in his conclusion: Thus I think for this matter, and withall that Carthage is not to be razed down.

Livy reporteth, that the way whereby Cato prevailed that Car­thage should be razed down, was this; while the question was very hot, he bringeth into the Senate­house green Figs, and let the Se­nators understand, that the same day three weekes, those figs were growing in Carthage Town: where­by he made mannifest unto them, that it was possible that an Army might be conveied from Carthage to Rome in so short a time, as that [Page 170] they would not be able (on a sud­den, to resist, and so Rome might be surprized: whereby they all conclu­ded, that it was no safety for their City, to have so bad a neighbour so neare unto them.

In this Countrey toward the West, not farre from Carthage stood Utica, whereof the younger Cato was termed Cato Uticensis, be­cause he killed himself there in the Civill warres betwixt Caesar and Pompey, because he would not come within the hands of his ene­my Caesar.

Not far from thence Westward standeth Hippo, which was the City where S. Augustine was B shop.

This whole Countrey (at this day) is called the Kingdome of Tunis; the King whereof, is a kind of stipendary unto the Turke: the people that inhabit there, are ge­nerally Saracens, and do profess Mahomet.

Some do write that Tunis stan­deth in the very place where old Carthage was; which is not so, but [Page 171] is si [...]ua ed very neare unto the old ruines of the other. Against the King of Tunis, Charles the fifth had some of his warres by Sea.

Of Mauritaniā Tingitania.

THE other part of Barbary that lyeth along the Me­diterranean, farthest into the West, was called in old time Mauritana Tingitana. The people of which Country were those which almost in all the old hi­stories were called by the name of Mauri; Those of the other Mauri­tania being rather termed Numidia.

Into the Northwest part thereof did Hercules come, and there set up one of his Pillars, which answe­reth to the other in Spain, they both being at the straits of Gilbralter, in times past called Fretum Herculeum On the South part thereof, lay the Kingdome of Bocchus, which in theThe King­dome of Bocchus. tia [...] of Marius had so much to do with the Romans. In the west part of [Page 172] this Mauritania standeth on the hill called Atlas minor; and on theAtlas mi­nor Atlas major. South part is the great hill called Atlas major; whereof the maine Ocean which lyeth between Mau­ritania and America is called Mare Atlantum. This hill is so high, that unto those who stood on the bot­tome of it, it seemed to touch hea­ven with his shoulders.

This Country hath been long inhabited by the Saracens; who from thence finding it to be but a short passage into Spaine, did goe over (now seven hundred yeares ago) and possessed there the king­dome of Granado, on the South side of Spain, till they were thence expelled by Ferdinandus, and Eli­zabeth, or Izabell, King and Queen of Castile. In this Countrey since that time, have the Spaniards ta­ken some Cities and Holds; and so also have the Portugals: which by the divers event of victory, have often been lost and won by them.

Here it was that the Emperour [Page 173] Charles the fifth, had divers of his great warres against the Moores, as well as in the Kingdome of Tunis: For the assistance of one who clai­med to be King of a part of this Country, did Sebastian the King of Portugall, go with all his power into Africa, in the year 1578. where unadvisedly bearing him­self, he was slain, together with two other the same day, who clai­med to be Kings; so that there it was that true battell was fought, whereof it was said, that three Kings died in one day: which bat­tel is called the battell of Alcazar, and was the ruine of the Kingdome of Portugall, and the cau [...]e of the uniting it to the Crowne of Spaine Astrologers did purpose, that the blazing Starre which appeared the [...]eare before, did signifie that i [...]l e­ [...]ent.

This whole Countrey doth mais­ [...]aine in it, besides some Imperia [...] government, two absolute King­domes: the one of Fezza or Fez, which lyeth on the North part to­ward [Page 174] the Mediterranean and Spain: the other is the Kingdome of Morocco, which lyeth from a­boveThe King­dome of Morocco. the hill Atlas minor▪ to the South and West part of Maurita­nia. These are both Saracens, as be also their people; holding true league with the Turke, and with some other Christian Princes; a league onely for Trafficke and Mer­chandize.

It may be doubted whether it was in this Mauritana Tingitana, or rather but near unto it, in Mau­ritania Caesoriens [...], that which Saint Augustine in his book De doctri­na Christiana, doth of his own knowledge report, that in a City of that Countrey was this brutish cu­stome,A brutish custom [...]uled in this coun­ [...]. that once in the year (for certaine dayes) the Inhabitants of the place did assemble themselves into wide and large fields, and there divided themselves each from o­ther, so that perhaps the Fathers were on one side, and the children or brother on the other; and did throw stones with such violence [Page 175] that many were hurt, and divers killed with the fury of that assault.

But S. Augustine relleth, that he de [...]esting the brutishnesse thereof, d [...]d make a most eloquent and ela­borate O [...]ation, or Sermon unto them; whereby he did prevaile with those of the City where he was, that the [...] give over that foo­lish and rude exercise: Yet Leo Ass [...]icanus, who lived about a hun­dred yeares since, and in his owne person travelled over the greate part of Africke, doth write in his description of Africke, that in one place of the Kingdome of Fez, this barba [...]us custome is yet retained.

Of the other Countries of Africke, lying neare the Sea.

FRom beyond the hill Atlas major, unto the South of A­fricke, is nothing (almost it. Antiquity) worthy the rea­diag: and those things which are written for the most part, are fa­bles: For towards the South par [...] [Page 176] of Africke, as well as towards the North part of Europe and Asia, be supposed to be men of strange shapes, as some with Dogs heads, some without heads, and some with one foot alone, which was very huge, and such like: which that counterfeit Fryer (who write that book which is counted Saint Augustines, ad fraetres in Eremo; and who would gladly father upon Saint Augustine, the erecting of the Augustine Fryers) doth say, that he saw travelling down from Hip­po, Southward in Africa: But as the Asse in Aesope, which was cloathed in the Lyons skin, did by his long ears shew himself to be an Ass, and not a Lyon; so this foo­lish fellow, by his lying, doth shew himself to be a counterfeit, and not Saint Augustine.

In the new Writers there are some few things to be observed: as first, that all the people in generall to the South, lying with the Zona Torrida, are not onely blackish like the Moor, but are exceeding blacke. [Page 177] And therefore as in old time by an excellency, some of them are called Nigritae, so at this day they are na­med Negro's, as then whom no men are blacker.

Secondly, the Inhabitants of all these parts which border on the Sea coast, even u [...]to Caput bonae spei, have been Gentiles, adoringTheir Reli­gion. The Portu gals have there setled themselves. Images and foolish shapes for their Gods, neither bearing of Christ, nor beleeving on Mahomet, till such time as the Portugals com­ming among them, having professed Christ for themselves, but have won few of the people to embrace their Religion.

Thirdly, that the Portugals pas­sing along Africa to the East In­dies, have setled themselves in many places of those Countries, building Castles and Townes for their own safety, and to keep the people in subjection, to their great commo­dities.

One of the first Countries fa­mousThe Coun­try of Gui­nea. beyond Morocco, is Guinea, which we call Ginnie, within the [Page 178] compasse whereof, lyeth the Cape, called the Cape Verde, and the o­ther, the Cape of the three points; and the Towne and Castle named Si [...]rta Li [...]na, at which place (as commonly all Travellers do touch, that do p [...]sse that way for fresh [...]er and [...]ther sh [...]p-provision [...]ur English men have found tra [...] Their Com­modities for Trade. icke into the parts of this Coun­trey, where th i [...] greatest comm [...] dity is Gold, and Elephants teeth; of both which there is good store.

Beyond that, toward the South, not [...]arre from the Equinoctiall, ly­ethThe King­dome of Congo. the K [...]gdome of Congo, com monly called Mani-congo. Where the Portugals at their first arrivall finding the people to be Heathens without G [...]d, did induce them to a profession of Christ, and to be baptized in great abundance, al­lowing of the principles of Reli­gion, untill such time as the Priest did▪ teach them to lead their lives [...] according to their profession; which the most part of them in no case [Page 179] enduring, they returned back again to their Gentilisme.Their Reli­gion

Beyond Mani-congo so fare to the South, as almost ten degrees beyond the Tropicke of Capri­corne, lyeth the Lands end; which is a promontory, now called Ca­put bonae spei, which Vascus Gama the Portug [...]l did discover, and so called it, because he had there good hope that the Land did turn to the North; and that following the course th [...]reof hee might bee brought to Arabia and Persia, but es [...]ecially to Calecut in India. Which course, when himself and other o [...] his Countrey-men after him did follow, th [...]y fou [...]d on the coast up towards Arabia, the Kingdome of Mosambique, Me­linda, Magadazo, and others? whose people were all Gentiles, and now are in league with the Portugals, who have built divers holds for their safety. Of which Countries, and manners of the people, he that listeth to read, may finde much in the History of Oso [...] and Petrus [Page 180] Maffaeus; but there is no matter of any great importance.

Beyond the Cape toward the North, before you come to Mo­sumbique, between the Rivers of Cuama, and Sancto Spirito, lyes theThe King­dom of Mo­nomotapa. Kingdome of Monomotapa, where the Portugals also have arrived, and so much was done there by the preaching of Gonsalvo de Silva, a Jesuite, that the King and Queen of that Countrey with many o­thers were converted from Gen­tilismeTheir Re­ligion. to Christiani [...]y, and bapti­zed: But certaine Mahumetans incensing the King thereof after­wards against the Portugals, made him to revolt from his Religion, and to put to death this Jesuite and divers others. Which fact of his the Portugals assavi [...]g to revenge with an Army sent for out of Por­tugall, they profited little against him, but were themselves▪ consu­med by the discommodities of the Countrey, and the distemperature of the a [...]e.

There are also other Kingdomes [Page 181] sin this part of Africke, of whom we know little besides their namesThe King­dome of Adel, &c. and site in generall, as Adel, Mono­mugi, Angola, and therefore it shall be sufficient to have named them in a word.

Of Abissines, and the Empire of Prester John.

IN the Inland of Africke, ly­ethThe Situa­tion of the Empire of Prester John. a very large Countrey, extending it self on the East, to some part of the Red Sea, on the South to the Kingdome of Molinda, and a great way far­ther, on the North to Egypt; on the West to Manicongo. The people whereof are called Abissini, and it self the dominion of him, whom we commonly call in Eng­lish Prester John; but in Latin some terme him Prestiosus Johannes, but the most part Presbyter Johannes, One of the greatest in the world. writing of him. As he is a Prince absolute, so he hath also a Priest­like or Patriarchall function and ju­risdiction among them. This is a [Page 182] very mighty Pr [...]nce, and reputed to be one of the greatest Emperors in the world.

What was known of this Coun­trey in former time, was knowne under the name of Ethi [...]pia, but the voyages of the Portugals in these late daies, have best descri­bed it. The people therefore are Christians, as is also the Prince, but differing in many things from the West Church; and in no sort ac­knowledging any supreme Prero­gative of the Bishop of Rome. It is thought that they have retained Christianity even from the time of our Saviour, being supposed to be converted by the Chamberlaine of Candace the Queen of Ethiopia, who was instructed concerning Christ, by Philip the Evangelist in the Acts of the Apostles. Euse­bius [...] his Ecclesiasticall story doth make mention of this. But they do to this da [...] retaine Circumci­sion: whereof the reason may be, that the [...] (their Converter) not having any fu [...]ther conference [Page 183] with the Apostle, nor any else with him, did receive the cere­monies of the Church imperfect­ly, retaining Circumcision: which among the Jewes was not aboli shed, when he had conference with Philip.

Within the dominion of Prester John, are the mountaines common­lyLunae Montes. called Lunae montes: where is the first well-spring and rising of the river Nilus: yet there are that fetch the head of this River out of a cer­taine great Lake toward the South, called Zembre: out of which to­ward the West, runnes the River of Zaire, into the Kingdome of Mani-congo; The R [...]ver of Zuama or Cuama, towards the South, to the Kingdome of Monomo [...]apa, or Benomotapa, as the River Nilus towards the North, through the Kingdome of the Abissines to Egypt, which River running vi­olently along this Countrey, and sometimes hastily increasing by the melting of much snow from the Mountaines, would over-runne [Page 184] and drown a great part of Egypt, but that it is slaked by many ponds, dammes and sluces, which are within the Dominion of Prester John. And in respect hereof, for the maintenance of these the Prin­ces of Egypt, have paid upto the Governour of the Abissines, a great Tribute time out of mind: which of late the great Turke sup­posing it to be a custome needlesse, did deny; till the people of theThe Abis­sines drow­ned Egypt. Abissines by commandement of their Prince, did breake downe their dams, and drowning Egypt, did enforce the Turke to continue his pay, and to give much money for the making of them, very ear­nestly to his great charge, desiring a peace.

In this Countrey also of Prester John, is the rising of the famous River Nigar, supposed to have inThe River Nigar. it the most and the best precious stones of any River in the World, which rising likewise out of a great L [...]ke out of that Mount, after it hath runne a good space hideth it [Page 185] self for the space of 60. miles under ground, then appearing again after it hath runne somewhat further, makes a great Lake, and again after a great tract, another; and at last af­ter a long course, fals at Cape Verde, into the Atlantick sea.

Ortelius in his larger Maps, de­scribes it falling into the Sea, like Nilus in Egypt, with seven streames or Ostia: but those that travell these parts say, that there are only some Bayes, but there is no River in those parts running into the Sea, but [...].

There be other Countries in A­fricke, as Ag [...]simba, Libia interi­or, Nubia, and others, of whom nothing is famous: but this may be said of Africke in generall, that it bringeth forth store of all sorts of wild Beasts, as Elephants, Lyons, Panthers, Tygers, and the like: yea, according to the Proverbe, Africa semper aliquid oportet no­vi; Oftentimes, new and strange shapes of wild Beasts are brought forth there; the reason whereof [Page 186] is, that the Countrey being very hot, a d full of Wildernesses, which have in them little water, the Beasts of all sorts being enfor­ced to meet at those few watering places that be, where oftentimes contrary kindes have conjunction the one with the other: so that there arifeth a new kind of Species which taketh part of bo h. Such a one is the Leopard, begotten of the Lyon, and the Beast called Pardus, and somewhat resembling ei her of them. A d thus farre of A­fricke.

Of the Northern Ilands.

THE Ilands that do lye in the North, a [...]e in number almost infinite: the chiefe of them only shall be brief­ly touched. Very farre to the North in the same Climate also with Sweden, that is, under the cir­cle Articke, lyeth an Iland called in old time Thule, which was then [Page 187] supposed to be the farthest part of the world North ward, and there­fore is called by Virgil, Utima Thule. The Countrey is cold, the people barbarous, and yielde h [...] li [...] ­tleTheir com­modities. commodity, saving Hawkes; in some part of the yeare there is no night at all. Unto this land divers of our English Nation do yearely tra­vel, and do bring from thence good store of fish, but especially our dee­pest and thickest Ling, which are therefore called Isl nd [...]ings.

It hath pleased God, that in theseTheir Re­ligion. latter times, the Gospell is there preached, and the people are in­stracted in Christianity, having also the knowledge of good Lear­ning, which is brought about by the meanes of the King of Sweden, unto whom that Iland is now sub­ject.

There is lately written by one of that Nation, a pretty Treatise in Latine, which describeth the manner of that Countrey; and it is to be seen in the first Tome of Master Hackluits Voyage.

[Page 188]Southward from thence, lyeth Frizeland, called in Latine Friz­landia; Frizeland. whereas the Frizeland joy­ning to Germany, is in Latine called Frizia.

On the coast of Germany, one of the seventeene Provinces, is calledZealand, in it standeth Flushen & Middle­burge. Zealand, which continueth in it divers Ilands; in whom little is fa­mous, saving that in one of them is Flishen o [...] Flushen, a Town of war, and Middleburge is another, a place [...]f good Mart.

Livinus Limnius, and some of the low Germans, be of opinion, [...]hat this City was fi [...]t built by Metellus the Roman; and that which now is called Middl [...]burge, was at the first termed Metolli Bur­gum.

The States of the Low-Countries, do hold this Province against the King of Spain These Ilands have been much troubled of late with inundation of water.

The Iland that lyeth most West of any Fame is Ireland, which hadIreland. in it heretofore many Kings of [Page 189] their own; but the whole land is now annexed to the Crowne of England. The people naturally are rude and superstitious; the Coun­try good and fruitfull, but that for want of tillage in divers places, they suffer it to grow in­to boggs and deserts. A rare & admirable Note. It is true of this Countrey (which Solinus writeth of some other) that Ser­pents and Adders do not breed there; and in the Irish timber, of certaine experience, no Spiders web is ever found.

The most renowned Island inOf Britain the world is Albion, or Britania, which hath heretofore contained in it many severall Kingdomes; but especially in the time of the Sax­ons. It hath now in it two King­domes, England and Scotland, wher­inFour lan­guages there spo­ken. are four several languages; that is, the English, (which the civill Scots do barbarously speake) the Welch tongue (which is the lan­guage of the old Britains;) the Cor­nish (which is the proper speech of [Page 190] Cornewall;) and the Irish (which is spoken by those Scots which live on the West part of Scotland) neer unto Ireland. The commodities and pleasures of England are well known unto us, and many of them are expressed in this verse:

Anglia, Mons, Pons, Fons, Ecclesia, Foemina, Lana.
England is stor'd with Bridges, Hils, and Wooll;
With Churches, Wels, and Women beautifull.

The ancient inhabitants of this land, were the Britaines, whichTheir ori­ginall. were afterward driven into a cor­ner of the Countrey, now called Wales; and it is not to be doubted, but at first this Countrey was peo­pled from the continent of France, or thereabout, when the sons of Noah had spread themselves from the East to the West part of the world. It is not strange to see why the people of that Nation do labour [Page 191] to fetch their pedigree from one Brutus, whom they report to come from Troy; because the original of that truth began by Galfridus Mo­numentensis, above 500. yeares a­gone, and his book containeth great shew of truth, but was noted by Nubringensis, or some author of his time, to be meerly fabulous: Besides that, many of our English Nation have taxed the saying of them, who would attribute the name of Brittannia unto Brutus, and Cornubia to Corynaeus: Aeneas Sylvius. Epist. 1. 3. hath thought good to confirm it, saying; The English people (saith he) do report, that after Troy was overthrown, one Brutus came unto them, from whom their Kings do fetch their pedigrees: Which matter there are no more Historians that deliver, besides a certaine English man, which had some learning in him, who willing to aequall the blood of those Iflanders unto the Roman stock and generosity, did affirm and say, that concerning Brutus, which [Page 192] Livy and Salust (being both decei­ved) did report of Aeneas.

We do find in ancient Records and Stories of this Island, that since the first possessions which theThe Bri [...] ­taines five times con­quered. First by t [...]e Romans. Britains had here, it was over-run and conquered five several times. The Romans were the first that did attempt upon it, under the conduct of Julius Caesar, who did onely dis­cover it, and frighted the inhabi­tants with the name of the Ro­mans, but was not able to sarre to prevaile upon it, as any way to pos­sesse it; yet his successours after­wards did by little and little, so gain on the Country, that they had almost all of it; which is now called England; and did make a great ditch or trench, from the East to the West sea, between their dominion here, and Scotland. Divers of the Emperours were here in person, as Alexander, Severus, who is repu­ted to be buried at York. Here also was Constantius, father unto Con­stantine the Great, who from hence married Helena a woman [Page 193] of this Land, who was afterward mother to the renowned Constan­tine. But when the Romans had their Empire much weakned, part­ly by their owne discords, and partly by that decay which the irruptions of the Gothes and Van­dals, and such like invaders did bring upon them, they were forced to retire their legions from thence, and so leaving the Countrey naked, the Scots, and certaine people cal­led the Pictes, did breake in, who most miserably wasted and spoiled the Country. Then were the Inha­bitants (as some of our Authors write) put to that choise, that ei­ther they must stand it out and be slaine, or give ground, till they came to the sea, and so be drowned.

Of these Pictes, who were theSecondly, the Pictes who used to paint, or pounse their faces. second over-runners of this Land; some do write, that they did use to cut and pounse their flesh, and lay on colours, which did make them the more terrible to be seen with the cuts of their flesh. But certaine it is, that they had their name for [Page 194] painting themselves, which was a common thing in Brittaine in Cae­sars time, as he reporteth in his Commentaries, the men colouring their faces with Glastone or Ode, that they might seem the more dreadfull, when they were to joyn battell.

To meet with the cruelty and oppression of these Barbars, theThirdly▪ the Saxons. Saxons were in the third place by some of the Land called in, who finding the sweetnesse of the soile and commodiousnesse of the Coun­trey every way, did repaire hither by great troops, and so seated them­selves here, that there were at once of them seven several Kingdomes, and Kings within the Compasse of England.

These Saxons did beare them­selves with much more tempe­rance and placability towards those few of the Countrey that remained, then the Pictes, had done: but yet growing to con­tention, one of their Kings with another, partly about the bounds [Page 195] of their territories, and partly about other quarrels, they had many great battels each with o­ther.

In the time of these, Religi­onTheir reli­gion and devotion. and Devotion, was much em­braced, and divers Monasteries, and rich Religious houses were founded by them partly for pen­nance which they would do, and partly otherwise; because they thought it too meritorious: inso­much, that King Edgar alone, is recorded to have built above foure severall Monasteries. And some other of their Kings were in their ignorance so devoted, that they gave over their Crownes, and in superstition did goe to Rome, there to lead the lives of private men.

These seven Kingdomes in the end, did grow all into one; and then the fourth and most grievous scourge and conquest of this King­dome, came in the Danes; whoFourthly the Danes. Lording it here divers yeares, were at last expelled; and then Willi­am [Page 196] Duke of Normandy, pretend­ing that he had right thereunto by the promise of adoption, or some other conveiance from Harald, did with his Normans passe over into this Land, and obtained a great vi­ctory in Sussex, at a place which he caused in remembrance thereof to be called Battell, and built an Abby there, by the name of Battell Abby. He took on him to winne the whole by conquest, and did beare himselfe indeed like a Con­querour: For he seised all into his hands, gave out Barons, Lordships, and Mannors from himself: rever­sed the former Lawes, and Cu­stomes, and instituted here the manners and orders of his own Country; which have proceeded on and been by little and little bet­tered; so that the honourable government is established which we now see at this day.

It is supposed, that the faith of Christ was first brought into this land in the days of the Apostles [Page 197] by Joseph of Arimathea, Simon, Ze­lotes, and some other of that time: but without doubt not long after it was found here; which appeareth by the testimony of Tertullian, who lived within lesse then 200. yeares after Christ; And there are records to shew, that in the daies of Eleu­therius, one of the ancient B shopsKing Luci­us the first that here received Baptism & the Gospel. of Rome, King Lucius received here both Baptisme and the Gospel; in­somuch that it is fabulous vanity to say, that Austin the Monk was the first that here planted the Christian Faith; for he lived 600. yeares after Christ, in the time of Gregory the great Bishop of Rome: before which time Gildas is (upon great reason) thought to have lived here; of whom there is no doubt, but that he was a learned Christian: Yea, and that may be perceived by that which Beda hath in his Ecclesia­sticall story, concerning the com­ming in of Austin the Monk, that the Christian Religion had been planted here before, but that the pu­rity of it in many places was much [Page 198] decaied; and also that many people in the Island were yet Infidels: For the conversion of whom, as also for the reforming of the other, Au­stine was sent hither, where he be­haved himselfe so proudly, that the best of the Christians which were here, did mislike him. In him was erected the Archbishoprick of Can­terbury, which amongst old writers, is still termed Dorobarnia: The Archbishops do reckon their succes­sion by number from this Austine.

The reason whereof Gregorie Note. the great is reported to have such care for the conversion of the Eth­nicks in Britaine, was because cer­tain boyes which were brought him out of this Countrey; which being very goodly of countenance (as our Country children are therein infe­rior to no Nation in the world) he asked them what country-men they were; and it was replyed that they were Angli; he said they were not unfitly so called, for they were An­gli tanquam▪ Angeli, nam vultum habent Angelorum. And demanding [Page 199] further, of what Province they were in this Island; it was returned that they were called Deires: which caused him again to repeat that word, & to say that it was great pit­ty, but that by being taught the Go­spel they should be saved de ira Dei.

England hath since the time of the Conquest, grown more and more in riches; insomuch that now more then 300. years since, in the time of King Henry the third, it was an or­dinary speech, that for wealth, this Countrey was Puteus inexhaustus, aNo Country like Eng­land. Well that could not be drawn dry. Which conceit the King himself, as Matthew Paris writeth, did often suggest un [...]o the Pope; who there upon took advantage, abusing the simplicity of the King, to suck out inellimable summes of money, to the intolerable grievance of both the Clergy & Temporalty. And among other things to bring about his pur­pose, the Pope did perswade the King, that he would invest his young son in the Kingdome of Apulia▪ which did contain a great part of all [Page 200] Naples; and for that purpose had from thence many thousands, besides infinite summes which the King was forced to pay for interest to the Popes Italian Usurers.

Since that time it hath pleased God more and more to blesse this Land, but never more plentifully then in the daies of our late, and now raigning Soveraigne, whose raigne continuing long in peace, hath peopled the Land with abun­dance of inhabitants: hath storedThe riches of the coun­trey. it with Shipping, Armour, and Mu­nition, hath fortified it many waies, hath encreased the trafficke with the Turk and Muscovite, and many parts of the earth farre distant from us, hath much bettered it with buil­ding, and enriched it with Gold and Silver, that it is now (by wise men) supposed, that there is more Plate within the Kingdome, then there was Silver when her Ma­jesty came to the Crowne. Some Writers of former times, yea, and those of our owne Countrey too, have reported that in England have [Page 201] been Mynes of Gold, or at the least some gold taken out of other Mynes: which report hath in it no credit, in as much as the Country standeth too cold, neither hath it sufficient force of the Sun to concoct and digest that metall. But truth it is that our Chronicles do witnesse, that some silver hath been taken up in the Southerne parts, as in the Tin-mines of Devonshire and Cornwall, and such is sometimes found now; but the virtue thereof is so thin, that by that time it is tried and perfectly fi­ned it doth hardly quit the cost: not­withstanding, Lead, Iron, and such basers metals, be here in good plenty

The same reason which hindreth gold ore from being in these parts, that is to say, the cold of the cli­mate, doth also hinder that there is no wine, whose grapes grow here. For although we have grapes, which in the hotter and warm summers do prove good, but yet many times are nipped in the frost before they be ripe, yet notwithstanding they ne­ver come to that concocted maturity [Page 202] as to make sweet and pleasant wine; yet some have laboured to bring this about, and therefore have plan­ted vineyards, to their great cost and trouble, helping and aiding the soil by the uttermost diligence they could; but in the end it hath proved to very little purpose.

The most rich commodity which our Land hath naturally growing, is Wooll, for the which it is renownedThe rich commodity of wooll. over a great part of the Earth. For our Clothes are sent into Turkie, Venice, Italy, Barbary, yea as farre as China of late, besires Moscovie, Denmarke, and other Northerne Nations: for the which we have ex­change of much other Merchandize necessary for us here▪ besides that, the use of this Wooll doth in several labours set many thousands of our people in worke at home, which might otherwise be idle.

Amongst the CommendationsBridges. of England, as appeareth in the place before named, is the store of good Bridges: whereof the most famous are London Bridge, and [Page 203] that at Rochester. In divers places here, there be also Rivers of goodRivers. Name, but the greatest glory doth rest in three: the Thames, called in Latine of Tame and Isis, Tamesis: Servene called Sabrina: and Trent, which is commonly reputed to have his name of trente the French word, signifying thirty, which some have expounded to be so given, because thirty several Rivers do run into the same: And some other do take it to be so call'd, because there be thirty several sorts of fishes in that water to be found, the names whereof do appear in certain old verses recited by Master Camden, in his booke of the Description of England.

One of the honourable commen­dations which are reputed to be in this Realme, is the fairnesse of ourFaire and large Chur­ches. greater and larger Churches, which as it doth yet appear in those which we call Cathedrall Churches, many of them being of very goodly and sumptuous buildings; so in times past it was more to be seen, when the Abbies, and those which were called [Page 204] religious houses, did flourish; where­of there were a very great number in this Kingdome, which did eate up much of the wealth of the Land; but especially those which lived there, giving themselves to much filthiness, and divers sorts of uncleannesse, did so draw downe the vengeance of God upon those places, that they were not only dissolved, but almost utterly defaced by King Henry the eighth. There are two Archbishop­ricks, and 24 other Bishopricks2. Archbi­shopricks, and 24. o­ther Bi­shopricks. within England and Wales.

It was a tradition among old writers, that Britaine did breed no Wolves in it, neither would they live here; but the report was fabu­lous, in as much as our Chronicles do write▪ that there were here such store of them, that the Kings were enforced to lay it as an imposition upon the Kings of Wales, who were not able to pay much mony for tri­bute, that they should yearly bring in certaine hundreds of Wolves; by which meanes they were at the length quite rid from Wolves.

[Page 205]The Country of Wales had in times past a King of it self; yea, and sometimes two, the one of North­Wales, and the other of South­Wales, between which people at this day there is no great good af­fection: But the Kings of England did by little and little so gain upon them, that they subdued the whole Country unto themselves; and in the end King Henry the 8. intending thereby to benefit this Realme and them, did divide the Country into Shires, appointed there his Judices Itinerantes, or Judges of the circuit to ride; and by Act of Parliament, made them capable of any prefer­ment in England, as well as other Subjects. When the first newes was brought to Rome, that Julius Caesar had attempted upon Britain, Trully in the elegance of his wit (as appea­reth in one of his Epistles) did make a flout at it, saying, That there was no gain to be gotten by it. For gold here was none, nor any other commodity to be had, unlesse it were by slaves, whom he thought [Page 206] that his friend to whom he wrote, would not look to be brought up in learning or Musick. But if Tully wereNote. alive at this day, he would say, that the case is much altered, in as much as in our Nation is sweetness of behavi­or, abundance of learning, Musick, & all the liberal Acts, goodly, buildings sumptuous apparel, rich fare, and whatsoever else may be truly boasted to be in any Country near ad joining.

The Northern part of Britaine isOf Scot­land. Scotland, which is a Kingdome of it self, and hath been so from very an­cient time, without any such con­quest, or maine transmutation of State, as hath been in other Coun­tries. It is compassed about with the sea on all sides, saving where it joyneth upon England: and it is ge­nerally divided into two parts, the one whereof is called the High­land, and the other the Low-land.

The Low-land is the most civill part of the Realm, wherein religion is more orderly established, and yieldeth reasonable subjection unto the King, but the other part called [Page 207] the High-land, which lyeth further [...] the North, or else bendeth to­wards Ireland, is more rude and sa­vage, and whither the King hath not so good accesse, by reason of Rocks and mountaines, as to bring the Noblemen, which inhabite there to such due conformity of Religion, or otherwise, as he would.

This Countrey generally is moreScotland very poor in formertimes▪ poor then England, or the most part of the Kingdomes of Europe: but yet of late yeares the wealth thereof is much encreased by reason of their great traffick to al the parts of Chri­stendome; yea unto Spain it self, which hath of late years been denied to the English, and some other Na­tions: and yet unto this day they have not any ships but for Mer­chandize; neither hath the King in his whole Dominion any vessel cal­led A man of war. Some that have travelled into the Northerne parts of Scotland, do report, that in the Solstitium aestivele, they have scant any night, and that which is, is not above two houres, being rather a [Page 208] d mnesse then a darknesse. The language of the Countrey is in the Lowland a kind of barbarous Eng­lish. But towards Ireland side, they speak Irish: which is the true reasonThe reason why it is said that in Britain are foure lan­guages. whereof it is reported, that in Bri­tain there are four languages spoken that is, Irish in part of Scotland, English for the greatest part, Welch in Wales, Cornish in Cornwall.

In the confines between the two Kingdomes of England and Scot­land, which are commonly called the Borders, there lye divers out-laws and unruly people; which beingBorderers great rob­bers and stealers. subject to neither Prince by their good wits, but so far as they list; do exercise great robberies and stealing of cattell from them that dwell ther­about: and yet the Princes of both Realmes, for the better preserva­tion of Peace and Justice, do appoint certain Warders on each side, who have power even by Martiall Law to represse all enormities.

The Queen of England had onLord War­den of the Marches. her side three: whereof one is cal­led the Lord Warden of the East [Page 209] Marches, the other of the west Marches, the third, the Warden of the middle Marches, who with all their power cannot so order things, but that by reason of the outrages thereabouts committed, the bor­ders are much unpeopled; whiles such as desire to be civill, do not like to live in so dangerous a place.

It hath been wondred at by ma­ny that are wise, how it could be, that whereas so many Countries, ha­ving in them divers Kingdomes and Regiments, did all in the end come to the dominion of one (as appeareth at this day in Spaine, where were wont to be divers Kings, and so in times past in England, where the seven Kingdomes of the Saxons didNote. grow all into one) yet that England and Scotland, being continuate with­in one Iland, could never till now be reduced to one Monarchy; whereof in reason the French may be thought to have been the greatest hindrance. For they having felt so much smart by the Armes of England alone; insomuch that sometimes all that [Page 210] whole Country almost hath been o­ver run and possessed by the English, have thought that it would be im­possible that they should resist the force of them, if both their King­doms were united & joined into one.

The Custome theresore of the Kings of France in former times was, that by their gold, they did bird un­to them the Kings and Nobility of Scotland, and by that means the Kings of England were no sooner attempting any thing upon France, but the Scots by and by would en­vade England: Whereupon the Proverb amongst our people grew, That he who will France win, must A Proverb with Scotland first begin.

And these French-men continu­ingThe policy of the French. their policy▪ did with infinite re­wards breake off the Marriage which was intended and agreed upon be­tween King Edward the sixth, and Mary the late unfortunate Queen of Scotland, drawing her rather to be married with the Dolphin of France, who was son to King Hen­ry the second: and afterward him­self [Page 211] reigned by the name of King Francis the second: But this was so ill taken by the English, that they sought revenge upon Scotland, and [...] them a great overthrow in that [...] which was called Mussel­borough Musselbo­rough field. The barba­rousnesse of the Scots in former times field.

The people of this Country were in times past [...] barbarous, that they did not refuse [...] flesh: which, as S. Hierom doth [...] of them, he himsel [...] saw some of [...] to do in France, and the [...] hereof went so far, that Chrysostome in one place doth allude to such a matter.

There be many little Islands ad­joining unto the great Island Bri tain: as at the very North point ofThe Orcades the people barbarous. Scotland the Orcades, which are in number above thirty, the chiefe whereof is named Orkney, whereof the people are barbarous.

On the West side of Scotland towards Ireland, lie the Islands cal­led Hebrides, in number 4. where inhabite the people ordinarily cal­led the Red-shankes. Not farre fromThe Red­shankes. thence is the Isle Mona, common­ly [Page 212] is called the Isle of Man, the pecu­liarThe Isle of Man. jurisdiction of the Earls of Darby, with homage notwithstan­ding reserved to the Crowne of England.

On the North part of Wales, is the Island of Anglisey, which is re­putedThe Isle of Anglisey. a distinct Shire.

Towards France side, on the South part of England, is the Isle of Wight, The Isle of Wight. in Latine called Victis: which is a good hold in the narrow seas a­gainst the French. More neer France are the Isles of Gernsey and Jernsey, The Isles of Gernsey & Jernsey. where they speak French, and are under the Crown of England. There are also many other, but of small account: As the Isles of Tha­net and Sheppy, on the side of Kent, the Sorlings or Sull [...]y, at the end of Cornwall, in number (as it is said) 145. Caldey, Lunday, and the Flatholns, with others in the mouth ofDivers o­ther Ilands Severn: Holy-farn, Cocket, Ilands on the side of Northumberland. And thus much of Great Britaine, and the Islands thereunto adjoining.

Of the Ilands in the Mediter­ranean Sea.

THere be many Ilands in the Mediterranean, renowned in all the old Writers; but the chiefe of them onely shall be touched. From the Pillars of Hercules going East-ward, are two Islands not fa [...]re from Spaine, which in times past were called In­sulae Baleares, for that the people ofInsulae Ba­leares. them did use (both for their delight and armor) s [...]ings▪ which they con­tinually (almost) carried about with them: and whereunto, as Pliny wri­teth, they did traine up their Chil­dren from their youngest years, not giving them any meat, till they had from some post or beam cast it down with a s [...]ing. Of these were those Fonditors, or Sling-casters, which the Carthaginians and Spaniards did use in their wars against the Ro­mans. The lesser of these, which ly­eth most West, was called in the old time Minorica; The bigger, which [Page 214] lyeth more East, was called Majori­ca; and now Minorica and Majo­rica are both under the domi [...]ion of the King of Spaine.

More Eastward in the Sea, called Mare inferum, or Tyrrhenum, [...]iethThe Iland of Corsica. the Iland of Corsica, over against Genua: and direct Southward from thence lieth the great [...]sland Sardi­nia, The Iland of Sardinia for the quiet possession of which two, the warres were oftentimes re­vived between the old Carthagini­ans and the Romans: for these two Islands lie in the middle very fitly.

The Island of Corsica is subject to the state of Genua; whither the Genoes do transport things out of the Maine; and are ruled by their Governours, as the Venetians do Candy.

This Island is but barren, either in respect of some other that lye neere unto it, or of the Country of Italy; but yet yeeldeth profit, ease, and honour unto the States of G [...] nua, which hath little land besid [...] it.

The Island of Sardinia also is n [...] [Page 215] way so fruitful as Sicily, but it is under the government of the King of Spain, and was the same which was promised to Anthony the King ofNote. Navarre, father to Henry the fourth King of France, in recompence of [...] and the rest of the King­dome of Navar, then and now de­tained from him and his heires by the Spaniard. But this was the device onely of the Cardinall of Lorain, who intending to draw him to Papi­stry, and to order his politick pur­poses, did make shew of this, which was no way meant by the Spaniard.

Further to the East, at the very point of the South p [...]rt of Italy, ly­ethThe Iland of Si [...]lia. the great Iland Sicilia, which some have supposed to have been heretosore a part of the continent: but by an earth-quake and inunda­tion of water, to have been rent off, and so made an Iland. The figure of this Country is Triquetra, triangle, or three square.

Justin in his 4 Book doth seem to suspect that Sicily was in times past fastned unto Italy. But Seneca [Page 216] in consolatione ad Martian, cap 97. doth say plainly, that it was some­times a piece of the continent.

There was also a great contention for this Countrey between the Car­thaginians and the Romans: but the Romans obtained it, and had from thence exceeding store of Corn year­ly: whereupon Sicily was called Horreum Pope Rome. Here stood the goodly City called Siracusa, whichThe City Siracusa. was destroyed and sac [...]ed by Mar­cellus the Roman. When, as Livy writeth of him, he being resolvedNote. to set on fire that City, which was then one of the goodliest places of the world, could not choose but breake forth into teares, to see how vain and transitory the glory of worldly things is here.

At that time lived Archimedes, Arthimides the famous Engine­maker. who was a most admirable ingeni­ous Engine-maker, for all kind of fortifications: of whom it is said that by burning glasses which he made, he did set on fire divers ships which the Romans had lying in the Haven. When the City was taken, [Page 217] he was making plots, and drawing figures on the ground, for to pre­vent the assaults of the Romans, and being unknown, he was slaine by some of the Souldiers which did break in upon him. Some think that it was he, and not Architas, which made the dove, of which it is writ­ten, that it was so equally poised, that being thrown up into the aire, it would hover or flutter there, and in a good space not fall down.

This was in times past a King­dome,Sicily once a Kingdom▪ two fa­mous Ty­rants in it. where the two Tyrants, the elder and the younger Dyonisius did reigne; where Gelo also, that great friend to the Romans, did remain.

It was afterward made a province, and gover [...]ed by a Praetor, or De­puty of the Romans: whereof Ver­res was one, who was so inveighed against by Tully.

It grew afterward to be a King­dome again, in so much that Tan­credus was King of Sicily, which en­tertain'd our Richard the first, when with Philip the King of France, he went to the conquest of the Holy [Page 218] Land. Here was likewise Phalaris The tyrant. Phalaris. the Tyrant so famous, King of Agra­gentum.

The tyrannies which were used inThe tyran­nies of Sici­ly were very famous. Sicily, were in times past so famous, that they grew into a Proverb; as, Invidi â Siculinon invenêre Tyran­ni tormentum majus; but they who were the causes of all, did oftentimes speed very ill themselves; as appear­eth by the elder Dionysius, who be­ing driven out of his Dominion, did flee into Italy, and was glad there to teach children, that so he might supply his necessity. His son grew more tyrannous then the father, and stood so farre in fear of his own peo­ple, that many times he caused him­self to be shut up in a Tower, and his guard to keep the door, that no­body might come at him; He durst not trust his barber to shave or clip him, for fear of cutting of hisNote that cruelty is alwaies at­tended with scar. throat; but that which was done he caused his Daughters to do, who with the thin innet skin of walnuts being set on fire, are said to have taken off the hair of his face.

[Page 219]This was he, whose felicity when Damocles a flatterer did seem mar­veloustyDamocles the flatterer to admire, he caused him to be set one day at dinner in his royall seat, with dainty fare before him; Plate, rich Hangings, Musick, and all other matters of delight; but withall, a naked sword, which was onely tyed with a single haire of a horses mane, to be hanged directly over him; the feare whereof did so feare the flatterer left it should fal upon him, that he continually loo­ked upwards, and about him, and took no joy of that which was be­fore him: whereby Dyonisius did e­vidently teach him, that the state of some Princes, howsoever it seem glorious unto others, yet it doth bring little contentment unto them­selves, by reason of the continual dangers which hang over them.

It is reported of this man, that when all the people of this Country did for his cruelty continually curse him, there was one woman which daily did go to the Churches, and prayed the gods to lengthen his [Page 220] life; where withall when Dionysius was acquainted, marvelling him­self at the reason of it, he sent for her, and asked what good thing he had done unto her, that she was soNote how the poor wo­man prayed for this Ty­rant. careful evermore to pray for him? But the woman answered, that it was not for love, but for feare, that she begged these things of the gods: For (said she) I am an old woman, I do remember when your Grandfa­ther lived, who being very hard un­to his people, was much maligned by them, and they prayed that they might be rid of him: which falling our, afterward your father came in place, and he was worse than the former: which when the subjects could not endure, they prayed also that he might dye, hoping that the next would be better: Then came your self in place, who have much exceeded the cruelty of your father: And whereas others wish that you were gone also trusting for amend­ment in the next, I that have lived so long, and see that things grow worse and worse, do pray that you [Page 221] may continue▪ because that if we should have one that should succeed you, if he walke in the steps of his predecessors, he must needs be as bad as the Devill himself; for none else in tyranny can go beyond you.

Phalaris of Agrigentum was he who proposed rewards unto him who invented new torments: which caused Perillus to make a Bull of Brasse, into the which if offenders should be put, and fire should be set under, then it would make them roare like a Bull: But when upon theA good note for all in­venters of tortures & cruelty, and likewise for time flatte­rers. terror thereof none would so offend as to deserve that torment, Phalaris took Perillas, the Authour thereof, and to try the experience, put him into it, whereby Perillus lost his life.

This Countrey is now also under the King of Spaine, who among o­ther titles was wont to call himself King of both Sicilies, reckoning this Island for one, and that part of Italy for another, which is now called Calabria, and was in the Romane H stories named Magna Graecia.

There is nothing more renowned▪ [Page 222] in all Sicilia, either with new or old Writers, then the mountain Aetna: which being on the outside oft co­veredThe moun­tian Aetna with snow, yet by a sulphur­ous or brimstony matter, doth con­tinually burn within: yea, so that whereas it was supposed in the ages last before us, that the matter being consum'd, the fire had ceased, twice in our age it hath broke forth again, to the incredible loss of all the coun­try adjoining, the ashes thereof de­stroying vines and fruits, which were within the compass of many m [...]les about.

Agatheas in his History doth tell, that in his one time there was an in­credible deale of ashes which did fall about Constantinople, and the places neer adjoining, insomuch that the ground was covered with the same: which he reputeth to have been brought from the hill in Sicily: But B [...]din in his Method. Hist. doth re­prove this as a fable, which can have no shew of truth, by reason of the great distance of the place: notwith­standing it is certaine, that sometimes [Page 223] when it doth strongly break out, the fields and vineyards, and all the fruits within the compasse of some miles, àre much hurt therewithall.

The reason of this Fire was laidThe reason of the fire in the moun­tain Aeina▪ down by Justine in his 4. Books; and is since approved both by Historians and Philosophers: which is, that within the ground there is great [...]ore of Sulphu [...]e & brimstony mat­ter, which having once fire in it, is apt to keep it. And whereas all the whole Country is full of chinks and chaps, and hollowness within the ground, the matter which entreth there, doth minister substance to the continuance of that [...]me: as we see that water cast on coales in the Smiths Forge, doth make them burn more servently: and then into the Chin [...]es▪ and Ch [...]ps the wind doth also enter, which by blowing and [...], d [...]th both cause the fire never to extinguish; and sometimes (according unto the strength of the blast) doth make flames break out ei­ther more or lesse.

There are in the Hill Aetna, two [Page 224] principal places which are like unto two Furnaces with Tunnels on the top of them, where divers times (but especially in the Evening and night) the flame doth appear, mounting upwards; and it is so strong, that oftentimes it brings up with it burnt & scorching stones & pieces of hard substances, which seem to be rent out of some rocke, to the great ter­rour and danger of any that do come near.

This is that place whither Empe­docles Note. threw hims [...]lf, that he might be reported a god.

This was it whereof Virgil doth make his Tract called Aetna: which the Poets did report to be the shop of Vulcan, where Cyclopes did frame the Thunder-bolts for Jupiter.

And to conclude, that is it which some of our grosse Papists have not feared to imagine to be the place of Purgatory: As they have been so foolish to think, that there is al­so another place, called the Mount Vidu in Iseland, where soules have another Purgatory to be punished [Page 225] in, but there by cold, which Surius in his Commentaries is so absurdly grosse as to report an [...]allow.

The Papists have shew for theirThe Papists Purgatory is the fiery Aeana Purgatory in Aetna, out of that Book which is commonly called by the name of the Dialogues of Gre­gory the Great; For in that Booke there are divers things to that pur­pose. But our best Writers of late have discovered that that same Treatise is a counterfeit, being made by a later Pope Gregory, and not by the first of that name, ordinarily called Gregorius Magnus: who al­though he have in his Works divers things tending to superstition; yet he was never so absurd as to write things so unprobable, foolish, and grounded upon so bare reports as these were.

Such another Hill as the Moun­tain of Aetna is, was in time past. Vesuvius, a Hill in Campania, which is part of Italy; but this never had the like continuance as that of Aetna, although in the time of Pliny the fire did breake forth there, and so [Page 226] strongly, as that the elder Pliny, who spent all his time in discovering the secrets of Nature, pressing neer to behold it, was stifled with the flame, smoak, ashes or that he diedThe death of Pliny the elder. in the place, as is most excellently described in the Book of his Epistle [...] his Nephew the yonger Pliny.

Not farre from Sicily on the [...]outh lieth the little Isle called in old [...]ime Melita: whence those dogs come which are so much desired un­der the names of Canes Melitenses.

This was the place where S. Paul Note. was cast up after his ship-wrack in his journy to Rome, where the Vi­per hanged on his hand, and did not hurt him.

This Country is now called Mal­ta, Malta the only place for repelling the Turks. and is one of the places most re­nowned in the world for repelling of the Turks: When Soliman the Emperour of them did send against it a most mighty arm; it was then defended by them, who are called the Knights of Malta, which by sea do great spoile to the Gallies of the Turk that passe that way▪

[Page 227]There were in times past diver [...] Orders of Knights, and men that [...]ad vowed themselves to adventure their lives and whole state, for the maintenance of Christs Religion and some places of the earth, against the Infidels and Sarazens.

The most ancient of all thoseThe society of the Knights Templers. were called the Templers, who were a great corporation or society, con­sisting of divers Gentlemen yonger. brothers for the most part, out of all the Realms of Christendome: Their chiese charge was to defe [...]d the City of Jerusalem, and the Reliques or remainder of the Temple there, and Sepulchre of Christ: for the preser­vation of which places, together with the rest of the Holy Land, they had given unto them▪ and purchased for their mony, very rich and ample possessions, in England, France, Spaine, Italy, and other places of Eu­rope; insomuch that in the daies of Matthew Paris, he reporteth that they had under them many thou­sands of Mannors.

They had also in every Kingdome [Page 228] where their Order was permitted a great and ample house, where some chief of their company did lye, who received the Rents within that King­dome. and caused the money to be transported into the Holy Land, and other Ordinances to be made and executed belonging unto their Or­der: of which Houses the Temple, that is now in London was a chiefe one, which had in former times be­longed to the Jewes, but was after­wards translated to that use, when the Holy Land was quite taken by Saladine, and could never be reco­vered into the hands of the Chri­stians since the society of these Tem­plers ceased: the Pope and the KingThe Pope & the King of France. conspiring their ruine. of France conspiring their ruines, and their Land, were dispersed into divers mens hands.

In the same time when the Tim­plers were in their strength, there was another sort called the Hospi­tallers, Hospitallers whose condition and im ployment was very like unto the o­ther; both of them fighting for the preservation of Palestina,

[Page 229]We read that sometimes these two companies had great jarrs between themselves, whereby grew much hinderance to the wars against the Infidels.

All these were accounted as Or­ders of Religion, and therefore it was forbidden them at any time to marry, without dispensation from the Pope; because not being en­tangled to Wife and Children, they might be more resolute to adventure their lives.

After them grew up the Order of▪ The Knights of Rhodes. the Knights of Rhodes, who since they could not live in the Holy Land, yet would abide as near unto it as possibly they might: and there­fore partly to preserve Pilgrims which should go to visit the Sepul­cher of Chirst, and partly to infest the Turke and Saracens; but especi­ally to keep the enemies of Christs faith from encroaching further up­on Christendome, which most ear­nestly they did, and do desire, they placed themselves in the Island of Rhodes, where daily doing grea [Page 230] f [...]th to the Turk Soliman the great Warriour could not endure them, but with a mighty Army so ove l [...]id them, that he won the Island from them.

After the losse of Rhodes, the I­land of Malta was given unto these Knights by Charles the 5. Empe­rour; whereupon they are now cal­led the Knights of Malta: for theThe Knights of Malta. great Master after he came from Rhodes went into Candy, and from thence into Sicily, and so into Italy, from thence he made a voyage in­to England and then into France, and hastly in [...]o Savoy, from whence he departed with the Religion into this Island, and there they continue and behave themselves as in the for­mer Iland; and offering no violence unto Christians; they much hinder the courses of the Turkes from Grae­cia and Asia, and of the other Sara­zens from Fez and Morocco. They are very valiant men, fit to do great service, either by Land or Sea, as ap­peared when Soliman did think to have surprised them and their Iland; [Page 231] the description of which war is dili­pently laid down by Caelius s [...]undus Curio, in a Treatise dedicated to Elizabeth Queen of England.

There have been divers other Orders of Knights, yea, and some of them reputed to be a kinde of Re­ligion, in Portugal, France, England Burgundy, and some other places of Christendome; but because their service hath not been emploi'd pur­posely, as these, which are before mentioned, we do not touch them in this place.

Neer unto Graecia and Peloponn­sus, on the West side towards Italy, is the Isle of Corcyra, now termedThe Isle Corsu. Cephalenia. Zon. Corfu: and not far South from that, is Cophalenia; & from thence South is Zon, called by Virgil Nemerosa Zacynthus: all which Ilands are at this day under the Venetians.

The greatest commodity whichThe com­modities of the Coun­trey. that Countrey doth yield, are Co­rans, which are gathered of a kind of small Grapes; and for the ma­king whereof, they commonly one time every summer, for the space of [Page 232] three weekes, have a continuall drought day and night, in which time the Currans are laid abroad in the open aire, and may not be taken in; insomuch that if the season do continue hot and dry, their mer­chandize is very good; but if there fall any raine untill the time be ex­pired of their full drying, the Cur­rans are not good, but do mould and change their colour to be some­what white like meale. The State of Venice, under whom this Iland is, doth make a great commodity of the impost, or taxation, which is laid upon this Merchandize, calling the Tribute which is paid for them, the Revenue of Saint Mark: for un­toThe Impost laid on this Island, cal­led, the Re­venue of St Mark. that Saint is the City of Venice dedicated, and they hold him for their Patron.

In this Iland (besides the Mer­chants who repaire thither) are di­vers Italians, who be there in Gari­son for the Venetians, in one special Castle, which commandeth the whole Iland.

There are also divers Fryars of [Page 233] that Nation, who perform nnto their Country men such exercises of Religion as are convenient.

They will not fuffer any of our Merchants to have Christian buri­all among them, unlesse at his death he be confessed after the Romish fa­shion: whereupon some have been forced to convey over some of their dead bodies into Morea, (which is not farre distant) to be buried there among the Greekes, and after their fashion.

The naturall Inhabitants of Zant Zant the Inhabitants Greeks. are Greeks, both by Language and Religion, and observe all fashions of the Greekish Church: in whose words (being now much corrupted & depraved) there may yet be found some tokens and remainders of the old, pure, and uncorrupted Greek.

There are in this Countrey great store of Swine kept, whereof the In­habitants do feed, and carry them into Morea: but the Turks there (by their Mahumetane profession) will taste no Swines flesh.

In Zacynthus our English Mer­chants [Page 234] have an house of abode for their Traffick. South-East from Mo­reah, lyeth the great Island Creta, Creta▪ where Minos sometimes did reign, so famous for his severity.

This Countrey was then called Hec [...]tompolis, as having in it a hun­dred Towns and Cities.

Here stood the labyri [...]th whichThe laby­rinth of De dalus. was the work of Dedalus, who con­veighed the house so by the manifold turnings, infiniteness of Pillars and Doors that it was impossible to find the way; yet Theseus (by the help of Ariadne the Daughter of King Mi­nos) taking a bottome of thred, and [...]ing the one end at the first doore, did enter and sl [...]y the Minotaur which was kept there, and after­wards returned safe out again.

The ancient Inhabitants of this Country were such noted lyars, thatThe most noted lyars. (beside the Proverbs which were made of them, as, Crettenscmenda­cium, & Cretisandum est cum Cre­tensibus) the Apostle Paul in his Epi­stle to Titus, who was left there by him as Bishop of that Island, doth [Page 235] cite a verse out of the Heathen Poet Epimenides, that the Cretians are ever lyars, evil beasts, & slow bellies.

This Island is in our daies calledThe Island Candy. Candy, being the place from whence our Sugar of Candy is brought. It is under the Venetians, and repute a part of their Seigniory; although the Turks, when they had taken Cy­prus, did think also to have surprised it, but that it pleased God by the meanes of Don John of Austria, in the behalf of his brother the King of Spaine, and the Venetians to give the Turke that great overthrow at sea, in the sight near unto Lepanto. Yet since that time (no doubt) the Turks have a greedy eye upon the sland of Canay. Cithera, where was the siue Temple of Venus.

Between Creta and Peloponnesus lyeth Cithera: There was the fine Temple of Venus; who thereof by the Poets is called Citherea. The Islands, are many which lye in the Sea called Mare Aegeum, from the bottome of Greece, unto the top of the Hellespont, as all the Cyclades, Euboia, and the great Iland Samos, [Page 236] and Chios; so Seyres, where Achilles was born, and was King of thatDivers smal Islands. Coutrey; There is also Lesbos, and Cemnos, Mytilene, and Ithaca, (where Ulysses was King, and An­dnos, whither Themistocles was sent by the Athenians for Tribute, as Plutarch layeth down the Hi­story:Note. Themistocles did tell them, that he came to demand Tribute, or some great imposition upon them, being 'accompanied with two god­d [...]sses; the one was Eloquence, to perswade them; and the other, Violence, to enforce them. Where­unto the Andr [...]ans made answer, that they had on their side two goddesses as strong; whereof the one was Necessity, whereby they had it not; and the other was Impossibilitie, whereby they could not part with that which they ne­ver possessed. Of these places some­thing may be read in the old History of the Greekes. Divers of these did strive that Homer was borne in them; but of certain many of those Kings which Homer saith came with [Page 237] Agamemnon to the siege of Troy, were Kings but of those small Ilands.

Eastward from thence, not farre from some part af Natolia, or Asia the lesser, is the Iland of Rhodes, theThe Island of Rhodes. friendship of the inhabitants, where­of was in ancient time very much desired by the Princes that had to do that way: so that Alexander first, and the Romans afterwards, did em­brace their league.

Here was that huge and mighty Image of the Sun, which was called Colossus Rhodius.

This Country was long defended by those who were called the Knights of Rhodes, against the pow­er of the Turke; and it was a great bulwarke to defend Christendome, till that in the yeare one thousand five hundred twenty and one, Soly­ [...]an the Great Turke did win it from the Christians by force.

From thence Southward is the Isle Carpathus: but in the farthestThe Isle Carpathus. The Isle Cyprus. end of the East part of the Medi­terranean is Cyprus, which about 300. yeares since was a Kingdome, [Page 238] and did afford great aide unto the Christians▪ that went to conquer the Holy Land; but it is now under the Turke. The chief City thereof isThe City [...]amogusta. [...]amogusta, which is an Archbi­shops sea: for Christians for their tribute do yet live there. In this Countrey in old time was Venus much honoured, and therefore she was called Cypria▪ as also Paphia, because she had a temple in a CityThe City Paphos. The Island Tyrus. there called Paphos.

Neer unto Syria stood the Island Tyrus; against the pride whereof the Prophets doth much speak: this was a rich City for Merchandise and Navigation in old time; and is the place from whence Dido and the builders of Carthage did come.

The destruction of it is most fa­mous by Alexander the great. Of the rest of the small Islands we do say nothing.

Of the Islands in the Indian Sea.

THe Islands are very many that do lye in the Sea ad­joining to the East Indies▪ but the most famous a­mong them shall onely be touched. Among old writers, as especially ap­peareth by Solinus, was well known that which was then called T [...]pro­bana, which lieth neer the Equino­ctiall Line. It was in that time a Monarchy, where the Kings reigned not by succession, but by election: and if any of them did grow into­lerable, he was deposed and enfor­ced to dye, by withdrawing fromThe Island of Sumatra him all things necessary. This is now called Sumatra, and hath in it divers Kings.

Not far from thence l [...]e EastwardTwo Ilands Iava major and Iava minor. the two Islands called Java major and Java minor; which were also known to the old Writers, as in general may be noted, that all the East part, either in the Continent, or in the Ilands have very many smal Kings and Kingdomes.

[Page 240]From whence yet more East liethThe Islands of Molucco's a great number of [...]les, which are now called the Molucco's, which are places as rich for their quantityThe great richs which the King of Spaine re­ceives from hence yearly as any in the World: from these it is that the Spaniards have yearly so great quantity of all kinds of spice; neither is there any place of all the East-Indies, that doth more richly furnish home their Carracts, than do these Molucco's.

The Islands which are called by that name, are by some of our wri­ters accounted to be at least four & twenty or five and twenty; and some of them which are the bigger, have in them two or three Kings a­piece▪ and some of them which are lesse, are either the several Domini­ons of several Kings, or else two or three of them do belong to some one Prince. When Sir Francis Drake didNote. compasse the whole World, he came near unto these, but did not touch at any of them; but Master Candish taking as large a journey, was in one or more of them, where he found the people to be intelligent [Page 241] and subtill, and the Kings of the Country to take upon them as great state as might be convenient for such petty Princes.

Some of these Islands the Spani­ards in right of the Portugals have got into their own possession; with the Kings of some other they have leagued; and a third sort utterly detest them. More Northward, o­ver against China, lyeth a Country consisting of a great many IslandsThe Island of Iapan. called Japona, of Japan; the peo­ple whereof are much of the same nature with the men of China: This Country was first discovered by the [...]esuites, who in a blind zeale have travelled into the farthest parts of the world, to win men to their Re­ligion. This Island is thought to be very rich.

About the parts of Japan there are di [...]ers people, whose most or­dinary habitation is at the Sea, and do never come into the Land, but only for their necessities, or to fur­nish themselves with new vessels, wherein they may abide, but lying [Page 242] not farre from the Land they have ducks, and other fowls swimming a­bout them, which sometimes they take into their Boats and Ships, & in such sort do breed them, to the main­tenance of them and their Children.

Into this Iapan of late daies have our English also sail'd, as into other parts of the East Indies, and there erected a Factory.

The rest that be either neer unto Asia or Africa, because there is little written of them, we passe over, onely naming them: as the Philipin [...], Borneo, Banda [...]a: as al­so on the side of Africke, the Island of Saint Laurence, called by theDiverssmal Ilands onely named. inhabitants Madagas [...]ar, [...] and others of lesse note: And yet we do find in Solinus and Pliny, but especially in Pomponius Mela, that it was known in old time that there were many Islands neer unto the East-Indies, which as it might be first discovered by the trafficking of the Islanders into the continent; so no doubt that Navy which Alexander sent out to India, [Page 243] to des [...]ry and coast thorow the Ea­stern seas, did give much light there­unto, partly by that which them­selves did see, and partly by those things which they heard in such places, and of such persons as they met with in their travell.

Of the Islands in the Atlantick Sea.

THere be many Islands which he Westward from Africa, and from Europe: as those which are called the Gorgades, that lye in the sameThe Ilands of Gorgades climate with Guinea, which are four in number, not inhabited by men▪ but they are full of Goats. Pe­ter Martyr in his first Decade, the sixth Book, saith that the Admirall Colonus, in the year of Christ 1498 sailing to Hispaniola with eight ships, came to the Isle of Madera, The Isle Madera. from whence sending directly the rest of his ships to the East Indies, he in one ship with decks and two Carayels, sailed to the Equinocti­all betweene which and the Isle [Page 244] Madera, in the middest way lye 13. Islands of the Portugalls, in old time called Hesperides, now Cabonerde, Hesperides. two daies sailing distant from the inner parts of Ethiope: one whereof is called Bonavista. NorthwardBonavista. from thence, in the same climate with the South part of Morocco, lye those which are called Canari [...], or the fortunate Islands, which are se­venCanary Ilands. in number, being most fruitful, and very pleasant, and therefore called by that name, Fortunate In­sulae, This is famous in them, that it hath pleased all Cosmographers to make their Meridian to be their first point where they do begin to reckon the computation of their Longi­tude; and unto them, after three hundred and threescore Degrees to return again.

From these Islands it is, that thoseFrom hence she best Ca­nary Sacks. strong and pleasant Sacks, which are called Canary Wings are brought; and from thence are fetched those that they call Canary Birds. These Islands are under the Crowne of Spaine: The heat of the Countrey [Page 245] is very great and therefore fitter for concoction; but besides that, the sayle of it self is accommodated thereunto, and by reason of them, both these Islands do bring forth a Grape, which is sweeter in taste then any other Grape, and hath that property with it, that the Wine which is made thereof, doth not [...]ume into the head, like other Sack, but doth help the stomacke, and ex­ercise the force of it there. The slips of their Vines have been brought in­to Spaine, and some other places of Europe, but they have not sorted to the same purpose as they do in their native Countrey...

There do grow also in these IslesFrom hence great store of Sugar­canes. good store of Sugar-canes, which yeeldeth plentifully that kinde of commodite unto Spaine, either for Marmelets (wherein they much de­light) or for other uses.

Peter Martyr in the beginning of his Decades which he hath written de Orbe novo; doth particularly touch the names, and some other things of these Islands.

[Page 246]On the backside of Africa also, just under the Equinoctial; is the Isle▪ of Saint Thomas, inhabited by theThe Isle of St. Thomas. Portugals; which Island was taken in the later time of Queen Elizabeth by the Dutch: it is reported that in the midst of this Iland is an Hill; and over that a continual cloud; where with the whole Island is watered, (such a like thing as this is reportedThe Isle of Cloves. of the Isle of Cloves:) The aire of this Island is unwholsome, and there is hardly seen any Portugal or stranger that comes to dwell there, which lives till he be above forty years of age.

More Northward from Africke▪ lye those Islands which are called Azores Insulae, being six or sevenThe Ilands of Azores. in number; of which Tercera is one of the chief: of whom, the rest by some are called Tercera's, which are farre inferiour in fruitfulnesse unto the Canaries. These were first un­der the Crown of Portugal, and one of them was the last which was kept out from the King of Spaine, by the Prior Don Antonio, who afterward [Page 247] called himself King of Portugal, but the Spaniard at last took this Ter­rera from him, and doth possesse all these Islands, together with the rest of the Dominion, which did belong to the Portugall.

He who list to see the unadvisedNote the unadvised­ness of Don Antonio. proceedings of Don Antonio, both in parting with Lisbon, and the rest of Portugall, as also in losing these Islands which last of all held out for him, let him read Conestagio of the union of Portugall to the Crown of Castile. But these Azores have in times past yeelded much Oade, which thereupon in England was called Island Oade; but now they are the place where the Spaniards do commonly touch▪ and take in fresh water, both going and comming to and from America, finding that to passe directly without turning on either hand towards America is very hard, by reason of the strong current of the water from the gulph of Mexico, and so forward to the East: and therefore they are enfor­ced either to go lower to the South, [Page 248] and so to water in some part of Guinea, or thereabout, or else to keep up as high as these Islands.

Of America, or the new World.

ALthough some do dispute out of Plato and the old Writers, that there was not only a guesse, but a kind of knowledge in ancient time, that besides Europe, Asia and Africa there was another large Country ly­ing to the West, yet he that shall ad­visedly peruse the conjectures made thereupon, may see that there is no­thing of sufficiencie to enforce any such knowledge, but that all anti­quitie was utterly ignorant of the new found Countries towards the West. Whereunto this one Argu­ment most forcible, may give cre­dit▪ The people of America utterly void of all man­ner of knowledge of God▪ or goodnesse. that at the first arriving of the Spaniards there they found in those places, nothing shewing Trafficke, or knowledge of any other Nati­on; but the people naked, unci­vill, some of them devourers of [Page 249] mens flesh▪ ignorant of shipping, without all kind of learning, having no remembrance of History or wri­ting, among them; never having heard of any such Religion as in o­ther places of the world is known, but being utterly ignorant of Scrip­ture, or Christ, or Moses, or any God, neither having among them any token of Crosse, Church, Temple, o [...] Devotion, agreeing with other Nations. The reasons which are ga­theredThe reasons conjectual of a new found World. by some late Writers out of Plato, Seneca, and some other of the Ancient, are rather conjectural, that it was likely that there should be some such place, than any way de­monstrative, or concluding by expe­rience; that therewas any such coun­trey: and the greatest inducement which they had to perswade them­selves, that therewas any more Land towards the West then that which was formerly known, was grounded upon this, that all Asia, Europe and Africke, concerning the longitude of the World, did containe in them but 180, degrees: and therefore it [Page 250] was most probable, that in the other 180. which filleth up the whole course of the Sun to the number of 360 degrees, God would not suffer the water only to possesse all, but would leave a place for the habitati­on of men, beasts, flying and cree­ping creatures.

I am not ignorant that some; who make too much of vain shewes out of the British Antiquities, have given out to the world, and written some­thing to that purpose, that Arthur sometimes King of Britain, had both knowledge of these parts, and some Dominion in them: for they find (as some report) that King Arthur had under his government many Islands, and great Countries towards the North and West: which one of some special note hath interpreted to sig­nifie America, and the Northern parts thereof, and thereupon haveSome have entituled the Queen of England Soveraigne of these Provinces. gone about to entitle the Queen of England to be Soveraigne of those Provinces, by right of descent from King Arthur▪ But the wisedome of our State hath been such, as to neg­lect [Page 251] that opinion, imagining it to be grounded upon fabulous foundati­ons, as many things are which are now reported of King Arthur; only this doth carry some shew with it, that now some hundreds of years since, there was a Knight of Wales; who with shipping and some pretty company did go to discover those parts: whereof as there is some record of reasonable credit amongst the Mo­numents of Wales, so there is this one thing which giveth pregnant shew thereunto; that in the late Navigati­on of some of our men to Norumbe­ga, and some other Northern parts of America, they find some tokens of civility and Christian Religion; but especially they do meet with some words of the Welch language; as that a Bird with a whitehead should be called Pengwiun, & other such like: yet because we have no in­vincible certainty hereof, and if any thing were done, it was only in the Northern and worse parts: and the entercourse betwixt Wales and those parts, in the space of divers hundred [Page 252] years, was not continued, but quite silenced: we may go forward with that opinion, that these Westerne Indies were no way known to for­mer ages.

God therefore remembring the prophesie of his Son, that the Gos­pel of the Kingdome should before the day of judgement be preached in all coasts and quarters of the world, and in his mercy intending to free the people; or at the least some few of them, from the bondage of Sa­tan (who did detaine them in bloc­kish ignorance) and from their Ido­latrous service unto certain vile spi­rits,Their Reli­gion. (whom they call their Zemes, & most obsequiously did adore them.) raised up the spirit of a man worthy of perpetual memory (one Christo­pherus Columbus▪ the first dis­coverer of America. Columbus, born at Genua in Italy) to set his mind to the disco­very of a new World; who finding by that compasse of the old known World, that there must needs be a much more mighty space (to the which the Sun by his daily motion did compasse about) then that [Page 253] which was already known and dis­covered; and conceiving that this huge quantity might as wel be Land [...] Sea, he could never satisfie him­self till he might attempt to make proof of the verity thereof.

Being therefore himself a private man, and of more vertue than No­bility, after his reasons and demon­strations laid down, whereby he might induce men that it was no vain thing which he went about, he went unto many of the Princes of Christendome, and among others to Henry the seventh, King of Eng­land, desiring to be furnished with shipping and men fit for such a Na­vigation: but these men refusing him, partly because they gave no credit to his Narration; and partly lest they should be derided by their Neighbour Princes, if by this Genoe­stranger they should be cousened; but especially, for that they were unwil­ling to sustaine the charges of ship­ping: At last he betook himself un­to the Court of Ferdinandus and E­lizabeth, King and Queen of Castile, [Page 254] where also at the first he found but small entertainment; yet persisting in his purpose without weariness, & with great importunity, it pleased God to move the mind of Elizabeth the Queen to deale with her husband to surnish forth to ships, for the discovery only, and not for conquest: whereupon Columbus in the year thousand four hundred ninety and two, accompanied with his brotherIn the year 1492. A­merica dis­covered by Columbus. Bartholomeus Columbus, and ma­ny Spaniards, sayled farre to the West, for the space of three score daies and more, with the great indig­nation & often mutinies of his com­pany, fearing that by reason of their long distance from home, they should never return again; insomuch that the General, after many perswasions of them to go forward, was at length enforced to crave but three daies, wherein if they saw not the Iland; he promised to return; and God did so blesse him; to the end that his Voyage might not prove in vain, that in that space one of his Com­pany did espye Fire, which was a [Page 255] certain Argument that they were near to the Land: as it fell out in­deed.

The first Land whereunto they came, was an Island▪ called by theThe Island Haity. Inhabitants Haity, but in remem­brance of Spaine from whence he came, he termed it Hispaniola: andThe richs of the country: finding it to be a Countrey full of pleasure, and having in it abundance of Gold and Pearle, he proceeded further▪ and discovered another bigge Isle, which is called Cuba: of the which being very glad, withThe Island Cuba. great treasure he returned unto Spaine, bringing joyful newes of his happy successe.

When Columbus did adventure to restraine the time of their ex­pectation within the compasse of three daies, engaging himself to re­turn, if in that space they saw no Land; there be some write, that he limited himself not at all adventures, but that he did by his eye discerne a difference in the colour, of the clouds which did arise out of the west, from those which formerly he [Page 256] had seen: which clouds did argue by the clearnesse of them, that they did not arise immediately out of the Sea, but that they had passed over some good space of the Land, and there­by grew clearer and clearer, not ha­ving in them any new or late risen vapours: but this is but conjectural.

The Spaniards, who are by nature a people proud; have since the death of Columbus, laboured to obscure his fame, envying that an Italian or stranger should be repor­ted to be the first discoverer of those parts.

And therefore have in their wri­tings since given forth, that there was a Spaniard which had first been there; and that Columbus meetingThe pride of the Spani­ard, labou­ring to ob­scure the fame of Co­lumbus. with his Cards and descriptions, did but pursue his enterprize, and as­sume the glory to himself.

But this fable of theirs doth savour of the same spirit wherewithall many of them in his life time did reproach him, that it was no matter of im­portance to find out these Coun­tries, but that, if that he had not done [Page 257] it, many other might, and would. Which being spoken to Columbus it a solemne dinner, he called for an Egge, and willed all the guests one after another to set it up on end. Which when they could not do, he gently bruising the one end of it, did make it flat, and so set it up, by imitation whereof each of the other did the same: whereby he mildly did reprove their envy to­wards him, and shewed how easie it was to do that which a man had seen done before.

To go forward therefore: Co­lumbus being returned to Castile, after his welcome to the Princes, was made Great Admirall of Spain, and with a new Fleet of more Ships was sent to search further: which he accordingly did, and quickly found the maine Land, not farre from the Tropick of Cancer.

Which part of the Countrey, in honour of Spain, he called Hispania Hispania nova. nova, in repect whereof at this day the King of Spaine doth entitle himself Hispaniarum Rex.

[Page 258]Some there be which write, that Columbus did not discover further then the Islands; and that he spent the greatest part of his former la­bours in coasting Cuba and Hispa­niola, to see whether they were▪ Islands, or a Continent; and that some other in the meane time did thrust themselves forward and dis­cryed the firme Land: among whom Americus Vespucius the chiefe, ofOf whom this Coun­try had its name. whose name a great part of the Countrey is called at this day Ame­rica.

They found the people both of theManner of the people. maine Lands and Islands very many in number, naked, without cloaths or Armour; sowing no Corn, but making their Bread of a kinde of Root, which they call Maiz. Men most ignorant of all kind▪ of Lear­ning, admiring at the Christians, as if they had been sent downe from Heaven, and thinking them to be immortall, wondring at their Ships, and the tacklings thereof; for they had no Ships of their own, but big troughs, which they call their [Page 259] Canoes, being made hallow (or the [...]ody of a Tree) with the sharp bones of, Fishes: for yron and such like Instruments they have none.

Although it do appear, that by the Warres of one of their petty Princes, or Kings, whom they call Cassickes, had against another, ma­ny thousands of the Inhabitants of those Countries were continually wasted and spoiled: yet the num­ber of them was so great in every part of the West-Indies, that in His­paniola alone there were supposed to be by computation of the Spani­ards first arriving there, not so few as 2000000. which yet by the cru­eltyThe cruèlty of the Spa­niards▪ of the Spaniards were so mur­thered, and other ways made away, that within fifty years after (as their Writers report) there were scant any thousands in that Island remai­ning of them.

The like is to be said of the po­pulousnesse of other Coasts and quarters there.

The Armour which those peopleTheir Ar­mour. did weare when they entred into [Page 260] the Warres, was nothing but some sleight covering, either made of Wood, or S [...]els of Fishes, or of Cotton-wooll, or some such foolish matter. For thèy had no use at all of Iron or Steele, but the most part of them came without any kinde of cloathing, or covering, yet armed with Bowes and Arrowes, which were made sharp at the end with the scraping of Fish-bones, or with Fish-bones themselves put on the end; like an Arrow-head; and that oftentimes they dipped in a kind of most venomous poyson: Some o­ther of them had for their Weapons great clubs, wherewith they did use to beat out the braines of those with whom they did combate.

They had amongst them no goodNote their bread. or wholsome food, for even that Maiz whereof they made their bread, had in the root thereof a most venomous kinde of liquor, which is no better than deadly poy­son; but they crush out that juice, and afterward do prepare the roo [...], so that it maketh them a kinde of Bread.

[Page 261]There was no sort of good Lite­ratureNo good li­terature a­mongst them to be found among them: nay, they could not so much as di­stinguish any times the one from the other, but by a blockish kind of ob­servation of the course of the Moon, according to which they made their computation, but without any kind of certainty, saving for some few Moneths which were lately past: but for the set calcula [...]ing of ought which was done divers years before, they could do nothing therein, but onely grossely aime at it.

But that in all Ages it hath ap­peared, that Satan hath used igno­rance a [...] one of the chiefest meanes whereby to increase Idolatry, and consequentlie to enlarge his king­dome▪ it were other wise incredi­ble, that any who have in them rea­son, and the shape of men, should be so brutishly ignorant of all kind of true Religion, devotion, and un­derstanding.

For the adoration which they do give, was only unto certain foule spirits, which they call b [...] the name [Page 262] of their Zemes. In remembrance of whom, divers of them did keep in their houses certain things made of cotton wooll, in the manner of pup­pets, or like Childrens babies, and to these they did yeeld a reverance, supposing some Divine Nature to beNote how the Devill did strange­ly delude these people. in them, because sometimes in the Evening; and in the night time they had such illusions offered unto them, as that they saw these their Puppets to move and stirre up and down in their houses, and sometimes to ut­ter voices, and give divers s [...]gnifica­tions of such things as they would have to be done, or not to be done: Yea, and that with such effect from the devill also, that if their wills and commandements we [...]e not fulfilled, there was some vengeance orpunish­ments executed upon them or their Children, the more to keep them in awe & servility, to the great enemy of mankind.

Not long after the Spaniards en­tred those parts, there were in divers of the Islands, and some parts of the Main, such incredible tempests, and [Page 263] disturbances of the Aire, by winde and rain, thunder and lightning, as that the like had never been seen nor heard of in the memory of man: which are ordinarilie interpreted to be the speciall work of the Devill: who not unfitly is termed by Saint Paul the Prince of the Aire, as ha­ving a liberty given him of God there sometimes to do strange exe­cutions: and of likelyhood, he did make these stirs, either grieving that the name of Christ was at all broughtNote the malice of Satan. into those parts, or else seeking to fright the Inhabitants from associ­ating themselves with those who brought (although but superstitious­ly) the knowledge of God, and the Redeemer, being desirous that they should look for more such distem­peratures and vexations, if they would confederate themselves with them.

The people were so ignorant of all humane and civill conversation, and trafficking into those parts, at the first comming of the Christians thther, that they thought they [Page 264] could never sufficiently admire their persons, their shipping, or any o­therThe admi­ration of the people at the approach of the men and shipping. thing which they brought with them: Whereupon they without ceasing gazed on the manner of their Ships, seeing them to be so great, and consisting of divers Planc [...]es: But they were never satisfied with sta­ring upon their Mastes, Sayles, Ca­bles, and other Ropes and Tack­lings, whereunto they had never beheld any thing like before: and yet nature and necessity had taught them to make unto themselves cer­tain Vessels for the Sea, of some one tree, which they did use to get down, not with cutting, but with fire: and when it lay along upon the ground, they did use also fire, ei­ther to burn away that which was tough and unfit without, or to make it hollow within: although they have also the shels and bones of Fishes, whereby they made smooth▪

But some of these Troughes or Canoes were so great, that some­times above twenty men have been found rowing in one.

[Page 265]The Trees of America, but espe­ciallyThe mighty bignesse of the trees of Brasile. in Brasilia, being so huge, that it is reported of them, that several fam [...]les have lived in several arms of one Tree, to such a number as are in some petty Villages, or Parish in Christendome.

Among other strange opinionsThey con­ceiv [...]d them to be some gods. which they conceived of the Spani­ards this was one, that they were the sons of some god, and not born of mortall seed, but sent down from Heaven unto them: and this con­ceit was the stronger in them, be­cause at the first, in such conflicts as they had with them, they could kill few or none of them: the reason whereof was, partly the armour of the Spaniards, and partly the want of Iron and Steele upon the Arrowes which the Americans did shoot: but they were not very long of that opinion, that they were immortal, but reformed that errour, both by seeing the dead corps of some of the Christians, and by trying an experi­ment upon some of them also: for they took of them, and put their [Page 266] heads under the water, and held them till they were choaked; by which they knew them to be of the same nature as other men.

Among other points which didThey admi­red and fea­red a Let­ter. shew the great ignorance and unlet­tered stupiditie of these Indians, this was one, that they could not con­ceive the force of writing of Letters; insomuch that when one Spaniard would send unto another, being distant in place, in India with any provision, and would write a Letter by him, what the fellow had received from him; the poor Indian would marvell how it should be possible that he to whom he came should be able to know all things which either himself brought or the sender direct­ed: And thereupon divers of them did think that there was some kind of spirit in the paper, and marvell­ously stood in fear of such a thing as a Letter was.

This Country yeelds great abun­dance of strange Herbs, the like whereof are not to be found in other parts of the World: as also some [Page 267] very rare beasts, as one among theSome very rare Beasts. rest, who by Peter Martyrs descrip­tion, hath some part like an Ele­phant, some part like an Horse, and divers other parts like divers other Beasts; Nature having studied to ex­presse a great many several crea­tures in one.The S [...]a Crocodiles.

There are also found at the Sea or within some Rivers, Crocodiles, but not of that hugenesse as those that breed in Aegypt in the River Nilus, whereof some are described by Pliny to be at the least 24. Cubits in length; which argues the Crocodile to be the greatest creature in the world that comes of an Egg.Some rare stones.

There are also thereabout some extraordinary Stones growing in the Land; as above others the Blood stones, whereof there are great store: but especially there is one thing of great beauty and worth, that is, the abundance of Pearles, which are taken in shell-fishes, and are of a great quantity, as any that be in the Seas near to the East-In­dies: [...]o that the true cause of the [Page 268] plenty of Pearle in Europe, in this our Age, beyond that incomparably which hath been in the dayes of our forefathers, is to be ascribed to the discovery of these New-found Lands

There are also here divers TreesDivers tree not elsewhere found. which are not to be found else­where: and many Roots, which serve for divers purpose [...].

Among other things (whereofThe abun dance of Kin and Buls. there is great plenty in those We­sterne parts) is the abundance of Kine and Buls: whereof they report, that there is such store in Guba and Hispaniola, that there are killed [...]own divers thousands every year, whereof the Spaniard maketh no o­ther use, but to take the Tallow, or the Hide; which serveth them in their shipping, and for divers other purposes; but the flesh, or the most part of them, they suffer for to pu­trifie, as making little account of it: partly because of the heat of the Country, wherein they eat little flesh, and partly because they have store of Hens, and other more dainty meat, whereupon, together [Page 269] with fish, they do very much feed

It may seem a kind of miracle, unto him who looketh no higher than the ordinary rules of Nature, and doth not expect the extraordi­nary and unlimited power of God, that whereas a great part of Ameri­ca doth lie in the Zona Torrida, in the self same climate with Aethiopia, and the hottest parts of the East­Indies, where the inhabitants are not only tawny, as all be in Aegypt, and in Mauritania, but also coale­black and very Negroes; here there should be no man whose colour is black, except it be those which are brought out of Africa, but that the people should be o [...] a reasonable fair complexion; which is to be ascribed only unto Gods peculiar will, and not to that which some foolishly have imagined, that the generative seed of those people should be whi [...]e, and that other of the Aethiopians black; for that is untrue▪ in as much as the Aethiopians case doth not differ from the quality of other men.

[Page 270]The Spaniards did find the peopleThe con­dition of the people of America. to be here most simple, without fraud, giving them kind entertain­ment, according to their best man­ner; exchanging for knives and Glasses, and such like toyes, great abundance of Gold and Pearle.

It is certain, that by the very light of Nature, and by the ordi­nary course of humane shape, there were among this people very many good things, as affabilitie in their kind, hospitalitie towards strangers, which had not offended them, ac­cording to their ability, and open and plaine behaviour, yea and in some parts of these West Indies, The Reli­gion. there was an opinion in grosse, that the soul was immortall, and that there was life after this life: where beyond certain hils (they know not where) those which dyed in defence of their Countrey, should after their departure from this life, remain in much blessednesse: which opinion caused them to bear them­selves very valiantly in their fights, either striving to conquer their ene­mies, [Page 271] or with very good content­ment, enduring death (if it were their hap to be taken, or slain) in as much as they promised themselves a b [...]tter reward elsewhere: ButYet many grievous sins by them committed. withall, as it could not chuse but be so, there were many other grievous sins amongst them: as adoration of Devils, Sodomie, Incest, and all kind of Adultery; Ambition in very high measure; a deadly hatred each of other: which proceeded all from the fountain of ignorance where­with Satan had blinded their eyes: yet there were among them some, which by a kind of blind witch-craft had to evil purpose, acquaintance, and entercourse with foule spirits.

The manner of their attire, orTheir attire beautifying themselves, which di­vers of these people had severally in severall parts, did seeme very strange unto them who came first into that country. For some of them did adorn themselves with the shells of fishes, some did weare Feathers about their heads, some had whole garments made of Feathers, and [Page 272] those very curiously wrought, and placed together of divers colours: to which purpose they did most use the feathers of Peacocks or Parrots, or such other birds, whose colour­ing was of divers colours. Yea, in very many places they had their lower lips bor'd thorow with a great hole, and something put into them, as also into the upper parts of their ears, being pierced in like manner: which as it seemed to themselves to be a point of beauty, so it made them appear to other men to be wonderful ugly.

The quantity of gold and silverInfinite [...] gold and silver in America. which was found in those parts was incredible, which is the true reason wherefore all things in Christen­dome (as Bodin de Rep. observeth) do serve to be sold at a higher rate then they were in the daies of our forefa­thers, when indeed they had not so: for as he noteth, it is the plenty of gold & silver which is brought from this America, that maketh money to be in greater store, and so may more easily be given, then it could [Page 273] be in the daies of our Predecessors.Precious mines.

But for the thing it self, it is testi­fied by all writers, that there were in those▪ parts very great mines of the most precious metals, that in the banks of rivers, with the wash­ing of the water, there was divers [...]i mesfretted out very good and big pieces of gold, which without mel­ting and trying; was of reasonable perfection; and the like was to be found in many places of the Land, when the people did dig for their husbandry, or for any other use.

This made the inhabitants there (for the commonnesse of it) to ac­count gold and silver but as a vile thing; and yet by the reason of the colour of it, for variety sake, to be mingled with the Pearle, divers of them did wear it about their necks and about their arms. And yet we do find, that in some part of the west Indies, the Kings did make some reckoning of gold, and by sire did try it out to the best perfection; asAttabaliba his ransome may appeare by Attabaliba, who had a great house piled upon the [Page 274] sides with great wedges of gold rea­dy tryed, which he gave to the Spa­niards for a ransome of his life; and yet they most perfidiouslie did take his life from him.

But the meane account ordina­rilyThe Coun­try people exchanged it for babl [...] which the people had of gold, did cause them very readily to bring unto the Spaniards at their first ar­rivall great store of that metall, which they very readily exchanged for the meanest trifies and gew­gawes which the other could bring, even such things as wherewith chil­dren do use to play: But there was nothing more acceptable unto them then Axes and Hammers, Knives, & all tooles of Iron, whereof they ra­ther make account to cut down their timber to frame it, and to do other such necessaries to their conveni­ent use belonging, then to fight, or to do hurt each to other: and there­in may appear the great variety of Gods disposition of his creatures here and there; when in all that maine Continent of America, but especially in that which lieth be­tween [Page 275] or near the Tropicks, there is no Iron or Steel to be found; which without doubt gave great way to the conquest of the strongest places there; as of Mexico by name, when armed men with Gunnes, and other instruments of warre, were to fight against them which were little bet­ter then naked; and it was rightly upbraided by one of his Country­men to Ferdinandus Cortesius upon one of his returnes from America, having made exceeding boast of his great victories in those parts, and comming afterwards in service into Africk, where he being hardly laid unto by the Moores, and shewing [...]o valour at all, it was remembred unto him, that it was an easie thing for him to do al those exploits which he craked so much of in the West­Indies, in as much as the people there had nothing to resist.

There was nothing more dread­full to those unarmed men, then theThey dread­ed men on horse-back. fight of Horses and men riding upon them, whereof a very few did quick­ly over-bear many thousands of [Page 276] them, even almost in the beginning of the discovery of those parts.

Ferdinandus and Elizabeth, then King and Queen of Castile, and after them Charles the fifth the Em­peror, who succeeded in their right, partly to stir up their subjects to action, and partly to procure unto themselves the more treasure with lesse expence and trouble of their own, did give leave unto divers of their subjects, that by speciall com­mission they might passe into those parts, and there have severall Quar­ters and Countries allotted unto them, where they might dig and try out Gold and Silver, on condi­tion, that they did allow cleare un­toThe King had the fist part for his tribute. the King, the fifth part of such commodities as did arise unto them; and therefore neere unto every Mine and Furnace; the King had his speciall Officers, which did daily attend and take up his Tri­bute. And to the end that all things might the better be ordered, both there, and in Spaine (concerning the affaires of those Countries) the [Page 277] King caused a Councell and Coun­cellA Councel at Sivill for the govern­ment of America. house to be newly erected at Sivill, where all things should be handled that did grow to any con­troversie: and where the intelligen­ces and advertisments might be laid up as in a place of record, which should from time to time bee brought out of America: Of this Councell Peter Martyr (who wrote the Decades) was one, and conti­nued there till he was very old; and therefore might upon the surest instructions set down these things which he committed to story.

The desire of gain caused theNote the Spaniards cruelty. Spaniards to seek further into the Countries: but the tyranny and the covetousnesse of the Spaniards was such, in taking from them their goods, in deflowing their Wives and Daughters; but especially, in forcing them to labour in their, Gold Mines without measure, as if they had been Beasts, that the people detesting them, and the name of Christians for their sakes, did some of them kill themselves, and [Page 278] the mothers destroyed their children in their bellies, that they might not be born to serve so hate full a Nati­on: and some of them did in war conspire against them; so that by slaughter and otherwise the people of the Countrey are almost all wast­ed nowwithin a hundred years, being before many millions: and those which remain are as Slaves, and the Spaniards almost only inhabite those parts.

It is not unknown to all the partsHis insolen­cy and ty­rannising pride. of Europe, that the insolencie of the Spaniards is very great, even over Christians, tyrannizing and playing all outrages wheresoever they get men in subjection; and this maketh them so hatefull to the Portugals at home, to the Italian in Milluin and Naples, but especially to the Low­Countrey-men, who have therefore much desire to shake off the yokeTheir beast­ly bassness. of their Governour. Besides tha [...], they are men immoderately given to the lust of the Flesh, making no con­science (even at home) even to get Bastards in their young dayes, and [Page 279] reputeth it no infamy unto them to frequent Harlots and Brothel-hou­ses: but when they are abroad, e­specially in warlike services, they are very outragous, impudently and openly deflouring mens Wives and Daughters. It may easily then be guessed, what disorder they kept in the West-Indies, where the Coun­tries are hot, and the women were not able to resist their insolencies; and how they did tyrannize over the poor unarmed people, making them to drudge for them, not only like slaves, but bruit beasts: which gross over-sight of theirs was at the first so apparent, that all of good minds did complaine thereof, as appeareth by Peter Martyr himself, who in his writing to the Pope, and other Princes, doth much deplore the ill usage of them who in name were Christians, towards those simple In­fidels. And certainly it caused ma­ny of them to blaspheme the nameNote their inhnmanity of God, and of Christ, and to re­nounce their Baptisme, whereunto they were either forced or intreated, [Page 280] when they measured the God of the Christians by the actions of his ser­vants, whom they sound to be blas­phemers and swearers, riotous and great Drunkards, ravenous tyran­nous, and oppressors, unsatisfied, co­vetous, fornicators, beyond measure given to incredible wantonnesse, and exercising even among themselves, all kind of envie, contention, mur­thers, poisonings, and all sort of inhumane behaviour.

Not long after the arrivall of theThe Friars complaint of their cruelty Spaniards there, there were certain Fryars and religious men, who mo­ved with some zeale to draw the people there to the Christian faith, did travell into those parts, that so they might spread abroad the Gos­pel of Christ, and when they came there, beholding the intemperance of their Country-men, which turned many away from the profession of Religion, they were much moved in their hearts, and some of them by writings, and some other of them by travelling personally backe a­gaine into Spaine, did informe the [Page 281] King and his Court, how dishono­rable a thing it was to the name of Christ, that the poor people should be so abused: and how improbable it was that those courses being con­tinued, any of them would hardly embraced the faith.

The earnest Petition of these, cau­sed Charles the fifth, the Emperour and King of Spaine, by his Edict and open Proclamation published in the West-Indies, to give liberty unto the Inhabitants and Naturals of the place, that they should be in state of free-men, and not of bond: but hisNote. subjects were so inured proudly to domineere over them, that this did little amend the condition of the people.

Since these daies notwithstanding the blind zeal of the Spaniards hath been such, as that the Kings have been at some cost, and other men also have been at a great charge to erect divers Monasteries and religious Houses there, and many have taken the pains to go out of Europe (as they think for Christs sake) to reside [Page 282] as Monks and Friars, in America.

There be established some Bi [...] shopricks there, and other Govern­ments Ecclesiastical, and the Mass is there published, and Latine ser­vice, according to the custome of the Church of Rome, labouring to root out their infidelity, but ming­ling the Christian Religion with much Popish superstition.Mexico de­scribed.

By reason that the Country is ex­ceeding rich and fruitful, the Spa­niards with great desire did spread themselves towards the North, where they found some more resist­ance, although nothing incompari­son of Warriours: but the greatest of their labour was to conquer the Kingdome of Mexico; which Mexi­co is a City very great, and as popu­lous almost as any in the the world; standing in the midst of a great Marsh or Fen. The conquerour of this, was Ferdinandus Cortesius, so much re­nowned in Spaine unto this day.

If there were any thing at all in these West-Indies which might savour of civility, or any orderly [Page 283] kind of government, it was in the Kingdome of Mexico: where it ap­peared unto the Spaniards, that there is a certain setled state, which was kept within compasse by some degrees and customes of their own: and which was able to make some resistance (as it may be termed) if it be compared with the other inhabi­tants of America; although little, if it be conferred with the courses of Christendom: But the policy of the Spaniards was, that by private means they came to understand of a King that confined neer upon Mexi­co, who as he was of good strength, so was he of exceeding malice to­wards these his borderers, and by his forces and intelligence, Ferdinandus Cortesius and his company came to have their will upon Mexico.

In this Countrey there standethA great Lake. a very great Lake, which at the one end is very large, and almost round; but towards the other end doth con­tract it self again into a narrow room, and then spreadeth wide again and round, onely about the third [Page 284] part of the compasse of the greate [...] end. In the lesser of the two, their are set some houses in four or five severall places, which represent our Villages: but in the greatest pan of the Lake standeth Mexico it self, being a City built of bricke, to [...] good and elegant proportion, where the water issueth into divers streets of it, as it is in Venice, and from some part whereof there are diver Bridges unto the main Land, mad also of brick, but from the other [...]des, men do come by boats, where of there is abundant store continual­ly going in that Lake.

The Writers do record, tha [...] there is to be found in this City, a bundance of all kind of provision, but especially fruits, and other de­lightfull things, which are brought in from other parts of the Coun­trey.

This was the chief City of allMexico the chief City of all those quarters. those quarters, before the arrivall of the Spaniards there, and in subjecti­on thereunto were many large Pro­vinces, extending themselves every [Page 285] way: so that the King of this place was a Prince of great estate. And ac­cordingly thereunto, the Spaniards at this day have made it their chiefe and royall City, where the King keeps his Vice-Roy of Mexico for the West-Indies, as he hath his Vice­Roy at Goa for the East-Indies: and from thence have all the parts of America (but especially that which they call Hispania nova) their di­rections; and hence they fetch their Laws, Ordinances, and determina­tions, unlesse it be such great causes as are thought fit to be referred to the Councell of Spaine.

The Sea which confineth neerestThe Gulph of Mexico. unto this City is called the Gulph of Mexico; where, as in divers other Bayes or Gulphes, the stream or cur­rent is such, that ships cannot passe directly to and fro, but especially out of the Gulph, that they are for­ced to take their course either high to the North, or low to the South.

In and neer unto this Gulph are divers Iland, conquered and inhabi­ted by the Spaniards; as the fore­named [Page 286] Cuba and Hispaniola, whereDivers Islands in the gulph of Mexico. the Spaniards were visited by our English, in the time of Queen Eli­zabeth, and their Towns of Sancto Domingo, and Saint Jago taken by Sir Francis Drake; as also Jarvai­ca and Boriquen, otherwise called the Iland of Saint Phu, where the Earle of Cumberland took the Town of Porto-Ricco, and many other Islands of lesse note.

In the Sea coasts of all this Nova Hispania, the King of Spaine have built many Towns and Castles, and therein have erected divers Furnaces and Forges, for the Trying and Fining of their Gold.

They that do write of the disco­very of the West-Indies, do report, that when Columbus at the first went thitherward, in their greatest distraction and doubtfulnesse of minde, whether to go forward or backward; and Columbus had beg­ged only two or three daies respite, there was one of his company, who after the Sea manner going up to discover the Land, did espie some [Page 287] fire: for the which being so happy and lucky a token, he did hope to receive at the hands of the King of Spaine, some bountiful reward: but when he returned home, there was nothing at all given unto him,Note. which he took with that malecon­tentednesse and disdaine, that he fled over into Africa, and there among the Moores did apostate and re­nounce the Christian faith▪ so that he became a Saracen.

Of the parts of America towards the North.

THE rumor of the discovery of these parts being blown over Christendome, and the great quantitie of the Land, together with the fruitfulness thereof, being reported abroad, some other Nations did enterprize to set foot therein: as namely, the French­men, who sent certain ships to a part of this Country, lying North from Hispania nova, some few degrees without the Tropick of Cancer; in­to [Page 288] which when they had arrived, be­cause of the continuall greennesse of the ground and trees, (as if it had been a perpetual spring) they called it Florida: where after some few ofAnd named it Florida. them had for a time setled them­selves, the Spaniards took notice of it, and being unwilling to endure any such neighbours, they came sud­denly on them, and most cruelly slew them all, without taking any ran­some. And the French in revenge of this deed of the Spaniards, came in again afterwards into this Country, and slew those that were the slaiers of their country men: yet the Sya­niards for want of men, are not a­ble to inhabite that Countrey, but leave it to the old people.

The French had built in Florida, The river Mayo. upon the River of Mayo, where they were visited by our Sir John Hawkins, a Fort which they called Fort Carolin, and had reasonably as­sured themselves for their defence against the Natives: but some ma­licious spirits amongst them fled to the Spaniards, with whom they re­turn [Page 289] again into Florida▪ to the mur­ther and overthrow of their own Country-men.

He who list to see both the at­tempt of the French-men for the inhabiting of that part, and the usage of the Spaniards towards them, let him read the Expedition into Florida, which is the end of Benzo's story, concerning the New found World; and there he shall find both the covetous and infatiable nature of the Spaniards; who would not endure the French neere unto them, although there was land sufficient, and much to spare for both of them; also their perfidi­ousnesseNote the Spaniards unchistian cruelty. in breaking of Oaths, and promises, and their unchristian cruelty, whereby they massacred all.

The Spaniards also to the number of three hundred foot, and two hundred horse, under the conduct of Ferdinando de Sota, entred Florida, about the year of our Lord, 1550. and there conquered a thousand miles wide and large, and after four or five yeares continuance in that [Page 290] Country, betook themselves again from thence, and went to new Spain, landing at Panuc in Ships and Ves­sels that they had built in Florida. And in all that time notwithstan­ding many conflicts with the natives, and divers discommodities▪ and wants which they sustained in the Countrey, they lost but two hun­dred men.

After this departure of the Spa­niards out of Florida, brought thi­ther by Ferdinando de Sota, who died in the Country; after the de­feat of the French, and their revenge again taken on the Spaniards, the King of Spaine sent thither some small forces to take possession of the Country, and sit down there; for no other end, as it is thought, but to keep out other Nations from en­tring there: the one half whereof set down on the River of Saint Au­gustine, and the other, half a dozen leagues from thence, to the North­ward, at a place by them called Saint Helena.

In the year 1586. as Sir Francis [Page 291] Drake came coasting along fromSir Francis Drakes Voyage. Cartagena, a City in the main land to which he put over, and took it, after he departed from Sancto Domingo, when the mortality that was amongst our English, had made them to give over their enterpri [...]e, to go with Nombre de Dios, and so over land to Panama, there to have stricken the stroake for the Trea­sure: he was on the coast of Florida in the height of thirty, our men dis­cryed on the shore, a place built like a Beacon, which was made for men to discover to Sea-ward: so comming to the shore, they marched along the Rivers side, till they came to a Fort built all of whole trees, which the Spaniards called the Fort of Saint John, where the King enter­tained halfe his Forces that he then had in the Countrey, which were an hundred and fifty Souldiers; the like number being at Saint Helena, all of them under the government of Petro Melendez, Nephew to the admirall Melendez, that fifteen or sixteen years before had been to [Page 292] bring with onr English in the B [...]y of Mexico; this Fort our English [...]ook, and not far from thence the Town also of Saint Augustine up­on the same river, where resolving to umdertake also the enterprize of Saint Helena, when they came to the Havens mouth where they should enter they durst not for the dangerous shoals: wherefore they sorsooke the place, coasting along to Virginia, where they took in Mr. Ralph Lane and his company, and so came into England▪ as you shall heare when we speak of Virginia.

In these Northerne parts of A­merica, but especially within the main Continent, some have written (but how truly I cannot tell) that there is a sea which hath no en­ter course at all with the Ocean: so that if there be any third place be­side the Mare Caspium, and the Mare Mortuum in Palestina, which retained in it self great saltnesse, and yet mingleth not with the other sea, it is in these Countries.

There is also in new Spain a great [Page 293] salt Lake, as big or bigger than the dead sea of Palestine, in the midst of which stands▪ the great City of Tenustitan, or Mexico, the Mistris cr [...]imperiall City of those parts: and on the Bankes or sides▪ of that Lake many other Cities also beside, which though they are but little in comparison of the greatnesse of Tenustitan, yet of themselves are geeat. This Tenustitan is supposed to consist of 60 thousand houses, as you may read in the third Chap. of the fifth of the Decades: and this City standing in the midst and cen­ter of this salt Lake, go which way you will from the Continent to the [...]ity, it is at least a League and an half, or two Leagues on the Lake unto it: some of the other Cities are said to be thirty, some of forty thousand Houses; the names of these are, Mesiquail [...]ingo, Coluacana, Four cities [...] in A­merica. Wiohilabasco, Iztapalapa, and o­thers: the Lake, though it be in the midst of the Land, hath his fluxus and refluxus, his ebbing and flow­ing, like the Sea, and yet seventy [Page 294] leagues distant from the Sea.

But certain it is, that towards the South of these parts, which is the Northern part of Hispania nova, above Mexico, there is a burningThe burning hill in A­merics. hill, which often times breaketh out into flames, as Vesuvius in Cam­pania, did in the daies of the elder Pliny, and as Aetna hath done ma­ny ages since and before.

Peter Martyr his his fifth of his Decades, saith, that eight leagues from Tenustitan or Mexico, as Fer­dinando Cortes went thither from the Chiurute Calez, where is a Hill called of the Inhabitants Popecatepe­que, as much as to say, A smoakie mountaine, at the top whereof there is a hole of a league and a halfe wide, out of which are cast fire, andA strange fire. stones with whitl-winds; and that the thickness of the ashes lying about the Hill is very great. It is reported also elsewhere of this hill, that the flames and the ashes there­of oft times destroy the fields and Gardens thereabouts. When Cortes, went by it, he sent ten Spaniards, [Page 295] with Guides of the Countrey, to see and make report thereof unto him; two of which ten venturing further than the rest, saw the mouth of this fiery gulph at the hils top: and had they not happily soon re­turned towards their fellows, and sheltered themselves under a rock on the side of the hill, such a multi­tude of stones were cast out with the flame, that by no meanes they could have escaped.

The English-men also desirous byOf Virginia the first plantation. Navigation to adde something un­to their own Countrey, as before time they had travelled toward the farthest North part of America, so lately finding that part which lieth between Florida and Nova Fran­cia, was not inhabited by any Chri­stians, and was a Land fruitfull and fit to plant in, they sent thither two severall times, two severall compa­nies, as Colonies to inhabite that part, which in remembrance of the Virginity of their Queen they cal­led Virginia. But this voyage being enterprized upon by private men, [Page 296] and being not throughly followed by the State, the possession of this Virginia for that time was disconti­nued, and the Country left to the old inhabitants.

There were some English people,The second planta ion. who after they had understood the calmnesse of the Climate, and good­nesse of the soyle, did upon the in­stigation of some Gentlemen of England, voluntarily offer them­selves, even with their Wives and Children, to go into those parts to inhabite; but when the most of them came there (upon some occa­sions) they returned home again the first time: which caused that the second year there was a great com­pany transported thither, who were provided of many necessaries, and continued there over a whole win­ter, under the guiding of M. Lane: but not finding any sustenance in the Country (which could well brooke wi [...]h their nature, and being too meanely provided of Corn and Vi­ctuals from England) they had like to have perished with famine; and [Page 297] therefore thought themselves happy when Sir Francis Drake, comming that way from the Westerne-Indies, would take them into his ships, and bring them home into their native Country. Yet some there were of those English, which being left be­hind, ranged up and down the Country (and hovering about the sea-coast) made means at last (after their enduring much misery) by some Christian ships to be brought back again into England.

While they were there inhabiting, there were some children born and baptized in those parts, and they might well have endured the Coun­try, if they might have had such strength as to keep off the inhabi­tants from troubling them in tilling the ground, and reaping such corn as they would have sowed.

Again in the daies of our nowThe third plantation. raigning Soveraigne, in the year of our Lord 1606. the English plan­ted themselves in Virginia, under the degrees 37, 38, 39. where they do to this day continue, and have [Page 298] built three Towns and Forts, as namely James-town and Henrico, Fort Henricke, & Fort Charls, with others, which they hold & inhabite; sure retreats for them against the force of the natives, and reasonable secured places against any power that may come against them by Sea.

In the same height, but a good dis­tanceOf the sum­mer Ilands from the coast of Virginia, li­eth the Iland called by the Spaniards La Barmuda, but by our English the Summer Ilands, which of late is inhabited also by our Country men.

Northward from them on the coast lieth N [...]rumbega, which is the south part of that which the French men did without disturbance of any Christian for a time possess. For the French-men did discover a larg part of America, towards the Circle Ar­ticke, and did build there some Towns, and named it of their own Country Nova Francia.

As our English men have adven­tured very far for the discovery of new-found lands: so with very great labour and diligence they attemp­ted [Page 299] to open something higher than Nova Francia: and therefore with some Ships they did passe thither, and entred upon the Land, from whence they brought some of the people, whose countenance was ve­ry tawny and dusky; which com­meth not by any heat, but the great cold of the Climate, chilling and pricking them: but the digestion and stomack of these people is ve­ry good, insomuch that like unto the Tartars, and some other Nor­ther nations, their feeding was (for the most part) upon raw meat, their manners otherwise being barbarous and suitable to their diet.

They had little leatherne Boats, wherein they would fish neare the brinks of the Sea, and at their plea­sure would carry them from place to place on their backs.

Notwithstanding all their pains there taken, it was a great errour and ignorance in our men, when they supposed that they should find good store of Gold-mines in those quarters: for the country is so cold, [Page 300] that it is not possible to find there a­ny full concoction of the sun, to breed and work such a metall within the ground; and therefore howsoe ver they brought home some store of earth, which they supsed to be Ore, and of shining stones; yet when it came to the triall it proved to be nothing worth, but verified the Proverb, All is not Gold that glisters.

In very many parts of these Nor­thern Countries of America, there is very fit and opportune fishing some pretty way within the sea, and therefore divers Nations of Europe, do yearly send fishers thither, with shipping and great store of salt: where when they have taken fish; and dried it, and salted it at the land, they bring it home into Chri­stendome, and utter it commonly byThe fish of New found, land. the name of New found-land-fish.

The English about the year 1570 did adventure far for to open the North parts of America, and sayled as far as the very Circle Articke, hoping to have fonnd a passage-by the North to the Moluccoes, and to [Page 301] China, which hitherto neither by the North of Asia, nor by the North of America, could be effe­fected by them, by reason of the ve­ry great cold and ice in the climate.

The rest of the Iland (being a huge space of earth,) hath not hither to by any Christian to any purpose been discovered; but by those near the sea coast it may be gathered, that they all which do there inhabite, are men rude and uncivill, without the knowledge of God. Yet on the north west part of America, some of our English men going through the straights of Magellane, and passing towards the North by Hispania no­va, have touched on a Countrey, where they have found good enter­tainment, and the King thereof yeel­ded himself to the subjection of the Queen of England: whereuponNova Al bion. they termed it Nova Albion.

Sir Francis Drake, who toucht up­on that Country and for some pret­ty time had his abode there, doth re­port in his Voyage, that the coun­try is very good, yeelding much [Page 302] store of divers fruits delightful, both to the eye and taste: and that the people are apt enough by hospitali­ty to yeeld favour & entertainment to strangers: but it is added withall, that they are marvellously addicted to Wichcraft, and adoration of De­vils; from which they could not be perswaded to abstain even in the ve­ry presence of our Country-men.

Of Peru and Brasile.

VVHen the Portugals had firstThe Portu­gals disco­very of Brasile. begun their Navigation by Africk into the East-Indies, some of them intending to have held their course Eastward unto Catut bonae spei, were driven so far Westward by tempest, that they landed in a large and great Country, which by a general name is called Brasilia, where they began to enter traffick, and with Towns and Castles to plant themselves, before that the Spani­ard had discovered Peru, which is the South part of America. So that at this day whatsoever▪ the King [Page 303] of Spaine hath in Brasilia, it is in the right of the Crown of Portugal.

We may read in Guicciardine, how when the Spaniards towards the West, and the Portugals to­wards the East, had descried many new-found-lands, there grew great contention between them, what should be appropriated unto the one, and what might be seized on by the other: therefore for the bet­ter establishing of peace amongst them, they had both recourse unto Alexander the sixt, who was Pope in the year 1492, and somewhat before and after: and he taking on him (after the proud manner of the Bishops of Rome) to dispose of it, which belonged not unto him, did set down an order between them; which was that all the degrees of longitude, being 360. in the Globe being divided into two parts, the Spaniards should take one, and the Portugals the other: so that in this division they were to begin in those degrees, under which some of Peru standeth; from the which they [Page 304] counting forwards towards the East, did allow Brasilia, and 180 degrees to the Portugals Eastward, and so from Brasilia Westward to the Spa­niards as many: so that he had in his portion all America accept Bra­silia. A large Countrey, and much inhabited.

This Country is large, having in it many people, and several Kingdoms, which are not all possessed by the Portugals; but so, that other Chri­stians, as namely the Frenchmen be­ing driven out of their Country for Religion, have set foot in there, though afterwards again they have abandoned it.

What the Portugal do at this day in Brasilia, I know not: but it is like­ly now, that whatsoever there is held by the Christians is reputed to be under the Spaniards, as many o­ther parts of Brasile promiscuously are: yet certaine it is, that now al­most forty yeares since some of the French-men, which professed sincere religion, and could not then be suf­fered quietly to live in France, did provide certain shipping, and under [Page 305] the conduct of one Villagagno aNote. Knight of Malta, but their own country-men did go thither & con­tinued there the space of one year, having Ministers and Preachers a­mong them, and the exercise of the Word and Sacraments: but after by the evill counsell of some of the chief Rulers in France, which were addicted unto the Pope, the heart of Villagagno was drawn away, inso­much that he contumeliously using the Pastors, and chiefe of that com­pany, did force them to retire into France: so that the habitation there was then utterly relinquished, and hath not si [...]ce been continued by any of the French.

There is a learned man one Johan­nes Lyreus, who was in their voyage, and hath written a Tract called Na­vigatio in Brasiliam, which is very well worth the reading, not only to see what did befall him and his com­pany, but what the manners of that people, with whom they did con­verse. The inhabitants here are men also utterly unlearned; but men [Page 306] more ingenious than the common sort of the Americans; goodly of body, and straight of proportion go­ing alwaies naked; reasonable good Warriours after their country fashi­on, using to fat such enemies as they take in the wars, that afterwards they may devour them, which they do with great pleasure. For divers of the People of those quarters, as the Caribees, and the Cannibals, and almost all, are eaters of mans flesh.

In this Country groweth abun­danceThe abun­dance of Brasile wood. of that wood, which since is brought into Europe, to die red co­lours, and is of the place whence it commeth called Brasil wood; the trees whereof are exceeding great.

The people of Brasil, where Lyrius and his fellows lived, are called by the name of Tauvaupinambaltii, by description of whose qualities, ma­ny things may be learned concern­ing the rest of the inhabitants neere thereobout.

First then, they have no letters a­mong them, and yet seem to be very [Page 307] capable of any good understanding: as appeared by the speech of some of them, reproving the French­men for their great greedinesse and cove [...]ousness of gain, when they would take so much pains, as to come from another end of the world to get commodities there. Their com­putation is onely by the Sun and Moon, whom they hold to be of a Divine nature: and although theyTheir Re­ligion. know nothing truly concerning God, yet they have a dark opinion that the soule doth live after the seperation from the body.

The men and women throughout the whole Countrey do go starkeTheir appa­rell. naked, even very few of them ha­ving any thing on to cover their privities; onely some of them do pull some kind of ornaments tho­row their eares, and the most of them have their lower lip boared thorow with a great hole, therein putting some device or other.The propor­tion of the Inhabitants

They look very disguisedly, but they are wonderful straight of limb [Page 308] and proportion, insomuch that the Author writeth that in all the time wherein he lived among them, he saw not one crooked backt or mis­shapen in any part: whereof seek­ing to give a reason, he ascribeth it to this; that their children are ne­ver swathed, or bound about, with any thing when they are first born, but are put naked into the bed, with their parents to lie: which beds are devised of Cotton wooll, and hung up between two trees not far from the ground, in the which flagging down in the middle, men and their wives and their children do lie to­gether.

But whether this be the true rea­son of the straightnesse of their bo­dies, it may be doubted, from the authority of S. Hierom, who in one of his treatises mentioning that the children of the noblest and▪ greatest Romans in his time were very croo­ked, when other which were breed of meaner parents were not so, im­puteth it to this cause, that the Gen­tlewomen of Rome, in a kind of [Page 309] wantonness did not suffer their in­fants to be so long swathed as poorer people did, and that thereby their joynts and members not being tied and restrained within compass, did flye out of proportion.

Certainly, howsoever there may be some reasons naturally given of these things, it is much to be ascribed to the immediate will of God, who giv­eth and taketh away beauty at his pleasure.

The men of these parts are veryNote. strong, and able of body, and there­fore either give sound strokes with their clubs where with they fight, or else shoot strong shoots with their bows, whereof they have plenty: & if any of them be taken in the wars (after they have been cramed of pur pose to be eaten of their enemies) they are brought forth to execution, wherein marvellous willingly they do yeeld themselves to death, as supposing that nothing can be more honourable unto them, then to be taken, and to die for their Country. He therefore who is to kil the other, [Page 310] doth with very much insolency and pride insult, over him which is to be slain; saying, thou art he which would'st have spoyled and destroyed us and ours, but now I am to recom­pence thee for thy pains: and the o­ther without all fear replies, Yea, I am he that would have done it, and would have made no spare, if I had prospered in mine intent; and other such sutable words, shewing their resolution to conquer, or willingly to die in the common cause of them­selves and their people. It is strangeThe Cani­bals or man eiters, which is the country cu­stome. to see the inhumane and unatural custome, which many of the people of the West-Indies have; for there are whole Islands full of such Canibals as do eat mans flesh; and amongst the rest these [...] are famous that way; who when they are disposed to have any great meeting, or to have any solemne feast, they kill some of their adversa­ries, whom they keep in store for that purpose, & cutting him out into col­lops, which they call Boucan, they will lay them upon the coals, and for [Page 311] divers dayes together make great mirth in devouring them: wherein they have this fashion, very strange, that so long as they are in their eat­ing banquet, although it continue di­vers daies, they do never drink at all, but afterwards, when they are dis­posed to fall to drinking of a certain liquor which they have amongst them, they will continue bousing at it for two or three dayes, and in the mean time never eat. In many parts both of Hispania nova, and Peru, as also in the Islands neer adjoyning,Their great use of To­bacco. they have an herbe whereof they make great use; of which some is brought into divers parts of Europe, under the name of Tobacco, Paetum, or Nicosiana, although we have also much conterfeit of the same: the peo­ple of those parts do use it as Physick, to purge themselves of humours, and they apply it also to the filling of themselves, the smoak of it being re­ceived through a leafe, or some such hollow thing▪ into the nostrils, head, and stomack, and causing the party which receiveth it, to lie as if he were [Page 312] drunk or, dead for a space, needing no food or nourishment in the mean while. Whereof it cannot be denied, but that it is possible that by pre­script of Physick it may by serviceable for some purposes among us; al­though that also it be very disputa­ble, in as much as they who speak most highly of it, must and do con­fess that the force of it is obstup [...]fa­ctive, and no other, whereby it pro­duceth his own effects, and wise men should be wary & sparing in receive­ing of such a thing. But when weNote. do consider the vaine and wanton use which many of our Country-men have of late taken up, in receiving of this Tobacco, not only many times in in a day, but even at meat, and by the way▪ to the great waste both of their purse and of their bodies, we may wel deplore the vanity of the nation, who thereby purpose themselves as ridiculous to the French, and other our neighbours. And certainly, if it were possible that our worthy, warlike, and valiant Progenitors might behold their manners (who [Page 313] do most delight therein) they would wonder what a generation had suc­ceeded in their rooms, who addict themselves to so fond, and worse than effeminate passion.

Benzo, who lived among them of the West-Indies doth call the smell of it a Tartarus and hellish savour: And whatsoever looketh into those Books, which our Christians travel­ling thither have written concerningNote this ye Tobacco­nists▪ those West-Indies, shall find that the inhabitants there do use it most as a remedy against that which is called Lues venerea, whereunto many of them are subject, being unclean in their conversation; and that not on­ly in fornication and adultery with women, but also their detestable and excrable sin of Sodomy.

After that the Spaniards had for a time possessed Hispania nova, for the desire of Gold and Pearle, some of them travelled towards the South, and as by water they found the Sea westward from Peru, which is alwaies very calme, and is by them called the South sea, as the other where­in [Page 314] Cuba standeth 'is termed the North sea, so by land they found that huge and mighty Country; which is called Peru, wherein the people are (for the most part) very barbarous,A discrip­tion of the people of Peru. and without God; men of great sta­ture, yea, some of them far higher than the ordinary sort of men in Europe; using to shoot strongly with bows made of Fish-bones, and most cruel people to their enemies.

Our English people who have travelled that way, do in their wri­tings confess that they saw upon the South of Peru very huge & tall men, who attempting upon them when they put to land for fresh water, were much frighted with their Guns, or else doubtless had offered violence unto them; which our men fearing, got them away as speedily as they could.

There was one Petrus de Cieca, a Spaniard, who when he had travel­led two and twenty years, returned back again into Europe, and wrote an excellent Book of the Discovery of that whole Country. And he a­mongst [Page 315] other things doth record, that there are found in some parts of Peru, very huge and mighty bones of men that had been Gyants, who dwelt and were buried there.

Amongst these the Spaniards The riches of the Coun­try of Peru. (partly by force, but especially by perfidious treason) did get infinite sums of Gold and Pearls, wherewith being allured, they hoped for more, by reason that a great part thereof hath under the Zona torrida, and that caused them to spread them­selves here and there, as far as they durst in the country, where in some places they digged Gold out of the [...]rth; and in some other they found it ready digged and tried unto their hands, by the people of the Country, which had used that Trade before their comming thither.

Amongst other creatures which areA strange story of the beast Cin­cia. very famous in this Peru, there is a little beast called Cincia, which is no bigger than a Fox, the tale whereof is long, the feet short, and the head like a very Fox, which hath a bag hanging under her belly, whereinto [Page 316] she doth use to put her yong, when she seeth them in danger of any hunter or passenger.

That Petrus de Cieca (of whom mention was made before) telleth that himself saw one of them, which had no less then seven young ones lying about her: but as soon as she perceived that a man was comming neer unto her, she presently got them into her bag, and ran away with such incredible swiftness as one would not have imagined.

After the Spaniards had conque­red Mexico, they discovered Peru, travelling towards the south, and as they prevailed against the Mexicans, taking part with an enemy neigh­bour; so finding two brothers stri­ving in Peru, Guas [...]ar & Atabaliba, they so demeaned themselves in their difference that they ruined both, and got their incredible store of Gold.

The first that attempted againstthe first at­tempters a­gainst the Peruvians. the Peruvians, and destroyed their Kings, were James of Almagra and the two brothers of Pizarres: but dealing treacherously and cruelly [Page 317] with the Peruvians, they long enjoy­ed not their victory, but all of them died a violent death.

The people of Peru are in many places much wiser than those of Cu­ba, Hispaniola, and some others parts of the Continent where the Spani­ards first landed, and therefore they have some orders and solemne cu­stomes among them; as among the rest, they do bury their dead with observable ceremonies, laying up their bodies with great solemnity in­to a large house prepared for that purpose.

They have also in one Province there a custome of carrying news & messages veryspeedily, to the end the King and Governor of the Country may presently take advertisement of any thing which falleth out, and this is not on horse-back, or by the Dro­medary or Else, as they use in other places, but only men who pass over Rocks and thorow Bushes the next way, and in [...] set places there be alwaies fresh Posts, to carry tha [...] further which is brought unto them by the other.

[Page 318]The Spaniards have here and there scatteringly upon the sea-coasts, set up some Towns and Castles, but are not able to possess almost any thing of the land: neither have they as yet discovered the inward parts thereof [...]hough daily they spread themselves more and more: insomuch th [...]t it is supposed, that within these seven years last past they have gotten into Guiana, where in former time no [...]ranger of that Nation hath been.

Guiana is a country which lie [...]h toGuiana. [...]he North sea in the same height, as Peru to the South (as it is discribed) [...]bout five degrees from the Aequi­n [...]ctial, and that (as I take it) toward the South.

The Country is supposed to beThe rich ness an [...] [...] os the▪ cun­try. exceeding rich & to have in it many mines of gold (which have not yet been touched, or at least but very l [...]tely, & to be exceeding fertile, and delightful otherwise, although it lie i [...] the heat of Zona torrida: but there is such store of rivers & fresh waters i [...] every part thereof, and the soile it self hath such correspondency there­unto, [Page 319] that it is reported to be as green and pleasant to the eye, as any place in the world.

Some of our Englishmen did with great labour and danger pass by wa­ter into the heart of the country, & earnestly desire that some forces of [...]he English might be sent thither, & a Colony erected there: by reason of the distance of the place, & the great hazard, that if it should not succeed well, it might prove dishonourable to our nation; and withal, because the Spaniards have great companies and strength, although not in it, ye many wayes about it, that intend­ment was discontinued.

In divers parts of this Peru, and near unto Guiana; there are very ma­ny great rivers, which as they are fi [...] for any navigation that should be attempted to go up within the land, so otherwise they must needs yeeld health and fruitfulness to those that i [...]habit there. The greatest of these rivers is that which some call Oreg­liana, The river of the A­mazone. or the river of the Amazones. And next is the river Maragnone & [Page 320] down towards. Magellane straights Rio de la Plata: and our English men do speak of the river Orinoque▪ in the greatest of which this is famous; that for a good spece after they have run into the main sea, yea, some write 20. or 30. Miles, they keep them­selves unmixt with the salt water, so that a very great way wi [...]hin the sea. men may take up as fresh water, as if they were neer the Land.

The first o [...] our Nation that sailed [...]ir Walter [...]. leigh lid first [...] it to the Eng­l [...]sh. to Guiana, and made report thereof unto us, was S. Walter Raleigh, who [...]ravelled far up into the country up­on the river Orinoque: after him, one or two voyages thither did captain Kemish make, and now lately▪ captain H [...]recourt, with others, have visited [...]hat Country,▪ where our men con­ [...]inued the space of 3. or 4. year [...] ▪ be­ing kindly intreated of the natives, who much desired them to come and make some plantation amongst them hoping by them to be defended: a­gainstThey: ha [...]e he▪ Spani­ [...]rds, and [...]ove the English. the Spaniards, whom they greatly hate and fear▪ When Sir Walter Raleigh come to Guiana, [...]he [Page 321] overthrew the Spaniards that were in Trinidado, and took Bereo their Captain or General prisoner: he loosed and set at▪liberty four or five Kings of the people of that country, that Bereo kept in chains, and sent th [...]m▪ home to their own: which de [...]d of his did win him the hearts of the people, them and make much to favour our English at this day.

Divers also of that country, which [...]mongst them are men of note, have been brought over into England, & here living many years▪ are by our men brought home to their-own country, whose reports and know­ledge of our Nation is a cause that they have been wel entreated of these Guiancans, and much desired to plant themselves amongst them.

Our men that travelled to Guiana, A strange story. amongst other things most memora­ble, did report, and in writing delive­red to the world, that near unto Gui­ana, and not far from those place; where themselves were, there were men without heads; which seemed to maintain the opinion to be true [Page 322] which in old time was conceived by the Historians and Philosophers, that there were Acephali, whose eies were in their breasts, and the rest of their face there also scituated: and this our English travellers have reported to be so ordinarily, and [...] mentioned unto them in those parts where they were, that no sober man should any way doubt of the truth thereof.

Now because it may appear that the matter is but fabulous, in respect of the truth of Gods creating of them, and that the opinion of such strange shapes and monsters as were said to be in old time, that is▪ men with heads like Dogs, some with eares down to their ankles, others with one huge foot alone, whereupon they did hop from place to place, was not worthy to be credited although Sir John Mandevile of late age fondly hath seemed to give credit and authority thereunto; yea, and long since he who took upon him the name of S. Augustine, in writing that counter­feit Book Ad▪frates in Ermo: It is [Page 323] fit that the cerainty of the matter concerning these in Peru should be known: & that is that in Quinbaia, Note. and some other parts of Peru, the men are borne as in other places, & yet by devises which they have, after▪ the birth of Children, when their bones and gristles, and other parts are yet tender, and fit to be fashioned, they do crush down the heads of the children unto the breasts and shoul­ders, and do with frames of wood, & other such devices keep them there, that in time they grew continuate to the upper part of the trunke of the body, and so seem to have no necks or heads. And again, some other of them thinking that the shape of the head is very decent, if it be long and erect after the fashion of a Sugar­loaf, do frame some other to that form by such wooden instruments, as they have for that purpose, and by binding and swathing them to keep them so afterwards▪ And that this is▪ the custome of those people, and that there is no other matter in it, Petrus de Cieca, who travelled almost all [Page 324] over Peru, and is a grave and sober writer, in his description of those Countries▪ doth report.

There be in some parts of Peru, Their strange de­vises to take fowls. people which have a strange device for the catching of divers sorts of fowls, wherein they especially desire to take such as have their feathers of p [...]ed, orient, and various colours, and that not so much for the flesh of them, which they may eate, as for their feathers, whereof they make garments; either short, as Cloaks, or as Gowns, long to the ground, and those their greatest Nobles do wear, being curiously wrought, and by or­der, as appeareth by some of them be­ing brought into England.

And here by this mention of fea­thers it is not [...] to specifie, that in the sea, which is the Ocean lyingDivers fly­ing fishes. betwixt Europe & America, there be divers flying fishes yet whose wings are not feathers, but a thin kind of skin, like the wings of a Bat or Rear­mouse: and these living sometimes in the water, and flying sometimes in the aire, are well accepted in neither [Page 335] place: for below, either ravenous fishes are ready to devourt them: or above the sea-fowls are continually beating at them.

Some of the Spaniards, desirous to see how far this Land of Peru did go towards the South, travelled down, till at length they found the Lands end, and a little strait or narrow Sea, which did run from the main Ocean toward Africk into the South-sea.Magellanus straits. One Magellanus was he that found this strait, and although it be danger­ous, passed through it, so that of his name it is called Fretum Magellani­cum, or Magellans straits.

And this is the way whereby the Spaniards do pass to the back-side of Peru and Hispania nova, and whoso­ever will compass the whole world (as some of our English men have done) he must of necessity (for any thing that is yet known) passe through this narrow strait. Ferdi­nandus Magellanus having a great mind to travel, and being very desi rous to go unto the Molucco Islands by some other way than by the back [Page 336] side of Africk, if it might be, did in the year 1520▪ set forth from Sivill in Spain with five ships, and travel­led toward the West-Indies, & went so far towards the South, as that he came to the lands end, where he hol­ding his course, in a narrow passage towards the West, for the space of divers daies, did at the length peace­ably pass through the straights, and came into a great sea, which some af­ter his name do call Mare Magella­nicum, some others Mare pacaficus, because of the great calmness and quietness of the waters there; but most comonly it is termed the SouthThe South Sea. sea; the length whereof he passed in the space of three months and 20.The Moluc­coes. daies, and came unto the Moluccoes, where being set upon by the East­ Indian people himself and many of his company were slain: & yet one of his ships (as the Spaniards do write) called Victoria▪ did get away from those Moluccoes, and returning by the Cape Bonae spei on the South side of Africk came safe into Spain▪

So that it may be truly said, that [Page 337] if not Megellanus, yet some of hisMagellane the first that ever­compased the world. company were the first that did ever compass the World, through all the degrees of longitude.

Johannes Lyrius, in the end of his Book De navigatione in Brasiliam, doth tell that Sir Francis Drake of England, when he passed through Magellane straights, and so to the Molucco Ilands, and then homeward from the East by Africk, did in a de­vice give the Globe of the earth, with this word or Motto, Primus m [...] [...]ri­cumdedisti: which is not simple to be understood that never any had gone round the world before him, but that never any of fame; for Magellane himself was slain (as be­fore is noted:) or else he did doubt of the truth of that narration, that the Ship called Fictoria did return with safety into Spaine.

The Maps which were made at first concerning America and Peru did so describe the western part of Peru, as if when a man had passed. Magellane straits, and did intend to come up­ward towards nova Hispania, on the [Page 338] further side, he must have born West, by reason that the land did shoot out with a very great Promontory, and bending that way.

But our English men which went with S. Francis Drake, did by their own experience certainly find that the land from the uttermost end of the Straits on Peru side, did go up towards the South directly, without bending to the West, and that is the cause whereof all the new Maps and Globes, especially made by the English, or by the Dutch, who have taken their directions from our men, are reformed according to this new observation.

When the Spaniards had once found an ordinary passage from the South Sea towards the Moluccoes, they never ceased to travel that way, and discovered more and more, and by that means they had found out divers Islands not known in former ages; as two for example sake: a good distance from the Molucco's, which because they be inhabited by men which do steal not only each [Page 339] from other, but do pilfer away all things that they can from such stran­gers as do land there abouts, theyInsulae La­tornum. are called Insulae Latronum.

They have also descried some other neerer unto the East-Indies, whichInsulae Salomonis they now term Insulae Salomonis. But the most renowned of all are those to whom the name is given Philippinae, in remembrance of Phi­lip Philippinae. the second King of Spaine, at whose cost they were discovered.

These Philippinae are very rich, andTheir Ri­ches. from thence is brought abundance of costly Spices, and some other rich merchandize, yea, and Gold too.

There were also some other Islands descried by Magellanus himself,Infulas in­fortunatas. which he called Insulas Infortunatas, as being of quality contrary to the Canaries, which are termed the For­tunate Islands: For when he passing through the South sea, and meaning to come to the Moluccoes, (where he was slain) did land in these Islands, thinking there to have furnished himself with victuals and fresh wa­ter, he found the whole place to be [Page 340] Barren and not Inhabited.

Of the Countries that lie about the two Poles.

HAving laid down in some measure the description of the old known world, Asia Africa, and Europe, with the Islands adjoyning unto them; & also of Americk▪ which by some hath the title of New found World: it shall not be amiss briefly to say some thing of a fift and sixt part of the Earth: the one lying neer the South Pole, and the other neer the North: which are places that in former times were not known, nor though of.

When Magellanus came down toRegio M [...] ­gellanica. the Southern end of Peru, he found on the further side of the [...] main and hugh Land lying towards the South Pole, which some have of his name called since Regio Magel­lanica, and that so much the rather, because he touched upon it again before he came to the Moluccoes.

Since his time the Portugals tra­ding towards Calec [...] and the East­ Indies, [Page 341] there hath some of them been driven by tempest so far as to that which many now call the South Continent; and so divers of sundery Nations have there by occasion touched upon it.

It is found therefore by experience, for to go along all the degrees of longitude, and as in some places it is certainly discovered to come up so high towards the North, as to the Tropicke of Capricorn; so it is con­jectured, that towards the South it goeth as far as to the Pole. The ground whereof is, that never any man did perceive the Sea did passe through any part thereof, nay, there is not any great river which hath yet been described to come out o [...] i [...] into the Ocean: whereupon it is conclud­ed, that since somewhat must fill up the Globe of the Earth, from the first appearing of this land unto the very Pole: and that cannot be any Sea, unless it should be such a one as hath no entercourse with the Ocean (which to imagine is uncertain) therefore it is supposed that it com­meth [Page 341] whole out into the land to the Antartick Pole: which if it should be granted, it must needs be acknow­ledged withal, that this space of earth is so huge, as that it equalleth in greatness not only Asia, Europe, and Africa, but almost America being joyned unto them.

Things memorable in this country, are reported to be very few: only in the East part of it, over against the Moluccoes, some have written that there be very waste Countries & wil­dernesses; but we find not so much as mention whether any do inhabite there or no. And over against the Promontory of Africk; which is called Caput bonae spei, there is a coun­try which the Portugals called P sit­tacorum Psittacorum regio. regio, because of the abun­dant store of Parrets, which they found there.

Neer to the Magellane straits, in this south part of the world, is that land the Spaniards callTerra delfue­go: Terra del fuego. those also which have toucht at it in other places, have given to some parts of it these names, Beach, [Page 333] Lucath, & Maletur, but we have no perfect description of it, nor any knowledge how or by whom it is inhabited.

About this place the said Portugals A descrip­tion of the people. did at one time saile along for the space of 2000. miles, and yet found no end in the land. And in this place they reported that they saw inhabi­tants, which were very fair and fat people, and did go naked: which is the more to be observed, because we scant read in any writer, that there hath been seen any▪ people at all up­on the South coast.

More towards the East, not far from the Muluccoes, there is one part of this Country, as some suppose, al­though some doubt whether that be an Island or no, which commeth up so high▪ towards the North, as the very Aequinoctial line, and thisMov [...] Guinea. is commonly called Nova Guinea, because it lieth in the same Climate, and is of no other temperature then Guinea in Africk is.

I have heard a great Mathematiti­an in England find fault both with [Page 334] Ortelius and Mercator, and all our late makers of Maps, because in de­scribing this Continent, they make no mention of any Cities, Kingdoms, or Common-wealth which are sea­ted and placed there: whereof he seemed in confidence of words to avouch that there be a great many, and that it is as good a Countrey asNote. almost any in the world: But the ar­guments why he gathered it to be so he did not deliver; and yet notwith­standing it may be most probably conjectured, that the Creator of the world would not have framed so huge a masse of Earth, but that he would in his wisdome appoint some reasonable creatures to have their habitation there.

Concerning those places which may be supposed to lie neer unto the Northern Pole, there hath in times past something been written, which for the particularity thereof might carry some shew of truth, if it be not throughly lookt into. It is therefore by an old tradition delivered, and by some written also, that there was [Page 335] a Friar of Oxford, who took on him to travel into those parts which are under the very Pole: which he did partly by Negromancy (wherein he was much skilled) and partly again by taking advantage of the frozen times, by meanes whereof he might travell upon the Ice even so as him­self pleased: It is said therefore of him, thàt he was directly under the Pole, and that there he found a very huge and blackrock, which is com­monlyNigra Rupes. called Nigra rupes, and that the said rock being divers miles in circuit, is compassed round about with the Sea; which Sea being the breadth of some miles over, doth run out into the more large Ocean by four severall Currents, which is as much to say, as that a good pretty way distant from the Nigra Rupes, there are foure several lands of rea­sonable quantity: and being scitua­ted round about the rock, although with some good distance, are seve­red each from other by the sea run­ning between them, and making them all foure to be Islands almost [Page 336] of equall bignesse. But there is no certainty of this report, and there­fore our best Mathematicians in this latter age have omitted it.

Our travellers of later years have adventured so far, to their great dan­ger in those cold and frozen coun­tries, that they have descried Groin­land, Groin-land which lieth as far, or beyond the circle Artick: but whether it go so far out as unto the Pole, they can­not say: which is also to be afirmed of the Northern parts of America, called by some Estote-land; for the opening whereof our English-men have taken great pains, as may easily appeare by the [...]ew [...]lobes and Maps, in which all the Capes, Sounds and Furlongs, are called by English names. Their purpose was in attemp­ting this voyage, to have found out a passage to China and Cathaio, by the North parts of America: but by the snows which fell in August and September, as also by the incredible Ice there, after many hazards of their lives, they were forc [...]d to re­turn, not knowing whether there be [Page 337] any current in the Sea, that might lead to the East-Indies, or how far the Land doth reach Northward.

In like sor [...], some of our English Merchants, to their great charges, set forth [...]eets to descry the Seas towards the East: yet going by the North, and there have found many unknown countries; as Nova Zem­bla, Nova Zem­bla, S Hugh Willongh­bies land. Sir Hugh Willoughbies land, and other m [...]re: but of certain what is very near unto the Pole they could never find. They have also so far prevailed, as to reach one half of the way toward Cathaio by the North, going Eastward: insomuch that by the River Ob, and by the Bay of St. Nicholas they bring the Merchan­dize downwards into Russia: But whether the sea do go throughout, even to the fatherest Eastern parts; or whether some great Promontory do stretch out of the main Conti­nent unto the very Pole, they cannot yet attain to know. These things therefore must be left uncertain, to further discoveries in fature ages.

UNIVERSITIES.

In England.
  • 1 Oxford
  • 2 Cambridge.
Universities in Spaine.
  • 1 Toledo, latitude 40. 10. longitude 16. 40.
  • 2 Sivill, lat [...]7. [...]0. long. 14. 20
  • 3 Valencia lat 39. 55. long. 21. 10
  • 4 Granada, lat, 37. [...]0 long. 17. 1 [...]
  • 5 S Jago▪ lat. [...]0. 5 long. 15. 40.
  • 6 Valindolid, lat [...]2 5. long 15. 45.
  • 7 Alcalade Henaros, lat. 40. 55. long. 17. 30
  • 8 Salamanca, lat. 14. 10. long. 24 4
  • 9 Caragoca, lat, 4 [...] 22 long. 22. 20
  • 10 Signenc [...], lat, [...]4. 35. 20. long. 18. [...]0.
  • 11 Lerida, lat. 42 20 long 18. 10
  • 12 Huesca, lat. 12 50. long. 2 [...]. 20
  • 13 Lisbon lat. 38. 50. long 0 50
  • 14 Coimbra, lat 40. long. 11. 2 [...].
  • 15 Ebora, lat. 37, 38 long. 20
In the Isle Majorica.
  • 1 Majorica.
In Polonia.
  • 1 C [...]acovia.
  • 2 Posne.
In Prussia.
  • 1 Koningsberg
In Lituania.
  • 1 Wild
In France.
  • [Page 339]1 Paris, lat 48. [...]0. long [...]3
  • 2 Poictiers, lat. 46. 10 long 1 [...]. 1 [...].
  • 3 Lyons, lat. 44. 30 long. [...]5. 40
  • 4 Angers, lat. 47. 25. long 18. 10
  • 5 Avignon, lat. 42. 30 long. 25 50
  • 6 Orleans, lat. 47. 10 long. [...]2
  • 7 [...] lat. 46. 20 long. 22. 10
  • 8 Cacn, lat 40. 45. long 1 [...]. 20
  • 9 Reims, lat 48, 30 long. 25, 25
  • 10 Burdeaux, lat 44, 30, long 17. 50
  • 11 Tolouse, lat 43, 5, long 20 30.
  • 12 Nismo, lat 42, 30, long, 25
  • 13 Montpelie [...]. lat. 42, long 24, 30
  • 14 Bisant [...]n. lat. 46, 3 [...], long. 27, 48
  • 15 Lole, lat, 46, 10, long 27
In Italy.
  • 1 Rome, lat 41, 20, long, 38
  • 2 Venice, lat, 44, 50, long, 37
  • 3 Padna, lat, 44, 45, long, 32, 10
  • 4 Bononia, lat, 43, 33, long, 35, 50
  • 5 Ferrara, lat, 44, long, [...]6
  • 6 Millan, lat 44, 40, long, 33
  • 7 Pavia lat, 44, long. 33, 5
  • 8 Turin, lat, 43, 45, long, 31 30
  • 9 Florence, lat, 42 35, long, 35, 50
  • 10 Pisa, lat, 42, 40, long, 35
  • 11 Sienna, lat, 42, 20, long, 36, 15
  • 12 Modena, lat, 13, 50, long, 35, 40
In Bohe [...]a.
  • 1 Prague
In Germany.
  • 1 Collen, lat. 51, long. 30
  • 2 Basil, lat. 47, 40, long. 31
  • 3 Alents, lat 50 long. 31
  • 4 Witzburg, lat. 50
  • 5 Triers, lat. 49, 50
  • 6 Heidleberg, lat 49. 25, long 33
  • 7 Tubinge, lat. 49, 50
  • 8 Ingolsted, lat 49, [...]0
  • [Page 340]9 Erfurt, lat. 50
  • 10 Leistgige, lat 51, 10
  • 11 Wittenberg. lat. 51, 50
  • 12 Frankford in Oder. 51, 10
  • 13 Rostoch, lat 53 40
  • 14 Grislwald lat 53, 10
  • 15 Friburg. lat. 48
  • 16 Marburg, lat. 50, 40
  • 17 Viena, lat 43 40
  • 18 Diling in Suitzerland neate D [...]yaw.
In Germania Inferiori.
  • 1 Lovain, lat. 50, long. 23
  • 2 Doway, lat 50, 30, long. 29
  • 3 Liege, lat 50 30, long 29
  • 4 Leiden, lat 5 [...], 10, long. 27, 20
In Denmarke.
  • Copenhagen, lat. 56, 50, long 34, 30
In Moravi [...].
  • 1 Olmues
In Scotland.
  • 1 Saint Andrews
  • 2 Abe [...]don
Of England.
In England are contained S [...]ires52
Bishopricks26
Castles186
Rivers555
Chases.13
Forrests68
Parkes781
Clties25
Parish-Churches9725
Bridges.956
FINIS.

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