ΑΠΟΣΠΑΣΜΑΤΙΑ SACRA: OR A Collection of posthumous and orphan LECTURES:

Delivered at St. PAULS and St. GILES his Church, BY The Right Honourable AND Reverend Father in God LANCELOT ANDREWS, Lord Bishop of VVinchester.

Never before extant.

[...]. Heb. 11.4.

Printed by R. Hodgkinsonne, for H. Moseley, A. Crooke, D. Pakeman, L. Fawne, R. Royston, and N. Ekins. 1657.

The Preface.

AS there is nothing that a Christian can more desire than a personal union with his mystical Head; so there is nothing that a Christian ought more to value than the preti­ous meanes of its atchievement: For, as the high­est degree of perfect Happinesse, is to be actually present with Christ in Heaven; so the highest de­gree of imperfect happinesse (such of which wee are capable in this valley of Teares) is our assu­rance of [...], Heb. 6. 11. hope that we shall be happy in perfecti­on. Now amongst the severall Requisites and meanes of Blisse, our invoking of God Almigh­ty is not the least: for whosoever shall call up­on the name of the Lord shall beRom. 10. 13saved; But as we cannot call upon him in whom we have not belee­ved, nor beleeve on him of whom we have not yet heard; so neither can wee heare without verse 14.a Preacher. Upon which it followes; That because Faith verse 17.commeth by Hearing, and Invocation by Faith, therefore (in order of Nature, though not of Dignity) Invocation is the third step; Faith [Page]the second; and lawfull verse 15. Preaching the very first.

But here it ought to bee considered, That Preaching is not only That, which in these inno­vating times hath swallowed up the word Preach­ing. Nor are Sermons only those which spend themselves and expire with the fugitive breath of him that speaks them; and being publiquely uttered no more then once, doe either vanish, as meere words, into the soft Aire; or else are, as water commonly split upon the Ground. Wee know that Preaching is a generall word, which properly sig­nifies to divulge or Luk. 8. 39. publish; And though we usu­ally restraine it to the manifestation of God's owne word, yet That may also be Preached more wayes than one. The Catechizing of Neophytes in the purest Ages of the Church, may bee worthily called one kinde of Preaching, although they were not admitted to any higher degree of Teaching than to the very first Rudiments and Grounds of Faith. It was said by Justin Martyr, in his Paraenesis to the Graecians, that even in some of their owne writings the very Judgement to come was Preach­ed to them; and particularly in Plato's, the [...] Just. Mart. [...] p. 10. 21. 22 &c. Plato in Rep. l. 10. Re­surrection of the Body. The same Father tells us that Orpheus [...]. Justin. Mart. ibid. p. 13.preached to his sonne Musaeus, concerning the unity of the only true God. The publique Homilies of the Church are an exact kinde of Preaching, and that in the judgement of Master Hooker, as well as of King James, and the Councell of Hooker Eccl. Polit. l. 5. § 9. Vaux. The holy-Ghost's Ama­nuenses did even Preach to the Eyes and Under­standings [Page]of all the World, by transmitting what they had written from hand to hand, as well as when they conveyed it by word of mouth. The Word of God doth Preach it selfe to every man living who will but reade it. The publique Reading of the Scriptures is the best kinde of Preaching to all that heare it; And so the Councell of Toledo was plea­sed to call it. The Reading of the Law was laid by Moses as the foundation, whereon to build in mens spirits the Deut 31. 11.12.13. feare of God: Vpon the bare Reading of which Law King Josiah was so moved, and wrought upon, that he 2 Chron. 34 humbled himselfe, and wept, and rent his cloathes, and made a Covenant before the Lord, to keepe his Com­mandements and his Statutes, and perform the words of the Covenant which were written in that booke; Nor is it unworthy to be ruminated upon; That though Moses was Theopneust, the Friend and Favorite of God (as well as Abraham) and sure as able to speake, without booke, the mind and Tenour of the Law, as any man that ever lived before or after, yet he thought it as effectual to the saving of Soules, to take the booke of the Cove­nant, which he had first transcribed from God's owne Preaching upon the Mountaine, and pub­liquely to Exod. 24. it in the audience of the People.

Now the Reason of this is very evident, and deserves to be considered by that sort of Hearers, who are wont to preferre the words of men, when gracefully spoken out of the Pulpit, before the plaine word of God, when meerely read out of the Pew, [Page]not at all considering, That the Mal. 4. 2. Sun of Righteous­nesse in the Scripture, like the Sun of Nature in the Firmament, shines much the brighter for be­ing Naked. It is not the Language, Fancy, Wit and Learning (which are eminently seene in one sort of Preachers) much lesse the Memory, the Lungs and the Gesticulations (which are daily observable in another sort of Preachers) I say it is not any of these things, nor all together, that is ef­fectually powerfull to the conversion of Soules; Nay it is not the Spirits going along with the Preacher, that doth alone doe the work (for the Spi­rit of God did goe along with the Apostles when they were cast out of the Cities, and along with our Sa­viour, in the fulnesse of his God-head, when yet he could [...] &c. Mar. 6. 5. Ad divina enim opera re­quiritur accipi­entis Fides: Er­go hine sequitur, homines in cre­dulos & ingra­tos quaesi Deo manus vincîre, ne ipsis opem fe­rat. Theod. Be­za in locum.not doe many Miracles in his own Coun­trey meerly because of their unbeliefe) but 'tis his working a docility in the heads and hearts of such as hear, that they receive with meeknesse the ingraf­tedJam. 1. 21.word, which is alone able to save their Souls.

This doth open to us a reason why the very same Sermon hath such variety of effects in them that hear it, and why a Jonah may preach to the melt­ing of some, whilest a Jeremy may doe it to the hardning of others. If woegoe to Christs Schole as Mar. 10. 15. little-Children (that is) with humble, atten­tive, and teachable Dispositions, wee shall be great proficients and wise enough unto salvation, by hea­ring those Sermons distinctly read, which our 1 Cor. 7. 23 only Master & his Messengers are incessantly preach­ing throughout the Scriptures; whereas without that[Page] temper and preparednesse of minde, we shall (in utram (que) aurem dormire) only sleepe with our Eyes open; and where Gods owne word, through our wretchlesnesse, is not sufficient to awake us from that Lethargie of sin wherein our Soules lye steept, and swallowed up, Certainly nothing that is hu­mane will raise us out of our senselesnesse and car­nall security; All the vehemence and Invention, all the noyses and Declamations, all the Grimaces and gestures of all the Lectures in the world will but amuse our Eares, and lull our Fancies, and be­num our Apprehensions, and (like so much La­danum) make us snore in our sins so much the low­der. Twas by the 1 Cor. 1. 25 & 21. which compare with vers. 18. foolishnesse of God (to use the Apostles Catachresis) and by the foolishnesse of preaching (as the worldly-wise then thought it) by which it pleased God to save them that be­leeve, that is to say, by the plainnesse and simplici­ty of the Gospell, without the artifice and colours of skilfull men, the world was turned upside downe, as the envious Act. 17. 5 6Jewes were pleased to phrase it. By that word, and that spirit which the learned Greeks so much despised, Saint Peter preached to the conversion of Act. 2. 41 three thousand Souls at one short Sermon, and of Act. 4. 4 five thousand at a­nother.

Far be this which I have spoken from being spoken to the disparagement of those judicious and pious Sermons, which have beene usefully preached by a­ble men. Had I not beene a true lover of all good preaching, and even of all such Lectures, as were[Page] regularly founded and authorised, not to factious but pious ends, I should not now have gratified the importunity of friends (however many and urgent on this occasion) by helping to usher into the world, (and by commending to the perusall of every Rea­der, who can bee glad to grow wiser then now he is) The very learned, wise and sacred Reliques of this Great Author who lies before us. I am not now to be taught, That though the best way to knowledge, is to Job. 5. 39. search the Scriptures, as those that testifie of him who hath the words of Job 6. 68. eternal life, and that as faith cōmeth by hearing, so hearing commeth by the word of Rom. 10. 17God (not by the glosies, or conjectures, or dex­terities of men) yet there are many [...] pretious and hidden treasures of knowledge which God was pleased to lock up in Tropes and Figures, of which the unstable 2 Pet. 3. 16 and the unlearned are not entrusted with the Luk. 11. 52 Key. The Priests Mal. 2. 7lipps should keep knowledge, and they should seek the Law at his mouth, as being the [...], apud LXX. Angell or Messenger of the Lord of Hosts, and the Steward of those Myste­ries which God hath committed to his keeping. The famous Eunuch of Acts 8. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31 Ethiopia was able to read the Prophet Esay, and had so good an understanding as to discern how little he understood it; and there­fore St Philip was joyned to him for his Guide. There were some 2 Pet. 3. 16 hard things in St Pauls Epistles, which many did wrest to their own destruction, of which St Peter doth give us no other reason, then their want of learning, as well as of stability. Those waters Isa. 55. 1.of life are not every where fordable, no not[Page]to this tall Elephant who waded in them so very deeply, much lesse to the low-statur'd silly Lambs, who are apt, in shallow places, to sink or swimme. And therefore, though it is evident, that our very best drinking is immediatly out of the crystall Spring, whilest the 1 Pet. 2. 2. milk of the word is yet 1 Pet. 2. 2. sincere, not mixt and troubled with the skilfull deceipts of knavish Eph. 4. 14. Phil. 1. 15. 16 Teachers, or with the zealous ignorance of honest Rom. 10 2. Heb. 5 12.fools; yet in the Body of the Church, we know that every Member is not an 1 Cor. 12. 14. 17. 19. 27. 28. Eye, and every one that hath Eyes is not a Isa. 30. 10. Mich. 3. 7. Seer, and yet there must be Seers, that there may be Vision; for where there is no Prov. 29. 18.Vision, the People perish. The Church of God, which is the 1 Tim. 3. 15. Pillar and ground of the Truth, is universally acknowledged. The common Mother of us all. And though some of her Children can feed themselves by her dire­ction, and are able to digest the strongest Heb. 5. 14.Meat, and can carve besides to their weaker Brethren, yet such as are Infants in understanding, or new born Babes 1 Pet. 2. 2. in Christianity, must suck the 1 Cor. 3. 2. Heb. 5. 12. 13.milk of the word from their Mother's Brest, or else receive it from their Mal. 2. 7. lippes, whom she hath appointed to give them food in due season. For want of able Pi­lots to steer their course, by the knowledge which they have to use their Card and their Compasse in Application to their polar Hebr. 12. 2. Num. 24. 17Starre, how many 2 Pet. 3. 16. little ones have been 2 Pet. 3. 16. drowned in the Rev. 22. 1. River of life, and as it were swallow'd up by that sincere 1 Pet. 2. 2.milk of the word, which able Pastors would have taught them to swallow down?

But as on the one side it must be granted, that [Page]where the Scriptures are dark there must be Guides to the blinde; and where the places are steep or slip­pery, there must be Leaders of the Infirm: so again on the other side it is too plain to be denyed, that there are many Mat. 23. 16 blinde Guides and feeble Lea­ders of the blinde, who carry those that follow them into the same Mat. 15. 14. Ditch of error, wherein themselves are delighted to lye and welter. There are not wanting in our Israel some blear-eyed Seers, who love Job. 3. 19.darknesse rather than light. Their inward eyes are so fore, and so farre from being patient of seeing the Sun in his Meridian, that nothing seem­eth to hurt and offend them more than the bright­nesse and glory of any opposite Truth, when it en­deavours to break in, and dispel the darknesse of their Designes; which is in effect the very reason that St. John hath rendred why men love darknesse and hate the light, because (saith he) Their Ibid.deeds are evil. There is another kinde of Seers, who are not blear-eyed, but rather purblind; they are ex­tremely short-sighted, and cannot see a far 2 Pet. 1. 9.off. They look no farther than the outside and face of things: And not discerning the very marrow and kernel of what is written, they conclude that there is nothing beyond the bone and the shell. So when Hercules had travelled as farre as the Streights of Gibralter, he presently set up his Pillars, and wrote upon them his (Ne plus ultra,) supposing he had gone unto the end of all the Earth, because he was able to goe no farther: Whereas Americus Vespu­tius and Christopher Columbus had their eyes of understanding farre better sighted, and were able[Page]to finde out another World. There is a third sort of Seers, who are not purblind, but double sighted and squint-eyed, at least appearing to look two Ecclus. 2. 12 Jam. 1. 8.wayes at once, having one aspect upon God and another upon Mammon; obliquely glancing with the left eye upon Godlinesse, and attentively gazing with the right eye upon Gain; as if they en­deavour'd by their practise to confute the Apho­rism of Christ, That No man (at once) can serve two Luk 16. 13Masters.

It is now too late to be dissembled, That since so many have preached without a Mission, and since so many have made Preachers without a Commissi­on, since the Sanctuary of God, which was appointed by Him to be a House of Mat. 21. 13.Prayer, hath been turn'd by Those in Hoo­ker's Eccles. Polit. l. 5. § 32. some into a House ofmeer Preaching, the ve­ry plenty and redundance of such as preach before they are Jer. 23. 21. sent, and of such as preach against those that sent them, may be said, in some sense, to have bred a Famine of the Word. This puts me in minde of what was said by the Florus. Historian (in ipso Samnio Samnium requiratur.) In such a case as this is, we are hardly able to see wood for Trees. There are so many vast numbers of either untaught or ill­taught Teachers, that amongst them all nothing of good is to be learn'd. Nor was there ever more need to presse that Caveat upon the People which our Saviour gave to his Disciples (though [...] by Him in a different sense) [...], Take heed Mar. 4 24. what yee heare, and [...], Take heed Luk 8. 18. how yee hear, and [...], Take heed Mat. 24 4. whom yee hear. For where there is one good Joh. 10. 11.Shepherd who entreth by the[Page]doreverse 1.into the Fold, there is a vers. 1. & 10. Thief and a vers. 12. Hire­ling, a vers.12. Mat. 7. 15. Wolf, and a Mat. 24. 5. Deceiver, who doe all climb up some Job. 10. 1.other way. For one good Shepherd, who will lay down his vers. 11.life (if need require) in defence of his Sheep against the Wolfe, how ma­ny Hirelings are there who leave vers. 12.the Sheep and flee away, as soon as they see the Wolfe com­ming? How many Thieves are there, who vers. 10. come not into the Fold, but for to steale, and to kill, and to destroy? How many Wolfe-like Shep­herds doe walk about in Mat. 7. 15 Sheeps cloathing, but car­ry nothing into the Fold by which they are qualified for Shepherds, besides an iron Hook and a paire of Sheers?

We know the Word in it self hath not only a heating Jer. 23. 29., but withall a Joh. 15. 3. cleansing Faculty. But as the God of all Grace, and Grace it self, so the means of Grace (next to God and his Grace, are most of all capable of being injur'd. And because the abuse of the best things doth ever prove the greatest and worst abuse; therefore the liberty of the Pulpit hath been of much sadder consequence than that of the Stage. Infidelity commeth by hea­ring as well as Faith; and that by hearing the word of God too; I mean, by hearing it perverted, not rightly open'd, nor well applyed. And I wish it were not easie to prove so lamentable a Truth by much deplorable experience, as well in former as later Times. Since the Jesuites Apes have taught the People to rely upon the opus operatum of hea­ring Sermons (as if Religion consisted in the out­ward Sacrifice of the Eare) it is well known that in[Page] France, as well as in many other places, the greatest pretenders to Reformation have by their preaching and practise (their practise suitable to their preach­ing) help't to make Reformation an odious word. Whilest they whose Office should have oblig'd them to have been Messengers of Peace (shedding abroad among the People words of Reconciliation, Humi­lity, and strict obedience) have been the Boute­feux and Bellows of nothing but warres and tumults and irreconcilable Dissensions. The chiefest Protestants in France (such as the Dukes of Roan and Boullion, the famous Mornay du Plessis, and learned Cameron) could not hold from complaining against their own Preachers: It seeming horrible to Them, that the first Banners should be display'd by such as professed to be Ministers of the Gospel of Peace. But so it is (and can never enough be insisted on, untill a perfect Amendment and Renovation.) That since the Mat. 24. 15. [...], I mean, the Doctrins of Buchanan and Junius, Brutus, Boucherius, Hot­toman and Paraeus, have been made to stand in the holy Mat. 24. 15.Places, Christian Magistrates have trembled at the very opening of Church dores, as at the ope­ning the dores of Janus: and the first day of the week hath rather been a day of Sabbaoth, for the mustering up of Hosts and Armies, than a Christian Sabbath or Day of Rest. Pulpits have been the places where men have beaten up their Drummes and lifted up their voices like so many Trumpets, not (as the Isa. 58. 1. Prophet) to shew the People their Transgressions, but to exhort and incite them to their Commissions. They who compell'd so many [Page] thousands to perish at Rochell for want of victuals, rather than suffer them to partake of the Royal cle­mency that was offer'd they who made a confla­gration of the whole Province of Languedoc and parts adjoyning; they who eminently murderd the learned Cameron, for refusing to run into the same excesse of Riot, were none others then the pretended and professed Ministers of the Gospel. And if the Name of the Gospel was thus abused even in France (where the Beast was more subject to bit and Bridle,) How much more was it in Scotland, where it was frequent for the Beast to hold fast the bit betwixt his Teeth, or to spit it out of its mouth, or to shift the Rains from off its Neck, and thereupon either to cast or run away with its Rider. The pre­tended Heralds of Peace and Charity, national Unity and Concord, have been the Tragical Boa­nerges, whose Thunders have been seconded with Thunder-bolts. They have turn'd their Flocks and Congregations into Bands and Regiments, and have made their Churches their several places of Rendez-vous. When any Malecontents, whether Lay or Clergy, have meditated Disturbance to Church and State, the common custome hath been to dispatch their Emissaries and Tickets to all the Prae­cones of the Pulpit, to make them pray up and preach up the thing Design'd: whose tongues have been touch't with such Coles of fury (rather than zeal) as have kindled a fire throughout the Body of the Church; such a flagrant and spreading, devouring fire as hath not been able to be quenched with lesse effusions than of many whole Rivers of Christian- [Page]blood. King James complain'd at A.D. 1620 Newmarket; (upon occasion of Mr. Haddock, who was wont to preach in his sleep, as he pretended, that he might vent his own Inventions as the Oracles of God) of his Troubles which in his Kingdome of Scotland he had received from that Sect; professing his ina­bility to suppresse those Ministers from open slan­dering in their Sermons: In so much that many times he was constrained to interrupt them in the mid'st of their Declamations, whereby they did not only presume to raile by name at his Servants, but against his own Royal person before his face, and all this out of the Pulpit, and in perfect digression from their Text. For twelve intire years together, du­ring his Residence in Scotland (for his Reign we can hardly call it) he prayed to God upon his knees before every Sermon he was to heare, that he might hear nothing from the Preacher which might after­wards grieve him; but after his comming into Eng­land (he said) his case was so well altered, that his Prayer was to [...] by what he heard. Indeed whoever hath but dip't into the Scotish Story, and remembers what he hath read concerning Mr. [...] Hist. [...] [...]. p. 367. 368. James Gibson, or David Idem ibid. p. 419. 420. 421 as far as p. 426.Blacke, Mr. Robert Ibid. p. 416. 417. 451.Bruce, Mr. Walter Ibid. p. 427.Balcanquall, Mr. Andrew Ibid. p. 419. 455.Mel­vill, Mr. John Ibid. p. 430.Welch, Mr. Robert Ibid. p 446. 447.Wallis, and Mr. Ibid. p 446. 447. Dalgleish, Mr. John Ibid. p. 450. 451.Davidson, and Mr. John Ibid. p. 456.Dikes, besides the [...] and Knoxes, and many others of the same P [...]st, (some declaring Loc. citat. out of the Pulpit, ‘"That all King's were the Devils Barns; That the Devil was in the Court, and in the guiders of it; That King James [Page]in particular, was possesst with seven Devils; That his Queen was only to be prayed for for fashions sake; That Queen Elizabeth was an Atheist; That the King (then over them) had discovered the treachery of his heart; That the Subjects might lawfully rise and take the sword out of his hands; That the Judges, Nobility, and Lords of the Councel were Miscreants and Bribers, godlesse Dissemblers, enemies to the Church, holy Glasses, Cormorants, and of no Religion:)"’I say, whoever hath read such things as these, will not wonder at that hatred which the learned and orthodox King James conceived of them; nor at that advice which he gave his sonne, ‘"To take heed of such [...]. lib. 2. p. 41. 42. Puritans, very Pests in the Church and Commonweale (they are the Kings own words) whom no deserts can oblige, nor oaths or promises binde; breathing no­thing but Sedition and calumnies, aspiring without meusure, rayling without reason, and making their own imaginations the square of their Conscience."’Nor will any man wonder, that so much K. J. his letter from Windsor, to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Aug. 4. A.D. 1622. care was ta­ken by him for the giving of Laws to the Pulpit, and more especially for the regulating of Lectures, that there might not be ‘"broached (by the reading of late Writers and ungrounded Divines) any unsound, [...] and dangerous Doctrins, to the scandall of the Church, the disquieting of the State and present Government."’I will conclude what I have spoken of the corruptions of the Pulpit with the complaint and Prophecy of our incomparable Bpp. Andrews Opusc. p. 31. 32. 33.Author, which he delivered to all the Bishops of a Pro­vincial Synod. First of all he complained,[Page] Ex quo nuper hîc apud Nos vapulárunt Ca­nes muti, animos sibi sumpsit in­doctissimus quisque, invola­vit in locum hunc, hic ad clepsydram [...], cohaerentia non cohaeren­tia, scabra, pu­tida, insulsa, nec co [...]a nec condi­ta praecipitavit us­que, & boc sali­cet Concionari dicitur. Ex quo p [...]iginoso cui (que) aditus patesa­ctios hlc quic­quid libet effuti­endi, Ecclesiam Tonstrinam versa est, non plus ibi ineptia­rum quàm hic. Theologia in [...] Canes non la trantes mulati in Catulos obla­trantes. Siquis quid enucleatae aut reconditae eruditionis pro­se [...], Statim Corruprorem clamant, & qua­si adulterantem verbum Dei: ita reun peragunt ipsi omnium cor­ruptores & cau­pones nequissi­mi, qui non eru­ditionem immi­scent, sed pro ed nugas & naeni­as, & cerebig cruditates, qui­bus non sallua, non albumen ovi magis aut [...]eju­num aut [...]sul­sum est."That since the dumb Dogs were lately beaten, eve­ry Dunce took upon him to usurp the Pulpit, where talking by the hour glasse, and throwing forth head­long their incoherent, mishapen, and stinking crudi­ties, to the very glut and surfeit of all wise hearers, they have the luck forsooth to have it call'd by the name of Preaching. He further added, That since unlearned and itching tongues had invaded the liberty of speaking their pleasures from the Pulpit, the very Church was infested with as many fooleries of aiscourse as are commonly vented in the places where men sheare sheep. By which means (saith our Author) Theologie was turn'd into meer Bat­tologic, and the dumb Doggs into barking Whelps; crying out against them who improve their Sermons with any unvulgar and choyce parts of learning, as those that corrupt and adulterate the word of God."’Whil'st they themselves (who thus rail against the things they understand not) ‘"are the most dishonest Hucksters and corrupters of it; the crude and raw trifles of their own sick brains are as unsa­vory as spittle, as tastlesse and insipid as the white of an Egge."’This is the upshot of this greatmans complaint: And his Prophecy upon it was briefly this, That unlesse the Synod then assembled would take heed unto themselves, and to all the Flock, to the Church of God, to the Doctrin of the Church, and to the Dispensers of the Doctrin, ‘"There would Nisi Doctrinae Voci, id (que) matu­rè attendatis, brevi aulla fu­tiarae est omnino, cui (si maxime velitis) possitis attendere. In Conc. ad C [...]vum in Synod. provinc. Cantuar. prov. 1593. shortly come a time when nothing of these should be left to be taken heed of; And a p. 40. Babel should be erected instead of Sion."’Now that this[Page]most learned and pious Prelate was most imparti­ally severe in every part of that Sermon, and sin­cerely aimed (in his severity) at the peace and wel­fare of Church and State, (to which he was carried by Scias me [...] pa­cis semper stu­diosum fuisse. Idem in Kesp. ad Epist. 1. Petr. Molinae [...] p. 172. nature as well as by designe) and that he meant the same Faction or Sect of Preachers to whom his beloved King James was so deservedly severe (as being alwaies infested by them) will undeniably ap­pear to every intelligent and honest Reader, who will Conser. opusc. p. 39. 40. ut & p. 31. 33. cum p. 165. 166. & seq. compare that Latin Sermon with his three Epistles to learned Moulin.

What the admired Bishop Andrews, and the judicious Mr. Hooker, and many other wise men of the age last past, did only feare and foresee, we, the first of their Posterity, have liv'd to feel: I mean the lamentable effects which are wont to follow (I say not the liberty, but) the licentiousnesse of the Pulpit. What comes too late to be prevented, may yet, in time, be capable of some redresse. Be our condition never so ill, we cannot hope to make it better by meer­ly despairing of our Amendment. What I have hitherto premised concerning the nature of our Dis­ease, is not intended to deject or afflict any Reader, but only to make him the more attentive to what is offer'd in this Volume (at least) as one means of Cure and Restauration. Where there are too ma­ny Sermons, I apprehend there are too few. And the more numerous they are who preach up Heresie and Schisme and Disobedience, the greater num­ber is needfull to preach them down. The more unruly and vain T [...]t 1. 10.Talkers, especially they of the Circumcision (the [...] doe Vers. 11. subvert [Page]whole Houses, and teach things which they ought not for filthy lucres fake; the more need have we of such as hold Vers. 9. & 11.fast the faithfull word; and are able by sound Doctrin, both to exhort, and to convince, and to stop the mouths of Gain­sayers. The greater plenty there is of them 1 Tim. 4. 1.2. who de­part from the Faith, giving heed to seducing spi­rits, and Doctrins of Devils, speaking lyes in Hy­pocrisie, & having their Conscience seared with an hot iron; The more must They be needs wanted who are Vers good Ministers of Christ, nourished up in the words of Faith and good Doctrin; re­fusing prophane and old Wives Fables, giving attendance unto Reading and Meditation, and continuing in both, that they may save themselves and them that hear them. By how much the more we doe abound with such as 2 Tim. 3. 6 7.8. creep into Houses, lead­ing captive silly Women, ever learning, but ne­ver learned, such as like Jannes and Jambres resist the Truth; The greater abundance there ought to be of such as Vers. 14. & 17. continue in the things which they have learned and been assured of, knowing of whom they have learned them, and are through­ly furnished unto all good works. The more there are of those 2 Tim. 4. 3.4. itching and prurient Eares who can­not endure sound Doctrine, but heap to them­selves Teachers who have as prurient and itching Tongues, and turn away their attentions from aged Truth unto newly devised Fables and Conceipts after the Mode; By so much the greater is the ne­cessity of such as are knowing and stable men, holding 2 Tim. 1. 13fast the form of sound words, and[Page] preaching according to the Rom. 12 6.Analogie of Faith, teaching the People to walk in the Jer. 6. 16.old and the good way, that walking therein they may finde rest unto their Souls. In a word, The more Interpreters there are who have Luk. 11. 52 taken away the Key of knowledge, neither en­tring in themselves, nor suffering others to enter in; by so much the more we stand in need of all those faithfull 1 Cor. 4. 1.2.and able 1 Cor. 4. 1.2.Stewards, who may Prov. 2. 12. deliver us from the way of the evil Man, from the man that speaketh froward things.

Now if ever any Bishop, since the Apostles own Times, was both a faithfull and able Steward, right­ly using the Key of knowledge, religiously opening the Mysteries of God, bringing Mat. 13. 52forth out of his Treasures things new and old; If ever any Pastor took Act. 20. 28 1 Tim 4. 16. carefull heed unto himself, and to his Flock, over which the holy-Ghost had made him Over­seer,2 Tim. 4. 5.watching in all things, enduring afflictions, doing the work of an Evangelist, and making full proof of his Ministerie; If ever any 2 Tim. 2. 15 Workman needed not to be ashamed, as rightly dividing the word of Truth, and venting nothing out of the Pul­pit but what is [...] (1 Tim. 5. 17.) est, Ser monem elabo­rare. Authore nostro Judice, in Conc. ad Cl. p. 32 elaborate and exact; If ever any Preacher had both Urim and Thummim, the for­mer in his words, and the later in his example, Tit. 2. 8.un­reprovable in his Doctrin, and 1 Tim. 3. 2. Tit. 1. 7. unblamable in his life; The most admired Bishop Andrews may passe for one of those Tit. 2. 7. Patterns, in whom these Lines of perfection were all concenter'd.

And this I say so much the rather, because I finde him to have the honour of being hated and Correp. Corr. p. 190. & 206. 208. snarl'd [Page]at by a late profane and sawcy Scribler; who, as if he were willing to kill the dead, and pluck a glori­fied Saint out of the Land of the Psal. 27. 13Living, hath not only attempted to sullie the Name and the Wri­tings of this Great Author, but hath publickly ma­lign'd his very imparadised Soul too. He hath not only defam'd his Doctrin, as Atheological, irrati­onal, and worse than that of Arminius (which, in the judgement of the Accuser, is no small crime) nor hath he only reproach't him by a most odious com­parison with one exceedingly below him (whom yet he presumeth to prefer as far before him, for sooth, in sanctity) but by an unchristian insinuation would make his Reader to believe, That Bishop An­drews was the worse for being Bishop Andrews, that Dr. Andrews was more a Saint than the Lord Bishop of Winchester, and by consequence, that his last dayes were very unhappily his worst too, But since the Author of such profanenesse is very suffi­ciently stigmatiz'd by avowing himself, in print, the Author of it, I shall not in a preface say more than this, That the great 1 Pet. 2. 25Bishop of our Souls was far worse dealt with; and, in the later part of his life, was called a Wine-bibber, a Glutton, a Mat. 26. 65 Mar. 2. 7. Blas­phemer, a Demoniack.

How consummate a Divine, how exact a Prea­cher, how acute a Disputant, how judicious a Mo­derator, and how eminent a Christian our Author was, there is nothing more easie than to conclude, both from the admiration of the best men, from the ma­lignity of the worst, and from so many of his Wri­tings as have been heretofore publish't: And (after[Page]all, I may add) from these imperfect, but pretious Reliques, which are here presented to the learned and to the unlearned Reader. They being so pithie, and yet so plain; so very short and concise, but yet so full and perspicuous; so close and home to the Text, but yet so usefull in Applications; that 'tis hard to say, for which sort of Readers they are most proper; whether for the learned, by being so wise; or for the unlearned, by being so easie. They who are the most ignorant, may here get knowledge; and they who have the most knowledge, may here get more. They that are Leaders of the People, may learn what things they ought to preach; and they that are followers of the Pulpit, may learn what Preachers they ought to hear.

'Tis true, it cannot be denyed, and it ought in justice to be proclaim'd, that this Volumne of Notes was only taken by the Eare from the voluble Tongue of the Dictator, as he deliver'd them out of the Pulpit; and so are infinitely short of their original perfection. We must not judge by these Lectures, what kinde of Preacher their Author was; but we must guesse by the Author, how ex­actly accomplish't these Lectures were. There have been many great Monarchs, who having be­gan to erect their stately Fabricks, have left them imperfect upon Design, that late Posterity might wonder at the excessive greatnesse of their Inten­tions. And it is thus farre applicable to the case in hand, That every Reader may imagine by the beau­ty of these Ruines, what kinde of Buildings he should have seen if he had seen them standing in their[Page] integrity. But having said thus much in venera­tion of the Author, to whom the Printer hath of­fer'd this well-meant injury, I have something to alledge by way of Apologie for the Printer, by whose devotion of care and cost, these sacred Fragments were thus collected. He knew the same of the Au­thor was so transcendently high, and placed so far out of the reach of spight or envy, defamation or disgrace, that he supposed it a lesser Crime thus to communicate these Lessons as now they are, than to deprive Posterity of their Advantage. He look'e not so steadily upon the Name and Credit of the Author, as upon the interest and good of Souls. He thought the Reader would esteem it, not only as an excusable, but as a commendable trangression, which being no way injurious to more than One, will redound to the benefit of many thousands.

Besides, it may be pleaded in his excuse (by such as are willing to make the best of a bold adventure, not because it is bold, but because it is past, and now too late to be prevented) That next to the Authors and Composers of learned Works, their Con­servators and Guardians deserve most thanks and commendations. We think we owe a great deal to such as Photius, and Stobaeus, (and the publick­minded Sirmondus of these last times) through the industry of whom we doe enjoy many things, which but for them, we might have lost. How comes it to passe, that we have nothing (unlesse meer figments or arrant scraps) of such as Berosus, Ctesias, & Me­gasthenes, Theopompus, Euphorus, Callisthe­nes, and Timaeus? Or that we want so many books [Page]of Diodorus Siculus, Polybius, Ingens Livius, and Dion Cassius? Or that we have lost so many Vo­lumes of learned Writers in the Church, such as Melito, Theophilus, Tatianus, Irenaeus, Cle­mens Alexandrinus, Hippolytus, Origen, and the like, but because there were not in all times, men of faithfull, industrious, and publick Souls? Yet we reckon our selves obliged to such as will lend us the very Ruines of Methodius of Tyre, and Dionysi­us of Alexandria. Nor was the publisher able to guesse at any reason, why the Remains of Bishop Andrews should not be every whit as welcome (if not to this which is so neer him, yet at least) to after Ages; when men will value the very Gleanings af­ter so excellent a Labourer in the Mat. 9 38. Harvest of the Gospel, above the many whole Crops of such as are unskilfull or idle workmen.

But now for mine own part, I must ingenuously confesse, that though I finde my self more usefully and deliciously entertained with the very least frag­ments of Bishop Andrews, than with the fullest spread Tables of those new Men, who uninvite the People to be his Guests, and train them up to ano­ther Diet; yet in reverence to the Fame of so inesti­mable a Writer, and in a fear of being offensive to many persons yet living, with whom his memory is highly pretious, and in an humble submission to the most wise determinations of those two Reve­rend and learned Prelates, who were alone intru­sted with the disposal of his Works, I should ne­ver have consented to the divulging of these Notes, had I been timely consulted with before they were[Page] finished at the Presse. Not only for those reasons which I finde to have been given by the Bishops of London and of Ely, both in their English and La­tine Prefaces, before his English and Latine Works, but for divers other reasons which are too obvious to need a prompter. I know that the ene­mies of this Great Author (that is to say, of the Church of England) doe love to take their mea­sures of him, not from his latest, and most mature, but from his youngest and crudest Writings. I know the injuries he hath suffered by the unwarranted publications of some few things which are found to vary from that which is known to be his last and ripest judgement. I know what calumnies are hea­ped upon his equally beloved and friendly Grotius through the licentious publication of his posthu­mous Works. I know his infinite Improvements from after that time when he was Vicar of St. Giles; and his dislikes of all preaching, which, by being too frequent, is withall too loose. Thence was his Cen­sure upon himself (recorded by Bishop Buckridge in his p. 21. funerall Sermon) That when he preached twise a day at St. Giles, he prated once: Not but that his very Table-talk, and what, in the depth of his Humility, he call'd his prating, was more usefull and more learned than the very best preaching of them that are Enemies to his Glory as well as Do­ctrin, but because he thought the Word of God was never well enough handled, and that the Work of God was never well enough done, until it had received his utmost care and circumspection. So meek and modest was his opinion of his own per­formances,[Page](however admired by other men) that he seldome (if ever) could give them his final Approba­tion, until they had passed, the third time, betwixt the Hammer and the Anvill.

All which when I consider, I think it my duty to make it known, That I never heard of this Volume until I saw it intirely printed, and only have taken this opportunity to preserve the Reader from being decei­ved, and the incomparable Author from being wrong'd. My excusing of the publishers (I mean, my endeavors to excuse them) is not meant to imply that they are innocent, but is the mercifullest way to conclude them guilty; Who commonly live and sub­sist, not by being over-tender of the Names and Re­putations, but by publishing the Writings of those especially, whom they think the most vendible and famous Authors.

Were those Stenographers now living, by whose Legerdemain these Notes were stoln, (and yet it were well if that dexterity had never been used to vi­ler ends) they would not scruple to tell the Reader, what [...], &c. Arrian. Epict in Praesat. Arrian said to Lucius Gellius in the very same case. ‘"(We have transcribed these Lectures of Bishop Andrews neither precisely so as he deli­ver'd them, nor perhaps so exactly as they might have been taken by other men, nor yet with any design to put them forth into the light: But we caught them out of his mouth by sleight of hand, in such a man­ner as we were able, that recollecting in our me­mories [Page]the excellent Lessons which we had heard, we might be able the more effectually to lay them up in our Hearts. Nor can we choose but admire, how these imperfect and impolish't Le­ctures should thus have flown into the Common, out of our Inclosure, not without our knowledge only, but against our wills too. Yet are we by so much the lesse solicitous, by how much the more we are assured, That he, whose Auditors we were, affected no man's applause; but was wholly in­tent upon this very thing, That he might benefit his Hearers by all he spake. He was so power­full and mighty in what he taught us out of the Pulpit, as to carry our affections which way he pleased. And if he proves lesse powerfull in these Instructions of his which are deliver'd from the Presse, we alone are to be blamed, by whom alone they have received their Imperfections.)"’

But because those ready writers are not in being to speak themselves, I will conjure the Reader, in their behalf, so to profit himself by this Volume of Instructions, as not to prejudice his Teacher in any kinde; but evermore to reflect upon the great­nesse of his Piety, the transcendency of his Judge­ment, the excessivenesse of his Learning, and the exactnesse of his Life; his painfullnesse and dili­gence in his Pastoral charge at S. Giles, and after­wards in his Episcopal; the great and manifold ser­vices he did the Protestant Church, not by preach­ing only and living in a most exemplary manner, but by defending her Discipline as well as Doctrin, against the strongest Opponents of each extreme, [Page](I mean Those of the Consistorie, and Those of the Conclave,) and by all other performances so every way worthy of his Great Calling, that the learned Isaac Casaubon (as himself hath told us in one of his published Epistles) look't upon Him and Bi­shop Overall, with other Fathers of our Church, as equall to Hosius and other holy Assessors in the general Councel of Nice. To which he added this declaration; That he never expected to see a Church so neerly approaching vnto the Primitive in point of purity and Order, as the Church which he found at that Time here in England.

Now that the God of Purity and of Order will, in his own best time, restore and raise up such able Pastors to goe in and out before his People, and to keep his Remnant from being carried from Jerusa­lem to Bethel, from Bethel to Babel, and from Ba­bel to Babylon; That he will binde up the Brea­ches, and wipe off the Stains, repair the Glory and Reputation, of his afflicted, defiled, disgraced Spouse, causing Righteousnesse and Peace to take up their dwelling within her Gates, Plenteousnesse and Truth within her Palaces, is sincerely and daily the prayer of

The very meanest of her Admirers in the dayes of her Mourning and Captivity, T. P.

Elenchus Latino-Anglus omnium Concionum totius Libri; Numerus paginam indicat.
A Latine and English Table of the Sermons of the whole book, with the number of the page in which the Sermon doth begin.

Index Concionum in Caput primum Geneseôs.
The Contents of the Sermons preached upon the first chapter of Genesis.

  • VAE vobis Legis interpretibus, quoniam sustulistis clavem cognitionis: ipsi non introistis, & eos qui introibant prohibuistis. Luc. 11. 52.

    Woe unto you Lawyers, for ye have ta­ken away the key of knowledge: ye entred not in your selves, and them that were entring in, ye hindred. pag. 657

  • In principio Dius creavit Coelum & Terram, &c. Gen. 1. 1.

    In the beginning God created the Heaven and the Earth. p. 1

  • Creavit Coelum & Terram, & omnia in illis.

    He created the Heaven and the Earth, and all things therein. p. 5

  • Terra autem erat res informis & inanis, tenebraeque erant in su­perficie abyssi. vers. 2.

    And the earth was without form and void, and dark­nesse was upon the face of the deep. p. 10

  • Et spiritus Dei incubabat superficiei aquarum.

    [Page]And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the wa­ters. p. 13

  • Tum dixit Deus, esto lux; & fuit lux. 3.

    And God said, Let there be light; & there was light. p. 14

  • Viditque Deus Lucem illam bonam esse. 4.

    And God saw the light that it was good. p. 19

  • Et distinctionem fecit Deus inter hanc lucem & tenebras.

    And God divided the light from the darknesse. p. 25

  • Lucemque Deus vocavit diem, tenebras verò vocavit noctem. 5.

    And God called the light, Day, and the darknesse he cal­led, Night. p. 32

  • Sic fuit vespera & suit mane diei primi.

    And the evening & the morning were the first day. p. 660

  • Deinde dixit Deus, Esto expansum inter aquas; ut sit distinguens inter aquas unas & alteras. 6.

    And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters: and let it divide the waters from the waters. p. 36

  • Fecit ergo Deus hoc expansum, quod distinguit inter has aquas, quae sunt ab infera expansi istius, & aquas illas quae sunt à regione supera expansi: & fuit ita. 7.

    And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament, from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. p. 44

  • Expansum autem hoc Deus vocavit Coelum. 8.

    And God called the firmament, Heaven. p 52

  • Sic fuit vespera, & fuit mane diei secundi.

    And the evening and the morning were the second day. p 664

  • Postea dixit Deus, Confluant aquoe istae quae sub hoc Coelo sunt in locum unum, & conspicua sit arida: & fuit ita. Aridam au­tem vocavit Deus terram, singula verò aquarum conceptacula vocavit maria: & vidit Deus id esse bonum. 9.10.

    And God said, Let the waters under the Heaven be ga­thered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. And God called the dry land, Earth, and the gathering together of the waters called he, Seas: and God saw that it was good p 56

  • [Page]

    Iterum dixit Deus, Her bascat terra herbulas, herbas sementantes semen, arbores fructiferas edentes fructum in species suas, in quibus suum sit semen super terram. 11.

    And God said, Let the earth bring forth grasse, the herb yeelding seed, and the fruit-tree yeelding fruit after his kinde, whose seed is in it self, upon the earth. p. 65

  • Et fuit ita. Nam produxit terra herbulas, herbas sementantes semen in species suas, & arbores edentes fructum in quibus se­men suum est in species suas: & vidit Deus id esse bonum. Sic fuit vespera, & fuit mane diei tertii. 12.13.

    And it was so. And the earth brought forth grasse, and herb yeelding seed after his kinde, and the tree yeel­ding fruit, whose seed was in it self, after his kinde: and God saw that it was good. And the evening and the morning were the third day. p. 666

  • Post dixit Deus, Sunto luminaria in expanso. Coeli, ad distinctio­nem faciendum inter diem & noctem: ut sint in signa cum­tempestatibus, tum diebus & annis. Sintque in luminaria in expanso Coeli, ad afferendum lucem super terram: 14.15.

    And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven, to divide the day from the night: and let them be for signes, and for seasons, and for dayes and yeers. And let them be for lights in the firma­ment of the heaven, to give light upon the earth: p. 72

  • Et fuit ita. Fecit enim Deus duo illa luminaria magna: lumi­nare majus ad praefecturam diei, & luminare minus [...] noctis, atque stellas, Et collocavit ea Deus in expanso Coeli, ad afferendum lucem super terram, Et ad praesidendum­diei ac nocti, & ad distinctionem faciendum inter lucem hanc & tenebras: viditque Deus id esse bonum. Sic fuit vespe­ra, & fuit mane diei quarti.

    And it was so. And God made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the starres also. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon the earth: And to rule over the day, and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good. And the evening [Page]and the morning were the fourth day. p. 78

  • Postea Dixit Deus, Abunáè progignunto aquae reptilia animan­tia; & volucres volanto supra terram, supersiciem versùs expansi coelorum. 20.

    And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving Creature that hath life, and Fowl that may flic above the earth in the open firmament of Heaven. p. 667

  • Et creavit Deus coetos maximos: & animantia omnia repentia, quae abundè progenuerunt aquae in species ipsorum, omnesque volucres alatas in species suas: 21.

    And God created great whales, and every living Crea­ture that moveth, which the waters brought forth abun­dantly after their kinde, and every winged fowl after his kinde: p. 84

  • Viditque Deus idesse bonum.

    And God saw that it was good. p. 88

  • Et benedixit eis Deus, [...]: Foetificate, ac augescite, et im­plete aquas per maria, et volucres augescunto in terra. 22.

    And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitfull, and multiply, and fill the waters in the Seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. p 89

  • Deinde dixit Deus, Producat terra animantia in species ipsorum, Pecudes et [...]; bestiasque terrenas in species suas: et fuit ita 24.

    And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kinde, cattell, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kinde: and it was so. p. 669

  • Fecit enim Deus bestias terrenas in species suas, et pecudes in spe­cies suas, omniaque reptilia terrae in specres [...]: et vidit Deus id esse bonum. 25.

    And God made the beast of the earth after his kinde, and cattel after their kinde, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kinde: and God saw that it was good. p. 670

  • Postea dixit Deas, Faciamus hominem ad imaginem [...], se­cundùm [...] nostram: qui dominetur in pisces maris, et on volucres coels, et in pecades, et in [...] ter­ram, at que in omnia [...] repeantia super terram. 26.

    [Page]And God said, Let us make man in our Image, after our likenesse: and let them have dominion over the fish of the Sea, and over the sowl of the aire, and over the cattel, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. p. 93

  • Iraque creavit Deus hominem ad imaginem suam, ad imaginem, inquam, Dei creavit eum: marem et foeminam creavit eos. 27.

    So God created man in his own Image, in the Image of God created he him; male and female created he them. p. 97

  • Deinde benedixit eis Deus, et dixit eis Deas, Foetificate, ac [...], et implete terram, eamque [...]; et [...] in pisces maris, es in volucres coeli, et in omnes [...] super terram. 28.

    And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruit­full and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the Sea, and over the fowl of the aire, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. p. 100

  • [...] dixit [...], dedi vobis [...] semen quae sunt in superficie totius [...]; [...] in quibus est fructus arboreus, sementantes [...] ad comedendum erunt. Omnibus [...] terrae, [...] volucribus coeli, omnibusque [...] super [...], in quibus est animae vivens, dedi omnes [...] virides ad conne­dendam et suit ita. Tum [...] Deus quit quid [...], ecce autem bonum erat valde: sic [...], et suit mane diei sexit. 29.30.31.

    And God said, behold, I have given you every herb beat­ing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and eve­ry tree in the which is the fruit of a tree [...] to you it shall be for meat: And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the aire, and to every thing that [...] upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green hearb for meat: and it was [...]. And God saw every thing that he had made; and behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. p. 105

Index Concionum in Caput secundum Geneseos.
The Contents of the Sermons preached upon the second chapter of Genesis.

  • ITaque perfecti sunt coeliet terra, omnisque exercitus illorum. Gen. 2. 1.

    Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them p. 115

  • Quum autem perfecisset Deus die septimo opus suum quod fecerat, quie vit ipso die septimo ab omni opere suo quod fecerat. vers. 2.

    And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. p. 122

  • Et benedixit Deus diei septimo, et sanctifica vit ipsum: quum in eo quie visset ab omni opere suo, quod crea venat Deus, faciendo. 3.

    And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because that in it he had rested from all his work which God cre­ated and made. p. 128

  • Istae sunt generationes coeliet terrae, quando creata sunt [...] ate Jehova Deus fecit terram et coelum: Et omnem stirpem agri, qui nondum fuisset futurus in terra, omnemque herbam agri, quae nondum fuisset oritura [...] quum non demisisset Jehova Deus pluviam super terram, et nullus homo futsset ad colendum terram. 4.5.

    These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth, when they were created: in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, And every plant of the field, before it was in the earth, and every he [...] of the field, before it grew: For the Lord God had not [...] it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground. p. 142

  • Aut vapor ascendens è terra, quiirrigaret [...] superfici­em [...]. Finxit verò Jehova Deus bominem de pul vere terrae, sufflavitque in nares ipsius [...] sic factus est homo anima vivens. 6.7.

    [Page]But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground. And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life: and man became a living soul. p. 147

  • Ornaverat autem plantis Jehova Deus hortum in Hedene ab O­riente: ubi collocavit hominem illum quem finxerat. 8.

    And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden: and there he put the man whom he had formed. p. 155

  • Feceratque Jehova Deus ut germinaret [...] quaevis arbor desiderabilis ad adspectum, et bona ad cibum: arbor quoque vit ae in hortoillo, it arbor scientiae boni et mali. 9.

    And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the fight, and good for food: the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evill. p. 162

  • Fluvius autem procedit ex Hedene ad irrigandum hunc bortum: & inde sese dividit, ferturque in quatuor capita. Primi no­men est Pischon: hic est qui alluir rostam Regionem Chavilae, ubi est aurum. Et aurum illius [...]: ibidem est Bdellium, & lapis Sardonyx. 10.11.12.

    And a river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. The name of the first is Pison, that is it which compas­seth the whole land of Havilah, where there is Gold. And the Gold of that land is good: there is Bdellium, and the Onyx stone. p. 167

  • Nomen verò [...] secundi est Gichon: hic est qui alluit [...] Regionem Cuschi. Et nomen tertu [...]: hic est qui labitur ad Orientem Assyriam vèrsùs: [...] autem quartus est Euphrates. 13.14.

    And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria: and the [...] river is Euphrates. p. 172

  • Accipiens itaque Jehova Deus homimem; collocavit ipsum in horto Hedenis, ad colendum [...] et ad [...] cum. 15.

    [Page]And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the gar­den of Eden, to dresse it, and to keep it. p. 177

  • Interdixitque Jehovah Deus homini, dicendo, De fructu quidem omnis arboris hujus horti liberè comedes. 16.

    And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou may est freely eat. p 182

  • De fructu ver ò arboris scigntiae boni et mali, de isto ne comedas. 17.

    But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evill, thou shalt not eat of it. p. 187

  • Nam quo die comederis de eo, utique moriturus es.

    For in the day thou eatest therof, thou shalt surely dye. p. 192

  • Dixerat autem Jehovah Deus, non est bonum esse hominem so­lum: faciam ei auxilium commodum ipsi. 18.

    And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone: I will make him an help meet for him. p. 197

  • Nam quism formavisset Jehova Deus è terrâ omnes bestias agri, omnesque volucres coeli, et adduxisset ad Adamum ut [...] quî vocaret singulas (etenim quocunque nomine vocavit illas Adam, animantem quamque; id nomen ejus est.) 19.

    And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the ayr, and brought them unto Adam, to see what he would call them: and what­soever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. p. 204

  • Vocavissetque Adam nomininibus pecudem quamlibet, et volucrem Coeli, omnemque bestiam agri: non aderat Adamo auxilium commodum. 20.

    And Adam gave names to all cattell, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field: but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him. p. 211

  • Quapropter injecit Jehova Deus soporem altum in Adamum quo obdormivit: et desunepta una de costis ejus, inclusit carnem pro illa. 21.

    And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribbs, and clo­sed up the flesh in stead thereof. p. 216

  • Extruxitque Jehovah Deus ex costa illa, quam sumpserat de A­damo, mulierem: camque adduxit ad Adamum. 22.

    [Page]And the rib which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, & brought her unto the man p. 219

  • Tum dixit Adam, Hac demum vice adest os ex ossibus meis, & caro ex carnemea: haec vocabitur vira, eò quòd haec ex viro desumpta est. 23.

    And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called woman, be­cause she was taken out of man. p. 222

  • Idcirco relicturus est vir patrem suum & matrem suam: & ad­haerebit uxori suae, eruntque in carnem unam. 24.

    Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. p. 225

  • De septem versiculis, a versu 18 usque ad finem 24. qui de Ma­trimonio, Viro & Foeminâ agunt.

    Of the seven verses, from the eighteenth verse to the end of the twenty fourth, concerning Matrimony. p. 228

  • Erant autem illi ambo nudi, Adam & uxor eius: ac non eru­bescebant 25.

    And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. p. 237

Index Concionum in Caput tertium Geneseôs.
The contents of the Sermons preached upon the third chapter of Genesis.

  • SErpens autem erat astutus, astutior quâvis bestiâ agri, quam fecerat Jehova Deus: Gen. 3. 1.

    Now the Serpent was more subtill than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made: p. 249. 252

  • Ille dixit mulieri, Etiamne edixisse Deum, ne comedatis ex omni [...] arborum hujus [...]

    And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the Garden? p. 254

  • [Page] Tum dixit mulier Serpenti illi, &C. vers. 2.

    And the woman said unto the Serpent, &c. p. 257

  • De fructu quidem arborum hujus horti comedemus: At de fru­ctu arboris istius quae est in horto hoc dixit Deus, Ne comeda­tis ex isto, neque attingatis eum: ne moriamini. 2.3.

    We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the Garden: But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the Garden, God hath said, Ye shall not at of it, neither shall ye touch it lest ye dye. p. 260

  • Dixit verò Serpens ille mulieri, Non utique moriemini: Novit enim Deus, quo die comederitis ex eo, aperturos se oculos ve­stros: & vos fore sicut Deos, scientes boni & mali. 4.5.

    And the Serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely dye: For God doth know that in the day ye eate thereof, then your eyes shall be opened. and ye shall be as Gods knowing good and evill. p. 263

  • Quum ergo videretur muliert bonum esse fructum arboris illius in cibum, & gratissimam esse illam oculis, ac desiderabilem esse ar­boris fructum ad habendum intelligentiam, accepit de fructu ejus & comedit. 6.

    And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat. p. 266. & 272

  • Etiamque dedit comedendum viro suo secum, qui comedit.

    And gave also to her husband with her, and he did eat. p. 281

  • Tunc aperuerunt sese oculi amborum, noveruntque se nudos esse: & consutis foliis ficulneis fecerunt sibi subligacula. 7.

    And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked: and they sewed fig-leaves to­gether, and made themselves aprons. p. 289

  • Deinde dudiverunt vocem fehovae Dei itantem per hortum ipsum ad ventum illius diei: quare abscondit se Adam & uxor ejus à facie fehovae Dei, inter orbores illius horti. 8.

    And they heard the voice of the Lord God, walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the [Page]Lord God, amongst the trees of the garden. p. 292

  • Inclamavit autem Jehova Deus Adamum, & dixit et, [...]? 9.

    And the Lord God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou? p. 296

  • Qui dixit, Vocem tuam audiebam in hoc horto: extimui autem, eò quò nudus sim, & abscondi me. 10.

    And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden: and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid my self p. 300

  • Dixit verò Deus, Quis indicavit tibi nudum esse te? An de fru­ctu illius arboris, de quo interdixeram tibi ne comedas ex eo, comederis? 11.

    And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee, that thou shouldest not eat? p. 303

  • Cui dixit Adam: Mulier ista quam posuisti mecum, ipsa dedit mihi de fructu illius arboris, & comedi. 12.

    And the man said: The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. p. 306

  • Tum dixit Jehova Deus mulieri, Quid hoc est quod fecisti? Dixit autem mulier, Serpens iste seduxit me, & comedi. 13.

    And the Lord God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The Ser­pent beguiled me, and I did eat. p. 309

  • Quapropter dixit Jehova Deus Serpenti illi; Cùm feceris istud, ma­ledictus esto prae omni jumento, & prae omni bestia agri. 14.

    And the Lord God said unto the Serpent, Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou above all cattel, and above every beast of the field: p. 305

  • Super ventrem tuum ito, & pulverem comedito omnibus diebus vi­tae tuae.

    Upon thy belly shalt thou goe, and dust shalt thou eat all the dayes of thy life. p. 672

  • Praeterea, inimicitiam pono inter te & mulierem hanc, similiter que inter semen tuum & semen hujus. 15.

    And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed. p. 678

  • Hoc conteret tibi caput, tu autem conteres huic calcaneum.

    [Page]It shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. p. 686

  • Mulieri dixit, Admo dum multiplico dolorem tuum, etiam [...], in dolore paries liberos: quin erga virum tuum appatitus tuus esto, & ipse praeesto [...] 16.

    Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sor­row, and thy conception. In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children: and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. p. 313

  • Adamo verò dixit, Quia [...] voci uxoris tuae; & comodtsti de [...] arboris illius quo interdixeram tibi, dicen­do, Ne comedas ex isto: maledicta esto terra propter te; camdolore comedito proventum [...] omnibus diebus vitaetuae: Eaque spinam & carduum proferto tibi, tu verò [...] her­bam agri. 17.18.

    And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast he arkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it; cur­sed is the ground for thy sake, in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the dayes of thy life. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee: and thou shalt eat the herb of the field. p [...]

  • In sudore vultûs tui vescitor cibo, donec revertaris in humun, cumex eâ desumptus fueris: nam [...] es, et in pulverem revertêris. 19.

    In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread till thou return unto the ground: for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. p. 321

  • Vocavit autem Adam nomen uxoris suae Chavvam: eò quòd ipsa mater sit omnium hominum viventium. 20.

    And Adam called his wifes name Eve, because she was the mother of all living. p. 327

  • Fecitque Jehova Deus Adamo et uxori ejus tunicas pelliceas, quibus vestivit eos. 21.

    Unto Adam also, and to his wife, did the Lord God make coats of skin, and cloathed them. p. 330

  • Et dixit Jehova Deus, Ecce, homo estne sicut unus ex nobis, cognoscendo bonum et malum? nunc igitur videndum ne ex­tendens manum suam accipiat etiam de fructu arboris vitae, [Page]ut camedat victurus in seculum. 22.

    And the Lord God said, Behold the man [...] become as one of us, to know good and evill. And now left be put forth his hand, and take also of the [...] of life, and live for ever. p. [...]

  • Emisit itaque eum Jehova Deus ex horta Hedenis, ad colmdum terram illam ex quâ desumptus fuerat. 23.

    Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. p. 329

  • Quumque expulisses hominem; instituit à parte anteriore horti Hedenis Cherubos, ftammam quae gladii [...] ad custo­diendum viam quae ferebat ad arborom vitae. 24.

    So he drove out the man: and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden, Cherubims and a flaming sword, which turned every way to keep the way of the tree of life.

Index Concionum in Caput quartum Geneseôs.
The Contents of the Sermons preached upon the fourth chapter of Genesis.

  • DEinde Adam cognovit Chavvam uxorem suam: quae ubi concepit et peperit Kajinum, dixit, Acquisivi vi­rum à Jehava. [...] pergens [...] fra­trem ipsius, Hebelum. Gen. 4. 1.2.

    And Adam knew Eve his wife, and she conceived, and [...] Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the Lord. And she again bare his brother Abel. p. 363

  • Fuit que Hebel pastor gregis, et Kajin fuit agricola.

    And Abell was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a [...] of the ground. p. 369

  • Fuit autem post dies [...], quum obtulit. [...] de [...] terrae munus Jehovae. Et ipse [...] Aebel [...] de primogenit is gregis sut, et de adipe eorum. vers. 3.4.

    And in process of time it came to passe, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering to the Lord. And [Page]Abel he also brought of the firstlings of his flock, and of the [...] thereof: p. 374

  • Respexitque Jehova ad Hebelum et ad munus ejus. Ad Kajinum [...] et [...] minus ejus non respexit: 4.5.

    And the Lord had respect unto Abel, and to his offering: But unto Cain, and to his offering, he had not re­spect: p. 381

  • Quapropter accensa est ira Kajini valdè, et cecidit vultus ejus.

    And Cain was very wrath, and his countenance fell. p. 388

  • Tum dixit jehova Kajino, Quare accensa est ir a tua? et quare cecidit vultus tuus? Nonne si bene egeris, remessio; siverò non bene egeris, prae foribus est peccatum excubans? 6.7.

    And the Lord said unto Cain, Why art thou wrath? and why is thy countenance fallen? If thou dost well, shalt thou not be accepted? and if thou dost not well, sinne lyeth at the dore: p. 393

  • At ergate est appetitus illius, et tu praees illi.

    And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him. p. 398

  • Post colloquebatur Kajin cum Hebelo fratre suo: evenit autem quum essent in agro, ut in surgens Kajin in Hebelum fratrem suum interficeret eum. 8.

    And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to passe when they were in the field, that Cain rose up a­gainst Abel his brother, and slew him. p. 407

  • Quamobrem dixit Jehova Kajino, Vbi est Hebel frater tuus? qui dixit, Non novi: An custos ego sum fratris mei? 9.

    And the Lord said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not: am I my brothers keeper? p. 415

  • Dixit verò Deus, quid fecisti? eoce vocem sanguinum fratris tui, me ab [...] humo inclamantium. 10.

    And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy bro­thers blood crieth unto me from the ground. p. 422

  • Nunc it aque tu maledictus esto: exsul ab ista terra, quae aperuit os suum ad excipiendum sanguinem fratris tui è manu tua. Quum humum ipsam colueris, ne pergito edere vim suam tibi: vagus et infestus agitationibus esto in terra. 11.12.

    And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath ope­ned [Page]her mouth to receive thy brothers blood from thy hand. When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yeeld unto thee her strength: a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth. p. 428

  • Tum Kajin dixit Jehovae, Major est poena mea quam ut sustinere possim. 13.

    And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear p 435

  • En expellis me hodie à superficie istius terrae, ut à facis tua abscon­dam me: cumque vagus sim et infestus agitationibus interra, si [...] fuerit qui me invensat, interficiet me. 14.

    Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth; and from thy face shall I be hid, and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth: and it shall come to passe, that every one that findeth me, shall slay me. p. 443

  • Dixit verò Jehova illi, Propterea quisquis interfecerit Kujinum, septuplo vindicator: & imposuit Jehova Kajino signum, ne cum caederet ullus qui foret inventurus cum. 15.

    And the Lord said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him seven fold. And the Lord set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him. p. 450

  • Egressus itaque est Kajin à facie Jehovae: & consedit in terra Nodi, ad Orientem Hedenem versùs: 16.

    And Cain went out from the prefence of the Lord, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the East of Eden. p. 456

  • Et cognavit Kajin uxarem suam, quae concepit & peperit Chano­cum: quamobrem studebat aedificare cavitatem, & vocavit nomen civitatis illius de nomine filii sui Chanoc. 17.

    And Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bare Enoch and he builded a Citie, and called the name of the Citie, after the name of his sonne, Enoch. p. 462

  • Deinde Chanco natùs est Hirad, & Hirad [...]; Mechuajël verò Methuschaëlem, & Methuschaël [...]. Assumpsit autem sibi Lemec [...] duas: 18.19.

    And unto Enoch was born Irad; and Irad begat Mehujael, and Mehujael [...] Mathusael, and Mathusael begat [Page]Lamech. And Lamech took unto him two wives. p. 468

  • Assumpsit autem sibi Lemec uxores duas: prior is nomen suit. Ha­da, & nomen secundae Tkilla. Peperitque Hada Jabalum: [...] aut or habit antium in tentori is & pecuariae. Nomen­que fratris ejus fuit Jubal: hic fuit autor omnium tractanti­um citharam & organon. Tzilla verò ipsa quoque peperit Thubal-Kajinum, qui erudivit omnem fabrum aerarium & fer­rarium: sororemque Thubal-Kajini, Nahamam.

    And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattell. And his brothers name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as han­dle the harp and organ. And Zillah she also bare Tu­bal-Cain, an instructer of every artificer in brasse and iron: and the sister of Tubal-Cain was Naa­mah p. 474

  • Tum dixit Lemec suis uxoribus, O Hada & Tzilla audite vocem meam, uxores Lemect auribus percipite sermonem meum: nam virum interfecero ad vuinus meum, etiam adole scentem ad tumioem meum. Cum septuplo sit vindicandus Kajin, utique Lemec septuagtes septies tanto. 23.24.

    And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zilla, Hear my voice ye wives of Lamech, hearken to my speech. for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt. If Cain be avenged seven fold, truly Lamech seventy and seven fold. p. 480

  • Cognovit autem denuo Adam uxorem suam, quae peperit filtum, & voca vit nomen ejus Schethum: nam reposuit mihi Deus, inquit, semen alterum pro Hebelo, quem ipsum intersecit [...]. 25.

    And Adam knew Eve his wife again, and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: for God, said she, hath appoin­ted me another seed in stead of Abel, whom Cain slew. p. 486

  • Sed & ipsi Schetho genitus est filius, cujus nomen vocavit [...]: tunc [...] est in [...] nomen Jehovae. 26.

    And to Seth, to him also there was born a son, and he called [Page]his name Enos: then began men to call upon the Name of the Lord. p. 492

Index Concionum diversarum, ex veteri & novo Testamento.
The Contents of the Sermons, preached upon severall choice Texts, both out of the Old and New Testament.

  • SED advolavit ad me unus ex istis Seraphim habens in ma­nu sua prunam quam forcipibus sumpserat ab altari. Ad­movitque ori meo dicens, Ecce, attingit hoc labia tua: jam amovetur iniquitas tua, & peccatum tuum expiatur. Isai. 6. 6.7.

    Then flew one of the Seraphims unto me, having a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar. And he laid it upon my mouth, and said, Lo, this bath touched thy lips, and thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sinne pur­ged. p. 515

  • Atendite ne justitiam vestram exerceatis coram hominibus, ut fpe­ctemini ab eis: aliquin mercedem non habebitis apud Patrem vestrum qui est in coelis. Matt. 6. 1.

    Take heed that ye doe not your alms before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven. p. 522

  • Operemini non cibo qui perit, sed cibo illi qui permanet in vitam aeternam, quem Filius hominis dabit vobis: hunc enim Pater ob­signavit, id est, Deus. Joh. 6. 27.

    Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which [Page]the Son of man shall give unto you: for him [...] God the Father sealed. p. [...]

  • Dixit igitur cis, Videte, & cavete ab avaritia: nec enim cujus­quam vita ex iis quae ipsi suppetunt, in eo sita est ut redundet. Luc. 12. 15.

    And he said unto them, Take heed and beware of Covetousnesse: for a mans life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which hee posses­seth. p. 538

  • Nam cui baec non adsunt, is [...] est, nihil procul cernens, oblitus sese à veteribus peccatis suis fuisse purificatum 2 Pet. 1. 9.

    But he that lacketh these things is blinde and cannot see far off, and hath forgotten that he was purged from his old sinnes. p. 544

  • Abrahamus pater ille vester gestivit videre diem istum meum, & vidit, & gavisus est. Joh. 8. 56.

    Your Father Abraham rejoyced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad. p. 550

  • Principes populorum congregantur, populus Dei Abrahamt; quid Dei sunt protectiones terrae, valde excelsus est. Psal. 47. 10.

    The Princes of the people are gathered together, even the people of the God of Abraham for the sheilds of the earth belong unto God: he is greatly exal­ted. p. 555

  • Et inutilem servum ejicite in tenebras illas extimas: illic erit fletus & stridor dentium. Matt. 25. 30.

    And cast yee the unprofitable servant into outer darknesse, there shall bee weeping and gnashing of teeth. p. 561

  • Pro puero isto supplicabam, praestititque mihi Jehova petitionem meam, quam petebam ab eo. Quamobrem ego quoque precario datum sisto eum Jehovae omnibus diebus quibus fuerit, [...] ro­gatus precario est Jehovae. Incurvavitque se Schemuel ibi Jeho­vae honorem exhibens. 1 Sam. 1. 27,28.

    For this child I prayed, and the Lord hath given me my petition which I asked of him. Therefore also I have lent him unto the Lord as long as he liveth, he shall be lent unto the Lord. And he worshipped the Lord there. p. 565

  • [Page] Victori dabo edere ex arbore illa vitae quae est in medio Paradisi Dei. Apoc. 2. 7.

    To him that overcometh, will I give to eat of the tree of life which is in the midst of the Paradise of God. p. 572

  • Cupimus autem ut unusquisque vestrûm idem studium ad [...] usque ostendat, ad certam spei persuasionem. Heb. 6. 11.

    And wee desire that every one of you doe shew the same diligence, to the full assurance of hope unto the end. p. 578

  • Et factum est praelium in Coelo: Michael & angeli ejus praeliati sunt cum Dracone, & Draco pugnabat & Angeli ejus: Sed hi non praevaluerunt, neque locus eorum [...] inventus est in Coelo. Apoc. 12. 7,8.

    And there was war in heaven, Michael and his Angels fought against the Dragon, and the Dragon fought and his Angels, And prevailed not, neither was their place found any more in heaven. p. 586

  • Quicquid dat mihi Pater, ad me veniet: & eum qui venit ad me, nequaquam ejecerim for as. Joh. 6. 37.

    All that the Father giveth me shall come to me: and him that commeth to me, I will in no wise cast out. p. 594

  • Qui verò haec audierunt compuncti sunt corde, & dixerunt ad Pe­trum ac reliquos Apostolos, Quid faciemus viri fratres? Pe­trus autem ait ad eos, Resipiscite. Act. 2. 37.

    Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart, and said unto Peter, and to the rest of the Apostles, Men and bretheren, what shall we doe? Then Peter said unto them, Repent. p. 601

  • Tum alter ad alterum dixerunt, Nonne cor nostrum ardebat in no­bis, dum loqueretur nobis in via, & dum adaperiret nobis Scripturas. Luc. 24. 32.

    And they said one to another, Did not our heart burn within us, while hee talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the Scriptures. p. 607

  • Etenim per unum Spiritum nos omnes in unum corpus baptizati su­mus, [Page]& Judaei, & Graeci, & servi, & liberi: & omnes po­tati sumus in unum Spiritum. 1 Cor. 12. 13.

    For by one Spirit are wee all baptized into one body, whether we be Jewes or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free: and have been all made to drink into one Spirit. p. 614

  • Ex eo quòd maxima illa nobis ac pretiosa promissa donavit, ut per haec esficeremini divinae consortes naturae, elapsi ex corruptione quae est in mundo per cupiditatem. 2 Pet. 1. 4.

    Whereby are given to us exceeding great and pretious promises, that by these you might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust. p. 620

  • Ad hoc ipsum verò vos, omni praeterea collato studio, adjicite fidei vestrae virtutem. 2 Pet. 1. 5.

    And besides this, giving all diligence, adde to your faith virtue. p. 624

  • Adjicite fidei vestrae virtutem; virtuti verò notitiam.

    Adde to your faith, virtue; and to virtue, know­ledge. p. 628

  • [...] verò continentiam, contincntiae verò toleranti­am. 2 Pet. 1. 6.

    And to knowledge, temperance; and to temperance, pa­tience. p. 631

  • Tolerantiae pietatem, pietati verò fraternum amorem, fraterno verò amori charitatem. 2 Pet. 1. 7.

    And to patience, godlinesse; and to godlinesse, bro­therly kindnesse; and to brotherly kindnesse, cha­rity. p. 635

  • [...] vos, O viatores omnes? intuemini & videte an sit do­lor par dolori meo, qui factus est [...]: quam afficit Jehova moerore die aestus irae suae. Lam. 1. 12.

    Is it nothing to you, all yee that passe by? behold and see, if there be any sorrow like unto my sorrow, which is done unto me, where with the Lord hath afflicted me, in the day of his fierce anger. p. 639

  • Nam eratis velut oves errantes: Sed [...] con vertistis [...] ad Pastorem & Curatorem animarum vestrarum. 1 Pet. 2. 25.

    [Page]For yee were as sheep going astray, but are now returned unto the Shepheard and Bishop of your souls. p. 644

  • Paulisper, & non conspicietis me, & rursum paulisper, & vide­bit is me, quia ego vado ad Patrem. John 16 16

    A little while, and ye shall not see mee: and again a little while, and ye shall see me; because I goe to the Fa­ther. p. 648

  • Adeo provocantes Deum ad indignationem fact is suis, ut irrum­peret in eos plaga; donec consistente Pinchaso & judicium ex­ercente, coercita esset plaga illa. Psal. 106. 29,30.

    Thus they provoked him to anger with their inventions: and the plague brake in upon them. Then stood up Phinehas, and executed judgment: and so the Plague was stayed. p. 652


In Principio Deus creavit Coelum & Terram, &c.Gen. 1. 1.

WEE have heard of the undoubted credit and un­questionable Authority of Moses the writer: Now touching his hand-writing, hee hath left five Bookes, as five fingers of his hand, to point at the knowledg of God and heavenly things, that so hee might shew them unto us.

In all which Bookes, wee may observe two principall parts of his intent and purpose: The one was to deliver to Gods Church the Law and Word of God: The other is to write the History of Gods Works.

First hee sets downe the Creation of the Wold, and all flesh; that after hee might shew the Lawe which was given to all flesh in the World.

This Historie of the worlds Creation aptly divideth it self into two parts; The first concerneth the old World (2 Pet. 2.5.) which was in Paradise. The other, that World which hath been since, and shall be to the end thereof.

Touching the old World, hee considereth it in its perfection, in­tegrity, and happinesse, in these first two Chapters; and in its de­fection, decay, and misery, in the third Chapter: For the perfe­ction of it, wee are led to consider the Creation of the World, in the beginning of this Chapter, and the Creation or making of Man, and investing him in Paradise, to bee the Lord and Governor of all the World and the things therein.

The sum of these verses, is the narration of the manner of the rearing up of the frame of all things wee see in heaven and earth; which is a matter of so high, huge, and infinite consideration, that wee should quickly confound and lose our selves in it, if God had[Page 2]not given us this thred of direction in our hands, to bring us out of this intricate maze, which else would astonish us.

This Creation is divided into six dayes works, in which is shewed the six joynts, as it were, of the frame of the whole World: In which six dayes the proceeding of God in this worke, consisteth in these three points. First, the creating of all Creatures, of and after an indigest, rude and imperfect matter, and manner: For, the first day was made a rude masse or heape, which after was the Earth. Second­ly, a bottomlesse huge gulfe, which was the Waters. Thirdly, over both was a foggie obscure myst of darknesse which was the Firmament.

After that, in the second place, is set downe the distinction, which is in three sorts. First, Of Light from darknesse. Secondly, Of the nether Waters from the upper Waters, (viz.) of the Seas and Clouds. Thirdly, Of the Waters from the Earth.

After the distinction and dividing of this, ensueth in the third place, Gods worke in beautifying and adorning them after this order which wee now see.

First, the Heaven with Starres. Secondly, the Ayre with Fowls. Thirdly, the Earth with Beasts, Herbs and Plants of all sorts. Fourthly, the Sea and Waters with Fishes.

And having thus finished this great frame of all the World, and beautified the same as wee see; Then he framed and made Man, the little world, after his Image, and placed him therein, as his Pallace to enjoy and possesse.

Touching the first part of the Creation, it is set downe in the first verse; in which are foure workes of great weight and importance.

1.The first, In principio; Second, Deus; Third, creavit; Fourth, Coelum & Terram: For these two, being coupled, doe fall under in one part of the division. In which are offered unto us four princi­pall matters of great regard.

1. First, That this World and the things wee see, were not so ever, but had a beginning at a certain time.

2. Secondly, At the beginning, these things had not their being of them­selves, but of another.

3. Thirdly, That the Creation and working of them was only of God, and of that God which is in unity of essence and trinity of persons.

4. Fourthly, That Heaven and Earth are God's, and that they were made and preserved by him.

Touching the first (in principio) hath admitted a three fold sence, according to the diverse conceits of divers men; all which have beene received, and may bee, without error or danger: First, Ori­gen and Ambrose doe take and interpret it as the Cause, which was the beginning of all, and that is Gods Wisdome; which (as the Cause) began all. And they may seeme to bee led to understand it thus, by these two places, the one in the 4 Prov. 7. Wisedome is the beginning, &c. the other 104 Psal. 24. In Wisedome hast thou made them all; Therefore they thought, that in the beginning is meant, In Wisedome God created, &c.

[Page 3]Secondly, it is taken for the order of time, as who should say; First of all, and before any thing else was done, God made Heaven and Earth, in the very first beginning of time; that is, in a moment, or as it were in the twinckling of an eye 1; Cor. 15. 52. So had all things their beginning and motion, in the beginning of time; as they shall leave and lose it at the end and last period of time, which is the Worlds end: It is no danger of error thus to understand (In prin­cipio.

Thirdly, It is said (11 Heb. 3.) that it is a Mystery and matter of Faith, to beleeve this, of the Creation, in the beginning, and so it is; yet God hath not made our reason so repugnant from Faith, even in naturall men; but that even by the sense and sight of things, mans reason cannot deny, but must needs gather and confesse this to be true, That all things were made, and had a beginning; And this all Hea­thenith Philosphers (as may appeare by all books of the Gentiles, in all ages, since the study of learning, and learned men hath beene) doe plainly shew, that they had in remembrance themselves, and did commend to others by their writings, the knowledge and acknow­ledgment of this universal Creation.

This hee proveth by those Philosophers which were as ancient as the Prophet Esdras, untill late times, and that they had a remem­brance of Noah, naming him Janus, and painting him with two fa­ces, one looking into the old world before the Flood, and the other beholding the world after: Besides such writers, of naturall men, very reason doth consent hereunto, That the world was made by some wonderfull Power, and so had a beginning; for Reason is ever naturally led to look and consider the beginning and cause of any thing it seeth; as when it seeth a great Tree, though it see not the roote, yet it conceiveth, for certain, that it hath a roote which conveyeth sapp to the Tree, by which it groweth and encreaseth: So when it seeth a great River, it by and by concludeth, there is a great Foun­tain and head where it hath his originall and beginning. Again, Reason cannot abide infinite Causes, as 1 Cor. 11. 3. to say, the woman came of man, the man of Christ, and Christ of God; Because di­vers Causes have divers times and motions; but Reason will bring things to their particular head and chief causes, which by one moti­on and at one time did it.

Also in that we say things are done successively, by order of times neerer and farther off, it argueth necessarily a beginning, and ther­fore faith David Psal. 119 91. All things continue alike, from the begin­ing, through thy Ordinance. All things since in the world have beene yb Gods appointment and Decree. Psal. 65.9. Paul telleth this to the wise and learned of Athens, as a thing which they knew and taught in their Schools to bee true 17 Acts 24. And Plato faith it was a say­ing of great antiquity and credit in his time, and long before; That God made all things, and man, at a certain time, which was their be­ginning.

Plutarch sheweth that some deemed the world to bee conceived[Page 4]and brought forth, and to grow to perfection as a man; and others, that it was the stamp which God set on it, and so all learned men in all ages, and all men endowed with natural sence and right reason have beene resolved in this, That the world was the workmanship of God, and had his beginning.

The partie adverse to this truth, was the first of the sect of the Peripateticks, which (contrary to his master Plato, and all that were hefore him, and contrary to his Scholar Theophrastus, and the most that followed him after) held that Mundus erat aeternus, and so had no beginning nor maker at all; yet (notwithstanding this new con­ceit and opinion) hee confesseth this twice or thrice, that hee giveth credit to those ancient men which were before him, which by long grounded experience, and by evident demonstration, and credible testimonies held and taught otherwise then hee thought, and in his book de Coelo, hee saith that there was a Chaos, a darknesse and light which had a beginning, therefore as hee seemeth to differ, and leave his ancients, of singularity only, on a conceit and devise of his own, so his Scholers and followers after him, forsook him in that opini­on, and therefore this point standeth undoubted; as ratified both by evidence of reason, and by the judgement of the learned in all a­ges. The second Point is the Creation, in which wee are to note first, that the things which wee see were not of themselves, when they had their being and beginning, because they are an effect and worke of some efficient cause; for it is very absurd in reason, that one and the same thing should bee both a Cause and an Effect of it selfe, for so it must bee granted that a thing both was and was not at one time; for as it is the Cause, it must needes bee before it was, and as it is an Effect, it could not bee at the first; so it should bee and yet not bee at one time: Therefore David teacheth us to say, It is hee that made us, and not wee our selves, wee are the Sheepe of his pa­sture, for preservation, and the works of his hands, for Creation; so that Job faith, we must resolve That it was another that made all things, and that one is God.

These two points, that not the World, but another, made the World and all in it, doth overthrow two errors of the Philosophers, Opinio Stoico­rum,the one was of the Stoicks, which taught quod omnia fiunt fato, as if by the revolution of things and times, at such an instant the world must needs bee, by fatall destiny and necessity, and might not bee otherwise.

Epicuremum.The other were the Epicures, which taught; The world was a thing made at a venture, by casual chance, and happy hazard, by a divine essence; the one taught that God could doe no otherwise then but make it; the other thought that God did hee could not tell what.

But Psal. 115. 3. Deus fecit quecunque voluit in Coelo & Terra. And Revel. 4. 11. All things were made for him and by his will. And Esai 45. 18. God made not Heaven and Earth in vain, to no end, but the word fignifieth that hee made it with Wisdome and Counsell. Esai 43. 13. God [Page 5] was before any day was, and hee asketh, Who could constrain him by ne­cessity to make it or not to make it. Heb. 3. 4. If a man, being in a strange Country, shall see a house, hee will certainly affirm that there hath a man builded it, that it is a mans worke; so saith hee, when wee see all Creatures, Heaven and Earth, wee know that God made them all.

A reason against that opinion of Fortune is this, That things done by Chance are without cunning: But God with infinite wisdome devised all things; the Eye to see, Colors to bee seen, and the Light, as the meanes by which wee see; also all things are in such wonderfull order, succeeding one another in their course, as the seasons of things, which shew them not to bee by Chance, there­fore the Philosophers were glad when they found out that [...], intelligentia, that was the cause of all; so that they confesse all things to bee made by a wonderfull wise Counsell, and discourse of an understanding minde; So that it was made by another, not by Necessity nor Chance.

Creavit Coelum & Terram, & omnia in illis.Gen. 1. vers 1.

NOw are wee come to the fourth and last point which wee are to consider, in this verse, and that is, That the things which were Created by God, are both Heaven and Earth, which here is said to bee his workmanship; Which though it be here set downe in two generall things, yet are his works manifold, yea infinite and cannot be num­bred; All which Creatures and things Created, cannot bee better expressed then in these two, which contain all the rest, for hee so faith Exod. 20. 11. In six dayes hee made Heaven and Earth, the Sea and all that is therein; So doth David expound his meaning, Psal. 146.6. and Revel. 10. 6. therefore Job saith, 38. 6, 7. That God made not on­ly the Starres with the Heavens, but also the Angels, or Children of God which are in them, and Psal. 24. 1. God when hee is said to make the round World, he meaneth also, all that dwell therein, that is, Man also; yea hee is also the Lord and Creator of the Soules and Spirits of all Flesh, as well as their bodies. Numb. 27. 16. So that, to conclude with Saint Paul, by these two is understood and com­prehended all the Creatures, visible and invisible, which God made. Coll. 1. 16. For the Heavens are the bound upward, and the Earth is the bound below, which conclude all between them: Let us therefore first consider these two joyntly; then in the order wherein they stand, and in the last place severally. Touching the first, David saith, Psal. 102. 25. Thou Lord in the beginning hast laid the foundations of the Earth, and the Heavens are the worke of thy hands. Esay 40. 12. It is God that made Heaven and Earth. Job 37. 17. 18. Job. 38. 5, 6. The Heavens doe shew this, in that they resemble their Cre­ator, because they are moveable, and yet subject to alteration, and the Earth unmoveable, and not subject to motion.

2. Point. Moses meaning is, That not the Earth alone was made by God, [Page 6]but also the Heavens, that is, both of them, and all in both, were his worke, not the Earth only but also the Hea­vens; against the Philosophers, which thinke therfore that the Heavens were not made, because none can assigne the point where the Heavens began, nor in what part God began to make them, nor where the Heavens first began to move; by which reason they might hold that the heart of man was not made, because none can tell how it began its motion to pant and beat, whether by sustole or diastole, but as the heart was made, though unknown where the first motion of it is, so were the Heavens.

That hee made not the Heavens only, but also the Earth below, against the errors of the Manichees, which hold that there were two causes of Heaven and Earth; That the good and white God made the Heaven, and Man from the middle upward; And the black and evill god was the efficient cause of the Earth, and of Man from the middle downward; but as Gods power and wisedome is shewed and seen as well in an Ant as in an Elephant, as one saith; as well in the creeping Wormes, and basest Creatures, as in the Angels and most excellent Creatures: So doth his Majesty and Might appeare in the Earth as well as in Heaven.

3 Point.Now in regard of the order here set downe, wee have a conside­ration first of the Heavens; for if there were any Order observed in Gods Creation, surely the Heavens were made in the first place, which sheweth the glory of the Creator; for who ever, in building his house, would or could begin it at the Roofe first, and then after­wards lay the Foundation of the Earth: but his omnipotency is such, that hee beginneth to make his house from the Roofe downe­ward, as wee see in the second and third verses; And this is strange, saith Job 26. 7. That hee hath made the Heavens turn round like a wheele without an axeltree, and that hee hath caused the Earth to hang and stand without any prop to uphold it: When wee therefore consider the Heavens and Earth, the worke of thy hands, wee must needes know that the cor­ners of the Earth are upholden by his hand.

4 Point.Let us consider them severally and apart, in which wee must re­gard them after three sorts; 1.First in respect of God, as they are compared with him; 2.Secondly, as they are compared to them­selves; 3.Thirdly, comparing them to us.

1. Esay 66. 1. Comparing them with God; Heaven was made to bee his Seate, and Earth to be his Foot-stoole.

2.In respect of themselves; Heaven was made as the male part of the World, by whose influence, motion and dewes, the Earth, as the female part should, as it were out of her womb, bring forth all living and necessary things. Hermes the AEgyptian, the Persian wife men, and Orpheus the Grecian, appoint these two as the matter of all things that are.

3.In regard of us our selves, Heaven and Earth are the meanes of our moving and rest, for the motion of the Heavens is the beginning of our bodily motion, and the unmoveable Earth is the cause of [Page 6]rest: Wherefore saith Job 38. 33. That the Course and Order of Gods Creatures must make us orderly in all our doings. In respect of God and us, God hath made the Earth to bee our [...], our work house to doe his will in; [...].& he made heaven to be his [...], his Country, or pay house, where he will reward our good workes.

Thus we have seen Gods ordinance in these words, 1. That Hea­ven and Earth are Gods handywork: 2. That the Heavens by order are first, and first of us to be cared for: 3. The use of it which we must make, both in respect of God, of themselves, and our selves. Now out of this doctrine we frame the first article of our belief thus, God in the goodness of his fatherly love made Heaven, and Earth, and all in them: And that he might have a Creature above all others, to whom he might impart and bestow them, he made Man after his own likeness; so he made all things, non suo commodo, Job. 35. 6, 7. for we can doe him no good; neither did he give them us, nostro merito, Esay 40. 5, 6. For how could we deserve any thing, when he gave all things to us before we were, and when we were made we were but vanity; therefore it was his mere and gra­tious goodness that brought forth Heaven and Earth for us at the beginning. Psal. 115. 15. We are the blessed of the Lord, which made Heaven and Earth: So in that Psalm is distinguished the true God from all Idolls; for they cannot move, nor speak, nor doe any thing; but God did all with his word. So St. Paul, by the same reason, exhorteth the Lycaonians to turn from Idolls to the true God, Acts 14. 15. But most plainly Jeremiah 10. 11. teacheth this use to be made of the knowledge of Gods Creation. In Capti­vitie, saith he, you shall be tempted to serve their Idols; but he telleth them what answer they must make, which is written in the Caldee tongue, all the rest of the book being in Hebrew, which answer is this: Our God made Heaven and Earth, and all in them is; but your Gods can doe nothing, but their names shall vanish away, and not be heard upon the Earth. By which we see, that this maketh a plain difference between the true God of Heaven, and Idols, their names shall perish before the earth; but as our God was before the Earth was made, so the Earth and Heavens shall pass away before him, which endureth for ever. The Gentils made their gods the ofspring of Heaven & Earth; but we know that Heaven and Earth are the ofspring of our God, which made all; and this is the difference to discerne the true God from the false; thus we have seen what we are to learn out of this, for the grounding of our judgment and sound knowledge, and perfe­cting our understanding in the Creation.

Usus.Now it remaineth to shew, out of this four points, what is to be learned for the breeding and nourishing of good motions and affe­ctions in our hearts.

For the first, If there was a beginning of all things, then un­doubtedly there will be an end.

If there be a head, though the Image be never so great and tall, yet we shall come to his feet at the last, Dan. 2. 41, 42, 43. as the [Page 8]world had its seed time, that is, its beginning, and its Winter time, when it was overwhelmed with water, and its hot Summer, when God rained in it fire, so shall it have its harvest time at the last, faith Christ: Math. 13.30. when the good shall be carried into Gods barn, and the evill into Hell fire: therefore some have well ob­served, that the Hebrew words which signifie heaven and earth, have the first letter of them Alcph, and the last letter of them Tau, to shew that they shall have an end, as they had a beginning, both in heaven and earth, so faith St. Paul, 1 Cor. 10.11. and Dan. 12.12. but as in the beginning the morning had his evening, and the even­ing his morning: so shall it not be at the end; for then saith Saint Jude, in his Epistle, there shall be to the godly a morning of eter­nall life, without any dark or dimme evening any more, vers. 21. and to the wicked an evening of utter darkness, without any mor­ning or lightness, vers. 6. that is, as the Angell sware Rev. 10.6. that as God made the beginning of time, so there should be no more time, nor course, nor order of dayes, but eternity of all; Where­fore saith St. Peter, what manner of men ought we to be in all godlyness of life, seeing God made the world in love for us, and seeing there will be an end of the world, and a judgement for us. The Apostle, Heb. 1. 11, 12. citeth Davids saying, that the Heavens shall wax old, and be folded up as a garment, when the full number of Gods Elect are accomplished, for whom this garment and covering of heaven was made, and who doe bear up the pillers of the earth; for if it were not for the Godly and Elect in the world, neither of them could continue, Esay 51.6. The earth also shall be wrapped up at the time: in a word, this word (Create) signifieth to begin with wisdome and judgement, and to end with justice and judgement; so, Elohim, the Creator, signifieth a Judge; and we in our name Creatures carry about us this sen­tence, that we are one day to be judged.

2. Point.The second point is, That the Creation was of nothing: then good motions and affections, which that knowledge must breed, nourish, and bring forth in us, is to make us learn to know and acknow­ledge our nihil, that each of us in particular are nothing, though we in pride so advance our selves here on earth, as though it seemed to us, that we were something; yea, that we were made of some more excellent things than others; as if we were not as the Publican: but saith St. Paul, If any think themselves to be ought, or if we be any thing now, let him know that this is so by God, not of himself, 2 Cor. 11.5. tametsi nibil sumus, in illo tamen sumus, therefore if we be nothing, that shall condemn us; if we be any thing, it is not that which can deserve to save us; for we are that we are, by his grace, 1 Cor. 15.10. And if we can acknowledge this with humilitie, then we shall know this also, to our comfort, that he which made us of nothing, can, and will, bring us to be somethings in goodness, if we serve him with humble mindes, Esay 38.3 And this is the use and fruit of that.

3. Point.The third point is, That God is our Creator whose name, Elohim, [Page 9]is fetched and derived from this Hebrew preposition el, and from the Greek preposition [...], by both which God is called, which pre­positions both doe signifie per & propter; to teach us, that he is our per quem, and must be our propter quem, in all our actions: therefore as it is he per quem sumus, so we must make here, his glorie and praise, the end of all our thoughts, words, actions, or devises, whatsoever. Psal. 96. 5. Elohim is said to make all, and therefore we must with praise tell it out among the Heathen: So there we are taught to re­member him in our youth, as our Creator; to knit our selves and our wills to him, as our Governor; and in trembling, to fear him as our Judge, for he commeth to judge the world in truth, Psal. 96. 13. for if we shall amend our lives, we shall rejoyce and wish for his comming, as we rejoyce and praise him for our making; and this is the perfection of a Christian man, contremiscere, when we think how wonderfully God hath made us, and with joy and gladness say with David, Psal. 119. 52. I remembred thy judge­ments of old, and received comfort: and as we know that in him, and by him, we live, move, and have our being, Acts 17. 28. so we must live, move and breath only for him, that is, so farre forth as may make for his glorie, that at last we may with joy commend our souls to him, as to a faithfull Creator, 1 Pet. 4. vers. 19.

4 Point.The fourth point was, the things made, namely, Heaven and Earth, which comprehended all in them; that one being the upper bound above, and the other below, between both which are all: The use is, that if we look upward we see Heaven; if we cast our eyes down, the earth will be seen; for our eyes and light are given to see both, which two, if we ask them, they will tell us, Job. 12. 7. If we will not ask them, yet they will preach and declare Gods glorie, Psal. 19. 1. that not once a week, but night and day; not for an hour in the night or day, but continually; though their preaching doe not trouble our ears, being dumb, yet they cry aloud; and though they speak not English, yet their voyce is intelligible to all Nations and Languages in the world: wherefore seeing they still cry aloud, and tell us of the Creator, that he made all these for us; it is required of us, that we be ready with our tribute and ho­mage, which is to yeild due and continuall praise and thanksgiving to God for them; for heaven and Earth have a fellow feeling of the good and evill which either we doe, or God doth for us, Esay 39. 1. and they rejoyce with us, when we doe, or have any good done to us. And so when we offend God in paying our duty, Jer. 2. 12. then it is enough to make heaven and earth stand still and be amazed and astonished at it, because we forget God and our duty. Thus doth our sinne and ungratefullness overthrow and prevent, and stain the whole course and order of Nature, Jer. 12. 4. so there is a concurrent of them with us in honoring, serving, and praising the Creator, both of them and us. Therefore it is our duty and part, to give heedfull care to those preachers, which preach God with­out the Church, alwayes in silence; and so give our duty and tri­bute[Page 10]to serve and praise God with them amongst his Saints here, that we may be glorified with them in Heaven; that we may praise and magnifie him with his Creatures in earth, that we may be glo­rified with his Saints in Heaven, quod faciat Deus per Christam.

Terra autem erat res informis & inanis, tenebraeque erant in super­ficie abyssi.Gen. 1. 2. verse

THE former verse was delivered to us an abstract of the whole work of Gods Creation: now lest we should think that when he mentioned Heaven and Earth before, he should mean that all things in Heaven and Earth were made in the very mo­ment of the beginning, even as we see them now; therefore Moses [...] haste to tell us, that though at the beginning and first moment God made quecunque nunc sunt, yet he made them not qualia nunc sunt, but did that in six di­stinctions of severall times. It had been as easie to him, to have created all things, even in the perfection and order they are, in a moment and instant, and in that beautifull form, in which they pre­sent themselves now to our eyes: But it pleased God, though in power he could doc it, yet in wisdome to proceed after these three degrees mentioned before. First, to create the beginning, both of all times and of all things, as the matter and beginning of all supe­rior bodies, and the beginning of all inferior bodies, of nothing. After the work of creation, followeth the work of distinction, from this 2. verse to the 11. And lastly ensueth the work of persection, with beauty to adorn all his works, and to finish them, which is from the 11 verse to the 16.

It pleased God thus to proceed in this work; as well that he might shew himself to be the God of order; as also to discover to us the mysterie of the Trinity, in the three properties of the three per­sons, which appear in the Creation; For all was made by his Power, which is the property of God the Father; By his Wise­dome, which is the property of God the Sonne, by which all things were orderly disposed and distinguished; And by the riches of his Goodness, which is the property of the holy Ghost, by which all things were adorned and made perfect: these three properties are remembred in the Revel. 5. 12. and Acts 17. 28.

We live by his power; we, and all things, move in this order by his wisdome; and we have this our being by his grace and good­ness: by his power we are taught to acknowledge him to be our beginning and originall, ex quo sumus: by his wisdome we acknow­ledge him to be the upholder, per quem sumus: by his goodness we confess him to be the Chief, propter quod sumus. For, considering[Page 11]his goodness, we, and all Creatures, must endeavor to doe all that we can for him, and his praise and honour. All which three are plainly and orderly set in the 11. Rom. 36.

God also took this orderly proceeding, partly that we entring in­to the meditation of Gods works, might by this means have, as it were, a thread to direct us orderly therein: for, by this means, we come to know this difference between Creatum ordinatum, & ornatum esse, as the Hebrews say, by this means we shall know, not only the beginning and being of all things, but also how orderly and excel­lently all things were made in this Creation: And thus much of the reasons of this course of Gods proceeding in this work.

Moses having therefore in the first verse set down the materials of the World and all in them; now to the 11. verse he sheweth the work of distinction: And after, the work of adorning and perfe­cting all.

But first of all he handleth two things in this verse, The rude rudi­ments of the World.First what the things were he made in the beginning, before they were distingui­shed by God; for they were void and vain confused things, with­out order or form, all covered with obscure darkness.

Secondly, He sheweth how God did first order and dispose these rude things, that they might be fit for distinction and perfection. Of the first whereof at this time.

In the first verse we consider God as Deum Theologicum; for it is a matter and a mysterie of Faith, that God gave all things their be­ing of nothing: But now hereafter we shall consider him tanquam Deum Philosophicum; for there is no Philosopher, if you allow him his [...] this matter of the World, but will confess, that it was God as they call [...], an understanding Spirit, which is his power and wisdome, framed all things in this order and forme, even common natural reason alloweth and admitteth this rule, because our Consci­ences doe see it, That in every excellent work, the action must by cer­tain degrees and spaces come to perfection; for before fire can burn any other things, it must first warm, then by little and little make black, and parch and scorch the combustible thing, & after that, it in­flameth it, and at last maketh it perfectly of its fiery nature, able to doe that to another thing which the fire did to it at the first; so every cause, by an orderly course of proceeding, doth bring his effect to perfection

Moses sheweth therefore, that God took that course which is ve­ry agreeable to natural reason; and therefore first setteth down the imperfection of all things at their first beginning, and then the de­grees by which they come to their perfection: For at the first there was a foggie gross darkness; after, he made the dawning or morning, which is a mixture of some light and some darkness; And after, he made the perfect light. So at the first he sheweth touching the waters, that they were a bottomless gulfe; afterward, he made them quiet waters; and at last, made them salt Seas and fresh Wa­ters, Fountains and Springs, in most necessary and orderly sort. And for the Earth, first the beginning of them (which were the matter [Page 12]of all earthly things) it was a desolate and disordered, rude and de­formed mass, covered with water; After, God set it above the Wa­ters, and made it dry ground, as the word signifieth; And at the last he brought it to its perfection, making it fruitfull and sanctifying it in all necessary things: In the handling of which, we will first ge­nerally behold them together, and then severally and apart.

Touching the first, It is even as if he had said, all things in Hea­ven and Earth were not, at the beginning, in that comely and per­fect order and manner, in which you behold them now: for now they present themselves to our eyes well fashioned, adorned and re­plenished; but then they were without form, unshapely, and void. So the waters now we see, serve for Navigation above, and within them they are most profitable and fruitfull in bringing innumerable store of fith; but at the beginning it was made void, rude, and ra­ging: Now we see the Heavens beautified and adorned with stars and lights; but at the beginning it was but a gross mist and confu­sed darkness, without any light: Wherefore one calleth them the swadling Clouts of the Worlds infancie, Psal. 104.6. for the Waters overspread and covered all the Earth, and the mist of darkness, Job saith, was the swadling band of the World, 38.9. So the Cloudes were the swadling Clouts of the World, in which it was wrapt up; and the Seas were his Swathes, to binde and swadle it up in its best in­fancie.

As the Worlds Creation was of nothing, in the work of distin­ction all things were next kin to nothing; for that without was rude and confused, and within is void and emptic of any good, is as a thing of nothing, and such were all things saith Moses. The Earth being distinguished from the Waters was somthing indeed, but yet so dry and unprofitable, that it was to no purpose nor use for any thing to dwell and remain on it.

Now we see the earth is set first, if Moses had observed a curious order, he should have placed heaven before earth, as in the 1. & 6. but the manner of the holy Ghost in the scripture, is alwayes to begin to speak of that which is freshest in memory, and that is commonly, that which one speaketh of last.

The earth is called Toba, Tobohu, which hath this signification that it was a thing without shew, in sight misshapen and deformed to outward view, and within to have no inward vertue of good substance, to make amends; for Tohu, signifieth a thing misshapen without, and Tobohu signifieth a thing wanting all goodnesse, and substance within, to make amends for that; and so it signifieth a thing of no commendation or value. There are ma­ny things which are Tohu, that is, deformed without, as Elisha 2 Reg. 2. 23. who was mocked and derided of the boyes in the street, but yet within he had inward vertues, which made amends for his outward want.

And there are some things which are Tobohu, that is, void and wanting all inward substance, and good stuffing within, without [Page 13]are very goodly and fair in shew to look too, as Absolon which with­out, was a man without blemish, but within he had no good stufting answerable to that without, but rather fraught with pride, murder, and disobedience.

But the earth was both Tohu and Tobohu, without deformed, and within void and empty, not that it had no form, for that were a­gainst reason, but it was such a form as was altogether deformed; for there is, forma [...], & forma perfectionis, and this defor­med form it had which made it loathed, having nothing to com­mend it; it had as the prophet Esay 34. 11. speaketh, line of de­formity, and the stones of emptinesse, threatning to make wicked Cities such deformed things, that is, he will make them like the world at this state, a confused head, and the stones of the heap shall not be sound stones, but unprofitable rubbish fit for no use. Thus we see what the earth was at the beginning.

Now God in proceeding did replenish and fill that voyd empty­nesse which it had, with all good things which it wanted, and beautified the deformity of it in this most glorious form, as now we see, and better shall perceive hereafter: so that it is evident, that both the fulnesse of things, with which now it is replenished, and this beauty which it hath, it then wanted.

Et Spiritus Dei incubabat superficiei aquarum.

2.SEcondly, we are to consider of the deep which is called Abys­sum, which in the Scriptures is properly applyed unto the wa­ters, as in the 7. Gen. 11. and Esay 51. 10. and Luke 8. 22, 23.

These waters were the matter of which the heavens were made, for God spread them abroad as molten glasse, Job 37. 18. and they shall dissolve and melt again in the last day 2 Pet. 3. 10, 11, 12. so that in this depth of water, is conteined the matter whereof the high heavens were made. St. Austine calleth it inordinatum mensi­tatem aquarum, that is, a disordered; for they had no limit or bound, nor any order or course in them; they were without any shore Psal. 104. 6, 9. for they were above the mountains and prevailed over all, untill God did limit them, and set them their bounds, Pro. 8. 27. which they should not passe to cover the earth, yea and also God limitted the upper waters, and bounded them in Clouds, Job 26. 8. so that the Clouds break not, he also made doors and barrs for the Sea below, Job 38. 10, 11. and said thus farre you shall come, and no further. Touching their first disorderly motion, it is set down Psal: 93. 3, 4. the flood did rage horribly and they did lift up their waves, but now God hath set them a most orderly and profitable and necessary course eundo & redeundo, Psal. 104. 10. of ebbing and flowing by course and recourse of times and tides: These deeps had a face, nay as the word signifieth, it had two faces, in which the Philosophers doe easily consent and agree with him; for all know that this globe hath a double hemisphere, yea one half sphere is the upper face of the[Page 14]earth, and the other is the nether face of the earth; now he telleth us that then the darknesse was over both faces of the earth and wa­ters, and not as it is now; for when it is dark night with us, it is bright day with the Antipodes, which are as the nether face of the earth, but then it convered all with obscure darknesse.

3.Thirdly, As for darknesse we are not to conceive any otherwise of it, then to be only a privation, defect and absence of light, which then wanted; for as one faith tenebrae erant, id [...] non erat lux: So that by the negative, he sheweth that there was a privation of light, not that this privation followed the habite, as if there had been light, but that the darknesse was first over all, before there was any light made, 45 Esay 7. it was said, that God created darknesse but that was by denying unto things light; for herein appeared Gods power, in that as he made something of nothing, so God brought [...] out of darknesse, 1 Cor. 4, 5. Psal. 18. 11. God came down and darknesse was under his feet, he made it his pavillion round about him, to cover the brightnesse of his person, Psal. 36. 6. God and his works are as te­nebrae & Abyssus, like the great gulph; therefore we must not curi­ously prye and question about him, and his matters.

As God made the darknesse for some use and purpose for him­self, to be his pavillion, Psal. 18. 11. so, in respect of us, he made them to speciall use, Psal. 104. 23. he made darknesse that it may be night, which is a time for all things to take their rest in: so that as the day was made for labour, so this for rest, because quod caret alterna requiae durabile non est.

And God hath made it for a third use, to the rebellious Spirits, and Divels, and to wicked men, namely, to reserve them in utter darknesse unto the great day, Jude 4, 5, 6. So God made it to be a pavillion for himself, a couch for us, and a torment to the wicked.

Tum dixit Deus, esto lux.Gen. 1. 3 verse

MOses, having before described the primative State of the world, how God made it of nothing, and then endowed it with an aptnesse to receive a better form, he doth in this verse unto the 11. proceed to a three fold work of distinction, se­parating and sequestring orderly one part from the other, to avoid confusion. The first was of the light from darknesse, which was the first dayes work: The second of the celestiall and superior parts of the heavens from the inferior bodies below: Thirdly, the earth and dry land from the waters, and having performed this inward perfection, as it is called Chap. 2 verse 1. he proceedeth afterward to the outward adorning of them three, and so finisheth the work.

[Page 15]This verse hath in it the first work of distinction, for, whereas before it was a blinde lump, wrapped up in Clouds of waters, as in his Clouds, and swadled with darknesse as with a [...] as Job faith, now God took off from it his swadling [...], and clothed it with his own garments, Psal. 104. 2. that is, endowed it with light. Fiat lux & er at lux.In shewing thereof we are to consider two things: First, the precept and mandate of God, Fiat lux. Secondly, the execution thereof for the performance, Et er at lux.

In the first, two things are to be observed. First, the authority from whence the mandate came, Dixit Deus. Secondly, the tenor and contents of the precept, Fiat lux.

First, touching the authority of the precept, we see it was God that said it, dicere autem, faith [...], eft verbum proferre, whereout we gather two observations. 1. The mouth of the Lord, from whence this spirit before, and this word came. 2. Of this word, from whence this work came.

Touching the first, it were absurde to say, that God should speak after the manner of men, with an audible sound of words, for it were in vain and to no end, to speak when there were none to hear: therefore this is that which we must conceive of it, that when God speaketh to us in his word, he doth it, as it were, in our dialect, that is, so as we may understand what he meaneth, for if he should speak properly of himself, we are not able to comprehend the manner of his works, therefore as the Holy Ghost taketh a name, and title from a Dove, so doth God [...] borrow his manner of doing from a Prince, which is the greatest thing we can conceive, for what is in our conceit (more forceable to the speedy execution and through dispatch of a thing) then a Princes streight commandement, and mandate, which on a sodain can cause whole Armies of men to be ready at his pleasure.

Men doe unfold and manifest their walls and counsells in all mat­ters, by word of their mouthes: Sicut voluntas sermo ejus, it a natu­ra opus ejus, faith one, his word is his will, and all the frame of na­ture is his work, proceeding therefrom. Wherefore, in that it is said God spake, it is meant, that he plainly revealed and meant to declare his will.

This uttering and revealing the will is after two sorts, which the two Hebrew words doe signifie. First when a man, by a secret discourse doth reason or speak in his heart, which doth reason off the audible sound of words, Preach. 2. 3. I in my heart purposed with my self; so the fool spake in his heart, that he durst not utter by sound of voyce, Psal. 14. 1. So there is a double word speaking, the one is verbum vocis, the other cordu But to speak truly and properly, there is but one word, which is in our hearts; as our word is first cloathed with aire, and so becommeth audible to mens eares; so faith one, Christ, the word of his Father, being cloathed with [...], was visible and manifest to all men: So to conclude, the word is that he conceived first in the Closer, as I may say, of his [...], and[Page 16]then doth make it plain here by Creation, and after by re­demption.

And here we may learn the difference between us and God: In us there is one thing by which we are, and another thing by which we understand and conceive things; but in God both his being and un­derstanding are of one and the same substance: And this substantial Word of God, is that where with St. John beginneth his Gospell. God created that which was not, but the word was in the begin­ing. Therefore it is verbum increatum: it made all things at the beginning, Coll. 1. 15. 16. Therefore it was before the begin­ning, John 17. 5. Thus we see, as Christ saith, how Moses scripsit de me, John 5. 46. this word of God is proceeding from God, John 8. 42. as the holy Ghost doth also, John 15. 26.

The procee­ding of the Sonne is four folde.But Christs manner of proceeding is determined after four sorts. First, as a sonne proceeding from a Father. Secondly, as an Image from a Picture. Thirdly, as the light from the Sunne. Fourthly, as a word from the speaker, as a Sonne from the Father, Psal. 2. 7. this day I begot thee; this day, that is, from all eternity; for to God all times is as one day: also he begot him in respect of the connaturality and identity of nature and substance that he hath with God the Father.

As an Image from a pattern, that is, in likeness and resemblance to the Father, Coll. 1. 15. for he is like God in property and simili­tude of quality, and therefore is called, the lively and express chara­cter and graven Image, form, and stamp of his Father, Heb. 1. 3. Third­ly, in respect of Coeternity; For, as the light proceeded from the Sunne, so soon as ever the Sunne was, so did Christ, the word, from eternity, Heb. 1. 3. and therefore he is called, the brightness of his Fathers glorie: So at what time God was, at that time the bright­ness of his Sonne appeared and shone from him. Last of all, in re­gard of the immateriality, 1. John 1. For, as a word conceived in us, is no matter or substance, so this was Coemateriall, but an incorpo­reall generation: Thus we see that his proceeding is foure fold.

Christ distinct in person, one in substance.Now this word is distinct from the Father in person, and one with him in substance: That he is distinct from him, it appeareth Gen. 19. 24. Psal. 110. 1. the Lord said to my Lord, 30. Prov. 4. what is his name, and what is his sonnes names, Esay 36. 9. the father brought forth a sonne; ergo, divers from himself. Touching the Godhead of Christ, Job saith, surely my Redeemer liveth, and I shall see God with these eyes, Job. 19. 25, 26. Psal. 45. 7. God, even thy God, shall annoynt thee: There is God annoynting God; for he is called thy God also, whom wee must worship, Esay 9. 6. Jer. 63. 6. his name is the righteous God. In the new Testament, Rom. 9. 5. even as he was verbum in­carnatum, [...] Tim. 3. 16. and John 17. 2. this is eternall life, to know God, and him whom he sent, Jesus Christ. I have made it plain before, that the Heathen had notice of his second person: As the Persian called him the second Understanding; The Caldeans called him the Fathers Understanding or Wisdome; Macrobius, a Coun­sell [Page 17]or Wisdome proceeding from him: so may we say likewise of this word [...] which is attributed to Christ; for they seem not to be ig­norant of that name. Some called him [...] which is verbum: Hermes calleth him the Naturall Word of God: Orpheus, the Word of the Father; And Plato most plainly in his Epistle to Hormias: But most strange is that which [...] writeth inlib. de preparatione Evan­gelii, scited out of AEmilius and Heraclitus, and let this suffice for the distinction of the duty and notice of Christ, which is Verbum Dei.

Now this word hath a relation to him that speaketh it, and also to the things Created: therefore it is called verbum expressivum in respect of God, and verbum factivum in regard of his works: for his Precept did, in respect of himself, express his Will; but, in respect of us, it had a power to Create, and make things that were not. There­fore, 1. John 3. he is called [...], and in the 15. verse he is [...]: so that both in regard of his Father and us, he is a word. Little divinity, and much danger, is in those late Divines, which say, that this was but a temperarie word, which God used in Creating all things; for we see this is verhum increatum, and the very root; of which, all that is said after, are but as branches derived there­from:

And thus much for the authority of this Word.

Fiat lux.Now to the Creation of light. Moses maketh plain mention, That the first several thing which God perfectly made was Light: Wherefore we will first speak of the Order, then of the Nature. God is Pater Luminum, Jam. 1. 17. Therefore first he brought forth light, as his sunne: But some, having little Philosophie in them, doe rea­son against this work of God very impiously, as if it were not to be said, that light was made three dayes before the Sunne, which is the cause thereof. But if we respect God, the Father of lights, or the Sunne, which is the light of the World, or the necessity of light, for Lux est vox verum, because that which things cannot express by voyce and words, they doe plainly shew by the comming of light, which manifesteth all things. Again, God being about the work of distinguishing, it was necessary, first to make the great distiuguisher of all things, which is light; for in nocte est color omnibus idem, & tenebrae rerum discrimina tollunt, but the light distinguisheth one thing from another. Again, of the three beginnings, we shew that the first be­ginning was of time, but we could not have a morning to make a first day, without light of it was first made; for the naturall common Clock of the world, to distinguish times, is the course of light and darkness, which is the essence of day and night. Furthermore, we have seen that the Heavens were the first and most excellent: therefore the light, being the first quality and affection of the the Heavens, the first body made, must by right order be made first. Last of all, we begin naturally, a communionibus, but there is nothing with which all things doe more commonly communicate, than the light of the Son: ergo, it is first, for it is the communication of Heaven, because all the[Page 18]Starres doe borrow their light of it, and we see by it on earth; it is oculus noster, by which we see, and it is their Cresset to light all them.

There are some which will have a reason of Gods works, and would know how it could be that light should be first made, and four daies after the Sunne to be made, which was the cause of it: But to these, I answer, that their absurd doubt, doth argue small skill in Phi­losophy: for they speak, as if the light were an affection and quality only of the Sunne; for we see that the fire on earth, the meteors and lightnings in heaven, the scales of Fishes, and a dark wood, have also light in them: And what doth give light to these? I answer, not the Sunne; But admit the same were the cause of light, yet we see that many things have their proceeding in nature before things on which they have, after, their dependance: As all agree that the livor in a man, hath the precedence in nature, and yet after it hath his de­pendance on the heart as his chief; for though the light hath now his dependance on the Sunne, yet then it had his precedence. And as Christ was long before he took the body of Flesh: so was the light a certain time before it took, and was joyned, to the body of the Sunne. Again we may say, that though the Sunne was not created now, yet the substance of the Sunne was now made, and so we may understand lux for corpus lucidum, which after was perfected.

Last of all, this of St. Basill will overthrow their doubt: For if a man will grant to God, that he made all things, without matter, of nothing: then we must also grant that he can make light without the Sunne; for God doth not depend upon ordinary means; he is not bound and tyed to the Sunne, that by the means thereof, light should shew; for he can give light without it three dayes, by miracle, at the beginning, and will for ever give light without the Sunne, after the end of the world. The Hebrews spake of three Creations. 1. De nihilo: 2. In nihilo: 3. Super nihilum: All things were of no­thing, the light was in nothing, the earth hanged upon nothing, Job. 26. 7. Tell me, saith Job, on what the earth dependeth; and I will tell thee on what the light then did depend, for it was miraculously, giving light without Sunne.

A word of the second point, Job telleth, that it is a probleme, and a hard question, to know from whence the light is, Job 38. 19. and in the 24. verse, That it is more than mans wisdome to answer it, for the very light is darknesse, and ignorance to us, for all that reason can conceive of it, is this, that either it must needs be a substance, or else [...] substantiae; that is, flowing, or proceeding from a substance, as a quality or affection of it: if it be a substance, it must be a spirituall or a corporall substance: a spirituall substance it cannot be; for it affecteth a bodily substance, bodily it cannot be, for the motion of it is a moment, for with a flash it lighteneth all, and also if it were then, it must be granted, that two bodies are in one place, as the ayre and the light at one instant, but indeed as they say of the Element, that they are next kinne and affinity to accidents; so we may say of light, [Page 19] Preach. 11. 5. there is a light of knowledge and a light of com­fort.

The execution of the Precept.The execution of the Precept was of the nature of the Precep­tor and Commander. 2 Cor. 4. 6. For as by his word, he made the Whale bring Jonas safe to land; so here he caused light to come out of darkness; Rom. 4. 17. calling things that were not, as if they were; as the motion of the lightning is, that is, in an instant with celerity comming from the East to the West, Luke 17. 24. so was the Creation of it for the facility of making it: we know that no work is impossible to God, Luke 1. 37. For as casie as it is for man to speak any thing, so casie it is for God to doe any thing: Gods dictum & factum is all one and alike to him. Wherefore we may conclude with David, that Gods word runneth swiftly to the performance and execution of his Will: It is easily and speedily done. There is matter to be learned, to lead us to good motions: But of this hereafter.

Viditque Deus Lucem illam bonam esse.Gen. 1. 4 vers.

THE meaning of this is, That as we have seen Gods wisdome and power in the execution of his Will, so now we may see the goodness and mercy of God in the confirmation and approbation of the light which he [...] allowing it as good for our use, Job. 28. 3. [...] God gave not the light to the Moon, but to us, that the light might arise to us. The reference that this verse hath with that which goeth before, is this: God made things before; and here Moses sheweth the quality of it, that it was even in Gods judgement very good and perfect, that is, as the Philosophers say, God in all his works limiteth together bonum & ens; for all that he maketh is passing well made, The difference between Gods works and ourswhich sheweth the difference between Gods works and ours: For it is our manner, so we doe a thing that God willeth, or that we purpose, it is no mat­ter, we care not how it be done: But here God teacheth us by his example, that we should in attempting any thing, have a speciall care that it be good, and welldone: Also it is usuall with us, that the thing we make in haste is, as we say, canis festinans, that is, it is rudely and blindely done; and therefore that which a man will doe well, he taketh great pains and leasure about it, because it is a hard and difficult matter to doe a thing well; but God doth, and can doe things well, and perfectly well, with ease, with quick dispatch, even in a moment, with great facility and celerity, and yet we see, he con­firmeth it to be very good in these words: Two parts: the View, and Confirmation to be good.Therefore there are two parts; First, the view which God taketh, in beholding the light: Secondly, his testimony, affirming and confirming it to be good.

The View.Touching the first, As before we haveheard of Gods speaking, so here now we are to consider of Gods seeing. Touching both[Page 20]which, Moses, by Gods spirit, is taught to speak after the manner of men, in our phrase and dialect, that it might be to our capacity; for he cannot speak to us as to spirituall, but as to carnall men, for our fleshly understanding, 1 Cor. 3. 1. It is said, that God spake familiarly to Moses, Exod. 33. 11. that is plainly, both touching the matter, and also for the phrase and manner of his speech: My meaning is, that Moses seemeth to tell us, that God did, as men use to doe; which, when they have done any worke, they will after return to it and take a view thereof, and look on it, that if any thing be amiss, he may mend it, and to the end he may allow and approve of it, if it be well and according to his minde. So God, after the same manner, is said to doe here: having made the light, he considered of it; and seeing it according to his minde and liking, he expresseth his love, liking and allowing of it. Wherefore it is as much to say, as pla­cuit Deo: for as his word fiat lux expressed his Counsell and secret purpose, which it pleased and liked him to determine to bring to pass; so now this approbation expresseth his good pleasure, that it should continue and abide to our good use and benefit: So that God is not like the potter, which sometime having made a pot, doth not like it, but breaketh it again; but God will have his work continue, and therefore doth authorise it to be good, Gen. 1. 4. We set our eyes upon things that are good and beautifull; so when God is said to like any thing, it is said that he looked and beheld it, yea, and that he smelleth also to it, as a pleasant thing, Gen. 8. 21.

The use, fruit, and profit of [...] Doctrine is of two sorts.

The first is in respect of our minds and affections. The second in respect of our actions and practise. For our judgement, it teacheth us to know that Deus vidit, that is, we are the work of his hands, and he doth behold and consider us and our doings, whether they be good Gen. 16. 14. God is there called Deus vivens & videns, and Job. 7. 18. nos indies visitar, that is, he doth see us often every mor­ning, he doth visit us, for that is a frequentative of seeing; so that he by his providence and care doth behold and visit us and our do­ings continually, not only when it is morning, and in the light, but also in secret and in the dark and hidden places, Psal. 139. 12. for the darkness is no darkness to him, the night and day light to him are both alike; yea, the 16. vers of that Psalm, God saw David when he was secretly in his mothers wombe; if we could dig down into hell he seeth us there, Amos 9. 2. if we fly to the uttermost parts and corners of the earth, there he is and seeth us, Psal. 139. 8.9.10. sive lucerna ardet, videt te; sive extincta est, videt te, saith one; there is nothing so hid but that he knoweth it, and he will reward it openly, be it good, Matth. 6. 4. 6. 18, or bad, 2 Sam. 12. 12. Then this that God watcheth and seeth hath relation to these two ends; He look­eth on it, that if it be good it may please and delight him, and so he may be moved therewith to save and preserve and commend us and our actions; but if he seeth it evill, it is his intent to condemn, dis­like, and destroy it and us. Thus we see Gods view is profitable for[Page 21]our thoughts and judgment to know his approbation or reproba­tion.

The second sort, is for our practise: for God is said in the Scrip­tures, to doe many things, that we may doe like and resemble our Father: If God look on his, and our works, much more it is our duty and behoveth us to doe the like: If he be grieved, and sorrowfull, and repent, when he seeth our works evill; how much more doth it con­cern us to doe the like.

Examen in mente est quod visas in oculo. Therefore we must con­sider often of our doings, to see whether they be good or bad, which thing is contrary and against a humor of ours; for when we have done any thing, we never consider whether it be good or bad, we have no regard of it afterwards.

Therefore, the Prophets oftentimes beat upon this exhortation, Vadite in cor vestrum. Consider your own doing in your hearts, Esay 46.8. Preach. 2.12. The wise man, often saith, that he returned to consider the fruit and labor of his hands, to see the vanity or good of them: And if we thus consider our waies and works, whether they be good or evill, and repent, or rejoyce, approve or disprove them, then we doe, like Children, imitate our Father: If God return to behold his light, how much more should we return to see and consider of our works of darknesse, and to acknowledge with repen­tance, how evill they are; It is our custome and fashion, if we doe any thing for our inferiors (as God doth here) not to regard it; wherefore seeing he doth carefully consider and regard the things he maketh for us, being so base as worms, how much more doth it con­cern us, doing things for him that is our Creator, to doe the like? For if we doe any thing for a Prince or a Noble man, what great care and pains, and consideration doe we take in doing and viewing, that it may be well? wherefore much more must we doe in our works, for him who is King of Kings.

Last of all, touching the use: If God were so carefull to look to this work, which could bring no gain or profit to him at all, then how much more doth it concern us, to look to our works, which we doe to him, seeing to them is great reward promised? Psal. 19.14. he did his gratis, without any hope of reward, but we have promise and hope of reward for our well doing; and therefore it behoveth us to behold and see that our works be good; which we shall the rather doe, if we consider the seldomnesse of our attempting any good, and the sillynesse of our well doings, when they are at the best; for God every day doth many good things perfectly for us, but we scarce doe any good once in a week, yea, not one good thing, though never so unperfect, to a thousand sinnes, which therefore must humble us, and make us look to our works.

Lux er at bona.Now we are to consider the goodnesse of this creature Light. Touching which, this is the generall regard and rule of Divinity. Nemo bonus est nisi Deus, Mark 10.18. therefore if any man, or any thing created, be good, or have any goodnesse ascribed to it, we must[Page 22]know that it was derived from God, which is the fountain of all goodnesse, Psal. 104. 2. for goodnesse is his garment, and we are naked and destitute of it, until he doth cast the lap of his own gar­ment over us. Light is good, because God made it, and partaketh the quality from God. For it is impious to think that any thing in the World should be evill, defective or imperfect, (and therefore not commendable) and the cause and fault of it not to be in the matter of which it was made, but of the efficient which made it; But if any thing be good, perfect and commendable, the cause of it is the good­nesse of the maker, not of the matter: for the matter of all things is nothing, or a thing rude and unperfect, and therefore of it can pro­ceed nothing of worth. In mens works, if the matter whereof we make things, were as permanent and durable as the form, which the work-man setteth to it, our works would be long and very lasting; for we see, that if the matter of a house or garment would continue, and were perfect, the form and fashion of it would continue, and not decay; but because the matter is ruinous and subject, the one to be rotten, and the other to be thread-bare. Therefore our works can­not last, so all the defects and imperfections, both of Body and Soul, doe come from the defects of the matter, of which we were made, not of the form in which God made us: from thence therefore had Adam and his posterity, an ability and possibility, to be subject to return to emptinesse, to darknesse, and to deformity, to be without goodnesse and full of evill, because he was made of the rude matter, which was so: But if any good thing remain in us, it is because of the relicks of that form in which God made us. Thus much of goodnesse in generall: now for a more particular consideration of the goodnesse of light: We see that God first praiseth that, which indeed causeth all other things to be praised, and therefore it must needs be good and most commendable.

Secondly, God is the testis and witnesse, which affirmeth it to be so: Who dare deny it?

Thirdly, yea who can deny it, for our own eyes being judg and witnesse, we must needs also, with God say, it is good, for it hath aspe­ctabilem in se bonitatem; yea it is a means by which we see how good God is, Psal. 34. 8. Behold and see how good God is. Goodnesse hath two respects, the one is in regard of it self, the second in respect of others; when it is good to other things, and in asmuch as it doth good, and delighteth others besides it self, by communication of his quality to others; And hereunto ariseth the threefold distinction of bonum, which all Philosophers gaze at, and speak of so much. The first, is, bonum honestum. Second, bonum jucundum. Third, bonum utile, all which doe much differ. Psal. 133. 1. unity and amity of brethren, is bonum atque jucundum. Titus 3. 8. many things may be bonum, utile & jucundum, but this light is good in all respects, [...] 47 3. verse. For the first, That is good, which is desired in, and for it self, as Eve therefore desired the Apple, Gen. 3. 6. but we desire to see the light only for it self, propter videre lumen; and therefore [Page 23]having no pleasant object at all: Yet we still love to have our eyes open, because it is good to see and behold the light of the Sunne. Also all good things and vertues are in a league of great affinity, friendship, and amity with the light, which argueth that it is some­what like it in goodness, Ezek. 13. 9. 17. 22. veritas non quaerit angu­los, for truth feareth and hateth nothing more then to be kept and imprisoned in darkness; and all evill things cannot abide the light, but hate it as deadly, because light is contrarie to their evill nature; but honest and good things delight in the light.

Secondly, It is delightfull for others to behold, as the apple, Gen. 3. 6. as well as Bonum in se; for we count it a miserable thing to eate our meat in darkness though our meat be good, Preach. 11. 7. and 5. 6. It is a pleasant thing to see the Sunne, Preach. 11. 7. Blindness is an uncomfortable thing, as Tobie confesseth, yea such things as have not sufficient light, are less comfortable and delightfull; for the house which hath little store of light, we finde fault withall as me­lancholy and uncomfortable: Therefore it hath a nature to be comely also and amiable or beautifull, Psal. 147. 1. Lux habet venusta­tem, it is sightly for the pleasure of the eye, and therefore is called mater pulchritudinis, the colours that have most brightness and light in them, are best liked, and so are the silks which have the greatest and fairest gloss. But without light there is no beauty, the eye is without pleasure or delight in any object; for in the dark a russet coat and a scarler robe is all one; no difference between a ruinous Dun­geon and a princely Pallace: Therefore in this degree of good, light is very good.

Thirdly, touching the profit of it, Which utile also caused the desire of the Apple, Gen. 6. 3. light is very profitable and commodi­ous, both in matters of expediencie, and also in things of necessity; for all our knowledge cometh of light, and is compared to light, Ephes. 5. 8.9. In Job. 37. 22. it is compared to gold, both propter venustatum, utilitatem, & necessitatum; and if you will know through­ly the price, value, and estimation of it, then see the value and esti­mate of the eye; for one would rather lose all his gold and treasure for a ransome, than depart from one eye, for that did grieve Israel most, 1 Sam. 11. 2. and why should one make any reckoning of his eyes, if it were not for the light? for without it, our eye and our nose can see both alike: yea, we have no use, but trouble of it, without light; we may know and consider the price of light by this, that in the night, which is a naturall absence of light, rather than we will sit in the dark and want the benefit of light, we will redeem and buy it with money, and some know what cost some are at in buying of light. Out of this consideration ari­seth matter of meditation, both for our profit and amendment of life. And first it sheweth the condemnation and rebuke of three faults, in three sorts of men: For we say that the action which crosseth Gods action, is very ill; but the judgment and opi­nion which crosseth, contradicteth, and denieth Gods judg­ment [Page 24]and approbation of a thing, is farre worse:

God, when he saw the light, said it is good: How dare any person be so ill, as when he seeth the light, to say it is evill? Yet there are three sorts of men which doe thus. It is a usuall thing, in the sale of such Wares and Merchandise which are adulterate, evill, and corrupt, men will say this light is evill, it is not good for us what so­ever God saith; and therefore they doe frame and make false and deceiveable lights. But seeing the light, the brighter it is, the be­ter it is, they which will sell good and lawfull Merchandise, must not make to themselves dimme and deceiveable lights; for seeing this visible light is good, we must not call light darkness, nor good evill, Esay 5. 16.

Secondly, In regard of the light of grace we see, as Job saith that there are some which are Lucifugae, which fly and hate the light, such Creatures are unclean, Levit. 11. 19. 30. as Batts and Owles among birds, Moules and Rats among Beasts, they are odious to all men; so among places, Dungeons and darksome Roomes are odious also. And as this is so, in things natural; so, in things spiritual, lucifugae actiones, are of the like evill nature and odious to God and good men; because both such men, and their do­ings, have an opposition to light, and the author of light. They come from darkness of the minde, that is, ignorance and unbelief, and they are begotten by the Prince of darkness the Divell, Ephes. 6. 12. and in the end they goe to utter darkness, and therefore they are called the works of darkness, Rom. 13. 12. And so no marveil though they love darkness and hate light, if any cannot abide the light of Gods word to be reproved by it, as Herctiques and Hypocrites, such dig deep pits to hide their Counsells, Esay 29, 15. because they see the light is to them evill, and as the shadow of death, Job. 24. 17. The em­ptiness of good things, and the bottomlesnesse of ill things, and the deformity of both, proceedeth and commeth from darknesse, and was inclosed in it, as we have seen in it: And so spiritually is all found in the ignorance of the truth, Ephes. 4. 18, 19. either the blindness of mens mindes, which is natural, or else that which is wil­full, when men doe wittingly winke and will not see the light. Wherefore we see God made light first, before any other good: And so our selves must receive spiritual light of knowledge before he will give us any better grace.

The third sort of men are catchers and fault finders with Gods Creatures; such which think to know how Gods works, which now are good, might have been farre better, as if God might have done well to have craved their counsell and help; but Gods works both in particular and general, are so good and perfect, that they could not be mended. Wherefore, if the light seem ill for us, we must confesse and acknowledge, that the fault is not in Gods work, but in the illnesse and infirmity of our eyes and understanding: If the Word seem evil to us, know that it seemeth so to us, because we and our works are evil, and therefore cannot abide the light, John 3. 20.

[Page 25]Wherefore to conclude, that which God hath called and sealed up to be good, let no man presume to call and count to be evill, Act. 10. 15. For a work belongeth to such, which call that is good evill, and evill things good, and darknesse light, Esay 5. 20. But if we love the light of nature, and praise God for it, Psalm. 148. 5, 6. And if we love the spirituall light of grace in his word, and glorifie and praise God for it, 1 Pet. 2. 9. that hath called us out of darknesse into his marveilous light, then God will at last reward us with his light of glory, and bring us to that inaccessible light, wherein he dwelleth, which is the father of lights, unto which no man can attain unlesse Christ, the light of the World, bring him, and therefore let us pray, that the father for his sonnes sake, will make a way for us by his spirit of light, to which three persons in unity, be all praise and glory for ever.


Et distinctionem fecit Deus inter hanc lucem & tenebras.Gen 1. 4. verse.

THere was in the first verse nothing before God made some­thing of nothing, after which, at the first we saw it to be a [...] dark heap, without any good form or ability to receive any better: But after followed the impregnation and indowment which God gave, by which the things first created had a faculty and power given, to receive this form which now they have. Fourthly, ensued the essence and being of all creatures, they were prepared by the Spirit, and perfected by the word of God: where we con­sidered, first, the essence and being of light, and then the nature of it: And lastly, of all the goodnesse of the light, both in regard of the presence of God, who in his counsell thought it to be good, and also after the creation by his approbation, allowed the use and continuance of it unto us.

Now followeth, the distinction and dividing, which giveth yet a degree of perfection to the former light, more than it had before; for at the first, he gave light such a being, which should prodire in actum, and not every being, but a speciall good being, which is a degree further, of order and distinction, against disorder and con­fusion, to be in all respects laudible, and that not every good being, but that which is more, an ordered, and distinguished, and comely good being, which work of all other is the perfection of Creation, as we shall see in the rest: for things though they be never so good in them selves, as St. Paul saith, 1 Cor. 14. 7. of another thing in the like case, yet they cannot be discerned of men to be so, neither are they meet for any good use of men, unlesse they have a certain di­stinction and order.

Order.Therefore order is, as some say, very goodnesse of goodnesse it self, for there are many good things, which doe cease from being good to us, yea become hurtfull being without the rank, order and degree, either of their set and distinct place or time: As fire though it be good in the Chimney, yet it is not good, nay it is very evill in [Page 26]the top of the house. Fire is very good in the Winter to warm us, but in the Summer it is not so good, but shunned of men: So the light not being tempered and proportioned orderly, but being any degree too-bright, it hurteth and blindeth our eyes, that we can­not see, Act. 22.6, 11. Excellens objectum corrumpit sensum: So the fire being in any degree too fierce, and too hot in the Chimney (and Winter) that is, not moderated, and ordered in a good degree, it doth us no good. Wherefore we see, that a set and a distinct order must be observed in good things, both touching the place, time, and de­gree; And that the contrarie, inordination, deordination, or want of order in these things, which is called Babell hereafter, that is a confusion, maketh things to cease from being good to us, which in their own nature are very good. It was necessary therefore, that God should proceed to this work of distinction, as he in wisdome doth: This then is as if Moses had said, the light was good; for else extingueret, non distingueret Deus si non esset bonum, he would not else have distinguished it, but dashed it in peeces and destroyed it again.

Therefore because it was good he separated it and set it apart from darknesse, by it self: Lonum & malum in Creatu­ra arguit quid Creator & ma­teria corum erat.Which thing doth teach us, that all things created, be they never so good, they carry in them, as well a mark and signe of the matter whereof they were made, as of the Creator who made them, that is, as by some goodnesse in them they shew the excellencie of their maker, in some part, so by some ill and vicious quality in them, they bewray the imperfection and rudenesse of the matter of which they came. As for example, Corn hath his chaff with it, Light hath adjoyned his contrarie, darknesse, Honey bringeth his unsavory wax, Metals have their drosse, and Liquors and Wines their lees and dreggs, the one sheweth the good­ness of the maker, the other the rudenesse, deformity, and empti­nesse of the matter. Now then we see, that untill there be a distin­ction and separation between the lees, grounds or drosse of the Wine or Beer, and untill a tryal be made to refine and put apart and try the drosse from the pure Metal, and sift the chaff and sever it from the Wheat and Corne, we can have no good and sit use pro­fitable for us and convenient. Even so we say of the Light; for according to the course of this mixt world, light was brought forth in his mixture, that is, in darknesse, John 1.5. Therefore as God doth here try and discover, and separate light from darknesse, so in Math. 3.12. he is a Fanner and Winnower of the chaff from the Wheat, and by separation cleanseth his floare, leaving there only the Children of light.

Ob.But touching this action let us consider this first, Wherefore he left any darknesse at all; and why he did not clean cut off all darknesse, considering that it is opposite to the light, which is good? Whether dark­nesse be evill?Where first ariseth this que­stion to be discussed, Whether Darknesse be evill, seeing it is oppo­site to light, which is good.

Touching which I have told you before, That darknes is but a de­fect, absence, and want of the light, and mere privation, and no sub­stantial[Page 27]thing of it self: And therefore it is said, when God created darknesse, we must understand it to be spoken in this sense and phrase of speech, That when God created no light at the beginning, there­fore he is said to create darknesse; for God caused it by withholding light. Wherefore, as emptinesse is nothing but a want and defect of stuffing and fullnesse; and as nakednesse is nothing but a want of cloaths and covering; and as silence is nothing but a withholding of words and speech: T [...]ne­brae Natu­ralis.Mora­lis.So darknesse, being no substance, and nothing but a mere and bare privation, and that not privatio moralis, but na­turalis, not a want or defect of virtue, which indeed is vitious, but of light, which hath a use commodious: Therefore, in that regard, it cannot be said to be evill; but in regard of the morality, as we say, i. as it hath a resemblance, similitude and proportion to that which is moral, as knowledge and ignorance, in that respect it is blanched among evill and vitious things.

Ob.But it may be objected, That if natural darknesse be not evill, why then did not God say before also, that it was good?

I answer, That light is an essence, and hath an essential goodnesse in it; but darknesse being nothing, no essence of it self, therefore it could have no essential goodnesse to commend it self; but it [...], as we say in the Schools an ordinate goodnesse [...], for this rule we hold in divinity, that Deus bons & [...] facit & [...]. So that things have either Bonum essentiale, as the light, or Bonum ordi­natum, as the darknesse. And God [...] many things which have no essential goodnesse in them, because by his ordination disposing them, he can and doth bring them to our great good use and commodity, As silence hath a great good use even in [...] and sometime holding a part gives a great grace to the Atte. Igno­rance hath this use, that it is a spurre to prick men forward to the knowledge of liberal Sciences. So darknesse, in the Art of Painting, hath a great necessarie use for shadows and the darkness of parts, give it greater grace and beauty: Afflictions have a good use by Gods ordination; So hath adversity, for it is made good for our in­struction and amendment: So this darknesse and absence of the light, hath bonum ordinatum given it, for God in wisdome and mercy disposeth and ordereth it to be a Cabbin and Chamber in which men can best sleep and take their rest, Psal. 104. 20. and in Justice he ordeineth it to a good use and end, namely, to be the [...] and place of torment & punishment to the wicked, in the world to come. You see then why he made not such a light which should compasse [...] overspread all the world with his bright beams, without admit­ting any shadow at all, Job. 38. 27. And you see the reason why God suffered not the light to be mingled confusedly with darknesse, but distinguished the one from the other without taking other clean away.

2d part.Now in the second place we will consider first the things divided and distinguished here, and then the division and separation it [...] Distinction.Touching the first, we must as, St. [...] saith, Phil. 1. 10. [...] [Page 28]between things different and opposed, which we call, membra di­videntia, and we must not conjoyn and confound them together, for God doth confound such, which make a separation and breach in Gods things, which should not be divided, Math. 23. 37. as the Chickens which separated themselves from the Hens call, and also he consoundeth those, which agree and joyn together in evill things, from which they should be separated and divided, Gen. 11. 8. they have a woe which confounds these membra dividentia: call­ing good evill, and light darknesse, for God will and doth divide things that are noble, from things unnoble, and good things from that which is bad, and he will have no agreement between them, but the Divils art of dividing is contrary, for it is his study to glew and mash together ill things with good, Nahum 1. 10. and to divide and separate good things one from another, and therefore never leaveth untill he maketh Gods Church regnum divisum, Mat. 12. 26. So the Divell shuffleth good things to bad, that there may be an equality between them, which should have no coherence, which is mater confusionis, as he is author and pater confusionis. Wherefore this must teach us to divide, as God doth things of different and contrary nature.

As for the division it self, the manner of it is after four sorts: 1.For, first, he devided them in cause, for the bright and fair, clean, bodies, as fire have their fulgorem, Ezech. 1. 4. and is the cause of it, the firmament hath his splendorem, and is the cause of it. So he di­vided them, that so he might appoint these to be the causes of light to the World. So e contra he did it, that these corpora opaca, these thick and compact bodies should give a shaddow, and so be the cause of darknesse: so God divided them first that they might be divers causes of these.

2.Secondly, he hath divided them in places; when the light is in the upper Hemisphere with us, the darknesse is by division cast into the lower Hemisphere with the Antipodes: And so God hath set his horizon Circle, as a girdle about the middest of the Earth, Job 28. 20. which is a lymit and bound of this division, to leave darknesse, that it come no nearer the light, then that.

3.Thirdly, in time; For as this very, part of time with us is light, so to some in the afternoon at this very hour, it will be darknesse and night; for as now by Gods separation, light doth drive out dark­nesse, so then the light shall give place to the dark; and so shall the course of times continue.

4.Fourthly, in regard of the use, of which we spake before, Psal. 104. 23. For he divided them thus, in the one we might have time to labour and work, and in the other to rest and sleep: and there­fore the light is called the window, by which we see what to doe, and night the curtain to draw over it, when we are weary and would take rest; and as this is the temporall use, of this alteration of light and darknesse, which God hath made: so there is an eter­nall use for which he did it, and that is, he separated the one from[Page 29]the other, that the light might be the inheritance of his Saints in light, in regard of which God [...] darknesse in the Starrs, that now give us light, Job 25 5. But that light which God dwelleth in, and we shall, is such which hath no darknesse at all, John 1. 5. And this is our reward, which are the Children that walk in light; but for the wicked, he hath reserved another eternall use of darknesse, even Ca­liginem tenebrarum, which grosse part of darknesse, is in this distin­ction cast down into the bottomlesse deep of Hell, for the punish­ment of the wicked, as that is [...] to the good, so is this [...] to the wicked. And indeed, God being willing to send back none of his creatures which he had made to nothing again, therefore the worst thing in this work of distinction, he sendeth to the place which is next nothing, that is, to the lowest and basest place of the depth. Hell.There­fore Hell is said to be in that place of emptinesse or below, Rev. 9. 1. And Tohu is the bottomlesfe place. Esay 30. 10. So that place of Hell is Tohu, Tobehu, emptinesse of all good, bottomlesse and infinite in all ill, disordered with all confusion, utter darknesse without light: So it is a place of all horror and desolation for ever, which place of darknesse is evill indeed to the sufferer, but to the good for the justice of the righteous, and just God which is blessed and glorified by his judgment therein.

Now that we may make better use of the knowledge of this, than the Heathen doe of their Philosophy, for the framing in us of good and honest motions, this may we learn for our uses.

1.First, that God is the authour of all order, place, time, and all things else, which doe observe a comely course and order of times and sea­sons: He ordeined first night, then day by course of place, he orderly distinguished sursum & deorsum, and so of other things as we shall see hearafter: wherefore he is not the author of disorder and confusion, as it is plainly said, 1 Cor. 14. 33. which also is taught of shaddow and figure, Deut. 22. [...] he will not have us make a mixture, and confusi­on of things divided; as not to mingle seeds of divers natures, not to make Cloath of Wooll and Flax, not to plow with an Oxe and an Asse, for such things are abomination in Gods eyes: which type doth lead us, to see the deformity of spirituall confusion and disorder, which is set down in the 2 Cor. 6. 14. 15. Our faith must not be cou­pled with infidelity, for what agreement can there be by yoking these opposite and unequall things together: so that God did not only make order, but also made it to this end, that it should continue, and be kept of every man, yet there is and ever will be, confusion and dis­order both in particular men, and in Common-wealths contrary to Gods ordination, but the end of it is the confusion, and overthrow both of Common-wealths and us, if we continue so: in private men there is no danger or great hurt to be feared, by such in whom there is meer ignorance of simplicity; but when there is a mixture of know­ledge with it, as when men know their ignorance and yet will be wil­full, when we think that we know somthing, and yet know nothing, as we should, and when we seeing, will be wilfully blind, this is very[Page 30]dangerous: therefore God cannot abide the mixture of outward ho­lynesse with inward corruptnesse, Hypocrisie.that is, to seem to be that we are not, which practise is Hypocrisie, which the prophet compareth to a Cake baked on the out-side, and dow raw in the inside, as it is in action so for affection, God cannot abide such as mix and joyn toge­ther, cold and hot, and so become luke warm in affection Rev. 3. 16. for such God will spue out of his mouth.

The proper and naturall term of confusion, is taken from the cu­stome of Apothecaries to mingle Oyle and Wine, which are of divers natures, which should be kept in severall vessels apart: So if men knowing God and yet will power evill actions, and sinnes on their own consciences, which are against it, this is the holding of the know­ledge of God in unrighteousnesse, Rom. 1. 18. which God cannot abice; as we must not joyn good things to evill things, to culler and cover them, for this is Hypocrasie as the former was impiety: this God calleth Mat. 23. 27. the putting of a fair marble tombe over the foul rotten carkass which we have: and having bad interprises and attempts, to put on a well varnished visard to hide the baldnesse of it, 2 Cor. 4 2. and cast over it the cloak of Godlinesse, and so by joyning good and evill, making evill to be in the company of good, that it may not be suspected or the better intertained with men. Such are now a daies: For the Divill seeking to disturb and destroy the Church, by some he laboreth to doe it, by joyning the Queens injunctions and proceedings to it, under which pretence, they satisfie their covetous­nesse with the hurt of the Church.

Others under the pretence of a good thing, namely of reformation, on the other side doe seck much hurt to Gods Church, so some on the one side put light to darknesse, and on the other side joyn dark­nesse to light, which should be separated & not come together. Non est aliud Abyssus, aliud facies Abyssi, they are not two things severed, and therefore if it be dark or light in the deep, it will appear so in the face of the deep: So we must appear and shew plainly and outwardly by our face and deeds, what we are within the bottome and depth of our hearts, and indeed as the shewing his darknesse over the face of all, was a preparation to have light sent to all: so when we professe and manifest outwardly, how evill we are by repentance, it is the very note of reformation, and [...] we begin to be good.

Thus we see God is our pattern for imitation, to teach us to sepa­rate and distinguish good and evill. Touching our selves first, which thing Gods word also resembling, God himself doth teach us, Heb. 5. 10. For it discerneth and separateth the will in the hearts and thoughts of men, aswell as in actions, and setteth his mark on them, saying to us, this is evill, avoid it, this is good, receive it.

Two things in light.There are two things in light, which are the marks and notes of his goodnesse by which it is known, that is, brightnesse and comfort­ablenesse. So Gods Spirit is called the light and oyle of knowledge, for knowledge, instruction, and direction, and in the 45. Psal. 7. He is called the oyle of gladnesse and comfort and consolation, so Gods[Page 31]word is a lanthorne, and also a joy and comfort, Psal. 119. 105. but e contra ignorance and darknesse is melancholy and uncomfortable. So we may make our marke of distinction on things; for if we see them uncomfortable to the soul and conscience, set a mark on it, that knowing them, we may eschue such things, and ensue such things as are good and comfortable. And thus much for our selves.

Now touching others, we learn also that in Common-wealths the Magistrate must have his stone of Tynne, Zach. 4. 10. that is, his marking stone, for that is the word also here, to set his mark of difference on the evill, to discover them from the good. The Mi­nister hath belonging to him only vision to discern them, Jer. 15. 19. but the Magistrate hath division to doe it; so that he may by deed approve and commend the good, and reprove and condemn the bad; and if all did keep this difference, the world would be a light world; but because the good and the evill, without any di­stinction or regard, are shuffled together, 1 Sam. 8. 1. this confusion in Common-wealths is the cause, by Gods just judgement, of the confusion and renting a sunder of Common-wealths and Churches, Dan. 5.18. This just division then looked to in the Governor, would avoid confusion in the popular sort, as God doth here begin to di­stinguish light from darknesse, so doth he the same continually by his word, Heb. 4. 12. separating and marking the works of darknesse from the armour of light; for it sheweth to us, daily, which are ignorant and negligent, these things are evill, and not to be done; that is good, and must be done; these things the ignorant Gentills and Infidells did; therefore thou must not doe the like, which hast knowledge: these things doe they which are desparate and with­out hope of comfort; therefore thou, which hast peace and joy with God must not doe so.

Thus we must be carefull in separating evill from good, untill the great day of separation, when God shall sever all evill from good for ever; for here God is a Fisher, and Common-wealths and Churches are as a Net, which hath in them good and bad together, children of light and darknesse, but then at the last day of separa­tion, when a full, finall, and perfect distinction shall be made, all shall not be taken into Gods Boat, Math. 25. 32. but the good fish only shall be taken into Gods Boat, and the evill shall be cast away. Then God will be a Sheepherde, Math. 25. 32. and divide the Sheep from the Goats for ever, setting this eternall marke venite Benedicti, ite Maleaicti. Untill the last day of perfect separation, there will be still confusion and disorder, both in private men and publique Weales, but they which cease not to confound themselves in them­selves, Justice with unrighteousnesse, qui confundunt, confundentur, Thus we have seen the order of separation in God; also the manner of it in us, both privately and publickly; And what confu­sion will be unto the last day. And thus much of the natural sepa­ration, and the spiritual use thereof.

[Page 32]Now as here we see divisio rerum, so in the next place is set down divisio nominum & denominationum, which ever ensueth the other, for it is the sinne of the world not to divide things in their denomi­nations and names which are perfectly and plainly distinguished in their natures; for they call repentance and remorse sullennesse and melancholy, and Davids spiritual joy foolishnesse, covetousnesse they call honest thrift, profuseness providence, and riot liberality, pa­tience they call cowardlinesse, and quarrelling manhood, light dark­nesse and darknesse light: So they confound the names, when they cannot the natures: But such shall give account for it, to the great distinguisher in the great last day of division.

We have in this distinction many things to consider, as, The names given, The Athcists objection, And sundry other matters, of which the next time.

Lucemque Deus vocavit diem, tenebras verò vocavit noctem.Gen 1. 5. verse.

AFTER God had distinguished and divided light from darknesse, as being things in nature oppo­site, and in degree unequall, which contrariety and inequality, not being separated, are the au­thors of all confusion. Now he proceedeth to divide them in name; for as the natural division serveth for all things, so this distinction of deno­minations and names, in respect of us men, serveth for our know­ledge to distinguish them, which inducement moveth us to think that God had respect to mankinde even from the beginning in all things that he created, as if he purposed to make them for men; for though light and darknesse affecteth all Creatures, even beasts, yet the name and title given to them concerneth only man, who under­standeth and discerneth things by their names; and therefore as soon as he made man, he gave him a gift to know by what names to call and distinguish one thing from another, Gen. 2. 19. for God hath in the Creation ordained things that they should be known, and that they might be known, he giveth names of distinction, which are symbola rerum, as it were, notes to know them by; and because we cannot in this life know all that God made, we look for a clea­rer light after this life, by which our knowledge shall be perfect, 1 Cor. 13. 12.

Touching this division of names, we have four things to consider, First, the manner of denominations: Secondly, the cause: Third­ly, the ende: Fourthly, the dependance of the day on the light, and not on the Sunne, as some say.

Touching the first, that is, Whether God called them by their names and imposed titles to them after a sensible manner, with a di­stinct audible voyce, I finde a double contrariety in Writers; But,[Page 33]to resolve upon it, To whom should he speak audibly, seeing there was none to hear and understand? And therefore to no end and purpose should we think, he should speak so, but as the Hebrew say appella­vit, id est fecit appellari, the same phrase, as we say Princes doe build houses, that is, doe cause them to be builded: wherefore the manner of giving names is this, that as God gave before the naturall use of things, so now he took order that we might have a use of them by names, to know and talke of them so.

2.God is the cause and author of the names of things, by which we know and call them; for though we say, that when God created man, he made him capable of speech & of language, in which language we see God had speech and conference with him, being made, Gen. 2.16, 17,18. Yet Adam imposed not the names to the Creatures, Gen. 2. 19. but according to that gift of knowledge and utterance, he calleth things by such names and titles as he had received from God; for as God did largiri linguam, so he did nominibus praeire linguae; for here we see before ever man was made, in all the six dayes works, God gave names to the things as he made them, and to Adam himself, and in these seven things named, are contained all other particular things made in, and with them.

3.The end, to which God gave & imposed sundry names was, that we should doe as he hath done, that is, when things have a true being, then to give names to them accordingly, and not to our fancies, and things which indeed are not at all, as the custome of the World is for things that have no esse, as the Hebr. said, must have no name: For God gave names to things that were created, and had a being: We must not then doe as the Apothecaries, that is, set on their Boxes a name and title of a precious thing, when within it there is no such matter; we must not af­fect the name of Learning, Godlinesse and Light, nor give it to others, when we know our selves and they to be darkned and evill. Second­ly, when things have a true being, we have a care to give names and titles, agreeable to the nature and quality of them, that the act and na­ture of the thing, may be made manifest in the name of it, as written in the forehead: for as a man draweth good Liquor out of the Cask, so out of the meaning and signification of the Word, and denomi­nations given by God, we may draw out the hidden nature and know­ledge of the thing, for nomen est symbolum rei, and this is seen even in these names of day and night, given to light and darknesse; for con­cerning the name of the day Jom, it is very significant and pregnant­and discloseth the nature of the day, and the Hebrew word, which signifieth night, is the negative, The day what it signifieth.to the meaning of the day, the day importeth as much as Ens, being, shewing us that our being and life, must be imployed altogether in the day time, in some honest exercise and work of our calling, of God or the Country, and that we are not any longer to reckon or accompt our selves, to live or have any being, then when we walke, as in the day, in the course and actions of our life, and work of our calling; for being idle, ill imployed, or sleeping, sloathfully spending and consuming our time in vanity, we[Page 34]are dead and have not the being of men; also there is a good signifi­cation given of those, which take the name of Jom from striving and moving, teaching that the day is a time of walking, stirring, speaking and labouring, and the night e contra, a time of silence, rest, and ease, and sleep, or rather a time, thereby to restore and recover the strength of body, which in the day was spent by carefull and painfull travell, in which sense I shewed the day to be the work-house, and the night to be our Cabin or Couch of rest, Psal. 104. 23.

4.Lastly, touching this division, we see that the reason of man, is offended with God in this place for naming a day, saying there was a day, so long before there was any Sunne, which seemeth absurde to them, because they think the day dependeth on the Sunne, as on his cause, therein most fasly and grossely, drawing their reason from that which is now, to that which was then at the beginning, in which they argue their ignorance and error, even in learning and Phylosophy. Note the Sunne.Wherefore touching this question, whether be the cause of the day, we say and prove according to this, that before there was any Sunne, there was a day, two or three, for the course and order of things are otherwise in the proceeding of nature, then of the first beginning, as we have shewed: Again, touching this particular, we say, that the day is broken and draweth long before we see the Sunne, only be­cause of the approaching of the light; also when the Sunne is in his Eclipse, and when it is all day long hid and covered with the Clouds, yet we say, & call it, the day time; so the contrary, we see and say, that the day dependeth on the light, not on the Sunne, and his participation of communication. Again, the Sunne is not light, but vehiculum hu­jus lucis ex qua fit dies; and therefore is called the Lamp which con­taineth light, & tanquam lycbnus, as Basill well faith, which is not light and shining of it self, untill the accessary light be put to it, ali­undè, as this light, by which the day was, afterward was put to the Sunne, and so now since it causeth our day: Again, there are many things, which can and doe conceive and bring forth light, besides the Sunne, as a Flint, Gun-powder, Fire, by which we may perceive a great difference between this light, and the Sunne after, that whether we take the light to be defluum or a stream of brightnesse issuing from God for Nebora in Hebrew signifieth as well a stream of water, as a beam of light, Job. 3. 4. we shall see that light doth not stream from the body of the Sunne only, but from many other things, created as we see, as the fire, De fluvium ignis fulgor, Ezech. 1. 4. Also there is De fluvium firmamenti splendor, Dan. 12. 3. The streams of Brightnesse. righteous­nesse shining from the Firmament, Meteors.as streaming and issuing from the impressions and meteors of the Aire; or whether we say, that it streamed from the Heavens, and from Gods glorious Majesty, as light did to the Israelites out of the Pillar, any of these, or altogether, will give them their answer, and repell the frivolous and unlearned objections of the Atheists: or else if we consider as Nazianzen doth very wisely think and gather, that is, all things in grosse were cre­ated at the beginning, in the two generalls, Heaven and Earth, though[Page 35]the perfecting and polishing of the Creatures in particular, were by degrees brought to perfection in the six several dayes, so he conje­ctureth that the Sunne was made when the Heavens were made, at the first, but after the fourth day it was perfected, and had the light annexed to it, this giveth them an answer.

The use.Now touching the spiritual use of this knowledge, in which we will keep the course of these three things before noted. First, that a distinction of names of us must be truly kept. Secondly, that they might be agreeable to the nature of the things. Thirdly, that we must expresse the nature of things shewed by their names, by our right and well usage and practise of them.

1.I began to teach the last day, that it doth not avail us, that things be distinct in nature, if there be a confusion of names; therefore God in wisdome brought in the right division of both orderly; for though names in affirmation and negation cannot change the true nature of things, Non amittunt quod sunt cum amissione nominis, as in Judaes name, and though we call Gold Copper, and Lead Silver, yet the false name affirmed or denyed hurteth not the nature; yet notwithstanding, in respect of us, except there be a distinction of certain appellations, names and titles, we shall grow erronious and ignorant of the right natures of things; therefore one setteth down this rule, that fides nominum est salus proprietatum, the right keeping of the names truly discerned, is the preserver of the true properties of things: Therefore the Divell, not being able to alter the nature of things made, and distinguished by God, he laboureth in the other to shuffle and confound the names of things, which ought to be di­stinguished, to deceive men: To such God faith, Job. 38. 2. Who is that which darkneth the Counsell by words without knowledge? for giving of ill and wrong names, confusedly obscureth the right know­ledge of the natures of things to us, and Paul complaineth of it, 1 Tim. 6. 20. he complaineth I say of things in his time falsly so called. So may we now complain of [...], that is, of the false faith, zeale, sincerity, preaching, and reformation of many, which indeed is but falsly so called; for their unfruitfull faith is no faith, their blinde zeal is no zeal, their reformation is deformation, and their preaching is but a [...] or pratling, though it be falsly otherwise called. Wherefore they are in great fault, which give one and the same name both rei, & privationirei, to the substance and the shadows of things. This then is the first use, which, by Gods example, we are to learn, namely to term things by their right names, by which God hath distinguished them.

2.Secondly, As the names must not be in confusion, so there must be a fitnesse and stablenesse agreeable and correspondent to the na­tures of the things; for commonly the names and titles of the world are either too bigge or too little in proportion for the nature of things. It men be great in authority and wealth, we are no niggards in our words, but give great and swelling titles to them, though they be of small or no deferts, as Esay 32. 5. they will not stick to call [Page 36] Naball by the name of Nalath, that is, a foolish clownish Chrule, a right worshipfull man, to flatter him withall; but God will be an­gry if we give titles after such a manner, Job. 32. 22. As we are Pa­rasites to others for favour or gain, so we love to be flattered of others, and to have a great and glorious name for small and simple gifts; though our deeds be very small and few, yet we must bum­bast our words as great as may be, but God observeth agreeable­nesse.

3.Lastly, We learn that if the name be agreeable to the nature, then in our life and action we must also expresse the nature of the things by well using, as the word teacheth us, that is, that seeing the day is our being, and sheweth that our life and being is laboring and well being in our Calling, therefore we must reckon or ac­compt our selves no longer to live and have the being of a man, then we are in the day imployed in such honest and good actions of life, and esteem our selves in that respect as dead men, or as beasts, when we are idle, slothfull, and given to sleep, Prov. 24. 33, 34. we must be farre therefore from the speech and saying of the sluggard, that is, yet a little more sleep and slumber, that is delight in idlenesse. And so must we be far from it in doings, behaviour and custome, Prov. 26. 14. which is thus described, even as a dore moveth on hinges, so doth he in idlenesse, one calleth such fungos & truncos, shewing that we differ not from blocks, being idle and sleeping, nor from mush­romes, eating and drinking, nor from whelps, sporting and playing, but then we are men, when we doe the actions of men, that is, to study for knowledge, and work and travail for thy living, so that the night is our time of non esse, so long as we will ociosum esse. Where­fore seeing Christians are not of the night but of the day, 1 Thes. 5. 5. we must doe the actions of good works, which belong to the day, and for which the day was made; for idlenesse, theft, adultererie, murther, &c. hate the light, because they are works of darknesse, 1 Cor. 4. 5. so are there three paire of them set down, Rom. 13. 13. So the qualities of our actions must be framed to the meaning of the word and nature of the things, which God hath made for us. And this may suffice for the second distribution of the names.

Et dixit Deus sit firmamentum, &c.Gen. 1. 6. vers.

IN the second verse these two were coupled toge­ther darknesse and the deep; and how blessed an exchange of light we had been made partakers of, we have already heard.

Now it followeth to hear the wonderfull works of God in the deep, and that not in the face of the deep, but in the bowels and middle part thereof; God[Page 37]hath before removed the swadling band of darknesse, and now he cometh to take order in the deep, and hereafter he will come to the earth to order it, which as yet lyeth desolate, overwhelmed and bu­ried in the midest of the waters and deep.

Though the deep had but a poor being as yet, yet it had cause to praise God for it, as simple as it was, Psal. 148. 7. But God, that it might praise him more, being moved with pity, to see this poor rude being, in great goodnesse, swallowed up Abyssum in Abysso, to teach us, that as there is nothing so dark and hidden, though it be in dark­nesse it self, but his eye of providence can see it, so that there is no­thing so deeply covered in secret, but that he by the same can reach to it.

In this second work the Prophet beginneth at the third point; for the first two, which are the materialls and womb and the impreg­nating, making fit or enabling it to receive a better form, were things belonging particularly to the first dayes work, which, in respect of the prerogations it had, was called the one day and the day alone: For in the first day there was spiritus [...] creatio sed varia procreatio; for all things being made in grosse at the first, and impregnated and con­ceived in this womb of the waters, had afterward in the six severall dayes and times their procreation, and were brought forth, and there­fore the gulph being enabled before, is not distinguished and sepa­rated into that place, which is the upmost Heavens of all above us, and the purest and cleerest and best part of the waters; The other part which is more unpure is set in that place below, under us, which reacheth unto the bottom of the deep of the earth: Saint Au­stine saith, that this separation was therefore made, because God would not trouble the living Creatures of the earth, afterward with many waters, which were not a meet Element for them to live in, but only they should have the impressions of the Ayre, to water the earth, as rain, snow, haile and dews.

Coelum aëreumTouching Heaven which is one part of the division, there is varia acceptio verbi, it is diversly understood: for first, it is taken for coelum aëreum, which we call the skie as in the 20. verse of this Chap. volucres coeli, when Heaven is taken for the Ayre or Skie, Jer. 8 7. Milvus in coelo, &c. that is, in the Ayre, so Gen, 9. 14. nubes coeli, that is, the Clouds which hang and flie in the Ayre: And Christ saith, that they are skilfull to discern the times, by view of the face of Heaven, to know what the day will be by the rednesse or lowring of the Ayre or Skie, Luk. 4. 25. he saith, the Heavens were shut or locked up three yeers, that is, the Ayre where the Clouds are. So doe Heathen wri­ters take the word coelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt, that is, they change the Ayre not their mindes, &c. where coelum is taken for that distance of place, which is between us and the Moon. After we have spoken of this coelum aëreum, we will come to the other coelum coelorum: but first let us consider the Ayre in the generall, and then the true Chambers of the Ayre, as David calleth them, Psal. 104.2.3. that is, of the three Regions of the Ayre. In which trea­tise[Page 38]we will consider, Distributio.first, the matter or argument of these verses. Secondly, the name of the thing it self in the 8 verse.

In the first three things are to be noted: First, Gods Edict: Se­condly, the execution of it, in the former part of the 7. verse; And the third is the return of the Edict or Writ. And it was so. Of the first, in which we consider the word, the manner, and the parts, to whom the Edict is given; and then what, wherein, and to what end it was; namely to distinguish the one waters from the other.

It pleased God in every daies work, to have severall speech and mention made of his Word and Spirit, the one to exclude necessity, the other to exclude chance or casualty; the word is ever named to conclude and shut out that objection, quis erat ei consiliarius, Esay 40. 13, 14. that he had no need of counsell or advise, the other to ex­clude quis dedit illi prior, for as he did all things without the advise and help of any, by himself, so he did it of his meer goodnesse and grace, without any motive or perswasion of our deserts.

Touching the word, which I told you was verbum unum increa­tum & aeternum: We must consider it abiding in God, as skill, art, and cunning doth abide in a perfect work-man; and his proceedings and manifestation in the Creatures as the skill of an artificer, pro­ceedeth from him into his work, and there is to be seen: so the second person, the word of God abideth for ever wholly in God, and dwel­leth and resteth in his bosome, Pro. 2. And this, by this means passeth from God the Father, into his workmanship and Creatures, and is to be seen manifestly how wonderfull and glorious Gods word and wisdome and art is, by which he made all: And so may we say of his spirit which is inseparable and coequall with it: for as with our words our breath also proceedeth out of our mouthes, in one action, and at one time: so ever the word and the spirit of God proceedeth from him together, to the perfecting of any work. So we see they are in­divisible, Heb. 1. 2. 3. Christ by whom God made the World, is there called a stamp, or graven form of his Father and the brightnesse of his glory; so that now here is shewed the second stamp, and impression graven and formed in these works, in which the brightnesse of his Image may be seen, namely his power and wisdome, &c. For by the word of God also were the Heavens made Psal. 33. 6. saith David, out of which sentence we may learn two speciall points.

1.First, that the word of God is the generall mediator, not only between God and man in the work of redemption, but also between God and his works in this Creation: for after that the word of God was, he by whom all things had their being, and were that they are, and were set joynt and in order by him, then by the same verbum in­creatum proceeding from God, together with that powerfull working of the sanctifying Spirit, were all things new created, and set in right order and joynt again, being by Adams sinne clean out of frame.

2.The other point is, that whereas it had been all one for Moses to say, Deus dixit aut Deus facit, he rather causeth this phrase, Dixit De­us, [Page 39] quia fecit dicendo: in men indeed sermo & apus are two things of divers natures, often separated; for commonly the greatest sayers are least doers well, the talkative are seldom active; but in God they are all one, his dictum & factum have no difference; for as [...] saith, with God initium sermonis est perfectio operis, and this is the prerogative of the supernatural Agent.

Touching the stile or phrase of the Edict or Mandate, it is impe­rative: the Kings of the Earth are glad oftentimes by fair means to entreat that their inferiors and subjects may doe their will, as the [...] men counselled Roboam, 1 Reg. 12. 6, 7. And the Apostles [...] alwayes use their authority in commanding, 2 Cor. 8. 8. [...] continually goeth by way of commanding, because none are able to resist his will; he feareth none that shall withstand him. In this stile and phrase he is, in resembling, compared to a Prince or King, who useth but his commandement and word to have his will in any thing executed; if he will have an Host of men in Ar­mor, he needeth but send out his commandement, and it is speedily done, while he sitteth still: So doth God here. Wherefore, if we fear and obey Princes Precepts, and if the dumb Creatures exe­cute his commandement, How much more ought we which are men, to obey and doe that he commandeth us?

3.The third point unto whom this Edict is directed, is non enti, Rom. 4. 17. he speaketh to things that are not, as if they were, so did he in the first dayes work, but now he commandeth the deeps of the waters, 2 Cor. 4. 6. touching which God challengeth the greatest Princes in the world, Job. 38. 8.11. Canst [...] command the deeps? The proud King of this Island, as we read in Chronicles, took upon him this authority to command the waters, but he was checked by their disobedience; but when God commandeth the deeps they obey, contrary to their nature, Esay 44. 17. Conclusio.Thus we see what is taught by the Edict: And then, to whom it was given.

As the work to make light of darknesse is past all our capacity, so this is as wonderfull a miracle, and as great contrariety, as the former, to make altissimum excelsum coeli, ex profundis [...], which, as the other, sheweth the wonderfull power of the Creator that made them. Again, God in all this work, is contrary to the man­ner of men in their Architecture; for men use in making any thing, to make their frame in that place where the [...] matter may be had neere hand for their work: But as this matter is contrary in our reason, so he thinketh it all one to fetch the matter, of which he will make Heaven, out of the deepest and remotest place of all; whereas we, building Ships, doe choose that place where the wood is new, and to build houses we seek a place where stones are [...] at hand to be had; but it is all one with God, his arms is long, and his power and word able in a moment to fetch and doe it.

2.Secondly, It is Gods challenge, Job. 38 8. that [...] can make a thing orderly out of a disordered matter, but God, of the most confused, rude, raging, and disordered [...] in the world, made [Page 40]the Heavens, who are most beautifull, and whose course is most or­derly and certain.

3.Thirdly, He is admirable in this, that he can make [...] ex infirmissimo, of the infirmity of the deeps; for what more weak than water? Ye of it he made the Heaven, which is the most firm and stable thing, and therefore called the firmament.

4.Last of all, Men use to begin the frame of their building at the foundation and pavement, but God beginneth his house at Hea­ven, which is the roof and cealing, Psal. 104.2. and then after ma­keth the Earth, which is the foundation and pavement, as it is Psal. 24. 1, 2. which consideration maketh David use this exclamation by way of admiration, Psal. 118. 23. The right hand of the [...] the preheminence, it doth bring mighty things to passe.

2d part.The second part consisteth in three points, de quo, in quo, ad quid: De quo.We will begin with the Firmament, which is called Rachia, that is expansio, a stretching forth abroad; the property of which word includeth the signification of the nature of such actions, whereby metals are driven thin and beaten abroad into plates, as Smiths with their hammers use to doe; in which sense it is taken, Numb. 16. 38. and Jer. 10. 9. so the expansion or driving out of metals, is the ori­ginal from whence this word is borrowed, and being so borrowed, it is applied to the spreading or drawing out of any thing what soe­ver, as of a curtain, Psal. 104. 2. The Firma­ment of Hea­ven compared.which kinde of phrase by compa­rison, is there given to the making of the firmament, as if he had, as it were, spread the Heavens abroad as a curtain; also to the over­spreading of a vault, to which also the firmament is compared; also to the pulling out abroad and expansion of a roll of paper or parch­ment, to which also it is likened, Esay 34. 4. likewise to the blowing up of glasse out of a lump into a hollow compasse, to which Job resembleth the making of Heaven 37. 18. which comparisons doe yeeld unto us the hidden consideration of this work of God: for such a like work was performed here this second day in making Heaven, as these handy-Crafts men doe shew. Simple comparisons these are to shew such a matter, yet sufficient, sithence we can con­ceive no better.

In quo.The two actions of Gods Spirit mentioned before, sustole & dia­stole, which I said are seen in all works created, are no where better expressed than in this work, for the dilatation and contraction of the spirit moving in this work, was the expansion and stretching out of the Heavens; and the compression and drawing in of his force and virtue is and shall be the dissolution of the firmament, for then they will run and rowle together as a roll, and as molten glasse, &c.

The resemblance and shadow of this work of God we may set before you in a matter of common experience; for it is usuall to see a pot of water, by the force of the fire, to evaporate, and so stretch­eth forth out of a little pot, as to fill the whole room with his moi­sture extenuated; and again, being so dilated into a thin vapour, we see it drawn in and compressed into little drops of water again,[Page 41]which also some explane by the manner of distillation, which first riseth as a vapour, filling all, and then resolveth into drops again, and is made the same quantity of water and moisture which it was before. So God in this work, as a Stiller, first, by a vapour rising up by the Sunne, he stretcheth abroad the waters above us, and then the cold congealeth and compresseth that vapour into clouds, and after, by heat, again resolveth and melteth the clouds into drops of rain, which return to the Sea; So that in creating Coelum aërum, the rarefying and extenuating the waters into vapors, and so dilating it by expansion, was the first beginning of them. Gods di­stinction is taken after the manner of a thinne stone, or marking stone, with which, faith Salomon, Prov. 8. 27. circuit Coelum quasi cir­cino suo, as if he had a compasse to make a circle for their separation, Esay 40. 12. faith, that in this separation with one hand God did hold up the upper waters, and with the other he depressed the waters be­low: we know it to be a matter of such difficulty, to stop the course of waters, that it busieth the best and wisest heads to stop up the breaches, once being made. Yet God, by his power, doth separate the waters, and keep part above, and his intergerium, his partition wall and bank which he useth to divide and keep out one from the other, is the weakest Element, that is, namely the Aire, which is most strange, that that should be terminus, a bank and bound to the mighty waters which had most need of a terminus to limit it self; yet God hath made of it such a limit which is called firmamentum, that is, a most strong, sure, and firm bond, which shall not fail; yea, it is more firm and permanent, than if it had been made of a rock of Adamant, for that the waters would have eaten and perished, but this is most durable, by Gods appointment.

Ad quid.The last thing is ad quid, namely, that there may be a division. Where generally is implyed a double division, the one is before, of things in nature opposite and contrary, as light and darknesse; the other is here of things which have an inequality, as the purest wa­ters from the unclean and impure; for God will have not only evill distinguished from good, but also the things that in degree and quality are better and more excellent, are to be separated from that which is more base and vile; for the not distinguishing these, is the mother of confusion: We must not only mark and beware of the Devill the adversary which is [...], but also of things which are apparently evil, or are not altogether good: therefore God divided the clearest waters in the best and high place above, and the groslest he set below in the depth. So we have a difference between [...] pendiculam, & aquam fluidam, the one is Mare superum, the other is Ma­re inferum. This is the division of the Waters.

Now in the upper waters of Coelum aëreum, there are two parts, aqua [...], & aura flabilis, which are [...] together. Now between these two waters thus divided, because they are not contrary in na­ture, but only different in degree, the inferior and baser waters doe first, as it were, reverently acknowledge their humility, by [Page 42]sending up vapours to them in the Clouds; and they, as gratefull, doe send down drops and showers more liberally, even powring them down again: So there is a mutuall reciprocation and circula­ting in nature between them, as ebbing and flowing is below; so is there breathing up and dropping down between them both.

But to what end are these waters above and below, and where­fore is there a division of them? Because God had before taken or­der for light, that there might be time, it was next of all convenient and meet that he should take order for place, wherein his Creatures might inhabite; for in that place where the thick and compact body of the waters is, the Creature could have but a slow motion; and therefore it is no fit Element for us: Wherefore God having an eye to man, respecting him in all his works, provided in this, that he might have a fit Element of Aire, in which he might live, move, and have his being.

The end of the other division and separation was this, that the waters being thus set apart, might be as a bridge for us, not only from one Country to another, by ship here on the nether waters, but also that there might be a communication and passage from Earth to Heaven, by the means of the Aire; for the Aire is, as it were, the bridge and path and casement, by which the light of Heaven commeth to us; it is the pipe, through which sounds and voyces come to our cares, smells to our nostrils, colors to our eyes; it is the strainer or five, through which, as Job faith, the rain is sifted in little drops, but especially as you know in the first day God made light, which hath a proportion and resemblance to this word John 8. 12. yea, it is vox Creatorum also; for the dumb and senslesse things doe, as it were, speak and tell us what they are by the light; So, if you mark, the Aire, which is made the second day, hath a resemblance to Gods Spirit; for as the Aire is the act of breathing, which we easily fashion and receive into our bodies; so our spiritual life is by the holy Ghost, of whom we have the like apprehension, and as light commeth to our eyes by the Aire, and words to our ears, so that by it we apprehend light and speech and communica­tion; so is the Spirit of God the very means whereby our souls doe apprehend the spiritual light, and by which the word of God is con­veyed to the ears of our hearts; So spiritually the Holy Ghost is ve­hiculum lucis, & vocis Dei, &c. and this we learn by way of resem­blance.

The last point is concerning this, to know to what end are these upper waters of the Aire. We are to know, that God made them to be his magnus Thesaurus, his great treasure house for store, Deut. 28. 3. for there he saith he will at his pleasure open this great store house, and out of it give the first and latter rain and snow, to moli­fie and make fruitfull the Earth, which is so great a blessing that we are bound to praise God continually for his gracious work.

The manner.The manner of which work is set down in Gen. 28. 6. God, out of the lower waters raiseth a sume or vapour or mist, which he con­densateth[Page 43]in the middle region of the Aire and [...] together, or [...] into waters again & bindeth them [...] in the clouds, Job 26. 8. which by his word, as by his Hostes, he bringeth, as in [...], from the remotest parts of the Earth to us, or to others, as he pleaseth to make the Earth fruitfull, Psal. 135. 6, 7. Of these waters in the clouds God maketh divers impressions, Job. 38 25. as great [...] and streams, little small rain and showers, and streams and snow, and haile, Job. 38. 37 the clouds are his bottles for small rain and dews, and 25. verse, so they are his spouts [...] pour out great raine, Job. 37. 6. which are called stormes. Also out of these upper waters he ordeined to have snow scattered as ashes and wooll, Psal. [...]. 16. and touching these things he asketh, Job 38. 22. if any man had been in this store house to see these treasures.

Aura flabilis.As for the drier part of the Ayre, the end of them is to be Aura flabilis, and by the force of their winde to fetch carry and recarry the Clouds which are his vessels of his rain; also he hath made them to sweep and cleanse, both the Ayre it self from corruption, and the ne­ther waters from [...]. Thus we see the end why God in coelo [...], hath made both undam [...] & auram flabilem, as St. Austine saith, for by them he filleth the [...] of Corn with goodnesse, and dropeth fatnesse on the earth, Psal. 65. 11. And therefore we must pray, not only for the blessing of the earth, but also of the heaven, as Jacob Gen. 49. 25. Deut. 33. 13. Not only for the blessing of the wombe of the earth, which being a fruitfull soll quickly conceiveth and bringeth forth fruit, but also the blessing of the breasts of the Clouds, without which the fruit will very soon perish and wither, Job 38. 8. For it is Gods blessing, both to make a land a fruitfull and fertill soil apt to conceive, and also to send seasonable rains to it, that it may grow and be ripe and good for mans use. These all doe likewise serve for the execution as well of Gods justice to correct us, as of his mercy to doe us good: For when we displease him with our sinnes; he maketh these things his rods, by causing the Heavens and Clouds to be as Brass, and the Earth as Iron thereby; and on the contrary side, when he in justice will set wide open the windows and flud­gates of heaven, to drown the earth with floods and inundations, as he did the old World.

Usus.And this is that use and instruction, which we are to learn out of this division, to pray, if it please God for his blessings, and not to sinne, for fear we be scorched with droughts, and over whelmed and drowned with floods.

Fecit ergo Deus hoc expansum, quod distinguit inter has aquas, &c.Gen. 1 7. vers.

THe treaty concerning the second dayes work, is di­vided according to the work it self, and the name given to it, the work is set down in the sixth and seventh, to the manner of it in the eighth verse. In the work we observed three points, according to the three severall verbs Dixit, fecit & sit: The first containeth the precept or warrant for the ma­king of the work. The second the workmanship and going about to doe or make it. The third, the return and certificate to signifie that it was fully executed, which three are in Dixit, fecit & factum est.

With man it often times falleth out that dixit, is without fecit, that is, it is too usuall, that men promise and say much, but doe it not, and many times we see his fecit, to be without perfecit, that one may say, factum est, it is fully and perfectly done: the first we see Mat. 21. 30. he said, but he did it not, the other custome of men is exemplified, Luc. 14. 30. for as he did it not, so on the other side, This man began to build a house but did not finish it: So none can say, that his fecit, was factum est 3 the first also we see, 1 Sam. 18. 17. Saul said he would give Michol to David, but did it not, but it was not so with God: for he is not yea in saying, and nay in doing and performing, but as certain as he saith a thing, so surely it is done, for his word is truth, and that his deed declareth; and on the other side it is farr otherwise with God, than it is with man; for if God begin a good work, he will surely finish it throughly, Phil. 1. 6. perfecit quod facit, if he be the be­ginner and author of any thing, he will also perfect it and finish it, Heb. 12 2. so that we shall confesse, as here, that quod fecit factum est. So that that is the first consideration in God, that these three severall things, saying, doing, and perfecting, are inseparable in him, joyned and linked together as a chain, that one ensuing the other and all following the first.

The first of these hath been shewed before; the two last, the Work and the Certificate are now to be handled in order. The Work, in this seventh verse, touching which, we see that it doth stand on two points and parts. First, He made it. Secondly, He separated it.

Concerning the making, the word gnasha signifieth to make, which hath an opposite and divers sense, from two words which may seem to be the same too, meaning Esay 45. 7. there is these three words formavi, creavi, feci, of these three severall words the first is common to the other two; for all that is made of somewhat or nothing hath a form; and therefore is formed: Distinctio.but facere & creare are distinguished thus. To make presupposeth a matter subject; but to create, is to make of nothing, in the first day God created of nothing; but now in this work he is a maker, for Coelum aëreum was made of something, the[Page 45]Heavens were planted, Esay 51. 16. and therefore there was some­thing which was as it were, the seed, kernell, or science, or [...] of which it was planted: It is true, that in respect of us it is more admirable to see a thing made of nothing, because we cannot con­ceive it, then to see or heare of a great thing made of a small matter because it is familiar experience, with which we are acquainted, to see a little child prove a great man, and a seed [...] kernell proves mighty tree: but in respect of God both works are like, strange, and also in the respects of the works themselves to make a tree of a kernell, and to make [...] tree of nothing is alike, though the one we approve, because of common experience, as a matter usuall and nothing strange; for Gods power, is miraculous in both, though in the one now it be made naturall and usuall, it was strange to sea it to turne water into wine, and to feed five thousand with five [...] and two fishes; yet the strange miracle is wrought by [...] yeare, as we see, but we consider it not; for God sendeth the wa­tery moisture of the Earth to be conveyed into the Vine tree, which sap God turneth into Wine, though it seem naturall; and with as few Corns of grain as will make five loaves, being sowed in the Earth will multiply and increase to as much as will seed five thou­sand with bread; and two fishes will bring so many fishes as may suffice so many fer meat; so that we have these wonderfull mira­cles amongst us every day.

Now touching the Heavens, the science, kernel, or plant of which they were planted and made, was the waters, [...] [...] 3.5. The other words to which this word in nature is opposite and [...] sence, is oper are, which signifieth with ones hand to work with tools and instruments, with laborious pains: But God doth not so make the Heavens, but he doth it with as much ease as it is for a man to breath, Psal. 104. 30. emitte spiritum & creabunter [...] besides the facility, with such speed and celerity that in the space of time that one can say fiat, with the festination he doth his works: which is divers from the custome of men in making or doing any thing; for they commonly take great pains, and spend much time in work to no purpose, and can doe nothing; as Peter, Luke 5. 5. he laboured all night and caught nothing, but it is otherwise with God, whose word without instrument or pains, or without any delay [...] throughly effect his work which he will have done: And thus we see the reference this word hath of these two words, and what we learn by it.

The third thing is a matter of inquiry, because in the former work only these two fiat & factum est, and nothing between saying, and it was done; but here is put in fecit, as by way of Parenthesis between them in this work, which surely we must know is not idly set down, but to great purpose; and therefore not curiously of us to be inquired of, why it is so placed: to answer which, we must know that it was for our sake, simul fieri [...], it was all one to God saying and finishing at one time, but [Page 46]it was meet for us to have his action and work expressed herein. Therefore Moses, dealing here as a Prophet, doth foresee some dan­ger and error which might arise by leaving of this clause & fecit Deus, therefore he betimes doth labour to prevent it by setting it down, for he knew that God would not have his truth sown among thornes of Errors, Jer. 4. 4. therefore Moses here before hand en­deavoureth to stubbe them up Error Timaei & Platonis.For Time us the Pythagorean, and Plato, that great Philosopher, holding the truth of the Creation, doe notwithstanding advise this rooted thorne, that they suppose God only but to give out the Edict and direction how and what should be done, and to make certain Demones & Intelligentiae to be the workers, doers, and bringers to passe of the work; and so, in that respect, ascribing worship and honour to them, as the Instruments and Agents in this action. But God is here set down, not only as the Master Builder, to oversee and give direction; but also he was the only Agent and Workman which did make it himself, he both gave out the Edict with his word, and with the same did fulfill and bring it to passe: So that there was but one Commander, who, the self same, was the Maker also, Esay 40. 13, 14. Dixit, & non fuit ei consiliarius, fecit, & non fuit ei auxiliarius: So that this ex­cludeth any Copartner with God in this businesse; for then he was alone, and alone of himself did make it, not caused it to be made; Angels Createdfor the Angells and celestial Spirits were created when God said fiat lux, for then not only all light things in mundo sensibili were made, as starres, &c. but also all things in mundo intelligibili, as 2 Cor. 11. 14. which also may appear by the order and placing them, first in Psal. 148. 2. so that they could not be created before, for then they should be eternall, nor after, for then there is nothing to insinuate it; and indeed there is no danger thus to understand it, but there is great danger of error to hold the contrary, that they were created before, for then they may think, that as Hiram sent the matter of the Tem­ple and Salomon gave the form, so God gave the matter of the world and the Angels the form and fashioning of it: But God in this work is alone, for his work standeth not as ours doth, that is, that the mat­ter and the form of the work should come from divers Authors, as before we can come to Iron plate, we must fetch the matter from the Ironmonger and the form from the Smith; before we can have a Garment, we must have the matter from the Draper and the form from the Taylor: But with God it is not so, for from him pro­ceedeth both the matter and form of all Creatures, creat, facit, format.

This is the first resolution of this question, to which there is a second answer, which is good for instruction, Gnasha.taken out of the na­ture of the word gnasha; for the Hebrews use it in their phrase, not only to make a thing, but also to trim up and to give a better form to any thing; in which sense it is said, 2 Sam. 19. 24. that Mephiboseth had not made his beard nor his feet, by which is meant, had not trim­med his beard nor washed his feet, which he had made to him be­fore: [Page 47]So God in this place is said, by this gnasha, to give the out­ward form to these Heavens, and so to trim and perfect them up as they should be; for they being made before in gross, now he stretched them out after a circular form, Job 9. 8. as having made a Curtain, should spread it abroad, and set it up, whereas before it lay wrapt up rudely together, Job. 22. 14. tendit Coelum, that is, now he did bend and bow the Heavens compassed as a bow, which was made before, but not half round, but circular round, and sphe­ricall; and not only did he set this form to them, but also gave them a circular & sphericall motion to turn round in their course about the Earth, Psal. 19. 6. it doth goe in his compasse, in gyra sue, Preach. 1. 5, 6. the Sunne and Windes doe goe a circuit, in circuttione, vel cir­cuitu suo. Thirdly, He in this kinde of making them did now add to them a virtue, force, and heavenly influence, Job 38. 31. which heavenly and comfortable influence is called the sweetnesse of the Heavens, Deut. 33. 13. Therefore we are willed to praise God in firmamento virtutis suae, Psal. 150. 2. by which virtue the Heavens have a comfortable and reviving force, an action, in­fluence, and dominion, as the word sign fieth, in these Creatures below.

And thus much of fecit. Now of the things which he made. First, We see that whereas the Heavens before were compact and entire. Now by Gods workmanship they are scattered and spread round about and divided; for being made, it was Gods purpose, that it should be to this use, to be parted asunder into two parts.

The Heavens by some is called tenue expansum, that is, a thing thinly spread abroad. In the making of it we consider the Maker and the manner of it, which is both simply and plainly, and also comparatively by way of resemblance set down in the Scriptures; The Spirit of God.for the power & force by which it was made, was the Spirit of God, The Word of God,the Execution [...]r and Minister of that thing was Gods Word, the second person who willed and commanded it to be done, Psal. 104. 30. He sendeth forth his Spirit and they were created, Job 34. 14, 15. If he draw or gather in his Spirit, they perish again: So that all that is made, is ascribed to the expansion and motion of the Spirit going out; and the undoing or marring any thing is attributed to the draw­ing in of it again.

The breath of Man hath a divers force and nature as it is drawn in or out; Warm and hot.for as it [...]s with open mouth brea [...]hed out (which is hali­tus) it is warm, and being drawn in, it is cold again; if it [...] mildly and naturally expired and breathed out, as then it is warm and hot so being violently and forcibly with a blast puffed our, it is dry and cold; of which two sorts of motions of Gods Spirit is the Aire made, the moist moderate showres and rain by the one, Psal. 147. 18. and windes and frost by the other, Job 37. 10. So it is [...], vis caloris, which warmeth, rarefieth, and maketh thin everything living: so that power moving on the waters, made them grow in­to a thin body, where of the Aire was made.

[Page 48]Now for the comparison, this work of the Spirit is compared to an Eagle, or any other bird, in sitting on the egges to hatch their young: For so God having made a nest and layed or brought forth his young, as it were, unperfected, doth now by his spirit incubare, that is sit and spread his wings over them, and so giving vitall life and power, break the shell, & sic pullulavit mundum. Thus we see the power of Gods Spirit in the nature of the Word, and the resem­blance of the comparison here used.

The matter.For the matter, we see that the waters are the seed of the Hea­vens, which, receiving a power by the operation of Gods Spirit, proceed into a thinne vapor, which is partly Aire partly water, and not perfectly either, which mist or vapour God lifteth up and sub­limateth, Jer. 10. 13. and by that means made it Coelum aëreum.

There are four comparisons in Scripture to set out this work, To a Stil,the first, Job 36. 27. being lift up in vapor, he doth in the middle Regi­on by cold cruddle and condensate it, as in a still, Psal. 18. 12. to a Glassman,The second to a Glassman, Job 37. 18. for so he seemeth to blow up the Heavens round. to a Gold­smith,The third to a Goldsmith, which is in the word Raha, Exod. 39. 3. for so he beat it out abroad. to an Uphol­ster.The fourth to an Upholster, Psal. 104. 2. for so as a Curtain he unrowleth it and ex­tendeth the Heavens abroad, Esay 40. 22. thus you see the work­manship of the Heavens in the Agent, in the Matter, and the Man­ner of the Work.

The end why God made the Heavens.Now the end why he made them was, That it might be a Pavi­lion or Tent, Esay 40. 22. or a Curtain, Psal. 104. 2. over our heads, where the word used is the same which is set down in the making of the Tabernacle, which signifieth either pellis or cortina, a covering or curtain of skinns.

The Heavens were made thin, to the end there might be a space for motion and operation; therefore it is driven thin above, and divided from the nether waters, Dan. 12. 3. and therefore it is thin here below, that both the lights of Heaven might have passage to us through the Aire, being corpus transparens & translucidum, Dan. 4. and also that the comfortable influence, virtue, and force of the Hea­vens might have free and easie passage to us, by and through the thin Aire.

It is not a dis­ordered confu­sion.Now for the dividing, The word here used is not Babell, which, Gen. 11. 9. signifyeth division, for that word noteth such a division which is a disordered confusion of things, as it were renting or tea­ring or breaking a thing in divers peeces without order or regard, but Gods division is not such; for as he made all things well, so he divideth all things well, Jer. 10. 12. Pro. 8. 27. for this word signi­fieth that it was an apt and fit division, so artificially and orderly done, as if it were divided by line and rule.

Secondly, Gods division is not a scatterring of things being di­vided, as it was in Babell, but such a division which hath a conjun­ction and unity, and agreement of parts which are divided, which is best expressed in the division of eares, eyes, and nostrills, which [Page 49]being separated, doe notwithstanding meet in one nerve as one and the same; so it is in all things that God divideth, as the fingers and toes, &c. they meet in unity at some one point: So where the waters are divided, it is with agreement, quasi rota in rotam, Ezek. 10. 10. having a mutuall unity, entercourse, and reciprocation one to the other; for the Aire is the means whereby the upper waters are knit and united to the nether, Gen. 7. 11. The Airie Airie is, as it were, the windows of Heaven, and dores through which is passage for light and rain, Gen 8 3. so this division [...] to this end, [...] the thing divided, The upper Waters.we are to consider now but of the upper waters above, the lower waters we shall speak of hereafter.

We see here God divideth the Clouds from the Channels, which upper Waters he divideth into several chambers or stories called con­tignationes, Psal. 104. 3. which we call the three Regions of the Aire, in the uppermost of which is snow and hail, in the middle one rain, in the lower dews.

Another division is this, God made not the upper waters entirely on compact substance, but bound them up in divers bonds of clouds, that through them, being divided, the light and influence of Heaven might passe down to the earth through them, which else could not. There are three things of which we read in the Scripture, which are raised out of the Earth, and doe concurre and meet in the Aire, of which, two have names, and by them we may give a name to the third; the first is the Clouds, which are called his Chariots, and the second are the Windes, or horses that draw them, Psal. 104. 2. there­fore the third, which is the Waters, must needs be the Carriage which is in the Chariots.

The Windes four.The windes he draweth out of the deep, Psal. 135. 6, 7. and so are the Clouds taken out of the deep, Psal. 33. 7. for a vapour being drawn up, the watrynesse of it being dryed up, it becometh of a windy nature: Touching the division of the Winds, that principally they be four, Zach. 6. 5. The use of Windes.which have their use in the four quarters and parts of the firmament, which use is, Job 37. 21. vis purificandi, to cleanse the Aire and Waters, which else would corrupt and [...]. Also the Windes have a necessarie use in respect of the Waters; for the South and West Windes bring rain, moist, and warm weather, and the East and North Winds serve to bring cold and dry weather and frosts, Luke 12. 54.

The Clouds, the matter, the use of them.In the second place, for the Clouds, they rise also out of the waters and deeps, Psal. 33. 7. and as it is plain, 1 Reg. 18. 44. for the Clouds rose out of the Sea, of which Clouds came the rain. They serve in regard of the firmament for a shadow to cool us and keep us from parching in the time of Summer and Harvest, Esay 18. 4. And in re­gard of the waters, they serve as vessels and bottels to hold and con­tain them, and that to the end that they may not be poured down all at once, but, as Job saith 26. 8. they doe quasi cribrare, as it were sift them in small drops down on the Earth.

The Waters.The Waters are divided into aquas fluidas, & congelatas, for the [Page 50]flowing waters God descendeth to the lowest and basest use, even he made them to soften and molifie the clodds of Earth in the Countrey to the Husbandman, Job. 5. 10. and to wash and cleanse our streets in the Citie.

The Dew, and Rain.For the Dew, which is a liquid and slim'd moisture, and the rain also: The use is 1 Reg. 17. 1. they serve for drink to men, and the Dews serve for herbs and grasse, whose roots being neere to the up­permost face of the ground, would be dry and wither without such Dews to moist it, Pro. 3. 20. and because there are plants and trees which have their roots deep in the Earth, so that Dews cannot pearce to them, therefore God hath provided a greater store of water, the showers and Rain, Joel. 2. 23. which may reach to the deep roots.

Now for the congealed waters by the cold: God giveth the snow like wooll, to keep out the cold blasts of the North winde, that the seed may be warm and nourished in the ground, Psal. 147. 16. and he scattereth the frest to serve for ashes, to keep in the seed which is in the Earth, that it spire not, nor spread out too soon, before it be well sea­soned and rooted in the Earth, lest after it should for want of root and deepnesse of Earth dry and wither away when the Sunne com­meth, Luk. 8. 6. Thus we see the waters elevated and drawn up loa­den in clouds and thrown down to our great use and benefit. But there is another use which God hath ordained, to put all these his Waters to, and that is as well to be rodds, to correct and punish us for [...], for his Justice, as well as the former use was for our good, of his Mercie, Job. 37. 13.

First, for the Winds, When in Mercie he will doe us good, he ma­keth them auram temperatam; but when he in Justice will make them his rodds of correction, he maketh the Winds spiritum procellae, by which confringit naves in mare, Psal. 48. 7. & concutit & praecipitas domus, Job 1. 19. and overturneth trees by the roots.

When God will have the Clouds instruments of his Mercie, he maketh them pregnant and with Child with waters, for the first and later rain doe make the land fruitfull, Job 37. 11. When in Justice he will have them rodds to correct us, he maketh nubes steriles, as Sa­lomon saith, 25. 14. and, as Jude saith, Clouds without water, we shall see them, but have no good of them, for our sinne; also, for our sins, instcad of dews, he sendeth mildews, Hag. 2. 18. the rain of Gods mercie is a blessing to us, Psal. 68. 9. it is a gratious rain. When God in Justice will have the rain to be his rod, he sendeth and maketh ra­ging rains and storms and tempests to destroy our fruit and food, Pro. 28. 3 For the frost and hail, God maketh them his rods to kill and destroy their Vines and Mulberrie trees, Psal. 78. 47. And thus much of the uses of the waters.

Now of both these together was the Firmament made: For this Aire, Coelum aëreum, is more necessarie for men then the light which was made the first day; for we may have a use of darknesse, and sleep without light, but we cannot live, sleeping nor waking, without Aire [Page 51]to breath in, sive firmamento destruitur firmamentum panis, Psal. 105. 16. the distemperature of it causeth a famine, Ose 2. 21, 21. in Israel fa­mine, and men call and seek to the Earth for food, the Earth hath no power, it cannot give any, but is dry and barren without the Heavens, and therefore it calleth and waiteth on the Heavens for his dews and influence, and the Heavens cannot give such gracious rain, and therefore calleth to God to give them a warrant and com­mandement and power to doe it: So God heareth the Heavens, the Heavens heareth the Earth, and the Earth heareth the Corn, Wine and Oyle, and then they hear and sustain Israels want.

Fuit sic.The last point is fuit sic, which is the return and accomplishment of that mandate, for at his word all things were created, yet not in actibus suis sed in [...] suis, as we say in the Schools; for it did not then in the second day presently rain, snow, hayle and freeze, but God made them meet and able and fit for that purpose for ever after, as God did all his work sine adjumento consilii, sic fecit sine ad­jumento auxilii alicujus, as he gave order with his word how things should be done, even so they come to passe, Esay 40. 13, 14.

Here are two things in this to be considered, first virtus verbi: Secondly, obedientia Creaturae. The power of Gods word is seen in that it is able to bring to passe any thing sine mora, sine labore: Salo­mon would build a Temple very beautifull, 1 Reg. 6. 38. but he could not doe it in lesse time then seven years; and after, when it was made the second time, fourty and six years they say the Tem­ple was making, and can Christ reare it up presently in three dayes? this they thought impossible, but behold here is a greater Temple then Salomons was, yet he made the whole frame of it in no longer space and time then one may say fiat Coelum, for presently fuit sic, saith Moses, Psal. 148. 5. he only spake the word and they were made; for the other he did it without trouble or pains, 1 Reg. 5. 15. Salomon, to have his Temple made (though it must be seaven years a doing) yet he must have threescore and ten thousand Artificers, and fourscore thou­sand Laborers, even 150000 men might be troubled to labour about the world, and spend infinite cost about Instruments and Engins to doe it; But here with God is no such matter, no help of men, no need of Instruments, nor any fear of let or impediment to hinder his work and will, but his word and power to bring all to passe.

Obedientia Creaturae.Touching the obedience of the Firmament created, we have three things to consider: First, with what celerity, conformity, and constancie all things were done as God would have them. For the speed and celerity: We see that the Waters, as if they had ears to hear what the word commanded, & wings to flie about the execu­tion of it so soon, yea more speedily they did it. We read in the Scrip­tures that God preached to none but only to man; for it is enough for him only to say the word to all Creatures of the Earth else, and it is done; but he must stand and take pains to preach an hour every day to perswade us that are men, which are farre more beholden unto God than any Creature else, and yet it will[Page 52]not avail to make us obedient to his word.

As for conformity to his word, it was sic, even after the manner and form in all respects as he would have it: But if we doe a thing it is lame and unperfect in some respect, and not conformable to his will.

Last of all constancie and perpetuity, Psal. 119. 91. they continue still according to their ordinance; for all things serve thee: He hath set thee a Law which shall not be broken, Psal. 148. 6. For it is a wonder that such Seas of waters which hang and fly over our heads daily, doe not fall on us, and with their weight destroy us; for we see what a bucker of water is for heavinesse in his fall, yet the pillers of God uphold them that they fall not, which pillers one would think should be aere, that is, made of brasse, but they are aëreae, airie pillers, and yet last longer and are more durable then the greatest brasen pillers that we can imagine, for in time they would corrupt and be eaten up of the waters; but yet the power of God hath so strengthned the Aire, that being the weakest thing that is, as our Proverb saith, As weak as Water, not being able to sustain it self, no not to be a pil­ler to hold up a feather from the ground, yet it is made a Firma­ment, that is, a most firm, sure, and durable piller to uphold all these Clouds and bottels of water above; they move motu immobili & varietate invariabili, and so they continue after Gods ordinance, even unto this day, as the Psalmist saith.

Expansum autem hoc Deus Vocavit Coelum: sic fuit vespera, & fuit mane diei secundi.Gen. 1. 8.

WHich words contain in them the second principall part of the second dayes work, which is the word of denomination and entitling the Firmament thus with a new name. When God made Abraham, the Father of the faithfull, he exchanged and gave him a new name, Gen. 17. 5. When Jacob was exalted to the like dignity, his name was also changed and he called Israel, Gen. 32. 28. So here having made ex abysso Coelum, that is, as some say, Coelum a coeno, of the dreggs of that gulfe, then he vouchsafeth, according to the dignity of [...], to give it a name agreeable thereunto.

Touching the denomination in general, I shewed four things be­fore, which I will not repeat now, but only, call to your remem­brance. The first was, The name of things are of freehold, and therefore must move us to attention, because, though these works are beneficiall to all Creatures, yet the apprehension of their names belong only to man, at whom God did aime and levell in this work.

[Page 53]The second, That the things which are divers in nature, must be distinguished in name.

The third, The manner of giving names must be in proportion agreeable to the nature of them.

And lastly, What the significations of the names are. Not repeat­ing this generality, we will now descend to the particularity of this name, and see by the notations of the word what is signified there­by.

The old English called the Heavens aloft, as though it were lifted up, as it was out of the deep. The Latines call it Caelum quasi caelatum, that is, embroidered and garnished, as it is. The Grecians call it [...], quasi terminus mundi, as it were the border and bound of the World. The Hebrews call it Shameshe: Concerning which word there is three several opinions, all which may be well and to good purpose received: There are of the Hebrews which deduce the word from the verb Shama, which is to wonder, because of the admiration which all men have of this glorious World, especially if we consider with David, Psal 8. 4, 5. that God having such excellent and glorious Creatures in Heaven should so, notwithstanding, regard man, which is but a clod of earth, as to endue him with these divine graces, and with a reasonable soul: The admirablenesse of this work consisteth first, In that they being made of the dreggs of the deep, are notwith­standing the most splendent and glorious Creatures of God. Also in that they moving continually are immobilia, and varying and changing in their courles alwaies, are notwithstanding invariabilia, for they move motu immobili & varietate invariabili. Also in that they con­sisting of water, which is most weak and infirm, are nothwithstanding most sure and firm of all other things. The other opinion taketh it from the verb Magam and the adverb Iham, as if God had appointed with his finger to the Heavens and said, Here are all things, if you want light, waters, either for soul or bodie, here they are to be found, and here you may have it, as indeed all good graces come from above, from our Father in Heaven, Jam. 1. 17.

The second note touching the word is, in that it is of the duall number, which implyeth that the Heavens are double and two fold, which is apparent in the 17. verse, where it is said, that the Starres are in Heaven, and in the 26. verse it is said, that the Fowls also flye in Heaven. Now this is plain and sensible in every mans eyes, that the starres are not where the Birds doe flie, neither doe the Fowles flie where the Starres are. Out of Psal. 68. 33. the ancient Hebrews doe note to us, that there was a former and later Heaven, a higher and a lower Heaven made by God, the lower Heavens in the Scriptures are usually termed and called Coeli, Psal. 148. 4. and the upper Hea­vens, which is the Seat of God, is called Coeli Coelorum, 1 Reg. 8. 27. and in other places, for as there was in the Temple of Salemon San­ctum & Sanctum Sanctorum, so in the the great Temple of the world there is Coelum & Coelum Coelorum, to answer to it in the upper and higher Heavens, as was shadowed in the Temple, is the mercy Seat,[Page 54]the Altar, and the Propiciatory; but in the nether is atrium, I. Ben­jamin, &c, that is, a division of severall Courts for Starres, Clouds, Fowls, Men, &c. Between the higher and the nether Heavens, as it was in the Temple, there is a Vail or Curtain spread, Heb. 6. 19. which doth part the one from the other. Besides these two Heavens we read of a third Heaven, 2 Cor. 12. 2. which is the highest number we read of in Gods word, so that besides the Merchant mans Heavens, which is prosperous winde, and besides the Husbandmans Heaven, from whence commeth seasonable weather in Summer and Winter; there is a third Heaven which we must seek for, which is Regnum Coelorum, for the Fowles doe flie per medium Coelorum, 17. and 26. verses, as the Angell did, Rev. 8. 13. therefore there is a Heaven on both sides of this middle Heaven. The impressions of the Aire are the Host and Army of the nether Heavens, and the Starres are the Hostes of God, which inhabite and are in Garrison in the second Heavens, and the Hosts of Heavenly Souldiers, Saints, and Angells, are the Armies of the third Heavens, Luke 2. 13. which Heaven is called solum gloriae, for Heaven is his throne, it is called the habitation of Gods holinesse, Esay 63. 15. And God is described by this place, Matth. 5. 34. Deus qui sedet in Coelum, Psal. 121. 2. so his place is in the third and highest Heavens, and from thence cometh the true winde and spirit, John 3. 8. and the true rain and dew and water of Grace and life, John 4 14. and from thence discended the true bread of life, John 6. 32. and the oyle of joy and all good things spirituall whatsoever; and from thence we are to look for them; Thus we may consider of Heaven, though we might here rather know and learn the way thither, then curiously to search what it is, which we cannot finde nor comprehend, 1 Cor. 2. 7.

I come to the two other Heavens, because this place teacheth and warranteth us only but of these two. Touching the second Heaven, this we finde, that it is a glorious body, Exod. 24. 10. though it con­sisteth of and by the waters, as St. Peter saith 2 Pet. 3. 5. as in the wa­ter we see no diversity or variety; yet in the bodie of the Heavens there is great variety; for it is as it is in natural things. In a kernel we can perceive no variety, but yet it bringeth a tree forth, which hath great variety, as a body of wood, bark, leaves, blossoms, and fruit, and by this incarnation we have participation of those graces, Heb. 10. 20. and he calleth all to him to buy these waters, John 7. 38. 39. and by his spirit he will power them into our souls, Rom. 5. 5. Water of Me­ditation.and of these waters the Patriarchs and we tasted, 1 Cor. 10. 3. and by these waters of Grace we have passage and navigation from Earth to Heaven, Act. 2. 17. 18. by our waters we can passe from one Country to another.

Waters of Grace.These waters of Grace are contained in the clouds of the Law, the preaching thereof doth drop gratious words, as the dew, Deut. 32. 2. and therefore the wiseman saith, that the lipps of instruction are a well­spring of life; so the preaching and ministery of Gods word is the clouds and bottels which hold this water. Therefore Acts 14. 3. and [Page 55] Acts 20. 32. Gods word is called verbum gratiae, which doth contain heavenly grace as the clouds doe water, which by the inluence of Gods spirit is made aqua vitae & vivificans, John 6. 35. for the word is as seed, but the spirit giveth life, and so that is made effectuall in us, and we made fruitfull unto God, and as a sweet ground whom God hath blessed, Gen. 26. 12.

Now as God, in the name of Heaven, holdeth up the finger, as it were, and saith here is waters to be had and looked for, so the same word of God which made the Heavens, must give these waters from thence; and therefore they which want wisdome, and knowledge, let them ask and seek them of God, Jam. 1. 5. 17. The bucket by which we must draw this water is a true faith, Esay 12. 2, 3. Prov. 12 17. 19. and then our souls became like a well watred garden, Jer. 31. 12. This water it yeeldeth for meditation.

There is also profitable matter to learn for [...], For as we see God doth here, we must expresse the like in our actions, that we may be like unto God: First, When we have received our light of knowledge, we are taught by the order of Creation, that the next course in regeneration is to extenuate our earthly affections, and to sublime and elevate and to lift up our mindes to Heaven, Phil. 3. 20. So St. Paul willeth us, Col. 3. 2. this is the laying up of treasures in Heaven, Matth. 6. 20. we must think on Jerusalem which is above, if we will be free Citizens in it, Gal, 4. 26. Secondly, for the divisi­on, As there is a Heaven and Earth, the two parts of the world, so is there in man two parts correspondent, the earthly Adam made of the dust, and the spirit and soul which God gave, [...]. 12. 7. which is called the Heavenly Adam, 1 Cor. 15. 47. 48. God will first say, let be a separation, our souls must be separated from, earth, earthly and carnall things, as we said before, and ascend; And as all earthly things which make for the flesh, are brought into a nar­row compasse of the Earth, which is but a prick in a circle, whereas God hath reserved the large spatious roome of the Heavens for our souls, so must we bring our carking cares of this life into a narrow room of our hearts, and let the whole compasse of our souls and thoughts be filled with the study and care of the Kingdome of God. Thirdly, As the part of waters which ascended, became a Firmament, and are most sure and immutable unto the end of the World; so must our souls, having begun in the spirit, ascend to Heaven, be constant, firm and immutable to the end of our lives, and never end in the flesh, Gal. 3. 3. nor fall to the Earth as those starres did, Rev. 6. 13. for it it is the part of a foolish and wicked man that is mutable and wavering, Prov. we must not be Ru­benites, Gen. 49. weak and inconstant as water; for a just mans heart is firm and shall not shrink nor be moved, but [...] his [...] in God, Psal. And this is the part of Martyrs, for though they are by nature weak and fearfull and as waters, yet by Gods grace are made, as the Firmament, more sure against all Gods enimies than a wall of brasse.

[Page 56] Matter of thankfullnesse.The last use is for matter of thankfullnesse and gratefullnesse, with which we will close up all. For we see that when the Earth sendeth up but a thin and a small myst, the Clouds requite it by powring down showers; So Cursus Dei gratiae dependet in recursu nostrarum gra­tiarum actionis; for as the Clouds will send no more rain, if the Earth will send up no vapours, nor breathe up any mists; so only Gods Graces will discend into our Souls, when our gratefullnesse doth from thence ascend up to God; for then they cease distilling down on us, when we leave off to be thankfull. Wherefore let us be thankfull for Coelo aëreo, for without the benefit and purenesse of it, we cannot breathe and live, Psal. 65. and let us be thankfull pro Coelo aethereo, for the comfortable and sweet influence of the starres, because the Earth hath no power to bring fruit, without the virtue of the Heavens.

And lastly, Let us [...] thankfull pro Coelo Coelorum, or Coelo Coelesti, that is, for the third Heavens; for as we must praise God for these sensible and visible Heavens, so must we for these invisible and in­comprehensible Heavens, which we enjoy only by hope and faith; for seeing we know that he created them to be a dwelling place for his Saints, John 14. 2. we must not only praise God with thankfull hearts for it, but also prepare our souls that we may be meet to be received into them, with the wise Virgins evermore praising him, for that although he hath not made us Haeredes regalis mansionis here on Earth, yet he hath called us to have mansionem in regno Coelorum which he send us, which hath purchased it for us cui honos & gloria in seculum.

Postea dixit Deus, confluant aquae istae, quae sub hoc Coelo sunt in locum unum, & conspicua sit arida: & fuit ita.Gen. 1. 9.

THE action of the second day was suspended, as I told you the last time, and in some sort left un­done and unperfect, by reason that the Pro­phet delayed and deferred the approbation of the Heavens, untill he should shew us what should become of the nether waters then sepa­rated; wherefore having declared how the upper waters, being lift up, were stretched and spread abroad, and made a Firmament; now he sheweth how the nether waters below were gathered together to make the Seas, and withall he sheweth us the Earth (which, as St. Ambrose saith, lay as a wrack in the middest and bottom of the waters) was by Gods word drawn up and brought to light, and made profitable for man and beast. For after the swadling bands of darknesse were removed and the disordered course of waters, well ordered and disposed, then[Page 57]the eye of Gods providence, from which nothing is hid, beholdeth the Earth which was covered and swallowed up in the deep, Psal. 104. 6. and so he delivereth it of his goodnesse both from the out­ward impediments of the waters, which kept it from the sight of the light, and also from the inward and naturall inconvenience of emptinesse, by which it was unmect for any living thing to dwell on it; which mercy of God, because it sheweth it self to Earth, & we are earth, dust and ashes, therefore it doth so much the more neerly teach and concern us, though light was made, and the firmament framed, yet both these parts of the world, and the world it self was unperfect, untill the Earth was discovered. Therefore Moses telleth us, that God did, as it were, make haste and speedily passe over the first and second day, that he might the sooner come to the Earth, which in the next place he frameth, partly to shew that he is not bound to any course or frame in building his house, as to descend orderly from the cealing of Heaven down to the foundation of the Earth, and partly to manifest his spirituall care and providence that he hath for the Earth and earthly things, indeed, as the Pro­phet telleth us, Esay 45. 18. God made not the Earth in vain, but to this end, that it might be habitable, but it passeth our capacities to think that God would put it to so honourable a use, as to be the place on which he would set his chief delight; But whereas we would think that God, being in Heaven, would not abase himself to vouchsafe to look down on the Earth in this miserable and desolate case; yet now this third day being come, in which the Earth should be made and perfected, we see God adorneth this work with a double Pre­cept, with two actions, and a double approbation, to shew his spe­ciall care and delight he had in this work, for here is twice dixit Deus, and twice fecit, and twice dixit Deus bonum esse, which repeti­tion of redoubling we only see when there is another revolution and another third day, in which God made man of the Earth, to be the perfection of the Earth, as it was the perfection of the world. There­fore we see, that though the Heavens were his own habitation, and the Earth he meant to give and bestow on men, [...]. 115. 16. yet he seemeth to have lesse care and regard of Heaven than of Earth, and to bestow, as it were, double pains and cost on our habitation, over he did upon his own, which is our great comfort, that God re­wardeth and esteemeth or respecteth so much this Earth.

4 Parts.In this dayes work we are to consider four parts, each doubled, First, two Decrees; then two Actions performed: Thirdly, by two accomplishments: Fourthly, by two approbations.

On the Earth we see two actions necessarily performed, First, the emptying and removing of that it should not have, which was the outward impediment of a huge number of waters, which hindred the sight of it and ability to be inhabited.

The second the delivering and removing from it his nether and inward inconvenience of emptinesse, being void of all things meet for habitation, and replenishing it with store and variety of Plants and [Page 58]Herbs, &c. And so having removed the outward and inward impe­diment, Tohu, Tobohu, which it had within and without, he finished the work of God, getteth out a severall warrant to remove both inconveniences, to this end, that it be habitable and stored with ne­cessaries for them that dwell therein.

The parts are the Decree and the Action; the giving out of the Decree is to be considered in this word Dixit, the tenor of the De­cree is durable: First, for the removing of the waters: Secondly, for the appearing of the Earth: The third and last place setteth down the accomplishment of it. Touching the giving out of the Decree, to omit the things before rehearsed, I will deliver these three points, First, the giving out of it in regard of God: Secondly, touching the word: Thirdly, of the number.

1.For the first, Seeing Abraham maketh it a great matter, Gen. 18. 27. that Earth should seem to speak to God, we may think it a wonder and a strange thing that God should so abase himself, as it were, to behold, much more to vouchsafe to speak to this rude and poor Creature, which lay in worse and baser case than any other; for whereas other Creatures in their imperfection had but one incon­venience, we see this had two, without and within: Wherefore, if we make this a matter of inquiry, the Scriptures shew us this reason, that it is Gods usuall custome and nature and delight, to shew his goodnesse, especially in exalting things humble and most base, and to lift the poor out of the mire, Job 5. 11. It is a known thing, that God Humilibus dat gratiam, Pro. 3. 34. which all the Apostles also teach; wherefore the Earth, being the lowest and basest, and most poor and humble, doth God of his grace and goodnesse choose to give it this grace, and to exalt it thus.

The Prophet telleth us, that God had made choise to dwell in two places, Habitat aut in aeternitate, or else habitat in humilitate, that is, he will no where dwell, but either in the high Heavens, or else in the low and humble Earth. Therefore of his goodnesse he vouchsafed to seek a treasure house in the Earth wherein to keep his chosen, and so hath made the Earth, as it were, the ornament of the Hea­vens.

Thus we see the Decree in respect of God.

2.Secondly for the Word. As we saw the word of God to be the piller of the Heavens, so here we see it serveth to build and uphold the Earth, and as the Spirit then moving, by dilatation made and spead abroad the Heavens, so here the work and power of the Spi­rit is seen in contraction, for so the Earth was made, and the Seas, gathering in the waters; and as the Heavens were by division, so now the Earth and Waters are made by union, being joyned toge­ther. So that as a mans hand is called instrumentum instrumentorum; So Gods word is Gods hand, by which the Heavens and Earth were made, Psal. 33. 6. By the word of the Lord the Heavens were made, that is, Psal. 102. 25. they are the work of his hands, the Word and Spirit, and as there he speaketh of them as of a body, so here he calleth it Syna­goga [Page 59] aquarum, a concourse or gathering of waters, thereby comparing the Sea to a great Cathedrall Church, and the Arms, Streams, and Rivers to be as it were Parish Churches to that Sea or Diocesse; so that as all inferiour Parishes are ordered and depend on their Mother Church, so doth this teach us to think of the Seas and gathering of waters.

Touching the name and title given to them, there are divers judge­ments and opinions, but they may be reduced to these four: 1.The first hath a denotation and pointing at the properties and qualities of the water and Seas: 1.And first from the plenty and aboundance of them, in which sense we call any great quantity a Sea, as a Sea of Peo­ple, of troubles, &c.

2.Secondly, For the instability, in which respect, the wicked are compared to the Sea, as tossed in trouble and wavering in inconstan­cle, Esay 57. 20.

3.Thirdly, In respect of the raging and unrulinesse of the Seas, Psal. 65. 7. 2.therefore, for these ill qualities of the waters, they think that God gave the Sea this name: Other think that God gave not that name to signifie any evill, but rather the good properties and nature of it, and therefore they say that it hath its name because the Seas were, as it were, the mother, out of whose wombe the earth was taken, as Eve out of Adams side, and it was not only taken e visceribus aquarum, as having a wombe, as Job saith 38. 8. but also the Earth taketh his nou­rishment ex visceribus aquarum, for of it self it is dry & witherly with­all, Prov. 30. 16. and is as a Child thirsting, gaping, and opening his mouth for the moisture of the waters to drink and be satisfied with it, Psal. 143. 6. so they think that it hath his name hereof, and from and out of it issueth the Earth, and is nourished also thereby.

3.The third sort think that it is nominated from the scituation and place which it hath, for if we look in a Map of the World and set our face to the East, we shall see that the Seas are placed on the right hand and the Earth scituated on the left, as giving it the right hand of fel­lowship.

4.The fourth and last sort are the best, who considering the two words which signifie the Earth and the Sea, Majim & Jamin, for the first letter put to the latter end of the other word maketh them all one, and the last letter of the second word put before the first, maketh the two words to be all one without difference, which is done only by a transposition of letters, which shew that Waters naturally are above the Earth, and yet by Gods transposition the Earth is set above the Wa­ters, and so they are without difference joyned as in one Globe.

This transposition of the things they gather out of the transposition of words; for at the first naturally the Seas eat up and devoure the Earth, but now being transposed and set aloft, it feedeth and nourish­eth it; at the first it was the grave of the Earth, but now it is as a gar­ment to it, Psal. 104. 6. and so by Gods spirit it is transposed, and God did as it were change and transpose his Decree to have it so, Job 38. 10.

[Page 60]The third point is, That it is set down in the plurall number; for though we call all the gathering together of the waters but one body, singular, yet it hath two shores, which are the Seas lips through which he thrusteth forth, as it were, his tongue by rivers into the land, so in his parts it is plurall, as in arms and fingers, but all this plurality joyn­eth together in one salt Sea, Gen. 14. 3. and we doe call that the main Ocean Sea, which is the greatest place whereto is the gathering toge­ther of all waters, Joshuah 15.7. and 47. Job calleth the Seas, the bottom of waters 38. 16. and the other Rivers and streams to be, as it were, salt tears dropping and distilling from the eyes of the deep Seas, which running through the veins of the Earth is cleansed and purified from his brackish and barren nature, and so it is made profitable and plea­sant and good.

Now to the second part of this work, which is Gods approbation, touching which, first of Gods view, and then of the goodnesse of them.

This speech is taken from Artificers; for as they having made a thing, will return to behold and view it, either to amend it if it be amisse, or to commend it if be well. So it is said, That God, having per­fected all waters above and below and the Earth, he took a view and consideration of them, not to amend or correct them, for he needed not, because he is so perfect a workman that all his works are most per­fect and cannot be amended or made better; for though foolish men think this or that evill, or imagine how it may be better, yet God knoweth all to be most absolutely and perfectly good; and therefore it is said that his looking on it was only to approve and allow it as good in it self for us, and herein God differeth from men; for men are carelesse in their work, so they doe it, they care not how it be done; but God will not doe a thing, but he will see it well done, and confirm and avouch it to be perfectly good.

Duplex usus.This example teacheth us to have a double use of Gods Creatures: The one a naturall use of them, as the Earth to tread on, the light to see by: The other is a spirituall use, which is usus reflexus, which is the consideration of Gods mercie and goodnesse in making these things, and our gratefull acknowledgement thereof, for as God would not make them materially, but regard and consider them in their qualities spiritually; so we in using them naturally, must make this spirituall use of them admirari Artem, adorare Artificem.

We will first speak of the Waters, and then of the goodnesse of them: Of the nether Waters.We have before spoken of the upper waters; now this is to be understood of these below, which are gathered together in the Seas; for these also God saith are good, in speaking of which, we must divide the waters, as the old Hebrews, for all waters are good, both those which they call the waters of Bethlem, that is, good and sweet waters, for which David longed, 1 Reg. 23. 15. and also the waters of Jericho, 2 Reg. 2. 19. which were salt and unfruitfull.

Waters of Bethlem, and Jericho.Touching the waters of Bethlem, 1.First, they were good; for they have a double use, profit, and goodnesse which we finde; the one is by [Page 61]reason of a filthinesse and foul soil and corruption which the Earth and Earthly things bring to us, and which our own sweat and excre­ments will cause about us, and it is a necessarie virtue to wash, cleanse, and purifie or scourc those things about us which are foul and unclean, as by pouring water into our hands to wash them, 2 Reg. 5. 10. 14. or to wash our cloaths and apparrel, 2 Sam. 19. 24. if we should want and lack water but for these uses, it would be ill with us, so good and necessary they are for our life. This good and necessary use of water is spiritually signified in the Lavor of the Temple in the old Law, and in the Sacrament of Baptism in the new Testament.

2.The second goodnesse and benefit in it, is in regard of drought and heat; for when we or the Earth is dry and thirsty, the water is drink with his moisture to satisfie it, and when we are hot, the wa­ter, naturally cold, hath a cooling face to refresh us, as the heart be­ing in a chafe and set in a heat by chafing is faint, and longeth and brayeth for the waters, Psal. 42. 1. so doth mans heart thirst and cannot endure the drought and heat within, except it be cooled with the drink of the waters; and therefore it is said, Psal. 104. 10. pro­pinquavit Deus, that is (as the word importeth) when God made the waters, he began, and did, as it were, drink to all the Creatures, shewing them that there was the place where they should fetch drink, and so to pledge him for ever thereat: And in respect of this goodnesse which we finde in the nature of the waters, we see that those things which are very good, and so necessary that we cannot be without them, they are compared and said to be as cold as water to a faint and thirsty soul, Prov. 25. 25. Besides this, it hath a good use to dresse our meats as well as to be drinke.

Salt Waters.Now for the waters of Jericho. Those are bitter and brackish wa­ters of the Seas, they were made also very good, and to a most commodious use, for they are made promptuarius, a store house or treasury from whence cometh all waters in the world, both above in the Clouds and below in the Earth: Clouds, Waters from the Sea.For the Clouds, it is said; that God calleth and raiseth waters out of the Sea, and causeth it to ascend into the Clouds, and so by drops to descend down into the Earth; Amos 5. 8. So the Cloud waters are from the Seas.

So fresh Wa­ters.So are all the fresh waters in the fountains and springs, for as Job saith 38. 8. they are tanquam lachrymae trickling and distilling from the eyes and head of the Seas; for they make the world as a body like a man, as they compare man to the World; for the head and higher parts is the waters, the bones of the bodie is the Quarries and Rocks, the Muscles and Flesh is the earthly part of hills, &c. the Conduit pipes and Fountains of Water streaming and running in the Earth, are called the veins of the Earth; that the Springs and Foun­tains issuing and springing out; are as the blood letting and opening of a vein; and as in a mans body when the veins are [...] in di­vers places, the whole body must needs he overwhelmed and all imbrued in his own blood, and perish; so it is said of the World,[Page 62] Gen. 7. 11. in the great deluge, in which the World perished by water, rupti sunt fontes Abyssi, which breaking up of the fountains was the cause that the waters played above the Earth, so that all the blood and veins come and goe to one head and originall of the li­ver; so the Rivers have their waters from the Sea, and doe return them thither again, Preach. 1. 7.

And this is the third miracle which we see in this work of the Waters: First, We saw them at Gods word ascending up into the Clouds, and descending. Secondly, The lower waters standing up on a heap and continuing so. Thirdly, That the Rivers ever running into the Sea, and yet are never empty and dry: and again the Sea ever receiving all waters that come, and thereby being ever full, is not satisfied as never full, and yet never overmatcheth the bancks, which wonderfull miracle in this work of God we see every day, and yet regard it not.

2.The second goodnesse and benefit of these waters is in Psal. 104. 26. that men may say, there goe the Ships, that is, God made it a fit and good place for Navigation, non ad habitandum sed ad navigandum & natandum, by which passage of Merchandise and Sea-faring men, we disburden our selves of those superfluous commodities which our Land affords, and get thereby, by exchange, the commodities of other Countries, which we want: So that as God hath Wa­gons and Chariots in the Clouds, and we Wagons and Chariots on the Earth and Land, so God hath by this taught us to make Ships as our Wagons by Sea to transport and carry and have passage from one Nation to another. But though we can have our horses and Wagons on the Land when we list, yet cannot Mariners and Merchants have their Sea Wagoners to drive their Wagons there, at their pleasures, but must wait and tarry Gods leisure for prospe­rous gales; and merry windes are sent them at the good pleasure and commandement of God, and by reason of this goodnesse and benefit of waters God hath caused it, that the Harvest of the Seas, and the Treasure of the Sands shall be as great and greater then the Harvest of the Land, and that the wealth of Merchants shall goe beyond the wealth and treasure of the Husbandmen, Esay 23. 3. yea we see that Salomons wordly wealth and aboundance of all things, both for necessary service, as timber, gold, &c. and for pleasure and variety as Apes and Peacocks, &c. 1 Reg. 10. 22. all that came by means of Merchandise and dealing by Ships, and having traf­fique to Ophir, which made him so rich, that gold was as stones in the streets; and this goodnesse of the Seas especially concerneth us which are Islanders, we best know it and feel here this singular and speciall goodnesse of the waters, and say as God doth, that we see that they are good; for were it not for this, we should be impri­soned in this little Island, and be without the knowledge of other Countries, also we should be cloyed with our commodities and be destitute of many other which we want; An excellent benefit of the Sea.but that which is most, we should have been ever without the knowledge of Gods holy [Page 63]Word; For how could that have come hither, Or how could we have gone beyond the Seas for it, had it not been for the Sea, where­in goe the Ships? Pauls Shipwrack was most blessed and happy to that Island, Act. 27. 41. for by that means the Gospell of Christ came to them, the greatest commodity that could be; But unwor­thy are we of this Pearl which Merchants have sound and brought from beyond the Sea, seeing we so lightly regard, that we will scarce step out of doores for to hear it, this is the good that we by it have Merchants, Nahum. 3. 16. Another benefit of good we receive by them, Nahum. 3. 14. in that they are made to us as a Ditch, For­tresse, Wall, or Bulwark of strength and defence to the Land. For in Islands we are intrenched, as it were, round about, with Sands, with Rocks, with Ships, and Seas. These things more properly pertain to us Islanders; for Islands are called the branches of the Sea.

For main Lands have other carriage and defence, though with more trouble and cost. Lastly, It is good for Peter with his Nets and Gins to take Fish.

The discourse of the Earth.Now for the Earth, God also saw and said that it was good like­wise, which is so well known, that I need not tell you that the use of it a top is not only good to goe and runne upon, and inhabite, but also to bear Corn, Wine, Oyle, Herbs, and Roots, and other Fruit, for Man and Beast, that dwell thereon Job. 28. 5. And under the good mould for fruit, we see it good and profitable, in that it hath mines of Coale, and under it veins of Gold, and other most profitable metals, and under it precious stones, and every where within Quarries and Rocks of stone, and without Trees of timber to build us houses withall. This were sufficient to make us see and con­fesse, to Gods glory, how good it is to us.

But let us come to the very substance of the Earth, in respect of the whole, and (not to search his riches and parts and fruits) we see that it is the matter of which we are made, and to which we must return, Job 10. 9.10. which there is set down after two manners, both as we respect Adam in creation, or our selves in generation, being poured out as milk, &c. For touching creation, we are of the Earth, and therefore called houses of Clay, as Jeremy speaketh to his King, O Earth, O Earth, &c. 22. 29. Wherefore, if we think our selves good, we cannot deny, but the matter of which we were made is also good.

2.Secondly, It is a good and a convenient place super quem, as the Aire is a fit Element in quo; for God hath made it good to goe upon, and therefore he hath made it locum lucidum, solidam, siccum fixum, & firmum, that being light and steddy, it might have all the com­mendations and goodnesse of a place to dwell in; and as it is a place to move in, so it is to take rest and ease; as it is [...], a Work­house and Shop, in which we must imploy our travail and labour, so is it our Refection. refectorium, to refresh and ease our selves, and to recover our strength.

[Page 64] The Earth is the Lords and all in it, Psal. 24. 1. but he hath given the Earth to the sonnes of men, Psal. 115. 16. but only to this end, that they should serve him in the works of their Callings, in the service of God and the Country, that they might keep his Statutes and observe his Laws, Psal. 105. 45.

3.The third goodnesse is the benefit of our grave, for this is our Mothers lap and armes into which we yeeld our bodies, being dead, it is our Coemeterium, our sleeping place in the night time of our death, Job 17. 13. as it was our [...] in the day time of our life.

Now as we have considered the goodnesse of it wholly; so now let us see the parts by themselves, the hills, mountains, and rocks are good for shaddows in time of heat, and for shelter in time of Winter against cold and tempests, Esay 32. 2. the stoney rocks also serve for Conies, Psal. 104. 18. the valleys and dales are good and commodious for Corn, Psal. 104. 10. Esay 30. 23. and also for pasture, Psal. 65. 13. so it is good for to give all things to feed man and beast.

The other dryer part of the Earth, which is sand and gravell, is good for treasure, Deut. 33. 19. and the wet or moister part of it which is clay and marle, is good to dung and mend the land, also to make vessels of earth, Jer. 18. 3, 4. and to make brick and houses, and morter, Ezech. 13. 10. So that the high and low parts, the dry and moist parts of the Earth, are very good.

The Waters and Land joyntly consi­dered, four things noted therein.Yet let us further consider these things, that is, the Waters and Land joynt together, as they are framed in one globe, touching which we have four things to note.

1.The first, is in regard of Heaven and Celestiall bodies, where we shall observe a threefold good; for a thing that is good only in it self, and doth not impart it to other, is good in vain, and to no end; and that which is good to it self, and hath a nature to be good to other, but hath noe good means to conceive it, is to no purpose: Wherefore, as the Heavens have vertue and goodnesse, as light, heat, dews, &c. So the Aire is the good means by which it is sent and conveyed, and the Earth is that receptacle which receives all those good things imparted to it: So all the good of Heaven is con­veyed to the Earth by the Aire, and so it is made known and proved to be good. The Earth is the pond of all waters, and the lap and open hand, yea, and the wide open mouth which God hath ordain­ed to receive all the blessings of Heaven, untill Heaven have recei­ved us.

2.Secondly, The Waters and Earth are good in regard of one another, the waters are good to the land, and the land to the waters; the Earth would be without water to glue it together, even as dust, which would fly in our eyes to hinder our sight and choake us, and hinder our breathing in the Aire, Job 38. 38. and being all dry clods it would be unprofitable for tillage; therefore God giveth the waters to mollifie and soften it, Psal. So the Earth is good to the Sea waters; for it is a clenser and strainer, through which the saltnesse and unfruitfulnesse of the Waters are amended, and made[Page 65]profitable, Exod. 15. 25. Also as it maketh them serviceable, so doth the Earth make them medicinable, by his veynes, giving a vertue to make hot bathes, Gen. 36 24. so by it the waters are made profitable, serviceable, and medicinable.

3.Thirdly, In regard of our selves which enjoy both; for both are our matter and substance of which we are made: For the Earth is the Meale and the Waters the Liquor, of both which the whole lump of Mankinde was made, and by both we are preserved alive, as the means appointed by God.

4.Lastly, in regard of God. For the Earth is Gods good Footstool, the Seas and Waters his Gallory or path to walk in, Job 9. 8. and the Hea­vens to be his Seat, on which, if he but stamp with his feet, as angry, both the Eart and Waters are troubled and doe quake; but if he tread gently, as pleased, they are quiet, and doe, as it were, leap, play, and dance for joy; but at his frowning and check the hills tremble, and the Seas are troubled and make a noyse, Psal. 48. In the 114. 5. we may see a Dialogue between the Sea and the Land touching this; For the Earth asketh the Waters, What ayleth thee that thou art troubled, &c. The Waters reply and say, We fly at the presence and voyce of God; at which he saith, Tremble thou O Earth; for if his feet make the Seas goe out of course, then it is able to overturn the Earth, being his Foo stool.

Usus.The use of this is matter of meditation, both of Gods Mercie and Justice: If we anger God with sinne, the Earth is made to stagger and reele, the Seas to roare and swell, and the Fire to rage and burn on every side, and threaten our destruction: If we please him, they are made good means for our preservation: Where of this is the effect and application of this his goodnesse and approbation, to pray to God, which is the hope of all which dwell on the Earth, and which remain on the broad Sea, Psal. 65. 5. that he will use the Sea to drown all our sinnes in it, Micha. 7. 9. and one day to make us to see all his goodnesse in the land of the living, Psal. 27. 13. for then we shall indeed see that all that God made for us is most absolute and good.

Iterum dixit Deus, Herbascat terra herbulas, herbas sementantes semen, &c.Genesis 1. vers. 11.12.

IT was a benefit for the Earth to be disburdened from the great weight of huge waters, wherewith it was surcharged, even that breathing and ease from that burthen was a great blessing; but it con­tenteth not God (so gracious is he) only to make it spectabilem, but also he will make it speciosum; he will have it both conspirable, that it may be seen, and also conspicuall that it may be worthy the sight, that is, comely, [Page 66]sightly, and good and pleasant to behold. For, as Esay saith, 40. 15. it was made and appeared at the first, it was but a dust heap, and as he calleth it, a measure of dust ashes, but now it is made habitable and a seat for men; then it was in its nature but as a Desart place, destitute of all necessaries to sustain them which are and remain dwelling in it; but now, being delivered from the naturall inconveniences Tohu, Tohohu, it is become a store-house, replenished with all things for man and beast, mundus erat antea domus, as I have shewed you; for it had Hea­ven the sealing, the Waters as walls, the Earth as pavement, sed non erat in domo hac panis; it was as a Shepherds Cottage and wildernesse in which we might stay, but we must needs starve, if it had continued so: Wherefore as good no place as such a place, untill God had added this blessing to furnish it, as here we shall see.

Therefore, that it might be penu, as the waters made it promptuari­um, God here maketh it a storehouse and place of receipt, taking or­der by his word that it might be locus conveniens ad vitam, ad victum, ad vestitum, and to that end doth he here open his mouth again, saith Moses.

Touching which, 1. The second opening of Gods mouth.we will first consider of his second opening of his mouth. 2. Of the Ar­gument.Secondly, of the Argument and Contents of his Edict. 3 Of his words, and works, which doe expresse it.Thirdly, of his Words and Works, which doe expresse it.

The iterating and doubling of his word, is a signe of his double care and love he bare to the Earth, which we must answer again by dou­bling our love and care to please him with all our heart and soul Matth. 22. 10. If we look on all their works and compare this with the two before; and after we shall see heuseth but one speech to his place of Heaven, but he speaketh once or twice to this, and the reason is be­cause the Earth was cumbred with a double and indeed with a tripple inconvenience; for it was within emptie, without a bare and a de­formed dust heap, and all overwrapped with waters to cover it: Therefore God having removed the waters with one word, now here he removeth the other inconveniences, giving her facultatem foecun­ditat is instead of emptinesse, & amictum venustat is for the other with­out; So this is the beautifull apparell of the Earth which the Poets say Vesta gave her, rather doe we account this as a work of adorning, than a removing from it these native inconveniences which before it had; for these we call ornaments that may be removed or taken away, as we are whole though jewels and bracelets and chains be taken a­way, such are the living Creatures, as beasts and birds, &c. which may be removed. But those things here named, grow fast unto the Earth and cannot be put away, but are as supplies to the indigence of nature. God cannot abide esse inners, that is, an idle being; and therefore, as he gave the light a power to send out beams, and the Heavens to send down influence and dewes, and to Rivers a motive power to runne in­to the veins of the Earth, and so spring up: So here to keep the Earth from idlenesse, he in this work of distinction giveth it a power to shoot out Plants, which are as the beams and influences of the Earth, that it corrupt not in idlenesse. And thus much of the order and dependance of these words.

[Page 67] The Argu­ment.Now, for the form and argument of it, We shall see that the pupose of God herein, is partly to deck and trim up his work, and partly that it might be inriched with store for profit and [...]; for nothing is good in respect of God, which is only speciosum viden­ti, nisi sit commodum utenti; therefore God would make it as well profitable as pleasant, both for man and beast, Psal. 104. 14. and prepare and make all things ready and fit for life, before he made living things. Which course we see usuall and agreeable to nature; for God provideth still breasts full of milk before the Child be born: And it is the manner and course of men in the world, before they will come to dwell in and possesse a house, they will first lay in their provision and necessaries for houshold.

A good Pater Familias.So doth God deale in this place; He first taketh order for our diet and fare, the Flower of Meale for Bread, and the Grape for the Winepresse, out of the Herbe and the Plant, Ose 9. 2. which Moses calleth, Deut. 32. 14. the fat of the Wheat, and the blood of the Grape, thus he provideth for men in the Herbs and the Plants, and for beasts he took order in that he left for Hay and for Pasture and Grasse of the fields, Psal. 104. 14. and clean and good Provender for them, Esay 30. 24. All which he did that we might be kindled with the love of God, which hath been so carefull and provident for us.

The Decree.Touching the Decree, it containeth three parts, First, the Decree it self. Secondly, the Complement of it, and it was so. Thirdly, the Censure of God in his liking and approbation, that it is good. Of the first of these at this time.

Wherein first of his speaking again, When we shall consider the virtue and force of Gods dixit, whereby he made and furnished all things, It must teach us, not despicere terras, not to look downward and depend on the Earth for food, nor yet suspicere stellas, that is, not gaze on the starres to trust in them for fruitfull increase; but it teach­eth us to passe beyond all these, and know that all these blessings of the Earth come from God and his word, which saith Let the Earth bear forth, and it was so, non produxit terra antequam dixit Deus producat terra; for the nature of the Earth was at first empty, in the second degree dry and cold, which are mortiferae qualitates, and will rather kill than quicken and keep any seed, herb, or plant: But notwith­standing all this, if God call for a plenty, and say, Let the Earth bear, though there be no man to till the ground, no seed in the ground, no starres to give influence, no means now ordeined to cause it, yet it will bring forth fruit in aboundance: For at this time Adhuc Adam fuit Adama, that is, Agricola fuit adhuc ager, man was earth, and yet in the dust heap; therefore man was not the cause that the Earth did bear fruit, neither were the Heavens and Starres any cause, for they were not as yet made; for the Sunne, Moon, and all the Stars, are Juniors to the Herbs and Plants, and the very Grasse and Flower of the field Ancients to them all, quid ergo aspiras astra, saith one to starre-gazers.

[Page 68]These plants and herbs are the influence, and starres and beams shooting out of the earth, as the Heavens hereafter have starres in them.

It is strange that Theophrastus, which never knew Moses writing, doth yet acknowledge this, That the earth brought forth all fruits meet for man and beast, before any living Creatures were on the earth. If then the fruits of the earth are not from any earthly cause, not from the earth it self, nor from man, nor from the starres we must needs conclude that they come from this dixit Deus, by the blessing of his word willing it to be done; the truth of which God hath sealed and signed up to us, by two reasons, the first St. Paul pleadeth, 1 Cor. 15. 36.

The second part is the Censure of approbation, saying, that it was good. In the Preach. 5. 8. the wise man being a King doth confesse that the fruitfullness of the earth is so necessarily good that no man, no not the King himself, can live or continue, but must miserably pine and perish without his fruit; and therefore St. James 5. 7. the Apostle calleth them, the precious fruits of the Earth, for which we wait as the hope of our life. There are three goods, as I told you before, honestum, utile, jucundum, each of which contain in them a double goodnesse: All which three pair of several goodnesses we shall see in the earth Bonum honestum, as a virtue morall which respe­cteth true justice, equity, and faithfulnesse; and on the other side, benignity, goodnesse, mercy, and liberality, which we shall see in the earth. Bonum ju­cundum.In that good which is called jucundum, there is one speci­all prerogative to delight and please the senses, as to be fair and sightly to the eye, sweet to the smell, pleasant to the taste, delight­full to the eare: So there is multiplicity of delight.

Bonum utile.For Bonum utile, there is utile ferrum, which we cannot be without, which is durum telum, and will break through walls.

Bonum honestum.The other, that is Bonum honestum, is such a profit which we may be without, but yet not conveniently.

For the first moral goodnesse, though properly it pertaineth to men, yet here it may be applyed to the earth, and a pattern of it may be seen there. For touching truth and fidelity, Commit any seed into the earth, it is more sure and trusty to keep it than man; therefore the Husbandman, having sowed his seed, sleepeth secure­ly without doubt or distrust, Mark 4. 26. knowing that he dealeth with a most true, just, and faithfull Creature, which will safely de­positum servare, and in due time repay and deliver his charge, and that not barely in the same measure that it received it; but that which is the second point, it will repay, besides the principall, great in­crease very bountifully with great liberallity, Psal. 72. 16. A hand­full of Corn shall be sown on the hills, and it shall bring forth a croppe, Esay: Every Corn, saith Christ, Matth. 13. 8. commeth up and bringeth his advantage, some thirty, some sixty, some an hundred folde, every one will be manifold, Gen. 26. 12. So had Abraham and Jacob an hundred folde increase, and this increase and gain it speedily returneth; for it[Page 69]is not dealt withall as Usurers custome is, that is, we take in bonds and obligations; but without constraint or exaction, of its own good­nesse and liberality, it giveth more, though it be fructum indebitum, that is, more than it oweth us to repay any: but Userers will not stand to mens gratefull return of recompence, but will binde men be­fore they lend, that they may be sure of their harvest before hand: but we need not deal so cruelly with the Earth, for it will liberally give us, if we shall thankfully praise God the maker of it and us. So there is a justice in paying that which is committed with faithfullnesse without breaking or deceiving; and there is liberality and goodnesse, to repay with thankfullnesse more then is received. And this dealing if God see in us, which are of the earth, he will say it is good; Bonum utile.for bonum utile hath two respects both for man and beasts; for that which is absolutely needfull Pabulum & latibulum, Esay 5. 6. for us food and rayment is ferreum utile, and we must be content with it, 1 Tim. 6. 8. As for our food we have it of the Earth, it yeeldeth us for nourish­ment within and without; for our covering, if we respect our houses, for shadow and shelter in Sommer and Winter, we have all the matter from the Earth of which it is made; and for our neerest covering, which is next our skin, that we have of the Earth as well as our remo­test shelter; therefore if these things be good for us, we see that the Earth and his fruit is well approved and censured by God, and we are to acknowledge it with thankfullnesse to God, Numb. 11. 5. they con­fessed that their good estate they had in AEgypt came from the Earth, It was well with us when we had our bellies full of fleshpots, Garlike, etc. For medicine also to recover health, being lost, and to preserve it, being had, all come from the Earth, Psal. 47. 12. it [...] drinks, which are refrigerium animae, and bread, which is fulcrum cordis, Psal. 104. 15. to preserve health and strength, & creavit Deus medicinum, [...], saith the Wiseman, Wisd. 38. 4. It bringeth a cluster of figgs for meat, and to be also a medicine to make a plaster for [...] Car­buncle, Esay 38. 21. If the Art of the Apothecary and Phisition be good; if it be goodnesse to have health and strength, and to be pre­served in it by meat and medicine, then the Earth is good, because the goodnesse of them come from thence: And this goodnesse of the Earth is not good and profitable only filiis hominum, but even servis hominum, to our beasts, fowls, and cartel; it bringeth herbs for the use of men, and for the service of men also, that is for beasts food, and fodder, and provender, which doth servous Psal. 104. 14. we have olera for the pot, as I have shewed you, 2 Reg. 4. 39. and grasse and hay for beasts; out of the herbes of the Earth we have for [...] use bread, and drink, and corne; and for their service which serve us, it bringeth pulse for provinder, yet in our grain God hath made in wheat meale flower for us, and the straw, chaffo, and bran for beasts. We must praise God for this goodnesse of the Earth, Psal. 147. 8, 9.

For the other part, if we come to shelter or covering, Our outward farthestcovering is the house, and our nearest covering [...], [Page 70]all which come from the earth, Exod 9. 31. the great and main timber and beams for buildings and strength, and the fine grained timber for beauty and ornament, to ceale our houses, come from the earth, Jer. 22. 13. 14. for wainscot timber, Hagg. 1. 4. As we know both Salomons Temple and houses came out of the fruits of the earth, Jonas gourd for shaddow and meat groweth out of the earth; also for instruments both of Musick for pleasure, or of occu­pations for service, came from the earth: So that pabulum & latibu­lum is thence.

Jucundum Bonum.I come to jucundum for pleasure of the eyes: It is our delight to behold hills and valleys set orderly, with woods, springs and rivers, Num. 24. 6, 7. and the Lillies for beauty exceed Salomon in his royaltie, Matth. 6. 29. as our eye doth more willingly gaze at nothing more then this; so among our chief delights, we seek a pleasant sci­tuation where we may have goodly prospects, orchards and gar­dens, Preach. 2. 5. all the pleasure and comfort we have in sweet smells and odors come from the earth, Psal. 45. 8. as myrrhe, alloes and cassia, camphire and spikenard, Cant. 4. 13. for all come out of flowers and trees, &c. For the last, it bringeth milk and honey, Exod. 3. 8. wine and oyle, Psal. 104. 15. the fat of the Earth, and the blood of the grape, milk and flesh, immediatly doe come from the earth, as fruits for us.

Besides these things for necessity, the earth bringeth forth mani­fold varieties of fruits for dainties and pleasure, in so much as one saith, we fit longer and with more delight secundis mensis quam pri­mis, that is, at our banquet and junkets, than at our first part of our dinner for dyet, need and hunger, but all is from the earth. In one word, to conclude, goe to the goodnesse in Winter, and our fire and fuel is from thence, Esay 44. 16. the good of the Spring, which is herbs and flowers; the good of Sommer, which is shadows; the good of Harvest, all fruits; the good of Autumn, the seed which is sown: all come from the earth, which sheweth that it is good. As we con­sider the parts of the year, so if you marke the parts of every thing, you shall see them to be good: A goodnesse commeth from the Roses; Herbs and all Plants are goodnesse from the stalk, another from the leaf, flower, seed, and fruit, both for distillation and other uses; even the gummes which sweat and drop from them, are good and profitable, and nothing ill that God made, whether we respect the goodnesse severally of every thing in his kinde, or of the good­nesse of every part of them being divided.

Object.Only one thing commeth crosse against this generality; For, see­ing many things are unprofitable, many evill and hurtfull, how can all be counted good, annon Deus spinas pungentes, neccon succos occiden­tes creavit? for Thornes and Briers are an evill curse, and Colloquintida and many things growing out of the Earth are evill, poysonfull, and deadly.

Answ.The ancient Fathers, entring into this discourse say, That the Sunne it self is not good to every one, for it hurreth ill eyes.

[Page 71]There are many things which are good only in their times and pla­ces, Preach. 3. 11. and in this respect there is nothing in their particu­lar place and time, but hath a good use, though generally at all times, and to all persons it be not good the barrennesle and barenesse of the earth God hath made to be good to us, and to a good end, namely, to be a whetst one to move us to industry and diligence, and to keep us from idlenesse; though thornes and bryers be ill inter fruges, yet they be good circa fruges, these spinoe are profitable and good in soepe for de­fence, though in sulco they be evill, and doe hinder the Corne. Succus venenosus, & occidens are by the Art of the Physition and Apotheca­ry made Theriaca mundi, the Treacle and purgation to expell and draw out all venome and poyson. That Colloquintida which they said was death and deadly poyson, 2 Reg. 1. 39,40. is medicinable with us and commonly used in purgations, so is Vipers flesh, &c.

But we stand not on this; but though they were not good for to shew Gods mercy and love to the Godly, yet they are good to shew his justice and wrath to the wicked, Esay 10. 5. there are none but will say that rods are good and necessary in a school; so are these things good to punish the wicked in the world, Joel. 2. 25. So that if there were nothing but this which David confesseth, Psal. 119. 67. Before I was troubled I went wrong, but now I keep thy Law; therefore it was good for me that I have been introuble, &c. It were enough to prove them to be good, because these Armies and Hosts of Gods displeasure doe bring us to goodnesse, Joel 2. 25.

But now for germinabit tibi spinas, Gen. 3. 18. that is, for thy finne and because of thy disobedience, the earth shall bring forth to thee thousinner: so that before we did sinne there was none of these things that could hurt us, but were for our good; for, as God made us mor­tall and subject to corruption, yet it was Gods preservative grace, which keeping him from dying and mortallity, that his dust returned not to dust; so the same preservative grace should have kept all Adams posterity from any hurt of these things, if they had continued in integrity: Wherefore to conclude this, whether thornes and ve­nomous herbs were created in principiis suis or in semine, for we hold both Creations, it is certain that they had been good, and could not have been hurtfull to them, if they had not sinned, which we see by warrant; for those men which were renewed to the Image of God, and were in Gods favour, all things did serve to their good, and no ill thing could hurt them, Jam. 5. 17. Elias could command Heaven to rain & not to rain, Jam. 5. 18. Joshuah might by Gods permission com­mand the Sun and Moon, Joshuah 10. 12. The three Children could not be hurt in the fire, raging and flaming, Dan. 3 27. Neither could the Lyons be evill to hurt him, Dan. 6. 22. The Viper could not hurt Paul, Act. 28. 3. If the faithfull drink deadly poyson, it shall not hurt them, Mark 16. 18. and many such examples are, Heb. 11 33. which shew that God giveth his preservative grace to the Godly, by which they have such a prerogative as Adam had in his innocency, when his cor­ruptible dust was kept from corruption, that it turned not to dust again.[Page 72]They which have Gods eyes and Image shall see this to be true, that the thing which is deadly to some, shall not hurt them; So that as all things are clean to the Clean, so all is good to the Good and Godly.

Usus Spiritua­lis.Now for the spirituall use: And first we are put in minde of our homage to God, in serving and praising him for these earthly and tem­porall blessings, which we receive from him the only author and owner thereof; for many not knowing that their Wine, Oyle, and Corn, and other riches come from God, Ose 2. 8. did give the glory and praise of them to Idolls, ascribing the gift to others: If by these things we receive strength and continue in health, we must remember our duty to be thankfull, Ezech. 11. 16. to 21. for seeing God hath opened his mouth for our good, saying, Let the Earth be fruitfull, and if now he still openeth his hands and fill us with his blessing, it is our duty of gratefullnesse to lift up our hands and open our mouths to blesse and praise his holy name; so these earthly benefits must be keyes to unlock and open our mouths to sing some praise to him, Jer. 2. 31. God hath not been a Lord of darknesse nor a wildernesse to us, therefore we must not be as barren and unfruitfull ground to him, but yeild some fruit of our lives by obedience, and some fruit of our lips by thankfull­nesse. Usus duplex.The use and profit of this, is first in regard of Gods word to the Earth, and then in regard of Gods word in respect of himself: For the first, we see that God speaketh but once to the Earth, and it is suf­ficient to move it to perfect obedience: But in the 22. Jer. 29. God is fain to speake thrice, terra, terra, terra, before we can be brought to heare and understand, for our eares are more deaf than the sense­lesse earth.

Post dixit Deus, Sunto luminaria in Expanso Coeli, ad distincti­onem faciendum inter diem & noctem: ut sint in signa cum tempestatibus, tum diebus & annis. Sintque in luminaria in Expanso Coeli, ad afferendum lucem super terram:Gen. 1. vers. 14.15.

IN this Chapter God created the World; and be­ing created, he perfected it; and being perfected, he furnished it; Thus the Heavens and the Earth were finished and all the hosts of them, the first verse of the next chapter. Austin saith well, Creata or­dinavit, ordinata ornavit, creata ordinata & orna­ta septimo die perfecit, after the beginning was the perfecting, after the perfecting was the adorning, tenebras fugavit, abyssum exaltavit, terram discooperuit: In these three following dayes is the beautifying of the Heavens, the Waters, and the Earth. God first began to create the Heavens; then he made the Waters, and lastly the Earth: So he first beautifieth the Heavens, then the [Page 73]Waters, and lastly the Earth; that is first beautified which was first created.

Argument.Touching the Argument of this dayes work: The Heaven is as a Garden, the Fathers call the stars coelestes Rosas, heavenly Roses: The Sun is as the general of the hoste of Heaven, the Moon is as the Suns Lieutenant. The Sun is as the Father, the Moon as the Mother, & the Stars are as the Children. When Joseph dreamed, that the Sun and the Moon, and the eleven Starres did doe him reverence, and he told it his fa­ther, Jacob was angry saying, What! shall I and thy mother and thy brethren fall on the ground before thee? chap. 37. 9. The Sunne seemeth as gold, the Moon as silver, and the Starres as many pearls. God counteth the starres, and calleth them all by their names, Psal. 147. 4. and in Psal. 19. 4. he hath set in the Heavens a Tabernacle for the Sunne, which commeth forth as a Bridegrome out of his Chamber, and rejoyceth like a mighty man to run his race: His going out is from the end of the Hea­ven, his compasse is unto the ends of the same, and none is hid from the heat thereof. The Sunne, saith Austin, is a Bridegrome: all the starres with one consent doe sing praises unto God, Job 38. 7. This is the summe of the Argument.

As for the words, in Dixit Deus is the Decree; then is the return; then the execution; then lastly, the approbation.

Of Dixit generally. Quest.Some make this question, Why the lights were not brought forth before the fourth day, the three first dayes were without Sunne? God commandeth the Sunne and it riseth not, he closeth up the starres, as under a signet, Job 9. 7. Resp.The question is thus answered. First he brings forth the things themselves, then the ordinary means; the Plant is first, then the seed, the means of the Plant; the Earth is first, then is it furnished with herbs; the Heavens must be before the Starres; there was light the first day, but the Sunne was not before the fourth day. The Heathen saith, that Sol est cor mundi; and the Physitions say, the heart is not first framed in the body, but the liver, and after the heart. God, without any means, brought forth the second cause, and by his power he brought forth the ef­fects of the second cause. Ambrose saith, Sol est mater, non author lucis. The Heathen saith, that deus est Plantarum, the Sunne is the god of Plants, but Rubus est senior Sole, the Sunne is not the god of the silly Bramble. The Persians, seeing nothing more glorious, did worship the visible Sunne. The AEgyptians under Orus, the Ro­mans under Bacchus, did worship the Sunne. The very Jews did e­rect Temples, and doe sacrifice to the Sunne and Moon and the whole host of Heaven; neglecting the service and worship due to God, who is the cause of the Sunne and of the light. They be not only his everlasting lamps; but, even as the Heathen say, they are his hammers to rarifie the Heavens: their influence is for the ge­neration of Plants and Mankinde, they joyn Homo & Sol, Sol & Plan­ta: The Sunne concurreth to generation, this Philosophie teach­eth and Divinity confesseth. Before God said, Let there be, and Let there appear to be: He causeth being; He causeth the morning to keep his [Page 74] place, Job 38. 13. The Sunne makes not only things to appear, but even, as it were, to be. Spiritus incubans, the spirit hatched the wa­ters; and dixit Deus, the word of God, brings forth the light: The Sunne of righteousnesse doth arise, and health shall be under his wings, Ma­lachi 4. 2. He causeth the visible Sunne to shine upon the earth: Christ is the spirituall light, whereby the Heavens and all therein have their light. Christ is the Bridegrome in his marriage chamber, Matth. 9. 15. by whose permission the Sunne commeth forth as a Bridegrome also out of his chamber, Psal. 19. 4. These lights; though they have no tongue to speak unto us, yet by their beauty they poynt to our eyes, by their light they sing the glory and praise of God in our ears.

Now of the tenor: Wherein we will consider three points, First, the things themselves: Secondly, the place: Thirdly, the uses of them.

1. The Lights.For the first. There was light before; these are not lumina, but luminaria, they are not lights but lightners. Basil, upon the 1 Ezech. 4. saith, That the fire which was wrapped in the cloud, and the brightness that was about it, was the light of the Sunne: And Miscen, upon the 14. Exodus 20. That the piller of the cloud, which gave light by night, was as the Moon. Light distin­guished from Sunne and Moon.I wish, as Chrysostome, that you would rather use things manifest, than to be curious in things secret; although the schoolmen doe say, that the generation of these Crea­tures is a corruption of the former Creation, which cannot be; for corruption is a defect; and this is no corruption, but rather a per­fection of the former Creation; and these latter lights are derived from the former. Light and day is not all one thing, and the Sunne is distinct from them both, the difference of them all Paul sheweth in one verse, At mid-day he saw a light, passing the brightnesse of the Sunne, shining round about him, Acts 26. 13. This light was lux vitae, there is lux diei, & splendor solis. The day and the Sunne are not one, so saith Christ, the day is the durance of the light: luminare a lumine is there distinguished, for the Sunne is but the carriage of the light. the light and the Moon are distinct: the Moon every moneth lea­veth her old light, and puteth on a new, after the conjunction. Nei­ther the Sunne nor the Moon are light of themselves, but the Sunne is the Chariot of light: Paul, in the 2. Philippians 15. wisheth them to be pure and blamelesse, that among the wicked Nation they would shine as lights of the World. John saith, He was not that light, but he came to bear witnesse of the light, John 1. 8. It behoveth that in them which wit­nesse this light, there should be light, though they are not the light it self; for otherwise they be the blinde leaders of the blinde, Matth. 15. 14. The Fathers doe call the Apostles Apostoli lucis. Or is one thing in Hebrew, Maor is another; lumen is one thing, and luminare is ano­ther; light is one thing, and that which giveth light is another. Things not durable shall be corrupt, and shall be brought forth: But when he purposeth a father matter, and a continuance as long as the world shall continue; as when he made the Heaven and the Earth, the Sunne and Starres, God saith sit, let therebe: he saith[Page 75]in the singular sit, luminaria in the plurall, let there be lights. The Moon and the Starres are but as glasses, having no light in them­selves, but borrowing it from the Sunne.

2 The placing of the Sun and the Starrs.The second point of consideration, is the place which is most con­venient, in three regards, The first is in regard of God and his Wis­dome, who is the cause of them, and is above: Where is the way wherein light dwelleth? Job 38. 19. It is sursum, it is above.

2.Secondly, Their place is most convenient, in regard of their mi­nistring of light to so large and spacious an house, as to the whole world: they doe hang in the Heavens as on a beam.

3.Thirdly, By this means they are in safety, from the tyrannie and malice of man, for if they were in mens reach, they would pull the starres from their place, and God from his throne. Adam did eato the fruit, though he were forbidden: Gilead is a City of them that work iniquity, and is polluted with blood: Priests are murtherers in the high-way by consent: there is villany in the house of Israel: there is whoredome of Ephraim, Osee 6. 8. But man cannot practise any of his envie against the starres which are placed on high in the Heavens. So that the placing of them above in the Heavens, doth signifie unto us, that the cause of them is above the Heavens, and the effect of their mini­strating, and the providence God had of their safetie.

3 Their use.The third point to be considered is their use, which is manifold: The first is to separate the day and the night, which is orderly to di­vide the course of time; for there is no beauty without order. The day and the night were before divided, what needeth God now to make a second division here? You must understand that there are two dividings, the one is a division in duo, into day and night; the other is inter duo; the day is assigned to the Sunne, the night to the Moon: When the whole is parted, it is divided. The man in the 12. Luke 13. said to Christ, Bid my brother divide the inheritance with me: So that a thing is divided, tum separatur, & cum separatum diver­sis assignatur. The Sunne is, as it were, the surveyor of mens worke, the Moon and Starres are our watch-men when we doe take our rest. The Lord giveth the Sunne for a light for the day, and the courses of the Moon and Starres for a light to the night, Jer. 31. 35. By the ascen­ding and descending of the Sunne, we have our hours, our dayes, our seasons: hereby we have dayes shorter and longer: and for that the Sunne had so many good qualities, and was so worthy a Creature, men of other Nations, and in times past, gave glory and worship to the Sunne, to it they did erect Altars, build Temples, and offered sacrifice.

But non dominium sed ministerium dedit Deus Soli. The second use is for signes: Homer did say so much, that they were as signes to ad­monish us: It is good for Star-gazers, and out of this place they doe gather, that by the Starres they may foretell things to come. Ambrose imputeth no fatall destiny, that cannot be shunned, to these signes, but rather that they are signes for direction. The Chaldees and the Persians, did foretell by the conjunction of Starres, that[Page 76]there should be inundations, and that such things are inevitable; but for the most part, even then when they said should be wet there was the greatest drought: Hereby they cast figures, and shew mens Nativities; but the Lord saith, Jeremy 10. 2. Learn not the way of the Heathen, be not afraid for the signes of Heaven, though the Heathen be afraid of such. Most excellently saith the Lord, in the 44. Esay 25. I destroy the tokens of the Soothsayers, and make them, that conjecture, fools, and I make their knowledge foolishnesse: Their knowledge is foolish va­nity, it is inutiles querenti, and impossibilis profitenti. No inevitable de­stiny is to be ascribed to the Starres; for all that is, is in the hands of God. They are signes to the Husbandman, by them God giveth him discretion to sow and to reap in season, Esay 28. 26. They are signes to the Mariners, to them which sailed with Paul toward Rome, nor Sunne nor Moon appeared for many dayes, Acts 27. 20. They are signes to the Physition for his criticali dayes: The Sunne is a signe and as trumpet to the Beasts, which when it riseth, they doe retire to their dens; and then goeth man forth unto his work, Psal. 104. 22. They are also spirituall signes and holy signes; they that dwell in the uttermost parts of the Earth shall be afraid of thy signes, Psal. 65. 8. The Sonne of man at the latter day shall be as the light of the Heaven, Luke 17. 24. God will then shew wonders in Heaven, and tokens in the Earth, blood and fire and vapours of smoake, Acts 2. 19. So that these lumina, when we behold them, and think of the later day, are signa poenitentiae, they are buc­cina poenitentiae; from whence are certain influences, the Moon to the waters, the Sunne to the Earth. If God be pleased, sweet is the in­crease of the Sunne, and sweet is the increase of the Moon, Deute­ronomy 33. 14. But if God be angry, then is it otherwise.

And they are for seasons, they are signes for place, Deut. 4. 47. Mo­ses bids the Israelites to remember the signes and Acts that God did in AEgypt, Deut. 11. 3. They are for times, to every purpose there is a time, Preach. 8. 6. for oportunity is the very bud of time: They were for seasons inrebus sacris, in Gods feasts and holy-dayes: God hath ap­pointed the Moon for certain seasons, the Sunne knoweth his going down, Psal. 104. 19. By the Sunne the dayes are hotter and colder: The Moon is made to appear according to her season, the feasts are ap­pointed by the Moon, the moneth is called after the name thereof, Ecclesiasticus 43. The Moon is a direction of the Passover, every se­venth day is the Sabbath, state tempora sunt a Sole in things civill: Faires, meeting and ordaining Magistrates is by ordinata tempora. The Moon hath a short motion: the Sunne hath a great wheele for his whole course in a year, for his compasse by dayes: There is the morning Starre shining from the end of the night to the beginning of the day; the evening starre, the end of the day to the begin­ning of the night: The Sunne in the day, the Moon in the night, are for their seasons: the revolution of the Sunne is in a year, of the Moon in a moneth. The Sunne did rise to Jacob, after he had wrastled with the Angell, chap. 32. 31. The Passover was to be offered at Even, at the going down of the Sunne in the moneths of Abib, [Page 77] Deut. 16. begin. So that the Sunne and the Moon are for seasons, as it is in the 104. Psal. God, saith Job in his 26. chapter 13. Hath furnished the Heavens and framed the crooked serpent, which is taken for the Zodi­ack. God saith to Job, Canst thou bring forth Mazaroth in their time, Canst thou guide Arcturus with his sonnes? Job. 38. 32. The Sunne runneth about in a day; and in a year it goeth to each Tropick: In accessu begins the Spring; in decessu the Winter.

For themselvesThey are for illumination, to be a light, that is to give light; to be a light even at midnight. The Sunne is a light perpetually: when it is absent from us, it giveth light elsewhere; to us it giveth light while we doe need it: It is for us, so that we may say to the lights sit vos non vobis, they are for the Earth and for the Heavens: they are for lights in the Firmament, and to give light upon the Earth. Sol est propter terram, this is an honor to us, and humility in them. The Sunne commeth forth as a Bridegrome out of his chamber, and rejoyceth like almighty man to runne his race, Psal. 19. 5. So that it is for the Earth; it was made to serve and lighten the earth: take thou therefore heed, lest thou lift up thy eyes unto Heaven, and when thou seest the Sunne and the Moon, and the Starres, with all the hoste of Heaven, thou shouldst be driven to worship and to serve them, Deut. 4. 19. It cutteth off their adoration; for creavit eos in ministerium cunctis Gentibus. Sol o Deus est famulus. Lu­na est ancilla tua, ambo sunt in ministerium homini: Non sunt conservi, sed servi hominum: Non sunt cum terra, sed propter terram. Great then is their humilitie to us, which are subject to corruption, whose bro­thers and sisters are the very worms. So that the Sunne, in his ve­ry name in Hebrew, doth import that it is not Deus, but servus homi­num: At Joshua's commandement the Sunne stayed in Gibeon, and the Moon in the valley of Aielon, Joshua 10. 12. Isaiah showed this sign that Hezechiah should restore his health, he brought the Sunne back again ten degrees; God then sheweth great favour unto man, that can make the Sunne to stand still and retire back again, 2 Kings 20. 9. These Lights then were assigned to divide the day from the night; their Function is for the inferior Earth, and the superior Heaven: they were ordained for the decking of the Celestiall part, and for the use of man, and lastly, for the glory of God. They doe serve for the Earth, and they doe shew forth Gods praise, yea, the starres of the morning praise God together, Job. 38. 7. The Sunne, and the Moon, and all the bright Starres shall praise him, Psal. 148. 3.

Et fuit ita. Fecit enim Deus duo illa luminaria magna: lumina­re majus ad praefecturam diei, & luminare minus ad praefectu­ram noctis, atque stellas, Et collocavit ea Deus in expanso coe­li, ad afferendum lucem super terram, Et ad praesidendum diei ac nocti, & ad distinctionem faciendum, & inter lucem hanc te­nebras: viditque Deus id esse bonum. Sic fuit vespera, & fuit mane diei quarti.Gen. 1. 15,16,17,18,19,

BEFORE we have spoken of the Decree; now of the execution and of the return; of the censure or approbation, and so we will end the fourth day. Of them in order, and it was so; some say fecit, others posuit; all the six dayes work stand upon these three joynts, creavit, fecit, and sint.

It was so. It was so: This is the return and execution of Gods Decree; it is the usuall eccho of Gods word, it is the Amen of that which proceedeth from his mouth: herein is the verifying of his edict, the power of his word, and the expedition of that he commandeth: Herein is the conformity of the return, and the commandement, and the continnance of that is commanded. Let this suffice for and it was so. For the continuance, God promi­seth to David, I will stablish thy seed for ever, and thy throne from genera­tion to generation, Psal. 89. 4. These lights are placed in the Hea­vens where is no error, by his power they were made, he bringeth forth the innumerable hoste of starres by his word, the Lord bid­deth Abraham to look up unto Heaven, he biddeth him tell the starres if he be able to number them, and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be, chap. 15. 5. For the expedition, The Sunne rejoyceth like a mighty man to run his race, Psal. 19. 5. He runneth a long race in a short space: For the conformity in the Heavens, we doe daily pray sicut in Coelo, in Terra, that Gods will may be done in Earth as it is in Heaven. As for the con­stancy of the Heavens, it is circular, regular, and certain. God did swear by his holinesse, that he would not fail David, saying, His seed shall endure for ever, and his throne shall be as the Sunne before me, Psal. 89. 36. Thus saith the Lord Jer. 33. 20. If you can break my covenant of the day and of the night, that there should not be day nor night in their seasons, then may my covenant be broken with David my servant, that he should not have a sonne to sit upon his throne: But as the armie of Heaven cannot be numbred, neither the sand of the Sea be measured, so will I multiply the seed of David. And it was so. Eclipses and Conjunctions are by their cer­tainty: oh wonderfull is their immutability in their continuall mutability: by them is the differences of all times, of all seasons. It was so even by the hand of God, by his hand they were made, they were placed. Every good and perfect gift is from above, and commeth [Page 79] from the father of lights, with whom is no variablenesse, James 1. 17. The Earth is immovable, yet subject to alteration: the Starres are in their motion immutable: they were made to lighten the Earth, to rule the day and the night; they were not made to be adored. Austin maketh this dialogue between these lights and man, Creator est supra me & te, qui fecit me & te, me prote, & te pro se: this is spoken by the Sunne: God made these lights for man, he made man for him­self: David, in the 8. Psalme 3. saith, When I behold thine Heavens and the works of thy fingers, the Moon and the Starres which thou hast ordeyned; What is man, say I then, that thou art mindfull of him? or the sonne of man, that thou regardest him? Thou hast made him little lower than God, and hast crowned him with glory and worship: thou hast given him dominion over the works of thine hands: yet is he, by Abrahams confession, but dust; The worms are his kinsfolk, saith Job; The words of his mouth are iniquitie and deceit, saith David, Psal. 36. 3. Creata sunt omnia per Deum Patrem, ordinata sunt per Verbum, ornata per Spiritum. His spirit hath garnished the Heavens, Job 26. 13. Let all the Kings of the Earth sing the praises due unto the Lord, Psal. 138. 5. Austin saith well, What greater obedience can there be, dixit, and facta sunt? What greater love can there be then quod pro nobis facta sunt: Oh there­fore let all the Nations of the Earth be thankfull to the Lord, who hath made us and them, and them for us. Of what are they made? surely of somthing: sit lux, that was of nothing; fecit stellas, that was of somthing: He created the form and formed the matter; fe­cit and fuit is not all one: the matter is the light, the Heavens is the form: God hath stretched out the Heavens, which are strong, as a moulten glasse, Job 37. 18. They are made, by the best opinion, of water and light.

The Sunne and the Moon.Now what is made. Two great lights the Sunne and the Moon, which are as a great fire, and the Starres are as little sparkles: as two great torches, and as many little wax candles: The Moon is lesser than many starres, according to Astrologie, which Moses doth not impugne: though it be a lesser body, yet is a greater light in respect of the starres, and a lesser in regard of the Sunne, and so saith Moses. Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, not great of personage, but great in favour, Exod. 11. 3. The greatest Apostle is not taken in the quantity, but in the quality: the great men, are said men of dignity, of account, that are in much favour. Paul counteth himself the least of the Apostles, not as one of lowest stature, but of least desert: David was great with God, not in that he had a large and spatious body, but for that God did love and favour him. So there is alia gloria Solis, alia Lunae, alia Stellarum; for one starre differeth from another in glorie, 1 Cor. 15. 41. Here he speaketh of the lights, not of the celestiall bodies, wherein he sheweth himself skilfull in the Ma­thematicks: He was learned in all the wisdome of the Egyptians, Acts 7. 22. so that he could have discoursed among the Astrologers of the quantities of the celestiall bodies, but here by naming the greater and lesser light, he doth instruct the very simple. The light[Page 80]must be great, for the house wherein it must hang, is the whole world. There must be two, because they must serve for two seas­ions: they are lumine impares, because they are usu impares: There is luminare majus and luminare minus: The Sunne.The greater is the Sunne, which is the President of the day: the Persians say that it is the lightner of all other lights, luminare omnium luminum, and that it is the Prince and Governour of light. The starres doe get up to the top of the Epicycle, in his absence they doe mourn, and meet him again with joy in their Epicycle, for they doe owe allegiance to the Sunne. It hath two qualities, light to direct, and heat to cherish. He is like a Bridegrome and like a Giant, saith David: Pulchritudinem sponsi vide­mus per lucem, vim gigantis per calorem, saith Austin upon the 19. Psalm 5.

The Moon. The lesser is to rule the night, At the rule of the Moon the Sunne doth not murmur, but it doth give place unto the Moon, being inferior. Here is greater obedience and humili y used then men doe use in this age; there is no obedience in the inferior to the superior, but murmur­ring and desire of equality: The Sunne hath the rule of the day, the Moon the dominion of the night, both are content: In Lord­ship there is no fellowship: The three first nights without light.Before this fourth night the three nights had no light, but were meerly dark: The Moon now shineth in the night, it is the Sunnes deputy; In the night it is comfortable in the Sea by navigation, on the land by journey. The Moon by some is called nocturnus Sol; It is cold and moist, My head, O my sister, is full of dew, and my locks with the drops of the night, Cant. 5. 12. In the time of her rule is the time of ease and of silence. She hath a milde light; she shineth lumine repercusso, with a borrowed light. The day by the Sunne is hot, the night by the Moon is moist. The Sunne is in the world as the heart in the body, and the Moon as the liver: The Sunne draweth up, and the Moon dissolves.

The Starrs.Now of the Starres which God made. He maketh the Pleides and Orion, Amos 5. 8. they are the attendants of the Moon. Praise yee, saith David, the Lord which made great lights, as the Sunne to rule the day, the Moon and the Starres to govern the night, Psal. 336. In the Hea­vens hath he put a Tabernacle for the Sunne, Psal. 19. 4. The starres fixed have their tabernacles: God that made the world, and all things that therein is; He is the Lord of Heaven and of Earth, he dwelleth not in Temples made with hands Acts 17. 24. The Israelites took up the Taberna­cle of Moloch and the Starre of their God Remphan, figures which they made to worship, Acts 7. 43. There are stellae erraticae, the Planets, and stellae fixae, the other six Planets have their light from the Sunne: Six branches came out of the golden candlestick in the temple, Exod. 25. 32. They had not only many Idols, but they had starres of their Gods, Amos 5. 26. Siccuth and Chiun, their images in that chapter and 26. verse, are Mars and Saturne. They called Barnabas Jupiter and Paul Mercurie Acts 14. 12. They have for saken the Lord, and forgotten his holy mountain, Esay 65. 11. Yea Lucifer hath said in his heart, I will ascend into Heaven: Oh Lucifer how art thou fallen, which art the Sunne of the [Page 81] morning? Esay 14. 12. Venus is the morning Starre; the evening starre is the Mace-bearer to the Moon, and the morning starre to the Sunne. As touching the fixed starres, God saith to Job in his 38. chapter 32. Canst thou bring forth Mazaroth in their time? This Ma­zaroth is taken for the Zodiack: Canst thou guide Arcturus with his Sonnes? The starre Arcturus is the Northern Pole, in the tayle of Ursamajor; in the Zodiack are the twelve signes, whereof one containeth many starres: from thence there is a correspondencie in Aarons gar­ment and in the Temple. It is the hand of God that hath framed serpen­tem incurvum, the crooked Zodiack; Job 26. 13. Galaxia or Via lactea, is held by some to be the passage of the Sunne; by others, the meet­ing of the radiations of many starres, from thence is moisture. There is mention of Orion and the Pleiades, Job 38 31. Orion, when it appea­reth, bringeth in Winter: sweet are the influence of the Pleiades, delitiae sunt Pleiadum: When those seven starres appear, the same be­ing in Taurus, they bring in the spring and pleasant flowers. It is even God, saith Job the 9. chap. 11. verse, that maketh the starres, Arcturus, Orion, and Pleiades: And Amos 5 8. In the dogge dayes the starres of the nature of a dogge, doe rule. Arcturus, as I said before, is the Northern Pole, this starre especially hath a principall use for direction to Ma­riners where ever they goe; for Arcturus and his sonnes is their chief mark, the load stone will ever look toward that. They have an use in their influence, which is especially in the night. By Gods mercy the Mariner, by means of the loadstone, shall know which way to sayle, which starre Arcturus, with his sonnes, the Lord doth guide, Job 38. 32. As for the influence, Sweet is the increase of the Sunne, and of the Moon, Deut. 33. 14. Regard yee mee not because I am black, the Sunne hath looked upon me, Cant. 1. 5. Solardet, The Sunne burned up Jonahs gourd, Jonas 4. 8. So the Sunne is for Gods justice as well as for his mercy; there is a pleasant dew, and a mildewalso. Be thou faithfull, then shall not the Sunne smite thee by day, nor the Moon by night, the Lord shall pre­servethee from all evill, Psal. 121. 6. And as the influences of the starres are sweet in his mercy, so they are also the ministers of his Ju­stice: The starres in their courses did fight against Sisera, Judges 5. 20.

17 Vers. posuit stellas.Now of the posuit stellas, and as some say dedit stellas. God, say some, did give the starres in way of dowry or a joynture: But the bet­ter sort doc say posuit stellas, that is, he set them in order. He hath nor set them tanquam in centro, but tanquam in circulo, in excellent order. The Astronomers doe say, that the standing of the Sunne and the course of all the starres is in uneffable wisdome: The Sunne riseth and goeth down and draweth to his place where it riseth; the winde goeth to­wards the South, and compasseth towards the North; the winde goeth round about, Preach. 1. 5, 6. The Starres nor Planets could not be pla­ced neither higher nor lower.

By the removing of the Sunne the corn, when it is sowed, recei­veth moisture; at the spring it maketh the Corn to appear; it, by its heat, ripeneth the same. God, by making them, set them in order; he [Page 82]made them after the Heavens: He made the Earth first, Herbs after; and the Sea before the Fishes; the leaves are after the Tree: All the Host of Heaven, saith the Lord, shall fall, as the leaf falleth from the Vine, Esay 34. 4. They lighten the Earth, they are called oculi mundi: we doe see good and evill, and yet we doe doubt, but the light giveth discretion to discern; but the light of mine eyes is not mine own, Psal. 38. 10. By their light we number, we measure, and order the Earth: It receiveth no light by mans industry: this light is lucerna pedibus, by them God doth impregnate, and extracteth the fruits: they rule the day and the night, and they serve for the use of man. Abimelech lay in ambush in the dark night, but he rose as soon as the Sunne was up, to fight with Gaal, Judge 9. 33. So they have imperium & ministerium, the evening and morning is ruled by the Starres, the night by the Moon, and the day by the Sunne, yet they doe serve the use of man: by the devotion of the Sunne the dayes are longer and shorter; by them the light is separated from the darknesse; by the course of Heaven we have hot and cold dayes; the year, the moneth, the day, are recko­ned and distinguished by the Hoste of Heaven, Ezechiel 31. 1. The Moon in the full is the Summer of the Moneth, the conjunction is, as it were, the Winter.

They are to divide light and darknesse; this is for mans sake in respect of the Creatures: The Sunne is the protector of man; and when he ruleth, it is the time of labour: but when the Moon ruleth, the night commeth and restoreth strength: Who may abide the com­ming of the day of the Lord? Malach. 3. 2. darknesse is, as it were, the drosse of light, the purest metals have their drosse.

Now of the Approbation, and God saw that it was good. No evill is to be ascribed to the constellation of any starre; for all the starres that God made are good: The good of the light is visible, there is in it a morall goodnesse; for malus odit lucem, & quaerit tenebras: The Adulterer, the Theef, the Murtherer, are the Children of darknesse; so that in light there is a morall goodnesse. Therein also there is a plea­sant good, The light is a pleasant thing, it is a good thing to the eyes to see the Sunne, Preach. 11. 7. Herein bonum and jucundum doe meet toge­ther. Falshood and wickednesse dwelleth in dark places, but veritas non quaerit angulos. Fear was upon the Mariners when neither Sunne nor Starres in many dayes appeared, Acts 27 20. But Sol and solace dwell together: they have bonum utile. Their use and profit is to light; the Sunne is clavus vitae, by them we have direction to judge and di­scerne. Hereby is the managing of dayes and of nights, alternatio tem­porum, & vicissitudo rerum: Hereby is a time to sow and a time to reap; Hereby is confusion of times avoided. So God saw it was good in all goodnesse. God maketh his Sunne to arise upon the evill and the good, and sendeth rain on the just and the unjust, Math. 5. 45. So that the light is an argument of Gods goodnesse.

The spirituall use: For Admoni­tion.Now we will give you some small spiritual use. Out of them we may learn admonition of our end by their end; for the Heavens shall be dissolved, and folden like a book, all their hosts shall fall as the leaf falleth [Page 83] from the Vine, Esay 34. 4. so that out of the book of the Heavens we may learn admonition, Admonition.Let us not be a disobedient and gainsaying peo­ple, Rom. 10. 21. but let us doe good under the Sunne sub bono simus boni. For the proceeding, The course of the Sunne and the Moon is good, and still in motion; Let not us then be idle, non vivamus ignavos annos & vanos dies, lest that come on us which came upon the AEgyptians, Psal. 78. from Heaven God rained down Heavenly Man­na, the wheat of Heaven, the bread of Angels, as it is in the same Plalme: wherefore cast off lying, and speak every man truth unto his neighbour, Ephes. 4. 25. Austin saith well, Cum occidit visibilis Sol, occidat iracundia tua, ne occidat tibi Christus Sol invisibilis. The Sunne and Starres are wonderfull works of God. Ambrose saith, Sapientes admirantur mag­na, stulti admirantur nova, ut cometas: the Starres, the Sunne and Moon, are the vessels of his goodnesse. David saith, When I behold the Heavens, the works of Gods fingers, the Moon and the Starres which thou hast ordeined, What is man said I, that thou shouldest remember him? or the sonne of man that thou shouldest regard him? Psal. 8. 3. And as the visible Sunne doth daily arise, so saith Malachie, Unto them that fear Gods name shall the Sunne of righteousnesse arise, Malach. 4. 2. Christ is this Sunne of righteousnesse: And the Church is fair as the Moon, pure as the Sunne, Cant. 6. 9. The Church is full of spots, but cleared by the Sunne of righteousnesse; the Church waxeth and waineth, and still is renewed as the Moon: the words of the Prophet is as a light that shineth in a dark place, untill the day dawn, and the day-starre arise in your hearts, 2 Pet. 1. 19. In the time of the Prophets was dark­nesse, but at Christs comming there was a perfect light: The know­ledge of faith is as the morning light, which groweth lighter; the knowledge of reason is as the evening which groweth darker and darker.

Imitation.Out of the Heavens we have an use for imitation. The Sunne riseth visibly and continueth his course: We must continue in the good we have begun, we must learn courage of the Sunne, which rejoyceth like a mightie man to runne his race, that we may shine among the crooked Nations as lights in the World, Philip. 2. 15. that we should not only have light in our selves, but learn by the Moon, the Sunne, and Stars, to give also light unto others.

Men light not a candle and put it under a bushell, but on a candlestick to lighten those in the house: Let your light so shine before men that they may see your good works, and glorifie your father which is in Heaven, Matth. 5. 16. Let the streams of our light succour the poor; be you liberal lights to the glorie and praise of Gods name: so shall we come from the light of the Sunne to continue in the everlasting light of righte­ousnesse; Then shall the light of the Moon be as the light of the Sunne, and the light of the Sunne shall be seven fold, Esay 30. 26. This place hath no need of the Sunne nor the Moon to shine in it, for the glory of God doth light it, and the Lamb is the light of it; the people which are saved shall walk in the light of it; there shall be no night at all, Rev. 21. 23. Then shall the just men shine as the Sunne in the Kingdome of their Father, Matth. 13. 43. [Page 84] & sic finiamus de luce, of the light, which light God of his mercy grant us all.


Et creavit Deus Coetos maximos: & animantia omnia repentia, quae abundè progenuerunt aquae in species ipsorum, omnesque volucres alatas in species suas: viditque Deus id esse bonum.Gen. 1. 21.

Preached Ja­nuary 16. 1590. HEREIN is the second part of the work of the fifth day; Here is the return of the Precept. Creation of Fishes.This is Gods water-work, first the creating of the great Whale, then of the shoale of small fishes: It is said creavit, and not fecit: you shall finde this word creavit in three several verses only, of this chapter, in the first, in this, and in the 27. verse. Creavit. Creavit is applyed in the first to being; in this verse to living; in the 27. verse to understanding. In the holy tongue aget, in the first verse, is to be; Cara is to have life; and Sagar, in the 27. is to have under­standing: So that creavit goeth by degrees, from being to living, from living to understanding, which is the perfection of creation; the first of the Heavens, lacking sense; the other of Fishes and Fowls, having life; the other of Man, having understanding. Ba­rha, in Hebrew, in the first verse, is not only creare ex nihilo aliquid, but ex nihilo magnum quod est miraculum. The Master­peece.Artificers among their works have one especiall, which they call their Master-peece: God in his creation hath in the Heaven one especial Master-peece, namely, the shining Sunne, having his being from the Creator; he hath in the Water the great Whale, who hath life from above; He hath in the Earth Man his Master-peece, who from God hath his understan­ding.

Whales.These Whales are the great monsters of the Sea: In creating them, saith Ambrose, Creavit vastitates & stupores: even at the sight of him shall one perish, Job 40. 28. the Tunny is a great fish, the Whale is a great tyrant, The great Leviathan God hath made even to play in the Sea, Psal. 104. 26. He hath made him, saith a Father, to be vectem maris, a barre of the Sea, so great is a Whale: Sathan the tyrant of the world, is compared to Leviathan the tyrant in the Sea, Esay 27. 1. AEqualia habent montibus corpora, saith Ambrose. The nature of the Sea is to be abyssus, these great Whales are immensae moles in hoc abysso: though he be huge, yet the Sea is deep; though he be strong, yet the Sea keepeth him in warde: Job, in his 7. chap. and 12. vers. Am I a Sea or a Whale fish, that thou keepest me in warde: the greatnesse and strength of a Whale is declared in the 40. of Job, the 20. verse, to the 41. chapter: He cannot be drawn with an hook; nei­ther can his jaws be pierced with an Angle: thou canst not fill a basket with [Page 85]his skinne, nor the fish-panner with his head: And in the 4. chapter God saith None is so fierce that dares stirre him up: In the fourth verse of that chapter it is said, A double bridle cannot hold him: Who shall open the dores of his face; his teeth are fearfull round about: In the 6. verse, The Majestie of his scales is like the strong sheilds: In the 9. verse, His neesings make the light to shine; and his eyes are like the eye-lids of the morning: out of his mouth goe lamps and sparks of fire. In the 11. Smoak commethout of his nostrils, as out of a boyling pot; in his neck remaineth strength. In the 15. verse, His heart is strong as a stone, and hard as the nether mill-stone. In the 18. He esteemeth iron as straw, and brasse as rot­ten wood; When the Sword doth touch him he will not rise up: He laugh­eth at the shaking of the speare; the Archer cannot make him flie: the stones of the sling he accounteth as stubble. In the 22. verse, He maketh the depth to boyle like a pot, and maketh the Sea like a pot of [...]: when he foameth the depth seemeth to have an hoare and white head: He is made without fear; he is a king over all the children of pride. This Le­viathan is left here by Job for an Epilogue of Gods great works: He, like the Serpent in the 12. of the Revelation the 15. casteth out of his mouth waters as a flood. This his greatnesse is an especial and infal­lible example of Gods strength, who created him and his huge­nesse.

Creation af all other Fishes.Furthermore he created all living and moving things in the Waters in great aboundance. The small fishes are not the superfluity of nature saith Ambrose: He shewed as much power in creating the small fishes as the great Whales, totidem syllabae ad creandum pisciculos, ut ad crean­dum coetos: nec labor at Deus in maximis, nec fastidit in minimis: both are miraculous; there are miracula magna & parva, & sape parva sunt magnis majora, saith Austin: There is as much admiration in the small shrimp as in the great Leviathan.

Living SoulsEvery soul is the matter of this creation, but not the body: At the re­surrection he will doe a strange miracle, but this is a greater, for plus est ut educat Deus animam viventem, quam ut reducat Deus animam viven­tem: this is the miracle in this creation, that God gave sense, life, moving to the fishes: Soul.The soul is distinct from the body; there is a soul and flesh, Esay 10. 18. the soul is distinct from life: My soul is cut off though I live, Job 10. 1. the soul is distinguished from the breath, Genesis 8.

Moving of Fishes.Further, every thing moving, that moved of it self: not one way, as heavy things doe downward, and light things upward: not by any circular motion as doe the Heavens: but that moved all wayes, every way; and that moved as the shell fishes doe by expansion. The moving in this place signifieth a gliding, applyed to fishes in waters, and worms on the Earth: there are other motions, as the flying of birds, the pa­cing foot by foot of beasts, and of men. The sense of fishes is dull, yet their motion is perfect and swift. If they had sense only to feel their hurts, and not motion to avoid the same, God might have seemed cru­ell: It followeth,

Which the waters brought forth in abun­dance. Which the waters brought forth in aboundance. Whole shoales of fishes doe appear by their motion, at the times of the year, upon the[Page 86]coasts; the spawns are infinite: the singlenesse of one word hath made such infinite numbers of fishes, that their names may make a Dictiona­ry, and yet shall we not know all their names. When Jacob blessed Jo­seph and his two sonnes, he prayed that they might grow, as fish, into a multitude in the the middest of the Earth, Genesis 48. 16.

In their kindes. It is to be wished that it were remembred, that Sa­lomon did shew his wisdome in speaking of trees, of beasts, of fowls, and of fishes, 1 King 4. 33. Diverse kindes of Fishes.there is diversity of kindes of fishes in Deut. 14. 9. there are clean and unclean, the fishes that had finnes and scales they might, but fishes without finnes and scales they might not eat: There are fishes of the Sea and of the Rivers, Levit. 11. 10. There are shel-fishes, and fishes covered with a skin, as a Lampree.

God made no such great fowls in the aile, as is the Whale, a fish, in the Sea, lest we should be in danger, and they fall upon our heads; Flying Birds.and therefore even to the birds God gave wings, according to their kinde: flying is the perfection of the birds motion, the wings are the Instru­ments. Volucres are the birds flying with feathered wings; and insecta having wings, not any feathers, as the Bee and the Bat: There are wilde fowl and tame fowl, land fowl and water fowl.

Divers kinds of Birds.They doe differ in the talent and in the beak, having crooked beaks and sharp talents, being sharp sighted, seeing their pray afar off; some water fowl having feet broad like an oare, and others talents sharp like a needle; some living in the water by the fishes, others living in the aire, having fishes for their meat, so living in the aire and by the water As Heaven and the Aire are joyned, the Comers in the one like the Starres of the other: Lakes are in the Land, and the Land in the Sea: Birds that flie in the Aire and feed in the Sea. So in divers respects there are divers kindes, both of fowls and of fishes.

The Approba­tion.Now of the approbation, that God saw it was good. Gods eyes were not dimme, for he said they were good, who knew they were good; There is, as we have told you often heretofore, triplex bonum in God, there is bonum utile: God hath said these things are good, take then heed to the word of the Lord, Jer. 2. 31. In God is also bonum jucundum: whereupon David in the 34. Psal. 8. saith, Taste you and see how gra­tious the Lord is: And in the 16. Psal. 11. In his presence is the full­nesse of joy, and at his right hand there are pleasures for evermore. In him there is also bonum honestum, for Mercy and Justice are throughout the Scriptures ascribed unto him.

The goodnesse of Fishes.This goodnesse may be ascribed to the Sea in regard of it self, for Navigation; or in regard of the fishes: Bonum utile.When Moses blessed the Tribe of Zabulon, he said, they should suck the aboundance of the Sea, and of the treasures hid in the sands, Deut. 33. 19. the people remembred the fish which they did eat in Egypt, Numb. 11. 5. When the people lu­sted for flesh, being six hundred thousand footmen, Moses asked whether all the sheep and beeves should be slain? Or whether all the fish of the Sea should be gathered together? the 22. verse of the said chapter. Christ, for the most part fed upon fish, unlesse it were at the Passover. Fish is good for all Nations, but especially for Islanders, who by nature[Page 87]should be Icthyophagi, for flesh came, and was transported unto Islands. Among the calamities denounced upon Egypt one was this, That the Fishers should mourne, and all they that cast Angleinte the River should lament, and that all they that spread their nets upon the waters shall be weakned, Esay 19. 8. So that fish is good in regard of profit for meat; and the bones and oyle of those which serve not for meat, are for other purposes very profitable. Further, by fishing and using themselves to storms, men are enabled to doe service for their Coun­trie. When Jacob blessed his sonne Zebulon, Cen. 49. 13. he faith, Zebulon shall dwell by the Sea side, he shall be an haven for ships. They used fishing, and by abiding the storms on the Sea they got this profit, to be able men: so that the people of Zebulon did jeopard their lives [...] the death in the field against Sisera, when Ruben did abide among the sheepfolds, Gilead stayed beyond Jordan, Dan remained in ships, and Aship sat on the Sea bank and stayed in his decayed [...], Judges 5. 18. Zebulon is a tribe of account as well as Benjamin, Judah, and Neptali, Psal. 68 27.

Bonum jucun­dum.Next for bonum jucundum, in them there is a pleasant good: Fish­ing is delightfull to most that use it; and the taste of many fishes is most pleasant: the basest fish, a shell fish, called Purpura, giveth our pur­ples, the most sumptuous and pleasant colour, that which adorneth Princes doth come from a fish: whereupon it is said, aquarum est quod in regibus adoratur. Margaretae, the precious pearls that beautifie Prin­ces robes come from the Sea. So they are pleasant for meat to the mouth, and for colour to the eye.

Bonum hone­stum.In them also there is bonum honestum: They are for examples to imitate: they are symbola viltutum ut insitensur, & specula [...] ut fugiamus. Though they are dumb, yet will they teach us; yea the fishes of the Sea will declare unto us the power of God, Job 12. 8. we learn by them, not to have their dull sense: the greater fishes cate the lesser, God maketh man as the fishes of the Sea, Abacuke 1. 14. this ravening, and still savoring of the salt water must be avoided. We are to follow the fishes in this, that they goe in shoals as in an army; they goe, as Sale­mon saith the Grashoppers goe, in bands, Prov. 30. 27. Hereby we doe learn unity, which above all things we ought to follow. The Kingdome of Heaven is like a draw-net cast into the Sea, that gathereth of all kinde of things Matth. 13. 27. The world is as the Sea; his word is the net; his Church is the ship; the Apostles are the Fishermen, Matth. 4. 19. Mankinde are the fish; the Heaven is the shore; Christ is the Pilor. Caste symbolum Resurrectionis.Lastly, the Whale is symbolum resurrectionis, a resemblance of the Resurrection; for as Jonas was three dayes and three nights in the whales belly, Jonas 1. 17. So shall the Sonne of Man be three dayes and three nights in the heart of the Earth, Matth. 12. 40. Thus far concerning his Mercy, the other part is Gods Justice, wherein also they are good: As the Serpents and water Snakes are for rods to punish the wicked: At the sight of the whale we even perish, the end of the 40. chapter of Job. We will conclude then with Ambrose, that [...], & malorum acerbitas nos trahit ad [...]

Viditque Deus id esse bonum.

January 28. 1590.IN the approbation further, The Fowls are good.God saw that the fowls were good. If you consider profit, they are for meat: When the People mur­murred for meat, Moses asketh Whether he should kill all the beeves and sheep, or gather together all the fish of the Sea, Numb. 11. 22. He for­got the fowls of the Aire but God sent them Quales in such aboundance that they were more then two cubits above the Earth, the 31. of that chapter, Bonum utile.They are not only for food in their flesh, but in their egges also: And as their flesh is for our eating in the day, so is their feathers for our re­sting in the night. Birds are prositable in warre and in peace: In sa­gittis belli, & in calamis pacis; their feathers are for arrows in time of warre for fighting, and their quills in peace for writing. Ambrose and Basil say they are profitable in destroying [...] and noysome things, as Owles. Insecta, as the flies are [...] baits: Cantharides are good in medicine.

Bonum jucun­dum.Secondly, They are good if you consider pleasure: Correct thy son, saith Salomon, and he will give thee pleasures to thy soul, Prov. 25. 17. There is a pleasure in the taking of them by fowling to the meaner per­sons; and by hawking to Princes & the better sort. The springing of the Partridge hath been an old pleasure, 1 Samuell 26. 20. There is a plea­sure in them to the eye: The wings of the Peacocks are pleasant; so are the wings and feathers of the Ostrich, Job 39. 16. There is a plea­sure to the eare: the harmony of Instruments is but devised by art; the chirping and singing of birds est natur alis music a mundi: The fowls of Heaven doe sing upon the branches, Psal. 104. 12. as doe the Nightin­gale and the Larke, with other birds. The Navie of Tarshish brought among his other wealth unto Salomon, for pleasure, Apes and Peacocks, 1 Kings 10. 22. And when his Navie brought him his gold of Ophir, there came also Popengayes and Parrots, birds only for pleasure, in the same.

Bonum hone­stum.As for honestum bonum, remember the little Bee. In birds we have matter of instruction for manners: Whereby we may learn matter to be avoided, and to follow. There are unclean fowls as well as clean: The unclean are described in the 11. of Leviticus 13. as the Eagle, the Vulture, the Kite, the Hawke, &c. The ravening of these fowls we may learn to avoid. In the little Bee we may learn labour and good order, good government: The Bees have the most ancient Common-wealth, banishing from their Hive the idle Drone; all good policie is also to be gathered from them. Of the Eagle we doe learn true nobilitie, by his soaring and mounting up on high, as Ambrosae saith on the 39. of Job 30. habemus animum sursum sapientem: as by there­newing of the Eagles beak and strength, we learn to renew our wayes: look in the 1. of Micah 16. where the Prophet saith, Make thee bald, and shave thee for thy delicate children, enlarge thy baldnesse as the Ea­gle: Thence may you gather the pattern of true Nobility; for the na­turall[Page 89]history doth report, that the Eagle causeth the baldnesse of his breast, the better to keep warm his young: all the evening, to keep himself the warmer, he getteth some bird, and sleepeth upon it all night; in the morning he doth not prey upon it, but suffereth it to flie away: and because the Eagle will be sure not to meet that bird again, when he seeth which way it flyeth, the Eagle taketh some other way. God sheweth his providence in the old Testament to the Ravens, in the Gospel to the Sparrows; though the one be ravenous and the other base, two dozen three half pence: See the 147. Psalm 5. much more then will he regard man: Sweet is the song of the Turtle, Cant. 2. 12. We have an example in the Stork for kindenesse to his Damme. We learn sincerity and innocencie from the Dove, Matth. 10. 16. And Salomon compareth, in the 1. Canticles 15. the Churches beauty to the eyes of a Dove. By the returning of the Swallow and Crane in their season, as in the spring, we ought to remember to return from a sinfull life: The Stork in the Aire know­eth her appointed times: the Turtle, the Crane, and the Swallow observe their comming, Jeremy 8. 7. David, the better to expresse his mourn­ing and solitarinesse, in Psal. 102. saith, I am like a Pellican of the wil­dernesse, like an Owle of the Desart, as a sparrow alone upon the house top. In the Phenix lastly may be resembled the resurrection: Our good is in their good.

Fowls also of some sort are good for his Justice, some doe foretell calamity, and are the ministers of destruction, Ezcchiel 39. 17. When Esay foretold his desolation to the Citie, It shall be a Court for Ostriches, the shrich-Owle shall rest there, the Owle shall make her nest there, the Vultures also shall be gathered together, Esay 34. 14. God pu­nished the AEgyptians with swarms of flies, Exod. 8. 24. And the Canaanites with swarms of Hornets, Deut. 7. 20. By these little things God sheweth his power: Then let us confesse all riches, ho­nour, and all we have is from God, 1 Chron. 29. 12. Let us therefore me­ditate continually of all the works of God, with David, and say, Meditabor omnia opera Dei.

Et benedixit eis Deus, dicendo: Foetificate, ac augeseite, & im­plete aquas per maria, & volucres augescunto in terra.Gen. 1. 22.

IN this day are two Precepts: the first in the 20. verse is the Institution, and here the second is the propagation. He doth not only command a being, but a continuing. This is a second bles­sing not of nature, but it is Gods blessing simile generare simile: It is Gods blessing to open the wombs of some, as it is his curse to close the womb of others.

[Page 90] The propaga­tion and con­servation of nature.This Act in this verse, is an Act of generation, nay of conserva­tion and preserving: the Fathers say this is a creating of Nature, and the inacting the continuance thereof: this is magna Charta Dei, if I may so term it. The wheele of Generation began this day, which still turneth, and shall till God stay it. By his extraordinary power, of nothing, he created something: By nature, of something, some­thing comes, for ex aliquo aliquid fit, saith natural wisdom.

3 Poynts.In this verse are three points, First, the Term or Phrase; Second­ly, the Tenor; Thirdly, a Proviso.

1. The Phrase.For the first, God blessed. God blessed them. Benedixit hath an affinity with cre­avit: In the Hebrew Barath is for being, and Barak for blessing: being and ingendring, crevit and creavit, have an affinity; Benedixit Deus is as much to say, God gave good words; Dixit fiat, & est fa­ctum; bene dixit, & bene est factum: Gods blessings are better than ours. God blesseth and man blesleth: Mans blessing is verball.Mans blessing is to wish well, as to say, The blessing of the Lord be upon you, or we blesse you in the name of the Lord, Psal. 129. 8. Man blesseth God with praises, reverence, and with obedience. Our blessing is but fair words blown out of golden bellows, it is but verbal: Gods blessing is reall.God blesseth us otherwise, for his bles­sing is reall; for when God blesseth, he leaveth a blessing behinde him, Joel 2. 14. destroy not the vine, for a blessing is in it, Esay 65. 8. our blessing is but of windie words. When Christ blesseth, a power went from him, he felt it goe from him in Matthews Gospel. David termeth it the dew of his blessing, for that it soaketh to the root, and his curse is like oyle. The eccho of Gods benedixit is benefecit: bene precari & nihil praestare, is mans blessing: bene precari & praestare, is Gods blessing. His blessings are infinite; The water droppeth out of his bucket, and his seed shall be in many waters, Numb. 24. 7. God is bles­sednesse it self, Christ is called the Sonne of the blessed. But among all his blessings here is meant that which is spoken of Gen. 49. 25. namely the blessing of the brests and of the womb, which is the power of fruitfulnesse and of fertility. When Isaac blessed Jacob, the smell, saith he, of my sonne, is as the smell of the field which the Lord hath blessed, Gen. 27. 27. Fertility, Gods blessing.fertility is the blessing of God; maledictio Dei, Gods curse of the Earth is barrennesse, chap. 3. 17. For the sinnes of the People male­dictio depascet terram, the curse shall devour the Earth, Esay 24. 6. The re­straint of Gods blessing causeth barrennesse. The words of God (saying) before caused but effects: Here he ordaineth his Creatures not only his works, but to be causes and fellow workers with him: his blessings of this place are bestowed upon all sorts, Gods righteous­nesse is like mighty mountains, Psal. 36. 6. This word Barak is applyed to the knee, and signifieth, as it were mothers tendernesse to the Babe sitting upon her knee: Rachel saith to Jacob, chap. 30. 3. Goe in to her, and she shall bare upon my knees, where barake is used. When the Babes are upon their Mothers knee, they kisse them, they wish well, they cherish them: So doth God setting us on his knee, so that blanda est in Deo matrum affectio. Let then every tongue speak his praises, let every knee bend, when God is named.

[Page 91] Saying. Saying: As it is referred unto God, the very beasts doe under­stand Gods dialect and obey, The Lord spake unto the fish, and it cast out Jonas upon the dryland, Jonah 2. 10. God commanded the Ravens to feed Eliah, and they brought him bread and flesh to eate, 1 Kings 17. 4. If the Lord doe but hisse, the flies from Egypt, and the Bees from Ashur, though they be dumb, shall come, and shall light in the desolate valleys, Esay 7. 18.

2. The Tenor of the 22. vers.The Tenor is tripartite. Crescite multi­plicamini, & replete aquas. Crescite multiplicamini, & replete aquas. Growing is referred to quantity, multiplying to numbers: Nec esse potest luxuries verborum: things grow bigger multiplying by con­junction of male and female, filling the waters: For the place, all waters, the two first are for propagation, and to replanish the whole Sea, the pond of the World, auxesis erat. The Husbandman soweth the seed, but God giveth a body at his pleasure, even to every seed his own body, 1 Cor. 15. 38. Yet at length such is the increase, that the Corn serveth not only their Countrie, but for Merchandise they carry Wheat for other Countries also, Ezechiel 27. 17. whether thou sleep or wake thy Corn groweth: the growth of living things also is from God; for who by taking care can adde one cubite unto his stature? Matth. 6. 27. Learn there how the Lilies grow, incrementum a Deo est. Plants doe grow, crescunt viventia: But propagation is appropriate unto viventia, which is a ripenesse of generation, and an ingendring of the like. He that findeth seed for the sower will minister bread for food, and will multiply your seed, 2 Cor. 9. 10. there is for that cause distincti­on of sexes: God hath given seed to one in his loyns ad gignendum, to other a womb ad pariendum. It was God did with-hold from Rachel the fruit of the womb, chap. 30. 2. If God be so pleased, there is no strength to bring forth, Esay 37. 3. So it is a blessing to bring forth and to bring up; it is benedictio uberam to make the barren fruitfull. Filling the waters is a preservation of things multiplyed.

Four parts of this Conserva­tion. Edictum est hoc conservationis, it hath four parts. 1. Naturall love.First, natural love of the engenderer to the thing engendred. As an Eagle stirreth up her nest, fluttereth over her byrds, stretcheth out her wings, taketh them and beareth them upon her wings, Deut. 32. 11. yea even the Dragons draw out the breast and give suck to their young, but the Daughters of my People is become cruel like the Ostriches in the wildernesse, saith Jeremy, Lament. 4. 3. The Pellican pierceth her own breast to feed her young; it is a great blessing that the young ones shall know their Damms, howe­ver they be hatched, as the Partridge gathereth the young which she hath not brought fourth, Jer. 17. 11. 2. The natural knowledge of their meat.The second point of their preser­vation is the natural and ordinary knowledge of their meat; As the Bee flyeth to the flower, the land fowl to the seed, the water fowl to the root; the Crab watcheth the Oysters gaping, he knoweth pabulum & latibulum, thev know their place, the Sparrow findeth her an house, and the swallow a nest where she may lay her young, Psal. 84. 2. and therefore they make their nest hard without and soft within, The Dove maketh her nest in rocks to be in safety, Jer. 48. 24. 3 Knowledge of their ene­mies.The third part of preservation is, that they know their enemies: the Dove [Page 92]feareth the Kite, not the Swan; the Partridge the Hawke, not the Goose; and the fishes flie the Pike. The Bee hath knowledge of her sting, therefore in her anger she stingeth: the birds trust some in their beaks, some in their talents, and the weak and simple Dove tru­steth in her wings. They have knowledge of time & place; the Stork knoweth her season; the Swallow never is seen but in the Summer; the Cock croweth certainly at his hours: Ex Avihus est praesagium Coe­li; when the Crane taketh up a stone, and flies with it in his foot, it is a signe of a storm. 4. Knowledge of their Medi­cines.The fourth part of preservation is, that they doe know their medicines. The Eagle buildeth his nest on high, as in a tower: the Hawke to get her feathers flyeth with a south winde, she stretcheth out her wings to the South, Job 39. 29. Plumescit vento Australi; the Swal­low cureth her eye sight by the Celandine; the Ibis teacheth us to take a glister; the Sea horse learned us the blood-letting, for when he feeleth himself full of corrupt blood, he pricketh himself upon a sharp reed.

3. The ProvisoNow of the Proviso. The Fowls on­ly multiply.He saith only, The fowls should multiply upon the Earth, fishes, by shoals, did fill the waters, and the spawn of fishes covered the waters. It were dangerous and troublesome if the fowls had so many egges as the fishes have spawns, non est tanta vo­lucrum luxuries quanta est piscium. God still regarded man, he would not have the Aire pestered, therefore he restrained them only for to multiply. Sol & homo generant hominem, saith Philosophic: but Divinity saith benedictio Dei & homo generant hominem, illa & pisces ge­nerant pisces, illa & aves generant aves. Gods blessing.It is his blessing that giveth food to the hungrie, cloaths to the naked, riches to any man, It is not la­bor that maketh rich, nor strength that getteth victory, Proverbs 10. 22. It is in vain for man to rise early, to lye down late, and to eate the bread of sorrow, for mans state is in Gods providence, Psal. 127. Children are the inheritance of the Lord, the fruit of the womb is his reward, in the same Psal. By study and Gods blessing commeth learning. Whether then you eat or drink, or beget, or whatever you doe, you doe it by Gods blessing. That this blessing of God toward us may con­tinue, let us blesse and praise his name for ever. If our blessing of thanksgiving and praise doe ascend, his blessings will descend, sic crit recursus & decursus perpetuus.

Postea dixit Deus, Faciamus Hominem ad imaginem nostram, se­cundum similitudinem nostram: qui dominetur in Pisces Ma­ris, & in Volucres Coeli, & in Pecudes, & in universam Terram, atque in omnia Reptilia Reptantia super Terram.Gen. 1. 26.

Februar. 4. 1590.IT is St. Ambrose question Quamdiu discimus alias Creaturas, ignoramus autem nos? Before you see that things created before, were for us: The Creation of Man.And now he createth us. The knowledge of names, the plenty of all things, Ecclesiasticus 17. 2. the tale of dayes numbring the first, second, and third, &c. are for reasons capacity. This numbring of dayes is the Ephemerides and Chronicle to the Worlds end. God hath concealed his strength from the horse, yet hath shewed it unto man: After God hath compassed about the Heavens; after he had ordered the land and the Sea, he then created man, and then he soun­deth the retreat, Quod est actione ultimum, fuit intentione primum; for God had still a regard of him: God said thrice in the creation of Man, which hath a resemblance of the Trinitie: There is conveyance of Gods grace to man, here is Gods Counsell for mans care.

4. Things.In this verse we will consider four things under four causes: First, Mans efficient: Secondly, the matter: Thirdly, the form: Lastly, the end in the similitude of God, and in dominion over the fowls, fishes, and beasts God hath made him a Ruler. Of them in order.

1. Mans effi­cient.First, There is a partition wall, there is a difference, between this work of man and all the former. Faciamus:The stile now is changed, fiat & sit into faciamus: God before was a Commander, now he is a Counsel­lor: Quis est (saith a Father) qui formabitur, ut tanta sit opus prospecti­one: Before with saying sit & fiat, facta sunt: but here in faciamus is deliberation, for that he now makes him, for whom all the former Creatures were made. The beasts were made this day with Man; but here is the difference, creata sunt ambo eodem die, non eadem fide; eodem loco, non eodem modo. God said producat terra, germinet herba; sed dixit faciamus hominem. Austin saith well, Fecit [...] ut procul stans, at hominem ut prope accedens, porrigens manum: God framed man out of the Earth, as doth the Potter his pot out of the clay, As the clay is in the potters hand, so is the house of Israel in Gods hand, Jer. 18. 6. We are not only the sheep of his pasture, but the sheep also of his hands, He made us and not wee our selves. Let us mark, to whom is this Precept directed? not the Angels and Elements. The Arrians and Jews doe say, that in the creating of man God consulted with Angels, and had the help of Elements; which opinion is without all discreti­on: For who hath instructed the spirit of the Lord? or was his Counsel­lor? Esay 40. 13. Nec consilisrium neque auxiliarium habet Deus. Men are not the patern of the Angels, but the image of God. Some Jews[Page 94]say here God speaketh like a Prince in the plural number, denying the Trinity; but Philo Judeus, the best of the Jews, disclaimeth that opinion. We say therein is expressed the Trinity. Princes in giving their Law use most magnificence. God at the giving of his Law saith I am the Lord thy God, thou shalt have no other Gods but one, in the singular number. The unity of God-head, and the Trinity of Persons.In dixit Deus is the unity of substance, in faciam us is the trinity of persons: In the treble creavit in this chapter; in the treble dixit in this sixth day, is signified the Trinity of persons. In the image and similitude is the unity: In nostra is the trinity; dicit ad simili­tudinem, non similitudines: This is plain both in the creation and in the regeneration by Christ, God in unity, man in the trinity. In crea­ting man is great deliberation, it is a joynt work of the Trinity. Thus farre of the cause efficient.

2. The matter of Man.Secondly, Of the Matter. God created Man, or Adam, which is nomen collectivum, and signifieth Earth, the Matter of our creation. God in creating the Heavens de profundis abyssi exaltavit altitudinem Coeli: And here man, a clod of earth, before perchance trodden sub pedibus bestiarum, collocavit super capita Angelorum ut in Christo. David seeing mans basenesse Psal. 144. 3. saith, Lord, what is man that thou regardest him? or the Sonne of man, that thou thinkest upon him? and likewise in the 8. Psalme, all before tend to honour and excellency; this work of ours sheweth our own basenesse, that we are but fimus and limus: the creeping worm called in Hebrew Adama hath alliance with Adam, which man, who is but a worm, as saith Job, he confesseth himself to be vile, Job 39. 37. In the 22. Jeremy, 29. the prophet ex­clameth saying, O Terra, Terra, Terra. Adam or Man is not every kinde of Earth, he is not sandy, but of a serviceable and profitable gleeb; for he is for Gods especial use, and made to his own likenesse. In Gods temple there was no tymber but of fruitfull trees, aliquid Deus creavit exnihilo, & hîc ex infimo maximum, at homo malus & otiosus ex aliquo facit nihil. Though David were an holy man, yet did he see corrupti­on, Acts 13. 36. For man is of the Earth earthly, and born mortal, subject to corruption. Galen the Heathen saith, that the Anatomy of a man is Hymnus Dei: He saith to the Epicure, take an hundred year to work but one part of a man, and thou canst not mend it; for in man God hath been so absolutely a work-man, that nothing in him may be mended. Miranda fecit pro homine, sedmagis miranda in homine. I will praise thee, O Lord, saith David, Psal. 139. 14. for I am wondrously made.

3. The form of Man.Thirdly, The form of man in our Image, juxta similitudinem nostram; though man be de terra, & in terra, yet he is not propter terram. God created his former Creatures secundum speciem suam, according to their kinde: God createth man secundum similitudinem suam. Man is Mi­crocosmos, so say the Heathen: but divinity saith he is Imago Dei: in omnibus Creaturis vestigia sunt Dei, sed in homine non solùm sua vestigia sed imago sua. Est enim non solum opus sed imago Dei. Miscen. upon this place, saith upon Imago Dei, that in una hac voce innumer as habemus voces: Who fo sheddeth mans blood, by man shall his blood be shed; the rea­son is this, for in the image of God hath he made man, Gen. 9. 6. So there[Page 95]is no exchange of mens souls; in imagine sua, we are created without blemish. Now when Adam was an hundred and thirty yeers old, he begat a childe in his own likenesse, after his image, chap. 5. 3. that was ble­mished by his sinne. Our perfection in the image of God is esse const­miles filio Dei, for we are predestinate to he made like the image of his Sonne, that he might be the first born of many Brethren, Rom. 8. 29. We are chan­ged into the same Image from glory to glory, 2 Cor. 3. 18. Perfect felicity is the Image of God, virtue is the way to this felicity, sinne defor­meth this Image in us.

Here is Imago & similitudo: Similitudo. Similitudo is the genus and compre­hends both: similitudo is as a union in quality, here it is added as a perfection to the Image: the lineaments hereof by the Fathers are said to be first, The essence of the soul is in the body, in omni & una­quaque parte, as God is in the world. Secondly, the soul is immor­tal: God is so. Thirdly, there is a triple power of the soul, Under­standing, Memory, and Free-will. Understanding is every where, in Heaven, in Earth, in the deep, on this side and beyond the Seas; there is an ubiquitie of the soul, as of Gods presence, every where. Memo­ry, the infinitenesse thereof is as that of God, who is without limi­tation; quae est haec immensa hominum capacitas? saith a Father; the will and conscience cannot be bound, but it is free to think: so God what him pleaseth, that can he doe. God, by his power, createth man, and make h a natural World: And Man, likewise, maketh artificialem mundum, as ships for carriage, temples for service; lights and candles as artificial starres: creavit etiam homo alteram quasi natu­ram. Imago Dei na­ta & creata.There is a primitive Image, which is Imago nata, that is, of Christ the Sonne of God: Imago autem creata Dei is of man: Christ is the Image of the invisible God, the first born of every Creature, Coloss. 1. 15. Zeleb in the original tongue is nata Imago quae est Christi: Tohar, creata Imago quae est Adami. In the Redemption Christ made him­self as our Image, Man planted may fall, so did Adam; but being re­planted by Christ, he cannot fall: The first man Adam was made a li­ving soul, the last man Adam was made a quickning spirit, 2 Cor. 15. 45. ad similitudinem nostram; Imago Dei est omnium hominum, similitudo au­tem est paucorum: the one is the bare face, the other is the robe royal: the one we have by essence, the other by virtue: the one by nature, the other by grace. We ought to put off the old man with his works, and put on the new man which his renewed in knowledge, after the Image of him that created him, Colloss. 3. 10. and love is the bond of perfectnesse: so that knowledge is recommended in the Image, and love in the likenesse: which two are as the Urim and Thummim of the Law: Our soul is as a glasse to behold his virtues, and humble precepts, Luke 6. 27. In his similitude to be as he is, as farre as we may. Hence have we a thankfull remembrance, that he will crown us with glo­ry everlasting, if we finne not against nature, and draw on, instead of his similitude, larvam Demonis, the visor of the Devil; but put on the new man, which, after God, is created unto righteousnesse and [...], and give not place unto the Devil, Ephes. 4. 24. We have in us[Page 96]Earth, in regard of the body, and Heaven in regard of the soul: in the one is time, in the other eternity. Christ calleth the Gospel, The Gospel of every Creature, Mark 16. 15. Ambrose saith, posuit Deus in homine Terram & Coelum, non ut Terra mergat Coelum, sed ut Coelum elevet Terram: totum hoc est [...] se assimulare Deo: Let thy inward thoughts and outward conversation be good and agreeable, for this is the end of all, Fear God and keep his commandements, this is the whole duty of a man; for God will bring every work, with every secret thing, unto Judgment, whether it be good or evil, Ecclesiastes 12. 13.

4. The end of mans creation, to rule other creatures.After God hath crowned man with knowledge and love, in the latter part of this verse, he giveth him a Scepter, and maketh him Vicegerent over the Sea, the Aire, the Earth; over all the fishes, fowls, beasts, and creeping things therein, bidding him to rule over them: He brought before man the beasts and fowls he had created, to whom Adam gave their names, Gen. 2. 19. The Image is of perfection: the Similitude is in wisdome; in knowledge, in the Sonne; in love, in the Holy Ghost; in power, of the Father. Miscen saith, Fecit Deus homi­nem nudum, to shew that he needed the help of other Creatures for cloathing and for meat: Mans soveraingtie is to have at his com­mand, and to serve him, the whole earth and the furniture thereof. If God bid him to rule over the fowls, fishes, and the beasts, over the better sort, then surely over the worser: Yea, God hath made the Sunne, the Moon, and Starres, with all the hoste of Heaven, to serve man, and hath distributed them to all People, Deut. 4. 19. He hath given him dominion over the beasts, that is, the priviledge of hunting into what parts he please; and dominion over the Earth, which is the pri­viledge of Husbandry. Oh let us live after the similitude of him whose Image we are; and let us not be like, nay worse than beasts, pejus est comparari bestiae, quàm nasci bestiam. For man, though he be in honor, he understandeth not, but is like to beasts that perish, Psal. 49. 20. We are here to note the obedience of the Creatures while man was obedient: and that the mutinie and discention between them, and their disobedience to man, did arise by mans rebellion to God his Maker. Adams disobe­dience caused their disobe­dience.When Adam stood, then the cattel, the fowl, and the beasts of the field came and did homage unto man, and were content to be named by him, chap. 2. 20. But after his fall fugiunt & fugant; they some of them, flie from him, and other some make him to flie. Now we serve the cattel before they can serve us. This commeth to passe by disobedience, by blotting (as much as in us lyeth) the Image of God: Let then our own wickednesse correct us, and our turnings back reprove us; for know and behold that it is an evil thing and bitter, that thou hast for saken the Lord thy God, Jer. 2. 19. It is Gods bounty to be created in the Image of God, according to his likenesse: Let there­fore our care be, that these his great benefits be not bestowed in vain by our own sensuality, lest, by that means, we be cast from his likenesse; for at the first God created man without corruption, and made him after the Image of his own likenesse, Wisd. 2. 24.

Itaque creavit Deus Hominem ad Imaginem suam, ad Imaginem, inquam, Dei creavit eum: Marem & Foeminam creavit eos.Gen. 1. 27.

Februar, 6. 1590.GODS deliberation was in the former verse: Here he entreth into consultation: in this image his person is represented; this verse is the accom­plishment of the former. Fuit sic was the return of the other dayes; Three crea­vit's in this verse.but he useth another course here, the three creavit's, iterated thrice, is a speci­fying of great joy of God in this his work, it is, saith a Father, triumphus Creatoris. It expresseth the tender affection and dear love God hath to man: in a speech of affection Salomon saith, Prov. 31. 2. What, my sonne! and what, the sonne of my womb! and what, oh sonne of my desires! Paul likewise ravished and carried a­way with this fervent affection, useth this treble iteration in the 2 Cor. 12. 2. I knew a man in Christ above fourteen yeers agoe; whether he were in the body I cannot tell, or out of the body, I cannot tell; I knew such a man, whether in the body or out of the body, I cannot tell, which was taken up into thethird Heaven. Others doe conceive, that God by this treble ite­ration, blew a trumpet to the Waters, Earth, and Heaven, that is, to all the World, that they should all know that man was their Gover­nor. Thus much for creavit in general, and the treble ite­ration thereof: Now we will consider the especials.

Faciamus was a word suspicious, so that some thought God had the help of Angels; but here by creavit the doubt is answered, that is was one by the Deity. Imago nostra, was suspicious, here ad imaginem Dei, ad imaginem suam taketh away the doubt. Creavit thrice iterated in this chapter, the first is creating essence, the other life, the other understanding. Creavit is here thrice mentioned, for that all these three, essence, life, and understanding are in this one Crea­ture Adam: He hath being, sense, and reason, est autem ratio anima ani­mae & pupilla animae: all which three are expressed in chap. 2. 7. God made man of the dust of the ground, that is his essence, and breathed in his face the breath of life, and the man was a living soul, there is the person of God the Father in the creation: All things were made by the word, and without it was made nothing, John 1. 3. So by this conceit Gods purpose is understood. Here the Fathers in treble iteration finde trinity of Person, in creavit unity of Godhead: The Image is for knowledge, the similitude for love, and power is given him for exe­cution. The minde or heart receiveth, Deut. 6. 6. the will affecteth, the power or dominion executeth. There is contemplation, affection, and action brought forth by this triplicitie. Now of the considera­tions apart.

Three parts of this verse.This verse hath three parts, Two of the soul one of the bodythe two first concern the soul, the last [Page 98]the body, as is apparent: By the two branches of the soul, is signified a double care of the soul, and a single care of the body. Our soul is coelum, our body coenum, the one heavenly, the other earthly. The opinion of the better sort of Interpreters is, That God useth this often repetition for the better credence, saying, ad imaginem suam, ad imagine ejus, cujus? respondet, ad imaginem Dei. Man carrieth the image of God, not of Caesar, not of the World; Date ergo Deo quae sunt Dei. The best sort say it is for the emphasis, for our learning and for our memorie, alledging the 22. of Proverbs 20. Have I not written unto thee three times in councells and knowledge: It is ad perpetuam rei me­moriam. Jeremy saith thrice, Oh Earth, Earth, Earth, in regard of our humiliation. Similitude & Imago.Here Moses sheweth, that though in regard of our bodies we are Earth, yet in regard of our souls we are Heavenly. To the peace of God we are called in one body, Colloss. 3. 15. Christ took upon him our vile Image to redeem us. The woman is of the man, the man is by the woman, but all things are of God, 1 Cor. 11. 12. By sinne we have lost this Image, but fear to sinne reneweth this Image, which who hath not, he is no man. But what is become of Gods likenesse, the Image is twice mentioned; but sometime the Image is taken for the likenesse, as in the 3. James 9. Men are made after the similitude of God. The Fathers take the similitude for a perfection, not a generalitie. St. Ambrose saith, Est Imago quam babemus, est similitudo quam querimus, The Butter-flie can be glorious, the Ant provident, the Wasp can re­venge, but to think of God belongeth to man alone, whose Image he is. Bernard saith, Imago quam omnis vivens habet, nullius est mo­menti, condemnatio est mundi, & per peccatum sumus deformes ad imagi­nem pecudum: the beautifying [...] in the similitude. Man is not Imago Dei, sed ad Imaginem Dei. Basil saith, the image is by nature, the si­militude by grace, for the similitude is the perfection of the image. The image of God is knowledge: The new man is renewed in know­ledge, after the image of him that created him, Coloss. 3. 10. In the likenesse is love, which is the bond of perfectnesse, the 14. verse of that chapter. This is to be created in the new man, in his likenesse of righteousnesse and holinesse, these are the colours of this like­nesse: and the oyle of these colours is truth, the which he poureth into us, Luke 10. 34. and so having this similitude, man is perfect: But the Divel, envying this beauty, gave man a pensill of his own will, and had his colours of malice, vain device, and lust, and these drown men in perdition and destruction, 1 Tim. 6. 8. But Miscen saith, While the Devil poysoneth mens affections, let not reason assist Sa­than, and his temptations are but bubbles. But if the conscience and judgment of man be corrupted, thence commeth all the trans­gressions of Mankinde, then is their agricultura peccati.

Of the bodie, Male and Fe­male.Now of the body, Male and Female created he them. The image of God is common to all, the similitude to a few; this diversity of sexes is in regard of the flesh, for there is neither Jew nor Grecian, neither bond nor free, neither male nor female, but yee are all one in Christ Jesus, Galath. 3. 28. Male and female created he them, and called their name Adam [Page 99]in the day they were created, chap. 5. 2. There is in Adam the simili­tude and the sex, he understandeth things spiritual and things earthly, therefore he hath soul and body: He is as a Theater to behold God, and as a glasse to view Gods likenesse: He was created without cor­ruption, Wisd. 2. 23. Only this have I found, saith Salomon, that God hath made man righteous, Preach. 7. 29. Man is made straight in respect of this body, wherein is resembled the inward righteousnesse of his soul, Ne habeamus ergo curvam animam in recto corpore, let us strive to be inwardly as God hath made us outwardly, that is, to have upright thoughts, and a straight conscience toward God and toward man. Mans study is not the care to preserve Gods image: So that we carrie about us Gods image to be the condemnation of the World. We should shew in our body the image of God renewed in us. There be those that say, that God made the upper part of man and the Divel made the lower part; but God made man from the crown of the head to the sole of the foot. Male and Fe­male. Moses therefore saith, Male and female created he them, both were made the sixth day. The manner of making the Fe­male is the 21. verse of the next chapter, of the rib of Adam was Eve made; both Male and Female God made, shewing, in them, his mercy unto thousands. The like did God promising in the seed of Abraham all Nations should be blessed, Psal. 105. Before in dominentur, they were both foreseen. There is a difference of sex in others, as in Birds and Beasts, but the same is expressed only in the principall Creature. Adam was not ex semine mulieris, saith Ambrose: He created Adam, and out of Adam he took Eve. He created but one: and wherefore one? because he sought sanctum semen, an holy seed, Malach. 2. 15. He created not Marem & Foeminas, nor Mares & Foeminam, but Marem & Foeminam: So this is no refuge for Adultery, but it is the institution of the holy estate of Matrimony: so that from thence issueth the holy seed. The Adulterers, like pampered horses, doe neigh after their neighbours wives, Jer. 5. 8. committing abhomination with others wives, forcing their own sisters, and their fathers Daughters, [...] 22. 11. but lawfull marriage begetteth children to God, not to the World. Before God created other his Creatures after their kinde severally: but here God taketh the Female out of the Male, being both bone of the same, and flesh of one flesh, that so love might perfectly be grounded between them; but as the woman is of the man, so is the man also by the woman, 1 Cor. 11. 12. Mulier est exviro, vir per mulierem. Man inclosed Wo­man in the Creation, but woman incloased man in the Redemption. Jeremy in his 31. chapter 22. saith, The Lord hath created a new thing in the Earth, a Woman shall compasse a Man. Eve came out of Adam, Christ out of the Virgin Mary, without any knowledge or copulation of the flesh. These are high mysteries, and works wonderfull; The man was not created for the woman but the woman for the mans sake, 1 Cor. 11. 9.

Hence is ob­served the state Ecclesiasticall, Politicall, and Occonomicall.Out of this verse the observation of the primitive Church hath been, First, in the Image of God is resembled the estate of the Church, the Ecclesiasticall estate. In dominentur, let them rule over the Earth,[Page 100]and Sea, the Fowls and Fishes, is the ground of a Common-wealth. Though Christ were abased, yet all the Nations shall worship him: The Kingdome is the Lords, and he ruleth among the Nations, Psal. 22. 17. 18. The perfect are to rule the unperfect: the Man hath dominion over the Beasts and all the Earth; this is the resemblance of the Politicall estate. In creating them Male and Female, is the perfect resemblance of the Oeconomicall estate of every House and of every Familie.

Deinde benedixit eis Deus; & dixit eis Deus, Foetificate, ac au­gescite, & implete Terram, eamque subjicite: & dominamini in pisces Maris, & in volucres Coeli, & in omnes bestias reptantes super Terram.Gen. 1. 28.

Februar. 9. 1590.THE second speech God here useth concerning man, The creating of Mankinde.is whereby he createth Mankinde, as before he cre­ated Man: Propagation.For though creation be a great bene­fit, yet this is a further benefit of propagation or continuance. God, by Nathan, promiseth to David, that his Kindome shouldbe stablished for ever, though David said, Who am I oh Lord, and what is my house? 2 Sam. 7. 18. Though Davids people were small, yet did God mul­tiply them, and gave continuance to his seed.

Two parts of propagation.There are two parts of propagation, A Heir: an Heritage.The one is to have an Heire, the other to have an Heritage, both are here given unto Man. Of them in order.

Adams Heirs are Mankinde.God restraineth not his bounty unto these two Adam and Eve. Esay, in his 49. chapter 6. prophecying of Christ, saith, It is a small thing to raise up the Tribes of Israel; I will also give thee for a light to the Gentils: God giveth not the Earth to two only, for the Earth is too big for two; there must be many to inhabite it; there be those that dwell in the ut­termost place of the Earth, Psal. 65. 9. They only are not the two ves­sels of his mercy; there are more vessels then they, and that he might declare the riches of his glory upon the vessels of mercy which he hath prepared unto glory, he hath called both Jew and Gentil, Rom. 9. 23. By the multitude much glory is given to God: In the 26. verse, was the planting of this principall work; this is the watering thereof by his blessing. Creation and procreation are both blessings, yet several blessings; all have the one, yet not all the other. Though the Eunuchs be as dry trees, yet God hath for them a blessing, Esay 56. 3. Divers have their wombs closed: this is a restraint of Gods blessing. When the Prophet did even consult what curse God should give Judah for their Idolatrie, he saith, Give them a barren womb and dry breasts, Osee 9. 14. When Jacob blessed his children, he said to Joseph, He shall be a fruitfull bough, that is, in the Hebrew, a sonne of increase, chap. 49. 23.[Page 101]As Gods curse is a restraint of increase, so his blessing is the foun­tain of procreation, bene voluit is the fountain also of Gods benedixit; For God hath created all things, and for his wills sake they are, Rev. 4. 11. Gods blessing is not res voti, as mans is, only to wish well, but it is as dew and oyle that soaketh to the bone.

Benedixit iis De [...].Increase is an actual blessing, An handfull of Corn is sown, and the fruit thereof shall shake like the trees of Lebanon; the Children shall [...] like the grasse of the Earth, Psal. 72. 16. So that Children are Gods blessing. God could at once, at the first, have filled the Earth with men, but God made one for that he would have an holy seed, for woman was out of the rib of man, chap. 2. 22. God blessed them, there­fore the estate of Marriage is blessed; therefore God made woman an help for man, chap. 2. 18. The School-men say, Est enim haec benedi­ctio remedii, a blessing of remedy: this is a remedy for filthy lust and concupiscence: And therefore saith Paul, to avoid fornication, Let every man have his wife, & every woman have her own husband, 1 Cor. 7. 2. Humiliata est benedictio. This bindeth not every one to marrie; [...] est dans facultatem, non addens necessitatem: this is no precept, but a power and facultie to increase and multiply. When God said, chap. 2. 16. Thou shalt eate freely of every tree of the Garden, he bound him not as of necessity to eate of all, but gave him liberty to eat of any. Ma­trimony, some say, is a carnal filthinesse, and full of sinne; therefore they disalow Marriage. There are some other say, that Marriage is a matter of necessity, saying that all must needs marrie; but both of these opinions are most wicked. God said before to the fishes, crescite & multiplicamini & replete aquas maris: and to the Birds mal­tiplicentur super terram.

Replete terramHere replete terram especially concerneth man. With the blessings wherewith he blessed Plants and Beasts, he blesseth Man, and with more, saying, Crescite, multiplicamini, & replete terram: By the first is given us stature; by the second, power of issue; by the last, a power of plenty: He would not have man small in stature, nor so­litary in number; but he made him to fill the Earth. He proceedeth in a good course, first there is maturity; for before maturity there is no seed: after maturity and ability, he giveth him a will to multiply; wherein is a pleasure: Sara laughed saying, After I am waxed old, and my Lord also, shall I have lust? chap. 18. 12. She seeing her self barren, gave her maid Agar to Abraham for wife, chap. 16. 3. God giveth a power unto man of the rains, God openeth the womb and moistneth the breasts for propagation. When God had opened Rachels womb, the sonne which she had conceived and born she called Joseph, saying the Lord will give me yet another sonne, chap. 30. 24. So that Josephs name is not restrained to one or two, but she hoped to have further in­crease.

Every bird and fish had these words, dixit Deus iis: Though the words spoken here to man are the same, yet the accent in the holy tongue maketh the difference: But the expressing of the diffe­rence is in dominamini, after these three, which sheweth the digni­tie [Page 102]of this Creature. Before it was said to the other Creatures, sub­jicimini, be ye subject; Subjicite ter­ram.but here it is said to Man subjicite terram, which being added to the three former, maketh a great difference, which sheweth man to be of a noble condition, being ad imaginem Dei, among whom God hath his Elect: Who shall not only replere terram morientium, but even replere cerlum, id est, terram viventiam. I should have fainted, saith David, except I had beleeved to see the good­nesse of God in the Land of the living, Psal. 27. 13. Even for mans sake was the world created, and the consummatum of the world depen­deth upon them. Basil and Ambrose doe say, these words doe con­cern Adams minde, that he grew in the gyfts of the minde. There is a growing up in Christ, by faith and knowledge, to a perfect man, unto the measure of the age of the fullnesse of Christ, Ephes. 4. 13. this is to grow in favour and in wisdome; applying the filling of the Earth to replete terram viventium, nempe, coelos: And unto them that grew in these gifts, and doe persevere to fulnesse, and overcommeth, God promiseth dominion, that he shall be a pillar in the Temple of God, he shall have written on his head the name of God, the name of the new Jerusa­lem, Rev. 3. 12.

The value of the benefit.Now concerning the value of the benefit: it is a benefit to have issue, to have Heirs. When Adam saw the World, he named it a Globe. An Heir.When Adam had a sonne by Eve, he was called Cain, that is a possession, chap. 4. 1. Abraham esteemed it a great benefit to have an heir of his own loynes; therefore, in chap. 15. 2, 3, 4. To have Chil­dren. He saith to God, what wilt thou give me, seeing I goe childlesse, and again loe behold, unto me thou hast given no seed; the Steward of my house is this Eliezer of Damascus; wherefore loe a servant of my house shall be mine heir? But God doth comfort him saying, This man shall not be thy heir, thy seed shall be innumerable. When Jacobs sonnes told him that Joseph was living, and governor of the land of Egypt, and shewed him the chariots which he had sent for him, Israel said, I have enough, Joseph my sonne is yet alive, chap. 45. 28. So then children are a comfort to their Pa­rents and a staffe to their age: they are a beauty to the Common­wealth; The sonnes growing up in their youth as plants, and the daughters as the corner stones graven after the similitude of a Palace, Psal. 144. 12. They are also a strength unto the Common-wealth, As the arrows in the hand of the strong man, so are the children of youth, Psal. 127. 4. The Prophet, in repeating the blessed estate of Jerusalem, after the return from her captivitie saith, in the 8. Zecharie 5. That the streets of the Citie should be full of children playing in the streets thereof.

The other is an Heritage.The other benefit in this place is the Heritage, the latter part of this verse. This is an approving of his former counsell; it is a Deed of gift of Gods Creatures of the Earth it self, and an intayling of it unto man and his posterity. Subjicite ter­ram.The first is a tenure of the Earth, say­ing subjicite eam, and giving to man an interest in the furniture of the Sea, Aire, and Land. God is the chief Lord of all.God he is the chief and absolute Lord of all things, and over all things: The Heavens are his, the Earth also is his, he hath laid the foundation of the World, and of all that therein is, Psal. 89. 12.[Page 103]The furniture also is his: All the Beasts of the forest are his, and the Beasts on a thousand mountains, Psal. 50. 10. The glorie of Lebanon, the beauty of Carmel is the Lords Esay. 35. 2. The riches of the Earth, the gold is his, and the silver is his, Aggey 2. 9. God in his own person, in 41. Job. 2. saith, that all under Heaven is his.

Mankinde hath the Earth, Sea, and the Aire in Fee-farm.But God here delivereth unto man possession of the Earth and his Creatures, bidding him to rule over them. God reserveth the Hea­vens to himself, even the Heavens are the Lords: terram autem dedit fi­liis hominum, Psal. 115. 16. He giveth the Earth as it were in Fee-farm to the sonnes of men. God, the cheef Lord of all things, maketh man ruler over the Earth, maketh the Earth (as the Germans doe say) a Countie Palatine. So that men are no usurpers, but lawfull rulers: All titles in the Law, in Manors, Lands, and Dominions are from hence.

In subjicite terram are imployed these three, seising, keeping, and imploying of the Earth: Jus primae possessionis. Jus est primae possessionis, first, possession was a right in the beginning: wherefore it is said in the 11. Deut. 24. All the places wheron the soles of your feet shall tread, shall be yours. If two came together to one place, they divided the possession by consente, as did Abraham and Lot, chap. 13. 11. Or else they divided the same by lots, as in the 15. of Joshuah 1 [...] A comparison.The Earth was at first, as a dish of meat at a Table, where every man might cut where him pleased; but when one had cut forth his peece and layed it on his [...], it became pri­vate, and it were injury to take from him, that is now his own by possession. God promised to the seed of Jacob, the Land of Canaan, the lot of their inheritance, Psal. 105. 11. For the Israelites, by their just car­riage and honest conversation obtained the promise, and having injury offered them by the Canaanites, took revenge under Joshuah, Possession Jure Belli.and possessed the Land jure belli. Jacob gave unto Joseph, at his death, one portion above his brethren, which he got out of the hands of the [...] by the sword and by the bow, chap. 48. 22. The right he had, was by the sword and by the bow, and this was his own. That the former world had by just warre and subduing of Tyrants, was a right. If we winne a Countrie where no habitation hath been, or which hath not been ha­bitable for wilde beasts, by chasing from thence the beasts, and by sub­duing that Countrie, it becommeth our own by subjicite terram. When the most high God divided to the Nations their Inheritance. When he separated the sonnes of Adam, he appointed the borders of the people, according to the number of the children of Israel, Deut. 32. 8. Every one had a mark-stone, to know their own several, Deut. 27. 17. Thereupon saith the wise man, in the 22. Proverbs 28. Thou shalt not remove the ancient bounds which thy fathers have made. David smote the [...] and the Moabites, he subdued them and made them tributaries, 2 Sam. 8. 2. God hath assigned [...] Mankinde the bounds of their habitation, Acts 17. 26. Israels possession three hundred years was a good right, Judges 11. 26. Thus much of Heirs and Heritage, concerning the [...] upon others lands, and keeping their own.

The last point of subjicite terram, is the imploying, that is, to labor,[Page 104]turmoil, to break it up, to harrow and plough it; this is for Husbandrie, to dung it and manure it for pastures, to make houses and buildings for Architect, to make gardens and inclosures for solace. The mold also is to be imployed, as the sand, the chalk, the clay for the brick and tyle, is to be imployed. Salomon, when he builded the Temple, had great occasion to search quarries of stone, there were great and costly stones sent from Hyram for the foundation and beautifying thereof, 1 Kings 5. 17. God gave to man industrie whereby to finde the me­tals, also the riches of the Earth in the bowels of the same. God gave the Earth to man, God subdued it not for, but he bad man subdue it: Subjicite eam, non dedit subjectam, sed subjiciendam. God made man, not of loose sand, but of a molde, of gleeb to labour, not to be idle; and therefore Adam, in the state of his innocencie, was put into the garden of Eden that he might dresse it and keep it, chap. 2. 15. Man la­bored then not with sweat, for his labour was not laborious; for by mans transgression Gods curse came, that in the sweat of his face he should eat his bread, chap. 3. 19.

Dominamini.Now of Dominamini. Plenitudo terrae est jam hominis. In dominio sunt haec quatuor, usus, fructus, consumptio, & alienatio. In use,First for Use, we have power to tame some, as the Horse, for all his strength; yea even the Lyon, for all his courage; and the Elephant for all his huge­nesse: Those which will not be tamed, we rule over them by impriso­ning them. Fruit,In regard of fruit, We have the wooll of Sheep, the teeth of Elephants, and the horn of Unicorns. Consumption,For consumption, or spen­ding, They are some unto us for meat, and others for medicine. Alienation.In respect of alienation, we buy and sell them daily.

Over Fish, Birds, and Beasts.Further, Over what shall you rule? Even as it is in the text, Over the fishes of the Sea, by the Angle. Christ bids Peter cast in his angle and take the fish, Matth. 17. 27. Or by the net: Christ also bid Peter let down his net to make a draught, Luke 5. 4. Angling and fishing are to man both for profit and for pleasure.

And over the fowl of Heaven. By Fowling, by Hawking, by power or by policie, either killing them with arrows, or taking them in pits, or by snares, as in Prov. 7. 23. the 20. Joshua 13. God for the Ravens and for the young birds prepareth their meat Job 39. 3. So that the fowls and birds are to man for service, for solace, and their notes of mu­sick.

And over every beast. This is indeed a large Charta de foresta: We are permitted and authorized hereby to hunt the wild beasts of the fo­rest, and being hunted, to eate the flesh thereof, Levit. 17. 13. Thou mayest eat flesh, even what soever thy heart desireth: Even as the Roe buck and the Hart is eaten, so shalt thou eat it, Deut. 12. 22, 23. There they were permitted the eating of all kinde of flesh; they might before eat the flesh of that they had hunted, as of the Roe-buck and of the Hart. It was caro justitiae which they got by hunting; it was dainty meat un­to the Hunter; for unto the hungry soul every thing is sweet, Prov. 27. 7. The Hunter had his snares, Psal. 91. 3. The Hound hunteth the Deer: both are serviceable unto man; there is pleasure in the hunting and cha­sing:[Page 105]the game is for meat when it is pulled down. We have rule over Horses and Doggs, who serve us, though not to feed us. The Dogge defendeth our flocks from the Wolfe, our houses from theeves, our bodies from injurie: the swiftnesse of the Horse hel­peth our slownesse: the Elephant in battel helpeth our weaknesse: the Sheep help our nakednesse, cloathing us with their wooll: the Oxe plougheth the ground, to give us bread, and eateth grasse to be our food, he giveth his hide to shoe us; and every thing that moveth in the Earth is for man. We finde great goodnesse many wayes in the Bee, and in the Silk-worm; God saw, man feeleth the goodnesse of those things God hath created. So that subjicite terram is the tenor of all Law, a giving possession of inheritance: and dominamini is a rule and dominion given to man over the utensils, the riches of the Sea, Land, and Aire.

A spiritual Analogie.There is here also observed by the Fathers, a spiritual Analogie in dominamini. In man there is a spirit and a soul; in him there is also Earth: the cares of the body ought to be lesse than those of the soul, est enim anima in homine coelum, corpus autem coenum, saith Basil, non sit coenum coelo superius, sed sit coelum coeno superius, Let the soul have dominion over the body and the concupiscence thereof; the body is earthly given to lust, anger, envie, pride. Here they admonish us to subdue these beastly affections, and to tame the savagenesse of our corrupt nature. The whole nature of beasts, and of birds, and of creeping things, and things of the Sea, is tamed, and hath been tamed of the nature of man; but the tongue can no man tame, it is an un­ruly evill, full of deadly poyson: this place doe they allege out of the 3. James 8. And as James saith, that the tongue should be tamed from evil speaking, malicious slandering, back-byilng, lying, and dissembling: so say they (and that very well) that all the brutish affections ought to be tamed and subdued; that so the soul might reign in the body, and the body be subject to the soul.

Praeterea dixit Deus, Ecce dedi vobis omnes Herbas sementantes semen quae sunt in superficie totius Terrae; omnesque Arbores in quibus est Fructus arboreus, sementantes semen: vestrae ad comedendum erunt. &c.Gen. 1. 29,30,31.

Februar. 11. 1590.THIS is Gods third speech, of this sixth day, concerning man. The first in the 26. verse is of his power in creating him: The second dixit, in the 28. verse, is of his providence in preserving mankinde: This third speech is Gods further care for the nourish­ment of them whom he hath created and by propa­gation preserved. In the 30. verse God sheweth his love to man, [Page 106]having before given unto man the beasts of the field, yet he giveth to his beasts their meat. The last verse is the closing up of the sixth day.

Mans meat.The Argument of the 29 verse is for provision for mans meat. An Objection.Here ariseth a question made by some: Man in the estate of his inno­cency was immortall, what need had man then of any meat?

The Answer.True it is, that Adam was created immortal, yet having a possibili­ty to be immortal: Thereupon the School-men say there is a double immortality, posse non mori fuit Adami, mori non posse est Dei; for Christ only, who is King of Kings and Lord of Lords hath this immortality, 1 Tim. 6. 16. which is bestowed upon us by way of reward through Christ our Saviour, whereby our nature is ingrasted in the divine nature of the second immortality; for the first man Adam was made a living soul, and the last Adam was made a quickning spirit, that is, bring­ing us from Heaven the spirit of life; the first was of the Earth earthly, the second of the Heaven heavenly, 1 Cor. 15. 45. Adam was created with a possibility of immortality; the part immortal of mans creation was from God; but through mans disobedience and ambition, when he did eat of the forbidden fruit of good and evill, God shut him out of the garden of Eden, lest he should take also of the tree of life and eat and live for ever, chap. 3. 22. whereby Adam was deprived of life; for it was said in the 2. chap. 17. When in that day he did eat of the forbidden fruit, he should dye the death. So that by mans disobedience man became mortal, who before, in the state of his innocencie, had a possibility of immortality, for then he had the Image of God perfectly, but by sinne came death, per peccatum mors: and so by mans transgression Gods Image was defaced; for by one man sinne entred into the World, and death by sinne, and so death went over all men by this Adams sinne, even Babes were subject to death, though they had no actuall sinne, Rom. 3. 12. And life came to Mankinde through one that is Christ Jesus: As by the of­fence of one the fault came on all men to condemnation; so by the justifying of one, the grace abounded to all men, to the justification of life, the 18. of the foresaid chapter: For, by him, this mortall must put on immortali­ty, this corruptible incorruption, for Christ swallowed up death in victorie, saying Death, where is thy sting? Hell, where is thy victorie? 1 Cor. 15. 45. Man was not immortall by himself, but the life he had God gave him: In the state of his innocencie he had heat and moisture, which God breathed into him when he breathed life, chap. 2. 7. and therefore man needed even then food to preserve heat and moi­sture. Man before was immortall and his meat uncorrupted, but by mans fall, man became mortal, subject to death, so that both man and mans meat were corrupted; and Adam was a debtor to the flesh to satisfie his hunger. Before God said Dominamini all beasts and fowls were peculium Dei, Gods proper store: The trees and fruits were before, but this is mans warrant, To touch any thing, any tree, any herb, for their meat. Herein then more particularly we will consider two things, what God gave unto man, and to what end.

[Page 107] Ecce. Ecce. Behold is a word of wonder, expressing a matter of wonder and Gods great love to Mankinde. Ecce (saith a Father on this place) patentem & amentem Creatorem: He is not only a Creator full of po­wer, but even a faithfull Creator, 1 Pet. 4. 19. for behold he is both mans Creator and mans Cator. He visiteth the Earth and watereth it, be maketh it very rich, and for men he prepareth corne, Psal. 65. 9 And he saith unto man Deut. 28. 4. and 5. That if he obey God, blessed shall be the fruit of his body, the fruit of his ground, the fruit of his cattel; and blessed shall be thy basket and thy dow. So that God provideth us corn for bread, and bread to eat. It is even God that giveth us life and meat, he maketh us and serveth us: quis autem est major? but who is greater, he that sitteth at the Table, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at the Table? And I am among you (saith Christ) as he that serveth, Luke 22. 27. God the great Jehovah ministreth unto man all that he needeth. David assureth himself that God will help and defend him, Psal. 38. 22. from the hand of his enemies. God made for man coats of skinne, and cloathed them, chap. 2. 21. God giveth to men beds whereupon to take their rest: God will strengthen him upon the bed of sorrow, and turn all his bed in his sicknesse then will God send him comfort, Psal. 41. 3. Thus much of Ecce, behold.

Ecce dedi.He saith not Ecce dixi but Ecce dedi: He opens his hand, not his mouth; he sheweth his liberalitie which is wonderfull; it is a behol­ding of works, not of words: Manifold are the works of God, the Earth is full of his riches, Psal. 104. 24. There is also a further thing; for he saith not Ecce do, but Ecce dedi, as much as to say, Oh man be­fore you were born I provided for you all herbs and all trees, I respe­cted you before you were, I had you in minde in all the dayes of the Creation; Fecit, quae fecit omnia pro homine Deus before he said faci­amus hominem; he made all things for man before that he made man, which sheweth Gods care and fatherly love he bare to men even be­fore man was. What shall I say hereof more but this, Amor Dei erga hominem est antiquior homine.

Every Herb having seed, every Tree having fruit. He giveth unto man every herb having seed every tree having fruit, bearing seed; whereby he giveth us all grain, seed, corn, pulfe, spice the grape, and other fruitfull trees. Adams diet objected to be rawIt may be objected, That to eat of nothing but of herbs, and of trees, and of such fruit as the Earth brought forth, were but a raw diet. Well fare Noah's Table, for he had flesh in great plentie for his meat, Gen. 9. 3. for as the green herb, so gave God unto him all things for meat: If God be our Cator, as he is libe­rall, so he will be frugall. Eliah was fed by the Angell with a cake ba­ked on the coals, and a pot of water, 1 Kings 19. 6. yet in the strength of that meat walked he fourty dayes and fourty nights. Answer.And surely unto Adam the trees of Paradise were better and more pleasant than all the dainties of Noahs Table; for the trees that were there were pleasant to the sight and good for meat, chap. 2. 9. These innocent meats were fit for the state of innocencie, even unto this day the service of delight is the herbs and fruits of the Earth; even then when flesh was for meat, it was to be eaten without the blood, the Hunter might eat that he had [Page 108]hunted. Virgo terrae fuit herba, blood corrupted the Earth, all meats are but obsonia, but sawce, in respect of bread, which is the comfort of the heart if we be thankfull; for otherwise, though God give us our desire, yet will he send leannesse into our soul, Psal. 106. 15. By sim­ples at this day the Physitions use to restore health. If God conveyed every herb, then every herb was meat for man: yea then so was the Coloquintida, which is called now fel terrae, and a vehement poyson, yet Elisha caused the people to eat thereof, and they had no hurt, yet they said that in it was death, 2 Kings 4. 40. and that death was in the pot: mors in olla came by sinne, it was not so from the beginning. Fur­thermore here is no necessity imposed upon man to eat of all the trees, but a liberty is given him to eat of any. Some also make another ob­jection: If he might eat of all trees, then of the forbidden tree. But the Fathers answer, That saying that gave to Adam every tree bearing ordinary fruit: such were not the trees of knowledge and of life.

To what end Herbs and Trees are gi­ven Man.The last point is, To what end God gave man herbs and trees. Fuit ut sint alimentum, that they might be for meat, to have herbs and trees given, and that for meat are divers things: For fruition. There is a man, to whom God hath given riches and treasures, and he wanteth nothing that he can desire; but God giveth him not power to eat, thereof, but a strange man shall eat it up, Preach. 6. 2. Elisha told the King, That he should see with his eyes the great plenty that should be in Samaria, but he should not eat thereof, 2 Kings 7. 19. Though a man have aboundance, yet his life standeth not in his riches, Luke 12. 15. and therefore in that chapter, what availed it the rich man to have much fruit, many barns, and much goods layed up for many yeers, when that even in the same night they should fetch away his soul? Then whose were those things which he had provided? De­di vobis ut sint in escam, There is the fruition.

In esca, tria. In escâ tria sunt. 1.The first is a content of the appetite, which avoid­eth famine; for when God shall break the staffe of bread, men shall eate and not be satisfied, Levit. 26. 26. 2.Sometimes also the men of this world have their portion in this life, they have their bellies filled with Gods hidden treasure, Psal. 17. 14. It is Gods curse to have sown much and bring in little, to eat and not to have enough, to drink and not to be filled, to be cloa­thed and not to be warm, Aggey 1. 6. 3.The third benefit in meat is, that it nourisheth, While the flesh was yet between their teeth, before it was chewed, the wrath of God was kindled against the people who lusted, and God smote them with an exceeding great plague, Numb. 11. 33. The meat of the wicked in his bowels was turned, he hath devoured substance, and shall vomit it, for God shall draw it out of his belly, Job 20. 14. So that to eat, to be satisfied, and to be nourished, are three several benefits; as to have and not to eat, to have and eat and not to be satisfied, to have eat and be satisfied, and not to be nourished, are three several curses and plagues. Some there are, who though they eat never so much or never so good meat, are ever lean; whereas others are fat, though their dyet be small and of the basest sort: For though that Daniel and his fellows did eat pulse and drink water for ten dayes, yet at the end[Page 109]of the ten dayes they were fairer and in better liking than they which did eat of the portion of the Kings allowance, Daniel 1. 15. God hath created meats to be received with giving of thanks, neither is any to be refused, be­ing sanctified by the word of God and prayer, 1 Tim. 4. 5. So that in a word, as Gods benefits descend upon us, so our prayer and praises must ascend up to God for the same.

Omnibus autem Bestiis Terrae, & omnibus Volucribus Coeli, omni­busque Reptantibus super Terram, in quibus est anima vi­vens, dedi omnes Herbas virides ad comedendum: & fuit ita.Vers. 30.

The meat of Beasts.HEnce you gather that God provideth for men and for beasts; for our Tables, and beasts Mangers; which providence stretcheth to all that hath life in itself. The beasts being ours, we should have provided them meat; but God herein sheweth his love unto man: Nunquid de bobus, & de passeribus cura est Deo? God provideth fodder for the Cattel, and meat for the Sparrows, he causeth grasse to grow for the cattel, and herb for the use of man, Psal. 104. 14. He giveth to Beasts their food, and to the young Ravens that cry, Psal. 147. 9.

It may seem at the first sight, that God alloweth men and beasts the same dyet. Things planted and sowed by Husbandry are for Men: but that which the Earth giveth of her own nature, without tillage, as quae sunt spontanea, are for Beasts: The seed in Corne, the fruit in Trees is allowed unto Man, the stalks to Beasts: So that there is not the same allowance unto both, although both had their allowance.

Et fuit sic; And it was so. Some doe aske whether the Beasts, as Lyons; the Birds, as Hawks, lived upon their prey in the state of in­nocencie? Surely no; for they had herbs allowed them; the Lyon did eat grasse as the Oxe: for if they had preyed so, then even in Noahs time he must have layed up meat in store for the wild beasts in the Arke: The wild beasts were fed before with grasse: The ravning and preying of savage beasts came by mans trangression. It is Austins opinion, That the Lyon did eat grasse before the fall: Esay prophe­cieth saying, That at the comming of the Redeemer Christ Jesu, the Lyon shall eat straw with the Bullock, Esay 11. 7.

Tum inspexit Deus quicquid fecerat, ecce autem bonum erat valde: sic fuit vespera & fuit mane diei sexti.Vers. 31.

A general sur­vey of all God had made. All were very good.HEre is a generall Survey of Gods works, and a generall appro­bation also. Before, when he did behold them severally, he beheld them to be good; in this general survey, behold they are very good, which is another degree of goodness. God, then when he had sur­veyed all his former works, and likewise Man, the accomplishment of [Page 110]the rest, he [...] in them an excellent harmony. Hitherto there was a state of imperfection, but here God saw that everything was very good: God here maketh a general muster of all, and of Man the Captain Creature, cui cunt caetera ut insignia, for man is the abridgment and accomplishment of all the other Creatures: Good things joyned to­gether must needs be very good, when that even ill things joyned to­gether may be good: A theef is ill, an halter is ill, joyn both together they are good, that is, bonum justitiae. Good things joyned together, having their Captain, are very good: Love is applyed to the heart, meat is for the belly: the head is the perfection of the body, and Man is the perfection of the Creation. God saw each day bonum; but when he saw man with the rest, he saw that they were valde bona: at summè bonus est solus Deus: Man is the chief Creature: caetera omnia sunt propter vos, 2 Cor. 4. 15. all other things are for mans sake. The Lord all things hath made (saith Salomon) for his own sake; yea even the wicked for the day of evill, Prov. 16. 4. so that God hath made caetera propter vos, the other Creatures for you; and you and them propter se. Then give praises unto his name, give him thanks for his loving kindnesse; give glorie due to God unto him, that so by him we may have full assurance of future immortalitie.

Three things hence to be­noted.Hence we are to learn three things. 1.That men would survey their works as God doth here, how great and how excellent they are; this is perfect wisdome and virtue, though commonly men set forth their rude works for perfect, without any survey: For Salomon, though he were the wisest man of his age, yet could he say, that when he looked upon all the works that his hand had wrought, and in the travail he had la­boured to doe, and behold all was but vanity and vexation of spirit, Preach. 2. 11. When God seeth man's wicked wayes, he will reprove him, and set them in order; to them that dispose their way aright God will shew his salvation, Psal. 50. 21. This is a rumination and a consideration of our works, which are unperfect, to reform them, and of Gods works, which being good, were, being accomplished, very good. Oh men glorifie God and follow him, he is the patern of goodnesse it self. Therefore let men see and know, let them consider and understand to­gether, that the hand of the Lord hath done this, and the holy one of Israel hath created it, Esay 41. 20.

2.Secondly, Hence we learn to rectifie our judgments, and to see as God did see. Divers men have an itch in the tongue, who will finde fault in this or that which God hath made; this commeth to passe when men will seem to see more than God himself did see. When that God did trie every work of his here seven times in this chapter; as for the words of the Lord, they are pure as silver, tryed in a furnace of earth, fined seven fold, Psal. 12. 6. So are his works also; and this is a bridle to our licentiousness, to suspend our judgment, and not to finde fault with Gods works. God hath said they were very good, habent er­go bonitatem etsi nobis ignotam. Divers things are good in their place, divers in their time: Fire in the cold of Winter is good, in the heat of Summer it is not so good: Water in the Summer is good. It is Gods[Page 111]curse and a great grief to eat in darknesse, Preach. 5. 17. In time things be good, all things have their time, Preach. 3. In a word let every one say thus with himself, God hath seen this or that good, I silly man can­not see it otherwise. Omnia sunt munda mundis, & sicomnia bona bonis, all things are clean to the clean, and all things good to the good. God createth good things, he ordereth evil things: the thing is not ill, but the ill applying is evil, not the power. There is potest as ad infestandum. if it be applyed to the Malefactor, it is even bonum justitiae. Sic non est dedecus culpae sine dedecore vindictae. God saith, It shall be well with the just, for they shall eat the fruit of their works; but woe be to the wicked, for it shall be evill with them, Esay 3. The punishing the wicked and re­warding the just is good; for we know that all things work to the best un­to them that love God, Rom. 8. 28. If any thing be amisse, the evill is in man, not in God: God hath made us good, but by Adams transgres­sion, and our daily sinne, we are evill: It is our iniquities that hath se­parated between us and our God; it is our sinnes that have hid his face from us, Esay 59. 2. and Jer. 5. 25. Say not then this is ill or that is ill, but say I am ill and I am wicked. God, who made all things, could best see that every thing was very good: but either by ignorance or by ill desert we are dymme sighted.

3.Lastly, For imitation we must see as God did, that we may see our works good: Bonitas bonitatum, & omnia bonitas was the state of the first creation: By sinne it was that Salomon saith, the beginning of the Preacher, that vanitas vanitatum, & omnia vanitas; and therefore let us be warie. Gods deeds were visible, they were not good words on­ly, but good gifts: let not us say only ecce dixi, but let our acts be good to the needy with ecce dedi: let us imitate God in that his goodnesse. There are two good things come from man, the one in 2 Pet. 1. 9. Knowledge, temperance, love, &c. The other in the 4. to the Philippi­ans 14. to communicate to the afflicted: benefacite & communicate is the summe of all.

So the evening and the morning were the sixth day. In the former dayes there was creation of nothing, a disposition and ordering of things created, and an adorning of things ordered: Here is an accom­plishment of all his works. God, before man was, observed the dayes and the number, but here he delivereth unto man the Kalender of times, which we have received and shall be received to the worlds end. The evening goeth before the morning: rest is in the evening, labor in the morning, to the which man is ordained: After this his last work cometh the seventh day, the day of rest. God he resteth not in the waters, nor in the Earth; he resteth not in the Heavens: but to conclude with the excellent saying of St. Austin: Requiescit Deus in homine, ut homo in Deo requiescat, God took his rest in man, that man might take his rest for ever with God: Which God of his mercy grant us all; to whom be all honor, glorie, and praise, world without end.



LECTURES Preached in Saint PAULS Church LONDON.

Itaque perfecti sunt Coeli & Terra, omnisque exercitus illorum.Gen. 2. 1.

April 22. 1591.IN the course of the former Chapter, ever we have seen the closing up of every dayes work to have this usuall and ordinary return, & dixit Deus. Now the seventh day being come, we are not to look for the old usuall dixit, but for a new course of speaking and manner of dealing; for as God finished and perfected his Law in ten words, when he spake in Sinay: So here in ten words he perfectly finished the whole work of Creation; and therefore now need no more to command any thing else to be made, because Heaven and Earth and all the fullnesse of them, are thus perfectly done and fini­shed.

If there be any thing in all the world, either they are here spo­ken of, or else are (in lumbis terrae & Creatoris, in the loyns of the ef­ficient, or in the womb of the World,) For within the six dayes all things were made; so that we may say with the wise man, Preach. 1. 9. What is now or shall be hereafter, but that which hath been made or done before hand, therefore there is now no new thing under the Sunne.

As that first Chapter was for the world; so this Chapter some call Mans Chapter, for it is but the remainder of the former Chap­ter, and is accompted as only a glosse, or Commentary of the Cre­ation of man, set down in the 27. verse of the first Chapter.

The former Chapter doth describe the great world in general, but this speaketh especially of the lesser World, viz. Man.

This Chapter doth consist of three parts.

1.The first is the Complement of the Creation, with the descrip­tion of the Sabbath, or rest, or seventh day, in the first three ver­ses.

[Page 116] 2.The second containeth a brief summe and abridgement of the Creation of the great World, from the 4. to the 7. verse.

3.The third part is a repetition of the Creation of the little World, or the continuation of the history of man, from the 7. to the end.

Touching the first, as it is contained in three verses, so in it there are three parts, or members to be marked.

1.In the first, The Holy Ghost standeth upon the perfection of Gods works.

2.In the second he sheweth, That having perfectly finished all, he gave himself to rest.

3.In the third, That he instituted that day, and sanctified it, to be a sabboth for ever to be used, observed, and kept.

Which three parts doe depend one upon another; for God ha­ving perfected all, he rested, and in that rest he blessed the seventh day, and instituteth the Sabboth: these are the three branches of the first part: The first whereof I will handle at this time.

1. He perfe­cted all when man was crea­ted. Moses, by way of sequell, telleth us, by joyning the perfection of things to mans Creation: That is a singular and an honourable pre­rogative in that behalf unto man: For recounting the perfection of all Creatures presently after mans making, he inferreth that they were not perfect, but defective before; for untill man was made, that [...], that wheel of generation and course of nature where­of St. James spake 3. 6. which never stood still. God took no rest before, nor made holy-day, because there was no end nor perfecti­on of his work untill man was made; Insomuch as God may seem to have made such a vow as David did Psal. 132. 4, 5. That he would not suffer himself to take any rest, until he had found that earth of which he would make man, and had placed him in the World; which argueth that there was a defect and imperfection, and as yet something to be supplyed, for the Earth lacked, and therefore looked for her possessor, which was man, who carried therefore the Earth in his name, that he might shew that the earth depended on him; The Host of Creatures.for the perfection of Heaven and Earth is in him, who as he was Prin­ceps Terrae, A Captain.so was he Infans Coeli, one born to inherit Heaven also; for seeing Heaven is a body and capable of a body, it must needs be that it was not made only for spirits, but for a body which was to be made: Therefore in that he saith, Thus were the Heavens and the Earth perfected, he sheweth that their perfection was suspended, and they held as unperfect and not compleat, until man was made.

Though the Heavens were made, 1. 19. yet until now they were not perfected: There was Urim, as the Hebrews say, but there was not Thummim: i. there was light, but there was not the perfection of light. Thus then were the Heavens and the Earth perfected; for though there was a power in God to make more Creatures, and create more things besides these; yet note, he maketh his full point, and saith, all is perfected, which is that (consummatum est) of the Crea­tion.

Thus much generally for the copulation & sic. Now to descend[Page 117]to the particulars, we see thy are distributed into two joynts.

1.First, Heaven and Earth, which are the Continents.

2.Secondly, The host of them, which are Contents and fulnesse there­of.

That a thing be made perfect, there are required two degrees of perfection, which are opposite to the double imperfection, spoken of in the former Chapter, Barrennesse, Emptinesse.called Tohu, Tobohu, the one being an out­ward perfection opposite to barrennesse and emptinesse without: the other is inward, opposite to rudenesse and deformity within.

The one is called perfectio [...] which is integritas partium, when all the parts are orderly in a comely proportion framed and well set together.

The other outward perfection is [...], that is, a due supply of de­cent furniture, and the accessory of needfull ornaments which being added it is also outwardly perfect; both which you may see in a body: for when a mans body is rightly knit together in every joynt with good colour and countenance, he hath his first inward perfe­ction of nature; but so long as there is nakednesse, there is yet a de­fect and want outwardly: But being adorned with jewels and appa­rel, it hath then the outward perfection also.

[...].We see them also in a house; for when it is framed and the frame set together orderly, and the rooms of the building well con­trived and conveyed, then it hath the first perfection, Integritas partium. i. integritatem partium: but when it hath the hangings, furniture, and implements, which is called suppellex, then it hath also the other, [...], for by that means every room is furnished and adorned.

The like order we may observe in Heaven and Earth; First they were imperfect, nothing done nor disposed; then they were facta, that is, perfectly made and disposed, as great, spacious, and stately rooms as yet empty and void; but now being filled with the hosts of of them, then they are perfectly furnished indeed.

The Septuagint doe translate that which is here called the host [...], i. the beauty of Heaven and Earth: but the propriety of the word in the original tongue importeth Armies, or Hosts, or Bands; Quest.Whereupon the question is, Why Moses doth expresse the fullnesse of Hea­ven and Earth, and the furniture and implements thereof, by this compara­tive name of Armies?

Resp.For answer some say, That it may be that the Israelites were then in Camp and Garrison, when Moses wrote this, which estate of theirs being militarie, he useth a military word. Indeed if we con­sider the form of Heaven, the Prophet saith, It is as a Tent spread a­broad, Esay 40. 22. In regard of which, the furniture which is under it is fitly compared to Armies and Bands, or Troops, to inhabit it.

But many other good and forcible reasons there are, why Heaven is called a Tent or Pavilion, and the furniture in it compared to Squadrons of Souldiers in a Camp.

1.As first in regard of the huge multitude of things in them; for [Page 118]one cannot say the furniture or implements of a house is compara­ble to them; therefore the furniture of an Host doth best expresse it.

Every Creature therefore in Heaven or Earth is Gods Souldier, in pay with him, and hath received some weapons to punish Gods Enemies, and the several kindes are, as it were, the Ensignes of his Army, and the company of all are the Host and Army Royall.

2.The second reason is in respect of order, because no Camp can be more orderly trained than the course of Nature in the order of Gods Creatures. The dayes in Winter cast themselves, as it were, in a ring, in the Summer abroad and so come long. The Starres keep duly their assigned place, time and course, without disorder or disturbance to the rest. So the Herbs doe in their order, and seasons one follow another. And so doe the Fish gather together in skuts and squadrons, and march about the Sea coasts in their kindes.

3.Thirdly, There is a respect beyond these, which is in regard of their head and Captain; for in an Host there must needs be imagi­ned a Leader or head Governour of all, which we cannot say of houshold-stuffe or apparel, for it implyeth not a head necessarily: Man, therefore, is made the Captain and guide or head of this Host, In which regard they are thus called.

4.Fourthly, There is a higher regard, which is of God the chief and supreme head or Emperor, in which respect God is called, The Lord of Hosts, Exod. 15. 3. Therefore, as man on Earth is Lieute­nant to lead you; so in Heaven and Earth God is Chieftain and highest Commander of them; For if God send out his swift watch­word, all Creatures doe carefully obey and muster themselves to doe his will, Psal. 147. 15. If he doe but hisse or whistle, they come out and set forward, Esay 7. 18. And for retreat, Mark 4. 39. if he say Peace, and be still, the windes cease, are still, and goe no further.

5.Last of all, because if they had been expressed by the term of ap­parel or furniture, it might have been thought that all things had been made for pleasure: but by the comparison of Soldiers, they are made known to be made for service also, as Soldiers are.

All other kindes of service are but for one use, as a Servants ser­vice is only obedience either to doe or not to doe, but there is a dou­ble use and service of a Soldier: Miles pro & contra.The one is to apply himself to the good of his Captain and Country:The other to be ad oppositum against his enemies, to defend his Captain, and to offend his Adver­sarie. So mans life is called a Warfare, and Christians are Soldiers, in both virtues endeavoring to doe good and to resist evil, and to throw down all that doth oppose it self against God.

Also wheresoever mention is made of an Army, there is implyed an Enemie, which therefore giveth some occasion out of this, to gather the fall of Angels, which Heavenly Creatures are made not only to serve ad muniendum, sed ad puniendum, for the benefit of the good, but for the punishment of disobedient and disloyal servants;[Page 119]for against such, all things in Heaven and in Earth, doe arme them­selves for revenge, and oppose them selves against them.

We may if you please muster these Armies in their several ranks and orders.

Armies in Heaven, cele­ftiall Spirits, as the Angells.And first concerning the Armies in Heaven, they are of two sorts. The first are in the uppermost Heavens, in which are the Angels, which being spirits are called, by implication, Heavenly Souldiers or Gods host, as Jacob in the old Testament called them, Gen. 32. 2. and St. Luke in the new Testament 2. 13. These are the first order, which have the name of an Host; concerning which celestial Creatures we read that they are [...] Psal. 104. 4. Called Soul­diers in respect of their mini­stery.and fitly compared to Soldiers, in respect of their service and ministry, Heb. 1. 14. Multitude.and also in respect of their multitude, Psal. 68 17. and Dan. 7. 10. And in the New Testament, Matth. 26. 53. Christ speaketh of twelve Le­gions which surpasseth the greatest Host that ever was. Power.Also in re­spect of their power, they deserve the same name, 2 Thes. 1. 7. Also in respect of their wisdome for policie, 2 Sam. 14. 20. these are con­tinually present and affistant with God, Job 1. 6. 1 King. 22. 19. And God doth send and imploy them to our service, Gen. 28. 12. and are often messengers between God and man; Their care and charge.and their care and charge is not only to look to whole Countries and Nations, Joshua 5. 14. as of Israel, and Dan. 10. 13. of Persia and Grecia, but also of singular persons, as St. Peter had his Angel, Act. 12. 15. So had Agar, Gen. 16. 7, 8. And little Children had their Angels, Matth. 18. 10. Abrahams servant an Angel, Gen. 24. 7. and Tobias an An­gell.

Having their charge generally of Countries, and especially of se­veral men, They are pre­sent with us,it followeth consequently, that they are present with us and about us, Preach. 5. 5. In which regard we must take heed to our behaviour propter Angelos, 1 Cor. 11. 10.

To guide and direct us.They are not only present, but also doe goe before us, as guides for directions in good matters, as Abrahams servant, Gen. 24. 40.

To hinder some in bad matters.And as they serve to further us in good things, so doe they hinder some men in bad courses and enterprises, Numb. 22. 31. as they did Balaam: And they doe rejoyce if we prevail in that which is good, Luke 15. 10. And the last service they perform, is to carry and con­vey us into Abrahams bosome, Luke 16. 22.

The Militarie service of Angells.Now touching their militarie service, they doe pitch their Camp about the Godly ad muniendum for defence, Psal. 34. 7. and ad punien­dum they doe pursue and scatter the wicked. They are in Cherubins spreading their wings over the good, Exed. 25. 22. and [...] out a fiery sword against the evill, Gen. 3. 24. There is friendship and fi­delity to the one, and opposition and open hostility with the o­ther.

So they served for Elishaes protection and defence, 2 Kings 6. 17. and for opposition and defiance to the Enemies of God, Esay 37. 36.

We see both together, Gen. 19. 15. they defend Lot and [...] Sodom: And Acts 12. 7, 8, 9. the same Angell which delivered [...] [Page 120]out of [...] smote Herod with the disease of the worms, that he died.

In the Firma­ment the Stars.Touching the nether Heavens, The Host of the firm ament is the ce­lestial bodies, Deut. 17. 3. for so are the Starres and the Planets called, Act. 7. 43, 44. And their Militarie service is, Judg. 5. 20. to fight in their courses against Gods enemies.

Armies in the Aire.For the lowest Heavens, which is the Aire, There God hath his Host, viz. the Winde; for the Winde (though it be but a puffe of Aire) yet when God doth stirre it, it hath such a militarie and violent force, both on the Seas, Psal. 48. 7. and also on the Land, 1 Kings 19. 11. Job 1. 19.

Leave the body of the Aire, and goe to the furniture of it, There shall you see that God hath his store-house of Snow and Hail, Job 38. 22. both for reward of the good, and revenge of the wicked, for from thence came fire and brimstone on Sodom, Gen. 19. 24. and from thence came the storm of Haile upon the Egyptians, Exod. 9. 22. &c.

If you come to the fowls of the Aire, they are Gods Armie, for our good to feed us, 1 King 17. 6. or else for our punishment, to feed upon us, Ezech. 39. 4.

And Gods power doth not shew it self in the great Fowls, as Ostriches and Eagles, but in his Army of little poor Flies which are in the Aire, Exod. 8. 24. and his swarms of Hornets, Deut. 7. 20. for by them he can compell People to forsake and leave their Land and dwelling places.

Armies in the Earth.Let us come to his Armies on Earth and Waters, And first con­cerning the Waters, doe not we see, Gen. 7. 21. that there were such huge Armies thereof, that at Gods commandement they over­flowed the whole Earth: That they drowned the Egyptians, Exod. 14. 27. And the Whales in the Waters are Gods Host to devoure Jonas, Jon. 1. 17. Yea, to leave the great Army of Whales, and come to the Army of Frogs which God hath in the Waters, where you shall see, that God hath such great power in these weak things, that they can annoy the mightiest Kingdomes upon Earth, Exod. 8. 14.

Armies of Earth.For the Earth it self, that can swallow up Gods enemies, Numb. 16. 32. And on the Earth you may take the Lyons for a strong Ar­my, 2 Kings 17. 25. but his power is most of all seen in the weak Host of Grashoppers, Exod. 10. 14. and of Locusts and Caterpil­lers, Joel 2. 25. Yea, of Lice he can make such an Army, that, &c. Exod. 8. 16, 17.

If we come to men, the Inhabitants of the Earth, they are Gods Host, but they fight not against other Creatures, but with their own kinde, not one against one, but thousands against thousands, even in pitched fields; not with natural Instruments, as the Boare with his tusk, the Bull with his horne, but with artificial weapons of divers sorts, with whose kinde of forces the World is too well acquain­ted.

[Page 121]Thus we see, that there is no creature in Heaven or Earth, but is a Souldier in pay with God, and all these hoasts are in league with us; so long as we serve God, Job 5. 23. And keep our sacramentum militare, which we make in our Baptism; otherwise they come upon us like armed men, and are prest against us, to punish our disobedi­ence: And every part of Heaven and Earth, then, will send out an Army to conspire our destruction and overthrow; and this may suf­fice for a brief view of these Armies.

A word of the third perfection, we have seen perfection [...] and [...], Now we are to consider [...]. First: The World was a great House, perfect in respect of the parts, but yet the rooms were emptie and unfurnished. Then God replenished, garnished and furnished it with its hoasts, as we have heard. But yet there wanted a third perfection, which is a head to guide, and an owner to possesse, ma­nure, and occupie all.

Man the per­fection of Gods work.God made the Earth as his work-house and shop, and Heaven as his chamber and place for a rest and reward, and both for one; and that is man.

God made the Earth as the Tent to prepare our selves and to put on our Armour, as the Field, Lists or Tiltyard, to trye masteries or to fight in, against Gods enemies 1 Pet. But the Heavens and Firma­ment he made as, locum triumphi, that is, the Court to triumph in: So that when man was made to be a Souldier in the one, and a Conqueror in the other; all was perfected.

God made the Earth in its parts absolute, and gave it erecta [...], depressa vallium, & densa silvarum, and furnished it with beasts and cattell of divers kinds, but did perfect all; by making man the owner of all.

In a Battell, though the Field be appointed, the Ordinance plant­ed and the Souldiers encamped: yet all is unperfect, till there be a Generall of the field to marshall them, and a Captain to lead them; so was all unperfect till man was made.

Object. Seeing man was the perfection of all things; what ayleth it now? That being so many men, we can see nothing absolute and in its perfect estate?

David saith, Psal. 119. 96. I have seen an end of all perfection, but thy Law is perfect, as if he should say; there is nothing else perfect now, the Heavens are called often imperfect, Levit. 26. 19.

The Ayre is infectious, the Seas dangerous, the Earth also grow­eth in her imperfections; So the Beasts are unto us: In our bodies we finde troops of diseases, and in our souls heaps of sorrows, and care, which shew our imperfections.

Resp. Perfectio crea­tionis.Though the finishing of Heaven, Earth, and Man be the perfection of Creation: Deformatis [...] per­fectionis.Yet now we must understand, that the sinne of man brought in death, and so an imperfection or deformation. Finis pec­cati mors, Rom. 6. 21. Et peccati finis damnatio, Phil. 3. 19. verse.

Thus then standeth our estate and condition: Ratio.The reason of it is, because the Captain and Lieutenant [man] being set to resist the ene­my [Page 122]Satan, grew in a league and conspiracy with him against God, and so apostatavit, non militavit, as saith St. Ambrose, wherefore see­ing he was not content with his estate to be Lieutenant, but would be chief generall sicut Deus, Gen. 3. Therefore consequently followed his decay: And this is the means, whereby from perfection, he came to desection, and so to imperfection; for when he which was the per­fection of all things, became imperfect; then all things which were ordeined for, and given to him, grew subject to alteration and vanity, Rom. 8. and so per consequence imperfect.

And thus saith David, we have seen an end of all perfection under the Sunne.

Perfectio re­demptionis.Yet that perfection of nature being lost (see the unspeakable mercy of God) we have another new perfection 2 Cor. 5. 17. in Christ, In whom we are made new creatures: And that perfection to the which nature would have brought us; that is never to dye, but to be tran­slated with Enoche, to the same will Gods grace (through Christ) re­store us again: And as in the sixt day man was here perfected; So in the sixt age of the World, Christ came and made his Consummatum est, which is the second perfection of redemption, at which time as St. Peter saith all things lost by nature shall be restored by grace.

Yet there is another further perfection, then this of grace and re­demption, that is the perfection of glory in the life to come; for then shall the last end and perfection come, Matth. 24. 14. When that which is imperfect is done away, then that which is perfect shall come, 1 Cor. 13. vers. 11.

Quam autem perfecisset Deus die septimo opus suum quod fecerat, quievit ipso die septimo ab omni opere suo quod fecerat:Gen. 2. 2. vers.

April 24. 1591.THe other day I shewed you that these two verses, doe as links in a chain depend one upon the other; for the Holy Ghost telleth us, that when he had made man, he perfected all his works; and here when he had perfected and finished all, then he rested.

It is the right order to work and labour still, un­till we have attained to the perfection of our work, which done, it is reason we should leave off and rest; For, whereas that is perfect whereunto nothing can or may be added; and Gods works now being so, having that perfection within which is called [...], the fit joyning and knitting together of parts and [...], which is the furnish­ing and adorning of the parts, and [...] which is the setting a head over them, there wanteth now nothing else to be added, but only an end and conclusion to be made, which here God performeth.

[Page 123]For as it is a fault in working to labour and not to perfect, so it is a fault also not to leave off when the work is well and perfect, because by being over curious we make the work worse, is we marre it not altogether, and so make it imperfect again.

Yet there are some of so curious minde, and withall of so restlesse a spirit, Heb. 10. 25. as cannot be content with perfection it self, but will depart from the fellowship of the Church.

They are such as Salomon speaketh of Prov. 30. 33. who will not be content when all is clean, but will still be blowing the nose untill the blood follow.

These may be called fellows of the preterpluperfect tense, whom nothing can please, be it never so perfect, unlesse it feed their giddy and brain-sick humors.

But Moses telleth us, that as God is not defective in his works, so he is not excessive, sed manum detorquet, when all was perfect he stay­ed his hand, gave over his work and betook himself to rest.

And thus much of the dependance of this verse.

Touching the parts, they are two in number.

1.The one is the perfection of the works in respect of God.

2.The other is his rest, when he had made an end.

For the first we have to consider three things. 1.First, the action of finishing. 2.Secondly, the time in which he did finish. 3.And the third is touching the rest it self.

Touching the first, There was a beginning when nothing was made; after he made all things, he commeth to an end, and there finisheth all. If he be Alpha, i. the beginning of a thing, he will be Omega, that is, bring it to a happie and perfect end, Revel. 1. 8.

Man beginneth but cannot bring to an end, for these causes.But with man it is otherwise, he beginneth many things which he finisheth not: If he purposeth good things, oftentimes his courage doth quail before it come in act, as Peter did: Or else, if they be [...] in their purpose, their strength faileth them before they can effect it, Psal. 21. 11. They imagine such a devise which they are not able to bring to passe, because their arme is too weak and short to doe it: Or if we have strength yet oftentimes the cost and charge is too great, which the work requireth. Luke 14. 30. So some men take in hand to build houses, which, for lack of sufficient store, are not able to finish.

Last of all, Man himself very often before he can finish and come to an end of his work, hath his dayes finished, and his years come to an end. Wherefore fear not what man can doe unto thee, seeing his breath is in his nostrills; for there are many wayes to prevent and alter or hinder their purpose, for God can take away his breath before he can bring it to passe. But God is not as man, he cannot repent or alter his minde, Numb. 23. 19.

If God saith he will doe any thing, Quis impediet? he would know Who can let or hinder it? Esay 43. 13. Therefore this is our comfort which Moses saith Deut. 32. 4. Omne opus Dei perfectum: And therfore if he hath begun any good work in us, he will throughly finish it in the end, Phil. [Page 124]1. 6. Wherefore let us also, when we have well begun, never give over any good thing untill we have finished it, and having well done one thing, we must not then and there leave off and start aside like a broken bow from doing any more, Psal. 78. 57. for God ceaseth not, he never giveth over dixit, fecit, untill the return came, & fuit sic, & perfecit. We must persevere then, the Philosophers said that Perseverantia est virtus virtutum. And Gregorie saith, Of all Virtues only Perseverance is crowned. The goodnesse and good works of the wicked are as shooting starres, falling and vanishing suddenly, and as a Land-flood or plash of water, Ose 6. 4. which continue not, but are soon dried up: They are as a fire of thornes, Psal. 118. 12. Therefore let us not frame our selves to their manner of doing well.

For Pharao ten times began well, but still declined from amen­ding the faults, which he knew and confessed, Exod 8. 8. &c. This is their behaviour. But the estate of the Godly, is the state and man­ner of the Nazarites, as St. Augustine saith, that is, be holy and clean all their dayes; for if they touch any unclean thing the last day, then all their dayes are reckoned unclean.

Now as we draw this from Gods perfection; so for the time when he rested (namely the seventh day) we learn to avoid protra­ction and delayes. For God doth not only end, but he endeth also in a short time, even within seven dayes; which is not the manner of men, who in good things are as a Snayle, Psal. 58. 8. Seeing God then within seven dayes finished omnia opera sua, his great works of Creation, what a shame it is that we cannot finish our opuscula, a few small good things in many yeers.

Now we are come to opus suum quod fecerat, of which I will only shew you some notes, which St. Augustine hath gathered out of it.

First, saith he, We may see that all that which was created be­fore, so infinite Hosts of Creatures in number, and so diverse in kinde on every side and part of the World, all that innumera­ble plurality is here by God in one rolled up, and is called opus suum.

Though Heaven and Earth be so farre asunder, and so contrarie in nature, yet here they are brought to an unity and attonement; the means whereof, as he saith, is man, who being both of Heaven and Earth, became vinculum perfectionis, joyning both together in Man, as they both together were for man, and under his govern­ment.

Now in that he saith Opus suum quod fecerat, Agustine noteth it, be­cause there are some men which doe brag of opus suum, but they cannot boast of quod fecerant, because there are some which doe not only build upon another mans foundation (which St. Paul would not doe) but also upon another mans Timber and Stones too, as one ha­ving gotten St. Pauls Parchments or Epistles, should say and set them out as his own, but these cannot say, as God here doth opus suum quod fecerat.

[Page 125] Object.Now touching the third point, I ask first, Whether God was weary of working because he rested?

Resp.To which the School-men answer, That, rest is here not opposed to wearinesse but to work, for he could not be weary of his work; because all that he did was done without labour, for he made all, by saying only let it be.

But happily a man, with long and much speaking may be weary: But we see that God spake but even one word, at least few, and short words, and therefore could not be weary so: Also a man is not weary of that which he doth, with faculty, and facility too: But God doth all things not only with faculty, but with the greatest facility that may be, for nothing is hard to him, or beyond the compasse of his power; therefore we cut off all wearinesse from God, and say, That his rest­ing was only a ceasing, or leaving off to make any more new things, for his rest is only negatio operis, non affirmatio laboris.

Object.The other question is, Doth God then cease and rest from all manner of work; hath he ever since done nothing more?

Resp.That is impossible, for seeing he is Actum primum; therefore he cannot be idle, and rest from all things, as we may imagine; as he bath quietem activam, so hath he motum stabilem, a quiet motion, with­out any labor; and this we may learn out of Moses words, for he saith not simply, that then God rested, but he rested from his works, and not absolutely from every work, but only from the works which he had created, that is, A novis con­dendis, sed non a veteribus conservandis.from creating any more things, from the works of creation he rested a novis condendis, sed non a veteribus conservan­dis; for this was the Sabbath dayes work, which then he began: So saith Christ, pater meus adhuc operatur, & ego operor, John 5. 17. That is both in the propagation and bringing forth the things which he made, & also in preserving of them. We say, in the Schools, that there is a double cause of things, the one is causa sieri the other is causa esse. The first, is the cause of making: As a Carpenter having made a house perfect, forsaketh it and careth no more for it, till it fall down or as the fire is of heat, or as the clock keeper, is of the going of the clock, who when he hath set it to his minde, leaveth it untill the plumets fall down: causa esse, is as the candle is of light, which being taken away, the light is gone: So is God the cause of our life, being as a candle, whose being is of light: And in that respect David saith, Lift up the light of thy countenance, as if God were our candle, who being taken away, our life and light is clean put out, and become dark­nesse, Psal. 104. 29. If he take away his breath from us, we dye.

We say then, that he rested not from preserving and governing, though he did rest from making.

Hermes, by the light of reason, could say, That it were very absurd to think that God should leave and neglect the things he had made; and God imputeth it as a fault to the Ostrich, Job 39. 18, 19 to leave her eggs without care and regard in the sands, therefore God him­self will be free of that blame and blemish which he condemneth in others. As we say of the Father, so we say of the Sonne, which is[Page 126]the word of God, Psal. 33. 9. He commanded and they were made, there is creation, He said the word and they stood fast: which is the second work of preservation and guiding. Also Psal. 148. 5, 6. He first made them with his word which is the first work of creation, long sithence ended, and he gave them a Law, which they should not break, which is the other work of establishing and governing things made: So Coll. 1. 17. Paul speaking of Christ saith, By him all things have their being or existence: and Heb. 1. 3. By him all things have their supportance, and are held up.

He resteth not also from the ruling and governing of the World. A Sparrow is one of the basest and meanest Birds, Matth. 10. 29, 30. Yet their motion is directed by his providence and will, yea the hairs of our head (are numbred,) and none of them fall without his provi­dence: how much more then is he provident in disposing and govern­ing mans motions?

He hath a stroke in all that we doe, Prov. 16. 1. The answer of our tongue is guided by God, and in the 9. verse, the direction of our wayes, and the end and issue of their purposes and thoughts; yea he ordereth and governeth our hands and feet, Psal. 33. 10. Psal. 56. 13. He I say, fashioneth all our thoughts, and knoweth them long before; so that we have no power in our heart to think, in the tongue to speak, or hand to doe ought, but as we are directed by God; yea for things most casuall as Lots and Chances which are attributed to fortune, Prov. 16. 33. Even that is ruled by the Lord God, Act. 1. 26. The Lot of Matthias and Joseph called Barsabas is cast into the Lap, but the Lord doth dispose it and causeth it to fall unto Matthias.

That also which we call Chance-medley, as when many men walking in the street; one of them is killed with a stone falling on him, of such a chance God saith, Ego Dominus extuli illum hominem, Exod. 21. 13. So that God hath his stroke even in ordering such things? If this be so, then let us not say as they did, Job. 22. 13. Tush, God walk­eth above and regardeth not the things on earth, or with them, God seeth us not; For he both seeth, governeth, and preserveth all on earth: For though the Lord be in heaven, yet he humbleth himself to look down and behold the sonnes of men, and considereth that there is none of them good, Psal. 14. 2. And God hath not only, Librum re­rum creatarum, Psal. 139. 16. But he hath a register verborum & factorum, of words and deeds also, Mal. 3 16. And that we may know not our being only, but our preserving and guiding, is of the Lord and his work: he will at the last bring all these things to Judgment, Preach. 12. 14.

As for Gods rest after That he had made all things for himself, Prov. 16. 4. Then did he introire in regnum suum, Heb. 4. 10. So that he went out of his rest for our sakes, and having made all for us; he is said not to rest in his work, nor after his work, but from his work, for he had no need of these things, for he had most perfect rest in his own glory, which he had before the World was made, John 17. 5. into that rest then he now returned.

[Page 127]Secondly, we see that in Gods rest his works goe before it; for the word is not quievit but requievit, which sheweth that if we be first imployed about the works of God and then rest; it may well be called Gods rest, but that rest which is without work is Issachars rest, Gen. 49. 15. that is, idlenesse, and such as give themselves to that, are called Cretians, idle and slow bellies, as St. Paul calleth them, and those shall never enter into Gods rest, for it is pigra vocatio and not a return to rest.

If God had his work six dayes before he rested in creation, and if Adam had his work in the state of innocency, then it is much more meet now, That man should goe forth to his labor untill the evening, Psal. 104. 23. They which are not in labore hominum, Psal. 73. But lye on their beds imagining mischief, Pro. 26. 14. They shall not rest in the Lord, because God made them for good works to walk in them, Ephes. 2. vers. 10.

There are a number of superfluous Creatures, as one calleth the idle ones, of whom if we should demand, What is thy calling or work? They cannot say, we are exercised in the works of men; neither doe they work in the will of God: therefore if they doe any thing, they busie themselves in meddling about other mens matters.

It is strange to see how busie we are in taking in hand evill things, and how earnest we are in doing them, and how constant in not gi­ving them over, or ceasing from such works, Gen. 11. 6. Judas, can watch all night, to work his treason; but Peter, and the rest could not watch, one hour, to pray with Christ, Mark. 14. 37. &c. Non ha­bemus, tantum perseverantiae in bono, quantum constantiae in malo.

Husbandmen in their works for earthly things are earnest, they follow his counsell, Preach. 11. 6. Not to cease sowing from the morning untill the evening, but will make an end; but in the works of God, we cannot follow his counsell, 9. 9. to doe all that thou takest in hand with all thy power and strength, quicquid agis instanter age, saith one, after the example of Abrahams servant; who would not eat nor rest untill he had done his Masters work, Gen. 24. 33. And as David who vowed, That he would not suffer his eyes to slumber, nor his eye-lids to take any rest, untill he had found out a place for Gods Arke, Psal. 132. 2, 3. &c.

The proporti­on between work and rest.Now we are come to the last point, which is the proportion be­tween work and rest; which is as great odds as six to one, for he wrought six dayes and rested the seventh. This then if we apply will sit somewhat neer us: for though happyly we doe some work at some times, and perhaps doe perfect it at last. Yet this is the manner of the world when they are weary of idlenesse, or can doe no other worldly thing, then it cometh into their mindes to say operemur opera Dei, and when we take it in hand, we work not six dayes as God did, and rest one; but we rest six daves and labor one: we should use rest as a sauce, and labor as our meat, Job. 4. 34. And we know there is great odds and difference between the dishes, in which they are served; but it is our fashion to use labor as a sauce, to get us a stomack to rest. [Page 128]But we must not be as Jobs Sonnes and Daughters, Job 1. 4. that is, to spend whole dayes yea many dayes in delights and jollity, and few hours in the works of our vocation: for this is not to rest after Gods example.

The last use which we are to make of this, is that which the A­postle gathereth out of the Heb. 4. 10. As God did rest from his works, so let us from ours: we must esteem our righteousnesses and best works as filthy rags, Esay 64. 6. Yea as very dung, Phil. 3. 8. And say as Job did, Job 9. 28. Verebar opera mea: thus we must rest from our own works, because there is no safety or quietnesse in them, but leave our own righteousnesse, that we may rest in Christ and in the works he hath wrought for us.

And great reason it is, that we should only and wholly rest in him, Act. 17. 28. Quoniam in ipso movemur, therefore requiescamus in illo, if he be Lord of hoasts, that is, of all works; then let him be to us the Lord of Sabbath also, both are noted in this preposition (in) for see­ing our work and labor in this life is in Deum, 1 Cor. 15. 10. There­fore let our rest, for the life to come be in Deo, which St. Paul seemeth to joyn together, Rom. 11. 10. We are of him, that is, for creation: we are by him, that is, for preservation: and we are in him, that is, our end and finall rest in him: To whom be all honor, praise, power, and dominion for ever.


Et benedixit Deus diei septimo, & sanctificavit iplum: quum in eo quievisset ab omni opere suo, quod creaverat Deus, fa­ciendo.Gen. 2. 3. vers.

Aprill 27. 1591.WE are now come to the period or full point of the work of Creation. This third verse containing in it, the dedication or sanctifying of that most won­derfull and beautifull work of the whole World, and all things therein contained: For as in the Law both House and Temples, untill they were dedi­cated and hallowed, were counted prophane and unclean, and not to be used of Gods people; though they were fully made, as we may see, for Temples, 2 Chron. 7. 1. and for houses, Deut. 50. 5. So we are to conceive of the frame of heaven and of earth, and all the hoasts of them; for, both they and the governor, Man, were an unhallowed work untill God blessed it, for though God blessed and sanctified the Sabbath: yet benedictio Sabati, tran­fit, super observantes Sabati: As the Fathers say, by which means, the blessing came to man.

Wherefore as we have said, his rest was active: So now we shall see it, in the last greatest and chiefest works of all, for now in his [Page 129]rest, he blessed and sanctified the Sabbath day.

As Man was the end of all, so the end of man is holinesse, which is nothing else but the Image of God, before spoken of, wherefore this is the performance of that word of God, Gen. 1. 27. Let us make man in our Image that is, let us make him a holy and a happy one, for man by Gods blessed work coming to holinesse in this life, shall thereby aspire to eternall happynesse in the life to come 2 Pet. 1. [...] & 11.

There are two parts of this verse, the first containeth the blessing and sanctifying of the Sabbath: the second containeth the reason why he did so, namely, Because in it he rested from the work that he had made: which reason because it was before rehearsed in the second verse, let us first see the dependance of it.

God doth not rather extoll the seventh day, than the other six dayes, as if he did more favor and like idlenesse, then labor and work, for this is truly affirmed, both of God and godly men (of the Sab­bath,) which that heathen man said of himself, Nunquam minus otiosus quam cum otiosus fui: for as one saith, Circumcisio cordis durior labore corporis, wherefore by this God only [...] requiem sanctam, and not idle passage over the time.

Object. But why did God passe over the six dayes and appropriate this speciall exaltation to the seventh day only?

Resp.Surely it was to teach us to passe by all the creatures which God had made, and all that might be attained unto, by bodily labor and work: and not to seek for blessednesse in the six dayes work; but only in the blessing of the seventh day, given by his word which is above and beyond all that is in the Creatures.

But the other reason is more sensible, which is, because every one of the six dayes, brought his reall blessing with it. Of which Jobs wife had skill, Benedictus Deus in donis suis, Job 3. 9. Which is Oses blessednesse, Benedictus dominus quo ditati sumus, But the world hath no feeling of St. Pauls blessings, which are spirituall, who saith blessed be God which made us rich in all spirituall riches in Christ.

Wherefore that we may know, that we have more cause to, blesse God, for his spirituall blessings given unto us on the Sabbath day by his word, then for his temporall blessings which we receive at other times by his Creatures, therefore did he specially blesse this seventh day: for God knoweth we are easily brought to say, blessed be God, and blessed be this day in which we receive temporall blessings, and that place we will call the valley of blessing, 2 Cro. 20. 26. And on the other side, we think that day a cursed day, as Job did, in which we receive evills, Job 3. 8. But seeing all true and eternall blessings doe follow and shine, from the blessing of this day: it is indeed to be e­steemed a blessed day.

Object.But I will ask, Whether the other dayes were not also blessed?

Resp.Yes every one of them as we may see, Gen. 1. chap. had his Bene­dixit, which though they were temporall, yet they have a very good Analogy, and fit proportion, with the spirituall blessings of this day, of[Page 130]this day; for as we have a natural good use of the goodnesse of the Creatures on the six dayes, by their blessings given them; So here on the Sabath we have a spiritual use of the Creatures: For as the temporal and corporal use of the six dayes is ad cultum corporis, so this spiritual use of the seventh day is ad cultum animae, that so having blessings provided both for body and soul, we may by both kindes of blessings come unto God, in whose presence is the fullnesse of joy and blessednesse for ever, Psal. 70. 4.

Touching the blessing of the Sabath, We say that thing is blessed of God, to which God vouchsafeth some peculiar or special favour. So Isaac is called Benedictus Domini, Gen. 26. 12. because God shew­ed him such special favours. It was the strife between Esau and Ja­cob, because of the blessing, that is, the superiority, Gen. 27. 37. What maketh the Sabath the chief day in the week.Therefore this day having the special blessing, is by it made the head and chief day of the week.

The honor which is given to this day is holinesse, which is ex­pressed by sanctifying or hallowing, which consisteth in two things.

The first is Levit. 20. 26. which is separation or setting it apart from common and prophane uses, to the which they were or might be applyed before, before which they were called things common and prophane. So was this day first a common and an ordinary day, like to all the other ordinary dayes: yea, it might be thought to us before a waste emptie day, bringing no good with it to us; but now being set apart, the day which the builders would refuse, by this, is made the head and chief day of building; for as a man being set a a part to be a Magistrate, is thereby made above ordinarie men; so is this day now among other dayes, being set a part by Gods word.

As the separation of it from prophane uses is the first part; so con­sequently ensueth for the sanctifying of any thing the appropriati­on of it to Gods holy uses, to the which he hath appointed it, Levit. 27. 28. as the sanctified Instruments of the Temple must not serve to any other uses, but to that holy use and purpose in the Temple, for which they were made. If we then so use this day and separate it from prophane things, to holy exercises, it will be a blessed day to us; for Gods blessing given to this day is a real blessing, and will cause us to grow in holinesse here, and by it to blessedness in the life to come: For this must needs be granted, that he which [...] it blessed it for some body; if for some body, then for himself, or for some other; but he made it not for himself, for he is God for ever and ever blessed.

And as St. Paul saith, Omnia munda mundis, Titus, 1. 15. so we may say, Omnia sunt sancta sanctis; and therefore all things being holy to him which is holiest of all, it is sure that he sanctified it not for him­self.

Then it followeth, that it must needs be either for Man or for some other Creature; but not for any other Creature, because they themselves were all blessed and sanctified for us and our sakes, so[Page 132]saith Christ, Sabatum erat propter hominem, non homo propter [...].

Now we come to the counsell of God in the institution of the Sabath, the Psalmist saith 111. 2, 3, 4. That the works of God are great, and to be sought out of all them which have pleasure in them: And again That God hath so wrought his marvellous works that they ought to be had in remembrance.

It is Gods will and counsel therefore in these works, first that we should have a remembrance of them, and not to forget his benefits in them; for he made them that we should not only have a corporal use of them, but a spiritual use also, as David had, Psal. 143. 5. Re­cogitavi, or, recordatus sum omnia opera tua, that is, it should be our delight and pleasure to call to minde again and again his bounty and magnificence in his works, that blessing him for these benefits, we may be blessed of him for ever in the world to come.

Thus we see the dependence of this work and the counsel of God therein, to the end that this counsell of God may prosper and suc­ceed well, that we may have fit occasion to call to minde his works, to blesse him for it, and to be blessed of him: It was requisite and necessarie that God should take order to appoint a time, in which (setting aside all other worldly duties of our calling, we should only and wholly, as much as our weak nature can suffer) apply our selves to this Christian duty of meditation and serving God, which here is set down to be the seventh day, in which circumstance of time we have four things to consider.

1.First, That some day or time must be appointed to that end.

2.Secondly, That it should be a day or time certain.

3.Thirdly, That the certain time should be in a certain number of dayes, which the Fathers call taxatio temporis.

4.Fourthly, That it should be the seventh day, which is taxatio diet.

1.For the first we see, That reason consenteth to that which Salo­mon saith, Preach. 8. 6. That there is an appointed time for every action under the Sunne, but especially [...] it be a matter of weight and serious businesse indeed. Then reason wills that we should make speciall choyce of a time, when secluding all other things, we may intend only and wholly to it alone.

For if we should not have a certain time appointed to us, we of our selves are so carelesse, that we would make accompt of very few dayes or none at all, to sanctifie unto the Lords worship.

This matter then of Gods worship and Religion, being a matter of our soul, is the most weighty and serious businesse that can be, in as much as the soul is the worthiest part of us: And therefore it concerneth the freehold of our souls so neerly, that if we neglect or set light by it, Agitur de anima, our soul is in jeopardy: But if we set light of our soul (which being so precious a thing, is worth looking to) yet in another regard it is a weighty duty, and therefore we ought to be carefull of it, because God is worthy of this service and duty, which is opus Sabati, wherefore indeed there is no time of our life, but that we should think chiefly of this as the [...] [Page 132]held, That a man ought perpetually to be present and conversant with God, And in our words send up short prayers and praises to God. And that this is a bounden duty, daily to be performed, it is agreeable to the word of God, Numb. 28. which was shewed in their daily sacrifice every morning and evening, offering oblations and incense to God.

But who is it that is able all the dayes of his life, night and day, to intend his businesse as he ought; for this belonged as a duty, not only unto the Jews, but unto every Christian now.

Seeing this one businesse is to be intended above all other, and every thing is then best ordered, when we appropriate and apply the time and our studies only and wholly to it, as the proverb is, Quod unice, id unum, quod solicite id solum agas, for this is the wisdome of man in matters of this life: Then we must needs hearken to the counsell of the Prophet, Psal. 46. 10. Desistite, be still, or leave off other things, that ye may know I am the Lord, &c.

And to the advise of the Apostle, 1 Cor. 7. 5. we may leave off other matters, and must consent so to doe for a time, that the more fully and wholly we may be given to prayer and fasting.

This is called of some Induciae seculo, a truce taken with the world for a time, that not being troubled with the affairs thereof, we may only set before us (as much as our weak natures can) our duty in the service of God, which is our sanctification. Therefore God appointed to this spiritual work a time at large, that is, appointed some time, in which only and wholy Adam by necessity was enjoyed to this work. Wherefore; by all conveyance of reason, by a much greater necessity, must we know, that we also must have a time at large for this businesse.

2.The second point is, That it was necessary, not only that there should be a time at large, that is, some time of our dayes, but also a certain set time or day appointed for it, for otherwise God should have slender service, or scarce any at all; for if it were left at our liberty, we would take liberty to serve him when we list, and when we could intend it, and when we had nothing else to doe: There­fore one said well, according to St. Peter, Christiana libert as pallium est pessimis moribus.

And I referre me to your judgement how well God will be served if there were no time certainly appointed, seeing this which is set down is so ill kept: Those therefore which urge Christian liberty and would not have a set certain day, but every day a Sabath, they would have God stand at that portion of time and service, which mens devotion and liberality would afford.

This then would be the inconvenience of uncertainty in this mat­ter, that perpetuum Sabatum & jejunium would prove none at all: And therefore God saw it necessary that we must have a set and a cer­tain time.

And in this the Law of Nature agreeth with the Law of God; for the Heathen had their statae feriae, set and appointed holy dayes: and [Page 133]the Hebrews call their holy-dayes by the name of Mogne, which is a staid certain time, still unmovable, not at random, but set down and appointed firm and perpetual.

3.Now we are come to the third point, That it must be one of the seven in the week, which came not by natures light, but by Gods ordinance, his word setting it down, therefore was it told Adam, that he should tell it to the Posterities to come: By which means the Gentills came to the knowledge of it, and held it by tradition; for in their books we shall plainly see it.

Lucianus testifieth, that as the Jews kept their holy-day (in which they worship God) on the Saturday: the Turks on the Friday: the Egyptians on the Thursday: the Assyrians on the Wednesday: the Persians on the Tuesday: The Grecians on the Monday: And Christians now doe keep their day of worship the Sunday and first day of the week; So that in all quarters and parts of the Earth every day and part of time is kept as a set day of divine worship. And for the seventh day, we shall see that the Pythagoreans had received a glimmering of this knowledge, for they called the number of 7 numerum quietis, and the number hallowed of God, and the divine number, or Gods number, which they had (no doubt) not by the light of Nature and reason, but by tradition from their Elders, and so delivered it to their Posterity.

It is strange which Eusebius recordeth out of two Heathenish Wri­ters, 13. de preparatione Evangelii, The one of Linus verse 2. That God made and finished all things the seventh day: the other of He­siod (we agreeing to that) saith, that therefore the seventh day is the Lords holy-day. And on the seventh day therefore the Gentiles called on their Gods, and had their meetings in it, and called the number of 7 Minerva, by the name of their God. Macrobius affir­meth, that the Gentiles did mean by Pan and Jano and all other names of Gods, only the great God Apollo, as their chief God whom they served the seventh day.

But this is our rule most plainly revealed from Gods word, that it is his will, that we should keep the seventh day holy; for seeing all the dayes are his, he should have done no injurie, if he had appoin­ted and dedicated all the dayes of the week to be spent and imploy­ed on his service, yet he hath not done so.

St. Augustine saith, That if God had given us but one day of the seven to work in, for our own commodity, it had been more than he had owed us, it had not been given of duty, but of his lar­gesse and liberality.

But now seeing he hath not given us one, or two, or every other day for our businesse, but the whole six, and reserved but one of the seven for himself to be served in; this is so equall, that none can complain or think to be hardly dealt withall.

If any man shall now be so sacrilegious, having six dayes given him freely, as to take from him that hath but one reserved to himself, it is intollerable injury, and not to be excused, and as Da­vid [Page 134]saith, 2 Samuell 12. 5. he may well be called the Child of death.

The fourth and last point is taxatio diei.

As the World had the knowledge of the former three points, so this point standeth upon very good and sufficient reason; for seeing that the day is or deined in remembrance of this work and benefit of Creation (for that is the end why the Turks and Jews did celebrate holy-dayes, in them, to remember some notable work and benefit) therefore it is reason that God should make choise of such a day, in which the benefit might be best remembred: And of all the dayes in the week we shall see the seventh day to be the fittest to retain and keep in memory the commendation of this benefit and work of Cre­ation. When God had performed this great work of Creation, he took order also, because it was the greatest benefit which as yet the World had or knew of, that the seventh day should be alwaies had in remembrance, because he had fully perfected all the work in it; and the very same reason which made the Jews Sabath on the seventh day, doth now also move Christians to keep it on the first day in the week, for it is Gods will that the lesser benefit should surcease and give place to the greater, Jer. 23. 7. and that the benefit of Creati­on, as the lesser, should yeeld and give place to the work of Redem­ption, which is the greater benefit.

When Christ cometh, we shall not then extoll and magnifie the deliverance out of Egypt, but that shall cease and not be counted the greatest benefit; But we shall talk of Christs work and deliverance from Hell and Satan: So the day of Creation must give place to the day of Redemption.

Wherefore the Apostles, after Christs Ascention, changed the seventh day unto the first day of the week, which we shall see, is most fit to keep in memory this greatest work and benefit of Redempti­on, as Athanasius and Ambrose doe hold and prove: Because if (B) were the Dominical letter when Christ was borne, his Nativity was on the first day of the week, his Resurrection, Apparition of the Holy-Ghost, and Ascention, was also on the first day in the week. And also the first day is most fit to retain in minde the restauration of the World: So it is not unmeet to remember the Creation, which was begun the first day. And besides all this, it may serve as the fittest time to cause us to remember the benefit of glorifica­tion, for seeing our Inheritance is in light, Coll. 1. 12. And God made light, the first day, to come out of darknesse, 2 Cor. 4. 6. Gen. 1. 3. there­fore it is most fit to put us in minde of that also.

We will beginne the next time where we now leave.

And you remember the last time according to the division we then made, we spake somewhat of the institution and observation or use of the Sabath. The former being implyed in the word (blessing) the other in the word (sanctifying:) Touching which we say with the ancient Fathers, that quodlibet officium Dei est beneficium nostrum. Therefore Adam, having received so many benefits of God, was[Page 135]bound by necessarie duty, to performe some service to God for them, which every day in part he should have done as duty required; But some one day he ought wholly to apply all the powers of his minde, and all the parts and members of his body about it alone.

Wherefore we have shewed, 1.first, That there must be some one day or time set a part to the solemne intending of the work and worship of God.

2.Secondly, That it ought to be some certain day.

3.Thirdly, That God, measuring out his vectigal temporis, the tri­bute of time due to him, did assigne it to be once in seven dayes, which revolution of seven hath a special use both in things natural and in things spiritual; for in Religion, as in seven dayes is the Sa­bath, so in the feast of the seventh moneth is the feast of the Taber­nacle, or the feast of weeks.

4.The last point is a positive day and time, namely, the seventh day, which God chose as most fit for his work.

Touching which the Jews themselves did not so much stand, in the strict limitation of the set day: For they held, That if a man by sleep or [...], knew nor certainly which was the seventh day, it was not a matter absolutely necessary, so that he kept one day of the seven. To this end therefore of worshipping God, he would have us make a truce with the World. And as Augustine saith, we must have a vacation from the works of our Vocation. And as Christ would have us, Luke 10. 42. we must lay aside Martha's part, that not being troubled with many things, we might attend to Mary's part: The better for separating our selves from worldly things, and dedicating our selves to heavenly things, is the ground of this institution, Sabatum Ptradisi.and this is the end and observation of the Sabath of Paradise.

Sinai.But the Sabath of Sinai had three other accessory ends added to this.

1.The first is Politicall, set down Exod. 23. 12.

2.The second is Theicall or Ceremoniall, which Ceremonies are excellently well divided thus.

1. Some clo­sures or fences.Some were appointed as closures or fences, to inclose and defend or aid the Law, Ceremonies of Sinay.as the sixth Precept had this Ceremonie for his fence, That men should eat no blood, to signifie [...] them how greatly they should abhor murder.

2. Rudiments to the Gospell.The other Types or Ceremonies were rudiments and instructi­ons leading us darkly, as by Riddles and [...] to some necessa­ry points of the Gospel.

So the Ceremonie of the Saboth taught us a double Lesson and Document, the one of a benefit already past and exhibited, as of the Creation done on the seventh day. The other of a benefit to be ex­hibited hereafter and perfected also on the seventh day, that is, the work of Redemption and Regeneration. So now the promised Sa­viour being come, that Ceremony of the set seventh day [...], and the first day in the week is in its stead. There was also another Ceremonie, Heb. 4. 9. and that taught us to rest from finne in this[Page 136]life, and also it was a type of the eternall rest in the life to come, Revel. 14. 13.

The third end was peculiar to the Jews for that special work and benefit of their deliverance out of Egypt, Deut. 5. 15. wherefore the Jews say, that they have a double right and interest in the Sabath.

1.First, Because they are filii Adami.

2.Secondly, Because they are tanquam filii Abrahami.

Our Saviour Christ teacheth us, [...]. 19. 8. so to esteeme of things as they were in the primitive state in their first institution, a principio non fuit sic: Wherefore when we say there was a Cere­monie in this Law, and a Riddle, it must be understood, that it was not so from the beginning in Paradise, but was after added as ac­cessory to it, and the reason inevitable to prove it, is set down, Coll. 2. 17. where Christ is said to be the body and substance of all sha­dows and Ceremonies.

Wherefore seeing there could be no shadow where was no body, we conclude, that at this institution there could be no Ceremonie, for where and when no sinne and losse is, there needed then no Sa­viour. But there was no sinne nor losse to man, untill after this Sa­bath was instituted, as appeareth in the next Chapter, wherefore now it hath no such ceremonial end; for the only chief end now was to Adam, because he having but a finite soul, could not attend two things at once but diviso corde, wherefore, that he might attend this toto corde, this was ordained. And this was the principall end which was before the Ceremony, and remaineth still to us after the Ceremonie.

Touching the other Ceremonie, which was a fence to the Law, it is set down Exod. 35. 2. which also was accessory: for only we reckon that to be Ceremonial in the fourth Commandement, which afterwards was added to the first end, and was ended in Christ; and thus we stop the mouths of Papists, which say, Seeing the fourth Precept is ceremonial, why is not the second also? and of the Ana­baptists who reason even so against the third precept touching Oaths, saying, Why should not it be ceremonial as well as that, be­cause these Ceremonies only were added for a time ad erudiendum intellectum, & ad informandos mores: Wherefore the first end remain­eth; So that as the Eve of the Sabath is Nundinum ventris, the Mar­ket for provision for the belly, so the Sabath it self Nundinum mentis, the Faire to provide meat for our soul. And the Jews give a good reason why they were forbidden to goe forth to gather Manna on the Sabath day: For why should they be troubled with corrupti­ble Manna, which was subject to putrifaction and rottennesse, seeing that day they were to gather the Heavenly Manna which perished not.

There remaineth one point touching our positive day of keeping the Sabath, why it is changed into the first day of the week. The reason is because the benefit we received by Christ the first day of the week, is greater then the former of Creation, here finished on the[Page 137]seventh day: For by Christs work we are not only postored to our first estate of Gods Image, in which we were made; but also by it we are made partakers of the divine nature, as the Apostle saith; Therefore the former benefit of the day of Creation giveth place to this of the Redemption: For seeing his Resurrection was the per­fecting of the work, which was upon the first day of the week. Therefore the Disciples used to meet in their Assembles ever after upon the first day, Act. 20. 7. and called it the Lords day, Rev. 1. 10. And some of the Fathers doe think (considering well the 22, 23. verses of 118. Psalme) that it is a plain prediction of the change of the Sabath day, for the Prophet saith, That when the stone which the builders refused became the head corner stone, which was so wonderfull in our eyes (which was sulfilled at his Resurrection, for before he was the foundation stone) then it should be said, This is the day which the Lord hath made, let us rejoyce and be glad in it, and give sacrifice and praise to God.

Being therefore changable by the institution, we are not to trou­ble our selves about the altering of the set day; but we will a little more return to the consideration of the commandement as it is morall.

The fourth Commandement, in the 5. of Deut. beginneth with a Memento, which is a calling to minde of all his benefits; and by ad­ding a sanctification to it, God sheweth quod in majori cultu colemus, and, as another doth interpret, sanctificavit, saying, Intimavit Deus Adamo, quod diem illum sibi consecrâsset. And though we finde in the Commandement the word benedixit attributed to God only as his proper action, yet sanctificavit is applyed also to man, for which we have this rule, that when such words are given both to God and Man, it is to be understood, that it is affirmed of God sub modo de­stinandi, and to Man sub modo applicandi; God sanctified it when he made this day (which seemed to mans reason the meanest day) to be his day and the chiefest of dayes ordained and appointed to a ho­ly use and end, and our sanctifying of it is when we shall with care apply and spend it to that holy end.

Object.But now the question is, Whether the Sabath and seventh day were by Adam and his posterity, after this institution to that end?

Resp.The Jews make no question of it, and also the old and new Wri­ters affirm it. And they ground themselves upon two reasons. First, That otherwise God after the institution should be said to suspend and deferre the observation and practise of it untill the time of the Law, which is like to that foolish opinion of some touching the Cre­ation, which say that God created the matter of all things from eter­nall, but put the work in execution at this certain time: But as the Fathers answer to that, so we say to this, Tum sanctificavit Sabatum cum vellet sanctum observari, not before he would have it put to the holy use.

The second reason is Memento, which is set at the beginning of the commandement, which is, say they, quasi dicat, remember that thou[Page 138]keep it as it hath been observed before; for (say they) it was but now renewed, for it was well known and kept before, therefore they thus expound it, Memento Legem hanc, Legeipsa Antiquiorem.

But whether it were observed according to the institution in the time of nature, before the Law that is not material, nor the point we stand upon. If they say, Quis unquam legit Abraham Sabatum ob­servâsse? we may say likewise, Quis legit Adamum aut Abraham je­junâsse? yet they will not deny, but there is now use of fasting, and so is there of the Sabath.

We must know St. Pauls rule to be true, 1 Tim. 4. 8. that as bodily labour profiteth not, but godlinesse; so bodily rest availeth not, but as it is a help to sanctific us, and a furtherance to true holinesse; for if it be a hindrance to piety, or a cause to make us lesse holy, rest is evill, and farre worse than work and honest labour: Wherefore they which spend the Sabath day, not in the publique Congregation, but privatly at home in their houses and chambers doe ill, and were condemned by that ancient Conncell of Gangren, which was holden in France. And we read in 44. of Ezecbiel 19. that there were Offi­cers to look that the Sabath day should be well kept; it must much lesse then be made a Sabath of belly cheer, spent in no other then such as whereof commeth nothing but dung, being the only fruit of their festivall and holy-dayes; and God so hated it, that he cast it in their faces that so kept it, neither must it be spent in wanton recreation and lascivious pastime.

Nor yet as the men of Ashedod did, Nehem. 13. 15. by making it a Market day and Faire to sell their Merchandises; for this is to make our purse and our belly, Mammon and Bacchus, our Gods, and to con­secrate a holy-day to them: Nor as Shiloh did to dancing. Nor as our L. in frequenting Theaters and Playes, Bear and Bull baiting, for this is to turne away our foot from the Sabath, and from doing Gods will on the holy-day: We must not doe so, but we must call the Sabath a delight, to consecrate it to the Lord, and honor it, not doing our own wayes, nor seeking our own will, nor speaking a vain word, I say 28. 13. but we must, I say, delight in the Lord upon that day, and then his blessings of all sorts shall light upon us, verse 14.

But let us come now to speak of these two things apart, which re­specteth our sanctification and observation of the Sabath to see what we should not doe, and then what we should doe as is requi­red of us.

Touching the rest from things inhibited, it is somewhat dange­rous to speak of it, because our nature is given to such extremes; for there are two ancient Councels which doe bewray our corrupt di­sposition. The one is Concilium Aurelianense in France, which shew­eth, that in those dayes the People were so straight laced, that they were perswaded, that it was utterly unlawfull to doe any thing ei­ther Adjutorem or ad necessitatem, to trim up their houses and them­selves, or to dresse meats.

We read again within fourty years after, that their mindes were [Page 139]so [...] gone wide from that, that they fell into the other extreme clean contrary, that they thought it was lawfull for them by Christian li­berty to doe in it what they list.

To [...] which foul error, there was made the second Coun­sell of Mascon which made a Cannon; That the people should seque­ster themselves, from all mechanicall works of their vocations.

Hinderances to the observation of the Sabbath.The things which are now interdicted to Christians, as hindrances of this holy [...] six in number.

1.The first is bearing of burdens, Jer. 17. 24.

2.The second is travailing journeyes, Exod. 16. 29.

3.The third is earing, ploughing, carting, or taking in of harvest, Exod. 34. 21.

4.The fourth for bearing merchandizes, buying and [...] Nehem. 13, 15, 16, 17. &c.

5.The fifth not to build Temples or Churches, Exod. 31. 13. &c.

6.The sixth idle playes and pastimes, to which men are too much gi­ven at such times.

Which because they are divers, and men are diversly given there­unto in sundry places, I will name some which the Fathers in their times, have sharply reproved and inveighed against, as the abuses and prophanings of Sabaths, in their ages and severall places, in which they lived; for we read that the Councels of the Church, doe not only concur joyntly with Gods word, in interdicting the former things, but also other particular abuses of their age and place: As proper then, St. Jerome upon the 20. of Ezekiell sharply reproveth stage playes on that day.

Augustine 119. Epistle inveigheth against Dauncing.

Gregorie against Hunting and Hawking, which great personages then used.

Leo spake against Dice and Cards, by which the Sabbath was pro­phaned in his time.

I will come to the Heathen, and we will see the things which they by the light of reason, condemned on their holy-dayes as prophane abuses of them, which did [...] them as they thought.

Of the which this is one of their rules, die sacra requiescat aratrum, for they thought it a pollution to their holy-dayes; for though they were lawfull and necessary on their dayes, yet they thought them not ad decorem hujus diei.

They which doe these things inhibited and forbidden by God as a hinderance of sanctification; God so misliketh that he appropriateth to this sinne a speciall punishment, Jer. 17. 27. and that is to send fire to their Cities: As this is against the one extreme, so we are to give a caveat for the other, least while men avoid prophanesse, Precisenesse [...]ching the Sabbbath.they fall into that precisenesse of the Jews, as to think it death and deadly sinne to doe any thing at all on the Sabbath day.

This was the jewish error of Kiffon a [...], who held it necessary that on the evening before the [...], if any man were found sit­ing, in the same place and state he must remain sitting, untill the end [Page 140]of the Sabbath: But Origen speaking of him as too strickt, expoundeth that place of Exod. 16. 29. Maneat quis (que) in loco suo, thus (in his place, saith he) that is within the space of two thousand Cubits; So that he thought it no breach of the day to keep within that compasse; but this is to strain at a Gnat, &c. For God hath not made restraint of works in such labors, in matters of piety and necessity: For Christ saith, That Priests in the Law did break their bodily rest, And yet were blamelesse, as in blowing of Trumpets in stead of ringing of Bells, in fetching water, carrying of wood, and killing of oxen.

These things being sacrorum causa, were accounted holy labors, as to goe about to see the Sabbath day kept, Ezech. 44. 14. He made custodes Sabati, to the which use, are our Church-wardens to attend. So say we also for necessity: for the Maccabes 1. Book, condemneth those, which on the Sabbath day would not fight to resist the rage of the enemy, then presently setting upon them. Elias walking four­ty dayes must needs travail some Sabbath and break the bodily rest.

In this case of absolute necessity, the labor of Midwives and such as are attending on so needfull and present a businesse, may not be de­ferred, Periculum animae pellit Sabatum, for it is a work of mercy to save a mans life, God will have mercy rather than sacrifice; yea Christ will excuse them which doe toyle and labor on the Sabbath day, to pull a beast out of the mire, Matt. 12. 11. But let not this li­berty give occasion to the flesh, to make us carelesse of our duty on the Sabbath day, for we must so doe all things (as abigail said to David 1 Sam. 25. 31. ut postea non sit, singultus cordis) That there may be in us no scruple of conscience, nor sobbing of the heart, for the breach of the Sabbath.

Time.Now for the time of the rest.

The Counsell at Orleance, Decreed that the Sabbath should begin a vespere, and some were so scrupulous in numbers of time, that be­cause they would be sure to begin it time enough, began it an hour before Sunset, the Eve before: But we must not tye our dutyes so to times and places, for Ireneus in his fourth Book saith, that they kept diem unam integram, and that their duty of serving God had perseve­rantiam diei. Eusebius lib. 3. cap. 8. saith that, the Church then kept it ab ortu solis ad occasum, not two or three hours, which we scarce can endure to doe.

Thus we see the manner and time of this rest: Now for the speci­all duties in this rest, which is the chiefe end.

The first Counsell of Paris setteth down sanctification in these two points, in imprimendo & exprimendo exercitia pietatis.

The means to imprint holynesse in Adam, being yet in Paradise is called contemplatio & hymnus.

Meditatio gra­tia [...]ctio: le­gere aeudire verbum Dei.The Jews doe think that the 92. Psalm, was made in Paradise by Adam, as the title sheweth it, for it is a Psalm of the Sabbath, and it calleth men to the meditation of Gods works of Creation and pre­servation, and then a praise of thanksgiving for it; Oratio.besides meditation of Gods works, the reading and hearing of Gods word, is an exercise [Page 141]of godlynesse to be used on the Sabbath day, and so likewise prayer is an excellent exercise, Act. 16. 25. Communitas Sacramento­rum.Likewise the receiving of the Sacraments, Baptism and the Eucharist or breaking of Bread, a no­table sanctitying of the Sabbath: So that by these four means, san­ctification is imp [...]ed in us on this day, in respect of the preacher.

But there are other duties to be performed in respect of the hearers, to imprint and fortifie godlynesse more deeply in them.

1.The one is ruminating and calling to minde again, by serious medi­tation that which we have heard, for we must not only goe to hear what God will say to us concerning our good, Psal. 85. 8. but also meditate what the Lord hath said unto us.

2.The other is conferrence after hearing, to reason, and talk, and commune of that we have heard; for by that means the disciples came to the certain knowledge of that which they doubted of before, Luke 24. for Christ will come and become a teacher within to such.

Thus much of imprinting: Now a word of expressing sanctification; as the Psalm of the Sabbath 92 beginneth with meditation, so the end is to tell men, that they must be like good trees, to bring forth good fruit, for having holynesse in us, we must bring forth fruit in holynesse, Rom. 6. 22. It should seem, John 13. 29. that it was Christs usuall manner on the Sabbath day to give somewhat to the poor, and I would men were perswaded in their mindes, that the observation of of the Sabbath consisted as well in ostendendo as imprimendo sanctita­tem, for by this means the poor should have somewhat towards their relief: So would the 2 Benefacitote of St. Peter, 2 Epist. 1. 19. and St. Paul, Phil. 4. 18. agree well in commending or hallowing this day: For by these two means we shall come to be inheritors of both blessings.

Blessed is the man whose delight is in the Law, &c. And blessed is he which considereth the poor and needy, Psal. 41. 1. For if we thus ho­nour God in this Sabbath here, it will come to passe, that God will requite it with this rebound honorificantes me, [...], 1 Sam. 15. which we may be sure of, when Gods institution and our observation doe concurre and agree together, that is, when we shall apply and spend the day and rest to that holy end, and in those holy exercises, to which God hath ordained it, and which God requireth at our hands.

Istae sunt generationes coeli & terrae, quando creata sunt: quâ die Jehova Deus fecit terram & coelum: Et omnem stir­pem agri, qui nondum fuisset futurus in terra, omnemque herbam agri, quae nondum fuisset oritura: quum non demi­sisset Jehova Deus pluviam super terram, & nullus homo fuisset ad colendum terram.Gen. 1. 4 5. verses.

May 4. 1591.THESE verses as I told you in the beginning of this Chapter doe contain in them, the generall conclu­sion, rehearsall, or recapitulation of the discourse of the six dayes work specified before.

For after Moses had told us that the Camp, and the Capitall were finished, that is, the place of labor and rest, and that the Armies of Heaven and Earth were ranged in their proper places, and man, the Lieute­nant of God, had his charge injoyed, to rule the hoasts of the earth, and to sanctifie the Sabbath, what now should he say more: But shut up all in a short sum or conclusion, which may best serve for a transi­tion to the rest that followeth.

In this fourth verse, we first see the three generall terms, used in the former Chapter, Barah 1. created, Gnasha 1. made; and Cagash 1 brought forth, that is, creavit, fecit, generavit; the last whereof is the wheel of generation [...] as St. James calleth it 3. 6. by whose continuall course all things continued till now.

The first is creavit, that is, God alone doth create and produce a thing of nothing.

The second, fecit.

The third genuit, that is God and the kind doth bring forth: and this is the course of nature in generation.

Which three words doe proclaim, that which Moses and the Pro­phets could never (as they thought) sufficiently speak of.

The first is against, and refelleth the error of the heathen Pagans, which held that the world was [...] not begotten but without be­beginning. But in principio creavit she weth, that God was the father that begat this world, and that it had [...], that is, a birth day wherein it began to be.

The true meaning of which is, that this world which now we see so old, and as it were doting for age, and with increasing is now al­most spent, and yet the time hath been, when it was but a young world, in his infancy and youth, it may seem that it was but a young world, Exod. 18. For then men were so simple and Childe like, that they would be content quietly to be under government, but now the world is grown wiser, and every one thinketh it a childish thing to be governed by others, thinking themselves old enough to rule others, it was but a young world when Kings and men of great honour,[Page 143]could be content to labour all the day, 1 Sam. 11. 5. I trow our World now is wiser, in which men hold scorn of work: Then Jacob when he saw the money in the sacks, thought it some over-sight of Joseph, and therefore sent it again, Gen. 44. 12. But now men are wiser, they count restitution a childish thing, and think other mens oversight to be their good gain. It had an infancie then at the be­ginning at which time God by his word conceived three children, Deformity, Confusion, Darknesse, of the first he made the Earth, of the second the Waters, of the third the Lights, which may teach us to setch our Pedigree aright by lineall descent from the first be­ginning; for we are all the sonnes of Adam, which was the sonne of dust, which was the sonne of Deformity, which was the some of no­thing; and this is the first father and beginning of our generation, which may suffice against the error of the Heathen Pagans.

2.2. Another error there is, which they being forced by reason to acknowledge a beginning, yet did with it hold, that it was [...], that it hath been made from everlasting ever since there hath been a God; for they say, That as the beam had his beginning when the light began, and as a shadow hath his beginning with the body; so had the World a beginning when God began to be, and then by ne­cessity it must needs be.

Against which Moses saith not only, that it was produced, but it was produced (in die) in a certain prescribed day, and therefore this proceeding was not eternall. And here we must note, that in die, is not here taken for some one only day, as some ground their conceit, as if God made all things in one day: For the day in which the light was made, there was no Earth; and when the Herbs were made, there was in that day no man, untill the sixth day, as it is in the fifth verse. This therefore overthroweth the second error be­fore, because all was made in a certain bound of time.

3.Another [...]ort there was, which granted both these, that the World was made, and that in die, but yet affirmed that it was [...], namely, that it was self borne, and made it self, or was pro­duced and came of it self, as a thing casuall and by chance; which foolish and grosse opinion of Epicures was ever (for the absurdity thereof) hissed out of Schools: but Moses meeteth with this also, saying, that the Lord made it.

And because it may be thought that there was divers Gods, he telleth us by a name which was never heard of before this time, by the which he describeth him unto us, and that is Jehovah.

Thus he hath recapitulated all the former Chapter unto these three considerations, which is all one with the first use of the first Chapter, saving that here is expressed the name Jehovah, which is not there; for this name of God is the most glorious name, Deut. 28. 58. and therefore Moses here reserveth it till every thing in this glorious World be fully accomplished and perfected. In the 6. Exod. 3. it is said, he was not known by this name before then, that is, whilest he was bringing any thing to passe, and not yet per­fected,[Page 144]he is Elohim; but when he hath fully performed it and set it on foot, then he is known to be Jehovah, by whom the thing hath his being and is that which it is, for he is the essence and being of things that are.

There are many difficult mysteries in these names, which because some are too curious in standing upon, and others have itching eares listening too much after curiosities, I will omit; only this we must needs know, which the nature of the word sheweth, that God is he which is of himself, and by whom all things are, move, and have their being; for seeing we know not, nor can see the nature of God, we must give him a name according to the greatest benefits which we receive, and the greatest works which we have seen. But the work and benefit which is most common to all things, is (being:) Therefore by that name he is most fitly called; for life, moving, and reason all things have not, but every Creature hath his benefit of being: and therefore he taketh his name from this general benefit which is seen in all.

Another reason of this name Jehovah is taken from the perfection of this being Exod. 3. 14. which is set down Revel. 1. 4. because he was, is, and shall be for ever.

Therefore no Creature but God, can ever say I am, this is my name; for if a Creature of the time that is past should say, Before Abraham was I am, John 8. 58. he should make himself God.

So if a Creature should, in respect of the future tense say, I am with you untill the end of the World, Matth. 28. 20. he should therein make himself God, who by propriety of nature may still say (I am) as it is his nature; therefore this his name Jehovah, signifieth that he hath the perfectest being, and only such a being. And thus much of the reasons of his name.

Elohim signifieth Power and Judgement.

The one sheweth his Might in doing, the other his Truth and Ju­stice in judging, both which in his name shew, that as it was he that did make the World, so it is he also which shall judge the World at last; for that as the one allureth us to love, so the other yeildeth us matter of dread and fear.

So Jehovah signifieth not only Hagah (which is making of things) but also destroying and dissolving of things to nothing again, Ezech. 7. 26. where it signifieth calamity and destruction: So doth his name Shaddi import not only plenty and nourishment, but also pu­nishment and undoing of things. So that in all his names this nature of Mercie and Justice is expressed.

There is yet a further thing to observe; for whereas before Hea­ven was first placed, and had the precedence of Earth; here the pre­heminence is given to the Earth, and the Heaven doth come be­hinde in the last place.

Which whether it be the propriety of the tongue (which usually beginneth with the latter thing was spoken of before) or a mysterie to shew closely, that the Heavens were made for the Earth, and not[Page 145]the earth for the heavens, or whether it darkly shadoweth out to us, that in Christ Jesus Adam (which is earth, that is our nature) shall be exalted above the highest heavens, in the day of restauration; I will not curiously discusse but allow each sense, as having a good and a godly use to such as be sober minded.

Et omnem stirpem agri, &c.Verse 5.

MOses in this verse passeth over the first estate of Creation, and cometh now to the state of propagation, in which things now [...], that we may know, that these things were not only made by the power of Gods word, Coll. 1. 17. But also sustained and held up by the same power, Heb. 1. 3. So that it is q.d. I must give a caveat to you, because you set your eyes too much on nature and art, attribu­ting things now to the influence of the heaven, or the industry of things on earth, that it is none of these means, but only God, that still [...] rule and maintain all; for under these two rain above, and man be­low, is comprehended all other ordinary means, we are wont to a­scribe all things to Sol & homo. Therefore Moses to prevent that evill, that we tie not these things either to nature or art, but that we may ever in all things look up to God, which is before them, above them, and can doe all things without them, and will rule all things after them, therefore he doth teach us this point, he telleth us that howso­ever, things doe concurre, and meet together in humane matters here below, yet we must defie these ordinary means, and evermore glo­rifie God, who is able, either without rain or the help of man to make the earth fruitfull.

Now this which Moses speaketh of rain and man, holdeth in all other things as in Fish, Fowl and Cattell: But because it were too tedious to reckon up all the particulars, therefore he maketh choice of the earth and the fruits thereof, which doth most need the help of man, and benefit of rain; for other things being put together, will alone bring forth and multiply by kinds without mans help: But the fruits of the earth are most laborious, for before the earth can bring forth, it requireth our help both to till and plant it, and the influence also of the heavens doe most appear in these things: insomuch as the fruits of the earth may seem to reason, to be the effect of mans labor, and the dew of heaven.

But Moses by telling us that it is not so in this, teacheth us how we may have a right judgment in all the rest, for it holdeth in all, as in this: touching earthly fruits, he setteth down two kinds Virgultum agri, & herbas horti.

The first comprehendeth all that hath wood in them, the other all which have sinowy substance, as every green tender herb hath: Touching which he reasoneth thus, seeing these which need most the labor of man, and seasonable rain were brought forth by Gods power, before either rain or man ever was; Then God is much more[Page 146]able to doe any otherthing without the help of man or any thing else. The fruits of the earth doe need two things.

1.First, a power of being. Secondly, a power of growing.

2.Remove rain, and the labor of the husbandman, and we cannot see how either they should live or grow, yet saith Moses, God with­out either plough or showers, did cause all things to grow out of the earth, and to bring seed, grain, and fruit.

For the meaning of this verse we must mark these three propo­sitions.

1.First, that the originall fountain of things naturall as now they stand, is from God, and his blessing, not of ordinary means; for rain, mens art & industry, though they be naturall, yet have they a blessing and virtue from God by which they are available. But to speak more specially of rain, 38. 28. Asketh, Quis est pater pluviae? The answer is, God, for he granted out a writ, decree, or mandate for rain, Job. 28. 26. He giveth us rain and seasonable times, Act. 17. 26. And as it is his royall power and authority to command it, so is it to countermand it, and to give an inhibition to restrain it, Esay 5. 6. And lest any should make exception against him, he saith, Amos 4. 6. It is I which doe cause it to rain, upon one City and not another; It is not Plannets, nor nature, nor fortune, but God himself, Judg. 6. 37. We see both set down, his giving out a commandement, for the ground to be wet and restraint for the flesh & contra, seeing then it is in his only power to give or restrain, therefore there is a prayer made, a prayer nominatim for rain, 1 Kings 8. 35. 36. And there is a speciall thanksgiving for this benefit, Psal. 68. 9. And this is the reason saith St: Augustine, why God made not the rain as a sweat to evaporate out of the ground and so to moysten the clods, but would have it rather to ascend up­wards into his place, that we might lift up our eyes, to know and ac­knowledge that it cometh only from him.

2.The second royall prerogative of God is, that though we have ne­ver so much rain or men to help; yet all is nothing worth and cannot avail without Gods blessing doth accompany it, which is shewed, 1 Cor. 3. 7. Paul may plant, and Apollo may water, there is the hus­bandry and rain: but both the tiller and waterer is nothing unlesse God giveth the encrease, therefore we must see and behold God in them all, for if when God sendeth rain he give not his blessing with it and make it pluviam benedictionis, Psal. 80. 19. Or if he send in tempesti­vam pluviam unseasonable rain, nor the first nor the later rain, Ezekiell 34. 26. Or if he send it not in plenty, Esdras 10. 9. For they had rain yet they wept for want, or if he sendeth too much, what good will it doe the earth?

3.The third prerogative of God is, that God without rain can make things fruitfull, but the rain cannot doe so without God: It is not these means of tillage or rain that can doe it, Deut. 8. 3. But God with­out them can doe it, 2 Chron. 14. 11. It is all one with God with a few for quantity, yea with no means to doe things; a little oyle and meal shall streach it self out, and encrease untill rain come: So Christ in[Page 147]want can make five loaeves and two fishes to feed five thousand, and so for the quality, the worst and most unnourishing meat, which they durst not give, Daniel 1. [...]. for fear lest they should not look faire, by Gods blessing, made them look with better countenance than the rest which fared more deliciously.

Wherefore saith Daniel, Try us, for we know that God can doe it without means, or with base means, 2 Kings 4. 40. the Prophet by Gods word (without [...] quality, yea to shew Gods power) could make poysonfull meat, which is contrary to nourishment, to nou­rish; he made Coloquintida to nourish them, which of it self would excoriate the intralls, and scowre them to death.

4.The fourth and last prerogative is not only to doe all this but to make that which is by nature clean opposite and contrarie to a thing, that it shall be a means effectually to work his effect; as the putting in salt into salt water can make the water fresh, which is con­trarie to nature, for it maketh fresh water salt, 2 Kings 2. 20. So Christ by putting clay upon a blinde mans eyes, caused him to see, which was enough to make him blinde, John 9. 6. The rock of [...], which is set in repugnance to water, Numbers 20. 11. yet out of it he caused streams to gush. And this power of God appeared most in the beginning of the Gospel, in setting abroad Christian Religion; for as he in the beginning out of darknesse brought light, 2 Cor. 4. 6. So by men of no learning, no authority or countenance, strength or wealth did cause the Gospell to be planted in all the World, that we may know this Caveat to be worth the noting, that he is the cause of things natural now in the state of generation, as he was of things supernaturall in the beginning of Creation. And that we may know that he is able to doe things above, besides, and without, yea, and sometimes contrarie to these ordinarie means; that so we may be taught neither in the want of them to dispair, nor when we have plenty to be proud and presuming in them; but ever look back to God which is above all means, and of himself, as able to doe all in all: To whom be all honour, glorie, power, wisdome, and do­minion for ever and ever,


Aut vapor ascendens è Terra, qui errigaret universam superficiem Terrae, &c.Gen. 2. 6,7.

18 May, 1591.TOgether with the conclusion of the works of Creati­on in the fourth verse, I told you that [...], in the 5. verse, adjoyned a necessary Caveat touching se­cond causes, lest now we should ascribe the pro­ceeding and doing of things, either to ordinary means or second causes, either naturall as to rain, or artificiall as to mens labour and industrie, which two doe include all other means whatsoever.

[Page 148]To this end he declared that God is the Author of second causes; and therefore, as he did all things before them; so now they are, he is likewise able to doe and bring any thing to passe as well without them, yea with means and by causes contrary to such an effect, as well as with all the means that are in the course of nature, or may be invented by the industry of men.

Moses then now passeth from the Creation of other things, unto the narration of the History of Man, by the 6. verse, which sheweth the generation of rain, spoken of in part before, that so there might be an ordinary proceeding from one thing to another.

Now then to speak of them both apart.

First, Touching the Creation of the Rain, we must lay this ground, That God either without vapours or clouds can (if he please) bring store of rain to the Earth, 2 Kings 3. 17. which plenty by Gods power, was without winde, rain or clouds.

But for the naturall generation of Rain, we must note, that there are two issues proceeding from the Earth, which here are set down as the causes of it.

1.The first is a moist or foggie steem or vapour.

2.The second a dry smoke, fume, or exhalation.

It is not wonderfull that the Earth should yeild a dry fume, be­cause it is naturally inclined to drynesse: but it is strange that the Earth should give out a moist fume, for that is contrary to her nature and qualities.

There are three estates and degrees in the generation of Rain out of the words, 1.The beginning and originall of it is vapor expirans, a moist steem loosned from the Earth: 2.The proceeding of it is va­por ascendens, lifting it self into a cloud above: 3.The perfecting of it is vapor descendens, which is the dissolving of the cloud, and so drop­ping down: these are three proceedings of this generation.

God is able to rostrain this course of the rain, Job 36. 27. and might have caused [...] not to be loosed from the Earth, [...] ascend up, but to sweat out to moisten the dry clodds, as it is in our bodies. But God caused it to lift it self thither, that he might water the Earth from his Chamber, Psal. 104. 13.

But being loosned from the Earth, the nature of such a cloud is vanishing and dissipating it self in the Aire to nothing, James 4. 14. therefore God bindeth it together in a cloud, and maketh it a com­pact and condense matter, Job 26. 8. And for the dissolving of the clouds he is said Cribrare aquas, 2 Sam. 22. 12.

And these are the three proceedings of rain, and the three degrees ingendring it.

Finxit verò Jehova Deus hominem de pulvere terrae, sufflavitque in nares ipsius halitum vitae: sic factus est homo anima vivens.Verse 7.

NOw touching the 7. verse, at which I said [...] the repe­tition of the Historie of Man and his generation; That we may not trust in him nor his help, we read, Gen. 1. 26. that Man was created, but not whence, nor how, nor after what sort: these cir­cumstances are not there set down; there we read that man was made Male and Female, but the order how is not set down.

Therefore that which briefly he touched, omitting some things there, now here he supplyeth, shewing that God first made the Man, and out of his side took the Woman.

Concerning which, having shewed that Man is made the chief Creature of all the rest, both in regard of his superior part of the soul, as also of the inferior part of his body: and also in the end of this verse he expresseth more fully the other part of his soul; and in handling both, he observeth the very order which he used be­fore.

First, to speak of the lesse perfect and more base part of the bo­dy, and then of the soul.

Touching the body in the first part of the verse, there is two things expressed to be considered of: 1.First, the Matter. 2.Secondly, the Mould in which he was made and framed in his bodily shape.

The dust is the origine and beginning of Man, which though it be often repeated, yet God is fain in the 3. of Gen. 19. [...] tell it to Adam again to humble him, that he may know how absurd a thing it was for him once in pride to imagine that he should be as God, for he must needs see by this, that he should be but an earthen God (if he were any) which is as bad as to be of stone or wood.

The Saints of God have ever confessed this to humble them. As Abraham, Gen. 18. 27. Job 10. 9. Psal. 104. 29. 1 Cor. 15. 47. 2 Cor. 5. 5. which doth shew that we must take notice and regard of this point to humble us, that the clouds and rain were made be­fore us, and of a purer, more fine, and better matter than our bodies were, for they were of the vapour of the Earth, but we of the base and grosse clod and dust of the Earth; but [...] comfort us in this thought, he telleth us, that that which is wanting in the matter, is supplyed in the form and shape of our bodies.

God, by saying, that he framed Man, speaketh after the manner of men, Rom. 9. 20, 21. In which phrase of speech he is [...] and resembled to a Potten, which doth frame [...] out of the Earth with his hand; and to a Maker of glasses, which with his breath and blast of his mouth, doth fashion and maker his glasse of a fraile and [...] substance, by which borrowed speech Moses doth [...] shew that by the one he is willing to expresse, that God with more [Page 150]art and regard, did make mans body in the outward form, than he did any other of the Creatures.

And by the other, that God did give him a more excellent and perfect soul, which is the inward form within, than he did to any other Creature.

To this end he changeth the word gnasha, used in making the other Creatures, into Jelsar, which he applyeth properly to man; and we know that formare is more than facere, because the form and fashion importeth a mould in which it must be made, or an especiall Idea artificially conceived, after which it must be made. It is there­fore (as if he should say) you see that man is not made outwardly in the proportion and countenance, which beasts have, for his face is upwards, theirs downwards. That which the Earth brought forth looketh down to the ground; but those men which God made, doe look up naturally to God who made them and and gave them life. That which the Earth doth producere, doth also prospicere terram. But we whom God did formare, doe intueri Coelum.

The Prophets and Apostles doe oftentimes delight to use this phrase of speech, and these words, to shew the framing of our bo­dies, now as Esay 45. 9. Esdras 64. 8. Zach. 12. Rom. 9. 20. Job 10. 9. Psal. 139. 16. Jer. 1. 5. and divers other places, in which places they so speak, to shew that the same frame and fashion is now ex­pressed in generation of us, as was in the creation of Adam, and no other manner.

In the 4. of Job 19. he saith that brick and tile, and we all, are made of one, and the matter of the Earth: And therefore that which Saint Pe­ter calleth Earthly Tabernacles, 2 Cor. 5. 1. Job calleth plainly houses of Clay. That which St. Paul in a better term saith; Act. 17. 26. We are all of one blood, Job saith more plainly to the matter, Job 33. 6. We are all de eodem luto, made of the same clay.

Esay 29. 16. and 45. 9. Rom. 9. 20. They demand whether it be reason, that the clay should say to the potter, Why dost thou make me thus or thus? to shew that we must avoid wandring curiosity and nice questioning to expostulate with the maker, either about the matter, Why he made thee of this, and not of that? or about the forme, Why he made this man a Vessell of honour, and that man a Vessell of dishonor? Rom. 9. 20. 21. 2 Tim. 2. 20. 1 Thes. 4. 4, 5. We must not search nor pry over curiously into the counsell of the Potter that made us, but know that his revealed will is, that every one of us should possesse our vessels in bo­linesse, and not in sinne, and sorest.

The use of this is that which I have touched before, that seeing we be made of Earth, yet that Earth signifieth good and profitable mold; we were not made of high-way ground or sand, therefore we must not be unconstant or unstable; but we are made of gleabe, to teach us to imploy our selves profitably in our calling, according to the matter of which we came; for else it had been better that our Earth had lien still on the ground, to bring herbs rather than it should now lye unprofitably and idly, in thy skin, to destroy the fruits of the Earth.

[Page 151]Another point for us is, that which partly was shewed also before, That if God could frame us to this proportion and life, out of the dead dust, then why should we once doubt, but that though we be dissol­ved and turned into dust again, that he can raise us up by the same power? Phil. 3. 21. And this is our hope for the resurrection.

Wherefore though this be our conclusion, Job 7. 21. we must re­turn to our dust, yet this hope is our comfort that God will one day say, Esay 26. 19. Arise out of the dust and stand up, even as he every yeer raiseth up the flowers that were withered in the field, and this was Jobs hope and comfort of the resurrection, Job 19. 26. saying, I know that my redeemer liveth, &c. And it was Davids assurance, Psal. 37. 5. Who at his death committed his soul to the God of truth his Redeemer, And Psal. 16. 9. doth then let his flesh rest in peace untill he be awaked again.

This then is our stay in death, knowing that the same God which made us of the dust, hath the same power, and is able to raise us out of the dust again.

The second part of man is the Soul: touching which the Prophet by his phrase of breathing into us the breath of life, is willing not only to tell us, that the Soul is the more principall, superior, and excellent part of man, but also that it is farre a more excellent Soul, than the o­ther creatures had, as shall appear by the name and nature of it, here expressed.

1.In the first part, of which we are to note, that Neshema, signifieth a Spirit of two lives, which God inspired into man.

2.Secondly he saith, That that Spirit of lives, was made a living Soul, neither of which is affirmed of any other creature, but of the soul of man only.

In Gen. 1. 21. 25. We may see that of every other creatures soul, it is said creavit Deus; God did beath the soul of man into him: Chrysostome saith well, that the Soul of all other things is, quasi cera rudis, as a rude roll of wax without forme or print; but anima hominis est cera regis, as a peece of wax that hath in it the shape or forme of the King, and is made his Seal, out of which for the prerogative of man, which we shewed before, we may ad these.

First in respect of the substance, for Neshema signifieth a spirituall and heavenly substance, which consideration made David say, Psal. 139. 14. I am fearfully and wonderfully made, we have not then an earthly soul, as the Beasts, nor a watry soul as the Fifties, which re­ceived them out of their elements, but a divine and [...] Soul, which God himself gave unto us, Preach. 12. 7. As the rain is vapor terrestris, so our soul may be called vapor caelestis, a vapor descending from the heavens, for it is of the same root and nature, which hea­venly Spirits are.

Another priviledge is in respect of the cause, for God is the cause of it, produxit Deus, it was his breath or inspiration, and therefore the Heathen called it Divinae particulam [...], as the body was particula terra, a little cantell of the Earth. Salomon, Prov. 12. 17. calleth it[Page 152] Divina lux or lucerna Dei, as it were the candle of God, and here it is spiritus Dei, which he breathed into our bodies.

Now to consider of the words somewhat more seriously, we see that the soul, is a breath, but so that it is Neshema, a spirituall and cele­stiall breath, which properly is understood of the winde and ayre, by which we see that is next of kynne to the Spirits which have no body, as our bodyes are next of kynne to the wormes that are in the earth, which soul for that cause is invisible but not unperceiveable.

As we cannot see the winde and the pulse, yet we perceive them by divers effects: So is our Soul and the excellency of it made known and discerned. And that it might not be imagined or thought, to be only a bare blast of breath, or as a puffe of winde, he therefore addeth a spirit of lives.

And least we should deem the soul, and the life to be but one thing, and to end and vanish away together, Job telleth us 27. 3. that the spi­rit or soul of a man is one thing, and [...] life is another distinct.

Though there be a spirit of life in beasts, and not only in earthly creatures, but also in celestiall spirits, yet only the spirit of man is spiri­tus vitarum, that is, of more lives than one, which our Saviour Christ telleth us in Matth. 10. 28. Men may take away the one life of our body, but they cannot the other life of the soul, that is only in Gods power.

This then is the difference between the soul of a man, and all other things, which confuteth the Epicures, 1.which held that the Soul was but a hot salt humor, to keep the body from rottennesse and corrup­tion.

Moses maketh choice to compare the Soul to breath: First, be­cause it hath a piercing and a searching quality, being Totus in toto & totus in qualibet parte, Pro. 27. 2.This candle of the Soul diffuseth his light, and heat, and life in every member, searching and piercing all.

Secondly, the Soul is compared to breath, to humble us and not make us presume on this life, seeing the soul and body is but knit and conjoyned together, vinculo aëreo by an airie thred, Esay 2. 22. Mans breath is in his nostrills, which being stopped, his life is gone, Psal. 103. 14. 15. which causeth our life sodainly oftentimes; to be taken away, and our soul and our body in an instant or moment, to depart a sunder, Psal. 78. 39. Even because the union that holdeth soul and dody together, is but a little blast of aire and winde easily broken and smitten asunder, so sodainly doe we passe away and are gone.

This may teach us the shortnesse and sodainnesse of this life and death: The use of which is, that seeing we received our life from God, therefore we must now live, the life of all godlynesse, seeing we live by the spirit of God naturally, we must seek for the spirit of God, and the graces of it, that we may live holily: seeing our Soul is the light of God, let not this light become darknesse in us, for then great is that darknesse.

Seeing our Soul is the Image of God, we must not deface it, with the ugly form of Sathan: The holy man, Job 26. 4. hearing his [Page 153]friends speak foolish and vain words, asketh; [...] spirit cometh out of them? As who should say: seeing you have the spirit of God, speak not such words, as if an evill or vain spirit were in them: So must we say to those men that doe evill works, Whose spirit, or what spirit hast thou in thee? These deeds are the works of evill Spirits, but thou had'st in thee the good spirit of God.

2.Now we are come to the second estate of our soul, which is set down in this. So man became a living Soul, which is added to shew that God not only gave that spirit (inspired into him) a power of life, by which it could live, but also another power unto the body, which before was a dead peece of Earth: wherefore the soul being in every part of the body so made, by and by it was lively in every part, and stood up and performed the actions of life, which now it doth in us: This is a good and profitable sense of these words, as some doe understand. But the best Divines (weighing these words more deeply) doe finde out another state of the soul, which shew­eth another priviledge of the soul of man. For besides that it is (as we have seen) a spiritual essence occupied in spiritual actions, being immortall and pertaining and leading to another life. Besides this speciall priviledge it hath here also another common preroga­tive, namely, to enforme the body; that is, in a word, besides being a spirituall essence, it is also a natural essence, it had, hath, and shall have a power to live without the body, and also it hath a power in the body to quicken and give life to it, and every part thereof, that is, it can animare & informare corpus, which we know the Angels and celestial spirits cannot; for when they appeare in a body, their souls of life (though they live) yet they doe not informe that body; but they are in it as in a Case, which they take to them and leave off again. But our soul is not only a spiritual essence and consistence (as the Angels) but also a natural consistence in the body to inform and animate it, which the Angels have not. And this is the other prerogative.

There is none that doe doubt, but they have naturalem animam, and thereof they are called naturales homines, 1 Cor. 15. 46. But by their actions one would think that their souls were only fleshie souls, because they never give them selves to spiritual and heavenly acti­ons, as a Celestiall spirit shall move them. But only they are given to actions of this bodily life, which is temporall, yea to earthly, fleshie and sinfull actions, as if the soul that were in them were but after that fort a natural soul of life for a time.

They see by their natural studies, senses, motions, and actions, that they have a natural soul of life quickning the body, which else could not live. But they think not that it is a spiritual soul and hea­venly essence, which shall have an eternall being after this life, and therefore they never care to [...] for such heavenly and spiritual actions of Godlinesse; wherefore we will briefly prove and shew that the state of the soul is celestial and [...], that we may be moved to think of such actions as that estate doth require.

[Page 154]And first that the soul, and the life, and estate thereof doth not depend upon the body, but hath his being and life without the bo­dy, after the body is dead and turned to the Earth, because it hath his dependence on God, which is immortall and eternal, which ap­peareth to reason in the judgement of the Heathen, because the soul hath in the will a power and faculty and ability to effect and perfect an action, without any help of the body or power thereof sepa­rately of himself, yea it causeth a man to believe and know many things of it self, even against the bodily senses, and contrarie to them, as that the bignesse of the Sunne and Moon is of a huge great­nesse, though it seem to our sense but two foot, yea the same power of the soul causeth us to desire many things contrarie to the outward sense, as that it is healthfull sometimes to fast & eat nothing, &c. Now of this they conclude that of these things there must needs be principi­um agendi where there is potest as agendi; & therefore a separate essence and being of the Agent Cause: Thus by this separate action the Heathen rose up to this notice of the separate essence of the soul.

Again, the moving of this question, Whether there be a God and eternity, and a Heaven and spirits. This we know, that there is no outward thing which giveth occasion to our senses to move this question, therefore the principium movendi is the power of the soul in reason, who alone by his own light, according to the state of his own nature moveth these things; for a blinde man that never saw nor heard of colors, can never in reason make question of colors; So for as much as there is nothing without to tell or move him to this, they conclude that the soul only was the cause and be­ginning of it within.

Touching the coupling of soul and body together into one living Man, we know that Gods purpose and meaning in it was, that the soul should rule the body, and be a means to lift it up to Heaven and to God, that it might so be made of the same excellent nature and estate which the soul had. But now it is perverted, and by sinne the course of nature and ordinance of God is changed, and naturally our body doth labour to pull down the soul, and make it earthly, base, and miserable. But by grace we must endevor the contrarie; it is Gods will it should be so, and no reason to the contrarie: But men seem by the care and cost they bestow on the body, that the soul is worthy no care or cost at all. But we must remember that many things and much time must be bestowed in seeking to garnish our souls, Matth. 6. 20. We must lay up treasure in Heaven, Matth. 19. 21. We must make friends of this Mammon, & put out our money to the Exchan­gers, Luke 16. 9. for it is to lend to the Lord, and if there be any truth in him, he will repay it to their soul, Prov. 19. 17. If we sow in the flesh, the fruit of all that is but corruption; but that which we sow in the soul and spirit hath his fruit to be glory and immortalitie: and this is the point which we are to cleave unto and hold.

You know how little we bestow on spirituall uses for the soul, and how much daily we spend on our bodies; therefore I am an In­tercessor [Page 155]to you for poor men made de eodem luto & de [...] imagine, beseeching you that it may please you, both in regard of the honour of God, who made us and them to this end, that we which have should doe good to them which have not, and in regard of Gods Image in them, of whom we should have a care; and also in regard of our own duty of imploying our goods, of which God hath made us Stewards, and of the reward and gain which God will repay for it.

That therefore you would extend your liberalitie to their relief, Our Doctrine is rain, Deut. 32. 2. If you as barren ground drink in the rain, and yeild no fruit, you may fear a curse, Heb. 6. 7, 8. But if you yield the fruit of righteousnesse, then Gods blessing in this life is still to minister food and all other things to you, and at the last, the end of it is everlasting life: Wherefore, to the end we may shew our selves not altogether earthly and carnally minded, minding only earthly and bodily things, and things which make only for this short life, let us in the fear of God, and love of our Brethren, put on the tender bowels of compassion for their relief.

Ornaverat autem plantis Jehova Deus hortum in Hedene ab Ori­ente: ubi collocavit hominem illum quem finxerat.Gen. 2. 8.

June 5. 1591.FRom the 7. verse of this Chapter unto the 18. thereof, Moses, as I have said before, doth deliver and add a supplement unto the historie of man; for having first, Gen. 27. briefly dispatched the Creation of Man, under these short terms Marem & Foeminam creavit eum, he lightly passed it over there, purposing here in this place to han­dle it more at large, and therefore he divideth the treatie here into two parts.

First prosecuting the Historie of Man from the 7. verse to the 18. verse; and then of the Woman from thence to the end of the Chap­ter, he left out many things there, which he expresseth here, As in the 7. verse he sheweth the matter of his body, and the pattern after which he was made, and the separate substance of his soul: The manner of making of his body was as the Potters frame the vessels; and the manner of making the soul was by inspiration breathing it into him.

Now in this verse unto the 15. verse, he describeth and setteth down the place in which he was setled; and from thence to the 18. verse, delivereth the end to which he was made: And thus are these verses, touching the glosse or Commentarie of the historie of Man, reserved.

Touching this 8. verse, it consisteth of two parts.

[Page 156] 1.The first respecteth the place.

2.The second, the placing or bestowing man in it.

The place containeth three parts.

1.First, The kinde of place, a Garden.

2.Secondly, The dignity of the place (as I may tearm it) in that it is said (God planted it.)

3.Thirdly, The scituation of the place, which is also described in the 6. verses following.

Concerning the first of these three, we see the place wherein this Creature of excellencie is to be seated, we must needs conceive it to be some place of excellency meet for him, and that either to be some place of pleasure within dore, or else some place of pleasure without, but there was no need for him to have any place of covert or defence within, because there was no such distemperature of aire then; but that they might well enough, yea best of all endure naked, therefore God resolveth to appoint and prepare a meet place without.

Certain it is, that all the Earth at that time was (in comparison of this as it is now vallis lachrimarum) a paradise of pleasure; yet God made this paradise and speciall place of the Earth, a more excellent place of pleasure than any other, in so much that it farre exceeded any other place wheresoever in Earth, both in pleasure and profit, with Herbs, Flowres, Plants, and Trees of all sorts, which were proper and speciall to that place alone. Gardens, as we know are choyce places, severed and set apart from common fields, in which is store and plenty of many choyce trees, and that not in confused sort, but digested into a good seemly order, that so it may the bet­ter serve for pleasure and delight.

It was a most pleasant place in respect of those tria bonorum genera, for he ordeined this place for profit, pleasure, and piety: And thus having made it, he appointed it severall for man, and therefore put him therein; Kings themselves, as we see, 1 Reg. 21. 2. doe not take so much delight in their Royall Pallaces, as in their Gardens of pleasure lying commodiously neer their houses: And we read of divers Kings, which being weary of their princely estates and de­lights, have chosen rather to live solitarie in gardens and orchards, and to bestow their time in trimming and planting them, and so to have ended their lives, seeming to preferre this life of Adam in a garden before the state of a King in his princely Pallace.

And let this suffice of the kinde of place.

Now secondly it was planted by God, which tendeth much to the dignity and honor both of the man and of the place; for as God is said, for our service and good, to translate himself into divers shapes; As before he took on him the form and behaviour of a Potter, and a maker of Glasses; so here he is resembled unto us by the name of a Gardiner to plant an Orchard for us and our use: to which end Christ represented and shewed himself in that shape and form, John 20. 15. for it was he that trimmed up this Garden of Paradise for us.

[Page 157]Touching this place it is a speciall honour to it, that God did plant it, for where he planteth he watereth also, with the dew of his bles­sings, and causeth it to give increase, 1 Cor. 3. 6. and therefore when the Scriptures will expresse a place of dignitie and commendation in this kinde, it is said to be like this Garden of Eden, as Gen. 13. 10. Esay 51. 3. Ezech. 31. 9.

Touching the word we must note that as before God doth, [...] dicere propter infirmitatem nostram, so we say in this place where God is said to plant; for we say in divinity, that there is opus actûs & opus authoritatis: In Preach. 2. 4, 5. Salomon is said to plant such Orchards and Gardens, and to build houses; not that he did it himself, for no man will imagine that he did any part of the bodi­ly work: But it is said, as we say, such Kings builded this Church, that is, they paid the charge, and we (at the cost of the founders and by their authority) set work-men in hand about it; therefore when God is said to plant this Garden, we must understand it, that God gave order and commandement by his word and power, that it should thus be planted, why then it is not said, as in the 1. Gen. 24. producat terra, &c. I answer that this exquisite term is set down, to [...] the exact and speciall workmanship, and more than ordinary course of making this Garden, as before to shew the extraordinary and speciall workmanship of God in making Man above the rest of the Creatures, he changed the term, and took, instead of fecit, for­mavit, not expiscavit; he spanned not, sed [...], breathed: So to shew the [...] and excellency of this place over all other pla­ces in the Earth; therefore he altereth the phrase of speech, and saith not as before produxit plantas, sed [...], &c. as if he had sig­nified thereby that this only place of all the Earth, was with care and speciall skill ordered and disposed for speciall delight, as if other places of the Earth did bear and bring forth of their own ac­cord, but this was planted and dressed for this more speciall pur­pose.

There is no Garden of estate, as they say, but hath a Maze in it; So surely hath this garden of God an intricate labyrinch of difficult que­stions, even Mare questionum, a Sea of curious questions, as one of the Fathers saith, but such idle speculative heads, which busie their brains about such needlesse and endlesse questions and curious points, as to know where the place is, and what is become of it now, &c. they shall never finde out any good in Paradise, but [...] and amaze themselves in this Maze.

There are such, and I may say with the Propher, I pray God there be not such found amongst us in Israel, for there are with us and in our age which draw every thing to a figurative sense, and by that means of Gods Paradise, they doe make (as I may say) a [...] Paradise, expounding every thing in it allegorically in another sense, as they doe the book of the Canticles.

The Fathers distinguish the Scriptures after two [...] in [...] Chron. & Cant. In the Canticles and Scriptures of that nature every[Page 158]thing is to be reduced to a spirituall allusion and reference which it hath to the spousage of Christ and his Church.

Now they which take the Chronicles, containing matter of hi­storie, and draw them to like allusions (besides that they doe great wrong to those Scriptures) they make themselves very ridiculous. Such there were in St. Pauls dayes, as he testifieth, 2 Tim. 2. 18. which made the doctrine of the resurrection an allegorie, affirming that if a man doe rise from sinne, then all the Resurrection was past already.

So Origen drew Hell to an Allegorie, as if there were no such true and certain place.

But touching Paradise, Epiphanius, Chrysostome, and all the Wri­ters, doe oppose themselves to such Allegorizers and Wresters of the Scriptures, to overthrow their fantasticall conceits herein; for what say they, though other places besides this be called Paradise, therefore was there no such place indeed. Because S. Paul saith Gal. 4. 24. that by Sara and Hagar are signified the old and new Testament; therefore shall we say, there were never any such two women, 1 Cor. 10. 4. because that rock was Christ, was there therefore no such rock as is spoken of Numb. 20. 11. Yes, no doubt, and because they were, therefore the Spirit of God doth take a proportion and an Analogie fitly, and shew it between these spirituall things, and them for our better understanding. We doe conclude then, that as there is in man two natures, as we have shewed before, the one con­sisting of the dust, the other Neshema, a spiritual separate essence: So Christ is a person consisting of two natures, God and Man: So that the first Adams resemblance to the second Adam, which is Christ, 1 Cor. 15. 45. And as a man is said to consist of two men, the in­ward and the outward man, 2 Cor. 4. 16. So there are two Paradises of Gods planting spoken of in the Scriptures, Esay 51. 16. the hea­venly and the earthly.

This is truth, there is a Paradise of Angels, Psal. 103. 20. by which is meant the joyes of Heaven, of which man also (commu­nicating in this life with their holinesse) shall be made partaker in the life to come, yet notwithstanding it is as true that there is an hi­storicall Paradise on Earth, which is truly called the Garden of the Lords planting, garnished with all trees for delight and profit. It is no question but that man had his Interest then in both these Paradi­ses, and that above is farre more excellent and glorious than this below when it was in his best estate; wherefore we must so place the one which is spirituall and invisible, as that we take not away the other which was visible and temporall.

For Adams posterity dwelt neere to Eden afterwards, and serveth in the Scriptures to describe their certain places, by 4. Gen. 16. For Cain dwelt towards the East side of this Garden Eden, and the South side of it was a Plot, which, after the flood, Noah chose as the best soyl to dwell in, Esay 37. 12.

The Merchants which dwelt thereabouts and were planted about [Page 159] Eden had all manner of [...] commodities as we read, Ezech, 27. 23. All which places were in Asia, which as we know is the most [...] and fruitfull part of all the world, being set at the right hand of the earth, as having the preheminence of it, for our right parts are most apt for motion or doing any action, and men doe [...] that people were first in Asia inhabiting it, and from thence came to all o­ther parts of the earth.

This also for the certainty of the place, is set out by the description of Rivers which have their heads there, and flow from thence [...] other parts. Also by the fruits of the earth, which abound there, as Gold, Precious stones, Spices, &c.

Also the certainty of the particular place where this garden was, is made known to man by the description of the obstacle and let, which keepeth men out of that place, for as Pliny and Toletus say, in fontibus Paradisi even in the entrance, by which we should goe to it, even unto this day, the place yeeldeth out flames of fire, which no doubt is the fierie Sword which God placed there, Gen. 3. 24.

We finde by writers, that it was neer the City called Babilonia [...] And that three Cities in the [...] of Eden were builded and planted upon three of the Rivers, which ran out of the Garden which Cities were called Babilonia [...] and [...] which were builded there in Eden for the great store of all fruits, which by Gods blessing abounded, for it is recorded that they had harvest twice a yeer, and before the first harvest they were fain to eat it twice, so exceeding fertill it was.

That which is set down to be the greatest and rare encrease of Gods blessing, Gen. 28. 12. Pliny recordeth, was an usuall and ordi­nary encrease in those parts, that is, to yeeld a hundred fold. And whereas it is usuall amongst our husbandmen to hearten and make fat our land, their industry and labor was contrary, to take away the heart and strength of the ground and to prevent the ranknesse of it, for the which they had barren waters (contrary to the nature of Ni­lus) wherewith they watered their ground, because otherwise the eares of Corn would be so great and waighty, that the stalk could not bear it.

These things remaining as yet in Eden, neer about the borders of the Garden, by the testimony both of the Scriptures, and of all other writers, doe prove unto us that there is such a certain and undoubted place upon the earth.

The word Eden doth signifie pleasure, Gen 13. 10. which doth shew us, that all the Country was pleasant and delightfull, and there­fore the Garden of Eden, is shewed thereby to deserve the name of pleasure it self, as we shall see hereafter both in respect of the plea­sant Waters and Rivers, as also of the pleasant Ayre, for in the 3. Chap. it is said that God did walk in it, as also in respect of the most rare and delightfull sent, verse 9. not only for Flowers and Trees but for Spices, precious Stones, and Metals which grew [...] of their own accord, as also in respect of the pleasant prospect and view [Page 160]of the place, being as it were a hollow bottom, as Balaam describeth this Garden, Numb. 24. 6.

Thus we have seen the seat of man, the kind of place, the dignity and scituation of it.

Secundae pars generalis.Now for the placing of man in it, Deus locavit hominem quem for­mavit in horto quem plantavit, for after man was made, God removed and brought him hither into Eden, and put him in the Garden, 15. verse, God saith, Levit. 25. 23. quoniam terra mea est, & vos Coloni estis, &c. So this Garden was Gods planting and his ground, Adam was a forreiner and brought in to be Gods Farmer and Tenant in it, that Adam (not being born in it) might know that God which placed him there, was the right and only true owner of it, and therefore all homage was to be performed to him alone, for this taught him that Paradise, was vos gratiae, non naturae, for God might have left him in the place, where first he made him; Seeing then God of his free Grace brought him thither, it was not of desert or merit, because as yet there was no Law given unto him, untill after he was put in pos­session of it.

This then teacheth him thankfulnesse and obedience, in that it was without any desert of his.

Secondly, it might teach him, that as he was in mercy brought in, so he might in Justice be cast out, if he sinned and became ungrate­full.

Wherefore we see that as it was Gods great favor, by which he was brought hither, so when he had transgressed, there was no wrong or rigor shewed in thrusting him out again.

God first planted the senses in man, Psal. 94. 9. And then he plan­ted a Garden, this is the first order; and another order he took, which is this, that they whom he planted in the Garden, Psal. 92. 13. 14. might strive with Paradise in fruitfulnesse, that seeing God had caused Paradise not to be barren or unfruitfull to us Jer. 2. 27. Therefore we should not be a wildernesse unto God, but to be plentifull in good works being thus gratiously planted in Gods Church.

Concerning Paradise now we must know, it was not the deluge, but the cause of the deluge, that is sinne, which took away the excel­lency of Paradise as is here mentioned.

But you will ask what is become of it now? This question may be well left out, because as St. Augustine saith, there is no use of it in regard of our habitation, but of our instruction; this, for use, we see and learn, that Adam did loose that happy place of joy by negligence, sinne, ungratefulnesse, and unbelief, therefore let us beware lest the like sinnes, make us loose the hope and fruition of our Paradise in Hea­ven, but let us detest such detestable vices which will cause men to lose such excellent glory, yet though we have all lost these pleasures of Paradise by Adams fall, we need not, with too much sorrow lament it, because that was temporall and not permanent, and we are put in assurance through Christ of another Paradise much better, be­ing eternall.

[Page 161]In respect of which, this below was a shadow and nothing else but quasi vestibulum, and this first Paradise was but a shew of such store of earthly pleasures and blessings which God is able to bestow on his servan [...] in this World. So Luke 23. 43. the second Paradise hath in it a shew and view of heavenly pleasures and delights spiri­tual, which he will bestow on us in the world to come. And as by the default of the first earthly Adam, we lost earthly Paradise, which was temporall; So by the second Adam, which is heavenly, and his rightcousnesse, we have hope of that heavenly Paradise which is eternall. Again, as the sinne of the first Adam did lock and chain up the first Paradise; So the second Adam shall open the gate of Heaven, and make an entrance of free passage thither. As this Pa­radise past was a bodily place for bodies; so the other to come is the spiritual Paradise for our souls: This is Paradisus veteris Testa­menti, but that to come is foederis novi. And thus we must under­stand all the places of the new Testament, which speake of Paradise now, for by it are meant the joyes of Heaven.

Seeing then we are not left destitute of a Paradise, but have the promise of one which is more excellent than that, let us not fall in­to the same sinnes of ingratitude and infidelity which we see was the cause of driving Adam out of that Paradise, and will be the cause to keep us out of the second which is to come, for no unclean person shall enter into it, 1 Cor. 15. for Christ will say to such, Depart from me yee workers of iniquity, Matth. 7. 23. Wherefore these sinnes must be detested, and infidelity, as the root of all; for his beleeving the Devills nequaquam moriemini before Gods morte moriemini, was the cause of his fall and of his losse.

Thus if we beware of this fall and losse, we shall at last not only come to that Sabbatum cum intermissione, which was but once a week, but to that Sabbatum sine intermissione, which Christ hath appointed for us, and then by Christ we shall be brought and placed, not in Pa­radise cum amissione, but sine amissione, which is eternall in Heaven: In which place we shall enjoy an everlasting Sabbath of repose and rest without any ceasing, and of such a Paradise of pleasures as are with­out fear or danger of losing, as these earthly ones were. All these things are provided for us all, if we demean and behave our selves holily in the faithfull steps of the second Adam.

Feceratque Jehova Deus ut germinaret è terra illa quaevis arbor desiderabilis ad adspectum, & bona ad cibum: arbor quoque vitae in horto illo, & arbor scientiae boni & mali.Gen. 2. 9.

June 8. 1591.AFter the more particular setting down of the essen­tials of Man (being created) in the 7. verse, I told you that Moses proceedeth to set down the place in which man was seated, from the 8. verse to the end of the 14. And the vocation in which he was to be imployed, from the 14. to the 18. verse.

2.Touching the place we considered two priviledges expressed, &c. 1.One in regard of the scituation of the Garden, being in the East or right side of Eden.

2.The other in regard of the Gardiner which was God.

Now he goeth forward to commend the Garden in another re­spect, namely of the Trees and Plants, which were in it set down in this 9. verse: And also in respect of the waters in the 10. and 11 verles, by which he telleth us, that it was both a well planted and a well watered Garden, and therefore could not choose but be plea­sant and profitable.

Concerning the plants and trees in it, first he propoundeth it in general, and then in special, marking out two kindes of fruits by name, as the tree of life, and the [...] of knowledge: Here are two kindes of commendations of the trees and planting it.

1.The first respecteth the excellency of the fruit that were both pleasant to the eye and good for taste.

2.Secondly, In regard of the plenty and variety, in that there was of every kinde and sort, that nothing might be missing in it, God made it Nemus, a grove of pleasant trees good for shadow, and also Hortus, an Orchard of good trees for our use and service, that we might not only rest under the shadow, but reach out for the fruit to taste thereof. Both these degrees of excellencie are applyed and attributed to this Garden and to the trees thereof.

Touching pleasure and delight, we know that there is voluptas re­mota & voluptas conjuncta, the one removed farre off, but being [...] unto us, applyed to the sense, is very good, and that is the delight of raste; for the eye hath its delight, though the object be remote, but the taste hath no pleasure if the object be not applyed. The one de­light is transitory; for that which is pleasant for taste when we eate it it is consumed and wasted away in the use of it, but the other plea­sure of the eye is perdurable and lasteth not only while we look on it, but remaineth long after as delightfull still. God then in this Garden joyned both these delights and excellencies together, ma­king both concur, that evermore the trees should be & speciosae & fructiferae, Jer. 11. 16. Thus much of the excellency.

[Page 163]Now I come to the plenty and variety of trees (for it is said) that out of the ground God made to grow every tree, that is, every kinde of tree pleasant to the sight and good for meat, which is a speciall commen­dation; for as the Heathen man saith Non omnis fert omnis tellus: Therefore Salomon was fain to send to Hyram for Cedar trees, which his Country afforded not, and Hyram was fain to send to Salomon for Wheat and Olives, because his Countrie either wanted that, or else it bare not plenty that year, 1 Reg. 15. 10.

So that all Countries, even the best and most fruitfull, have not all sorts of commodities, but are driven to have enterchange for supply. Only this place of Paradise had plentifull store of all kinds of fruit, and wanted nothing: So that we may truly say of this gar­den as it is said of Salomons time, there came never in any place such trees and such plenty of all as was here, 1 Reg. 10. 12. This then sheweth the bounty and liberality of God, for he dealt not with us sparingly nor with any envious eye, but poured out the aboundance of his blessings on him in this happy place, which sheweth Adam in all justice worthy to be condemned as filius mortis, 2 Sam. 12. 5. in that he having such infinite store of all good trees that were, yet was not content, but did impiously and ungratefully take away and steal from him which had but only one tree.

From both these we gather, that it is not lawfull in respect of Gods will nor against the Law of nature, but it is allowed and per­mitted to man in the estate of innocencie to desire and to use and enjoy both plenty and variety of Gods blessing here on Earth which are pleasant and good, that is, such good Creatures which may serve for delight and profit: David Psal. 23. 5. giveth God thanks for both, for God gave him balme, which is a thing for plea­sure, and an overrunning cup, which is for plenty: And Salomon, 2 Chro. 9. 21. and in the 1 King. 10. 22. when his Navie went to Ophir, he took order, according to the wisedome God gave him, that they should bring him Apes, Peacocks, and Parrots, &c. which we know are only for delight and hath a use for pleasure, so he had both a desire and fruition of such things, and our saviour Christ, which is wiser than Salomon, John 18. 2. he often resorted to and reposed himself in a garden and took pleasure therein; and Luke 24. 43. there we see he cate of an honey-Combe for the pleasure of taste; and St. Augustine giveth this reason, because God caused Bees not to gather honey for the wicked only, but for the godly also.

The desire then and the use is lawfull, only we must take this Ca­veat by the way, and beware that we long not after the forbidden Tree, that is, that we (both in respect of our wills and desires, in regard of the means to obtain and get these things, and also of the use and enjoying them) must beware, that we doe not that which is forbidden: for to desire those things in affection immoderately, to seek them by evill means inordinately and indiscreatly, or to use them in excesse unthankfully, is the abusing and making them evill unto us. And let this suffice for the first part.

[Page 164]Now for walking about the Garden, Moses here calleth us into the mid'st of it, and we know that usually in the mid'st of their pla­ces of pleasure men will have some curious devise, so God applying himself to the nature of men, is said to have a speciall matter of purpose in the mid'st, which Moses will have us now see and con­sider. We read in the 1 Cron. 16. 1. that in the middle of the Tem­ple, and in the mid'st of the middle part God caused the Cheru­bins and the Ark to be set, where his glorie and presence did most appear, for there he contriveth and conveyeth the most excellent things in all Paradise, and setteth them in the mid'st thereof to be seen which were no where else (that is to say, the tree of life, and the tree of knowledge of good and evill, which he expresseth by name, as for all the rest, he hudleth them up in a general term, as not worthy the naming in respect of this.

Touching which two St. Austin saith well, that we must note that they came out of the ground, not out of the Aire, that is, they were not fantasticall trees, as some men have imagined, but very true and substantial trees as the rest, not differing, but only this in preroga­tive and special fruit, which by Gods blessing they brought forth, fructus erat non ex natura arboris, sed ex gratia Creatoris, as è contra, it was not an evill or hurtfull tree, ex voluntate plantantis, sed ex culpa comedentis; for by Adams sinne it became deadly: We see then that as Paradise was a natural place, though it had reference to a spirituall place; for in this tree of life is both matter of Historie, which proveth the very true and essential being of it, and yet with­all matter of mysterie: For as it is a true use to be applyed to the body and natural life to maintain it; So besides that History, in it was a mysterie to signifie a heavenly matter, to be spiritually applyed to our souls, as the Scriptures doe teach: And in these two re­spects we shall have a perfect comprehension of these trees in the middest.

Touching the tree of life and the corporal use of it, we must re­member that it is said in the 7. verse, that God gave man a spirit of life, and made him a living soul, that is, such a soul which could give life to every part in the body, with the functions and faculties thereof, as to eat and drink, to move, goe, and stirre, which the soul of Beasts also giveth to them naturally.

Touching the natural life and living soul of Man, all Physicians doe well agree with divinity in this, that it standeth in two points, and that there were two causes ordained by God, by which it should be maintained or impaired, the one is set down Deut. 34. 7. Humi­dum radicale, the natural vigor and strength of nature in moisture; the other is called Calor naturalis, 1 Reg. 1. 1, 2. that is, natural heat: So long as they two are perfect and sound, the bodily life doth con­tinue perfect; but when there is a defect or decay of them, then the natural life doth cease and end.

Wherefore God taketh order that by eating and drinking there should be a supply of that natural moisture, which should be spent in [Page 165]us by travail and labor, Jer. 18. 15. And therefore it is called a re­fection and recovering by food that moisture which before hath been decayed in us, now because the moisture and juice which cometh of meats and drinks, would at last by often mixture, become unperfect, as water being mixed with wine is worse, therefore God gave this tree of life, for mans bodily use, that whatsoever naturall defect might grow in these two, yet the fruit of this tree shall be as balm, as it were, to preserve his bodily constitution in the first perfect good estate of health.

Secondly, though there be no decay of moisture, or that yet sinne, which is the sting of death, might impair or destroy this immortall life, 2 Chron. 15. 16. For when God doth punish or chastise man, for sinne, then even as a moth fretteth a garment, so doth sinne consume our life, Psal. 39. 11. Therefore God ordeined also the other tree of knowledge to a remedy for that, that as the body should be su­stained by that corporall fruit of life, so his heart also might be propped up or upheld by grace, Heb. 13. 9. which this tree of know­ledge did teach him to apprehend: And thus much of the corporall use of these trees, which were truely in the Garden as this History doth shew.

Now for the other part it is not to be doubted, but that as it hath a true matter of history: So it hath in it also a spirituall mystery to be understood as the Scriptures well teach us. Augustine saith, that the tree of life, served not only ad alimenta, sed etiam ad sacramenta for doubtlesse as Adam in his estate of innocency had a bodily Sabbath, so therein he had a spirituall use of these trees in the mid'st of the Garden, and that in this sort.

First, for the tree of life it was not so called, as if it gave life to him, for God breathed that into him at the first; But besides that, the tree of life was a means to preserve it; It was also a Symbolum, and memo­riall also to put him in minde, to know that it was not [...] virtute arboris; but vi & virtute divina, by which he had life at first, and by which his life and length of dayes shall be continued hereafter. In the middest of the Garden was the Pulpit, and this is the Sermon which was preached unto him, by these things which the trees did represent, namely, That God was his life and length of dayes, [...]. 30. 20. And that this gratious visitation did preserve his life, Job 10. 12. As he breathed out his life into him at the first: Again, it did put him in minde, that seeing he had received a spirituall life of immutability in esse, so also he received a spirituall life of eternity in posse.

Therefore he had matter and just occasion of thankfulnesse for the one, and of obedience for the other.

Adam had two things injoyned him, the one was praeesse Creaturis, the other subesse Creatori, he had no need of a Caveat for the one, for he was ready enough to govern and bear soveraignty, but for his duty to God, he had great need to be put in minde; and for the try all and practise thereof, he caused this tree of knowledge to be planted there, with an inhibition not to eat of it, upon pain of death, which [Page 166]now and ever hath offended many. Some wish it had not been in the Garden: Others wish Adam had never tasted it; But Saint Augustine saith, if it were good and pleasant, why should it not be there?

Gods purpose therefore in planting the forbidden tree, was that it might be a triall of his obedience, and practise of his duty, that if he should continue, as he might, and had ability given him, then he should have the greater reward afterward. [...] saith, Rev. 2. 7. Vincenti dabo edere de ligno vitae in medio Paradisi: Well saith St. Paul, But no man can overcome except he strive first and fight the good fight, 2 Tim. 2. 5. And no man that will or can strive well, but he ab­staineth from something, 1 Cor. 9. 25. For which cause therefore, that we might be rewarded, it was necessary that there should be a com­mandement and forbidding for his abstinence, that when there should be a tryall of the Tempter saying, Eat of this, he should strive and say, I may not, and so get the victory and be crowned, that is, eate of the tree of everlasting life, and live for ever, with God in Heaven: On the contrary side 17. verse if in triall he should wilfully fall, then for transgression, the tree of life should be a tree of death Mortem morieris, And the reason of this choice, why God should prescribe him a law and form of obedience, is because this should be primor dia­lis lex, as one saith, ut nostrum obsequi sit nostrum sapere, Deut. 30. 20. This is our wisdome to know and doe that which God will have us to doe, if God give a Law at large, every one will consent to it, As if God had said: No man shall disobey or transgresse my will, none will deny it: But let it come to positive law, and bring the triall and practise of that generall to a particular (as to say) I forbid and restrain this tree, none shall break my will, nor eat of it, then is the triall of obedience indeed.

Object.But some may say, What hurt is it to know good and evill? For we read Esay 7. 15. that Christ shall doe that: And therefore it is no sinne.

Resp.I answer that God forbiddeth not to eat the fruit, nor that he would have us ignorant of that knowledge, quam quis quaerit a Deo, sed quam quis quaerit a seipso, And no doubt Adam had the knowledge both of good and evill, per intelligentiam & si non per experientiam. And he knew how to choose the one, and to refuse the other, to pur­sue the one, and to fly from the other, he understood it then, but when he would know both by experience, Gen. 3. 6. He could not see why God should forbid him, and therefore the Tempter taking occasion by it, made him make an experiment of it.

This is the cause then, why at last Adam came to know evill by sense and experience, and saw to his shame, what evill was, for to take he knew and confessed by experience, that bonum erat adhaerere Deo, as the Prophet saith, Jer. 2. 19. And now he knew by tast, how bitter a thing it was to forsake the Lord, And that he knew, it appeareth, Gen. 3. 8. by hiding himself for fear, he shewed that he knew it, when he did feel ante-ambulatores mortis, which is sorrow and sicknesse, and when he saw the Statute of death, that now it must necessarily come[Page 167]to him, and all his posterity to dye the death, then he knew evill by wofull experience.

You see the cause of the Law, and of his sinne of good and evill; it remaineth that we believe Adam in his knowledge and in his expe­rience both of good and evill: For by his good lost, we come to the knowledge of the means by which our good may be lost; that is, if we seek to satisfie our lusts, and curiously (not contented with the open knowledge of his revealed will) shall try conclusions with God, and say, what if we should break the Law? Wherefore a­bandoning these faults, which by experience we see were the cause of evill in him, it behoveth us to receive more thankfully of God the good things we have, and live obediently resting on the Sonne of God for good things to come: And so at last Christ will be un­to us the tree of eternal life hereafter, as we have made him the tree of knowledge, wisdome, and sanctification to us in this life.

Fluvius autem procedit ex Hedene ad irrigandum hunc hortum: & inde sese dividit, ferturque in quatuor capita. Primi no­men est Pischon: hic est qui alluit totam Regionem Chavilae, ubi est aurum. Et aurum illius Regionis praestans: ibidem est Bdellium, & lapis Sardonyx.Gen. 2. 10,11,12.

June 10. 1591.THe verse going before containeth, as we have seen, the planting of the Garden, and the devise of God fra­med and set in the middest of Paradise, which is a plain resemblance of all Divinity, both touching our duty in knowledge and practise, with the reward thereof: Now followeth the watering of it, which in the old Testament, Gen. 49. 25. is called Benedictio ventris & uberum, and in the new Testament, Pauls planting and Apolloes watering, 1 Cor. 3. 6. So that as the planting is shewed before, so the watering is now set down to the 14. verse.

1.In the 10. verse, the man of God sheweth the end of the River, namely to water and moisten the garden; for to that end is men­tion made of the particular difference of all the Rivers which from thence were derived, and became into four heads.

2.Secondly is set down the means by which the whole garden was watered and took the effect, namely, by the severall branching out of the water into divers arms and streams.

3.Thirdly, He sheweth the manner of branching the Rivers, divi­ding them into their Coasts, upon occasion of which he [...] in­to a several discourse of them.

Object.If one should ask, To what end, or what need there was of water and Rivers in Gods Garden? Resp.I answer, That whether we respect necessi­ty[Page 168]or pleasure, it is plain, that it was very requisite, that this supple­ment should be added; for by this element God causeth all his Creatures to drink and quench their thirst, Psal. 104. 11. whereas without it they would faint and die: And as this is good and ne­cessarie in the great world, to have every part well watered; so in the little world of mans body is there the like necessity; for in it the Li­ver is as a Well or Cistern, out of which every part and member of the bodie, as it were, by the little cords and buckets of the veins, doe draw and receive moisture, without which they would perish; and as the flesh, so the bones are not dry, but are full of marrow to moisten and preserve them, Job 21. 24. And to have a generall comprehension of all, the soul also hath a thirst, and must be satis­fied with liquor and water of life, Psal. 34. 3. and 42. 2. or else it will be sick, languish, and pine: therefore in the new Testament, John 7. 38. Christ, to refresh such thirsty souls causeth Rivers to flow to it.

As this necessity then tendeth generally to all, so doth it especi­ally to Orchards and Gardens; for it is most meet, that the trees which God doth plant should be also full of sap and moisture, Psal. 104. 16. For if the young plants doe once get but the sent of the waters they will rejoyce and grow, Job 14. 9. But without it David saith, It is as the grasse on the house top, which withereth before it can grow up, Psal. 129. 6. And therefore when moisture and waters doe fail abroad, and a drought is come, Joel 1. 11. 12. it causeth all men of the Country to weep and howl, wherefore as it was requisite that the fruits of the Trees and Plants should feed Adam, so they must be fed and cherished and kept alive by the springs and rivers of waters.

For pleasures also, it was most meet and requisite that there should be store of springs and waters, for the name of Paradise hath in it the plenty of waters, signifying that the well watering of it made it to be so pleasant a place; for which cause pleasure and de­light is fitly compared to a Well or River, Psal. 36. 8. So on the other side we say, the drought and want of moisture is compared and likened to sorrow and misery, Pro. 17. 22. And in the new Te­stament Christ compareth grief and sorrow to it, Luke 21. 26. wherefore we see that it is requisite both for necessity and pleasure of a place, and also for profit: For as too much water maketh a bad ground for fruit, and unpleasant by reason of dyrt and mire, 1 Reg. 9. 13. So on the other side to have a Country or City of too little water, maketh the places dry and dusty, and therefore unfruit­full and unpleasant, 1 King 14. 15. wherefore much land is nothing worth without this: But rivers and springs of waters doe make the Land rich and happie. There must be then in a good Soile not only good Plants and well grafted, but also good Rivers that it may be well watered, or else it cannot be either fit for profit or pleasure; wherefore God so ordered this place, that it wanted not any thing, neither Pauls nor Apolloes labour, nor yet his blessing of increase from above. And let this suffice for the counsel of Moses in these things.

[Page 169]When men would plant and make Orchards or Gardens, they have no power to make Rivers, that it may be watered well: For when King Salomon made himself Gardens and Orchards, be only could digg Wells, and caused Cesternes to be made; [...] God hath a high [...] and power, for when he made a Garden, in­steed of a Cestern if he will, he can make a Sea for his fountain, and instead of pipes he can make whole [...] and [...] of Rivers, in severall channells to come into all places where he [...] for God doth not only make Rivers, and that great profitable and pleasant [...], but also commodious, making them to branch and spread themselves out over every land, for God would not have Adam and his people to take pains, to water the Garden and all their grounds with their feet, as they did in Egypt, Deut. 11. 10. That is, to [...] a great way to fetch waters in buckets, and then to water it so; therefore he would not have his water in one channell, but to divide it [...] into [...] channells above, as it doth [...] in divers water pipes under the earth. And by reason that this Country was so well watered in e­very place, both for Errable ground and Pastures. That as [...] [...], the people there are not only [...] to eat up their [...] twice before every harvest, but also to drive their [...] out of their Pa­stures, lest otherwise they should choak themselves with their own fat. We see then generally why God divided and severed these waters, now let us come to the particulars and severall rivers, which [...] in number, and therefore four because they were enough, [...] because there are but four pleasures, which come to men by the use of spring and rivers, viz.

The profitable plea­sure of waters.

  • 1. To saile, row, fish, and carry in.
  • 2. To bathe, wash, and make clean.
  • 3. To quench our thirst.
  • 4. To nourisn plants, herbs and trees.

Touching this description it is plain, that the ancient writers doe gather,

1.First, that Paradise was no fained or fantasticall matter of conceit, but a very true and a certain place.

2.Secondly, it was an argument to induce them to think, that it was not all over the world, but in one speciall [...] place, where those rivers were.

3.Last of all, it was an inducement to cause them make [...] and conjecture by search, to finde out where that speciall place was, and in the processe of that, as Master [...] saith, it became a great stumbling block to many in Religion and Divinity, for where they compared this with the history of other writers, and seek for a place, where are four such great rivers coming from one head and fountain, they died in it.

And again, missing also in the knowledge of the Land of [...], taking it for another Land, it grew to a marvailous difficulty, that they could not tell how to reconcile this part of holy [...] with the histories of other men.

[Page 170]But I will come to the particulars, and touching the first River, it is [...] after three names; first by name it is called [...]: Se­condly, by the [...] and compassing of it about havilah. Third­ly, by the commodies of that Country ophir, which being taken by [...], is included, by gold [...] and the [...], for by Gold is understood all kinde of metals, by [...] all kinde of Perfumes and Spices, by the [...] all kindes of Jewells and pretious Stones.

Touching the name it [...] in Hebrew the rich and plentifull River, which name [...] giew to be called Armelcha, the [...] call it the kingly, [...], or stately River, if we compare this River to Saul, 1 [...]. 10. 23. We shall see it well called so; For as he was taller by the head and shoulders, then all the men in Israell, so was this river [...] longer, and did passe with more state then all other.

The second, is the circuit and compasse by the coast, for it com­passeth and runneth along by the Country Havilah, the name of which Land and Country, made the doubt amongst writers, because in the [...] we read of two Countries of that name, the one in [...]. 10. 29. For the sonne of Heber which is called Havilah, did [...], and it is sure, that one of his sonnes also did plant himself in Ophir.

The other is [...] Kings 10. 22. which is in the [...] parts of the [...] of India. And the old writers, taking it for this, which is very [...] from that, did [...] in the matter.

There was another Havilah, which came from [...] and [...], Gen. 10. 7. which dwelt in that Country where the river [...] is, of which now some are called [...]. In Strabo this Land is called Chavilah [...], which as you see is very like [...], and in this place was the Kings royall place and seat in the citie of Shu­shan, 1 Hester 2. 5. Which for the commodities of it, was called the citie of joy or pleasure, as indeed Chavilah signifieth, for in Hebrew it importeth most fruitfull, rich, and plentifull, as if it were ever bringing forth, and yet ever with childe. This is the Country then, that is next neighbor to Paradise bordering neerest upon it.

Touching the third point, we necessarily infer and prove by the fruits and commodities, which are here named that it must needs be this Havilah, of which we have spoken, for only it hath store of [...] things as Plinie and Strabo doe witnesse.

The particular fruits here specified, be those which in the opinion of all ancient writers are set down figuratively, namely one chief for all of that kinde, for it was the infinite store of all these rich com­modities, which made the King of Persia so proud in the City Shu­shan, as we read in the, 1 Hester.

First, for Gold, we see that it had not only store, but also store of the best Gold, for there were divers sorts, as we doe make difference of ours here, though there was great plenty of base, and common Gold, which came from Ophir, yet the best and purest Gold came from Havilah.

[Page 171]For the other kinde of Bdelium, some take it for a precious stone, but indeed it is a tree and not a stone, by which rare and excellent tree all spice and sweet perfumes which did there abound are com­prehended and understood.

The third fruit is of jewels and precious stones, where the best of all is specified for all the rest, namely, the Onyx stone, for the Sardys is but a compound of it, and of this kinde of stone we read was set in Aarons breast plate, and also we read it to be one of the gates of the City; and the Caldees doe call this stone the mother and seed of all other precious stones whatsoever, and therefore doth contain all the rest.

And thus yee see what he meaneth by the fruits and commo­dities of this land, by which Moses thinketh he hath sufficiently de­scribed unto us the place where Paradise was.

Now we must note and understand that all these commodities are in Havilah, which is without Paradise, and, as it were, in the back­side and out-houses, for these are not the things which doe princi­pally commend Paradise, but by this Moses is willing to shew the difference between the worldly Paradise and the Godly Para­dise.

For worldlings when they come to Havilah, and whilest they are amongst the gold and sweet perfumes and spices and precious stones (which is before they come to Paradise) they sit down there, as if they were at their journeys end, and had found the Paradise and happinesse which they looked for: But Gods Children never stay nor rest themselves in Havilah amongst these earthly things, but goe on still till they come to the tree of life, which is in the mid'st of Paradise.

And as it is erronious to think that Gods Church is where all these earthly things are: So on the the other side were it erroni­ous to conclude, that that could not be Gods Paradise where gold and silver and prosperity is. Because Havilah and this [...] is with­out the circuit and compasse of Paradise; for though indeed the tree of knowledge and of life be the works of it, yet the other trees of pleasure and profit are not denyed alwaies to the Church of God: For God willed the People [...] offer all their treasures, Exod. 35. 4. And yet though these outward things doe accompanie the Church and profession of the truth, yet we are not to rest in them as the true works of Paradise, but as things adjacent, and as part of the world in the outside thereof, yet it is the property of our earthly nature, more to admire these things than the true treasures of Paradise: For when the Israelites saw [...] first, they asked what it was? for they were ignorant of it, they could not understand it, nor tell what to make of it comming from Heaven; but when they first saw gold glistering, they called it by this name, give it me.

There is no comparison between lignum vitae and lignum Bdelii, nor between a wedge of gold and the tree of knowledge, so saith Job 28. 16. yet the world thinketh that Job was in an error, for they[Page 172]think all knowledge nothing in comparison of a wedge of gold. But remember what our Saviour Christ saith, Though we could get all the world, what would it avail if we lose our souls? Matth. 26. 15, 16. wherefore we must remember to say as Eusebius reporteth of one Arcelius, who being busie about worldly [...], was wont often to say to himself (potes hoc agere, sed hoc non est opus tuum, that is, thou mayst doe this, but this is not the thing that thou chiefly commest into the world to doe, for that is to be obedient to the good plea­sure of almighty God, and to doe his will. Wherefore we must not stay alwaies in Havilah, making that our journeys end, for if we doe, we shall never come to Paradise: But we must passe through Havi­lah speedily and make haste to Paradise, and there make our aboade and bestow our selves principally in the contemplation of his works and the doing of his will. And thus much for the use of Divi­nity.

Nomen verò fluvii secundi est Gichon: hic est qui alluit totam Regionem Cuschi. Et nomen tertii fluvii, Chiddekel: hic est qui labitur ad Orientem Assyriam versus: Fluvius autem quartus est Euphrates.Gen. 2. 13.14.

June 12. 1591.THese verses are the parting of the plot of Paradise; and the perfecting of the parting of these Rivers as yet remaineth, St. Augustine saith well, that matters of spiritual instruction in the Scriptures are as the crop of Wheat or Herbs of the field to be gathered: and the Histories of the Bible are as the plat in which it is sowed, or as the pa­sture in which they grow: The Chronologie, Cronographie, and Topographie, setting down the places, times, and persons, are as the lanes, waies, and bridges by which we passe and repasse to and fro one to another, and there can be no orderly passage or convey­ance without these. To dwell altogether in these things is as if a man should consume his time, bestow his studie, and spend his la­bour wholly in mending of high wayes and bridges, and to let alone the care and labour (which is more needfull) in husbanding the ar­rable land and pasture ground.

And whereas in prophane Stories many doe spend whole leaves and long volumes in these circumstances; we may see the holy Spirit useth very briefly, in a few lines, to knit up all such things as are necessarie to that purpose: Here, in these two verses, he [...] us of the three other Rivers, whereof the two first are (as the for­mer) described both by name and also by the Coast which they doc passe by.

[Page 173] 2 River.Touching the first we read that this River which is here called Gihon, is called of the Heathen Writers Araxes, Naharses, and Nar­sines, yet they found that the primitive name was Gihon.

This River was called fluvius Eunuchius, for as Kings delighted and took pleasure in Eunuches, so all took great pleasure and delight in this River, for the water thereof was very clear, and therefore delightfull to the eye. Epiphanius faith, that it was sweet to drink and [...] of; and last of all (by reason that it grew into so many Rivers) it became also shallow, and therefore running swift and shallow, made, by that means, a murmurring noise and rushing, and therefore was called fluvius abruptus & [...], and so was plea­sant to the eare; the nature of which River was (once a year about harvest time) to break out and overflow, whereby it refreshed the Countrie languishing with heat, Sirah. 24. 32.

Touching the Coast, It compasseth the Land of Havilah, where by compassing is meant, that it marched or ran through the Coun­trie; for so the [...] are said to compasse the Wildernesse, Joshuah 15. 1. and the Scribes, Matth. 23. 15. to compasse Sea and Land, that is, to passe or travell through or by it.

3 River.The third river Hiddekell; As the former two names were signi­ficant, so are these, though the first name of these remained among the Hebrews: yet the Heathen Writers call it Tygris, and indeed the River hath both these names given for one reason, Hiddekell in Hebrew signifieth an arrow, and a Tygre is the swiftest of Beasts; so that of the strong, forcible, and swift motion of it, it hath the name.

This River hath a head of it self, and passeth along by the old Cities Ninivie, and others, Gen. 10. 11. and it joyneth it self to the River Pishon neer the famous citie Tesipho, and so runne into one stream together into the gulf of Persia.

For the Coast of it, He saith it runneth Eastward, for on that side is the Land of Assyria, which was called the Land of Nodd before the flood, Gen. 4. 16. And after that Assur, Chams sonne, came thither, it was called Assyria, Gen. 10. 22.

4 River.The fourth River is called Euphrates, only he speaketh of the name of this and leaveth out the bounds and coasts of it: the reason of this is, because that River runneth through the mid'st of Para­dise, and so it could not coast; and also because it was so well known that it needed not any other description, Gen. 15. 18. it was a bound to the Holy-Land, for God promised that they should possesse so farre, which was performed and effected in Salomons dayes, 1 King. 4. 21.

This River entreth into Babilon, which was builded over this Ri­ver, and passeth by Massasha; and this River is spoken of last as the greatest, and therefore by an excellencie is called the great River; the fignification of it plentifull a fruitfull or plentifull River.

Solinus saith, that when this River doth overflow the Land, the slyme of it passeth all the dunging and earing which Husband-men [Page 174]can use; and because it is too rank with it, they are fain to use the water of Tygris to wash that slyme away, and so to make it lesse fruitfull.

Paradise they say had his name [...], of the well watering of it, and of the pleasure, joy, and [...] that came to it thereby.

Jeremy 51. 63. Rev. 16. 12. Notwithstanding all these commo­dities, and pleasures of these Rivers, when men abused the places to sinne and abhomination, God threatned his wrath and vengeance on these Nations and Lands, and as before he extended his benefits of his free mercy, so then he powred out his wrath in just Judge­ments.

And this may suffice for the Rivers, because we may not stand more than needs in mending high-wayes and bridges.

Concerning these four Rivers, we have said of the ground of Pa­radise, that it brought fourth all fruits which could be desired of any ground, So say we of the waters, which God had so ordered, that nothing was to be desired of waters, but that the pleasure and de­light thereof might be found in one of these Rivers. If we compare them together, in some of them was deepnesse, in others shallow­nesse, in some swiftnesse, in some slownesse, some pleasurable, others navigable, the one of them far and fruitfull, the other lean, and yet profitable, Salomon saith, Preach. 4. 12. If a man be bound with a threefold cord it cannot easily be broken; wherefore seeing God hath bound us with fourfold benefits, yea with many fold blessings, what a sinne it is to break asunder those bands by transgression and un­thankfullnesse.

Paradise it self thus is inclosed with four goodly Rivers, and hath three Islands, which though they be dis-junct, yet they meet in one point, and make but one Paradise,; which Garden sheweth what an one the Gardiner was, that is, three dis-junct in person, and yet but one in unity of substance; which three Islands Arselius calleth the three Islands of blessing, and the Heathen doe call them Elisii campi: By which we see they had a glimering knowledge of Paradise. The Land of Babylon, Chuse and Ashur, and other places, as Writers doe testifie, doe carry in their names the men that first inhabited and possessed them: But only the Land of Eden hath in it the name and title of no man, for God gave it the name. And therefore it is coun­ted the most ancient and excellent Countrie, in which man was first created and first set his foot; and therefore some think Adam had his name of Eden, but there is no likelyhood of that: But whatsoe­ver excellencies this Land had, yet now they are lost, though re­liques and resemblances of them remain, which must teach us how vile and dangerous a thing sinne is; for as it caused the Ark of God to be taken away, 1 Sam. 4. 11. and the Temple and Citie of God to be wasted and destroyed, so we see that the same sinnes were the overthrow and dissolution of the Garden of God, and therefore we must beware of it.

As we have taken a view of the four Rivers, so now let us take [Page 175]a survey of the four Regions, which are about Paradise, for Paradise was the center, and [...] about it was the compasse of these four [...] On the one side was Havilah, where was Gold, and that the best Gold, and where such wealth and riches are, from [...] any thing may be [...] and brought.

And on the other side was [...] from [...] came health, and the means of health, namely, the best medicines, the flower and choice of all dreggs of Physick. On the other quarter [...] Africa, which is the glory and pomp of the world; And on the o­ther side was Caldea, from [...] came all the learning and know­ledge of the world: So that [...] must needs be the [...] plea­sant place, being invironed and compassed with all those blessings, namely [...] the mid'st of health, wealth, honor, and learning, yet you may observe, that when sinne began in the center of the world, how all these blessings round about it, began [...] curses to mankinde, [...] and learning grew into [...] All the wisdome of [...] Gen. 11. 31. grew into [...] [...] which was the glory of the world degenerated, and fell into pride, and so to cruelty and [...] and so was made the [...] of Gods wrath, which ever God [...] to threaten sinne, Ezech. 12. 13. Havilah became by sinne, a means to draw [...] from Paradise, for they which dwelt in this wealthy Country, became the most covetous, secure, and carelesse people in the world, forgetting God, every man was there on horse­back, by reason of wealth and prosperity, which made them ride a­way from Paradise with the more speed.

And for Arabia they enjoying bodily health, yet made them so presumptuous that (as one of their country-men saith) they were [...] For by reason, they had [...] for all diseases and infirmities of the body to preserve health, they gave themselves to all [...] and [...] and to wallow in all [...] and [...] knowing present help to recover their health again.

Thus we see that by sinne and corruption of our nature, these things are used contrary to Gods ordinances, namely, as means to remove us as far as may be from the center of Paradise, and from the tree of knowledge and [...] which is [...] the mid'st thereof.

If we fall into the pride of [...] into the [...] and se­curity of Havilah, and [...] our selves into all [...] of [...] and give our selves to the [...] and Idolatry of [...] then [...] shall be like [...] those which were [...] neighbors [...] Paradise, and yet were [...] off from [...] and therefore shall be [...] to [...] or enter into it.

We have [...] this one thing briefly yet to note, and it is that which I [...] [...] the [...] and [...] the Jew, and St. Augustine the converted Christian, to make use of, by thinking on Paradise, for they all are carefull to preserve and [...] the [...] of this story, and to prove that these are not Rivers running in [...] place imaginary, but [...] and cortain, known, seen and tasted of by many, Gen. 13. 10. So for matter of my story, for spirituall use and instruction,[Page 176]they gathered and delivered some good and profitable things, which their age was able to bear, though our age hold it curiosity, and can­not abide it. Arelius reporteth, that Zoroastes had this as one of his chief Lessons, which he held and taught to all his Schollars, as an Oracle. That in this life their chief care should be, to obtain Paradise af­ter this life, where only their Souls should finde pleasure and joy.

The Caldeans also did see that it was a mans duty not to seek a Paradise upon earth, but to contemplate a spirituall Land and place of pleasure, which the heathen in their Books called Elisii Campi, In which they place the four cardinall virtues, instead of the four pleasant Rivers which are here named: And also Ambrose doth, con­cerning the depth of Pishon to the profoundnesse of wisdome, the shallownesse of Hiddikell to temperance and sobriety, Tygris to for­titude, and Euphrates to justice.

So doth Philo the Jew, fall into the like spirituall meditation of Paradise for his use, he said, this is the course which a man must take here, to seek the light of knowledge, and hereafter the participation of the light of glory.

Sirah 24. labored in this comparison, likening the four Rivers in Paradise to true wisdome, and that which floweth from it: So there is a Paradise above, which is spirituall, a tree of life and knowledge, and such streams and rivers spirituall, which our Souls may appre­hend for instruction and comfort.

St. Augustine and Ambrose, have gathered two other resemblances spirituall by this out of the old Testament, Ezech. 1. 5. Rev. 4: 6. They lay, that Faith on earth doth apprehend Heaven, and therein these four things: 1.God the Sonne as in the form of a man having a fellow feeling and compassion of our infirmities and miseries on earth. 2.And also as having the strength of a Lion to save and defend us. 3.Thirdly, as an Oxe to be made a sacrifice by his death: 4.And lastly, as an Eagle to mount up again, by his Resurrection and Ascention.

They say, they are, as it were, the four streams, in which our Faith doth run and direct his course in, by meditation of heavenly Joyes in Paradise above.

Again, he taketh another out of Ezech. 15. 16. There are saith he, four Wheels on Earth, which have a sympathy between them and the Beasts above. And as these Wheels move on earth, so doe they move or stay in heaven. The four Wheels are these, Job 4. 6. [...], fides, patientia, integritas, For if we so fear that we have faith, and hope in Gods mercy, and patiently endure as Christ did, not digressing from righteousnesse, for all the troubles of this life. As these things in our hearts move well, or stand still on earth, so doe these four Beasts and streams in heaven move and flow to us, or stand still from yeelding us any comfort.

Thus doth Augustine and Ambrose, make a profitable resemblance and comparison, between these things on earth and that which is in heaven, that it may be a course to lead us to Paradise above.

Accipiens itaque Jehovah Deus hominem; collocavit ipsum in hor­to Hedenis, ad colendum eum & ad custodiendum eum.Gen. 2. 15.

June 15. 1591.AT the eight verse before, as ye remember, we said that Moses did first deliver the Treatie of the place of Paradise, which now he hath ended.

And now he intendeth to set down the manner of his placing and imploying him in that place.

His placing is set down here in two points.

1.First, By shewing us the place from whence God took him.

Secondly, the place to which he brought him.

2.Then he sheweth us that the things in which he was imployed were double.

1.First, in regard of his body, He was enjoyned the duty of labour, as is shewed in this 15. verse.

2.Secondly, In regard of his soul, the duty of Obedience.

In the two next verses, the Fathers term them Cultura horti, & Cultus Dei.

We must begin with his placing: Touching which first he tel­leth us that God took him from another place before he brought him to this. If we ask from whence God took him? We are to understand that he was taken out of the common of the World, as when he had transgressed the commandement, he was cast out into the wide world again, Gen. 3. 23.

The Prophet Esay seemeth to tell us, that it is a very profitable meditation, to look back into the former place, and estate, from whence we were taken, Esay 51. 1. So did Anna in the old Testa­ment, I Sam. 2. 8. and Mary in the new Testament, Luke 1. 52. in their several songs: God doth raise the base from the dunghill, and set them with the Princes of his People, Psal. 113. 7. Joseph was taken from the Dungeon and prison, Psal. 105. 17. and brought from thence to be chief Ruler in Egypt. Moses was a mighty man and of great per­sonage, yet if we consider from whence he came, we shall see he was taken out of the water, Exod. 2. 5. &c: to his great honour and renown. Gideon was taken from the flayle, Judg. 6. 11. Saul with a naile in his purse and from seeking his Fathers [...], 1 Sam. 9. 1, 2, &c. David from the [...], Psal. 78. 70, 71. with divers others in the like sort, the particulars would be over-tedious to recite.

This then being Gods course in Adam at the first, from base­nesse to honour, from the wilde field to Paradise; So ever after he used the same order in his posterity; and therefore will have men consider and confesse their unde, from whence they come.

So the old Church were bound to acknowledge their unde, and to say, Deut. 26. 5. My Father was a poor Syrian, ready to perish with bunger, and was after in cruel bondage in Egypt, &c. and from that poor and miserable estate the Lord brought us into Canaan, &c.

[Page 178]This then kindly worketh in us the conceit of humility to consider and remember that first Man was a companion to Beasts, both in the same common matter and place, untill Good took and brought him into a more excellent place.

As we have spoken of the place from whence, so now of the place to which he was brought, That was Paradise, wherein we must note, that God brought him not thither only to shew it him, that he might see it, 1 King 8. 9. but that he might inhabite it, enjoy it, pos­sesse and exercise himself in it, to which he seemeth to have relation in the 10. Psal. 14. which proveth that Adam was not there natus, sed positus, nor thereof Dominus, sed Colonus, and he had it not by in­heritance, but by Deed of Gift; not naturâ, sed gratiâ he was not a Citizen but a Denizen; he was a Proselite brought in thither from some other place.

2.The second word was posuit, as who would say, Man was not able to put in himself, he could not come thither alone, but it was a thing supernatural, even a speciall grace of God who put him in this place, not mans natural wit or industry.

Wherefore this being a shadow and resemblance of Heaven, it is sure that (whatever we say) it is not our merit or wor­thinesse, our wit or any thing else which can bring us thither, but only the free grace of God, which, as it teacheth us humblenesse in regard of our unde, so it teacheth us thankfulnesse in regard of our quo, whither; that is, Paradise: a place full of all pleasant and pro­fitable things, and our thankfullnesse must be with trembling and fear, Psal. 2. 11. Quoniam qui potuit poni, potuit deponi, & qui potuit ferre, potuit etiam auferre, as he did indeed.

3.The third point is his ut, that is, the cause and end for which God took him from the World and put him into Paradise, which was to [...] him some service, both in dressing and keeping the Gar­den, as also in doing homage unto him that he might know that he was but a servant in Paradise, and had a Lord and Master Para­mount farre above him, and therefore that it was his duty to be carefull and thankfull to God for his benefits: Also this labor was imposed him, that he might understand that this Paradise was not an estate and place of his rest and all happinesse to be looked for, but rather a place of strife, Rev. 2. 7. which when he had performed at last, he should be crowned with this end, which is double, and containeth the two vocations of every man: The one respecting the Common-wealth, The other God in his holy Church.

Touching the first, which is set down in this verse, concerning bodily labour, there are two questions to be inquired of, the one of Adam, the other of Paradise.

Object.The question concerning Adam is, Why God should [...] him to such labour, seeing God purposed to place him in a most happy estate? for it might seem a thing very inconvenient to impose labour to him which might marre and hinder all the felicitie and happinesse spoken of before.

[Page 179] Resp.For answer to that, It is true which St. Augustine saith, that indeed, if we mean Laboriosum laborem, it would have been a prejudice and let to his happinesse; But if by this is understood only such a pleasant labor and exercise of body, in which a man taketh more delight and comfort, than by sitting still, then we cannot otherwise think, but that it should have been father a solace to him than any hindrance of joy. For the labor that maketh us miserable now and cometh in as a curse for sinne, Gen. 3. 11. 9. it consisteth in three points.

1.First, urgent necessity is irksome to many when they are inforced to it, or else they should not eat.

2.Secondly, when it is with the sweat of our face above our propor­tion of strength, even to the straining of nature, not only to make us warm, but even till we sweat again.

3.Thirdly, so to labor hard as when we have done all that we can, there shall come either unseasonable weather, or such a barren state of the ground below, by reason of the curse, that our labor shall take no good effect, but shall cause thornes, bryers, and weeds to grow in­stead of Wheat which we did sowe.

But remove these impediments, and then labor is a speciall de­light; Salomon saith, that excessive labor is wearinesse and toile to the flesh: But when labor is Condimentum volnptatis, as rest and [...] now to us is Condimentum laboris, then such a labor is better than doing nothing at all.

This then being set down, that labor is not simply an inconveni­ence and hindrance to a good life, but rather sometimes a help to it; then we infer that amongst all other labors, the exercise of dressing and keeping a Garden or Orchard, is most pleasant and agreeable to our nature, Preach. 2. 5. and bringeth greatest delight to our experi­ence and senses in seeing ever some new and pleasant hearb or plant springing up.

Therefore it seemeth to be even the labor in which Kings have taken delight, Preach. 2. 5. though of all other men, they seem to be exempt most from bodily labor, yet they have often used and tied themselves to this labor, which God here assigned to Adam, his la­bor being therefore limited and allayed with these considerations, there was no abatement of happinesse or joy thereby.

The other question to be inquired of is, whether it may not seem superfluous and more than needs, in regard of the Garden, for him to dresse or keep it; for seeing God made all things to grow in it, and the ground to bring forth all things to be defired why should he labor to dresse it? and seeing there were no ill things to hurt or annoy it, what need he to take care to keep it? [...] saith, that the case standeth alike with God and with Gods Garden in this respect, for as man hath more need to be served of God, than God hath need to be served of man (not wanting his service) so Adam had more need to be served by the Garden, then the Garden to be served and [...] to by him. But all the Fathers doe agree in this, that it was Gods will that the Garden should bring forth not only opera [...] of his [Page 180]own accord, but also by the industry and diligence of man, it should bring opus voluntarium. So that divers other faire and pleasant things, should be bestowed on the Garden, and caused to grow by his labor, and so he should both discere & docere, how many things by industry might be done above nature.

Now for the keeping of the Garden, it may seem a great difficulty, because there being no danger, it might keep it self without Adams care, labor, or looking to: But the ancient writers say, there is a double keeping, the one is from danger, the other to our selves for profit. And both these kinds are, either of the keeping the thing it self, or else of the revenues and commodities which come thereby. As for example, If Adam had not broken the Law and commande­ment of God then he should have still kept the Garden to himself, and for his posterity for ever to all our uses, without forgetting our estate or causing a reentry to be made. Again, He should have kept the fruits of the Garden to his own use moderately, and kept them from being wasted lavishly, for those things are said to be well kept, Quae bene dispensata sunt & non male; So that by a moderate use, he should have kept the fruit from riot and waste.

Again, touching the keeping thereof from hurt, God closely telleth him, that an enemy should come, who by his cautelous wyles and subtill practices, should seek to bereave him of his present Garden, and therefore that it behoved him to keep it from such an enemy, who by indirect and sinister means did seek to defeat him of it: And thus we see that this labor is necessary, without either inconvenience or superfluity:

I come now to the first (ut) for it is of three sorts; And this first is the principall and greatest, for example [...] primus homo est lex posteritatis, In what regard? In regard of his person in this, that seeing labor in a vocation was good and requisite in the first estate of Inno­cency, therefore it must needs be commendable in us, and the con­trary idlenesse, to be condemned in every calling whatsoever.

In Gal. 6. 10. It is said to be Gods will, not only that we should be doing whilest we have time, but that we should be doing of good, and it is his will that with such things we should redeem the time from idlenesse, Ephes. 5. 16. We must not be worse then Ants Pro. 6. 6. Nor like to Snayles, Psal. 58. 8. Consuming our time in vanities, Psal. 78. 33. These idle ones are called slow-bellies, Tit. 1. 12. and such God detesteth, because they set themselves in no good way. The wise man saith, Wisdome 33. 26. That Idlenesse doth not only consume good time, and good creatures, but also wasteth a mans self, For all carnall lusts and desires, are but firs, pangs and symptomata of this idlenesse: As the idle mans Garden is full of weeds, so his soul is full of sinne, and when our soul is become such an evill and idle mans Garden, Esay 5. 1.2. &c. then God made our Garden on earth like unto [...], name­ly, full of weeds, thorns and thistles, Amos 5. sheweth what vices doe grow out of this idlenesse, For he said of them which fed of the fatlings, and drunk [...] in full bolls, then they gave themselves to [...], [Page 181] stretching themselves on Ivory beds, and therefore God hated the [...] of Jacob, Amos. 6. 4, 5, 6.

There is another thing, namely, that this our labour, is to be be­stowed and imployed upon paradise and not on ourselves, as the Wise man saith, Ecclesiastic. 33. 16. That he did not only labour for him­self, but for all such as love nurture and wisdome: Many men will be content to labour, but it shall be only for themselves, for to fill mouths and bellies and purses; they will not help their brother scarse with one mite; and [...]. 6. 7. they will eat all the fruit of their own labours, none else shall fare the better for it: but our chief intent must be to bestow our labour and service in dressing and keeping Gods Garden, and Gods people, the Church and Common wealth. David, being a King, was content to be serviceable to all, [...] 13. 22.

Therefore it may beseem us which labour in the Church and Commonwealth, not only operari, but also servire; for there are many which will be busie and take more pains than they have thanks for, because they will be Commanders and prescribers and platformers, but they will take no pains to minister or doe service, and to be obedient which is meet for them according to their [...] places; and when every one is a Master workman, and will not be subject or ordered by others in their labour, it commeth to passe that Gods Vineyard is often spoyled, wherefore our labour must be imployed by way of service in humility.

Now for these two (as they are joyned and [...] together [...] & operari) are good companions; for as the contrary vices are the two things on which a sluggard casteth over his bed, Pro. 26. 14. So Moses setteth these two as the two hinges on which laborious and industrious men doe move.

These two doe goe together after three sorts: First, there is a ser­vice in respect of good and evill, [...] to labour and procure good to a thing, or to drive away evill from it, that is, to preserve it from evill and in these two is expressed the property of a City, Psal. 127. 1. First, it is commodionsly built, then there is a carefull watch set over it, [...] keep it from all danger and hurt, 1 Cor. 12. 21. there is a comparison be­tween the members, the head and the eye are profitable to custodire, the hand and the foot for all the body in operation; so some in the Church and Commonwealth have their function in custodiendo, standing in a [...] to defend, though they [...] not as others doe; and we must know that Custodes, as Magistrates, Mini­sters, &c. though their function be not in [...], yet (if they [...] not idle in it) the [...] of their heart is as great and painfull as the [...] of the brows to others.

The second is this operari, which is the [...] or rather the bringer in: [...] is the Steward or Auditor to [...] and to give a just account of that which the other brings in. The Hea­then [...] [Page 182]he that will not keep is worse than Judas, for he could not abide perditio haec, for which Christ did not mislike him, nay Christ him­self would not have the Fragments lost, John 6. 12. So that as ope­rari condemneth idlenesse and negligence, so doth custodire condemn waste and ryot; for these two vices profusion and negligence doe goe together, Prov. 18. 9. as the two virtues Working and Keeping are brethren and goe together like friends.

The third and last is that of Ambrose, That though labour and work faileth a men, yet keeping holdeth out and lasteth as long as we live.

Therefore custodire is called Muria virtutum, the pickle of virtue, and in keeping we must persevere, continue, and hold out to the end, for that is the chiefest virtue, Matth. 24. 13. The Philosophers call it virtus virtutum.

Thus we have seen our unde, to teach us humility; our quo, to teach us thankfullnesse; and our ut, to learn us carefullnesse and dil­ligence in our calling; and this is our translation and prelation, whereby we are taught to keep in minde our two duties of operari and custodire; and this may serve for the comprehension of our first duty in Paradise.

Interdixitque Jebova Deus Homini, dicendo, De fructu quidem omnis arboris hujus horti liberè comedes.Gen. 2. 16.

June 17, 1591.YOu remember I made it plain, that there was two parts of mans Calling and Vocation in Paradise, and a double duty injoyned him, done in the time of his innocencie.

The first is labour in an earthly vocation, about things belonging to this life; The other spiritu­all imploying the duties of his soul respe­cting the life to come.

The one humane, which is our Art and Occupation in our seve­ral vocations.

The [...] is called divine by performing our duties and service unto God our Creator, which here is expressed and remaineth to be handled.

We are content to labour and to doe our duty in the ground, be­cause we doe see the fruit thereof. Now if that be good, then our labour in Religion and in the service of God is a more profitable duty than that of the ground, for the fruit thereof is eternall life; we must not therefore be only Agricolae, sed & [...], and labour to serve God.

What is this commandement and our duty prescribed?

When we have taken away the shell and driven off the husk from [Page 183]it, we shall see that it is true obedience, obedientia autem est sola virtu­tum, as one saith, & nulla est obedientia nisi humilium, so that obedi­ence in humility containeth in it the summe of all virtues else. This is the first speech and dialogue that God had with man from the be­ginning: As therefore hitherto God hath opened only his hand to fill Adams hands with his blessings, his mouth with laughter, and his heart with joy; So now God openeth his mouth to shew what shall be his reciprocall duty for all his benefits, and what duty he re­quireth of him: It is not said before, that God spake touching the delivery of the former duty, because it was no need; for the very light of reason might teach him the law of honest labour and indu­stry, for the avoiding of idlenesse in every estate. But this Law and duty of obedience is supernatural, and therefore besides the instinct of nature it was requisite that God should (viva voce) instruct him therein as a thing not within the reach of fleshly reason, to know how we should serve God aright: This is the reason then why God spake now and said, Numb 12. 6. God is said to speak three waies, by vision, dream, or mouth to mouth; and this last was the speciallest favour and grace so to speak; If Moses then stood so highly in Gods favour, that he delivered his minde by word of mouth, face to face, then no doubt did God much more speak after this familiar sort to Adam now, because he was much more in the favour of God then any of his sinfull seed were, which the ancient Fathers doe appa­rently gather also by the 3. of Gen. 8. for in that it is said, that Adam heard God walk in his own presence in the Garden, and heard also his voyce speaking to him, they conclude that God did, before sinne, appear to man in a [...] shape and speak to him, as we read the Angells did to many afterwards.

As God in Paradise spake to Adam, so did he alwaies, both in the old and new Testament, make known his will, and reveale our duty in Religion touching his worship by the word of his mouth. The Prophets therefore had this for the warrant of their Prophecies, Os Domini loquntum est; and the Apostles had this for the seale and assurance of their doctrine Ego accepi a Domino quod tradidi, 1 Cor. 11. 23. So that if in Paradise to have the word of God as the rule and direction to frame all their lives by, being in the state of innocencie, then no doubt our state now cannot be happie without the same rule, unlesse we have Gods word among and us to live thereby. The Fathers for this cause doe term this as the Sermon which God made to Adam; and they say that he should have had no other Scripture, nor Bible, nor Sermon but this, if he had obeyed it, and stood in his innocencie, neither should he have had any other Sa­craments then the trce of knowledge and life, So that in it was con­tained all divinity [...] for Adam, and the summe of all divinity which is written to us in the holy Scriptures: But the most part of Writers doe call this a Law, because Heb. 9. 27. it is said, [...] est, &c. as who should say, God made a Statute or Law, when he said, Thou shalt dye the death; And indeed in all the course of Gods[Page 184]proceedings against Adam, Gen. 3. is meerly Judiciall, as if God had tryed him and his actions by this Law which here he made.

There are two principall parts of this Law.

The one conteineth the authority of the Law-maker, in the pre­face.

The other conteineth the tenor or summe of it.

In the Law it self there are three parts as it is in all Laws.

1.First, A preamble, which is an inducement and perswasion for us to obey and heare.

2.Secondly, The restraint of the Law.

3.Thirdly, The sanction and penaltie of the Law.

And if we marke it, there is none of all these but conteineth in them an argument very effectuall and very plain, to make us have a care to serve the Lord and obey his Commandements; for if we shall not obey his authority and just right which he hath to com­mand us, we shall shew our selves very proud and perverse persons, which is the overthrow of humility; if we regard not his liberality, we are unthankfull men, which destroyeth humanity and civility; if we transgresse so gentle and easie a Commandement, it is ex­ceeding negligence; if we fear not, nor regard his threatnings, it sheweth that there is in us hard-heartednesse and incredulity, which is the cause of all.

This is then as if he had said, hitherto God hath been in a man­ner as no God, he hath shewed himself as a Minister to man, taking on him the behaviour of a Potter, to fashion us of Earth; and of a Glasse-maker, to inspire our bodies with his breath; and to be to us a Gardiner, and to be one that hath occupied himself in making Rivers for water and all things needfull for us, in so much as no ser­vant may seem to be in offices more meanly imployed than he hath as yet undertaken for us: But now, saith Moses, God will forget himself no longer, but beginneth to shew himself to be a God in­deed, and to sit down in his Throne of Majestie and royall authority, and call man to him as his servant and subject, and giveth him a commandement, and prescribeth him a Law touching the com­mandement. We first say that on Gods side and behalf, he hath a power to command, because he hath made us and giveth us all that we have; and so on our side there groweth and ariseth a duty and necessity to obey, because we have received such and so many things, for so we say ex beneficio indebito oritur debitum officium: So we see the field, receiving seed, is thereby bound to return back somewhat to the sower: So the child naturally yeildeth himself bound to obey his Parents, though there be no covenant or bond drawn between them, and this is naturalis obligatio: So that this bond of nature and law is so strong and bindeth us so strictly, that we shall be as surely bound by it, if we obey not God and our Parents as if we had gone to a Scrivener and there had an obligation drawn and made strong against us; yea, it doth not only as much binde us, but farre more, because the obligatorie law naturall is farre more[Page 185]strong and bindeth us more surely than the bond of the Law mo­rall, and indeed it sticketh neerer unto us, in as much as this is by Gods finger written in the Tables of our hearts; but this is only graven in tables of stone or rolls of paper without. Man is called Imago Dei, and was made so, yet he was not God, [...] to be left or ruled by his own will, for that is the main [...] to which Satan would perswade Adam, Gen. 3. 5. namely, not to follow Gods di­rections, but to doe that which seemed best in our own eyes; and being brought to that erronious conceipt, God faith, Loe, the Man now will be as one of us, q.d. he will be no more subject to Gods will, but will shake off that yoake and be equall with us; wherefore, that Adam might know his ranke and row, in which he is placed and standeth under God, he giveth out this commandement and Law that he might know this, that though God hath in mercie put all things under his feet, Psal. 8. 6. yet he reserved a power and prerogative to command, and therefore we must acknowledge a duty to obey: Gods Will [...] and his Wisdome must be out direction; if Gods will be praecipere, then our will must be answerable to it in obedience, and our humane wisdome must be captived and brought under, and made subject to the wisdome of God, 2 Gor. 10. 5. for this is the chief part and perfection of obedience, to deny our wills and forsake our own wisdome, Matth. 16. 24. the reason is because our will and wisdome is con­trarie and at enmitie with the Will and Wisdome of God.

And thus much of the use of Gods authority forward from him to us in commanding, and backward from us to him in obeying: And if we be willing inwardly, laying down our own wills and wisedoms, and ready outwardly to manifest it in action, then God will take on him to give us the tree of life, and a promise of eternall blessednesse for ever, and so we have a full comprehension of his will and purpose in commanding and giving this Law.

There are now two difficulties and doubts which usually arise out of this commandement, and therefore are to be assoyled.

Object. 1.The first is, That seeing Adam now is in the state of innocency and per­fection, therefore Laws and Commandements are needlesse.

Object. 2.Secondly, Seeing God knew Adam would break and transgresse it, it may seem that God was very hard and cruell in giving him that Law.

Resp. 1.Touching the first objection, It is true that St. Paul saith, 1 Tim. 1. 9. Justo non est lex posita. Resp. 2.And to the second, It is as true which he saith, If there had been no Law, then had their been no trangression, and so no punishment, and so it had been very well with all men still: Indeed in some sense the words of St. Paul doe sound very well, if we understand them as he spake them; for all Laws have two parts, the one directive, the other corrective: So Paul saith, That he which keepeth the first part of that Law which is directive, and so becom­meth just, he shall never need to fear the other part of the Law which is corrective.

2. Object.The second objection which accuseth God of hard dealing, is like that other objection in the new Testament, namely, Seeing that [Page 186] Christ knew that Judas would betray him, John 6. 71. why did he make choise of him.

Resp. 2.The answer to both is this, namely, That the foreknowledge of God is no cause of any action, no more then our eyes, being open and seeing a man, is the cause of his going; wherefore Gods fore­knowledge is extra seriem causarum, as the Schoolmen say: God gave Adam power and ability and freedom of minde to perform a greater obedience than this, Preach. 7. 31. but man sought the inven­tions of his own heart, and followed not the will and counsell of God; where­fore it is sure, that seeing the Law given to man is most [...], and the power which man had was most perfect, and seeing he was not constrained to transgresse, but was forewarned of it; therefore man knowing Gods will and yet willfully breaking it, is the cause of his own [...], and God is justified to be without all rigor whatsoever, except we will say, Why did not God then make man immutable? which question if we move, Rom. 9. 20. we are not to dispute & plead with God, though this reason may be yeilded thereof, first, quia ne­cessitas non habet legem, God would not make him immutable, for then man must needs be God, for only God is so. Secondly, be­cause necessitas non habet laudem: for what thank, praise, or reward could he have had, if he could not have chosen, but necessarily must obey, as the fire by nature must needs burn and goe upward; wherefore we should rather (saith St. Augustine) magnifie Gods goodnesse and benefits which worthily requireth our obedience, and contemn our own unthankfull disobedience. This is a more profitable course of meditation than to knit many knots and make many questions to reason with God.

Now we come to the Law it self, which I divided into the pre­face, body, and penalty of it; of the which, the first is introductive, the second directive, and the third corrective.

The body of the Law we see is planted between the preface and the penalty, both which are to perswade us to the love and obedi­ence of that in the mid'st. It is therefore faced and garded with the consideration of Gods love and liberality, and it is backed behinde with the fear of Gods just judgement, if we break it. The first is set down as a spur to prick our dull natures forwards to obedience; for who would not be stirred up with love and liberal rewards: The other is set as a bit or bridle to keep us back, at least from trans­gression: So that if perswasion or threatning, love or fear, fair means or foul, will serve to keep us from sinne and make us serve God, here God had put them all together.

This preface is of the admirablenesse of his love and goodnesse which he promiseth before he commeth to the poor restraint of forbidding that [...].

There be four parts of his loving favours set out to us in it: First, Comedes: Secondly, Comedendo comedes, that is, thou shalt eat freely and frankly: Thirdly, Ex omni ligno, not freely of one or of a few, but of all the trees: Fourthly, Ex omni ligno totius horti, not of all[Page 187]the trees in one corner or quarter, but of all in all the [...] of Pa­radise, and of all he [...] but one, and one is the least that he should have restrained, so liberal is he and so loath to deny us any thing he hath; and he would not have forbidden this, had it not been for our good also; such was Gods liberaliry to Adam, that [...] doth permit him to eat, not only liberè liberaliter, that is, when he will, what he will, how much soever he will, for his sufficient ne­cessity and strength, freely at his choise, liberally according to his desire.

In this plenty and variety granted, God permitteth to him the best, which is the tree of life, and he gave him the means unde vive­re, bene vivere, & semper vivere possit, for all the trees were means to sustain his life. The tree of knowledge (being a testimony of his obedience) shewed him how he might live well, and the tree of life would have caused him to live for ever: wherefore all these seve­ral blessings of God bestowed on him, might have moved him to due obedience in this one and easie commandement; for seeing he had the use of all the trees upon condition to abstain from this one, it is sure the levis esset ejus continentia, si non dèesset benevolentia. But if eating thou shalt eat could not allure him to obedince, yet dying [...] dye, one would think should have been able to have kept him from disobedience, yet it did not, and therefore mortem morier is is a just recompence to such wilfull sinne.

There is yet another thing which the ancient Writers doe make [...] great matter of in this place; that is, the marking That here first of all God and Man doe enter into a league, obligation, & covenant one to the other, by which they prove, that Ecclesia & vinculum Ecclesiae is more ancient than the state Politique, that is, that the bond eccle­siasticall is of greater antiquity than the bond of Commonweals Politicall or oeconomicall: For before Eve was made, or ever Man and Wife, Parents and Children, Masters and Servants were united with a bond of duty, which commendeth the bond of true Religion and Divinity, which by obedience teacheth us how to be inseparably united to God, and made one of his Church, to whom is a promise of the tree of life.

De fructu verò arboris scientiae boni & mali, de isto ne comedas.Gen. 2. 17.

June 19. 1591.THis Law of Paradise we sorted into three parts, the first whereof we handled before, now follow the second and third parts to be spoken of namely, the direction and correction, the Precept it self and the penalty, which necessarily doe ensue.

In these words then is set down the restraint of the forbidden [...], which is the body of the Law it self; And then[Page 188]after it in the end of the verse insueth the punishment, if we breake it.

In this former part of the Law we observe two points, 1.First, The subject of the Commandement, concerning which the restraint is made, that is, the tree of knowledge. 2.Secondly, The action it self restrained, that is, eating, which may be resolved two wayes, as the School-men say, Quando actio cadit super materiam indebitam, that is, either when an action is forbidden from lighting on it which should not, or when it is invested with all his due circum­stances.

In speaking of this, we will take this course, first to entreat of the subject and action here expressed, and then of the application of it to us: The subject is a Tree, and that but one tree of knowledge, which tree with the fruits of it, were without question no more evill than the other trees, for all alike God saw to be good, as we have seen; and therefore it was such as might have been eaten, as well as the other, if this restraint had not been.

And again if this restraint had fallen on any other tree in the Gar­den as it did on this, it had been as unlawfull to eat as this: So that it is not the nature of the tree, but of Gods word which made it evill to eat, for there was no difference between them but in respect of Gods word and charge, which said, Thou shalt not eat thereof. In which respect it is called the tree of knowledge of good and evill. We must understand that this tree hath not his name of every quality in it, but of the event and effect which should come by it, Exod. 15. 25. The Wise man calleth it lignum dolorum, Eccles. 38. 5. of the effect and event it had of these waters. So in Gen. 35. 8. there is a tree called Arbor lamentationis, not that the fruits thereof would make a man sorrowfull, but for the casualty and event which happened and befell Israel there; not that it was the cause of any lamentation: So we must know that whereas Adam before knew good both wayes, both by contemplation and experience, now having broken the Law he knew evill both wayes also: we had the knowledge of good and evill morall by naturall contemplation, Gen. 4. 7. so long as thou doest good to thy self, men will speak well of thee; So that to know good is bene pati; while he did bene agere, Dicite justè quia bene, Esay 3. 10. 11. The just shall eat the fruit of their righteousnesse, and the wicked the fruit and reward of their sinne, and this is the other know­ledge of good and evill, Numb. 11. 18. there was knowledge of good and evill, by sight, sense, and experience, Psal. 133. 1. this is shewed that malum culpae was the cause of malum poenae, and by fee­ling the bitternesse of the punishment, he knew how bitter a thing it was to forsake God and not to fear him: So he knew the good of obedience, by the good of reward, which was, the sweetnesse of pleasures before his fall; and after his fall he knew the evill of sinne by the evill of his punishment. The one knowledge is, Gen. 18. 19. the other kinde of knowledge is, Gen. 22. 12. If we follow. St. Augustine and Tertullian, we may say truly, that it is called the [Page 189] tree of knowledge of good and evill both wayes, both in respect of the effect, and also of the [...], Tertullian conceiveth that it was called so of the effect, and duty which was to arise and be taught out of it, in which respect, he calleth it Adam's little Bible, and the foun­tain of all divinity, for as the Bible is the perfect rule of knowledge to us; So was that to him, and should have been [...], if he had not fallen, for by this dicendo it should have plainly [...] Gods will, and so it should exactly teach that to be good, which was ac­cording to it in obedience, and that to be evill which is contrary to it by transgression; for the knowledge could not be more [...] set down, then by this object and action, Thou shalt eate of these, and shalt not eat of this, God then by forbidding them to eat of the tree of knowledge, did not envy or grudge that they should have knowledge, but rather made this rule the root of all know­ledge to them, that the science of good and evill is taken only from Gods dicendo, that is, things are therefore good because God by his word alloweth them, and are evill because he forbiddeth them.

Now touching St. Augustine, He saith, this is called the tree of knowledge in respect of the event, in regard of the exeperimentall knowledge, which man had by it, both because by it he had felt the reward of obedience, so long as he stood upright, and also by it he found and felt by experience, the reward and penalty of disobedi­ence, for when he had contrary to Gods word reached his hand to the tree and eaten of it, he had experimentall knowledge by and by both how birter a thing it was to sinne and forsake God, Jer. 2. 19. and also how good and sweet a thing it was to stick fast to God by obedience, Psal. 73. 28. He found that in the action of obedience was life and happinesse, and in the act of sinne was death and wretchednesse, [...] before Adam had eaten of the tree he had know­ledge of good by contemplation and experience, and so for ever should have had: and then he had argumentall knowledge by pre­sumption and contemplation also of evill; for he by the argument of privatives must presume this conclusion, that if he doe that which is forbidden he should be deprived of the tree of life, and that happy estate, and so consequently must needs come to death and all misery, which he found to be most true by wofull experience, so soon as he had put it in triall: And thus much of the object and of the name given to it.

Touching the Action which is the second part, in which I mean thus to proceed, by way of certain positions and grounds, the one necessarily arising out of the other.

We lay then for the first ground, that it was not lawfull for God, nor behoofull for us, that God should make triall of Adam who he had made, for it is equally expedient and right in the practice and be­haviour of men, first to make proof and triall of [...], before they will make any reckoning or commendation of them as good laborers, so God tried Abraham, Gen. 22. 12. that he might have experimentall[Page 190]knowledge of his obedience, and say nunc scio, &c. Now I know that thou fearest God, seeing for my sake thou hast not spared thine only sonne: So he proved Israell at the waters of striffe, and Job by an other triall. So God had knowledge of man whom he made, that then he was good, but he would by triall see, whether he would con­tinue so or not.

2.Second, it was meet, that seeing a triall must be made, that it should be by some externall thing, in which this outward obedience and practice might appear, as masters doe make triall of their servants obedience in some such work; Doe this, Goe thither.

So seeing Gods will was, that Adam should be a spectacle in obe­dience to Angells and all other Creatures, therefore it was necessary, that he should prescribe the place, and triall of it in a visible and sen­sible object, and in a thing which might be manifest to good and evill Angells, to see and behold him; This is the cause and reason, why God saith not, Thou shalt not desire to lust in thy heart after the fruit of this tree? Because that action and triall of the heart, soul, and thought, God only could discern, for he only trieth the heart and reins, 1 King. 8. 39. Therefore he saith not, non concupisces, sed non comedes, for that that action is apparant.

3.Thirdly, it was convenient and seemed good to God, that it should be made by a restraint and interdiction, that as before, idlenesse was forbidden and taken away by labor, so here licentiousnesse of lust might be restrained by saying, Thou shalt not eat of this tree of know­ledge.

4.Fourthly, God saw it good and meet, that it should not be generall but particular, and brought to a speciall instance of this one tree.

5.Fifthly, it seemed necessary to God that this triall should not be in a particular of naturall obedience, but rather in morall and positive obedience, in which this commandement consisteth.

6.Sixthly, as it was a positive and morall thing, so was it to be made in a thing indifferent, for if it had been a thing naturall and simply evill or good it had been no triall: As Augustine saith, if God had said, the fruit of this is poyson, he would not have done it, or if it had been such a thing which had been a detriment or hurt to God, he would not have done it for the vile nature of it, wherefore God placed this triall in a thing indifferent, which by its own nature was not hurtfull to man, neither could bring any hurt or detriment to God; So that God would have the triall of his obedience stand, not in the nature of the thing, but only in this respect, that it was Gods will to forbid it, that Adams triall might be this. I can see no reason why I should not eat of it, it is as good to eat, and as pleasant to look to, as any other fruit, but God hath restrained it, and said, Thou shalt not eat of it, there­fore I will not.

Lastly, God in this triall giveth no reason of it, but maketh it an absolute Law, simply saying, Thou shalt not eat of it, for else man might think that he might doe it for the reason sake; for this maketh plain the perfect pattern of true obedience, when we doe it only re­specting [Page 191]Gods will and not looking for any other reason whatfoever. Thus we see why God look't our this speciall tree of knowledge, and laid this prohibition on it.

Now out of this we gather and say, that the making of [...] Laws by a magistrate is lawfull and good, 1 Sam. 14. 24. Saul may command his subjects upon occasion to [...] as God did his ser­vant Moses, Levit. 11. 1. &c. [...] 1. 1. &c. Also [...] may make a Law to command his Sonnes, to drink neither wine nor strong drink; So Kings (in respect of the good of the Common-wealth may make the like positive Laws, and binde their subjects to abstein, and not to eat this or that, which of it self is lawfull and good and not to be refused, Rom. 14. And subjects are bound to obedience, though they see no reason but that the meat is good and allowed of God.

I come now to the applying of this to our selves, Matth. 24. 32: Christ willeth them to learn a parable of the fig-tree: So the wis­dome which we may learn out of this tree, is most excellent and pro­fitable, even the whole body of divinity: Before we come to the pith and marrow of it, we must first break and pluck off the husk or shell, for the Leviticall Laws (as the Fathers say) are as Aarons Almonds which his rod did bear, Numb. 17. 8. in which was Cortex & me­dulla, and if we can [...] crack and take off the shell, the sweet kernell of instruction will soon appear: The husk and difficulty of this pre­cept is, that God should inflict such a penalty for the taking and eating such a fruit, this is that hard shell that few can crack: But our rule is, that we must not stick still at the shell, but break it, and cast it away: Therefore this is our rule in all such Laws, That not the outward pre­sentation of the thing commanded, but the power and authority of the commander and law maker is to be respected, as the pith and substance of our duty; Therefore we say that the principall summe and scope of the morall Law, and the pith of it, is expressed in these two terms, Bonum ost faciendum, malum est fugiendum, Psal. 34. 14. And this is known and received of all; but here is all the question, what that good is, and what is that evill? If any make this question, why is this thing good and to be done, and that thing evill and to be avoided? If we say, as Eve did judging it by reason, and by the nature of the thing, as to say, I see and know that it is good, pleasant and a­greeable to our nature, and therefore it is good, and I may doe it, that were to fetch and draw the rule of God from the nature of things, as if it were in the thing it self; but it is said, 1 Cor. 6. 12. 13 Though meats be made for the belly, and the belly for the meats, yet if we [...] them contrary to Gods word, they are evill, and God will destroy both them and us, wherefore we will not take the [...] of good and evill, from the nature of things, but make Gods will, expressed in his word, to be the rule of all things that are good.

If we will then define good [...] we must not say, it is that which the reason of man alloweth, which the sense of man doth feel to be agreeable and pleasant to our nature, neither may we say, that it is [Page 192]good and not to be refused, which in it self [...] a nature delightfull and profitable for mans use, for that were to place the rule of good and evill, either within us, in our own reason and understanding, or else without us in the natures and proprieties of the things created, but we must not doe so; for that only is good, which God alloweth of and sanctifieth by his blessed word allowing the use of it, saying, thou mayest and shalt doe this, and so è contra, that is evill whatsoever it be that God forbiddeth and saith thou shalt not doe it, for things are good and lawfull only, because Gods word saith it is so, so that every thing taketh his goodnesse only from Gods word; And this is the pith and marrow of this commandement, Therefore Deut. 12. 32. God saith, Whatsoever I command you take heed ye doe it, thou shalt put nothing thereto, nor take ought therefrom, As if he should say, my commandement and will shall be the rule and direction of your will and works; so in the new Testament St. Paul saith, we must not be wise above that which is written, 1 Cor. 4. 6. But that we be sober and know and understand according to sobriety, which is to prove what every thing is, by the perfect will of God, Rom. 12. 2.3. This then is the difference between Gods commandements; and those which men doe make, when men (though they be the greatest) doe command any thing, they therefore doe command things because they be good and lawfull, and when we deal with them, we there­fore obey their Laws, so farre forth as the things they command are lawfull and good, because their words and commandements have no power to make things good: But when we deal with Gods com­mandements, we simply obey all that he willeth because his com­mandement and word doe make things absolutely good, ye though they before may seem to be evill, yet after he hath commanded them, they are made therefore perfectly good, Nos volumus qua bona sunt; bona autem sunt quia voluit Deus. Gods good will therefore is the best and most beneficiall thing for us and our good, and the things he commandeth are the wisest things for us to follow, howsoever they seem to corrupt reason and sense, which are ill Judges in those matters. Thus much then for our application and use, that when our a­ctions are agreeable to Gods word and law, then they are according to Gods will: And therefore we may be sure that it is best for our behoof.

Nam quo die comederis de eo, utique moriturus es.Gen. 2. 17.

June 22, 1591.EVery Law hath in it two principall parts, the one containeth the body and tenor of it, the other comprehendeth the sanction and penalty: Touching the body of the Law we have entrcated already, both of the subject, and also of the action of it; Now therefore we are come to the latter part, to consider of the punishment threatned to the breach of it; concerning which we say, That as there is required necessarily in the Law giver authority and right to command, so likewise in him must be a power and ability to correct and punish the transgressors, or else his authority is without an edge. Both these there­fore [Page 193]are seen in the Law-maker by the parts of this Law; the one being the directive part, serving for direction, the other being the corrective part, which serveth for execution; And every one may be sure that he is subject and under one of these. This then is as if Moses had said, Gods [...] is this, Non comedes, but his [...] is this, If you will needs eat, and [...] your will before mine, and your lusts before my love, then be ye sure of this, That in that day thou shalt dye the death, for death is the sower and bitter sawce of this sweet meat, Rom. 6. 23.

Touching the punishment in it self, we are to know, that in every punishment inflicted for offence, there is required Justice to give it in a due proportion, that there be an equality between the punish­ment and offence; As in the Law, he that will desire another mans Sheep and steal it, he in justice is to restore four-fold. Again, rea­son and equity requireth that the punishment must be of greater force to [...] and discourage from sinne, then the sinne must be to perswade and entise us to it.

Such an equality is in this; For because he took liberty to stretch his will and desire further than he should, therefore that he should lose the first liberty he had; for this is just and equall, [...] etiam poneret modum beneficio, and that he that observeth not the manner of using it, should lose the right use which he had: It is therefore reason and right, that either we should Dimittere volun­tatem male vivendi, aut amittere facultatem bene [...]: This we say to justifie God, because men think that this sinne of eating such a fruit is not a capitall offence, and that God was too hard to [...] this so sore a punishment on it.

Touching the second point, which is concerning the cause of his death, which must not be ascribed to God, because the cause is found in our own selves, for God saith, If you eat you shall die, that is, you shall be causes and authors of your own death; your blood light on your own heads, for I am not guilty thereof, which we shall the better percive and esteem, if we consider that which before I have shewed, that Adam was made immortall, non necessitate naturae, sed vi [...] gratiae, not by natural necessity, but by the priviledge of Gods grace; for Adam consisting of contrarie qualities, by his own nature, they must needs, in regard of themselves, be the cause of death to them, as they were to the beasts. But notwithstanding this subje­ction to mortality, and possibility to dye, in regard of their nature, Gods grace did sustain their bodily life, and kept them from death, so long as they kept themselves from sinne. But now si hence trans­gression, besides the necessity of nature, their sinne also did pluck death upon them, and was the cause of this curse: So long there­fore as man kept his first estate, he was united to God, which was life, and had use of the tree of life, which then was [...] Deo, and had this grace to preserve life; and by that means, so long, we had an immunity from death, because we were [...] with the prop of Gods grace, which was the cause of our immortality; but when [...] [Page 194]did cause that prop to be pulled away which sustained the [...] of our nature, then we could not choose but dye both by the necessity of nature and desert of our sinne: If we had leaned still to the stay of our nature, and not trusted so much to our own wills and wis­doms, it had gone well with us: But this voluntarie forsaking of God and leaning on the broken staffe and reedis stay of our own, was the cause of our fall into sinne, and so unto death. Thus we see God justi­fied in this sentence saying, Morieris, because he is neither the Author or Cause of Malum naturae, which is sinne, nor yet of [...], which is death. But man causing both culpam & poenam doth both wayes cleer God and condemn us, and our selves are proved to be the cause of both.

3. Point: The kinde of deathNow touching the third point, which respecteth the kinde of death here threatned, for there are several kindes of death, Rev. 2. 11. Rev. 20. 6. there is the temporall and eternall, the naturall and spiri­tuall, the first and second death, which of these is here in this punish­ment threatned? St. Augustine answereth, that God doth here mean both whatsoever death may be included from the beginning of our life unto the last death, all that is here understood. Object. But it may seem hard and unjust, that seeing only the Body did take and eat of the for­bidden fruit, that the Soul also should be condemned to this death as well as the Body. Resp.But to satisfie this doubt, the Fathers say, That as well the Soul as the Body was in the transgression alike guilty, and there­fore in Justice should be alike punished, and this they make plain by this familiar parable and comparison: Be it (say they) that a blinde man and a criple or lame man should be in an Orchard, and this one charge should be given alike to both, that upon pain of death they should not take and eat of this one tree; The blinde man of himself could not steal of the fruit, because he could not finde where the tree was; the lame man for his part could not alone take of the fruit, because (though he saw) yet he was not able to goe to it: So when neither of them without other could be guilty, they conspired both together and agreed, that the blinde man should carry the lame man to the tree, and so to take their pleasures, and fulfill their desires, by which means they both became guilty of death: Such a thing (say they, in resemblance) was between the body and the Soul; the Soul had a desire and appetite (being forbidden) but could not perform the Action, wherefore the inward affection with­in moved and conspired with the outward action of the body, and so perfected the sinne joyntly, and therefore together are worthy of this death.

Object.Notwithstanding this, It seemeth to some, that here is meant only the second death spirituall to be the punishment, and not the corporall and tem­porall; their reason is because God saith, In what day thou shalt [...] of it, thou shalt dye: therefore seeing present death and [...] insued not the sinne, but some lived nine hundred yeers after; therefore they are induced to think that God here intended especially the second death of the Soul.

[Page 195] Resp.But to refell this opinion, we see Gen. 3. 19. that in the same day they sinned, the sentence of the bodily death was denounced irrevo­cablo [...], & in pulverem reverter is, which also is shewed by de­barring him from the tree of bodily [...]; And that it is plainly meant of the corporal death also, St. Paul sheweth it Rom. 5. 15. For only this death came to all Gen. 7. 21. 1 Gar. 15. 21. It is the death from which we rise again: wherefore we make no [...] but that this is meant of the bodily death; and as of that, so we say of the death of the Soul, we all being [...] & transgressores in Soul, are said [...] in soul to be dead, and to have this sentence given out against us: Our Saviour Christ saith, Matth. 8. 22. Sinite mortuos se­pelire mortuos, that is, let the dead in soul bury the dead in body. Also our [...] is set out in the lost [...], Luke 15. 31. He was dead but is alive again, that is, spiritually dead in sinne, and alive by repentance: And St. Paul more plainly saith, 1 Tim. 5. 6. They being alive are not­withstanding dead: By death here is understood the death of mise­ries, Rev. 9. 6. that is, the calamities and [...] of this world, which sinne will bring upon us, which are [...] more grievous and bitter than death it self; for it is said that men being alive in those [...] wish and desire death, as being lesse horrible than it; On the contrary side, to the Godly there are provided such joyes which are better than life it self, Psal. 63. 5, 6. for Gods loving fa­vour and the light of his countenance is better than the [...] in this life; in which regard the [...] esteem [...] of life, but wish to be out of this life, that they may enjoy that. The Jews by [...] of this [...]; eating [...] eat, and [...], doe gather this, By the first, that he might eat both for necessary use, and also for delight and pleasure; And so by the second, which containeth the punishment, they make this [...] [...] dye, that is, [...], Heb. 2. 9. For the first and bodily death is but a sipping and tasting or death, but when he saith, thou [...] the death, that is (say they) thou [...] suck and [...] up the very dreggs of death, both which are comprehended in these two words, Rev. 20. 14. Mors & [...], Death and Hell.

Object.Hereout then [...] another [...], that is, Whether God in [...] threatning intended the pains of Hell fire?

There have been [...] men that have [...], that Moses in all his books spake not either of Heaven or [...], of [...] or of death; Resp.but they were [...] [...] 32. 21. [...] conceive, that the [...] Statute and Law [...] priviledge of faith in Christ is reversed and taken away.

4. Point.Now we are come to the fourth point, which is the time; for this hath bred a scruple, and been a bone for some to gnaw upon;[Page 196]for seeing Adam is said to live so many hundred years after his fall, Gen. 5. 5. which is answered diversly of sundry men. Some say out of Peter, 2 Epist. 3. 8. that with God [...] dies est [...] mille [...]; and therefore seeing Adam reached not to a full thousand years old, he may truly be counted with the Lord, and in respect of his recko­ning to dye in the same first day. The ancient Writers doe say, that by assigning the time quo die is only an extent of the Law, and is not extended to the punishment when it should take place; So that they say it is q.d. Thou shalt ever and at all times oboy, and no day break it: As the like is Luke 21. Cavete ne qua die, &c. as if God allowed no day or hour in which the contrarie should be done, Et semper & ad semper faciendum est; so the negative bindeth for ever. But touch­ing this matter, the Judgment of Augustine and Theodoret I like best, who say, That not the act and execution of Death was presently to be inflicted the same day in which he should sinne, but the sentence of death should that day be denounced, as we see it was Gen. 3. non actum moriendi, sed debitum mortis, for then death was made a debt, and became such an inevitable sentence which should not be revo­ked: They received the sentence before the execution of Gods Judgments: So did St. Paul 2 Cor. 1. 9. We received the [...] of death in our selves, because we should not trust in our selves, but in God, &c. And in the Law he is accounted a dead man which hath his judge­ment and hath received the sentence of death. And after this sort Adam and all his Posterity were dead in the same day. [...] erat in dominium mortis, saith St. Paul, Rom. 6. 9. that is, God deli­vered him (being guilty and condemned for sinne) unto the Sheriff of death, to be kept and reserved unto the execution day, which is at the good pleasure of Almighty God.

Therefore being delivered into the dominion and [...] of the Messengers and Ministers of death, by and by he was subject to the Guives and Manacles of death, which doe seize upon all parts of our bodies for sinne, Morbi enim sunt laquei mortis, which is, we are held sure untill we die; also the Ministers and Servants which ever since that sentence was denounced, doe attend upon us to our end, are cares and sorrows within; labours and travails without, which seizing on us doe make our deaths, as sure as if we were already dead, for we cannot escape it; therefore, saith David, Psal. 89. 48. Quis homo vivit, & non videbit mortem? for all of us have sorrow, which is primogenitus mortis, Job 18. 13. the same day [...] brought it forth, Gen. 3. and we have and feel daily the forerunners of death, which are diseases, which make our bodies even in this life [...] mortis, a body of death, Rom. 8. 10. Wherefore we may be sure that death it self will come most certainly, though the time be un­certain; for it is a debt which must be paid, we must all dye, Heb. 9. 27. when the time is come that God hath appointed.

Dixerat autem Jehovah Deus, non est bonum esse hominem solum: faciam ei auxilium commodum ipsi.Gen. 2. 18.

Octob. 1 [...]. 1591.THe Prophet Esay 51. 1. exhorteth the Church of God after this manner, Look back (saith he) [...] the stone out of which yee were [...], and to the [...] of which you were digged; By which he [...] the Church of God, that there is a very necessary and profitable consideration to be made out of the historie of Abraham and [...], and their lives, as it is expressed in the Scriptures. So may we say of the historie of Adam and Eve our first Grandfather and Mother; for they are more properly indeed to be termed the first stone, out of whom all mankinde were hewn, and the pit, out of whose womb we all were digged and taken: And so much more profitable is this [...] and the explication thereof, because St. Paul faith, [...] [...]. [...]. that the creation of Eve and her marriage, is [...], shewing us the mysterie of Christ, the second Adam, and his [...] to the Church, which was his Eve taken out of his side. I told you that from the 6. verse of this Chapter to the end of it, is [...] a Commentary upon the 27. verse of the first Chapter, where Moses in one word dispatched the Creation of Man and Woman, saying [...], which he so briefly passed over there, because he purposed in this Chapter [...] a more large and ample discourse thereof.

We have heard of the Creation of Adam in the former part of this Chapter hitherto, which is nothing else but a [...] upon these words of the first Chapter [...]: Now therefore we [...] to the explaning of the other part, which is [...], which he performeth from this verse to the end of the Chapter. Two princip [...] points.In all which verses, the Fathers say, than there are but two principall points to be considered, the first is, The [...] of the woman, the other, The [...] and marriage of her to the Man.

Touching the creation and [...] of Eve, it [...] partly a deliberation, and then the work of creation [...] self, the [...] is in these words, [...], [...] which containeth also two parts, first the [...] in this [...] verse, and then the occasion of it, in the verses [...].

But before we [...] of the consultation, [...] first consider [...] coherence with that which [...] before, which is [...].

After the Almighty God had [...] the [...], which is his Church, by the [...] made [...] God and man. Now in the next place he [...] to [...] of [...] estate [...], which is of [...] by the duty of Man and Wife in Marriage: By which God would [...] know, that by his will and ordinance all men (next after our [...] [Page 198]to Almighty God, which is first) are bound to have a most speciall care and regard of their duties in that other society, which is this, If they be Husbands, their next care must be of their duty to their Wives; if Children, of their duty to their Parents; if Servants, of their duty to their Masters; for these duties of the private Families in the Common-wealth, are next in honour and reverence to the divine duties which we own in the houshold of Faith, which is in the Church unto God; for this society is lege ipsa antiqua, as one saith, and therefore we must give more honour and reverence unto it.

Now for the summe and scope of this verse, we will divide it into two parts, first into Gods Dixit, and secondly into the tenor of his speech, which is, Non est bonum, &c. and first briefly of dixit Deus, because we often heard of it before, we must note, that qui dicendo facit, verbo facit, which teacheth us to give honour to Christ the se­cond person in Trinity, who is the word of God, of whom all things are made and ordained, John 1. 3. Secondly, touching this Dixit, which we see by it and other singular prerogatives herein given to Man­kinde, which we may add to all the former.

For in the creation of other Creatures, God used only the word of authority fiat, but here he useth the word of his good will and pleasure which is faciam.

Before he ever directed his speech to that which was not, Gen. 1. 3. saying fiat lux, when there was then no light but all darknesse; But now he reflecteth his speech to himself, as it were, consulting with deliberation about this work, in that the Contents of his speech, in touching the good and happinesse of Man, in foreseeing what is not good for him, in providing that which is best for him, we doe not only see his care over us above other Creatures, but also we are taught to acknowledge how well and reverendly we ought to esteem this ordinance of marriage, for God knew that many spee­ches and reproaches would arise among men against this work which God had in hand, of making Woman. Some by way of jest and merriment to disgrace that sex, and others in contempt to dis­praise them, calling them necessarie evills, &c. therefore God saw it needfull to expresse the absolute good which cometh to Man by Woman, as being so necessarie that we cannot be well without them; for seeing we cannot deny, but that God that doth best know what we want and what is good, doth affirm that it is good for us to have Eve made, and that it were evill for us to be alone without her, therefore that we pre [...]ume not foolishly in jest nor ear­nest to contradict and crosse Gods will.

The tenor or content of the Consultation standeth upon two parts, The first is a reason or cause which moved God to make Eve in these words, Non est bonum, &c. The other is his purpose and De­cree to make him a help; the form of both which standeth thus, I will make her to be a help to him, because it was not good for him to be with­out help.

[Page 199]Touching which the Fathers doe say, That now a pawse is to be made, because this form of speech which is first used, is to set down the true and right use of Logick, which is the art of right reasoning, or cause which moveth God to make Eve in these words, Non est bo­num, &c. the other is his purpose by argumentall conclusion; for they observe well, that all the speeches which hitherto have been used, have been imperative, absolutely commanding things to be done: So that Gods authority and will is the only reason of all that hath been done: But now at the making of Woman God useth a speech of argument and reason, concluding and informing the ab­solute necessitie of this work; which also must teach us, to be [...]ule to direct us in the immortality of our actions, namely, to consider, as here God doth, what is good touching our actions, and what evil may come by doing and not doing it: if we in sound judgment can say bonum est, then we are to conclude this, ergo faciendum est: If right reason telleth us this malum est, we are taught to resolve upon this conclusion ergo non faciam: So that the rule of reason is in all things to consider, whether it be good or bad. Again, He saith not Non est bonum mihi, sed non est bonum domino, that is, he respecteth more the good of others, than of himself, this is Christs reason which he used and moved in all his actions, expedit vobis ut hinc abeam, John 16. 7. which is to teach us to doe the like, for it is q.d. all one because it shall be better for his, and the perfecting of his estate; therefore for his sake I will make him a meet help, which example must teach superiors how to frame all their reasons and actions, al­waies respecting the common good of their inferiors more than their own private commoditie, for we shall see it both here and else­where, that God maketh the good and welfare of his people the ground of his Decrees; so may we observe the like in the reversing that which he had decreed, to punish them and destroy them for sin, yet if they repent of their evill, God will reverse his Decree for their good, which Jonas knowing Jon. 4. 7. saith, that God doth often­times by this means seem to make his Prophets lyars, because that for the good of mankinde he doth often reverse and revoke the sen­tence denounced by them against wicked men; wherefore we may well say, that Gods goodnesse is as much seen in caring for the good of man, being made, as in creating man, which was nothing before: All which he doth that the consideration of his love and goodness to us might be, as it were, cords & links of love to tie us unto him in all duty and obedience, Ose 11. 4. and to teach us to frame all our thoughts words and deeds to the augmenting of the glorie of God; As to say, Because it is good and acceptable to his glorie I will doe this, & è contra.

I come now to the reason, and first to the antecedent thereof, in which we see that God doth set his heart upon Man, being made, that now he taketh a speciall view to see whether he can espie any good thing to be wanting about him which he might supply. We read in the end of the first Chapter, that God, looking upon man,[Page 200] saw all to be very good, yet here he that thought man by creation to be very good, saw a detect of one good thing yet, which might make much for his perfection: And therefore he taketh order here to fur­nish him with it, that nothing might be wanting to those that he lo­veth.

By this therefore it appeareth that solitarinesse is counted an im­perfection in Mankinde, but not in God; for he being most perfect, yea, the perfection of all things, needeth not any other thing to be adjoyned to him as a companion or help meet for him.

Therefore he is and ever will be set alone, and will be called so­lus sapiens Deus, as the Psalmist saith. Thou art God alone: But among the Creatures this sheweth all things to be imperfect, in that it is not well with them, if they be alone; For the perfection of Angells is in multitude, being an Host: The perfection of Mankinde, tou­ching the civill perfection, is in societies, by which Families, Cities, and Common-wealths are made; so we may mark that solitari­nesse: God in the Creation doth at least double every thing, that it might not be alone. In the firmament he made great lights and lesser lights: The waters were made double, the upper and nether waters: The Earth had herbs and trees: And as for Fish, Fowl, and Beasts, he made all things in aboundance. Salomon sheweth, in the 4. Eccles. 9, 10, 11. that above all other Creatures it is most meet and convenient for man, in divers respects, not to be alone, and concludeth the point with vae Soli, because it is not good for man especially to be alone: And therefore when our Saviour Christ calleth his Disciples, it is said, he sent them out by pairs, two and two, because he would not alwaies they should be solitary and alone, Matth. 10. 4. Luke 10. 1. But there is no rule so general, but that hath his particular exceptions in some speciall causes, unlesse it be in moral rules, of good things commanded by God, for against such there is no exceptions to be taken. But in the rules of naturall good­nesse touching conveniency, we may ever in some instance make an exception, As (Husay 1 Sam. 17. 7.) this counsell is good, but not at this time: So we may say, the light is good for all, yet it is evill and hurtfull to ill eyes: So may we say of solitarinesse, that sometimes it is most good & meet for a man to be alone in solitarinesse; so it is good and most meet for some man to be alone without companie; for so Moses said Leprosus habitabit solus, that is to avoid infection. God saith of his Schollars Ducam eos in solitudinem & docebo eos, shew­ing oftentimes solitarinesse is best for Students, and so our Saviour Christ often frequented solitarie places for private prayer, as most fit for it. Thus we see generally how this is to be taken, but more particularly we must consider of it in the speciall case of Marriage, to see how this is verified in a single and unmarried life, whether (in that respect) it be not good for all men to be alone.

It is not good for man to be alone.

Object. A question may be made here of the truth and true meaning of the word of God in this speech? Resp.In resolving of which we must make a con­cordance [Page 201]and agreement, between these two verses of the old: Testa­ment, and that of St. Paul in the new Testament, 1 Cor. 7. 1. which saith contrary to this, non est bonum mulierem tangere.

For reconciling of which we must remember, that in the 17. and 18. verses of this Chapter is offered to our consideration a double kind of good, in the 17. verse is spoken of bonum morale, to which is opposed the evill of sinne and transgression, but in this 18. verse is spoken of bonum naturale, which is the good of conveniency either for our profit or pleasure, to which is opposed not the evill of sinners, [...] of inconveniency and indecency, by reason of the want of some­thing which is requisite and meet, and of such a good is here spoken: For St. Paul saying, it is not good to touch a woman, doth not mean that it were a sinne to marry, for 1 Cor. 7. 36. he saith, if a man doth marry he doth not sinne therein, for Christ saith of the Angells, they neithey marry nor are given to be married, and yet they are holy, they sinne not, because they doe not marry, yea their estate is better with­out marriage, than Adams was in Paradise being married; St. Paul telleth us, Gal. 3. 28. That in Christ all the faithfull shall be, as the Angells without Sexes of male and female, and so without marriage, wherefore the inconvenience for which it is not good to be alone here on earth is in respect of circumstances, places, times, and per­sons, of which Augustine saith well, Distingue circumstantias & con­cordant, to be understood, q.d. It is not good for man to be alone without a wife while he liveth on the earth, for we have seen that in Heaven this is not verefiable, because it shall be (there) best for man to be unmarried, and as the Angells are. In regard of the circum­stance of time, we must understand this q.d. it is not good now at the beginning of the World, that man should live and continue alone, for if he had been alwayes alone and without a wife, the world had been as a waste wildernesse without inhabitants to dwell on it, and in this respect it had not been good in regard of the purpose and decree of almighty God, who as it is in the Epistle to the Hebrews, purposed to bring many children unto glory, and had said, Gen. 1. That man­kinde should so multiply as to fill the earth, which had not been done but by means of marriage of male and female, so that we say, in re­spect of the circumstance of persons, that though it is true, that it is not good for such a man to live unmarried, which cannot abstain in [...] lust from burning, yet if a man hath received the gift of con­tinency and chastity, then it is good and best for such a man to be a­lone; But this end was accessory and came after the fall, for in the state of innocency there was no danger of such lust and uncleanuesse, and, as propter fornicatiònem, did not concern Adam in Paradise; so the other end which was to [...] and fill the earth, respe­cteth not us now, for we see the earth is so full of people and so migh­tily replenished, that it may seem in this respect, more convenient now to restrain the liberty of marriage in some, that fewer families might be: We see then in what respect Moses (bonum) must take place, and St. Pauls (bonum non) must give place and yeeld to it; To con­clude[Page 202]for the [...] resolution of this point, we must know that the prin­cipall good of man is Adhaerere Deo, Psal. 37. 6. Which cleaving fast to the Lord as St. Paul saith, 1 Cor. 7. 35. must be our rule to know, whether it be good for us, not to marry or to marry at all, for though it be a good and lawfull thing to have a wife, yet we must know it to be so farre forth good, as it will further us in cleaving fast to the Lord.

For rather than marrying a wife, should be a means to divert and separate us from God, which is our first conjunction by religion, we must never marry, not be married, but count it evill and hurtfull to us in this case to take a wife: Again if a single life be found in us an occasion of fleshly [...] and temptations, by which we are plucked fur­ther from God, and are lesse able to be neer unto him in Christian duties, then if we were married; in this case we know that it is good for us to marry, and it is not good for us to be alone any longer. If we [...] that the cares and troubles of this life, which the estate of marriage bringeth with it, will be a means to keep and separate us from God, then saith St. Paul, in that respect a single life is better, 1 Cor. 7. 28. For Christ [...] us, that many are separated and pluck­ed away from God, by marrying a wife, by attending to their Farms and Oxen, &c.

The [...] then standeth inter solicitudinem & solitudinem, for that estate which we finde doth least trouble our mindes with the cares of this world, must be thought best and fittest for us.

And thus Moses and St. Paul may be reconciled, if we shall advised­ly consider it will be a means to keep us from the two extremes which are in the world, and make us keep the middle way wherein it is best to walk; For being [...] in this we shall not be moved by St. Pauls words, to condemn and contemn marriage as the Pa­pists doe: Nor yet on the other side shall we give our selves to that licentiousnesse and liberty of the flesh, of which St. Paul speaketh, 1 Tim. 3. 7. When men and women of wantonnesse doe marry for [...] lust, and as the superstition of Papists, and lasciviousnesse of wantonnesse will be avoided; so by this means marriage and a single life shall be well used of all, as shall be best for their good and the glory of God.

Object.There is also a second objection made against this saying of almighty God the occasion is, Seeing he saith it is best for man to cut away all occasion and alurement of evill. Therefore it may seem that God might better have said, it were good for man to remain alone without a wife, &c. But they which object this, doe but cavell with the word of God and crosse that which is here said, God saith, that a wife is good for man, but they say she is evill for him, and God saith she is a meet help, but they say she was a hurt and hindrance to him, and a help in nothing but this, to help forward to a further mi­sery. Therefore (say they) it had been better for Adam to have re­mained alone still [...] appinesse, than to have such a companion which would bring him to misery.

[Page 203]For answer to which it was not, causa sine qua non, as they would make it, for though Adam had been alone without Eve, yet (no doubt) he might and would have fallen as he did now: For as the Angells which though they were unmarried, yet notwithstanding did fall and not keep their first estate: So (no doubt) the Divell would have been as strong in his delusions to have made him to fall, as he was in deceiving his wife; we may therefore lay the fault of this finne upon Eve or the Divell; for as St. James saith, Jam. 1. 14. It was not so much any outward occasion as his inward and corrupt con­cupifcence which made him to sinne; But be it that she was the cause of fall, yet from whence then came that occasion of evill to him, Non'e, e latere viri, why then, out of himself came all this cause of sinne.

But if any shall complain yet further of the womans hurt and fault; let us know that this woman was made by the counsell of God, the means and occasion by which amends was made, and that with ad­vantage for the evill, for all the evill which she had first done, for as she brought forth sinne and death, so she was a means to bring forth a holy seed, which should bring eternall righteousnesse and life unto all, for as the Serpent should deceive the woman: So it was Gods purpose, that the seed of the [...] should destroy the Serpent and his works; wherefore we must not so much with grief marvail that the womans sinne was made the occasion of all our misery, as with joy and comfort to wonder, that God made the seed of the woman to save us from sinne, and to bring us to [...]. And thus much for the resolution of these two doubts.

Now for the second part, we see that after deliberation, God cometh to this determination and saith, Faciam adjutricem, where we may mark that God saith not fiat, as when he made other Creatures, but faciam which is a word of advisement and wise deliberation, whereas fiat is a word of haste, and expedition to be presently done without delay, which almighty God doth, to put us in minde, that when we goe about to get our selves wives, or to give our children in marriage, that we must not [...] about it rashly or suddenly, to post up such matters on the sudden, but with great discretion, wise advice, and consultation, to attempt so weighty a matter, that is, first by consi­dering whether it be good or no for us that a match should be made; Again, seeing it is plain that God only is the giver of good and meet marriages and wives, we learn, that therefore it is our duty when we lack this help to pray earnestly unto God, that it would please him to say unto us, as he said unto Adam, I will make a meet help for [...], For want of observing which rules in [...], it often cometh to passe, that very unmeet matches and marriages hath been in the world, and foul corruptions and abhominable abuses, have crep into this holy ordinance to the slander and disgrace thereof, for this is set down as the chiefest cause of all the monstrous sinnes of the first age of the world Gen 6. 2. Because the sonnes of God looking upon the daugh­ters of men, took them wives according to their own fancies, that is, rash­ly and headily without advice and deliberation, and they took them[Page 204]at the first sight as pleased themselves, and did not crave of God to give them such as might please him, Micholl, Davids wife, is said to be a wife of Saules making and giving, and therefore because God made not the match and marriage between them, she was not a meet help, but a snare to intangle him: And so God doth threaten, Joshua 23. 12, 13. verses, that if the Israelites doe after their own wills take unto them heathenish woman to be their wives, which he had forbid, they should be no helps to them but hurts, namely, They should be thorns to their eyes, whips to their sides, and snares to their feet, because they doe not take wives at Gods hands, that is, such as he alloweth and willeth them to take.

Nam quum formavisset Jehova Deus è terrâ omnes bestias agri, omnesque volucres coeli, & adduxisset ad Adamum ut videret quî vocaret singulas (etenim quocunque nomine vocavit illas Adam, animantem quamque; id nomen ejus est.)Gen. 2. 19.

Octob. 16, 1591.THese words contain the occasion of the former delibe­ration, for that there might be an orderly proceeding, it was necessary that man being alone, and wanting a meet help, which was good for him, therefore that first a generall view and survey might be taken of all the Creatures which God had made, to see whether amongst so many millions of goodly creatures, some one might be found for Adam to be a meet mate for him, and then if the man should not finde any one fit for him, God might proceed in his former purpose in making one woman meet for his company.

In these words therefore we have first to consider Gods commissi­on and warrant, for the ministring and bringing together all the crea­tures before the man.

Secondly, Adams answer returned non est inventus, for after his diligent search, it is said he found no meet help; for the first, because it is Gods royall prerogative, to cause all the creatures to make their appearance at a certain place and time, which man of himself might not presume to take upon him; therefore God giveth over his right by a letter of Attourny and dedimus potestatem to Adam, by which he might lawfully, both take a streight survey of them all, and also impose names to every one of them as he pleaseth, which (see) that this writ and warrant is given out to all the living creatures here be­low saving unto fishes, the reason whereof is, because that if there were any likelyhood at all, that man might finde a meet companion and mate for himself any where, then it must needs be amongst one of these two kinds of creatures, either amongst beasts of the field, or fowls of the aire, for there be some agreement and conformity be­tween[Page 205]man and beasts and birds naturally, but none at all between the fish and us, the beasts (as we have seen) are made of the same mould and matter which we are made of, and the fishes were made of the slyme of the waters, and not of slyme of the earth: Second­ly, because they have naturally divers notes and voices as well as man, but the fish are mute and dumb, and therefore unmeet for our com­pany. Thirdly, beasts and birds doe feed on earthly things as we, and breathe and live in the same aire and place which we doe, and doe delight naturally in the sight and company of man, and easily will be made tame, sociable and serviceable for man, whereas è contra, the fish neither feed nor breathe as we doe, they cannot live in the same place and element which we doe, but are as it were inhabitants of a­nother world below us, and besides this, they will by no means be made tame and sociable to us, nor be serviceable to us, but only at our table for meat, wherefore they being as it were of another world, and of another nature and disposition divers from ours, they could not be meet for our company, and therefore in vain had it been to have called them into this solemn assembly of earthly creatures, God is said then to bring all these creatures before man, therefore they came not at mans call, nor yet of their own accord, but by the speciall commandement of almighty God: And indeed without Gods powerfull commission we may come to them, for they will not come to us, or if they come, it is to doe us hurt, or to make us affraid of them, Job 39. 12. This word then of God which brought them together, is not an audible word, Sed vox in silentia, as Job saith, Job 4. 16. And it is called Gods whistle, Esay 7. 18. for if he call, yea if he doe but hisse and whistle for innumerable Caterpillars and Froggs, they will speedily come in swarms to doe his will, Psal. 105. 34. Thus we see that verbum illud quod produxit, idem adduxit haec omnia Adamo: By which words we may observe, that God doth also now invest man into his rule and dominion over all the creatures, by bring­ing them before him, as their Lord, to doe their homage unto him, for it was the like custome in Israell when any was annointed King, that all Israell should suddenly come together before him, that they might know and acknowledge him to be their ruler, 1 Sam. 10. 17. Such a like thing is here; for all creatures by Gods appointment doe as it were meet at a Parliament by generall consent, to annoint man to be their King: Now in the next place we must consider the end; why this solemn assembly was made, the principall thing indeed is to discover to Adam, that amongst all the creatures which were yet made, there was not one meet and worthy enough to be his compa­nion as it may appear in the 20: verse. But withall, there is besides it a second subordinate end, which is, that man should give names to all creatures, and to see how Adam would call them, by which we see that God loveth not dumb shews, and will not have Adam idle in beholding his creatures, but would have him to exercise that wis­dome which God had given him, in giving them names, for it is said to be a wise part, by the outward sight and view of things, to be led [Page 206]to an inward and wise consideration thereby; by which he might learn instruction, so will God have him too, while he looketh over them, first, to be led to a wise consideration of the natures of the things that he seeth; and then to give fit names to them, according to their divers natures, which by sight he perceiveth, which we have seen to be the very order that God useth, Gen. 1. 4. So soon as he saw the light, presently he is said to consider of it, namely, that the nature of it was good, and therefore presently proceedeth to give it a fit name agreeable to the nature which he saw to be in it.

In the first, God doth establish in man (as a meet thing for that reasonable creature) the speculative part of wisdome, which is the duty of meditation, study, and contemplation, which is expressed by the word (seeing) for so the prophers were called in the old times (Seers) of this, 1 Sam. 9. 9. And again we must know, that this specu­lation by study and reason looking into the nature of things, is not only lawfull and allowable in divine matters, which is the studie of divinity, but also in the generall study of naturall Philosophy, by which we may look into the nature of all the creatures which God hath made, which is by nothing else but by meditation to call them to minde, and then as having them before us, wisely to consider of their natures and names, so David did confesse, That he did often me­ditate of all the works of Gods hand, Psal. 143. 5.

Another point, that Adam was not only enjoyned to see and con­sider of their natures and names, but also to utter in words and in names, the things which in his wisdome he had conceived of them, by which God doth as it were, untie the string of his tongue and open his mouth, that by speech and audible and sensible words, he might shew and utter his wise conceipts, for the communicating of that knowledge which was in him unto all others after him, to this end therefore God made him a tongue as well as eyes, that his wisdome and learning should not be buried in his breast, but might be expressed for the good of others, by which also we doe see the approbation, commendation and allowance, of two other notable Arts and Sci­ences given unto man, namely Grammer and Rhetotick, by which our mouths are opened to utter knowledge aright, God cannot abide, that men should misname things, as to call things which are good, by evill names, or to call evill, good, Esay 5. 20. Therefore God will have him take a speciall view of all things, first, and then after­wards to name them: First therefore we must have knowledge by studie and contemplation, before we take upon us to professe it by eloquution.

But now a dayes, it is not as it was at the beginning, for we take upon us to be [...], professors, and preachers of knowledge before ever we studie, we attain to the knowledge and understanding of that which we professe to teach: This authority which man hath to give names to all creatures, doth first argue his sovereignty and his supremacy over them all, Psal. 49. 11. For there David saith, when men have houses and lands of their own, then they take upon them as[Page 207]having most right, to call them after their owne name, that is, to give them what names they please to impose: So doth God him­self reason, 45 Esay 4. I have called them by my own name, therefore they are mine; It was God's course in 17. Gen. 5. when Abram had vowed his subjection to God, by the Sacrament of Circumci­sion, and given himselfe to bee his servant; then God, to shew his authority over him, gave him a new name, calling him Abraham: So was it the custome of kings and princes, having by force of arms made any subject unto them, to shew their soveraignty over them, they used to alter their names, and call them by names of their own inventing, as we may read, 2 Kings 23. 24. for of Eliakim is called Joakim, and Mateniah is called Zedekias, 2 Kings 24. 17. So here God having made all things subject to man, and him the Lord and Ruler over them, Psal. 8. to declare that royall prerogative which he had, he giveth him also leave and authority to give them what names he pleaseth, and so they for ever should be cal­led.

Which also doth argue the great and rare wisedome and know­ledge which Adam had in this happy estate; for it is a great point of wisedome, so to distinguish the natures of Gods Creatures, as to give them fit and proper names expressing their natures; he knew, as it appeareth, not only rerum Idola, but also was able to give verborum idiomata, that is, such a propriety of words and names to each seve­rall thing, whereby their divers natures and qualities might be di­scerned: The man therefore gave names to all the Cattell, &c.

The reason of the Mandate or Writ, as we have heard, was partly to honour man as Gods Lievtenant on earth, and as Lord of all his Creatures, and partly to express, the great and singular wise­dome and knowledge which God then had induced him withall: The Content of which, was to call a generall muster and assembly of all his Creatures before Adam, that a survey might be made, to see whether any meet help for man might be found, to avoyd soli­tariness, because it was not good for him to be alone; and it was Gods purpose at this solemne meeting and Parliament to invest man into his dominion, and to declare him to be their Lord by gi­ving them names.

Now in this verse is first contained the execution of the Writ, shewing all was so, and then in the latter end of the verse, is set down the retorn of the Writ, in these words (he found not a meet help for him. As the Commandement had 2. parts, namely, the considering their natures, and giving them names; so hath all wise men distinguished by all the ancient Hebrews calling some men of profound judgement and deepe knowledge, and others, men of eloquence, and excellent judgement and utterance: Both which gifts of God hardly are found together in any one man, [...] are gi­ven ro divers diversly, as it pleaseth the Giver: But to Adam, at the first, both were given in a full and perfect measure, and both of[Page 208]them are here gounded upon Gods allowance, as being lawfull and good, and also upon Gods Commandement, as a thing most agreeable to the nature of man, namely, to spend his time in study for the increase of knowledge, and in declaration of his knowledge to others, by wise sentences and words; for to this end God made man animal rationis & orationis particeps, with which no other earthly crea­ture is endowed, therefore the ancient Fathers have noted in Adam's two estates, the one to be pater viventium; the other to bee pater scientium, that is, The Father and teacher of all knowledge; for as Tu­bal is said to be the father and author of Musick Gen. 4. 21. so may A­dam be said to bee pater Theologiae, Philosophiae, Gramaticae, Rheto­ricae, &c. hee was the first that practised Contemplation, and the first that practised Eloquution, by that excellent light of nature which God had given him; and the first, as here wee see, that gave proper, sit and significant names and words to expresse the natures of things, and hee was not only the father of all the liberal Sciences, but also of all mechanical Arts Gen. 3. 19. pater agriculturae, &c. by all which wee briefly see the perfection of his minde, and the excellency of his gifts with which hee was endowed: So that Adam then must needes bee granted to bee the first and the chiefest Author of all Knowledge and Learning that ever since, in all ages of the world hath beene among men, for from him it was derived and spread abroad among his poste­rity, into all parts of the world, for Adam's knowledge both of Di­vinity, and all other natural things was derived to the house of Sheth, and from him to Noah, and so conveyed to the house of Sem, and af­ter remained amongst the sonnes of Heber. Gen. 10. 21. and from thence was kept and continued in Abraham's family, which were cal­led the Children of the East Gen. 52. 6. from which East parts of the world, this Knowledge and Learning, which was first in Adam, was spread abroad among the learned men of Egypt, Acts 7. 22. In which learning of the AEgyptians Moses was trayned up, and therefore was prepared not only by the instrument of God's spirit, but also by the known received truth of the knowledge of these points in all the world, to set down unto us these things of our fore-Fathers, in the beginning of the world, and it may appeare by this, that Adam was worthy to be counted the Father of all knowledge and learning, be­cause herein is seen the perfection thereof in him, for to name all good creatures so infinite in number, and so divers in kinde, and that to give to every one of them a distinct name, and yet so fit and proper to them according to their natures, as that God would not change nor [...] them, but say, so shall they be called; this argueth in him an absolute perfection of knowledge, which hath not since been had. As he was the Father of knowledge within, so was he of utterance and expressing it by words, because we say that he was the first Lin­guist that was in the world; and indeed intelligence and utterance have very neer affinity and friendship, as the Latine words shew, for Ratio and Oratio doe sound alike; and in Greek the word doth signifie not only the act of contemplation for knowledge, but also the act of [Page 209]utterance for speech and conference, by which it is made known, for the one is verbum [...], the other verbum ore [...] and is agreed upon by all learned men, that the Hebrew tongue is the originall tongue and most ancient, by which Adam expressed his minde; Hebrew the the ancient language.and therefore it is called of many the holy [...] for this tongue went from Adam to Noah, from Noah to [...] and from thence [...] is manifested, that it continued as the general tongue and language in all the whole world, untill the confusion of [...], Eu­sebius [...]. doth prove this most plainly and [...], that the [...] tongue was the first and most an­cient from the beginding, and that which Adam here used in [...] names to all the Greatures; for he of purpose here confuteth the [...], which doe affirm that all knowledge language and learn­ing are derived from Chaldea, which he first disproveth by the letters of the Alphabet And that the Greek tongue was derived from the [...] proveth, because [...] and [...] which Greek words signifie their men of learning and knowledge, are words plainly derived from the [...] from [...] they doe borrow their [...] and original. As therefore [...] knowledge and wis­dome being [...], is most perfect and absolute, so is this tongue and language of [...], which Adam [...] rich and sufficient of it [...]. For whereas all other tongues, even the Greek, doe shew their beggerlinesse, and argue and she [...] imperfection in this, that they borrow words and [...] from their senior tongues, and because they are sain to make [...] pounds to expresse their minds; but this Hebrew and holy [...] on the other side; borrow [...] not of any tongue, [...] all; and also [...] in such simplicity of words, and yet hath such a [...] and ma­jestle in every phrase, that Eusebius faith well of it [...] [...] [...] & [...] for so we see that God appro­veth all the names which Adam giveth to the Creatures, saying, that as the man called them, so should their [...], and so continue to the worlds end.

Now we are come from this generall consideration of his tongue and language to consider of the names in particular which he gave. Touching it I will give you but a taste of a few, because it were in­finite to reckon all the excellent significant and most fit names of the Creatures which he gave: Adam having first severed the Beasts from the Fowls, as being distinct in nature, among all the Beasts he seeing a Horse, he knew that God had made him for man to ride and trundle upon for his case and better speed, doth therefore at the first sight, according to the nature of him, give this name, which in [...] signifieth a swift Runner. So seeing the Sheep, and know­ing that God had made them to beare wooll to cloath and keep warm, he by and by calleth him the man clothier. An Asse he na­meth the mase Porter, because he knew his nature was to carry mens burdens, &c. So for the Fowls, he seeing the Eagle to be the Prince and chief of Birds, giveth him a name of the noblenesse[Page 210]of his nature: The Peacock he calleth a pround Bird, of that in­ward property of pride which he knew to be in him: The Stork he calleth the gratefull, loving, or pitifull bird, for the dutifull care and kindnesse which he hath of his Damme. So for creeping things, he calleth the Serpent by the name of subtilnesse or deceivablenesse, which knowledge of his dangerous nature might have made him be­ware and take heed of him: The Locust hath his name of going out in swarms: The Bee hath his name given him of his artificiall cun­ning workmanship, with which God hath naturally indued him, in making his Combes of honey and waxe. By all which Adams great wisdome and insight into the nature of things is seen, because the name doth so fitly answer the nature of things. And thus much of the execution of the Decree concerning the denomination of Creatures.

Now we are come to the [...] of this Writ, which is set down in these words, He found not a meet help for him: Touching which we may observe, that he returneth not the answer of this, that he had given meet names to all the Creatures, by which they should be called for ever. But letting this passe, he saith, that He could not finde a meet help for Man, which sheweth indeed that this was the most chief and principall end of the assembling the Creatures before him, that he might finde a help and fit companion for him, if any were; for not finding argueth a seeking, and seeking argueth a desire to have a companion like him, and that desire argueth a want, which want made him to seek diligently, but he could not finde; therefore here he returneth Non est inventus. This is then q.d. somewhat Adam found by search and seeking, namely, the divers natures and qualities of good Creatures which were made for his good: But yet because they were all bruitish and unreasonable, he refused them all to be his mate; for in Adam God had placed naturally, not only appetitus socii, sed etiam similitudinis, that is, to be one of his own kinde, nature, and disposition, but he found none as yet. This con­fession of his want, doth argue there this conclusion of his desire to God, as Augustine saith, [...] simile, non est simile; ergo Domine fac simile.

Vocavissetque Adam nominibus pecudem quamlibet, & volucrem Coeli, omnemque bestiam agri: non aderat Adamo auxilium commodum.Gen. 1. 20.

Octob. 19. 1591.I Shewed that the Precept was directed to the Beasts and Fowl to come before man, Gods Lieutenant, whereby he was invested with ho­nour and supremacie above the beasts, here Gods generation, in the 4. verse, is named by man: This verse standeth upon the execution and return of the Precept directed to man, which commande­ment, as I told you, stood upon two parts, Seeing and Calling. The Hebrews, in their tongue call themselves not only men of spe­culation, but also men of utterance and practise: adduxit, ut videret, & vocaret.

It is received as approved in divinity, that in Adam are two estates: First out of the fourth verse of this Chapter, that though God be Pater generationis, yet Adam is Pater generatorum, the father of the World, as in the 20. verse of the next Chapter, Hevah had her name for that she was Mater cunctorum viventium. Adam pater contemplationisAnd secondly, hence they say he is called Pater contemplationis; for by the Divines, both ancient and new, there are in Adam two perfections, the one of Minde and Understanding, the other of his Will; the one is gratia gratis dats, the other is aceepta; the one concerneth his Wisdome, the other his Justice: Hence they gather his Wisdome, by the know­ledge of natures to give apt names; and his Justice out of the last verse of the first Chapter. God bash made man righteous, but they have sought many inventions, saith the Wiseman Preach. 7. 29. that is, God made mans minde without corruption; in the beginning his will was free, his thoughts strait, his understanding without questi­ons. The multitude of Quarists and Quomodists, of those that make doubts and questions, come from the Devill, who saith in the be­ginning of the third Chapter cur praecepit vobis Deus, ut non comederi­tis. Wisdome in contemplation and utterance. Tertulltan saith well, that the knowledge of man standeth either in scientiis mutis, as in contemplation, in videre: or in scientiis di­sertis, that is, in utterance, in vocare; that is, as the School-men say, in the science of Reals and Nominals: For the first, which is to weigh in silence, Paul in 1 Cor. 13. 2. saith, There is a knowledge of [...] and of Mysterie. Adam, as it were, induced with a propheticall spirit in the 23. verse, said that she was bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh, being before in an heavie sleep. There was in Adam a science of Mysteries, in that he was made in Gods Image, the 26. of the first Chapter; and by his obedience he knew the Mysterie of the tree of life, which was his erernall reward, as it is in the end of the 22. verse of the next Chapter: Now last for the knowledge of [Page 212] The know­ledge of Adam in naural Philosophie:Philosophie, it was in Adam: The knowledge of wisdom is as gold, of the Creation as of silver, this of nature and of names as pearl. Of Salomon:Great was the knowledge of Salomon, in natural Philosophie, who spake of the nature of Trees, of Beasts, and of Fowls, 1 Kings 4 33. Of Moses: And Moses he was learned in all the wisdome of the Egyptians, Acts 7. 22. Yet by the Fathers, in this knowledge of the natures of things, above both these, Moses and Salomon, Of Noah. Noah is preferred, who knew the clean beasts from the unclean, which by paires he took into the Ark, chap. 7. 2. The wisdome of all the Heathen Philosophers, compared to the know­ledge of these three, Noah, Moses, and Salomon, was but ignorance: Adam a grea­ter Philosopher than they.Yet Adam was a greater Philosopher than those three: The reasons thereof.For first Adam was created in wisdome, without corruption; their wisdome was bred in corruption, and the Heathen are destroyed in their own wis­doms, Psal. 9. 15. They three and all the wise men of the World had the light of their understanding per scientiam acquisitam, by study and former observation: Adam had his without observation, non per discursivam scientiam sed intuitivam, for when he had beheld them he gave them names. Others got their wisdome by studie and tra­vell, for in the multitude of wisdome is much grief, and he that increaseth knowledge, increaseth sorrow, saith the Wiseman in Preach. 1. 18. but Adam in Paradise had no grief: No one of them knew all things; but Adam knew all things, not only perfectly, but exactly: where­upon Austin saith well, that Ignorantia est paena lapsi, non natura originis.

Adam Magi­ster viventiumLastly, Adam is not only Pater but Magister viventium: God gave him wisdome, he learned it not. Doceo requireth a double Accusa­tive in Esay 28. 9. the Prophet faith Quem docebit scientiam? Whom shall God teach knowledge? and whom shall he make to understand? them that are weaned from the milk and drawn from the breasts? But Adam was not weaned from the breasts, which had no Mother. [...], a man of good learning, gathereth out of the Greek Fathers, Adam sons sci­entiae:that Adam was as a fountain of knowledge; From him cometh others wisdome.which came from him by tra­dition and observation unto Noah, and so to Abraham, and so to his sonnes dwelling in the East Countrie, chap. 25. 6. in Chaldea and Persia; from thence it came to Egypt. Salomon, in 1 Kings 4. 30. is said to have excelled in wisdome all the wise men of the East and of Egypt: from Egypt it came to Greece, from thence to Italie, and so to us in this West corner of the World. He gave names apt.And that the wisdome of Adam excelled all other, they ground it upon this, for that he gave them names, which God approved Non dedit nomina ex suo arbitrio, he gave them names not by chance, but with discretion, the name agreeing fitly with the nature, and infinite fit names in one day did he give unto a multitude of Creatures, which argueth great wisdome to be in him; which he could not have done unlesse he had looked into their natures; and the naming is allowed, for that God praiseth it, as it is in 2 Cor. 10. 18.

Rehoboams name unmeet.Our names sometime, by unskilfulnesse, prove just contrarie, as Salomon named his sonne Rehoboam, a delighter, but he was a destroyer [Page 213]of the People: Elimas. Elymas had his name aright, for he was a Sor­cerer, Acts 13. 9. Naomi, Marah Naomi, after she was in miserie, would no more be called Naomi, which is beautifull, but Marah, which is bitter, Ruth 1. 20.

This is the ground of Lo­logie.Secondly, From hence they gather the institution of Lologie, that is of speech, both in videre and nominare is great wisdome; in silence and speech is a wiseman known; the Greeks in logos doe ex­presse both; the Latines in two words differing but a letter, the one ratio, the other oratio: Aaron was wise in speech Exod. 4. 14. Paul in 2 Cor. 11. 6. saith, though I be rude in speaking, yet I am not so in know­ledge. Apollos is said to be a man of knowledge, an eloquent man, Acts 18. 24.

The originall tongue hath natural.The original tongue by the names expresseth the natures, which tongue was the most ancient when all the world were of one tongue; And though that in the dayes of Peleg the sonne of Heber, the sonne of Shem, the sonne of Noah, the earth was divided by diversitie of lan­guages, chap. 10. 25. yet Peleg kept it. Peleg kept the originall. The Greeks tongue from it. Eusebius saith, the Greeks doe boast that their tongue never came from other but from it self: But quoth he, from whence have they α and ω, their first and last letters? have they them not from Aleph and Beth of the Hebrews: Magus and Sophos, wisemen in Greek, comes not the one from agath, the other from zopho in Hebrew? Cadmus, from Heber, brought Aleph and Beth into Phoenicia. It borroweth nothing.This tongue borroweth no­thing from any other tongue, all tongues borrow from it; it is the most sufficient tongue: Fire and water in Greek have their original from the Hebrew. It is without composition.All other tongues, saith he, are full of compo­sition, this in simplicitie and majestie excelleth all other; for no tongue is so capable of trope and figure as is this, as they know well that have skill in the tongue: The antiquity, qualitie, and dignitie of the originall.And after that Eusebius hath shewed the antiquitie, the qualitie, and majestie of this tongue, he concludeth thus, lingua haec digna est Adamo institutore, & Deo approbatore.

The name agrees with the nature.Now for the naming, the names agree with the nature of the thing named. The ignorant man nameth a thing following not esse [...], but scire suum, not the nature of the thing, but his own know­ledge: But Adam as a man of exact wisdome giveth names accor­ding to their nature, that have stood since the beginning, and shall stand so to the end of the world. The name expresseth the propertie.The nature of a thing is called the essence or the propertie; he gave a name according to the nature, not of the essence, but of the propertie. Gassanus, a learned man, saith a Creature of it self is nothing, but from God all things receive their essence. In Hebrew God is called the name, The name of God who can tell? saith Esay. Gods two names.God hath two names, one qua est, which is of his essence incomprehensible; the other is qua c [...]sa est, this is the name of his goodnesse, and so we may conceive him. All names man giveth is of the property; we say commonly this is the nature, scilicet, the propertie of a thing: Propertie sen­sible or intel­ligible.The knowledge of which pro­perties is either sensible of outward things, or intelligible of inward qualities. The names of things after Adam were of properties sen­sible, [Page 214]as Esau was so called, for that he was red and rough with haire: Jacob was so called, for that at his birth he held Esau by the heel, his brothers supplanter, Genesis 25. And Peleg had his name aright, namely division. Adams names of inward pro­perties.But Adams names came from inward qualities, which he could perceive partly by the light of nature; wherein are to be considered three things, as you may see by 1 Kings 4. 29. Adams know­ledge: In Salomons wisdome was knowledge; By the light of nature: Secondly, intelligence or understan­ding; Of grace. And thirdly, he had a large heart, even as the sand on the Sea shoare, that is, he was able to comprehend all things by the capacitie of his memory: But these were more excellently in Adam than in Salomon, who had no vanity to seduce him, no sicknesse to weaken him, no temptation to hinder his wisdome, as Salomon had. He could also see these inward qualities by the light of Grace: In lumine tuo vide­bimus lumen, saith David, Psal. 36. 9. In thy light O Lord shall we see light. The divisions of the light of grace.The Fathers doe say, that lumen gratiae, is either per Deum or Angelos: This light of God came to men either by apparition, as to Noah, Moses, &c. or by revelation, which is inspired into us: By vision many saw this light, Wisd. 17. 6. and Gods knowledge slideth into our hearts. The other light we see is of Angells, by their vi­sitation, as Gabriel visited Daniel and made him understand the visi­on, Daniel 8. 16. Which visitation of Angels Adam had. The light of glorie.Beyond these there is lux gloriae, the light of glorie; Whereby Adam saw his reward in the Heavenly Paradise, by obedience; visio essentiae divinae, is the reward; to see and enjoy the essence of God was his reward, whereunto Adam, whilest he lived obedient in Paradise, hoped to be translated from the earthly to the heavenly Paradise; To him that overcommeth shall be given a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth but he that receiveth it; the name is reward and honour, Revel. 2. 17. Then shall we see God face to face, that is, in lumine gloriae, in the light of his glorie, whom now we see through a glasse darkly, 1 Cor. 13. 12. Two glasses whereby we see God.The Glasses whereby God is seen in this world are of two sorts: the one is dark, the other bright: the one is dimme as the light through an horn: the other is a light through a Glasse. Adam, we, the Angells, see God.We see God in this world as through a dimme light, Adam in Paradise in state of innocencie, as through a bright Glass, The Angels see him in heaven essentially. Our sight was from the earth, where is miserie: Adams from Paradise, where was grace. The Angels sight is in the heavenly Paradise, where glo­rie beholdeth glorie. Our knowledge of God is inaenigmate, is as in a Riddle: The knowledge of God by Adam in Paradise was as through a clear Glasse: But the Angels in the heavens knew God face to face.

The things named.Now of the object, and what was named by man: There were Six names God giveth.six individuall names given by God himself; as the light God cal­led day, a time active. Seconly, The darkness he named night, a time to recover strength called, lagela leagala. Thirdly, The firma­ment he called heaven, from whence is the influence of the aire and the winde. Fourthly, The drie land he called earth. Fistly, The Sea,[Page 215]which of its own nature would swell fifteen cubits above the high­est hill, was altered by the name, from turning magim to jagim. Lastly, he called Man Adam that is, of the earth.

Adam giveth apt names,Here Adam giveth names, first to the beasts that are serviceable; and then to the birds and fowls that flie in the Aire: To the Beasts.He at the first sight, without a Counsellor, gave apt names to every beast, to all the Cattell of the field, which are infinite; and this we may see, for all the Cartell, in the names of three, to the Horse he gave a name to be mans currer, to the Sheep to be his Clothier, to the Asse to be his Porter, for so the names of these doe sound in the Hebrew tongue. To the Fowl.Likewise he gave apt names unto the Birds, as the Eagle is a noble bird, for it preyeth not upon the bird that keepeth him warm all the night, nei­ther doth he flie that way in the morning, that that bird flyeth: the Peacock is proud; the Stork is kinde; the Serpent a slider; the Ant bites the end of the Corn, that it should not grow, the Ant called a Gnawer; from the Elephant to the Ant did he give apt names. The Locusts of the swarms, the Bees of their government have their names. Naming for distinction of kinde and propertie.So the virtues of naming are two, for the distin­guishing of kinde and of propertie: So that the argument is good from the thing to the name, and from the name to the thing; accor­ding to the name is the nature, and according to the nature is the name. Jacob had his name aright, his name was Supplanter, and he supplanted his brother.

But for Adam there was not a meet help.Briefly of the return, But for Adam was not found an help meet for him; A Non est inventus is returned, a Creature suitable to mans nature found he not; and that he should not want a meet help, Wo­man was taken out of man. Not finding implyeth a seeking, seeking a desiring, and desiring implyeth a want: A neccessarie conversion.And that we doe want we desire, and that we desire we seek, and that we seek we shall finde. Adam, among the beasts, found not a meet help, yet he sought an help, which he desired because he wanted: Non invenit [...] bestias ad­jutorem [...] sibi, yet did he behold the beasts; and the end of this contemplation is not fruitlesse; there is a curious contemplation: such was that of Hevah chap. 3. 6. The end of Mans contemplation in Paradise was in humility; and the end of the contemplation of the Beasts and Fowls here, you see is a supply of an help: For the first you doe see, Preach. 3. 10. that the travell of men is given them by God to humble them: David, in Psal. 8. 5. saith, Quid est [...] memor es ejus Domine? When he hath considered the natures and beheld the beasts, and finding among them no meet help, then he desireth a supplie: And happie is the meditation when it [...] [...] oratione, in prayer. Among Beast helps, not meet helps.Among so many beasts no doubt he found some helpers, but they were mute, without conference, bruitish, without reason, all of them looking downward: But man before his fall was in honore positus, he was straight both in body and in minde, Psal. 49. 20. Among them (as I have shewed) he found many helpers, as the Horse to ride upon, the Sheep to cloath him, the Asse to bear his burthen; Not meet to be his mate. But among them he found no meet help to be his mate; in [Page 216]Adamo fuit appetitus socii & similitudinis, a helper according to his likenesse found he not: Totum hominis scientia Dei, saith a Father, the knowledge of God is only to be ascribed to man: yet some beasts draw neerer to the reason of man than other some; as the Fox neerer than the Asse, but in none of the beasts is the knowledge of God.

Eve how meet.But a fit help for comfort, for conference, for cohabitation, for procreation, for equalitie in each thing, found he not for man; There is none shall want his mate, saith the Prophet, Esay 34. 16. every bird hath his match: there is aequus and equa; of all beasts there is male and female, every beast had his match. They all had that man wanted; and therefore, for that man wanted that which all the beasts had, God, out of man, for man, made a meet help, ut salvum sit verbum suum; and Adam, as it were, confesseth, I want such a meet help, which I desire, which I have sought, which I cannot finde; and because I cannot finde such a help which I have sought, which I have desir'd, and which I want; therefore, O God of help, give unto me a helper meet for me: This expresseth Mans consent to have such an help. As God before regarded his person, provided him a place, gave him authoritie; so here he taketh care that he might have an help: And as before he received at Gods hand Pa­radise to dwell in it: and by dominamini rule and sovereignty over the beasts and fowl: The last bene­fit God giveth is a mate.So here man receiveth the last, not the least benefit at the hands of him, Mulierem gratiosam, a discreet Woman, a meet help: For he that wanteth an help, and desireth it of God, seeking for it, shall finde it; And he that findeth a good wife, findeth a good thing, and receiveth favour of the Lord, Prov. 18. 22. Thus much shall suffice concerning the 20. verse.

Quapropter injecit Jehova Deus, soporem altum in Adamum quo obdormivit. & desumpta una de costis ejus, inclusit carnem pro illa.Gen. 2. 21.

Octob. 21. 1591.AFter God had in the 18. verse, as yee have seen, entred into his deliberation, and saw that it was not good for man to be alone, and therefore was moved in the 19. verse, not only to resolve to make him a help, but also caused man to take a survey of all his Creatures, to see whether there were any already made, which might fit his fan­tasie. Now after man had made his confession, that he found a want, being in solitarinesse, but could not finde a fit supply; there­fore in this verse insueth the narration of Gods workmanship in the Creation of woman.

In speaking of which, first it may seem a course strange and incre­dible[Page 217]to flesh and blood, and unsavorie to reason, that woman should be taken out of the side of man. But St. Augustine demandeth this question Cur magu mirabile sit ut è latere viri, quam ex utero faemina ho­mo nasceretur. For if God had made this an ordinarie course of nature, that woman should alwaies & usually have been taken out of mans side, as now it is to take them out of the womb of the woman, then would that have been no lesse strange than this, and this course and birth of man would have been [...] more wonderfull and incredible than that which is here spoken of. In respect of God therefore we must know it to be all one, as easie a thing, and of as litde labour for him to make a man of the side of man, as to cause him to be made of the seed of man, though in respect of us (which are sensual) that seemeth most credible which is most common and usually seen of us.

2.The second thing is, That the Woman is said to be made of one of his ribs, of which, if any seek a reason, this may serve for an an­swer, Quia sit aliquid ipsius, for this is that which maketh the bond and knot of Matrimony sure and fast, when they consider and ac­count themselves to be a very natural part one of another; and therefore St. Paul saith Ephes. 5. 28. they must love one another as their own flesh; for how could Adam choose but love her, being bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh, seeing it is natural for man, not to hate his own flesh. Also it is for the better procurement of love of Parents towards their Children and Posterity, that Parents and Children might thus think, Quia sumus ex uno, sumus unum: for all this is espe­cially to commend unity between man and wife, because they be but one; and also between brethren and sisters, yea, and all the Posterity of Adam, because they all came of one. This all men should think, especially brethren, because we were hewed all out of one rock and digged out of one pit; therefore why should we be divi­ded asunder, rather we should say as David doth, Psal. 113. 1. Behold it is a good and pleasant thing for Brethren to dwell together in unity. This consideration then, must be a means to establish unity and peace among all men, especially between man wife and children, and their family.

Object.But another question may here be made, Why she was taken out of his side, rather when he was fast asleep than when he was awake, for it is sure, that God could as well have done it when he was awake, if some speciall purpose had not moved, in which it seemed best to him to have it thus.

Resp.To answer this objection we may say, that men have sought out many inventions and devises: Some, to satisfie it, have imagined that it was done, because Adam should not feel any smart or pain in the opening of the flesh & taking out of the rib, which being awake they think he must needs suffer otherwise, and (say they) Quia agritudo & dolor est poena lapsi: therefore God would not, nay (say they) he could not in justice let them suffer in Paradise, so long as he continued holy: But it is sure, that if that only had been all the rea­son, that God, to have prevented that, could have so taken her out [Page 218]of his side, that he should have felt no grief or pain thereby, though he had been awake and looked upon him; for if God had but su­spended the act of sense for a time, which at the first he gave him, he should have had no grievous sense of pain on that part.

But indeed this rather may seem to be the reason, Because God in his work would have none seen or present with him. But be as it were, by himself alone, least any should fasly and foolishly suspect that Adam being present and awaked, should have been some help or means, and had somewhat to doe in the Creation of the Woman; therefore he would be alone, that he alone might be known to be the only maker of the Woman, and that he had no help or Coun­sell in the framing of her: For the like cause God suffered the Di­sciples to fall into a deep and heavy sleep in the garden, when Jesus Christ our Saviour was in the agony, that it might not be doubted but that he alone wrought and brought to passe all the work of our Redemption without the help or comfort of his Disciples, as it was prophecied of him before, Ille Torcular calcavit solus. So Almighty God purposing to have all the glory of the whole World alone, and that Adam might not challenge any jot thereof, therefore without his counsell, help, or consent, he would doe it while Adam was fast asleep; Which must teach us this Lesson, That especially in this weighty matter of Wyving, when we see we want that holy help, we must not think by our own policie and strength to get us one meet and good for us, but rather by prayer commend that work to Gods care and providence, who then (no doubt) will bring that work to passe which shall be most fit and meet for us, while we are fast asleep.

Object.If any ask, Why she was taken out of his side, which is the middle part of mans body, and not out of his head or foot? Resp.This answer may stand with good reason, That she was not taken out of his head or shoulder Ne insolesceret foemina, that is, lest affecting a superiority over the Man she should take upon her arrogancie to be the top of his head or to ride over his shoulders: If any doe so, let them know, that it is not the Womans part nor place to exalt herself so high. On the o­ther side, God of purpose would not have her taken out of the foot, Ne eam homo sub pedibus contereret, & make her too much an underling as scarce good enough to wash his feet: If any so use their wives, let them know, God made them not to so base and contemptible offices, but would have good and vertuous women to be set next themselves as their matches in all dutie and love; for God hath made her of his side that she might be collateralis, that is, be thought worthy to stand, and sit, and lye by his side; therefore it is said, that the Kings spouse being brought to him was set on his right hand, Psal. 45. 9. And indeed if women did consider their estate, they would know it to be farre better and safer for them (being the weaker vessell) to shrowd themselves under their husbands arms for de­fence, as their protector, than to sit above his shoulder as Lord and superior over him. Again, Women may see that God made them [Page 219]of a rib, which is a strong bone, that they might be a means and prop to their weaknesse, to uphold and be a stay to them and their estate, and not a weakning and decayiug of their estates and strength, as many doe. And as they learn this of the nature of their matter, so they must learn to avoid one thing, which is the bone of which they were made, namely, they must not be crooked and per­verse and [...] bones to their husbands heart, for such wives, saith Salomon, are not bones to help us, but putredo in ossibus, and a grief to their heart. Now we may consider that of this matter God made him not many wives, not two wives, yea not more than only one, which condemneth [...] for many reasons and respects: for many inconveniences and griefs come to the man and the family, where more than one hath been, it was the cause & occasion of strife and brawls, as we may see in the example of Elkana his two wives 1 Sam. 1. 5. 7. 8. for they did not only vexe one another, but both of them were a vexation to him. The like example we have in Sara and Agar, so ill did they agree under one man, that one house was not able to hold them; wherefore Gods ordinance is (who know­eth what is best for us) that one man shall have but one only wife.

A word now of the supplement; for it is said that God taking out a rib made a wound, and healed it up again, and made flesh to be the supplement thereof: By which we [...] becanse Woman is the weaker vessel, th