¶Orations, of Arsane …

¶Orations, of Arsanes agaynst Philip the treche­rous kyng of Macedone: of the Embassadors of Venice against the Prince that vnder crafty league with Scanderbeg, layed snares for Christendome: and of Scanderbeg prayeng ayde of Christian Princes agaynst per­iurous murderyng Mahumet and agaynst the old false Chri­stian Duke Mahumetes confe­derate. With a notable example of Gods vengeance vppon a faithlesse Kyng, Quene, and her children.

¶Imprinted at London, by Iohn Daye.

GReat is the pleasure of readyng histories. So na­turall is to man the delite & desire of knowlege. And as in all other affections wherewith we are led by instinct of na­ture, the wise or vnwise appliance ther­of by the rule of reason and learning or by the vnruly sway of will and fansie, doe make the same tend either to vices or vertues, to hurt or to profite, & with the clothing of vse & circumstance they take vppon them the shew and name of good or bad: so in desirous hearing or re­ding the actes of men and monumentes of times, the employeng and directing of knowledge therby gotten, in wise or vaine forme, to good or euill endes, ma­keth the difference of time wel or ill be­stowed, of profit or disprofite, and of de­seruyng praise or dispraise. He that re­deth histories of farre distant contreyes or farre passed ages, with an idle vayne lust to heare newes, or to tell tales, or as it were to spend out time, or to do as those that know no other vse of redyng but after surfet to winne slepe, hath lost both his leasure and his labour, & hath spent them both like a drane that flyeth [Page] about the fieldes gazing vppon floures but gathering no hony of them, and af­ter the fayre day fondly wasted is fayne to be susteined by the labours of other, him selfe a frutelesse burden to the com­mon weale. But he that followyng the right rule of wisedome, gathereth profit of euery lawfull pleasure, taketh not onely the beautious sight of the varietie fairenesse proportion forme and order of those ornaments of the earth the her­ [...]es, leaues, floures and frutes that gar­nish the fieldes and gardens, but also v­seth to his comfort and health the swéet­nesse of their sauor, and worketh out of them to the benefite of his own life & of the commō weale the swete tasting, the pleasant smelling, the holesome feding & healing honey. By that he is him selfe susteined, his neigbours releued, his posteritie preserued, & by common con­ference the whole societie mainteined, with obedience to their owne naturall kyng the minister of iustice and enemie of idlenesse. Such a reader of hystories digesteth euery mater into hys right place and to his right purpose, & there­of hee layeth vp the store of wisedome for him selfe, and counsell for other, and [Page] is made able to shew the true difference of a man from a beast, in that he is not carried by sense alone to that which ei­ther present sight doth offer him, or pre­sent hunger or other néede enforce him, but of his own experience remembreth, or by hearyng of other or readyng of bookes hee learneth the state of times past, the doyngs of men, their counsels, their gouernance, and lastly their suc­cesses. By beholdyng of those, as in a glasse, he discerneth and iudgeth rightly of thinges present, and foreséeth wisely of thinges to come. Toward the furni­ture of a man thus disposed, histories not onely many but in sondry wise haue bene written, and of that diuersi­tie in forme of writing names haue ben geuen to such workes & treatises. Some haue set forth brief notes by yeares and dayes called Annales, diaries and iour­nales, expressing shortly what thinges haue happened in those yeres or dayes, with onely notyng the persones tymes places & factes. Some for their own re­membrance or aduertising their frendes haue kept commentaries or memori­alles, wherin they haue dealt largelier or breflier as their disposition to labour [Page] or their leasure haue serued thē. Some haue written treatises or discourses vpō some special factes, by way of gathering other thinges to the conformitie of that which they treate of, and applieng both it and the other to some end of persua­sion, as some present occasion of their cause or time hath required. Some com­ming to that worke furnished with vn­derstanding and learning haue written such bookes as we call iust and perfect hystories, either of all times and places, or of all places for some time, or of some place throughout all times, or of some singular contrey, common weale, place, or person, or of some speciall warre, en­terprise, gouernāce, or mater. Those as their purpose hath ledde them, haue not onely with faithfulnesse set out what hath bene done, but with great art and wisedome haue layed open the secret in­tentes, counsels, meanings, & groundes of doynges conceiued by those whoes actes are there expressed. They haue described the contreyes, the persons, the state, the forme of rule, the lawes, the affaires and managing therof, the order of warre and peace, the quiet calmenesse of some times, the troublesomnesse of o­ther [Page] seasons, either by warre or seditiō, the raysing of the one or other or appea­sing of both, by the ambition or violence of some wittes or the discretion and po­licie of other, the negligence in some, the wantonnesse in some, the foule vices in some, the follie in some, the want of counsell and assistance in some, the va­rietie of successes, and vpon what occasi­ons, and what effectes haue folowed vp­pon sondry causes, as safeties, destructi­ons, rising falling, good bap or miserie, either by pleasing or offendyng God, by takyng fit auantages or neglecting good seasons and occasions, by foreseyng in time or hedelesly drawing of mischeues, by forsakyng frendes and neighbours in necessitie or by tymely and frendly assi­stance thereby both bindyng kindnesse & gatheryng assuraunce, by caring for no warnynges or listening to good vnder­standyng ere it be to late, by hangyng vpon Gods miracles onely or seruyng hym with due trauaile and policie, by trusting to humane wisedome and bor­rowing vpon the will of God or subiec­tyng all deuises to the rule of Gods pleasure, by doyng not enough, by tru­styng to much, by egall or vnegal distri­bution [Page] of ryght, by cunnyng dissem­blyng or playne true dealyng and by in­finite other meanes dispositions and ap­pliances of tymes persones maters do­ynges and chaunces in this mortall life. Such writers haue beside this also some time for encouragyng to souldiars, some time for appeasing troubles, sometyme for counsell either for mater of iustice or of policie, or for deliberation to pro­uide for atteyning of benefites or eschu­yng of mischieues to come, or for other wise purposes, set forth Orations in the names of those persons whom they make to speake them, wherof are plen­tie to be found in the Gréeke authours Thucidides, Xenophon and other, and the Latines Caesar, Salust, Li­uie, and the rest. And in the same they seme as in their whole historie to haue serued the vse of posteritie, in true de­claration of the factes to lay a grounde for the iugemēt of the wise reader, least by misreporting of the mater, the vnderstanding of the considerer should be se­duced in pronouncing vpon the successe. And agayne in the large explication of spech and Oration, both the vse of elo­quence in cōmon weale should appeare, [Page] and the maner of applyeng of hystories in consultation should be layed abrode for an example to the wise readers of hystories, not onely howe to furnishe theyr owne knowlege, but also howe profitably to deliuer the same to the in­formation warnyng or aduise of other. Such hystories be glasses of experience, scholehouses of wisedome, very pro­phecies of tymes and chaunces, go­uernesses to vertue, terrible threate­ners and warners to flée vice and follie. In such histories written to such endes, I doe not thinke that all the Orations were so spoken by the parties as they were penned by the reporters, but that suche wryters seruyng trueth in the factes, haue in the maner of speches serued wisedome and teachyng, and & not so much told what in what forme was sayd in déede, as (all true circum­stances of factes considered) what such a persō might haue fittly spoken, ye author respectyng therin both what such a man might with good seruyng hys purpose then say, and what in his saying the rea­ders in tyme to come were also to be taught & might wel learne. This kinde of exercise is both pleasant & profitable. [Page] And for some exāple thereof, it hath se­med to tend to good purpose to publish in our tong these Orations folowyng, wherein is conteined mater & president of good admonition, & a meane of great efficacie to awaken Christians, & a sub­stantiall teaching to trust in God and to feare shrinkyng from the defense of his cause and Church. The arguments are seuerally set before the Orations. The first, of Arsanes the Persian, is made after the mater of the hystorie as it is reported in Iustines Epitome of the hystorie written by Trogus Pom­peius. Wherein as Iustine hath shortly knit vp what Trogus had sette out at large, so here is largely dilated what Iu­stine had abriged, the truth of the fact and decorum or conuenient agréement of the persons and circumstances alway iustly obserued. The second conteyning two Orations, one of the Ueneciā Em­bassadour, the other of the Archbishop of Durasso, are faithfully trāslated out of Marinus Barletius. The last, of Scan­derbeg to Christian Princes, is made as the first is, as we thought hee might then aptly haue sayd, & as he so saying, should both haue agréed with his cause [Page] and person & with our case & learnyng. All is warrāted by the history in effect, though not in forme of euery sillable or sentence. As where it is sayd by Barle­tius that Mahumet beyng a Prince Principes Rasciae contra fidem datam per­fide obtruncauit, did agaynst his fayth geuen periurously slaughter the Prin­ces of Rascia, we take it frée for detesta­tion of falshed & warnyng to posteritie, to set out at large any most periurous manner of murdering of noblemen a­gaynst fayth geuen, hauyng alway re­gard that it be such as might be truely reported of Mahumet. And where he sayth that Mahumet so did against faith geuen, he can not meane any other but sayth geuen by Mahumet. And Mahu­met beyng a Prince, that faith can be no other but fayth royall and the word of a Prince, the breache whereof is for the rarenesse, and for the mighty abilitie to doe hurt, iustly most odious, and of ne­cessitie in wise policie most strongly to be resisted and repressed with most ter­rible example, or elles the fall of that e­state or destruction of mankynde to bee shortly looked for.

If this shall doe good, either in tea­ching [Page] how to applie, or warning what to feate, or aduising how to do, the la­bour is well bestowed. If other capti­ous constrctions be gathered, their fault is it, and their blame be it, for whom it was neuer prouided. Let such cauillous expounders & wresters leaue it to truer men to read it, to wiser men to iudge vpon it, & to honester men to take profit of it. Who so will draw hystories of times past further than he ought, in rac­king an other mās mynde he hath ouer­stretched his owne conscience. Who so truely touched in like faultes wil think him selfe to be charged, chargeth hym selfe. Who so findyng truth & aduise for his safetie will not thereto applie it, or espieng mater for his instruction will take no frute of it, shall perishe neuer­thelesse miserably but a greate deale more worthily. Finally good reader take this rule, that God made al things for his glorie, God foreséeth and dispo­seth the very fall of a sparow. Therfore all actes of men & all successes are to be referred to his honor. Him let vs serue and trust vpon, him let vs thank and to him let vs pray for our most gracious soueraigne, that she may long reigne, & [Page] ouerlyue Gods enemies and hers, and specially those whiche enuye her state, and would her place to be occupyed by them selues or any other that hate the word and flocke of God: and that it will please God (if it be his will) to stablishe our soueraigne Ladyes throne in long peace, and either by his owne mightie hand, or by hys worke in her hart for doyng of iustice, to destroye the rod of foreine and Popish tyrannie that he in danger of succéedyng shaketh ouer hys Churche, that no enemie of Christ nor childe of Antichrist may lyue to bryng the thraldome of Mariane crueltie,Sylla. Mar. Car. nor Caracallaes royall periurie, nor any of such faythlesse kyndes or races to op­presse the poore Realme of England: and that no Prince fearyng God euer trust the vntrusty, specially those whoes Antichristian Popish doctrine pronoun­ceth open allowrance of breach of fayth to Christians whome they call here­tikes, and whoes Mahumetane factes proclayme what is to be looked for at their handes, and whereto their counselles are directed, which God confounde.

[Page]
¶The Argument of the Oration of Arsanes the Persian.

THe Phocoeans, Lacedemonians and Atheniens, beyng driuen thereto by the outrageous dea­lynges of the Thebanes, spoyled the Temple of the Idoll Apollo. Wheru­pon the whole realme of Greece was diuided into two seuerall factions: of the which the Thebanes and their allyes termed them selues the holie league, and Phocoeans, Lacedemo­nians, Athenians and their parta­kers were termed the confederates agaynst the league. The Thebanes mistrustyng their own state, commit thē selues and their case to the tuitiō of the kyng, whose name was Phi­lip of the house of Macedonie. Phi­lip hauing erst layed a platforme and alreadie practised certeine secret at­temptes for the conqueryng of the kyngdome of Persia, and now thin­kyng this to be a fit occasion, as well to reuendge the displeasure that he bare to certeine noble houses, as [Page] also to dispatch all lets and incom­berances at home, that he might the freelyer go foreward with his inten­ded enterprise, taketh vpon him the defence and maintenance of the ho­lie league, whereby he gate hym selfe great allyances and frendshyp at the first. Neuertheles keepyng neither promises, fidelitie, nor othe, he vio­lateth all right and law of God and man, murtheryng and spoylyng as well such as he had taken into hys protection as those that had submit­ted them selues to him vppon assu­raunce of safetie, by reason whereof the confederates drawe them selues to armes agayne. Wherfore Arsanes the Lieutenant of the lesser Asia for the kyng of Persia, hauyng perfect intelligence of all Philips attemptes and priuie practises, and foreseyng the imminent perill that was like to in sew to the kyngdome of Persia, ad­uertiseth the kyng therof, and after leaue giuen vnto hym, propoun­deth his aduise in Counsell as foloweth.

MY Lordes vppon whose vigilant fore­sight & prouident care dependeth the well­fare of this most hap­pie and prosperous state of Persia, it is not vnknowen vnto your wisedomes, that the preseruation and mayntenance of Royall states and Empyres, consist not only in largenesse of populous Countries, in abundance of treasure, in howgenesse of hostes, in faythfulnesse of fréendes, allies and subiectes, in valeauntnesse of souldi­ours, in knowledge and corage of ex­pext Captaines, in politike, spéedie, & stoute execution of thynges concluded in strength of townes & fortifications, nor in the store of armour, vitell, & ar­tillerie (howbéeit that without theis thinges no Empyre can continue) but also and chéefly in foreseeing & preuen­ting of mischéeues that are likely or possible too ensue, and in accepting and folowing of oportunities when they be profered. The cunnyng pylote percei­ueth the pirries a farre of, & striketh his mayne sheate before the storme come, and when he findeth the wether fauo­rable, [Page] he clappeth on all his sayles, and taketh the full benefite of the present gale. This hath bin the policie of our famous predecessors, and specially of our péerlesse princes Cyrus & Darius the founders of this moste renowmed Empyre: and this must bée the policie of all such as mind to kéepe that which they themselues haue gotten, or which hathe ben left them by the purchace of others. And doutlesse, not without good cause hathe it alwayes bin counted a greater matter too kéepe, than too get: for too win is the benefite of fortune, but to kéepe is the only power of wise­dome. Wée néede not to séeke out old ex­amples for proofe hereof, let vs but cast our eye ouer the narrow seas into Eu­rope, and looke vppon our next neigh­bours the Grecians. The matter is yet fresh in our eyes, & their wound is yet raw and not growen too a scarre. The one side (as wée see) hauing gotten the vpper hand of their aduersaries, and set themselues in good suretie as they thought, were sodeinly, through too much credulitie and trust of the parties whom they had most cause to beware of, put too the sword after peace & faith­ful [Page] promis of safty giuen in the word of a prince, and now lately again put to newe spoyle and vtter subuersion for want of eschewing their former ouer­sight. Which lamentable example lea­deth me as it were by the hand to the matter that we haue presently to treate of, and is the very ground therof. For when I behold the thickening of the ayre in those quarters, and the ga­thering togither of the cloudes in the coastes of Europe, considering how small a gale of wynd may bring them hither, and the disposition of those cli­mates too powre out their stormes vpon the feeldes of Asia, I can none other­wise coniecture, but there is some great tempest a brewyng towardes vs, which doutlesse will light vppon vs, if some contrarie wynde doo not eyther dis­perse it abrode, or hold it backe among them selues at home. The house of Ma­cedonie créeping foreward by little and little (as all of vs know) hathe in con­tinuance of time gotten into their pos­session the most part of the auncient Grecia, in so much that at this day it beareth the cheef renowme in the hither part of Europe, and is becomme terri­ble [Page] or at leastwise too bée mistrusted of all his neighbours. And surely none haue more cause, if not too feare the Gréekes, yet to beware of them, than wée haue. For in the tyme of our aun­ceters wée haue oftentymes greatly a­noyed them both at home and abrode: we haue slayne their people, wonne their holdes, sacked and burned theyr cities, taken their kings, possessed their countries, and bereft them of their do­minions both by sea and land. They haue done the like with vs in all things, sauing for taking of our kings, & dispossessing vs of our Empyre. By meanes whereof, there is growen as it were a naturall hatred betwene the two realmes of Persia and Grece. And although there haue béene diuerse leagues and alyances by mariage made betwene vs: yet notwithstanding for­asmuch as no particular salue can re­medie a common sore, the mischiefe is rather couered than cured. Olde hatred thirsteth alwayes new reuenge, and the rooted rancor that is once throughly set­led betwene countries do [...]th so shed it selfe into the veynes of all posteritie, as it may sometimes be dissembled for ad­uantage [Page] or for want of abilitie, but ne­uer forgotten. For it is like the smol­dring fyer of mount Chymera, which boyling long tyme with great buskling in the bowels of the earth, dooth at lēgth burst out with violent rage to the hurt of the fieldes wherinto it casteth it self. Againe, whereas in the present diuision of Gréece, wherein Philippe of Mace­donie now kyng of Gréece taketh vpon hym as protector of the Thebanes, and defender of the holy league (for so dooth he terme himself and all those that take his part against the houses of Lacedae­mon, Athens, & Phocis & other noble men that spoyled the temple of their I­dol Apollo): the confederates haue ben reléeued by our souereignes subiectes (though not by his graces commaunde­ment or consent) & the fugitiue & bany­shed people are for pitie & humanities sake receiued and cherished in this Re­alme: we may assure our selues that kyng Philip being both a suttle, ambiti­ous, & cruel Prince, doth horde vp these thinges in his hart, as fyerbrondes to kindle his intent of reuenge, whensoe­uer oportunitie shall serue. For thyngs done betwéene states and nations, are [Page] commonly construed, not accordyng to the intent of the doers, but as he lys­teth to take them which séeketh matter of quarell. Let vs then looke into hym, and into his present doinges, and consi­der whereto they tende. First he is a Gréeke borne, that is to say, a deadly & vnreconcileable enemy to the realme of Persia by nature. Secondly he is of the house of Macedonie, which hath al­wayes maligned the Persians for clay­ming the crowne of Gréece, whereto they entitle thēselues by stile, whyle he holdeth the thing in possession. Third­ly he is of a proude & ambitious minde, desirous to aspyre, insatiably eagre of reuenge, and thirstie of bloud beyond all measure or beliefe, and an exceeding déepe dissembler. Adde hereunto that there want no solliciters to pricke hym forward, by flattering him with the suc­cesse of his late exploytes atchieued by most shamefull and odious trecherie, now coloured with the name of prince­ly policie. Besides this the state of Per­sia wanteth no hartburning against it. The Gods immortall haue geuen vs long prosperitie, and peace hath greatly increased our wealth: our good fortune [Page] is an eyesore, yea rather a hartsore to hym: enuye shooteth alwayes at highe markes: and couetousnes can be staun­ched with no small thynges. To the compassing of his desire he wanteth no power: for the Realme of Gréece which was deuided in olde time, is now who­ly vnder his dominion: the countryes of Thrace and Thessaly which some­tyme were belonging to the Empyre of Persia, are now recoucred to the crowne of Gréece: and we haue forgone all our townes which we had on that side of the Sea. Finally, what shall we thinke of thys that insueth? He hym­selfe is in person in the fielde, with so huge a power, as the lyke hath not ben raysed heretofore but to anoye some mightie potentate. He hath sent a great nauie of ships and Gallyes to the sea, he hath stablished peace with his neigh­bors, he hath alyed himself with our vt­ter enemies, he hath made tecrete cha­lenges to the Empyre of Persia, he hath sent priuie spyes into the bowels of A­sia, he hath indirectly sollicited our so­uereines subiectes & alyes agaynst him, he hath murthered our welwillers, he hath succored our offenders, he dayly [Page] wageth forrein souldyers, he leuyeth still great masses of money, he is euer sending of Capteines and men of warre into Cappadocia, & (which is the finest cloke of all his deuices) he professeth him selfe the defender and maynteyner of the Thebanes and their holy leage. Whereto serueth all this furniture? who bée the aduersaries of this holie leage? Is it the house of Phocis? The Lord therof is shamefully slayne, and his children are able too worke no re­uenge. Is it the king of Lacedoemon & the prince of Athens? They are becōme his vassalles. Is it the Towne of By­zance and the other fewe townes of Gréece that hold with the Lordes of the confederacie ageinst the Thebane holy leage? Alas what are they too so migh­tie a prince? they cannot hold out long if they haue not helpe. Both the confede­rates and these townes would fayne submit themselues to hym and serue him, if they might be sure but only of their liues, and too escape the imminent destruction with safetie of their aunci­ent libertie. Seing thē that the Grekes being either in leage or at peace with all their neighbours round about them [Page] haue not as now any knowen enemy but Philip himselfe, & that of those he is not in any feare but well knoweth that they wil be quyet if he assaile them not: it is manifest that in taking vpon him the defence of the Thebane leage, and so quarelling with the confederates, he both reuiueth the old grudge and wel­néere foreworne hatred betweene the Realmes of Persia and Gréece, and al­so couertly pricketh, not only at all such as resisted the Thebanes, or haue had alyance and confederacie with their ad­uersaries, but also at all such as by any meanes haue succored or releeued them, by sauing them from his vnmer­cifull and faithlesse handes. Of whom bycause wee bee the cheef, therfore he beareth the more malice ageinst vs. For the nature of Tyranny is, not on­ly too oppresse, to spoyle, and too mur­ther innocentes, but also to hate all such as are not of the same disposition. And surely where soeuer cankerd hatred, de­sire of dominion, abilitie too giue the at­tempt, and sufficient recompence of cost and trauell doo méete, it is not too bée supposed but that oportunitie shalbe sought. No dout therfore, but that what [Page] soeuer countenance Philip make, and vnder what pretences soeuer he shroud himselfe, his very intent and drift is to giue a push for the kyngdome of Per­sia. Let none of vs beguile himselfe: let vs not imagine that the stale alyances and late leages betweene our prince & the house of Macedonie, are able too ex­tinguish the old emnitie and new kind­led displeasure of the twoo Realmes of Persland and Gréece: least our eyes bée so dazeled with the fond ouerlikyng of present peace, as the mischeef light vp­pon our heades, before we perceiue it comming towardes vs. What account so euer wée on our part make of leages, (as certesse wee haue from auncient tyme had alwayes a singular religion and conscience in obseruing them, and so would I wish wee should do still, for there cannot bée to much honour and re­uerence giuen to faithfull alyances and trew meaning leages) surely he shew­eth him selfe to make none account at all, nor to passe further of them than to serue his owne turne. Hath he not twice within theis twelue yeares plighted his fayth before the Gods im­mortall, and made faythfull promis a­fore [Page] men, that the confederates ageynst the Thebanes shoulde with free for­gettyng of all former quarelles inioy lyfe, libertie and goods, as if there had neuer béene any iarre betwixte them? How well he holdeth his couenaunt, our hartes lament to sée, and all men that haue any péece of common huma­nitie in them abhorre to heare. For (as it is well knowen) he set not vppon them like a valyaunt champion in the fielde, for he durst not doe that: ney­ther did he charge them with any crime to execute them by way of iustice like an vpright iudge, for they had done no fault: but as a butcher that gathereth shéepe into a pinfolde to the slaughter, or as a Wolfe that falles vpon a flocke when they be folded: and as a fowler that allureth byrdes into his nets with baytes and pyping: so did he foade hys noble men into securitie wyth vayne promises and dissembling lookes, and cruelly murthered them without mer­cie, when they thought themselues in most suretie, yea and he spared not the grayheaded, he pytied not the sillie in­fants, he reuerenced not the chaste ma­trones, he had no regarde of the younge [Page] Damsels: but as it were in contempt of Gods & men, and to the vtter derogati­on of princely maiestie, he imbrued his wicked hands with the slaughter of hys most faithfull and trusty subiectes, one­ly bicause they were too good and vertu­ous for so vnnaturall a Monster to reigne ouer. Moreouer, triumphing in hys outragious crueltie, he layed the dead bodyes of noblemen, gentlemen, inferior sort, men and women (a hor­rible, vnkyndly, and beastly spectacle) wounded, mangled, defiled, bemyred, and naked, vppon a heape before hys palace, lyke a quarrie of Déere at a ge­nerall hunting, for all the worlde to gase vppon.

Now then, may we hope that he wil be a faythfull leaguefellowe towardes vs, who hath béene so faythlesse & cruell towardes his owne? May we thinke he will stand in feare of vs, who despiseth the Gods immortall? or may we be­léeue that the hungrie Lyon wyll lye still when he séeth a fitte pray before his face? I coulde the easlyer be induced to that opinion, if he had not of late (for all the league that is betwixt vs) sent Captaynes and men of warre priuilye [Page] into Cappadocia, to annoy the froun­tyres of this kyngdome. Now then, séeing that there is no trust in him with whom we haue to deale: séeing that he séketh priuie practises to annoy: séeing he woundeth our common weale in­directly through the sides of our neygh­bours: shall we sitte a fléepe til the fow­lar haue cast his nette ouer vs? shal our league serue him to cut our throtes, and shall it not serue vs to defend our lyues? Unwise are they that ende their matters with had I wist, specially in matters of state: It is too late to shutte the stable doore whē the stéede is stolne. Let vs preuent the mischiefe in hys pryme before it grow too farre and be­come vncurable. He is no good Phisiti­on which trusteth so much eyther to his cunnyng or to his good fortune, that when he séth a canker bréeding in the bodie, destroyeth it not at the first, but letteth it runne till it haue taken roote, to winne himselfe the more prayse by healing it afterwarde. There commeth more harme to kyngdomes by too much sufferance, than by too much warenesse. This sore is already waxed proude, it swelleth, it is growen to a head, and [Page] dayly it will fester more and more, and if it be not looked to betimes, it wyll (I feare become incurable. There is none other lykelyhoode but that early or late we must haue warre wyth the Gréeks. Whether to our owne behoofe or to theirs, there standes the case. The choice is yet in our owne hand: either to purchase peace & mainteine quietnesse to our selues and to all our posteritie, or to make our enemies lords ouer vs. Phillip is now at variance (as we sée) with his owne countrymen: he is wor­thely behated of them for his monste­rous crueltie, and trustlesse infidelitie: all kynges detest him as the disparage­ment of their state: all his neyghbours lothe hym as a mishapen wretche a­gainst nature: and the Gods are angry with him for violating their sacred ma­iesties. If we sende a power into hys countrie, he shall not be able to resiste vs: for the freshe remembraunce of hys horrible doinges shall dismay hym, the fallyng away of his owne people shall discourage hym, the reuolting of hys Cities and fortresses shal weaken him, and the vengeaance of the Gods shall hunt him from place to place till it haue [Page] consumed him. His subiectes beyng wearye of his intollerable yoke, pray nyght and day to the Gods for delyue­rance, and wayte for some good Prince to take them into his tuition. And who shalbe so welcome to them as our king, in whose dominions they haue had safe refuge frō the sword of their homebred enemy, and whose clemency they know to be farre passing all expectation? A­gayne diuers of the Regions hauing ta­sted of the swéetnesse of our Persian li­bertie in the time that we had souerein­tie ouer them, & finding our gouernmēt to be lighter thē a fether in comparison of their present bondage, doe long to be vnder our iurisdictiō agayne, the rather for the continuall felicitie which they perceiue vs Persians to liue in. Thus are all things ready to make with vs, & to make against him, & we may cōfound him with his owne weapons. For how can he looke for trustinesse at theyr handes, whose trust he hath so often disappointed by treason? But if it séeme not good to worke this way, for infrin­ging the league that is not yet openly broken, as I will not greatly vrge that poynt, though it would be most for our [Page] profite: yet may we play the Cretanes with Cretanes (as their owne prouerb sayth, and as we commonly say): Let vs set the Hares head against the Goo­ses giblet: He workes wyles with vs: Let vs worke wysely with him. And now whyle the Pig is proffered let vs holde open the poke. No league can or ought to barre Princes from succou­ring the oppressed, or from ayding such as willingly yéelde themselues into their protection, and specially from do­ing those thinges which being left vn­done there is left no likely possibilitie of safetie to those Princes that shoulde haue taken better héede in tyme. Those sort of men whome he now pursueth with fire and sworde, are our deare frendes, and we haue hetherto maintei­ned them. Their case is common to vs, and so is taken to be by their Prince. If they smart, let not vs looke to laugh: If they decay, let not vs looke to stand: If they be ouerthrowen, then haue at vs, our staffe standes next the doore. When perils are common, they woulde be re­pulsed with common power, because they bréede common mischiefe. I lyke not to haue that fier spred ouer into A­sia [Page] for want of fewell to féede vppon at home. We are not vnacquainted with the nature of the Gréekes, we haue had too long experience of them. Geeue them leaue to contende with vs out of their owne countrey, and we shall ne­uer brydle them. But let vs holde them play at home by succouring the oppres­sed part: and then shall we be sure to kéepe them alwayes at so low an ebbe, as they shall not be able to annoy vs, and we shall continually be arbytrers of peace and warre at our pleasure, to the benefite of both the Coun­treis. The like occasion was offe­red and taken in the tyme of our great grandfathers by the valeant Artaxer­xes surnamed the long hand. The two noble houses of Lacedoemon & Athens fell at debate & mortall warre, where­in the house of Athens being ouermat­ched and brought vtterly vnder foote, sought refuge and succour at our kyngs hand: & he releeued the Athenians both with men & monye abundantly, where through it insewed that he both diuer­sed the warre that was intended and al­redy begonne by the kyng of Lacedoe­mon against the Realme of Persia, and [Page] also in the ende had all Greece in such wise at his commaundement, as hee made peace at his owne pleasure. In which deede of his this is worthie to bee remembered to his perpetuall fame, that as hee ouerslipped not any oportu­nitie which might make for the safetie of his owne state, so hee oppressed not the countrie with any bondage, but left it in such peasible libertie, as we haue had the lesse annoyance & better neigh­bourhode of those euer since vnto this day. My counsell therfore is, that wee should lay our purses togither, that we should ioyne handes with the confede­rates, that we should spare no cost nor eschew any peynes for the suppressyng and quenchyng of this comon fire. Ne­cessitie inforceth vs to this warre, ex­cept we wil séeke our owne destruction, and betray our trustie freendes to their and our cōmon truthlesse foe. And ther­with all it is iust, & honorable, yea and also easie. We shall stand in the defence of faithfull and loyall folke agaynst a kynd of people in whom there is nei­ther fayth, nor troth, nor regard of cōmon humanitie, so passyng malicious and spytefull, as they can finde in their [Page] hartes too indure any miserie, rather than to suffer their aduersaries too liue in rest, (their aduersaries are all good and godly men, yea and euen the Gods themselues) and are of farre more furi­ous and bloudthirstie nature, than the hungerstaruen tyger of Armenie, or the shée beare that is robbed of her, whelpes. Wée shall stand in defence of innocentes, against a most cruell and mercilesse Tyrant, against a deceitfull and double dealyng for, against at troth­lesse truce breaker and false for swea­ring kaytif, against a captious spye no­ther trusting nor trustie, against one that weyeth frendshyp by profit and not by faythfulnesse, a betrayer of his owne subiectes, and a hater of honour and ho­nestie, an enemy of vertue, a stayne and canker woorme of princely maiestie, a very helhound and monster of nature, fraught with all wickednesse & woorse than wickednesse it selfe. The intelli­gence of these thinges commeth not by vncertein report from a farre, neither is it gathered by gessing coniectures: he is héere at hand and hard vnder our noses, wee behold his dooinges with our eyes, and wee may in maner féele and grope [Page] them with our fingars endes. They can not bee denyed, the whole world seeth them, and wisedome willeth vs to im­pugne them. It is the comon cace of all princes and all people, to set hand to the suppressing of Tyrantes, if they wil bee counted iust and rightuous. For if faythfulnesse bee taken away, if troth shall serue too woorke trecherie, if the word of a prince bee but wynd, if will may go for law: what shall becomme of the world? Must not comon weales néedes decay? Must not mankynd needs come to cōfusion? For if the head which is the lyfe and stay of the bodie, betray the members, must not the members also needes betray one another, & so the whole bodie and head go all togither to vtter wrecke and destruction? The re­nowmed Darius the sonne of Histas­pis, the repayrer of the drowpyng em­pyre of Persia, thought it not inough to minister iustice to his owne subiectes, but also (to his euerlasting glorie) made warre vpon Polycrates the Tyrant of Samos (who in those dayes was infa­mous for crueltie and outrageous do­ynges though not comparable to our feendly Philip) and takyng him alyue [Page] hung hym the same day in the place where he had committed his cruelties: a notable example of Iustice for all iust princes to followe. Also the Greekes them selues do boast of certeine princes of theirs as of Theseus, Hercules, and Agamemnon, & commend them with immortal prayses for taking away and for executyng of wicked Tyrantes. Let vs not be ashamed nor holde scorne to follow the Counsel and example of our enemies where it may do vs good. Whi­ther we be mynded to prouide for our fafetie by inuadyng the tyrant or els by ayding the confederates, or both, the way is easie for vs and the Gods haue set vs open a brode gate. For on our enemyes behalfe, it appeareth suffici­ently alredy by the former processe of this whole discourse, that although he haue great numbers of people, yet hath he few hartes, and consequently little strength: the best of his Capteines are in armes agaynst him, the wisest of his Counsellers wote not which way to turne them. For they know that the haynouser that mens offences are, and the greater that their contempt is a­gaynst the Gods, the sorer is the wrath [Page] of the Gods agaynst them: and the sorer that the Gods are displeased, the lesse power haue men agaynst the Gods.

Philip and his complices shall bryng with them into the field a stingyng re­morse at the remembrance of their for­mer wickednesse, and the Ghostes of them whō they haue trayterously mur­thered shal flyng the feare of vengeance continually in their faces, so as they shall finde no meanes to shift them frō the hell of their giltie consciences with­in, nor lurkinghole to hyde them from the terrour of the heauenly wrath from aboue, nor way to scape from the sword of Iustice pursuyng them by the hand of man. Finally which way soeuer they turne them, heauen and earth, them sel­ues & theirs shalbe agaynst them. But vnto vs on the contrarie side all thinges are fauorable. Our souerein is singu­larly beloued for excellent clemencie & other princely vertues, not only of our souereines owne subiectes, but also of all forein nations. The Gods do tender him as their deare frend and child, as by many their miraculous preseruations hath appeared. He is riche of treasure, strong in men, prouident in care, wise [Page] in gouernement, garded, with faythfull hartes and sage counsell, at peace with his neighbours, in rest at home, so well stored wich armour, vittell, munition, artillerie, as none of his predecessours hath ben the like, so as there resteth no­thyng but resolute constancie in noble & necessarie actions. The kyng of Cap­padocia is very yong, & they that haue the gouernement of him are our frends. The former competitors of that coūtrie are in our own custodie, and the faction of the Armenian rebellion is extinqui­shed. The Capteines of the confede­rates are either with vs here to vse as fitte instrumentes for our purpose, or practising alredy in the enemyes land to anoy him: & besides the poore exiles that are escaped hither, we haue moe trustie frendes and moe good hartes in our enemyes owne Court, than our enemy himselfe hath.

Thus haue the Gods offered all o­portunities into our handes, & in a ma­ner put victorie in our mouthes: there wanteth nothing but expedition on our behalfe. It is a true prouerbe, that a man may bring a horse to the water, but he can not make hym drinke. Let [Page] vs not be as horses & mules that must be spurred and whipped forward by the ryder. Let vs strike while the yron is whote, the tyde taryeth no man, and the nature of occasion is to steale away vnwares, not without leauing of a con­tinuall hartsore, yea and sometymes of an incurable wounde behynde her, spe­cially in matters of state. If we suffer this gate to be shut vp, behold what a nūber of inconueniences are lyke to in­sue of it. First our present welwillers which by our ayding of them myght haue ben made our continuall frendes, shalbe abandoned to the spoyle, & ther­fore iustly crye out agaynst vs as be­trayers of them into their deadly ene­myes handes, a fitte meane to prouoke the indignation of the Gods against vs. Hereupon it will followe that other na­tions will trust lesse to our frendship, & ware weary of our alyance, so as if we stand in néede of succour at their handes (as who standes vppon so sure grounde that he may not slyde, or who is so strong and mightie as he may not haue neede, yea euen of his inferior?) we shal make them eyther to forsake vs vtterly and to be agaynst vs, or to ayde vs so [Page] faintly and skantly, as it shall turne finally to our benefite, because we so scantly ayded them. Herewithall it wil come to passe, that the whole company of the confederates, (who being now offended with the present wrongs, and with the oppression of their auncient & glorious liberty, could wel find in their hartes to shake of the yoke of tyranny, if they had a sure staffe to stande by) hereafter being subdewed by force, or perswaded vpon good assurance of safe­tie, shall willingly consent with Phi­lippe to séeke the asswagement of their present griefes, in the reuengement of their olde harmes and late renued vn­kindnesse. The Athenians shall call to minde againe the battaile of Marathon and the destruction of their countrie & citie by Xerxes and Mardonius. The Thebanes, Plateans, and Phoceans will bethinke them of the burnyng of their Cities by the Persians, and of the miserie whereby some of them were fayne to séeke new soyle to dwell in. The Lacedemonians and Achaeans, will looke backe to the mayme of their owne state, and to the restitution of Athenes by the puissant Artaxerxes. [Page] The Macedonians, Thracians, and Thessalians wil disdaine at the former subiection of their countryes to the Crowne of Persia. Finally, all the Gréekes will renue the remembrance of the displeasures that we haue done them in olde tyme, and therewithall long to be reuenged of vs for leauyng them so lately in the bryers. Thus shal we bring the whole house (the whole mischiefe I meane) vppon our owne heades. For may we thinke that Phi­lippe (whose vngracious fingars itche to be doing wyth vs already) will holde himselfe within the boundes of Grecia, when he shall haue neither inward nor outwarde enemy to kéepe hym play on that side of the sea? May we hope that the long cōtinued hatred of Gréece will then die, when it shall be of most babi­litie and finde fittest oportunitie of ad­uendgement? Shall we beleue that so many thousand men of warre that haue been inured to the spoyle, noseled in bloud, & alwayes enuious of our state, will then forbeare the swéete soyle of Asia, when they shall perceiue them sel­ues in best possibilitie to obteine it to their profite and honor? Beleue it who [Page] list, I can not, for I sée to many thinges in our state wherewith to allure an as­piryng mynde, & the kyngdome of Per­sia is a sufficient reward for a conque­rour. And therfore when soeuer Philip hath pacified his owne Realme, so as he may leaue no backefrendes behind him: then will he surely poure out the tem­pest of his wrath vpon our land, like as the great riuer of Nilus beyng sodeinly increased with the molten snow from the hils of Aethyope, breaketh out of his bankes, and ouerfloweth the whole land of Aegypt. For it is not the subdu­yng of the confederates nor the wyn­nyng of Bizance and the other townes of Thrace, that can satisfie so vnsatiable a cormorant. Great foules looke after great prayes. It is the kingdome of Persia, beleue me it is the kingdome of Persia, that Philippe ameth at, and which he will one day giue a push for if he cā. And in what case shal we be then? We shalbe fayne (which the Gods for­bid) if the warre be drawen hether and not diuerted, to behold ye burning of our villages, the sacking of our cities, the spoyling of our countries, the slaugh­ters of our gentlemen, the slauerie of [Page] our comons, the rauishyng of our may­dens and matrones, the destruction of our dearest thynges, and a thousand o­ther displeasures and vilanies, which shall inforce men to say (though all to late) would God the counsell of Aria­nes had ben folowed. And if we happen to ouercome in the field, the warre be­yng in our owne contrey, then fare well our good dayes. We haue no holdes nor fortresses of strength to flée vnto till we may recouer a new power. Our neigh­bours whom our vnfrendly dealyng shall haue alienated from vs, will per­aduenture receiue vs for humanities sake, but not releue vs that we may re­couer. So shall we be left desolate of frendes, and either come into most mi­serable bondage with our contrie, or at least wise lyue in sorowfull exile which is litle better. Moreouer, our owne sub­iectes and cities in such case being ap­palled with the misfortune of the time, shall either for feare or for hope of fa­uour, reuolt to the enemy, accordyng as it comonly falleth out, that looke which way fortune swayeth, that way do the multitude inclyne, as the réede that is beaten vpon with a vehement wynde. [Page] And I pray the Gods that in so great & populous a countrie as this is, there may not be found any that will prefer the filthie lucre of a little gold before honest loue of their countrie. But ad­mit we ouercome him in battell in our owne countrey: will he cease his enter­prise for the losse of two or thrée fieldes? will he come so slenderly accompanyed, as to be driuen away for one or two dis­comfitures? will he assayle vs but onely in some one place at once? Do ye thinke that our old enuiers the Cappadocians shall not be sollicited agaynst vs? Yes, and all others that may by any meanes anoy vs. We shal haue our handes ful, and to full. And although that at length we ouercome them all and driue them quite away (as if it should come to that poynt I pray the Gods we might, and I hope we shoulde) yet would they leaue some print of their being here be­hynde them. There was neuer yet any great wounde so throughly healed, but there remayned some scarre of it a good while after.

Thus your Lordshippes haue heard mine aduice concerning the broyles in Gréece, and concerning our present [Page] state, which I doubt not but your wis­domes will so prouide for, as it may continue long tyme in honour and safe­tie. Onely this I repeate for a conclu­sion, that in such weightie cases, delay bréedeth daunger, and it is not good to be carelesse when our next neighbours house is on fier. It is farre better to be enuied than to be pytied. I would not haue our Realme to rew af­terclappes. I had leuer opor­tunitie should be taken, than wished it had béen taken. I haue sayd.

PHilip king of Macedone hauing ben made Protector of ye Thebanes ho­ly league, pursued ye benefite of that occa­sion, till he had so yoked all Grecia that he left them vnable to recouer their aun­cient estate and libertie. Toward the atcheuing of which his suttle enterprise, he was not a little holpen by the flatte­ring and salable tongues of sundry cor­rupted orators and traytors, preferring their own ambitions and gaines before their due zeale & loue to their contreyes. The honest and eloquent Demosthenes that gaue warning and disclosed the sut­tle purposes of King Philip, was not re­garded. The Grecians themselues gaue ayde and seruice to their own destructi­on. And while the one ioyning against the other, vnder distracted opinions of honor to their false gods and idoles, and with deceaued gréedinesse to reuenge old displeasures and quarels, and with some vaine hope of some small encreases by part of the spoyle, they raged in ciuile and mutuall warres, neglecting all ad­uises and warninges, reiecting all true meanes of firme peace, and (that worst was) hauing by many breaches of pro­mise and by vntrue dealing, left no pos­sibilitie [Page] of credite wherupon any assured reconcilement might be stablished, both fondly and wretchedly put their owne neckes in the halter of seruitude, toge­ther with the poore Phocoeans and the other confederates, who were enforced for lacke of power in them selues, or ayd from other, to yelde to the craftie and cruell victors fraude and outrage.

In the meane time, the king of Persia not regarding the aduises to the effect a­bouesayd, neither remembring both the old & also late quarells that Philip did beare in hart agaynst hym, nor fearing the Macedons ouergrowing in strēgth, sate negligent with his wanton court at home, while Philip by augmentation of victories armed his will with power, to procéede with the plotte that he had long before layde for inuading of Asia.

Afterward Philip him self the vntrue and vniust prince, through high indig­nation conceaued agaynst him for not doing of iustice, and for maintayning villanie of life vnpunished in one of hys capitaines and ministers of hys cruel­ties, was in his greatest securitie and glory, most worthily in him that suffred it, though traiterously in him that did it, [Page] sodeinly and openly slaine, euen in the presence of those whom he most hyely trusted, in the middest betwéene hys sonne & his sonne in law, and not with­out suspicion of their good liking, and specially of his next heire and successor, to an eternall document that a traito­rous tyrant can haue none to trust vn­to, and hath euer those most vntrusty whose seruice he hath vsed to vnfayth­full and vnmercifull doings.

But although Philip him self was so preuented by slaughter, yet his nexte heire pursued the enterprise. Alexander the great being heir to the same Philip, now frée from feare and accombraunce of Grecia at home, set vpon the king­dome of Persia, the king whereof had now by not ayding of Grecia pulled the whole weight of the warre and of all the Macedonians freshe and proude vio­lence vpon him selfe and his owne Em­pyre in Asia, where he might haue di­uerted it to haue béen spent to Alexan­ders greater hardnesse, and hys owne good assuraunce in Europe. Which bi­cause he did not in time, his land was destroyed, his wife and children taken, his crowne lost, him selfe slaine, all Per­sia [Page] brought to ruine and slauerie. An e­uerlasting lesson to Princes to kéepe pe­rill farre of if they may, to succour their distressed neighbors, to beware of those that haue geuen examples of infide­litie and of déepe reachyng dissi­mulation, and to take héede to them selues betymes.

GEorge Castriot, sonne of Iohn Ca­striot, was afterward for his vali­antnesse surnamed Scanderbeg, which in our tong signifieth Alexan­der the Lord, or Alexāder the Great: not much varieng from the lyke sound of our owne language. For in some part of this realme, Alexander is called by corrupt contraction Saunder. And Beg amōg the Turkes signifieth great, and a Lord or a great man, as in the office of Bellerbeg: and with vs big is also great. This Scanderbeg breaking frō the Turkes seruice, recouered his fathers domi­nion in Epirus otherwise called Al­banie, which contrey is it of which sometime Pirrhus was, and of which are those Albanois that we haue seen in this realme, of whom some dyd serue kyng Henrie the viij. at the warre in France, when Boleine was conquered. Hauing so in short tyme with incredible industrie wonne a­gayne his inheritance, he was for his excellent prowesse by common con­sent of all the Lordes of Epirus cho­sen their chefe Prince & soueraigne. He florished about the yere of our Lord. 1543. and a good sort of yeres [Page] both before and after. He long con­tinued warre with the great Turkes, Amurathes the father and Mahu­met the sonne. He slew diuerse of the great Bassaes and capitaines of the Turke, with infinite multitudes of their people. He twise expelled A­murathes out of Epirus, and at the later time enforced that great tyrant to dye for sorrow, bicause he could not winne Croia, but was fayne to leaue it with dishonour. He droue out Mahumet also with shame, not only at both the sayd iorneyes when he came with his father, but also when him selfe inuaded Epirus, at all which three voyages the Turkes army when it was least was aboue C. thousand men. He continued the warre aboue xl. yeres. He prepared to haue ioyned his forces with the kyng of Hungarie and noble Iohn Huniades. But hauyng the passage denyed and stopped by George the traitorous Despote of Mysia other­wise called Rascia, through whose contrey his way did lye of necessitie into Hungarie, he could not come in tyme, but that in meane season the Christians ioyning battel before his [Page] cōmyng to them receiued the great & lamentable ouerthrow at Varna, but with so bloudy a victorie to the Turke him selfe that the Turke was enforced to sit quiet a good while after, with most plaine proofe of great likelyhode of auoydyng that great calamitie if Scanderbegs pow­er might also haue been present to their assistance. The life and doyngs of this noble Prince Scanderbeg are set out in Latine by Marinus Barle­tius of Scodra, out of whom folow­eth here translated into English the discourse of a suttle practise of Ma­homet the Turke intendyng mischef agaynst Christendome: how he fea­ring the force of Scanderbeg to in­terrupte his other attemptes if he should ioyne with other Christian Princes, first by crafty meanes pro­mises and persuasions of good and peaceable meanynges not onely to Scanderbeg, but to all other Princes the professors of Christian fayth, he obteined to make peace and league with Scāderbeg. And the same once obteined he dyd in dede surcesse to make open warre vpon Epyrus, but fetched a further compasse about, [Page] he assayled Scanderbegs neighbours and those whom Scanderbeg in time past had defended, and from whom Scanderbeg also in tyme of neede was to looke for societie and suc­cour, & by whom (if they were sub­dued) Scanderbeg was without all dout to be most perislously accom­bred and endangered. Thus peace was gotten with this fraude, that howsoeuer Scanderbeg did not ex­presly capitulate for other Christi­ans, yet bicause the Turke made the cause of his sekyng that peace to be his werrinesse of warre with Christi­ans and his desire to lyue in quyet with them, and that Christians were the instrumentes to procure it, Scan­derbeg could not be persuaded but that not hym selfe onely but also his Christian neighbours by whom he receiued and was to receaue ayde in all necessities shoulde enioy the fruite of the same peace, whome o­therwise no doubt he woulde neuer haue betrayed and lefte destitute, both for the cōmon faythes sake, & for necessarye policie, knowyng in what likelyhoode he stoode to neede them an other time, who either sub­dued [Page] must in time to come enuiron hym as enemies, or vpon articles of peace be lykewise tyed from relie­uing hym, or departing on euē hand or victors recompence hym with the like vnkyndnesse. So was the peace like Cydippes apple, a snare in form to an entrapped mynde, conceiuyng the peace intended farre more gene­rally and largely than it was by the letter expressed, or by the tyraunt pursued. For whyle by that peace Scanderbeg deceaued, was made a looker on of his neighbours harmes and his owne daūgers, while he held hymselfe agaynst the meaning of the league to be tyed by the sillables of the league, from seruing Christ and defending his Church and people, the Turke made warre vppon those dominions of the Venetians that bordered next vpon Scanderbeg, & by which Scanderbeg was to be en­closed in perill, and forclosed from succour. And the Turke caryed with a forewynde in that course agaynst the territories of the Venecians in Epyrus and Dalmatia, and hardly conteyning his malicious courage agaynst Scanderbeg till sitte oportu­nitie, [Page] dyd still now & then by aduise of olde Duke George the Despote, pinche Scanderbegs frendes, sowe hym quarelles at home, & so diuert hys mynde to other necessities, and specially prepared matter to occupy hym vpon other borderers & neigh­bours. And the Turkes subiectes ca­ryed wyth incklinges of their may­sters affection, had made a roade in­to the vtter part of Scanderbegs do­minions, and ministred secret ayde to his enemyes, whereof Scanderbeg complayned. The Turke finding his purposes not yet rype to be broa­ched, and seeing that because he had yet wonne no land from the Veneci­ans whereby he myght beset Scan­derbeg as he intēded, he dissembled for the tyme, and gaue Scanderbeg fayre wordes, wyth laying all the blame from hymselfe vpon his sub­iectes, saying that it was done wyth­out his knowledge, and by certayne about hym wythout hys assent. The case stāding thus, while Scanderbeg saw the perill, & in doubtfull amaze betweene construction of wordes & apparance of meanyng, wythdrewe hys power from doyng any thyng to [Page] the eschuyng of the common perill, the Venecians sent their Ambassa­dours to treate wyth hym to take part in the warre with the rest of Christendome, whom he meant in the league to haue partakers wyth hym of the fruites of the peace. Ac­cording to which true meanyng, be­yng not hidde, but the euident sem­blance to the whole worlde on both partes at the tyme of the makyng of the same league, so many wayes so apparant, as it needed no expressing in letters, nor can now be compted a deuised cauill, the league ought in truth (sayd they) to haue on both sides been kept, and so to bee ex­pounded: beside occasions of breach on the Turkes part well knowen to Scanderbeg.

The maner of dealyng herein, as it was done in deede, and the orati­ons of the Venetian Embassadours, and of the Archbyshop of Durazzo, whom for his great credit with Scā ­derbeg, they had entreated to ioyne with them to perswade hym, do here truely follow in English as Barletius hath written the same in Latine.

KYng Mahumetes Ambassadour, who had béen with Scanderbeg in fortie dayes afore to treate for peace, returned to him agayne with his Prin­ces letters for the confirmyng and sta­blishyng therof accordyng to Scander­beges owne mynde and demaundes. Upon the receit of which letters Scan­derbeg calling his Capteines and offi­cers about him, read them openly vnto them. Who gaue their consent togither to stablish peace with Ottoman, auou­ching the same to be both honorable to Scanderbeg, and also very behoffull & profitable for his Realme. Wherfore a league was made betwene Scander­beg and the Turke, and peace euery where proclaymed through both their kyngdomes to the reioycement of all their subiectes. And the same league was kept faythfully on either part for a certeine tyme. But afterward the truce-breaking Turkes, in whom there is ne­uer any trustinesse, gaue occasion of a breach of the peace. For they first inua­ded the marches of Scanderbeg, and draue away a great bootie with them. Of the which deede Scanderbeg com­playned to Mahumet by letters & mes­sengers: [Page] who answered that he was not priuie to it, and in excuse séemed to be very sore displeased with the matter, that his men of warre had done it with­out his commaundement or consent: & therfore he made him restitution of ma­ny thynges agayne. About the same tyme the Turkes wasted the borders of the Uenetians in Morea. Wherupon, the Uenetians, who were Scander­berges confederates and very deare frendes, sent vnto him their Ambassa­dour Gabriel of Trinisa, exhortyng and intreatyng him to make warre vppon Mahumet, which thyng he might iustly do for somuch as the Turke had alrea­die broken the league and violated his fayth. This Gabriel commyng before Scanderbeg, spake thus in the pre­sence of him and of his Lordes.

RIght high and mightie prince, our cōming vnto you is not, (after the maner almost of all such as come of Ambassade,) to exalt you with prayses, nor to aduaunce the worthinesse of your countrie, the antiquitie of your proge­nie, and the excellencie of your noble doyngs with deserued commendacions: for neither do I thinke that any man, [Page] were he neuer so eloquent, could easily do that: neither doth the state of the pre­sent tyme séeme to suffer the same to be done with comlynesse. But our com­ming is rather to exhort and persuade you, and moreouer to intreate you, to cast and bend the sight of your mynde (which is alwayes wont to espye a far of, and to looke & perce through thynges to come that lye yet in couert) vpon the perill that hangeth ouer Christendome, and vpon the mischief that alreadie be­gynneth to bud & burst out, & is lyke to ouerspred all Europe within a while, if it be not met withall betimes. For you may be well assured & out of all doubt, most noble prince, that wheras the tre­cherous and wylye Tyrant could pre­tend no naturall intercourse of loue be­twene the Turkes & Albanes, his ma­king of peace with you is nothyng els but vtter falshede & dissimulation, that when he had first subdued the residue of the Christen Kynges and Princes that are your neighbours, (for he saw him selfe to be held at the staues end, yea & ouermatched by your maiesties puis­sance) he might aduaunce his power & dominion further, & turne his warres [Page] vpon vs also: We sée already that after this barbarous Prince had once made peace with you, and saw him selfe safe and quyet from warre and anoyance at your hand, by and by he turned his force agaynst the Rascians and Triballes, & put them to wrecke. That done he con­quered the Sclauons & ouerthrew the Thracians, and deposing the Gréekes from their Empire, wonne the kyng­dome of Trebizond increasing still hys strength, and aduauncing his dominion further and further. And now breakyng the couenaunt of peace, and violatyng all right, he wageth warre agaynst vs. He hath forrayed both your countrie & ours farre and wyde. Behold Prince Scanderbeg, how well the barbarous Turke kepeth promise with you. He hath réered warre, he is entered into armes, he prouoketh you alreadie to battell, and vttereth his meanyng and outrage without couerture. Are theis thinges to be quietly put vp? should you yet still held your peace? must you yet still trust the Turke? must you yet still trust to his courtesie, while he maketh hauocke of Christendome and vtterly destroyeth vs, whereas vnluckye warre [Page] were better thā so dishonorable a peace? Thinke you that the infidell hath so soone forgotten the shamefull death whereunto you draue his father to his great dishonour? match herewithall the slaughters & calamities of his armyes Capteines and Lieutenantes whiche you haue put him to. The sauage and cruell Mahumet thinketh of all theis thinges, he myndeth them continually, he setteth them day and night afore his eyes, and he desireth and longeth to be reuenged. But alas most noble prince, he worketh wyles, beleue me he wor­keth wyles, he vseth the sleight of his aunceters, he practiseth dayly how to wynd about you and to catch you by his deceites and policies. Hetherto he hath flattered you to ceasse from warre and to lay away weapon, that he might go through with his owne warres, and op­presse & cast downe the rest of the Chri­sten Kinges and Princes that are about you, of whom he saw none able to with­stand his force but onely you. And now after he hath subdued all the others vn­to hym, and all thynges are fallen out as he desired, he turneth vnto you. He bendeth his battailes at you, to make [Page] cleane riddance of you and all your sub­iectes and kyngdome, and then to swal­low vp vs, and to satisfie his owne bar­barous rage. Therfore most gracious prince, what should you linger any lon­ger? The matter is come to that poynt, that you must haue Mahumet [...]either your enemy or your Lord. Let vs also enter into armes agaynst hym, let vs incounter force with force, let vs ioyne battell with him. He prouoketh vs to warre, let vs giue him his handes full of it. Let vs burne and spoyle his coun­trie as méete is we should, and let vs not suffer our selues to be intrapped by his wylinesse & policies. For the false forsworne kaytif intendeth and practi­seth nothyng but to oppresse vs one by one, til the state of Christēdome (which God forbyd) beyng bereft of counsell & comfort, may be yelded into his hand without any stroke strikyng, and the common libertie of all men be past re­couerie for euer: whereas if he sée vs knit our selues together, he will be a­frayd of our force, and shunne our pow­er: or if he will néedes venture vppon vs, it may be his chaunce to go away vanquished. But if he finde vs separa­ted, [Page] he shal easily ouerwhelme vs. So o­uermightie is hee alone at this day. Therfore let vs not suffer this plague, this infection, this sore to be in Europe, whiche doubtlesse will ouerspred and fester the whole contrie if it be not pre­uented before hand. For you know wel inough the wyles of the Ottomannes, you are well acquaynted with theyr craftes and policies, whereby they shift out all their matter, and bryng all their greatest exploytes to passe. What man is able O most victorious prince, to rec­ken vp the wicked & haynous doyinges of this most cruell tyrant, who in that poynt farre surmounteth all his aunce­ters, as the person that cannot be satis­fied with the dayly slaughter of his own subiectes and nerest frendes, and also longeth to imploy all his force agaynst our state of Uenice, which (as your ma­iestie knoweth) hath alwayes bene a buttresse and bulwarke of the Christen fayth, to the intent that when he had once shaken, broken, and ouerthrowen that, he might also strike down not one­ly the Albanes, but also the other nati­ons of Christendome, & trample them vnder féete. But this is not the onely [Page] thing that the cruel & outrageous tyrant intendeth, though it be very great & vn­able to be abidden among men: But al­so to destroy the right fayth and to for­bid men the way of euerlastyng salua­tion. For he is in a wrong box who soe­uer he is that beleueth that Mahumet desireth not rather to wast & vnpeople the countries of the Christians, than to treade downe the true faith, and to roote it vtterly out of mens hartes. What then? Good God what may we Christi­ans hope for at this beastes hand, sith that both in belefe and all kynde & trade of lyfe we be vtterly disagréeyng and straungers from him? Therfore O in­uincible prince Scanderbeg, the cham­pion & souldiour of Christ, make spéede, make hast, away with delayes, dispatch the imminent mischieues and perilles from thy selfe & from thy necke. Take héede to thy selfe, take héede to thy state and kyngdome while you mayest (for now thou mayest if thou wilt) before the mischieues & perils cast thée downe and ouerwhelme thée. For if they once light vppon thée (which God forfend) thou wilt wishe and shalt not be able. Therfore to my séemyng it is farre bet­ter [Page] for you and more for your ease, to prouide before hand, than to séeke re­medie and redresse after the receit of the wounde when the stroke hath hit you. Prouide therefore, prouide, most excel­lent Prince, out of hand, that the out­rage, rancor, pestilentnesse, and venim of Mahomet may not infect, defile, and marre thée, who doubtlesse séeketh, pre­pareth, and practiseth nothyng but to toll you to trusting of hym, & then cru­elly to leade you to death and destructi­on, as who is and alwayes hath béen an vndermyner of Christendome and sheader of Christen bloud, and a deadly hater of the Christē and right beléeuing fayth, which he studieth and indeuoreth night and day to defile, cut of, and vtter­ly destroy by all the meanes he can. To the maintenaunce and defence wherof, agaynst the rage & crueltie of this wood and butcherly tyrant, Christ (whose champion and Souldier your inuincible maiestie is termed) together with the state of Uenice, who take you for their Prince, doth call & intreate you. Golde, siluer, men of warre, and whatsoeuer els is needefull for such exploytes, wée promise & proffer vnto you aboundant­ly. [Page] Wherefore most glorious Prince, girde vp thy selfe out of hand, bring thy Souldiers into ye field, set thy battels in order, draw thy sword, put thy speare into the rest, and géeue charge vpon the Turkes, the vtterest enemies of the true fayth, whom thou hast alwayes easily ouercome, and whom lykewyse to ouercome, there is a fatall and hea­uenly power geuen thée by God from a­boue. For surely if we preuent hym not sooner, he will out of doubt infecte and marre all. For you know alreadye the wyles of the Turkishe kynges, you know their craftes and policies wherby they shift out all their matters, & bring their greatest exploytes to passe. And a­gayne, O most victorious Prince, who is able to rehearse the wicked and hey­nous factes of this most cruell tyrant, wherein he surmounteth all his aunce­ters, as one that can neuer be satisfied with the slaughter of his trustie subiects and neare kinsfolke. Therefore to con­clude, what may we Christians who are straingers to him in beléefe, and dif­fer from him in all trade of lyfe; good Lord, what may we hope for at the hand of this beaste.

WHen he had made an end of speak­yng, Scāderbeg, not that he wist not what opinion to be of, but because he was wont to doe nothyng without the aduise of his men of warre, called hys Captaynes and officers together, and debated a long time at large with them whether he should consent to the Uene­cians and make warre vpon the Turk, or no. All which were of opinion, in a­ny wise not to make war against him, because he refused to make open warre with Scanderbeg, and had restored the most part of the bootie which his souldi­ers had (as he auouched) taken out of Scanderbegs territorie, rather of wan­tonnesse, and through a certayne loose­nesse of souldyerly libertie, than other­wyse. By reason wherof the Ambassa­dour of Uenice receiuing this answere, and vnderstanding their mindes, depar­ted from Scanderbeg in great heaui­nesse for missing of hys purpose, and in his way went to Paule Angell Archby­shop of Durass [...] ▪ (whom he knew to be a man of very great credit, & that there was nothing so great and hard, which he was not able to winne them to whē he listed) to trye if the [...]strehbysh. would [Page] take vpon hym to deale with Scander­beg & his officers, to enter into armes agaynst the Turke, and to make warre vppon hym, for he hoped vndoubtedly that Scanderbeg and his men of warre would easily be wonne to the Ueneci­ans request. The Archbyshop beyng a very great fauorer of Uenecians, dyd in honour of their Senate goe immediat­ly vnto Scanderbeg. This Archbishop was an Albane, borne of the house of Driuast, the sonne of Andrew Angell aforesaid. He was a man indewed with great wit, singular eloquence, and ex­cellent learning, both in diuinitie and humanitie, very well séene both in Gréeke and Latin, notable for the gra­uitie of his life and conuersation, and excéeding earnest in the Christen religi­on. And Scanderbeg had him in singu­lar reuerence for his modestie, and for the excellencie and great vprightnes of his life: and all the Albanes & Epyrots gaue eare to hym and honoured him as an Oracle. Immediatly vpon his com­ming to Scanderbeg, all the captaines and Souldiers were called together, whom he indeuered to persuade to take warre in hand against Mahomet, by [Page] such an oration as this following.

THe diuine Plato, most victorious prince, affirmeth that cōmō weales, kingdomes and Empires be then hap­pie and throughly blissed, when they chaunce to be gouerned by the best and wisest men. Which thyng we sée in the open light at this tyme to be come to passe among vs Albanes, who are go­uerned by you alone a most sage and gracious Prince and most inuincible Capteine. And therefore, not without good cause, all the Kynges and Princes néere about and borderyng vppon you, haue for your valeantnesse and singular actiuitie chosen you alone for their cap­teine and generall, as a man sent vnto them from heauen, to defend their real­mes and kyngdomes from the Turkish outrage & barbarous crueltie, who haue alwayes hetherto béen singularly and honorably defended by your power and wisedome, and by the valeantnesse of your Capteines and men of warre. Which thyng Mahumet that suttle and craftie vndermyner and fierce persecu­ter of the Christen religion perceiuing, and longing to satisfie his inspeakable hatred conceyued agaynst the Christi­ans, [Page] hath brought to passe by his Tur­kish traynes and wylinesse, that you fel to composition with him by makyng a league, to the end that you might ceasse your warres, and he be no more trou­bled by your power, which he was sore afrayde of, for the dispatch whereof he easily graunted what soeuer articles of peace liked you best. But alas most no­ble Prince, who séeth not that the bar­barous tyrant hath wrought all theis thynges with you by barbarous treche­rie, and that his making of peace is but a pollicie, that he might first dispatche the other Kynges and Princes that are your neighbours, and then turne agayn vpon you as he hath done already? For where are the Princes of Rascia? where are the kynges of Sclauonie? where is the kyngdome of Trebizond which sup­plyed Constantinople, become? Now, e­uen now a late he hath turned agaynst you, and breakyng his league and faith, hath wasted your countrie farre and wyde. He troubleth and vexeth your league fellowes with continuall rodes. For who (O noble Prince) is able to vtter this most outrageous tyrants vn­measurable spyte agaynst you? Thinke [Page] you that he will leaue the death of his father Amurathe, the sorowfull slaugh­ter of his hostes, the sleayng of his Cap­teines, and the killing of his generalles vnreuenged? Do you trust the wordes & promises of this beast? do you admit his excuses? wil he kéep touch with you? will he kéepe faith, which he neuer had, nor neuer kept with any man vnto this day? Good God, who is able to rehearse the wicked doynges of this most cruell Tyrant? Neuerthelesse I thinke it a­gaynst reason to wrap them vp in si­lence, for somuch as it is a certeine ho­nest pleasure to inuey agaynst a sinfull and wicked person, and to hale forth the workers of mischief into the light, and to call them by their names, to the in­tent that other men may absteine from vyce and lewdnesse for feare of shame. Therfore like as vertue is not to be left without prayse, so is not vyce to be left without disprayse. For like frute is re­ceiued both of praysing the good and of dispraysing the euill. And therfore it is good right and reason that all naughtie and wicked men should be ill spoken of. But so much the more is this Tyrant Mahumet to be ill spoken of, bycause he [Page] excelleth & passeth other men in naugh­tinesse, whose life, maners and doinges I will runne ouer as shortly as I cā, to the end they may be the better knowen vnto you, & that you may shunne them. Mahumet was borne of very base and vnhappie stocke and of very meane pa­rentes,Mahume [...] their Prophet. in that nacion which beyng the worst of all barbarous nations is al­wayes wont to fléete frō place to place. For whereas the Scythians aboute Maeotis are the barbarousest of all bar­barous people, he is reported to haue béen borne in the basest and dishonora­blest place among them. For Scythia was hys countrie, and the village of Otmanach was his birthplace, from whence the house or familie of the Ot­mannes taketh his originall, whiche glorie to bee counted slaues. So is there nothynge more shamefull and vyle than his auncetrie. His father A­murathe therefore, for whom it was not lawfull to reigne by reason of his auncetrie, for somuch as he was of the house of Otman, which was borne to bondage and alwayes giuen to slauerie, inuaded the kyngdome of Asia and o­ther Realmes by craft and wickednesse, [Page] and increased and inlarged them all, & so farre aduaunced his state which pro­céeded from a beggerly and lewde be­ginnyng, that as now he is vnable to wéeld his owne greatnesse. And to the intent I may also come to his condici­ons: this Mahumet is of great strength both of bodie and mynde, howbeit of an euill and lewde disposition, an enemy of mankynd, a common foe to all men, a sheader of bloud, a workemaister of mischief, a wellspryng of all vyces, a furtherer of death, a father of all naugh­tinesse, & an insatiable mansleaer. Who beyng issued of such aunceters, and re­teyning still his barbarous and vnmea­surable crueltie, hath euermore conti­nued still one man in his crabbednes all his lyfe long. From his youth vp his pleasure hath béen in warres; slaugh­ters, rauishmentes and debates, and in the same hath he spent his yong yeares. Of courage he is hardie, wylye, varia­ble, a fine coater of any maner thyng, a coueter of other mens goodes, a burner in his owne lustes, & a desirer of thyngs immoderate, incredible, and vnmeasu­rable. First therfore there grew in hym a desire of gayne and afterward of do­minion [Page] more than can be expressed. His mynde was stayned with euill tatches. Neither was hee cleare from wicked lustes: but was a filthy adulterer and a deuiser of vyces whiche euen nature it selfe abhorreth. This is the same Mahumet whiche for desire to reigne murthered his own brother. The prin­ces of Rascia▪ and the kyng of Bosna he slew by trecherie, and their kinsfolke he partly caryed away into bondage and captiuitie, & partly put out their eyes, or maymed them in some part of their bodyes. What shall I say of others, vp­pon whom he tryed all kyndes of tor­mentes, in somuch as it should séeme he would wreake his téene vppon hym selfe if he wanted others wherein to do it, so cruell is that nature of his, and his ouerboyling anger can neuer be satis­fied. For his hart beyng vncleane to Godward, and spyteful towardes men, doth alwayes imagine mischief, este­myng frendshyp or enemitie not by de­sert but by profit, nowhere keping mea­sure, no where kepyng modestie, com­mittyng shamefull and cruell thynges both agaynst frends and subiectes, spoy­lyng Churches both openly and priuily, [Page] vnhalowyng holie thynges, defilyng all thynges, snatchyng all thynges, pluc­kyng all thyng to hym, confoundyng shame and chastitie, and heauen & earth together. Hath he not subdued, slayne, and caught prisoners almost all against his leagues? And therfore what nouel­tie is it, most noble Prince, if a truce-breakyng Turke kepe no promise with you, seyng he is stayned with all kynde of vyces, & holdeth still the sayd wicked­nesse and trecherie by inheritaunce frō his aunceters? Wherfore beleue not the tyrant, neither trust you to his wordes and promises: but withdrawying from all frendshyp with hym, thynke the peace to be broken whiche he hym selfe hath first cut a sunder & dissolued, & for­slow not to pursue him with warre for fauour towardes hym. Prouide, pro­uide quickly for your selfe and for your Realme, that the Turke surpryse not you and yours by treason and sutteltie. The wyly For imagineth nothing els, the lewde cankerd carle practiseth no­thyng but how hee may ouercome and oppresse the faith of Christ, for ye which, you (as you know) haue determined to labour and trauell continually, and al­so [Page] sworne the same, yea and I remem­ber wel that you haue oftentymes said, that you were borne & begotten for the defence & maintenaunce therof. Wher­fore then (by your patience) haue you laid weapon away? Why suffer you the fayth to be oppressed by a tyrant, while your souldyers myndes become lazie by idlenesse? Haue you abandoned ye com­mon welfare? haue you renounced the warres? haue you chosen to liue onely to your self? Thinke you there shal en­sue small perill to your self by so doing? Shall a valiant and auncient Captaine in battell sit still with his armes folded one within an other? Alas for shame, shall mē sée the corage of a prince which was somtyme liuely and lustie, become now lazie and vanishe away through i­dlenes? But your frend Mahomet loy­tereth not, he becommeth not drowsie with ydlenesse, but he watcheth, he la­boureth, he bestirreth himselfe, to disho­nour the Gospel of Christ, to sinke Pe­ters shippe, and to rend and teare Chri­stes coate, folowing the footesteps of his aunceters and the traditions of his false prophet, who charged his people to per­secute Christianitie with all egernesse, [Page] as a hatefull and vnholy thyng, and to shed the giltles bloud of the Christians without pitie. By reason whereof thys tyrant hath alwayes persecuted ye Chri­sten faith most sharply aboue others: a­gainst whom, if you who are the inuin­ciblest of all Princes, do not out of hand arme your selfe, rayse your power, and make warre vppon hym, vndoubtedly all men will déeme you to be fearefull, cowardly, and geuē ouer to slothfulnes. Knowe you not that all the Christen kynges and Princes together with our most holy Pope Pius the chiefe Byshop of the world are conspired together a­gaynst this tyrant, whom they are fully determined (by Gods helpe) to pursue to the vttermost, till they haue dryuen hym quite and cleane out of Europe? A pardon is already gone out from the Pope, and published through all Chri­stendome, wherein all Christen kyngs and Princes are willed to take armes with the Pope against the king of Tur­kie, and behighted forgeuenes of their sinnes for so doing. In consideration whereof your frendes the Uenecians with their Duke and whole Senate, & their armies, as well by sea as by land, [Page] together with our chiefe Bishop, do [...]an and cry vpon you to this against Maho­met, and make you their Prince, Cap­tayne, and Lieutenaunt generall of all the whole hoste of Christendome. And as soone as the Pope shalbe passed the seas and entered into Durasso, he is de­termined to proclayme you kyng of Al­banes and Epirots, as the worthyest person to whom the chief charge of this warre should be committed. Therfore most happy Prince Scanderbeg, what doest thou? Why makest thou delaye? Eyther thou must forget warre & battel for euer, and receiue the yoke, or else thou must neither in valyantnesse nor in painefulnesse geue place to this par­tie with whom thou must haue to doe for the souereintie and dominion of all. Plucke vp thy corage and strength, call together thy captaines and coronelles, assemble thy people and subiectes on all sides, intreate the kynges and Princes that are confederate with thée, set thy battelles and bandes in aray, folow the company of the faithfull, & the congre­gation of all the Christians, obey the high B [...]shop, and get pardon for thyne owne si [...]nes and the sinnes of all thyne [Page] armye. Beholde, the Uenecians haue sent me to tell thée these thynges, and to perswade and exhort thée to match thy power with their power, thy ensinges with their ensinges, and thy battelles with their battelles. For as you know, the Uenecian Princes are right Chri­stian, bountiful, and very puisaunt both by sea and land, and they promise and profer vnto you aboundance of golde and siluer. Wherfore Lord Scander­beg, play the That is to say Lord Alexander. Scāderbeg in déed, thou glory of Princes, geue thou the first on­set vpon the barbarous infideles wyth thy power, inuade thou his marches, strike thou thyne enemy in feare & ter­ror, which hath prouoked thée first by breaking the league and violatyng hys promise and peace. For all lawes crye out, and all dueties permit that no pro­mise should be kept with hym that kée­peth none hymself. Therfore goe bold­ly, I say, goe boldly before the Christen armye, assayle thou the enemye first, proclayme generall warre agaynst the Infidell, and make way before hand, a­gaynst the high Byshop come. For loe, the Pope Pius, loe, thy Uenecians, loe the Frenchmen, Spanyardes, Flem­minges, [Page] Hungarians, Bohemians, Polonians, and all Christendome fol­low thée & assist thée. By reason wher­of it is not possible that the Infidell shoulde be able to withstand so many kynges and Princes, & so many hostes and armyes, and therefore he must be fayne to take hym selfe straight wayes to flight and to gette him quyte and cleane out of Europe. The Turkes pride shall not auaile hym, neither shall his wonted wiles, treasons and policies helpe him. But by the way I must put in mynde, & you your selfe must wisely forecast it, that the guilefull Turke foreséeing all these thinges, will by and by send messengers and Ambassadours to you, to allure you to lay aside wea­pon, and to kéepe the peace wyth hym, which he hath broken with you. But re­gard not his mischeuous nature, shutte and stoppe vp your eares against his in­ticementes. You knowe the mans dis­position already, ye find well inough what he is, and you are as well ac­quainted with the wyles of the house of Ottoman as any man is who soeuer is best acquainted.

MAhumet the ambitious suttle and cruell Prince, continuing his purpose to encrease his wicked sect & to enlarge his dominions, seyng him selfe vnable to atcheue that purpose so long as Christian princes were vnited in myndes and forces agaynst hym, resorteth to his accustomed auantage. He practiseth to bynde some Christians whoes strength he most feared, with band of league & peace, which he iudged they would sincerely obserue, him selfe alway reteynyng a periurous mynde to breake fayth whē it should be for hys profite so to do. So had he done in his peace with Scander­beg wherof in the former Orations is made mention. For seyng, that while Scanderbeg was his open ene­mie in warre and employed his day­ly strength vppon him, he could do nothyng to the Venecians, he durst not attempt any new enterprise in Hungarie, & his allye the false Chri­stian Duke of Mysia could not rest in quiet, much lesse in abilitie to anoy Christendome at hys pleasure, but [Page] that Scanderbeg was euer redy with his ayde to stand betwene hym and the Venecians, to assist the Hungari­ans, to make way thorough Mysia with fire and sword, and at euery nede to defend the Church of God: Mahumet first practised to oppresse him by strength and treason, and by accomberyng Scanderbeges owne contrey, one while with inuasiōs, an other while with warre of his neigh­bours, an other while with seditions and conspiracies of his own frendes and Capitaines and nobilitie against hym. Vnder promise of a hie mari­age, endowed with hopes of crowns, and great wealth, and the possessing of Scāderbegs own land and inheri­tance, the Turke allured Amesa the greatest Duke vnder Scanderbeg in Epyrus, and Scanderbegs own kins­man, and whō Scāderbeg with great loue and indulgence had suffred, yea and aduanced to ryse to the greatest credite in that land amōg all estates and specially the commons of that Realme, both by authoritie and of­fices to him committed, and by his kinred to the prince him selfe and al­liances [Page] to the most of the nobilitie of the land, which estimation Duke Amesa had him selfe also hyely aug­mented by great vertues that other­wise were in hym, specially such as were aptest to winne affectiōs of the multitude. This Duke Amesa was so by this traiterous Prince Mahumet seduced. He promised hym the mari­age of his owne nere kinswomā after the dispatchyng of Amesaes owne wife, he promised him forein ayde & force of men to strēgthen his rebel­lion agaynst Scanderbeg, apointyng him both number and time & place where they should arriue, with suffi­cient furniture of all meanes & pro­uisions to atteine his wicked pur­pose, and he promised him the suc­cession and crown of Albanie to him and his heires for euer, whiche yet God wote the tyrant neuer truly in­tended, but fully determined, if by this meane Scanderbeg could haue bene made away, to haue shortly af­ter easily dispatched poore Duke A­mesa and quickly ioyned whole Al­banie as a prouince to his own Em­pire. And not onely he so misguided [Page] Duke Amesa, but also by meanes of Duke Amesaes fauor credit and alli­ance, and by great corruptions and promises from him selfe, he founde the way to draw vnto the same par­tie and faction sondry other of Scan­derbeges nobilitie, and specially his trusty Coūseller Moses. But almigh­ty God, whoe had oft before, as by miracle and of his owne immediate grace, preserued his noble champiō & true seruant Scanderbeg, did▪ now also assist the good prince and prin­cipall instrument of succoryng the Churche and deffendyng Christes Gospell, in this great dāger of hosti­litie and treason packed together a­gaynst the safetie of this godly and honorable soueraine. Duke Amesa preuailed not, but was taken, empri­soned, and after dyed: Moses vppon repentance returned to grace: Ma­humet lost hys great preparation, and lyke a horrible stinche left be­hinde him at the ende of the enter­prise, an odious and lothsome dis­closing of a trecherous mynde a­gaynst the safetie of true Christian princes, and an eternall vnappeasa­ble [Page] hatred agaynst Christes Gospell and Religion.

This attempt fayling, he practised a new deuise. He fayneth hym selfe werry of warres with Christians, he taketh vpon him to be greued with the wast of his people and with hys great losses in so continuall enemi­ties and destructions, he protesteth a desire of quyet and at length to geue happy rest to Christendome & to him selfe, and therfore he writeth fayre glosing letters to Scanderbeg: he sendeth Scanderbeg goodly pre­sentes, Turkye horses, bowes, car­pets, silkes and many gay thinges: he maketh much of Scanderbeges mes­sengers: he setteth those in his court whom Scanderbeg best loued to be instrumentes to draw Scanderbeges ministers to commend the peace: he maketh most frendly shewes of fa­uor to the faction of Scanderbeges frendes in the tyrants owne realme, court and familie: he halfe yeldeth the zelous shew of his owne heresie, to beguile Scanderbeg with such hy­pocrisie: he practiseth to make some of Scanderbeges nobilitie to set out [Page] in large speche the discommodities and hazardes of the warre, the wa­sting of treasure, the losse of men, the hinderance of the landes by with­drawyng trafike and entercourse be­twene their subiectes, with great am­plifieng the benefites of long desi­red peace and such other deuises. By these and such like fetches at length he somewhat softened hys inuinci­ble zele, and a litle blyndfolded his clere pearcyng iugement. And so this great tyrant Mahumet by litle and litle diuertyng Scanderbeges eyes from Mahumetes periurous falsehed, and from consideryng how the tyrantes Bassaes and Bishops did iustifie infidelitie and breach of faith agaynst Christians, at length a peace was made betwene Mahumet and Scanderbeg, Scanderbeg alway iud­gyng the same peace not to be taken for him selfe onely but also for hys Christen neighbours. Which he was induced to beleue by these reasons, for that Mahumet pretended the cause of his sekyng that peace to be his werrinesse of warring with Chri­stians, and for that other Christians, [Page] specially those that lyued vnder the tyrāts empire, were the chief meanes and instrumentes of practising the league, assuryng Scanderbeg and his embassadours & ministers that the same shold not onely be to the great benefit of Scāderbeg, but also to the perfect suretie of those Christians that labored the peace, and to a no­table meane of reuenge and ouer­throw agaynst the old false Christian Duke of Mysia that had bene the sower of all the former troubles and mischieues. So rested the comprehē ­sion and expresse prouision for o­ther Christians in onely vndoubted confidence. And while Scanderbeg neuer suspected so foule a trecherie as Mahumet intēded, the other Chri­stian princes, and specially those that were most subiect to Mahumetes power, although rhe peace was most chiefly pretended for their suretie, yet by reason that Mahumetes dis­sembled shewes of good will toward them made forgetfulnesse or appa­rance of no nede to comprise them, or by some sinister practise, were left out of the capitulation and articles.

[Page]Then the peace was not onely so­lemnely accorded, but also ratified & confirmed, by othes, by Embassa­dours, by solemne testifications and gratulatiōs, and by all the exquisite meanes that might be to bryng Scā ­derbeg in confidence of the infidell Mahumetes fidelitie. But immediat­ly vpon this cōclusion of peace, Ma­humet hauyng Scanderbeg fast tyed from stirring, & finding that (which he chiefly coueted in the whole peace) that there was no speciall ar­ticle expressed for the other Christi­ans for whoes sake and for whoes safetie and by whoes meanes the peace was chiefly intended and pro­cured, first maketh warre vpon the Venecians: not in Cyprus nor Can­die nor other places, wherein he might do as great hurt to the Vene­cians with lesse peril to Scanderbeg, but he piketh out those places and territories of theirs that lye hard vp­pō Scanderbeg, he besiegeth, Scodra, and maketh warre vpon the Veneci­ans dominions in the selfe Epirus and Dalmatia. He pretendeth ay­dyng of his allye the Duke of Mysia [Page] and so piketh querell to Hungarie, and by the way vnder color agaynst the Hungarians he fortifieth Mysia against Scanderbeg. By these deuises this plat hath he layed. If he wynne Scodra and other peces and territo­ries of the Venecians in Epyrus, thē hath he Scanderbeg enclosed with mighty fortifications on that part. If he oppresse the Hungarians and winne frō them the frontier townes, then hath he also so much neare strength on the other side▪ In fortifi­eng Mysia he hath also a third meane to assaile Scāderbeg. And in all these cases he hath a sure distractyng of all ayde from Scanderbeg in his neces­sitie by hemming him thus round a­bout And though it should happen that he could in none of these places wynne ground and so hedge him in, yet was he sure so to werry the Ve­neciās, Hungariās, and other neigh­bours, that when he should begyn warre with Scanderbeg they should be so entangled with articles of a new league, or tyered with discom­modities of old warre, and partly so irritated with Scanderbeges with­drawing [Page] his assistance from them at this tyme, that in hys neede they should either not be able to do hym good, or willingly shrinke from hym as he doth now from them, and should pretend them selues likewise to be bound by league as he for hym selfe now allegeth. And one further reache therein also hath the tyrant, though he wynne nothyng agaynst the other Christians, yet vnder color of hys warres in so nere partes to Scanderbeg to haue a great power alway in redinesse vnsuspected, with full purpose to poure it sodenly vp­pon Scanderbeg if he spye hym vpon trust of peace negligent and open to auantage. For this cause he maketh his siege against the Venecians both by land & sea, and maketh semblāce that after the warre ended with the Venecians he is to vse his nauye for an other enterprise a farre of, onely to this purpose by sea and lād to set sodenly vppon Scanderbeg so sone as the periured tyrant might finde eyther Scanderbeg hedelesse, or Scanderbegs frendes and Christian neighbours either wrapped & with­drawen [Page] with the lyke peace of wer­ryed with former warres. But as God would all thys sutteltie was preuented. For by the persuasion of Triuisa the Venecian embassadour and Angelo the Archbyshop of Du­razzo, as is aboue sayd, and by a no­table good occasion ministred by Mahumet hym selfe, by a roade made into Scanderbegs countrey by the Duke of Mysiaes men Mahu­metes cōfederate duryng the peace, and by sondry inclinges and prac­tises of Mahumet to vndermyne Scanderbeges safetie, Scanderbeg was persuaded to enter into the de­fence of hys Christian neyghbours and to accompt the true meanyng of the peace to extend to them all, as hym selfe at the makyng of the league dyd vnderstand it and expect the successe of it, and as Mahumet hym selfe dyd beare semblance and feede the sayd expectation. So were all the suttle deuises of the faythlesse tyrant for that tyme thwarted and wisely met withall. Whereupon Ma­humet grew to accorde with the Ve­necians and Hungarians, and raysed [Page] his siege of Scodra, & withdrew hys armye by sea from that place. And in that peace with the Venecians he lykewise left Scanderbeg vncompre­hended. And notwithstandyng o­ther pretenses to vse his strength a­gaynst the barbarous Mamaluches in Egypt, to whiche kyngdome he was trayned with some hope of their crowne and Empire, the same force that he had vsed by sea and land a­gaynst Scodra and agaynst the Vene­cians he did not dissolue, but wholly employed it agaynst Scanderbeg. In this distresse cometh Scanderbeg to his old frend Alphonse of Arragon, the kyng of Hungarie, the Princes of Germanie, the fathers of Venice, and other Christian Kynges and states, to craue their aydes in de­fense of the Church of Christ, and speaketh to such effect, as foloweth.

IT is not vnknowen vn­to you most puissant and Christian Kyngs, Prin­ces, Lordes and fathers, how we haue these ma­ny yeares, in continuall warre agaynst the most mighty Tyrant the professed enemie of our fayth and libertie, and a­gainst his confederate falsly bearing the most holy name of a Christian Prince, susteined the defence of our owne right and preseruation & of a few noble prin­ces and faithfull Christians in territo­rie nere adioyning to vs, and in bond of most Christian and noble societie most nerely conioyned with vs. It is also e­uident that the mightynesse of our ad­uersaries, and the sclendernesse of our powers in comparison of theirs, we be­yng in all thynges sauyng in the good­nesse of our cause & in assurance of faith the onely foundation of inuincible cou­rage farre inferior vnto them, haue af­ter so many spoyles of our contrey, so many battayles foughten so many princes slayne, so many sieges suffred brought vs to great vnlikelynesse of long continuance, specially when they aboundyng in multitude, although eche [Page] of the bloudes of vs and our valeaunt frendes & subiectes should be sold with the liues of many on the other part, must needes yet by and litle at length consume vs. Hereby it may séeme to some that our spéeche and most earnest sute vnto you at this tyme is but our owne cause enforced by our owne ne­cessitie. In part we must needes con­fesse that so it is, & we do accompt it our greatest comfort that our God vouch­saueth in such noble place and honora­ble degrée of most dangerous and ther­fore also most glorious & hye seruice to employ vs. Yet must I admonishe you to call to mynde, and most principally enforme you to consider, and most en­tierly besech you & therewith also most seriously aduise you to remember, & not onely to hold in memorie, but also to exercise in continuall cogitatiō, that the case is also sondry wayes your owne, and so farre as you excede me & my con­federates the poore Princes and nobili­tie of Epirus, in wealth, largenesse of dominion, abilitie of resistance, num­bers of your owne royall and magnifi­call persons, & multitudes of your sub­iectes, and your and their posterities, [Page] so much is it, though not more nerely yet more hyely yours than ours, so much is your charge weightier, your burden of dutie heauier, you perill of losse dishonour and damnation greater and greuouser, and in respect of subiect mater, of persons and of tyme and po­steritie though it come not sooner at you yet it extendeth both deper & further to you. What is it to lose Epirus in com­parison of the rest of Christēdome? But toward the losse of the rest of Christen­dome, how great a mater is it to lose Epirus? What great losse can be of vs a few poore gentlemen that kepe but a corner of land, in respect of our selues, whē we shall gaine by death in the que­rell of Christ? but how great losse shalbe to you so many so great Princes that possesse the bodie of the Christiā world, to lose your lyues at length if not by warre yet by ordinarie necessitie, and therwith to lose your soules for destitu­ting the cause of Christ, and the lyues & soules of infinite your subiectes and frendes, in leauing or rather making o­pen the entrance into the fold of Christ, for the enemie of Christen fayth & re­ligion to make hauock of Christes flock [Page] and people, which you might haue hol­pen? Heare me and my confederates therefore I besech you, as you beyng men endued with kindly nature of man would heare naturall men oppressed & nedyng your ayde: Heare vs as you be­yng noble Princes would heare Prin­ces & noblemen in vtter danger of their liues possessions and liberties: Heare vs as ye beyng Christians would heare Christians and the champions of Chri­stianitie in greatest perill and extremi­tie, fightyng for our common fayth and fréedome and crauyng your succours: Heare vs as ye your selues wold heare men speakyng to your selues, for your selues, of the greatest maters, most nerely touchyng you, & most depely im­portyng you, in hauiour, in honor, & in safetie, for the presēt season, for the time shortly at hand, and for euerlasting con­tinaunce. And in hearing of vs, put on I besech you, humanitie to pitie vs, wise­dome to looke to your selues, zeale to serue God, necessary courage for the present, honorable and dutyfull care for posteritie, an heroicall desire to atteine immortall glory, and a dreadfull dili­gence to escape eternal punishment and [Page] infamie. And aboue all thynges whyle you liue imagine your selues dyeng, & when you haue heard vs imagine your conscience at your dyeng houre vpbray­dyng you with not doyng that whiche we desire ye to do.

Let now you owne depe impressions of the cause vppon our admonition a­uaile to moue you, and in my wordes I pray you remember that how soeuer you haue bene vsed at home to delicate and tickling speches exquisitely framed to please you, by those that either for their depe reuerence beyng your sub­iectes, or for their profite sekyng gayne by your fauorable audience, feare no­thyng so much as with any scratch of playne truth to offend your eares accu­stomed to more deinty vsage, you will be pleased not to looke for that of me, but be contented in a new necessitie to awake to a newe forme of hearyng. Beare with me I besech you that haue not bene brought vp in scholes to gather my aduancement by wordes, but haue spent my life in armes to defend Chri­stendome by dedes. And beyng my selfe (though by Gods ordinaunce that hath placed me in the frontiers of his church [Page] to beare the first brunt of the enemie, a poore one and nedyng succour,) yet a prince of soueraigne authoritie in myne owne dominions as you are, I presume that such thynges as I shall speake, which at your subiectes hands were not so mete to be said, yet at my mouth, one of vs fréely admonishyng an other, and in this hye necessitie, you will patiently heare me and in a rude vessell receyue the holesome frute of counsell for proui­siō for all our safeties.

The great enemie of the Christian religion hath as ye know by the sinnes of the people and discorde of Princes excedyngly preuailed, and dayly grow­eth more and more agaynst vs, and of all that vngodly race neuer was there any more perilous to Christendome than he that now reigneth. For though Amurathes hys father were terrible and in long course of victories had sta­blished an opinion of inuincible felici­tie, yet anguish and disdaine that he at­teined not to féede his cruell hart with sight of our destruction in Epirus, a­gaynst whom he had intended most hor­rible crueltie, hath by Gods most graci­ous prouision taken him away in most happy season, and ioined him to his pro­genitours [Page] the persecuters of the Gospel of Christ, and so disappointed hym of his most tyrannous purpose, which he not onely had in hart conceyued, but threatned to sée it with those eyes which God both shortly after & most happily closed. This present tyrantes brother by Gods grace also liued not to execute the cruelties that were to be looked for of such an vngracious stocke, of so ou­tragious a father, and so faithlesse a mo­ther, and so perilously matched, but by the treason of those that ought in na­ture and dutie most to haue preserued him, or rather by the mightie and boun­tyfull hand of God, was cut of in good season for Gods Church and people, so as what soeuer Christendome might haue feared, yet it felt not that by hym, whiche at this mans handes both hath bene found and is dayly to be looked for. Now after the deliuerance of the world by Gods benefite from his father & bro­ther, this monster of periurie and cruel­tie hath succeded, in whom is to pe­ril and dread of Christendome such con­fluence of dāgerous likelihodes & horri­ble effectes as neuer were séen y like in any afore. Descended of a father whoes [Page] very childhode was nothyng but delite in mischief, whoes youth was nothyng but outrage vnchastitie violence & con­tinuall disorder, whoes mans state and age was nothyng but sowyng of warre vpon warre, dayly delite in bloud, coue­tyng to enlarge his dominion, desire of subduyng & destroyeng, vnder colour of protection and succour, and whoes end blessedly sent by the hand of God was the rather hastened in his owne frea­tyng mynde with seyng his cruell in­tentes not satisfied, and so he departed as it were more pined and starued with want of tragicall foode to glut his cruell appetite and thirst of slaughter & bloud, than any poore famished wretch langui­sheth for lacke of meate and drinke to susteine his feble nature. He is borne of a mother Cathagusina worthy to match with that husband, and likely to bryng forth this child, the daughter of a runnagate infidell, whoes very nation, whoes Citie and place of birth, whoes race and kinred, are despisers of God, scorners of Christ, blasphemously cōp­tyng his most diuine and meritorious workes for a fable, and settyng heauen and the blisse thereof behynde worldly [Page] wealth and glorie. His mother I say Cathagusina, beside this inheritable & naturall habite of Godlesse impietie hath euer bene a depe dissembler, a craf­ty snarer, a cruel executer of mischiefes, in so much as it may be truely sayd, that the engendryng of this Prince of the séede of that father and that mother is, as wel sayd of the Romane tyraunt, Lutum sanguine maceratum clay tempe­red with bloud, a compound mixture of bloudy crueltie and suttle pliant false­hed to infect to poison and to destroy the world. His very phisiognomy, not onely in fauour, which God hath geuen him vnchangeable to note him to the world, but also in his maner of looke gate and gesture, which he hath by vse framed to the conformitie of his mischeuous dis­position, do portend and threaten trea­son and murder, a glumme silent clo­kyng of trecherie, an earthly downe­ward looke fléeyng the conscience of hea­uen and tendyng to the ground and to hellward.

All these wicked signes, and dange­rous inclinations, haue euer bene fed cherished and encreased with the com­panie of most false wicked and bloudy [Page] fellowes of his sportes actiōs deuises & counsels. The principall fathers of hys false fayth, vpon whom as a dore vpon henges, hangeth the vpholdyng of their heresie, do guide and misguide both hym and his. They lay the crocodiles egges that he hatcheth. They gouerne leade & tosse, hym as if they had some part in his fatherhode, and as if they accomp­ted that he it is by whom their damna­ble feet shalbe enlarged. That abhomi­nable falsehed and blasphemous heresie is it, with zeale whereof they colour all his vntruthes & tyrannie: with it they shadow his ambitious intentes to en­large his dominion, and enterchaūgea­bly with ambitious hopes to encrease his conquestes they augment his zeale to their errour. With the principles of that heresie they assoyle him from ke­pyng of fayth, they teache him to make no accompt of treason & periurie, they make all leagues and promises to serue their turne, to bee dissoluble at their willes, both vnder pretense of omnipo­tent power that their great Mahumet and them selues haue to discharge him, and of the former continuing league to their blasphemous idole, to whiche [Page] they hold that all later leagues are to geue place when it shalbe profitable to breake them.

For execution of these terrible con­ceites, and for seruing his pestilent hu­mour, whom vseth he, whom loueth he, whom estemeth he, but the misbe­gotten race, the ofspring of old murde­rers, and the hopefull youth to hazard any mischief or villany, without regard of God, of faith, of chastitie, or kindly pitie, or of any naturall affection or god­ly vertue, such I say as are taught to feare no God, to shunne no sinne, to haue shame of no filthinesse, to haue care of no faythfulnesse, to haue reuerence of no worthinesse, to haue mercie of no ruthfulnesse, & to haue onely confidence in the fained almightinesse of their great prestes that persuade them that all hor­rible actes agaynst Christians are me­ritorious seruices to their false Prophet and Antichristian Mahumet? Thus des­cended, thus begottē, thus shapen, thus brought vp, thus inclined, thus guided, thus taught, thus accompanied, thus serued by other, thus delited him selfe, what can we hope? nay what ought we not to feare at his hand?

[Page]Now of these great likelyhodes, of these godly blossomes, what frutes hath he shewed, since he hath after death or rather murder of his brother inherited his fathers open vices and crowne, & ad­ded therto his mothers secret craft & vn­faithfulnesse to make vp a perfect tyrāt? Behold euery way if his attēptes haue not ben wonderfull, his successes pros­perous, & his boldnesse therby gathered intolerable. The particulars wherof be­yng knowen enough, and to lothsome to remember, I will but shew you his late doynges euen now in hand to your perill. Since his great intelligēce & con­spiracie with that old wretched prince the Despote of Mysia, what mischiefes hath he wrought to Christēdome, what falsehed hath he not attempted what crueltie hath he spared? The noble prin­ces and gentlemen of Rascia, subiect to his power, he [...] constant in Christian faith, and not to be drawen to shrinks from their conscience, and perceiued it impossible to wrest them to be wicked & vnthankeful ministers of his trecheries and traitorous violences intended by him agaynst the Christian kynges and states their good and vertuous neigh­bours [Page] in whom they had found comfort and in whom there remained hope of louing and lawfull assistaunce at their nede. This tyrant therfore continuing a lōg foredeuised plot of subduing Chri­stianitie and of aduauncing his domi­nion monarchie and heresie, by growing still vpon his neighbours, and specially bending him selfe for this tyme agaynst poore Albanie & wealthy Hungarie, out of the one of whiche he hath lately bene happily shaken, and the other he and his auncesters haue long gaped for, and now espying the sayd Rascian Lordes his subiectes to be no small impedimēts to those his vile & dangerous attemptes against their chief frendes and to whom they were in common fayth & had béen in benefites so hyely bounden & such as were then in peace also with the tyrant him selfe, he vsed the counsell of the old vngracious Duke George Despote of Seruia, an old trained traitor to Chri­stian faith, one that had long bene prac­tised in supplanting true Religion, an extreme & mercylesse tyrant, furnished with experience of the auncient serpent and vnderminer of the old libertie of the hyest Christian state, an assured slaue [Page] to great Antichrist, close in counsell, spedy in pursuing, resolute in executiō, lacking nothing in dede of an excellent capitaine but faith truth moderation of crueltie and an honest cause. With this old cankered Duke instructed with all the vertues that the deuill hath to mini­ster, this yong Mahumet and his com­plices consultyng how to reach his am­bitious intēt, to destroy & captiue those Christian Princes his neighbours and their kingdomes that were so great eye­sores vnto him and so much hindered his course of conquest & of ouerthrow­yng the religion of Christ, haue entred into this deuise, first to murder the sayd Lordes of Rascia. By open warre he could not do it, for thereof he had made large experience. God had so defended them agaynst his sondry attemptes, God had so moued the hartes and ver­tuous courages of the good princes their neighbours (agaynst whom the tyrant for that cause yet holdeth depe emprin­ted a reuengefull hatred to be poured out when power and oportunitie shall serue him, how soeuer he now dissem­bleth) God I say so styrred these good Princes with care of Gods honor and [Page] their dutie to his Church, that their as­sistances how soeuer they were sclender and neither open nor to the full, haue bene so blessed that hee could neuer by iust strength & sincere warre confounde them. By publike iustice and lawfull proceding he could not touch them, such euer hath bene their vpright loyaltie, as him selfe with his owne testimonie hath bene enforced to confirme. Wher­fore now no meane rested, but treason and periurie, to prostitute and defile the most reuerēd & sacred fayth of a prince, and for the hyest treason and tyrannie that euer hath bene heard of, to call to ayde the hyest and holiest meanes of credite, the word and othe of a king, his coūsell, and officers, that to his superla­tiue title may be added all superlatiue falsehed infamy and dishonor, that now the faith royall of that nation may in common vnderstāding signifie nothyng but trecherie and breach of othe and of vniuersall fidelitie. This course was ly­ked among them. Under peasable pre­tenses and the swetest baites of faithful amitie, the poore Lordes of Rascia were trained within the net of his power. There were they fedde with ioyes of se­curitie. [Page] They saw the tyrantes face fra­med to swetenesse of coūtenāce, almost beyond that which nature could per­mit to so portentuous a visage shapen to mischief. They considered the Chri­stian princes nere bordering vpon them to bee in league and amitie with this Mahumet. They sawe the peace be­twene him & his Christian neighbours sworne before them, wherof themselues had bene the instrumentes. They saw it commodious for Mahumet to kéepe faith and sound peace. They saw him in some necessitie and lacke by his former warres in Trebizond, in Hungarie, at at the siege of Croia, & elswhere. They saw his people wasted, and great néede of quiet. They heard his many repen­taunces of former troubles. They saw his pretense of ioyes for present amitie. They heard it daily by his attestations to their frendes. They saw them selues admitted to his daily pastimes. They saw him delited in their companies, ex­ercising his sportes with pleasure amōg them. They saw them selues receiued to secret counsels and conference with him. They saw him cōferre with them about his great enterprises and namely [Page] about conquest of parcel of ye Empire of Trebesonde. Them he fained him selfe principally to trust therin, and chiefly to repose him selfe vpon their force & fide­litie. They saw their backbiters frow­ned at. Their familiar accesse vnto hym and great fauour with him femed to be enuied at. They saw all ceremonies of his owne heresie made to stoupe & geue place to their encouragemēt. They felt thē selues liberally rewarded. A thousād other exquisite meanes to abuse them did trayne them to assurance of his loue & constancie. In the middest of all this securitie grounded all vpon naked sim­plicitie truth & confidence on their part, and vpon trecherie dissimulation & per­iury on his behalfe, be slaughtered them all, and among the rest, how he vsed the poore kyng of Bosna it is to odious to tell. Without order, without iudgemēt, without law or lawfull cause, noble­men, gentlemen, old, yong, men, wo­men, children, all that euer were subiect to the reach of crueltie though not sub­iect to any possibility of offending, were butcherly murdered, as if he had concei­ued a purpose in his hart not onely to glut his tyrānie with the bloud of those [Page] whom hee thought impedimentes to his vniust purposes, but also not to leaue in the worlde a witnesse of his falsehed, but such as were gilty with him and partakers of his outrage, nor to suffer any to remaine whoes sight hereafter might represent to his gilty hart the memorie of their fathers, hus­bādes, mothers, or frendes so vniustly, vnnaturally, & vnmāly slayne. And yet to haue the double auantage of both de­uises, sée the crafty wretch what he hath inuēted. To be sure both wayes, that on the one side this extreme crueltie should fray all persons from standyng agaynst his wicked purposes hereafter, and as it were to shake his sworde and halters ouer all your heds & in example to hold the charged pistole to your bosomes, and yet on the other side that this horrible periurie & murdering of persons yelded after his fayth royall, after his promise and his othe assured vnto them, and af­ter his long cloked and continued course of dissimulation, should not vtterly fray all men from euer trusting him againe, and thirdly to make the name of Chri­stians odious, and also fearyng least so foule treason should throwe hym into [Page] sodeyne warre with to many of hys neighbours at ones for whom he was not yet fully redy, and specially douting least those with whom hee is in league should of so open falsehed gather open warnyng to stand vpon their gard, and an apparant profe that in their leagues also he intendeth to kepe no faith with them, but watcheth opportunities a­gaynst them, and therefore that it beho­ueth them to looke to his doynges, to construe them by this example, to re­member that their cause of his malice to them and to those that he hath mur­dered is all one, and to prouide for him, and to succour the remnantes of silly Christians which he yet hunteth about the world: for these reasons to bléere o­ther Christian Princes eyes till he lay his net ouer them, he published forsoth that the poore Lordes of Rascia had con­spired agaynst his life and crowne. But O ye mighty Princes, wey the vntruth hereof, and when it is weyed, let it wey with you for an vndouted argument what is intended agaynst you, and how much it behoueth you to looke to your selues betymes. Let it auayle to put you in mynde if euer the like manner of [Page] league or alliance hath bene fought by him to be made with any of you, & com­pare by this example what is lyke that you should haue suffred if it had proce­ded, & how much you are to thāke God that you haue escaped, and for your es­cape how much you owe to God and to his Church and to your contreys and to your own preseruations, to succour the afflicted, & prouide for your selues, and your charge. Let his crueltie make you carefull: let hys falsehed make you hedefull: let the disclosing of his vn­truthes make you skilfull, that ye may pitie vs, looke to your selfe, and beware of him when ye vnderstand him. He sayth forsoth that all this great slaugh­ter which he calleth execution was but to preuent treason on their partes a­gaynst him. Note the likelyhodes and sée the manifest falshodes. The Lordes of Rascia which when they stode against him in field and had him their open ene­mie, yet euer sought his grace & to lyue in peace vnder him, and neuer attemp­ted trecherie agaynst him, now hauyng him (as semed) their good Lord, their li­berall and bountifull soueraine & frend, would they enterprise any thing to his [Page] destruction? They that by onely sinceri­tie of conscience and good dealyng had wonne the hartes of such as were not their subiectes, and thereby gathered strength for their defense, would they now with treason lose that fauour got­ten & so stand without all hope of power for their preseruation? They that knew the great mischiefes that they before had suffered by the disgrace & vnder the name of so great a prince, to haue proce­ceded from lewd traitorous counsell of such as now Mahumet him selfe pre­tended to bereue of their seignorie and conferred with the Lordes of Rascia for atcheuing it, would they practise his de­struction while he was now ioyning with them to be reuenged vpon theyr greatest enemie? would they haue done it at this time? would they not (if any such intent were) haue stayed till first this reuenge had bene accomplished, & so to haue had their hatred satisfied a­gaynst their principall foe, and also Ma­humet the weaker by lacke of his assi­stance, that they might then better haue performed this traiterous purpose if e­uer they had cōceiued any such? Would they, if any such purpose had ben in [Page] their hartes, haue bene the meanes for peace and league betwene Mahumet and you noble Christian kynges & prin­ces, and so not onely to set Mahumet in more securitie to be bold vpon them, but also by reason of such leagues to take from them selues your accustomed suc­cours, and their owne safest refuge? Would they haue chosen that place at Andrinople ye Turkes chief seate, wher­in the Christian faith is hated, where the tyrant and their enemies were hye­liest honored, where the inhabitantes detested their persons and religion and haue euer bene the parteners and the chief encouragers of Mahumetes trea­sons, whom Mahumet him selfe could hardly hold from assayeng violence till his bloudy counsels where rype & rea­dy, where I say their aduersaries pow­er was great and not resistable? Would they haue made their match so madly, agaynst so many, agaynst Mahumetes whole populous cruell citie of Andrino­ple, agaynst his great traine of Princes then assembled, agaynst his gardes of Ianizares, agaynst all likelihode of pre­uaylyng or of escapyng if they had pre­uailed, them selues beyng so fewe in [Page] number, vnarmed, and vnprouided? Wold they haue brought their wiues & daughters to the place? Would none of them all in that slaughter findyng God disapointyng their treason & tur­ning it on their owne heds, haue confes­sed it for very remorse of conscience? Wold not torture haue wrong it out of them, but that after torment & at death, they all still denyed it? would not pro­mise of life to those that dyeng without confessyng (if it were true) were haste­nyng to eternall death, haue allured them to saue them selues without care of shaming or offending those whom they now saw past all habilitie to helpe them or reuenge it vppon them? How happeneth that the contradictions of things spoken written and published by him selfe do excuse them & accuse him? How chaunceth that the slaughters at the same time in all places where Chri­stiās were to be found in his dominion, do plainly shew that any their sodeine conspiracie there could not extend the giltinesse where they were not? And were the wiues, the Ladies, the noble virgines & women gilty, whom no man for their sexe would so dangerously trust [Page] with so great a secret, & whom no man for their weakenesse, wold make parte­ners that had no force to assiste them, but many impedimentes to withold them? And were the silly babes also gil­ty, euen the sucking infantes, & the vn­borne frute gilty, whoes very remem­braūce would rather haue stayed them, or at least some of so many, from such an enterprise? Wold they haue come to such a feate so vnstored of weapon and meanes of furtherance, so loden & clog­ged with weake burdens and meanes of accombraunce. Doth not the hasty ex­ecution argue the murderers giltinesse, where hym selfe stoode in no feare or danger, nor the other side in any possibi­litie of escapyng? Were they not in his power to be deteined, to be arrained, to be tried in iudiciall forme, and in their publike conuiction to haue condemned them selues of treason & acquited hym of periurie? Would he haue suffred the stayne dishonor and infamie of so vyle a murder, if he might haue auoyded it with prouing them giltie who could not escape the triall if he had lifted to haue brought them to it? If they were so wise as theyr former lyues haue shewed [Page] them, it can not be credible that they would haue attempted so great a mater so foolishly. If they were fooles, as they must nedes be if they were truely char­ged, then had they not wit enough to haue preuailed. So if they were wise they are not truely to be accused, and if they were starke fooles they were neuer iustly to be feared. But (O excellent Princes) neither were they fooles nor false. Noble & true gētlemen they were: valiant Christians, & faithfull persons they were: onely vnwisely they trusted a tyrant, & now lamentably they pray you to be wiser. Such were the false ex­cuses of Iugurth agaynst noble Hiem­sall and innocent Adherball. Such were the shamelesse proclamations, letters, & edictes of vile Antoninus Caracalla agaynst his brother Geta and agaynst the people of Alexandria. It was not their treason it was their cause, it was their fayth, it was their Christian Re­ligion, it was their vertuous and loy­all constantie, whereby the tyrant could neuer be assured of them agaynst you, but euer accompted them impedi­mentes such as he must of necessitie re­moue ere he could procede with hys [Page] practises agaynst you, your kyngdomes and states. Albanie could not be pos­sessed, Hungarie can not be subdued; while Rascia is to minister aydes and meanes of frendly passage for the one to releue the other. Rascia diuided from Christianitie, and added to his heathen seruitude, setteth him in the middest of the frontiers of Christendome, and se­uereth the assistance that should defend them. That is the marke, that is the end, these be but entrances. It is the cause that slew these Princes, it is the cause & the same cause that is common to you. It is your Christian fayth, that they dyed for: it is your amitie, for that they could not be drawen agaynst you, that they dyed for: it is the defense of your dominions which could not be sub­uerted nor ones with any force attemp­ted in their lyues, which they dyed for. It is they that liuyng honored and ser­ued you, and now dead do warne and teach you, and this they teach you, that you trust not the faithlesse tyrāt. They tell you they were slayen for the fayth that you professe: they tell you withall that the same cause sufficeth the tyrant for querel to do the like to you if he can: [Page] They tell you that they were murdered to make him the easier passage to your dominions: they tell you withall that he wil not lose the fruite of that labour, but much more seke to destroy you than them, whom he destroyed but to make way to you. They tell you that (beside opportunitie to hurt you) he gayned no­thyng by their death, for that they were his vassals before: they tell you withall, that he shall gayne great kingdomes by oppressing you, & therfore will more e­grely pursue you than them. They tell you that he holdeth him selfe bounde to mainteine his principall league & con­federacie with the princes of the Mahu­metane heresie, wherein is included the ioyning of all their powers to ye rootyng out of the godly princes that mainteine the religiō of Christ: they tell you with all that ye be those Princes to whom although this late mischief hath not yet atended yet surely it was and is inten­ded against you. They tell you, and in their owne example plainely proue it, that what soeuer later peace or leagues haue bene made with you, they were neuer more sacredly made and assured than these that were made and sworne [Page] to them: & therewith they tell you that Mahumet supposeth them all subiect to his former league with those infidels, & that he will breake them so some a [...] his auantage serueth against you. Imagine O ye noble Kinges, Princes, Lordes, and fathers, that ye saw here before yt the late excellent Lords of Ra [...]ia, some with hoare beardes reuerēd, some with manly visages honorable, some with youthfull comely personages louely, & ioyned with them in companie an infi­nite multitude of noble Ladies, ancient womē, florishing virgins, tender babes, the healthy, ye sicke, the lame, the yong, the old, ye vertuous, the learned, all be­rayed with goare bloud with filth and myre of streetes, naked, howed, man­gled, singed with powder, shot through with pellets, euery way most lamētably slaughtered and made lothsome to looke vpon, and imagine that piteously some one of them for all deth say vnto you. Ye noble Princes the remainyng suc­cours and defenses of Christianitie, be­hold we beseeche you the spectacle of Christians slayne for our & your faith, & let the sight of vs be warning to you that ye looke to your selues and to the [Page] [...]ocke of God. We are now deliuered from earth and are no more the sub­i [...]ctes of the tyrant that cruelly slew vs. Now by death deliuered from his yoke, [...]owing him no dutie we speake bold­ly lawfully fréely & truely against him. Trust no bondes of his, for he is all to­gether faithlesse & vntrusty. We were [...]es the stay betwene you & him, now by our death is the passage made open to you. If we could haue bene conten­ded, vnthankefully and vnworthily of the great benefites that we receiued of you, to haue promised him to serue a­gainst you, he had bene pleased to haue suffred vs to liue with libertie of our re­ligion. He proponed vs that article, he trauailed with vs to that end, we refu­sed it. He was chiefly bent to bereue you of your possessiōs and liues, to roote out your Religion & stablish his monar­chie. He practised earnestly to haue our assistāce. When he saw he could not winne vs thereto, but that we remai­ned impedimentes to those deuises; he hath for your sakes slayne vs, and made [...] terrible examples to fray all other from resistyng his purposes. In déede we know well, that if we had yelded to [Page] his request against you, his promise of enioyeng the fréedome of our Religion and conscience, should not haue lasted but till you had bene oppressed. Let that therfore be a lesson to you, that his pro­mise shalbe no longer kept with you thā till he may haue leysure, after destroy­eng vs, to set vpon you. For what assurance haue ye of him more then we had [...] nay surely ye haue not so much by this that we beyng slayne there is so much lesse mutuall assistance left to Christi­ans. For it is nothing but feare & want of abilitie that holdeth him from breach of faith. Can ye trust vpon better then we haue found, by reason of treaties & articles conceiued and put in writyng? we had articles conceiued, written, en­tred in recordes, and yet broken. Can ye trust vpon better by assurance of the word of a kyng? we had faith royall ge­uen vs in the word of a kyng, & yet bro­ken. Can ye trust vpon better by the oth of a Prince? we had many othes of a Prince and many wayes testified and yet broken. Can ye trust vpon better by othes & promises of Lordes, coūsellers, and Magistrates ioyned with their king and so bound to aduise him to obserue [Page] it▪ Alas we had the othes of Quéene Cathagusina his owne mother a borne Christian in name though descēded of a ra [...]e despising Christ: we had the othes of hys Bassaes, his Lieutenantes and gouernours of the prouincies where we liued and of all the officers of all the Courtes of Iustice and Capitaines of places of strength within those partes of his dominions, and yet broken. Can ye trust vpon better in respect of honor? here was honor most highly violate, & the greatest dishonor entred that euer Prince deserued. Cā ye trust vpon bet­ter by regard of naturall pitie? Alas we were his own and found no pitie, what shall straungers looke for? Can ye trust vpon better by shewes and apparances of good countenances, faire wordes, and pleasant semblance? we had plentie of those, & yet broken. Can ye trust vpon better in respect or comparing of your owne consciences on your part, know­ing that on your behalfe all peace is truely kept without cause of offence? Surely there was on our part nothing but innocence and naked confidence and much lesse mater of vnkinde construc­tion than can on your partes be shewed [Page] if the quarelling victor ones growest out of feare shall him selfe haue the expoun­ding of it. Thus it hath pleased God we should appeare to your considerations in such mornefull and piteous wise as ye now behold vs, to set before you your owne perils, to imprint them in your hartes, & to be causes of extending your due compassion to the rest of Christes members which neede your ayde, and which yet do (as we sometime did) stād as a fense for a time betwene you & the common enemies of Christentie, and so serue we in the case of our bodyes to warne you that ye defend them as your vtter wall, least if it be lost, the perill draw nerer to winne your innermost dongeon and greatest strength. And if it be lost by your betrayeng it, or by your doing nothing for defence of it, you not onely hasard your safeties, but shall lose your honors for euer, and with the con­querer himselfe you shall not winne the thanke of good peacekéepers and league-fellowes, but he in his triumphe will brag in reproche of you that ye preten­ded fidelitie of peace to cloke feare, and shounyng of honor with perill, and that most is, ye shal charge your selues with [Page] a hard accōpt to him that gaue you the honor to beare the sword not in vaine, & trusted ye with the keping of his viney­ard house & Church. On the otherside in the case of our soules, the same our God hath willed vs to let you know, that how soeuer we seme in this shew la­mentable bicause in bodies we were so, yet now we are not in peine but in ioy, that ye may be assured, how soeuer (if ye well serue him) he guideth the suc­cesse to his glorie, it shalbe your bene­fite, & though you geue your lyues in his querell, yet shall you gaine them, & eternall ioye shall succede your blessed endynges, and if you can carie cleare conscience that you shrinke not from the perill of his warrefare you shalbe assured to haue your part in the honor of his triumphe.

Imagine ye mighty Princes that ye saw their bodies in this array, and that their ghostes thus spake vnto you. The mouing of conscience to consideration is called the speach of that which it cōside­reth. So hath it bene sayd by our Saui­our, that those & those shall rise against these and these to condemne them in the day of his dreadfull iugement, which is [Page] no more but that the consciences of the giltie shall burden and condemne them selues with the others example and comparison.

And now leauyng that impression to prepare you to a right maner of con­struyng Mahumetes doinges and your owne duties, I beseche you marke the rest of his procedinges, & thereby iudge the course of his counselles, and direct your contermines thereafter. Behold how cruelly he hath dealt with the no­ble gentlemen my kinsmen and dearest frendes the long parteners of my tra­uailes perils and fortunes both good and bad, whom beyng taken in warre hee could not be brought either to ransome or exchaunge, but horribly murthered them. Moses of Dibra my dearest com­panion, Giuriza de Vladen my kins­man, Musachio my sister Angelinaes sonne, Ginio Musachio, Iohn Perla­to, Nicholas Berrisio, George Chuc­ca and Ginio Manessio, all excellent Capitaines and zelous Christians, tra­uailing in succour of our faith and ta­ken prisoners by that paisant borne, that runagate infidel and traitor Balla­bano Mahumetes minister within the [Page] streightes adioyning to the vale of Ual­ [...] the frontiers of Epirus toward [...]edone: how despitefully were they vsed, dragged about in most shamefull [...]i [...]e, vexed, tortured, and at length a­gainst all law of iustice and nature put to most vile & horrible execution, and set vp for signes, not so much of their great calamitie, as of his most abhominable t [...]rannie, & if ye wi [...]e be, to your most [...] warning & pearcing example▪ The strong towne of Sfetigrade one of the keyes of Epirus he hath taken by treason of the superstitious garrison of the Dibrane souldiers, and by practises of fowle and vnhonorable corruption. Croir and Petrella he besiegeth. And, that his extreme malice may appeare, in the depe of sharpe winter, in hard­nesse of prouision, in scarcitie of all thinges necessarie, in the pouertie of his owne people, in so great nede of rest af­ter so many trauailes and miseries, in hye securitie of being assailed by vs if he would haue let vs alone, in the middest of the hope of his conquestes elswhere to be extended, and of his businesse other wise to be more profitably employed, beholde howe his hatred of Christian [Page] name can geue his gredy hart no [...], but in all these reasons to the contrarie, he pursueth our blood, to wade through it into your bodies and into the rest of Christendome. What a wound hath he geuen to Christendome at the battell of Uarna? How cruelly hath he vsed his victorie, and what lamentable, slaugh­ters & vnspeakable outrages hath he cō ­mitted at the winning of Constantino­ple? Behold how nere he is, how small a distance by sea departeth you. If Epi­rus bee throughly conquered that hee leaue no dout behinde him, how nere & how daungerous a neighbour is he [...] your possessions in Dalmatia? how [...]tal [...] is into Sicile? how lye your Is­landes vnder his nose? what opportuni­ties hath he to oppresse your nauigati­ons? your sailing decayed, how sore ene­mies shall he & his confederates by sea, yea and the sea it self, be vnto you, euen to enclose you and not to defend you, to enuiron you as a siege or net and not as a wall or trench. Note his meanes of growing further. While the querels that he mainteineth in Epirus, and the siege of small townes with houge ar­mies, [Page] and preparations to other great attemptes, do geue him colour to raise great powers prouisions and num­bers, doth he not diuert you from suspe­cting what he intendeth? It is not Epi­rus that nedeth so great a force. Epirus is the colour to make you negligent. When Seruia your neighbours land is his confederate, when Epirus is distra­cted from you and not ayded by you to find him fully occupied elswhere, looke for it out of hand, so soone as he shall by conquest of Croia & Petrella, or by new supplie of his owne forces, be able to spare them from thence, Albanie shall poure out his men of warre vpon your frontiers, his ships that now attend for that seruice shall bring your danger ne­rer [...]ithe your selues will not driue it further. Then your sclender succours that serued not vs for safetie, shall serue him for querell, beside that he hath pre­pared & cherished querels within your owne bosomes. How oft hath the Duke of Mysia that old false Christian his cō ­federate practised to corrupt your sub­iectes, deuised meanes of diuiding your selues, secretly raised rebellions within your landes, cherished traitors, geuen [Page] them strength and countenance when they were in force, & refuge when they were vanquished? he mainteineth your fugitiues and exiles, he suborneth titles to your crownes, he hath prepared you work at home if you tarry til he be rea­dy for you. In all these thinges is Ma­humet to carrie the gaine, he is the prin­cipall laborer and for whom is princi­pally labored. They haue cast lottes vp­pon your garmentes, they haue in their very leagues and treaties deuided your dominions, and the great Antichristian fathers of their secte haue drawen the lines betwene them, and in their con­uenticles confirmed the distribution of your kingdomes, they support your nere enemies, they faine thē selues pro­tectors of those to whom they say you doe wrong, and whoes cause they kéepe in store to accomber you. And whereto tendeth this, you can not but sée, and if séeing it you foresée not to méete with it, you can not but féele it. And aboue all thinges I besech you note one thing, by bold resolutenesse on his parte he hath the fame of constancie & it is found peri­lous to resist him: by timorous dealing on our side we haue wonne a mocking [Page] name of silly clemencie and made it no danger to shrinke frō vs. By his grow­ing the hopes are on his side: by our for­bearyng the feares are drawen to our side. And by this meane our owne poli­tike & worldly wise subiectes & frendes, which are the greatest numbers, flée dai­ly from vs, make their peace vnder hād with our aduersaries, and still ripen the mischiefes till our state fall rotten to ruine, with small néede of any foreine violence, but one boystcous blast of winde, to ouerthrow the féeble stay that we stand vpon. Thence came the Des­potes first declining, thence came it that many townes and regions borde­ring vppon the conquerer haue folowed his fortune and forsaken those in whom they saw no hope of stedfast succour.

Bend your selues therfore bytimes, O noble Princes, to take the querell of Christ in hand, to succour your neigh­bours, to defend your selues, to kepe pe­ril farre of, to preuent impossibilities of escape, to win to you the praise of pru­dence and fortitude, to do true iustice in succoring against wrongs, & in doing the true offices of noble Princes repellers of vniust violence, and mainteining the [Page] publike faith and societie of men & spe­cially the seruice & religion of God. You haue heard by exāple in other, to whom Mahumet was as depely bounden as to you: you haue heard by the principles of his religion, which he more estemeth than the loue or feare of you: you haue heard by the inclination of his affecti­ons, and the course of his counsels and doinges, which being made by him the scope of his life hee will not change and so forgoe all his ambitious hopes to spare you: you haue I say hereby & ma­ny other wayes heard and vnderstode the case that presseth you. Arme ye ther­fore with Christian & princely mindes. All Christian kinges and princes haue charge of the Churche of God, the de­fence therof against infidels and profes­sed enemies of Christiā religion pertei­neth to vs all. The very law of nature hath not onely in rule taught it to bee dutiefull one to releue an other against vndue and vnnaturall violence, but al­so in example of all ages haue set forth the prayse of such as haue bene the res­cuers of mankynde agaynst open ty­rannie.

Herefore is Hercules worthily com­mended [Page] as the common patrone of in­nocencie and the daunter of monsters, the succourer of mankinde, and the de­stroyer of manslaying tyrantes. Who euer thought him vniust & not most ho­nourable, in that he sacrificed the sacri­ficing murderer Busyris, & taught the superstitious wretch to know strange blood in his owne body, and such blood as the Gods required to be shed for pur­ging the earth and appeasing the hea­uen, and not the blood of innocents that Busyris by aduise of deuils & deuillishe priestes had made to flowe from hys bloody altars? Who euer condemned Hercules of vniustice, in that he wor­thily recompensed vile Procustes that ioyed & made pastimes of the mangling of men, that racked short men to hys long bedstedes, and cut of tall men by the measure of his short ones, and so wold pike querels for murder by mens not egall answering hys opinion and fansie? Who magnifieth not the name of Hercules, and vnder title of iustice, in that he slew a multitude of the per­iured faythbreaking Centaures that defiled the wedding feast with blood, and had turned the time appointed for [Page] mirth, for ioye, for amitie, for securitie of true league and frendship, to querel, to treason, to murder and outrage? Spaine it selfe that sometime boasted of Hercules pillers, though they haue loste those famous pillers the monu­mentes of his far extended conquestes, yet they and the whole world kepe in honor the fame of Hercules valiaunce and iustice in that he slew the thréehed­ded monster king Gerion, so by anti­quitie called and reported a monster with thrée heads, being in dede nothing els but thrée tyrantes the king and hys two brethren vniustly and tyrannously reigning and exercising all crueltie vp­on vertuous innocent and godly per­sons. Who thinketh that Hercules did not right, although he were not that contreyman nor naturall soueraigne of that place, in that he threw the wicked murderer into hys owne horsemanger to be deuoured, who before had fed hys beastes with men? Eternall are the prayses of noble Constantine, that made iust warre vpon Licinius for hys crueltie to Christians, and after for the same cause iustly put him to execution of death, though he were by right Em­peror [Page] of the East and otherwise Con­stantines egall. The very name of that excellent Constantine (O noble Princes) with remembraunce whence he was, euen out of the famous Isle of Britaine, maketh me to runne out into ioyfull exclaiming how much (I know not by what instinct from heauen) euen at this present my minde is kindled with perswasion that God hath ordei­ned the same Island at this time and of the line of that Constantine to geue vs an heire of Cōstantines vertue, a sprea­der of the glory of God and rescuer of his Chirch against him that vsurpeth Constantines seat, and against his per­iurous vpholder. After the death of Constantine, when the Empyre was diuided betwene Constans and Con­stantius, and so by iust right and title possessed, and that Constantius in fa­uour of Arrian heresie had banished A­thanasius & many godly fathers, Con­stans though in ciuile causes he had no right nor entermedling in Constantius dominion, yet to his eternall prayse made iust warre vpon Constantius and by force constrained him to geue sincere safetie and full restitution to hys sub­iectes [Page] the true professors of the Gospell of Christ. The like did Theodosius the vertuous Emperor at sute of Bishop Atticus. The like hath euer béen law­full to Christian kinges and princes. And if euer it were necessary, now it is, when not onely many an Athanasius, many an Atticus, and many a noble prince & godly personage lye prostrate at your féete for succor, but also the re­spect of your owne safetie and of your speciall charge of your own kingdomes concurreth with their petitions.

Thus as nothing is more consonant with dutie in respecte both of God and man, of religion and nature, nothing more commendable for charitie▪ nothing more auayling to honour, so is there no­thing more profitable for euery of your states, more néedfull for vpholding the generall degrée and name of kinges, nor more necessary for eschuing of immi­nent perill to all those thinges that you haue most desire to preserue, than it is to take this querell in hand for your faith, for your neighbors, for your sel­ues, against the enemy of God, of Chri­stendome, of your crownes, and of pub­like truth. The degrée of kinges is a [Page] most sacred and reuerend office ordei­ned by God, armed and adorned with lawfull power and maiestie to preserue mankinde and common societie. It be­houeth all kinges to ioyne together to vpholde that estate in the same estima­tion and reuerence, that kingdome may be estéemed as it is a wholesome ordi­nance for the kinde of man. If a king shall breake common fayth and become an open tyrant and oppresser of men, without law, without iudiciall order, without all ground and forme of right, though subiectes may not, yet it beho­ueth kinges to redresse it and to represse the rage and insolencie of the defamer and shame of their state, to prouide be­times that kinges waxe not odious to subiectes, and that particular examples encreasing by contagion to numbers make not the whole degrée gréeuous. If Tarquine had receaued due punishmēt by the king, the kingdome had remai­ned in Rome. If Appius the Decemuir had beéen iustly chastised and not wan­tonly defended by his fellowes, the De­remuirate had not beéen so easily aboli­shed. States are vpholden by vertue and credite, and egall princes for their [Page] common interest to maintaine the ho­nour and continuance of princes, and to kéepe it frée from hatred of the world, haue iust cause and iust authoritie, great wisedome and great necessitie, by natu­rall and vertuous consent to prouide for the common societie of men whereof they haue the supreme charge on earth, to wype away the staine of their state, to remoue such a wicked king from the earth and from example, and to cut frō the world and from posteritie the cor­rupter and sclaunderer of kingdomes and of their sacred maiesties. How much more ought this to be done in case of the defence of Christian religion so farre as the secular arme of princes whō Christ hath armed with the sword and lawfull power is able to aduance the suretie of Christes Chirch? How oft to this end haue there béen procla­med croisadoes, common leagues and confederacies entred, noble societies sta­blished, great voyages attempted, great promises of heauē proponed, to enlarge the kingdome of Christ in earth, to deli­uer not onely the auncient possessions of Christians from wrongfull holding, but also and principally the soules of infi­nite [Page] multitudes from the seruitude of Sathan? But here will perhaps be said, that howsoeuer my speche may be con­strued against the great Mahumet, yet the other tyrant is a Christian prince, vnder whom and in whoes dominion Christians are suffred to kéepe their re­ligion. I confesse in déede he holdeth the name of a Christian in as hye degrée as may be, but with such heresies and Turkishe mixture of heathen ceremo­nies, superstitions, and blasphemies a­gainst the name and dignitie of Christ, and therwith is such a malicious cruell enemie to Christians, in stopping their passages to helpe one an other, in mini­string dangerous counsels to Mahu­met, in ayding him with his force, ac­cording to the league and amitie that is betwene them, that his name of Chri­stianitie serueth him to no more but to encrease the giltinesse of his fault, & the iustnesse of your warre against hym, whoes case differeth onely thus much from the Turke, that in that he saith he is a Christian he hath to all the Turkes lewdnesses added blasphemie, & where the Turke is an open enemie, this tyrant is both an open enemie and [Page] traitor to Christian fayth.

Oh most excellent Princes, be it e­uer printed in your hart, that whatsoe­uer he be, though he presume to beare the name euen of most Christian, or of most holy, or vsurpe the title of pitie or catholike religion, or other like good names, if he persecute the Church of God, if for ambitious respectes he ioyne him selfe in societie with the Turk and Christes enemies to further ye Turkes inuasions vpon Christendome, or to withdraw his owne ayde from the com­mon cause of Christians, if publike fayth do not holde him, if law of nature and humane societie be no bonde vnto him, if the word of God be not the rule of his religion, if he kill or oppresse hys subiectes or hys neighbours for being Christians, and for professing the same according to the rule of Christ, as thys prince hath done, he ought to be in your iudgement, as he is in his owne practise, a heathen and publicane, one against whom your swordes ought to be iustly drawen for that you beare thē not in vaine, and in vaine shall you beare them and déeply answere God for vaine bearing of them, if ye vse them [Page] not to defend, to succor, to rescue the Church of Christ. And by the way in the example of this false Christian the Despote, I beseche you note one thing. The danger of leagues and societies with infideles. Surely it was no law of ceremonie, but of the hye wisdome and eternall policie of God, that his people were forbidden heathen mariages. The great fall of wise Salomon to depe ido­latrie by that meane ought to be a terri­ble paterne to you all in that case, and to warne you not onely that it is dan­gerous but also vnlawfull to couple your selues in bondes of mariage with open heretickes or infideles. It is a hye pride in your owne strength and a hye presumption against the will of God to trust that so matching you shall be able to reteine your fayth. Salomon was wise and could not do it, and was the rather by Gods mercy to you, destitute of Gods grace to him, to teach you to beware by his example. After that the Despote had geuen his daughter Ca­thagusina in mariage to Amurathes, the frendship of the tyrant, the loue of his daughter, the ambitious pride of so hye alliance, common conferences of [Page] counsells and affaires, transported him by little and little from fayth to open falshed and enmitie against Christ and Christians. So great a thing it is to yelde a little in matters of fayth and seruice of God, as if it lay in our selues to qualifie the sinceritie of truth, wher­upon the grace of God by litle and litle destituting such yelders and dispensers with them selues in matters of God they become at length indurate and des­perate, and voide of all vertue and sense of God. O noble Lordes beleue it for a most certaine truth, recorde it for a most necessary admonition, that he hath not the religion of Christ that féeleth it not. And he féeleth it not that doth not together féele with other Christians the hurtes and dangers of the body & mem­bers of the Chirch of Christ. Nature hath tolde you how the difference be­twene doing wrong and not preseruing from wrong if you may, is so small as they be both subiect to the title & gilte of wrong euen in a priuate person, much more in those whoes office lyeth in power & in charge to defend, and to that end was ordeined. When a Christian after shipwrack, naked and destitute of [Page] ordinary meane of succor, wrastling in the waues for his life, his forces wasted with labor of swimming, his body filled with bryne of sea, is by the working of the winde and water driuen nere the shore, where you in safetie stand and behold his wofull case and danger, and that therupon his tyered spirites doe of your presence gather some hope, and with recollecting hys vttermost remay­ning force draweth together so much sil­ly strength as by signe of hand stret­ched vp, or by voyce strained forth, to call to you for helpe, and that the throw­ing out of a rope, or reaching of a poale may saue him: how will you answers him that made him if you saue him not? will you be thought to haue humanitie in you and refuse to releue him? will you beast of Christianitie and not be moued with pitie? will you vaunt of your religion and so fowly defame it? will you thinke that any man can in fayth beleue that you haue fayth when you shew it not in the déedes of mercye and charitie the true frutes of faith, spe­cially to those that be of the householde of fayth? Will you pretend that Leuia­than and hys sea monsters, that the [Page] Whales and Haddockes will be offen­ded, that in sauing the man you bereued them of their pray? Will ye allege that it were wrong to the flesh eating fishes that by your helpe the Christian was not deuoured? But what if the case were such, as the case is in déede, that on the one side a monster of sea pursu­ing the mā did threaten to eate vp your Goslinges and your Ducklinges when he findeth them swimming on the wa­ter vnlesse you suffred him to eate the man, and on the other side the poore mans father the King of Kinges and Lord of Lordes, that hath your life and death and the vniuersall change of all thinges in his power and at his becke, shall stand ouer you, and shall say vnto you, vnlesse you helpe thys man my childe, your brother if you be mine, I will presently tomble you from the safe shore that you stand vpon, I will geue winges and féete to the monsters that now pursue this silly creature in their owne element and dominion onely, I wil bring them to land, I wil geue them strength and meane to pursue you there also till they roote out you and yours? what wold you then do or not do? whom [Page] would you then choose to please or dis­please? which threaten or perill would you rathest shunne or aduenture? It is not hard to coniecture what choise you would make, if these thinges were thus presently before your eyes: why make you not the like choise when the same thing is present to your vnderstanding? Surely it can haue no cause but lacke of fayth, that concerning God we confesse more in mouth than we féele in beléefe. We can be content to affirme religion and conscience to make other for religi­on and conscience obedient to our au­thoritie, and shall we our selues against religion and without conscience neither haue pitie of Christian men for whom our authoritie is stablished, nor shew loue or feare of God by whom it is or­deined. But admit that our selues were in like perill with the poore man, and the danger so egally conioyned that we must either be saued or perish together, what would we do? When the whole ship of Gods militant. Chirch standeth in this likelyhode of extremitie, when our selues are sayling in the ship ready to burst wholly in peres, will we still sléepe and be wanton? Death is certaine [Page] to you all, and this life must haue end, & in the ending of it a battell at the pas­sage must be foughten with the migh­tie enemie of your saluation. It can not be auoyded but it must be tryed, it can not be escaped but you must perishe if you be not strongly armed. At your dying houre (O noble princes) that houre I say that endeth the estate of all princes and subdueth them in equalitie with all men to the hyest prince, when the danger is most great, natural strēgth most feble, and diuine ayde most néede­full, be sure of this that Sathan shall then most fiercely assayle you, he shall querell with you vpon your great ac­compt, he shall so charge you with great faultes, that he shall not omit the smal­lest default. Iudge your selues there­fore that ye be not iudged. Charge your selues now to amendment, that ye be not then charged to damnation. Ima­gine your selues now to be in such case as ye are one day sure to be. Suppose the houre come when you are ro yelde your spirite and your power together, when you lye in languor of dying, in sharpenesse of paine, and in expectation of the imminent iugement of God, and [Page] that now as then Sathan shall in hys vggliest maner present him selfe vnto you, and shall say thus: O ye sometime great princes, and now the more burde­ned because ye were princes, bethinke you what you haue done and not done, and acknowledge the iustice of God in your damnation now present and not to be auoyded. I let passe your priuate faultes against Gods cōmandementes. Come to the greatest. You know Christ him selfe did set on his left side, and sent into eternall fire, those that in néede did not releue him, with clothing, with lodging, with foode & comfort, pronoun­cing that vncharitablenesse to haue béen shewed to him selfe, when mercy and succor was not extended to one of the poore ones that he had commended to their mercy. What shall he say to you that haue withholden your due ayde not onely from one little one but also from hys whole Chirch, from the defence of hys whole religion and people, and not that onely, but when you might haue holpen their miserie, you haue not only suffred them to be spoyled, robbed, and slaine, but infinite multitudes of them, their childrē and posterities to be thral­led [Page] to a false fayth, to be caried captiue into heresie and the kingdome of Anti­christ? Do you thinke to sit in heauen and sée whole armies, whole nations go to hell by your fault? If blood aske blood, what vengeance shall be due to the instrumentes of eternall death? What shall it auaile you to haue kept your owne kingdomes in quiet and good estate for a little lesse or more than xx. yeares, & by your default to be gilty of all the infinite mischeues that you haue without compassion and succor séene a­mong your neighbors, and without pro­uision shall succéede after you in your owne realmes and dominions? When Sathan shall lay this to your charge, what shall be answered? you can not de­fend it nor excuse it. Will you runne to mercy? he will runne betwene you and the mercy gate, and tell you it is denyed to the vnmercifull? Will you allege that heauen is due to those of the Chirch of God? he will bring for wit­nesse agaynst you the very Chirch of God it self that you haue destituted and forsaken it, I will not say betrayed it? Will you thinke to be holpen by fayth, and the promises of the Gospel? he will [Page] say you haue not fayth, and the promi­ses of the Gospell belong not to you: for he will bid you to shew your fayth by your déedes, he will charge you that in­fidelitie hath béen aduanced by your meanes, and the fayth of Christ & truth of his Gospel defaced by your suffrance, and you haue so delt in the cause of faith and of the Gospell as if you felt no zeale therof. What shall remaine to you in this case? Then shall you féele a passion if now you will féele no compassion. The senselesse beholding of the distresse of the Chirch of God, will raise such a sense of miseries, as shall be able to re­ceaue no comfort in horror of the paine that will haue no end. O how déepely it will then be wished, that all treasure, all trauaile, all policie, all aduenture had béen employed to the seruice of God, and the successe committed to his goodnesse. O how ruthfully will wan­tonnesse be bewayled, idlenesse lamen­ted, sparing detested, lust lothed, and li­king of life hated? O extreme danger when so great burdens are layde vpon the weakest time, when presumption differreth good doing to the late and la­test houre. Now is the remedy. Now [Page] noble princes so reigne that ye may e­uer reigne, both in fame & blessednesse, in the world and after it: so liue that ye may neuer feare to dye, which shall be if ye shall so doe in life which is but a way to death that ye may yeld to Gods mercy a life spent in his seruice, that the prayer of Gods Chirch may prolong your reignes, testifie your faythes, and commend your soules. But sée the mis­chefe, sée the suttletie of Sathan. The selfe same deuill that will then charge you with not doing, doth now withhold you from doing. He that then will threaten you with damnation, doth now moue you to deserue it. The selfe same deuill that will then say vnto you to put you in terror, you betrayed the Chirch of God, doth now say to you to bring you in error, that you owe no such duetie to the Chirch of God. The selfe same deuill that will then obiecte against you that in not shewing your déedes to the helpe of Christians you haue shewed that you haue no fayth, doth now say vnto you, if you helpe Christians you breake fayth. O wret­ched entanglement. O crafty Deuill. He holdeth you snared with pretense of [Page] fayth least you should do any thing in defence of fayth. He sayth your late league with the infidell doth tye you, by promise, by articles, by publike attesta­tion, by othe, so that howsoeuer your neighbours néede requireth, howsoeuer your owne danger craueth, howsoeuer Gods seruice commandeth, howsoeuer charitie, howsoeuer fayth, howsoeuer religion, howsoeuer wisedome, howso­euer honor, howsoeuer the proper dutie and office of princes & Christian princes aduiseth, you may not fall out with Mahumet, you may take no part a­gainst him, you may succour none, no not your selues, whom he would haue destroyed. He telleth you that we are not comprehended in the league, there is no expresse capitulation to comprise vs, you may not therefore for vs inter­rupt the reach of his purposes, be they neuer so cruel, neuer so faithlesse, neuer so dangerous to the vniuersall Chirch or to your seuerall liues, subiectes, and kingdomes. Recorde (O noble princes) the truth of the league betwene hym and you. Obserue all leagnes iustly, for so becommeth Christians: but iudge all leagues truely, for so behoueth Chri­stian gouernors. Wey your league [Page] with the minde that you made and vn­derstoode it, kéepe it with the fayth that you promised and assured it. You re­mēber well I am assured, what meanes procured your league, what purpose did further it, and what trust and minde concluded it. You know how your no­ble vertues haue geuen succours to vs your Christian neighbours, and therin you haue not onely charitably done vs good but wisely diuerted perill from your selues. It pleased almighty God that vsed your honourable ministerie in defence of his Gospell and Chirch, so to prosper the procedinges that good forme of peace ensued. Which as it was on our part for the benefite of Christen­dome embraced, so on the tyrantes be­halfe it was most fraudulently meant and most vntruely obserued. He first concluded peace with vs in Epirus and Rascia, hoping to haue vsed our aydes against you. To that end he procured the siege of Scodra, wherin he set Chri­stians against Christians, that he might féede him with ioye of the destruction on both sides. To that end he made of­fer to me and to the other princes in Epyrus and to the Lordes of Rascia to permit to vs and them the frée vse of [Page] Christian Religion with hys good con­tentment, if we would haue ioyned in seruing hym against you. That article we refused, wherupon he hath certain­ly holden vs for impedimentes to hys purposes agaynst you. But finding that while your aydes were ready to succor vs in our necessities, and our seruices thankfully ready to withstand al perils that might be intended toward you, he practised to snare you with league that you might so be withholden from rele­uing our liues or reuēging our deathes. He pretended great wearinesse of wars, of waste of his contrey and people, and a great desire of rest and quiet, with sin­gular ioy that in part he had already ob­tained and tasted the swéete frutes of desired peace. He made vs the meanes to perswade the peace, he made vs to tell your ministers as from him what zeale and affection he had to cherishe vs, and that for this cause and for assurance of our safetie, and our peaceable enioy­ing the quiet of our conscience thys peace should be the bonde and pledge, which hope he confirmed with infinite circumstances and meanes of credite. With this trust, and for the benefite and securitie of the Chirch of God, and [Page] with this vnderstanding of Mahumets affection you made the peace. This was the cause and this was the purpose ther­of. You were not vanquished in battell, you were not forced by any feare or ne­cessitie to take any dishonorable cōposi­tion at his hand, to the preiudice of your fayth, religiō, or honor, or to a necessary constraining of you to forsake the cause of Christ & the querell that had already so much cost you and yet still so much importeth you, you know you were not driuen to any such néede. Your consci­ence can tell you that you made the league only vpon these good semblances on his part, to preserue the Chirch, and not to be compelled to destitute and be­tray it. Reach into your owne hartes I beseche you, and let euery one of you recorde with him selfe, whether you would haue made that league if he had sayd vnto you before hand that which now hath followed. If he had sayd vn­to you sincerely, I haue made peace with the Christians at home and nere me, I haue testified it, I haue sworne it, I haue bound my blood, my Counsell, my Iustices, mine officers & subiectes, with oth and charge to kéepe it, I haue subscribed it, I haue proclaimed it, I [Page] haue set forth edictes for obseruing of it, I haue punished breakers of it, I haue defaced the monuments of former dis­cordes & vnkindnesse, I haue tolde you that I séeke and assent to league with you & them that both I & they and you may enioye quietnesse with eche of our consciences as we are perswaded, I will now ioyne in bond of amitie with you, but so soone as that is ended, I will kéepe no fayth with heretickes, the Ras­cians whom you haue ayded shall dye for it, the peace that I haue proclaimed with that secte of Christians shall be dissolued, the permission of vse of their religion shall be reuoked, Great Mahu­met my prophet and lawgeuer shall be serued with their blood in peace, and the league that I now make with you shall remaine, and it shall remaine to binde you neither to assist nor to releue such of them as shall escape my hand, nor to holde vp a side that may any way assiste you if you haue néede hereafter: If I say he had plainly thus told you, would you haue entred into any such league? Search your conscience and let it in­forme you. If you wold not haue made if you had so vnderstood him, surely nei­ther did you make it with vnderstāding [Page] that it should be frée for him so to do. If then the cause of league directly vnder­stood betwene you both, and so laid open to the worldes iudgement, was to haue peace for the Chirch, for religion, and for the politike estate on both sides, then who so breaketh that purpose, and by innouations layeth the other open to fraude and daunger, that is he that hath dissolued the league, that is he that hath vndone the knot, and with his vn­iust doyng agaynst the meanyng and apparāt cause of the league he hath iust­ly armed you to withstād his treasons, and in vayne complayneth that you be tyed by the wordes of the league. Re­member I beseche you his other doings agaynst your safetie, euen in the ciuile part of your charge and authoritie. It is well knowen to you that though be for­beare to auow attemptes, yet he ceas­seth not to make attempts against you. Wherto sent he secret assistance to vp­holde a faction in your nearest borders to your perill? Why promised he mo­ney, men, munition and other sinewes of warre to the disturbers of your state? Why ioyneth he dayly in practise wyth your deadly enemyes? Doth he it to o­ther ende than to destroy you? Why [Page] throweth he the blame vppon other whom he cherisheth, and by whom he is gouerned? Doth he it to any other ende than to deceiue you? If then you were deceiued in the making of your league, shall it not suffice you to pursue and ob­serue the cause and true purpose of the league? and shall it be frée for hym a­gaynst the minde and appearing pur­pose therof to murder your frendes and vndermine you? and the cause of the league so destroyed by himselfe, shall it not be frée for you to defend you selues? and shall it not be frée till it be too late? I leaue to Diuines, whether you may make a league against the Chirch of God or no, but I holde vppon common right and nature, that if a false Prince beyng in league with an other tyrant, with articles therin expressely contay­ned to destroy certaine godly Princes, do make peace with one of the good prin­ces, and after with the other of them, pretending and so making it vnderstoode that this peace is made for the suretie of both the good Princes, without which perswasion the secōd good Prince would not haue entred into league to forsake and betray the first, & afterward the ty­rant by treason inuadeth & murdereth [Page] the first good Prince, and publisheth that he lawfully did so, notwithstanding his peace sworne to him that he murde­red, because (saith he) the articles of his first league with hys fellowe ty­rant so required, and that he holdeth not himselfe bound to kéepe faith wyth the other: Whether this be proclaimed in worde or in fact, it geueth warning to the second good Prince to looke to him­selfe, & libertie by all meanes (of which sometimes inuasions is one meane both lawfull and necessarie) to represse the rage of the tyrant, to saue the remnants that haue escaped his crueltie, and by force to withstand his attemptes and purposes. If after a league made, new iust cause of warre be geuen, that new cause bindeth him that gaue it, and ge­ueth libertie to the other to vse lawfull force agaiost him. It is iust cause of war for a Christian prince against a heathen or hereticall tyrant, if the tyrant inuade the chirch of Christ and do any attempt to the hurt of the Christian common weale. Since the last league betwéene him and you he hath murdered Christi­ans, he hath inuaded your neighbours dominions, he hath done many new outrages to the oppressing of the Chirch [Page] of God and to your euident danger. If he had béen a Christian Prince wyth whom your league is made in respect of defending Christendome, and he had af­terward renounced Christendome and become an Infidell, had not the intent of your league béen so disappointed as such an alteration of his estate had set you at libertie by armes to defende the Church of God? If he were a heathen with whom your league is made, vpon pretence to geue peace to Christēdome, and he afterward by new murders and innouations bring new danger to your selues through the sides of your christi­an neighbors, is not the purpose of that peace so defrauded, as you may take this fraude and violence on his part for a iust cause of resistance and reuenge on your part, without being tyed by league to him against whom may iustly be said that in vaine he séeketh to be shielded vnder the lawe that himselfe hath bro­ken? It is not frée for any to exacte all faith and kéepe none. Fraude and de­ceit geue iust defence to no mā. A chirch-robber▪ shall in the same Chirch haue no sanctuarie, a peacebreaker can not win thereby libertie to haue the protection of peace with fréedome of war. Awake [Page] therfore (O noble Princes) and sée your daunger by oures, his falsehed by hys factes, and your necessitie by both hys and our example. And now when you haue séene what néede you haue, what right you haue, what charge you haue, and what frée authoritie you haue, and that thereby you be armed, now consi­der what strength, what meanes, what commoditie and what ease you haue to do it. First almighty God shalbe your defender if you will defend your Chri­stian neighbours in charitie, and your charge in iustice. The tyrant is hated of his owne subiectes: plague & famine already pursue his land: the frendes of the murdered, & the remnantes of those that feare to be murdered are ready bēt to all occasions against hym: the furie of conference with conceiuing continual presence of their ghostes that he hath stayne haue him in dayly chace & amaze him both day and night: terror of gilti­nesse and the face of hell leaue hym no quiet nor assurance: his extreme cruel­tie maketh desperate necessitie without yelding, in those that shall stand against him: the defence of murder and mischief is so odious that he can not gather an army to trust vnto, but mingled wyth [Page] such whose hartes in their slayne frends he hath galled, or whose courage so euill a cause abateth, or whose giltye myndes with him the like terror vexeth and a­palleth: after the destruction of a hūdred thousand mouthes by murder, vitail is derer and scarcer, and not to suffice the remnant of his people: Gods wrath a thousand wayes doth shew it self. Eter­nall honor shall follow the reuengers of the breach of common fayth, the rescu­ers of the Chirch, the sauiours of the af­flicted, the preseruers of the godly, the subduers of monsters and miscreantes. Wherfore (O noble princes) haue pi­tie, haue compassion of princes, of Chri­stians, of men, that humanitie, religion, and honor, may commend you to eter­nall fame and to the fauor of God. That ye the succorers of many a fatherlesse infant may liue to sée your childrens children in ioy and not beare the curse of God to dye without heire that may be the comfort of your selues & stay of your realmes, that ye the deliuerers of true religion to present time and posteritie may presently liue in the good grace of God, and leaue to posteritie a blessed re­membrance and not a defacing of your present good doinges with calamities to [Page] succéede for lack of prouision, that when ye haue liued happily ye may dye ioy­fully, and not féele the dangerous tenta­tions that Sathan at your last houre shall assaile ye with if Gods people shall perish which you might haue pre­serued. Let our case moue ye to mercy, let your own case stirre ye to wisdome, let the case of your kingdomes raise ye vp to iustice, let the case of God and hys Chirch kindle you in zeale. Hope not alwaye for miracles, least they iustly fayle you for tempting God, or if they fayle you not, they iustly damne you for not seruing God. Draw the sword that God hath geuen you for him and his people, against Antichrist and the enemies of God and his Gos­pell. And so almighty God preserue you, geue you victory, honor, and eternall blesse.

¶ A notable example …

¶ A notable example of Gods vengeance, vppon a mur­dering king. Written in Latine by Martine Cromer the writer of the historie of Polonia, and is to be founde in the xxxvii. page of the sayde historie as it was printed at Basile by Opo­rine in the yeare of our Lorde 1555. wyth Charles the Em­perours priuilege. Truely tran­slated according to the Latine.

Imprinted at Lon­don by Iohn Daye ouer Aldersgate.

Popiel the younger.

AFter the funerall so­lemnities of Popiel ended, his sonne of the same name, being vnder age, was with the vniforme assent of his vncles and of the nobilitie, set in possession of the kingdome, they all by othe promising him their allegeance. The gouernaunce of the young kinges person, and the administration of the common weale was committed to cer­tayne of his vncles that were thought most méete for it. They were continu­ally in the Court, and euer at the Prin­ces elbow. They heard and determined causes and controuersies, and did in no point leaue the common weale vnser­ued, vntill the kyng himselfe was hable in person to doe the publicke affayres, or at least so long as hée would suffer hym­selfe to bée gouerned by their aduises. For when he came to bée a stripling to­warde mans estate, whiche is the most slipperie and inclining age to licentious­nesse and pleasures, hée beganne by and [Page] by to liue after his owne fansie, to de­spise the admonitions of his vncles, to take counsell of young fellowes of hys owne yeares, and with such youthes to vse banquetinges and long large drink­ing feastes, to spend out whole nightes in brothelhouses, in daunsinges, in playes and dalliaunce with younge wo­men: and then glutted with surfet and lecherie, to sléepe the most part of the day, to neglect the common weale and hearing of causes in iudgment, & poore mens sutes: hee became vnapte to any good actions, witlesse, doltishe and bloc­kishe, and so waxed contemptuous to all men, in so much as he was conmmon­ly in scorne called Chostek: beside that his dissolute and vile conditions were further encreased in deformitie wyth a thinne heare on his head and beard, such as commonly happeneth to vnchast per­sons. His vncles with the rest of the no­bilitie consulted together how this disso­lute life and desperate licenciousnesse of their Prince might bée reformed. They prouided him a wife, a very beautifull Mayde, the daughter of a Prince of Ducheland. And it séemed to them lyke­ly [Page] that shee a couetous and ambitious woman, woulde haue reduced her hus­bandes lyfe to better temper from prodi­galitie, and would haue shaken from the sluggishe dull beast his drowsinesse. But it happened otherwise, For hée both abated nothing of his former disor­ders and wickednesse: and such faultes as he before was frée from, he now lear­ned of his wife and added them to his o­ther leudenesse. For both hee became more couetous, and solde iudgementes, honours and offices: and where he could not stablishe his kingdome by vertue & worthinesse, knowing himselfe so giltye of dayly enormities, he laboured to at­chieue it by pride and crueltie, and coue­ted to bée feared of his subiectes, when hée listed not to deserue to bee beloued. And all this hee did by prouocation of his wife, and shée taking the doing and pro­fite into her owne hand. Shée hauing once tasted the sweetenesse of dominion and gayne, and despising the base hart of her husbande, had by her womannishe craftines conueyed the whole gouer­naunce to her selfe. And specially when shee hauing borne hym twoo sonnes, [Page] Lechus, and Popielus, was once be­come a Quéene mother, shée helde the wanton weake hart of her husband faste bounde in awe of her loue, and so per­swaded her selfe to make her authoritie in Poleland to stand firme and fast for euer.

One onely impediment stoode in her way, namely, the fauour and credite of the kinges vncles among the commonal­tie, which they had attained by vpright­nesse of life, grauitie, and wisedome. Them shée feared: them (for their some­time gentle admonitions, sometime frée and playne rebukinges) shee deadly ha­ted: Their very secret conscience shée stoode in dread of. And therfore shée prac­tised as much as shée could possibly, with fayned quarels to bring thē in suspition and hatred. Shée perswaded the king that while they were aliue and in safe­tye, his crowne should neuer sit assured­ly and fast on his head. And if hée myn­ded to kéepe it himselfe and leaue it to his children, he must néedes dispatch his vncles out of the way. If he himselfe had not the courage to doe such an acte, shée bade him commit it to her to com­passe, [Page] saying, that though they passed her in armoure and true force, yet shée was better furnished then they wyth subtile inuentions. Shée promised to bring it about without any offence, yea or any suspicion of the people. Wyth which her perswasions shée easely drew to the worser part the feable and fearfull hart of her husband. Thus they entred into deuise for the murdering of hys Uncles. The king fayned himselfe to be greuously and daungerously sicke. Hys wyfe caused his vncles (whome shée had appointed to the slaughter) to be sent for in the kinges name. They came in hast, & in great heauines stoode about the sicke kyng, & comforted him, Hée wyth gro­nyng fained himselfe to be very sore sick: hée tolde them that it was reueled to him from the Gods that the ende of hys life was at hand: he againe and agayne committed his wife and poore orpheine children to their trust and tuition.

All the court was filled wyth noyse of the Quéenes womanishe howlyng, sobbing, and lamentations: preparation was made for the funerals by the kings owne commaundement. The day thus [Page] spent, when it drewe towarde sunne setting, the kyng as one euen presently ready to dye mynding to take his laste leaue of his Uncles, spake to euery of them flatteringly by his name, and in tokē of his loue & good will toward them all, he commaunded to be brought a poi­soned cup of drinke which he had prepa­red for the same purpose. He fained him selfe to drinke to them, but he onely blew away a litle of the frothe in the middest, and scarsely touched the drinke with the vttermost parte of his lippes. When they had all dronke and pledged him in order one after an other, hee fay­ned himselfe to bee heauy and disposed to sleepe, and that he would fayne take some rest. They reuerently tooke their leaue of the king and departed. The poyson once conceiued in their stomakes possessed their vitall partes, and forth­with they fell distraught of their wits, and raging with great torment fell down and died.

The Quéene being immediatly infor­med thereof by her espialles, comman­ded the dead carcases of the noble men to be throwen abroad vnburyed. Shée [Page] caused it to be published by Proclamati­on, that they had cōspired against the life of ye king their kinsman & frende, whiche had so well deserued of them, and that they were therefore by the euydent ven­geance of the Gods striken with sodayne death. Although the blacke spottes of their bodies, and their bowels bursting and gushed out of their bellies gaue ma­nifest profe of poyson, yet for feare of the tyrant (which now no more fayned and sicknesse or feare of death) no man durst openly lamēt so vnworthy deathes of the good noble men.

But the maiestye of God suffe­reth not such horrible factes to bée long vnpunished. For out of the putrified carcases came Rattes of monstrous bignesse, which pursued through fyre and water, which way soeuer he fled, the vnnaturall murderer, with his vile wife, and his children. No defences of dores and stoppes auayled him, nor no succour of his garde and seruauntes en­deuors to driue them away. At the last, all persons flying from hym, his sonnes were first deuoured, and then his wife, and last of all himselfe vnhappy wreatch [Page] was with painefull flow death misera­bly consumed in the Castell of Crus­wik. And so his owne fathers curse fell not in vayne vppon hym. This happened about the yeare of Christ eight hundred twentye and thrée.

¶ The same historie reported also by Munster in the 895. Page of his Cosmographie in Latine. Wherein he not so largely de­clareth the treason, but more amply expresseth the vengeance of God in punishing thereof.

HE being left by his Father within age, his Uncles go­uerned the kingdome, tyll he came to full age and ma­ryed a wyfe. Afterwarde while he was sitting at banquet, tipled with wine, bedecked with garlandes, smeared with oyntmentes, all dissolute with surfet and royot, he was set vppon by excéeding great Mise that came out of the dead carcases of his Uncles, whome he and his wife had murdered by poison. They with furious eger byting assayled at his banquet the tyraunt and hys wyfe and children, his garde labouring in [Page] vayne to driue them away, because when the force and succour of men was tyred, the Mise continued day & nyght vnwearied. They made great rounde fieres, and within the compasse thereof they set Pompilius, and his wife and sonnes: but the Myse ran through the fire and ceased not to gnaw the vnnatu­rall murderer. At length they assayed an other element. They conueyed Pompi­lius the murderer of his Uncles, wyth his wife and children in shippes into the middest of a great lake: but the myse vn­cessantly folowed them, & eate through the bordes of the shippes, in so much that the water comming in at the holes, they were in danger of sinking, wherfore the Mariners fearing to be drowned, cō ­ueyed the shippes to land, from whence an other company of myse ioyned wyth the first, and more fiercely assayled hym. They that defended him seing this, and acknowledging it to bée the vengeaunce of God fled away.

Pompilius destitute of his suc­cours, withdrew hymselfe into an hye tower in Cruswic, whether the Myse [Page] furiouslye ranne and clymed vp, and consumed and deuoured his two sonnes, and hys wyfe, and wicked Pompi­lius himselfe. Beholde there is no power nor counsell a­gaynst the Lorde.

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