A New JOURNAL OF ITALY, Containing What is Most Remarkable OF THE ANTIQUITIES OF ROME, SAVOY AND NAPLES. WITH OBSERVATIONS Made upon the Strength, Beauty, and Scituation of some other Towns and Forts in Italy, and the Distance from Place to Place; Together with the best Painting, Carving, and Limning, and some other both Natural and Artificial Curiosities taken notice of,

By William Acton.

LONDON, Printed for R. Baldwin, near the Oxford Arms in Warwick-Lane. 1691.

[Page] TO My Worthy and Most Respected Friend and Master EDWARD HARVEY, OF Comb Nevil in the County of Surry, Esquire.

Worthy Sir,

AS I had the honour to wait up­you in your Travels to Rome, so I had the oppotunity of making some Remarks in our way thi­ther, and from thence to Naples; where the Antiquities are not less curious than what you saw in Rome it self; which I here humbly present [Page] you with a review of in a piece of prospective: Which, though it be done by an ill hand, yet it may help to Commemorate to you most of the Re­markable Things you took notice of when you was there. I had not room in this small Tract to mention any thing of Politicks, or Constitution of Governments in any of these Princes Courts or Republicks that we passed through, having no design at present but to point out to you the way you Travelled, and the Distance from Place to Place, with Observations made of the Antiquities of Rome, Naples, and other Places; together with the Strength, Beauty and Sci­tuation of some other Towns and Forts in Italy; the best Painting, Carving, and Limning, and some other both Na­tural and Artificial Curiosities, which you your self took such particular No­tice of, that they cannot but remain still fresh in your Memory: However I have made bold to present you with this Poor Assistance, which may [Page] serve instead of a Lame Antiquary, if peradventure you should meet with any private Inducement, or Obligati­on of Publick Trust, to carry you again into those Parts. Sir, you will meet with neither Polishing nor Trim­ming in it, but the same Plain Dress it had on when you saw it first, which I humbly beg of you to take a review of, and to give me the Assistance of your Memory whereinsoever you shall find me deficient; And in so doing you will add to your Former Obliga­tions a Remarkable Favour never to to be forgot by,

Your Most Sincere, and Most Faithful Servant, W. A.

[Page 1] A New JOƲRNAL FROM GENEVE TO ROME And from thence to NAPLES.

SIR, You may well remember when you left England and went to Paris in France, there to carry on that Noble Education you Commenced at home, you en­tred your self in one of the best Academies, and there continued near Two Years and an Half; [Page 2] from whence, after a more than ordinary Improvement in the Li­beral Arts and Sciences, and other the Studies and Exercises of that Place; your Genius led you to make a farther Progress in your Travels; And then you left Paris, and set forward by the way of Ly­ons for Geneve, where after you had passed some time you resolved to go for Italy; so that taking your leave of Geneve, you came to a little Town called Remille in Savoy, seven Leagues from Geneve, where we lay the first night; within three Leagues of this Town lies the Lake of Ansi and Town so called. The 18th. we came to Chambery, five leagues from Romillie; it is the Principal Town in Savoy, and where the Duke of Savoy formerly kept his Court, where we staid Dinner, and the same night lay at Montmillian, two leagues from Chambery, where we took notice of the Fortress or Castle of Montmillian, [Page 3] It is partly built upon, and partly hewed out of a Rock, esteemed the strongest that belongs to the Duke of Savoy. Lewis the 13th, King of France, lay 13 months be­fore it, in which time (from three Batteries, whereof one was on the further side of the River Isere, the other two on this side) he shot in­to the Fort above Ten Thousand Cannon Bullets, and sprang Two Mines, all which not answering his Expectations, and finding himself unable to take it, although he had taken the Town that joyns to the Fort, concludes a Peace and raises the Seige. From Montmillian we came to St. Michel, thirteen leagues all along upon the River Isere, or rather Arche, because it only bears the name of Isere near to Mont­millian, where we lay the 29th.

The Thirtieth we came to dinner to Breamant, five Leagues more, and from thence to Landbourg, where we lay that night, being [Page 4] two leagues from Bramont, still up­on the River Are.

Oct. 1. we hired Mules to carry us up the Alps by the way of Mount Senis, and came to Ramasse being one league, from thence to the great Cross two leagues more, which is the highest part of the Mountain that you go over, from whence we came to Bossoline to din­ner, which is about 12 miles more, from thence to Villiane eight miles, where we lay that night. And the 2d▪ of Oct. we came to Turin, being about ten or twelve miles from Vil­liane.

At Turin we saw the Duke and Dutchess of Savoy, and the Princess his Sister, that shoots flying so well; we took a view of the Dukes Lodg­ings, and the fine Gallery of Pi­ctures, the black marble Chappel that had been so many years a build­ing, and not finished when we saw it, is one of the finest things in Tu­rin; we saw the Church where they [Page 5] say is kept the winding Sheet of our Saviour Christ, besides several other fine Churches: Especially that of St. Francis, in which there is a most noble Altar. One of the seven days we stayed here, I hapned, in my ramble about the Town to go into a Church, where I heard a great deal of good singing by Eunuchs, and very good musick; which be­ing ended, I found by the Peoples gazing and staring, earnestly to one part of the Church, that there was something more to come, which was as follows; from a corner of the Church, out of some Chappel, or Vestry, there came a great ma­ny people with great wax lights in their hands, after them followed one of the religious men of that place, with a great silver Cross, then followed all the rest of the religious men singing, after them came four Trumpets sounding, then the Image of the V. Mary followed, being car­ried upon a frame by four lusty Fel­lows, [Page 6] like Porters, in blue Frocks: The figure was about the bigness of an ordinary woman, carved out of wood, and very richly dressed, painted and curled; wearing upper­most a long Robe of Cloth of Silver, with a Crown on her head; in her arms she carried a little Image, well carved and finely dressed, like a lit­tle boy, which represented the Savi­our, holding between his hands a pair of Beads; as this Image passed through the middle alley of the Church, all the people that could come near it touched it with their Beads, and those that could not come near, by reason of the press, handed their Beads from one to ano­ther that they might touch her Garment, from whence undoubted­ly they did believe, proceeded great Virtue: After they came out of the Church it was carried in Procession through part of the City, the Trum­pets sounding before, and all people meeting it, or going with it, by [Page 7] kneeling, bowing and crossing themselves, paid an adoration to it; to my great Astonishment.

About five miles from Turin there is a house of the Duke of Savoys, called the Venere, very curious for Painting, Pictures and Waterworks; in the Gardens there is several sort of Fowl, worth taking notice of.

About a mile from Turin, upon the side of a Hill, there is a fine Convent of Capusin Friers; and a fine house called the Valentine, about half a mile from Turin, upon the River Po: It was built by Madam Royall, the Duke of Savoys Mother, and Sister to Lewis XIII. King of France.

The new Fortifications that the Duke is making about Turin, being all of Brick, consisting only of Ba­stions and Curtains, are worth your observation.

The 9th. of Oct. we left Turin, and went to Villeneufe, a little Garrison of Fourscore men, ten miles from [Page 8] Turin, where we dined. The Gar­rison observing us to be ten or twelve Horsemen in company, would not let above two at a time come into the Town. From this town we went to Aste ten miles more, it being the last town that way belonging to the Duke of Savoy, in Piedmont; it is indifferently well fortified, and hath four Regiments of Souldiers in it.

From Aste we came the 11th▪ of Oct. to Alexandria, a great Gar­rison of the King of Spain in Milo­noise, twenty miles from Aste, from whence the same night we arrived at Voltaggio, two and twenty miles more, where we were forced by tempestuous weather, of Rain, Wind, Thunder and Hail; which did con­siderable damage in those parts, to stay till the 13th, and then set out for Genoua, where we arrived that night, being twenty miles from Voltaggio.

In Genoua we saw a great many Churches, very rich, and their [Page 9] structures very noble, being most of them within side crusted with Marble, and Marble Pillars; we saw several Noblemens Pallaces, but in particular, that of Seignior Dalbi, where amongst other fine things, there is a Looking-glass valued at sixty thousand Crowns; we saw the Doge, and his Pallace, with the Ar­mory, and what else was most con­siderable.

Tuesday the 16th. we went from Genoua by Sea, in Barks, small Ves­sels so called, that row with four Oars; and lay the first night at a place on the Sea shore called Ceste, being thirty miles. The 17th. we took our Barks again, and went by Sea to Lerish, thirty Miles more, where we lay the next day, the weather being bad at Sea we quitted our Vessels, and hired Horses; and the first night lay at Santa Pietra, twenty Miles, and thence to Luca sixteen Miles, where we lay Friday the 19th. and saw several fine [Page 10] Churches, in particular, that of St. Frediano, where we saw the Coffin that Richard the Third, King of England was buried in as he went a Pilgrim to Rome. In St. Augustins Church they shewed us a place, where a fellow having lost all his money at Cards, and afterwards ha­ving play'd away all the Cloaths he had from his back, in a great rage began to curse and to swear, and taking up a Stone, in that mad fit threw it against the Image of the Virgin Mary, from whence imme­diately the blood gushed out, upon which the ground opened and swal­lowed him up alive. This story they report to you for a great truth. In another Church they pretend to shew you the first Cross or Crucifix that ever was made after the Cru­cifixion of our Saviour, and tell you the Story thus, that Nicodemus ha­ving undertaken the business, and shaping his work in figure like to a man, had finished the Crucifix save [Page 11] only the Head, which so puzzled him, that he was not able to go for­ward with it: In the mean time, being wearied with contriving that part of it, but without success, fell asleep, and after some time being awakened from sleep, he found a Head by him sent from Heaven, which he fixed to the rest of his work, and so finished the Crucifix▪ It is all beset with Pearls, Dia­monds, and other Precious Stones, wonderful rich: We saw the Ar­mory, where they say is Arms suf­ficient for twenty five thousand men. The fortifications of the Town, which is very strong, con­sists of eleven Bastions, a Lorillion or ear-fashion, with Half-moons upon the Curtins: there is planted upon every Bastion sixteen pieces of Cannon.

The 20th of October we went from Luca to Pisa, ten miles, where we dined: We saw there the Dome or Cathedral Church, of which the [Page 12] four great doors are all of Copper, containing the History of the four Evangelists, represented by Figures; hard by this Church, we saw in a kind of Tower, or such like place, where all the Children are baptized, and where there is the finest Echo that ever was heard, and in it a Pulpit of Marble that came from Armenia, so finely carved that the value of it is inestimable. Hard by this you see the Leaning Tower, so built, to the admiration of all that see it, for it hangs over so much, that one would think it must needs sall, and yet it is believed to stand as strong as if it had been built up­right; so great was the Ingenuity of the Architect. Near the great Church are the Cloysters to be seen, where upon the walls is painted the History of the Bible: And in the middle of the Cloysters, upon the right and left hand, there are two little square Courts, all of holy Earth, they say brought from Je­rusalem, [Page 13] wherein if you interr a bo­dy, all shall consume to the Bones in four and twenty hours time.

From Pisa the same day we went to Leghorne, where the only thing worth taking notice of is the Mould, where the Shipping rides safe: The Town is fortified with Bastions and large Ditches. We went out of cu­riosity and saw the Jews Synagogue in the time of their Devotions.

Tuesday the 23d of October we went from Leghorne and came again to Pisa, where we dined, and after dinner went and saw the Physick­garden of the Great Duke of Flo­rence, in which there is a Gallery furnished with abundance of Curio­sities; whereof one that I took no­tice of was the Scull of a Man or Woman, with a great piece of Co­ral growing to it; and also a small Anchor with several pieces of Coral naturally fixed to it; both which things were so found in the Sea. We went the same night to la Scala, [Page 14] a great Inn so called, where we lay, being thirty six miles from Leghorne, and half way between Pisa and Flo­rence.

The next day being the 24th of October, we arriv'd at Florence, 20 miles from la Scala, where we saw the Chappel of St. Laurence, esteem­ed the finest of the whole World, for the inside of it is all Precious Stones, and the Arms of every City belonging to the Great Duke are all of Precious stone inlaid, round about the Chappel; within side there is likewise the Statues of all the great Dukes cut out in mar­ble. First Francis, then Cosmus the I. and Ferdinandus I. Cosmus II. Ferdinandus II. and Cosmus at pre­sent, Third of the name, and Sixth great Duke. From this Chappel we went to the Dome or Cathedral Church, with the Tower by it, whereof all the outside is finely wrought with Marble of divers Co­lours; we saw the great Dukes Pal­lace [Page 15] and Gardens, in which there is a great many fine Waterworks: The finest thing in Florence is the Gallery of rich Cabinets, and the Chamber where there is all sort of curious Arms; there is a long barrel of a Gun all of massy Gold, and several other great curiosities; we saw the Dukes Armory, the wild Beasts, and some fine houses out of Town, where there is fine Painting and Waterworks, chiefly in that of the great Dukes, called Pratilin, six Miles from Florence, we saw be­sides abundance of fine Churches.

November the First we went from Florence to Pongebouce 22 miles where we lay. The next day we came to Dinner to Siena, 16 miles: It is a Town belonging to the Great Duke, almost as big as Florence, where we saw the Great Church, whereof the Pavement is the finest in Christendom; and the Library with its Pavement, deserves to be ta­ken notice of: From hence we went [Page 16] to Torriniere 18 miles where we lay. The next day, being the 3d of No­vember, we lay at Aquapendente 29 miles, from whence we came, and dined, the next day being Sunday at Montefiatsco, Fifteen miles, where in a little old Church, under ground, we saw the Tomb of a German Bishop, who, they say, killed himself with drink­ing to excess the Wine of that place: The story runs thus, That the Bishop travelling with his re­tinue to Rome, sent one of his Ser­vants before upon the Road to find out the best Wine, with a strict Command to write EST upon the Sign, where the Wine was best; which accordingly he did, and at the first place where he found the Wine to be good writ EST, which, when the Bishop saw, concluding the Wine to be very good he stop­ped, and with all his Company went in and remained there till he had had his fill of the Wine; then [Page 17] he went forward, his Servant the Purveyor, being still before to find out the next place of good Wine, which appeared to the Bishop be­fore he had travelled much farther, by a double assurance of EST, EST, which the Servant had marked up­on the Sign; There the Bishop stayed longer than he had done at the first place of EST, finding the Wine to be much better. But at length, in hopes to gratifie his Appetite with a more delicious Wine than what he had met with, goes forward on his Journey to Rome, his Servant going still before with the same Command of provi­ding still the best Wine with the Old Signal of EST; But before he had travelled far he comes to this fatal place of Montefiasco, where the Wine was so much better than any he had yet met with in his way to Rome, that he thought it deserved the triple signal of EST, EST, EST, which accordingly was put upon [Page 18] the Sign. The Bishop being not far behind, soon arrived at this In­chanted Castle of Bacchus, where espying the Signal, immediately made an halt, and with all his Com­pany entred the place, where he found the entertainment so sweet, and the Wine so bewitching, that he was not able to leave the place till his life had left him, and then was carried out dead to his Grave, which was hard by in the Vault of a little Church, with a large Stone upon it, and this Epitaph or Inscri­ption writ by the Purvoyer his man, in honour of his Master.

Est, Est, Est, propter est,
Herus meus mortuus est.

From this place we went to Vi­terbo, eight miles more, where we lay; it is a very pretty town, and in most of the streets thereof there is fine Fountains. From hence we went the next day to Capreole, twelve [Page 19] miles more, where there is a fine house of the Duke of Parma, but going to ruine, here we dined and after Dinner went to Monte Rossa, ten miles, where we lay; from whence the next day being Tuesday the 6th. of November, we came to Rome, two and twenty miles more.

The Eighth of November we took our Jonrney for Naples, and came the first night to Veletre, twenty miles from Rome, where we saw the fine Pallace and Garden of Cardinal Ginetto. From thence the next day we went to Piperno thirty miles. The next day being Saturday▪ the 10th. of November we came to Fun­di, which is the better half way be­twixt Rome and Naples. From this place we came the next day, being Sunday, to Mola: Where in a great Orange Garden we saw the Tomb and Grotto of Cicero, that famous Orator. Hard by Mola lies Caeta, where there is to be seen a Rock, which they say cleft asunder at the [Page 20] time of the Crucifixion of our bles­sed Saviour. From Mola we came to St. Agothas; and from thence on Monday night, the 12th instant, we arrived at Naples, which is some 32 miles from St. Agothas, where we saw several fine Churches; but in that of St. Claires there is four fine Pillars, which they do assert were brought from the Temple of Solo­mon at Jerusalem. At another Church we saw the Busto's, or pieces of Sta­tues, being the remainder of two Idols called by the names of Castor and Pollux, they were formerly en­tire, and worshipped as Gods by the Heathenish people, but St. Paul pas­sing by that way as he was carried a prisoner to Rome, it is said that these Idols fell down and broke to pieces, and in their fall the Devil was per­ceived to go from them; who whilst they were whole, served them for a voice, and did usually speak to those that worshipped them. The Heads of these Idols [Page 21] they say some certain Prince has in keeping, for a great curiosity. From hence we went to the Charter-house, a Convent of Religious men; the building is very fine, seated upon a high hill, near the City, close to the Castle of St. Elmo, from whence you have the best sight of Naples, and a prospect of the Mediterranean Sea, which is believed to be the best in Europe.

Upon Wednesday we hired Horses and rid out of Town, passing through the Grotto of Pausilinus, which Lassel in his Voyage of Italy makes mention of. It is near a mile in length, cut, or rather bored through a great Rocky hill, by the Emperour Lucullus. It is now used as a great high way leading into Naples; wherein two Coaches or Carts may meet and pass by each other easily, though the passage for near three parts of the way be very dark, without any light at all, ex­cept the light of a small Lamp that [Page 22] hangs in a little Chappel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, in the middle of the passage, upon the right hand, going into the City. And because there may be danger in meeting and running against one another in the dark, part of the way, when you hear any noise of Horse or Coach, or the like, which you may easily do at a great distance, (for the least thing in that Concavity makes a great noise) then you use these words, speaking out aloud, (a la Montagna, & a la Marina) which signifies, Which way are you to go, either to that side which is next the Mountain, or to that next the Sea? by which one avoids the disasters that might happen by meeting in the dark. From this Grotto, or high way, we came to the place called Grotto delcane, or the Dogs Grotto: It is a little place concaved or hollowed in the side of a little hill, hard by a Lake, or great pond of water; in which place a man [Page 23] may stand upright, and go three or four steps in length and breadth; here we had a Dog brought us, by a man that lives hard by, and that makes it his business for gain to shew the experiment to strangers; he takes his Dog, and holds down his head within a Foot of the ground, for higher it is believed the Sulphurous Vapours do not mount, as one may observe by a kind of green colour that stains the sides of the place, about a foot high from the Surface of the ground, and not higher; and before you can count a hundred, if you count not too fast, the Dog begins to stagger and reel, (the man then letting him loose) he soon falls down, and struggling for life, dies away immediately; then the man speedily takes him out, and washing him a little in the water of the Lake hard by, he presently recovers; we tryed, for our better satisfaction, the experi­ment upon one of our own Dogs, [Page 24] and kept him in the said Grotto it may be half a minute, or some such small matter of time longer than the first Dog, but too long to recover him, for all our washing, and whatever else we could do, could not bring him to life again.

About a mile from this venemous Grotto is the burning Mountains called by the name of Sulpha terra, the principal matter that burns is Brimstone, mixed with other Mi­nerals: We were as near the burn­ing part of it as we durst go, for the smoke and fire was sometimes rea­dy to choak us. But which was most to be admired, was to see fire and smoke come furiously out, if you thrust but a stick into that levelled part of the Mountain on which we walked, the hilly part thereof being blown up and consu­med with burning some time before.

From hence we went to Puzzeolo, a little Town near the Sea-side, where we saw the Academy or [Page 25] School of Virgil: and by this the Temple of Neptune: but there is nothing remaining of either but old Walls, and the ruins thereof. From hence we took a Boat and went by Sea to see the Sybillas Grotto, but by the way they gave us an account of a Mountain we saw hard by, called Monta Nova, that about 134 years ago there was a curious Plain where the Mountain now stands, and in it a little Town, whereof the people were grown to that excess of debauchery and looseness of life, that in one nights time they were all covered with this Mountain, which they believe to be the Judg­ment of God upon the wickedness of the place. Others there are that say this Mountain was by the vio­lent disorder of combustible matter burning under ground, blown up from Sulpha terra before mention­ed, and carried to that place where it now stands, which is two miles or thereabouts. Within half a mile [Page 26] of this Mountain you see the Grot­to of Sybilla, and the Lake Aver­nus, or Lake of Hell; at the far­ther side of which is the Temple of Apollo. About half a mile from the Grotto Sybilla are the Hot Baths: and very near to this place we saw the Tomb of Agripina, the mother of Nero; by which stands the Ruins of the Temple of Venus and Diana: And from hence you may see that place where Nero caused his Mother to be opened, whereof nothing re­mains but the ruins, like unto a Rock in the Sea, some fourscore or a hundred paces from the shore. We had not gone far from the Sea­side, but going over a little Hill we came into the ruins of what had been formerly a very fine street, in which was kept the Saturdays Mar­ket of that great and antient Town called by the name of Baiae: Near the end of which street, in a Vault or Cave there are several hollows or niches in the Walls, where for­merly [Page 27] in Urues they used to keep the Ashes of the dead. Hard by this place you see the Elysian Fields, and the Dead Sea, where Charon the Ferry-man used to ply; and where formerly Nero's Army lay imbarqued. And not far from hence we saw what some call Pisci­na mirabilis, which undoubtedly had been built for some great end. It is a very lofty building under ground, supported by forty huge Pillars of Stone, or thereabouts; the plaistering of the Walls laid on about as thick as a Crown-piece, of so excellent a composition, (whereof they say whites of Eggs, which I refer to the Reader, was part of the Compound) is so very hard, that the Rock it self cannot be harder. Here it is they say Ne­ro kept fresh water for the use of his Navy, that lay then in the Dead Sea. From this place we went and saw the Cento Camarelle, or little rooms, very strangely contrived to keep Slaves and Prisoners in.

[Page 28] From hence we took our Boat again, and returned to Puzzeolo, where one may see the beginning of a Bridge, carried on at least a mile or two into the Sea; it is re­ported to be the unadvised enter­prise of the Emperour Caligula, who thought to have made it over an arm of the Sea three or four miles long. The same night we return­ed to Naples, and the next day being Thursday, we saw the Sepulchres of Virgil, and of Sanazzaro. Upon Friday we took Horses and went to the burning Mountain of Vesu­vio, some seven miles from Naples Eastward. The Heart or Substance of the Mountain is consumed by constant burnings, and frequent Eruptions; so that it may be more properly called the Shell of a Mountain, whose Substance is lost▪ or not unlike unto a Cup, whose brim or brink, being near half a mile in circumference, one may in any place lean over, and look down [Page 29] into the Concavity thereof, which is very deep, and at the bottom perceive very well a young Hill growing up, or rather forced up by some Combustible Matter un­derneath: This little Hill or Heap, which swells from the bottom, grows every year bigger and bigger, and yet one may perceive it smoak constantly, which 'tis believed it would not do if it did not burn. All the way up and down this Mountain, you cannot avoid going up to the Knees in Ashes. There is a Bed or Channel that lies dry from the top of the Mountain down to the Sea-side, which, they say, was made by a burning liquid mat­ter, which the Mountain spued up so fast, and with that violence, that it forced its way there, and like an impetuous River run burning down a great way into the Sea, whereof nothing remains now but that Bed or Channel, which has ever since continued dry: four or five [Page 30] miles round▪ this Mountain you see a hard rocky Cinder, which in Eruptions are thrown so far at least, up and down the Country to the great damage of the Inhabi­tants. In the year 1631. was the last great Eruption, in which they say there was no less than two thousand people killed and hurt.

Upon Saturday we took a view of Naples again, and the next morn­ing left that place, in order to our return again to Rome, where we arrived the 22d of November, but took Frescata in our way, which is about 12 miles from Rome, where we saw the Palace of Monte Dra­gone, and Aldobrandina, in these we saw many fine Waterworks, among which the most considerable was that of the Organs. The Cascade or fall of Water was so great and so violent, that in the very fall it brought wind enough with it to fill the Organ Pipes, which were very artificially placed in a little House [Page 31] close to the Cascade for that purpose, and a Wheel which the Water turned round, having stops so conveniently placed on it as to touch the Keys in going about, which caused it to play any tune as they should think fit who had the ordering of it, and as loud almost as you hear in any Church; we saw likewise the Fi­gure of a Centaur with his Horn, which by the help of the water he wound ve­ry loud; there was likewise a Satyr playing upon Pipes, and the chirping and singing of Birds very delightful, and all performed by the help of the Water; but which was more astonishing than all this, was the great Grotto, or great Waterwork in form of a Grotto, pla­ced directly against the back part of the House: The coming forth of the Wa­ter is like unto Thunder, and then falls to the ground like Hail, Rain and Mist; Before we took our leaves of this place, we saw a fine Room, in which were se­veral Figures, playing upon divers In­struments, representing the Muses, and underneath it was the Wind Treasury, which we discovered by their opening to us two or three holes about two In­ches diameter made in the Floor of the said Room, from whence the wind pro­ceeded [Page 32] with so much strength, as to bear up a Ball of Copper or Brass hovering very high over the hole.

Thursday the 29th of November being returned to Rome, we went and saw St. Peter's Church and the Pope's Lodgings, where we took notice of three or four Rooms finely painted by Michael Angelo; the Gallery, Gardens, and Water­works are worth taking notice of.

Upon Saturday the 1st of December we went to the Villa Burghese, belonging to a Prince that bears the same name, where we saw abundance of fine Statues, whereof the Gladiator and Apollo taking hold of Daphne are most worth remark: These two last Figures being one intire piece of White Marble, representing Apollo's pursuit of Daphne to ravish her, when she changes into a Tree, was done by Seignior Bernin; the Painting is very good; the fine Gardens and the variety of Waterworks is worth seeing: There is a Sea-Horse-Head, and an Elephants Head worth taking notice of.

Sunday, the 20 of December, we went to St. Paul's Church, about a mile and an half out of Rome, where we saw the Cru­cifix, that, they say, spoke to St. Briget.

Munday we saw Prince Pamphilio his [Page 33] Palace, one of the Popes Nephews, about a mile out of Town.

Tuesday we went from St. Peter's Church to the Inquisition, whose build­ing we saw, but they would not per­mit us to go into the Prisons: From hence we went to the Church of St. O­nestrio, where the body of Torquatus Tas­sus the Italian Poet lies Interred; we saw his Study, some of his own Manu­script, the Cup he usually drunk out of, and the Room he died in, in which there is now a fine Library.

From this place we went to the Queen of Swedens Palace, where there is most excellent pieces of Painting done by the best hands, as Titio, Bonoretta, Carrag­gio and others.

From thence we went to Farnesi's Pa­lace, where we saw that Incomparable Masterpiece that was brought from Rhodes, consisting of Seven Figures, to wit, a Bull, a Dog, Three Men and Two Women; all these Seven Figures as big as the Life, are cut out of one intire piece of Marble, and do all naturally joyn in some part or other. The Figures do represent the History of Licus, King of Thebes, who took to Wife Anthiops, Daughter of Nycteus, King of Ethiopia, [Page 34] whom Jupiter defiled, putting on the form of a Satyr, whereupon Licus put her away and married Dirce, who perswa­ded the King to keep Antiope close Pri­soner, lest she should return into his favour again, which accordingly was done; but Jupiter, out of compassion, soon released her, and then she fled in­to the Mountains, where she was deli­vered to two Sons, Amphion and Zetus, who after they came to understand the injury done to their Mother by Licus and Dirce, they took Dirce and by the Hair of the Head tyed her to the Horns of a mad Bull, from which cruelty, af­ter she had suffered a long time, by the clemency of the Gods she was deliver­ed; but Licus they killed: Whereupon Appolonius and Lauriscus, two of the most famous Sculptures of that age, willing to transmit this Tragical Story to poste­rity, made this piece, as it is likewise reported by Pliny in his 36th Book and Chap. 5. which afterwards amongst o­ther Antiquities was brought from Rhodes to Rome by Assinios Pollion, most famous in the time of Augustus, and kept in the Baths of Antonius, Pius, Caracallus, the Emperour, under Mount Aventin, and in the reign of Pope Paul the Third, [Page 35] named Farnese, was found in the Ruins of those Baths, and by him put into or­der, and placed where you now see it.

Over against this in a Little Palace of Seignior Pighinis, there is two of the finest Statues of Marble that is to be seen in Rome, the one is Meleagre, or as some say Adonis, the other is a Venus.

Wednesday we saw the Palace of Mon­talto, where there are a great many fine Statues and curious Waterworks, in a most spacious and fine Garden. From hence we went to Ludovisio's great Gar­den, where in one Apartment we saw a Bed of inestimable value; it was all beset with Precious Stones, and by this Bed, in a large Box, we saw a petrified man.

Thursday we saw the Palace of Cardi­nal Spada, and the Hospital where all the Pilgrims that come to Rome are enter­tained for three days.

Saturdry we saw Prince Pallastrino's Pa­lace, and upon Sunday we went to Santa Croce in Jerusalem, one of the seven Churches, where they pretend to have a great many Relicks, as the Sponge that they offered to our Saviour when he was upon the Cross, some of the Thorns that he was Crowned with, one of the Nails that fastned him to the Cross, and [Page 36] many other reliques. Afterwards we went to the Church of St. John Latteran, which is esteemed the finest in Rome, next to St. Peters, and where they pre­tend to have the most reliques; hard by this is the Church of St. John in fonte, where Infidels and others that turn to the Church of Rome are baptized.

Monday the 10th. we saw Cardinal Ghisi's Pallace, where there is a most admirable collection of Pictures, and the richest Portiers or Door hangings that are in Rome, there was a very rich bed of wh te Sattin, painted they say, with the Juice of Flowers, so curiously that it took up five years time to do it in:

Tuesday, we saw the Effigies of the King of France on Horseback, cut out of one intire piece of pure white marble, by Cavalier Beruin; it was not then quite finished, yet it seemed to challenge the finest thing of that nature that ever was made: It was to be sent into France, so soon as it should be finished.

Wednesday, we saw the Cupola of St. Peters, and went into the Ball which is near seven Foot Diameter, and will hold ten or twelve men at a time completely.

The Church of St. Peter with the por­tico and thickness of the walls is one [Page 37] Thousand and Fifty eight Palmes in Length.

The breadth of the Church in that part that makes the Cross is six hundred and seventy Palmes.

From the Pavement to the twelve A­postles is two hundred and twelve Palmes high.

The Cupola is one hundred and nine­ty Palms diameter, and six hundred and fifty two from the Pavement to the Cross, that is fixed upon the top of the Cupola.

The Lanthorn of the Cupola, and the great Altar in the middle of the Cross of the Church do measure alike, in height one hundred twenty six Palms and a half.

The Thursday following, we went and saw the little Pallace of Cardinal Ghisi, where there is a very pretty Armory, and many natural Curiosities, amongst the rest the Cockatrices were worth re­mark: His fine Garden, and those ma­ny Artifices by water, from which it is almost impossible to avoid being wet, unless the Gardiner be your Friend, were all very well worth our sight.

Friday the 14th. we were introduced by the French Ambassador, and admitted [Page 38] to the honour of kissing the Popes toe.

Saturday, we saw the Prince Burgese's Pallace which is esteemed the finest in Rome.

Sunday, we went to the Church of St. Sebastian about three miles out of Rome▪ it is one of the seven Churches, and where they tell you our Saviour met St. Paul, and conversed with him, and left his Foot-steps for a mark thereof, if you can believe as the Church of Rome believes; This rencounter of our Saviour with St. Paul was when he made his escape from Rome; besides the Footsteps of our Savi­our, they show you under the Church, where in the times of Persecution they used to hide the Christians, and bury those that they found dead, and where the bodies of St. Peter and St. Paul are reported to be first interred.

Monday 17th. we began with the new Church of St. Nichola Tolentino, which is well adorned with good Painting and a fine Altar.

From hence we went to Porta Salaire, or Collina, through which Hannibal and Bremus King of the Galls entered, when they came to Rome; a little within this Gate you see the place where they used to inter the Vestal Nymphs. We went [Page 39] forward and came to Porta Pia, so called, from Pius Quartus Pope of Rome, in whose time it was built, the workmanship was Michael Angelo Boneretta's, the pretty Sa­bines that were ravished by the Romans, came in at this Gate.

From this Gate we went to the Tem­ple of Sta. Agnese, it is about a mile be­yond the Walls of the City, where there is a great many fine Marble Pillars very antique, and Candlesticks taken from the Temple of Bacchus, but the four Porphery Pillars that bore up the great Altar are most worth remark.

Near to this you see the place they call Roma Subterranea, you go under ground and are conducted into several narrow passages on the right and left hand, you may see several niches and con­cavities in which were Skulls, and other Bones of Saints and Martyrs which in the times of Persecution fled thither and died there, and were buried, as our Au­thor reported.

Near to this place is the Church of St. Constanza, heretofore the Temple of Bac­chus, in which you may see that Por­phery Sepulcher either of Bacchus, or of Constanza, as is believed; it may challenge the whole world for a Curiosity.

[Page 40] From hence we went to the Church of St. Victoire, where you may see the fine Statue of St. Terraise, made by Cavalier Beruin, near to this is that of St. Susanna, where the Painting is not much amiss.

From hence you may see the Tower or Church of St. Bernard, their Garden was heretofore a Theatre, opposite to which are the Baths of the Emperour Di­oclesian, by which you may take notice of eight great Marble Pillars which bore up the Ruines of a most noble arched Fabrick now partly converted to a Church.

Not far from hence there is a little Church called Pudantiene, where you may see that lovely Chappel of Cajeton, and in it admire that incomparable Altar-piece, which represents the birth of our Saviour and the three Kings coming to worship him, made by Petrus Oliverus Romanus; the Mosaick work is worth taking notice of, besides the fine Statutes.

Hard by this little Church you may take notice of the Bath of Agripina, the Mother of Nero, now in the Ruins.

From hence we went and saw the pretty Church of St. Martin, upon Mount Esquelyn, built upon the ruined Baths of Titus Vespasius: At the end of [Page 41] this Church was the Tower of Nero, up­on which he sat playing on a Harp whilst the City of Rome was all in a flame of Fire.

From hence we went to the Church of St. Peter in Vincoli, where there is a very fine Statue of Moses; and they say the last thing that was done by Michael Angelo. I should have told you that it was between Porta Salaire and Porta Pia, about three miles from Rome, where Nero the Emperour killed himself, to prevent a most shameful death that was prepared for him.

Tuesday we went about three miles out of Rome to a place called the Three Fountains, where there is three little Churches, one of them called St. Atha­nasius, another St. Bernard; where they say lies abundance of the Saints bones: and the third is called the Three Foun­tains, where they report St. Paul was beheaded; and at the cutting of it off, they say the Head gave three leaps, at each of which there broke out imme­diately a Fountain of Water: And which was more wonderful, that the Water of each Fountain should have a different taste from the other; the first to taste like Wine, the second like [Page 42] Milk, and the third something near the taste of common Water; but I found no difference in them but that they all tast­ed like other waters, but it may be it was because there was wanting in me a Romish Faith. You may likewise see the Marble Pillar, to which he was bound, as they say, when he was exe­cuted. In returning to Rome we saw St. Pauls Church again, and the Cruci­fix that they say spoke to St. Brigid, where in the Sacristie there are very fine Pictures done by Lanfranck.

In the wall of the City you may see the fine Piramid, or, as some say, the Sepulchre of Caius Cestius; others say it is the Sepulchre of Remus. It was finish­ed in 330 days, which was but a very short time for so great a work.

Thursday after dinner we saw the Pal­lace of Prince Justiniano, where there is fine Statues and Painting. Then we went and saw the Popes gardens at Monte Cavallo.

Friday, near the Church of St. Sebasti­an, which is some three or four miles out of Rome, we saw the Ruins of the Pretorial Camp, or the place of Guard to the Emperour Dioclesian: Near to this you may see the little Heathenish [Page 43] Temple, that was erected in derision of Hannibal, for being forced to retreat without taking Rome. You see also not far from hence the Circle of Caracallo from whence was taken the oblique that now stands in the middle of the Piazza Navona; from this place we went to the Fountain of the Nymph Aegeria, which they say was built 800 years be­fore our Saviours time: Returning to Rome again, we went through the Porto Lattin, just by which we saw a little Chappel, where they say St. John the Evangelist was put to death, by being put into a Cauldron of boyling Oyl. I should have taken notice of Capo di Bove, at the beginning of this days Journey, it lying in the way, the remains of it is a great Tower partly demolished, where the Sepulchre of Matella wife to rich Cras­sus, daughter to Q. Metalla, surnamed Cretico, taken for having subdued the Cretes, now remains.

Saturday, we went to Campidoglio, where you may see erected the Trophies of the Emperour Trajan when he returned to Rome, victorious over the Transilvanians. In the middle Court you see the copper Horse, vulgarly called the Horse of Con­stantine the Emperour: In the Court call­ed [Page 44] Conservatori, you may take notice of the Head of the Emperour Domitian, the Head and an Arm of the Emperour Com­modus, the Tomb of Mamea the Mother of Alexander Severus, with many other fi­gures very ancient. The Apartments a­bove Stairs are full of old Statues and fine Painting, the Idol of Hercules, and the figure of a Wolf, with Romulus and Remus hanging at the Dugs of it, are very antique and worth remark, they are of Copper.

From hence we went to Mount Capi­tolin, hard by which you may see three fine Pillars that remain of the Temple of Jupiter; on the top of which Pillars you may take notice of a Stone with fine old carving on it, of those things which do denote the use and intent of the structure; for by the Bullocks Head and Horns dressed with Flowers, the Ax, the Sacrificers Knife, and Bason to receive the Blood, and other things of this nature, one may easily believe the report, that it is the remains of the Tem­ple of Jupiter, where they used to Sacri­fice to that Deity. Near to this you see the Temple of Concord: And not far from hence that fine ancient Pillar, upon which was set the Statue of Domitian the [Page 45] Emperour; a little farther we saw the Dungeon where the Romans formerly used to imprison the most notorious Ma­lefactors, amongst the rest St. Peter and St. Paul are said to have been kept here; they shewed us a Pillar to which their Chains were fastned, and close by it a little Fountain wherein, they say, the Goaler and his Family were baptized after they were converted to the Christian Faith. In this place stands now a little Church dedicated to St. Joseph, it is at the foot of that great descent of Marble Steps where the Romans used formerly to throw down the Criminals that were condemned to die: By this you may see the Triumphal Arch of the Emperour Septimus Severus, erected against his re­turn from the Conquest of the Partheans, near to this is the Church of St. Martin, where you may see his stately Sepulchre in a Vault, and his fine Image of Marble upon the great Altar; they likewise pre­tend to shew you where his Body was found. A little way from hence is the Church of St. Francis, and in it that no­ble Sepulchre, erected to his memory by Pope Innocent the tenth, and another in­comparable piece of Petrus Oliverus, which represents the entry of Pope Gre­gory [Page 46] the 11th into Rome when he came from Avignion: Behind this Church for­merly stood the Temple of the Sun and Moon; and near to this you see the Ruins of the Temple of Peace, built by Titus Vespasius the Emperour; over a­gainst this Temple are the Gardens of Farnese, in which there is a fine ancient Statue of Agripina: This place was here­tofore the Palace of Caesar, begun by Au­gustus Caesar upon Mount Palatin.

Wednesday, the 2d of January, we pas­sed by the Church of St. Maria Maggiore, which stands upon Mount Esquilino, and came to the little Church of St. Bibian, where you may see her fine Statue, made by Cavalier Bernin; there is good Paint­ing in Fresco, done by Dietio Cortone; they shew you a little Pillar of Porphery, to which they say St. Bibian was tied when she was martyrized.

Near to Porta Palestina is the Temple of Bacchus, built by Augustus Caesar, to the honour of his two Nephews, Cajus and Lisius; it is now vulgarly called Ga­lusia. From hence we went and saw Sancta Croce, which is one of the Seven Churches, the Pillars thereof were taken out of the Temple of Venus and Cupi­don, which Temple was ruined by the [Page 47] Emperour Constantine; behind the great Altar is the story of St. Helena, mother of Constantine, seaching for the Cross of our Saviour, done in Fresco by Perusino the Master of Raphael Ʋrbin. From hence we went to the Temple of the Empe­rour Claudins, now called St. Stephens Church; it is built round, and sup­ported by abundance of fine Pillars; the History of the persecutions of the Chri­stians by the heathenish Emperours, from the time of our Saviour to Constantine the first Christian Emperour, is painted round the Church.

Saturday we went again to the Campa­doglio, where in a little Court going up Stairs, one may take notice of four se­veral pieces Carved in Stone, which re­present the coming of Marc. Aurel. in tri­umph to Rome. Above Stairs take no­tice of the great Hall painted in Fresco by Joseph Darpin; in the next Room is the Statue of Anthonio Columne; and in the next to this the Head of Junius Brutus that overcame the Tarquins, the Head of Mithridate an eminent Captain against the Romans. In another room we saw the Head of Fabritius a brave Soldier against the Pirots, and the Head of Si­mon that betrayed Troy. In another Room [Page 48] we saw a fine Statue of a Cybilla; and in the other Apartments we saw a fine old Statue of a Magician, and the Statue of Marios the great Roman Consul, and the Nurse of Nero the Emperour, a fine fi­gure. Near to the Triumphal Arch of Septimus Severus there remains three Pil­lars of the Temple that Romulus built to Jupiter, occasioned by a Vow Romulus had made when his Army was routed by the Sabins, that if he should be able to rally his Army, and defeat the Enemy, he would build a Temple and dedi­cate it to Jupiter, which accordingly was done, and his Vow performed.

Not far from hence is the Temple of Anthonin and Faustin, now called the Church of St. Laurence, where there is a fine Altar-piece, done by Pietro Cortono: Hard by this is the Temple of Romulus and Remus, now the Church of St. Come and Damian. And not far from hence we saw the Triumphal Arch of Titus Vespasian, erected upon the taking of Rome: Not far from this you may see the Triumphal Arch of Constantine, by some called that of Trajans, because most of the best Figures carved in Stone, and what else is there most worth your no­tice was brought from the Triumphal [Page 49] Arch of Trajan, to whose honour it was built after he had subdued the Tyrant Maxanae: Near to this you may see the Ruins of the Amphitheatre, where St. Ig­neas, a Disciple of St. Peters, in the raign of Trajan, was devoured by Lyons. We went afterwards a little farther, and saw the nine Vaults where the water for the use of the Amphitheatre, as also for the Baths of Titus Vespasian was preserved; some say they were first made to keep water in for the use of Nero's Gardens. From hence we went to the little Tri­umphal Arch of Septimus Severus in Foro­bauno, erected by the Merchants and Goldsmiths, upon Stones where one may see carved the Ax, the head of the Victim, and several other things that were made use of in their Sacrifices to the Heathenish Gods. Hard by this stands an Antick-piece of square Build­ing, which has on every side a great Door built Arch-fashion, and twelve Niches, formerly, they say, there was fourteen such Buildings which divided the City of Rome into so many parts, to each of which there was a Governour▪ They say moreover, that in the reign of Augustus Caesar they used to celebrate the Feasts of Competallini in those places. First insti­tuted [Page 50] by Servius Tullius, in honour of their Domestick Deities. Near to the Rotonda, which is not far from hence, there remains Eleven Fine Pillars of Marble of the Temple of Mars, built by Marc. Aurel. after he had obtained the victory against the Moravies; heretofore it was called Marcoman. From hence we went to the Palace of Fierevante, where by the way we saw the Statue of Antonia, Grandmother to Agrippina; and in the Palace Garden there is a Fine Figure of Esculapius, the Sepulchre of Augustus, and the Vault where all his Family lye inter­red, heretofore called the Mausol.

Monday we went and took a view of Trajans Colomn, esteemed one of the finest pieces of Antiquity the World af­fords; all the most memorable and most noble exploits of his Life are lively re­presented by incomparable Carving, quite round the Pillar, from the top to the pedestal; the Model of which has been lately taken by the French King.

From hence we went to Mont. Avan­tin, where we saw the Church and Con­vent of St. Dominick's Order, it was here­tofore the Temple of Juno; there is one thing remarkable in it, a round Marble Stone, which they say the Devil threw [Page 51] at St. Dominico when he was at prayers. Near to this is the Church of St. Alexis, heretofore the Temple of Diana. From hence we went to the Isle of Tiber, which lies between the Bridge of Four Heads, and the other Bridge called—where the Church of St. Bartholomew now stands, it was heretofore the Temple of Aesculapius, the God of Physick. We went from hence to the Church of St. Cicile, where we saw the fine Statue of Marble, made in the same manner, lying as when her Body was found: Near to this there is another Church, where in a little Chappel you may see a fine Altar­piece, painted by Hanibal Carasco, and a fine Antick Tomb. From hence we went to the Church of St. Chrysogorio, which is built upon the Ruins of an Hospital that Augustus Caesar had made for the use of his maim'd Soldiers. Near to this there is another Church called Sancta Translaverie, heretofore an Hospi­tal for the use before-mentioned. From hence we went to the place where St. Peter was martyrized, where there is now a Church called by his name; there is in it a fine piece of Painting of the transfiguration, done by Raphael Ʋrbin: This place was heretofore called the Ga­nicul [...].

[Page 52] Tuesday following we went to St. Peters Church, and observed the four Statues of Copper, which support St. Peter's Chair; in which Chair the Popes are usually seated when the solemnity of Co­ronation passes on them; the two out­ward figures represent St. Ambrose and St. Augustin, and the two inward St. Cy­ril and St. Chrysostome; on the Right Hand of the Altar you see that incom­parable fine Statue of Marble made by Gulielmus Dellaporta; we went afterwards underneath the Church into the Vaults where we saw Otto the eleventh Empe­rour of Germany as he was there intomb'd, with the Sepulchre of Carola Queen of Jerusalem, Cypre, and Armenia; from hence we went into the Pope's Armory, where they say are Arms sufficient for 65000 Men.

We afterwards went to the Chappel, where we saw that excellent piece of Painting, which represents the Day of Judgment, done by Michael Angelo, who amongst other things that he had figured to be in Hell, puts in a Cardinal in his Pontificalibus, which was drawn so near to the life, that whoever saw it knew it to be the very picture of such a Cardinal, an eminent Man then living in Rome, who [Page 53] they report came to see the Painting be­fore it was finished, and hastily rushing in at the door, over which Michael An­gelo hapned to be then at work upon a Ladder, chanced to throw him down, which to be revenged of, he paints the Cardinal in Hell, whereupon the Car­dinal complians to the Pope, who was then Leo X. of the great indignity done him by Michael Angelo, who had placed him amongst the Devils in Hell; to which the Pope returned this Answer, That he indeed was heartily sorry for it, and could have wished that he had placed him in Purgatory, for there he could have fetched him out; but being once in Hell, there was no redemption. So that the Cardinal remains there to this day.

Friday, we went to the Baths of An­thonio Caracallo, Son to Septimus Severus, from whence were taken all the Pillars that are now in St. Paul's Church, and the Bull of Farnese before mentioned, to­gether with the two great Marble Ves­sels that stand in the Piazza Farnese; these Baths, they say, had 1500 Rooms in them. In going to these Baths, be­tween Mont. Palatin and Mont. Aventin, we saw the Circle where the pretty Si­bins were ravished.

[Page 54] From hence we went to the Church of St. Laurence, being one of the Seven where there is abundance of fine Marble Pillars with other Stones finely Carved, relating to Sacrifices; from whence one may conclude that it had formerly been some Heathenish Temple: Upon the right and left hand going into the Church, you may see two Ancient Tombs of Marble.

We afterwards saw the Castle of St. Angelo, were the Popes Triple Crown is kept, in which there is planted a great many Brass Guns, whereof 'tis believed the major part was made of the Brass ta­ken from the Pantheon, and one of them made out of the Brass Nails only that were imployed in the Brazen Work of that Temple, so vast was the quantity of Brass found there.

From hence we went to the Pallace of Medicis, where we saw these principal Statues, (viz.) the Rotatore, being a Coun­try Fellow that discovered the Conspi­racy of Cataline against the Republick of Rome. A Venus made by Cleomenes the Son of Appolodorus of Athens, which hereto­fore they say was an Idol worshipped in the Rotonda. The Statue of Marsias, who was flaid alive for presuming to under­stand [Page 55] Musick as well as Apollo. The Wrest­lers in one intire piece of Marble. Then in the Garden you see two great Vessels of Marble, taken out of the Baths of Dioclesian the Emperor, and fourteen fine ancient Statues, representing the Sons and Daughters of Niobe, that were all put to death by order of Latona, Jupiters Con­cubine, according to the fiction of the Poets.

From hence we went again to St. Pe­ter's Church, where we saw the head of the Spear that, they say, pierced our Sa­viours Side, and a piece of the Cross, with a Handkerchief that, they say, St. Veronnica gave him to wipe the Sweat from his Face, when he was going to Mount Calvar loaded with the Cross; whereon is to be seen plainly the print of a Face which, they say, affixed it self so to the Handkercief as soon as our Savi­our had made use of it.

Monday the 21th of January we left Rome in order to go to Venice, and lay the first night at Rigneava twenty three miles from Rome, the next night we lay at Ter­nit, twenty eight miles, and upon Wed­nesday we arrived at Foligne thirty miles more; from whence on Thursday wecame to Valcemare twenty eight miles, and the [Page 56] next day to Lauretta thirty two miles, where we saw the Holy House, now so called, it being formerly (they told us) the proper Mansion House, or Habitati­on of the Virgin Mary in Nazareth, when the Angel Gabriel saluted her with the joyful news of her Conception of our Saviour Christ.

It was first miraculously brought from Nazareth into Dalmatia, and from thence by the Angels carried over the Gulf of Venice, and set down in Italy, where it now remains to the great astonishment of all that see it, if they believe the report: All that you see of this Holy House is no more than four Walls very unartifi­cially built, of an ordinary sort of Stone, much like unto our Brick, which four Walls compose the four sides of a little ground Room, almost square, which they call the Holy House; but some time since they have built over it a very fine Church, and have very richly cased and adorned this Irregular Room with pure fine Marble, curiously wrought and carved, much more to be admired than the Holy House it self. In the Holy House there is a Wooden Dish, which, they told us, the Virgin Mary did use to eat or drink in; and the Image of a Wo­man [Page 57] carved in Wood, with a Child in her Arms, which they take to be the Effigies of the Virgin Mary, with our Sa­viour: They shewed us likewise an old Red Pet [...]icoat, supposed likewise to be what the Virgin Mary, in her life-time, did wear, because it was found upon the Image: There are several rich Lamps, whereof ten are of pure Gold; and a ve­ry rich Cloath of Gold and Silver, beset with Diamonds and other Precious Stones, for a Covering to the Image.

From hence they conducted us to the Treasury of the Order of this Holy House, which without doubt is the richest in Christendom, for that innumerable quantity of Precious Stones, as Dia­monds, Pearls, Rubies, &c. too many to be particularly mentioned, that they have there amassed together, likewise Vessels of Gold and Silver in abundance: There is also one fine piece of Painting, done by Hannibal Caratio; after this they shewed us the Apothecaries Shop, where­of the Pots were all Painted by Raphael Ʋrbin. From Lauretta we went on Sa­turday the 26th of January to Ancona fif­teen miles, where the most remarkable thing is the Triumphal Arch of Trojan upon the Mould, and St. Augustin's [Page 58] Church, where there is some good paint­ing, done by Pomerancia. It is a great Town well fortified, with Cannon plant­ed as well against the Sea, as against the Land. From hence we went twenty miles upon the Adriatick Sea shore, and lay at Senegaglia, a Town fortified almost in a square; heretofore it did belong to the Duke of Ʋrbin, but now it is in the posses­sion of the Pope. The next day we went twenty miles more to Dinner at Pesaro, within five miles of this place we went through a Town called Fano, where there is a Triumphal Arch erected to the ho­nour of Caesar, when he returned victo­rious over the French. From Pesaro we went 25 miles more, and lay at Rimini, still all along upon the Adriatick Sea side. It is a great Town, but very much ruined by an Earthquake, that two years before shook down a Spacious Market-place, with the greatest part of the Buildings about it, which were very sumptuous; and the best part of the Town was there­by destroyed, to the terrible amazement of all the Inhabitants, whereof the greatest part made their escape when they first perceived the Earth to tremble, and the Streets begin to rock, and by the violence of the concussion ready to [Page 59] meet and touch a top, though some more careful than prudent, to save their goods, were buried with them in the ruine of their Houses; the greatest part of which still lies in heaps. The Chappel of St. Anthony, which Lassel in his Voyage of Italy doth say, proved miraculously the real presence in the Sacrament, was like­wise without any difference shaken down with the rest; so that the histori­cal painting, which should have inform­ed us concerning the Miracle, fell with the Chappel Walls. Near to this there is a large Stone fixed, where they say Caesar made a Speech to his Army. From Rimini, upon Tuesday the 29th. we came to Ravenna, 35 miles, where we spent the morning to see the Town, and first went to the fine Convent of Sancta Vi­talle, where we saw the Chappel of Galla Placidia, the Daughter of Theodosius the Great, and Sister to Arcadia and Ho­norius, Wife of Constantius, and Mother to Valentinianus the Third, all Emperours. Her great Marble Tomb is placed at the upper end of the Chappel▪ And the two great Tombs of Honorius and Valen­tinianus on each side of the Chappel; the two Tombs fixed in the Walls going out of the Chappel; it is believed do ac­knowledge [Page 60] Arcadius, and the Nurse of Valentinianus, for their being there erect­ed: After we had seen this, we went to the Church, where in going in, we took notice of a Marble Stone in the wall, whereon were several very Antique Fi­gures, curiously engraven, representing a Bull led to the Sacrifice, with the Heathenish Priests attending: There is likewise the Tomb of Justinian the Em­perour, and over against that John the Ninth, Archbishop of Ravenna lies: Un­der one of the Altars you see the Tomb of St. Vitalle: Near the Church Door, and in several places of the Town, seve­ral old Sepulchres are remaining: From hence we went to the Church of St. Ma­ria Maggiore, where there is abundance of fine ancient Marble Pillars, and the Chappel of St. Orcicero, who after he was beheaded, they say, carryed his Head from the place of Execution, two hundred paces: We went from this Church to the Rotonda, one of the greatest pieces of Curiosity in all Italy; it was designed by Amalasunta, only Daughter to Theodoric, King of the Goths, for a Tomb for her Father, and in the Year 526, was accordingly built; a little be­fore his death he caused a Pope and two [Page 61] famous Councellors to be put to death: The building is round, but the Curiosi­ty is in the Roof, which is one intire Stone, near four foot thick, and thirty five foot over, or in the Diameter that covers the whole Building, being con­cav'd like unto a Buckle; it is to the the admiration of all that see it questio­ned, how such a Stone could be got out of a Quarry, brought thither, and placed as it is. The Vass that this King was put in, is of Porphyry, and was placed upon the top of this great Stone in the middle, having round about the sides twelve Statues, representing the Twelve Apostles; but at the siege of Ravenna, it was shot down, and is now to be seen in the Convent of the Zocollanties, fixed in a Wall, conveyed thither by some of the Town in the Year of our Lord 1564. We went next to the Church of the Polonaries, supported by four and twenty fine Marble Pillars very Antique; and in the Piazza or Market-place, there are two more, whereon the Statues of St. Vitelle and St. Apollinare, Protectors of the City, do now stand.

Wednesday, the 30th. of January, we left Ravenna, and went to Fienza, 20. miles, here it is they make the fine Earhen [Page 62] Ware; the next day we came to Bo­logne, where we saw a great many fine Churches and Convents, to wit, that of St. John in the Mount, in which there is very good painting, especially one piece made for St. Cicilia by Raphael Ʋr­bin, and another fine piece done by Hannibal Caratio. In the Convent of St. Dominico, there is behind the great Altar, a fine piece, done by Machael Angelo: The Tomb of St. Dominic is ve­ry fine; in the Quire you see the Hi­story of the Old and New Testament, Carved in Wood, very curiously done by Franck. Damiano, a Lay Brother, and a Lamp of Silver, sent to them from the Indians about thirty years ago; they shewed us St. Dominic's Chamber for a great Curiosity. From hence we went and saw the Silk Mills, which was well worth our trouble, and one or two Pal­laces, and then we went to the fine Gal­lary of Aldovandino.

Monday, the 4th. of February, we went from Bologne to Modene 20 miles, where within four miles of that Town, near to the Great Road, is scituated a strong place called Ʋrbin the Eighths Fort; it is a square, fortified with Ravelins and Demilunes, the best regular Fortificati­on [Page 63] that I had then seen in Italy: The Town of Modene is inconsiderable, the Fortifications of it are old and decayed, but the Citadal may be taken notice of: We saw the Duke and his Pallace, in which there is nothing more remarka­ble than the Collection of Pictures.

Tuesday we went from Modene, and lay eighteen miles off at a little Town, called Cento, and from thence to Ferrara eighteen miles, where coming into Town you may take notice of a Fort, which seem'd to me to be a Pentagone very well fortified; in the Town is the Castello, surrounded with deep Ditches of Water; here the Popes Legate re­cides: They shewed us a fine Colomn not finished▪ whereon is to be placed the Statue of the Pope, that at present stands hard by the Domo, which is a ve­ry old Church. The Benedictins is a fine Monastery, where we saw the Tomb of Arioste the great Poet, and Author of Orlands Furioso. Over against the Domo, you may take notice of two Statues, re­presenting two Brothers, one a Duke the other a Marquess, of the House of Este; one of them delighted much in sporting and playing tricks, and had a House built for that purpose, but now [Page 64] out of use. It became afterwards a Pro­verb, when any one would be playing the Fool, to say, (il Fratello del Duca è morto) which is as much as to say (leave off Fooling.)

Thursday following we went to Din­ner to Ravigo, the first Town in that Road that belongs to the Venetians, 22 miles from Ferrara, where we passed the River Poe, and the White Channel; after Dinner we went 15 miles more, to a Town called Mont Selevie; not far from hence we passed the River Adige; and a Friday morning we came to Padoue, ten miles, from whence the same day we took Bark, and arrived at Venice the eighth day of February, where we staid three weeks to see the Town; and the most remarkable thing there is, the Arse­nal, in which there is Arms for four hundred thousand men; there is a very great store of Cannon and other instru­ments of War: Their Ports do abound in Gallies, Galliots, and Men of War: We went into the Bucentore, a certain Vessel that the Doge or Duke of Venice goes in when he performs the Matrimo­nial Ceremony betwixt Himself and the Sea, by throwing in a Gold Ring: We saw the private Armory, and the Trea­sury, [Page 65] which indeed is not to be admired after having seen the Treasure of Lauret­ta: We went afterwards to the Doge's Pallace and the Councel Cham­ber, where there is good Painting; the Piazza or Place of St. Mark, is very well worth ones particular notice, as also St. Mark's Church, where you see the four fine Horses of Brass, brought from Con­stantinople, and the two great Pillars of Marble near the Water-side: The Bas­relief, upon the side of a little Building joyning to the Steeple of St. Mark's Church is very well worth the taking notice of; then we went up to the top of the Steeple, from whence we had a fair prospect over all Venice, which, I believe, contains more buildings than Rome; but that which is chiefly to be admired, is its Scituation and Building in the Sea, so that one may go by Wa­ter and by Land almost through every Street of this vast City. There is two Canals or Ports, by which the biggest Ships may go in and out; the one is called Porto Lydo, the other Malomoca: After we had gone round the City by Sea, and viewed it after that manner, we took our leaves of it, and went again to Padoue, where we arrived the [Page 66] first of March; we saw the Schools of Physick, Divinity and Law, &c. called the Bo, and the Tomb of Antinor, Foun­der of Padoue, who lived fifteen hundred years before our Saviour Christ, upon Earth, it is erected at the Corner of a Street; then we went to the Church of St. Anthony, where we saw the fine Tomb of Alexander Contarini, General of the Venetians, and the Tomb of St. Anthony, which is adorned with several fine Marble Figures, representing the Miracles wrought by him in his life­time and about twenty seven great Silver Lamps. In the Quoire of the same Church there is about twelve pieces of Cast Brass, so curiously wrought with all sorts of Figures, and other things ne­cessary to the design, that it gives you an Historical Account of several passa­ges in the Old Testament, and so much to the Life, that I cannot forbear to make mention of one, which is the Story of Sampson and the Philistins, when he destroyed so many of them by car­cying away the Pillars of the House, and letting the House fall wherein they were; it is so artificially done, that you will hardly believe your eyes, but take the whole Fabrick to be effectually fall­ing [Page 67] down. In the Cloysters to the same Church, there is a little Black Marble Stone that covers the Bowels of the Old Duke of Norfolk, Father to the supposed Mad Duke that we saw confined at Pa­doue: Right before this Church stands the Statue of Gatta Mela, General of the Venetians, in Brass. From hence we went to the Church of St. Justin, where we saw the Tomb of St. Luke, much like unto an old wooden Chest, incha­sed with Iron; the Tomb of S. Matthias, over against it on the other side of the Church, and under the great Altar, the Tomb of St. Justin; at the upper end of the Quire there is a fine piece of Painting, done by Paul Veronese. To this Church belongs a Convent, esteem­ed the finest in Italy. Near to the Pal­lace of the Great Captain, we saw the great Hall, called Pallagio di Regione, and that remarkable Stone in it, called La­pis opprobrii, whereon if any one comes and claps down his Breech, three times together, he shall never be troubled, whilst he lives, for debt, but then he is for ever after defamed, and himself and Family more ruined in their Reputati­on and Honour, than if they had died in Prison for Debt. We went from [Page 68] hence to the place where they Anato­mize and Dissect the Bodys of Men and Women, which is so conveniently built, that although it is much less than an ordinary Chamber, yet there is room enough with Seats for two or three hun­dred Spectators.

Sunday, the 3d. day of March, we went from Padoue to Vicenze 18 miles, where about a mile out of Town we saw a pretty Pallace, called the Roton­da; it is a very fine Prospect and be­longs to the Marquess Martio Capra; we also saw the Garden and Labyrinth of Conte Valinerana, the Amphitheatre and Triumphal Arch of Poladio, with what else was considerable. Tuesday the 5th we went thirty miles more, and came to Dinner at Verona, where the finest Tombs, and the richest that ever I saw of Marble, are there erected to the honour of the Family of the Scali­geres, who were formerly Masters of this Town; then we went to the Am­phitheatre, which is much like to that in Rome, but a more intire thing within, for the Spectators Seats or Places which are the Circular Degrees or Steps with­in side remain all whole, the outside is much more ruined than that in Rome. [Page 69] From hence we went to Conte Juste's Garden, where you have a prospect of the whole Town; I took notice of the Pine Trees in the Garden, which are the finest I ever saw. From this Gar­den we went to St. George's Church, where we saw two pieces of Painting, very much esteemed, done by Paul Ve­roncse: It is thought that this Town is the biggest (except Venice) that belongs to the Venetians; its scituation is upon the River Adige.

Wednesday, the 6th. we left this place and went to Mamoue 24 miles, the Duke thereof and Dutchess his Wife, are both of the Family of Gonzaga: We saw the Town and the Dukes Pallace, but nothing worth remark in either▪ for about forty years ago it was plun­dered by the Germans, yet something remains in the Closet of Natural Curi­osities worth taking notice of, to wit, two or three Children Mummies, one of them like to a Satyr, the other two very Monstrous, there being but two Bodys, but to each Body Members for two Children; one of these Children was a Male, the other a Female very discernable: There was likewise a Man Mummy, he being about 360 years ago, [Page 70] a very Tyrannick Governour of this place, was killed, and thus preserved for a detestable spectacle to after Ages. Of several Cockatrices I had seen in our Travels, the biggest was in this place. The little Hall painted by Gulio Romano of the Trojan History is worth taking notice of. The Town of Mantoue is well fortified by Nature as well as by Art. Ver [...]a, the place I made mention of before this, is likewise strongly forti­ed with thick Walls and deep Ditches. About five miles from Mantoue, in the road to Brescia, there is a fine Palace, belonging to this Duke, called La Fon­talla. The same day being the seventh, we arrived at Brescia 40 miles, riding all the way through a very delightful Coun­try. The Town of Brescia is strong, ha­ving good Walls and Ditches. The Castle that stands upon a little Hill has a great many good Cannon in it, and commands the Town. About 160 years ago the French were Masters of it, who with the assistance of some forces from Bologn made a strong sally upon the Town, plundering, and putting all to the Sword; ever since which time they have remained in Peace. The Town-House was one of the finest buildings in [Page 71] all these parts, but by an accident burnt the remains of it is worth one's regard. The ninth we went from hence to Ber­gamo 30 miles, where we lay that night, the next morning, being Sunday the 10th we went into the Town, which is scitu­ated on a Hill, and well fortified: This is one of the finest prospects of Italy, we saw the Domo, and in it the Sepulchre of Bartholomew Collione, late Patron of the Town; there are four fine pieces kept lockt up, some call it Painting, but o­thers affirm it to be all but Wood In­laid, which makes the Pieces the more Curious.

After Dinner, the same day, we went to Le Fournaise 16 miles, where we lay that night; it is but a Village, and lies upon the River Adda. The next day we rode 14 miles upon the same River­side, and came to Millan the 14th of March; and first of all we went to St. Paul's Church, and to that of St. Ceis [...], in both which there is good Pai [...]ting, cheifly in this last, where in the [...] there is a fine piece done by R [...]phael Ʋrbin. In the Church of St. [...] they shew you a Brazen Serpent, where­of the Head and Tail, they tell you was part of that Serpent that Moses caused [Page 72] the Children of Israel to set up for a re­medy against the plague of biting Ser­pents: The Body of St. Ambrose lies un­der the Great Altar. In the Garden of this Convent they shew you a Chappel, where they say St. Augustin was convert­ed to the Christian Faith, and another Chappel, where they say he was Ba­ptized. From hence we went to the Convent of St. Victoir, where there is very good painting: These two last mentioned are esteemed the finest Con­vents in Italy; then we went to the Church of St. Eustorgian, where they pre­tend to shew the Tomb of the Three Kings that came to worship our Saviour in Bethlehem, and the Sepulchre of St. Peter, who they say was martyrized in a Wood betwixt Millan and Pavie. Then we went to the Church of St. Laurence, built after the model of St. Sophie in Constantinople; it was formerly the Pa­lace of Maximilian the Emperour, there remains sixteen of the old Pillars next the street, which I looked upon to be the greatest piece of Antiquity of the whole Town; and in the Church there is nothing but the Tomb of Placidia, Daughter to Honorius the Emperour that is worth your notice▪ The Domo or Ca­thedral [Page 73] Church is the finest Fabrick in Millan, and if one had a month to spend there, one might see it every day, and yet find something to please ones Curi­osity, that one had not seen, or atleast taken notice of before, notwith­standing it is not finished, nor do I be­lieve ever will be. There is about six hundred Marble Pillars belonging to the Church, and each Pillar they say cost at least One Thousand Crowns; all the Walls of the Church are likewise of Marble: In a little Chappel, under ground, we saw the body of St. Charles covered with Crystal, very transparent, lying in his Robes, the same he wore when he was Archbishop of that place, his Face, which looked black and rotten­ish, had no covering, but lies always ex­posed to view; the Crystal Case preser­ving it from Cobwebs, dust and other filth. From the top of the Church we took a view of the Town, which is near as big as London within the Walls; we saw the great Hospital, the Lazaretto or Pesthouse, both well worth taking notice of. In the Cabinet of Settali, one of their their Canons there is a great many cu­riosities both Natural and Artificial; what I most admired was three large [Page 74] Unicorns Horns, which I never saw in any place before, nor till then did I be­lieve there could be any such thing in na­ture, but the Master of the Cabinet was strongly of the opinion that they did be­long to, and were taken from Fish, and that there was never any such Beast seen to have such a Horn, but that it was a vulgar error; each Horn was about six foot long, twisting regularly from the root upwards, but falling from the Twist gradually as it drew up to the spear or point, which was very sharp: The lower part or root of the Horn being about ten or twelve inches circumference, which declining gradually till it comes to a spear a top, renders it a very strong and formi­dable weapon. The Horn is all very white; the whole Cabinet is full of cu­rious things, yet I think that Cabinet we saw at Lyons in France does far excel it. From hence we went to the Castle, it is a very regular Exagon, with half moons; it is esteemed one of the compleatest pieces of fortification in all Italy, and of great strength, upon every one of the Bastions is planted twelve pieces of Can­non; there is a Garrison in it of about 500 Soldiers with their Wives and Chil­dren▪ After we had seen the Castle, we [Page 75] went to a Palace of the Countess of Smione, about a mile and a half out of Millan, where amongst other remarka­ble things, you may take notice of the Echo, which was the best I ever heard. There is a very strong wall round Millan, which is said to be ten miles; the Libra­ry there is worth seeing.

From this place we came the 13th to a little Village called Buffe [...]lo 20 miles, it lies upon Navillio, a small River, and from thence the 14th to Vercelle 20 miles more: Then we came to the River Tissi­no 4 miles, and so to Novarra 6 miles; this is the strongest place upon the Fron­tiers of Savoy that belongs to the Milane­ses: From hence we came to Vercelli 10 miles; this place belongs to the Duke of Savoy, and is the first place of strength, near the Frontiers of the Milaneses; One side of the Town is regularly fortified with Bastions and Half Moons, hardly finished; on the North part of the Town the fortifications are irregular, there being a great deal of the old walls still remaining, however the Town is very strong. The 15th we came to Din­ner to Ciliana or Sian 17 miles; and from thence to Chivas 10 miles, where we lay that night at the Posthouse, from [Page 76] whence the next day, being Saturday the 16th. of March, we came to Turin 12 miles. The next day, Sunday, we went to Pignerol 16 miles; it is a strong Town, which the French King about 45 years ago took from the Doke of Savoy. The Cit­tadel wherein Monsieur Fouket, thatgreat Minister is confined, is a very strong place, and like to be much stronger if they continue to carry on the work of their fortifications. The Town it self is likewise very well fortified, where at the Gate going in they obliged us to leave our Arms, and to take a Soldier to wait upon us to the Governour for leave to see the Town and Cittadel, which was soon granted us. This place has a very great awe upon the Duke of Savoy, the French being able by means thereof at their pleasure to make an in­road upon that Dukedom.

From Pignerol we came to Villiane the Monday following 12 miles, and a bad way over the Mountains; near to this Town we passed betwixt two small Lakes, called by the Name of the Town▪ From this place we went eight miles farther, and came to Busolino, the next day to Novalese six miles, which is the foot of the Mountains on the side of [Page 77] Piedmont. From Novaleze, in the ascent of the Alpes, we came to la Ferier two long miles, from thence to the great Cross two more, which is the least half to the top of Mount Senis; from the great Cross we went five miles upon a Plain, which brought us to the Ra­ [...]asse (that is) the place where we took Sledges, on which we slid all upon Snow from the top of the Mountain to the foot towards France in so little time, that I forbear here to mention, which which was two miles more, and that brought us to Lanebourg, from Lane­bourg to Bremont two leagues, where we lay on Tuesday night; from thence we went to St. Michell five leagues, and so to la Chambre four leagues, all upon the River Arch. Thursday we came to Mal­taverne six leagues, and then to Mont­millian two leagues, and so to Chambrey two great leagues more. On Friday we came to Remile five leagues, where we lay▪ From thence we came on Saturday the 23th. of March, new stile, to Geneve seven leagues, where after we had rested our selves for some time, we returned for France by the way of way of Lyons [...]nd then taking another road different [...]om what we travelled before, in some [Page 78] short time arrived at Paris, where we stay'd about a month, and then set for­ward for England, to which place we returned after four years travl in France, Italy, Swisserland, and through some of the Spanish Territories; but then stay'd not long before a voyage into France was again proposed, with which you was pleased to comply, and so passed the following Winter at Mompellier, going another way through France, than the way you had gone before▪ from whence the next Summer, by another road we returned again to Paris, where I was compelled to leave you. And the same time humbly take leave to Conclude this short and rude Journal of your Tra­vels in Italy.


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