THE IMAGE OF GOVERNANCE COMPILED OF THE AC­TES AND SENTENCES notable, of the moste no­ble Emperour Alex­ander Seuerus, late transla­ted out of Greke into Englyshe, by syr Thomas Eliot knight, in the fauour of Nobylitie.




AS I LATE VVAS ser­ching among my bokes, to finde some argument, in the readinge wherof I mought recreate my spyrites, beinge almoste fatigate with the longe study aboute the correctinge and amplia­tinge of my Dictionary, of Latine and Englishe, I hapned to fynde certeyne quaires of paper, which I had writen about .ix. yeres passed: wherin were con­tayned the actes and sentences notable, of the moste noble Emperour Alexander, for his wysedome and grauity callid Seuerus, which boke was first writen in the greke tung by his secretary named Eucolpius [...] and by good chaunce was lente vnto me by a gentille man of Naples called Pudericus. In reading wher­of I was maruaylousely rauished, and as it hath ben euer myn appetite, I wisshed that it had ben publis­shed in such a tunge, as mo men mought vnderstande it. Wherfore with all diligence I endeuored my selfe whiles I had leysour, to translate it into englishe: all be it I coulde not so exactly performe myn enterprise, as I mought haue done, if the owner had not impor­tunately called for his boke, wherby I was constrai­ned to leue some part of the wark vntranslated: which [Page] I made vp [...] as welle as I coulde, with somme other Autours, aswel latines as grekis. hauing this boke in my hande I remembred, that in my boke named the Gouernour, I promised to write a boke of the Forme of good gouernance: And for as moch as in this boke was expressed of gouernance so perfite an ymage, I supposed, that I shuld sufficiently discharge my selfe of my promise, if I dyd nowe publishe this boke, whi­che except I be moche deceyued) shall minister to the wyse readars both pleasure and profite. Than did I [...]ftsones peruse it, and with more exact diligence con­forme the style therof with the phrase of our englishe, desiringe more to make it playne to all readers, than to flourishe it with ouer moch eloquence. Which boke I do dedicate vnto you noble lordis, gentil knightes, and other in the state of honour or worship, as beinge moste redy to be aduanced to gouernance vnder your Prince: so that your vertues be correspondent vnto your fortunes. Yet am I not ignoraunt that diuerse [...]here [...]e which do not thankfully esteme my labours, dispraysinge my studies as vayne and vnprofitable, sayinge in derision, that I haue nothing wonne ther­by but the name onely of a maker of bokes, and that I sette the trees, but the printer eateth the fruites. In dede al though disdaine & enuy do cause them to speke it, yet will I not deny, but that they saye truly: for yf I wold haue employed my study about the increace of my priuate commodity, which I haue spent in wry­tinge of bokes for others necessity, few men doubt (I suppose) that do knowe me, but that I shuld haue at­tayned or this tyme to haue ben moche more welthy, [...] in respect of the worlde in a more estimation. But to [Page] excuse me of foly, I will professe without arrogaunce, that whan I consydered, that kunninge contynueth whan fortune sytteth, hauinge also rynging alway in myn eare, the terrible checke [...]hat the good maister in the gospell gaue to his ydel ser [...]aunte, for hidinge his money in a clowte, and not disposinge it for his mai­sters aduantage,Matt. 18. those two wor [...]es, Serue nequam, so sterid my spirites, that it caused me to take more re­garde to my last rekning, than to any riches or world­ly promotion. And all thoughe I do neither dyspute nor expounde holy scripture, yet in suche warkes as I haue and intend to sette forth, my poore talent shall be, God willinge, in such wise bestowed, that no man­nes conscience shalbe therwith offended, my boke cal­led the Gouernour, instructinge men in suche vertues as shalbe expediēt for them, which shal haue authori­ty in a wele publike. The Doctrinal of princis, which are but the counsayles of wyse Isocrates, inducinge into noblemens wittes honest opinions. The Educa­tion of children, whiche also I translated oute of the wise Plutarche, making men and women, which will folow those rules, to be wel worthy to be fathers and mothers. The litel Pasquill although he be mery and playne, teching as well seruantes how to be faythfull vnto their maisters, as also masters how to be circum­spect in espying of flaterars. Semblably thoffice of a good coūcellour, with magnanimity or good courage in tyme of aduersity, may be apparātly founden in my boke called, Of the knowlege belōging to a wise man. In reding the sermon of saynt Cyprian by me transla­ted, the deuour reder shal fynd no litle comfort in pla­ges or calamities. The banket of Sapiēce is not fasti­diouse, [Page] and in litle come shewith out of holy scripture many wise sentences. The Castel of Helth being truly [...]ad, shal longe preserue men (being some phisicions neuer so angry) frō perillouse siknes. My litle boke cal­lid the defēce of good women, not only confoūdeth villainous report, but also teachith good wiues to know well their dueties. My Dictionary declaringe latyne by englishe, by that tyme that I haue performed it, shall not only serue for children, as men haue excepted it, but also shall be commodiouse for them which per­chaunce be well lerned. And this present boke, whiche I haue named the Image of gouernaunce, shall be to all them which wil reade it sincerely, a very true paterne, wherby they may shape all their procedinges. And in none of these warkes I dare vndertake, a man shall finde any sentence against the cōmandmentes of god, the trewe catholyke faythe, or occasion to stere men to wanton deuises. Wherfore I trust vnto god, myn ac­compt shall of hym be fauorably accepted: all though some ingrate persons with ille reporte or mockes re­quite y [...] my labours: to whom I will only recyte this mery fable of Esope, writen by Maximus Planudes. ¶ A good woman had an husband, who wold be oftē tymes drunken, wherwith she beinge ashamed, and diuisinge by what meane she might cause hym to leue that horrible vice, at the laste whan he was a slepe, she caried hym vnto the charnell house, wherin were put the bones of deade men, and leuing him lyinge there, she made faste the dore, and departed. And whan she thought that he was wakynge, she takynge with her brede and meate [...] retourned to the charnell house and knocked at the dore, her housband fayntly asked who [Page] knocked there, the good woman answered, I which haue brought meate with me for the dead men, peace sayd her husbande, thou increacest my payne in spea­kinge of meate, bringe me some drinke I beseche the. That hering the good woman, alas sayd she that euer I was borne, for this vyce gotten by custome, my housbande hath made it a naturall habyte, which will neuer forsake hym.

¶ This fable nedeth no declaration: for euery man may perceyue what it meneth. Moreouer many being ignorant of good letters, do vniuersally reproue all them that be studiouse in lerninge, alleginge this commune prouerbe, The grettest clarkes be not the wisest men: affirming, that they be founden negligent about their owne profit, and consequently vnapt to the mini­stration of thinges of waighty importance. How vn­true their allegations be, & on how feble a foundation they are buylded, it shall in this wise appere vnto wise men. First the sayd prouerb semeth by him which lac­ked lerninge, to be deuised, sens that he preferrith ig­norance before kunninge: whiche arrogance declared hym to be a very foole, and vnwitty: consideringe that by knowlege most chiefly, a mā excelleth al other mortall creatures, and therby is moste like vnto god. And lerninge is none other thinge, but an aggregation of many mens sentences & actes to the augmentation of knowlege. And if som lerned men do neglect their temporal commodities, it is for one of these causes: eyther by cause they haue ben so desirouse of knowlege, and in respect therof estemed so lytle all other pleasures, that they thought the tyme all to lytle, which they dyd spend in it, holdinge them selfes with that which ser­ued [Page] for natures necessitie right wel cōtēted, or els like as the grehound that was sent to great Alexander by the king of Albania, whā there were shewed vnto him seuerally a gret hart, a bore, & a beare, he vouched not saulf to loke on them, but lay still wagging his tayle: thā was there brought forth a great lyon, to whom he dyd arise softly, and setting vp his bristels, & shewing his tethe, fleing to the lyon, lightly strangled him. Af­terwarde a puyssante olyfante beinge brought to the place, the grehounde semynge to reioyce at the great­nesse of the beste, roused him, and after two or thre questinges, he lept to the great olyphant, and after a long fight ouerthrew him and kylled him. So I dout not but that som men there be liuing, in whom is such courage, that in thinges of lytle importance may seme to be negligent, disdayninge as it were to spend their wittes or labours about the pelfry of riches: which beinge ones called to authority ioyned with liberty, wil [...]nforce them selfes to make their ministratiōs noble & excellent. Suche were Solon, Aristides, and Phocion in Athenes, Publicola, Fabritius, Curius, and Cato Uticencis at Rome, whose lyues I wold to god were in Englyshe, and the lyke be nowe lyuynge, yf they were sought for.

¶And for the confutation of that pestiferous opiniō ye gret lerned men be vnapt to the ministration of thinges of waighty importāce, this shalbe sufficient. First as I late said lerning is the augmētatiō of knowlege, which the more that it is, the more maye be perceiued what shalbe most necessary in thinges which happē in cōsultation. & the more that it is perceyued, the better and more aptly may it be ministred and executed. Ex­amples [Page] we haue of Moyses, who beinge excellently lerned in the most dyffuse doctrines of the Egyptians & Ethiopians, was by almighty god chosen to guide and rule his people, which were innumerable & moste froward of nature: and with what wonderfull wise­dome and pacience dyd he gouerne them by the space of .xl. yeres, beinge without any cities, townes, or any certain possessiōs? Who were better leders of armies than great Alexāder, Scipio, Lucullus, & Cesar, whi­che were men al of great lerning? who better handled matters of waighty importāce, than Octauian called Augustus, Hadrian, Marcus Antoninus, Alexander, Seuerus, & of late yeres Carolus Magnus, al empe­rours of Rome, and men very studiouse in all noble sciences? Whan was there a better consul thā Tully [...] or a better senator thā Cato called Uticencis? And to retourne home to our owne countray, and wherof we our selfes may be witnesses, howe moche hath it pro­fited vnto this realme, that it nowe hath a kynge our souerayne lorde kyng HENRY theyght exactly well lerned? Hath not he therby onely sifted out detestable heresies, late mingled amonge the corne of his fayth­full subiectes, and caused moche of the chaffe to be throwen in the fyre? also hipocrisy and vayne supersti­tion to be cleane banysshed? wherof I doubt not, but that there shalbe or it be longe, a more ample remem­brance, to his most noble and immortal renome? This well considered, let men ceasse their sayde foolishe o­pinion, and holde them content with their owne igno­rance, and for my part, say what they liste, I wil du­ring my life, be in this wise occupied, in bestowing my talent, beinge satisfied with the contentynge of suche [Page] men as ye be, adourned with vertue, the most preci­ouse garment of very nobylitie.

¶But now to thintent that ye if ye list, may attaynin estimable profit by the reding of this litle warke, I do exhort you, that redynge it distinctly and studiousely, first ye marke diligently, howe by the lasciuiouse and cemisse education of Uarius Heliogabalus, he grewe to be a person most monstruouse in liuinge, also howe not withstandinge, that he not onely suffered, but al­so prouoked the people to lyue in a moste beastely ly­cence: yet horrible synne at the last became to all men fastidiouse and lothsome. Wherfore they slewe in most miserable facion him that consumed infinite treasour in supportinge their lewdenes. Than shall ye note di­ligently [...] howe moche it profytted to Alexander, who n [...]te dydde succede hym, that he had so wise and ver­tuouse a mother, and that he was brought vp among so wyse counsailours. Also the maner of his meruay­louse procedinges, in reformynge a publike weale, lefte vnto hym corrupted so shamefully, wherin was more difficulty, than to begynne it, where neuer was any. Marke also his moste noble qualitees, and howe they were tempred. Moreouer the forme of his spea­kinge, and howe as he grew in yeres, so waxed it more mature and seryouse, sometyme aboundaunt, other­whiles shorte and compendiouse, as oportunytye ser­ued. In his actes and decrees, what Iustice and pru­dence were in them contayned, what seueritie he vsed, sparinge neither hym selfe, nor his frendes or myny­sters. Finally, all his lyfe is a wonderfull myrrour, if it be truely radde and iustely considered, whiche if ye do often loke on, ye maye thereby attyre your selfe in [Page] suche facion, as men shall therfore haue you in more fauour and honour, than if ye hadde on you as riche a garmente as the greatte Turke hathe any. Onely for my good wyll in translatynge it for you, I desyre your gentyll report and assys­tence ageynst them, whiche do hate all thynges, whyche please not their fan­tasyes.


OF what lygnage the Emperoure Alexander was, and the sygnes betokenynge his em­pyre.
Cap. i.
¶The education of Alexander, and how he profyted in vertue and doctrine.
Cap. ii.
¶Of the monstruous lyuinge of the Emperour Varius Heliogabalus, wherby the cytie of Rome was cor­rupted.
Cap. iii.
¶Howe Alexander was made emperour, and of his wonderfull temperaunce in refusynge diuerse great honours.
Cap. iiii.
¶The example of vertu giuen by Alexander in the forme of his lyuinge and dayly customes.
Cap. v.
¶The letter of Gordian the senatour to the emperour Alexander.
Cap. vi.
¶The answer of Alexander to the letters of Gordian.
Cap. vii.
¶The firste practise of Alexander in redr [...]nge of the empyre into his pris [...]at honour.
Cap. viii.
¶In what forme themperour Alexander had his coun­s [...]le, which alway attēded vpon his person.
Cap. ix.
¶The oration of Alexander to the senate.
Cap. x.
¶How the correctours of maners, called Censors were elected, and with what rygour they executed their of­fice by the commandement of Alexander.
Cap. xi.
¶Of the great prudence of Alexander vsed in the electi­on of his counsaylours and officers.
Cap. xii.
¶How extremely Alexāder hated extorcioners and [...]ri­bours, and how moche he fauoured them that were vertuouse.
Cap. xiii.
¶A notable example giuen by Alexander in repreuing an ambitious and vainglorious counsaylour.
Cap. xiiii.
¶The consultation concerninge the punishment of Turi­nus, [Page] and the excellent reason of the emperour Alexan­der.
Cap. xv.
¶How Alexander instructed and entertained them that were officers, and of his liberality toward them that dyd well theyr dueties.
Cap. xvi.
¶How curious the emperour Alexander was in assig­ning of iustices in his lawes, and how he vsed liberali­ty or sharpnes towardes them, accordinge to their merites.
Cap. xvii.
¶Of the great care and diligence that Alexander vsed about the publike weale, and of certayne new officers ordayned by hym.
Cap. xviii.
¶How the emperour Alexander dyd ordeyne new offi­cers in the weale publike, and what belonged to their authorities.
Cap. xix.
¶The detestation that Alexander had vnto idelnes, and the vyces therof procedinge, and of diuers prouisions that he made agaynst it.
Cap. xx.
¶Of baynes and places of exercises, made for the people of Rome, by the emperour Alexander.
Cap. xxi.
¶Of the magnificence of the emperour Alexander in sūptuous and necessary warkes, and in what exercises he caused the nobility and gentelmen of Rome to be occupied.
Cap. xxii.
¶Of hospitals and other prouision made by Alexander for men that were decrepite, or so diseased that they coulde not labour.
Cap. xxiii.
¶In how sundry wise Alexander exercysed his own personne, soo that he was neuer vnprofitably occupied.
Cap. xxiiii.
¶How the Emperour Alexander, at the request of his mother Mammea, sent for the moste excellent clerke Ori­gen: & of diuerse notable sentences spoken by the same [Page] emperour, concernynge the receyuinge of the christen fayth.
Cap. xxv.
¶How Mammea the Emperours mother exhorted him to be maried, and what wise answeres he made, and finally toke to wife the doughter of a noble and ancient senatour.
Cap. xxvi.
¶Of the seueritie that Alexander vsed, as well towarde them that were proude, as to thē that were malaperte and dyd not their duetie.
Cap. xxvii.
¶The oration of the emperour Alexander to the people of Rome.
Cap. xxviii.
¶The seueritie that the emperour Alexander vsed in chastisinge as well the pride of the people, as also his men of warre or souldiours.
Cap. xxix.
¶How the Emperour Alexander reformed the vsury, wherof he spake afore in his oration made to the peo­ple.
Cap. xxx.
¶The sentence of Catelius.
¶The sentence of Gordian.
¶The law concerninge vsuries made by the Emperour, Senate, and people of Rome.
Cap. xxxi.
¶what loue and beneuolence the emperour shewed to the people of Rome, and of other his wonderfull ver­tues.
Cap. xxxii.
¶Of the circumspect curiositie of the emperour Alexan­d [...] in admittinge counsaylours. And of his answere coueringe that matter.
Cap. xxxiii.
¶The most noble answere of Alexander made to Alphe­nus, concerninge the disablynge of Sextilius Rufus in his absence.
cap. xxxiiii.
¶How Sextilius herynge that he was made pretor, fled: And what the Emperour sayd concerninge that matter
cap. xxxv.
[Page]¶The letters of themperour Alexander sent to Sextilius and how vnwyllyngly he retourned to Rome, and re­ceiued the office of Pretor.
cap. xxxvi.
¶A notable question meued by Iulius Paulus vnto the Emperour Alexander. And the wise answere which he thervnto made.
cap. xxxvii.
¶Of a great exclamation made against a gentilman cal­led Marcus Geminus by his libertines. And the o [...]ration of Iunius Moderatus, made in the Senate.
cap xxxviii.
¶The oration of Iunius Moderatus.
¶The wonderful prudence and equitie shewed by Alex­ander the Emperour, in the determination and sentence in the matter precedinge.
cap. xxxix.
¶Thus endeth the Table.

OF VVHAT LYNAGE THE EMPEROVR ALEXANDER was, and the sygnes betokenynge his Empyre. Capi. i.

AVRELIVS ALEXAN­der sommetyme Emperour of Rome, was borne in the royalme of Siria, in the Cytie of Arcene, whose father had to name Uarius, whiche was ly­neally descended from the noble hous of Metellus the Romayne, called Metellus the ver­tuouse. Albeit some writers suppose, that Seuerus, before he was emperour, was amorous of a woman in Siria, and by the arte of Astronomie fyndynge in her natiuitie, that she shuld be an emperours mother, he toke her to wyfe, and had issue by her, Uarius the father of Alexander: but fynally the progeny of this Emperour is very vncertayn: wherfore in myne opi­nion his lyfe and actes be the more to be honored and meruayled at, consyderynge that beinge come of soo vncertayne a lynage, and borne so ferre from the citie of Rome, and in so barbarous a countrey, he could so well gouerne the empire of Rome, whiche before his tyme was with pryde and other detestable vyces ex­tremely corrupted.

¶The mother of Alexander was called Mammea, a woman of notable wysedome, as it shall hereafter appere by the bryngynge vp of her sonne, and preser­uynge of hym as well from the vyces, whervnto he was not onely prouoked, but also wel nygh constray­ned, by that moste beastely emperour Uarius Helio­gabalus, [Page] his cousyn germayne and predecessour, not withstandyng there was in that noble woman Mammea, a great spyce of auaryce in gatherynge and ke­pynge of treasure, whiche fynally was the only cause of the deathe bothe of her and her sonne. The sayde Mammea was doughter of a woman called Mesa, which was borne in Phenicia, in a towne called Eme­sa, and was syster of Iulia, wife of the emperour Se­uerus. This Mesa lyuing, Seuerus and Bassianus his sonne, was contynually abydynge in the courtes of those emperours: and after the deceasse of Bassia­ [...]us, she was commanded by Macrinus than empe­rour, to departe to her countrey, albeit the emperour graunted that she shulde take with her suche tresure, as she had gathered, which was abundant. She had also two doughters, the one called Semiamira, the other Māmea. Semiamira had a sonne named Bas­sianus, which was of excellent beaultie. And bicause he was prelate in the temple of the sunne, whome the Phenices do calle Heliogabalus, he was semblablye called by that name, hauyng added thereto the name of Uarius, whiche is in englishe diuers, forasmoche as some men suppose, that he was conceyued of the sede of dyuers men, his mother Semiamira beynge incontinent, and as it were cōmune to many men, du­rynge the tyme that she abode in the emperours court with her mother. Not withstanding her sonne Helio­gabalus, by the crafty meanes of his grandame Me­sa, was declared to be the sonne of the emperour Bas­sianus, and by the fauour of the men of warre of the Romayns, who than murmured and had in hatrede the pryde and crueltie of Macrinus (who was empe­rour [Page 2] after Bassianus) and his sonne Diadumenus, the sayde Uarius Heliogabalus was aduanced vn­to the empire, who with voluptuous and monstru­ous lyuyng, in such wise corrupted the citie of Rome, that therein vnneth remayned any steppe of vertue or honestye.

¶Contrary wyse the other daughter of Mesa cal­led Māmea, of whom I intende nowe to write, indu­ced rather by nature and reason, than by the example of her viciouse mother, so nourished and trayned her sayd sonne Alexander in vertue & lernyng, that part­ly by her education, but moche more by his owne in­clination naturall, he became one of the most perfecte princis that euer gouerned.

¶The education of Alexander, and howe he profyted in vertue and doctryne. Capit. ii.

TOVCHYNGE THE EDVCATION in chyldhode of Alexander, his noble mo­ther Mammea failed not to prouide with all diligence and circumspection, that hir son mought be nouryshed in vertue, and amonge honest company, and that fro the tyme that he issued out of his infancy, he were contynually in­structed in all maner of doctrine, both ciuile and mar­ciall: so that afterwarde he of his owne courage ne­uer suffred any daye to passe, without exercysyng him selfe eyther in letters, or in faictis marciall. In the fyrste parte of his chyldehode he hadde instructours. Ualerius Cordius, Titus Ueturius, and Aurelius Philippus: whiche afterwarde wrate his lyfe. Also in his countrey he was taught in greke by Nebo the [Page] grammarian, and the rhetorician Serapio, and Sti­lio the philosopher. At Rome he had teachers in the latine tounge, fyrste in grammer Scaurinus a fa­mous master, in rhetorike he was instructed by Iuli­us Frontinus, Bebius Macrinus, & Iulianus Gra­manus. Al be it he dyd not soo moche delyte in latine eloquence, as in the greke, ne dyd therin profyte soo moch: but he loued all men that were lerned, and fea­ [...]ed them also, lest they shulde wryte of hym any thing sharpely, or to his rebuke.

¶Moreouer he sent often tymes for those excellente personages, communicatynge with theym thynges whiche were done as well priuily as also openly: wil­lynge them, that all that they founde to be true, they shulde put it in wrytynge: suffrynge also them to re­p [...]oue hym whan they seemed conuenyent. Often ty­mes he made verses in greke very pleasant, and was moch inclyned to musike. In the mathematical scien­ [...]es, that is to say, Arithmetike, Geometry, and Astro­nomy, he was very well lerned. And therfore dyuerse tymes by his commandment, the professours of those sciences purposed openly questions. In diuination he was so excellent, that he therin surmounted the diuy­nours of Gascoyne, Spayne, and Hungry. He pain­ [...]ed also excellently. Also he dyd synge very pleasant­ly, but neuer in the presence of any other, but onely of his seruauntes and pages of his priuy chaumber. He wrate the lyues of good princes in verses eloquently, and sange them vnto the harpe and organes, ryghte swetely, but that dyd he onely for recreatynge his spi­cites, whan they were troubled with vehement study: as it often tymes hapned by incomparable laboure a­bout [Page 3] the great affayres of the weale publyke. He was of visage fayre, and well proporcioned in body: large and goodly of personage, and therwith was stronge and durable to susteyne peynes, as he that knewe his owne strength, and in the preseruyng therof was not founde negligente. Therto he was amiable, and to­warde euery man gentyl, and easy to be spoken vnto. Also there was in hym so moche humanitie and bene­uolence, that he wolde often tymes vysite not onelye the beste and the seconde of his frendes and seruaun­tes beinge sicke, but also them that were inferiours and of base hauyour, desyryng them to tell to him fre­ly what they thought of hym, whom he wolde atten­tifely here. And whan he had herde them throughly, than as the thyng, which was spoken of, did require, he wold diligently amende and correcte it. And whan his mother wolde saye often tymes to hym, Sir ye be to familiar and easye, and therfore ye shall cause the imperiall astate to be the lasse sette by, he aunswered thus, But yet shall it be more sure, and contynue the longer. This was his disposition, procedyng as wel of the perfection of his moste gentylle nature, as of the education of his good and circumspect mother.

¶Nowe wil I procede to write of his excellent wise­dome and vertue, experienced in his authoritie impe­riall, wherin was declared the moste perfect forme of gouernance that euer was practised by any prynce (as I suppose) whiche shall appere the more manifestly, yf fyrst I treate somewhat of the moste myserable a­state of the weale publyke, and as it semed incorrigi­ble, at the tyme that he receyued the gouernance ther­of, he than beinge but of the age of .xvi. yeres, whiche [Page] being consydered and kepte in remembrance, this hi­story shall be to the reders therof (excepte I be decey­ued) bothe plesant and meruaylous, and no lasse pro­fytable to gouernours that do preferre their publyke weale before wilful appetite and particular plesures.

¶Of the monstruous lyuyng of the emperour Varius He [...]ioga­ [...]a [...], wherby the cytie of Rome was corrupted. Ca. iii.

MACRINVS the emperour for his aua­rice and tyrannye beinge abandoned (or rather betrayed) of his owne people, and slaine with his sonne Diadumenus, who in beaultie and goodly stature excelled al men of his tyme, Uarius Heliogabalus, of whom I late spake, was aduaunced vnto the empire, by the hole consent of the Senate and people of Rome, who gaue hasty credence to all reportes that were made to the honour and praise of their newe princis. (Such is the appetites of men, which be meued anon with cre­dulitie: for suche thynges as they desyre, they coucyte to here of, and do delite in new tydinges, though it be falsely reported.) But Heliogabalus as soone as he was come vnto Rome, out of the countrey of Siria, he immediately declared his beastely nature, by insu­ynge vices moste abhomynable, and aduauncyng the fauourers and haunters of the same vices, and infor­cynge with all his study and puissance, to exterminate out of the citie of Rome all vertue and honestie, from whens a lyttell before, all the world receyued doctrine and example of honour, concernynge as well vertu­ous maners, as marciall prowesse.

¶Fyrste in lechery this Heliogabalus was so insaci­able, [Page 4] that not onely he exercysed that vyce openly, in common baynes and bordell houses, with sundry wo­men of diuerse degrees and countreys: but also he or­deyned a senate of common harlattes, amonge whom were dyuerse noble matrones and damsels of Rome, theyr husbandes or parentes not beinge so hardye to let or rebuke them, vnto whom often tymes, after he and his ribauldes had saciate with them theyr leche­rous appetites, he made a solemne contiō or proposi­tion, callynge them his companions, and exhortynge them to set al theyr study and wytte to induce al other women vnto the fourme of theyr lyuynge: declaring expressely, that he aboue all other thynges moste desi­red, that all men and womenne of the citie of Rome shuld be semblably disposed as he was. I holde it not conuenient to be wrytten in any vulgare tunge, howe he transformed and abused his proper kynde, in such wyse, as I suppose the mooste vicious man nowe ly­uynge wolde be ashamed, not onely to beholde it, but also to here it, and that dyd he not onely secretely or in his house, but also openly, all men that wolde, behol­dyng and lokinge on hym. I omitte the residue, whi­che in myne opynion oughte neuer to haue ben wryt­ten for abomination therof, moch more neuer to haue ben of any man knowen.

¶He also promoted to the greattest dignities of the publyke weale, common bawdes, notable ribauldes, solicitours and furtherers of dishonest appetites, of­ten tymes cokes and deuisats of lecherous confecti­ons and sawces: Semblably by such persons he sold dignities, auctorites and offices in the publike weale. He also elected into the Senate, and to the roumes of [Page] great capitaynes, dukes, and gouernoures of coun­treys moste vyle personages, not hauynge regard to any age, gentylnesse of bloud, meryte, possessions or substaunce. He had of his priuye counsayle in all his actes, two Carters, the one named Protogenes [...] and the other Cordius. His glotonye was almoste equall vnto his lechery: in so moch as he therin vanquished Uitellius, of whom it is written, that at one supper he was serued with seuen thousande fysshes, and fyue thousande foules. Heliogabalus whan he soiourned nygh to the see, he wold neuer be seruid with sea fishe: but beinge in places far distante from the sea, he cau­sed all his houshold to be serued with mooste delycate sea fyshe. It abhorreth me to expresse his beastely ly­uynge, but to the intent that the excellent vertues of his moste noble successour shal be more apparant and commendable (lyke as al thyng that is vile or course, doth set forthe more pleasantly that thynge whiche is precious and fyne) it is requisite that I describe this monster in some parte as he was. All be it I doo not [...] euery thynge that I haue redde of hym, as well for that it shall be to good men odious to here, as al­so it mought happen to incend the wanton and lewde co [...]rages of some readers, inclined to semblable qua­lities, whiche (god knoweth) is moche contrary vnto my purpose.

¶But to retourne to this monstruous Emperour, whiche consumed dayes and nyghtes in lecherye and glotony, hauynge some daye all his company serued with the braynes Ostriches, and a straunge foule called Phenocopteri: an other daye with the tunges of Popingayes, nightyngales, and other sweete syn­gyng [Page 5] byrdes, oftentymes with the myltes of most de­lycate fyshes. I omytte other lyght fantasyes, wher­of I haue written in my boke called the gouernour, where I treate of sobrietie. Fynally it is remembred, that he was neuer two days togyther serued with one meate, nor ware twyse one garmente, nor companyed twyse with one woman, excepte his wyse. As often as he remoued in progresse, there folowed hym .vi. C. chariottes laded only with bandes, cōmon harlottes, and rybauldes. This companye had he in stede of coun­saylours, and so delyted in this forme of lyuyng, that he sayd oftentymes, that if he had a sonne, he wolde ordeyne for hym maisters, that shulde compell hym to lyue in semblable facion. To these monstruous vices he added to crueltie, in puttyng to deathe dyuerse no­ble senatours. Also vsynge the counsayle of wytches and inchanters, he made his sacrifice with yong chil­dren: And violently rauyshynge from the noble men and women of Italy, their yonge infantes, he caused in his presence their bodies to be opened they lyuyng, and most cruelly serched in their tender bowelles for his moste damnable desteny. He had in speciall fauor one named Zoticus, who for familarite vsed betwene them, was taken of all the chiefe officers for the em­perours husbande. This Zoticus vnder the colour of the sayd familiaritie, solde all the sayinges and doin­ges of the emperour, intendyng to accumulate abun­dance of rychesse, by promisynge fayre to many men, but fynally deceyuynge all men. for commynge out of the emperours priuy chamber, after that he had herd euery man speake, that suyd vnto him, to som he wold say, thus sayd I to themperour of you, vnto an other [Page] Of you I herde the emperour saye thus to daye. To dyuers he wold say, Your matter or request shal come this to passe. As is the facion of suche maner of per­sones, whiche beinge from a base condicion admitted of princis into ouermoche familiaritie, they selle the fame and renome of their masters. Such as I haue rehersed were the counsaylours of Heliogabalus. for al wyse and vertuous men he deedly hated. Wherfore he banished the noble man Sabinus, vnto whom Ulp [...]anus the great lawyer wrate his bookes. And sem­b [...]ably he put out of the citie the sayde Ulpian, onely bycause he was named a good manne, and caused Siluinus the noble oratour, whom he had made ma­ster to Alexander, to be put to dethe. And he ordeyned a tumbler to be great maister of his housholde, a car­ter named Gordius he made capitayne of his garde. An other tumbler he made chefe captayn of an army. The greattest rouines and affaires of the empyre, he commytted to mynstrels, players of enterludes and dysardes. To his bondmen and most vyle seruantes as they excelled in abhomination, so preferred he them to the gouernance of realmes and prouinces. Also of his rabell of brothelles, to some he gaue the rule and gouernance of the youth of the citie: som he made ru­lers of the senate, to other he gaue preeminence and souerayntie ouer al them that were gentilmen, finally he intended to distroy all vertue, and to constrayne all men to lyue beastely as he dyd. And for that cause he cōmanded that the noble Alexander his auntes sonne shulde be slayne, either violently or by some poyson: forasmoche as he perceyued hym to declyne from his appetite: but Alexander was alwaye preserued by the [Page 6] prouidence of god, who inclyned the mindes of the se­nate & people to his preseruatiō. for nothing auaileth the malice of tyrantes agaynst innocentis & good mē, wher almyghty god wyl not haue thē to perysh. Wherfore this monstruous emperour, desyryng the destru­ction of Alexander, procured his owne deth, agreable with his abhomi [...]able lyuing. for his owne seruantes and souldiours, whiche were prepared for the garde of his person, dreadynge leste the people makyng in­surrection, that they shuld be parteners of his mische­uous ende, being also tedious of his abhominations, conspired to delyuer the common weale of hym. And sodaynly apprehended his adherentes and familiars, and with sundry tormentes dyd put them to dethe. Fi­nally pursuyng Heliogabalus to a priuie or draught, wherevnto he fledde, there they slewe hym, and his mother Semiamira, and afterwarde his horrible ca­rayn being drawen throughout the citie with hookes, was of all the people defyled with ordure, and other matter foule and stynkyng, & at the last was brought with all kyndes of reproche, to the cōmon draughtes of the citie, wherinto they wolde haue throwen hym, but for as moch as the hole of the draught coulde not receyue hym, they tyed him to a stone of great weight, and threwe hym into the ryuer of Tyber, to the intent that he shulde neuer be buryed. This was the wor­thy and conuenient ende of this most beastly and vn­clene monster, who with the emperors Nero, Caligu­la, Domitian, and Cōmodus, his predecessours, was a notable and commodius example to all princis suc­cedynge, to declare, that not withstandynge their ma­iestie and puissance, they for their vices abhominable, [Page] were fyrste hated, and afterwarde slayne, and disho­noured by their propre subiectes.

¶And in this hystorie it is to be specially noted, that not withstandynge that he not onely permytted, but also wylled his subiectes to lyue in a licence, and with out correction, for synne, moreouer vsed toward them suche lyberalitie, that he fedde them with moste dely­cate and exquisite meates, gaue vnto theym money in habundance, and also to them, whiche dyned or sup­ped with hym, he gaue all the vessel and plate, were it of golde or syluer, wherwith he was serued, and made many other distributions to the hole people wonder­full sumptuous: Yet the Romayns not withstanding abhorrynge in hym their owne propre vices, or rather beyng therwith saciate or tedious, they fynally slewe hym, as is before written, after that he hadde reygned syx yeres, & being than but in the .xxi. yere of his age.

[...]we Alexander was made emperoure, and of his wonderfull tem­ [...]ance in [...]e [...]ynge diuerse great honour [...]. Cap. iiii.

IMMEDIATELY after the death of He­liogabalus the senate and people of Rome beinge surprised with incredibie ioye, vsed all diligence and spede, that Aurelius A­lexander, whom they had defended frome death, mought forthwith as very emperour receyue all auctoritie and honour, that parteyned to the im­peryall maiestie. Wherfore they contended amonge them selues, whiche of them moughte applye to hym moste titles and names of dignitie. wherfore he was the fyrste that receyued at one tyme all ornamentes and tokens of honour, aydynge therto the name of [Page 7] Cesar, which a fewe yeres before he had receyued, but moche rather his honeste lyfe and vertuous maners, wherby he obteyned suche fauour of all menne, that whan Heliogabalus wold haue slayne hym, he could not brynge it to passe, the men of armes resisting, and the senate obstynatelye refusynge: but all these were but trifels in regarde that he approued him selfe wor­thy, whom the senate ought to saue harmelesse, whom the men of warre desyred to be in saufegarde, and ge­nerally by the sentence and opinion of all good men, was electe to be Emperour, beynge than but of the age of .xvi. yeres. Notwithstandynge he was than of suche a wonderfull sobernesse, that where the senate wolde haue gyuen to hym the surname of Antonine (which name for the incomparable vertues that were in Antoninus Pius, and Antoninus the philosopher late Emperours, was vsurped of other Emperours folowynge, for a pryncipall title of honour) he hum­bly refused it: semblably dyd he the name of great A­lexander, sayinge openly vnto the senate.

¶I beseche you honorable fathers, do not cal me vnto this necessitie, that I shuld be compelled to satisfy you in the merites of so hygh a name as Antonine is. For if ye seke for goodnesse in a prynce, who was bet­ter or more vertuouse than Antoninus Pius? If ye seke lernynge, who was more wyse or cunnynge than Marcus Antoninus? And who was more harmelesse than Uerus Antoninus? Noble fathers, these hyghe names of honour be bourdonous and to greuouse for my youthe to susteyne. For who wyll gladdely here a dumme man called Tully, an idiote Uarro, a tyrant Metellus? And as touchynge the name of greate A­lexander, [Page] it is moche more incongruent, consydering that with better reason I moughte haue taken the name of Antonine, induced by colour either of affiny­tie, or els of equall astate in the imperial maiestie. but the name of great Alexander, wherfore shuld I haue it? What gret thinges haue I yet done to deserue that name, whiche Alexander the greke after great enter­prises, Pompei the Romayne after many triumphes, had gyuen vnto them? Cease therfore honorable fa­thers, to conferre to me honours aboue my merytes. and sens ye wyll haue me called great, suffre me to be one of you, who in very dede be great in honour and perfyte magnificence.

¶This moderate and sobre aunswere of so yonge a prynce, inflamed immediately the hartes of the senate and people moche more to honour hym, than if he had receyued those straunge names: and from that tyme he had the renoume of Constance and grauitie. More ouer for his great Austeritie agayne the presumption and lightnesse of his souldiours and seruauntes, he was named of them Seuerus, which betokeneth con­stante or sharpe in punishemente. whiche name in his tyme gat hym moche reuerence, and afterward great fame and renoume amonge his successours. Fynally this moste towardly prynce with incredible ioye was triumphantly conuayed by all the Senate and peo­ple, to the imperial palaice: where beinge left, he pre­pared hym selfe to the reformation of the hole empire, than beinge in ruine.

¶The example of vertue gyuen by Alexander in the fourme of his lyuynge and dayly customes. Cap. v.

IMMEDIATELY after that Alexander by the consent of the Senate and people, was stablyshed in the imperial authoritie, and for his excellent goodnesse was moste ardentely beloued of the multitude, also the remembraunce of Heliogabalus and his adheren­tes for theyr detestable vices beinge euery where ha­ted, and with detestation abhorred: This noble yonge emperour takyng than oportunitie to restore the pub­lyke weale to her pristinate fourme, with the maiestie imperiall, late violated, and well nyghe perysshed, throughe the negligence of the sayde monster.

¶He by the counsayle of his wise and vertuouse mo­ther Mammea, fyrste purged his owne palaice, ex­cludynge out of his courte and all offices, disshoneste and infamed personages: and by noo meanes wolde suffer to be in his householde any other, than by all men shulde be thought necessary.

¶Moreouer he openly protested, makynge an othe, that he wolde neuer haue a superfluouse numbre of seruauntes, to the intent that he wolde not greue the publyke weale with his prouysion, saying, That em­perour is a shrewde pupyll, that fedeth with the bo­welles of his commons, men whiche be not necessary, nor yet profytable to the weale publyke.

¶Howe moche he hated vnklennesse of lyuynge, he well declared, whan he commaunded that no woman infamed shuld salute or vysite his wife or his mother. All his lyfe was a perfecte Example of Temperance. [Page] His aparaile was wonderful cleane, but not to sump­tuouse and after some mennes opinion, more meaner than to his astate apperteyned. Semblable modera­tion the empresse his wyfe obserued. Fynally duryng his tyme he vsed diligente correction of his owne ma­ners: wherfore all noble men assayed to folowe hym. And all honorable women ensued the empresses ex­aumple.

¶ Moreouer this emperour was of suche an incom­parable mansuetude, that he commaunded, that noo man shuld wryte vnto hym in any other fourme, than shulde be wrytten to a pryuate person, reseruynge the name of emperour. And also prohybited, that no man shulde call hym lorde, but salute hym as one of the se­natours, and in this fourme, Be glad Alexander. And if a man hadde vsed in gesture or speche any maner of flattery [...] he was eyther put backe, if the place so requi­red, or els with a great laughter was mocked by them whiche were present.

¶And for as moche as he wold not be saluted or vi­sited but of theym whiche were honeste, and of good fame he decreed, that noo man shulde enter into his palaice but onely suche as knewe them selues vncor­rupted with notable vices. And caused to be proclay­med, that noo personne, knowynge hym selfe to be a thefe or extortioner, shuld be so hardy to salute the emperour, vpon peyne of lesyng his lyfe. He hadde this sentence often tymes in his mouthe: Theues onelye complayne of pouertie, therby couetynge to hide their mischeuous lyuynge.

¶Fynally no daye passed, wherin he dydde not some thynge charitably, gentylly, or honorablye, but that [Page 9] thynges he dydde in suche wyse, as therin he neyther consumed ne wasted the common treasure.

¶He procured seldome any condemnatiōs, but those that were done he neuer pardoned. The tributes or fee fermes of cities, he often tymes gaue to the repai­ringe and buyldinge of the same cities. Moreouer to dyuers poore men, of whose vertue or wysedome he hadde perfect knowlege, he lente of his Treasure to purchase landes, receyuynge agayne his owne mo­ney, onely of the rentes of the same landes, and lette the sayde personnes haue the possession and all other profyttes.

¶He wolde not suffer any of his courte to weare any garment myxte with golde, or other wyse preciouse or costely: nor he hym selfe delyted in ryche apparayle, saying, That gouernaunce was in vertue and not in beautie or costly apparayle.

¶At his table he vsed no gold but pure berill & chri­stal, and other like matter to drynke in: he exceded not waight of syluer vessell in all his householde.

¶Preciouse stones that were giuen to him, he caused to be solde, estemynge it to be a womanly appetite to haue suche iewelles, whiche he mought neyther gyue to his souldiours, ne in hauynge them fynde any pro­fyte. Wherfore on a tyme whan an ambassadour had gyuen to the empresse two orient perles of wonderful greatnesse, he commanded them to be solde. And whā no man coulde be founde that wolde gyue as moche as the pryce was estemed, leste any euel example shuld procede of the empresse, if she shulde be seene to weare that thynge, whiche noo manne coulde bye, he caused theym to be hanged at the eares of the image of Ue­nus: [Page] therby declarynge, that such thynges eyther for the inestimable pryce was meter for goddes than for men, or for the vnprofytable beaultie therof, serued onely for persons of wanton appetites, whereof Ue­nus was goddesse and patronesse.

¶ No lasse temperaunce vsed he in meates and dryn­kes, neuer excedynge foure sundrye kyndes of fleshe and fyshe at one meale, and those with a great mode­ration and reason. He dranke wyne not skarsely, nor to moche, but competently.

¶ In feastes or bankettynge he neuer wolde haue any wanton pastyme. His pleasure was to beholde birdes fyghtyng together. And therfore he had in his garden, places, where byrdes of sundry kyndes were inclosed and kept, wherin he toke synguler pleasure. Notwithstandynge to the intent that he wolde in noothing aggrieue the market in feding them with corn, he had seruauntes that prouyded for theym egges of wildefoule and culuers.

¶ In honeste recreation he was meruaylouse merye and pleasaunt, amiable in communication, at the ta­ble so gentyll, that euery man mought demaunde of hym what he wolde. And to the intent that he wold be the more circumspecte, he ordeyned the wyse man Ul­piane [...] one of the greattest interpretours of the lawe ciuile, to be in the stede of his tutour, his mother re­pugnynge therat at the fyrste, but after she gaue him therfore greatte prayses. Whan he dyned or supped a brode, he had euer with hym Ulpiane or other wel ler­ned men, to the intent he wold than here histories conceynynge lernynge, wherwith he sayde that he was bothe recreate and also fedde. If he satte pryuilye, he [Page 10] had a boke by hym and radde therin oftentymes, but that was in greke, for the more part. In open feastes he vsed the same simplicitie that he did in his palaice.

¶He so moche had flattery in hatred, that he wolde not here oratours or poetes speke any thynge to his prayse, callynge it folyshenesse: but he harde gladlye orations, perswadynge to vertue, and also the actes of other good pryncis, as wel Romayns as Grekes, specially the prayse of Alexander the greate, whiche conqueryd the more parte of the worlde.

¶He went oftentimes openly to the common scholes to here rhetoriciens and poetes grekes and latynes. He harde also oratours recitynge causes, whiche they had prosecuted eyther before hym, or before the great offycers.

¶Fynally he so moch estemed and fauoured lerning that he ordeyned greatte salaryes to be gyuen to rhe­torycians, teachers of grammar, phisitions, astrono­mers, geometricians, musiciens, deuisers of building and ingines.Archite­cti. And prouided for theym places to reade in, and scholars also, gyuynge to poore and honeste mennes chyldren that hard them, theyr commons fre. with lyke charitie he reteined aduocates in pore mens causes. And suche lawyers as freelye dyd helpe poore menne with theyr counsayle and labour, he rewarded them with corne and wyne to maynteyne theyr house­holde.

¶He also yerelye perused his lawes, and refourmed them accordynge as occasion changed or hapned. and he hym selfe diligently and rigorousely executed them in his owne personne and seruauntes. And therwith was of suche gentylnesse, that he wolde offer to gyue [Page] place to the ancient Senatours that came vnto him. And wolde suffer no man of honestie that preaced to speke with hym, to be repelled. He neuer dyd wronge to any person, semblably of wronges he was a vehe­mente and sharpe persecutour, sauinge, That in his owne wronge he was moche more tractable than in a straungers. If he laye not with his wyfe, he was in the mornynge betyme in his priuie closet, where were sette the ymage of Christe, also the pictures of Abra­ham, Socrates, Apollonius, and other uncient and vertuouse men, where, by the space of halfe an houre, he remayned in prayers. And for this deuotion and maruaylouse exaumple of lyuynge, he was had of all men in wonderfull reuerence. All be it his temperate and sobre lyuynge, beynge thought of some men not agreeable nor congruente to his maiestie, he was ex­horted to aduaunce his astate, bothe in princely porte, and more sumptuous maner of lyuynge, leauinge his affabilitie and strayte obseruation of his lawes, as it shall appere by letters folowynge, mutually wrytten betwene hym and his counsaylours.

¶The letter of Gordiane the senatour to the Empe­rour Alexander. Cap. vi.

THERE VVAS IN the citie of Rome an honorable Senatour named Gordiane, who hadde sometyme ben consul (whiche was the hyghest dignitie next to the em­perour) and was the rychest man of all the citie, hauing the greattest possessions in the coun­treyes adioynynge, that any man had, the emperour onely except, and also was a man of excellent lerning [Page 11] and wysedome: Wherfore durynge the lyfe of Helio­gabalus, this Gordiane, hauing his monstruous life in abhomination, and perceyuyng the maiestie of the empyre to decay by his negligent and dissolute liuing and that there was no hope of remedy, obseruyng the tyme, he by lyttell and lyttell withdrewe hym into su­che places, as he had of his owne, ferre from the citie, faynynge hym selfe to be greued with suche dyseases as dyd debilytate his wyttes, and therfore requyred to be farre from resorte of company and moche noyse, whiche beinge in the citie, he moughte not eschewe. This excuse the emperour Heliogabalus herd glad­lye, as he that feared and also hated the grauitie and authoritie of Gordiane, and therfore lycenced hym to departe and remayne in the countreye, as longe as it lyked hym, thynkynge by his absence to be more at li­bertie, and to lyue more wantonly: So with the emperours fauour or rather foly, Gordiane quietely and also pleasantlye passed the tyme that Heliogabalus ly­ued. And whan he herde of the deathe of that monster, he wolde not retourne to the citie, but sent his consent of election to the senate, after that he knewe that by assent of the people, Alexander was named emperor. And whan he was required of the senate to come per­sonally, he aggrauated his impedyment, alledgynge syckenesse, although in dede, neyther in body nor wyt he was in any parte dyseased: but knowyng Alexan­der to be very yonge, and also cousyn germayn to He­liogabalus, he drad in hym bothe the one & the other, fearyng lest nature shulde preuayle again education, whan he shoulde come to an absolute lybertie, and be out of the state of all correction. But soone after that [Page] Alexander was stablyshed in the empire, and that his vertues were commended and publyshed, Gordiane reioycynge therat, toke therof meruaylous comforte. Albeit for his natiue grauitie and stately courage, he lyked not the affabilitie and familiaritie that Alexan­der vsed, nowe beinge the chiefe prynce and souerayn gouernour of all the worlde: wherfore or he wolde make any accesse to his presence, he wolde proue his wysedome and vertue in admyttinge his counsayles, wherfore he wrate in this wyse vnto hym.

NOBLE AND EXCELLENT prince, the fame of your aduauncement vnto the gouernaunce of the empire, was to me as it is vnto all the worlde, moste ioyfull tydynges, consyderyng the lamentable astate of our publyke weale, with the certayne hope that all men haue in you, being meued with your vertues in­comparable, whiche dayly more and more ye do mani­feste by your moste honorable example in lyuyng, de­clared to all that do beholde, not only your royal per­sone, but also your seruantes and familiar company­ons. Among which vertues, your affabilitie and gentylnes haue acquyred no smal prayse amonge the people, as commonly they delyte in swete countenaunce, and myldenes of gouernours, wherein they truste to fynde more lybertie. But most noble prince, although for these qualities, ye deserue prayse and loue of your subiectes, yet in the imperiall maiesty requyreth to be a more straunge countenance, and a seld and difficult accesse vnto your person, consyderyng that by the fa­miliaritie of hym that is a mayster or gouernour, as well euyll men as good, do receyue boldnes to speke, and they whiche be euyll, do busyly assaut hym, either [Page 12] with flatterye, or with detractynge of other, wherby princis, although they be of good natures, and welle brought vp by their parentes, yet be they oftentymes transformed into monsters, that is to say, into beastly lyuers or rauenouse tyrantes. I omyt contempt, whi­che induced by familiaritie, bryngethe the subiecte to disobedience. Let it not displease you, that I seme to haue in your hyghnesse any suspition. Uerily as a mā that hath a faire and honest wife, wherby he is meued to loue her entierly, wold not haue her gladly stand in the market place, and admytte without discrepance e­uery manne equally, and with lyke pleasaunt counte­nance, suffer euery man to speake to her what he lyste, although he knoweth her to be vertuous and constāt: as welle foras moche as the naturall shamefastnesse that ought to be in a woman, may not admytte suche open resort and cōmunication, as also the eares that be often assaulted, can not euer escape, but be they ne­uer so well fortified with wysedome, at the laste lyke a castell wall, they beinge sore shaken with many swete wordes and long enteruieu, they yeld at the last, yl cu­stome expellynge shamefastnes, and fynally all wyse­dome being reiected, and nothyng set by. Semblably moste excellent prince, your persone is to the senate as dere as the wyfe to her husbande, and for your fayre vertues we of good reason ought to be so [...]alous ouer you, that wyllyngly we shoulde not beholde you falle into any custome, whiche mought allure you into any yl disposition, remembryng the late calamitie that the citie and empire were brought vnto by your most mō struous p̄decessour Uarius Hel [...]ogabalus. Wherfore lyke as now ye be to hym most contrarious in lyuing, [Page] so we desyre to haue you resyst al occasiō, that mought gyue neuer so lytel a pathe for flatterers, detractours, and promoters of vice, to entre into your counsayle or fauour. Who can aduaunte hym selfe to be well assu­red from this nette of hypocrisie, whyche hath (as I mought say) sundry and dyuers meshes of flatteryn­ges, whiche vneth any man can escape that wyll tary vntyll the nette be cast ouer hym? The remedye than is eyther with maiestie to repell it, or to cut it asunder with sharp rebukes: and that in the presence of other: or so greuousely to persecute alway those hypocrites, I do meane flatterers, with open punyshment, that al mē may knowe & abhorre them. And that other therto by nature inclyned, may be euer aferde of lyke experi­ment. But the fyrst way is most sure vndoutedly. For rebuke and punyshment commeth after the daunger, but maiestie precedeth, and therfore more profytteth. For suche persones rebuked or punyshed, perchaunce excusynge them selfe that they do it by to ardent affe­ction and desyre to please, or by their youth and lacke of experiēce, or recognysing their foly, and promisyng amendment, may happen eftsones to crepe into fauor and than they worke their nette soo fynely, that it can not so sone be perceyued, and pytcheth it more couert­ly applienge it aptly to their maisters conditions, soo that it shalbe almost impossible for hym to escape, but that in one meishe or other he shall be tangled. Con­trarywise by maiestie (that is to saye, statelye counte­naunce and difficulte accesse) ioyned with wysedome. impresseth such reuerence, that men not only do feare to approche vnto their soueraygne lorde, oneles they be called, but also to speake any thynge, whereby they [Page 13] beinge discouered, shulde lose their credence, hopynge neuer againe to recouer it, consyderyng that by maie­stie and wisedom, the accesse to the prince is made im­penetrable, sens to them that neuer offended he is soo harde and diffuse to be spoken vnto. Thus to your maiestie haue I shewed myne opinion, wherfore yf by my counsayle ye do leaue your affabilite, and familiar accesse, and imbrace grauitie and princelye astate, ye shall be saufe from the perylles that I haue remem­bred, and haue equal honour with your predecessors, whiche wolde not be sene of the people but seldome, and oftentimes with a courtayne before theyr visage, syttynge in theyr place of astate, whiche they toke of the Persianes. for thynges seldome seene be moste e­stemed: and they that be frequent and often in eye, be lyttell regarded, whiche as ye increase in age, and ex­perience, ye shal find true, and to be wrytten of a faith full counsaylour, that desyreth the increase of your vertue, with the publike weale of our most noble citie and empire.

¶ The aunswere of Alexander to the letter [...] of Gordiane. Capi. vii.

WHAN THE Emperour Alexander had receyued and radde the sayd letters of the senatour Gordiane, he seemed to reioyce more therat, than at all the honours and titles that were giuen him by the Senate and people, sayinge with a loude voyce: Yet there remayneth some hope in the publike weale, that it shall not vtterly perishe, sense we haue Gordiane the Se­natour lefte to assiste vs. And therwith he called for [Page] h [...]s tables, and immediately made to hym aunswere, as hereafter ensueth.

GORDIANE honorable father, howe moche bet­ter had the Senate and people of Rome prouyded for theyr publyke weale, if they had taken you to be theyr Emperour, hauynge regarde to your auncientie and excellent wysedome, where, in me they fynde nothyng but frayle youthe, and lacke of experience, for onelye detestation of the neglygence of my predecessour, with the desyre that I haue to increase vertue, hath sowen of me suche opinion amonge the Senate and people, that not remembrynge you (perchaunce for lacke of your presence) they haue inhabilled me to this estate aboue my merites. Ueryly no man douteth, but that ye being borne in the citie of a ryght auncient and no­ble house of the Romaius, as of your fathers syde issuyng from the honorable senatours called Gracchus, and by your mother descended from Traiane the em­perour, mought with that grauitie and sternesse, whi­che is in you, as it were by nature ingenerate, and amonge the people of Rome, aboue forty yere in the pryncipall dignities experienced, mooste honorablye haue meynteyned the imperial maiestie. Where I be­inge borne a straunger, and my bloude (althoughe it proceded of the noble house of Metellus) beinge to the more part of the senate and people vnknowen, am constrayned to auale that maiestie, that in you shulde be comendable, and in the stede of your grauitie and sadnesse, to vse towarde all men affabilitie and suche fourme of gentylnesse, whiche ye seme in me rather to prohibite than to disprayse, lest that my noueltie shuld [...]easse to be pleasante vnto the people, if by my sharp­nesse [Page 14] or straunge countenaunce I shulde seeme to de­ceyue them in theyr opinion. Remembre you not, that the haulte countenance and the difficulte accesse, whi­che was in Tarquine the laste kynge Romaines, ac­quired to him that odiouse surname to be called Tar­quine the proude? and althoughe that he were bothe valyaunt in warres, and in garnyshynge the citie ve­ry industriouse, yet whanne occasion and oportunitie hapned of rebellion, the people beinge broughte into fury, declared than howe moche more they hated hym than they dyd feare hym, ne had hym for his noble a­ctes in any estimation or reuerence. Moreouer whan they hadde expelled hym out of the citie, to the intent they moughte haue more familiar accesse vnto theyr gouernours, and fynd in them more affabilitie, from thense forth vnto the tyme of Caius Cesar, they yere­ly elected newe gouernours, callyng them Consules, as it were counsailours: supposyng that in theyr time of auctoritie, the remembraunce that they shoulde be priuate personnes the nexte yere folowynge, shulde cause them to vse the people the more famyliarly and also gentylly. And whan those officers beinge of long tyme chosen of the nobilitie onely, became in processe of tyme haulte mynded and sterne towardes the com­munaltie, the people with long sedition compelled the Senate to ioyne at the last, with a noble man in that office one of theyr company.

¶Iulius Cesar with affabilitie, mercy, and gentyl­nesse became so puissaunt, that neyther the Senates auctoritie, nor the prowesse incomparable of the great Pompei, nor yet the inexpugnable armies prepared agaynste hym, had power to resiste hym, yet shortely [Page] after that he had decreed, that no man shuld approche hym, and became in his countenaunce and wordes more stately, he was slayne in the middell of the citie by fyfty Senatours onely.

¶The great Alexander beinge so familiar and gen­tyll amonge his people, that he dyd not onely vysyte homely theyr pauilyons and halys, mynystrynge to them al thynge that they lacked, but also suffred them to come to hym boldely, and often tymes to speake to hym rudely, he drue them with hym into the furtheste partes of the worlde, into moste barayne and dange­rouse countrayes: and by moste gentyll perswasions vainquisshed nature, whiche abhorred the tedyouse iournayes, the trauayles intollerable, the venemous stinging of serpentes, the hungre and thyrst that sun­dry tymes hapned, and other incommodyties and in­credible labours, which mought not withdrawe them from folowynge theyr prynce, so moche his most ami­able gentylnesse subdued theyr appetites. But after that he folowynge the kynges of Persia (whome ye seeme to prayse in your letters) vsed a more pompouse estate than he was accustomed, and neyther wolde be­holde or speake to his people famylyarlye, nor suffer them to speake to hym freely, howe sone after, chaun­ged they than theyr copye? and as his affabilytie de­cayed, and pryde increased, so theyr louynge affection towarde hym, in lyke wyse relented, whiche constrai­ned hym to omytte part of his enterpryse, and retorne vnto Babylon, where amonge his frendes at a ban­ket, he was destroyed with poyson.

¶The incomparable humanitie and gentylnesse of noble Germanicus (who shulde haue succeded Tibe­rius [Page 15] in the empire, if the treason of Piso had not fru­strate the trust of the people) caused his sonne Caius, beinge yet in his cradell to be so fauored throughout the army, that they hauynge hym with his mother A­grippina among them, toke no lasse care for hym, thā yf he had ben propre sonne to eueryche of them, which loue in suche wyse remayned, that immediately nexte after Tyberius, they made him emperour, who in the begynnyng of his reigne, vsyng the humanitie of his noble father, gouerned the empire quietly, as he that was meruaylousely beloued of the people. But whan to aduaunce his maiestie, he became straunge, coun­terfaytynge his visage in a glasse into a terrible gra­uitie, couetyng to seme fearefull vnto the people: and whan he was openly sene, which was but seldome, he syttyng in apparell all of golde, laded with iewelles, compelled the senate and people to worshyp hym, as god, howe sone after was his statelynes tourned into mockery, and he beinge of all men abandoned, was lyke an horrible monstre slayne, and drawen through the cytie?

¶Consyder the affabilitie and gentylnesse of the no­ble Augustus, Titus the sonne of Uespasian, Nerua, Traiane, Antonine called Pius, and Marcus Aure­lius, whom no man can derogate of any parte of ho­nour and wysedome, and see where ye maye therwith compare any sturdye grauitie, or haulte and straunge countenaunce of any other emperour or prince. Cer­tes Gordiane honourable father, he moche erreth (in myn opinyon) that preferreth feare before loue, with­out the whiche (wytnesseth Socrates) nothyng either with god or with man maye dure or abyde. Feare de­pendeth [Page] on loue, and withoute loue it is soone had in contempte. Suppose not ye, that he was a wyse man that sayde, [...] Men whom they feare they hate, and whom they hate, they wolde were distroyed? Wysedome cau­seth men to be honoured, lyberalitie to be meruayled at, but gentylnesse and affabilitie onely to be hartyly loued. Grauitie procedeth of wysedom [...] and consisteth not in countenance, but is compacte of two vertues, Constance & Prudence. Wherefore it can neuer be coū terfayte, if the actes be well expended and tryed. For where it lacketh, the said two vertues, it is either nice­nes and to be laughed at, or els pride outragious and to be abhorted and hated. But affabilitie can neuer be vicious. for though it be in one that lacketh discretiō, yet by lybertie of speche, whiche increaseth therby, he shalbe so oftentymes warned, that he shall defalcate that thyng that semeth superfluous. Ne the accesse of flatterers or detractours, to hym that mortally hateth them, can brynge any damage. For he is to moche a foole that wyll shew his brest naked vnto his enemy. And to him that is surely armid, it is no peryl though his ennemy assaut hym, ye perchance if his enmy find hym inuincible, he shall afterwarde be aferde to ap­proche hym.

¶Thus haue ye father Gordiane, not onely myne opinion herein, but also my determynate sentence, not therby dispraysynge your honourable grauitie, whi­che for the causes that I haue reherced, is in your person right laudable, but in me, beinge not so well kno­wen in this citie amonge the Romains, which of their nature be free, and were neuer in seruitude, it semeth not to be so expedient. Albeit if I reygned in Persia, [Page 16] where the people from the begynnyng haue ben best gouerned by tyranny, I wolde perchaunce otherwyse do, chaungyng affabilitie into strangenes and stately countenance, which improprely (in myn opinyon) ye in your letters haue named Maiestie. Thus fare ye wel, and haste you to returne vnto the senate, whiche with me desyreth the presence of your excellent wysedome.

¶Soone after the emperour Alexander, beinge elec­ted consul, he solicyted the senate and people to electe also Gordiane into that offyce, affyrmynge that his youthe required for the vtilitie of the publyke weale to be ioyned with suche a companyon as Gordiane was, whose wysedome, experience, and grauitie, was of all men sufficiently knowen.

¶The fyrst practyse of Alexander in reducyng of the empire into his prystinate honour. Cap. viii.

THE NOBLE AND prudente ladye Mammes, mother of the emperour A­lexander, consyderynge her sonne to be nowe entred into the moste dangerous passage of youth, being but .xvi. yeres olde, feared leste the excellency of his astate (as it of­tentymes hapned to other) shulde incite hym to assay thynges, whyche frayle nature thynketh delectable, and tastynge ones of them, his tender youth mought not withstande the assautes of pleasaunt affections, wherby he mought eftesones brynge the empyre into ruine and infamy, and hym selfe and all his bloud to vtter destruction. Therfore she perceyuing hym to be obedient to her exhortations, (in dede she was a wo­man of moche wysedome and holynesse, but that she [Page] was somwhat noted of couetyse) she with good reson perswaded to hym, that he coulde neuer wel stablyshe his astate Imperyall, but onely by reducynge of the senate and people into their prystmate order, whyche coulde neuer be brought to passe, except that fyrste his owne palaice were cleane purged of personages cor­rupted with vices, and into their places men of approued vertue and wysedom elected. And semblably that to the examp [...]e of themperours owne householde, the sondry dignities and offices in the weale publik were aptly distributed: consydering that the princis palaice is lyke a common fountayne or sprynge to his citie or countrey, wherby the people by the cleannes therof be longe preserued in honestie, or by the impurenes ther­of a [...]e with sundry vyces corrupted. And vntylle the fountain be purged, there can neuer be any sure hope of remedy.

¶Wherfore Alexander immediatly after that he had receiued of the senate and people the name of Augu­stus, whervnto was annexed the entier power and iu­risdiction imperiall, wherby he mought commaunde or prohibite what he thought moste conuenient, fyrste he dyscharged all minysters, whiche the monstruouse beaste Heliogabalus hadde vndyscretely promoted of most vyle and dyshonest personages, banyshyng also out of his palaice, al such as he mought by any mea­nes knowe, to be persones infamed. semblably flatte­rers, as well those, whiche therfore were fauoured of his predecessour, as theym, whom he apprehended a­busyng hym with semblable falsehode. Accordynge to that example he reformed the hole senate and iudges, and also all other dignities and offices in the publike [Page 17] weale. In lyke maner he pourged his garrisons and men of warre, and corrected their lyberties and priui­leges, gyuen vndiscretely to theym by other empe­rours, or by them misused.

¶Moreouer with all spede conuenient, by the aduise of Ulpiane his tutour, Frontinus, and other the wi­seste men of the Senate, he with all dilygence elected out of all partes of the empire, a conuenient and ho­norable company of wyse & honorable counsaylours. This numbre were the moste excellente lawyars, of whose sentences is made the texte of the lawe cyuile, gathered in the bookes named the Digestes. There was also Fabius Gabinus, surnamed Cato for his singular wysedome. Also Gordiane, of whom I late dyd wryte, a man of moche grauytie and noblenesse, whose sonne was afterwarde emperoure. Moreouer there was Claudius Uenatus a noble and eloquente oratour, Also Catilius Seuerus, kinseman to the emperour, moste excellently lerned aboue all other, Se­renianus a man of great perfectiō and grauitie, And Caius Marcellus, who was of such vertue and goodnesse, that neuer historye remembred a better. These good and honorable personages, with many other not of moche lasse estimation, at all tymes and places attended vpon that noble Emperour: of the whiche Ulpiane was in maner his chauncellour or keper of the imperiall monumentes: And the Emperour had hym for his chiefe counsaylour.

¶ In what fourme the Emperour Alexander had his counsayle, whiche alwaye attended vpon his person. Cap. ix.

[...]ius Ma [...]ichus THE fourme of Alexanders Counsayle, was as hereafter ensuith. Fyrste all mat­ters & causes ciuile of great importance, he caused to be examined and brought in order by the great lawiars before rehersed of whom Ulpiane was chiefe, and they made true re­porte therof vnto hym. Moreouer he wolde neuer make decree or ordinaunce without .xx. lawiars sub­stancially lerned, and fyfty other expert men and elo­quente, and that was done after this maner. Euerye mans opinion and sentence was throughely and qui­etly herde, without interruption or altercation. Ther­to were assigned .viii. secretaries or clerkes, men of quicke and substanciall memory, who in briefe notes or siphers made for that purpose, wrate euery worde that by those counsaylours was spoken. Moreouer a competent tyme was gyuen to euery counsaylour to studye, and seeke for suche reason as he wolde pour­pose, to the intent they shulde not speake vnaduisedly in thynges of importaunce.

¶It was also this Emperours custome, that whan he treated of lawes and matters polytike, he called therto lerned men, and suche as were eloquente and well reasoned. If he commoned of matters touchyng warre and hostilitie, he called to hym olde and expert capitaynes, whiche hadde valyantely acquited them selues in sundry battayles. Also theym that were ex­perte in the situation of places, pitchynge of fieldes, and preparation of campes. He wolde also here dy­uerse, [Page 18] whiche were perfectly and rypelye instructed in histories, inserchynge by them what the Emperours and princis as wel Romayns as of other nations be­fore that tyme, had done in semblable causes, as were at that tyme in reasonynge. And after that all theyr opinions and sentences were wrytten, by the secreta­ries (as is before mencioned) and that they cōferring to gether, had made therof one perfecte minute of e­uery mannes sayinge, and delyuered it to the Empe­rour with as moche haste as was possyble: Than he in a place secrete pervsyngethe mynute, and assem­blinge and ponderynge the sentences throughly, after a competent tyme therin bestowed, eyther gatheringe of them one perfecte conclusion, or elles addynge to some thynge of his inuention, he fynally opened his conceipt amonge all his counsaylours, whom he had before harde, not withstandynge he gaue to them ly­bertie, eyther to alowe his sentence, or if any man had any thyng newely deuised, eftsones to declare it. And that sentence, whiche was of moste wyse men appro­ued, that alwaye preuayled, and he therto consented, and caused it with al diligence to be put in experience. For he was of suche moderation of mynde, that no­thynge more pleased him, than to here any man with a substanciall and trewe rayson to confute his opyni­on: whiche caused hym to brynge to passe thynges to be meruayled at. But nowe wyll I declare the orati­on that he made in the Senate, after that he had sette in good order his owne propre householde.

¶The oration of Alexander to the Senate. Ca. x.

THE INESTIMABLE maiesty of this empire (as ye well knowe honorable fa­thers) lyke as it toke begynnyng and in­crease of prowesse and politike wisedom, soo by the same and lyke meanes it muste be conserued. Our most noble progenitour and foun­der of this empire, the valiant Romulus being in his tender infancy caste out of the palaice, and nourished amonge the poore [...]erdinen, with sustaynynge moche hunger, told, & continual trauayle, achieued this lytel portion of grounde, wherin nowe standeth the pryn­cipall ruler & mastresse of all the worlde. To the ayde of his prowesse he added to, the quiet and vigilant studye of rude shepardes olde and decrepyte, whose bo­dyes beinge macerate with labours, and made feble with age, although they mought nothynge profyte in battayle, yet theyr wyttes beinge confirmed by longe experience, and free from the vexation of wanton af­fections, they no lasse aduaunced and set forth the en­terprise of the couragious Romulus, than dyd the di­ligence and prowesse of his lusty souldiours. Neither his strength or courage, ne the wyttes of his rude se­uatours became so excellent, as it semed at that tyme to be, by feedynge superfluousely, by beastely idelnes, or wanton pastymes, but onely by temperaunce in ly­uyng, vigilant prouidence, and contynuall exercyse: wherby strength is nourished, and wyttes be increa­sed: Like as by the other the strength of body is resol­ued, and the wyttes be consumed or vnprofytably di­spersed. And certes lyke as the fyrste is proued to be [Page 19] true by the example before declared, and many other succedyng that tyme: so the last is semblably verified by late experience, and whereof the steppes yet do re­mayne to our no lyttell griefe and displeasure: consi­deryng that therby this noble empire is lyke to falle into extreme ruyne, and perpetuall infamye, onelesse your moste excellent wysedomes wyll dilygently and constantly prepare your selfes to the certayne remedy agaynst this peryll intollerable, whiche remedy onely shall be the purging and refourmation as wel of this moste honourable company of senatours, as of all o­ther dignities and estates in the weale publyke. In the whiche inquisition we desyre none other preroga­tiue, but that it may take his fyrste begynnyng at our proper palaice and householde, and in our owne per­sone to be fyrst executed, to thintent that the pryncipal fountayne, beinge founde cleane, the remnant of our subiectes, whose order of lyuyng procedeth of our ex­ample as ryuers and sundry lakes from a hed spring whiche is set on a mountayne, maye with lyttell diffi­cultie be more easily pourged. Nor other astate or pre­eminence wyll I require, but where youth refuseth in me the most reuerende name of father of the countrey, whiche ye offred vnto me, yet condescendyng to parte of your gentyll requestes, I wyll gladly receyue the names and titles of protectour of the senate and tri­bune, or els if better do lyke you, defender of the Ro­mayn people. And on that behalfe, I require you, for the approbation of my syncere loue to the publyke weale, that accordynge to the auncient and laudable custome of this noble citie, ye wyll cause to be chosen Censores or correctours of maners, such personages [Page] as neuer were infamed with any vyce notable, and whose lyues be inculpable, and therwith be sufficient­ly furnyshed with wysedom and grauitie, voyde also of all priuate affection, feare, auaryce, and flatterye, who lyke good surgeons, shal not forbeare with cor­rosyue and sharpe medicines, to drawe out the festred and stynkynge cores of olde marmolles and inuete­rate soores of the weale publyke, ingendred by the longe custome in vice. To the which remedy, as a ne­cessary minister, I shall put to my propre handes and assistance vnto the dethe. Leauynge remembrance af­ter me, that in makyng me your emperour, ye nothing haue appaired of the imperyal maiestie, but haue ad­uaunced it with the publyke weale of your citie. To the ratification of the whiche iudgement of you noble fathers, I shall apply holly my study, trauayle, and diligence, callyng god to wytnesse, that the senate and people of Rome, shall sooner fayle the publyke weale, than I shall leaue any part of my duetie.

¶Howe the correctours of maners, called Lenfores, were e­l [...]cted, and with what rygour they executed their offyce by the commandement of Alexander. Cap. xi.

THE SAYDE oration of the emperour Alexander beinge fynysshed, a wonder­full reioysing entred into the hartes of the senatours, whych were vertuous & honorable, and being replenished with ioye, they all spake on hygh with one voyce, saying, ¶Emperour Alexander, [...] god euer preserue the. God sent the vnto [...]s. God euer defende the. God hath de­lyuered the frome the vncleane Heliogabalus. God [Page 20] kepe the perpetuallye. Thou dyddest longe tollerate that myscheuous tyrant, thou doest lament his abho­minable liuing. and at the last god hath delyuered the and vs also of hym, and to this hath brought the.

¶After these and many mo congratulations made to the emperour, he gyuynge to the senate condigne thankes, departed to his palaice. And shortely after there were chosen by the cōmon consent of the senate & people,Marius Maximus foure Censores, two to remayne in the citie, & other two for Italy, & the prouinces vnder the name of latines: from whens were electe for the more part senatours, iudges, and other chiefe offycers, whiche had iurisdiction and authoritie to gyue any sentence. The Censors for the cite were Fabius Sabinus, and Catilius Seuerus, men of excellent wysedome and grauitie. And for the prouynces were made Quinti­lius Marcellus, and Caius Manlius, men of aunci­ent nobilitie and great seueritie.

¶The office of Censores was to note the maners of euery person,Offyce of Censores. whiche was in any degree of honour, that is to say, aboue the astate of the common people, wherin was shewed suche rygour, that no man was spared, so that if a knyght, a iuge, or a senatour, had vsed any vnsemely thyng, appayryng or staynyng the estimation of the degree, whych he represented, it was in the authoritie of the Censores to degrade hym or dyscharge hym of his office or dignitie.

¶Sone after the sayde election, they made Alexan­der consul: who with al diligence procured, that Ae­lius Gordianus, of whome I late spake, was made his companyon in the Consulate, wherat some of the people grudged, fearynge leste the sturdynesse and [Page] haulte courage of Gordiane, shulde chaunge the in­comparable gentylnes of Alexander into crueltie and pryde: but it succeded all other wise, for the wyse em­perour, by the exquysite grauitie of his companyon, refourmed so his nature, whiche was in wyse mennes opinion more easy and simple than apperteyned to the imperiall estate, that by all mennes iudgement he be­came in moderation of vertues of all other incompa­rable.

¶The Censores immediately after that they were e­lected, vigylantly and sharply executed theyr offyces. For fyrste they discharged oute of the Senate all su­che whyche by Heliogabalus, for theyre abhomyna­ble lyuynge or flatterye, were thereto promoted. Semblably they pourged the order of knyghtehode, disgradynge all knyghtes, whiche were shameles le­chours, maynteyners of theues, or they theym selues robbers. In lyke wyse all those which of baudes, ruf­fyanes, carters, cookes, and other lyke reprocheable persons were by Heliogabalus put in authorite. The same industry they vsed in refourmyng Iudges, and other heed offycers, as well in the citie as about in the prouinces. Finally none astate or degree escaped their rebuke or correction. Ne the emperours palaice was exempt from their iurisdiction: In so moche as Au­relius Philippus, who was sometyme a bondeman, not withstandyng that he was manumysed, and had ben the emperours scholemaister, and after wrate his lyfe, forasmoche as he dyd ryde in a charyot, and wold be saluted as a senatour, the Censores caused hym to be ladde to pryson, and prohybyted hym for cōmynge to the emperours palaice, but onely on foote, and his [Page 21] copped cappe on his head, whiche fascion onely was vsed of them that were infranchised. And althoughe for his good lernynge and honestie, some noble men aduised the emperour, that he shulde require the Cen­sores, that they shoulde withdrawe theyr rygour in correctynge Philippe, consyderynge that he had ben sometyme his scholemaster: He nothynge wolde doo, to let or restrayne the sharpe correction of the Censo­res, but moch extollyng theyr constance, he answered: ‘If the common weale maye haue euer suche officers, in shorte space there shall be founde in Rome mo men worthy to be Emperours, thanne I at my commynge founde good Senatours.’

¶And immediately he ordeyned, that there shoulde neuer lybertine, that is to saye, any man of a bonde auncetour be of the Senate, sayinge: That the order of kynghthode was the place frome whense were fet­ched the plantes of the Senate, that is to saye: frome whense the Senatours were elected. Not with stan­dynge he purchased a goodly mancion, with sufficy­ent reuenues, not ferre from Rome, whiche he gaue to the sayde Philippe, sayinge to hym: Before I was Emperour, I disdeyned not to folowe thy doctryne: Nowe be thou as well contented, for the encreas of myn honour & of the weale publike, to obey to myn or­dynance. And although the maiestie of the Citie may not permytte the to be openly receyued in the numbre of our familiares, yet priuy resorte shall approue our fauour towardes the, not loste, but increased.

¶Of suche meruaylous seuerytie was this Empe­rour, that noo kynde of affection or pryuate appetite mought reflecte hym from the sharpe execution of his [Page] lawes or lawdable customes of the citie, as more yet shall appere in the chapiter folowynge.

¶Of the great prudence of Alexander vsed in the election of his counsaylours and offycers. Capi. xii.

IT OFTEN tymes hapneth, that where god dothe ornate a prynce with naturall gyftes, and also great vnderstandyng and sharpenesse of wytte, he for lacke of electi­on (whiche is a greate parte of Prudence) hauynge about hym counsayllours, companions, and officers vnmete or vnworthy, maketh the sayde orna­mentes vnprofitable, or peraduenture incommodious to the weale publyke, whereof, he hath gouernaunce, wherby the renoume, whiche were condigne, and as it were incident to rare and excellente qualities, is loste and dyeth with the body, orels (which is moche warse) is tourned to perpetuall reproche and dishonour: whi­che the Emperour Alexander circumspectlye consyde­derynge, he with an incomparable studye prepared for him selfe certayne rules of election, as hereafter fo­loweth.

[...]¶Fyrste he determyned to loue all, that was vertue, and to hate all, that was vyce, in what person so euer the one or the other shulde happen.

¶Also what so euer pleasure or commoditie mought come to hym by embracynge or tolleratyng of any no­table vyce, he wolde rather lacke it, thoughe it were to his detryment, than to be seene to chaunge his opi­nion, lest any man shuld therby take occasyon to com­mende vyce.

[Page 22]¶And for as moche as vnder his Empire were dy­uerse and sundry nations, whereof also the people by naturall disposition be dyuersely inclyned to vertue or vice, he therfore applyed him selfe to knowe the sundry wyttes, maners, affectes, and studyes of men, borne in euery region countrey and notable cite, throughout the worlde: whiche knowlege he apprehended soo ex­quisitely, as wel by studiouse readinge of many histo­ries and other notable warkes of morall philosophye, as by dylygent examyninge of capytaynes, and mar­chauntes, whiche had trauayled and benne in sundry countreys: wherby he was wonderfully holpen in his elections and iugementes, as it shal hereafter appere.

¶He wolde neuer accepte commendation of any per­sonne, before that he hym selfe had spoken with hym, and that by secrete scrutiny he had ben truely infour­med of hym. And yet the commendation that he wolde afterwarde here, shulde be a parte, none other manne herynge, but hym selfe, leste if manye were presente, and he that commended were in auctorytie, other he­rars althoughe they knewe the contrary, shuld eyther affyrme a false commendation, or elles feare to saye truthe, if they shulde be therof demaunded.

¶In them that were counsaylours, he vtterly abhor­red ambition and flattery. In iudges, he hated with extreme detestation couetyce and wrathe. In bothe the one and the other he loued Syncerytie,Sinceritie. vulgarly cal­led vprightnesse.

¶The perfecte knowledge of mennes conditions [...] he had not by the reporte of theyr superiours or equalles, ne by them whiche dwelled farre from the habytation of those whom they praysed, but by the examynation [Page] of theyr nyghest neybours, being men of honesty, and not theyr ennemyes. And that was practised by suche of his owne yemen as were moste auncient and sage: whiche fyndynge occasion to ryde through the coun­treys, where they were neyther borne nor had posses­sions, shulde make this dyligente scrutiny or serche. And to suche maner of personnes the common people wold more familiarly and playnely declare theyr opi­nions than to gentylmen or men in auctoritie. But if the Emperour perceyued afterwarde, that he had ben vntruely informed by any of his sayd espialles (whi­che sometymes he dyd by further experience, as being in his progresse, or hym selfe heryng and discussynge complayntes of the common people openly and with a great delyberation and grauitie) he than extremely and without hope of remission, punyshed the false re­porters, were it in prayse or detraction: causyng their tunges to be perced throughe with a hotte brennynge iron, and to be banysshed his courte and presence for euer. Whiche punishement, althoughe it wyll seme to some men sore and cruel, yet consyderyng, that vsing this meane, he was neuer deceyued by counsaylours, and also that Iustice was dewely executed by theym that were in auctoritie, that maner of rigour maye be thoughte necessary and very expediente. Also the pu­nysshemente beinge in a fewe executed at the begyn­nynge, the seueritie of the prynce became so terryble, that men so greuousely feared hym, that neyther de­syre, rewarde, nor dreade of any other man coulde let the sayde espialles to reporte trewelye, accordynge as they had founden by theyr diligent scrutiny.

¶One meruaylous cawtell he vsed, that is to saye: [Page 23] One man was not oftentymes in that truste of espy­all. And those personages were chosen and appoyn­ted onelye by hym selfe, without makynge any other man priuie, vntil he had deprehended them with some maner of falshode.

¶Fynallye he was of suche a wonderfull discretion and sobrenesse, that no reporte coulde brynge him out of pacience, or into suspition, vntyll he had well try­ed the reporte with some praty experyence, as it shall be declared hereafter.

¶And thus I make an ende of the fyrste parte of his gouernaunce, whiche was in orderynge of his owne person and courte: wherby pryncipally he broughte not onely the citie of Rome but also al the hole empire (not withstandinge the beastely lycence brought in by Heliogabalus) in as good estate as euer it was in the tyme of any of his moste noble progenitours.

¶ Howe extremely Alexander hated extorcioners and bry­bours, and howe moche he fauoured theym that were vertuouse. Cap. xiii.

THE EMPEROVR Alexander had suche indignation towardes theym that were ex­torcioners or brybours, that yf by chance he espied any of them, he was therwith so gre­ued, that he immediately wolde vomite vp colar, and his face beinge as it were on a fyre, of a longe tyme mought not speake one worde. On a tyme one Sep­timius Arabinus, who in the tyme of Heliogabalus was a famous brybour, came in the company of Se­natours, to salute the emperour Alexander, who be­holdyng hym sayde with a lowde voyce: O lord god, [Page] behold, Arabinus not only lyueth, but also presumeth to be in the senate. peraduenture he trustethe in me, iudgyng me to be an ignorant and folyshe emperour.

¶Moreouer he ordeined, that where there were foū ­den any extortioners, or brybours, that they shuld be openly examined and iudged, and by the gouernours of countrayes sente into exyle. Whan he was in his progresse, suche as were gouernours or Iustyces in prouynces, whom he herde worthily cōmended with­out synister affection, he wolde in his iourneye take them into his horselyghter, cōmunyng with theym of the state of their countrey, and honouryng them with rewardes, saying, That lyke as extorcioners and bry­bours are to be impouerysshed, so good men and iuste are to be enryched.

¶In heryng the complayntes of his souldyours a­gaynste their capitaynes, if he founde any capytayne faulty in that thing, wherof he was accused, forthwith he caused hym to be punyshed after the qualitie of his offence, without any hope of remyssion. Semblablye dyd he to his souldiours and seruauntes. For where they iniustely greued any persone, he corrected theym sharpely, and with a meruaylous austeritie.

¶To one of his secretaries, which forged an vntrue [...]yll in his counsayle. he cōmanded the synewes of his fyngers, wherwith he dyd write, to be cutte, and so to be vtterly banyshed. Wherfore he was called Seue­rus, whiche is as moche to say as sharpe or rigorous: for seueritie is rygour in punyshement, accordynge to the qualitie of the offence, hauyng respecte to a good purpose, without any desyre of vengeance. And it is that parte of Iustyce, that consysteth in execution: [Page 24] the commendation whereof shall appere in the nexte chapyter.

¶A notable example gyuen by Alexander in repreuynge an ambicious and vaynglorious counsaylour. Cap xiiii.

I SVPPOSE IT shall not be tedyous to good men to here one incomparable exam­ple of the seueritie of this meruaylous em­perour, whyche although it shall seeme to many that shall here it, to be ouer vehemēt and greuous, yet in readynge the chapiter nexte folo­winge, it shalbe sufficiently declared by the wordes of the same emperour, that his sayd rygour in iugement was necessarylye vsed, and with equalytie in iustyce, deseruynge in no parte to be repreued, but nowe wyll I reherce the sayde story.

¶There was aboute the sayde Emperour a man of great honour called Uetronius Turinus, whome for his great wytte and sagenes in apparance, the empe­rour had in syngular fauour, in so moche as he called hym to his priuye counsayle, and vsed to be with hym more famylyar than he was cōmonly with any other, whiche so moche blynded the inward eye of Turinus, that he coulde not se in hym selfe, whych he not longe before had condemned in other. suche incomparable swetenes is foundē in the familiar cōpany of princis. Wherfore lyke as whan the companions and seruan­tes of Ulysses had eaten abundantly of the herbe cal­led Lotos, the taste therof was so pleasant and mer­uaylous, that all that eate therof, forgettynge their owne propre countrey, coueted to remayne styl in that region, where that herbe grewe, and but only by vio­lence [Page] they coulde not be broughte to their shyppes, to retourne to their propre houses: semblably Turinus after that he had ben with the emperour in an inward and secrete familyaritie, he founde it so pleasant, that forgettyng from whense he was callyd, and takynge lyttell hede of any other parte of his offyce, he put his hole study and delectation to augment the opynion of men, that thought that the emperour wolde nothyng do, without his aduyse, wherby he shulde be magny­fyed and honoured aboue all other of the emperours counsaylours. And therfore he had contynuall suite made vnto hym, as well by them that had sutes to the Emperour in their particular causes, as others that loked for offyces or great promotions. To euery man a parte he wolde promyse his fauour, and therfore re­ceyued great rewardes & presentes. but fynally whom he knewe that the emperour had preferred in offyce, or anye thynge determyned in his iuste cause. (for that moughte he knowe beinge with the Emperour soo se­crete, although the good emperour dydde nothing by his perswasion only, but by prudent aduyse and good delyberation, as it shall hereafter appere) on hym wolde he becke, if he were in the chamber. And often tymes in a day he wolde come from the emperour in­to the chaumber of presence, or place, where suiters a­wayted, and of whom he had receyued money, to them wolde he say, that he had remēbred them, and in their request or matter receiued good comfort, whan in dede he spake not therof one worde. Fynally by the colour of this familyar and secrete recourse that he had to the emperour, he gathered moche treasure: but at the last dyuers, and in great numbre, to whome he hadde [Page 25] promysed that thyng that they sued for, not withstan­dyng they receiued nothing in conclusion but noddes with the heed, founde them selfes deceyued, and theyr great sommes of money vaynely employed, wherat they murmured and partly meued with disdayn, part­ly with pouertie, they brast forth at the last into mani­fest grudgynge, whiche came to the emperours eare, by what meanes I knowe not, but suche abuses can not be longe hydde frome princis, that haue their ea­res perforate (as is the prouerbe.) Whyche the empe­rour heryng, he was meued with meruaylous disple­sure, consyderyng that Turinus, whom he had in soo great estimation, abusynge his persone, in faynynge hym to be his pupyll or seruant, had sold his determi­nations & sentences, wherby he had defamed his ma­iestie in that that Turinus had brought mē in belefe, that the emperour dyd nothyng (but as it were) at his onely becke and cōmandement. Which opinion to re­dresse he vsed this polycie. He caused one to desyre a thyng of hym openly, and afterwarde to su [...] to Turi­nus priuily to helpe hym in his demand, and secrete­ly to moue the emperour for hym, which beinge done, and that Turinus had promysed his good wyl to him that sued, and sone after saying, that he had somwhat meued the emperor therin, where in dede he spake not therof any one worde, and that he abode an answere therof, whervpon he receiued of the sayd suter a great summe of money. whiche the emperour knowyng, he caused hym to calle eftesones on Turinus, but he as yf he hadde in hande other busynesse, onely beckened on hym without speakynge any thynge to hym. for in dede the Emperour hadde gyuen to an other that [Page] thynge, whiche this man sued for, whiche grudginge therat, discouered openly what Turinus had of hym receyued: that knowyng the emperour, he caused Tu­rinus immediately to be arrested, and openly in his presence to be accused, whiche was done by a greatte numbre, whom he had also deceyued, takyng of them great summes of money for offyces, and other thyn­ges, whyche they neuer obteyned. Wherfore after that Turinus was condemned by sufficient and credyble wytnesse, in whose presence he had receyued this bry­bery, and in whose hering he had effectually promised, he was iudged by the emperour, to be ladde into the open market place, where moste resort was of the peo­ple, and there beinge bounden to a stake, with smoke made of grene styckes and wete stubbell, to be smoul­dred to deathe. and duryng the tyme of his execution, the emperour cōmaunded a bedell to crye, With fume shal he dy, that fumes hath sold. But to the intēt that men shuld not think that for one offence the iugement was to cruel and rigorous, or euer Turinus was condemned to die, the emperour made diligent serche, & by euident profes it was founden, that Turinus had of­ten & in many causes, receyued money of both partes, promysyng to aduaunce theyr cause to the emperour. Moreouer to proue the seueritie of this emperor lau­dable, it shalbe declared in the chapter next folowing.

¶ The consultation concernynge the punishement of Turinus, and the excellent reason of the emperour Alexander. Cap. xv.

IN THE MEANE tyme that Turinus was accu­sed, and before his condemnation, the Emperour Alexander accordynge to his customable vsage, gaue [Page 26] conuenient time to his connsaylours to delyberate by them selues, or euer that they gaue any sentence, what punishement shulde be equall to the offence of Turi­nus, and necessary for an example to other, that they presumed not to do the semblable. After whan the counsayle was called, euerye man was commaunded to declare his opinion: Some raysoned, that the o­pen rebuke with sufficient satisfaction vnto the par­tie, shulde be a conuenience punishement: Other ad­dyd to imprysonnement for a certayne tyme: dyuerse wolde that he shuld be banished farre from the court: many affyrmed with vehement argumentes, that he deserued to be beheaded, consydering that in abusing the emperours maiestie, in sellynge greatte offyces to persons vnworthy, he had put the publyke weale in no lyttell hasarde. The emperour aduisedly herynge all theyr opinions, laste of all, as it was his maner, reasoned in this wyse, as hereafter foloweth.

¶ My trustye and well beloued counsaylours, we haue hitherto attentyfely herde and throughely con­sydered your wyse and honorable sentences, declared with free and vncorrupted myndes, althoughe by the diuersitie of your naturall inclynations, your sundry reasons seme to haue noo lyttell dyuersitie, as it hap­neth in al consultations, wherin diuerse men do shew theyr conceiptes freely without feare of blame, as I doubte not but ye do. Not withstandyng for as moch as heryng all your opinions and reasons, I haue my wytte the better instructed to fynde oute and declare (except I be deceyued) what shulde be the moste expe­dient and necessary punishement of Turinus, for the offences whiche he hath commytted, wherin ought to [Page] be noo lasse seueritie (as I wyll preue with good rea­son) than if he had attempted to haue slayne me, or to brenne this moste noble citie of Rome, the honorable mantion of goddes, & common refuge of al the world. Fyrstye remembre, that ye chase me to be your gouer­nour, not onely for the nobilitie of my progenitours, ne for theyr images or monumentes of thankefull re­membraunce, ye, rather for the beastely and most abominable lyfe of Helyogabalus, my cousen germayn, ye had more cause to refuse me: neyther ye made me your Emperour and prince for the goodlynesse of my person, or prowesse shewed by me in your warres: I beinge yet for tendernesse of age vneth able to do fea­tes of armes, moche lasse to leade an army, speciallye such one as perteyneth to this noble empire. But true lye it was for the good estimation & hope that ye had in the towardenesse of myne education and nature, thynkynge it to be aptely disposed to vertue, wherin beinge broughte vp in chylhode, I oughte to haue al­way about me, suche as be of lyke disposition, and by theyr assistence and coūsayle, to moderate and rule the publyke weale of this citie. It oughte therfore to be kepte in remembraunce, that as I haue sayde, by the good opinion and hope that all men haue conceyued of me, this publyke weale, whiche beinge subuerted, I founde as none, I haue reedified (and be it spoken without boste) almoste made newe from the founda­tion. Than if he that inforseth hym selfe to brenne the houses, or to beate downe the walles of the Citie, by good iustyce and reason shuld suffer deathe: by a mo­che greatter reason ought Turinus to dye, that hath indeuoured hym selfe to subuerte and destroye that, [Page 27] wherby the publyke weale aswel was begonne [...] as is also preserued, consyderyng that the publyke weale in estimation is to be preferred before the materiall citie, as moch as the lyfe of man and renoume of vertue be of more value than stone or timber, wherwith the walles and houses be buylded. And therfore Aristotle, in defynyng what is a Citie,Citie. doth not cal it a place buil­ded with houses, & enuironned with walles, but saith, that it is a company, which hath sufficiencie of liuing, and is cōstitute or assembled to the intent to lyue wel. Wherfore it is the people and the weale of theym that maketh the citie. And the destruction and subuersion therof, oughte with more rigour and vehemente pu­nishement, to be reuenged, if more sharpe punishment maye be than deathe, than brennynge and beatynge downe of materiall houses or walles.

¶This well and deepelye consydered, it shall not be thought, that they that haue reafoned for the mitiga­tion of Turinus punishement, had before in remem­braunce and sufficiently examyned the greuousenesse of his offence, accordynge as I haue declared it, but only considered his bare act without any circumstāce. But yet the treason doone also to me, aggrieueth the trespace. Is it not treason, to conspire the destruction of thy soueraygne lorde? most of al, of whom thou art entierly fauoured, and put in great trust. Is there a­ny diuersitie betwene the stickyng of hym with a dag­gar, or kyllyng hym with poyson, and by some circumstance to cause his people to rebelle agaynst him, & in theyr furie to slee hym? who comparynge to gether the fourme and maner of these offences, wyll not suppose it reason, that the punishementes therfore, shulde be [Page] moche more vehement and sharpe than for any other transgression, sense iustice limitteth equall punisshe­ment in proportion, accordyng to the importance, that is to saye, The greatnes or smalnesse of the offences.

¶Nowe let vs consyder the qualitie or substance of Turinus mysdemeanour. In the tyme of the empe­rour Seuerus and Caracalla, he was in smalle esti­mation, but after that I was elect emperour, he craf­tily smellynge out my disposition, by lyttell and lytell acquaynted hym selfe with some of those, of whome for their vertues I had best opinion, and counterfay­tyng their maners, he at the last so aptly set forth such grauitie, whiche he adourned also with a wonderfull sharpnes and promptitude of wytte, that he opteyned to be kyghly recommended vnto me by the wisest men of my counsayle, by whose aduyse fyrst I made hym one of my treasorers. Fynally I called hym nere me, and made hym of my pryuye counsayle, wherein we founde hym so necessary, that in our opinyon his sen­tences were equiualent, and sometyme surmounted them that had ben in moste estimation. And to the in­tent that he wold augment that opinion and credence that we had in hym, he euer vsed a great seueritie or straytenes in his sentences agayne flatterers, dissem­blers, and persones corrupted, namely suche as solde their endeuour or diligence in optaynyng our fauour in any matter or for any offyce. And by his industrye dyuerse were detected vnto me, and punysshed accor­ding to their merites. For these causes I more & more toke hym in fauour, and to incourage other to ensue his example, I dydde aduaunce hym as ye knowe, to the hyghest dignities within the citie, except the con­sul, [Page 28] & haue participate with hym our most priuy secre­tes, vsing him so familiarly, that dyuers other of our counsaylours haue partly disdayned. Nowe beholde what he hath done. Fyrste he hath deceyued and moc­ked vs with his hypocrisy, abusynge our symplicitie and wynnynge our fauour, and not our fauour only, but also our credence & trust, wherby he mought finally worke to his priuate cōmoditie, and to our confusi­on. For he being with vs in such familiaritie as none other was, he practised those thinges that we most ab­horred, that is to say extorcion, sellynge of ryghte and wrong, and marchandysyng of offyces and dignities. To whome is extorcion or brybes not greuous? al­though the gyuer receyueth great lucre. Is there any thyng to be more abhorred than sellynge of Iustyce, whiche knoweth no reward? Howe moche more intol­lerable is the sellynge of iniustice or wronge, wherby the one part suffreth damage by sustaining of wrong, the other is more indamaged by lesynge of his good name and also his money, if it happen, as it hath done oftentymes, by a good & rightuous gouernour, that he whiche hath done wrong, be compelled to make re­stitution: But pryncipally and aboue all other am I moste indamaged. For I vnwares & innocent being brought into the hatrede of men, shulde be distroyed before that I mought knowe that I were in perylle. Now consyder ye the importance of Turinus offence, conferryng it with al that whyche I haue rehersed, & by the way remember, that not only he that sleeth his prynce, or depopulateth his countreye, and maketh it desolate, but also he that conspireth to do it, and ther­to endeuoreth hym selfe with al his puissance, though [Page] he be let by some occasion or study, deserueth to dye by the determynation of Iustyce dyst [...]butife. By what meane he wolde do it, it is not material: except perad­uenture some man mought suppose, that the acte were more odious of him that procurid the people to distroy their owne prince or countrey, whome they are bounde by allegiance & duetie with al their power to defende, than of hym that do sollicite strangers or ancient en­nemies, to inuade his countrey. Fynally if any cōmon person, neuer receyuyng of me any benefite wolde re­porte in the eares of people, that I wente aboute to chaunge the astate of the weale publyke of this noble citie, to slee all the senatours, to withdrawe the people from their ancient lyberties, and fynally to bryng the maiestie of the empyre into a tyrannye, and by suche false information excyteth and styreth the senate and people to hate me, and couete my destruction: suche one proued at the last to haue sayd falsely, I beleue ye wolde not thynke onely worthye to dye, but ye wolde with your owne handes dysmembre hym, and plucke hym in pieces. Why shulde you not than thynke, that Turinus, whome I moste fauoured, and was about me moste secrete, not by reportynge euyll of me, (why­che perchaunce wolde not be beleued) but by actuall dedes and openlye, commyttynge iniustyce, and ty­rannye, in mayntaynynge, supportynge, and com­fortynge wronges, extorcions, oppressyons, and o­ther enormities agaynste the weale publyke, also ad­uauncyng euyll and vngratious personages to dyg­gnities and offyces, wherby iustyce ought to be myni­stred, and the publyke weale gouerned, and by these meanes quenchynge the good opinyon and loue that [Page 29] all men had towarde me, and chaungynge it to a fer­uent grutche & hatred, they thynkynge that Turinus dyd al thyng by our apoyntment, styre the hartes of the people against me: why shuld ye not I say, think, that such one hath deserued to dye? And as he was with vs in syngular fauour and trust, and therin lyke to none other: so ought his dethe to be syngular and strange, that by the noueltie thereof it maye be more terryble, wherby other may feare from hensforthe to abuse in suche maner our affabilitie, which beinge in vs natu­ral, without such a munition can not be sure and safe­ly preserued. And for this our sentence no man ought to deme vs cruell, or to lacke mercy, yf he consyder di­lygently all that we haue spoken. And do also remem­ber, that to kepe an infinite numbre of men from the rygour of Iustyce, I spare not to execute the same ri­gour on hym, whom I specially fauoured.

¶After that the emperour had cōcluded in this wise his reson, there was no man offred to reply therto, perceyuynge hym rather meued with zeale than with any particular displesure, and to say the truthe, whan they had pondered his consyderations, not fyndyng suffy­cient argument to confound his opinion, fynally they all being in numbre fyfty wise and honourable coun­saylours, reioyced that they had soo wyse and vertu­ouse an emperour, whyche preferred Iustyce and the weale of his people, before any pryuate affection or singular appetite. Than immediatly folowed the exe­cution of Turinus, whyche was appoynted by the Emperour, in fourme as ye herde it declared in the laste Chapyter.

¶Howe Alexander instructed and entertayned them that we [...] offycere, and of his lyberalytie towarde them that dydde well theyr dueties. Cap. xvi.

NOT VVITHSTANDYNG the se­ueritie of this noble emperour in the sharpe punyshment of oppressions, ex­torcions, and other offences of sem­blable importance, yet was he toward suche as iustely executed their offyces, for the publyke weale, very fauourable, gentyll, and bounteous. For if any of theym hadde peraduenture at the begynninge or fyrst entre into his roume or au­ctoritie, vsed lasse dilygence, or omytted some thynge that he ought to haue doone, eyther for lacke of expe­rience, or hauing not therin sufficient instruction, for­sene alway that he dyd nothyng by corruption or vy­cious affection: the Emperour callynge suche one to hym pryuily and aparte from all other, fyrste he wolde remembre hym for what cause he hadde called hym to that roume or authoritie, the importaunce or charge wherof he wolde also declare, and than wolde he somwhat commend hym for his honesty and temperance, wherwith he wolde confesse hym selfe to be satisfyed, accordyng to his expectation, than sadlye and with a wonderfull grauitie, he wolde admonest or warn him of his lacke in diligence or in omission, shewing what damage the publyke weale mought sustayn, by lacke of his circumspection, and without that, their vertues shulde be vnprofytable to their offyce or dygnitie. Af­ter wolde he exhorte and requyre theym with gentyll countenance and wordes, to vse more studye and tra­uayle aboute the affaires of the weale publyke, com­mytted [Page 30] vnto them, promysyng to them for their good endeuour, his assystence & fauour with honest recom­pence in the ende of their trauayles. Moreouer al­though he were thus industrious in espyenge out the demeanour of euery man in his office, yet wold he not suffre any other person to rebuke or to scorne theym, sayeng, that where any obedience is due, thense ought to be excluded al rebukyng or mockyng, consyderyng that therof ensueth cōtempt, which like a pestilēce consumeth all lawes and authoritie: And that he and the senate were iuges of the duties of them that be in au­thoritie. Also he vsed to say oftentymes, that it hap­neth sometyme, that they, whiche be slacke in their du­ties at the begynnyng, after that they haue ben moni­shed therof, eyther by their frendes, or by the goodnes of theyr propre wittes, they haue ben industrious and dilygent. Contrary wise other, which at the fyrst haue ben quyck, with a meruaylous dexteritie and promptnes, they haue by lytell and lytel relented, and hauing gathered good estimation & abundance of substance, haue withdrawen them selues from peynful affaires, and at the last be to no man but onely to theym selfes profytable.

¶Wha [...] any man had exercised his offyce duely, vp­ryghtly, and circumspectly in the publike weale, at the ende of his terme, whan there was a successour vnto hym being present appoynted, than wolde he say vnto hym that departed oute of his offyce. The publyke weale giueth to you right harty thākes. Thā wold he reward hym in such wise as bring priuate he mought according to his degree, liue the more honestly. His rewarde was in lande, cattel, horses, grayne, yron, stone, [Page] and other thynges necessary to buylde a commodious place, wherin after greate trauayle aboute the weale publyke, he moughte refreshe bothe his body and spi­rites. And euer after the emperour had hym in mooste tender famyliaritie.

[...]¶Uerily in one thynge he vsed an incomparable di­lygence, wherein he surmounted in myne opynion all other emperours. There was no man in dignitie or offyce, eyther by the assygnement of the senate, or by his commyssyon, but that he knewe his persone, and fourme of lyuyng. And that moche more is, he had in his chamber bylles contaynyng the numbre of theym, whiche were his souldiours in wages, and also euery one of their names, and what tyme they had serued. And whan he was by hym selfe quiete frome great af­faires, he pervsed the numbre of them, their dignities wages and fees, to the intent that he wolde be for all occasions surely prouyded. And therfore whan he had any thynge to do with his souldiours, he named eue­ry man in his communycation: and whan they were present, he called theym vnto hym. And whan he was sollicited to promote any person, he marked his name, and than wolde he serche his bokes of remembrance, wherin were the names of them that had serued hym, with the tyme of their seruyce. also their rewarde or promotion, and at whose request, or by whose solicita­tion they were promoted.

¶In offyces he seldome suffred to be any deputies, sayinge, They onely shulde be aduaunced, whiche by them selues and not by deputies could order the pub­lyke weale. addynge therto, that men of warre hadde their ministrations, and lerned men theirs, and accor­dynge [Page 31] thervnto shulde roumes be disposed, that euery man shulde do that thynge wherof he had most knowlege. He had therfore wrytten what he had gyuen, and that remembryng, if he founde any man, to whom he had eyther gyuen nothynge, or that whiche in value was not equall vnto his merites: he called hym; and sayde, what is the cause that thou askes [...]e nothyng of me? desyreste thou to haue me thy dettour? Aske some what, that lackynge promotion, thou complayne not of me. He gaue alwaye suche thinge as impayred not his honour, as goodes of men attaynted, not beinge in golde or syluer. for that was alway put in the com­mon treasorye. Also he gaue bayly [...]wykes and rules of places ciuile, but neuer of warre, excepte it were to them whiche were experte and approued true capitai­nes. Receyuours he chaunged euery yere, and called them an euil that nedes must be suffered. As for chiefe iudges, proconsules, or lieutenauntes, he gaue none of those roumes in rewarde, but by a delyberate iuge­ment eyther of him selfe or of the Senate. Such was the wonderfull and (as I mought say) moste curious circumspection of this excelle [...] prynce Alexander, whi­che in myne opinion can not be by mannes tunge suf­ficiently extolled.

¶Howe curiouse the emperour Alexander [...] in assignynge of [...] in his lawes, and howe he [...]sed [...] them accordynge to theyr merit [...]e. Cap. xvii.

SVONE PERSONS as he assygned to be iudges in [...], he with good [...] dydde chose them which were beste lerned in the lawes, and [Page] were of moche auncientie, and therwith hauyng good grauitie, and were knowen to be sincere and of good conscience, and vnto them was appoynted an hono­rable stipeude: In so moche as to them that were iu­ges in prouynces, was gyuen to euery of theym .xx. Romayne poundes of syluer, syxe syluer pottes, two mules, [...] two mulettes, two horses, a horsekeper and a mulettour, two robes or habites, to syt in iudgement, one honorable garment to weare in his house: one for his bayne or studye: Also a hundred pieces of golde: Moreouer one cooke, and if they were vnmaried, one concubine. And after that they had lefte theyr admini­stration, they shulde yelde agayne the mules, mulet­tes, horses, mulettours, and cookes, whiche all the sayde tyme were founde of the common treasure, the resydue they shulde reteyne styll, if they had done wel in theyr offyce: And if they had done euyll, they shuld paye the quatreple or foure tymes soo moche as they receyued.

¶He neuer wolde suffer that any offyce, whiche had iurisdiction, or execution of Iustyce, shulde be solde or opteyned by giuing of money, or any other reward. And therfore where one of his moste pryuye seruaun­tes had promysed to one, to obteyne of the Emperour for hym an offyce, which had ciuile iurisdiction or ad­minystration of Iustice, and therfore had taken a hundred pieces of golde: The emperour cōmanded, that he shuld be hanged on a galouse openly in the hygh way, wherin the emperours seruauntes shulde moste often passe to his manours, withoute the citie. And wha [...] Ulpiane, one of the sage men of his counsayle blamed [Page 32] his sentence as cruell and representynge a tyranny, he paciently harde hym, and aunsweared immediatlye, sayinge, The residue of my maners declareth me not to be furiouse, or to take pleasure in crueltie, specially to them whom I fauour and haue nexte aboute me. See you not, what wormes and flyes wolde increase to consume the grayne and fruites of the erthe, if the pleasauntnesse of the sprynge tyme and begynnyng of somer shulde euer continue, and the sharpe and terri­ble wynter dyd not with his sharpe frostes and bytter wyndes purge the erthe of suche euyll increase? who knoweth not, that in al thing that is swete, wormes be founden, which wil sone consume al that they brede in, if it be not preserued by laying about it some thing bitter or very vnsauery? If the ancient lawes of this cite iudgeth hym to dye, that spitefully pulleth down or de fyleth themperors image, or coūterfayteth his coyne, seale or sygne manuel, of how moch cōgruence & more with iustice is it, that he shuld sufferdeth, which with selling of the administration of iustice, pluckith down and defyleth amonge the people the good renoume of the Emperour? or coūterfayteth & changeth the mynd of the Emperour, which is his very image immortal, wherby bothe the prynce and the people suffereth in­comparably more damage than by forging of money. Do not ye being so wyse a man, consyder, that he whi­che byeth a thynge, maye sel it? And for my part while I lyue, I wyl neuer suffer any auctoritie to be vsed as marchaundise. For that whiche I suffer, I maye not with myne honour condemne or prohibite. And I can not for shame punishe a man for sellynge that thynge [Page] that he byeth. Wherfore if ye consyder euerye thynge well, ye shall fynde no cause to blame me of crueltie, or resemble me to a tyrante.

¶With these wordes Ulpiane founde hym selfe satis­fyed, and wonderynge at the Emperours wysedom, ceassed to speake any more agaynste hym in any sem­blable iudgement.

¶Whan he made any ordinary iudges, aduocates, or proctoures, he caused them to be openly named, requi­rynge the people and gyuynge them courage, if there were cause to accuse them, to proue the cryme by open wytnesse. And he was wonte to saye, Sense chrysten men and iewes in the election of priestes, caused them to be in suche fourme tryed: it shulde be inconuenient, if the same were not vsed in the gouernours of coun­treys, vnto whom were commytted both the lyues and substance of men that be vnder them. Foresene if they dyd not sufficiently proue it, and that it semed to be maliciouse detraction, the accusour shulde forthwith be beheaded.

¶Of the great care and diligence that Alexander vsed aboute the publyke weale, and of certayne newe offycers ordeyned by hym. Cap. xviii.

THE HOVSEHOLDE seruauntes and counsaylors of the emperour being well tried, and by his owne example broughte in good order, also the heed offycers, iu­ges, and all other that had authoritie in the publyke weale, beinge well chosen and instructed by the example of the emperours court: it was a wō ­der to beholde, with howe lyttell difficultie, and howe [Page 33] soone the resydue of the weale publyke was broughte into a good facion, all men delytynge in vertue, and praysyng the beaultie and commoditie therof in their superiours. Also reioysinge at the affabilitie and gen­tylnesse of the noble emperour, and semblably drea­dynge his seuerttie, they brought at the last vertue in custome, wherby hapned that such vices as before se­med lyttell, and were nothynge regarded, became to all men, or at the leest to the more parte detestable. In so moche as the emperour neded not to send forth any espiall to espye mens conditions. For suche as were euyll, were euery where noted, and of all men dysday­ned. So that by them it hapned, as it doth by one that is sycke in a hotte seuer, whiche fyrst abhorteth euerye medicine that the phisition doth offer to gyue him: but whan he beholdeth the physition drynke any thynge therof, thā is he the better cōtent to a [...]say of the same: but by reson that his tast is corrupted, to him al thing that is holsome semeth vnpleasaunt, be it neuer so de­lectable, finally fearing eyther to dye, or to be compel­led to receyue a more greuouse medicine, he taketh the potion by lytell & lytel, vntyll at the last by custom of drynkyng therof, he hath brought that potion to be as familyar and agreable vnto his tast, as was his com­mon and moste vsual drinke. And than doth he scorne bothe them that wylfully wolde dye rather than they wolde take medicine: and also them that be their ke­pers or rulers [...] whiche do suffer them to take only that which contenteth their appetite. Semblably dyd they who by the emperours exaumple, accustomed theym selfes to vertue and [...], eschewynge suche vyces, whiche before they, had [...].

¶Howe the emperour Alexander dyd ordeyn new offycers in the weale publike, and what belonged to their authorities. Ca. xix.

NOVVE LET vs retourne vnto the empe­rour Alexander. Whan he perceyued that by the example of him, and other great of­ficers, the people began to apply & waxed apt to receyue due reformation of the state of theyr lyuynge, he meruaylousely therat reioysyng, gaue hym selfe holly to the restorynge of the publyke weale to hir pristinate honour. Wherfore to the intent that nothynge shulde escape vnreformed, he ordeyned to be in the citie and also in the prouynces many offy­cers, somwhat mo than before were accustomed to be, appoyntyng causes ciuile and criminall to sundry iu­risdictions, sayenge, where one man hath many mat­ters to order of sundry effectes, it fareth with hym as it dothe with a mans stomacke, for the stomake recey­ueth meates, dyuers in qualities and effectes, whiche all togither can not be by one mans Nature duly con­ [...]octe and dygested. For somme meates be in opera­tion hotte, and be not apte but for a colde stomacke: some contrarywise be very cold, and in a cold stomake wyl neuer be boyled. other meates be of grosse & harde substance, and requyre a strong and myghty stomake to endue it: other be softe and delycate, and beinge to hastily digested, it nothynge profyteth. Not withstan­dyng any one of the sayde meates beinge in one sto­make, are better prepared to digestion than many, cō ­syderynge the trauayle that Nature must haue in the seperacion of sundry qualities, that be in diuers mea­tes to prepare them to their effectes, wherto they were [Page 34] ordeyned. And if the naturall heate in mans bodye be not therto sufficient, that whiche is ordeyned for nou­rysshynge of lyfe, is conuerted to corruption of blode and other humours, whiche is cause of syckenes. But yf any meate happen to come into the stomake, whiche meate is apt for his temperature, there shal he be per­fectly concocte or boyled, and by a naturall dygestion made apte for the nouryshynge and preseruation of o­ther membres. Accordynge to this similitude. If one man being in authorite, which I resemble vnto the stomak, be he neuer so wel lerned or wise, if he take vpon hym the ordryng and dyscussyng of all maner causes, his wytte, whiche is in the stede of nature, shalbe ther­with so moch incumbred, that being studiouse or occu­pied aboute one matter, in the meane tyme an other is appayred: and yf he leaue the fyrste, to refourme the seconde or thyrde, the fyrste is than in warse case than he founde it, the parties contendynge being chaufed, and in a more feruent contention. Or in a cryminall cause the offenders beinge lefte vncorrected, puttyng al feare apart, not only do perseuer but also increse in their euyll doinges. Fynally where one man hath the depeachyng of many matters, none one of them may be broughte to a perfecte conclusion. For as moche as to euery act belongeth oportunitie, whyche can neuer be founde, where many matters be enterlaced, opor­tunitie being onely espied by a vigilant and constant studye. More ouer where many men be in authoritie, good wyttes shall not be hydde nor vnrewarded, and many shall apply theym to vertue and studye, vppon hope of preferment. And where as be many particu­lar authorities, there shal sundry matters be the soner [Page] depeached. This was the sayeng of Alexander.

¶And therfore by the consent of the senate and peo­ple, he ordayned fyrst according to the counsel of Pla­to, certayne persons, whyche were named Conserua­tours of the weale publyke: to whose offyce it apper­tayned to se, that the chyldren of the Romaynes were well brought vp and instructed accordynge to the ca­pacitie of their wyttes, frome the age of seuen yeres vnto syxtene, and that in theyr playes and recreation were nothynge dishonest. Also that at certayne tymes appoynted, they were exercysed in ryding, if they were sonnes of gentylmen. Also they and the resydue, were exercysed in swymmyng, runnyng, wrastlyng, and to occupye all weapons of warre. Semblablye that the maydens, durynge the sayde age, were brought vp in shamefastnes, humblenesse, and occupation necessary for a housewyfe. And that they were not seene out of their fathers houses, but only in the temples, vnto the which women only resorted, and that in the company of their mothers or such other as were in their places.

¶Moreouer it pertayned to the sayd Conseruators, to controll euery householder, of what estate or degre so euer he were, yf there were founde any excesse in his fare, or that he had resort of riottous persons: or that he kept any mo seruauntes than had roumes in theyr howses, or in some necessary busynesse were contynu­ally occupyed.

¶Also that no man neyther in hym self, his wyfe, nor his seruantes shulde excede or in any part change the apparayle that by the lawes or the emperours ordy­naunces had ben prouyded.

¶Moreouer to se that no vitailing house nor bordel [Page 35] house shoulde haue their doores open, or receyue any person, eyther before the sonne risen, or after the sonne sette, whyche was done to the intente that euery man shulde be knowen, that repaired to suche places, and moche good hapned by that prouisyon.

¶These Conseruatours were three score in numbre, that is to saye, For euery trybe two, Rome beinge de­uided into .xxx. tribes. and twise in the wike they assē bled and dydde communicate suche defaultes as they had founden, and forth with all they certified to the prouoste of the citie all the defaultes, reseruyng the e­ducation of chyldren, which they them selfe refourmed by sharpe admonition giuen to theyr parentes: whom if they founde dissobediente or neglygent, they certy­fyed therof the Senate; who caused the sayde paren­tes to be punisshed as ennemies of the publyke weale of the citte. Them whiche offended in the other arty­cles, the prouoste of the citie punyshed, accordynge to the statutes and ordynaunces in such cases prouided.

¶The Pretores, Questores, and other lyke offyces and authorities he augmented in number, all be it he deuyded theyr iurisdictions, to some he appoynted onely contractes, in the whiche worde were compre­hended all thynges wherin bargayne or promyse was conteyned: and that he caused to be extremely examy­ned and discussed by the sayde officers, and in whome was founden to be any dysceipte or faythe broken, he withoute hope of any remyssyon or pardon, was im­mediately beaten with whyppes: which was also the punishement of them that had stolen pryuyly without any violence. The emperour saying, That it was but of fantasye and a thynge to laughe at, to make a dyf­ference [Page] betwene stealynge and disceit or breakyng his bargayne, where it appereth to be no dyuersitie, but onely that this hath truste and credence ioyned with it: and the other hath none, but is a syngle iniurye. Wherfore in reason it is the lyghter offence, where, by the other meanes, not onely the thyng is gotten with as moche iniustice as if it were stolen: but also faythe other wyse called truste, whiche is the foundation of Iustice, and consequently of the publike weale, is dis­solued. And therfore it ought to be reuenged with no lasse punishment than symple theft.

¶Puruayours for graine to the citie he made of ho­neste and diligent persones, and to theym he assigned particuler auditours, notwithstandynge at the ende of the yere, bothe the puruayours and auditours lefte theyr offices, and other were chosen.

¶ To them that were his baylyffes receyuours sur­ueyours and other that procured or gathered the re­uenues of his crowne, he gaue competente salaries: but be fauoured them not, callynge them a necessarye euyll. Wherfore if he perceyued, that any of them had gathered moche rychesse, he wolde take al from them, sayinge, Let it suffise you, that ye haue taken so long pleasure with my goodes: and beware that ye take not from other men iniustely, leste ye make me more angry with you. All be it if he perceyued any of them afterwarde to lyue vpryghtly, and to haue good wyt and lernynge he aduaunced them to some other rou­mes, wherwith they confessed theyr seruyce to be re­compenced. Fynally he neuer punished any man gre­uousely for his owne particular causes, and the sharpnesse that he vsed in punishinge offences agaynste the [Page 36] weale publyke. whan his considerations were wel ex­amyned and pondered, it was thoughte by all wyse men to be ryghte expedient.

¶To the prouoste he ioyned .xiiii. whiche had benne Consules, callyng them gouernours of the citie, com­maundynge them to here with the prouoste, the affai­res of the citie. And that no sentence were gyuen, nor act made. but that they al, or the more part were ther­at presente.

¶The detestation that Alexander had vnto idelnesse and the vyces therof procedynge, and of dyuerse prouisions that he made agaynst it. Cap. xx.

THIS most noble Emperour was so ro­ted in vertue and feruent zeale toward the weale publyke, that all vyce was to hym almooste intollerable. And for as moche as he perceyued, that idelnesse, that is to saye, Ceasynge from necessarye occupation or study, was the synke, whiche receyued all the styn­kyng canelles of vyce, which ones being brymme ful, sodeynly runneth ouer through the citie, and with his pestiferous ayre infecteth a great multitude of people er it may be stopped & clensed. And that not withstan­dynge, the people being ones corrupted with this pe­stilence, shall with greatte diffycultie and with longe tracte of tyme be delyuered. And yet ere that shall be brought well to passe, a great parte of the people shall peryshe: whiche this wyse and vertuouse Emperour consyderynge, and hauynge therof maruaylouse care, to the intent to withdrawe men from all excuses of i­delnesse, he with an incomparble prudence ordeyned [Page] for euery astate some forme of exercyse to be necessary­ly or vertuouselye occupyed, begynnynge at the base people or communers, whiche were moste in number, and proceding forth to euery other degre or condition.

¶Fyrste all vyle occupation or labour, wherby na­ture moughte be corrupted, or bodely strength decay­ed, he caused onelye to be exercised by bondemenne or straungers, that is to say, not beinge citezens. Sem­blably, he wold not suffer any citezen to be a marchāt aduenterer, nor to sell any thynge by retayle, that he hym selfe wrought not, or were not made by his owne prouision or studye: sayinge, That the Romaynes by trauaylyng into sundry coūtrays, gathered & brought into the citie with theyr marchaundise, the vices of o­ther people, which apprehended by other (as the more part of men do delyte in newe fangelnes) is the cause of more damage to the publyke weale, than a hundred tymes the value of the marchaundise may be commo­diou [...]e. Moreouer fyndynge ones a delite to accumu­late treasure, and desyrynge to excede one an other in rychesse, they attende so moche to theyr owne particu­lar lu [...]re, that they abandon al liberalitie, beneuolence and charitie, excepte it be very fewe. Fynallye they be neuer to the publyke weale profytable. Also they that retayle that whiche is bought of the craftes man that warketh it, they not onely defraude other of the iuste pryce, contrary to the directe order of equitie, but also do consume the tyme idelly, beinge not occupyed ney­ther in bodely exercise, nor in vertuous or commody­ouse studye. Therfore to suche practyse or mystery, he admytted onelye straungers. And also to brynge out of other countreys and to selle to the citezens all suche [Page 37] thynges as therof was none growynge in Italye, or not in sufficient quantitie, as wolles, mettall, & sylke. Foreseene that none of it were wroughte in any place out of Italy. And of suche strangers it was lefull to the Romaynes, to bye in grosse, and retayle, All be it there shuld no mo retayle than were appoynted by the Senate: and those also shulde be examyned and assi­gned by the Prouost of the citie, and suche as were to hym associate. And the sayde marchaunte straungers were by the Emperours commaundement very cour­taisely entertayned, and so were all other straungers, whiche repayred to the citie to bye there any thyng, or­elles to practise any excellent kunnynge or crafte, and were exonerate of all charges for the warres, excepte it were onely for the defence of the citie. But of theym he suffred to be but a certayne number, whiche was not lauful for them to excede. And vnto them were as­signed of the Romaynes certayn iudges and officers, which yerely also were chaunged. But nowe to treate howe he kepte the people from idelnesse.

¶Fyrste he prouyded, that where there was not any artifice or craft necessary, but that it mought be found within the citie, which he ordred in this wyse. He knew euery yere ones by the officers called Censores, howe moche people were dwellinge in the citie of euery age. Also by them whiche were called Ediles, howe many householdes there were of euery crafte. Than wolde he diligentely enserche, of what perfection theyr war­kes were, wherin they were occupied. and if he found therin moche lacke, so that the byars shulde suffer de­trymente, than inioyned he the seller therof, that he shuld no more worke to sale, vntyll he were instructed [Page] more perfaitely. Not withstandynge that person was compelled to worke vnder an other man, whiche was more perfyte, vntyll his worke were commended.

¶Moreouer he ordeyned, that after that the children of the communers could wryte and rede perfytly, they were set to some artifice or crafte. But if within one yere it appered, that they were vnapte therevnto, or that it were moche contraryouse vnto theyr nature: than the Conseruatours examyning as moch as they coulde, to what crafte or science necessary theyr wittes were moste apte, vnto that shulde they forthewith be sette, to lerne of theym whiche were good warkemen. And therfore he gatte oute of all partes of the empire the moste kunnynge and parfecte craftesmen in euery science to dwel in the citie, not onely compellyng them by his auctoritie, but allurynge them with yerely sti­pendes of grayne, to the fyndynge of theyr househol­des, and also to be free frome all maner exactions in peace or warre, to instructe in theyr craftes perfectely the youthe of the citie.

¶The craftes, whiche he wolde that the more parte of Romaynes shuld occupie, were those, wherin both the body and wytte moughte be exercysed, whiche he sayde perteyned to men that were free of condition: o­ther occupations, wherin was bodely labour onelye, he sayde was for bondemen and beastes. And therfore within the territorye of the citie of Rome, and in the manours and serines of the gentylmen Romaynes, he ordeyned that bailyfes and surueyours of husban­dry shuld be fre men and citezens, and that the plough men and laborars shulde be bondmen and strangers. In other cities besydes Rome, some of these thynges [Page 38] were chaunged after the necessitie and nature of the people, wherin this emperour alway had a maruay­lous consyderation.

¶After this diligent prouision, if any one of the peo­ple had ben found idell by the space of one hole day, except in feastfull days & other tymes of solace appoin­ted, he was forthwith examyned, and hauynge no le­full and approued excuse, he was fyrste whypped, and after by the Conseruatours commytted to one of the craftes, that he was of, and for euery day that he was openly sene to be idell, the persone vnto whom he was commytted, shuld for a moneth set hym to any labour that he lyst, as his slaue or bondman, gyuynge to him meate and drynke onely. And it was not to any other man lefull, durynge that tyme, to gyue hym meate or drynke, or to speake with hym, other wyfe than to re­buke hym. And after the sayd correction, the said Conseruatours shulde see that he were bestowed where he moughte worke with a competent lyuynge.

¶The semblable order was dilygentely, and (as I mought saye) exactly kepte by the Emperours straite commaundemente, bothe in Greece and Italye. And where execution anye tyme fayled, or was neglected, the officers were deposed with open reproche, and for­fayture of the thyrde parte of theyr substaunce: which was employed immediately on grayne, and distrybu­ted equally and freely amonge the people wel occupi­ed, within the citie or towne where suche thynge hap­ne [...]. And with great difficultie the sayde officers in su­che wyse deposed, coulde euer after opteyne of the em­perour, to come in auctorite. By the feare wherof, and the sayde di [...]ribution vnto the people, this ordinance [Page] was neuer omytted, durynge the lyfe of Alexander. Wherfore it was a wonder to beholde, howe sodeynly idelnes was euery where excluded, and kunnynge in euery occupation augmented.

¶Of baynes and places of exercyses, made for the people of Rome, by the emperour Alexander. Cap. xxi.

MOREOVER to the intente that the peo­ple shulde not be to moche fatigate with contynuall labour, whereby their bodyes shulde become decrepite and vnapt to the warres, he not onely amended and inlar­ged the hotte bathes made by dyuers emperours and princis before hym, wherin the people of Rome accu­stomed to refresshe and make cleane their bodyes, but also made new bathes more pleasant and sumptuous, ioyning them to those that were made by Nero the emperour, conuayeng into theym water naturally hotte, runnynge by conduites of marble from mountaynes in Naples, by the space of .CC. myles from the citie of Rome. And also he brought into somme partes of the [...]ayn [...]s colde water from the moste pure and delecta­ble sprynges, the people to vse the oone or the other at their own plesures. Moreouer he bought certain hou­ses, whyche stode nygh to the sayde bayne, and caused them to be pulled downe, and that place he made to be leuelled, and to be sette with yonge trees in the moost pleasant facion, hauing there large places, wherin the people after that they were bayned, moughte rounne, leape, or wrastell, or vse any other semblable exercyse, to the whiche places the sayd trees gaue a commody­ous and plesant vmbrage. And in the wrastlyng pla­ces [Page 39] the grounde was thicke couered with Camomyle, Origanum, and otherlyke grasses, bothe swete in sa­uour and softe to fall vpon. Also the sayde emperour moche delyted in the beholdynge of the sayd exercises. Wherfore it was the most parte of his pastyme or so­lace, to see the people exercised in fourme aforesayd, or els the gentylmen to assay them selfe in fourme of ba­tayle, as hereafter shall be declared.

¶To the sayde baynes and places of exercyse were assigned a numbre of kepers and ministers, to whome were gy [...]en sufficient salaries. And those places were alway kepte so nete and dylectable, that to the eyen or nose, was neuer any thynge vnpleasaunt or noyfull: by the whiche clennesse the citie was meruaylouselye preserued from sundrye syckenesses, whiche vndou­tedly do grow of corrupt exhalations, ventyng out of men [...] bodyes. And for that cause to auoyde occasyon of pestylence and other horryble dyseases, this Empe­rour prohybyted by speciall lawes, ingurgitations, bankettes, late suppers & longe. Moreouer causyng the controllers of markettes (of whom there were di­uers) whyche were euery yere chosen of speciall honest men, and not auaricyous or nedy, to haue a vygilant eye on the market, that not onely vytayles were solde by a due weyght and measure, and at prices set by the senate, but also that they were not in any part cor [...]p­ted in sauour or substa [...]nce, and that no suche thynge were solde for vitayle, wherin any poyson naturallye mought be ingēdred and hyd, as musherons, frogges, and other lyk [...] thynges, [...]unden oute rather by wan­ton a [...]tites, than by nature ingendren to serue for mans sustynaunce [...] and in these thynges, yf any lacke [Page] were perceyued to be, the emperour and senate with a dilygent scrutiny founde out the persone, by whose de­faute it hapned, with also the controller, which semed to be neglygent. And the seller was accordynge to the lawes sharply punyshed. The controller or other offi­cer, yf there were foūden in hym negligence, was with great rebukes expellyd from his offy [...]e, and hadde the tenthe part of his mouable goodes confiscate, which beinge brought into money, and bestowed on wheate, was distributed amonge the people, which dwelled in that part of the citie, where the offence was cōmitted.

¶It is here to be consydered, that suche summes as were forfayted by corrupt or neglygent offycers, came neuer to the vse of themperour, nor he gaue theym to any person, but employeng it on corne, he caused it to be distributed amonge the people. Whiche in myne o­pinion was a meruaylous polycie, for thereby he de­clared, that he vsed seueritie not for his owne particu­lar aduātage. And also the people, which suffred detrimēt by the lack of the officers, receyued the benefite of that which was forfaited. which caused a multitude to ly alway in awayte to fynd some misdemeanour in the officers, to the intent they mought therby be the better releued. And the officers at the last becam merueilous circumspect. And fynally the prince for his wysedome and charitie not only praysed, but also as a vniuersal father of al his people was moste enterly beloued.

¶Touchynge such persones as were in extreme po­uertie, and eyther by greuous syckenes or feeble age, were decrepite, or otherwyse not able to labour, I wyl after the next chapyter declare the incomparable pru­dence of this excellent emperour.

¶Of the magnifycence of the emperour Alexander in sumptuous and necessary workes, and in what exercises he caused the nobi­litie and gentylmen of Rome to be occupied. Ca. xxii.

BESIDES the baynes, whyche I late remembred, made in the citie of Rome, Alexander made also in euery royalme being subiecte to the empyre of Rome, common baynes, he also made greatte and stronge barnes in many cities, for the people to kepe in their pryuate stuffe and goodes, suche as had not of their owne priuate houses of suf­fycient strength for that purpose. He made also many fayre houses and mancion places, whyche immediat­ly he gaue to his frendes, whome he perceyued to be moste trusty and honest. In a place called Baianum, he made warkes magnifike or sumptuous, garnished with ymages of them whyche were ioyned to hym by any affinitie. He made meres and pooles to be wonde­red at, bryngyng the see vnto them, and causyng them to be replenyshed with strange and princypall fyshes. Also he edyfied great and wonderfulle brydges, and repayred all them whiche were made by Traiane, lea­uyng not withstanding to Traiane the name and ho­nour therof. In the market place of Nerua, he set vp great ymages of the moste noble emperours, some on foote, & some on horsbacke, with their titles ouer their heedes, and betwene euery ymage a greate pyllar of brasse, contaynyng all their gestes and actes worthye remembrance. He made also a basilike or place, where ciuile controuersies were herde and iuged, which con­teyned in brede one hundred fete, and in length a thousande, [Page] and stode all vpon pylers of porphery, whiche is a stone of purple colour, and the pylers were gar­nyshed with ymages of noble pryncis, Grekes & Ro­maynes, wroughte in pure whyte marble, with their names ouer their heedes, and vnder their feete, theyr actes wrought also in very smal ymages of copper in a moste lyuely and quycke demonstration. But in one kynde of magnificence he passed all other. For where dyuerse cities by erthquaues had ben frushed, & ther­with defourmed, he of the reuenues of the same coū ­treys, gaue great summes of money to the reedifieng of them. And many he efetsones restored to their pri­stynate beaultie and strengthe, diuerse he made more substancyall and sure. There was no towne of re­putation in his tyme decayed, but that he caused the occasion therof to be serched for [...] and to be forthewith reformed. The hauens of Italy and Sicile, he caused not only to be clēsed and repaired, but also to be made more stronger, to defende outwarde hostilitie.

¶Moreouer, for the exercise of them, whiche were a­boue the astate of the cōmon people, he repayred and newe made many places and thynges necessary, whi­che is expedient to be put in remembraunce. Fyrst he vysited all the libraries that were in the citie: And where he found any bokes deformed eyther with auncientie, or by neglygent kepynge, or by any other meanes, he caused them to be newe written and layde in their places, and the houses to be not onely clensed, but also made more ornate and necessary: As making for euery boke an huche locked, to the intent that whā any man came to study there, he shulde haue no moo bokes to loke on, than one of the kepers of the lybra­ry [Page 41] (wherof there were a good numbre retained to giue their attendance, hauing therfore competent salaries) shulde delyuer vnto them. And before they departed, the sayd keper shulde pervse the leaues of the bokes, that they loked in, to thintent that yf they dyd cutte or rent any out of the volume, they shulde be apprehen­ded, and by the offycers called Ediles, cōmytted vnto pryson, and there shulde remayne vntyll they had re­paired sufficiently the bokes that they had defaced, & also caused an other lyke booke to be wrytten, and bestowed in the sayde lybrary. And yf any suche persone had escaped by negligence or fauour of the keper, and the defaute founden by some other, the keper was expelled from his office without hope of remyssion, and was also compelled to redoube the harme in lykewise as he shulde haue done whiche committed the offence, yf he immediatly had ben apprehended. He made also a newe lybrary, garnyshyng it as well with most principall warkes in euery science, as also with the ymages of the authors, wrought moste excellently bothe in imbosed warke and portrayture: whyche lybrarye was deuyded into sundry galeryes, accordynge to dy­uers sciences, all buylded rounde in the fourme of a cerkle, and beinge seperate with walles one frome an other: And in that portion that belonged to Geome­try and Astronomy, were about the walles great car­tes and tables, contayning sundry lynes, figures, de­scriptions, dimensions, or measurynges, conuersions of sterres motiōs and reuolutiōs of planettes, spheres and imaginary cerkles, with also material speres quadrantes, astrolabes, and all other instrumentes belongyng to those sciences. Semblable tables were [Page] in that porcion that pertayned to Arithmetike & mu­syke, contayning the sundry proportions of numbers and tunes, and therto was added harpes, lutes, or­ganes softe in sownynge. For all instrumentes that were lowde & made great noyse, were excluded thense. the cause appereth to wyse readers. The place whiche was compassed aboute with the sayde lybraries, was also rounde, and decked with pleasant imagerye, and hauynge s [...]ates commodiously aboute it: where they that came to study in the lybraries, moughte walke or sytte at their pleasure, and communicate eche with o­ther that whiche they had radde or perceyued. And to these places there fayled not to come dayly a greatte numbre of gentylmen.

¶For other necessary exercise, the emperour inclosed with a hyghe walle, a gruunde ioynynge to his owne palaice, contayning in circuite one Italyen myle and a halfe, which within the wall was enuyronned with a galery of th [...]e heightes for men to stande in and be­holde, whiche galeries were also of stone. And in the space that two men mought stande & talke, there was a small pyller of marble, decked with ymages of men that deserued noble remembrance. The place was de­uyded or set out with many large alayes, playne and strayght, conteynyng in breade one hundred feete, and in length one thousande fete, those alays were floored with playster, and the resydue was thycke sprad with fyne grasse and camomyl, hauyng here and there ban­kes for men to rest them whan they were werye. The yonge gentylmen of the citie whan they repaired to the palaice to gyue their attendance, they in the mean tyme that the emperour was in preparynge hym for­warde, [Page 42] exercysed them selfes, some in the sayde alays, in runnyng or castynge the balle, somme in the grene places wrastlynge leapynge, and castyng of the dart. And in the galeries stode other of the nobilitie & gen­tylmen, suche as lysted to beholde them. And without the walles were great and hygh trees of cypresse and fyrre, with brode toppes, conuayd thyther with great industry: which trees dyd cast ouer the walles a plea­sant vmbrage or shadowe, and defended them that did exercise from the vehement heat of the sunne beames. And also in wynter kepte the place more mylde & tem­perate in resoluynge or breakyng the violent and cold blastes of the northern and westerne wyndes. Often tymes the emperour hym selfe delyted to come and be­holde the sayde exercyses: but in his owne persone he neuer exercysed hym selfe but priuyly, and a few being present, to the intent that if he were vanquished in any feate (as sometyme it hapned, although fewe menne surmounted hym in strength and delyuernes) he wold not gyue occasion to be dispraised, & had in contempt of his subiectes. Whan by extreme heate in the som [...]mer, or by rayne & other vehement tempestes of wynter, the sayde exercises moughte not be vsed, than the yonge gentylmen some repaired to the saide lybraries and passed the tyme vertuousely in readyng, writyng, or playeng on instrumentes, dyuers haunted the scho­les of philosophers, rhetoricians, and poetes (of the whiche sorte there were at that tyme in Rome a greate numbre) and herde them either recite their owne war­kes, or expounde other olde authors. Mary wolde re­sorte to the common houses callyd Thea [...]res, and pur­posyng some matter of philosophre, wolde there dys­pute [Page] openly. Other wolde pyke out of some auncient story some question concernyng martiall or ciuile po­lycie, and in commendyng or dyscommendynge it, de­clare their opinyons and sentences in the fourme of a consultation: whiche exercise was of no lytell impor­tance to the increase of wytte and prouysion of coun­saylours. And at suche exercyse the emperour prynci­pally delyted to be present in his owne person, as well to haue knowledge of other mens wittes and towardnes, as also to gather of their reasons some sentence or matter, which being kept in remembrance, mought perchaunce profyte hym in matter more serious or er­nest occasion. Besydes these persons there fayled not to be some, more gyuen to play than to study, whyche also had a fayre and large place in the palayce, where they played at the chesse and other lyke games, wher­in they mought be plesantly occupied, wherin the winnyng was neyther golde nor syluer, but only victorye and commendation of wytte or dylygence. Not with­standynge it was lefulle for theym at suche games to play for money, so it exceded not a summe certayn, whiche was assessed by the emperour and senate. At dyce it was not to any man lefull to playe: The emperour hauyng this sentence alway in his mouth, Our fore­fathers trusted in wysedome and prowesse, and not in fortune: and desyred victorie for renoume and honor, and not for money: And that game is to be abhorred, wherein wytte sleapeth, and ydelnes with couetyse is onely lerned. And for the mortal hate and indignation that he bare to this losse of tyme (for so ought it rather to be called, than a play) He made a lawe, which was ratified by the authoritie of all the senate and people. [Page 43] That yf any manne were founde playeng at dyce,Dyce playenge. he shuld be taken for frantike, or as a foole natural, whi­che coulde not wel gouerne hym selfe: and his goodes and landes shuld be cōmitted to sage and discrete per­sonages, apoynted by the hole senate, whiche imploy­ing on hym that which was thought necessary for his astate or degree, shulde brynge truely that whiche re­mayned to the cōmon treasory: to the intent that whan he returned to thryfte, or was seene by a good space of yeres, to vse good husbandry, in employeng well and honestly that portion that he hadde, he shulde be efte­sones restored as well to his landes and goodes, as to the reuenues and profyttes that were growen in the meane tyme, whyle they were confyscate or in the rule of his tutours. Fynally nexte to theues and extorcio­ners the emperour moste hated them [...] whiche after the sayd lawe being made, were found to be dyse players, and wold not haue any of them callyd eyther to office or counsayle.

¶Of hospitalles and other prouision made by Alexander for men that were dec [...]epite, or so diseased that they coulde not labour. Capi. xxiii.

ON A TYME the Emperour Alexander visytynge all partes of the citie of Rome, to beholde howe the Temples and other solemne edifices were kepte and repaired, in passinge through the stretes he behelde a great numbre of persones, some defaced with horrible disseases, and some mutylate of theyr members, as lackynge armes or legges, or the necessarye vse of the one or the other, whiche he consyderynge with a [Page] seuere and graue countenaunce, at the laste sayde to a noble mā called Iulius Frontinus, who at that tyme was Pretor or Gouernour of the citie vnder the Em­perour: What sorte of people be these, whiche beinge horrible and noyouse to beholde, do seeme vnprofita­ble to the weale publyke, sens they can not labour, but consume those thynges whiche are ordeyned for them that can defende the weale publyke and vs whan oc­casion requireth? Than aunswered Frontinus.

Syr they be your naturall subiectes, wherof parte be depryued of theyr membres by chaunce of warre, where in they haue serued you and your noble proge­nitours Emperours of Rome, some doo lacke the of­fice of theyr membres, by naturall infirmities, the re­sydue, whiche to your maiestie and all other seemeth to be an horrible spectacle, are men attached with gre­uouse sickenesses, whiche do happen to them (as phi­sitions do say) by the putrifactiō of naturall humors. And wherof (saide the Emperour) procedeth such pu­trefaction of humours, suppose you? Truely (sayde Frontinus) as I haue redde and herde saye, it com­meth of oone of these causes, eyther for as moche as great abundaunce of superfluouse humours thycke and clammy, be dispersed in the body, wherby the po­ [...]es (whiche are lyttel holes in the skynne throughout all the body, that be inuisible) be stopped, soo that the exhalation or brethe inclosed in the body, maye not is­sue out by the same pores: whervnto a strange or vn­naturall heate beinge ioyned, maketh the sayde pu­trefaction. Somtyme it hapneth of meates or dryn­ [...] beinge corrupted ere they be receyued. Somtime where as well the ayre as the bodyes of men be distempred. [Page 44] Also it hapneth sometyme by the wrathe of god, where he is offended or neglected in such duetie as be­longeth vnto hym, as it hath ben perceyued often ty­mes in this citie, and declared by prophetes.

¶ Ye haue answered ryght wel (sayd themperor) vnto my demande. But yet for as moch as I suppose, that ye cal them superfluouse humors, which ar more than conueniente to the naturall proportion and tempera­ture of the body, wherin they be, I pray you tell me if ye can, wherof cometh that superfluous abundaunce, and by what occasion do they become thycke and clammy, wherby the pores (as ye say) be stopped. Truely, sayde Frontine, as I haue hard of phisitions, and al­so dayely experience and reason declareth it, it proce­deth of repletion and idelnesse, that is to saye, by ea­tynge immoderately aboue that whiche natural heate maye concocte in the stomake, also ingorgynge meate vpon meate, ere that meate whiche was fyrst eaten be fully digested, also by not vsynge competent exercise, wherby nature is comforted, and prepareth her selfe to labour about the concocting and digestyng of that which the body receyueth. Ye haue nowe satisfyed me (sayde the Emperour) and well to the purpose. Nowe beholde, sayde he. Frontine honorable father, what a pernyciouse neglygence was in our predecessours Emperours, besides the il example of diuerse of them, which haue like il tutours, suffred the people of Rome theyr pupilles so many yeres, dayly to consume them selues by licence in lyuynge, whiche hath brought in­to the citie suche horrible sickenesse, whiche I wyl pro­uide to expell thense if it be possible.

¶The nexte daye folowynge he assembled his coun­sayle, [Page] whiche as I sayde before was of fyfty reuerend personages, to whom he declared the communication betwene hym and Frontine, who at that tyme was presente, beinge one of the counsaylours, affyrmyng that he was fully determyned, as wel to prouyde for them, whiche eyther were attached with the sayde horryble syckenesses, and for those whiche were by warres for the weale publike mutulate in theyr membres, or mai­med, as also to put cleane awaye, or at the leste waye to minyshe the originall occasyons of the sayde sycke­nesses. Whiche noble entreprise beinge of al them that herde hym, commended: fynally it was thought expedient by the noble Emperour, and by all his sayd coū ­sayle approued, that within the citie of Rome there shulde be two fayre and large hospytalles builded, to receyue and kepe theym, whiche were soo mutulate or maymed in the warres, that they coulde not exercyse theym selues in manuell occupation (for all other la­bours were done by captiues, bondemen, and slaues, and the Romaines were therof discharged) Also with out the citie in some village nygh to it, wherby passed some ryuer, shulde also be edified two other hospital­les ample and necessary for fyue hūdred sick persons, vnto whom shuld be appoynted fyue phisitions, sub­stancially lerned in phisike, and well experienced. Also fyue expert surgeons, with two apoticaries, men of good credence and trust, whiche shulde be bounden to haue alway al necessary drouges, vigorous in their force and vertue, without sophistication or other de­ceyte in symples or compoundes. Also that they shuld burne or vtterly reiect all thynges, whiche were eyther corrupted, or so dryed, that it shulde seme to the phisy­tions [Page 45] (who shuld as oft as they list examin the wares) to be noyous, or to medicine vnprofytable. The meate whiche was ordeyned for these sicke persones, shulde be so lyttell in quantitie, that it was lesse than suffycy­ent for any hole person. And whan it was asked of the Emperour, why he wolde that they shulde haue so lit­tell a pytaunce, he answered meryly, that he dyd it for thre speciall consyderations. The fyrste was, that he 1 had red in the bokes of Galene, the most excellent phi­sition, that the more one nourisshed bodies vncleane, and not sufficyentely pourged, the more he dyd hurte them. Also if the meate were more than the sycke men 2 coulde eate, the ministers about them wolde selle that whiche was lefte, and whan they had gathered therby moche money, eyther they wold lyue therwith riotous­ly, and neglecte theyr dueties in attendynge the sicke folke, or elles with that gayne prouyde for them selues some more welthy and easy lyuynge, so that in conclu­sion, the sycke people shuld be destitute of conuenient ministers to awayte on them. The thyrde consydera­tion 3 was, that if the sycke men hadde abundaunce of good meate, many of them remembrynge, that whan they were hole, they shulde be constrayned to some oc­cupation, and that they shulde not than eate so moche meate and so good, as they eate in the hospital, where they laye well and at reste. Wherfore perchance whan they were hole, they wolde fynde the meanes to fal eft­sones in theyr sayde syckenes or other lyke, that they moughte be brought agayne to the hospitall. Suche myserable nature r [...]maineth in some men, that to lyue idelly and voluptuousely, they wyll chose rather to be sicke, than to be healed.

[Page]¶These allegations of the wyse emperour was than confyrmed, by dyuerse whiche had knowen it by long experience. Concernynge them whiche were mutulate or maymed in warres for the weale publik, they shuld haue a more plentiouse entertaynement, if he were in pouertie or lacked frendes. But they whiche were not in that necessitie, shulde haue appoynted by the Se­nate and the Emperours consente, an honeste propor­tion in corne and wyne, to spend in theyr owne houses, as a thankefull remembrance of the Senate and peo­ple for theyr good endeuour whyles they were able.

¶Moreouer to prouyde for tyme to come, that is to saye, that the causes before remembred, whereof the sayde horrible sickenesses proceded, he affyrmed, that the beste and moste sure meane, was to pacifye the ire of god, and to make hym beneuolent vnto the people, whiche shulde be moste assuredly done, by excludinge horrible vices and abhominations out of the cite, and to honour god purely. As for the disposition of men­nes bodies, made apte by surfettes and idelnesse to re­ceyue corruption, and consequently horrible sickenes­ses, he determyned to make an Edict or imperyall or­dynaunce, confyrmed by an acte of the Senate, that no man shuld vse mo than two meales in one day, and that there shoulde be at the leaste .vi. houres betwene euery meale. Also that the Censores or correctours of maners, shulde take diligent hede, that if they founde or were informed, that any manne of the comminaltye wente to his meale, before he had wrought sufficiently in some occupation, that the same Censores shoulde cause hym to be apprehended and kepte in some pry­son, by the space of three dayes, hauynge but ones in [Page 46] the daye onely, one ounce of breade, and a lyttell wa­ter, without any other nourishement: the Emperour here rehersynge a prouerbe, wherof he had herde part of the chrysten men: ‘Let hym eate that laboureth, for he that laboureth not, is not worth that thyng that he eateth.’ And suche as moughte not be withdrawen from ydel­nesse, he wolde haue them sent into Spayne, to digge for gold: or into the iles called Cassiterides, to labour in tynne workes. And if within a whyle they laboured well without cohertion or grutchynge, those shulde be reuoked into the citie, there to apply diligentely theyr occupation.

¶He wolde also that the common people shoulde not haue at one meale, but one kinde of fleshe or fyshe, and that shulde not be eyther delycate, or in great quanti­tie. And if any man were founde doinge other wife, he shulde forfayte to the common treasory double the value of the meate whiche he had for that meale prouy­ded. And that no gentylman shuld haue mo than thre sundry dyshes at oone meale, besydes fruite: nor any senatour aboue .iiii. diuerse dishes, and one kynde of fruite if he lyste. Whiche number he hym selfe dyd not excede, although no lawe dyd therto compell hym. He wolde not that any citizen shuld resort to open tauern, but that euery man shoulde haue his prouision in his owne house. And that tauernes and common Cookes shuld serue onely for them, whiche dwelled out of the citie, and came thyther for some necessarye busynesse. And if any citezen were founde in tauerne, eatynge or drynkynge, he shulde be [...]ente for to the Censores, and be sharpely rebuked, at the seconde tyme, excluded out of all assemblies, and noted euer after as a man out of [Page] credence or possibilitie to any preferment. At the thyrd tyme he shulde be sent to the mynes, and there remain, vntyl he seemed to haue amended his maners. A gen­tylman shulde be at the fyrste tyme rebuked. at the se­cond tyme, lose the name of a gentylman, and be reke­ned amonge the base people. the thyrde tyme his goo­des shulde be commytted to a tutour, wherof he shuld haue no portion, vntyll it were well perceyued that he had vtterly lefte resortynge to tauernes. A Sena­tour beinge founde in suche places, shuld incontinent be discharged out of the Senate, beinge durynge his lyfe without hope to be therto restored.

¶Whan the emperour Alexāder had concluded these thynges with his owne counsaylours, he soone after came into the senate, and there recited in an eloquent and sobre oration, the sayde articles, declarynge what feruent desyre he had to saue the people of Rome, not onely agaynst outward hostilitie, but also agaynst in­warde perylles and consumption of their bodyes by horrible syckenesses, whiche oration fynisshed, all the senate with teares in their eyes for gladnesse, in the name of them selues and the people, rendred most harty thankes to the emperours maiestie. And forthwith without any exception or myslikyng of any one thing, they confirmed it by an act of the senate. And the next day the Tribunes assembled the people, and declared to them all that preceded: which they so ioyousely herd and receyued, that they ratified it with their common consentes with these acclamations. Noble Alexan­der we pray the goddis, that they haue no lasse care of your maiestie than ye haue for vs. Most happy be we that we haue you amonge vs. Noble Alexander, the [Page 47] goddis preserue you, the goddis defende you, procede forth in your purpose. We oughte to loue you as our father, to honour you as our lorde, to meruayle at you as a god here lyuyng among vs. Therto they added: Noble Emperour, take what ye wylle of our treasure and substance, to accomplishe your purpose.

¶The emperour heryng of this lyberal offer, caused to be answered in his behalfe, by Frontine his Pretor, The emperour thanketh you, but nothynge wyll he charge you with, touchyng the buyldyng and furnys­shyng of the sayde .iiii. hospytalles, for he wyll doo it of his owne treasure: only two thynges he requireth of you, whiche shall not be burdeynous to you. Fyrst that ye ceasse not to pursue and obeye continu­ally all the sayde statutes and ordynaunces. The se­conde, that ye wyll be content, that suche common re­uenues, whyche seeme to hym vaynely employed and agaynste the weale publyke, maye without any grut­chynge of your parte be layde to the mayntenance of the said hospitals. Therat al the people eftsones with one voyce cryed: Do noble emperour what shall seme to you good. For your most blessid nature can not erre or do amysse any thyng that ye purpose. Hereat them­perour reioycing, and remembrynge that longe tyme before, he thought that the playes callyd Florales and Lupercales, and the abhomynable ceremonies of Isis (in the which were shewed by men and women naked, moste abhomynable motions and tokens of lecherye) were prouokers and nouryshers of beastely vice: he therfore by the cōsent of the senate, abolyshed the said playes and ceremonies. And the reuenues, which be­longed to the mayntenance of them being very great, [Page] he appoynted to lay them vnto the sayde hospitalles, with some part of his owne possessions, which he had purchased. Fynally the sayd foure hospitalles within the space of one yere were buylded on the ryuer of Tybet in the moste ample and magnifike facion: so that all the chambers of the syck people were so made, that the floores of them were .x. fete aboue the ground, and distant one from an other .xx. feete, euery chamber ha­uyng his bayne, and freshe water conuayed into eue­ry one of them by a cundyte, their places of easement ouer the ryuer, the wyndowes lyeng north & northest, the floores of great thyck plankes close ioyned, in the nether story were the sellers, larders, wardropes, and suche other offyces. At the south syde were lyke many chambers, the wyndowes opened towarde the north, the kytchyns and lodgynges of offycers & minysters, whyche shulde serue the sycke men were at the weste ende. At the east ende hauing a prospect into the north was the ware houses, which serued for medicines, to theym were ioyned the lodgynges of the apoticaries, phisitions and surgeons, and they were ryghte fayre & honestly furnyshed. Of no lasse magnificence were the two hospitals in the citie, but rather more costely, wherby the beaultie of Rome was moch augmented. These thynges being stablysshed, the senate toke on them the gouernance of them, appoyntyng euery yere by lotte ten senatours to be therof surueyors and con­trollers of all the offycers and other mynysters. And the same senatours at the ende of theyr yere to make accompt openly to the Tribunes and people, of the imployment of euery parcell of the sayde reuenues. And yf any were founde in arrerage, he shulde be compel­led [Page] immediately to pay to the treasory of the sayd ho­spytals foure tymes as moch as the arrerage amoū ­ted to. Fynally so moche commoditie hapned vnto the citie of Rome by the sayde hospitalles and other ordi­naunces before rehersed, that within very fewe yeres after, no fowle syckenes was perceiued to be in the ci­tie nor ydell person, by occasion wherof a great parte of the chambers in the sayde hospitalles were vacant and moche of the reuenues were saued: whiche being brought to the common treasory, afterward eased the people of taxes in tyme of warre, to their no lytle comfort and quietnes.

¶In howe [...]undry wyse Alexander exercysed his owne person, so that he was neuer vnprofy­tably occupied. Ca xxiiii.

THE MYNDE of this noble emperour was so feruently set and determyned, to the good gouernance and aduancement of the weale publyke, and the conserua­tion of the same, that in eyght the fyrste yeres of his empire, whiche was the mooste parte of his reigne, in as moche as he raygned but .xiii. yeres and .ix. dayes. he dyd almoste none other thynge, but contynually syt with his counsaylours, whyche were neuer fewer than fyfty men excellent in lernynge and vertue, traictynge and deuysynge thynges expedyent for the weale publyke. And by the example of Augu­stus the emperour, he reported to the hole senate ones in a moneth, suche thynges whervpon they were con­cluded, with the principall reasons whyche therto in­duced them, whiche if the more part of the senate sem­blably [Page] liked, than were the prouisions or ordināces deuised, by their sentence approued, & incontinently enacted and published. And to the intent he wold not haue his labours & the authoritie of the senate frustrate by the lacke of execution (Not withstandyng that he had many espialles as I sayd before, to awaite the defau­tes of officers) he vsed many tymes to dysguise him selfe in diuers strange facions, as somtyme in the ha­bite of a scholer of philosophye, comen out of Grece, and speakyng nothing but Greke, which he dyd most exquisitely, oftentymes lyke a marchant, come out of Siria, or Persia, whiche had than but one language, and that spake themperour naturally, for as moch as he was borne in Siria. And hauinge with him one or two men of that countrey, which he dyd counterfaite, he lyke a scholer or seruant wolde one day haunte one parte of the citie, an other day an nother parte: And most politikely fynd occasion to se the state of the peo­ple, with the industry or negligence of them that were officers, whiche progresse he wolde neuer dyscouer to any man, but only to Ulpian, or one or two mo of his most secrete counsaylours or seruantes, neither before that he began it, nor after, and to them that accompa­nied hym, he commaunded, that they shoulde kepe it euer secrete, as they wolde auoyde his moste greuous displeasure. And in dede durynge his lyfe, it was by them neuer dyscouered. But sometyme he coulde not so escape vnknowen, but that he was sometyme per­ceyued. but dreadyng his seueritie, they that met with hym, and knewe hym, darste not salute hym, or make any sygne of knowledge vnto hym. But whan that they had dysclosed it, all they that herde it, examyned [Page 49] theyr owne actes, and al they, which at that tyme had done any thyng worthy to be reproued, liued in dreade lokynge to be therfore corrected, or at the leest wayes blamed. Cōtrarywyse, they which had done any thing worthy cōmendation, toke meruaylous comfort, dou­tyng not, but that their good actes shulde eyther with benefytte or with the emperours prayses, be shortely rewarded, whervnto soone after was added to profite eyther in some office, or in other yerely reuenues.

¶After that he had reduced the citie to this honora­ble state, he than by the aduise of his most discrete coū saylours, ones or twyse in the weke, vsed to solace out of the citie, with a great company with hym of hono­rable personages. for he neuer shewed hym self openly as Emperour, but with a greate and honourable pre­sence, aboue any other kyng of the worlde, albeit than he expressed a meruaylous familiaritie to all men in­differently, that lyst to approche hym, without repulse to any man being in honest vesture, and not dyseased with infectiue syckenesse. In this solasyng he hunted the harte, the wylde bore, or suche as be callyd Alces, brought for the nones out of the great woddes of Germany, whyche be in quantitie higher and longer than any oxe. He hūted also oftentymes the beare, but that neuer sauyng only whan he was in the partes where they were bredde, saying, that forasmoche as the beare was of his nature a deuourer of cattel, he desyred not to haue of that kynde in those places where cattell is nourished. In huntyng these beastes he sometyme on horsebacke proued his strength, sometymes shotyng, otherwhyles castyng at them iauelyns, whiche serued for that purpose. Oftentymes he onely behelde other [Page] yonge gentylmen huntynge, whyche he deuyded into sundry companies, and appoynted to theym a numbre certayne of arowes or iauelyns, to the intent that one shuld not be more exercised, or take more solace in huntyng than an other. The lyons, lybardes, tygres, pan­thers, and other lyke straunge and furyous beastes, he had in great numbres, whiche were kepte onely to thintent that at certayne tymes in the Amphiteatre, & other lyke places in the citie ordeyned to the purpose, the people mought take plesure in beholdynge them, & also seyng som such desperate persons, as wold auen­ture their lyues, fyght with some of the sayd beastes, or one beast to fyght with an other. But neuer wolde he lette any gentylman Romayne to do any suche bat­tayl, sayeng, that he estemed none so lytel, that he wold put hym in daunger for suche a beast, whose body be­ynge deade, was nothynge profytable.

¶He toke also pleasure to hunte the falowe dere, the too, & the hare with greyhoundes, inforeyng his horse (wherein he moche delyted) to gyue as many tournes to the game that he hunted, as the greyhoundes shuld do, And in that pastyme hauyng to euery beast of ve­nery but two dogges at the moste, he contended with many other yonge gentyl men on horsebacke, whiche were by hym selfe onely appoynted, to shew hym selfe mooste delyuer and redye to incountre and checke the game at the moste aduauntage, wherin was a ryght pleasant and also profytable exercyse, shewynge a vy­sage or representation of a skyrmyshe in warres, spe­cially whan he hunted the hart, and the bestes named Alces. For thanne there required to be shewed moche strength and hardynes, and in the pursuite labour & [Page 52] peynfulnes. And in this solace he vsed moche prudēce. For they whiche one day hunted with hym, shulde not hunt the next day, but behold other hūtyng, and mark diligently the lacke of theym that hunted in to moche haste or slownes, to thintent that they mought refrain such defaut. And they that dyd best were praysed. And by hym that was the prouost of hunting, it was rege­stred in the emperours presence, howe many tymes e­uery man was commended, to the intent that as rou­mes of capytayns and petite capitaynes were voyde in any of the emperours garrisons, they which in the sayde huntynges were iudged mooste actife, yf other good maners were in them founden accordyng, shuld be preferred to suche roumes after theyr merites. But alway this good emperour had a vigilant respecte to the fourme of their lyuynges, and aduanced no man sodaynly, but with longe delyberation and good ad­uysement.

¶Moreouer not withstanding his huntyng or other recreation, he neuer wolde let any day passe, withoute eyther consultyng some thynge for the weale publyke, or gyuyng some true sentence in iugement, or redyng som place in good authors, to augment his wysedom, or wrytyng some story or other thyng worthy remem­braunce, he was suche a nygard of tyme, that he was meruaylously greued, yf he spente any daye in solace without doinge of any of those thynges that I haue reherced. Not withstandyng that in the meane tyme, all the affaires of the empire were treated and ordred by men assured good and faythfull, whome he knewe wel wolde not be corrupted. And whan nede required, he herd matters before it was day, and prolonged the [Page] tyme vntyl it were late & within nyght. And not with standyng he neuer shewed countenāce of werynes, ne to be in any parte frowarde or angry: but had alwaye one maner of visage, and in all thynges semed merye and pleasant. Undoutedly he was of an excellent pru­dence, as in whom no man could fynde any lacke, and of so redy a wytte, that if any man merily wolde taste hym with a prety taunt, he shuld shortly perceyue that he vnderstode hym. After the cōmune affaires as well ciuile as marciall, he gaue the more parte of his study to the readyng of greke authors, redyng the bokes of Plato of a publyke weale. And whan he wolde reade any latin bokes, he rad specially the bokes of Tulli, of a publike weale, and also his offices. Sometymes he radde oratours and poetes: amonge whom was Se­renus Ammonicus, whome he knewe and fauoured, and also Horace. He radde moche the lyfe of the great Alexander, whom specially he folowed, not withstan­dyng he abhorred his drunkennes and crueltie. All be it the one & the other is defended and excused by some good authors: whome oftentymes the emperour mo­che beleued. After his studye he applyed hym selfe to wrastlynge, runnyng or throwyng of the balle mode­rately. After his exercyse he hauyng his body anoyn­ted with precious and holsom oyntementes (as it was at that tyme the vse) entred into a bayne or stewe not hotte, where he taried sommetyme by the space of one houre, not onely to washe hym, but also to exercise him selfe in swymming. And whan he was come out of the bayne, he wold eate a good quantitie of mylk, sopped with fyne manchet, and a few egges, and therto wold he drynke methe, and takyng this for his breakefaste, [Page 51] somtyme he wolde dyne also: And oftentymes he ab­steyned vntyll supper. Alway at after none he apply­ed the tyme to sygninge and readynge of letters and bylles, they whiche were called remembrauncers, stan­dynge about hym. and if by the reason of sickenesse or age it were payneful for them to stand, he caused them to syt downe, hauynge the secretaryes or clerkes rea­dynge the sayde letters or bylles vnto theym. Alwaye the emperour hauynge a penne with his owne hande added to that whiche was necessarye, but that dyd he by the aduyse or sentence that semed beste or most con­uenient. whan he had pervsed al these thynges, al his frendes were let in togyther, & who that lyste mought frely and boldly speake than vnto hym, and he merily and comfortably gaue eare vnto them. albeit he wold not here alone any man, but onely his great mayster, or Ulpian the lawyer, and such as were associate with hym in some speciall cause of Iustice, but yet he neuer talked wt any of them, but that he caused Ulpian also to be present. In this forme this noble emperor passed his tyme, enterlacing therwith other maner of solace.

¶Howe the Emperour Alexander, at the requeste of his mother Mam­mea, sente for the moste excellent clerke Origene: and of diuerse notable sentences spoken by the same emperour concernyng the receyuing of the christen fayth. Capi. xxv.

AT THIS TIME there was in the ci­tie of Alexandria in Egipte a man ex­cellente in all maner of lernynge,Euco [...] and therwith wonderfull eloquente in the greeke tonge, whose name was Ada­mantius Origenes: in so moch as whan [Page] he was but of the age of .xviii. yeres, he was in all the liberall sciences and in philosophye lerned exactely a­boue all mennes estimation, he was sonne of one Le­onidas, who for the chrysten fayth was beheaded. Al­so this Origene was chrystened, and from his tender age most perfytly brought vp in the rules of that reli­gion, whiche he alway moste exactly obserued, as wel in all kyndes of abstinence, as in example of humily­tie, and contempte of thynges worldelye. He was for his great lernynge and seueritie of lyfe, appoynted by the byshoppe of christen men in Alexandria to preache and expounde the bokes, which they called the Bible: by occasion wherof he drew a great number of people dayly to the sayde chrysten faythe: whiche althoughe the emperour Alexander knewe, after that he dyd per­ceyue, that they were exquisite folowers of vertue, & peace, he wolde not suffer that any of them shulde be apprehended or punished: but had them in great admiration and reuerence.

¶The fame of this great clerke Origene came to the [...]a [...]es of Mammea the Emperours mother, who (as some menne supposed) was al redy perswaded to im­brace that profession. wherfore to be the more perfite­ly instructed therin, she moste affectionately couayted the presence of the sayde Origene. And therfore she a­waytyng oportunitie, came to the emperour her sonne and desyred hym, that he wolde sende for the sayde O­rigene, whose famouse lernynge was onely by report knowen vnto hym. To the whiche request he easelye graunted. And he hym selfe indited letters to be dire­cted to Alexander than being the bishop of christen mē in Alexandria, the tenour whereof hereafter ensueth.

[Page 50]¶Alexander Emperour Augustus.The let­ter [...] of Alexander the Em­perour. &c. to Alexander the chiefe byshoppe of Christianes in the great citie of Alexandria, well to doo. The fame of the vertue and wonderfull lernynge of Adamantius Origenes, your great philosopher, soundeth continually in our eares, whiche maketh vs desyrouse to beholde and here him, [...] whose name contendeth in honorable renoume with our imperiall maiestie. We notwithstandyng not en­uyinge his glory, but couaytyng to be parte takers of his inspired lernynge, and folowers of his vertue, do require you, to lycence hym to come vnto vs to Rome at his leysour without festination or trauayle. We haue wrytten to our prouoste of Egypte, that he pro­uide for hym all thynge expedient for his iourneye to­warde vs. Fare ye well.

¶After that the byshoppe had receyued these letters, he moche reioysynge therate, sente for Origene. But with great difficulty mought he perswade him to take that iourneye, he allegynge by dyuerse argumentes, that it shulde be more necessary, that he continued his preachynges and lessons, where a greate parte of the people were all redy informed in the chrystian faythe, and dayly increased, and waxed desirouse of the inter­pretation of diuine misteries, than goinge to the citie of Rome, where abounded al vice, pryde and tyranny, there to sowe preciouse sedes, as it were in the sand, or to gyue orient perles to swyne. Yet fynally whan the byshoppe and other sage personages had credybly in­formed hym of the moste excellent vertues of the Em­perour Alexander, and in what sorte he had reformed the state of the citie of Rome, he condescended to goo thyther. whiche beinge intimate vnto the Prouoste of [Page] Egypte, he accordynge to the Emperours commaun­dement, prouyded for hym a shyppe with all thynges necessary vnto his iourneye. And bycause he behelde hym symply apparayled, he ordeyned for hym sundry garmentes in the moste honest sort that philosophers than vsed: but Origene wolde not receyue any parte therof, not so moch as hosen or showes, but lyke as he alwaye accustomed to go from his chyldhode (that is to saye, in a syngle garmente of clothe and barefoted) so went he to Rome. And whan at his arriuayle there were brought vnto hym a mule and a chariote, to ride in the whiche he beste lyked, he answered, that he was moche lasse than his maister Chryste, which rode but one daye in his lyfe, and that was on a sely asse mare. Wherefore he wold not ryde, except he were sycke or de­crepite: so that his leggis mought not serue him to go.

¶The Emperour and his mother herynge of the co­mynge of Origene, caused hym to be brought in their presence, where he accordyng to his duety ryght hum­bly saluted the emperour knelynge, but the emperour with mooste gentylle countenaunce imbraced hym, and inforced hym to stande on his feete. Semblablye the emperours mother deuoutely saluted hym, reioy­synge moche of his presence.

¶And whan the emperour had beholden his natyue grauitie, and most assured countenance, he in his hart iudged hym to be a reuerend personage. Than demanded he of hym, what thyng he professed. He answered, Ueritie. The emperour asked of hym, what he mente thereby. He sayde, It was the worde of the lyuynge god, whyche was infallyble. The Emperour asked, which was the lyuyng god, and why he so called hym. [Page 53] Origene answered, That he dyd put that distinction for a difference from them, whome men beinge longe drowned in errour dyd calle their goddis, whome they confesse to be ones mortall, and to haue dyed. but the god, whom he preached, was euer lyuynge, and neuer dyed, and is the lyfe of all thynges that be, lyke as he was the creator of them.

¶And whan the emperour had required hym to de­clare the vnitie of God the creatour, he deuoutly lyf­tyng vp his eyes, after a short meditation, with an in­comparable and mooste compendious eloquence, he forthwith opened that mystery in suche wyse, that as welle to the emperour and his mother, as to all other standyng about theym (of whom I Eucolpius moste happily was one) it semed that we were brought oute of a longe slepe, and than dyd we se thynges as they were in dede, and that whiche before we esteemed and honoured were but vain dreames and imaginations. Yet themperour after a lyttell pause, sayde vnto Ori­gene, that he moch meruayled, why men of such won­derfull knowlege, shulde honour for God, a man that was crucified: being but of a poore astate and condi­cion. O noble Emperour, sayd Origene, Consyder what honour at this present tyme the wyse Athenien­ses yet do to the name and image of Codrus, their last kynge of Athenes, for as moche as at the tyme that warre was made by the two people called Peloponenses and Dorienses, agaynst the Athenienses, answere was made to them, whiche counsayled with Apollo at Delphos, that the Peloponenses and Dorienses, yf they slewe not the kyng of Athenes, they shulde haue the victory: wherof Codrus heryng [...] preferrynge the [Page] safegarde of his people before his owne lyfe, toke on hym the garmentes of a slaue, and bearynge on his shulder a burdeyn of styckes, he wente to the hoste of the ennemies, and there of a purpose quarellyng with some of them, and in the prease hurtyng one with his knyfe, he was by hym, which was hurt, strikē through the body and slayne: by occasion wherof, after that it was perceyued and knowen of the ennemyes, they be­inge confused, raysed theyr campe and departed. And for this cause the Atheniensis, haue euer sens had the name of Codrus in reuerence, and as all men do think worthily and not without reason. Nowe than consy­der most excellent prynce, howe moche more worthy, with what greatter reason and bounden duetie ought we and all men to honour Christe, being the sonne of god, and god, who not only to preserue mankynd from daunger of the deuyll, his auncient ennemye, but also to delyuer man out of his dark and stynkynge don­geon of errour, beinge sente by god the father frome the hyghest heuens, wyllingly toke on hym the seruile garment of a mortall body, and hydyng his maiestye, lyued vnder the vysage of pouertie, and finally not of his ennemyes immediately, but moche more agaynste reason, of his owne chosen people the Iewes, vnto whome he had extended benefites innumerable, and after his temporall natiuitie were his naturall people and subiectes, he quarellyng with them, by declaryng vnto them their abuses, and pryeking them with con­dygne rebukes, at the last he was not slayne with soo easy a death as Codrus was, but in most cruel facion was scourged vntyll no place in his bodye was with­out woundes, and than had a crowne of long & sharpe [Page 54] thornes set and pressed on his heed, and after long tor­mentes and despytes, he was constrayned to beare an heuy crosse, wheron afterwarde his both handes and feete were nayled with longe and greatte nayles of yron, and the crosse with his naked and bluddye bo­dy being lyfte vp on heyght, it was let falle with vio­lence into a mortayse, that all his ioyntes were dissolued. And not withstandyng all this tourment and in­gratitude, he neuer grudged, but lyftyng vp his eyes vnto heuen, he prayed with a loude voyce, sayinge: Father forgyue them, for they knowe not what they do. This was the charitie moste incōparable of the sonne of God, employed for the redemption of mankynde, who by the transgression of Adam the fyrste man that euer was created, was takē prisoner by the deuyl, that is to say, kept in the bondage of errour & synne, from the actuall vision of goddis maiesty, vntyl he were in this wyse redemed, accordynge as it was ordeyned at the begynnynge.

¶At these wordes of Origene all they that were pre­sent were wonderfully astonyed, and therwith the em­perour with a sturdy countenance said vnto Origene: Ye haue wonderfully set forth a lamentable hystorye, but yet notwithstandyng therin be thynges dark and ambiguous, whiche do require a more playne decla­ration. For what maketh you bolde to affyrme, that Iesus, whyche in this wyse was crycyfyed, was the sonne of god & god, as ye haue called hym? Syr sayd Origene, sufficient testimony, whiche of all creatures reasonable ought to be beleued, and for the moste cer­tayne profe to be allowed. What testimony is that said the Emperour? Truely, sayd Origene, it is in dyuers [Page] thynges. Fyrst the promyse of god, by whom all this worlde was made. Also by his holy spirite speakynge by the mouthes of prophetes, as welle Hebrewes as Grekes and other whom ye call Vates and Sybillas. Thyrdely by the natiuitie of Iesus of a pure virgyne without carnall company of man, the moste pure and cleane fourme of his lyuynge without synne, his do­ctrine dyuine and celestiall, his myracles moste won­derfull and innumerable, all grounded on charitie on­ly without ostentation, his vndoubtfull and perfecte resurrection, the thyrde day after that he was putte to deathe, his gloriouse ascention vp vnto heauen in the presence and syght of fyue hundred persones, whiche were vertuous and of good credence. [...] Also the gyfte of the holy gooste, in speakyng all maner of langages and interpretynge scripture, not only by hym selfe, but also afterwarde by his apostles & disciples, & giuen to other by imposition of their handes. And al these thynges ordinarily folowed according vnto the said promises & prophecies. I omyt to speake of the confession of dyuels, which by Iesus and his apostles in his name were cast out of people, which were obsessed. The ora­cles & answeres of them, whom ye vntruly cal goddis, do remayne in confirmyng this testimony. And whan Origene had sayde all this, he forthwith began there, and disclosed the aunsweres of Apollo made at Del­phos, affirmyng Iesus to be God. afterwarde he re­cyted and declared the prophecies as welle of the He­brues as of the Sybilles and other. Last the promyse of god vnto the Patriarkes, by the whiche it manyfe­stly appered, that Iesus was Christe and god, & that by his temporall natiuitte he was kynge of Israell, [Page 55] and that the Iewes were his natural subiectes. Whi­che declaration of Origene was so euident and playn, and set forth with suche wonderfull eloquence, deuo­tion, and lerning, that it perswaded the emperour and dyuers other, whiche than were present, wherof I Eucolpius was one, to imbrace the profession of Christis faith and doctrine, for the which I gyue most humble thankes vnto god, by whose only grace I was called. And for that tyme the emperour gaue lycence to Ori­gene to retourne vnto Alexandria: for as moch as he darste not attempte to publyshe the christen faythe by his auctoritie, the persecution of chrysten men beinge but late cessed, and they beinge yet odiouse to the Se­nate and people. Not withstandynge in his pryuy clo­sette he had the images of Christ, of Abraham and of Moyses, and beinge by hym selfe he honoured done god, as I my selfe being often tymes secrete with him dyd well perceyue.Lampi [...] And at the laste he made request to the Senate, that there moughte be made a temple to Chryste, wherwith they all were sore greued, and dyd obstinately denye it, sayinge that they had counsayled with the goddes, of whom they had aunswere, that if that were suffred, al men shulde be christianes, and al other temples shoulde be made desolate. Wherfore he ceased his entreprise, but alwaye he was studiouse in the bokes of Christen men, and often tymes vsed their sentences. Is whan any man wente out of the hyghe waye, and wold passe through an other mans groūd, breakynge his inclosure, and rydynge ouer his corne or grasse, if he perceyued it, he wolde cause hym to be beaten with staues or roddes in his presence, after the qualitie of his trespace: or if he were a man of honou [...] [Page] or worshyp, he wolde gyue to hym great rebukes, and saye vnto hym, woldest thou haue that done vnto the, that thou doeste to a nother? And whan a man was punisshed for any suche trespace, he wolde cause it to be openly proclaymed: That whiche to thy selfe thou woldest not haue done, do not in any wyse vnto an o­ther. Also whan cookes of the citie claymed a certaine place, whiche christen men had, and his pleasure was therin required, he wrate in his rescripte, that it were better that god were there honoured in any maner of fascion, thanne that cookes shoulde haue therof pos­session.

¶Eucolpius wryteth, that on a tyme he sayd to him, and to Philip his bondeman: I perceyue, ye do won­der at the lernynge of Origene, wherby ye be induced to imbrace the christiane profession. Trewely the hu­militie and charytie of the chrysten people, whiche I haue herde of, and do dayly beholde, doo moche more stere me to beleue, that theyr Chryste is god, than the residue of all his perswasion.

¶And on a tyme whan two chrysten men contended proudely together, and they accused eche other of spe­kynge reprochefull wordes of the Emperour, he cal­led them before hym, and prohibited them to name thē selfes christen men, saying: your pryde and malyce do declare, that ye be not the folowers of hym whome ye professe. Wherfore thoughe ye fynde lacke in me, the whiche I wyll gladly amende, yet wyll I not lette you agaynste iustyce, reproue by your actes hym, whose lyfe and doctrine ye all doo affirme to be vncorrupted and without any lacke.

¶Whiche wordes being ones sprad amonge the chri­sten [Page 56] men in the citie of Rome, it made them all after­warde more circumspecte, and in humilitie and chari­tie to be the more constante.

¶Howe Mammea the Emperoure mother exhorted hym to be maried, and what wyfe aunsweres he made, and fynally toke to wife the donghter of a noble & ancient senatour. Cap. xxvi.

WHAN THE Emperour was come to the age of .xx. yeres, his mother Mammea exhorted hym to take to his wyfe some mayden of a noble and auncient house, to the intent that he mought haue generati­on, whiche shoulde be for the sure tranquillitie of the citie and empire, and to the pryncipall comfort of him, the Senate, and people of Rome. After that he hadde diligently herde his mother saye all that she wolde, he made to her an aunswere in fourme folowyng: I dare well saye madame, that ye haue gyuen to me this coū ­sayle, of a sincere and naturall loue, that ye beare to­warde me your onely sonne. But for as moche as it is the mater, whiche within my selfe I haue moche more debated than (I suppose) ye haue done, although per chaunce ye haue thoughte more on it, I wyll declare vnto you, howe I finde in my fantasy, that the taking of a wyfe shuld be to the publyke weale and to my self more daungerouse than fruitefull, speciallye at this tyme. for where ye wyll me to take a mayden, if she shall be moche yonger than I am, perchaunce she shal not be so apte for generation of chyldren, stronge and lusty as if she were of mo yeres. And I couayte not to deface the imperiall maiestie with children weake and vnlusty. Also the sturdynesse of the Romaynes maye [Page] not susteyne to be gouerned, but of theym whiche as well in personage as wisedome be conuenient & seme­ly. If she shall be as olde, or elder than I am, thanne shal I bryng my selfe to moch vnquietnesse and trou­ble of mynde. for ye knowe well, it is not yet passynge foure yeres agone, that the abhomynable monster my kynsmanne Deliogabalus, lefte not onely the citie of Rome, but also all the countrey of Italy soo polluted with detestable lecherye, that with moche diffycultye mought one fynde an house, wherin had not ben com­mytted sume kynde of that vice, eyther voluntary, or els by inforcement. wherefore if I shulde mary one of the sayde citie or territory, althoughe I founde her by fame and experience a mayden, yet shuld not that dis­charge my mynde of suspition: thynkyng alway, that she was rather so kepte by restraynte of lyberty, than by her owne chastitie, consyderynge that she dyd here or se dayly suche wanton allectiues and prouocations to lecherye, that the custome therof dydde assaulte the mynde so contynually, that it were well nyghe impos­syble to escape vncorrupted, although the body by vi­gilant custodye abode vndefyled: And this suspition shuld wrap my hart in suche melancholy, that I shuld seldome be mery or pleasant with hir, whō for mystrust I coulde not loue perfytly. And to take a wyfe of any other countrey, ye knowe well it hath not bene the vse of Emperours, or other noble men of this cite, I sup­pose it hath ben for the warres, which hath & mought eftsones happen to be, betwene vs and these outward countreys. Wherfore yf the women therof shulde be maried to the emperour and other of the nobilitie, and that soone after shuld happen hostilitie betwene them [Page 57] and those countrayes, moche inconuenience moughte come to the citie and publyke weale by meanes of the women in fauourynge their parentes, the meanes I wyl not reherse, for offending of you and other ladies, and also sens you and all that are wyse, maye shorte­ly coniecte what I meane. Fynally I am determyned, not to alter that custome, whiche is bothe auncient and honourable. Moreouer I can not be sure to haue generation whan I am maried, and thanne the onely cause therof is vtterlye frustrate [...] [...]nd to me, whyche shall be alway in study and busynes aboute the weale publyke, the wyfe remayneth a tedious impediment & charge superfluous. Sēblably shal I be vnto her an vnpleasant cumbrehouse, fyndyng lytell ydell tyme to be in hir company, and being fatigate with busynes a­bout the weale publike, I shalbe lesse diligent and ple­sant with her, than she wold haue me, wherof mought procede not only cōtencion betwene vs, but also mat­ter of warse occasion. And where ye seeme to affirme, that my generation shoulde be for the tranquillitie of this citie and empire, and for the comforte of me, the senate and people: Trewely whan I remember what doughters the moste noble Augustus had, whom for their corrupted lyuyng, and for the grefes, whyche he therby susteined, he was wont to cal them his botches and boyles. Whan I think what sonnes the reuerend Uaspasian, the wyse and most vertuous prince Mar­cus Antoninus, the honorable Seuerus left, for their successours in the empyre of Rome, whyche were all slayne for their detestable lyuynges, O howe lyttelle care I for chyldern, ye how glad wold I be alwaye to lacke them? that my benefites which I intende to im­ploye [Page] on the weale publike, by the folye or vice of my chyldren be not consumed, men more hating my name for that I haue begotten and lefte vnto theym in the stede of a gouernour, a rybaulde or tyraunt for to suc­cede me: than they wyl prayse me for myne owne cha­ritie. O what sorowe and peyne shall my sowle suffre (yf there be any care amonge theym, whiche be passed out of this worlde) whan I shal beholde with immor­tall eyes, my chylde, whiche is of myn owne substāce, to abandon that thynge, whyche I loued, to imbrace that whiche I hated, to be of the Senate abhorred, of the people detested, and of al foreyne princes dysday­ned, and fynally of all honeste men persecuted lyke a serpent or monster, lyke a wolfe or a tygre, infamed for lechery, pursuyd for tyranny? O happye sterilytie, wherby lacketh annoyance. O hatefull fertilitle, wher of commeth sycknes or pestylence. I am sure, that ste­rilitie can no more hurte me, but onely take frome me the name of a father, or the dotynge pleasure to se my lytell sonne ryde on a cokhorse, or to here hym chatter and speake lyke a wanton. And I am not sure that fertilitie shal bryng to me any more quietnes, thā I haue all redy. For my chylde being of suche inclination, as best shall content me, if dethe take hym from me, than shall I languyshe in tourmentes incurable, consyde­ryng that I can not well susteyne the death of my ser­uantes. yf he lyue with me, and be eyther a foole, a ry­bauld or tyrant, thā shuld I lyke Edippus scratch out myn eyes, rather than I wold behold suche a monster ꝓcede of my body: ye rather slee hym with myne owne handis, than to let such one to succede me. Or if he escaped me, I wold aske that onely reward of the senate & [Page 58] people, that they wolde sacryfyce hym on my tumbe whan I were buryed. Therfore mother I praye you cesse from exhortynge me vnto mariage, vntylle I be therto better dysposed, whyche shalbe, whan in behol­dyng one, whiche perchance I haue not yet sene, some affection, or I be ware, may in me, as it hath in other, surmount bothe lernyng and wysedome.

¶With these wordes, the wyse lady shewyng her self as she were content, departed vnto her lodgyng. But it was not long after, that she bode themperour vnto a supper and banket: And agaynst his commyng she had assembled a great numbre of the fayrest maydens in Rome, attendynge vpon their mothers, or on some other ancient and sadde gentyll women, whome whan the emperour beheld, he forthwith coniected the intent of his mother. Notwithstandyng he moste gentyllye countenanced them all, and shewed hym content well with their company, although it were not correspon­dēt vnto his fantasy. But after that he had eaten and drunke more wyne than he was accustomed to do, be­ing chaufed in body and spyrite, in castynge his eyes hyther & thyther, he at the last beheld an excellent faire mayden named Memmia, which was doughter of a noble man called Sulpicius. And after that he hadde deuysed with her, and founde her to be wyse, sobre, and of syngular humilitie, he moche loued her, aud at the laste by the continual prouocation of his mother, and consent of his counsayle, he afterwarde maryed her, but she dyed shortly after, wherwith he toke no lyttell dyscomforte, sayeng oftentymes: So greatte a trea­sure as I haue loste, a man seldome fyndeth. Deathe were gentyl, if he toke nothing but that that offēdeth. [Page] Eucolpius wyll not be knowen, that he had any moo wyues: but Lampridius vseth the authoritie of one Desippus, who sayth, that Alexander had an nother wyfe, who was doughter of oone Martianus. But whan it was founde, that he wolde haue slayne them­perour by treason, he was put to deth, and his dough­ter separate frome the Emperour. Herodianus affyr­meth, that all that was done by the malyce of Mam­mea the emperours mother, without other cause, only bycause she coulde not susteyne hir sonnes wyfe to be called Augusta. and therfore she caused her to be exy­led into Affrica, and all the landes and goodes of her father, Mammea toke and conuerted vnto hir owne profite: whyche reporte I suppose not to be true, con­syderyng that Mammea was so wyse and vertuouse a lady, and being wel instructed in Christis relygion, knew well how detestable vnto god is enuy & crueltie.

¶Of the seueritie that Alexander vsed, as well towarde them that were proude, as to them that were malaperte and dyd not theyr duetie. Cap. xxvii.

ON A TYME he beinge Censor or corre­ctour of maners with Iulius Paulus & Callidius Rufus, and walkynge in the stretes of Rome with a fewe other disguised lyke communers, he hapned to meete with a senatours sonne, hauynge with hym a greatte trayne of yonge menne, whom he and they that were with hym saluted, doinge to hym reuerence: the yong man behelde theym disdaynefully, and with a proude countenaunce, without sayinge any thynge: and they whiche were with hym dyd also the semblable. Wher­fore [Page 59] the Emperour at his returne home to his palayce incontinente discharged the father of the sayde yonge man out of the senate: sayinge, that he was not wor­thy nor meete to be of that reuerende company, wher­by the weale publyke oughte to be gouerned, and the emperour hym selfe to be chiefely counsayled, sense he had so yll brought vp his sonne, that not onely he himselfe lacked humanitie, and extended a more stately facion than perteyned to his degree, but also by his ex­ample caused theym that were with hym, to embrace pryde, which is captayne of vices, and chiefe confoū ­der of all publike weales. Sone after he sente for the sayde yonge gentylmanne and his companions, and sharpely rebuked them, saying, that pryde is the most horrible monster, and of al men so hated, that it is not had in detestation of good men onely, but also to them whiche be proude, they that be lesse proude be in deede of all other moste odiouse. And as pryde sleeth loue, prouoketh dysdayne, kendleth malyce, confoundeth Iustyce, and subuerteth weales publyke, soo gentyl­nesse and affabilitie doo stere vp affection, augmente beneuolence, incende charitie, supporte good equitie, and preserue moste suerly countreyes and cities. And after that he had charged them to abandone and leaue the sayde vyce and other, and to imbrace vertue and gentyll maners, whereby they shulde acquire more e­stimation than by highe countenance, and menacing them, that if the sayde faulte were eftesones spyed in them, he wolde not only exclude them from hope of al dignitie, but also from the name of nobilitie, and put them in the number of the base communers, and so he let them departe.

[Page]¶This sharpe correction aualid many a proude hart so that by custom of gentilnesse, pride was so moch ab­horred throughout the citie, that if any manne, per­chaunce by a naturall habite or fascion, or vnaduysedly and not of a purpose, seemed to theym that behelde hym, to haue a proude countenaunce, he was eyther laughed at, or disdaynefully wondred at, soo that he was constrayned, had he neuer so sturdy a courage, to be a shamed. Wherof proceded a prouerbe: Slaues and bondemen haue only this libertie, to vse a proude countenaunce, bycause they be shamelesse: and noble men be knowen alwaye by theyr gentylnesse.

¶It was not longe after that the emperour lokynge out at a wyndowe of his palayce, perceyued certayne gentyllmen exercisynge them selfes in wrastlyng, run­nynge, and leapynge, to whome came certayne com­muners of the base people, and without any sygne of reuerence, or askynge leaue, they myngled them sel­ues with the gentylmen, and malapertly enterprysed to contende with them in those recreations, with arrogante bostynges and wordes of presumption. And whan the gentylmen beinge therwith offended, bade them be contente with theyr degree, and elles where to passe the tyme with theyr companyons and equalles, the sayde communers takynge that in despyte, with countenaunce bragginge and sturdy, proudelye made answere, that euery of theym was better able to lyue, & had more abundance to vse liberalitie, and to haunt pleasures, than the beste of the other. And if the empe­rours garde had not come the soner, the communers had faught with the gentylmen, and put them in danger, for they were mo in nombre. This as it hapened [Page 60] the Emperour beholdynge, he toke therwith a vehe­ment displeasure, beinge therfore so angry, as erst he was neuer. Wherfore he caused the sayde communers to be kept in saufegarde, and straytely commaunded, that nothynge that was done shulde be rehersed, vn­tyll he had further declared his pleasure. And forthe­with he sente for the Prouoste and Tribunes, and re­quired them to sende theyr mynisters to summone all the communers of Rome beinge men, to be the second daye folowinge in the Theatre of Pompey, where the emperour in his owne persone wolde also be presente, and declare to them thynges concernynge the mooste daungerouse state of the weale publyke. The Empe­rours commaundement, accordyngely was executed. And a haulte pase made at the ende of the Theatre, where the emperour shoulde sytte in his maiestie, and all the people shulde playnelye beholde hym, and per­fitely here hym. For the Theatre was a place made in the fourme of a bowe that hath a great bente. And in all the rounde parte were many benches one behynde an other and ouer an other (for it was narroweste be­neth, and vpward grewe larger and larger) And there sate all the people. At the strayte ende, whiche was to the other parte as the stringe to the bowe were the sea­tes of the Senatours, and behinde them of the gentil­men. At the tyme appoynted, the people beinge in the Theatre as they were commaunded, the Emperour came accompanyed onely with the Prouoste and Tri­bunes, leauynge all his garde at the gate of the The­atre. At his commynge all the people dydde ryse, and with moste ioyouse acclamations, dyd salute hym: but he contrary to his olde custome, with a displeasaunte [Page] countenaunce passed by them. wherat they were not a lyttel abashed, and with hartes ful of a louing dreade and constant silence, they prepared theyr eares to here attentifely what the Emperoure wolde saye: who af­ter that he had longe beholden the people, at the laste with a graue countenaunce full of maiestie, he spake vnto them as hereafter foloweth.

¶The oration of the emperonr Alexander to the people of Rome. Cap. xxviii.

WE wote not how to begynne to speke vn­to you, for we knowe not by what name we shall call you. for if ye were Sena­tours, we wold cal you fathers: if ye were gentylmen, we wold call you frendes: yf ye were as ye shulde be, good cōmuners, we wold call you good people of Rome, as we were wonte to doo. But sens election hath not made you senatours, nor nature gentylmen, nor your merites good cōmuners, we be in no lyttell doubt what we shall call you. for yf we shulde call you Romaynes, we feare lest Romulus, of whom proceded that name (if he be deified as ye do suppose) being therwith offended, wyl be aduenged as wel on vs as on you, for abusyng his glorious name on such peple, which goth about to dissolue this noble empire, destroy this citie, whiche he fyrste began with his moste excellent prowesse and wysedome, and that wars is (yf any thynge may be wars) extinct vtterlye the moste honourable and glorious fame of this citie and people thereof, whiche hath perced the clowdes, flowen ouer the hygh moūtaynes, and passed the pe­ryllous sees & large ryuers, runne through the great [Page 61] desertes and wyldernesses, and touched the further­moste boundes of the worlde. We wyll therfore omyt to call you by any name, vntyll we can fynde one mete and accordynge vnto your merites. Perchance at our commyng, ye beholdynge our countenaunce towards you more straunge than it hath ben, thoughte that we were meued with some priuate dyspleasure, for some thynge touchyng our person, or that we were altered from our late temperance, vnto a tyranny, conceyuing suspition of our nature, by the remembraunce of that monster our late predecessour, forasmoche as we bothe came of one lynage, whyche I denye not. Truely, yf this were your fantasy, we wyl soone acquite our selfe therof, and set all your myndes at a more lybertie. We wyll say this moche vnto you, as touchynge our per­sone and family, no man with wordes hathe offended vs, no man hath taken aught from vs, no man (that we knowe) hath gone about to betray vs, nor there is any other thynge priuately done to our incommoditie that hathe dyspleased vs. And as for our accustomed maners, whiche dyd content you, we haue not, nor in­tend not to alter them. Tyranny, as we haue euer had it in extreme detestation, so do we nowe moste abhorre it. The corrupt nature of our predecessour had neuer place in vs. One gardeyn at one tyme bryngeth forthe bothe poyson and holsome medycine. We see one wo­man, whiche by one man hath many children, of them some be fayre and personable, some ylle fauoured and croked, some be wyse and apt vnto doctrine, other be fooles and dull wytted, one is couragious and hardy, an other is a dastarde and cowarde, this chylde is gentyll and inclyned to vertue, the other is fierse & wrap­ped [Page] in vices. This is not a rare thynge, but in daylye experience. If this dyuersitie happeneth to be in one gardeyn and in the generation of one father and also one mother: than may we wel escape the cause of your suspition, we & Heliogabalus hauyng dyuers fathers and dyuers mothers, and they as diuers in their con­dicions, as ye your selues can beare wytnesse, whiche haue knowen and sene proued the chast lyuynge, san­ctimony and prudence of our reuerend mother, and in what honesty and vertuous dyscipline she hath nou­ryshed vs, & brought vs vp, vnto the tyme that by god we were called vnto this dignitie. This oughte to be ynough, as welle to perswade you, that neyther anye thynge concernyng our selfe hath moued vs to disple­sure towarde you, as also to exclude out of your myn­des all suspition of tyranny. Nowe shall ye know the very cause why we be discontented with you. For all though we sayd at the begynning, that ye went about to dissolue this empire, destroye this citie, and extincte the glorious fame therof, whiche in dede is the cause of our displeasure and heuynes, yet in those generall wordes, ye do not perceyue (I suppose) what we mean therby. Wherfore take good hede, and ye shall here i [...] declared more specially.

¶ Romulus after that he had buylded this citie, he by his diuine reason consydered, and (as I doubt not) in the tyme of the buyldynge experience declared, that in a confuse multitude of people, they being of diuers wyttes and conditions, if order lacked, there mought not be a perpetual concorde, but by contynuall vary­ance and dyscorde, the people of necessitie shoulde be compelled either to abandon the citie, and deuydynge [Page 62] them selfes to seke for sundry places to dwelle in, or a­bydyng there in contynual sedicion, shuld shortly and easily be subdewed or dystroyed by their neyghbours dwellyng about them. Wherfore he yssuyng of a gen­tyll and noble house, excellyng the resydue of the peo­ple in noble courage and fynenesse of wyt, fyrst deuy­sed and stablyshed this order, that the company, whi­che he had assembled as well of theym, whiche he had brought with hym, as of those which he out of diuers partes had allured vnto hym, shulde generally be cal­led Romaynes for euer: And that of theym shulde be thre states or degrees, euery one of them necessary for the weale publyke of his noble citie, in their sundrye administrations, dueties, and exercises. To the fyrste state he chase out of the hole cōgregation one hundred of men auncient in yeres, which in moderation of ly­uyng, sobrenes of maners, and sharpnes of wyt, were of the princypall personages of all that noumbre, of theym he ordeyned and stablyshed a counsayle, wher­by the affaires of the citie, and appendaunces therof shuld be ruled and minystred. And these counsaylors for their age shulde be called Senatours, (for Senes in latyne are olde men) not withstandynge beinge sa­luted or spoken to, they shulde be named fathers. Also the college or company of theym was incorporate by the name of the senate. Moreouer of this colledge, shulde be elected the great Iudges and offycers in the weale publyke, to whome shulde be committed the de­termination of Iustyce, the execution of ceremonies and solemne sacrifices, and other authorities, whiche do belong vnto gouernance. Wherfore he wolde that in this state there shoulde be a maiestie, whiche of all [Page] other men shulde be had in a syngular honour and re­uerence. Semblably lyke as this state was ordeyned for counsayle and gouernance, so elected he out of the resydue, whyche were lusty in yeres, valyant and har­dy, a greatter numbre, whome bycause in warres they shulde be on horsebacke, he callyd theym Equites, and the order he called Equestris, to them shoulde chiefely pertayne the defence of the citie agaynst the inuasion of ennemies, with other smal administrations, about the necessary prouisions and ornamētes of this noble citie. And this state also wolde he haue honoured of the reste of the people, and to thintent that they shuld be knowen from other men, he assigned them to weare a rynge, and to beare in their handes iauelyns, wher­of afterwarde they were called Quirîtes, whiche in the olde tunge of this countrey signified speare men. Of this state shulde be elected the Senatours, whan the iuste numbre of the Senate decayde. The thyrde state was of the base people or communers, to whom seue­rally shuld not be cōmitted any authoritie, but shulde apply their occupations, and be redy to execute the statutes and ordynances made by the senate, also be obe­dient to the great officers, in that which pertayned vnto the weale publike: Moreouer whan warres requi­red that they shulde go forth, than to be obedient and diligent at the commaundement of their capytaynes and leaders. This order being stablysshed by Romu­lus, as long as in euery degree it was duly obserued, howe meruaylousely dydde this citie prosper, ye howe wonderfully dyd a fewe Romayns in regarde, not on­ly defende this lytell territory, agaynst the great num­bre and puissance of dyuers and sundry people, confe­dered [Page 63] agaynst theym, but also beate them backe vnto their owne howses, entred into their cities, despoyled them of theyr substance: & also compelled them not on­ly to desire perpetual peace, but moreouer at the last to become theyr subiectes & tributaries? And whan this good order began to be brokē, your state aspiryng to gouernāce & rule, where ye were ordeined to obey on­ly: what yere can ye fynd clere from sedition and dys­corde amonge you? who can number the Romaynes, whiche haue ben slayne in the ciuile warres and com­motions? who coulde without teares recite the dolo­rouse astate of this cite in the time of Cinna and Ma­rius, whome for disdayne that ye had vnto the nobili­tie, ye dyd eleuate vnto the highest dignities? By this your disorder came vnto the citie sundry calamyties. Ye chase Caligula to be your Emperour, and where mought there be found a more horible tyrāt? in the whiche name he so moche delyted, that lokynge in a glasse he wolde moste diligently fourme his visage into the most terrible facion: Also in recompence of your kindenesse, he wysshed that all the people of Rome had but one necke, that he moughte stryke it of at one stroke. I am ashamed to reherce my predecessour and kynse­man Heliogabalus, the detestable vessel of abhomination. But ye ought to be more ashamed, that ye setting a part so great a numbre of honorable personages, as were than in the senate, for theyr experience wisedome and prowesse, worthy euery of them to be Emperours, chase the sayde Heliogabalus, a stranger borne, a boye in yeres, a foole in regarde of theyr wysedome, to be your soueraygne lorde, who broughte you to the most vile subiection that any people were in the worlde? for [Page] is there any thynge in mankynde so vyle, as to be vn­der the condition of brute beastes? What beaste can ye name that wyll suffre in his presence an other beast to occupie in the acte of generation her, whome he hath chosen for his make and companion? but to his power wyll resiste and fyght with hym. Heliogabalus helde you in suche captiuitie, that partely to auoyde his dis­pleasure, partely to flatter hym and get somewhat of hym, ye not onely suffred hym to abuse your wyues & your chyldren, suche as beste lyked hym, but also in­creaced your bordell houses, and with open eyes lette your wyues and your chyldren dayly and nyghtely to haunte them. And openly in the stretes (whiche I ab­horre to reherce) to apprehende men, and prouoke thē to lechery. I omytte for the shortenesse of tyme many suche other elections, whiche haue proceded of your grosse and presumptuouse wyttes, after that ye hadde transgressed the order, wherin Romulus left you, and exceded the termes of your offyce or duetie: whiche at the laste was perceyued by you (as I dydde suppose) whan ye beinge tediouse of that beastely lycence, whi­che that beaste Helyogabalus gaue freelye vnto you, had slayne hym, and toke me to be your emperour, al­thoughe with all my power I refused that bourden, vntyll I was by the Senate and you constrayned to take it. And than desyred you me, to reduce the state of this citie vnto the fyrste order. Wherabout I haue trauayled these eyght yeres, with not a lyttell payne, study and labours: begynnynge at myne owne hous­holde, to thintent that as well by the exaumple of my seruauntes and officers, ye and other being vnder my rule, mought the soner refourme your selues, as also [Page 64] that ye mought the better perceyue, and be lesse offen­dyd with my seuerytie. And bycause I dyd se moch til example procede of the Senate, also that ye were op­pressed with the pride and corruption of iuges and of­ficers, I vsyng moche diligence weeded them out, and discharged them of theyr authoritiesme they went not vnpunished accordynge vnto theyr merites.

¶ I purged also the state of gentylmen of ribauldes and riottours, and aduancing thervnto other, I cau­sed them to be dayly exercised in actes of prowesse, or­elles to here lessons in such maner of doctrine, as ther­by they mought acquire more wisedome, to be officers or counsaylours in the weale publyke. Onely the state of the people I dyd not visite, sauynge in punishment of theues, for as moche as I iuged that ye had leaste lybertie to do any great yuell, beinge (as I sayde) op­pressed with tyranny. And that those vices which were amonge you, lyke as they were taken by the example of your superiours, so trusted I, that by theyr punish­mente, the sayde yll maners shuld be forsaken, and by the vertuous example of suche honest men as I haue put in theyr places, good maners shulde be as glad­ly imbraced. But nowe I perceyue all hath hapened contrary to myne expectation. for the sparinge of you, and the correction of my seruauntes, with the sharpe reformation of the senate & gentylmen, hath broughte you vnto suche a presumption and arrogance, that ye contend to be equal with gentilmen, vsing no fourme of reuerence vnto them, eyther that ye thynke, that I feare more your purssaunce, than I fauour theyr ho­nesties: or elles that your rychesse doo make you soo proude, which ye abusyng in excessiue vseries, ye therwith [Page] deuoure the patrimonies of many yonge gentyl­men, and haue made them beggars, or by the seuery­tie of the auncient lawes of this citie, taken theym in bondage and slayne theym in irons. And by suche co­lourable rauine, ye haue bought great possessyons in Grecia, Sicile, and Spayne, wherby ye accumulate treasours and pleasures lyke to great prynces. If ye thynke me to be aferde of your puissaunce, your opy­nion is false. for aboue all thynges I mooste desyre to dye for the defence of the weale publyke of this noble citie: and in dede rather wyll I dye, than see the cala­mities whiche nedes muste ensue thervnto, if order be not kepte, as I before haue declared.

¶At that worde all the people cryed with one voyce pouryng out teares from their eyes, Lyue most noble and gracious emperour, he that wolde your death, let hym dy, let hym be rent into pieces. our puissance shall not annoye you, but vnto dethe shall defende you. ye haue restored vs vnto lyfe that were deed, vnto liber­tie that were in thraldom, vnto honour that were dis­honoured. Lyue vertuouse emperour, and what lacke ye fynde in vs, refourme it, and we shal obey you, and he that wyll resyst or rebell, let hym be slayne and dra­wen with a hoke throughe the citie, and throwen into Tyber. Ye be in gouernaunce our father, whome we chyefely wylle honour. In age ye be our moste derest sonne, whom more thā our owne liues we do fauour. And than eftesones they cryed. Lyue mooste gentyll and ryghtwyse emperour.

¶Hereat the emperour relented, and with moch peyn retayned the teares of his eyes: And after that he had settled his spyrites and countenaunce, he spake than [Page 65] vnto theym in this wyse: I am well contente that ye haue declared, that there is yet in you some porcion of vertue, whiche gyueth me hope, that neyther the no­ble renoume of this citie begunne by Romulus, and augmented by other honourable gouernours, nor my labours in restoryng therof, whan it was decayd, and lykely to perysshe, shall falle into ruyne. But yf ye be constant in this affection, I truste that ryght shortely the publyke weale shall flouryshe, and that this cytie and people, shalbe in as moche estymation as euer it was in the tyme of any of oure progenytours. And nowe haue I founde agayne your olde name, wherby I wyll calle you: Ye chylderne and successours of the vertuous Romaynes, I say you most victorious peo­ple, branches of Romulus, subduers of realmes, samplers of vertue and prowesse to all the worlde, mity­gate your couetous appetites, expel from you auarice auale your hygh courages, I meane in excedynge the boundes of your popular state, and comparyng your selfes with your superiours, be charitable and mercy­full to your owne countrey men, where their necessitie may be relieued with your abundaunce [...] be you asha­med, that peple of other countrays, people barbarous and rude, shuld condemne you of crueltie, for destroy­enge your gentilmen, the chiefe ornament and defence of this noble citie, that they shoulde reproche you of rudenesse and pryde, in omyttyng to doo reuerence to them, whyche do in order excelle you. Remembre, that lyke as if the state of senatours do decay, of the gentilmen are elected into the senate suche as be vertuouse: so ye that shall be founde equal to them in vertue, (for your substance onely can not make you gentylle) shall [Page] be aduaunced to the state of gentylmen accordyng to rayson. Than consyder yf ye wolde not than also re­quite to be preferred in reuerence. Nothing shall more cause a man wyllyngly to do his duetie, than to think what he wolde require of him that is inferyour vnto hym. And it hath ben sayde of wyse men, that he, whi­che wolde be a ruler, shuld fyrst lerne to be a good sub­iecte. For truely a proude and couetous subiecte, shall neuer be a gentylle and temperate gouernour. Nowe haue I no more to say to you, but applye your selfes with good wylles to restore this citie to the auncyent and moste laudable order, as I shal endeuour my self by example and diligence to brynge it eftsoones vnto his perfection.

¶Thus ended the emperours oration, and therwith he arose and departed, all the people poursuynge hym with this acclamation: The goddis immortall keepe and defend you most noble emperour. ye ar the crown of our glory, of our welthe and prosperitie: hated be he of goddis and of men that wolde you displeasure. Do what best lyketh you, the goddis immortall de­fende you.

¶The feueritie that the emperour Alexander vsed in chasty­fyng as well the pryde of the people, as also his men of warre or souldiours. Ca. xxix.

AFTER that the emperour was returned home to his palayce, he decreed, that the sayde communers shulde be depryued of their lybertie, and name of Romaynes, and to be deliuered as bondmen vnto the sayd gentylmen, with whome they presumptuousely [Page 66] had contended, and so to remayne in that state, excepte they redemed them selues by makynge the sayde gen­tylmen, in possessions and mouables, better than they theym selues were, whan they contended (for in dede the sayde communers were verye ryche men, as welle in substance mouable as yerely renenues) that done, they shuld be eftsones restored vnto their lybertie, ad­dyng therto, that it shuld not be lefull vnto the sayde gentylmen, to infrāchise them in any other condicion. Fynally the sayd communers abhorryng seruitude, in continent redemed their heedes, accordyng to thempe­rours decree: whiche example was found afterwarde so profytable to the weale publyke, in retaynynge the auncient order, and restraynyng sedition, whiche be­fore that tyme nowe and than happened, that it was thought of al men, that there was neuer decree or law made, that was more benefyciall vnto the cytie. And the emperour was therfore not onely feared, but also more honoured and loued of al the people, which were good citezens and chiefly fauoured the weale of their countrey.

¶Lyke seueritie he vsed to all other states, as partly it is before rehersed, and partely I wyll nowe briefely declare.Lamprid [...] He so herde the complayntes of souldiours ageynst their capitaynes, that yf he founde any capi­tayne in fault, he punished hym according to the qua­litie of the act, without purpose to pardon hym.

¶Lyke austeritie he vsed to them that serued hym in warres.Lampridi [...] For on a tyme whan he herd that one of them had done wronge to a poore olde woman, he dischar­ged hym of his retayner, and gaue him to the woman to be her bondman, that he being a carpenter, shoulde [Page] with his craft and labours relieue her. And whan the resydewe of the souldyours were therewith greued, he perswaded them to be therwith contented, and dydde put them in feare to grudge at it. Oftentymes he dys­charged hole legions, neuer fearyng his army, for as moche as neuer man coulde reproue hym, that in his lyfe any captayne or petite capitayne toke or detayned any thyng of their souldiours wages. Whan he came to the citie of Antioche, his men of warre fell to wan­tonnesse, hauntynge womens baynes, and other riot­tous pastymes: whiche beinge brought to his eare, he caused them all to be apprehended and put in pryson, whiche being knowen to them, whiche were of the fe­lowshyp of those that were taken, they began to make a commocion: Than the emperour wente to the place of iudgement, and caused the prisoners to be broughte before hym, the resydue of men of warre, standynge al armed about hym. And than began he in this wise.

¶Companiōs in armes (so that the actes of your fe­lowes do discontente you) The discipline lefte to vs by our auncetours mainteyneth and kepeth the weale publyke, the whiche if it be let to decaye, we shall lose as well the name of Romaynes, as also the Empire. We maye not suffre thynges to be doone, whiche late were supported by that vncleane beast Heliogabalus. The Romayn souldiours your felowes, and my com­panions in warre, they haunte brothelles, tauernes, and baynes in the greke facion, and therto one prouo­keth an other: shall I suffer this any lenger, and not stryke of theyr heades? Therewith arose a greate ru­mour and noyse in the people. Than sayde he againe: ye that be here, cry out whan it is necessary in bataile [Page 67] agaynste your ennemies, not agaynst your emperour and soueraygne lorde. I dare saye, your capytaynes taught you to vse those cryes agaynste the Polones, Germaynes, and Persianes, not agaynste hym that hath gyuen to you meate, lyuerye, and wages. Ceasse therfore of your terrible cries, whiche onely be neces­sary in warre and batayle, lest that I with one mouth and one voyce dyscharge you Romaynes, and yet I doubt where I may so call you. For ye be not worthye to be of the people of Rome, yf ye knowe not the lawe of the Romaynes. And whan they cryed lowder, and also menaced hym with their weapons, he eftsoones sayd to them: Put downe your handes, whyche yf ye be valyant, ye shulde aduance agaynst your enemies, for these thynges do make me nothyng aferde. And yf ye slee any man, the publyke weale, the senate, & peo­ple wyll not fayle for to reuenge vs. But whanne they brauled & murmured neuer the later, he cryed to them with an hygh voyce, sayeng, Get you hens Romains, and put of your harneys.

¶A wonderful exaumple, they all puttynge of theyr harneyse and souldyours cotes, departed euery man to his lodgynge. There was it perceyued howe moch his seueritie profyted. Thanne the emperours garde brought all the standerdes into the camp, and the peo­ple them selfes brought all theyr armure to the empe­rours palayce. And the legion whiche he had dischar­ged, after that he was sued vnto .xxx. dayes before he wente towarde Persia, he eftesones restored into his place, and by theyr prowesse moste specially, he after­warde vaynquished his enemyes. Not withstandyng or he departed, he commaunded all the capitaynes of [Page] the sayde legion to be beheaded, bycause that through theyr neglygence, the souldiours passed theyr tyme ri­otously in a place of execellente pleasure called Daph­nis, and had made the sedicion, they wynkynge at it.

¶Howe the Emperour Alexander refourmed the vsury, wherof he spake afore in his oration made to the people. Capi. xxx.

SONE AFTER that Alexander had chastised the pryde of the common people of Rome, as before is rehersed, he hym selfe came into the Senate, and there declared the sundry inconueniences, whiche had hapned, as wel to the citie as vnto the countreyes thervnto subiecte, by the de [...]estable practise of vsury, whiche vtterly repugneth agaynste all humanitie, charytie, and naturall bene­uolence, that oughte to be amonge people that doo lyue in a mutuall concorde: but most specially among them which lyue vnder one obedience, vnder one lawe or polycye. The inconuenyences whiche hapened, he shewed to be these. Fyrste where the gentilmenne, and the more parte of men of warre, were from theyr cra­delles brought vp in idelnesse, beynge not instructed in any occupation or science, saulfe only in feates per­teynynge to warre, in the tyme of peace and tranquil­litie, or whan the warres be not so great, that they re­quire the hole puissaunce of Rome, than they whiche be not sent forth to batayle, some do passe theyr tyme in daliaunce and bankettynge with wanton women, or at dyse and other chargiouse solasynge, or in bothe, with the one and the other, shortely consumyng theyr [Page 68] substance: some do delyte in other excessiue pleasures, as to haue great and beautiful houses, large and am­ple orchardes, and walkes inclosed with hyghe and stronge walles great pondes and meeres, conuaying therunto by a longe distaunce the salte water through rockes and mountaynes, and to haue in them dyuerse strange kyndes of fysshes. In the whiche entreprises, they also haue not onelye consumed theyr goodes and patrimony, but also the warke aboue theyr expectati­on, ferre excedynge theyr power, they haue bene con­strayned to borowe great sommes of moneye. Other there haue ben, which of an ambiciouse courage, haue vsed prodigall expenses as well in continuall feastes and bankettes, as in distributions of greate sommes of money amonge the people, and gyuynge great re­wardes to corrupte Senatours and other great offy­cers, to atteyne before theyr tyme, or not being worthy to some hyghe place or dignitie: wherby, they beinge broughte into pouertie, haue ben also constrayned to seeke helpe of other, to maynteyne theyr foly. Al these personnes howe vnprofytable they be vnto the weale publyke, reporte me vnto you, specially if ye consider also, that whan they haue borowed so moche, and the somes borowed being so increased by vsury, that they be not only in desperation to borowe any more of their creditours, but also in the state to be greuousely puni­shed accordynge to the lawes: than desyre they some alteration in the weale publyke, than fyshe they oute the ambiciouse courages of them whiche are in aucto­ritie, and betwene whom of the noble men is enuy dis­dayn or pryuate displesure, than seke they matter of seditiō within the cite, which not being wisely repressed, [Page] hath at his backe diuision of partes, ciuyle commoci­ons, often tymes battayle and destruction of people. Reade the histories of Rome, and see howe often they called for newe tables, that is to saye, that the instru­mentes and obligations made for dette, shuld be can­celled, and those dettes acquyted: and vntyll it was done the commotion ceased not. Nowe se ye, that the chiefe cause of this inconuenyence, was the sayde pe­stilent practise of vsury, whiche as the occupyers dyd se the wantonnesse and prodygalitie of the nobylitie, gentylmen, and other increace, so dyd they augmente it, more estemynge theyr propre lucre than the weale publyke, charitie, beneuolence, or natural humanitie. Wherfore in my iugement suche vsurars amonge the Romayns ought not to be numbred, but if they be not wyllyngely reformed, they shoulde be taken and vsed as perniciouse ennemies vnto vs all.

¶Here all the Senate, except a fewe, with one voice commended the zelouse intente of the Emperour, and offered theyr consentes in makynge suche a lawe as shulde seme to the Emperour and them expedient, vn­to the redresse of so great an enormitie. Than one Ca­telius a noble Senatour, and a man of great vertue, sayde in this wyse.

The [...] of [...].¶Myne opinion is noble Emperour and reuerende fathers, that no kynde of vsury shal be here practised within this citie, but fyrste I wold that serche be made diligentlye, howe many Romaynes, and who they be. whiche are entred into bondes, for the payment of v­sury, and likewise who be the creditours. and the prin­cipall det being knowen: the creditours to be compel­led by an edict of your maiesty, to holde them content [Page 69] with repayment of the summe or value of the thynge that they lende. And than by an ordynaunce of this counsayle, the sayde principall dettes to be payd oute of the treasure of the citie, the dettours bryngyng in pawne or suretie to repaye it within fyue yeres vnto the treasoryes. Also that no man shall lende moneye or any thynge els, whiche the dettour shalbe constray­ned to change into money to serue his cōmoditie, vp­pon any condition bargayne or promyse to haue lucre by the sayde lone. And if that he do, all his mouables to be immediately forfayted to the commune treasory. Moreouer, that yf any Romane shall happen to be in necessitie, by any mysfortune or casualtie, or by neces­sary charges, which he coulde not escape, that he shuld come to the prouoste of the citie and treasorers, bryn­gynge with hym one senatour and two of the people, men not suspected of infamye, whyche shall sweare by the goddis preseruatours of the citie of Rome, that they knowe, that the necessitie doth not procede of the sayde yll occasions: That done, he shall lay in his suf­ficient pawne, or brynge in two hable persones to vn­dertake for the repayment of the money, which he wyl borowe, the treasorers shall delyuer so moche to hym, as to the Prouost and them shall seme to be sufficient for his necessitie. And yf any other man wyll beneuo­lently lende them that, which they wyll desyre, without practyse of vsury, yf the borower hathe consumed his goodes in such foly as before is declared, that than he shall not be charged with the repayement of that that he borowed, but that the creditour be clerely excluded from thensforth, to haue for his sayde lone any maner of remedy. But if constraynt or mysfortune do cause [Page] the necessitie, and any man lende to an other for a be­neuolent charitie, without any colour of vsury: than yf the dettour neglect the repayment therof, and wyl­lingly let the day passe whan it ought to be payd, than he without mercy to sustayne the rygour of the com­mon lawes of the citie. And so this lawe being well ex­ecuted and neuer omytted, we shall neither haue vsu­rour dwell in this citie, nor gentylmenne landlesse, nor persones sedicious, whiche shall be able to annoye the vnyuersall weale publyke. Nowe ye haue herde myne opinion, wherto ye may adde or make some thing lesse as it shall seme best to your excellent wysedomes.

¶Than the emperour desyred Gordian an auncient senatour, who is named before, to shewe his opinyon, and he rysen out of his place, pausyng a lyttell, sayde in this wyse.

¶ I lerned whan I was yonge, noble emperour and fathers, that he whyche shal gyue counsayle, specially to the makyng of lawes, ought to consyder foure thinges, That his counsayle be honest, that it be necessary, profytable, and possible. Thre of them haue be remembred by Catelius Seuerus, the fourthe it semeth that he had forgotten. I do well agree that the thynge that he wolde haue done is charitable, and therfore is ho­nest, also that it is necessarye to represse the ryottouse and prodygall lyuynge of gentylmen: it is profytable vnto the weale publyke, to haue all occasions of sedi­tion, & sedes of warre ciuile to be extirpate. And truely no better deuyse may be founde than Catelius. accor­dyng to his great lernyng and wysedome, hath ryght well declared. But let vs see, yf the reliefe appoynted by Catelius, for thē whom he nameth worthy to haue [Page 70] it, shall be alway certayn and possible. And if not, thā must we in stede therof, fynde somme other prouysion more certayne, though it be not so easy, that good men in theyr vnwyllyng necessitie be not disappoynted. Is it possible trowe ye, that the cōmon treasure shal be al­way abundant, that is to say, able to furnyshe al thin­ges necessary for the weale publyke, & in the ouerplus to be also sufficiēt to releue the said priuate necessities? Consyder the greatnes of this noble empire, the great numbre of realmes, countrayes, and cities, whom the prowesse of our noble auncetours, haue by force con­strayned to be subiecte vnto vs, and by force we kepe and retayne them. Thynke you, that they all wyl euer remayne in peace and tranquillitie? Do you not know that all lyuyng thynges desyre lybertie, and mankind most specially? Remember you not, that wyl constrai­ned seketh euer oportunite to slyppe of his colar? For­gette you, that almoste yesterdaye the Moores began to rebelle, and had shaken of their yoke, had they not bene quickely repressed by Furius Celsus? Also the great countray of Illiria, frome whens we haue our chiefe men of warre, made late a commocion, whyche had ben no smal daunger and losse to this empire, had they not ben valiantly and wisely pacified & brought in good order, by the noble capitayne Uarius Macri­nus, kynsman vnto your maiestie mooste noble empe­rour. Armenia was in peryll to be loste, if it hadde not ben well defended by the prowesse of Iunius Palina­tus. And it is douted of some, whether the Germayns wyll contynue the leage that they made with vs. It is priuily muttered amonge the people, that Artaxerxes kyng of Persia, dothe gather moche people and trea­sure, [Page] intendyng not onely to subdue all Armenia, but also the hole countrey of Asia, vnto the see of Propontis, whiche deuydeth Asia from Europa, claymyng it in the auncient right of the kynges of Persia. What other people wyll do, we be vncertayn: As vncertayn be we, what treasure wyll be sufficient to furnysshe all thynges necessary agaynst those peryls. Ye we be not so sure of our prouinces & auncient dominions, from whens we haue our yerelye reuenues, pensyons, and tributes, but yf other rebell and preuayle agaynst vs, (whiche the goddis forbed) puissance faylyng vs, and good fortune forsakyng vs, it is to be supposed, that they wyll rather pay nothyng than ought, be also go­uerned rather by their owne countreymen, than by vs that be straungers. Than what haue we lefte vs to kepe this noble citie, to defende vs, our chylderne, our wyues, the temples and aulters of goddis immortal, yf our common treasure be not ryche and abundant, wherwith we maye gette succours in some place, pro­uyde vitayles sufficient, and strongly fortify our mu­nitio [...]s & fortresses? Also we be not sure, where warre shall assayle vs, eyther by lande or by see. if it happen to be by the lande, yet knowe we not whither it shalbe in dyuers countrays or one. yf in sundry countrayes, than must we haue dyuers armies, and dyuers proui­sions, accordyng as the state of the countrayes requi­reth, some beinge feruently hotte, some excedynge in colde. the one full of mountaynes vnapt for caryage, the other thicke of wodes: this lackyng freshe water, that drowned in fennes. If it be on the water, than be the charges greater and moche more vncertayn, ship­pes with their takelynge and ordynaunce aboue all [Page 71] other thynges beinge moste costly, and oftentymes or their ennemies mete theym, they be eyther deuoured with stormes, or by contrarye wyndes constrayned to runne on quycke sandes or rockes. Wherfore we must alway haue a great numbre of shyppes in makynge, and a greatte noumbre of personnes retayned to fur­nyshe them. I wyll not omyt the moste necessary pro­uysion of grayne for this cytie, whiche oftentymes by scarsitie in the countrais adioyning vnto vs, we haue ben cōpelled to make in coūtreys far distant from vs at very high prices, which if the like necessitie happen vnto vs, vndoutedly it wil exhaust wōderfull tresors. These thynges consydered, it shall seeme (I doubte not) expedient, that the common treasure remayne al­waye vntouched, but only for commune necessitie, the incertayntie wherof proueth it impossible, that the cō ­mon treasure shall be euer sufficient to releue the pry­uate necessitie of them that are spoken of, sense misfor­tune, and other constrayned meanes vnto pouertye, shall euery daye happen to some man. Wherfore nowe let vs deuyse a more certayne prouision. And trewely fewe men haue so moche compassion and charitie (the more pitie is it) that they wyll lende theyr goodes to an other man, haue they neuer so moche, excepte ther­by may retourne to them some aduauntage or profite. And to constrayne them to lende (except it were for de­fence of the weale publyke) it were agaynste iustyce. Wherfore fynally this is my sentence, lette a certayne gayne be lymitted by the Emperours maiestie, which beinge thoughte by vs tollerable to the borower, and competently sufficient vnto the creditour, let it be de­clared by the Trybunes vnto the people, with the re­sydue, [Page] whiche was indifferently and wysely deuised by Catelius Seuerus. And I doubt not, but that it wil lyghtly passe and be inacted by all theyr voyces.

¶This oration and sentence of Gordiane was well commended, as well of the emperour, as of all the se­nate. In conclusion, after a lyttell debatynge, it was appoynted by the emperour, that the creditours shuld haue for the forbearynge of euery Sestertium (which in englysh money of olde grotes, wherof .viii. made an ounce, amounteth to s. viii. d.) for euerye daye lone, the thyrde parte of As called Triens, (which was the thyrde parte of an olde Romayne peny called in latyne Denarius, whiche was the poyse of an old en­glyshe grote, and so the vsury for the hole yere amounted in Romaine money to .xii. pense one As and .ii. Tri­entes, in accompte of Englyshe money .xii. grotes, the tenthe parte of a grote, and two partes of a tenth part deuyded in three partes. whiche somme moughte be more easely cumpted by the Romayns, which had the sayde small money Trientes coyned, thanne by vs that haue no suche money. Not withstandynge for as mo­che as it well appereth, that the gayne by the lone of one hundred poundes sterlynge by the hoole yere, a­mounted not by this rekenyng but to d. and the thyrd part of a grote or there about, comptyng by the olde grotes, wherof wente but .viii. to the ounce, of the money currante, wherof do go .xi. grotes to the ounce, the vsury amounteth to s. vii. d. ob. or there aboute, whiche wyll seme to all men, not beinge vsurers, to be a gayne sufficient and reasonable. But nowe to retourne to our matter. This sentence of the Emperour and Senate beinge declared by the Tri­bunes, [Page 72] as it was appoynted, all the people with most ioyouse spirites, and as loude as they could crye, con­sented that it shulde be made a lawe perpetual in eue­ry poynte, accordynge as the Emperour and Senate before had deuised it. whervpon incontinente the acte was drawen and publyshed as hereafter foloweth.

¶The lawe concernynge vsuries made by the Emperour, Senate and people of Rome. Cap. xxxi.

NO NECESSITIE be consydered frome henseforthe in theym that consume theyr substaunce in dise playinge, outragiouse expenses, or lechery: who so euer lendeth to them, let it be at his ieoperdy and with­out hope of remedy.

¶Whom fortune peruerse, longe syckenesse, seruyce, frendeshyppe, disloyaltie of them that he trusted, the­ues or oppressours haue broughte vnto pouertye, to hym let men extende theyr compassion and charitie: or if his necessitie do constrayne hym to borowe, let hym come to the prouoste of the citie, and declare his neces­sitie, and wherof it proceded, hauynge with hym one senatour and two of the comuners, persons well kno­wen and credible, which being deposed, that his wor­des be true and vnfeyned, and what they suppose shall be sufficient to releue his necessitie, the Prouoste shall assigne one riche man of the citie, if the partie hym self name not a nother, to whom or to hym that is named, the Prouoste shall directe his letter in the name of the Senate and people, wyllynge hym to delyuer to the sayde persone, the somme that he nedeth, takynge of hym sufficient suertie for the repayment of the somme [Page] that he lente, with the increase for euery daye sparinge of one Sestertium, xii. Romayne pence, one As, and .ii. Trientes, and so after that rate in all other sommes a­boue the somme of Sestertium, and not to excede that gayne in any maner condicion.

&He that refuseth to lende for this gayne, let hym as vnworthy the name of a Romayne, or to take any be­nefyte by the weale publyke, be of the Censores depri­ued of the name of a citezen, & noted for euer with the cryme of ingratitude. This lawe decreed by the Se­nate, inacted by the people, confyrmed by the imperial maiestie, be for euer establyshed, and neuer by any o­ther lawe, custome, or ordynance to be abolyshed. And who that with violence resisteth agaynst it, let him be taken for rebell and ennemy vnto the weale publike.

¶What loue and beneuolence the emperour shewed to the people of Rome, and of other his wonderfull vertues. Cap. xxxii.

YE HAVE HERDE moch declared of the vertuous seueritie or sharpenes of this no­ble Emperour Alexander, nowe shall you here as moche of his gentylnesse, pacience, and affabilitie. After that the sayde acte was proclay­med throughout Rome and Italy, the emperour cal­lynge to his remembraunce, that the sayde lawe was made onely for them whiche hereafter shoulde be con­strayned to borowe, and that there were many at that tyme in daunger, whom by that acte shulde take noo benefyte, he beinge moued with pitie, caused sodayn­ly serche to be made by the Censores, howe many were in the daunger of vsury. And than sente he for all the vsurers, and after that he had a lyttell blamed theym [Page 73] for theyr auarice and ingratitude towarde their coun­trey, at the laste alterynge his countenaunce & speche vnto a more myldenesse, he desyred them al at his con­templation, to take for that tyme theyr pryncipal som that was borowed, and clerely to remytte all the resy­due, promysynge, that the money shoulde be payed to them out of his treasure. Whiche requeste of the Em­perour was pronounced in so gentyl a facion, that the creditours with one voyce not only graunted vnto it, but also promysed to remitte part by his arbitrament, where he thought conuenient. whiche the Emperour moste thankfully takynge, gaue the creditours leaue to departe, commaundynge them to kepe the thynge secrete, vntyll they knewe more of his pleasure.

¶Than commanded he, that all such as were runne in the daunger of vsury, shulde be warned to come be­fore hym, not at one day or tyme, but fyrste they which were reputed and knowen to be men of honestie, and by some mysaduenture were broughte vnto pouertie. And beinge trewely certified what goodes or landes they had in possession, he remembred to them what pe­ryl they were in, and lamēted the state of the citie, that the gentylmenne, by neglygence or lacke of good hus­bandry, shulde be in bondage and captiuitie vnto the communers, whiche ought to be inferiours to theym, and doo to them reuerence. O sayde he, where is the noble courage of Romulus progenye [...] who foloweth Quincium, Publicolam, Curium, Fabritium, noble Senatours? whiche after that they hadde vaynquy­shed princis, and achieued sundry great victories, ben dyuerse tymes Consules and Dictatours, the highest dignities within this citie, they lyued soo moderately, [Page] that rather thanne they wolde be subiectes to the aua­ryce of other, they chase to lyue in poore howses of husbandry out of the citie, with a potte full of wortes, and suche a small pitaunce for them and theyr wiues. as nowe our seruauntes wolde disdayne to be fedde with. And leste abundaunce at any tyme, shulde pro­uoke theym to lyue more delycately, they refused no [...] onely great summes of money sent to them by straun­gers, but also possessions offered them by the Senate and people, for theyr indeuour and labours about the weale publyke. Thus I saye vnto you, whome al­thoughe mysaduenture, or charges inforced, haue ex­hauste some or the more parte of your substance or pa­trimony, yet haue ye not therfore abated your dyete, nor absteyned from pleasures, nor mynisshed your fa­myly: but without vsyng good husbandry, and with­out circumspection, haue contrary to the sayd honora­ble Senatours, chosen rather to spende your olde age in misery, and to be in bondage vnto your inferiours, thanne ye wolde retayne in captyuytie your wanton appetites.

¶But here whan the Emperour perceyued that they were ashamed and made heuy countenance, than said he vnto them: Wold ye not gladly be eftsones at liber­tie, at the leaste way out of the dange [...] of vsury? They with a voyce mooste lamentable aunswered: Ye noble Emperour. Wyll ye sayde he, with good wyll paye to your creditours the princypall duetie, hauynge tyme conuenient that it maye be leuied of your possessions, hauynge left vnto you some portion to lyue on? They aunswered: ye noble prynce, elles were we vnhappye. Notwithstandynge amonge them were some, and not [Page 74] many, whiche had not lefte eyther goodes or possessi­ons to paye the hole duetie. Than the emperour with­drue hym into his chamber, and caused them seueral­ly to be brought vnto hym one after an other, and ac­cording to their substance in possessions or mouables, he rated them to paye of the pryncipall dette, some all, some more and some lesse. And bycause they had not the money than redy, he promysyng to discharge them of the sayd payementes by theyr consentes, assigned to them, whiche had possessions [...] two partes therof, and the thyrde parte he reserued to hym selfe, vntyll the summe were therof receyued, wherto they were rated. Of theym that had goodes and no possessions, he ap­poynted that the summe, wherevnto they were rated, shuld be valued in theyr sayd mouables by theyr own frendes, and be brought vnto some place, where by the Emperours officers it shuld be receyued. And ere they departed, he caused in theyr presence, euery summe to be seuerally tolde out of his cofers. And than sente he for all the creditours, and puttynge them in remem­braunce of theyr gentyll promyse made vnto hym, and declarynge also what he hadde done, he caused euerye mannes portion accordynge to the sayde rate to be de­lyuered vnto them. And for them whiche had neyther good nor possessions, he payed halfe of the pryncipall dette out of his owne cofers, with a clere acquitaunce vnto the partie. And commaundynge the creditours, to bringe to him cancelled the obligations and instru­mentes belongynge to the sayde dueties, and gyuing to them harty thankes, he let them departe.

¶Semblably perswadynge the dettours to frugali­tie or moderate lyuinge, he also prayed them to forsee [Page] as moche as they coulde that wylfully they commytte not theym selfes to the hasardes of fortune. he than imbracynge theym all, badde theym fare welle. who gyuynge to hym moste humble thankes, and for ioye pourynge oute aboundaunce of teares, departed with gladde tydynges home to theyr houses. As for them, whiche at dise playinge, in riote and lechery, had con­ [...]inned theyr substaunce, he if any were lefte, caused it to be valewed as well possessions as mouables, and to be diuided amonge theyr creditours, accordynge to the quantitie of the true dette: And in satisfaction of the remnaunte, he adiuged them bonde: soo that for a certayne tyme as the Emperour wold apportion him, hauynge regarde to the dette, he sh [...]lde serue one cre­ditour [...] and afterwarde an other, in moste vile seruy­ces, receyuynge therfore nothynge, but onelye meate drynke and clothyng, belongynge to slaues. And that the creditours shulde haue ouer them equally as mo­che authoritie as they had ouer them whiche they had bought or taken in batayle. Not withstanding it was at the libertie of the creditours, to aquite them of their seruice, but not to infraunchise them, vntyll the tyme were expired, whiche was by the emperour appointed: but durynge that tyme, they ware continually the ha­bite or apparayle assigned to bondemen, ne were este­med for Romaynes, nor enioyed any pryuylege. If they obediently serued and contented theyr creditors, at the ende of the terme, whiche the emperour appoin­ted, they were set at lybertie, and restored to their fyrst astate and condition. But if they fledde frome theyr master, or contemptuously withstode his commande­mentes, fightyng with hym, or doing to hym any notable [Page 75] iniurye, they were condempned to perpetual serui­tude during theyr liues. They which had left nothing to pay their creditours, to them he appointed a longer captiuitie, estemyng the value of his seruice as welle to the facultie of the persone as to his astate and con­dicion. As if he were very wytty, well lerned, or a per­fect artificer, by reason wherof his seruyce moughte seme very commodious or profytable. Also beinge a gentylman, the more estymation that he were of, the more greuous and odyous to hym shoulde be his ser­uice and punyshment: Wherfore to the one and the o­ther, lasse tyme was thought to be suffycient, than to them whiche were of grosse wytte, or ignorant of good occupation, or els base or vyle of condicion.

¶This ordynaunce beinge put in due execution, It was thought at the fyrst of some men to be very cruel, but after that it was ones perceyued, what a meruai­lous frugalitie or temperance of lyuyng, was sodeyn­ly founde, as wel in the citie of Rome, as also through out all Italy, Also what delyte menne toke to be seene them selues moderate in apparayle, honest in lyuing, also exe [...]cisynge them selues in pastymes conuenient, not dishonest or chargeous. Also to haue them in deri­sion, whom they [...]ounde in any maner of wise attemp­tyng the contrary. Than extolled they the excellente wytte and vertue of the mooste noble emperour. And where afore they called him cruel and tyrannous, they ceassed not to name hym equal to the goddis, most be­nygne and moste gracious, confessyng that hadde not ben his seueritie, they al with the citie and empyre had vtterly peryshed.

¶Of the cyrcumspect curiosytie of the emperour Alexander in admyttyng counsaylours. And of his answeres touchynge that matter. Cap. xxxiii.

THE INCOMPARABLE diligence of this noble emperour about the weale publyke, is to be meruayled at, and of all princis to be obserued and folowed. For what by his owne trauayle and excellent prudence, what by his continual scrutiny by wise and honest espialles, he assuredly knewe the qualities, ma­ners, and appetites of al men (except very fewe) dwel­lyng in Rome or Italy, which either by reason of their possessions or substance, or for any other estimation a­monge their neyghbours, were lykely to be called to some authoritie. Also of all those, whyche in other re­gions and prouynces, were for some cause notable or famouse. This knowledge caused hym to be circum­specte in admytting counsaylours and other great of­fycers. As among many examples I wyl declare one, wherof I my selfe can beare wytnesse.

¶After the deathe of Quintilius Marcellus, a man in great authorite about the emperour, as he was wel worthy for his syngular wysedome and vertue (in soo moche as it was thought, that there was neuer a bet­ter man borne in Rome, and therfore the emperour dyd extremely lament his deathe) the noble man Frontine, whom also the emperour entierly loued, awayting his tyme, aduaunced to hym with a commendable report an honourable personage, who was named Fabius Macrinus, to be in the place of Marcellus. After that the emperour had herd and wel considered the wordes of Frontinus, wherby was set forth the ancient stocke [Page 76] from whens Fabius descended, his greate possessions and substance, the grauite of his personage, his great experience in sundry auctorities: the emperour dydde caste on Frontine a dyspleasant countenaunce, and af­ter that he ceassed to speake, the emperour made aun­swere in this wyse.

¶Howe moche hath your iudgemente deceyued vs Frontine? howe could ye this longe dissemble with vs? I had thought that ye had euer estemed the stock by the fruite, and not the fruite by the stocke. No man commendeth the boughes or braunches, bycause the stemme of the tree is great, longe, or streighte: but yf they be well spreadyng, thycke of grene leaues, & well sette with good fruite, than men saye that tree hath a fayre toppe, that tree bereth good fruit. And although the tree be neuer so mysseshapen or croked, the owner wyl digge about it, and vse al diligence for to preserue it: but yf the stocke be neuer so fayre, if the bowghes be rotten or seate, the owner wyll shrede them, & throw them into the fyre. If the frutte be vnsauery or withe­red, who taketh any great hede of the tree? who wyll gather the fruite? but rather let them rotte on the tree or fall downe, for he careth not for them. Who loueth rotten groundsyll or poste, bycause that it was part of an auncient house? Who setteth by a ragged a resty or yll fauoured colte, bycause that the harreyse, whereof that kynde is commen two hundred yeres passed, wan the price of runnyng at the game of Olympus? I confesse, that long continuance in any thing that is good addeth an admiration, but no prayse to the thyng: all be it the thynge founden good, prayseth the contynu­ance or longe endurynge therof. A good chylde rene­weth [Page] and also augmenteth the prayse of his parentes: the yll chylde raseth out of mennes hartes the fathers honour and benefytes. Also great possessions or sub­stance, maketh vertue suspected, bycause they be mi­nysters of pleasaunt affections, and also nouryces of wanton appetites. Moreouer the grauitie of the per­sonage is not proued by stately countenaunce or dys­daynfull sylence, but by constance in vertue, and wor­des alway apte for the tyme and purpose. And experi­ence, whiche is not cōmended by laudable actes, doth deserue no more prayses, than the gate of a blynd hors aboute a wyde horsemyll, whiche gryndeth no corne. And that olde capitayn, whiche in many batayles and iourneys hath ben founde alway negligent, deserueth no garlande. Many authorities do require an exqui­site tryall, forasmoch as authoritie doth abate feare, & minister boldnes, boldnesse draweth in licence, licence is mother of myschiefe, whyche nedes must be suffred vntylle fauour relenteth. These thynges consydered Frontinus, eyther your iudgement is not so perfecte as I wold haue taken it to be, or els ye secretely win­kyng at the sayd faultes, haue dissembled longe with me, and kepte thynges from my knowlege, contrary to your allegiance and duetie.

¶With these wordes Frontinus beinge aferde, kne­led downe, and besought the emperour to pardon him of his foly, confessyng that he had not perfyte know­lege of the dispositiō and maners of the said Fabius. but forasmoch as he had ben fauourable toward him and his frendes in his ministrations, he mutually de­syred his aduauncement.

¶Thereat smyled the emperour and sayde: Shall [Page 77] this plage neuer ceasse, which in royalmes and cities hath so longe raigned? that mutual beneficence blyn­deth mens iudgementes. And whiles power with ple­sures getteth great acquayntaunce, vertue is vnkno­wen, and in the courte frendles. I knowe, Frontinus, that pryde in Fabius Macrinus is a domestical vice. For in all the house of Fabius it hath ben excedyngly noted, and in some hystories remembred. And in this man as well the remembraunce of his auncient nobi­litie, as his long continuance in authoritie, hath more increaced it, as I my selfe haue marked, and also herd other murmurynge at it, whan I haue secretely wal­ked in the cytie in a pryuate apparayle. Wherefore I wyll not that he be in our counsayle nor palayce, that either his pride shulde be of yonge men folowed, or of olde men dysdayned, or of vs suspected. His greatte possessions & ryches declareth, that he can not be with a lyttell contented, sens the more parte therof he hath gathered vnder the colour of his authorities, beinge not lefte vnto hym by his owne parentes, nor receiued of our lyberalitie, nor by the gyfte of our predecessors. And very seldome where honour increceth auarice a­bateth. I hate not Fabius in the state that he nowe is, although I fauour not in him the said notable vices: but if he were ner [...]r vnto vs, we coulde neyther su­steyne them, nor suffre hym vnpunysshed, yf he than vsed them. Also in his longe experience I neuer herde hym for iustyce commended: but I haue herde his ar­rogance, his longe delayeng of suiters, and his parci­alitie, of many dyspraysed. Truely such a man is nei­ther mete to be a nigh coūsailour, nor to say the truthe in any great office. These thynges consydered Fron­tinus, [Page] speake no more of hym, but serche for some o­ther, in whome synceritie and temperaunce be ioyned with wysedome. Suche one, yf he be of an auncient house, shall brynge to our palayce an honourable re­membraunce of his noble progenitours, and as welle to noble as vnnoble shalbe an excellent patern or pre­sydent. If he be but late come to worshyppe, his ad­uancement shall ingender in noble men an honest en­uy, eyther to excede hym in vertue, or at the leste to be iudged equall vnto hym. to poore men it shall be an allectife and roote of good hope, that they be in the ranke, where the rewarde of vertue is dealyd.

¶And thus cessed themperour to speake. And Fron­tinus departed, being both ashamed of his enterprise, and abashed at the wysedome of his noble mayster.

¶ The moste noble aunswere of Alexander made to Asphe­n [...]s, concernynge the dysablynge of Sextilius Rufus in his absence. Cap. xxxiiii.

THE EMPEROVR hadde a custome which was very commendable, that he neuer made any senatour, without the counsayle of the hole senate, and euery senatour shuld gyue his sentence, also testimony of his lyuyng, & credence shuld be brought in by honorable personages. But yf eyther the sena­tours that spake, or the witnesses were foūden to haue spokē vntruly, they were reiected into the lowest place of estimation among the people, being also cōdemned as deceyuers or forgers, without hope of remyssion.

¶There was dwellyng in a village by Rome a gen­tylman called Sextilius Rufus, whiche was ryghte [Page 78] well lerned in all partes of philosophy, and also in the sciences lyberall. But forasmoch as he consydered the frequent alteration of the weale publyke, with the manyfolde peryls & troubles in the administration ther­of, he of purpose withdrewe hym therfro as moche as he mought, although his father had bene a senatour in his lyfe, and he amonge his neyghbours and dy­uers of the nobilite was had in good reputation. Not withstandyng for the causes before rehersed, and that he desyred nothynge so moche as quietnesse of mynde, and to solace hym selfe in the moste pleasaunt herbar of science, and vysityng the moste dylectable warkes of auncient wryters, he seldom came to the emperors court. or resorted to playes or bankettes, ne dyd come to salute the great offycers nor men in authoritie, as the vse was at that tyme. And amonge the yonge ga­lantes he was not beloued, bycause he fauoured not theyr ryottous pastymes. And the men of lawe hadde hym in dysdayne, bycause he repugned agaynst their subtyll gloses, and blamed their auaryce [...] fynally he being fully content with the golden mean, liued right honestly in a manour, whiche he had competently fur­nyshed with possessions sufficient for the prouisyon of his meane household, whiche was to his neyghbours more bounteous than sumptuous.

¶After that the emperour had pourged his palayce and the senate of vnworthy persons, corrupted with detestable vices, and with moche difficultie founde o­ther to set in their places: It hapned, that some good man named to hym Sextilius Rufus, declarynge the common report, whiche he had herde of hym. The em­perour, who knew all to be true that was spoken, held [Page] his peace not withstandyng, harkenyng what shulde be other mens sentences. The more parte of theym, whiche were present, affyrmed, that Rufus for his ho­nestye wysedome and lernynge was mete to be of the senate, but thre or foure sayd nothyng. At the laste Al­phenus a great lawyer, and in good estimation with the Emperour, obiected, sayeng, that Rufus not withstandynge that he was lerned in dyuers sciences, yet was he neyther profoundly lerned in the lawes ciuile, nor moche experienced in affayres of the empire. And that his lyttell husbandry and small prouision about the increace of his lyuinge, declared hym to be a man of no great polycie, nor of any dexteritie about thyn­ges of importance. And that the aptitude of his na­ture, was only in studious meditation of sundry sci­ences, and in wrytinge more than in doing. Addynge to that philosophers were neuer good practysers in a weale publyke, nor yet good men of warre. Wherfore in as moche as he that is a senatour, not only oughte to be a man mete for polytike gouernance, as welle in gyuyng counsayle in matters therto pertaynynge, as also beinge chosen to be Pretor, or to any other myni­stration of Iustyce, not to be ignoraunt in gyuynge iudgement in causes brought before hym: but also he oughte to haue some experience in marciall affayres, that beinge chosen consul, or leader of the hoste of the Romaynes, he mought se the men of warre to be well instructed and exercysed. And that in all thynges be­longyng to warre, the state of the citie be sufficientlye furnyshed. Moreouer, that in battayle ioyned eyther by his ignorance or basenes of courage, the Romayn army be not dystroyed. These thynges con [...]yered, it [Page 79] semed to him, that it was not expedient to receiue Ru­fus into the number of Senatours.

¶The emperour heryng Alphenus, and beholdynge that no man proffred to speake after hym, except three or foure mo, whyche were lawyers, and one Omnius Camillus a noble man, who had some dysplesaure to­warde Rufus for one of his seruantes: these seemed by their countenaunces to approue the sayeng of Al­phenus. That perceyuyng the emperour, he lokynge on Alphenus spake in maner as hereafter foloweth.

¶I see well Alphenus, that not onelye the vulgare and vnlettered people be angrely stered and do retain displeasure agaynste them, whiche withoute malyce, do rebuke in a generaltie the vices and faultes, which be founden amonge them: but also (whiche I doo la­ment) men specially chosen for theyr wisedome and lernynge, do disdayn them that rebuke the abuse of that study or exercise, whiche these wyse men most chiefelye haue haunted. I knowe that Sextilius in one of his bokes hath sharpely noted the detrimente doone vnto iustice by couetouse lawyers, whiche by theyr subtyll wyttes haue inuolued the lawes ciuile into suche ob­scure and ambiguouse sentences, that noo man with­out theyr declarations, may knowe howe to do or mi­nister iustice in cases, for the whiche the sayde lawes haue prouided. Nor they that make lawes can expoūd them afterwarde without a lawier, whiche perchance was not fyrste priuie to the lawe makynge. These and lyke annotations of Rufus do not a lyttell offend you that be lawyars, althoughe ye haue abandoned pra­ctise. And that dyspleasure onely hath caused you to make this conclusion, that Rufus is not mete to be of [Page] the Senate the resydue of your argumente doth suffi­ciently proue it. Fyrst the diuersitie of sciences, where in your selfe doo confesse, that he is well lerned, dothe not disable hym to be a Senatour, but maketh hym more conuenient and necessary for so noble a counsail. For to whom doth it more apperteine to vse wordes in theyr propre signification, and to set them in order, so that they make not the sentence peruerse or doubtfull, than to a senatour, or one hauing rule in a weale pub­lyke, and that is the thyng whiche grammer teacheth? [...] Logike is none other, but the scyence of reasonynge, helpynge naturall wytte to fynde truthe more quicke­ly out of dyuerse opinions, by affyrminge or denying: whiche in a senatour maye not be spared. A man shall not well gouerne a citie or countrey, and sette in good order the maners of people (as Plutarche sayth) ex­cepte he be wel fournyshed with eloquence, wherwith onely he maye perswade, affectuousely stere, inclyne, and leade where he lysteth the myndes of the multy­tude: And that is beste lerned by Rhetoryke. [...] Howe many thinges happen in the state of a citie or Realme, whiche requireth a diligente and exacte computacion with numbres? [...] and that by Arithmetike is beste per­ceyued. In assignynge of boundes and limittes, also to the making of municions and fortressis, also in de­uisynge of engines for warres, who dare say that geo­metry is not expediente? [...] whiche describeth equalitie and inequalitte, aptnesse and vnaptnes, good propor­cion, and deformitie. Also without armony nothynge is semely or pleasaunte, and by concorde and discorde all publyke weales do stande or decay: ye and as some philosophers haue wryten, by them all thinges hadde [Page 80] theyr begynnynge. And this is beste vnderstande by the scyence called musyke.Musyke. Moreouer he that leadeth an army, if he be instructed in the dyuerse temperatu­res of sundry contreyes, by the naturall discourse of the sunne, by the fyue cerkles, the alteration of houres in day and nyght, by the distance of clymes and para­reles, whiche be sensible lyues and spaces, wherby the sunne passeth about the firmamente: Also the moone with her mutable figures, and special authoritie ouer waters and humours, the naturall influence of other celestial bodies and signes, I meane in plenty or scar­sity of thynges concernyng mannes sustinaunce, & in stormes or caulmenesse of wether: Al whiche thynges be knowen by the diuine science called Astronomy.Astron [...] ­mye. I saye if a capitayne be therin instructed, and not to mo­che curiouse or arrogant, he shal the more saulfly kepe alway his army. Iulius Cesar beinge therin exactely lerned, vainquished by celeritie and sundry preuenti­ons not onely the fortune and moste experte chiualrie of valiant Pompey: but also the incomparable wyt­tes of fyue hundred Senatours. And our noble pro­genitour Hadriane the Emperour was thoughte to haue exployted thinges in batayle by the helpe of this science aboue mennes expectation. I omyt Hercules, whiche became disciple to Atlas for the commodytie whiche he thought to finde in astronomy. Fynally as ye al knowe. I haue had no lyttel delyte in these foure mathematicall sciences, and yet haue for the vtilitye that I fynde in them, when I do contemplate the per­fyte state of a weale publyke: And the same is appro­ued bothe by Plato and Aristotle, which shapeth their examples by proportiōs of Arithmetik, geometry, and [Page] musyke, where they wryte of concorde in vertues or polytyke gouernaunce. This well consydered, a sena­tour eyther for gyuynge of counsayle, or for beinge a capitayne in warres, shall fynde none impediment by hauynge these sciences, but vsynge them moderately, and as occasion requireth, they shalbe to hym not on­ly an excellent ornament, but also a necessary treasure, and to all sortes of gouernaunce a thyng right expe­dient. What although Sextilius be not profoundly lerned in the lawes ciuile? is that a good argument, that therfore he may not be a good counsaylour, or in other authoritie about the weale publyke? Consysteth all the senate of lawyers? Or standeth the weale pu­blyke, and all her affaires onely by lawes all redy sta­blyshed? May no publike weale be without lawyers? How many noble Senatours haue there ben, and yet are [...] whiche neuer radde ouer all the .xii. tables? and yet haue they be found to reason wittily, and minister prudentely. Be lawes any thynge els than rules of Iustice, wherby she commandeth what shuld be done, and what ought not to be done, where a weale publik shuld prosper [...] Than is it euydent [...] that Iustyce ma­keth lawes, and not lawe Iustyce. Also he hath redeth the lawe, seeth the commandement of Iustice, but se­inge the lawe onely in that that he seeth it, he doth not knowe Iustyce. but contrarye wyse, he that knoweth Iustyce, by hir may discerne what is ryght or wrong, what is equal or vnequall, and by the paterne of Iu­stice may inuente a remedy propise and necessary, whi­che expressed in worde or writing may be called a law. The knowledge of Iustyce eyther hapneth by speciall influence from the hygh god: or els it is gotten with [Page 81] the study of wysedome, comprehended in the bokes of wyse men, who of Pythagoras were callid Philosophi, whiche dothe signify the louers of wysedome. Wher­fore they which eyther by diuine inspiration, or by stu­dy of the warkes of excellent wise men, haue the truest knowlege of Iustyce, and haue best vnderstandynge what is iuste, and what is vniust, and consequentely can prouide remedies accordyng to iustyce: which re­medies if they ones be made vniuersal, they be lawes, howe so euer they be pronounced, be it by a multitude or by one persone, as the edict not onely of the empe­rour, but also of hym that is Pretor, is a lawe, as wel as that which is made by al the hole senate, or inacted by the Tribunes and people of Rome.

¶And where ye saye that phylosophers were neuer good practysers in a weale publyke, nor yet good men of warre, yf ye doo meane by practyse, that detestable exercyse, whyche is subtyll deceyuyng, crafty entermi­nyng, mayntenance of iniustice, peruerse counsailyng and vnmeasurable gettynge, I confirme than youre sayinge. for a phylosopher abhorreth suche practyse, and as moche as he may doth and perswadeth the contrary. But if ye do intende by that word practyse, only the laudable exercise in thadmynystration of a weale publyke, truely ye be in a great errour and folye, and do speake as if ye were one of the vulgar people igno­rant of letters, ye and that more is, priuate displesure hath caused you to forget what ye your self hath sene, contrary to that whiche nowe ye haue spoken. I wylle not reherse all them, whiche beinge studious in philo­sophy haue gouerned publyke weales, or haue execu­ted their ministration therin substancially: but some [Page] wyll I speake of.

¶Who gouerned Egipt and Libia more nobly, than dyd Hermes called Mercurius Trismegistus? and what philosopher was in al sciences equal vnto him? Who euer kept his countrey in suche a quietnesse, and made it so ryche as dyd Salomon kynge of the He­brewes? whyche as it is founden in their hystories, translated into greke by the commādement of Ptho­lome called Philadelphus kyng of Egypte, was soo great a philospher, that he dysputed of all thynges naturall and supernaturall: and for his wonderfulle knowlege there came to here hym out of all partes of the worlde men and women, beynge at that tyme in moste reputation of lernynge? Was euer this citie of Rome in so good order as it was durynge the tyme of Numa Pompilius, whiche was .xl. yeres, who beinge an excellent phylosopher and a pryuate persone, was chosen to be kynge, and soo moche more is his gouer­naunce to be commended, that he brought the people, whiche were rude, fierse, and euer continually in war­res with their neyghbours, into so good an order and temperaunce of maners, that they whiche before were their enmyes, had them in admyration and reuerence? Who made better lawes or better ordred the common weale of the citie of Athenes than Solon the greate phylosopher, as longe as they coulde susteyne theyr owne welthe? The same citie had neuer a more noble Capytayne, nor a more valyaunt than was Pericles: who with Anaxagoras contynuallye studyed phylo­sophye. And to descende to a more late tyme: where was there a better capitaine, or a more noble warriour than Scipio Affricane? who hadde alwaye with hym [Page 82] Polybius the philosopher, and in vacant tymes from battayle he either herd him rede, or disputed with him. Semblably Lucullus was so studyous in all kyndes of lernyng (as Plutarche writeth) that where he herd that any great lerned men disputed togyther, thyther wolde he go, and studiousely here them: and (as the the same author saythe) he haunted and imbraced all kynde of philosophy, with mooste familiar acquayn­taunce and custome, specially that whyche was called Academica, or the doctrine of Plato. And was there e­uer a more noble, a more polytike or more valyant ca­pitayne, and more estemed and drad of moste puissant pryncis than he was? Lord god what a senatour was Cato called Uticensis? whose vertue was wondered at throughe the worlde, whose magnanimitie and in­comparable seueritie more profyted vnto the publyke weale of the citie, than the vyctories of Pompey and Cesar. And was not he so studyous in philophy, that he could not temper hym selfe, but that he must nedes rede Greke bokes, whan he satte in the senate? What consul can ye compare to Marcus Tullius, who only by his diuyne and moste excellent wysedome preserued the publyke weale and citie of Rome frome vtter sub­uercion, whiche nedes must haue hapned by the con­spiracy of Cataline and his confederates, if it had not ben by the incomparable witte of Tullius found out, and by his diuyne eloquence playnly conuynced, and by his wonderful wysedome suppressed and cleane ex­tynguyshed? And howe studious he was, and exactly lerned in all kyndes of philosophy and [...]loquence, his moste noble warkes do declare with fame immortall. I passe ouer Nigidius, Uarro, Trasea, and many o­ther [Page] sage and honorable senatours, whiche were not onely excellent philosophers, but also prudente coun­saylours and valyant capitaynes. yet wylle I reherce some, whiche were in the tyme of your remembrance. The emperour Adriane was so profoundely lerned in all philosophye, that he dysputed openlye at Athenes with the chiefe phylosophers of all Grecia, and van­quysshed Phauorinus, who at that tyme was of all other moste famous: and to what prynce or capytayn gyueth he place, eyther in marciall prowesse, or ciuyle gouernance? What more honor euer hapned to Rome than that Marcus Aurelius Antoninus succeded im­mediately Adriane, whose lyfe was confessed to be the moste certayne lawe vnto al people to rule or be ruled: And he for his exquisyte knowlege in all philosophye, was most commonly called Antonine the philosopher, not by reproche as som wold suppose it: but for a most excellent and rare commendation. And what man dyd euer more encreace the weale publike, or better defend, it, than dyd this most noble and vertuouse emperour? And be it of you receyued without suspition of boste, as it shall be spoken of me without any vaynglorye: I whiche may not be compared with the moste inferi­our of them before named, eyther in lernynge or pro­wesse, yet howe moche I haue amended the state of the weale publyke, ye all can beare wytnesse: And that I haue nothynge appaired the imperial maiestie, it hath bene of the Senate and people in your presence con­fessed. And this coulde I not so well haue doone, yf I had not instructed my wytte with the doctrine of phi­losophers. What saye you by Gordiane, Uenatus, Aelius Seremanus, Catilius Seuerus, Frontinus, [Page 83] Tacitus, and Aurelianus, honourable Senatours, and our trusty counsaylours? and Sabinus whyche sytteth here with vs? haue they not right well shewed them selues to be apte vnto gouernaunce, whan they haue ben Consuls, Tribunes, and Pretors: yet be they no lawyers, but the more part of them be studyous in phylosophy, and other lyberall sciences.

¶And nowe to make an ende of this matter, wherin I haue taryed the lenger, to the intente that I wolde extirpate this vayne opynyon, whiche men haue had agaynste philosophers and theym that be studyouse. Trewely that which ye do note in Sextilius to be lit­tell husbandry and small prouision, procedeth not by lacke of good policie, as ye haue supposed, but he ad­uisedly doth neglecte to be riche or to aspire to any au­thoritie by ambition or flattery, preferryng temperate and sure quietnes, before daungerouse and vnthank­full labours, and more estemeth to be an honest lyuer, thā a malapert crauer. Also by his study in philosophy it seemeth that he hath acquired a great magnanimy­tie or noble courage, not extentynge the force of his wyt and knowlege in thynges whiche are but of lyttel importaunce: wherin he fareth like to the puissaunte grehounde, whiche was sente to the great Alexander by the kynge of Albany: vnto whom whan there was brought a great bul, he therfore wold not ones meue, afterwarde a myghty and fierce lyon, was lyke wise shewed to hym, whiche he onelye behelde and moued his tayle, but he wolde not therfore aryse oute of his place. Finally there was brought forth a meruaylous great olyfant: than stode he on his feete, and dyd sette vp his brystelles, and shewed his teethe, and beinge [Page] comforted by Alexander, he lepte to the olyfant, and byt hym, and after a fewe assaultes kylled him. Like wise Sextilius beinge contente with his astate, exten­deth not his wytte to augmente it. but if he be fauou­rably called to thynges of greatter importaunce, and therin well comforted, I doubte not but that he wyll shewe, that his study hath not ben vaynely employed. I meruayle that ye doo not consyder, that authoritie and fauour not onely sheweth a good wytte, but also doth polyshe that whiche is rude. Fullars, taylours, horsekepers, and marinars, were by the Emperour Commodus, and my predecessour Heliogabalus, ad­uanced to be Consules, Pretores, and Tribunes, whi­che as I herde saye were so chaunged in their wyttes, that it semed vnto them which knew them before, that sauynge theyr visage, and personage, they were alte­red and made other men, so moch in theyr wordes and procedinges they excelled aboue their accustomed wittes, all mennes expectation. Howe moche more hope is there of those men, whiche by education and studye haue theyr wyttes holpen? Suppose ye not, that there be within our empire thou [...]ndes of men, whiche be­inge but of meane reputation, if they were set in auto­ritie, or about our persone. wolde set forthe noble wit­tes equall to yours, and perchaunce better (whiche I speake not displeasantly, but onely to warne you to es­chewe arrogance) Truely god gyueth wysedome, but fauour and aucthoritie mooste chiefely sheweth it in a weale publyke. Erthe nourissheth the rote of the tree, but the comfortable sunne bryngeth forthe the blosso­mes, and if stormes do not lette, he with his holsome heate rypeth the fruite, and maketh it pleasaunte. In [Page 84] lyke wyse studye and labour bryngeth in knowledge [...] whiche by the comforte of prynces appereth abrode in some ministration. And if enuy or displeasure brynge none impediment: the increase of fauour maketh ler­nynge fruitefull and profytable vnto the weale pub­lyke. ye all here my sentence. And for as moche as the more parte of you (as I well do perceyue) esteme [...] noo lasse Sextilius Rufus than I doo. I wyll that he be sente for, and receyued into the Senate, and his name registred in the table of Senatours. whervnto al the counsayle accordynge, it was for that tyme dissolued.

¶Howe Sextilius herynge that he was made Pretor, fled: And what the Emperour sayde concernyng that matter. Cap. xxxv.

AFTER THAT it was declared vnto the Senate, that the Emperour had chosen Sextilius Rufus to be a Se­natour, and what he had sayde on his behalfe, they all reioiced in the Empe­rours wysedome and iudgement, and at his nexte commynge into the senate they all dyd a­ryse and gaue thankes vnto hym, for bryngynge into that college suche a man as Sextilius was. Sone af­ter Sextilius beinge sent for by the Emperours most gentyl letters, came into the senate, and as his lerning and honeste maners required, was beloued and com­mended of all men excepte very fewe, whom enuy and priuate displeasure contynuallye fretyd: whiche the wise emperour perceyuinge, to the intent as well that the vertues of Sextilius shulde be more knowen, and also be increaced by his comfortable assistence, as also [Page] to manyfeste to the comforte of other, howe moche he was inflamed in the fauour of vertue and doctryne, he caused Sextilius to be chosen Pretor, whiche than was the highest office next to the emperour, in the mi­nistration of Iustice. Therof herynge Sextilius, he beinge therat abasshed and meruaylouse sorowefull, priuilie withdrue hym selfe out of the citie: & not ma­kynge longe abode at his owne house, in a straunge habite, hauynge but one man with hym, wente vnto Athenes, determynynge to passe his time there in stu­dy, vntyll the fame of hym were somewhat decreaced. and an other chosen vnto that office. Of this the ad­uersaries of Sextilius gathered noo lyttell occasyon, not onely to pursewe hym [...] with mockes and derisyon, but also to accuse hym vnto the emperour of dysobe­dience and obstinacy contrary to his allegiaunce, and [...]lso to blame hym for his departure, without askyng [...]eenes. All these accusations the Emperour herde withoute beinge any thynge meued agaynste Sexti­lius, and at the laste beholdynge the accusers with a dyspleasant countenance, he saide vnto them as here­after foloweth.

¶Howe dare ye, thus presumptuousely assaulte oure pacience with your false accusations? Or how may ye for shame poure out your malice thus in our presence? What giueth you boldnesse to be thus malapert in at­tempting our reason with your enuious persuasions? Thynke ye vs to be so dull and grosse witted, that we can not perceyue your cōspiracies? or so deafe, that we can not here your false rumours, which ye haue sprad of Se [...]tilius? or so blynde, that we see not your can­kred affections and passions sparklyng in your eyes, [Page] inflamyng your vysage, blastyng out with your wor­des, whiche for angre and haste, be so set out of [...] order, that in them do appere your detestable foly. I tell you, Sextilius by this his departyng, hath nothing offen­ded vs, or mynished the opinion that we haue had of hym, but hath augmented it, and right wel contented vs. For if enuy and malice hath not made you forget: full, ye may remembre, that whan we chase hym to be a senatour, one thyng wherin we cōmended hym was, that he neglected to be rich, or to aspire to authoritie, se ye not howe he hath confirmed my sayung, and that I spake it not for special affection? he hath not onely ne­glected authoritie, but that more is, he is fledde from it, whan it came towarde hym. Whan we sent for him, he came vnto vs, and beinge appoynted to be a sena­tour, he dyd obeye vs, and gladly applyed his studye and counsaile therto pertainyng: onely hering that he was chosen Pretor, before that he had mon [...]tion ther­of, he fledde, as if he had ben pursued with such force, as he had not ben able to stryue with, fearynge (as I sayde, whan I praysed him) the daungerous and vn­thankfull labours, whiche he supposed to be in suche offices. And whither or to whome is he fled? not to the Persians, not to the people of Barbary, or other our ennemyes: but he is peasibly gone vnto Athenes, whi­che citie next vnto Rome we moste fauour. And there in a priuate habite, he lyueth in studye, in that exercyse whiche he supposeth that he can better susteyne, than the gouernance of a weale publyke. But not withstandyng, shal we herefore reiect hym & iudge him vnwor­thy to be called to authoritie? Nay, than were we ylle aduysed, and mought be noted varyable in our opy­nyon, [Page] sens we iudged hym ones hable for neglectyng therof, we now deme hym more hable for the refusyng: [...]e we wyll be therfore more slacke in the offrynge. ye we alsoo wylle therto gentylly require hym. For true­ly authoritie ought to be gyuen to suche as careth leste for it, & kept from them, whyche prease fastest toward it. For he that desyreth, wold haue it for his only com­moditie: he that loketh not for it, consydreth that he is chosen for others necessitie. Therfore howe dyuers is their mynistration, it euer appereth, where as bothe hapneth. Leaue your vayne enterprise, to bryng vs in dyspleasure with hym, who is worthye more honour than we can gyue hym, and by his lawdable flyghte hath vanquished your enuy, & to your great reproche hath publyshed your foly. We therfore command you to auoyde out of our presence, and that we see you not, vntyll we calle for you.

¶The letters of themperour Alexander sent to Sextilius, and hewe vnwyllyngly he retourned to Rome, and re­ceyued the offyce of Pretor. Cap. xxxvi.

FORTHVVITH the emperour hym self indited letters vnto Sextilius, in maner folowynge. Alexander Augustus, &c. The tydinges of your sodayn departing, honourable Sextilius, was to the senate and people greuouse, to your enemies (although they be fewe) pleasant and ioyouse, dolorous to your fren­des, of whom there be many, but to vs not straunge, dyspleasant, nor meruaylous [...] forasmoche as we lon­ger haue knowen your notable temperaunce, than we haue vsed your presence. Wherfore now we more con­syder [Page 86] your humylitie and vertuouse shamefastnesse, than that whiche your enemies do call obstinacye and dysobedience. Perswade now to your selfe, that where before we dyd fauour you, nowe do we moste hartilye loue you, and haue no lasse ardant desyre to haue the fruition of your vertue & lernyng, than hath the true louer of his wyfe or companyon. What suche loue is, ye that haue ben at Socrates banket, do knowe most certaynely. Retourne therfore with honour gentylle Sextilius, satisfy the desyre of me, that am both your emperour and louer, reioyce the senate & people, shame your enemi [...]s, and recomfort your frendes. Let it suf­fyce vnto shamefastnesse, that she hath caused you to ieoparde, not only your estimation & credence, but also your lyfe & substance, yf there had ben a senate vncir­cumspect, a people disordred, or an emperour a tyrant. Let her now gyue place to prudence & magnanimytie, her tyme of rule is expired in you, theirs is now come, for diuine prouidence hath so prouided, & wylleth it be so, sens she hath called you to the dygnitie, whiche ye wel haue deserued. In vayn were your longe trauaile in study and lernynge, yf actuall experience dydde not shewe forth their fruites. I confesse, that the bookes, whiche ye haue made, haue wel instructed other to go­uernance: but yet whan the publike weale calleth you, to be redy in your owne person to serue her, it is youre chiefe office and duetie. For so god hath ordeyned you, nature commaundeth you, your countrey compelleth you, and philosophy beadeth you. Retourne therfore hardily, and accept with good courage and thankful­lye the rewarde of your vertue. Ne the mynystration shall be strange vnto you, that in study haue had with [Page] Iustice suche familiaritie, and haue rad so many bo­ [...]s of good polycie. Also (which ought moch to com­ [...]ort you) ye haue a fauourable emperour, experte assi­frentes, diligent ministers, and people obedient, ye be­ [...]ge Pretor, howe many men expert in that office shal desyre your company, and be glad to participate with you that whyche experyence or custome hath vsurped from lernynge [...] where law ciuile is necessary, among [...] assisten [...]s shall euer be some, whiche therin shall counsayle you. but fynally yf ye haue alwaye respecte [...]nto iustyce, and consyder the causes with a prudente and dyligent scrutinie, the great knowlege of the lawe ciuile shall not moche trouble you. Laye therfore all dreade apart, and be not sene for fayntnes of courage to forsake that, whyche the Emperour, Senate, and people, lordes of the worlde, haue with so great affec­tion and iudgement prepared for you. Take heede of [...] and let vs shortly imbrace you.

¶ These letters were sent by poste, and in short tyme delyuered to Sertilius, than beinge at Athenes in the [...] of Sereꝰ Cheronēsis, with other philosophers: which [...]e receiuing with reuerence opened and radde, [...] readynge of them, partly stered with the lo­ [...]ynge perswasions of the most noble emperour, part­ [...] oppressed with dolour, seinge that he mought make no longer defence agaynste his election, and that he muste nedes entre the daungerouse rase of aucthoritie pyght full of peryls, he let the salte teares tryll downe by his chekes. But whan they that were presente vn­derstode why that he shewed suche countenaunce, con­trary wyse [...]hey reioyced excedingly, as wel at the wō ­ [...]f [...]ll wysedome of the yonge emperour, as that the [Page 87] vertue and lernynge of Sextilius was in conclusyon so well consydered, callynge Rome a citie most blessed, that shulde haue suche a Pretor: And withone consent they so preased on Sextilius with inuincible argumē ­tes, that he accorded to retourne towarde Rome, and to receyue the sayde offyce. Not withstandynge after that he hadde syt a good space without speakynge, he abrayded out at the laste, and complaynyd hym in this wyse.

¶O what myserable astate shall I nowe come to? wherin diligence shall be cause of displeasure, negly­gence of reproche, sharpnesse shall be dreadeful, pytie vnthankfull, familiaritie suspiciouse, frendshyp dan­gerouse, euery mannes countenaunce pleasaunt, ma­ny mennes myndes offended, flatterynge openly, dys­daynynge secretelye, agaynste my commyge atten­dance, in presence moche courtesy, beinge out of office or fauour, lacke of acquaintance. But of force I must obey that the emperour commandeth, and yet he com­mandeth not, but moste gentylly allureth, wherto my frendes also consenten, & reason determyneth. I ther­fore commytte all vnto god, who with his prouidence al thyng disposeth.

¶And soo he departed, and in shorte space arryued at Rome, where with many noble Senatours, and the chiefe of the people he was gladly receiued. Many other wise and wel lerned menne did this noble prince electe, and moste gentilly invite vnto the ministration of the weale publyke, by occasion wherof oppression, extortion, bribery, and other corruption of iustice, were out of the citie of Rome duringe this emperours lyfe, vtterly exterminate.

¶A notable question moued by Iulius Paulus vnto the Empe­rour Alexander. And the wise aunswere whiche he therevnto made. Cap. xxxvii.

YE HAVE herde before what austeritie and sharpenesse in punishement the Emperour Alexander vsed towarde all them, which by any maner corruption gaue vntrue senten­ces. Semblably agaynst theues, and oppressoures of people he was noo lasse rigorouse, punyshynge theym sharpely and openly, without remission or hope of pardon: touchynge treason he dyd neuer alter or adde any thyng to the punishementes whiche were afore ordey­ned: And in conspiracies againste his owne persone, he often tymes suspended his sentence or deferred ex­ecution, as well to trye out the counsayles and practi­ses of the offendours, as the fyrste occasyon of theyr displeasures: also whether theyr natures were obsty­nate or proude, aspirynge vnto supremitie: or if they were mylde and easy, and semed to be in [...]ended therto by the prouocation of other, and dyuerse suche, some he pardoned, and with moste gentyll perswasions not onely reduced them to due obedience, but also bounde theyr hartes to hym in a perfyte allegiaunce, some he caused for a tyme to susteyne imprisonement or exyle, and as he founde them repentant, so dydde he relieue them. In theyr exile it was punishement of deathe, to gyue to them any thynge, but meate and drynke, and that but course and of smal quātitie, also to be in their company lenger than they brought them meate, or to speake with them, or to receyue letters of them: so that they lyued alone amonge people, in a prison vnclosed [...] [Page 88] and in a common resorte in moste paynefull solytude. He had not withstandyng in those places of exile some trusty persons abydyng, who marked in what fourme they susteyned that punisshemente, whether they were very repentaunte or sturdy, and accordynge to suche mennes intimation, he caused the exile to be shorter or lenger. And here aboute he was very curyouse and dilygente.

¶On a tyme Iulius Paulus a noble counsaylour, meruaylyng that the emperour was so pitiful toward them, whiche offended his person, beinge so rigorouse agaynste all other transgressours, he fyndyng the em­perour at leysoure, sayde vnto hym in this wise: Sir if it shall stande with your pleasure, I wolde be fayne satisfyed, in a thyng, which causeth me to moche won­der at you. Speake on (sayde the Emperour.) Syr, sayd Paulus, In al the tyme that I haue serued your maiestie. I haue consydered, that your proper nature is mylde, facile, gentyll, and wytty, and therwith ad­ourned with incomparable pacyence and constance. Wherfore whanne I beholde you in publyke or ciuile matters alway so bente to the rigour of iustice, that ye wyl pardone none execution, the offendour being iust­ly condemned: yet in transgressions agaynst your ma­iestie, be they neuer so greuouse and lefully proued, ye often tymes do gyue your most gracious pardon, and sometyme vnasked. And some haue I knowen, which haue ben condemned for commyttynge actes agaynste theyr allegiance, to whom ye not onely rem [...] ted your graces displeasure, but also receyued them familiarly, and entertayned them with great liberalitie, as Oni­nius Camilius, who by secrete meanes aspired to the [Page] imperiall maiestie, whan he was therfore broughte a­fore the senate all tremblyng, his conscience disclosing his trespace, ye gyuynge to hym thankes, that he wil­lyngly wold take on hym the charge of the weale pub­lyke, which other good men refused whan it was pro­fered, and callynge hym copartener of the empire, led hym from the Senate vnto your palayce, and caused hym to sytte with you at supper, in more ryeher: appa­rayle than ye ware at that tyme, with moche other be­neuolence shewed vnto him at your goinge in warres towarde Persia. This thynge maketh me and many other to meruayle. Wherfore the causis which herevn­to moueth you, I am moste desyrouse to knowe, whi­che by myne owne wytte I canne not determyne. And many other as wel as I, be therwith perplexed. I therfore moste humbly beseche your maiestie, that by your owne mouthe it maye be resolued.

¶The emperour after a lyttell pause, thervnto aun­swered: Truely Paulus we be nothyng offended with your demaunde, but arryght wel contented to declare vnto you and other men of lyke wysedome, the reason and cause that doth meue vs to do any thynge in oure office imperiall, that therby we may exclude all yll sus­pition and approue our beneuolēce toward the weale publike. Albeit yf ye had sene as moch of philosophy as ye haue done of the lawes ciuile, ye shuld not haue had nede to haue made this demaunde. But nowe to your question, ye muste confesse Paulus, that in our person be two states or conditions: one by nature cō ­mune with other men, the other by election pryuate & from the people excepted. In the fyrst we be resembled to beastis, for the affections and passions, wherin we [Page 89] communycate with them. In the other we be lyke vn­to goddis immortall, in supreme dignitie excellyng all other men, which is to vs hapned, and not ingenerate, by the prerogatiue of vertue, whiche is supposed to be more excellent in vs:H [...]bitus co [...]m platiuu [...] & pra [...]cus. which vertue is none other thing but disposition, and exterior acte of the mynde agre­able to reason, and the moderation of nature. The su­preme dignitie that we haue receyued is onely in go­uernaunce of men, whyche do participate with vs in Nature, wherin they alway remayne equall with vs, but by Reason they be made inferior vnto vs, for they supposyng it to be more habundantly gyuen vs, haue therfore wyllyngly submitted them selfe vnto our go­uernaunce. And what that gouernance oughte to be, our names of dignitie, whiche the people hath gyuen vs, do expresse it sufficiently. For they gaue to vs first the surnames of Cesar & Augustus, for remembrance of the prowesse of the one, and the wysedome of the o­ther, whyche lyke as they desyred, so they trusted to be abundantly in vs. They cal vs also Emperour.Impera­tor. Whi­che dignitie amonge the auncient Romayns consisted in the principall gouernaunce of hoostes and armies, not onely in leadyng them vnto warres (whiche was also the office of a duke) but also to see them euer well exercised,Dux. kepyng alway and in euerye place good or­der and iustyce. Moreouer the senate and people haue gyuen vs a name excellyng al other in honour and di­gnite, calling vs Father of their countrey.Pater pa­triae. May there be imagyned any name greatter or higher? For where ye haue wytsaufe lyberally to consecrate many of our progenitours, and callynge them goddis, haue made theym equall one to an nother. Onely Iupiter, whom [Page] Orpheus doth call lyfe, you and your progenytours haue called Father, as it were by a specyall preroga­tiue aboue all other, which name is agreable vnto his propretie. For of lyfe all thynges haue being and me­uyng, whyche acte of creation, or (more naturally to speke it) generation, is incident to the name of father. lyke as also his office is to preserue and kepe safe that which he him selfe hath ingendred. Consyderyng how inestimable an office and dignitie are included in that diuine and moste reuerende name of father, makynge me therby the mortall ymage of the lyuyng god: howe circumspect ought I to be, that I do nothing vnwor­thy that name so lyberallye gyuen me? Ye knowe well Paulus, that in mens chyldren be dyuers and sundry dispositions, some be apt of their nature to vertue and towardnesse, some haue not nature so prompt and be­neuolent, wherfore they must be by education thervn­to formed: some be quycke of wytte, some dulle in ca­pacitie. of sharpe wyttes, some moste do resplendyshe in actes that be honeste, other seme quyckest in malyce and shrewdnes. The good and diligent father of eue­ryche of them is equally carefull, and assayeth fyrste by education to make them all conformable vnto his appetite. And therfore at the fyrste with swete meates and praty gyftes he allureth them all for to loue hym, and where they offende (as none or els verye fewe are perfyte in vertue) correctyng them with a lytel sharpe rodde, he maketh theym also to feare hym. And yf he beate a shrewde boy, it is done as well to put other in feare to offende, as to make hym amende. And some­tyme the father to restrayne the prompte dysposition that he seeth in his chyldern to vicious qualites, doth [Page 90] abdicate nowe and than oone, that is to saye, putteth theym out of his familye, and clerely excludeth theym from any hope of inheritaunce. somtyme perceyuyng their shrewdnes to ceasse, yf any transgresseth ageinst hym selfe onely, eyther he correcteth hym moderately, or by a wyse and gentyl perswasion, assayeth to induce hym to knowe wel his duetie, and to plucke from him opinion of a fals libertie. Nexte vnto god, who is so great a father, as he which is father of a hole coūtrey? that is to say, father of them that be fathers, their chil­dren and family. Howe moche than ought the care of hym, excede farre the cares of all other? the charitie of hym, the loue of all other? the wysedome of hym, the prudence of other? The studyous father more ca­reth howe to brynge vp his childern in honestie, than howe to lyue pleasantly. The louing father hath more solicitude aboute his chylderns helth, than about his owne welthe. The wyse father more considereth, what his sonne shall be in the estimation of other men, than howe he maye content his syngular affection. I haue shewed to you the office of a priuate father. What wyl ye nowe say to me, that in offyce am the vnyuersall fa­ther of all the hole countrey? Whyl ye say, that I shuld haue lasse care, lasse loue, or lasse wysedome and poly­cie? I suppose no, I knowe therin your opinyon suf­fyciently. Than take good hede what I saye. The ri­gour of Iustyce, whiche ye seeme to note in me, in pu­nyshyng offenders against the weale publike, is but a forme of discipline, conuenient and necessary, hauyng regarde to suche chyldren as I found in this citie, cor­rupted with al kyndes of vyce, and hauing their myndes and wyttes all dysposed to foly, whyche beinge a [Page] general detriment, I haue vsed therin a more sharper remedy: and therfore consequently it hath ben founde the more conuenient and spedy.

¶In offences touchynge our onely persone, we haue discended in our mynde from the imperyall maiestye, and considered our fyrst astate left vs by nature, wherin lokynge as in a myrrour, we beholde the same mat­ter that other men be of, and therin the sedes of sundry affections. this causeth vs where we fynde hope of a­mendment, in lamentyng the mysery of mankynde, to be meued with a fatherlye pytie, and moche lasse este­mynge the daungier of our persone onely, than of the hole countrey. We endeuour vs by mercy and gentyl­nes, to restore that vnkynde childe, whiche hath offen­ded vs, eftsones to his brethern & company. Not with standynge yf he be so malicious and arrogant, that he wyll not ceasse to abuse our pacyence, we than refuse hym to be our chylde, and as an enmye vnto the weale publike (for so be all that intendeth hostilytie agaynst hym, whiche is heed and father thereof) we commytte hym to the senate and people, for his malyce and trea­son to be iustely condemned. And thus doinge, we ac­complyshe all the partes of a father: and kepynge the people in a moderate feare and good order, we execute the offyce of a good emperour.

¶Thus haue ye Paulus a iust accompt of our my­nistration, I wote not howe it contenteth you, sure I am that myn owne conscience therin was neuer offen­ded, nor the publyke weale greued, nor any good man therby oppressed, wherof I haue the senate and peo­ple my wytnesse, and hym onely my iudge, who being in heauen, fayleth not to punyshe all them that abuse [Page 91] his ymage.

¶Herewith Iulius Paulus semed to be satisfied, & moste humbly thankynge the emperour, and meruai­lynge at his greatte wysedome and temperaunce, for that tyme departed.

¶Of a great exclamation made agaynst a gentill man called Marcu [...] Geminus by his libertines. And the [...]ration of Iunius Mode­ratus, made in the Senate. Cap. xxxviii.

LYKE wyse as this Emperour Alexander was rigorouse and terrible to corrupt iu­ges and oppressours of iustice, so was he moste fauorable and bounteouse vnto all suche as were sincere in their ministrations and sup­portars of equite. On a tyme as he went towarde the Senate, there came ageynst hym a greate numbre of persones, homely apparayled and of a rude presence, whiche as the Emperour approched them, they felle down on their knees, and in a moste lamentable forme with one confuse cry accusid a gentilman called Marcus Geminus of oppression, & to bring him more into displeasure and enuy, they added to their complaynt, that he was one of them that cōspired with Omnius Camillus. The Emperour herd them, and diligently marked their gesture and countenaunce, wherin he perceyued to be more rankour than dolour, more stur­dynes than humble shamefastnes, more obstinat cru­elty, than reason or honesty: He than asked of them, what people they were. They aunswered, sayeng: that they were husbondmen of Campania. He cōmanded them to withdraw them vntyll they were sent for, and shewynge to theym a ryght gentyl vysage, he passed [Page] from theym.

¶The peple receyuyng a more arrogant courage, of the comfortable countenance, whiche it semed that the Emperour made to them at their departing, leauing for the whyle their counterfayte sorowes, they spent the dayes in tauernes and vytaylynge houses, the nightes in places of bawdry, promisinge vnto theym selues victory against Geminus, adding therto with moste dispitefull arrogance, that his tourmentes and deth shuld be a dreadefull example to gentill men, and that from thenseforthe their plough men and tenaun­tes shuld be felow like with them. Which menacis and bostynges were soone after reported vnto the Empe­rour: But first as sone as he was comme to the Se­nate, he shewed there al that was hapned, and than he demaunded the Senatoures, if any of theym knew Marcus Geminus. Diuers of theym aunswered in ordre, that they knew hym well, and that he hadde ben alway reputed a man of moche honesty, and hauing a competent lyuing for his degree, had euer liued ther­with temperately, withoute note of reproche vnto this tyme. Herewith as the Emperour sate maruaylynge at the fury of the said clamorous people, and the com­mendation gyuen to Marcus Geminus, an auncient Senatour named Iunius Moderatus, who was re­puted to be a man of greatte worshyp, and was of the age of one hundred yeres, or there aboute, dyd stande vp on his feete, and sayd in this wyse.

The [...] Iuni [...] Mode­ [...].¶Moste noble Emperour, all be it that I am not re­quired, nor do now intende to take on me the defence of Marcus Geminus, with whome I haue no maner acquayntance, yet to thintent that your most gentill & [Page 92] pitifull hart tempred with iustyce, shuld be no lenga [...] perplexid, as it apperethe to be by your countenance, I wyll by remembringe your maiesty of the generall state and condition of them, whiche haue commplay­ned on Marcus Geminus, in some part (I truste) re­solue the importance of your admiration and study.

¶Ye do well perceyue, that the complayners be al of Campania, a countray most plenteous of all thynge that the erthe may bryng fourthe, and therwith so fer­tile, that it dothe not require greate toyle or laboure, but onely good diligence in obseruing the oportunity of tyme in sowyng & planting, with the preseruation of the thinges whiles they be growing. With this fertilitie, the bodies do become fat and lusty, and therby are made ille disposed to labour, the which disposition the goodnes of the soyle alway supportith: therof procedeth obstinate sturdines agaynst their superiours, and often tymes commotions and sodayn rebellions: and with great difficulty hath that people be brought vnto a perfite obedience, whiche was after that they had rebellid ageynst the Romanes being confederate with Hannibal and the Carthaginensis: At the which tyme they being vanquisshed by Fuluius, many were slayne, the multitude were solde in bondage vnto the Romanes among whome the feldes and possessions were at that tyme diuided, it dured a long tyme, that the Romanes being good husbondes them selues, o­uerseing theire tyllage and husbondry, kepynge the Campanes in seruitude, hourdaining them with con­tinual labours, fedinge and clothing them moderat­ly, and more nerer to scarsety, than superfluity, leuing them no more vacation from labour than the festyual [Page] dayes, which the lawes haue appointed: the countrey abode in continuall quietnes, and iustice was there sufficiently ministred, by one onely magistrate, sente vnto them yerely out of this city. There dwellid Sa­ce [...]na, Tremillius, Iulius Atticus, and diuerse other gentilmen, as well in husbandrye, as in other wyse­dome and policy noble and famouse, withoute excla­mations vnto the Senate. Moreouer the gentylmen brought vp in that countrey, for their temperance in liuing, and prudent gouerning of their owne famyly, were often tymes electe into the senate, and estemed al­way for the best senatours. But after the subuertion of Carthage, and that al Greece and Asia were in our iurisdictiō, Spaine made tributary, & Gallia brought vnder subiection, Idelnesse, with delicate appetite en­tred to gyther into this citie, and so moche abounded, that it was from thense distributed into al the hole re­gion of Italy. And than the gentilmen of Campania, lefte their ancient frugality and diligent gouernance, and dyd sette all their study, onely about thynges ple­sant and dilectable, not being contented with the com­modities of the same countray, ne with the same mea­sure and quantity, whiche they before vsed, but with outragious expenses, sending into other countreyes far of, for other kyndes of thinges which they had not growynge, they vnsaciably fed therwith them selues and their seruantes, & contemnyng the exercise of hus­bandry, they negligently haue suffred their seruantes to be oppressed with gourmandise, and to reiecte their accustomed fare, and to haue it more delicate. Also to increase slepe and pastime, and to minishe their labors and diligence. Moreouer by priuate contentions a­monge [Page 93] the same gentylmenne (whiche alway hapneth where temperance lacketh) by ambition and enuy, they that were bondemen were infranchised and made libertynes, to the intent that their lordes wolde be sene pu­issant of men,Libertines were of lyke con­ditions, as our copye holders were of olde tyme. to maynteyn their quarelles: Wherby it is hapned that the progeny of the sayde bondmen are now of suche sturdines, that they disdayne and take scorne to be corrected, ne wyll otherwyse laboure than it shall lyke them. And if their lorde wyll sharpely cal on them, they wyll not let, boldely to make resistence: and where they be not therto suffycient, they wyl sub­orne some false quarrell to make a cōmotion, trusting therby to robbe and destroy their lordes: or if they can not bryng that to passe, at the leste they wyll make in­iuste exclamations, where they fynde a prynce, whome they suppose to haue his eares opē to tales & reportis, & wyll condemne in his opynion men complayned on, before ꝑchance that he knoweth them. Herof haue we to many examples, as well in the tyme of Tyberius, Nero, and Domitiane, as in the tyme of my remem­brance. Were not Dulius Sillanus, and Antius Lupus, men of great honesty, condemned to dethe by the Emperour Cōmodus, vpon the false complayntes of their lybertines? whiche grutched agaynst them, by­cause that Sillanus was a sterne man, and of the an­cient seuerytie. Wherefore they moughte not susteyne hym, punyshyng them contynually for their ydell and ryottous lyuynge. Lupus bycause he wold not suffer his lybertines to incroche vpon his possessions, and to retayn certayn portions of lande, which after the deth of Petilius Rufus his mothers vnkle (whose heyre Lupus was) they had taken by stelthe, whiles he was [Page] in Asia. wherfore they appeched hym vnto themperor, sayeng that he was of familiar counsayle with Caius Regilius, whom a lyttell before. Commodus had put vnto deathe. Petronius in the tyme of Caracalla the emperour, was also put vnto dethe by a lyke occasion. And to speake of myne owne experience, by the space of .xl. yeres, so longe I continued in kepynge of hus­bandry in the countrey of Umbria, hauing therin mo­che delectation. I found the rustical people my neigh­bours prompte to iniuryes, murmurynge at Iustyce, grutchyng at labours, desyrous of pleasures, ingrate ageynst benefytes. At the fyrst I was with them familyar and homely, than founde I them alway carlyshe and sturdy. than agaynst myn owne nature I chaun­ged my copy, and became towarde them more strange in countenaunce, more rare in speakynge, more selde in pardonynge, more quycke in reuengynge suche in­iuries as they wyllyngely dyd me. Moreouer I was more frequent in commandyng my lybertines, & wold my selfe se theym to do truely their seruices, nothynge omyttynge: than had I lyttell and seldome any occa­sion to be offended with. There was none iniuries of­fred me of my neyghbours, whiche beholdynge me so sharpe to my lybertines, and so rygorous in Iustyce, feared to dysplease me. My lybertines forgettyng all pleasures, studyed with labour and dilygence to gette some prayse of me. Than consydered I wel, that good dettours oftentymes spared, become yll payers, small iniuries oftentymes pardoned, maketh of neyghbors pernycious enemyes. I seruaunt made malapert, wyl kycke at his duetie, and labour by custome becometh [...]asy, behold, that gentyl maisters haue alway proude [Page 94] seruantes. And of a mayster sturdy and fierce, a lyttell wynke to his seruant is a fearefull commaundement. The nature of libertines is moch contrariouse to that whiche is gentyll. The gentylman, gentilly intreated is contente to do all thynge: The vyle nature, famy­lyarly vsed, grudgeth at euery thyng. This is euerye day proued, but no witte can make streight which na­ture made croked. Geminus is a gentylman of an old house of the latines, whose great graundefather Ru­bellius Geminus was consul in the late dayes of the emperour Tiberius. He hath his possessions in Cam­pania (as I haue herde say) by an auncetour of his mother called Pomponius Sura. Perchance his no­ueltie there may be disdayned, and the moueable peo­ple lackyng somwhat of their wylles, may be comfor­ted by some of equall degree vnto Geminus, by their exclamations to brynge hym out of credence, and con­sequently vnto some ieoperdy. Wherfore serueth the Pretor Triphonius, who is knowen to be a man very discrete, well lerned, and of a great iudgement? if they came to hym, why dyd he not here them? If he wolde not here them, why complayne they not of hym? If he dyd here them, why is Geminus left styl vnpunished? If he be punyshed, why is he eftsones accused? Myn aduyse is moste noble Emperour, that Marcus Ge­minus be hastily sent for, that he haue no leysure to so­licite the Pretor Triphonius: and that immediately afterward a letter be directed to the same Pretor, wyl­lyng him to aduertise your maiesty with al expedition, what may be proued in the ratification of suche arty­cles as bene obiected in the accusation of Geminus: whiche proues beinge sente vp vnto vs, yf Geminus [Page] can not refell them, than let the lawes of the citie pro­cede agaynst hym. If the suggestion be founde false and malicious, than shall your maiestie do lyke a ver­tuous gouernour, and father of the countreye, yf by your excellent wysedom and rule of iustice, ye prouide that the fals accusers and their abbettours may be so punyshed that they and other persons of lyke inclina­tion, may be aferde to abuse your clemency and moste gentyll nature. And nowe hathe your maiestie herde all myne opinion.

¶This sentence contented the Emperour, who ther­fore cōmended the substancial wysedome & compendi­ous eloquēce of the old Moderatus. And accordyng thervnto was Geminꝰ sent for by an officer, and sone after a letter was sente to Triphonius, accordynge to the minute before rehersed: which was deliuered to the Pretor incontinent vpon th [...] departing of Geminus.

T [...] wonde [...]full pru [...]e [...]ce and [...]itie shewed by Alexander the Emperour, in the determynation and sentence in the matter precedynge. Cap. xxxix.

AT THE cōmynge of Geminus to Rome, he was forthwith committed vnto Cate­lius the Senatour to be secretelye kepte, with comforte gyuen vnto hym, that yf such thynges as he was accused of, could not be proued by wytnesse or matter sufficient, his ac­cusation shulde be to hym an happye displeasure.

¶In the meane tyme Triphonius the Pretor, whan he had radde the emperours letters, fearynge his ry­gorous iustyce to rulers and iudges corrupted or ne­gligent, he forthwith sent vnto the moste honest inha­bitauntes, [Page 95] not beinge gentylmen, whyche dwelled in townes and villages next adioynyng to the habitati­on of Geminus: whom not beinge yet wa [...]e of the de­partynge of Geminus, nor for what cause they were sent for, the Pretor callyng vnto hym one of them af­ter an other, he seuerally examyned theym, what they knew or supposed of Marcus Geminus, in what con­dicion he vsed hym selfe, fyrste concernynge his fayth to themperour senate and people of Rome, also in Iu­styce and equitie touchyng his neighbours, moreouer frugalitie and temperance in his owne family, finally in oppression and crueltie to his tenauntes and lyber­tines. Addyng thervnto, that the emperours maiesty was informed, that Geminus in all the sayde poyntes was greuousely noted, whiche being sufficiently pro­ued agaynst hym, his punyshement shulde be to all o­ther men a dredfull example, wherby poore men shuld afterwarde lyue in the more suretie, & out of the dan­ger of cruell affections. Euery one that was examy­ned aparte, frely without alteration of wordes, affir­med, that Geminus was a mā of great honesty, & that they dyd neuer suspect his faith of allegiāce, although he repaired sometyme to Oninius, whan he soiorned nigh to him, which he semed rather to do for the hono­ring of Oninius dignity, thā for any special affection that he had towarde hym [...] considering that they were most vnlike of conditions. For Oninius was proude, ambiciouse, and prodigall: Geminus was gentyll, moderate in liuyng, and temperate in spendyng. The other was allmoste ignorant of lettres, delyting in ri­ote and lechery: this man well lerned, and hauing his principall pleasure in redyng or wrytyng. So diuerse [Page] conditions coulde neuer ioyne hartes in a feruent af­fection. Moreouer they coulde neuer perceyue, that Geminus at any tyme preysed Onimus, otherwys [...] than is the general prayse gyuen to men in authority, calling hym honorable. Concerning iustyce and equi­tye, they sayd that therin he was euer founde notably erneste, in soo moche as by kepynge his promise and couch [...] he susteyned often tymes no litle detriment. Al­so he remitted oftentymes a good parte of his duety, which the lawes gaue hym, sometyme of gentylnesse, sometyme meuid with the persons necessity. The me­surable fare and good ordre of his family, was to all his neyghbours an excellent patern. To his tenantes & libertines at his first commyng he was of moch af­fabilitie but after that he had perceyued by the aunci­ent tables and minumētes belonging vnto his patri­mony, that his libertines had withdrawen some parte of their seruices, and craftily entrelaced his domini­ [...] landes with their seruile possessions, he first assaid to perswade them to restore vnto hym his inheritance, offring to remytte vnto them their wrongfull intrusi­ons, with all the profites which they had therof recey­ued, if they wold willingly depart from that which by iustice they mought not kepe from hym: but they litle regarding his honest requeste, obstinately denyed to leue the possession of those landes, whiche they had so long occupied, and became in all their actes towarde hym stourdy and malapert, wherwith being displea­santly meued, he with his household seruantes & fren­des expelled them from the possession of suche landes as they wrongfully occupied: wherewith they beinge erasperate, and desirous to be reuenged (supposynge [Page 96] that if they complained to the pretor, the truth shortly appering vnto hym, they shuld no thing preuaile, but be for euer excluded from their vniuste occupation) they conspiring to gyther went vnto two gentilmen dwellynge hereby, the one called Duillius, the other Cotta, who alway had enuy at Marcus Geminus, & mought not susteine his commendation, but vsed to speke reprochfully of hym. Whan they had herd what the libertines purposed, they excedingly reioyced ther at, and gaue to them not onely comfort in their proce­dinges, but also summes of money toward their char­ges, with secrete lettres vnto theire frendes and ac­quaintaunce in the city of Rome, desiring them to as­sist and solycite the cause of the libertines. They said moreouer, that there remained yet in the towne of Geminus, as well libertines as menne free of condition, his tenauntes, whiche beyng of a more honest nature, and perswaded at the first with the reasonable request of their lord, wold by no meanes consent vnto the con­spiracy, not withstandinge that they were there vnto preased as wel by the sayd gentillmen as by the liber­tines. Which persons they thought expedient to be also examined. That hering the Pretor, commending their truthe and modesty, he depeched those deponen­tes for that time, commaunding them to kepe al thing secrete, and immediatly he sent for the sayd residue of the tenantes and libertines of Marcus Geminus. Who beyng lyke wyse examined, in al and euery thing agreed with the firste witnesses. Than Triphonius incontinent caused horses to be prouided, and those persones without any lenger abode, to be conueyed to Rome with his lettres vnto the Emperoure, contey­nyng [Page] the true report of the sayde examinations. Whi­che letters the Emperour readynge hym selfe, com­maunded that those men, whiche were comme to the citie, shulde be forthwith brought to his presence, in moste secrete wyse, which was perfourmed. Than the Emperour calling to hym Ulpianus, Catelius, Pau­lus, and Sabinus, who at that tyme were in the pa­layce, he commanded the sayde persons to be brought forthe, and hym selfe demaundinge lyke questions of them, as Triphonius had done, but in another order and facion, he found their wordes in euery condition, lyke as they had deposed, sauinge that they thervnto added, that the complaynors before their departyng, and after that they were comme from Duillius and Cotta, had importunately desired these menne to goo with them, saieng, that they nothing doubted, but that Geminus at the leste shuld lose his hed, and that they for their trauelles shulde haue his goodes, or a good parte therof deuided among them: and that Duillius and Cotta trusted to haue his landes by gyfte or by purchase. That hering the Emperour, with vysage inflamed, and eyes sparkelynge as fyre, braste oute in these wordes folowynge.

¶O villayne nature bestiall and monstruouse. O cruell enuy foule and malitiouse, the one neuer van­quysshed with gentilnes, the other neuer contented with vertue and sobrenes. How often haue wyse men ben by suche falshode deluded, Emperoures, kynges, and other potentates by such serpentes abused, iustice oppressed, mercy sklaundered, good people destroyed, false harlottes aduaunced? God forbyd that I shuld [...]yue Emperour of Rome, if I wolde not see this enor­mytye [Page 97] punisshed, whereby all publike weales may be shortly subuerted. for where ordre fayleth, obedience decayeth, boldenes increaseth, deceyt eskapeth, iniury preuaylethe, auarice corrupteth, the state of a weale publyke sone after perisheth. Whan he had sayd thus: he cōmending the truthe and sinceritie of them, which had spoken, communded that they shulde remayne stil in his palayce in a place secrete, vntyl it were his plea­sure for to call for them. Than caused he to be publi­shed throughout the cite, that Marcus Geminus was likely shortly to be condemned. Which being commen to the eares of his accusers, they replenished with ioy, romed aboute the citie, imbracing their frendes and confederates, with mutuall congratulations, making bankettes one to another, for exceding ioye forgetting to slepe, but passed forth the nyghtes in drinkyng and syngyng, and deuisyng tourmentes for Marcus Ge­minus. Of all this herde the Emperour, who dissem­bled his angre, albeit he had no lasse solicitude, in pro­uiding the meanes how theyr mischiefe and falshode mought be in suche wyse corrected, as good menne mought be free from suche perilles, and the example mought vtterly drowne the malyce of wretches. As sone as Duillius and Cotta had herde of the brute of the condemnation of Geminus, with all spede they bothe came vnto Rome, brynging with theym greate presentes to gyue vnto such as were nyghe about the Emperoure, to thintente that they by their meanes mought attayne to the possessions of Geminus. But these noble men, vnto whome they offered to gyue the said presentes, refused to take them, fearyng thempe­rours seuerity. As sone as the Emperoure had herd [Page] of the commynge of Duillius and Cotta, he sente for them, and in the presence of dyuers Senatours, after that he had taken them by the handes, with a fami­liar countenaunce, he dissembled to them, that he was moche grieued with the vnkyndenesse of Geminus, toward his persone, and allso his oppressions and in­iuries toward his libertines and tenantes. With that Duillius and Cotta being moche comforted towarde their purpose, to aggrauate the complayntes agaynst Geminus, and seming to do well, dispraysed the rigo­rous tyrany of Geminus, and commended the simpli­citie of his lybertines, sayenge, that they wolde not so soone haue complayned on Geminus, yf they had not ben by them vehemently styrred and prouoked therto.

¶After that the emperour had ben a while in a study, as it were to say some thyng against Geminus, at the last with a familiar visage, he sayde vnto theym: Ye haue knowen in how moch detestation I haue alway had the oppression of innocentes, the iniuryes doone with extreme malyce and violence: And yet not with­standyng the sharpe corrections, whiche haue ben exe­cuted agaynst suche malefactours, as well by ancient lawes of this citie as by our owne decrees and ordy­naunces, yet as it semeth that pestylence in the weale publyke ceasseth not. Wherfore we nowe wolde, that some newe and straunge correction were deuysed for Geminus, whiche shulde be suche as to al men of eue­ry degree, it mought be the mooste fearefull example to offende in lyke condicion. And as touchyng the of­fence towarde me, I shall holde me contente with the iugement, whiche the lawes haue prouided. And more ouer, to thintent that men shall perceyue, howe moche [Page 99] we fauour them that do supporte trewe men agaynste tyrantes, I wolde that some rewarde were also deuy­sed for suche supporters, equall and conuenient vnto their merites. And herein wyll we fyrst here your sen­tences, for as moche as ye do seme to be men of zeale. and are reported to be wyse men and polytike aboute your affaires. Wherfore we intend to haue of you bet­ter acquayntance, that the publike weale by you may be amended.

¶These wordes of the Emperour, Duillius & Cot­ta toke to be all for their benefyte, and thynking that they had good oportunitie, offred them to acheue their desyre, thynkyng that the more sharpe and vehement punyshement they dyd deuyse for Marcus Geminus [...] the better it shuld content the mynde of the emperour. Fyrst Duillius forgettyng hym selfe, with face all in­flamed with malice, declarid his sentence in this wise. Forasmoch as the Emperour had referred the offence committed againste his maiestie, to the iudgement of the lawes ciuile, (albeit that suche punysshement were insufficient for such a traitour as Geminus was) con­cernynge his oppression of innocentes, his correction mought be no lasse than that he being al naked, shuld by his lybertines be fyrst of all whipped throughoute the citie of Rome with whyppes full of ruelles called Scorpions, and afterward his nose & eares being cut of, so with reproches to be conuayde vnto the towne of his habitation, and there to be eftesones whypped by all his lybertines: and from thens to be caryed in­to the Iles called Nebrides, and neuer to retourne in­to Italye: his chylderne also to be banysshed for euer out of that territory: restitution also to be made to the [Page] lybertines of al that whiche was bereft them. As con­cernyng the resydue, they which were accusers of trai­tours and supporters of the same accusers, shuld haue diuided among them, the one halfe deale of their goo­des and possessions: so that the one halfe therof shuld be to the accusers, the other halfe to the supporters of them, the other halfe deale of the hole shulde be confi­scate to the emperours treasure. Cotta agreed in eue­ry thynge with Duillius, sauynge the deformynge of Geminus and banyshement of his children, sayenge, that therin was to greatte a visage of crueltie. In the disposition of the goodes and possessions, he added vnto the sentence of Duillius, that if the accuser or sup­porter were a bondman or libertine, he shulde haue no pa [...]te of the possessions, but onely the fourthe parte of the mouables, in the residue he agreid with Duillius. Wh [...]n they had spoken, the emperour and other that were with hym, semed to commende their zelous affe­ction, and the emperour fyndyng occasion by the lack of tyme, and that his supper abode than for hym, dyd depart from them, sayinge that he wolde aduyse hym on their wyse counsailes, and lycenced them to depart with a familiar becke. Who being retourned to theyr lodgynges, and sendyng for the lybertines and other of their acquayntaunce: after that they had declared what they had spoken, and how nigh the confusion of Geminus dyd approche, and what truste they had to enioye his goodes and possessions, there was made a­monge theym ioye without measure, with reuelle and bankettyng, so that the reporte therof came to the ea­res of the emperour, and of al the Senate, whiche re­mayned in a great expectation of themperours iuge­ment. [Page 99] Afterwarde the emperour commanded his place of astate to be made redy in the Theatre of Pompey, and that the people of Rome shulde be summoned to be redy there the thirde day folowing, whiche was ac­complyshed. And the emperour being set with his no­ble counsaylors with him, he commanded that as wel the libertines, as Duillius and Cotta shulde prepare theym to the accusation of Geminus, who came into the place, bryngynge with them one Rutilius Lupus a subtylle Rhetorician, to be theyr aduocate. But Ge­minus onely trustyng on his owne conscience, refused to haue any other patrone, than the true examination and iustyce of the emperour and other, whyche were his iudges. And the Emperour was therwith ryghte well contented, consyderyng that the tyme of the con­trouersye shulde be made therby the shorter.

¶First Lupus began his oration with a great praise of the Emperours vertues, whiche the Emperour in no wyse sustaynynge, but being therwith offended, in­terpellyd Lupus, and commanded hym to enter into his narration, and to declare immediately the state of the matter conteyned in the complaynte of the lyberti­nes. Than Lupus being partly abashed, for as moch as his begynning was to make themperor & herers beneuolent toward the libertines, & to make the cause a­gaynst Geminus to seme more greuous, he coldly en­tred into the matter, & generally obiectid ageinst Marcus Geminus his familiar resort vnto Omnius Ca­millus before that he was detected of treson. And thervnto he brought in for witnessis Duilliꝰ & Cotta, whō he callid men of gret worship, Geminus speaking yet nothing, nor changinge his countenance. Duillius & [Page] Cotta by to moch malice & couetyse, forgettyng them selues, preased furth, and sayd, that they had oftenty­mes sene Geminus not only at souper with Oniniꝰ in the tyme of his conspiracy, but also talking familiarly & secretly with him. Therwith themperour taking oc­casion, demāded of them, what it was that Geminus spake to Oninius. They sayd, they wyst not. for they stode farre from theym, and mought not here theym. The Emperour demaunded, if they dyd se whan Ge­minus came and departed. They aunswered, that for the more part they came before hym, and abode longe after hym. He asked more ouer, in what fourme Ge­minus departed from Oninius. They sayde, for the more parte with no pleasunt countenance of the one or the other. The Emperoure asked, if Geminus were desired by Oninius to come, or if he came to hym vn­sent for. They sayd, they could not remember, but that Oninius sent alway a seruaunt for Geminus. The Emperour demaunded, if he dyd likewyse with them. They aunswered, no. The Emperour immediately sent for Oninius, who being reconsiled to the Empe­roure, was than in the Senate, and for Carnilius his seruaunt, who had detected his treason: and in the meane tyme the Emperour turned hym vnto Gemi­nus and sayd, that if he were the man, that he shewed to be, he wolde lasse esteme deth than the losse of hys credence, and that for his parte he more estemed the confession of truthe, than the auenging of his disple­sure. Wherefore he charged hym vppon the faythe of an honest man, to tell playnely, whereof was the communication betwene hym and Oninius. Gemy­nus answered, that the first accesse that he had to hym [Page 100] was voluntary and vnsent for, onely to salute hym, bycause he was a Senatour, and in greate estimati­on, not knowing any thynge of his trayterouse affec­tion: But perceiuing his qualities, and natural appe­tites not to be agreable to his opinion and study, he cessed to cōme, vntil he was desired of Oninius, which as he after perceyued, was for his incommodity. For Oninius desired of hym a mantion place, whiche he had ioyning to the gardeins of Nero, from the which he wold in no wise departe. All be it often and sundry tymes Oninius sent for hym, and as well by offrynge greate summes of money and frendship, as sometime by menaces, he assayde to gette of hym the house. but last of all he thretned hym, that hauynge all thyng at commaundment, as he doubted not but that he shuld see it comme to passe shortly, he wolde leaue hym nei­ther house nor life. With the which wordes Geminus sayde, that he was astonyed, and so departed with his displeasure. But yet not thinkinge, that Oninius in­tended any conspiracy, considering that he was alied vnto the Emperour, and was by hym aduaunced vn­to greate riches. Thus ceassed Geminus to speake any more. And by that tyme Carnilius was commen, who beyng demaunded, what acquayntance he hadde knowen to be betwene Oninius and Marcus Gemi­nus: he aunswered, that he knew none acquaintance betwene them, but that often tymes he had herde O­ninius his mayster saye to his secrete frendes, after that he had a longe tyme talked with Geminus, that he was a sturdy and obstinate persone, and wold not confourme hym to his requestes, concernyng a house which he had nygh to the cyty, wherfore if he mought [Page] brynge his purposes to passe, he wolde leaue hym nei­ther house nor heed on his shoulders. The Emperour demaunded, yf Geminus were any of them that Oni­nius counsailed with concerning his cōspiracy. Ther­at smilid Carnilius and said, that Oninius neuer had hym in so moch reputation, for he euer estemed him to be moste vnapte to any suche practyse. Than came in Oninius, and the Emperour commaundynge hym, sate downe by hym: And themperour asked hym if he knewe Marcus Geminus. And he fearynge that he had complayned of hym, blusshed, and sayde, that he coulde neuer fynde kyndnesse in hym, and that his nature was ouerthwart and alway agaynst his desires. Wherfore he desyred the emperour not to gyue to mo­che credence vnto hym in such thinges as he complai­ned of hym, other than touchyng the request made for his house in the citie, whiche he confessed to haue desi­red importunately, and for that cause onely had often tymes conuented him whā he repaired into that coun­tray. The emperour with that answere was wel con­tented, and demanded, if he had any better opinion of Duillius and Cotta. He sayde, that they were of a no­ther sorte, and more confourmable vnto his appetite. Therat the emperour laughed in his hart (as he after declared vnto his familyars) markynge the folye as wel of Duillius and Cotta, as of Oninius Camillus, whiche vnwares had disclosed their secrete affections, and declared the innocēcy of Marcus Geminus. And lycencyng Oninius to returne to the Senate, he com­manded Lupus to resort to the resydue of the accusa­tion of Geminus: who partly beinge discoraged, with a weake eloquence alledged the iniurie and cruell op­pression [Page 101] of Geminus, extended vnto his tenantes, ta­kyng from them their auncient possessions, and anne­xynge them to his dominycall landes. Therwith Ge­minus being somwhat meued, playnly denyed that it was their ancient possessiooiōs, but affirmed that it were his proper dominical landes, which betwene the deth of his vnkle and his entrie, they had vniustely vsur­ped and falsely concelyd. Wherfore not only he by the law mought iustly expulse them from that which they vnlefully occupied, but also by their ingratitude they had forfaited their manumissions, and consequentely the landes gyuen to them by his auncetours of good ryght ought to resorte eftsones to his possession. This heryng the emperour, he demaunded of the complay­nantes of what state and condicion they were? They all confessed, to be the lybertines of Marcus Gemi­nus, and that suche landes as they had, were seruile. as for the whiche they were bounden to certayn obser­uances. But they plainly denied, that they had forfai­ted any thynge, and with great exclamations, and out of order cryed out on Geminus. Than commaunded the emperour, that the gentilmen and residue of the li­bertines and tenantes, sent by Triphonius, shulde be brought in, who being in likewise examined, declared openly the stealynge of Geminus dominicall landes, by the sayd lybertines, whiche were accusers, the con­iuration of them to the distruction of Geminus, their priuie solicitation of other, the malicious supportyng of Duillius and Cotta, with their secrete confedera­cies, and all other thynges as before they had shewed to the Emperour at home in his palaice: which aswel the accusers as Duillius and Cotta heryng dysclosed [Page] contrary to their expectations, they all were confoun­ded, & in theyr amased countenance sodein and silence, semed to the emperour and al that were presēt, to con­fesse their vntruthe and malyce. And therwith Cotta fearyng the emperours seueritie, fel on his knees, and besought the emperour to pardon hym, and lykewyse desyred Geminus to forgyue hym his malyce, confes­synge all to be trewe, whiche was nowe spoken on his behalfe. Herewith the emperour was feruently styred with displeasure towarde the accusers: after that he had spoken with the resydue of the iuges, he gaue sentence in this wyse.

¶ For as moche as it appiereth vnto vs, that thou Marcus Geminus art innocent of that treason, whi­che thy cruel libertines, with the supportation of Du­illius and Cotta haue falsly accused the of, we declare the to be a true gentylman, loyall to the weale publike and maiestly imperiall, and denounce vnto all menne, that none be so hardy to renew this suspicion, wherof thou arte purged. And for thy pacience, wysedom, and temperance, we deeme the worthy to be admitted into the college of Senatours. Than the emperour tour­nyng hym to the lybertines sayd: Ye vyllayn genera­tion, full of pestyferous malyce, rude and most bestial of nature, voyde of all courtesy, false and deceyptfull towarde your souerayne, cruel and vengeable ageinst iustyce and raison: For as moche as ye with all youre wyl and puissance haue indeuored your selfes by your fals accusation, not onely to haue brought to a shame­full deathe Marcus Geminus your naturall lorde, a true and innocent gentylman, and a necessarye mem­bre of the wele publyke, which if it had hapned, therof [Page 102] shulde haue succeded vnto the weale publike, notable damage, & to our person perpetual reproche, & burden vnto our cōscience: We therfore iuge you al worthy no lesse to suffre thā Duillius one of your captayns gaue in his sentence at home in our palayce agaynst Mar­cus Geminus. that fyrste ye shalbe whypped through­out the citie with Scorpions, and than your noses & eares to be cut of, and so to be broughte into Campa­nia, and there to be eftsones whipped in euery towne, and last of al, to be hanged in chaynes on high gybet­tes, as ye be .xvi. in numbre, in .xvi. of the gretest tow­nes of that countrey, and that your chyldren shall lose the priuilege of the manumissiō of you and your aun­cestours: and that none of your bloud be from hens­forth manumised by any Consul or Pretor. Moreouer all your possessions holly to remayne to Marcus Ge­minus, your moueables by the consente of Geminus, (whervnto we exhort hym) to be equally diuyded and gyuen to his other tenantes and lybertines, which re­fused to be consentyng or party to your procedynges.

¶Than loked he on Duillius and Cotta, and firste sayd to Duillius: Thou detestable serpente of villain progeny, which nature in the, neither mought be sub­dued with authoritie, nor altered with riches, for as moche as by enuy onely thou hast maligned ageinste Marcus Geminus, and with all thy power hast sup­ported his libertines, to accuse hym mooste falsely of treson: & more ouer thy selfe hast in such wise appeched hym, that in thine owne wordes it appereth that thou were of a more familiar resorte vnto Oninius than Geminus was, and by Oninius confession more con­formable vnto his appetyte, and what is declared by [Page] those wordes, but thou and Cotta were consentynge vnto the conspyracy? Thou shalt therefore receyue thine own iugement, which thou woldest haue gyuen on Marcus Geminus, that is to saye, thou shalt be disgraded of al honour, and despoiled of thy garmen­tes in the myddel of this cyty: And from thense whip­ped with scorpions vnto the hygh way called Via Ap­pia. and from thense thou shalte be caried vnto Ta­rentum, and being there eftsones whipped, thou shalt be rendred with thy children in seruytude to Marcus Geminus. And al thy possessions to remayne for euer to hym and his heires. And as to the Cotta, although that thou haste desyred pardon, yet for as moche as thou haste polluted the noble and aunciente bloude, wherof thou camest, imbracing villayne condicions, and chosinge rather to be confederate with villayns and maliciouse wretches, than to fauour vertue and iustyce, it were not expedient that thou sholdeste be so pardoned, that thou sholdest clerely eskape without punishement, specially considering, that thy nobility was a cause that Geminus was moche more suspec­ted, than if thou haddest not ioyned thy selfe with his libertines. Thou shalt therfore susteine parte of thine owne iugement, whiche thou woldest haue gyuen on Geminus, that is to say, thou shalt forthwith lose all thy moueables, whiche also with the goodes of Duil­lius shalbe equally parted, the one half to be brought in to the commune treasorye, the other halfe to be gy­uen indifferently amonge those gentylmenne, whiche honestly haue declared vnto vs the innocency of Marcus Geminus. And as for thy landes, duryng thy life to be confiscate, afterwarde to retourne to thyne hey­res. [Page 103] Moreouer that thou thy selfe shalt neuer retorne in to Campania, but remayne stylle here in this citye, excepte we vppon other considerations hereafter me­uinge vs, shall clerely pardon the.

¶This was the ende of the Emperours sentence. Wherewith all the people reioyced and cried with one voyce: happy is Rome, that hath such a gouernour, happy is the world, that it hath, such an emperour, but moste happy be we that haue such a father. Lyue no­ble Alexander, for the goddes do fauour the, all prin­ces dothe honour the, all ille menne do dreade the, all good men loue the. Liue and prosper mooste excellent Emperour.

¶With these and other moste ioyouse acclamations, the emperour issued out of the Theatre and departed towarde his palayce, hauing with hym Marcus Ge­minus, all the streetes beinge full of men women and children, castyng before hym imnumerable roses and other sweete floures. The nexte daye was the Empe­rours iudgement putte in executyon, and Geminus admitted in to the Senate. This was the laste inge­mente that the Emperour gaue openlye in his owne person, diuerse other iugemētes he gaue, which were in tables according as other Emperours vsed to do.

HITHERTO is the reporte of Eucolpius: moche more he wrate, as it semed. for diuerse quayres lacked in the booke. Wherfore to make some perfecte conclu­sion, I toke the residue out of other, which wrat [...] also the lyfe of this Emperour.

[Page] HERODIANVS a greeke authoure, wri­teth, that the iourney made agaynste Ar­taxerxes the kynge of Persia, was loste through the slaknes of Alexander, whome he supposeth to be retayned from his en­terprise by his mother Mammea, who wold not lette her sonne ieoparde his persone ageynst the Persians: but Lampridius, who gathered his worke out of the bokes of Accolius and Eucolpius, who were alway in company with the Emperour Alexander, wryteth in this wyse: He being such an Emperour in his house and abrode, he entreprysed the iourneye of Parthia, whervnto he prepared all thingis with such discipline and reuerence about his owne person, that it mought be sayde, that Senatours went and not souldiours. Where so euer the host was, the chefe captaynes were circumspecte, the captaynes honest, the souldiors be­loued. And therfore the inhabytauntes of countrayes receyued hym as god. The menne of warre loued the yong emperour as their brother, their sonne, and their rather. They were honestly cladde, conueniently ho­sed and shodde, rychely armed, very welle horsed with harneyse & brydels accordingly trymmed. that he whi­che behelde the emperours army, shulde haue percey­ued the state of the weale publike. He hym self labored to be iudged worthye to haue the name of Alexander, and to surmount hym of Macedone. in suche fourme he went into Persia, and vāquished king Artaxerxes, who came agaynst hym with seuen hundred elephan­tes, bearyng on their backes towres of woode full of archers and artyllery. Also a thousand and fyue hun­dred chariottes armed with sythes, and people innu­merable. [Page 104] And afterwarde Alexander retourned vnto the citie of Antiochia, and with the praye that he toke of the Persians, he made all his men of warre ryche. Than fyrste began Persyanes to be slaues to the Ro­maynes. But bycause that the kynges of Persia doo dysdayne, that any of their people shall lyue in serui­tude, he was content, that they shulde be redemed, the money beinge gyuen to them whiche toke them priso­ners, beinge retourned to Rome, was conuayde vnto his palayce with all the senatours gentylmen & peo­ple, the wyues and chyldren of his souldiours enuy­ [...]onyng hym, and his triumphall charyot folowynge hym, being drawen with foure great elephantes. And entrynge into his palaice, he was lyft vp with the handes of the people, so that durynge the space of foure houres he mought not walke on his fete, al the people crienge aboute, Nowe is Rome saufe, for Alexander is safely returned.

¶Afterward he lyued in moste tender loue of the pe­ple and Senate [...] but at the laste the Germaynes wa­sting and destroyeng the countray, he being ashamed that the Parthians now being vanquysshed, that na­tion sholde prease so nygh to the hed of the weale pub­like, which people were subdued by petite emperours, he prepared his voyage towarde them, and departed agaynst all mennes wylles, euery man bryngynge hym a hundred and fifty myles on his waye, with hope of victory, and sone returne to the cyty. but being in France, and fyndyng the legions sediciouse, he co­māded them to be reiected. By which occasion the frenche mennes stomakes, as they be alway obstinate and froward, and oftentymes displeasaunt vnto the Em­perours, [Page] wolde not suffre any longer his rygorouse grauity. Wherfore certayn souldiors, which were en­riched by Heliogabalus, by the comforte and ayde of that monstruouse mulettour Maximus, whome they made afterwarde Emperour, they sodeynly entrynge into the pauillion of Alexander, slewe bothe hym and his mother, he nothing fearing their malice. Other o­pinions there be of his dethe. Finally the rage of vn­chrifty persons, which mought not sustayne his excel­lent vertues, traiterousely slewe this most noble Em­perour: Whose deth all Rome lamented, al good men bewayled, all the worlde repented. whom the Senate deified, noble fame renoumed, al wyse men honoured, noble writers commended. Whose lyfe maye worthi­ly be a paterne to knyghtes, an example to iudges, a myrrour to prynces, a beautifull ymage to all theym that are lyke to be gouernours: Whereby they may haue in continuall remembraunce, to imbrace and fo­lowe his moste excellent qualities.


LONDINI IN OFFICINA Thomae Bertheleti typis impress. Cum priuilegio ad imprimen­dum solum.


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