Observations upon some part of Sr FRANCIS BACONS NATVRALL HISTORY as it concernes, Fruit-trees, Fruits, and Flowers: especially the Fifth, Sixth, and Seaventh CENTURIES, Improving the Experiments mentioned, to the best Advantage.

By RA: AUSTEN Practiser in the Art of Planting.

Gen: 2.8.

And the Lord God planted a Garden Eastward in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed.

And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for foode.

Gen: 1.29.

And God said: behold I have given you every hearb bearing seede, which is upon the face of all the Earth: and every Tree, in which is the fruit of a tree bearing seede, to you it shall be for meate.

OXFORD, Printed by Hen: Hall, for Thomas Robinson. 1658.

To the honourable Robert Boyle Esq. sonne to the Lord Boyle Earle of Co [...]ke [...]

Honoured SIR,

THE Prophet David tells us, the workes of the Lord are wonderfull, sought out of all them that have plea­sure therein: and he hath laid some of the secrets of Nature so deepe, that no humane understanding can fathom, or find them out: Yet neverthelesse he gives wisdome unto man (who is studious thereabout) to discover multi­tudes of rare, and excellent things, for the use and comfort of man­kind, that God in all things may be glorified.

Every man hath a Talent, (or more) given him, to improve, for the honour of him that gave it, and the advantage of himselfe, and others: and not to hide it, or lay it up in a Napkin, as very many slothfull persons do, to their shame, and destruction: Especially of those who have the greatest portions, and Revenues in this world: and there­fore think ther's no need (nor reason) they should labour, either with body or mind: Directi­ons for walking with God; pag. 49. But Mr Boulton (now in heaven) hath left a Lesson behind him for such to learne, He is (saith he) a cursed drone, a child of idlenesse, and sloth, the very tennis Ball of Temptation, most un­worthy of the blessings, and benefits of humane society, who doth not one way or other, cooperate, and contribute to the common good, with his best endeavours, in some honest particular calling, or course of life. It brings true honour to be Instrumentall for the honour of God, and good of others: we may take his word for it, who hath said, Them that honour me I will honour, but those that de­spise me, shall be lightly esteemed. All men desire a good name, which is no way attainable, but by obedience according to the Scrip­tures: the truest worth, and Nobility, is to be borne from above, to have Relations in Heaven, all earthly honour is but a shadow to it.

Now I wish (for their good) such persons would look upon you, (wor­thy Sr) and set you as an Example, and Patterne before them, of Lear­ning, and studiousnesse, in all profitable knowledg, your diligent search, [Page] and indagation into the noble Art of Chymistry, (as it relates to Ve­getables, and Animals) having already produced many excellent ef­fects, and been profitable unto many; your study also of other parts of Philosophy I doubt not but [...]ill (in due time) b [...]ing forth speciall fruits; And tha [...] in par [...]icular about Fermentation, (and other wa [...]es of pr [...]paration) of Liquors, more especially that of Cider, which you are now in hand with. It is well knowne, how acceptable, and profitable it is, and hath been, for many generations past, for the health of our bodies, abov [...] many (if not any) other kinds of Liquors, knowne to us; Now in case it may be advanc [...]d, and made much better, by Fermenta­tion, (as there is no doubt but it may) then it will be of more speciall and generall use, then ever yet it hath been, if unto all this be added, vi [...]. to make it of those fruits w [...]ich are knowne by Experience to be the best for that purpose: The Learned, and incomparable Author Sr Francis Bacon hath left unto men such Rules, and helps in all kinds of Learning, that th [...]y will be much wanting to themselves, if Arts, and Sciences improve not, very much above what they have been in former ages; And as the foresaid worthy Author was eminently seen in all Arts and Sciences, so his delight was especially (as is recorded of him) in Vegetable Philosophy, which was as it were, his dar­ling delight, having left unto us much upon Record in his Naturall H [...]story; some part whereof referring to F [...]uit-trees, Fruits, and Flowers, I have, (by encouragement from himselfe) endeavoured to improve unto publique profit, according to what understanding, and experience I have therein: (I think it would not be in vaine, if others who are seene, and experienced in other parts of the said History, would do the like) And seeing I perceive (since you have been plea­sed to honour me with your acquaintance) that your Genius is towards things of this nature, to promote them, in order to the Common good, and that I have encouragements in my labours thereabout, (both as to the Theory, and Practise) I humbly, present these following Ob­servations into your hands, and am (for all your favours)

(honoured Sr)
your obliged servant RA: AUSTEN.

To the Reader.

COncerning my undertaking this ensuing work, I give this Account: It may (perhaps) by some be thought too bold an attemp in me, to exa­mine the writings, and to recede (in any thing) from the Judgment of so Eminent, and worthy an Author; To which I Answer: For what I have here done, I doubt not, but if the Authour himselfe were now living, he would approve of it: But more particularly, let it be considered that those things which I have to do with herein, are directly within the compasse of my Calling, and course of life: about which I am daily conversant: And the Author hath given to my selfe, and others, sufficient encouragement in this: Having said (in his Advancement of Learning) That the writings of speculative men upon active matter, seemes to men of Experience, to be but as dreames, and dotage: And that it were to be wished, (as that which would make Learning indeede solid, and frui [...]full) that active men would, or could become writers: Men that have Experience in things, are like to see in the Mysteries, and secrets of them, more, and further then such as have only Notions, and apprehensions of them without action, and practice, It is concluded, and laid for a ground: That, peritis credendum in sua Arte: Men are to give credit to Artists in their owne faculty, And f [...]rther observe: That many of the ensuing particulars, are but only Queries, set downe by the Author, where­in not having Experience, he desired further light from it: which I have ende [...]voured herein to resolve; And wherein I have perceiv­ed a manifest mistake [...] I have (for the Truths sake, and profit of men) discovered it. I hope, without any reflection upon the wor­thy, [Page] and Learn [...]d Author, who I verily believe, would have en­couraged any Experienced man, in the like undertaking: not seek­ing himselfe, (as he In his Epistle to his Naturall [...]istory. professeth) but the Truth, in these things, for the good of future Generatio [...]s.

Let it be observed also, That the Experiments set downe by the Author in his Naturall History, are of two sorts, as himselfe saith: Experimenta Fructifera, & Experimenta Lucifera: Experiments of Light, and Discovery, (such as serve for the illumination of the un­de [...]standing, for the finding out, and discovering of Naturall things in their Cau [...]es, and [...]ff [...]cts, that so A [...]ioms may be framed more soundly, and solidly) And also Experiments of use, and Profit, in the lives of men.

Now the Observations upon these Experiments tend also to the s [...]me ends. I have endeavoured to improve them for most advan­tage, and therefore have so much enlarged, especially upon many of them, and where I have been more briefe, and the thing requi­red further Di [...]covery, I have referred to it, in my Treatise of Fruit-trees, where it is spoken to more fully.

And that there may be a briefe view of what is contained in the ens [...]ing Experiments, and Observations [...] I have set downe the chiefe particulars, in the Table following, which I recommend to thy use, for thy profit,

RA: AVSTEN.
Good Reader.

THE Author of this piece has alwaies thought fit (I dis­claime any worth in me that may deserve it) to give me leave some time before every impression to make a judg­ment of what in this nature he has published.

But now bearing Reverence to the Greatnesse and Honour of the Person (without controversy for that constellation of Learning and Nobility in him none of the least credits of our Nation) with whom he is now seene, was desirous, that I should not only tell him (which at other times served the t [...]rne) but thee, and the World, my thoughts concerning this his adventure. Which are, that no man ought to judge him presumptuous in this particular, I take him to be such who has more mind to communicate to the World (for pub­lique profit) what he has found by triall certaine, than to make a book [...] and indeed am Witn [...]sse my selfe to the truth of most of his Experiments, the subjects of which no man dares call too low for the p [...]n, that Remem­bers the Author whose writing fi [...]st gave occasion to th [...]se Animadver­sions.

The Nature of things, C [...]use [...] of their generation, and of all appear­ing effect, in them, is confest to be a dark theme, and for ought I know, many questions thereabouts are not likely to be concluded, especially to the conviction of gainesayers, till Anaxagoras, Epicurus, Aristotle rise a­gaine: A little time by Gods providence I have been continued in the World, some small pittance of which has been laid out in that search: I dare not say that I have been ascertained of the adequate, and true causes, with their manner in Causation of any of those Vulg [...]r appea­rances which are in all mens Eyes, after the best state that I can make in this subject, Fortasse non, if opposed, may put me to a blanck [...] nor am [Page] I confident of any mans Wisdome that concludes affirmatively more than this. That such an effect may proceede in such a manner from su [...]h a Cause: Sometimes in many opinions we have no probable causes assi­gned, but when many probable, than tis hard [...]st of all to prove which is true [...] This I sp [...]ak to tak [...] off the [...]xceptions of such who are otherwise perswaded than our Author d [...]clares himselfe, when the qu [...]stion is con­cerning c [...]uses, as in the 481. Exp [...]riment: My Lord Bacon seemes to maintaine Anaxag [...]ras his opinion, concerning the way of generati­on, and augmentation per [...], Mr Austen A [...]istotles, Ile not be bound that in a severe judgment the M [...]ster of our Schooles shall have the sentence on his side: Yet we find few better Instances (th [...]n Mr Austen brings) to explaine how out of one Nature (if ind [...]ed there [...]e but one) in th [...] j [...]yce drawne through the Roots to serve severall grafts upon the same stock severall natures may be made. Others may likely be [...]ffended at his refusall to attribute many effects to the descention of Sap, which who ever d [...]es, I give him leave to blame me too; For I have long beli [...]ved the opinion of descention of Sap in Trees, a vulg [...]r Error, and h [...]ve alwaies encourag [...]d him to publish his argum [...]nts to the contra­ry. There may be others ready to stumble at other things, but if it be in Matters wherein we are so much in the da [...]k [...], by my consent for all mistakes we will enterchangeably beg, and give pardon: his arguments to me are all [...]sp [...]cially commendable in this, that they smell more of the gar­den than Library see pag. 100, 101, &c. of his Treatise of Fruit-trees.

If therefore my judgment must be made, I can't but commend him hear­tily, and his ex [...]mple to all, exercised in any like waies, and doubt not but that it would be mightily to the advantage of knowledge in Naturall P [...]ilosophy, if even all to the Low [...]st of Mechaniques would communi­cate the m [...]steries of their Arts. Interest ind [...]ed hinders most, and [...]o tis like [...]o do; from maki [...]g any thing Valuable common. But tis Heroicall and N [...]ble Charity when theres nothing but selfe [...]Interest hindring, to d [...]ny that for the publique good: I believe the Author exp [...]cts to him­selfe no a [...]tributes of so high Qualities. I wish he may alwaies have his du [...] a [...] l [...]ast from

(Good Reader)
His and Thine to serve thee R. SHARROCK L. B. novi Coll: Soc:

Observations upon some part of Sr FRAN: BACONS Naturall HISTORY the V. CENTURY.

WEE will now enquire of Plants, or Vegetables, And we shall do it with diligence. They are the principall part of the third daies work: They are the first Producat, which is the word of A­nimation; for the other words are but the words of Essence: And they are of excellent, and ge­nerall use, for Foode, Medicine, and a num­ber of Mechanicall Arts.

Experiments in Consort touching the Accelera­tion of Germination.

THere were sowen in a Bed, Experiment. 401. Turnip-seede, Wheate, Cowcumber-seede, and Pease: The Bed we call a Hot-bed: Horse-dung (such as will Heate when laid together) laid a foot high, supported on the sides, and mould laid thereon two or three fingers deepe. The Turnip-seede and Wheate, came up halfe an inch above ground, within two [Page 2] daies after; the rest the third day: This is a noble Experiment, for without this they would have been foure times as long in comming up. It may be tryed also with Cherries, Strawberries, and other Fruits, which are dearest when they come early.

Obse [...]vation.Though a Hot-bed conduce much to the speedy springing up of Seeds, Stones, Roots &c. yet the end cannot be attained hereby: (they will not come to ripen [...]sse earlier th [...]n others for profit) unlesse there be a continuance, and concurrence of Causes, from fi [...]st to last, all alon [...], without intermission: For the hasty, and sudden springing up of seed upon a Hot-b [...]d, is but a forcing of N [...]ture, for a little while, and serves to excite for the present, while the heate continues in it; but what shall carry on the spring­ing, and growth of these things to pe [...]fection, when the heate of the Hot-bed is over: surely as the Cause of springing and growth becomes weaker, and weaker, untill it cease altogether, so also will the [...]ff [...]ct of that heate, that is, the growth of the Plants.

Expe [...]iment. 402. Steeping of Wheate in fat waters, and other Liquors, is a rich Ex­p [...]riment f [...]r profit, if the goodn [...]sse of the Crop answer the earlinesse of th [...] comming up &c.

Observation. S [...]eeping of Seed [...], Kernell [...], Stones &c. is chiefly to excite the spi­ [...]it of the kernell, or Seede, and to make them the sooner, and more easily to open, and spring up out of the E [...]rth; which some kinds have much need of: As Aprecots, Almonds, and other thick, hard stones.

As for Wheate, and such like seeds, sleeping will excite the spi­rits, and open the grosser parts, and hasten their springing up; But I conceive the vigour, and virtue (gotten by such steeping) will be soone gone, it will not be lasting, as the naturall properties of the seed; Whatsoever is naturall, in seeds, Plants &c. doth conti­nue, and cannot fall off, or be lost; but that which is but acci­dentall, and from Art, is but of short continuance, and soone over; (like the virtue of a Cup of wine, or a meales meate, to our bodies) so that the end will not be attained, unlesse the same help be [...]enewed, and often repe [...]ted, by wat [...]ing of such steeped seeds [...] with the same Liquors, from time to time [...]ntill they come to pe [...]fection.

[Page 3] Strawberries watred now, Experiment. 403. and then (as once in three daies) with water wherein hath been steeped Sheeps-dung, or Pigeons-dung, will prevent, and come early.

This is a good Experiment, Observation. and profitable to make the B [...]rries earlier, and fairer, so it be seasonably, and moderately done [...] I con­ceive the morning is best, before the sunne be hot; but water them not too often, nor too much, lest it make the ground too ranke, and fat, which is not good for strawberries; it makes them common­ly runne into great leaves and strings, and to beare Fruits lesse.

Dung, or Chalke, or Blood, applyed in substance, Experiment. 404. (seasonably) to the Roots of Trees, doth s [...]t them forwards &c.

Too great a quantity of these things,Observation. will hurt, especially young Trees; as the best meates, and drinks immoderately, and unsea­sonably taken, hurt men: Blood, or Flesh, or the like, applyed to the Roots of old Vines, or other Fruit-trees being decaying, or old, will refresh them greatly: Let this be done before winter, or in winter time, that the virtue thereof may soke into the Roots, and the earth about them, before the spring: And also that it may not be noysome, or offensive, in spring, or sommer after: Digge up the earth, and bare the Roots, as much as may be, and power in the Blood, or lay the Dung, Flesh, or any fat substance to the Roots, afterwards cover it with the mould, all over: Other­wise take a Barre of Iron, and make many holes, among, and a­bout the Roots of old Trees (especially where the ground i [...] bad) and power in Blood of Beasts, fat water, or such like; this will much refresh the Trees.

Fruit-trees upon a South, Experiment. 405. or south-east Wall, will bring forth their Fruits early.

It is true [...] that the South-wall is best,Observation. and the South-east next [...] to plant choice trees upon, to come early; the reason why the West-wall is not so good as the East, for early budding, and ripe­ning of fruits, I conceive is mainely, because there is usually more raine, and moisture, and greater and more winds out of the West, in spring and sommer, then out of the East, which do much coo [...]e [Page 4] the trees and fr [...]its, and so retard. Also May-Cherry-trees, or o­ther kinds which n [...]urally bud, and bring fruits early, being plan [...]ed (as is here said) against the back of a Chimney where fire is much kept, the same will bud, and beare ve [...]y early in the yeare, especially if the wall be of Brick, and but a thin wall.

Experiment. 406. Digging, and loosening the earth about the Roots of trees accelerate germination.

Observation.This culture is undoubtedly a benefit to Trees, as to their in­crease, and growth: they will thrive the faster her [...]by; but I conceive not as to their early budding; for all trees bud forth before they draw one jot of S [...]p out of the earth: there is sap, existing in the buds and branches all the winter, wh [...]ch is excit [...]d by the sunnes drawing neere in the spring time, and breaketh forth into blossome, and leafe.

Experiment. 407. A Dama [...]ke Rose tree in water budded in the space of ten daies in a Chamber.

Observation.I conceive this acceleration was not for that it was set in water, but because the aire was somewhat warmer in the house, then out of dores at that season, it being in October; it would have done a [...] much if it had beene set in earth: And as for the difference be­twixt this, and that with the horse-dung mixed; it may be that Rose tree in water only had the better, and more Roots, which would certainly cause budding sooner.

Experiment. 408. A dutch Flower that had a bulbous Roote, was put under water; and within seaven daies sprouted &c.

Observation.I have tryed severall Flowers with bulbous Roots, and other kinds of Roots, in water, in the house, in Autumne, which kept fresh, and seemed to come on somewhat for a while, but after­wards Flag'd, and faded; I know no advantage that may be had hereby at that season, for the aire (in a while) growes chill, and coole, even within dores.

Experiment. 409. Radish &c. in a Month.

[Page 5] Pease, Radish &c. are hastned in the spring,Observat [...]on. and summer, and their returnes quick, chiefly because [...]hey are sowed, and set in a warme place, upon g [...]ound sloping upon the South-east sunne; with some speciall shelters from the North, and cold winds.

For Nourishment, Experiment. 411. water is almost all in all, therefore it is a com­fortable Experiment for good drink [...]rs.

Simply water affords but a feeble,Observation. and weake nourishment, crude, and cold: and therefore we see that in low, watr [...]sh grounds, fruit-trees come on poorely, being full of Mosse, by reason of the cold nourishment: and that in dryer, deepe, fat soyles, Fruit-trees are three or foure times bigger, and longer lived th [...]n those in watrish grounds: Neither is this a comfortable Experiment for good drinkers; for Experience shewes us, such as live most up­on good liquors (eating but little) are more unsound, unheal [...]hy peopl [...], and shorter liv'd, then those who drinke lesse, and feed up­on solid meates.

Housing of Plants will accelera [...] germination. Experiment. 412.

Certainely it will;Observation. if the Plants be ordered with d [...]scretion, to be seasonably set out in the sunne, and raine, in the warmest sea­sons, and time of the day, (removing the Box of earth in, and out, as occasion is) or otherwise Housing may spoyle them, and cause the branches, and Twiggs to contract, and become dry; for as the Aire within dores is warmer then that without, so al [...]o it is dryer, and does exhaust and dry the Plants more, therefore they have need sometimes of the moist Aire without.

Experiments touching the putting back, or Retar­dation of germination.

TO make Roses come late. First, cut them after bearing. Experiment. 413.

This may be a meanes as to some Rose-trees, Observation. that is, such as are old: I have knowne some of long standing, perhaps a dozen, six­teene, [Page 6] or twenty yeares of age, and some of seaven, or eight yea [...]es, (cut newly after bearing) have borne Roses againe, a sec [...]nd time, late in the yeare, being cut the next full moone, af­ter they have done bearing; but there is a kind I have (amongst many other k [...]nds) wh [...]ch naturally beares a second time, al­though the tree be but small and young; besides the Rose called the Monthly Rose.

Experiment. 414.Secondly, Pulling off the buds of the Roses that first spring forth.

Ob [...]ervation.I have try'd this second way, which succeeded not, it may be, because the trees were young; but one affirmed he pluckt off some Buds in the spring, and [...]he tree bore Roses in November.

Experiment. 415.Thirdly, Cutting top Boughes in the spring.

Observation.This hath b [...]en tryed also, but was ineffectuall, but the tryall was upon young trees; as for the Report that followes in this Ex­perim [...]nt of Cyons perishing, if the old top boughes be cut off [...] it is o­therw [...]se, for it is a common Experiment to cut off all the boughs of a tree, and to graft them, and the Grafts will not only not pe­rish, but grow the better therefore; as having all the s [...]p to them­selves, which naturally riseth (the sunne also drawing it up) without the help of any top bough left, as continuall Experience sh [...]wes.

Experiment. 416.Fourthly, Laying the Roots bare about the end of December.

Observation.M [...]ny hundred [...] of trees are thus bared, yet I find no difference at all in the late budding, or bearing of such trees, from others.

Experim [...]nt. 417.Fifthly, Removing the tree some Months before it buddeth.

Observation.This hath been done, but the Trees being removed so unseaso­nably (too late) they grew poorely, so the end was not attained.

Experiment. 4 [...]8.Sixthly, Grafting Roses in May.

Observation.I know an ingenious Ge [...]tleman that tryed this Experiment [...] [Page 7] Inoculating Buds in the spring, which budded for Roses at the same time that others (of the same kind) did; which buds be­ing cut off they bore Roses afterwards, the same yeare, when o­thers were gone.

Seaventhly,Experiment. 419. Girding the body of the tree with some Packthread.

This will not do it neither,Observation. we see commonly that grafts tyed straight with strong flaggs, and some branches of wall-trees nail­ed straight to the wall, so that I have seene the bark dinted in with the straitnesse of the Lether, yet for all that sap riseth plen­tifully, through the place so girded, up into the branch.

Eightly,Experiment. 420. Planting them in the shade.

I have knowne Rose-trees in a shady place, Observation. which have not bore at all, its a tree that loves the sunne. So that I suppose this Ex­periment will not hold: I have try'd it in one or too, and it suc­ceeds not.

Experiments touching the Melioration of Fruits, Trees, and Plants.

AN heape of Flint, or stone laid about the bottome of a Tree upon the fi [...]st Planting, mak [...]s it prosper much. Experiment. 421.

Stones laid to the Roots of Fruit-trees, Observation. when newly set, is a good Experiment in some grounds, but not in all: its true, stones so laid, keep the Roote of [...]he Tree somewhat more moist, and warme, and stedy, that winds shake it not, and so are profitable, but there is danger (in some grounds) le [...]t they harbor [...] Ants, or Pis­mires, about the Tree Root, under the stones, which I have seen, to the hurt, and destruction of divers young trees. But it is a s [...] ­fer, and better way to lay a good quantity of rotten dung, or litter, straw &c. round about the Roots of new set Trees, upon the top of the mould, this keeps them warme in winter, and coole and moist in sommer, and Stedy, and the moisture, and fatnesse of the muck [Page 8] sokes downe to the Roots, and refreshes the tree very much: or for want thereof, lay a heap of weeds round about the new set t [...]ee Root [...], and so all the next sommer af [...]er; these things are speciall advantages to new set t [...]ees.

Experiment. 423. A Tr [...]e at fi [...]st setting should not be shaken, but a [...]ter a yeares ro [...]t­i [...]g th [...]n s [...]aking is good.

Observation.When y [...]ung Trees are first planted, its very convenient to set a st [...]ke to each of them, and tye them together with a hay band, or some [...]o [...]t band, that winds shake them not: and this not for a yeare only, but divers yeares, untill the young trees be we [...]l rooted in the earth, and also be growne strong, that the winds [...]ow not their bodie [...], and cause them to grow crooked, which fault I have seene in very many trees.

Experiment. 4 [...]4. Cutting away suckers, and side boughes, make trees grow high.

Obs [...]vation.All su [...]k [...]rs must be cut away from the Roots of Trees; And as for side branches, those may be cut as men are minded to have their Trees to spread neerer, or high [...]r from the ground: but cu [...] not the side branches too soone, b [...]fore the body be growne stro [...]g enough to beare the head, else it will be top heavy, and g [...]ow crooked.

Experiment. 4 [...]. To have many new Roots of Fruit-trees, lay the Branches in the g [...]ound &c.

Observation.The branch [...]s of all kinds of trees will not take Roote thus, Thi [...] way of P [...]opagation is only for some kinds, As Mulberries, Fig [...], Vine [...], Q [...]o [...]li [...]gs, Nurs-gardens, and some other kinds of T [...]ee [...], whose branc [...]s are sof [...], and porous. As for Aprecots, P [...]aches, and such like, they will not take Roote thus: I have try'd, but not one Roote could be got, neither will they take w [...]h graft [...]ng, I have try'd many. The way to propagate these kind [...], is by Inocula [...]ing bu [...]s upon young stocks, full of [...]ap.

Experiment. 4 [...]7. From May to Iuly you may take off the barke of any bough &c. and set it, and it will grow to be a faire tree in one yeare, the cause [Page 9] may be for that the baring from the barke keepeth the sap from descen­ding towards winter.

It is true,Observation. that the Boughes of some kinds of trees will take Roote in this manner as is here exprest; that is, such kinds as will take roote with laying downe in the ground, mentioned in the last Experiment; which being cut off and set, may grow to be a f [...]ire tree in certaine yeares, not in one yeare (as is said) for the Roots (got in this manner) are but small, and very disproportionable to the bough, so that it can come on but very poorely, and slow­ly, for divers yeares: As for the baring from the barke, which is supposed to keepe sap from descending towards Winter; I say, the sap is as farre from descending when the barke is on, as when tis off; theres no such thing in nature as descention of sap in any trees whatsoever.

This worthy Authour took this upon trust, according to the generall opinion of men, for had he but stayed a little to consi­der it, he would have found it groundlesse, and a meere conceit; For all the sap that asscends into the body and bran [...]hes of a tree, is changed into wood, barke, buds, blossomes, leaves, and fruits, it is turned into that body and substance which we see above ground, and none at all descends at any time; for there is no Cause, and therefore no such effect: sap is continually asscending all the yeare long, more, or lesse, either for the growth of the tree, or for the conservation of it in life, and in all its dimension [...]: for there is a continuall extraction of sap out of the body, boughes, and bran­ches, by the sunne, and aire, as this Au [...]hour elsewhere asserts, and which Experience proves. Now if there were at any time, a descention also, what then would become of the tree, it would q [...]ickly wither, be cont [...]acted, and shrinke apparently: whosoe­ver is unsatisfied with what is here said against descention of sap in trees, may see (hereof) more largely many Arguments a­gainst it in my Treatise of Fruit-trees [...] pag. 100.101.102. &c.

If Trees beare not, bore a hole through the heart of the tree, Experiment. 428. and it will beare.

Perhaps this course may do some good in letting out superflu­ous sap, Observation. if too much repletion be the cause: But there are divers [Page 10] other Causes of barrennesse of Fruit-trees: As too deepe setting, the Roots running downe into gravell, Clay, water &c. which must have answerable remedies. And sometimes it is in the nature of the trees: that all the culture in the world used to the Roots, and body will not help, without engrafting the branches with Grafts of some good bearing kinds, which is the best way I know to have store of good fruits, (and speedily too) from barren trees.

Experiment. 429. To make Trees beare, cleave the chiefe Roots, and put in a small pebble.

Observation.This may be profitable not only for that the Roote may be bark-bound, as well as the body, and branches (which must be scored downe, and cut to the wood) but also it will cause the Roots to shoote forth many young small Roots at the place opened, which will afford more vigour, life, and sap to the branches, and so make the tree stronger, and more in heart, and able to bring forth more, and fairer fruits.

Experiment. 430. Trees against a south-wall have more of the heate of the sunne, then when they grow round.

Observation. Aprecots, Peaches, and such like cold fruits will scarce ripen but against a south-wall: they have need both of the direct, and re­flex beames of the sunne: And if it were more practised to set some other choice kinds of fruits upon a south-wall (as the great Bur­gaim [...]t, sommer Boncriteu, Greene-field Peare, and other speciall kinds) this would advantage them greatly, not only in bignesse, but also in their early ripening, and goodnesse of tast; thus, one, or a few, would be worth many ordinary ones.

Experiment. 431. Some pull off the leaves from wall-trees, that the sunne may come the better upon the boughs and fruit.

Observation.This may hasten ripening, but I conceive it hinders the big­nesse of the fruits, the sunne ripening them before they have at­tained their naturall greatnesse: in case it prove then very hot wea­ther: so that if leaves be pulled off, it should not be till fruits are at biggest.

[Page 11] The lownesse of the bough, Experiment. [...]32. maketh the fruit greater; and to ripen b [...]tter, &c. Graft a tree low, and maintaine only the lower bough [...].

Low trees, Observation. and the lower boughs of high trees, have their fruit ripe somewhat sooner then the higher, because they have some be­nefit by the reflection of the sunne from the Earth, as well as from the wall; (if they grow against a wall,) but that the fruits are greater on lower, then on higher boughs, I perceive not; I am sure I have seene sometimes faire fruit on the higher boughes, and but small on the lower, in case the branches of a wall-tree have beene permitted to grow straight upwards, without bowing downe a­long the wall, as most commonly they be, and the reason is plaine because the most, and greatest quantity of sap presseth upwards, and leaveth the side branches indigent of sap, whereby they grow poorely, and some even dye for want of sap: now accor­ding to the quantity of sap in branches, so are the fruits, smaller, or greater. It is true indeed, many little, and low trees, if they be vigorous, and shoote well, beare very large fruits, it may be lar­ger then high trees of the same kinds: but this is not because low, but because they are more lively, and vigorous then the other. And if we should graft a Tree low, and maintaine only the low [...]r branches, by continually cutting off the higher, this would much enfeeble the tree, by deg [...]ees by obstructing of the s [...]p, and [...]he fruit would be accordingly. But the b [...]st way to order a wall-tree that shoots upwards strongly, is to bow those strong branches a­long the wall both waies, and then there will be as large fruits on the lower, as on the higher boughes, and sooner ripe.

To have fruit in greater plenty the way is, Experiment. 433. to graft not only upon young st [...]cks, but upon divers boughs of an old tree &c.

It is an excellent Experiment to graft the boughes of an old tree, Observation. (that is a bad bearer, or bears bad fruits) with grafts of some speciall good bearing kinds, for this will have large branches and beare fruits, even in a yeare or two: so that it is a very unwise course of many who (when some of their trees beare not as they would have them) cut them downe, and set young ones in their Roome, which cannot possibly attaine the bignesse of the for­mer, in many yeares.

[Page 12] Experim [...]nt. 434. Digging yearely about the Roots of Trees is a great meanes both to the acc [...]leration, and melioration of fruits &c.

Observation. Old trees that grow in stiffe, cold clay grounds have most neede to be dug about yearely, that thereby the gound may be more o­pen, and mellow; but for young trees of few yeares standing, (es­pecially if in sandy [...] mell [...]w grounds) these have little, or no neede at all of digging about: To dig about Roses, and such like, which g [...]ow nee [...]e the top of the ground [...] I conceive it is needlesse, for this w [...]rk is chi [...]fly to open the earth about old fruit-trees (whose Roo [...]s are growne great, and deepe,) that the Rain [...], Snow, and Sunne in win [...]er, may reach the bottome Roots.

Exp [...]im [...]nt. 435. A Fruit-tree almost blowne up by the Roots, and set up againe, the n [...]xt yeare bore exceedingly: loosing the earth, comforteth any Tree.

Obse [...]vation.I was (not long since) at the raising up of a couple of faire App [...]e-trees blowne downe, the one Rooted, and bore well after­wards: the other died. Though digging about the Roots sometimes be good, yet overmuch digging, and loosening the earth about the Roots of trees, will cause many to be blowne downe by great winds, which will not fasten againe to abide a strong wind, in many yeares, if ever.

Expe [...]iment. 436. To revive an old tree, the digging of it about the Roots, and ap­plying new mould to the Roots, is the way, and change of mould to the better, is pr [...]fitable.

Observation.D [...]gg [...]ng (as hath beene said) with caution, is good, and change of m [...]uld, if to the better, is also very advantagious to f [...]ui [...]- [...]rees, in case the soyle be barren, but if it be very fat, as some is, (especially some pa [...]ticular places by acc [...]dent) then mould that is more sterill, and hung [...]y, will do better; fo [...] over­much re [...]l [...]tion, and fertility may hinder fruitfulnesse; and cause the [...]ap to runne most into long shoots, and broad leaves.

Experiment. 439. The sh [...]fting of ground, is a meanes to better the Tree, and fruit: and all things do prosper b [...]st, when they are advanced to the better. And a Nu [...]sery ought to be in a more barren ground, then the places whither they are transplanted.

[Page 13]It is true:Observation. change of soyles sometimes is very good, if to the better: but its true also, that if trees grow in over ranke soyle, then worse will be better; that is, will help more towards fruitfulnesse: as a course, and meane fare is better for a fat man, then the more delicious. Without controversy, young trees out of barren Nur­series come on faster when transplanted, then out of fat soyles; but in case the Nursery be fat soyle, then some other as good, must be laid to their Roots when set againe.

Hacking of Trees doth great good to Trees. Experiment. 440.

After eight or tenne yeares growth,Observation. cutting, or scoring, o [...] hack­ing the barke of trees with a knife, is profitable; but while they a [...]e young, the Barke is but thin, and tender, and enlargeth well e­nough without this cutting, unlesse some that through barren­nesse of soyle (or other cause) are bark [...] bound.

Shade to some plants conduceth to make them large, Experiment. 441. and prosperous, more then Sunne, As in strawberries, and Baies &c.

It is true,Observation. Baies and Lawrell prospereth better in the Shade then in the Sunne, being Hot Plants, but Strawberries do better, part­ly in the shade, and partly in the sunne; then in shade only: as [...] ­mong Bushes, and other plants: I have observed those in the shade, to beare little, or nothing: when others of the same kind, and growth, somewhat in the sunne, bore very much.

Pulling off many blossomes from a fruit-tree, doth make the fruit fairer: Experiment. 427. and if some blossomes be not pulled off the fi [...]st time a tree bloometh, it will blossome it selfe to death.

Commonly the fewer blossoms upon a tree,Observation. the fairer will the fruit be, because (as the Authour saies) of the plenty of sap: And indeed in case a tree newly planted, blossome very much, and the Roote be but weake (which may be perceived by the weak­nesse of the buds) then its best to pull off most, if not all the blos­somes: but many I have knowne (the first yeares planting,) take Roote so strongly, (being in good mo [...]ld,) as that they blossome, and shoot forth, and beare faire fruits the same yeare.

[Page 14] Experiment. 450. It w [...]re good to try what would be the [...]ff [...]ct, if all the blossomes were pulled from a Fruit-tree, for two yeares together.

Observation.Fruit-trees that beare but every other yeare they (for the most p [...]rt) beare that yeare very plentifully; and the exc [...]ssive expence of sap [...]hat yeare (its like) makes the tree more feeble the next: but if blossomes be pulled [...]ff a yeare or two together: I suppose the sap would go mo [...]e into the shoots, and ma [...]e them larger then if it bore fruits; and the issue a [...] to bearing more, or better f [...]uits, would be nothing worth.

Experiment. 452. There is no doubt but that Grafting (for the most part) doth m [...] ­liorate fruit; The cause is manifest, for that the nourishment is better prepared in the stocke, then in the crude earth.

Obse [...]vation. Grafting doth not at all meliorate the fruit, simply in it s [...]lfe: for a [...]ice will not be the better for Grafting, unlesse the grafts be taken from a good tree. If the tree from which grafts are cut, be no better then the tree which is grafted, then grafting will not a jot mend the fruit; which it would, if grafting were any thing towards the bettering of the fruit. The cause why Grafted trees beare better fruits, then wild ungraf [...]ed trees, is not because they are grafted, but because the graf [...]s are good, the tree from which the grafts are cut, is of a good kind, and nature, and every [...]wig, graft, and bud, hath the nature of the whole tree in it, perfectly; the properties of the tree are in all, and every part, as the soule in the body, which is tota in toto, & tota in qualibet pa [...]te; and the grafts retaine the nature, and properties being grafted upon wild stocks, and bring forth fruits accordingly: and that's the cause that grafting doth meliorate the fruit, and not because the nourish­ment is better prepared in the stock, then in the crude earth, for the branches of an ungrafted tree do no more receive nourishment from the crude earth, then the branches of a grafted tree: but the s [...]p, and nourishment, passeth up a body, or stock to the bran­ches, in the one, as well as in the other.

And as i [...] i [...] true that the Peach and Melocot [...]ne do beare good fr [...]its comming up of stone [...], (which is not alwaies so neither, only here and there one) so it is true also that they beare as good fruits of the bud, being Inoculated.

[Page 15] It hath beene received, Experiment. 453. that a smaller Peare grafted upon a stock that beareth a greater Peare, will become great &c.

It is true (as the Authour thinks) that this will not succeed;Observation. because the Grafts do governe, they alwaies bring forth fruit an­swerable to their owne natures and kinds, else it were to little purpose to get Grafts from such, or such a good Tree, to have more of the kind. Yet it is true also that the stock hath some in­fluence upon the Graft, so as to make the fruit better, or worse, according to the nature of the stock, in some small degree: As if we graft upon a stock that naturally beares a sower, harsh fruit, the fruit of the graft will not be altogether so pleasant as if it were grafted upon a stock that beares naturally a sweet, and pleasant fruit: and hence it is that Peares grafted upon Quince-stocks, will be more delicate, then upon Peare-stocks; The Quince-stock gives an excellent tast to it, but these trees upon Quinces will never at­taine to any great bignesse, for all Quince-trees are but small in comparison of Peare-trees, and where the stock can be but small, the graft cannot be great, yet (as I have seene it) somewhat bigger then the stock: As for a Peare upon a Thorne (which this Authour speakes of) it cannot be good, it makes it a harsh, hard Peare, at the core, if it thrive and beare, but most commonly they dye in two, or three yeares: we know its naturall fruit, (Hawes) have stones in them: But for the Apple upon the Crab, thats naturall, the Crab being a wild apple, and very proper to graft all sorts of Apples upon, in regard of the soundnesse of the stock, its long lasting, and aptnesse to take with grafts, and also when set in the ground; although its true, it makes the fruit some­what more tart, then the same fruit upon sweet apple-stocks.

As concerning grafting Apples on Coleworts, the kernells of which if set, will be a Colewort, if the thing be true, then it confirmes what hath beene asserted, that the seede of fruits when sowen, bring forth a bastard fruit, which pertakes as well of the stock, as of the graft: Although it be true, that the seeds of some Apples, and Peares, may bring forth very good fruit, and the stones of some Peaches, may bring forth the same fruits, or neere as good: the cause, of this (I suppose) is, for that the stocks whereon these fruits were grafted or Inoculated, were good kinds of themselves; and if so, no marvell though the seeds bring forth good fruits [Page 16] without Grafting, or Inoculating: and I verily believe that P [...]a­ches, (of which it is taken for granted (by some) that these come the same againe of stones) if they were Inoculated on harsh, sower stocks, and the stones of the fruit set, they would not bring forth [...]he [...]ame, but it would manifestly tast of the stock, as well as of the bud Inoculated: as we see generally other kinds of stones, and seedes do; yea, and upon the Experience of some others, Peach-stones have brought forth a paltry, naughty fruit, many of them, though some good: As concerning the grafting of an Ap­ple Cions upon a Sallow, Poplar, Alder, Elme, or Horse plum; it is in vaine to try, for tryall hath beene made upon stoc [...]s neerer in kind then these, and it would not come to perfection, it will grow a yeare, or two (it may be) and then decay, and dye.

Experiment. 452. Flowers R [...]moved wax greater, because the nourishment is more easily come by in the loose earth: It may be that often regrafting of the same Cions may lik [...]wise make fruit greater.

Observation.To r [...]move Flowers (small young Roots) into good fresh earth, w [...]ll improve them in growth, and bignesse: especially if withall some of the side-slips, (and also of the buds which the Roote shoots up for [...]lowers) be cut off [...] and some halfe a dozen, or halfe a score of the buds, or shoots be left to grow upon the Root; the Roote then will be able to give plentifull nourish­ment to them, whereby they will become much larger, then if all the spindle buds were su [...]lered to grow.

But as for often regrafting the same graft in order to make a larg fruit; this will not do it, for we see it is constantly done from yeare to yeare; for what else is the cutting of g [...]f [...]s from young trees (it may be of two, or three, or but of one yeares growth) and grafting them againe upon their sto [...]ks: and repeating this [...]or many yea [...]es together; and yet we know the grafts hold thei [...] owne naturall properties from one yeare to another. And though there be (as has beene said) some small alteratio [...] according to the kind of the stock while it growes upon it, yet that alteration is lost, and falls off, when the graft is e [...]grafted [...]pon another stock, and the graft retaines its owne naturall properties only: with some small addition of the nature of the stock on which it (at present) growes.

[Page 17] It maketh figs better [...] Experiment. 455. if a fig-tree when it beginneth to put forth leaves, have his top cut off.

If the fig-tree be very old,Observation. cutting off the top may be profitable; for that such cutting (as in all other trees) maketh the sap shoot forth into branches more vigorously, then otherwise it would; by which lively rising of sap, the whole tree, and the fruit upon it, fares the better: but if the tops of young-trees be cut off, (fig-trees or other) there will shoot forth (in the roome thereof) such huge strong shoots, that the maine streame of sap will runne that way, which great shoots will be for a yeare, or two (it may be) unfruitfull.

It is reported, that Mulberries will be fairer, Experiment. 456. and the Trees more fruitfull, if you bo [...]e the Trunke of the tree thorow, in severall places, and put in wedges of h [...]t Trees, as Mastick, Iuniper &c.

As for the black Mulberry-tree, Observation. I suppose it needs not these things to make it fruitfull, for I never knew any of them faile of store of fruits every yeare; bu [...] white Mulberry-trees (with us) have need enough of all helps that may be.

It is reported that trees will grow greater, and beare better fruit, Experiment. 457. if you put salt, or Lees of wine, or blood to the Roo [...]e.

Concerning Lees of wine, washings of strong beare, Observation. or Ale Ves­sells, blood fl [...]sh, or the like; it is certaine these are helpfull to Fruit-tree [...], both as to their growth, and bearing; if seasonably [...] and moderately used; especially to old Trees. I account it best to be applyed to the Roots of trees in the beginning of winter, that the v [...]rtue may soke into the Roots, and earth about them be­fore the spring.

Terebration of trees, as it makes them prosper better, Experiment. 463. so also it is found that it maketh fruit sweeter [...] and better, by causing the cours­est juice to sweat out, and the rest is better digested.

Terebration (or boring holes into the bodies,Observation. [...]nd great Roots) of fruit [...]trees with a wimble, or Awger, is most ne [...]dfull, as I judge, [Page 18] for great trees which grow upon fat land, and have too ranke nou­rishment, and may be unfruitfull, and beare over wat [...]ish fruit for that cause; that may help to let out some of the raw, super­s [...]ous sap [...] and juice as an [...]ssue in a mans body: but scoring, or cutting the barke of yo [...]ger trees under Twenty yeares may be better for them, and this to be done chiefly in the spring time.

Experiment. 464. As terebration doth meliorate fruit, so doth letting of Plants blood; as Pricking Vi [...]es or other Trees, after they be of some growth. It is reported that by this Artifice, bitter Almonds have beene tu [...]ned in­to sweete.

Observation.This must needs have the like e [...]ect (in some proportion as those particulars before mentioned, of boring with wimbles, (or the like) and scoring the barke, with a kni [...]e in the sp [...]ng time.

Expe [...]iment. 4 [...]5. The Antients for the Dulcorating of fruit, do c [...]mmend swines du [...]g, above all other dung; which may b [...] for th [...] moisture of that b [...]st.

Observation.I have s [...]ene divers faire Fruit-trees q [...]ite sp [...]yld [...] and deaded [...] by ove [...]much swines dung, the swine lying amongst them, and continually leaving their ex [...]rements, by degrees the Trees wi­thered, and died: but I doubt not bu [...] that a moderate quanti [...]y of [...]wines dung, mixed with mould, and la [...]d to the Roots of trees, will be good for them [...] and it may be in order to the sweetning of the fruit.

Experiment. 467. As Grafting doth generally advance, and meliorate f [...]uits; so (no doubt) even in grafting, the choice of the stock doth much: they commend much the grafting of Peares, or Apples upon a Quince.

Ob [...]ervation. Grafting, (simply as grafting) doth not advance or meliorate fruits; as i [...] shew'd elsewhere at large; But grafted trees beare bet­ter fruits, See pag. 18. Trea [...]e of Fruit-trees. pag. 98. and sooner, then ungrafted trees, because grafts are usu­ally taken from good bearing trees, and of the best kinds, and grafts (retaining the Nature of the trees from which they are cut,) do bring [...]orth the same fruits; so also do Buds, (though they be much smaller then grafts) when Inoculated upon wild stocks.

[Page 19]As concerning the choice of stocks in grafting, in order to the advancement of fruits; it is certaine, the goodnesse of the stocks in respect of nature, and kind, is very considerable: The sweeter, and better the stock is, the better will the fruit be, that is engrafted thereon; Though it be true, that grafts governe, and bring forth the same fruits, according to their owne kinds, yet the stock hath some considerable influence upon the fruit of the graft, and thence it is, that Peares upon a Quince (as the Authour speaks of) are better, then the [...]ame kind upon a wild Peare stock: (as Experi­ence shewes) because a Quince is a more excellent fruit, then a wild Peare, so the nourishment of the stock [...], is answerable.

It is set downe as try'd, that a mixture of Brane, and Swines dung, Experiment. 468. or Chaffe, and Swines-dung, rotten, is a great nourisher, and com­forter to a Fruit-tree.

There is no doubt but Swines dung, or any other dung,Observation. with o­ther Composts laid together till they be rotten, will nourish and comfort fruit-trees, and better when they are throughly rotten, & turned to mould, then before, because new dung may be too hot.

It is delivered by some, that if one take the bough of a low tree, Experiment. 470. new­ly budded, and draw it gently into an earthen Pot perforated at the bottome to let in the Plant, and then cover the Pot with earth, it will yeild a very large fruit within ground; the like will be effected by an empty pot, with some few pertusions made in the Pot, hang'd in the Tree.

Concerning the first of these waies,Observation. I suppose the fruit grow­ing upon the bough so bowed downe into a Pot, will not be so large, as the fruit upon the other boughes; because we see by Ex­perience it is against the nature of sap to runne vigorously, (or in any great plenty) into boughe [...] bended downewards so neere the earth, as this must needs be, for sap presseth upwards in great­est plenty; and consequently those fruits will be greatest which have most sap. I meane such as are of one kind, upon one tree.

And concerning the second m [...]anes by the perforated Pot, hang'd in the tree, that is more likely to worke the effect, as to the great­nesse of fruit, not so much (I suppose) because of the pertusions, [Page 20] or holes in the Pot, as by the shade that the fruit has by the Pot: for although fruit that growes in the sunn [...], be much better, and more pleasant then that which growes in the shade, (as being better co [...]cocted,) yet that in the shade (of the same kind) is commonly the g [...]eater, but more flat, dull, and inconcoct: as we see in Apr [...]cots, Cherries &c. unde [...] [...]he leaves.

Experiment. 471. All trees in high and sandy grounds, are to be s [...]t d [...]ep, and in watry ground [...] more sh [...]llow: And all tr [...]es when th [...]y be remov [...]d ( [...]s­pecially Fruit-tr [...]s) care ought to be taken that the sides of the Trees be coasted (North, and South) as they stood before.

Observation.It is true, that trees on higher grounds are to be set somewhat d [...]per, then in moist grounds; yet bewa [...]e of setting below the good scyl [...], See h [...]re [...]f Treatise of Fruit-t [...]ees. pag. 63.64. in any ground [...] As for coasting of trees, that is, (set­i [...]g the same side to the South when tran [...]planted as was before) the Rule is good, but not necessary: for many thousands are trans­plan [...]ed w [...]h g [...]od successe not observing which side grew No [...]th or Sou [...]h: howsoever some reasons migh be shew'd why tis best to observe it, if it may conveniently be done.

Experiment. 472. F [...]uit-trees, set upon a wall against the sunne, betweene [...]lb [...]wes or But [...]eress [...]s of stone, ripen m [...]re, then upon a plaine wall.

Ob [...]ervation.Fruit-trees soset, have their fruits ripe sooner then tho [...]e upon a plaine wall no: so much because they are d [...]fended better from winds, but chi [...]l [...] because the [...] have a double, or [...]reble d [...]gree of heate to w [...]at those upon a plaine wall have, the he [...]te being pent in by the E [...]b [...]wes, or Bu [...]ter [...]sses of the wall, and so r [...]l [...]cts the stronger upon the fruits and trees, there is a double reflection of heate up­on such.

Exp [...]im [...]nt. 475. Grafting Elms, (or other unfruitfull trees) will make their Leaves larg [...]r: as in Fruit-trees the Graft mak [...]th the greater fruit.

Ob [...]e [...]vation Grafting, barely considered as Grafting, will not do this, it will neither make Leaves, nor Fruits fairer: but as stocks are chosen for the purpose: for though it be true (as hath been else­where said) that Grafts governe, S [...]e pag. 18. and overrule the stocks, bring­ing [Page 21] forth the same leaves, and fruits when grafted, as before; according to their owne Natures; yet it is true also, that the stocks have some small influence upon them, in making the fruits better or worse in tast, and bign [...]sse: and so of the leaves in faire­nesse, according to the goodnesse or badnesse of the stocks: yet not­withstanding Graf [...]s, and Buds inoculated may be said to rule, and bring forth the same fruits, else it were in vaine to Graft.

Barr [...]nnesse of trees commeth of th [...]ir overgrowing with Mosse, Experiment. 476. or their being Hide bound; or planting too d [...]pe; or by issuing of th [...] sap too much into the Leaves. Barrennesse of Trees.

There are severall Causes of the barrenn [...]sse of trees. Observation. I conceive Mossinesse, as Mossinesse, is not the cause of barrenn [...]ss [...]; but the Causes of Mossinesse are the Cau [...]es of barrennesse, wh [...]ch are Cold­nesse, overmoistnesse, and barrennesse of the soyle, where the trees grow: Therefore such soyles must be amended. See how, Treatise of Fruit-trees, pag. 114.

Also barrennesse is often, by reason of the excessive sap, and moisture of trees, which is m [...]nifest by their strong, and vigorou [...] shoots, branches, and broad greene leaves; as in many young, full-fed trees, for while nature is vigorous, and active, spend­ing it selfe that w [...]y, in [...]he excessive growth of the Tree; it is then weake and feeble in bearing of fruits. Now as to some kinds of trees, it is not best (for some time) to go about to remove the Cause, that is, as to standard Apple-trees, Peare-trees, and other kinds, which g [...]ow in the O [...]chards and fields at large: but let them a­lone, let them go on in [...]heir large, and vigorous growthes for certaine yeares, though they beare b [...]t little, (provided that we know they a [...]e naturally of good bearing kinds, otherwise it is in vaine to wai [...]e for store of fruits from such trees:) After that such trees have growen exceedingly some yeares, and attained a faire large growth, they will then by degrees, grow lesse in the branches, and fall to bearing of fruits: But in case the trees are Wall-trees, and shoo [...]e excessively, and beare not, then it will be best to take away the Cause as much as we can; that is,

  • First, abate their overfull, and rank nou [...]ishment, by putting in sand, gravell, Buck-ashes, or any thing that is barren, insteed of the [...]at soyle.
  • [Page 22] Secondly, also cut off, and part, one or two of the biggest Roots, from the body, that so it may have lesse nourishment, and that left will turne to fruits.
  • Thirdly, Bend downewards the branches, and fasten them to the wall with their tops as low as may be, this obstructs, and re­straines the excessive [...]sing of sap, which rising moder [...]tely, turnes to frui [...]: But if the Trees are Naturally bad bearers (if barren up­on that account) then there is no remedy for such, but grafting them ag [...]in, with Grafts taken from some good bearing kinds, which are knowne by yearely experience to beare fruits well.

Experiments 477, 478, 479. It hath be [...]ne set downe by one of the Ancients that two twiggs of severall Fruit-trees flatted on the sides, and bound together, and set, th [...]y will come up in one stock. And that Vines of red, and white grapes slatted, and bound tog [...]ther, will beare Grapes of severall co­lours, upon one branch; Compound [...]ng of Fruits. Al [...]o the shoots of divers seeds, will incorpo­rate; And that young trees of severall kinds set contiguous, will in­corporate.

These, and such like, are prescribed in order to the compound­ing of Fruits.

Observation.Concerning compounding, or mixing of divers kinds of fruits, whereof to make one new kind, these things before mentioned, (and many such like) have beene prescribed by Ancient Authours, which are of the number of those things N [...]t. Hist. p [...]g. 16 [...]. Sr Francis Bacon accounts meere imaginations, and conceits without any ground, or light f [...]om Experi [...]nce.

He saies Advan [...]. L [...]a [...]. [...]. 1. p. 32. (elsewhere) That many things have beene rashly, (and with little ch [...]ice or judgment) receiv [...]d and registred, as ap­p [...]ares in the writings of divers Authours, which a [...]e eve [...]y where fra [...]ght, and forged with fabulous reports, and those not only uncer­ta [...]e, and untry [...]d, but notoriously untrue, to the great derogation of Naturall Philosophy with grave and sober men.

As for those things before mentioned, they can never effect what is promised, to produce compound fruits. For we see by continuall Experienc [...], that Grafts, and Buds (though never so small) set up [...]n st [...]cks of different kinds, do hold their owne, and k [...]epe their kinds; and so it would be if two long shoots were u­nited, [Page 23] or three, or many: if it were possible to make them incor­porate, and become one body, yet they would retaine every one their owne nature, and bring forth each its owne kind of fruit, without commixture.

If any man desire to be set on work about these things, he may have p [...]escriptions eno [...]gh out of a certaine Book entituled, the Country Farme, pag. 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365, &c. For more full satisfaction about which, and all of that nature, see my Treatise of Fruit-trees, pag. 91, 92, 93, &c. where these things are spoken to largely.

But if the thing be possible in Nature, to mix and compound fruits, the likeliest way that I apprehend is this, (which I h [...]ve upon tryall, but is not yet come to an issue) viz: To graft one fruit upon another, many times over, every yeare a d [...]fferent kind [...] (so that we keepe still to those kinds that will grow together) As first to gra [...]t a Crab tree, neere the ground, with some good kind of Apple graft, and the next yeare to graft that ag [...]ine a handfull or two above where the first was grafted, and the next yeare to graft that second graft, and the fourth yeare to graft that third graft, a handfull or two, above where it was grafted, and thus every yeare to set graft upon graft for divers yeares toge­ther, this (probably) may make some alteration, and commix­ture in the top branch and its fruit, although it be true that every graft keep [...] his owne nature, yet so as that it receives some small alteration from the sto [...]k (as h [...]th beene said:) Now the sap ari­sing and passing th [...]ough so many kinds of stocks (as before) up into the top branches, this (if any thing) I conceive will have an influence into the fruit of the last graft to cause some comm [...]xture (more o [...] lesse) in the fruit; the sap passing through so many kinds of stocks.

Thus as of many kinds of Apples, together, so also of Peares among themselves, and of Cherries, and Plums, among them­selves, but as for mixing contrary kinds, Apples, Peares, Cherries, Plum [...] &c. all together, as some prescribe, there is no hope, nor possibility of any advantage thereby.

All Plants that draw much nourishment from the earth, Experiments 480, 481, &c and ex­haust it, hurt all things that grow by them, as Ash-trees, Coleworts &c.Sympathy, & Antipathy of Plants.And where Plants of severall natures (which draw severall juyces) [Page 24] are set together, there the neerenesse doth good, As Rue by a Fig-tree, Garlicke by a Rose-tree &c.

Observation.It is true indeed, That all Trees, and Plants that draw much nourishment from the earth, are no good neighbours to any thing that growes neere them, because such make the earth barren, in which plants must needs grow poorely: But that severall kinds of Plants, draw severall kinds of juyces, out of one, and the same soyle, I much question: as that bitter plants (Rue, Wormwood, and the like) draw the bitter juyce of the earth, and the sweeter kinds as (Roses, Flowers, &c.) draw the sweeter juyce. For can it be im­magined that there are so many kinds of juyces in the earth, as there are severall kinds of Trees, and Plants, so that every one should draw only its proper, and peculiar nourishment? May it not upon better grounds be said, that many Trees and Plants grow­ing neere together in a piece of ground, though they draw all of them one and the same juyce, yet they convert, & assimilate the same, every one into its owne specifique nature. We see that in a little Garden, where there are (it may be) divers hundreds (or thou­sands) of distinct Plants, Trees, Flowers, Herbs, and Simples, they growing all upon one, and the same soyle, do convert the juyce, and fatnesse of it into their severall natures: by the same Law in Na­ture as severall kinds of Grafts upon one Tree, drawing one and the same Sap, do turne that one kind of nourishment, into their se­verall natures, whereby they bring forth (as we see by experi­ence) distinct, and severall kinds of Fruits, made of the same sin­gle juyce, or sap of the Tree whereon they all grow: this they would do if there were all or many kinds of Apples grafted upon one great Crab-tree, and so of Peare-trees, Cherry-trees, and the like, upon their owne kinds: though multitudes of distinct kinds of grafts, draw one and the same sap, yet every one changes it into its owne nature; and why should it not be so also with severall plants drawing one and the same juyce out of the earth?

So that I cannot conceive that those things mentioned, (or the like) if try'd, would succeed to the purpose: viz That Rue, set by a Fig-tree, will make the Figs tast sweeter; or Garlike set by Rose-trees, will make Roses smell sweeter; or sorrell set by Rasps, will make the Rasps sweeter, and the like: because severall, or contrary kinds of Plants, meete not with severall kinds of juyces in the same Soyle, [Page 25] (sh [...]ll we think there are hundreds, or thousands of severall juyces in one Garden) though they draw the same juyce they convert it, and assimilate it into their severall natures, accord [...]ng to the inna [...]e, and intrins [...]call Forme [...]hat every one hath, as was said before of severall kinds of grafts upon one tree.

The altering of the Sent, Experiment. 499. Colour, or Tast of Fruit, by infusing, mixing or letting into the Bark, or Root [...] of the tree, Herb, or Flower, any coloured, ar [...]maticall, or Medicinall substance; are but Fancies: All alteration of vegetables, Making Herbs, and Fruits Me­dicinable. in those qu [...]lities must be by somewhat that is apt to go into the nourishment of [...]he Plant.

Divers Authours (in their Books of planting Fruit-trees) have given severall directions for the altering of the Sent, Observations. Colour, and Tast, of Fruits; but none of them from any well grounded Expe­rience. Many particulers are mentioned, and set downe at large: (with reasons, and Experience against them; that m [...]n may not be deceived by them, and loose their t [...]me, cost, and labour about such Fancies) See pag. 91, 92. &c. of the Treatise of Fruit-trees.

But as this Authour sa [...]es well, The l [...]keliest way to make herbs, and fruits Medicinable, and to give them a good relish is the often watring of the Tree, or Plant with that substance, which we de­sire they should pert [...]ke of, for this is certaine, (and we see it by manifest experience) that Plants, and fruits of Trees, do some­what tast, and partake of the nature, and virtues of that kind of nourishment which they continually draw. As if Trees grow up­on a low, m [...]ist, watrish ground, the fruits will be more spongy, and watrish, then the same kinds of fruits, where the trees g [...]ow up­on a dry, sandy, soyle: So if Cabbages, Turneps, Carr [...]ts, and such like, grow in a Rancke Soyle, full of Fil [...]h, and Dung, they have a virtue, and relish accordingly, not halfe so swee [...]e, and plea­sant, as the same kinds growing upon pure mo [...]ld, or sweet sandy soyle: so here, If men think it worth the while, if they judge it will answer their labour, cost, and time, to water Fruit-trees, herbs, plants, and flowers, with Aromaticall, and Medicinall sub­stances: Infusions of Cinamon, Ginger, Cloves, Mace, and such like spices, to give a pleasant relish, or (for physicall respects) with Hell [...]bore, Opium, Scammony &c. If they can afford to give them enough from time to time, of these things, (wa [...]ring their [Page 26] Roots abundantly therewith) why then its probable such Plants will somewhat pert [...]ke of their virtues: but as for slitting of their Roots, or perforating the body of the Tree, and infusing the medicine, or ste [...]ping th [...] s [...]ede, or kernell, in s [...]me Liquor wherein the m [...]dicine is infus [...]d, these I account a [...] good as nothing; not only for that the virtues cannot be commun [...]ca [...]ed, or trans [...]used by this meanes, but also because, though they we [...]e carried to all the par [...]s of tree [...], and plants, yet su [...]h, [...]mall quantities would be indiscernable, the effect would be as nothing at all.

The VI. CENTURY.

Experiments 501. &c. Cu [...]iosi [...]s a­bout [...], and P [...]ants. IT is a curiosity to have severall fruits upon one tree: some early, and s [...]m [...] late, ripe fruits all s [...]mm [...]r. This is done by Grafting s [...] ­verall [...]ruits upon one tree: But I conceive th [...] diversity of fruits must be such as w [...]ll graf [...] upon the same stocke, not contrary kinds.

Observation.It is true, (as the Authour saies) that severall fruits may be graf [...]ed, or Inoculated upon one tree, some early, and some late; but yet (as he also observes) they must be of such as will take, and grow together, as many [...]inds of Appl [...]s, upon one tree, so of Peares, and of Ch [...]rries among thems [...]lves, and the l [...]ke: And it is not true which some Authours have written, that Cherries, and Plums, Figgs, Nuts, Peaches, and such like, will grow to­gether upon one tree.

Yet a Book, intituled the Country farme (composed by some Doctors of Physicke, and other inexperienced men) is full of such odde conceits, pag. 360, 361, &c.

Experiment. 502. It is a curi [...]sity to have fruits of divers shapes, and figures [...] This is easily performed by moulding th [...]m when the fruit is young, with moulds of earth or wood, [...]f severall shapes on the inner side, as it is in mould workes of Liquid thing [...] let the moulds be made partible in the middle, that they may be opened.

Experiment. 503. Also Trees, or Fruits may be with Inscriptions, and engravings [Page 27] upon them, by writing with a N [...]edle, or Bodkin, or Knife, when the Trees, and Fruits are young, and as they grow greater, so the Letters, or figures will be more plaine.

If men be not content with the Naturall forme of Fruits, Observation. they may (if they have so much leasure to sp [...]re) put them into moulds as is said, to make them of an artificiall forme; As for Inscripti­ons, figures [...] and shapes upon Fruit trees, that is (as the Authour saies) performed by scoring through the Ba [...]ke with the poynt of a knife, in the spring, or summer, what Letters [...] or Words, or Figures a man pleaseth, which as the tree growes, will become more plaine, and discernable, and that for many yeares after: I use to make a Letter, or two, or three, or more upon all young trees that I graft, whereby to know the severall kinds of Fruits, (or if any be stolen and found againe, they may thereby be knowne) And I have perceived the Letters plainely Nine, or Ten yeares after, or more.

But as for the prescriptions of some Authours about these things they are vaine, and ridiculous: who direct to write upon the kernell [...] of seeds, that we sow, and set, and upon the Buds that we inoculate what letters, or shape we please, and the fruits coming thereof, will have the sam [...] upon them, See hereof Treatise of Fruit-trees pag. 97.

You may have Trees apparelled with Flowers, Experiment. 504. or herbs, by boring holes in the bodies of them, and putting into them good mould, and set­ting slips, or [...]owing seeds therein, those Roots of a more Ligneous nature, will perhaps inco [...]porate with the tree it selfe.

This is a Curiosity indeed,Observation. which may be done (as the Authour saies) by m [...]king h [...]les in Trees, and putting in good mould; care must be taken to make them slopewaies, with the bottome downe­wards; that so both mould, and moisture may keepe in them, about the Roots of things that are set. But yet I should be loath to spoyle a good tree thus, for it must needs make it rot, and pe­rish in a certaine time: howsoever, for one, or two of indifferent kinds, it may ra [...]her be admitted, for satis [...]action in this Curi­osity.

Beauty in Flowers is their preheminence, Experiment. 506. It is observed, that Gil­ly-flowers, [Page 28] Violets, &c. that are coloured, if they be negl [...]cted, and not watred, nor n [...]w moulded, nor tra [...]splanted, will turne white: And its probable, that the white with much cultur [...], may turne co­lour [...]d.

Observation.I doubt not but that the Flowers aforementioned, and diver [...] o [...]her [...]inds, will not only l [...]o [...]e the beauty of their Colo [...]rs, if they be not sometimes removed into new, and b [...]tter mould, but also that they will in time change from double, to single; or else be much [...]mal [...]r, then they will be in fr [...]sh [...] strong mould. There­fore, every o [...]her yeare, at least, let the mou [...]d be cha [...]ged, more or lesse: lay about all their Roots, some good, fresh, bla [...]k mould [...] And that we may have every ye [...]re new, young Roots, and t [...]at the best kinds ma [...] be i [...]creased, the slips must be laid in s [...]m­mer; as I shall here shew how, though it be a co [...]mon thing, and well knowne amongst many, yet [...]or the sake of those tha [...] [...]now it not, and desire it. I shall brie [...]ly speak of it.

About the beginning of Iuly, (and for six, or seaven wee [...]es af­terwards) s [...]ips may be laid thus. Observe the fairest, and big­g [...]st slips upon the Roots, and with a sharp Kni [...]e, cut halfe way through the sl [...]p, on the out side, neere to the bottome, just from a joynt, and cut the sl [...]p upwards, through the middle of it, a­bout halfe an inch, (or little more) in leng [...]h; then with a small hook stick f [...]sten the cut part downe into the mould, yet so as that the slip be not bro [...]en, or parted from the Roo [...]e wherein it growes: so do to the rest of the sl [...]ps upon the same Roote, or to as many as you please: having so done, then mould them all up, w [...]th f [...]esh mould, that is, cover all the c [...]t parts on every side with mould, then water them, and presse the mould close about them, and so let them rest.

Afterwards, in a Month, or five weekes t [...]ese slips (so laid) will have taken Roote, (especially if their mould have beene wa­tred now and then) then they may be c [...]t off from the old Root, and [...]aken up, and so set againe in fr [...]sh, good mould, prepared in the Garden plat for that purpose: Or else they may be let alone untill the spring after, and then set: these young, vigorous Roots, set in good mould, and watred (now, and then) with [...]at wa­ter, will have large [...]lowers: especially if in Iune we break off, most of their buds, and suffer only some few six, or eight, or ten [Page 29] flowers upon a Root, these the Root will easily maintaine, and each of them will have the more nourishment, then when they are suffered to spindle up as many as nat [...]re will, such must needs be smaller flowers, the Root being overburdened.

The Clove-Gilly-Flower, is of all other the best, for use, it is well knowne how usefull they are to make Syrups, which a [...]e ve­ry Cordiall: they are good for Sallets, prepared with sugar, to use all the yeare long: and have the best smell of any other; there­fore increase these, as much as may be, not only of slips (for sl [...]ps of these will grow without laying [...] better then o [...] other kind of [...]lowers) but lay many of them also for more certain [...]y.

And among these preferre those which are largest, and of the deepest colour, and those that are without Hornes (as they call them) they also are increased of seede, as other kinds [...]

I have been the larger upon this particular, (and somewhat digressed from the Experiment, which chiefly concerned c [...]lour) because hereupon mainly depends the goodn [...]sse, and flourishing of a Garden, as to these k [...]nds of flowers; for if we know not the best way to propagate flowers, nor to plant, and order them being prepa [...]ed, the Garden will be but poore.

Whites are more inodorate (for the most part) then Flow [...]rs of the same kind Coloured: Experiment. 570. we find also that Blossomes of trees that are white, are commo [...]ly inodorate, As Cherries, Peares, Plum [...]. Where­as those of Apples, Crabs, Almonds, and Peaches, are blush [...], and smell sweete.

I conceive this Experiment was not throughly we [...]ghed,Ob [...]ervation. and try'd: for to my Observation white Flowers, have (generally) as much smell, as those Coloured: to i [...]stance in the white Rose, the ordinary k [...]d, and the White Musk Rose, I suppose they have as much smell (especially the Musk Ro [...]e) as Red Roses, or Pro­vosts, or Velvet, or Ma [...]ble, and some other coloured kinds yea and more too: And as for some white flowers, as the white Lilly, and some other kinds, their smell is more full [...] and ranck then many Red, or other colo [...]red flowers: And for blossomes of Trees, some that are white, smell as much, as some that are Red, or co­loured, for what smell hath the double blossome Peach-fllower, or the Nectrin, or any kind of Peach Blossomes, which are all co­loured [Page 30] excellentl [...]) more then the Blossomes of Peare-tree, Ch [...]rry, or Plum-tree, wh [...]ch a [...]e said to be inodorate: So that I conceive there [...]ust be [...]ome othe [...] Cause found out, why some Flowers, and B [...]s [...]m [...]s [...]m [...]ll n [...]t, (or smell not so much as some others) then th [...]t whic [...] is assigned; viz: the thinn [...]sse, or sc [...]ntn [...]sse of that substanc [...] w [...]ich m [...]keth the Flower is not the Cause wh [...] some Flow­ers and blos [...]m [...]s [...]m [...]ll not, so much as others: the same is the Cause why some Flowers, and fruits are bigger then others, and of a better tast then o [...]hers; which proceeds (undo [...]b [...]edly) from the speci [...]ique, or d [...]stinct intrinsecall Forme, of each particular Plant, which the God of nat [...]re hath fixed in it as a Law, wh [...]ch nature never violates, but keeps in all kinds of Creatures.

Experiments 5 [...]8. & 5 [...]9. Contrariwise in Berries the White is commonly more delicate, and sweete in tast, then the Coloured; as we see in white-grapes, white-Ra [...]ps, white strawberries, Currants &c. the Cause is, for that the C [...]loured are more juyced, and courser juyced, and therefore not so well, and [...]qually concocted.

But in Fruits the White commonly is meaner, as in Plums, The white ha [...]vest Plum is a base Plum, the Musle, Damaze [...]ne, and other black Plums, are of the best &c.

Observation.This proves what was last said to be true, viz. that it is the spe­ci [...]icall Forme of every Plant, that causeth the difference of tasts in Fruits, and smell in Flowers. For we see by experie [...]ce that [...]ome white kinds of Flowers, Fruits, Berries &c. are sweeter, and bet­ter in smell, and tast, then some others of Coloured kinds: and that likewise some o [...]her coloured kinds of Flowers, Fruits, and Berries, a [...] sw [...]et [...]r, and better then some white k [...]nds: so that it is a hard matter to find out the particular Cause, and give a distinct rea­ [...]n, of the differences of particu [...]ars, though men may venture a [...] it.

Ex [...]er [...]ment. 510. Gilly- [...]l [...]wer seede of one kind, being sewen, will c [...]me up of severall Colours: The Cau [...]e is (no doubt) that in earth though it be conti­guous, and in one bed, there are severall juyces; and [...]s the seede doth casually meete with them, so it cometh forth.

Observation.It is true, that Gilly-flowerseede of one kind sowen, will bring [Page 31] up severall kinds: some double, and some single: but I much doubt whether it be, for that the seede me [...]ts with severall juyces in one bed of earth: for can it be imagined that two, or three very small seeds, that lye as close together as can be, in the earth, should draw severall juyces, from the very selfe same mould, so as to cause them to vary in the colour of the flowers? May it not rather be said, it is from a Law in Nature, which God of his generall bounty to us, hath put into it; though we stand not in absolute necessity of th [...]m, yet in that he gives us such variety, and ch [...]i [...]e? But for men to find out, and shew a particular Cause in Nature, of this variety, will be as hard to do, as to shew a Cause why se­verall kinds of Grafts, upon one tree, See Exper. 481. drawing one and the selfe same sap, do yet bri [...]g forth different Fruits; other then to say, they keepe their severall Natures, and so convert the same sap into se­verall kinds of Fruits. And why may not the same be said of se­verall seeds, and Roots, in one Bed, drawing the same juyce of the Earth?

Concerning sowing of Gilly flower seede, I advise those that sow it: first, to gather it from the fairest, and best Clove-Gilly-flower, and that i [...] be full ripe, ere it be g [...]thered, which is, when it is turned black [...] Also seede may be g [...]thered from other double flow­ers, some commend especially the London white, others, a flower cald the old mans head [...] and say the greatest varieties c [...]me from these; some are for one, and some for another, but so it is, that most will be single fl [...]wers from the best seede: but doubtlesse there is much in the ground in which the seede is sowen; if it be poore soyle, they are more like to be more single, then if the ground be speciall rich mould; for (as was said) barren ground, as it makes flower [...] small, so sometimes in it, they turne from double to single, so it may be said as to the seede when sowen.

It is a Curiosity to have Flowers double, Experiment. 513. which is effected by often Removing them into new earth, as on the contrary part double flowers, by neglecting, and not removing, prove single. And the way to do it speedily, is to sow, or set seeds, or slips of flowers, and as soone as they c [...]m [...] up to remove them into new ground, that is good. Enquire also wh [...]ther Inoculating of Flowers (as Stock-Gilly-flowers, Roses, Musk-Roses &c.) doth not make them double.

[Page 32] Observation.For the first part of [...]his Experiment, to make Flowers double, or fairer, it is a good Rule, as the Authour hath set downe, es­pecially if withall we observe the directions given in the Observa­tion to the 50 [...] Experim [...]nt, in breaking off some of the Buds, and St [...]ms, and letting some few grow, to be fl [...]wers.

Concerning Inoculating of Flowers (Stock Gilly flowers, or any other kind) I know no such thing, and believe it is but a fancy, for having heard of it, I have considered of the matter, and can­not find, nor apprehend what it is that should be Inoculated; there are no buds, nor any thing like a bud, to be taken off for that purpose: And I have spoken with divers who have had skill in Fl [...]wers; and they have said they have heard of such a thing, but have never seene any thing thereof in Experience.

There are [...]hree other waies sufficient for the propagation of flow­ers, which are, by Seede, by Slips, and by Layers, but by Laying is by far [...]he best, as is shewed at large, in the Observation to the 506. Ex­periment. But as for Inoculating Roses, (Musk R [...]se, and all o­ther kinds) that is very commo [...], and sure; yet as to the intent of the Authour, viz. (to make them double) it succeeds not: and he himselfe hath given the Reason, truly, upon another oc­c [...]sion: That is, all Buds, and Grafts, Rule, and keepe their owne Natures, and so change not, neither as to the making Ros [...]s more double [...] or better then they were before, nor as to the bettering of any F [...]uit: as hath beene shew'd heretofore.

Experiment. 541. The m [...]king of Fruits without Core, or Stone, is likewise a Curio­sity; If a Cions, or shoote, have the Pith finely taken forth, (and not altog [...]ther, but some of it left, the better to save the life, it will beare a fruit with little, or no Core, or Stone. The like is said to be of dividing a Quick tree downe to the ground, and taking out the Pu [...], a [...]d then binding it up againe.

Observation.These prescriptions for making F [...]uits without Core, or stone, I canno [...] think are from this worthy Authour, but they are such as are set downe by others, which I have seene: And they are as weake, and groundlesse conceits as many other things asserted by them, about chang [...]ing the species of Fruits: and making them of an aromatique, and pleasant tast, and altering the Colour of Fruits, and such like co [...]ceits: the variety of which (I suppose) [Page 33] hath beene sufficiently laid open in a late Treatise of Fruit-trees: see there Errors discovered pag. 91 92. &c. For, let this thing be a little considered, and it will appeare to any man that has but halfe an eye, to be vaine: suppose a shoote, or Graft (as is here said) be cloven, and all, or most of the pith taken out, and ad [...]it such a one be Grafted, (or any way set in the ground, so as to take roote) and grow [...] yet we know all the Bark and Buds, are as they were before; the taking out of the Pith makes no al­teration at all, more, or lesse; we know, in all the Buds that are Inoculated not only all the Pi [...]h, but also all the wood is cast a­way; and no [...]hing made use of but only the Buds, and Bark of a­ny young shoote; and yet wee see by continuall Experience what the effect i [...]; that these Buds bring for [...]h the same Fruits, as the trees from which they were taken.

And if a Some old fruit trees are holl [...]w, all along their bodies, having no Pith at all, which bring forth fruits with no lesse Core, or Stone for that. young tree were divided, and the Pith taken out, from the top to the Roote (as is said) there is lesse Reason, (if lesse can be) that that should work this eff [...]ct; because all the side twigs, (if it have any) would have pith st [...]ll, And if it have none, or if the Pith were taken out of all; yet we know the increase of the Tree, must be still from the Buds; which have the same nature in them, as Grafts, or Buds Inoculated.

It is very probable, that any sower fruit, Experiment. 515. grafted upon a stock that beareth a sweeter fruit, may both make the fruit sweeter, and more voyd of the harsh matter of the kernells, or seeds.

It is Reported, that not only taking out the Pith, Experiment. 516. but the stopping of the juy [...]e of the Pith, from rising in the midst, and turning it to rise o [...] the outside, will make the fruit, withou [...] core or stone.

The Rule is Generall; that whatsoever will make a wild Tree, Experiment. 517. a Gard [...]n tree, will make a Garden tree to have lesse Core, or stone.

It is true,Observation. that a sower fruit grafted upon a stock of a sweeter kind, will make the fruit somewhat sweeter; yet so as that the Graft still governs, (as this Authour elsewhere hath said) and as Experience proves; B [...]t the fruits will have k [...]rn [...]lls, and seeds, as before.

As for taking out the Pith, Of this See Exper. 514. or stopping the juyce of the Pith, it is all one, as to this intention.

[Page 34]Concerning the generall Rule in the 517 Experiment I know no­thing that will make a Wild tree, a Garden tree, but grafting it with good kinds of grafts; And I am sure grafting will not make a­ny fruit to have lesse Core, or stone.

Experiment. 518. Plants for want of Culture degenerate to be baser in the same kind; and sometim [...]s to change into another kind.

  • 1. By standing long unremoved.
  • Degenerating of Plants.
    2. By drought, and drynesse of the Earth.
  • 3. By the Barrennesse of the earth, removing Plants into worse mould, or forbearing to renew, and help the ground with dung, or fresh mould.

Observation.It hath been Exper. 506. said, That Violets, and some other Flowers, will change from double to single, or change in colour, when the mould wherein they grow, becomes barren, and hartl [...]sse, through neglect; which is the same in substance with all the three particulars mentioned in the Experiment. Therefore there is need of some fresh mould from yeare to yeare, for the preserving of Flowers in their perfection. See hereof at large, Experiment 506. and 510.

Experiment. 519. Whatsoever Fruit useth to be set upon a Roote, or slip, if it be sow­en, will d [...]generate: And most of those Fruits that use to be Grafted, if th [...]y be set of kernells, or stones, degenerate. It is true, that Pea­ches do better upon stones set, then upon Grafting: And the Rule of exception should seeme to be this; That whatsoever Plant requireth much moisture, prospereth better upon the stone, or kernell, then up­on the Graft; For the stock though it giveth a finer nourishment, yet it giveth a scanter than the Earth at large.

Observation.The reason why Fruits that come of Seede, or stones, do dege­nerate (for the most part) and become worse then the Fruits out of which the seede was taken, I conceive to be this; Fruits that come of seede, or stones, do partake both of the Graft, and of the stock of that tree from which they were taken; so that although the graft was of a speciall good, and choice kind, yet the stock where­on it was engrafted being a Crabtree, (or some other wild kind of Fruit-tree) the seede participates of both Graft, and stock, and [Page 35] so brings forth a mungrell fruit, between them both: For although Grafts governe, (as hath beene said) and may be said to bring forth the same kinds, yet so as that the stock hath some influence into the Fruits, according to the goodn [...]sse, or badnesse of the stock.

But now: In case the Tree from which seeds, or stones are ta­ken, be an ungrafted tree, one that came of seede it selfe, then I doubt not but that the seede of that Tree, will bring forth the ve­ry same kinds againe, without any alteration.

As to that the Authour saies concerning Peaches; that they come better of stones then grafting; I suppose there is a mistake in this: for although it be true, that some Peaches will come good of seede; yet doubtlesse not better, then by Inoculating, (they take not with Grafting) for we see by constant Experience, that Peach Buds set upon good stocks, will bring forth the very sam [...], as the trees from which they were cut; if the rest of their culture, and ordering be the same, or as good.

And as for some that have come of stones, I have observ'd they have beene none of the best: many that have come of stones have beene starke nought; though some have beene good.

And why Peaches, or any other kind of fruit, should be thought to come better of stones, or s [...]eds, then by Grafting, or Inocula­ting, I apprehend not any reason: as for that which is given; That the stock giveth a scanter nourishment, then the earth at large; let it be considered: The Twigs and Branches of a Peach tree, (or any other tree that came of seede, or stones) they receive sap, and nourishment from a stem, or body, and Roote, as w [...]ll as if the Tree were engrafted; the twigs, and branches of an ingrafted tree, have as free and full nourishment, (without any obstruction) as the branches of a [...] ungrafted tree; the branches of a grafted tree, have no finer nourishment, no [...] scanter, then the branches of an un­grafted tr [...]: for we know, the Roote, and Body of a Graf [...]ed tree, and of an ungrafted tree, are alike: and the earth is as free, to the one, as to the other.

It is reported [...] Experiment. 534. That a good strong Canvas, spread over a tree, grafted low, soone after it putteth forth, will dwarfe it, and make it spread: Procerity, and Lownesse of trees. The Cause is plaine, for that all things grow, as they find roome.

[Page 36] Observation.It is true (as is said) That Cloth sometimes spread over a tree grafted low, (and suffered to lye on for a time) will cause it to spread much; And that this may be improved for our use, and be­nifit, this may be done: To plant some few Cherry trees, Plum trees, or other kinds, grafted low, and caused to spread much, and kept from rising up, by this meanes, keep the earth bare, cleane from weeds, grasse, or any thing growing under, or about them: such trees (if they be good kinds) will beare much and fairer fruits, then high trees: the reflection of heate from the earth, will be almost as strong, as from a wall. And the fruits may be kept long, growing upon the Trees; even till after September, or Octo­ber. For if a Cloth be sometimes, in hot weather, spread over them, and moistned, it will keep the fruits from ripening too soone: (yet shade them not too much, lest they come not to full ripe­nesse) Afterwards, the fruits being ripe, some old Canvas haire­cloth, (or such like) may be spread over them, to preserve the fruits from Birds, and may be so kept long; (look that snailes eate them not) Or else a Net may be spread over such trees, to pre­serve the Fruits: I have knowne faire Cherries upon Trees towards the middle of October. I conceive the great bearing Cherry, or other late ripe, tart Cherries, to be the best to keepe long, in this manner: such are more hardy then other kinds; Cherries very late, are as great Rarities, as those that are early.

Experiment. 535. Trees are generally set of Roots, or kernells; but if you set them of slips (as the Mulberry &c.) they will grow, and those (as is repor­ted) will be dwarfe trees; the Cause is, for that the slip draweth nourishment more weakly, then either a Roote, or kernell.

Observation. Mulberry-tree slips, and some other kinds of trees that will grow of slips, may be made dwarfe trees, if we will order them accordingly, that is; if we suffer all the side branches to grow: or such slips (taking Roote) may be made high trees, in time, if we cut off all the side branches, and preserve only the middle, straight shoote. But indeed at first, for certaine yeares, they must needs be dwarfe trees, untill they can rise higher, which in time they will do, if they take Roote well, and the ground be good.

Experiment. 544. In Clay grounds, all Fruit-trees grow full of Mosse, both upon body, and Boughes: which is caused partly by the coldnesse of the ground, whereby the Plants nourish lesse: And partly by the Tough­nesse of the earth, whereby the sap is shut in &c.

[Page 37]We see by Experience, that trees growing upon cold, Observation. and moist grounds, or Clay, grav [...]ll, barr [...]n grounds, do generally breed Moss [...], which is caused, (as the Authour s [...]ies) by the coldnesse and scantn [...]sse of the nour [...]shment: And therefore there is neede (besides the scraping off of the Mosse) to lay the Roots of Fruit-trees as dry as may be in such moist grounds, by tre [...]ching, or other­wise, and also to bring in some soyles to make the g [...]ound b [...]tter, and warmer, as much as may be.

It is to be noted [...] that (commonly) trees that ripen their fruits la­test, Experiment. 578. do blossome soonest.

S [...]me Fruit-trees indeed which bring forth their fruits to perfe­ct [...]on,Observation. and ripenesse, late in the yeare, do blossome early; as ha­ving neede of the heate of the sunne to ripen them, all the sommer: But some other kinds blossome early, and ripen the [...]r Fruits also ea [...] ­ly; As May Cherry trees, the Premorden [...]plum, also the Mirabi­lon plum-tree blossomes exceeding early, and the tree brings forth his Fruit early. I have got ripe plums from this tree about the be­ginning of Iuly, which is early for Plums.

There be fruits, Experiment. 579. (but rar [...]ly,) that come twice a yeare, As some Peares, strawberries &c. Roses beare twice, but it is not wit [...]out cutting.

The Winsor Peare-tree does blossome and beare fruits twice in the year [...], some yeares:Observation. but the second bearing I cou [...]d never see worth the ga [...]hering, for they are poore, small, hard fruits, not worth any thing.

I have seen Cherries twice in the yeare upon one and the same tree, An early Flanders, which I set upon a very warme southwall, bore ripe Cherries about the twenteth of May, And the same tree bore a couple of ripe Cherries afterwards, the one about the sixth of Octob [...]r, the other a fortnight after.

Strawberries ordinarily beare twice a y [...]are, though but few the second time. As for Rose-trees, some damask Roses, and some Pro­vosts beare a second time, the same yeare, though but few, if cut soone after the first bearing in the full Moone. But besides, there is a Rose-tree, called the Monthly Ro [...]e, which beares Roses untill the coldnesse of the winter stop it, about November.

Nothing procureth the lasting of Tr [...]es, Experiment. 586. Bushes, and He [...]bs, so much as oft [...]n cutting, For every cutting causeth a Renovation of the juyce of the Plant, that is neither go [...]th so farre, nor riseth so faintly, as when the plant is not cut.

This is to be considered in cutting of trees, Observation. else insteed of mak­ing [Page 38] them last longer, we shorten their lives. That i [...], that we so cut them that the wet, and moisture get not into their bodies, wh [...]ch in certaine yeares will [...]ot, and spoyle them: as we see in many pol­lard trees, which are hollow all along their bodies: And many Fruit-trees, having had their heads cut off, when they were great Trees, and grafted againe; we see the wet, and moisture gets in at the top, before the Grafts can cover the head, and rots the tree, which can never grow great after, nor last long, but rot [...], and decayes in few ye [...]res. Whereas Trees that are sound, Fruit-trees, and all other kinds, must needs last much longer: yet as to cutting of side branches, and all supe [...]fluous branches. (which are not great) that conduceth to the lasting of Trees, as giving the more plentifull, and vig [...]rous nourishment to those that are left, and to the whole body.

The VII. CENTURY.

Experiment. 624. QVinces, or Apples if you will keepe them long, drowne them in Honey, but because Honey (perhaps) will give them a tast overlushious, it were good to make tryall in powder of sugar, or in [...]yrrup of wine only boyled to height.

Observation.As for keeping of Apples, keeping them in honey, or sugar, would be too costly: some Pippins, and Iohn Apples, will (of themselves) last till new come againe: its good then to get such kinds, that we may have for use all the yeare long [...] without charge in keeping.

And for keeping Quinces, they are kept long in pickle, made of the Pa [...]ings, and Cores [...] of those that are used for Marmalade, well boyled in water, w [...]th Salt, and Ginger. Or a better way (as some account) is to [...]eepe them in small Ale, a penny a Gallon, and to draw i [...] off, once in ten, or twelve da [...]es, and put in f [...]esh; thus its said they will last two yeares.

Experiment. 627. Take Grapes, and hang them in an empty V [...]ss [...]ll, well stopped, and s [...]t the V [...]ss [...]ll, not in a Cellar, but in some dry place, and its said th [...]y will last lo [...]g.

Observation. Grapes will keepe for some short time, in this manner, as hath been said: but when cold moist Aire towards winter comes on, they will begin to mould, and [...]ot; I have kept some in Glasse, as close stop [...] with Cork [...], and wax, as I could, supposing the exclusion of Aire, [Page 39] had been best, but though they were good certaine weekes, yet af­terwards they began to perish: I account it better to hang the Bun­ches in a Kitchin, or some warme Roome, where fire is much kept, that so some of their supe [...]fl [...]ous moisture may be a little dryed up; I have kept them thus many weekes. For though the Aire be much shut out from them in any V [...]ss [...]ll, yet that A [...]re that is shut in with them and their owne naturall moisture, will cause putrefaction; therefore there is neede of some degree of warmth, with dryn [...]sse: Cut off some of the wood with the Bunches, and cover them with Pa­per from dust, and hang them up.

Also a Vine Branch full of ripe Grapes, may be drawne in at a window, and Nailed up, upon the w [...]ll or [...]eeling, letting the br [...]nch grow still to the Vine, thus they will keepe long.

The juyces of Fruits are either watry, or oylie: Experiment. 633. I reckon amongst the watry, all the fruits out of which drinke is expressed, as the Grape, the Apple, the Peare, the Cherry, the Pome-granate &c. And th [...]re are some others which though they be not in use for drinke, yet they ap­peare to be of the same nature, As Plums, Mulberries, Services, Rasps &c. And for those juyces that are so fleshy as they cannot make drinke by expression (yet perhaps they may make drinke by mixture of water. And some of the watry juyces, after they have gathered spirit, will burn [...], and inflame, as wine.

Concerning the juyces of Apples, Observation. Peares, and Cherries, these are well knowne, and much in use, and esteeme: the two former with us in England, and all of them in other parts; And we might have wine of Cherries, as plentifull in England, as it is beyond-sea, if men would but plant store of Cherry trees, of the best kinds, such as are fittest for this purpose: As the Morello-Cherry, the Charoone, the Black-hart, and other k [...]nds which have a pleasant tast, the j [...]yce of which is of a deepe red colour: These would make a delicate wine, especially for sommer time; And which will last also all the yeare; as I have heard it credibly spoken, by a worthy gentleman, who dranke good Cherry wine, of a Twelve month old.

A [...] for Cider, and Perry, these Liquors (especially Cider) be­gin to be better knowne to us, in some parts where they have scarce beene heretofore: And doubtlesse when men are better acquainted with them, and know their good properties, and virtues, in refe­rence to Health, and Long [...]life, they will be more diligent in plan­ting Fruit-trees, such as are best, and fittest for this purpose. As the Pear [...]-maine, Pippin, G [...]nnet-Moyle, Redstreake, and such like; [Page 40] whi [...]h make Cider better then French-winds.

Concerning the manner of making Cider, and Perry, with the k [...]eping, and o [...]dering of it, I have spoken at large in my Treati [...]e [...]f Fruit-trees: See, the use of Fruits pag. 77.

Se [...] Mr H [...]rtlibs Leg [...]cy of [...] ­bandry pag. [...]A [...] for Plums, it is affirmed, that there may be made an excel­lent wine out of them, and also Aquavitae, of those that are sweete, fat Plum [...], as Musle plums, Damson [...] &c. And though the juyce be too thi [...]k of it selfe for that purpose, yet water, Cider, or some other Liquor, may be mixed therewi [...]h, which being put up into the Ves­ [...]ell; some Honey, Yest, (or the like) must be mixed, to cause it to wo [...]ke.

Ex [...]eriment. 634. It hath beene noted, that m [...]st Trees, (and specially those that beare Mast) are [...]ui [...]full but once in two yea [...]es. The Cause (no doubt) is the expence of s [...]p; For many Orchard Trees, well cul [...]ured, will be [...]re divers y [...]ares together.

Observation.Some Fruit-trees beare store of fruits but once in two yeares; and I conceive it to be as naturall so to do, as to beare such, or such a k [...]d of Fruit. And others are observed to beare store of F [...]uits e­ [...]y yeare, constantly; unlesse (perhaps) in some extreame bla­st [...]g spring, which spoyles (in a manner) all: But for many ye [...]es t [...]gether, eve [...]y yea [...]e, s [...]me are knowne to beare Frui [...]s ex­ceeding full in the same ground, and with the same culture, as those that beare but each other yeare: so that we see the expence of sa [...], in [...]he [...]aring yeare, is not the only Cause that Trees bea [...]e not the next yeare [...]ter; fo [...] some that expend as much sap, do yet beare th [...] next yeare after, as full as before: So then, let care be taken, to [...]h [...]se Graf [...]s from those trees that we see by Experience are the best, and m [...]st const [...]n [...] b [...]arers; and b [...]st fruits.

Ex [...]erim [...]nt. [...]37. Th [...] g [...]at [...]r part of T [...]ees beare most, and best, on the lower Boughes; but some beare b [...]st on the t [...]p b [...]ughes. Those that beare b [...]st below, are [...]u [...]h as shade doth more good to, then hurt: for g [...]n [...]rally all fruits bea [...]e b [...]st l [...]west, b [...]cau [...]e the sap tireth not, having but a short way; and the [...]efore in F [...]uits spread upon walls, th [...] low [...]st are the greatest.

Ob [...]ervation.To my Observation, Apple-trees, Peare trees, Cherry-trees &c. that are good bearers, they beare all over alike. And generally all Fruit [...]t [...]ees in these par [...]s, h [...]ve need enough of the sunne, and beare better in the [...]unne, then in the sh [...]d [...]; But indeed as to Wall-t [...]ees, most commonly we see most fruits upon the lower boughes, and The [...]f [...]re o [...] ­serve the [...]ir [...]c [...]i­ons given in [...]he Tr [...]a [...]ise [...]f Fruit trees, p. 70. in causing the b [...]ā ­ches to spread along the wall both waies which causeth f [...]uit bearing. side [...]boughes, And the reason I apprehend to be this: Not the tiring of the sap, in its going to the top branches; for the sap is too vi­gorous, [Page 41] and too plentifull, in the top boughes, and thence it is we al­waies see the fairest, and greatest shoots towards the top of all w [...]ll-trees, and commonly of all other trees. But the cause why the lower boughes, and side branches, have usually more fruit, then the top branches, I conceive to be for that the sap naturally presse [...]h up­wards, in greatest plenty, and runneth forth into shoots, and bran­ches: N [...]w nat [...]re being so intent, and vigorously active in one work (viz. increase of the tree in those branches) it doth not put forth it selfe, at the same time, in that other effect of bearing fruit upon the same branches. But now, as to the lower boughes, and side-branches, there na [...]ure is at work, but in a r [...]misse, and weaker d [...]gree, as to the increase of the branches, such grow but little, because the sap is somewhat obstructed, and curbed by bowing the branches downe­wards, and so does attend to the other work also, viz. the bearing of Fruits.

And the truth of this is made more evident, if we consider the same thing in all young trees: We know young Apple-trees, Peare-trees, and the like, when, and while they grow, and increase ex­ceedingly in all the parts, shooting forth great, large, strong shoots, and branches, they beare but littl [...] fruit, or none at all: But af [...]er certaine yeares, when they grow not so much, when they shoute l [...]ss [...], then they fall to bearing fruits more abundantly

There be Trees that bear [...] best when th [...]y begin to be old; Experiment. 638. As Almonds, Peares, Vines, and all trees that give Mast. The Cause is, for that all trees that beare Mast, have an oylie Fruit: and young trees have a more watry juyce and lesse concocted. But the most part of Trees: Amongst which are Apples, Plums &c. bear [...] best when they are young.

Pear [...]-trees, Apple-trees, Plum [...] and Cherry trees, Observation. if they be good [...]earing kinds naturally, after they are three, or foure yeares grow [...]h (and some sooner) do all beare store of fruits, untill they be ex­treame old, and in a decaying, dying condi [...]ion; And there [...]ore in planting of Fruit-trees, be sure to procure those kinds that are knowne by Experience to be good bearers, and good fruits, and such will beare well, both when they are young, and when they are old, untill extreame age.

Were I to plant an Orchard, or Garden of Fruit-trees, and might have Trees at hand, freely, for nothing, of indifferent, common kinds, a [...]d but ind [...]fferent beare [...]s, I would ra [...]her ch [...]e to fetch [...]hose tha [...] are choice kinds, and speciall bearers one hundred or two hun­dred miles (if they could not be had neerer) and there pay deare [Page 42] for them too, besides all other Charges, then take those at hand, for when men plant Fruit- [...]r [...]es, It is not for a f [...]w ye [...]es, but fo [...] sev [...]rall generations: therefore take speciall care to have the b [...]st kinds, for bearing, and for R [...]lish, or tast: that is the foundation of the work, the principall thing in planting.

Now when fruit-trees are growen to extreame old age, and there­fore be [...]re but little, this m [...]y be done; which will make them (as it were) young againe, for certaine yeares, and to beare exc [...]eding much fruit year [...]ly: That is, Cut off their Head [...], or big bough [...]s, not straight over, but a slope, that so Raine, and moisture may not rest [...]pon the top, to rot it: These great Boughes will (the next som­mer) put forth many young shoots; which may be Inoculated the same sommer, or Grafted the spring after, with speciall bearing kinds: And these old Bodies h [...]ving young heads (which draw sap vigorously) will be much refreshed thereby: and such trees will beare store of fruits many yeares after.

Experiment. [...]53. Th [...] Ro [...]ts of Trees do (some of them) put down [...]-wards, deep into the ground; As the Oake, Pine, Fi [...]re &c [...] some spread more towards the surface of the earth; As the Ash, Cypresse-tree, Olive &c. Th [...] Ca [...]se of this l [...]r may be, for that such Trees as lov [...] the sunne do not willi [...]gly d [...]scend farre into the Earth.

Observation.It is true, The Roots of Oak [...] Trees, and some other kinds, shoot d [...]wne deeper into the Earth, then Ash-trees, and some other [...]ees: May not the R [...]ason be (why some put their Roots de [...]per then others) b [...]c [...]se those Trees have gr [...]ater, and larger bodies, then others: a [...]d Nature layes the foundation answerable to what is to be set up­on it: Now O [...]kes being the greatest Trees, Nature is wise enough (acco [...]ding to a Law God ha [...]h put into it) to make the Roote or foundation Answerable: O [...]he [...]wise I conceive, the Roots of all trees would be as neere the top of the groun [...] as may be, as loving the sun, as having an absolute need of it in order to their growth; And I am perswaded, that the appetite of the spirit, in all [...]ees whatsoever, (one as well as another) is upwards, and not downewards, and never exerts it selfe down [...]-wards, but upon necessity: and in order, or in subordination, to the growth of the body of the tree, above ground.

Experiment. 654. It hath been Observed, that a Branch of a Tree, being unbarked some space at the bo [...]tome, and so set into the ground, even of such trees as if the barke were set on, they would not grow, yet contrariwise we see that a Tree [...]ared round in the body, above gr [...]und, will dye: The cause [Page 43] may be, for that the unbarkt part draweth the nourishment best, but the barke continueth it only.

It is true [...] some branches that are unbark't at the bottome,Observation. and set in the ground will grow: of some kinds of Apple-trees; As the Quodling, Nursgarden, Moyse, and some other kinds, that have soft barks [...] Not because, (not I suppose the sooner) for that the branch is unbark't, for such will grow of cutting [...], or slips, though they be not at all unbark't, And those that be unbark't and grow, it is not the unbark't par [...] that draweth nourish ne [...]t best, nor th [...]t draweth it at all; but the Roots put forth from the barke, even at the very edge of the cut part, and also some breake out of the Bark where it is not cut, As we see in those branches of Trees from wh [...]ch we get Roots while they grow upon the tree, by disb [...]king of them, an inch round, and ty­ing mould about: See how, at large, Treatis [...] of Fruit-trees. p. 136.

The grafting of Vines upon Vines (as I take it) is not now in use; Experiment. 668. the Ancients had it, and that th [...]ee waies: Th [...] first was insition, which is the ordinary manner of grafting. The second was Terebra [...]ion through the middle of the stocke [...] and putting in the Cions there. And the third was, p [...]ring of two Vines, that grow together, to the marrow, and bind­ing th [...]m close.

I have tryed severall waies, to graft Vines:Observation. by cleving, or insiti­on, (as the Author calls it) and also by pari [...]g two Vines, the stock, and Graft, on two sides, which is my usuall, and best way of graf­ting other Fruit-trees, but neither took effect: so that I am perswa­ded those Fruit-trees that are so easily propagated by other meanes, as by laying downe the Branches, into the earth, and by cuttings, that these will not take with Grafting, or Inoculating as Vines, Mul­berries &c. I have tryed many Experiments about Mu [...]berries, both for grafting, and Inoculating, [...]pon severall kinds of stock [...], and yet none succeeded: but Mulberries are increased by laying downe the Branches, and by cutting, as Vines are: so that I con­ceive this grafting, mentioned by some Ancient Authors, is but a conceit of theirs,See the Obser­vation upon the 477. Experim [...] (a grafting in the braine) insteed of a reall Ex­p [...]riment, like multitudes of other things recorded by some who (its probable by what they say) had no Experimentall knowledge, in the things they spake.

As for Ma [...]uration of fruits, Experiment. 316. it is effected by heate, motion, attra­ct [...]on; and by a rudiment of putrefaction, for the inception of putrefa­ction, hath in it a maturation.

Concerning the maturation or speedy ripe [...]ing or concocting ofObservation. [Page 44] Fruits, all kinds of Heate (as the Author saies) hastneth it faster, or slower, according to the degree of heate: As we see by Experience, Apples, or Peares laid upon a heape together (being newly ga­thered) they m [...]llow, and rip [...]n faster then if they lay single, at di­stance one f [...]om another. Al [...]o Apples covered in Lime, hay [...] straw, &c. will be m [...]ll [...]w, in a short time; But the most speedy way to ripen hard fruits, and to abate the grosse tartnesse of them, is the common Experiment by a gentle heate before the fire, or in an Oven after bread is drawen.

So we see (as the A [...]thor obse [...]ves) If fruits are eate with Wasps, Hornets, Bird [...] &c. some part of them, the rest sweeten, and rip [...]n sooner, putrefaction beg [...]nning, and hastning by reason of solution of continuity, in that part.

Experiment. 343. We see that Beere or Wine in Bottles close stopped lasts long: And that Fruits closed in Wax k [...]epe fresh: And lik [...]wise bodies put in Hony and Flower, keepe more fresh.

Observation.It is true, th [...]t Liquors when they are well setled in the V [...]ss [...]ll, (after a certaine time) and after drawen ou [...] into B [...]ttles, and stopped very close with Corke, and set in a C [...]ll [...]r, or buried in sand, such will be much more fresh, and quick th [...] th [...] [...]me Liquor in a gre [...]t Vessell, especially if any part of it be drawen off: And there­fore this is a good way to keep Cider, Perry, White-wine, or the like, and that for a long time [...]ogether.

As for Fruits closed in wax, or put in honey. I find that even Cherries (which are more subject to corruption [...]hen many other k [...]nds of fruits) will keep fresh, many weekes toge [...]her, more then they will do of themselves in the open Aire: exclusion of Aire pre­serve [...] them for a time, but yet putre [...]ac [...]ion at length will worke within, because of the superfluous moisture, wh [...]ch h [...]d need of dry­ing up. I have tryed Fruits in Hon [...]y, (Aprecots, Plums, Cherries) and they held good two, or three Monthes: a [...]terwards pu [...]re [...]a­ction began.

Experiment. 378. A Bottle of Beere buried foure foote d [...]epe in the ground, became more liv [...]ly better tasted, and clear [...]r, then it was [...] and a Bottle of Wine in like manner: A Bottle of Vineger so buried came forth more lively, and more [...]doriferous, smelling almost like a Vi [...]l [...]t after a Month, bu­riall all the three came forth [...] as fresh and lively, if not better then before.

Observation.This is certaine, That Beere, Ale, Cider, and Wine, when well setled and cleared in the Vessell, and drawen off into Bottles, and well stopt with Corke, and wax; will continue fr [...]sh, and good, much [Page 45] longer then in the Vessell: If the Bottles are buried in sand, (as was said before) or buried a yard, or more in the ground: The reason I conceive is, for that as no Aire can possibly penetrate so deepe, and through the Bottle, to the Liquor, nor can the spirits of the Liquor (in the least) get out: so neither can the Liquor suf­fer any prejudice by alteration of the Aire from heate to cold, as it does in vessells above ground.

Tryall hath beene made, with earthen Bottles, well stopped, Experiment [...] 385. hanged in a well of Twenty Fathome deepe, at the least, and some of the Bottles have been let downe into the water, some others have hanged above, w [...]th [...]in about a Fathome of the water: Wine, and Beere in these Bottles have kept better, then in a Cell [...]r, but those above water were apparently the best.

The Cause why Beere, wine, Cider or the like,Observation. will keepe better thus, and in Earth, sand &c. (as before) then in V [...]ssells, or Bot­tles above ground, I apprehen [...] (as was said) for that the Aire is excluded, and the spirits shut in: also the Aire above ground is subject to variation [...] some [...]imes more hot, and sometimes more cold: which som [...]what stirrs, and affects the spirits of the Liquor in the Vess [...]ll, whe [...]by they become weaker.

I have heard i [...] repor [...]ed for a truth, That Bottles of Wine, (or some other Liquor) were found in a deepe draw-well, which had been many yeares f [...]d up, and afterwards opened, and cle [...]sed a­gaine for use: and the Liquor was found to be very fresh, and good, notwithstanding it had l [...]en there many yeare: whereby it is ma­nifest, th [...]t this way of keeping Liquors, will preserve it good a long time.

The IX. CENTURY.

WE have partly touched before, Experiment. 854. the meanes of producing fruits without Cores, or stones: And this we adde further, that the Cause must be abundance of moisture, for that the Core, and stone, are made of a dry sap [...] And we see that it is possible to mak [...] a Tr [...]e put forth o [...]ly in Blossome without fruit, as in Cherries with double flowers: much more in fruit, without stone or Cores.

This hath beene spoken to sufficiently before,Observation. See Experiment [Page 46] 514. It is neither the taking out of the Pi [...]h, as is there prescribed; nor the abundance of moisture, as here, that will work this effect: some Trees have a greate deale too much moisture, and yet the fruits of such have neverthelesse cores, or stones.

As for the Cherry-tree that puts forth Bloss [...]ms without Fruits: that is not made to do so by any mans Art, or Skill: but it is natu­rall: I know the kind well, it is as naturall for it to beare double blossoms, without Fruit, as for any other Tree to beare such, or such a kind of fruit.

Exp [...]riment. 856. Trees set upon the back [...] of Chimneys, do ripen fruits sooner: Vines that have been drawen in at the window of a Kitchen, have sent forth Grapes ripe a mo [...]th (at l [...]ast) before others.

Observation.Thi [...] is certaine (as the Author saie [...] such a kind of heate, as is upon the back of Chimneys, where fire is continually, or most com­monly kept, will much hasten the ripening of fruits. I have seene a thin Brick wall whe [...]e fire hath been kept on the one side; and Fruit-trees have been plan [...]d on the other side: which have brought forth ripe f [...]uits very early: much sooner then the same [...]inds without such artificiall heate.

But (as I remember) such trees dye, soone after bearing, they last but one yeare: being so much forced with heate, it destroyes nature.

And Branches of Vines being drawen in at the window of a Kit­chen, or room where fire is kept: the fruits will be ripe sooner then those without dores: but let it not be too neere the fire, lest it wi­ther, or over much dry the branch.

THE END.

I desire the Reader to amend these faults escaped in Printing.

PAg. 2. line 1 [...] for forming [...] reade forcing of nature. p. 30. l. 6. put a full poynt af [...]er the w [...]d Flower. p. 30. [...]. 7. for is, read with. p. 32. l. the last, for vari [...] ­ty, [...]ead [...]. p. 40. l. the fir [...]t, for winds, read wines.

A Table shewing the Principall things contained in the ensuing Experiments, and Observations.

ACceleration of Germination, by s [...]wing seede upon a hot-bed
pag. 1.
Steeping of seeds, kernells, stones, &c. in Liquors before sowing, to make them spring up the sooner
p. 2.
Watring of Strawberries, to hasten their ripening
p [...] 3.
Blood, and other things applyed to the Roots of trees, helps towards th [...]i­ving of the Trees, and bearing of Fruits, moderately, and seasonably observed p. 3. Fruits upon the south, and East sun, ripen soonest
p. 3.
Digging about the Roots of some Trees, is profitable
p. 4.
Rose-trees bud forth in the house p. 4. Flowers with bulbous Roots, grow a time in water p. 4. Pease, Radish &c. Early
p 4.
Water nec [...]ssary to fruit-trees but not overmuch
p. 5.
Plants housed seas [...]ably, bud soonest p. 5. To make Roses come late, se­verall meanes p. 5, 6, 7. Stones, weeds, muck &c. laid about the Roots of new set trees, makes them prosper b [...]tter
p. 7.
Keepe Trees st [...]dy, at first se [...]ting p 8. Cut away suckers, and side bran­ches, as need is p. 8. Branches of some Trees laid in the ground, take Roote p [...] 8. How to take [...]ff the Boughes of some trees with Roots
p. 8.
No descention of sap in Trees, divers Arguments against it.
p. 9.
How to make barren Trees fruitfull p. 9, 10. Trees against a South­wall beare fruits ripe soonest 10. Pull not off leaves too so [...]ne
p. 10.
Fruits on low boughes, ripe soon [...]st p. 11. Graft trees that beare not, or beare not good fruits, with Grafts of good bearing kinds
p. 11.
Digging [...]bout the Roots of trees, profitable to some p. 12. Opening the Roots of old trees, and putting in good mould, is nec [...]ssary in barren ground p. 12. Tra [...]splant trees from bad ground, to better
p. 12.
Cu [...]ting, or scoring th [...] bark of trees [...] sometimes profitable
p. 13.
Shade good for some trees p 13. Pull off Blossoms in some Cases
p. 13, 14.
Grafting helpeth not trees, exc [...]pt the Grafts are of good kinds
p. 14.
G [...]afts do governe, yet partake somewhat of the stock
p. 14, 15.
Fruit-trees of some kernells, beare good fruits p. 15, 16. Remove Flow­ers into fresh [...]arth p. 16. Regrafting the same Graft mak [...]s not fruits greater p 16. Cut not off the [...]ops of young fig-trees p. 17. Blacke Mulberry-trees great bearers p. 17. Lees of Wine [...] Blood &c. good especially to old trees p. 17. Terebration of trees, good for some trees
17.
Pricking, or scoring some trees, profitable p. 18. Swines dung, good for [Page] trees, if moderately used p. 18. Simply grafting doth not meliorat [...] fruits p. 18. Chuse the b [...]st Grafts, and Stocks
p. 18.
Rot [...]en dung, b [...]st for trees p. 19. Fruit growing in Pots
p. 19.
Set not any Trees below the soyle p. 20. Fruits upon warme walles ripen soonest p. 20. Graft upon the b [...]st sto [...]k [...]
p. 20.
The Causes of Barrenn [...]sse of Trees 21 Of Compounding fruits, making of s [...]ve [...]all kinds, one n [...]w kind 22. Sym [...]athy [...] and Antipathy of Plant
23.
Severall kinds drawing [...]he [...]me [...]uyce, or sap, convert it into their own [...] Natures p. 24 Of making herbs, and Fruits Medicinable
p. 25.
Curiosities about F [...]uits, and Plants p. 26. Fruits of severall shapes
26.
Fruits, and trees wi [...]h insc [...]iptions [...] or ingravings upon them
p. 26.
Set Letters on Fruit-trees, to know the kinds p. 27. Trees appa [...]elled w [...]th Flow [...]rs p. [...]7. R [...]move Flowers into fr [...]sh mould
p. 27, 28.
Lay Fl [...]wers to multiply them, see how
p [...] 28.
Cl [...]ve-Gilly [...] Flowers, the most u [...]full p. 29. White colours, more inodo­rate p 29 [...] White fruits c [...]mmonly b [...]st
p. 30.
D [...]ff [...]nt co [...]ours fr [...]m one kind of seed [...]
p. 30.
Ga [...]her s [...]d [...] fr [...]m [...]he best F [...]owers p. 31. How to have flowers faire, and double p. 31. Roses multiplyed by Inoculating
p. 32.
Fruits without Core, or st [...]ne p. 32. Grafts upon the sweetest stocks, beare the sweet [...]st fruits p. 33. Degenerating of Pla [...]ts
p. 34.
Some Fl [...]wers degenerate, and change, through barrennesse of the soyle
34.
Seede of some fruits d [...]generate, see the Cause
p. 34.
P [...]aches come not better of stones, then Grafting
p. 35.
Dwarfe trees beare great fruits, and many
p. 35, 36.
Help barren s [...]yles, and such as are too most, lay them dryer
p. 36, 37.
Some trees beare twice a y [...]are p. 37. Cutting fruit-trees conduceth to th [...]ir lasting in some cases p. 37. How to keepe fruits long
p. 38.
Wine of Ch [...]rri [...]s, and other fruits p. 39. Cider, and Perry, conduce to health and long life p. 39 An excellent drink made of Plums
p. 40.
Plant the best be [...]ring tr [...]es p. 40. Most fruits commonly on the low [...]st bough [...]s, the Caus [...] p. 40. Co [...]d b [...]aring kinds beare betime, and conti­nue long p. 41. Get the best kinds upon any rates
p. 41.
Graft againe o [...]d trees if bad fruits, or bad bearers p. 41. Some trees grow de [...]per then o [...]h [...]rs, th [...] Cause p 42. Some trees take Root of slips
p 42.
Vines take not with Graf [...]ing. Lay the branches in the Earth
p 43.
H [...]te hastneth Maturation of F [...]uits
p. 43.
How to keep Cid [...]r, (and other Liquors) long
p. 44.
Bottles of Liquor in sand, earth &c.
p. 44.
Fruits cannot be made wi [...]hout Cores, or stones
p. 45.
Artificiall heate may h [...]lp to ripen fruits [...]ooner
p. 46.

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