A PLAINE PATH-VVAY TO PLANTATIONS:

That is, A Discourse in generall, concerning the Planta­tion of our English people in other Countrie [...]

Wherein Is declared, That the Attempts or Actions, in themselues are very good and laudable, necessary also for our Coun­try of England. Doubts thereabout are answered: and some meanes are shewed, by which the same may, in better sort then hitherto, be prose­cuted and effected.

Written For the perswading and stirring vp of the people of this Land, chiefly the poorer and common sort to affect and effect these Attempts better then yet they doe. With certaine Motiues▪ for a present Plantation in New-found land aboue the rest.

Made in the manner of a Conference, and diuided into three Parts, for the more plainnesse, ease, and delight to the Reader.

By RICHARD EBVRNE of Hengstridge in the Countie of Somerset.

Printed by G. P. for Iohn Marriot. 1624.

TO THE RIGHT REVEREND FATHERS IN GOD, AND HONOVRABLE LORDS, ARTHVR, LORD BISHOP OF Bathe and Wells, and ROBERT, Lord Bishop of Bristol, RICHARD EBVRNE wisheth all health and happinesse externall, internall and eternall.

COnsidering, (Right Honoura­ble) and not without griefe of mind, & sorrow of heart, view­ing the great miserie & encom­brance of this our goodly coun­trie, the Countrie of England (which heretofore admirably flourished in plen­tie & prosperitie) by reason of the excessiue mul­titude of people, which therein at this present doe swarme and superabound, the many faire Op­portunities which God, in his gracious Proui­dence, often hath, and at this instant doth offer vnto it, for a present, a speedie, and an infallible [Page] remedie thereof: and yet the notorious neglect and wayward vnwillingnes of the people of this Land, our English Nation, to regard and accept such Offers, and to seeke and take their own good: I thought I might doe a worke worth the labour, and (in all likely hood) gratefull and vsefull to my Country and Countrimen, to write something, (and the rather, for that none that I know, hath yet trauelled this way) that might stirre and encou­rage them, specially the common and meaner sort of them, as whom chiefly, and most of all it doth concerne, to make better vse of these faire, wor­thy and necessary opportunities.

Whereupon I haue in a plaine and familiar man­ner, (as one that intended to submit himselfe to the capacitie and vnderstanding, euen of the mea­nest,The summe of he whole Treatise. for whom specially this my labour I inten­ded.) First, declared and iustified these kinde of Attempts, Plantations, to tend notably to the glory of Almightie God, the enlargement of the Kings Maiesties Dominions, and the manifold and inestimable benefit of this whole Land, the Realme of England; and to bee in their owne na­ture lawfull and iust, ancient and vsuall. Second­ly, I haue shewed some particular meanes, or in­feriour courses, how and whereby, both men and [Page] money, the two principall things that must plen­tifully be had for Plantations, may easily and speedily be raised and procured in and out of our Land for this purpose. And thirdly, I haue giuen and set downe some particular Instructions and obseruations touching these Actions, not vnwor­thy happely the Notion and Consideration of many such as yet are little acquainted with them; and added some speciall Motiues, for a present Plantation in New-found-Land, before and aboue any other place of Plantation yet attempted. Withal, in euery of these passages, I haue answered all such, either reall (or rather Regionall) or personall Obiections, as commonly are made against the en­terprizes themselues, why they should not be re­garded, or by persons that should employ them­selues in the enterprizes, why they should not ad­uenture therein?

These plaine, but I hope plausible and profitable Labours of mine, I am bold, and humbly desire your Lordships both, that I may be bold to pre­sent to the open view and consideration of this Land, vnder the Patronage & protection of your Honourable Names: The one of you being my much & worthily honoured Diocesan; the other my worthy and fauourable Patron: both speciall [Page] Fautours of all good Learning, and furtherers of all goodly Indeuours; and therefore, such as I hope and presume will vouchsafe these Labours of mine, and these worthy, pious, and religious (if they be worthily, piously, & religiously handled) these notable Attempts, and for our Land at this present most necessarie and expedient, your best furtherance and countenance: not doubting but that thereby both my Indeuours shall the better be respected and receiued, and the Actions them­selues the more aduanced and followed, I shall be shielded from the malicious enuie of the carping Cauiller, that takes more delight, and can be con­tent to bestow more labor and time in deprauing what others haue done, then in setting forth and publishing, I say not any better, but any like and as good of his owne: and they (the Actions) shall be shrowded from the canine vnkindnesse of those lazie Lurdans that will neither take the good of them themselues, nor suffer, by their good will, any other to doe it.

One reason more particular hath moued me to tender to your Lordships these my Labours, and that is, for that the one of you is resident in that Citie, as in his proper and Episcopal Sea: the other in the next neighboring both Citie and Country, [Page] which either by it selfe in generall, or by a cer­taine number of the worshipfull Citizens thereof, in particular, hath alreadie begun, and at this pre­sent continueth a Plantation in New-found-Land: which I therefore hope will be an occasion that may moue your good Lordships both, this way to doe to the Places of your owne aboad (which truly by reason of the number of people, where­with they are cloyed and ouerlaid, doe as greatly need these helps, as any Cities or Counties in Eng­land) much good and benefit. Which thing, I am perswaded, you may easily and greatly effect, if you will be pleased, but to shew your selues in countenancing and assisting me and others, that doe and will employ our selues in them, to ap­proue and fauour, to allow and like of these kind of Labours and Indeuours, and namely, that wherein your owne people and so neere Neigh­bours are alreadie so farre interessed and pro­ceeded.

The Lord Iesus, the high Bishop of our Soules, vouchsafe vnto your Lordships, whom he hath called to be Principall Pastors in this his Church of England, such plentifull store of his Hea­uenly gifts, and so guide you by his Holy Spirit, [Page] that you may sincerely set forth his Gospel, and seeke his Glory in this World, and in the World to come be crowned by him with Celestiall and eternall Glorie. Amen.

Your Honourable Lordships [...] to command in the worke of the Lord, RICHARD EBVRNE.

TO THE CVRTEOVS AND Christian READERS, especially the Common-People of this Realme of ENGLAND.

OTher men, diners, haue laboured seuerally in descri­bing and commending, one this Countrey, another that: as Captaine Whitbourne, New-found-Land; Captaine Smith his New-England; Master Harecourt Guiana; and some others, more then one or two, Virginia And euerie of these hath vsed sundry Motiues for the aduancement of a Plantati­on, in the place by him most affected; all tending to this maine end: To moue our people of England, to plant themselues abroad, and free themselues of that penurie and perill of want, where­in they liue at home. But none that I know hath handled the point in generall, viz. to shew the benefit and the good; the lawful­nesse and the ancient and frequent vse; the facilitie and necessitie (that is indeed, if I may so speake, the Doctrine) of Plantations. That taske therefore, haue I vndertaken, which how I haue perfor­med, I leaue to others to iudge; requesting this at your hands (be­neuolent and curteous Readers) that you obserue and consider: First, That I am the first that hath broken this Ice, and searched out this way; and that therefore it must needs be to me more rough and rude, then if I had passed a smooth water, and gone along in an vsuall and beaten path. Secondly, That my whole purpose and intent is, principally and specially to doe some good this way, for and with the meaner sort of our people: to whose capacitie therefore, it was fit, and more then fit, necessarie, that I should fit and frame my speech. That obserued, I doubt not but you will, not onely beare with, but also approue of my plainnesse, as best befitting my purpose to worke; and my subiect to worke vpon: the more learned and iudicious sort, I freely and ingeniously acknowledge my selfe more desirous to haue my Teachers and directours in this kind of Learning, then my Readers and Followers.

If any thinke it a point beyond my Compasse, for a Diuine by Pro­fession, to deale with an argument of this Nature, viz. to intreat [Page] of Plantations, which are commonly taken to be a matter altogether of Temporall and Secular right. Let him be pleased to know: First, That I am not alone, nor the first in this attempt, but haue for my president the precedent examples of some farre before me in Lear­ning and Knowledge; as Master Hackluit, who long since wrote a great Volumne of English Voiages, Master Crashaw in England, and Master Whitaker in Virginia; who haue both employed their Pens and paines for that Plantation.

Secondly, That Plantations are Actions wherein we also of the Cleargie are as farre interessed as any other. They are as free for vs, as for others: and, if men will haue any hope that they shall pro­sper in their hands, we must haue a distinct part, a certaine share, and Cleargie-like Portion in them, as well as men of other places and qualities haue theirs. And therefore, to write and discourse of, and for them, it behoueth, and becommeth vs of the Cleargie, as well, and as much as any other.

Thirdly, That one proper, and principall end of Plantations, is, or should be, the enlargement of Christs Church on Earth; and the publishing of his Gospell to the Sons of Men: and therefore in that respect, it cannot but properly and directly belong vnto them, to whom Christ hath giuen commandement and authority aboue others to take care of his Flock, to seeke the furtherance of the Gospel, and to sound forth the glad tidings of Saluation to all Nations, to be prin­cipall Agents therein, and speciall furtherers thereof.

That my proofes and examples are most out of the Bible and Sacred Histories, I haue done it of purpose, not onely because they are with me most familiar and of best authoritie, but because they should be so with all Christians; euen the Lay sort likewise. As I am not of the Papists opinion, that is, to care little for the Scrip­ture: so I like not to be of the Popish fashion, which is, to fill the peoples eares with sound of the Names of Fathers, Councels, and others-like, which they nor are, nor can be acquainted with but to let them heare little and see lesse the Word of God, in which they easily might, and certainly should be ripe and ready, and well both seene and read.

Besides, for this present argument, it is so frequent in the Scrip­tures, that there is not any substantiall point thereabout, for, or of the which (because the practice thereof was verie much in those [Page] times) there is not some, either precept or president to be found.

If I haue any where dissented from the common practice, and shewed some dislike of the ordinarie proceedings in these Proiects, I desire but so farre to be borne with and accepted, as I bring good rea­son for it, and declare or intimate some iust and reasonable cause thereof.

Though I haue not presumed to set downe any certaine and regu­lar platforme of a good and right Plantation which happely to haue done, would haue seemed in me too much either boldnesse or rashnesse: yet thus much I presume to affirme of that I haue written, that if any will read and consider it well, he may, without any great labour, collect and find out a true and good platforme of such an Action.

I haue so answered many and most of the common Obiections made against and about these attempts, that out of, and by the same, an answer may likewise be shaped to any other obiection that lightly can be made there-against.

The whole I haue so drawne vnto certaine heads, and s [...]rted againe into seuerall parts, as I thought might best accord with the matter haudled, and be most likely to yeeld ease and delight to the Reader.

Wherein that I haue digested all into the forme of a Conference or Dialogue, hauing so many examples for it, and most of them from the best of all Ages, I am so far from fearing lest thereby I should offend any, that I presume rather, that in that point and paines aboue the rest, howsoeuer I be a little the larger, because of the Interlocution, I shall be the better accepted, my meaning and drift the sooner percei­ued, and my Labours and Lines the oftner lookt vpon and perused.

And now▪ that I may reuert my speech to you my countrimen and friends, you, I say, of the meaner sort, for whose sake chiefly, out of the abundance of my ardent loue and feruent desire to doe you good, I haue put my selfe to all this paines, I haue vndertaken this worke. Be pleased, I pray you, to peruse▪ that is, to reade, and cause to be read to you, ouer and ouer this booke, which I haue written to you, and for you. The Argument whereof I intreat therein, is, of Plantations, which howsoeuer attempted by many worthy, great, and honourable Personages, yet seeme little to bee accepted and re­spected of you, for whom, of all other, they are most necessary, and to whom properly they are intended.

[Page]Looks vpon the miserie and want wherein you doe, and abiding in England, you cannot but liue. Looke vpon the plentie and felici­tie, wherein going hence, you may liue. Preferre not pouertie before riches, nor your perpetuall euill and wretchednesse, before perpetuall good & happines. Now is a time wherein you may do you and yours nitie, for euer, if you will. Now God doth offer you that Opportu­good with choice of place, to rid your selues from your present mi­serie and distresse, which if you neglect to take, and refuse, as hither­to you doe, to make vse of and embrace, will neuer, happely can neuer be had againe.

Beleeue not the idle tales and vaine speeches of such, as knowing not, and caring not to doe, either themselues or other good, perswade and tempt you to abide at home, that is, to dwell (as many of you doe) in famine and penurie, and to die in need and miserie. Harken vnto me, read, heare, and consider what I say for your better informa­tion, and to stirre vp and animate you to accept your good, while you may, and to stablish your Happinesse, while Opportunitie serueth. Neuer can, or shall you doe it with lesse labour and trauaile, with lesse charge and expence, with lesse perill and hurt, with lesse trou­ble and incombrance then now you may. My words and speeches are plaine and familiar, my reasons and arguments are strong and euident, and my answers to the vaine Obiections of the contrary minded are sound & solid. Let truth take place within you, let reason moue, and let euidence of the cause sway and settle you.

Bee not too much in loue with that countrie wherein you were borne, that countrie which bearing you, yet cannot breed you▪ but see­meth, and is indeed, weary of you. Shee accounts you a burthen to her, and encombrance of her. You keepe her downe, you hurt her and make her poore & bare, and together with your owne, you worke and cause, by tarrying within her, her misery and decay, her ruine and vndoing. Take and reckon that for your Country where you may best liue and thriue. Straine not no more to leaue that Country wherein you cannot proue and prosper, then you doe to leaue your fathers hou­ses, and the parish wherein you were borne and bred vp, for fitter places and habitations.

And if you will needs liue in England, imagine all that to bee England where English men, where English people, you with them, and they with you, doe dwell. (And it be the people that makes [Page] the Land English, not the Land the people.) So you may finde England, and an happy England too, where now is, as I may say, no Land, and the bounds of this Land, of England, by remouing of your selues, and others the people of this Land, to bee speedily and wonderfully remoued, enlarged and extended into those parts of the world, where once the Name of England was not heard of, and whereon the foot of an English man (till of late) had not troden.

Be not so vaine-minded or weake-hearted as to thinke or beleeue that you shall doe better in this England with little or nothing, then in any other with something: here with an house and a backeside, then otherwhere with fortie or threescore, with one or two hundred acres of ground. It is the meanes and not the place that keepes and main­taines men well or ill. And Englishmen aboue many others are worst able to liue with a little.

Know and consider, that as it is the same Sunne that shineth there, as well as here, so it is the same God, (that God in whose name you are baptized, in whose Church you haue, and doe, and shall liue, whose seruants you that remoue are, shall, and may be as well as they that remoue not) that God, I say, that ruleth and gui­deth all things there as well as here. And doubt ye not, but that if you feare and serue him there, if there you keepe his commandements and walke in his wayes, as here you haue beene, and there you shall stil be taught and directed. (For the Arke of God, and the sonnes of Aaron and seed of Leui, must and will goe ouer with you) The hand of his all-guiding Prouidence, will be stretched out vnto you, and the eye of his all-sauing mercie, no l [...]sse there then here will looke vpon you. For, God is nigh vnto all those that call vpon him, yea, all those that call vpon him faithfully, Psalm. 145. 38. wheresoeuer it be. Reade ouer and peruse often (good Brethren) the 107. Psalm. and the 139. They will teach you most plainly, plentifully and comfortably, that by Sea and Land▪ far off and neere, in one part of the world as well as in another, the Lord is at hand, (for he is Lord of all) he seeth and beholdeth all the sonnes of men, an [...] defendeth and prouideth for all that be his. To whose fatherly tuition, and mercifull protection, betaking and commending your selues, feare not to follow him whither soeuer he calleth, and deferre not to accept his bountifull riches and goodly gifts wheresoeuer hee presenteth and offereth them vnto you, no more then did Abraham [Page] and Sara, Isaac and Rebecca, Iacob and many other famous, godly, and holy Patriarkes and persons, when God commanded them, to forsake their kindred and their fathers house, and to goe into that land which he should shew them: whose sonnes and daughters you shall be made, if you also walke in their steps, doing well, and not being dismaid with any feare. But of these things, I haue spo­ken more at large in my Booke, to the reading whereof I will now re­mit and leaue you.

Your Companion in one or other Planta­tion, if the Lord will: RICHARD EBVRNE.

The Summe or principall Contents of the whole Booke.

The first Part.
  • WHere in is declared 1. What profit may come by reading such Bookes as concerne Plantations. page 2. See also part 3 page 90.
  • 2 That Plantations are Actions very commendable and necessary. p. 3
  • 3 That by them the Church of Christ may notably be enlarged, partly by the Addition of other Countries to Christendome. p. 4
  • And partly by the Conuersion of infinite heathens to the Christian faith. Ibidem.
  • To whom the Gospell must be preached before the end can be. p. 7
  • The Papists haue endeuoured much this way. p. 4
  • 4 That by Plantations the Dominions and Maiestie of the Kings of Eng­land may much be augmented. p. 8
  • 5 That the good of this I and may notably be thereby procured. p 9. viz. In the
    • 1 Easier supportation of the regall estate. ibid.
    • 2 Ridding out of the Land the ouer great and superfluous multi­tude thereof. ibid.
    • 3 Abating the excessiue high prices of all things to liue by. p. ibid
    • 4 Enriching the poorer sort hence remoued. p. 10
    • 5 Amending the Trade and Traffique of Merchants. p. 11
    • 6 Rooting out Idlenesse out of this Land. p. ibid
  • The fruits of Idlenesse. p. 16
  • An Obiection answered of Idlers. p. ibid
  • Another of Idlers remoued hence. p. 14
  • 6 That the practice of making Plantations, is a thing very lawfull. p. 1.
  • And very vsuall and ancient. p. 176
  • 7 Certaine Obiections commonly made against Plantations are answe­red. as,
  • 1 Of the distance of the place. p. 18
  • 2 The wildnesse and desolatenesse of the Countries. p. 19
  • There that Tents may serue for housing for a time. p. 20
  • 3 The badnesse and barrenesse of the soiles. p. 21
  • There, against the spoile of woods in those Coutnries. [...]
  • 4 The countries are full of wild Beasts. p. 24
  • There, what meanes may be vsed for profitable Cattell to be had and transported thi­ther. p. 26
  • 5. The people there, rude and barbarous. p. 28
  • 6 The Aduentures very dangerous. p. 29. 30. 31
  • 7 That small profit, no wea [...]th is there to be had. p. 32. 33. 33.
  • There, what great riches and liuings by all likelihood, are there to be had. p. 34 35
  • There, N [...]rmandie and Aquitaine lost in France, and when. p. 36
  • 8 That it will bee long time and much expense spent, Before any thing there to any purpose can be effected. p. 37
The Summe of the second Part.
  • [Page]Wherein is shewed. 1. That the best course to be taken for Plantations, is by Act of Parliament. pag. 46
  • 2 Two things being principally necessarie to the working of Plantations, viz. Men and Money. What Inferiour courses might be taken for the raising or pro­curing of both plentifully: that is, Of Money. 1 By Voluntaries. p. 47
  • 2 By personall Aduenturers. p. ibid. 2 By generall Collections. p. ibid.
  • 4 By Hospital Mony. p. 48. By monies giuen to the vse of the poore. p. ibid.
  • 6 By Moneys giuen to the vse of the Church. p. 49. 7 By Lotterie. p. ibid.
  • 8 By some ratable Imposition. p. 50
  • 9 By base Monies for those purposes and places to be stamped. p. ibid.
  • 10 By Gold and Siluer coynes altered. p. 52. 11 By frugall expences. p. 53
  • An Extrauagant. p. 54.
  • By godly parsimonie of the richer sort at home. p. ibid.
  • Then of Men. 1 By Proclamation. 2 & 3 By good order for remouing. p. 56
  • 4 By prouision supplyed. p. 57
  • 5 By Vagrants. 6 By Prisoners. p. 59.
  • 7 Maimed Souldiers 8 Cottagers. 9 Inmates. p. 60.
  • 10 Souldiers and Seruants. p. 62
  • There what sort of persons are fittest for a Plantation. p. 63
  • 11 Ministers of the Word. p. 64
  • There how they may be prouided for. p. 64. 65
  • 12 Scholemasters and other Schollers. p. 66
  • There, what meanes may be vsed for procuring such men to be goe ouer. p 67
  • A notable Historie of the Conuersion of certaine Indians in the time of Athanasciou [...]. p. 67
  • 13 By men of name and note to be Gouernours. p. 68
  • 14 And that in the State Ecclesiasticall as well as Temporall. p. 69
  • 15 That his Maiestie would entitle himselfe to that Countrey in which any Plantation shall be. p. 70
  • Certaine Obiections answered: as,
    • 1 The greatnesse of the expenses. p. 72
    • 2 The remouing of so many at once▪ p. ibid.
    • 3 The weakning and impouerishing of our Land. p. 73
    • 4 The wast of the reuenues of the Crowne. p. 78
The summe of the third Part.
  • 1 Causes why Plantations proceed no better in England. viz.
    • 1 The want of a generall resolution thereto. p. 90
    • 2 The want of some good course for it. p. 91
    • 3 The great idlenesse of our people, & lack of industrie. p. ibid.
    • 4 The immoderate loue of their naturall Countrey. p. 92
  • [Page]2 How many Plantations there be now in hand. p. 93
  • 3 Whether all of them can be finished. p. 94
  • 4 Which of them seemeth to be best to be set forward. p. 95
  • 5 How many waies to make a Plantation. p 96
  • There Planting by inuasion disliked. p. ibid
  • 6 That Plantation and Inuasion are somewhat like in some things, and how. p. 100
  • There, what Celeritie is needfull in making a Plantation. p. 101
  • 7 Whether better to plant in an Iland or a Continent. p. 104.
  • 8 Certaine motiues gathered out of Captaine [...] huburnes booke, why
  • Newfound land may be thought fittest for a present Plantation. p. 104. 105. 106.
  • 9 Certaine personall Obiections vsually made by such as are vnwilling to goe in a Plantation, answered, as,
    • 1 Of Agednesse. p. 109.
    • 2 Vn-vsuall for old men. ibid.
  • There whether old men and married, or young single men be fitter for a Plantation. p. 100.
    • 3 Hard Trauelling by Sea. p. 111
    • 4 Of them that haue some good liuings here. p. 112
    • 5 That such men doe not vsually goe. p. 114
    • 6 That women, mens wiues are not willing. p. 116
  • 10 To goe into one or other [...]lantation, the Authour intendeth. p. 19
The end of the Contents.

Errata.

Page 6. line 4. for barren reade barbarian. page 15. line 5. for idle r. such. p. 19. l. 6. for Iland r. Ireland. p. 24. l. vlt. for employ­ed r. enpeopled. p. 59. l. 19. for stealing r. filching. p. 61. l. 10. for poory r. poore. p. 62. li. 32. for of r. to. p. 64. l. for informed r. in­forced. p. 65. l. 2. for distinted r. distincted. p. 110. l. 27. for hur r. hurt. p. 114. l. 7. for willingly r. willing. p. 115. l. 19. for approue reade proue.

A PLAINE PATH-WAY TO …

A PLAINE PATH-WAY TO PLANTA­TIONS. The first Part.

The Speakers be Respire, a Farmer. Enrubie, a Merchant.

Respire.

I Am very glad to see you in health (good Ma­ster Enrubie) and hearing of your comming home, I am come to see you, and to salute you.

Enrubie.

I thanke you heartily for it, Neigh­bour Respire, and am glad to see you and the rest of my good Neighbours and friends here, to be also in good health. I pray you sit downe by me in this Harbour.

Resp.

That I would doe willingly, but that I doubt I shall be trou­blesome to you: for I see you are busie in reading some Booke, what-euer it be.

Enr.

That shall be no trouble to me, nor let to vs. For it is but to recreate my selfe withall, for want of better company and ex­ercise.

Resp.
[Page 2]

If it be for Recreation, then I hope it is some matter of de­light and speciall obseruation.

Enr.

Yes indeed. It is a new and prettie Discourse of some of our new Plantations; namely, that in N.

Resp.

I maruaile what good or pleasure you should finde in such idle Bookes, fables I thinke, not worth the looking on.

Enr.

They are better then you yet vnderstand, I see: and there­fore bee not you rash in condemning, lest you be hastic also in re­penting: for, Ad poenitendum properat, citò qui iudicat. Hastie men (as they say) neuer lacke woe.

Resp.

Why? But doe you indeed find any good in reading such books, which I know of many to be but little regarded?

Enr.

Yea truly: and that I doubt not but you also shall acknow­ledge, before you depart from hence, if you haue the leisure to stay with me but a while.

Resp.

I haue lost more time then this ere now: and therefore for your good companies sake, I will, God willing, see the euent: and any great businesse to hasten me away at this time, I haue not, I pray you therefore tell me, what good you get by those Bookes?

Enr.

Besides the delight that comes by the noueltie of the con­tentsWhat profit may come by reading such books as con­cerne Planta­tions. thereof, and you know that, Est natura hominum Nouitatis a­uida: we are by much nature like the Athenians spokē of in the 17. the Acts of the Apostles, desirous very much to heare Newes: I doe reape thereby vnto my selfe this threefold benefit. First, I doe thereby after a sort, as blessed Moses from mount Nebo, Deut. 34. view and behold with the eyes of my minde those goodly Coun­treys, which there God doth (offer to) giue vnto vs and to our seed. Secondly, Thereby I am inabled with Ioshua and Cal [...]b, Num. 14. to stop the mouthes, and confute the malice of them, that in my hearing, like the ten vnfaithfull spies, shall goe about to bring vp an euill report vpon those good lands, and stay the murmurings of such foolish & ignorant people, as vpon euery idle hearesay, or any lazie vagrants letter, are ready to beleeue the worst: & with­all, thirdly, I am the better prepared to informe them and others, that are willing to know the truth and certaintie thereof.

Resp.

I see there is good vse to be made of such bookes, if a man will. And therefore I shall from henceforth forbeare to thinke of them as I haue done: and I shall desire you to lend me that booke of yours for a day or two, that I may reade it ouer also.

Enr.
[Page 3]

I shall willingly lend you this, and one after another, two or three more that I haue of the like argument. For I wish with all my heart, that both you and all my friends were as well ac­quainted in them as I am.

Resp.

I thanke you much for this courtesie. But seeing you make such vse & reckoning of those books, it seemes that you make more account of the actions themselues, that is, of Plantations, whereof they doe intreat, which yet I euer held, and so I know do many else, that be men of good wit and vnderstanding, to be but idle proiects and vaine attempts.

Enr.

Without any dislike or disparagement to any other mensPlantations themselues are Actions very commendable necessarie, &c. wits or vnderstandings be it spoken, for mine own part I do pro­fesse, I estimate & account the Actions themselues to be very good and godly, honourable, commendable, and necessary: such as it were much to be wished might be, and much to be lamented they be not, in farre better sort, then hitherto any of them are, followed and fur­thered, as which tend highly, first, to the honour and glory of Almightie God. Secondly, to the Dignitie and Renowne of the Kings most excellent Maiestie. And thirdly, to the infinite good and benefit of this our Commonwealth. Three things, then which none weightier or worthier, can in any Designe or Proiect be le­uelled or aimed at.

Resp.

You make me euen amazed, to heare of you, that so great good may be effected or expected out of those Courses, which of many are so much contemned and dispraised. Wherefore for my better satisfaction therein, I pray you, let me heare of you in particular somewhat, how these notable effects might be produced, and namely first, the Glory and Honour of God.

Enr.

The Glory of God cannot but be much furthered thereby,1. By them the Church of Christ may notably bee enlarged. were it but onely, that the Gospel of Christ should thereby be pro­fessed and published in such places and countries, by those alone, that shall remoue from hence to inhabite there, where before, since the beginning of the Gospel, for ought we know, or is like­ly, it was neuer heard, at least professed, as it is now of late come to passe, (God be praised) and we hope will be shortly in Newfound land.

Resp.

Will be, say you? Me thinkes you should rather haue rec­koned that among the first, because that for fiftie or threescore yeeres before euer the Summer Ilands or Uirginia were heard of, our peo­ple did yeerely goe thither a fishing, and so the Name of, Christ was [Page 4] there long since honoured among them.

Enr.

But for all that, till there be Christians inhabiting there, wee cannot say properly, that the Gospell of Christ is planted there, or that it is any part of Christendome. It must therefore in that respect, giue place to the other before-named, as which in­deed were Christian before it.

Resp.

I cannot dislike that you say. And indeed any man mayBy the Addi­tion of other Countries to Christen­dome. see, that this must needs bee a great aduancement to the honour of God, when as the Scepter of his Sonne is extended so much farther then it was, as is from hence to those remote and vnknowne Regions. Christendome will then be so much the larger. And it seemes to me it will be in a goodly order, seeing that as I vnder­stand, from England to Newfoundland, and so to the Summer Ilands, and thence to Virginia, all is in one tract, no Turkish, no Heathen Countrie lying betweene. But proceed, I pray you.

Enr.

This is, as you see, greatly to the honour of God,And by the Conuersion of infinite hea­thens to Chri­stianitie. but it will be much more, if when and where our people doe plant themselues in such countries where already are an infinite number of other people, all Sauages, Heathens, Infidels, Ido­laters, &c. this in the Plantation may principally and speedily be laboured and intended, That by learning their languages, and teaching them ours, by training vp of their children, and by continuall and familiar conuerse and commerce with them, they may be drawne and induced, perswaded and brought to re­linquish and renounce their owne Heathenismes, Idolatries, Blasphemies and Deuill-worships. And if (for that I take it can­notThe Papists haue much endeuoured this way. be denied) the Papists haue done much good that way, by spreading the Name of Christ, though but after their corrupt and superstitious manner, into so many vnknowne Nations that liued before altogether in the seruice and captiuitie of the deuill, (for Better it is, that God bee serued a bad way, then no way at all.) How much more good must it needs be, if the Name of the true God, in a true and sound manner, might there be published and spred abroad?

To which purpose, I would to God, there were among vs, vs Protestants, that professe and haue a better Religion then they the Papists, one halfe of that zeale and desire to further and disperse our good and sound Religion, as seemes to be among them for furthering and dispersing theirs. Which not found, [Page 5] for our zeale is coldnesse, and our forwardnesse, backwardnesse in that behalfe, in respect of theirs, I need not say, we may feare; but rather, we may assure our selues, that they shall rise against vs in the day of Iudgement, and condemne vs. As they haue de­serued, so let them haue the Palme and Praise in this point. For what other ends soeuer they proposed in their conquests and courses, questionlesse Religion, the Christian faith, according to their knowledge, was not the least, nor the last, since cer­taine it is, They neuer set foote in any Country, nor preuai­led in any Coast, wherein they did not forth-with endeuour to root out Paganisme, and plant Christianisme, or leaue behinde them at least some Monuments and signes thereof.

And who can tell? (I speake this to prouoke ours the more withall) who can tell, I say, whether God hath euen therefore, as to Iehu that rooted out B [...]l, himselfe continuing to worship Ieroboams Calues, 2. Reg. 10. 30, 31. bestowed on them a great part of that successe in warres, increase in wealth, and honour on earth, which had we stood foorth in their stead, and gone before them, as we should, and might haue done; he would more admi­rably, happily, and abundantly, haue conferred on vs? For he that is so kinde to his enemies, what would he haue beene to his friends?

Resp.

I easily perceiue that this might redound not a little to the glorie of God, if the Conuersion of such People and Nations might be accomplished. Lord, How many thousands and millions of soules might so be saued, which now run headlong into hell! It were a glorious worke, imitating notably that of the blessed Apostles, which conuerted the world so long agoe, from dead Idols to serue the liuing God. And in so holy and religious a labour; I am sorry to heare that we should not be as forward as Papists, but that to be verified twixt vs and them also in this case, which our Sauior said in another: The children of this world are in their generation wiser then the children of light. But as I must needes confesse, that the worke were a worthy piece of worke, if it might be wrought, and that happy were our Land, if the children thereof might be made of God, Agents therein. So me thinkes, we had need to haue some assurance of the will of God, that it should be done. For as you know better then I can tell you; If the time of their Con­uersion be not come; or if God, as he hath wrapped them hitherto in vnbeliefe, so he be not pleased nor determined to release them, to call them to the knowledge of his truth, and to manifest his Son vnto them at [Page 6] all: our labour then will be but in vaine, and our attempt not pleasing, but displeasing in his sight.

Enr.

That God desireth and willeth his Name, his truth and Gospell by vs to be published in those Heathen and barren lands;It is Gods will to call them to the knowledge of his truth. the inclination and readinesse alone of those people and Nations may sufficiently assure vs, who as it were prepared of God, to receiue the Gospell from our mouthes, if it might be but sounded vnto them, doe euen of their owne accord offer themselues to be taught, suffer their children to bee baptized and instructed by vs; and, as weary of, and halfe seeing the grossenesse of their own abominations, and the goodnes of our obseruations doe make no great difficultie to peferre our Religion before theirs, and to con­fesse that it is God that we, and the deuill that they doe worship.

For my owne part, I am perswaded, that God will instantly haue them either by vs or by others, if we will not, called to theAnd their con­uersion must be before the end of the world can be. knowledge of his Truth, & turned from darknes to light, & from the power of Satan, vnto God; that so the words of our Sauiour may be fully fulfilled, who, Math. 24. 14. hath foretold vs, That the Gospell, before the end shall come, must be preached throughout the whole world: and Mark. 13. 10. be published among all Na­tions, which, howsoeuer most hold is long since accomplished, in that it either now is, or heretofore hath beene preached to all, or neere all Nations of this vpper Continent: yet I am now resolued, (let it bee my priuate errour, if I doe erre) that they will not bee fulfilled indeed, according to our Sauiours intent, vntill that vn­to them also that inhabit that other, the vnder Continent, it be made manifest, which it seemeth vnto me, God doth now hasten to ac­complish, in that within our Age alone, a great part thereof hath had the same, though corruptly, though imperfectly, brought vnto them.

Resp.

You doe well to say, that this is your owne priuate Opinion, for no man else, I thinke, is of that minde.

Enr.

Not many, it may be, but yet I assure you, I am not alone. For there was but few yeeres past, a Preacher in Dorsetshire, of some note and name, that in a Sermon of his intituled, The Ma­gold and the Sun, now extant in Print, page 40. vpon these words of his Text, Luk. 1. 79. To giue light to them that sit in darkenesse, &c. saith thus: This light rising first from the Iewes, as from his East or Orient, is carried ouer all the world, and hath giuen light to [Page 7] vs (English) that sate in darkenesse. Of his first rising reade Luke 24 47. beginning (saith our Sauiour there) from Ierusalem. Hence sprung this blessed light first, and thence, besides his dispersion into o­ther parts of the world, was carried ouer all Greece, Italy, Germany, France, and rose to vs also, and is now making day to the Indians and Antipodes. For the world shall not end, till he haue finished his Course, I meane, till, as the Euangelist Math. 24. 14. saith, The Gospell be preached in all the world, and be a testimony to all nations: and then shal the end come. Thus he. D. Keckerman likewise, that famous pro­fessor of Arts and Learning, diuine and humane, in his Manudu­ction D. Keckar. Dantiscan. to Theologie, of late translated into English by my worthy friend Master T. Uicars Batchelour in Diuinitie, pag. 94. writes of this matter in this manner: And doubtlesse towards the end of the world, the true Religion shall be in America: as God is now pre­paring way for it by the English and Low-Country Merchants, that, that of Christ may be fulfilled, Math. 24. 14. This Gospell of the Kingdome shall be preached through the whole world, for a witnesse vnto all Nations, and then shall the end come. For God in all his works is wont to effect a thing successiuely, and therefore first he sends to those Nations some light of his Essence and Truth by the Papists, and af­terward will make these things shine more clearely vnto them by the true and faithfull Ministers of the Gospell. Thus farre he.

So that in their opinion, as well as mine, this is a worke that must be done before the end can be. Wherefore since it is a worke, and a most holy and necessary worke, which must be done, before the day, the great day of the Lord can come, I see not how we can, without sinne (hauing any thing to doe in those parts) withdraw our shoulder from this burthen, or with-hold our hand from this plough. And so much the more will the sinne be, by how much it is farre more easie for vs this to hold and vndergoe, then it was for those that did vndertake the like taske for vs, I meane, the Conuersion of our Ancestors and predecessors in this land, a peo­ple as rude and vntractable, at the least that way, as these now, in as much as they were to preach and not to subdue: but wee may plant as well as preach, and may subdue as well as teach, whereby the Teachers shall need to feare no losse of goods or life, no prison nor sword, no famine or other persecuting distresse for the Go­spels sake. Whose steps, if our Nation now, if our Countrimen in their intended Plantations among those Infidels would in any [Page 8] measure follow, how many soules might they saue aliue? How many sinners might they conuert from going astray? How much might they ampliate the Kingdome of Christ in earth? aduance the name, glory, and worship of our, the onely true and euerla­sting God? and prepare for themselues an abundant, or rather a superabundant heape of glory in heauen, according to that which is written, Dan. 12. 3. They that be wise, shall shine as the firma­ment: and they that turne many vnto righteousnesse, shall shine as the starres for euer and euer?

Resp.

That these courses tend to the glory of God, I plainly see and acknowledge: But how may they be to the renowne and benefit of the Kings most excellent Maiestie?

Enr.

These could not but much augment and increase the Ma­iestie2. By them the Maiestie and renowne of the Kings of England may be much aug­mented. and renowne of our dread Soueraigne, if thereby his Do­minion be extended, as it were into another world, into those re­mote parts of the earth, and his kingdomes be increased into ma­ny moe in number, by the Addition and Accesse of so many, so spacious, so goodly, so rich, and some so populous Countries and Prouinces, as are by these Beginnings offered vnto his hands.

We see the Euidence and certaintie of this Assumption as cleare as the Sun-shine at high Noone, in the person of the King of Spaine, whose Predecessours and Progenitors accepting that which others did refuse, and making better vse of such Opportu­nities, then any else haue done; he is thereby become Lord, not onely of Territories, almost innumerable, but also of Treasures and riches in them inestimable.

Whose Right thereto, and to the rest of that Continent, be it what it may be, cannot, I suppose, in any equitie or reason, be any sufficient Barre to any Christian Prince, why hee should not yet, by any lawfull and good meanes seize into his hands, and hold as in his owne right, whatsoeuer Countries and Ilands are not be­fore actually inhabited or possessed by him the Spaniard, or some other Christian Prince or State. Of which sort, since yet there are many, it were much to be wished, That his Maiestie might in time, while Opportunities serue, take notice and Possession of some of them, whereunto these courses of Plantation (being right­ly prosecuted) are a singular, if not the onely meanes.

Resp.

All this is most apparant: but may the like be said for your third point, The good of this land likewise?

Enr.
[Page 9]

Yes verily. Whosoeuer shall but lightly consider the3. By them the good of this Land may no­tably be pro­cured. estate thereof, as now it stands, shall plainly see, and will be en­forced to confesse, That the prosecuting, and that in an ample mea­sure, of those worthy Attempts, is an enterprise for our Land and common good, most expedient and necessarie. For,

First of all, whereas toward the Supportation of their Regall1. In the easier supportation of the Regall state. estate, for many and vrgent Necessities, the Kings of this Land are oft occasioned to demand and take of their Subiects, great summes of money by Subsidies, and other like wayes, which to many of the Subiects, specially the Clergie (who for the most part, to such payments, as things now stand, pay eight or ten times as much proportionably, as other Subiects doe) is somewhat hard and heauy to endure. This Burthen would be more easily borne, and could not but become much the lighter, if by the accession of more kingdoms to their crowne, store of treasures being brought into their Coffers, the same were borne by diuers other lands and Subiects, as well as of this, and the rest, yet vnder their subiection.

Secondly, Whereas our Land, at this present, by meanes of our2. In ridding out of the land the great and superfluous multitude thereof. long continued both Peace and Health, freed from any notable, either warre or Pestilence, the two great deuourers of mankinde, to both which in former Ages it was much subiect, euen swar­meth with multitude and plentie of people, it is time, and high time, That like Stalls that are ouerfull of Bees, or Orchyards o­uergrowne with young Sets, no small number of them should be transplanted into some other soile, and remoued hence into new Hiues and Homes.

Truly, it is a thing almost incredible to relate, and intolerable to behold, what a number in euery towne and citie, yea in euery parish and village, doe abound, which for want of commodious and ordinary places to dwell in, doe build vp Cotages by the high way side, and thrust their heads into euery corner, to the grieuous ouercharging of the places of their abode for the pre­sent, and to the very ruine of the whole Land within a while, if it be not looke vnto; which if they were transported into other regions, might both richly increase their owne estates, and nota­bly ease and disburden ours.3. In abating the excessiue high prices of all things to liue by.

Resp.

These be motiues of some weight and likelihood: but let me heare more to these, if you haue them.

Enr.

Next. Thirdly, Whereas at this present, the prices of all [Page 10] things are growne to such an vnreasonable height, that the Com­mon, that is, the meaner sort of people, are euen vndone, and doe liue, in respect of that they did for thirtie or fortie yeeres past, in great needinesse and extremitie, that there is neither hope, nor possibilitie of amending this euill, but in the diminution of the number of people in the land. Which, if men will not, by depar­ting hence, elsewhere effect, we must expect that God, (they ha­uing first eaten out one another) by warre or pestilence doe it for them.

I know, that much helpe in this case might be had, if our Ma­gistrates and great ones did take some good course (cum effectu) for the encrease of Tillage. But neither thereof is there any (great) hope, nor therein a sufficient helpe, since it is out of all doubt, that vnlesse it be in an extraordinary fruitfull yeere, and of them now a dayes, God for our sinnes, sends but a few, our land is not able to yeeld corne and other fruit enough, for the feeding of so many as now doe lie and liue vpon it. And when it which was wont to helpe feed other countries, must, as of late we haue to our cost both seene and felt, bee faine to haue helpe and food from others; how can our state bee for the commons, but wofull and ill? Likewise, if some good course might bee taken for restraint of excessiue Fines and Rents, whereby Landlords now a daies, grinde the faces of the poore, and draw into their own hands all the sweet and [...]at of the land, so that their poore Tenants are able, neither to keepe house and maintaine themselues, nor (as anciently such houses did) to relieue others, then could not the prices of all things but much abate and come downe. Yet this were but an imperfect Cure. The true and sure remedie is, The diminution of the people, which reduced to such a competent num­ber, as the land it selfe can well maintaine, would easily cause, not onely the excessiue height of Fines and Rents, but also the prices of all things else, to fall of themselues, and stay at so reasonable a Rate, that one might (which now they cannot) liue by another, in very good sort.

4. Consider also the great riches, wealth, and good estate which4. In enriching the poorer sort hence re­moued. such who here liue, and cannot but liue parcè & duriter, poore and hardly, might by Transplantation, within a while rise vnto: while as they may haue otherwhere, for their bad cottages, good houses; for their little gardens, great grounds; and for their small [Page 11] backsides, large fields, pastures, meadowes, woods, and other like plentie to liue vpon.

5. The benefit that might that way accrew vnto Merchants,5. In amen­ding the Trade and Traffique of Merchants. and all kinde of Aduenturers by Sea, is infinit. For Traffique and Merchandize cannot but by meanes thereof wonderfully be bet­tered and increased. And withall, which is not the least point in Obseruation, most commodious and delightfull must merchan­dizing and traffique needs bee, while it shall be exercised for the most part, betweene one and the same people, though distant in Region, yet vnited in Religion, in Nation, in Language and Do­minion. Which surely is a thing likely to proue so materiall and beneficiall, as may turne the greater part of our Merchants voy­ages that way, and free them from many of those dangerous pas­sages which now they are faine to make by the Straits and nar­row Seas; may finde them out their rich and much-desired com­modities, and greater store, and at a better hand then now they haue them other where, and vent them many a thing, which now doe seldome, or not at all passe their hands.

But of all other, I need speake little of the Merchants good, as who can, and I am perswaded, doe so well know it of them­selues, and thereupon affect the enterprise so much, that if other mens desires and endeuours were correspondent, it would take both speedy and condigne effect.

6. The last benefit to our Land, but not the least, is the curing6. In rooting out Idlenesse out of this Land. of that euill Disease of this Land; which, if it be not lookt vnto, and cured the sooner, will bee the Destruction of the Land, I meane, Idlenesse the Mother of many Mischiefes, which is to be cu­red, and may be rooted out of the Land, by this meanes, yea by this onely, and by none other, viz. by Plantation.

Resp.

Idlenesse is a naughtie vice indeed, but commonly it doth hurt none but them in whom it is, and yet except that fault, many that be idle be honest men, and haue in them diuers good qualities: and therefore me thinkes you speake too hardly of it; to call it The Mother of Mischiefes. There be worse vices a great many in the Land, as this Drunkennesse and vnthriftie spending of their goods, which are euery where so common.

Enr.

I perceiue by you, it is a very bad cause that cannot get a Proctour. That which I haue spoken against Idlenesse, is but lit­tle to that I could speake, and which writers both humane and [Page 12] diuine [...]aue spoken of it, to whom I will referre you, le [...]t we pro­tract this our Conference ouer-long. But for the vices you speake of, if they be, as you say, worse then Idlenesse; yet, as sometime of a bad mother, there may come worse daughters; I assure you,The fruits of Idlenesse. they and many more, as filching and stealing, robbery and couse­nage, adultery and incest, fornication and all kinde of wanton­nesse and vncleannesse, beggery and roguery, prophanenesse and idolatry, and a number more, that vpon the sodaine, I cannot call to minde, and with which this Land of ours is defiled and filled, be none other (for the most part) then the fruits and of spring, the brood and increase of Idlenesse; which alone taken away, and wee­ded out, these all would fall away and vanish with her. For, Sub­lata causa, tollitur effectus, saith the Philosopher, The cause of any thing taken away, the effect is also taken away with it, and must cease.

Resp.

A happy worke indeed were the doing thereof. But doe you thinke, or is there any probabilitie, that this might be done by so spee­die and easie a meanes, as Plantation?

Enr.

Questionlesse, The best and the onely Cure thereof by the hand of man, is this way, and none other. The diminution of the people of the Land vnto a due and competent Number will doe it. This is apparant by Experience. For, looke we backe to the state of our Land for 40. 50. or 60. yeeres agoe, before it did thus exceed in multitude, and we shall see, that few or none of these vices did then abound, nothing in Comparison of that they doe now, as which haue since sprung vp out of Idlenesse, that since that time, together with the multitude and increase of the peo­ple, is risen and increased.

Resp.

Indeed I remember well, when I was a young man, there were no such swaggering Youths, potting Companions, and idle Game­sters as bee now in the Countrie: little fornication, bastardie, quar­relling and stabbing, and other like wicked facts, in respect of those that be now, howsoeuer it be that the world is so much altered. But that these euils may be amended by Plantations, yet I see not.

Enr.

I will make you see it, and confesse it too. You haue your selfe a great many of Children, if you should keepe them all at home, and haue not wherewith to set them to worke, nothing to employ them in (for all the worke you haue to doe ordinari­ly, is not enough for aboue two or three of them) must they not [Page 13] needs fall to Idlenesse? what will most of them proue but Idlers and Loyterers? Now, to preuent and auoyd this, what other re­medie haue you, but either to get worke for them into your own house from other men, if you can haue it, or else perforce to place them forth of your owne house into other mens, one to this trade or occupation, another to that, where they may be set aworke, and kept from Idlenesse.

Resp.

This is true. But what is this to our purpose?

Enr.

Very much. For the cases are very like. Thereby you may plainly perceiue, that, as the onely way to rid Idlenesse out of your house, hauing no worke for them at home, is, to place a­broad your children into other houses, as it were, into Colonies, where they may be set aworke; so the onely way to rid Idlenesse out of a whole parish, towne, countie or countrey (the same be­ing not able to set th [...] that are idle therein aworke. And it is a thing so euident, that for the idle people of our Land, what by the great number of them, which is almost infinite; and what by the present dampe and decay of all Trades and employments, the Land is not any way able to set them aworke, that it needs no proofe, is to place abroad the Inhabitants thereof, which therein be not nor can be set aworke, into other parishes, townes, coun­ties and countries.

Resp.

If this Course should be taken, it would touch very neere a great many of the best liuers in the Countrey, who, both themselues, and their children be as idle as any can be, and yet would be loth, ha­uing so good meanes here to liue by, to be remoued into Plantations a­broad.

Enr.

These might be brought from Idlenesse, and yet abide at home too. For, if the superfluous multitude of our Land were remoued, those which you speake of, would for their owne need fall to worke, and leaue Idlenesse, because that multitude remo­ued, they should haue none to doe their worke for them, as now they haue, while they goe to playing, potting, and other like vaine and idle courses.

The Magistrates of our Land haue of late made many good statutes and prouisions, for the beating downe of drunkennes▪ for setting the poore and idle people to worke, and other like: but how little effect hath followed? Drunkennesse encreaseth daily, and laughes the Lawes to scorne. Pouertie more & more ariseth, [Page 14] and idle people still doe multiply. Other sinnes and disorders are sometimes punished, but yet they still remaine, and, as it were, in despite of Lawes, they spread more and more abroad. The reason is, (if a man may be bold to giue the reason of it, They strike at the boughes, but not at the Rootes.) If there were the like good Orders taken for the rooting out and beating downe of Idlenesse it selfe in our Land, which can be done no other way, but by Plantations, both Idlenesse it selfe, and all the rest of the Euils beforenamed, and other like that arise out of it, would vanish away as smoake before the winde, and melt as Waxe a­gainst the Fire.

Then, these blinde and filthy Ale-houses, which are none otherAle houses. than the Deuils Dennes, wherein lurke his beastly slaues day and night, which all the Iustices in the Countrey cannot now keepe downe, would sinke of themselues to th [...] [...]ound.

Then, these Tobacco-shops, that now stinke all the Land ouer,Tobacco­shops. would shortly cease to [...]ume out their infernal smoakes, and come to a lower rate and reckoning by an hundred fold.

Then, the many idle Trades, which of late are risen vp in theIdle Trades. Land, vnder colour to keepe people from idlenesse, and to set the poore on worke, such, I say, as the former Ages knew not, and our present Age needes not, as which serue to nothing, but to the increase of pride, and vanitie in the world, would quickly grow out of request.

Then, the Prisons, and Sheriffes Wards, would not be onePrisons. halfe so full of Malefactors and Bankrupts, as now they are. And last of all, (but not the least; for, who can reckon vp all the bene­fits that this one Remedy would bring vnto our Land?) then should not one halfe so many people of our Land bee cut off,Violent deaths. by shamefull, violent, and vntimely deaths, as now there are.

Resp.

Your speeches are very probable: but by this meanes, so ma­ny idle people of our Land, as you intimate, being remoued, the Planta­tions will then be pestered with them there, as much and as bad as we are here; and so, those good workes be discredited, and haply euer­throwne thereby. It is but the remouing of euill from one place to an­other.

Enr.

Howsoeuer, such a Remouall made, our Land (which is the poynt in question) shall be cleared and cured. But of that ex­treme hurt to the Plantations that you fore-cast, there is no [Page 15] feare. For, whereas there are in our Land at this present many idle persons, some are such as gladly would worke, if they could get it. They are idle, not for any delight they haue in idlenesse, but because they can get no body, nor meanes to set them on worke. Some are idle indeed, as may worke and will not. They haue wherewithall to keepe themselues from idlenesse, that is, worke enough of their owne to doe, but, delighting in idlenesse, and counting it a disgrace to men of their meanes, to worke and labour in their vocation, they will haue and hyre others to doe their worke, to be their seruants, and labourers, which they needed not, and which other men of like quality and ability, that are thrifty, and good Common-wealths men indeed, doe not, nor will doe, and they themselues the while liue idlely, spend their time vainely, lye at the Ale-house, or Tauerne, bibbing and bowzing beastly, sit at Cards or Tables loosely, haunt idle and lewd company shamefully, and giue themselues to no good pra­ctice or exercise commendably, but runne on from ill to worse, to the shame and discredit of themselues and their friends, and many times to the vtter vndoing and ouerthrow of them and theirs miserably. A third sort there are, as it were a mixt kinde of people, neither altogether idle, nor yet well and sufficiently set aworke. Of these, some worke at a low and small rate, ma­ny times glad to serue for any thing, rather than to begge, steale, or starue: and some of them set vp idle and pelting Trades, as it were shifts to liue by, for lacke of better imployment, that so they may haue one way or other somewhat to liue vpon.

Of all these, if the first and third sort were remoued into Plan­tations, where they might haue either good Liuings of their owne to liue vpon, or good imployment by others to labour vp­on, it is no doubt, but that the most part of them, would be glad of the exchange, and proue laborious and industrious people, to their owne good, and the good, not the hurt, of the Countrey in­to which they shall be remoued. And then for the second or middle sort, it is not much to be doubted, but that the occasi­ons of their idlenesse taken away, as I said but now, they also will leaue to be idle, fall to doe their owne worke as they should, learne to thriue and become profitable to themselues, and this our Countrey, wherein they remaine▪ and [...]e at length as much [Page 16] ashamed to be idle and vaine henceforth, as heretofore they were to worke and labour.

If any continue their former lewd and disordered courses, be­ing but a few, so many of their wonted Companions being seue­red and gone from them, there is hope that a little seuerity of the Laws, which easily reclaimeth a few, when on a multitude some­times it can doe little good, will and may bring them also to a better course.

And thus I hope you see, That it is not impossible the idlenesse that is in our Land, to be notably cured and expelled: and that this may be done either onely, or at least no way so soundly, rea­dily, and speedily, as by Plantations. And therefore, the slate of our Land considered, if there were no other benefit that might arise of Plantations, yet this alone, viz. the rooting out and de­stroying of idlenesse out of the Land, which else Uiper-like, will in time root out, and destroy the Land it selfe, wherein it is bred, were cause all-sufficient, and reason enough, why such attempts should be vndertaken, and by all possible meanes furthered and hastened.

Resp.

I cannot but like well of all that hitherto you haue said, touching the goodnesse and necessity of these Actions. But yet, mee thinkes, there may be a Question, Whether they be lawfull or not? For, mee thinkes, it should neither be lawfull for any people to forsake the Countrey wherein God hath placed them, and in which they and their Progenitors, for many generations haue remained: nor to in­uade and enter vpon a strange Countrey, of which they haue no war­rant nor assurance that God is pleased, they should aduenture vpon it.

Enr.

If any will make question of the lawfulnesse of such Acti­ons,Plantations be lawfull. Nature it selfe, which hath taught the Bees, when their Hiue is ouer-full, to part Company, and by swarming, to seeke a new habitation elsewhere, doth euidently informe vs, That it is as lawfull for men to remoue from one Countrey to another, as out of the house wherein they are borne, or the parish wherein they are bred, vnto another. If humane reason satisfie not, (for some will make doubts in cases most cleare) there is diuine warrant for it that may. For it was Gods expresse commande­ment to Adam, Gen. 1. 28. that hee should fill the earth, and sub­due it. By vertue of which Charter, hee and his haue euer since [Page 17] had the Priuiledge to spread themselues from place to place, and to haue, hold, occupie, and enioy any Region or Countrey what­soeuer, which they should finde either not pre-occupied by some other, or lawfully they could of others get or obtaine.

Vpon which clause, wee Englishmen haue as good ground and warrant to enter vpon New-found-Land, or any other Countrey hitherto not inhabited or possessed by any Nation else, Heathen or Christian, and any other that we can lawfully, (I say lawful­ly) get of those that doe inhabite them, as to hold our owne na­tiue the English soyle.

Resp.

But this, though I see it to be lawfull, seemes yet to be a ve­ry strange course, the like whereof, in former Ages hath not beene vsed.

Enr.

That this course hath beene in former times both vsuallPlantations no new nor strange course: but both vsuall and ancient. and ancient, and not as you seeme to imagine, new and strange, though I might proue by coniecture onely: For, how else had it beene possible, so many, so diuers, so distant, and so great Coun­tries to be peopled, but by remouing from one Countrey to ano­ther? or referre you to humane Histories, which are full of such Narrations, and of them, aboue all to the Romane state, which from their very first yeeres, ab v [...]be condita, after that Rome it selfe was builded, fell apace to that practice, and had euer in hand, one or other Colonie. One of good Antiquity, and therefore not partiall, and of great Obseruation, and therefore regardable,Tully. doth tell vs expresly, That as other things common by nature, so Lands, so Countries, (for they also are a part of his omnia) haue become priuate, from time to time, aut veteri Occupatione, aut victoria, aut lege: either by ancient vsurpation, men finding them void and vacant, or by victory in warre, or by legall condi­tion or composition in peace. But what need I care what such say, or say not, when as holy Writ it selfe tels vs very plainely, Gen. 10. 5. That whereas after Noahs fioud, there were no moreGen. 10. 5. aliue on earth, of all the posterity of Adam, but Noah, and his sons, and their wiues, eight persons in all, Of them only were the Iles of the Gentiles diuidea in their Lands, euery man after his tongue, and after their Families in their Nations? And againe, verse 32. Out of these were the Nations diuided in the earth▪ that is, These, as they increased, dispersed themselues, and inhabited, and replenished, first one Countrey, and then another, as wee see at this day. And [Page 18] this vpon warrant of that Grant which Adam had, being renew­ed and confirmed vnto Noah, and his sonnes, Gen. 9. 1. Replete Gen. 9. 1. terram, Replenish yee the earth, or fill it vp againe. Lastly, let such but looke backe and thinke, How at first wee, the Inhabi­tants of this Land, came hither. Were all Indigenae? or rather Terregenae? Did they at first spring vp heere out of the earth? Are we of the Race and off-spring of Noah, or his sonnes? and therefore per conseq. vndeniable, (as all our Histories doe ac­cord) haue come from other-where? Why then should that seeme so insolent to vs, and in our time, which haue beene so vsu­all at all times, and in all Ages?

Resp.

You haue, mee thinkes, well iustified this course in generall: Now, if you can as well cleare it in some particulars, I shall haply at length bee of your minde also, for the maine.

Enr.

Obiect your particulars, and I doubt not whatsoeuerCertaine Ob­iections an­swered. they be, but I shall be able reasonably to satisfie you in them.

Resp.

The places, the Countries to be planted and inhabited by vs,1. Obiection. are very farre off from hence.

Enr.

To that I say, first, If neerer places cannot bee had, bet­terAnswere. a good place, though farre off, than none at all.

Secondly, others, as the Spaniards, haue and doe remoue and plant further off, by a great deale.

Thirdly, Abraham, Iacob, and other good men, haue beene content in lesse need, [...]aue that GOD so commanded to depart farre from the places of their birth, as wee may see, Gen. 12. 4. Acts 7. 3. and other-where.

Fourthly, When God calls, and as with vs now, Necessitie doth so require, good men should be indifferent to dwell in one Countrey, as well as in another, accounting, as one said well, Ubibenè, ibi patria: wheresoeuer a man is, or may be best at ease, that is, or should be to him (as) his Countrey. A very Heathen man could say:

Omne solum forti patria est, vt pis [...]ibus aequor:
[...]id.
Ut volucri, vac [...]o quicquid in orbe patet. that is,
Vnto a valiant-minded man, each Country good is his:
As is wide world vnto the Birds, and broad Sea to the Fish.

And, another being asked, Cuius esset Vrbis? answered, Or­bis: as who would say, The World at large were his Seate or City.

[Page 19]Fifthly, Sister-land, or as it is yet commonly called, New­found-land, which for the present seemeth to be the fittest of all other intended Plantations, is not very farre off. It is not with a good winde, aboue foureteene or fifteene dayes sayle. As easie a voyage in manner, the Seas and passage considered, as into our next Neighbour-Countrey Iland, whither of late yeeres ma­ny haue out of England, to their and our good remoued.

Sixthly, Our Merchants, in hope of present but vncertaine gaine, doe yeerely and vsually trauaile into farther Countries a great deale: and why, then should any for his assured, certaine, and perpetuall good, thinke it intolerable or vnreasonable to make one such a iourney in his life?

Resp.

The Countries themselues are wilde and rude: No townes,2. Obiect. no houses, no buildings there.

Enr.

Men must not looke still, in such a case, to come to aAnsw. Land inhabited, and to finde ready to their hands, as in Israel, in Canaan, great and goodly Cities, which they builded not: houses full of all manner of store, which they filled not: wells digged, which they digged not: Uine-yards, and Orchards, which they planted not: as Moses speaketh, Deut. 6. 10. It must content them, that God prepareth them a place, a Land, wherein they may build them Cities, Townes, and Houses to dwell in, where they may sow Land, and plant them Uine-yards and Orchards too, to yeeld them fruits of increase, as the Psalmist writeth, Ps. 107. 39.

2. Thinke they it is no bodies lot but theirs? And doe they imagine, that in any Countrey wheresoeuer, where now there are Castles and Towres, Houses and Habitations of all sorts settled, there was not a time when none of these were stan­ding? but that the ground was as bare and naked thereof, as wilde and void of Couerture, as any of our Plantations are. For, according to our English Prouerbe, Rome it selfe was not built in one day.

3. They that shall at first come there, may account it a benefit to finde the places vnbuilt, in that they may thereby chose them seates, and diuide the Countrey at their owne will: That they may enter large Territories, and take to themselues ample pos­sessions at pleasure, for them and theirs for many Generations: That they may be freed from these extreme Fines, and ouer­rackt Rents, which make their old Neighbours and natiue friends [Page 20] behind, to groane, and may well make them weary of the Land it selfe: For, who can beare them?

4. And if they can be content here to build vp houses vpon the High-way-side, though there be not the [...]ourth part of an A­cre of ground lying vnto it: or thinke themselues bountifully dealt with, if any Gentleman would giue to any of them, three or foure acres of ground, for their owne time, at a reasonable rent, (and yet few be the Land-Lords that be so liberall) so as they would build a House on it; why should they not rather goe where they may haue an hundred, fiue hundred, or a thousand Acres of ground, to them and theirs for euer, at the like rate?

Resp.

But what, and how shall men doe the while, for houses and dwellings, till they can build, &c?

Enr.

They may and must for a time dwell in Tents and Pauil­lions,Tents may serue for a time. as Souldiers doe now in the Field, Tradesmen in a Faire, and as in ancient times men of good and great account, from time to time, from place to place, many yeeres together haue done, as appeareth, Hebr. 11. 9. The particulars whereof you may reade at leasure, Gen. 12. 8. and 15. 5. and 18. 1. and 24. 67. and 31. 33. So dwelled all Israel in the Wildernesse, full for­tie yeeres, as you may finde, Leuitic. 23. 42. and Numb. 14. 33, 34. Yea, was not GOD himselfe content to dwell in a Tent, in the middest of Israel, till the dayes of Dauid, and reigne of Sa­lomon, who found that fauour in his eyes, that hee might build him an House? as it is written, 2 Sam. 7. 63. and Act. 7. 45. The like did the Family of the Rechabites, as appeareth at large, Ierem. 35. for the space of three hundred yeeres together, when as all Israel besides dwelt in houses, and in walled Townes and Cities, and sauing for the commandement of Ionadab, the sonne of Rechab their Father, so might they haue done. So that it is neither vnnaturall, vnusuall, nor vnpossible to take paines this way for a time, and that a long time, if need be.

Resp.

Your examples I must needs yeeld, are al good, because they be so authenticall. But yet I see not that the vse of Tents can be any thing seruiceable, for that being made, as commonly they are, but of raw cloth or canuase, besides that they are very cold, they are not able to keepe off any raine or wet an houre to an end.

Enr.

Well and artificially made, they are more seruiceable then you take them to be. Reade but Exod. 7. and 14. and to [Page 21] conferre it with 2. Sam. 7. 2. and you shall finde, That they may be made very durable: and that to the well making of Tents, there may goe a Couering or two of skins, or other stuffe, so dressed and fitted, as nor w [...] nor cold can easily pierce them.

Resp.

I see it well: I pray you proceed.

Enr.

Besides these, Men may, hauing once gotten place cer­taine for their abode, soone erect some Cabbins and small houses, which may for a time, some yeeres if need bee, serue for habita­tion, and afterward when they can build better, may be conuer­ted to inferiour vses, as for corne, cattle, &c. Men must bee con­tented at first with low and plaine buildings. England hath beene inhabited two or 3000. yeeres at least, and yet what poore, what homely houses be there many till this very day, and within your remembrance and mine, many more there were? If the Liuing be good, though the house be but bad, it is no great matter, good Husbands will say.

Resp.

The Countries themselues are scarce habitable and good: and3. Obiection. the Soile thereof but barren and bad.

Enr.

Experience it selfe, the surest teacher, sheweth altoge­therAnswer. the contrary. For, if any credit be to be giuen to those that haue set vs forth their owne knowledge, and triall thereof by the constant testimonie of them all, not one of those Countries inten­ded or attempted to be be planted by vs, but is found to bee ex­ceeding good and fruitfull. In euery Countrey to bee inhabited, three things are specially to bee respected; The Temperature of the Climate, the goodnesse of the Aire, and the fatnesse of the Soile. All and euery of these in those Regions (a thing seldome found in many of this vpper Continent,) in comparison of ma­ny of our Northerne parts, are in the superlatiue degree, viz. The Soile most fat and fertile, the Aire most sweet and healthy, and the Temper most milde and daintie. If those that lie neere (or vnder) the Aequinoctiall, seeme at first to be somewhat of the hot­test, yet since they are inhabited with Naturals of many sorts, and our men by their abiding there some yeeres together, haue found that they can inhabit them, there is no doubt, but that that excesse of heate, whereby as Spaine, England, they exceed these our Northerne Climates, will by vse and time become very to­lerable and kindly to men of our Constitution, as well as of others.

[Page 22]The Healthinesse of any Countrie, by plantation and inhabita­tion must needs be much increased. For, the ridding of grounds, casting of ditches, and watercourses, and making of fires, toge­ther with the destroying of wilde and filthy beasts, all which, and other like, doe necessarily accompany any good Plantation, fur­ther much to the clensing of the aire, cleering of fogges, and so ridding of much corruption and vnhealthinesse from the place.

Adde to these the two much-desired Commodities in all good Habitations, I meane, Wood and Water, (the former whereof so fast decaies with vs, that very want of it onely, within few yeers is like to proue exceeding hurtfull to our Land, and can bee no way repaired, but by transplanting the people) and it is out of all question, That neither England nor Ireland, nor any countrey else in this part of Christendome, can at this present compare with those, much lesse exceed them▪ All which considered, what need any doubt, but that The Sunne, as the old Prouerbe is, doth shine there, as merrily as here? and that a little good husbandry will make the dwelling there, as commodious as healthfull, as gainfull, and euery way as good, as any other-where.

Resp.

Your words doe sound somewhat pleasing: But yet I haue heard some say somewhat otherwise, as namely, Those countries are very barren and vnfruitfull.

Enr.

I beleeue you; For I haue heard say too, Euill will, will neuer say well. Many idle wretches, when they come into such pla­ces, because they cannot haue the plenty without paines, not finde those golden mountaines they dreamed of at home, though many things bee notable and very good, yet will cauill at, and blame euery thing.

Suppose it be somewhat as they say, that is, The ground not so fruitfull as some places here in England, yet doth it follow there­fore, it is not worth the hauing? If I be not deceiued, There bee few Countries in Europe that can compare with England for rich­nesse of the Soile, and fatnesse of the earth; yet we all know, they are not therefore forsaken. Againe, in England it selfe, all places are not alike good. As there be some of excellent mold, so there be barren, heath, and hungry Soiles a great many: yet we see, people are glad to inhabit them. Be it then, that some of those parts be no better then our worser grounds, our heaths, Mendip hills, Wiltshire downes, Salisbury plaines, and other like; yet I hop [...] [Page 23] they are better then none. A great deale of such ground together, I thinke, may be as good, as a little good ground. If any man will thus consider of such complaints and murmurs, he shall see no great cause to regard them. These therefore thus satisfied, if you haue any thing else to say, say on.

Resp.

Some say also, That those Countries are so ouer growne with wood, trees, bushes, and such like, that there is no roome for building, no ground for pasture and tillage, or at least, not without excessiue la­bour and charge, or intolerable and pit [...]ifull spoile of the woods and timbor to no vse.

Enr.

It cannot be, but that those countries, hauing either not at all, or but little as yet beene inhabited, must needs be much o­uergrowne with woods, and no small part thereof to be a very Forrest and Wildernesse, yet certaine it is, that there are (a thing very admirable, and almost beyond expectation:) there are, I say, in them to be found many goodly parts of those Countries, that are very cleare of woods, faire and goodly open champion ground, large Meadowes and Pastures many hundred, sometimes thousands of Acres together. So that besides the wood-lands there is abundantly roome, and ground enough to build and inha­bit vpon, for more people, I beleeue, then will hastily be gotten ouer to dwell there: and more ground open and cleare already rid for pasture and tillage, then yet there will be people and cattle enough had thither to such vses, the same to conuert and employ.

And therefore there needs not, either that Complaint whichThe spoyle of woods in those countries not sufferable. they make, of the excessiue store and encomberment of woods, nor, which is worse, of that present and hastie spoile, and bur­ning vp of woods on the sudden, for making of roome, that some doe talke of, and would haue to be made; and, as it is reported, haue already made by burning vp thousands of Acres together. This, truly in my opinion, is a thing very wicked, and such as cannot but be displeasing to Almightie God, who abhorreth all wilfull waste and spoile of his good creatures. Gather vp that which is left, saith our Sauiour, Ioh. 6. 12. that nothing be lost: and a thing that in common ciuilitie, and humane policie, should not be suffered to be done, or being done, not passe vnpunished.

Wee may know by our owne present want of wood here in England, what a pretious commoditie wood is, and be warned by our owne harmes, to make much of it, if we haue plenty there­of, [Page 24] and no further nor faster to cut it downe, then present vse and good occasions from time to time shall require. We should not be so blinde as not to foresee, that if the countries come once to be inhabited, there will be so many, and so great occasions of cut­ting downe wood and timber trees, as will quickly cause infinite store thereof necessarily to be imployed, and so the grounds from, time to time speedily enough to be made cleare and ridde for o­ther vses.

For, first, the very building of Houses, to which adde the ne­cessary making of fences about houses and grounds, will vse an infinit deale of Wood and Timber.

Secondly, The store that will daily and yeerely be spent in ne­cessary vses for fire, which at the first specially, till houses bee warme and drie, and the ayre corrected, will and must be more than ordinarie, cannot but, if once any number of Inhabitants goe ouer, be exceeding great.

Thirdly, The building and making of Ships and shipping, will require and consume very much there. And such order may bee taken, that by the woods there, great spare (a thing very need­full) may be made in England, of our Woods here for that vse.

Fourthly, To these places may be transplanted, the making of Glasse and Iron, as well for England, as for the same Countries: two things, that as it is well knowne, doe deuoure (yet vpon necessary vses) wonderfull store of Wood continually.

Fiftly, The Trades of Potters for earthen vessels, and of Cou­pers for treen Vessels, both very necessary, specially at the first, will and must still from time to time spend vp much Wood and Timber.

Sixtly, And little behinde them in expence of Wood, will be that very necessary Trade of making of Salt, considering how great vse there is and will be thereof there, for the fishing voy­ages, besides all other vses thereof, both there and else-where.

Seuenthly, No small quantity thereof likewise may be cut vp and transported into England, for our Buildings, for Coupers, Ioyners, and Trunk-makers trades heere, which now at a daerer hand, wee buy and fetch out of other Countries.

Eighthly, Besides, the Woods standing are of themselues, and by industry more may be made, a great fortification for the In­habitants against man and Beast, till the Countries be, and can be better employed and fortified.

[Page 25]These, and other like necessary and great vses of wood consi­dered, which either must, or may be made thereof, little reason or cause is there, why, as if it could, like the waters in the riuers, neuer be spent while the world stands, there should any sudden and needlesse spoile by fire or any other wastfull hauocke be made thereof: and seuerely deserue they to be punished that shall make it, and sharply the rest to be restrained, that none like hereafter be made.

Resp.

These Countries are full of wilde Beasts, Beares, &c.

Enr.

1. Some of them, as the Summer Ilands, haue no such at4. Obiection. Answere. all. No harmfull thing in them.

2. None of them, especially Newfound Land, as farre as I heare, haue any, or at least, any store of noysome creatures, as of Serpents, Crocodiles, &c. as haue many parts of this Continent, which yet long hath beene, and still be inhabited.

3. It is well, there are some beasts there, wilde at least, if not tame. That is an argument vndeniable, that tame beasts may there be bred and liue.

4. Better wilde then none at all. For of some of them, some good vse may be made for the present, viz. for labour, for food, and for apparell, till better prouision can be made. To which purpose such infinite store and varietie of beasts, birds, fishes, fruits, and other like commodities, as in them all are already found, and doe abound, ought rather to prouoke people to goe thither, assured they cannot, if they will be anything industrious, want necessaries ad victum & ami [...]tum, for backe and belly, where such plentie is, and to praise God that hath, as for Adam in Pa­radise, before he placed him there, Gen. 1. so for them, before he bring them thither, prouided so well, rather then the want of some better or other, should moue them like the Israelites against God, Exod. 16. to murmur and repine, or which is worse, who­ly to refuse and forgoe the places.

5. Haue not other Countries, thinke you, or at least, haue had the like? Is England? is Ireland? is France altogether free? was Ca­naan, euen that blessed land, without thē, yea good store of them? I take itno, and that not at the first only, as one may gather, Deut. 7. 22. but also many ages after, there were Lions. Iudg. 14. 5. and 1. King. 13. 24. Beares, 2. King. 2. 24. Foxes, Iudg. 15. 4. Hornets, [Page 26] Deut. 7. 20. Serpents, Esay 30. 6. &c.

Resp.

Among other meanes in these Plantations requisit, the ha­uing thither of tame cattell, as horses, kine, and sheepe, seemeth hard to bee compassed, and yet most needfull, and that with the very first, to be prouided, considering those Countries, howsoeuer they abound in other, are altogether destitute and vnprouided of these. And it will be obiected, That, besides the difficultie of Trans­portation, our Country is not able of them to make any spare.

Enr.

But if I bee not deceiued, It were easie to take suchWhat meanes for profitable cattell to be had and trans­ported. a course as might at will furnish that want, and yet leaue vs farre better stored then now we are: and that is,

1. For horses, if all Transportation of them into France and other vicine parts beyond Sea, were restrained, that so all such as were wont to passe out of the Land that way, might now goe this.

2. For Kine and Sheepe, our Land is well stored of them, or rather pestered with them, that if of the one sort, some hun­dreds, and of the other, some thousands yeerely were thither sent, our Land should haue thereby no losse nor lacke, since it is a rule infallible in husbandrie, howsoeuer it seeme to some a Paradox in sense, The more Kine, the dearer White; The more Sheepe, the dearer Cloth. And therefore we must neuer looke to haue those two Commodities (White and Cloth) at any reasona­ble hand, till the Number of those two kinde of Cattell be, and that in a good measure too, diminished in our Land. It is also a Maxime vndeniable: The more Cowes, the fewer Ploughes, and The more Milkings, the fewer Weanlings. And therefore till those cattell (Kine) be diminished, and that in a good Number, wee must not looke to haue Corne and Flesh plentie, Bread and Biefe cheape in England againe. But (alas) Narratur fabula Sur­do. For whose hands bee deeper in this sinne, then theirs that should redresse it?

3. If a strict course might bee taken (and for a publike good, why should not our wanton appetites be a little di [...]ted?) that in England, from the third of February, till the first of May, or happely but from Septuage [...]ima Sunday, till the first Sunday after Easter, the chiefe time for breed, no Calues whatsoeuer should be killed, but all to bee weaned and kept for store; within a yeere or [Page 27] two, without all doubt, we should haue Biefe better cheape in our market a great deale, then now it is, or for many yeeres past it hath beene, and yet many hundreds, haply thousands, of faire yeerelings to bee had for those our new Countries which now haue none.

Where, if any good course be taken, and well obserued for pre­seruation of euery kinde, I doubt not but they would faster there increase and fill the Countries, then the inhabitants should be a­ble to make roome for them, by destroying and killing vp those wilde and vntamed beasts, which now doe so there abound.

4. It were good too, our Fish dayes all the yeere long, were better kept. For it is certaine, The more fish is spent, the more flesh is spared: and as both flesh and fish will be thereby the better cheape: so Beeues, young Bullocks will be the more saued, for the helpe and vse of those which to store their Plantations, shall want them.

5. Besides, Wales, and here of late, God be thanked, Ireland seeme by the great droues which yeerely they send ouer, so well stored, that thence alone, though England helped not, Prouision enough might be had, for more kine and young cattell of that sort, then easily there can be Transportation had for.

6. Lastly, As they that write of these Discoueries doe relate, There be also some countries neerer to some of our Plantations then either England or Ireland, from which if men will seeke for them, all sorts of tame and profitable cattell that we can or doe want, may at a very reasonable hand be had.

If it seeme hard and strange to any, to make Transportation of [...]attell, and, that in the Countries themselues are none naturally to be had: Let them be pleased to vnderstand that to be no new thing: and that where now they are most plentifull, time hath beene, None, not one was to be found: but that such cattell, as wel as men; (for all came out of Noahs Arke, Gen. 8. 17.) were brought and conueyed from place to place. And if they will but a little en­quire of elder men & times, they may learn; It is but as it were the other day since some countries neere vnto vs had no sheepe, other no kine, other few horses, & that at this very instant, France is wil­ling to haue frō vs our horses, we frō Wales their Burs, & frō Ire­land their Cowes. All which doe passe from one countrey to ano­ther [Page 28] by Transportation. And therefore men must be contented, as themselues, to dwell where before they haue not done, so to get thither cattell, profitable cattell, where before they haue not beene.

Resp.

The people of those Countries are rude and barbarous.5. Obiect.

Enr.

They that like to dwell alone, may. There are coun­triesAnsw. found, and more to bee found, I doubt not, not yet inhabi­ted and actually possessed by any people, nation, or state what­soeuer.

2. They with whom wee haue to doe, are not so rude as some imagine, I beleeue. Most, if not all of them, specially they of Guiana, doe shew themselues, their breeding considered, exceeding tractable, very louing and kinde to our Nation aboue any other: industrious and ingenious to learne of vs, and practise with vs most Arts and Sciences: and which is most to be admi­red and cherished, very ready to leaue their old and blinde Ido­latries, and to learne of vs the right seruice and worship of the true God. And what more can bee expected from them in so small time and meanes? or what surer probabilitie or hope would we haue, that we shall or may easily, and within short time, win them to our owne will, and frame them as we list? Verily I suppose, if all things be considered well, and rightly compared, we haue neerer home worse neighbours a great deale.

3. The Spaniard hath reasonably ciuilized, and better might, if he had not so much tyrannized, people farre more sauage and beastiall then any of these.

4. We ought to consider, that time was, the old Brittons the ancient Inhabitants of this Land, were as rude and barbarous as some of these of forraigne parts, with whom wee haue to doe. And therefore considering, Quâ sumus Origine nati, (for wee are also their Off-spring) wee ought not to despise euen such poore and barbarous people, but pitty them, and hope, that as wee are become now, by Gods vnspeakeable mercy to vs-ward, to a farre better condition, so in time may they.

Resp.

The Aduentures are very dangerous, and lyable to los­ses6. Obiect. of life and goods, to troubles manifold, so that they may well bee called Aduenturers, that will hazard themselues in them.

Enr.
[Page 29]

Good words, I pray you.Answer.

1. Many fore-cast perils where they need not: and so, many times are more afraid than hurt. As Salomon obserued long a­goe, Prou. 22. 13. The slothfull saith, A Lyon is without, I shall be slaine in the streetes.

2. Our life and state is not without perils at home: and I tell you, if these Aduentures▪ as you call them, be not better fol­lowed than yet they are, they will, and cannot but more and more increase.

3. No Action of such a weight and worth as these are, can bee without some perils, hurts▪ and losses, which yet must be aduen­tured and indured in hope of a greater good, and ampler recom­pence another way.

4. Hee is not worthy to receiue such benefits as these Ad­uentures may yeeld him, that for feare of euery inconuenience and danger, is ready to fall off, and disclayme them. Neque mel▪ neque apes, saith the olde Prouerbe. No Bees, (for feare of sting­ing) no Honie.

5. Of perils and misaduentures, some are meerely Casuall, and not to bee auoyded, some are altogether needlesse, and might haue beene preuented. The former of these must be borne with, as a part of that common calamity, whereunto the life of man is subiect, and of those crosses and afflictions wherewith God doth either try his Children, as Gold in the fire, or afflict and punish them and others. For these, no man ought to bee troubled and dismayed in these courses, more than for the like in any other, nor dislike them one iot the worse.

Wee finde, when God would bring his owne people the chil­dren of Israel into that good Land, the Land of Canaan, which so oft & so solemnely he had promised to them and to their Fa­thers, he did it not without letting them passe, and feele some pe­rils by the way; as the stopping at the red Sea, the pursuite of Pharaoh, one while the want of flesh, another while of water in the Wildernesse, the terrour of fiery Serpents, and the assault of many and mighty enemies, with other like. Wee finde also, that he was much displeased with, and sharpely sometimes did pu­nish those of them that murmured because of those things, and would haue returned backe into Egypt, regarding not to pro­ceed, and accept that Land, that good Land, which the Lord their [Page 30] God had giuen to them and their seed. And may not this teach vs, That we must not looke to haue the hand of Gods proui­dence extended vnto vs without some dangers and incumbran­ces: And that the Lord is not pleased with those that for feare of euery mis-hap and trouble, will bee discouraged them­selues, or will dis-hearten and discourage others from such At­tempts?

Christ likewise the Sonne of God, sending abroad his Apo­stles to preach the Gospell, is so farre from securing them of all troubles and dangers in their indeuours thereabout, that hee fore-tells them, He doth send them forth as Lambes among wolues. That they should be hated, persecuted, and put to death for his sake, &c. But were the Apostles by this dismayed? Did they therefore refuse to vndertake their charge, and proceed in the worke of the Lord? Wee know the contrary. Notable to this purpose is the protestation of the Apostle Saint Paul, 2. Cor. 6. 4. and 11. 23.

Resp.

I pray you recite the very words, for I desire to heare what so great an Apostle hath said to such a purpose.

Enr.

With a good will. Speaking there both of himselfe, and the rest of his fellow Apostles and Labourers in the Gospell, thus he saith: In all things we approue our selues as the Ministers of God, in much patience, in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses, in stripes, in prisons, in tumults, in labours. By watchings, by fastings, by p [...]ritie, by knowledge, by long suffering: and a little after, By ho­nour and dishonour, by euill report and good report, as deceiuers, and yet true: as vnknowne, and yet knowne: as chastened, and yet not killed: as sorrowing, and yet alway reioycing: as poore, and yet making many rich: as hauing nothing, and yet possessing all things. And in the same Epistle, Chap. 11. 23. opposing and contesting against false apostles of those times, that sought to debase and disgrace him, thus he writeth of his owne particulars: In labours more abundant, in stripes aboue measure, in prison more plenteously, in Death oft. Of the Iewes fiue times receiued. I forty stripes saue one, I was thrice beaten with roddes: I was once stoned: I suffe­red thrice Ship-wracke. Night and day haue I beene in the deepe Sea. In iourneying I was often: in perils of waters, in perils of rob­bers, in perils of mine owne Nation: in perils among the Gentiles: [Page 31] in perils in the Citie, in perils in the Wildernesse: in perils in the Sea: in perils among false Brethren. In wearinesse, and painfulnesse, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakednesse. Beside the things which are outward, I am combred daily, and haue the care of all the Churches. Who is weake, and I am not weake? who is offended, and I burne not? You haue heard a­bundantly of the sufferings, heare also the inuincible constancy and magnanimity of this admirable Champion of the Lord, ex­pressed with his owne mouth, Act. 20. 22. And now behold, [...] goe bound in the Spirit vnto Ierusalem, and know not what things shall come vnto mee there, saue that the Holy Ghost witnesseth in euery City, saying, that Bands and afflictions abide mee. But I passe not, (for it) at all, neither is my life deare vnto mee, so that I may fulfill my course with ioy, and the Ministration which I haue receiued of the Lord Iesus, viz. to testifie the Gospell of the grace of God. And Chap. 21. 13. I am ready not to be bound onely, but also to dye at Ierusalem, for the name of the Lord Iesus. Hauing such Lights and Leaders for our example, shall we grudge and vtterly refuse to suffer any thing, to hazard any troubles, and to beare any cros­ses at all, (And it is not possible we should meet with such a mea­sure and heape thereof, as they did by many degrees,) for the Gospels sake, and, besides all other good that may come there­of, that wee may helpe to enlarge the Kingdome of God, and his Christ on earth? And thus much of the first sort of euill acci­dents and mis-haps.

The other sort, which I called needlesse or wilfull, by which I meane such as men wilfully, through their owne fault doe cast themselues or others into, by their euill mana­ging of any such businesse, by rashnesse, disorder, ouer-sight, or the like, ought not to be imputed to the Actions them­selues, as which doe not necessarily draw any such after them, but to the Authors and Actors of the same. As if men meete with dangers at Sea, by setting forth at vnseaso­nable times, in the Winter, in foule weather, or other like: If they bee surprized by an Enemy at Sea or Land, they go­ing without sufficient forces, both of men, and munition, for such an enterprize: If they be distressed with want of victuals, and other prouisions, when they set forth slenderly, poorely, and ill prouided, with other like.

[Page 32]6. These Actions, our Plantations, I meane, properly and in their owne nature, are lyable to as few hazards and mishaps, as any such lightly can be.

For, first, Our Passage to any of the places intended, is very easie, open, and cleare, Sea-roome at will, and, if we take time and season conuenient; as nauigable and pleasant as need to be desired. Few Pyrates on those coasts, and fewer it is probable there would be, if some good course were taken for their repulse and dissipation.

2. Our Accesse and Entry is free and facile for the most part. No man once offereth to forbid or hinder our landing there.

3. The people of those Countries, if any bee, ready either for loue and hope of good from vs, kindly to receiue and entertaine vs, or for feare and weakenesse of their owne accord to [...]lye from vs, and betake themselues to more remote and inland parts of those Regions, or to submit themselues tractably to liue vnder vs.

4. The Countries themselues free, for the most part, of any noysome or very dangerous either beast or Serpent: not infe­cted nor infested, as some of this Continent, which yet are, and long haue beene well inhabited, with the most dreadfull of these sorts, that the world doth yeeld.

5. Wee need not make way for our selues into any one of them at all with fire and sword, as either our progenitors the Saxons and Normans did into this Land, or our later fore-fathers the English, into both France and Ireland. So that euery thing considered, Wee cannot well wish or expect, in these dayes to finde out, to haue and gaine any Countrey or Place for Plantation with lesse troubles, fewer losses, and smaller dangers, if things be well hand­led, then these we may. Nor is it likely, if wee neglect and ouer­slip the so faire and many opportunities now offered vs, that euer we shall haue and finde the like againe.

Resp.

The profit is small, and little the good that is like to arise [...]. Obiect. of so great labours, dangers, and expences. For whatsoeuer you, and some others talke of great riches there, and that way to bee had, wee heare of none that proue rich and wealthy there.

Enr.

It may be so, and there are many reasons for it.Answer.

For, first: It is not long that any haue beene in any of these Plantations, and there must be a time for euery thing. They [Page 33] that will haue co [...]e from the ground, must tarry the ripening of it. It is not one yeeres worke or two, to get a good state in Lands, and to get some store of wealth about a man in the same likewise. They that goe ouer to such a businesse, haue many things to doe first, before they can haue time to gather wealth a­bout them; as to build, to rid their grounds, to make fenses to destroy wilde and hurtfull beasts, to get ouer good and profitable cattell, to plant and sow their grounds, and the like: All which be matters of great labour, time and expence. We see in daily practice with vs, a man that is a Purchaser, till he hath recoue­red his Fine, and stockt his Liuing, cannot be aforehand and get wealth about him: nor can they there, till they haue done those and other like things, which are to them, as it were, their Fine and In-come. It is well if seuen, or ten, or twentie yeeres hence, happely in the next generation, men can attaine vnto riches. It is enough for the fathers to take in the grounds, and settle the lands and liuings for them and theirs against the time to come, though for the present, and for their owne time, they hardly stand vp, and meet with some difficulties.

2. Men there, can, making nothing of their grounds yet, far­ther then any can themselues employ them to pasture or tillage. It is not there as in England, where, if a man haue little stocke or imployment of his owne for his grounds, yet he may let them out at a reasonable rent; but there, more then a man can stocke and till himselfe, lies still, and will yeeld him nothing at all. Make it your owne case. If you had the best Liuing in this parish in Fee simple, and had little to put vpon it, nor could get any to rent it, at your hands, could you grow rich in haste? This is their case.

Resp.

Your speech is very reasonable, I must confesse: but goe on, I pray you.

Enr.

3. All in manner that haue gone ouer hitherto into any of these parts, are poore men, men of small meanes, and therefore with little or nothing, it is not possible they should in a little time attaine to any store of some thing: And the lesse possible, for that the benefit of their labours redounds for the most part, not to themselues, but, as in regard of their great aduentures and expenses, reason is it should, to the benefit of rich men here, that haue sent them thither.

4. Diuers of them that haue gone ouer, haue beene Banke­rutps [Page 34] and Spendthrifts, Idlers and Loyterers, who, as they thri­ued not in England, (for how should they thriue that run thrift­lesse and heedlesse courses?) so will they not commonly in any Land. Coelum non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt: as saith the Poet, Weeds will be weeds, where-euer they grow.

When men of fashion and meanes doe go ouer, that are able to set vp themselues and others, and that will be industrious to take the benefit of the time and place, then I doubt not but it will soone appeare what good may be done in those places, and that men may, if they will, easily and quickly proue rich and wealthy there. Then, and not till then, if riches arise not, let men blame the places from whence it was expected they should arise.

6. The manner of proceeding in these attempts, may also be a great cause, why men attaine to riches there more slowly, then they might and should, if they were otherwise managed.

As, First, If the Plantation begin with a small number, farre too little for such a businesse. For then neither can they bee able to extend themselues farre into the Countries in a long time, and so not to finde out the goodnes, sweetnesse, and benefit there­of: nor to set vp all kinde of necessary trades and faculties among themselues, whereby they may bee able to assist and set one ano­ther a worke.

2. If they that remoue hence, goe sparely and ill prouided of cattell, corne, and other necessaries for Plantation and Habita­tion, which those countries afford not: impossible it is for them to make that profit, and get that increase by their Lands and Li­uings there, which they might, if they were well and throughly prouided of such things at the first.

7. This is the onely way which men in ancient time did finde out and obserue to get riches and wealth withall, to increase and amend their estate by, when as by multitudes of people their country was, as ours now is, so ouerlaid, that they could not thriue and prosper therein. Neither were they euer lightly decei­ued, but the euent and computation did answer their intent and expectation▪ And no doubt, if the like courses bee now attemp­ted, they may and will, if they be well carried, produce the like, or rather better and speedier effects to vs then to them. For we haue many helps for peace and warre, for shipping and nauiga­tion, for defence and fortification, for traffique and negotiation, [Page 35] for building and habitation, for religious and ciuill conuersation, for skill in many needfull arts and occupations, which they had not, to further vs withall.

8. Of all other meanes to get wealth and riches by, Husbandry (which of all courses of life is that, which in those places must chiefly, and most of all, be followed and employed) hath ancient­ly and worthily euer beene accounted the chiefest, best, and surest. Wherein, though it be somewhat more chargeable, combersome, and for a time, vncomfortable, to enter into a void and desolate country, ouergrowne with woods, thickets, and other like, yet who knowes not, what great oddes and aduantage to the getting of riches and wealth there is: first, betweene the breaking vp of such grounds as were neuer yet employed, but hauing lien waste, vntoucht, and vntilled from the beginning, haue all their sweet­nesse and fatnesse in them, and the tillage and vsage of poore and hungry soiles, that from time to time haue beene turned vp and worne out to the vttermost: and then betwixt the hauing of great and goodly Lands, (for there one man may easily haue as much as ten or twentie haue here) and of small and simple Tene­ments?

9. When Brutus came first into this Land, who would haue imagined it would haue proued so goodly, so plentifull, so fruit­full, so rich, so excellent and happy a Land, as we (God be praised for it) doe finde, and all the world about vs doth know it is? And who but sailing along the Coasts of any of those new Countries, or but going ashore here and there, not aboue a mile or two, hap­pely within the Land, can imagine, or conceiue, much lesse, know and vnderstand what wealth and riches, what goodly fields and pastures, hills and valleys, mines and metals, woods and waters, what hidden treasures and sundry commodities are to be found, and had therein?

10. The name of a Kingdome is verie great: and what should not, or heretofore, what would not men doe, to gaine a Kingdome? By these meanes opportunitie is offered vnto our Land, to our English Nation, to g [...]t and gaine, to possesse and take, to haue and enioy, together with Plantation and Habi­tation for thousands, and hundred thousands thereof, more then one or two Kingdomes, great and goodly Prouinces, that [Page 36] by Gods blessing and prouidence towards vs, may in time bee vnited to the Crowne, the Imperiall Crowne of this Land. Which by consequence, (for what infinite store of riches and wealth, how many places of peferment and honour, for hundreds and thousands of particular and inferiour persons is there contai­ned and comprehended within a Kingdome?) must needs bring with euery of them seuerally, riches and wealth of great, and in manner infinite valew and estimation.

The English lost in France in the time of Henrie the sixth, two seuerall parts of that spacious Countrie, that had beene English neere about three hundred yeeres before, that is Normandie and Aquitaine, in the former whereof (saith an English Historie,Normandie and Aquitaine in France lost, and when. as minding to expresse the greatnesse of the losse by the particu­lars) there were (then) an hundred strong townes and fortresses, one Archbishoppricke, and sixe Bishopprickes, besides some o­ther townes destroyed in the warres: and in the latter, foure Archbishopprickes, fifteene Earledomes, two hundred sixtie and two Baronies, and aboue a thousand Captainships and Baili­wicks.

Suppose we now the same had fallen out in our times, (and I hope I may without offence make vse of former and forraine things) would we not, or should we not (thinke you) account it an ines [...]imable losse and damage to the Crowne and Countrey of England, worthy to be redeemed with hundred thousands of our mony and goods, and to be recouered (if it were possible) with thousands of the liues of our men, and no small effusion of Christian bloud? If now contrariwise, we may in our dayes, not lose, but get; not hazard, but assuredly haue and gaine, and that sine sanguine & sudore, euen without bloud or blowes, and with­out any waste or spoyle of our treasur [...] and state, (I will not say the same that we had lost, but in stead [...]) some other Regions and Countries, Territories and [...] for Habitation, as great, and (likely in time to proue) as g [...] [...], might not this bee iustly accounted a gaine and good, [...] [...]sargement and increase to our Nation and Kingdome inesti [...]le and exceeding great?

If the name of a Kingdome shall be [...] thought too high and ex­cellent,Note this▪ too great and glorious for Cou [...]s so vaste and wast, so remote, and obscure as those of our Plantations yet are, let [Page 37] them bee vouchsafed the name but of Dukedomes, as those I last mentioned, or Lordships, as Ireland for a long time was, or by whatsoeuer other titles, parts or members of a kingdome, hee shall be pleased to stile and nominate them, Quem [...]enes arbi­trium est, & ius & norm [...] loquendi, as one saith, for so we haue the thing, it is no great matter for the name: yet, if there may be had, as the probabilities, possibilities, and opportu­nities already had and made vs, doe plainly declare there may in one place, a Countrey as great, at the least, as that of Norman­die, in another place, as that of Aquitaine, in a third, twise as much as they both, that is, such a one wherein there may be in time erected, constituted and made (speaking somewhat, thought not altogether according to the former proportions) for­tie Earledomes or Counties, foure Archbishopprickes, sixe and thirtie Bishopprickes, three or foure hundred Baronies, fiue or sixe hundred townes and fortresses, one or two thousand Cap­tainships and Bailiwicks, ten or twelue thousand parishes, and foure or fiue hundred thousand families, shall it notwithstanding be thought, that there is no wealth or riches, no place of prefer­ment, no hope of dignitie or good there to be had?

Resp.

If there be such Possibilities, yet before the Countries8. Obiect. themselues can be reduced to such a state, and such diuisions setled therein, as you speake of, great store of treasure and wealth must bee spent, and many yeeres of time be ouerpast.

Enr.

1. For Expense, not so much happely, as one lin­gringAnswer. warre, the euent whereof is most vncertaine must and will consume.

2. The Countries themselues will yeeld meanes and money enough, if they be well handled, to defray or repay whatsoeuer shall be needfull for the effecting of all these with aduantage.

3. The hazzard and losse of life and limme is this way won­derfully saued and auoyded.

4. And for time, sooner happely this may be thus effected, at least, in some tolerable measure, then a Countrey lost can bee recouered and quieted. As we may obserue, by the children of Israel, who setting vpon the Land of Canaan, and that with a mightie armie, not so few as an hundred thousand men of warre, and with more then ordinary, euen admirable successe, The Lord [Page 38] being euer with them, yet were scarcely setled therein all the daies of Ioshua: and neere home too, in our neighbour Countrie. The Netherlands, which being reuolted from the Spaniard long agoe, he hath not beene able in all our time, to reduce to his obedience againe.

5. And you know, a country being gotten by the sword, may be lost againe by the same. For, Non minor est virtus, quam quae­rere parta tueri: There is more adoe to keepe, then to get such a thing Of the which there is little or no feare in the attempts that we talke of.

6. In a word, both the expectation and the expence for re­duction of those Countries to such effects, will, and may be spee­dily and abundantly recompenced in the facilitie, libertie, and securitie of the getting, setling, and keeping of them.

Wherefore, Rumpantur Ilia Codr [...]: Let froward Enuie her selfe swell till she burst againe, and detracting Malice, or timorous Ignorance speake the worst they can, yet all that will not be blind, may see, and whosoeuer will vnderstand the truth, may know, that there are Riches and Preferment, much for the present, more for the times to come to be had, if men will but take them; and to be gotten and gained, if they be but laboured and searched for, in the places and precincts of our present intended Plantations.

And now I thinke good neighbour Respire, I haue for the satis­faction of you, or of any not peruersly minded, sufficiently iusti­fiedThe Summe of this first part. these Proiects and Attempts of Plantations for the generall, to be in themselues honourable, needfull, gainfull and lawfull: and for the particular, to be neither so dangerous or difficult, nor so strange or incommodious, as at the first shew they may seeme to be.

Resp.

You haue indeed, in mine opinion, spoken exceeding well to those purposes. Your latter words bring to my minde that worthy say­ing of Salomon, Eccl. 11. 4. if my memorie faile me not. The words, I am sure, be these: He that obserueth the winds, shall not [...]ow, and, he that regardeth the clouds, shall not reape: and your whole discourse makes me feare to vrge you with any more Obiections concerning these matters, as which I see by your readie, plaine, and plentifull answer to these already moued, be to little purpose, and will vanish, when they come to be sifted, as smoke before the winde. And if you can yeeld mee [Page 39] the like satisfaction in some other points, that I conceiue very necessary to be considered about these Actions, I shall like of them a great deale better then euer I had thought I should; and be as readie to praise and commend them, as I haue beene to dispraise and blame them. But there­with I will not trouble you at this present, but deferre it to another meeting, which God willing, shall be shortly. For I shall not be in quiet, till I haue heard the vttermost that you either can say, or I am desirous to heare touching these matters.

Enr.

I am glad truly, that our little Conference hath so much preuailed with you. And I shall be ready, and because I finde you so tractable and reasonable, the readier, to giue you the best satis­faction I can in anything else, whensoeuer you shall be pleased to that end to come hither againe.

The end of the first part.
A PLAINE PATH-WAY TO …

A PLAINE PATH-WAY TO PLANTATIONS:

That is, A Discourse in generall concerning the Plantation of our English people in other Countries.

The second Part.

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LONDON, Printed by G. P. for Iohn Marriot▪

TO THE RIGHT HONOVRABLE AND VERY WORTHY, SIR GEORGE CALVERT, Knight, principall Secretarie to the Kings most excellent Maiestie, Peace and Prosperitie temporall and eternall.

Right Honourable,

THe fame of your Honours most excel­lent and praise-worthy indeuours in attempting, following, and applying of a Plantation of some of our English Na­tion in that remote, and yet obscure, and desolate Countrie, the Country commonly called New­foundland, hath encouraged and emboldened me, a stranger to your Honour, but a well-willer to all such worthy workes, to present vnto your Honour, and to publish vnder your Honours Name, some part of my plaine and impolished Labours, which for the furtherance and hasting on of those most worthy, and at this present for our Countrie of England, most necessarie attempts of Plantations in farre and forraine parts, but specially and namely in Newfoundland, aboue the rest, I haue aduentured [Page] to offer to the common view, in hope and desire somewhat thereby to moue and stirre vp our peo­ple, chiefly the poorer and meaner sort, (which, for want of Plantation abroad, are ready, by want and penurie, to pine and perish at home) in better sort to affect and addict themselues to the same.

Which worke of mine, though rude and meane, if your Honour shall, in consideration of the mat­ter and substance thereof vouchsafe to accept, and thinke not vnworthy of Passage abroad, as it shall notably protect my Labours from the enuious mindes of the malicious, and the carping tongues of the captious, so shall it stirre vp my selfe with all heartie affection, to rest deuoted to your Honours seruice and these employments, and to poure out my deuoutest praiers to the Highest, the Lord of all, for your Honours all and euer health and happi­nesse.

Your Honours humbly to command, RICHARD EBVRNE.

THE PATH-WAY TO PLANTA­TIONS. The second Part.

The Speakers be Respire, a Farmer. Enrubie, a Merchant.

Respire.

GOD blesse you, good Sir: according to your courte­ous Offer, I am come againe, in hope to be further sa­tisfied by you, touching the Conference we lately had in hand.

Enr.

You are very welcome, Let me heare therefore, what it is that you desire to be further satisfied in.

Resp.

The Enterprises themselues (Plantations I meane) you haue well shewed me, to be in themselues very commendable and good, and for our Land and Nation, at this present exceeding necessarie: yet, as I suppose, there cannot, or there will not, sufficient and conuenient means be had for the expedition and performance therof, as is requisite: as may appeare by the [...]ll successe, the giuing ouer, or slow proceeding of such Actions heretofore from time to time, to the notable hinderance of the Gospel, the great dishonour and reproach of our Nation, and the [Page 46] extreme losse and disaduantage of the Vndertakers and Aduenturers: and then to what end is it to take in hand impossibilities?

Enr.

You say well: and therefore for speedie and due remedie in this behalfe, especially and aboue all other things, as whereinThe best course to be taken for Plantations, is by Act of Par­liament. alone, the true and perfect cure of those euils doth consist, it were to be wished, that by Act of Parliament, some good courses might speedily be taken throughout the Land, by which it might effe­ctually be accomplished. For Plantations indeed are properly a matter of publique and generall, and not, as the practice is with vs, of priuate and particular Action.

If it seeme to any a matter too meane, and vnworthy a Parli­amentarie consideration, for my part I protest, I can in no wise be of their opinion, vnlesse I may plainly be taught, and informed, that it is no part of a Fathers care, to place abroad his Children, as they grow vp, but to keepe them still vnder his owne Roofe, till they eate him out of House and home: or of an Housholders prouidence to foresee, that his Meyny exceed not his meanes: or of the Sheep­h [...]ards dutie, when his Flocke is increased, to prouide them larger pastures: or of the Gardiners charge, when his plants and sets are ouer thicke, and doe incomber the ground, to remoue & disperse them into other plots, where hauing more roome, they may big­ger grow, and better prosper.

Resp.

Till that may be obtained, which all men know, cannot possi­bly be on a suddaine, and those attempts being now begun, doe necessarily require speedie and much supply, and continuall furtherance, lest else, besides all other euils that be [...]all on vs, which is written in the Gospel, Luk. 14. 29. viz▪ hauing laid such foundations, and being not able to performe them, all that behold them, mocke vs, saying: These men, these Englishmen, began Plantations here and there, and now are not able to make an end of any one of them; what courses might there be taken for the speedie effecting of them in some tolerable measure and commendable manner?

Enr.

Till some good course that way, a thing in mine opinion much to be desired, may be obtained and prouided, if I might be bold to speake my minde (and toward a common good, why should it not be free, and without offence for any man as a well willer to so good a worke to speake, since as it hath been well and of old obserued, Aliquando est olitor opportuna locutus, A meane [Page 47] man may sometime speake to the purpose?) I could be willing to acquaint you or any other, with what inferiour courses I haue conceiued might the meane while be taken and followed, for the bringing of the same to some tolerable estate and reasonable good effect.

Resp.

I pray you let me heare them: for I hope, no man will dislike with any man to put to his helping hand to doe any good in this great worke, which so much concerneth all: specially, when as you intend not to vrge or binde any man to your words, but leaue it free to all men to accept or reiect, as it pleaseth them.

Enr.

Trusting then of fauourable acceptation I will speakeWhat inferior courses might be taken to further thes [...] attempt [...]. what I thinke. Two things there be aboue all other most materi­all and necessarie for such a businesse to be prouided, that is, men and money, People to goe to the Plantation, and Prouision to set them forth. Both which howsoeuer to some they may be thought impossible to be had, I am perswaded, if good courses for them might be vsed, though not without some difficultie (And what high and worthy enterprize is there, that euer hath without some diffi­cultie beene atchieued?) may sufficiently be obtained.

1 For Money: well knowne it is, that many Honourable andMoney to be had. other worthy Persons haue this way employed much, and noFirst, By Vo­luntaries. doubt intend to proceed accordingly.

2 It cannot be, but that some of those that aduenture in personSecondly, By personall Ad­uenturers. intending there to inhabit, doe and will goe some of them suffici­ently and many of them some-what prouided that way. Few will goe with an emptie purse.

3 For procuring what farther shall be needfull, it seemeth vntoThirdly, By generall Col­lections. me, it were verie requisite, and a thing not verie hard to be obtai­ned by some or other, that some Letters Patent vnder the great Seale of England, or other like course might be set forth for some g [...]nerall and Yeerely Collection or contribution to that purpose: and the Briefes (Bookes rather) for it to be directed either to the Lord Bishops of euerie Diocesse, or to the Sherife of euerie Shire, by them to be dispersed into euerie Parish. For likely it is, that many well-disposed able men would giue to this great and wor­thy worke more liberally, then to others many of farre lesse im­portance (and yet good summes of Money, haue thus beene oft collected) specially, if men may perceiue, by the remouing and [Page 48] departure of any, it redounds indeed, as is pretended, to the com­mon good.

4 Probable also it is, that the Iustices of euerie Shire, vponFourthly, By Hospitall Money. good intimation of the cause vnto them, would be pleased to be­stow some part of that Money which quarterly at their Sessions is receiued by the name of Hospitall Money, toward the setting forth of some maimed Souldiers, or some other poore of the said Countrey, yeerely, into some or other of those Plantations.

5 Neither is it improbable, that the Churchwardens andFifthly, By Moneys giuen to the vse of the Poore. Ouerseers for the Poore, that haue (as in sundry Parishes within this Land they haue) seuerall portions and summes of Money by well▪disposed people in their last Wils or otherwise, giuen and be­queathed for and toward the reliefe of the Poore in their Parish, committed to their charge and custodie, may be perswaded and drawne, or otherwise caused to conferre and lay out the said porti­ons or summes of Money or the greatest part thereof in this sort, to the setting forth of some of the Poore of their Parish, Children or other, that else must within the same continually be relieued and maintained.

Resp.

That were very vnreasonable and euill too, I thinke: for what consci [...]nce were this, to sulsifie the trust reposed in them, and to defraud their Poore of their reliefe?

Enr.

No euill, no wrong, no defrauding at all, howsoeuer you vpon the suddaine doe so take it: but rather this were a readie way to employ it indeed to their vse, to whom by the Donours it was properly intended: whereas now, for the most part, you shall [...]ind, if you obserue it well, such moneys and the profit thereof ari­sing, are conuerted to the ease of the Rich, and not to the reliefe of the Poore. And at the best hand you can reckon it, if the Poore be thereby any thing relieued, it is but ad diem, for the verie pre­sent: but being laid out in that manner which I meane and men­tion, the Poore and their posteritie too, yea, and the whole Parish from whence it is taken, shall thereby be relieued, bettered, and benefited for euer.

But not to make a long answer to so short and shallow an Ob­iection, whatsoeuer any shall pretend against that I say, so long as I haue the example of that most holy and famous Doctour of theAmbros. de Offic. lib. 2. cap. [...]7▪ Church, S. Ambrose, on my side, who for redeeming of Christian [Page 49] Captiues, brake the verie Vessels of Gold and Siluer that were in his Church, and making money thereof, employed it to that vse, saying, The Sacraments need not Gold, which were purchased for vs without Gold: And Aurum Ecclesia habet, non vt seruet, sed vt eroget: The Church hath Gold not to keepe it, but to lay it out to good and pious vses. I shall not feare to answer the same. I will inferre, if S. Ambrose did well to employ Bona Ecclesiae, euen the Treasures of the Church vpon redemption of the Poore, they cannot be proued to doe ill, that shall employ Bona Pauperum, the Goods of the Poore, their owne Money, vpon the Poore, and to their owne vses.

Resp.

I see now I did mistake, and not you: and I hope you will [...]eare with my ignorance and rashnesse.

Enr.

Your words offended not me any thing at all: for by your opposition no hurt hath risen to the cause. Truth is ne­uer better cleared, then when it is some-what oppugned and contradicted.

Resp.

It seemeth so in this very case: for by your former speechesSixthly, By Moneys giuen to the vse of the Church. and example me thinkes I doe now see, that it were no fault, but a good and pious fact, if such Moneys also as doe belong to Churches, as here and there some-what to that vse remaining, is yet to be found, were likewise employed to this vse we speake of, as which in good probabilitie would be more acceptable to God, to be bestowed in such a necessitie, as this is, vpon the Temples of the Holy Ghost, then vpon▪ Churches made of Lime and Stone, which without these Mo­neys are and may be sufficiently repaired and adorned.

Enr.

Your collection is good and religious. That must needs be true pietie which is coupled with pittie, for God will haue mercie rather then Sacrifice. But let vs goe on.

Resp.

I hearken when you will speake of the Lotterie, which you know was set vp in London, and in many places abroad in the Country many times for Uirginia, as it was said.

Enr.

7. I dislike not the Lotterie neither, so as it were wellSeuenthly, By the Lotterie. vsed, and people had the wit, not to run out by it, to their vn­doing. But I know it hath lost the loue of the Countrey, both for that it robd the Countrey of her Money wonderfully: for out of our Shire onely, when it was here but a few yeeres agoe, it is thought to haue carried away many hundred pounds, so [Page 50] that Money was neuer plentie here since, and for that we neuer heard of any good that was done with it. If they that had the imployment of it, had made knowne vnto euerie Countie (though seuerally) what had beene gotten out of it by the Lotterie that yeere, and offered to employ it on so many of the Poore of the said Countie (if they could be gotten to goe) as it might conueniently suffice vnto, it would haue yeelded the Countie good content for the present, and haue gained a better welcome to it selfe another time. But the matter being vsed as it was, if any yet doe like of it, they may aduenture it againe, if they list: who, if they would giue voluntarily, but the fifth part of that some of them lost desperately that way, (for I know some my selfe that, by their owne reports, lost ten, twentie, yea, thirtie pound a man) might be counted good Benefactours.

Resp.

Of the Lotterie enough: but besides, if you haue any more to say, I pray you proceed with it.

Enr.

8. If the former courses suffice not, I see not but that8. By some ra­table imposi­tion. some ratable Imposition might be procured to be laid vpon the abler sort, as in time of warre, for setting forth of Souldi­ers, to be employed vpon such as shall be transported, from those parts (the Parish, Tithing, or Hundred) where it is raised. And I am verily perswaded there is not a Parish in the Land, that would not willingly be at any reasonable charge for the setting forth of any such poore bodie, as should either volunta­rily offer himselfe, or by authoritie be taken vp, to goe in that Action from time to time. In truth I haue heard men of good sense and substance say, they would be verie willing to bestow out of their Parish twentie nobles or ten pounds a yeere, to­wards the apparelling and setting forth of some of their poo­rer sort, so as they might be assured they should not, after a yeere or two, as from the Irish some haue done, come home againe, and encomber them worse then before.

9 Besides, if it might be thought fit and obtained, that for9. By base mo­nies for those purposes and places to be stamped. those Plantations some store of base Moneys, as of Brasse, Cop­per, or little better might be stamped (all English Coynes and Plate of Gold and Siluer, being there and thence prohibited, vnlesse and vntill the Countreys themselues doe or shall here­after yeeld Metall for them) I coniecture, how probably let [Page 51] others iudge, the vse thereof would proue exceeding beneficiall to this purpose.

Resp.

That were a strange course indeed, and is it possible any good this way might be wrought?

Enr.

Verie much I thinke. For thereby, first, The wealth ofThe vse and [...] of such money. all such as passe ouer (any reasonable proportion in the Ex­change both for value and valour thereof being held) should instantly, among themselues, be much increased. A thing so materiall as nothing more, for without infinite store of Money can be no good Plantation any where.

Secondly, Such as passe ouer, should be occasioned to lade away with them store of our English commodities for buil­ding, for houshold, &c. which happely they would not haue done, if they might carrie with them their English Moneys, and once hauing such things there, they will doe them more pleasure and good, then till they come there, they could pre­suppose.

Thirdly, Such as are there, should be the more occasioned to vse all industrious meanes to get vp the commodities of those Countreys, to barter and trucke withall for such things as shall merchantwise be brought to them from hence, knowing well that their Money will not much be regarded nor receiued of our men.

Fourthly, It would make them delight the more in Tillage and breed of Cattell, because Siluer and Gold Coynes the very begetters of hoarding couetousnesse wanting, their chiefest riches must needs consist in Corne and Cattell.

Fifthly, They being rich within themselues (for such Money while it holds value, is as good, where it is currant, as any other) should yet be poore to others-ward among whom it is not currant, which would make them the lesse desired of, and the lesse to feare any such as seeke for spoile and prey.

Sixthly, By this meanes, we should oft receiue from them good store of forraine Coynes, receiued by them for Fish and other commodities sold to such as come to trade there.

Seuenthly, Moreouer, Hereby the great hurt that some imagine is to be feared by those Plantations in carrying away of our Gold and Siluer, would easily, and that [Page 52] both to our and their great aduantage be auoided.

Resp.

And in truth, many doe complaine of the carriage away of our Money out of our Land, and I perceiue by you, that it is likely a great deale of it goes this way.

Enr.

It must needs be so, if the workes goe forward in any sort: and then note, whatsoeuer is gone ouer Sea that way, ne­uer returnes againe. We receiue backe but either nothing at all, or else but some commodities of those Countries, as Fish, Timber, Salt, &c. And therefore this is a thing in mine opinion that must timely and carefully be lookt vnto, or else the Coyne and Treasure of our Land will, by these Plantations, if once they goe well and roundly forward, within a while be extremely spent and exhausted For say for a triall or example, there should goe twentie thousand, and each of them to carrie but ten pounds a man (a small reckoning and poore stocke to begin withall) yet that comes to in the whole, to two hundred thousand pounds. Now by this, guesse of the rest

Resp.

This is very plaine: yet men will hardly heare of this base money, because of the strangenesse and noueltie of the matter.

Enr.

If any thinke this matter strange, let him but enquire, and he shall be informed at full, that at the first in all Lands, such coine was either only, or most common. That it is not yet much aboue one Age agoe, that in England it selfe it was in vse: that in our time Ireland had it: and, that at this day, if Trauellers tell true, Spaine it selfe, for all her Indian Siluer mines and Golden mountaines, vpon good policie, is not without it. And if it were as strange and new a course, as it is old and com­mon, yet if necessitie so require, better it is, I thinke, to be v­sed then some other more vsuall and lesse profitable. But lea­uing that to iudgement and consideration of the wise and iu­dicious, I professe, that for my owne part, I doe rest resolued, There can no good Plantation be made by vs any where, without the vse, and great store of such base monies.

10. Yet I say further, if the continuance of Gold and Sil­uerTenthly, By Gold and Sil­uer Coynes. coines shall be thought more necessary for these employ­ments, then I conceiue them to be, that such a course may be taken (the like whereof hath oft been practised in sundry king­domes and and dominions vpon lesse occasion then this) that [Page 53] both our present coines may remaine safe within our Land, and yet many thousands of pounds in gold and siluer may be con­ferred on those that shall dwell and inhabit in those new Plantations, without any pound or penny charge almost to those that shall the same, on them, for their enriching and incouragement there, conferre and bestow.

Resp.

I doe not well vnderstand you in this: by better thinking on your words, it may be I shall: but for your base monies, I precon­ceiue one very great inconuenience of it, whensoeuer it shall be cal­led in. The fall of mony, as Experience hath proued in England many times here to fore, will be a great preiudice and impouerish­ment vnto all them on whom it doth alight.

Enr.

1. That need not to bee feared (vnlesse the Coun­triesAn obiection of the fall of base monie answered. themselues happen to yeeld better metals) for many generations yet to come. 2. That losse will bee recompensed by the vse thereof an hundred fold, before any such fall doe, or can come. 3. And it may, whensoeuer it doth come, so equally be diuided by times, that it may so easily bee borne, that the posterities may haue little cause thereby to complaine, that they beare some part of the burthen of their Progenitors. Com­modit as quaequè sua fert incommoda secum. No commoditie but hath his discommoditie with it, which must be borne with for a greater good.

Resp.

I cannot dislike that you say: Proceed, I pray you.

Enr.

If, either order might be taken, or people be perswa­ded,11. By frugall expenses in Diet, &c. that they which goe ouer might leaue behinde them, that (I will not say Superfluitie and Excesse, which both the place and plentie wherein we liue (God be thanked) doe, and happe­ly may afford vs, but that) Uarietie, Costlinesse, Statelinesse, De­licacie, Brauery and Abundance in Apparell, Diet, Building, and all other Prouisions, which here many doe vse, it cannot easily be estimated, how much it might auaile to the speedy furtherance, and cheape setting forth of these worthy workes. Frugalitie and Parsimonie, like that of ancient times, will bet­ter befit the infancie and vprisings of any commonwealth which euer haue beene, and necessarily must be, or else they will neuer frame well, rude and plaine. It was neuer better with Rome it selfe, (whose best men, saith one of their best Authours, [Page 54] in priuatis rebus, suisque sumptibus minimo contenti, tenuissimo cultu viuebant, &c. In priuate estates, and matters of their owne charges, contented with a very little, did liue with very slender prouision) then when her Consuls and Dictators were taken from the plough, and her Senators serued at the table in earthen plate: and neuer merrier in England, then when Far­mors would weare none other then their owne home-made cloth; when Gentlemen delighted to haue plentie, rather then daintie, at their tables, and the best Housekeepers held them rather to their owne countrie yeeld, then to forraine and farre fetcht prouision.

Some be of the minde. That though all other meanes failed, if they alone that roist and riot out their goods and wealth inAn extraua­gant. pride and vanitie, in drunkennesse and gluttony, and other like disorderd courses: And many there be, (woe be to them therefore, as witnesseth the holy Ghost, Esa. 5. 11. and 22. and cap. 22. 13. Ezek. 16. 40. Luk. 16. 19. and other places moe.) that indeed doe so lauish and waste that they haue, by such in­temperate and deuillish courses, as if they were nati consumere fruges, had no other thoughts but how to hauocke and spoile, and made that the very end of their life here, to see the end of all before they goe hence: If these, I say, could be either per­swaded or compelled to bestow that, or but halfe that, (so luxu­rious is our land become) which so prodigally and profanely they profuse and spend vpon this pious, good, and necessary vse, that that alone, would abundantly suffice to supply all the wants of this worke, and to bring it to a speedy and an excel­lent end. But since there is little hope that they which will not see their owne shame, and foresee their and theirs vndo­ing and ouerthrow, should haue any minde or care of others (of the common good) I will not vouchsafe the Obseruation thereof any number in my Account, but leaue it as an Extra­nagam, to themselues and others, not denying yet, but that sometimes, Quo minimè credas, Gurgite piscis erit: where is least hope, there may be some helpe.12. By the godly parsi­monie of the richer sort at home.

12. But if the richer and better sort of our people, men of good place and fashion, whom God hath blessed with plenty and abundance of worldly wealth, and great store of riches, [Page 55] could be pleased and induced out of their gratuitie to God, and loue to their countrey and poorer brethren therein, to pare off a little of their super [...]luities and delicacies, which from their tables, and their apparell, &c. might well bespared, and be­stow and imploy it vpon such good vses as these, the helping and setting forth of the poorer sort, the ridding and clearing of this their owne countrie, which they see ouer-laid with mul­ritude, and the planting and inhabiting of other Countries, I suppose without any dammage and want to themselues, they might doe a worke acceptable to God, beneficiall to many, and to these workes of Plantations much auaileable and helpefull. I haue read of the La [...]edemons, a people among the heathen of speciall note for their vertuous and good conditions, that vn­derstandingLacedemo­nians. some of their neighbours in a time of famine to be in great want, pittying their distresse, and hauing no other wayes where with to releeue them, they did by a generall con­sent saue one meale apeece, and sent that to their needy neigh­bours, who found themselues thereby wonderfully refreshed. I would not wish that any should pinch his body, and eat a bit the lesse, or weare a garment the worse for this matter: it would abundantly suffise, and rise to a great account, if those that are able, and doe abound, would spare, I say not one meale in a weeke, not two in a moneth, but and it were, but the valew of one weekes expences in a whole yeere, which without any feeling or signe at all, as it were, might easily be deducted from the whole, and their bellies nothing the lesse fed and filled, nor their bodies any thing the worse clothed and couered. Saint Paul in his time found the Macedonians so ready to well do­ing, that in their pouertie, yea their extreme pouertie, their rich liberalitie abounded euen to strangers, and I hope it is not out of hope that our rich English people in our time may bee induced and moued out of their superfluitie and great abun­dance, to conferre somewhat this way on their neere neigh­bours and natiue countrimen.

Some of these, or rather all these courses put in practice, for Singula si valeant, iuncta necesse iuueent, it cannot bee there should want in common purse, mony and meanes, (for what can want, where mony wants not?) for thespeedy and ready [Page 56] expedition and accomplishment of these worthy exploits.

Resp.

Your conceits for raising of mony seeme to me, to be excee­ding good and sufficient: but I thinke, you cannot as easily conceiue like meanes for getting of people to goe to these Plantations.

Enr.

For getting of people to be transplanted, the intendedTo procure people to goe, what meanes might be vsed. 1. By Procla­mation. Proiect I see, is, That none be constrained thereunto, but onely such admitted, as of themselues be willing, and doe offer themselues vnto it. Which holding, it seemeth to me it were good.

That either by some Proclamation, or Escript in print, no­tice of the intended Plantation, together with someThere is a president of this forme set forth by Ro­bert Harecourt Esquire, in the end of his De­seription of his voyage to Gu [...]ana. declara­tion of the benefits, commodities, and priuiledges which they of euery qualitie, that will goe ouer to inhabit there, specially the three first yeeres shall receiue & enioy, were giuen through­out the Land, as well in eueryThis I see is now reasona­bly well per­formed by Captaine R. [...] who hath ob­tained his Bookes to be dispersed into all parishes: sauing that his project is for one onely plantation, viz. N [...]wfound Land, but that I intend shuld be for all, or one after ano­ther succes­siuely, as they go on, and with more Authoritie. parish Church, as in euery mar­ket towne, to trie who will be willing. For now many heare not of it at all, many, because it is but a Rumour, beleeue not the report thereof, and in a manner all, because they haue no cer­taine intelligence, either of the present state of the Countrey to be planted, or of the benefit there to be had, and of the man­ner of proceeding therein, regard it not. This way present tri­all would be made, who would giue in their names, to that end: and if the Inland doe not, yet the Seacost townes like enough would somewhat hearken vnto it.

2. Thereto it would also further much, I suppose, if there­withall some good order might bee setled in euery Citie and Hauen towne within the Land, whether they that dwell neere thereto might repaire, for Conditions and Agreements about theirhabitation otherwhere, & Transportation thither. When men must seek for very notice only of these matters 100 miles or more, it makes them weary to thinke of it. All the helps that can be had, for easie, safe, certaine, and commodious notice and remouing, will be all little enough, and exceeding requisite and behoouefull.

3. Likewise, if order could be taken that the remouing of those that depart hence, might bee principally made in some parts of the Land one yeere, and in some another, that so all that vpon good notice thereof had and taken, be fet therehence [Page 57] to be remoued, might be remoued all together at once, or at twice at the most: This, probable it is, would cause many to be more willing, then otherwise they will be, to depart hence, while they shall see some good store and companie of their kinsfolkes, friends, neighbours, and acquaintance, to goe away together with them. For, going into a strange place, men can­not but as it were naturally desire both to goe, and to be there with such as they know before and are formerly acquainted with, rather then with meere strangers; and be fearefull to commit both themselues and all that they haue, wholy, to those that they neuer saw before.

Fourthly, This could not but be a good motiue and incou­ragementFourthly, By prouision sup­plyed. to many, but a farre greater this, if speciall order shal also be taken, that those that shall depart hence, be supplyed most carefully and sufficiently with all kind of prouisions fit and necessarie for the life of man, which those parts and Coun­treys yeeld not; as Food and Apparrell, Corne to sowe and plant, Cattell great and small for breed and other vses, Iron, edge-Tooles, Armour, &c. that so hauing all such necessaries duly and ordinarily brought vnto them, they may haue euerie thing in their Markets to be bought and sold, some-what like as they were vsed to haue them here in England.

And this must be continued not for once or twice only, nor at an Harbour or two, but in euerie part of the Plantations, and from time to time, till the Plantations shall be able of them­selues to stand vp, and continue without them. If people may perceiue such order to be setled, and like to be carefully obser­ued▪ as it will well comfort the friends of the departed that re­maine here behind; so it will both comfort and incourage those that shall depart hence, seeing themselues well to be pro­uided for, and not left, being once remoued, to all aduentures and vncertainties.

This matter is of that moment, that it is the first thing and the greatest that troubles the minde of any, when speech is made to them of departing hence into any new Countrey, of dwelling in a forraine Land: What they shall do there? How they shall liue when they come thither? And it takes that deepe impression in the heart of many, that vnlesse they may [Page 58] foresee a cleare and euident resolution thereof, there is no more possibilitie to perswade them to remoue, then to run them­selues into the Fire, or cast themselues headlong into the Sea. This doubt therefore being once well cleared, and people made to see that they shall not need to feare this way, people will be three times more willing to goe then yet they are.

It is not all one for men to goe into any of the present Plan­tations, as it hath beene to goe into Ireland, whither if any could goe prouided of Money in any measure, he needed no­thing else. For there he was sure to haue any thing he needed for his Money, at a better and cheaper rate then in England. But in these places he must haue all things either carried along with him, or brought thither after him, and that at a dearer price and higher reckoning then in England.

People of our breed cannot liue as the Saluages and Natiues there do, that is, more like beasts then men. Whatsoeuer there­fore those Countreys yeeld not, and people in these haue beene vsed to haue, must most carefully be prouided them, lest left destitute that way, they seeme as cast out into wild and forsa­ken wildernesses, and exposed to famine and other miseries too grieuous to them to beare.

Resp.

I haue heard, that our men haue in some of our Plantati­ons felt much▪ extremitie this way.

Enr.

If any such disasterous accident haue befallen any, I wish the notice thereof buried in the Gulfe of Obliui [...]n: and for my part I neither will reuiue the memorie of any such, nor by my good will, heare it recited by any, because I know, it will inflict such a wound in these actions, as will not be healed againe by the plaister of fiue times as many good euents.

Resp.

I thinke so too: For except a man be of a verie dull appre­hension, he will quickly thence conclude, that men were better to abide and liue in pouertie, yea in beggerie at home, then to perish and dye by penurie and miserie abroad. And indeed, no man can say, but that better it were, that men were not remoued at all, then not se­conded and supplyed at all. Bona benè, Good actions be then good, when they be handled and acted in a good sort. But ho­ping that future times may bring forth fairer euents, and former pe­rils (if any haue beene, for more may be told, then is true) produce [Page 59] greater carefulnesse and diligence, for your courses mentioned, though, I like them well, yet I cannot beleeue they will be sufficient to worke your intended effect.

Enr.

5 If these courses suffice not, as I beleeue also that5. By Vagarant Persons. they will not (for so are men, Englishmen especially, and of them, most of all the In-land sort, wedded to their natiue Soile like a Snaile to his Shell, or as the Fable is, A Mouse to his Chest, that they will rather euen starue at home, then seeke stoare abroad) me thinkes it might be good, that strict order were taken, to take vp all such vagrant persons, as now contrarie to the Sta­tute wander about the Countrey loitering, begging, &c. of which sort many are strong and able persons, such as could and would worke and labour well, if they were well ordered and employed. And that such, I meane the strong and able ones, were set forth at the common charge of the place, either where they are apprehended, or ought to be relieued.

Sixthly, To these might be added such as are imprisoned and6. Prisoners. conuicted for any small offences, not deseruing death; as for picking, and stealing, Sheepe-stealing, &c. and some too of an higher degree, if the Magistrate shall see it good. Of these ma­ny commit such crimes, for verie need and pure hunger (For what will not Necessitie, which knowes no Law, and Hunger, which breakes stone walles, enforce men vnto?) who no doubt being first chastised, and then well gouerned, and of better meanes prouided, may proue honest and good men and wo­men afterward. Let no man despaire, no not of such, remem­bring and considering well what the Apostle saith of and to the Corinthians, 1. Cor 6. 9, 10, & 11. and Tit. 3. 3, 4. and Gal. 6. 1. And what is written of those that followed Dauid, before he came to the Crowne, 1. Sam. 22. 2. which for breuities sake, to recite and apply, I purposely forbeare. These of both sorts, might be kept in some Houses of Correction next adioyning, till they can conueniently be shipt away. This course well ob­serued and continued two or three yeeres, would so purge the Land of euill weeds, as Galen neuer better purged his diseased Patients, nor Hercules the Augean Stables.

Resp.

I hearkned when you would reckon vp maimed and aged [Page 60] Souldiers, of whom the Romans in their Colonies, as I haue heard, made great reckoning.

Enr.

7 It may be: but the state of our Plantations andSeuenthly, Maimed Soul­diers. their Colonies be verie different. They prouided in theirs li­berall maintenance for such as could not labour, but we pro­uide roome in ours for them onely that can labour Maimed Souldiers are oftentimes not seruiceable, and therefore will be a burthen to the whole where they come. If any of them be fit for labour, and able to doe themselues and the Vndertakers good, I doubt not but that they which are to prouide for them allowance at home, will be as willing and readie to prouide it for them otherwhere also, if they may perceiue it to be more beneficiall for all parties. And in this time of our long conti­nued Peace, God be thanked, the number of them is not increa­sed, but decreased to a small account. When occasion doth so require, and opportunitie serue, there is no doubt but that way, they also may be prouided for, and helpe to make vp the number.

Resp.

Proceed, I pray you, with the rest.

Enr.

8 There is yet a better course and a readier then anyEighthly, Cottagers. of the former, and that is, Whereas there be infinite store of houses, erected in corners and waste plots vnder Hedges, and by the high-waies sides, contrarie to the Statute of 31. Eliz. 7. if due order might be taken, that by a certaine day in euerie yeere (for all, as euacuation in dangerous Apostumes, cannot be done at once) a certaine number, as a third or fourth part of them, designed for the purpose, by time, by lot, or other like meanes, might be quite taken downe, and vtterly razed for euer, the Inhabitants inioyned by that day to prouide for them­selues otherwhere, such Houses as by Law ought to stand, or else to depart the Land, to some or other of the places to be inhabited, assured there to be prouided for in a farre better sort.

9. To these ought to bee added another sort no lesse com­bersomeNinthly, Inmates. to the Land, viz. Inmates, I meane such, as being in no possibilitie of the reuersion of the house wherein they dwell, or of any other legall Tenement, doe, contrary to the Statute [Page 61] likewise, thrust into houses with and vnder the right Tenants. Of both which sorts, together the Land doth so superabound, that in many parishes, I speake but what I know, they are halfe or more then halfe so many as the right Tenants, and legall In­habitants are. The riddance of them, would be an inestimable clearing of the Country of many an vntoward generation, and a notable disburdening of many a parish of intolerable and an­nuall expenses.

Resp.

These, aboue any other, I could wish were rid out of the Countrie: I and such other poory husbandmen, doe liue much the worse for them. And our Land, I am perswaded, can neuer thriue, so long as these Drones doe [...] it.

Enr.

Indeed they are a superfluous Multitude, and fittest of all other to be rid away: as who, not onely in regard of their personall estates, haue for the most part little here to trust vnto: but also, are for their bodies and breeding, best able, a thing very necessary in these intendments, to indure any hard­nesse or labour by Sea or by Land, within doores or without. Whom therefore it were no reason, either foolish pittie of the Gouernours on the one side, or couetous fauour of greedie Landlords on the other side, should any longer here retaine, to their owne, and the whole countries great hurt and incom­brance.

The States of our Land, in making of that Statute, doe shew sufficiently that they both found then, and foresaw, that much hurt did and would accrew vnto this our Land by this super­fluous crue, who if they had as prudently taken order for their placing elsewhere, from time to time, as they grew vp, as they did prouidently enact the not placing of them here, long or this wee should haue had some or other New England filled with thousands of them, made as rich and happy by trans­plantation, as now they are poore and needie subiects to our King by their commoration: and we should not, as now wee are, be pestred with their aboad among vs.

To forbid them to build here, and not to appoint them place to build and plant in elsewhere, vnlesse they could haue forbidden them to bee bred and to breed and increase any where, was to as little purpose, as for a Phisicion to shew his [Page 62] patient the disease, but to prescribe or giue him for his disease no remedie.

10. If all these courses sufficed not, and yet I am perswa­ded10. Souldiers, in garrisons. verily the former yeeld might quickly be of young and old an hundred thousand at the least, I see not any sufficient let or iust cause, why beyond all these both Souldierlike, a good great presse might not be made of some thousands yeerely of persons fit to be remoued, which being once transplanted thither, as souldiers into Garrison, might so be seuered, as might seat them for habitation, and set them (being not loyterers and thriftlesse fellowes, but men of imployment, handicrafts, labourers, &c.) while warres let not, to seruice and employment for the com­mon and their owne priuate good: and also Seruant like, a goodAnd seruants. number of poore mens children, both boyes and maids, but maids especially of nine or ten yeeres old and vpward, be taken vp, which according to the Statute of 43. Eliz. 2. and 1. Iam. 25. might be placed as seruants or apprentices with such as goe ouer to inhabite there.

Resp.

If there should bee so great a number, and such kinde of persons as you intimate, it cannot bee but that many idlers and vn­profitable persons will goe among them likewise, which likely it is will doe more harme then good: would you then haue no respect to be had to some rather then other to goe?

Enr.

It is true that as it is here at home, so it will be abroad. In a multitude there will euer be some that are but vnprofitable, yet would I haue none to be left out (so as they be seruiceable and not maimed and vtterly vnable) that can be had, because there is some hope that Necessitie, Occasion and Opportunity may make many of them to leaue loytering there, that here happely haue nothing else to doe: and for that their very presence and number cannot but be some comfort & strength of the Plantation.

But withall, and aboue all, speciall regard ought to be had, to draw thither (as I haue before once or twice insinuated) men of speciall and present employment, that is, men of such Trades, Faculties, Sciences, Handicrafts, Occupations and Employments, as are most necessary for a present and vprising common wealth; such, as without whom, there can be no com­modious [Page 63] or good dwelling or liuing at all for men, men of our breed & manner of Liuing any where. For mans life you know is such as cannot stand in any good sort without the helpe and supply of many very many other men besides himselfe.

Resp.

What sort of persons are those whom you take to be so ne­cessary, that without them there can be no good Plantation or Co­habitation for men, men of our breed any where?

Enr.

They are these, and the like. Armorers, Bakers, Bar­bers,Diuers sorts of m [...]necessaryn for a Plantation. Bookesellers, Butchers, Bowmakers, Brewers, Bricklai­ers. Carpenters, Chandlers, Clothiers, Coopers, Cutlers. Diers, Drapers Feltmakers Fishers, Fletchers, Fowlers, Ful­lers. Gardiners, Glasmakers, Glasiers, Glouers, Grocers. Hatters, Horners, Husbandmen, Inkeepers, Ioyners. Labou­rers, Lymeburners, Linnen-Weauers. Masons, Mariners, Merchants, Millers, Mill-wrights. Nailers, Netma­kers. Parchment makers, Pewterers, Phisicians, Potecaries, Pointmakers, Printers. Ropers. Sadlers, Sailers, Saltmakers, Sawyers, Siueyars, Shearmen, Shipwrights, Shoomakers, Smiths, Soapemakers, Souldiers, Surgeons. Tailors, Tanners, Thatchers, Tilers, Turners. Vintners, Vpholsters. Wheele­wrights, Wherrymen, Wollen-Weauers, &c Of all these sorts of persons there must goe some. Some of other sorts, as in a common wealth furnished there are many, may be expedient likewise: but these are all so necessary, that it is hard to say, which of them all can be spared, and need not presently to bee had.

Resp.

But most of these sorts of people are so well set a worke here in England, and so necessary for our commonwealth, that few or none of them will be induced to goe hence, and seeke their fortunes o­ther where.

Enr.

Nay, rather they are so ill set a worke here, that many of them haue as much need as any other to seeke worke, em­ployment and dwelling otherwhere. For there bee so many of all Trades, Sciences, and Occupations, that one cannot liue for another. They that be workmen doe often loyter for lacke of worke many dayes & weeks together: and when they can haue worke, are faine to doe it better cheape then they can afford, and were wont to doe. So it is with Shopkeepers, they har [...]ly [Page 64] can finde any place where to set vp Shop, all places being al­ready full and ouerfull. Little vtterance of their ware can they make, and are oft informed to take mony so much vnderhand, that they can hardly get or saue thereby.

2. If their owne distresse and present euill state will not preuaile sufficiently with men of these qualities to moue them to goe, considering that such must be had, and of some sorts of them great store: (for without thē no Plantation at all can any where be made:) such courses may, and must be taken, partly by the bettring of their estates there, with promise and assu­rance of some good portions of lands, houses and benefits▪ if they will goe, and partly by impairing of their estates here, with lesse worke, and worse vtterance, if they will not goe, as may make them either willing or at least content to goe.

Resp.

You haue spoken much concerning people to be had for a Plantation, that for this matter, I thinke you haue no more to say.

Enr.

Yes, very much. For all these hitherto mentioned, though they be a multitude indeed, and enough to make a ve­ry large Plantation out of hand, yet without others conioyned with them, will they bee for the most part, but a rude and silly multitude. You haue forgottē it seemeth & so had I too almost, & no maruell, for I finde them of others but little remembred, one sort of people most needfull of all others to be had; I meane Ministers of the word of God. For whom, if care be not taken,11. Ministers of the word. that they may be had, and being had, that they may forthwith and condignly be prouided for, which is, after the example of God himselfe, who in diuiding the land of Canaan, laid out the Lot of Leui with the first, and that a faire and goodly one too, as you reade Num▪ 18. and 35. in vaine may we looke for any nota­ble blessing from God vpon the Attempts. If they be altogether omitted and neglected, or shifted off for the present with faire words, or led on a little with beggerly stipends, (a profane kind of pay, and not made partakers, and that in ample sort, with their people, of such meanes as they doe liue vpon, viz. Trade, How they may be prouided for. Turfe, and Tithes, farewell good Ministrie there for euer: Their portions once seized and setled in the hands of lay men, as too much experience shewes here at home, will neuer in good and due manner and measure bee gotten out againe. [Page 65] Wherefore as it is necessary and fit, that the countries be pre­sently distinted into parishes, so withall, and more then so ne­cessary and fit it is, that the Ministers part be allotted and laid out with it. A thing at first, before proper and priuate rights be setled, as easie (I hope) to be had, as to be asked for: which how much the better it is effected, so much the better, and the more, be we well assured, shall the worke, the maine worke prosper and please God.

Resp.

But doe you thinke it not lawfull to prouide for the Mi­nisters of the word, otherwise then by tithes, which many will hardly yeeld, now in the time of the Gospel, to be due to them by Gods law.

Enr.

Whether Tithes be due, De iure diuino, I leaue to Di­uines. But taking that onely which all be agreed vpon, that is, that the Minister must haue a very competent, liberall, and certaine Maintenance, which cannot be lesse then the Tenth. For allotting thereof whether they shall like better to follow the example of our owne Progenitors, the ancient Inhabi­tants of this Land, who imitating God himselfe in his practice before touched, as we may see with our eyes euery where, though a great part thereof be now taken from the Church by impropriations, and abridged to the Church by Customes, Prescriptions, and other like, did not account the Church to be sufficiently prouided for, vnlesse, besides Tithes and Obla­tions, it were endowed with some faire portion of good and conuenient ground called the Glebe, or in stead of both, both Tithes and Glebero allot and allow the Church a full Tenth of Ground onely, I meane the tenth part of euery mans Te­nure, as he that hath a thousand Acres of ground, to allow an hundred of them to the Church, and so to pay no tithe at all, as which would be more troublesome to the Minister to gather, and more grudging and laboursome to the parishioner to lay out, as we finde by daily experience here in England, I see no great cause why any should refuse or dislike it. For either way the Minister may haue a very sufficient stable and certaine maintenance.

Resp.

This latter way, Ministers of Churches shall be too much encombred with husbandry, and distracted from their studies.

Enr.

They may easily auoyd that, if of the whole, they re­serue [Page 66] out for their owne Table, a reasonable quantitie onely, as their Glebe here in England, and diuide the rest into Tene­ments, which they may let to other men, that may yeeld them rents and fines, as doe Tenants here in England to their Land­lords: after which sort also there be in England, some lands be­longing to Benefices with Cures.

Resp.

I haue made you digresse a little too much happely, by my so many questions. I pray you, therefore, now returne to that you were saying.

Enr.

Besides these, Ministers of Churches, whether it shall not be requisite, that as great a number almost of other Schol­lers,12. Other schollers for teaching of youth. for the teaching of children, and training vp of youth, as well in the Languages, as in all other good Literature, be like­wise procured and sent forth: (for as it is not fit, so indeed it is not alwayes possible, the Ministers alone should vndergo this charge also.) I leaue it at large, to euery mans consideration.

Resp.

That such men, viz. Ministers and Schoolemasters should be had, it must needs bee granted to bee most requisite and ne­cessary: but I beleeue it will not be very easie to procure them. For Schollers now a daies are most of them of a tender breed, and such as will hardly brooke the Seas: and England is prouided of many good meanes of Maintenance for them, and therefore they will be loth to seeke after lesse, and worse otherwhere.

Enr.

To furnish the Ministerie and Schooles, the Vniuersi­ties of our Land, solicited therevnto, cannot doe l [...]sse then sendMeanes that may be vsed for procuring such men to goe. forth either of them yeerely some few, and it be but two or three apeece. And there are few Diocesses in the land besides, which hauing in them diuers sufficient and able men in those functions▪ not yet in any measure competently prouided for; may not also doe the like. And fit and necessary it is, that for the incouragement of men at the first, to these imployments, there should somewhat more then ordinary shares, as I may say, that is, some what more then what will hold but while their breath holds, be proposed and offered to men of that ranke? For in them also the old saying happely will bee found true, Ducimur omnes pr [...]mio.

2. If neither desire to further Christs kingdome, nor to seeke their owne preferment, can preuaile with any so farre as Sua [Page 67] Sponte, to giue themselues to so good a worke, I see not why, the Church it selfe, or, the Bishop himselfe, should not be thought to haue authoritie and power enough to thrust forth Labourers into this Haruest, and to lay this charge vpon such as shall be fit for it, inioyning them to goe in the Name of God, as was done▪

Act. 8▪ 14. and 13. 2. and 15. 22. and Galat. 29.

3 Such course and care may also be had at the first in diui­sion of parishes, that all parishes being made of a competent largenesse (& not as here in England too too many are, so little that theyyeeld the Minister neither one quarter of a comforta­ble & goodly congregation, or auditorie nor one halfe of a cō ­petent and honest maintenance) both the fewer Ministers may suffice, and they that be, may haue competent and commenda­ble allowance to liue vpon for them and their families.

4. Also it must be considered, that if Schollers, that is, Graduates, and men of note for learning, cannot be had, it may suffise sometimes that such be inuited to the Ministerie, as are of meane knowledge, so as they haue good vtterance, and be of sound and honest life and conuersation.

Resp.

I did little thinke that you would haue thought any such fit for that place.

Enr.

Why not? In England it selfe we are faine sometimes to receiue such into the Ministerie, & I beleeue so it wil be as long as England is England: much more may it be borne within the infancie of a Church, where neither Schooles, nor other means for learned and able men are yet planted Better such then none.Ruffin hist. Ec­cles. lib. 1. cap. 9.

I haue read in an ancient Ecclesiasticall Historie, that on a time there were two lay men that made a voyage vnto the Indians, and remaining there a good while, they did in the bestSocrat. hist. Eccl. lib. 1. cap. 15. manner they could, informe and perswade many of them to the Christian faith, and found the people very tractable. At length returning home, one of them, whose name was Frumentius, comming to Alexandria his citie, goeth vnto the Bishop of the place, which at that time was Athanasius, that renowned Clerke surnamed for his great learning & sincerity in faith Ocu­lus mundi, the eye of the world, & acquaints him with the mat­ter, praying him withall, that he would send a Bishop and other Teachers thither, that might goe forward with that worke of [Page 68] the Lord▪ of which he said, there was great hope. Athanasius hauing called together for that purpose the Clergie of his citie, considering a little of the matter, stands vp and saith; And where shall we finde such a man, so fit for this imployment, as your selfe (Frumentius) are, in whom is the spirit of our God? and there­vpon presently all the rest approuing it, he made him a Mini­ster, and a Bishop, and sent him backe (with others) forthwith to furnish what he had begun, and the Lord made the worke to prosper in his hand, confirming the word with many signes and wonders following, saith the Historie.

By this story you may see, that holy men of God, euen in the primitiue Church, did not stand much vpon it, to admit meane men, and not professed schollers onely into the Ministerie, where they saw other gifts correspondent: and withall, that Bishops vsed in those times, and had power and authoritie, to send forth men into forraine countries, to preach and plant the Gospel. And of these kinde of men let this suffice.

13. But then farther, besides these last mentioned, and aboue13. Men of name and note to be Gouer­nours, &c. all these hitherto spoken of, I adde, there must bee, by some meanes or other, drawne and induced to goe, as Gouernours and Leaders of the rest, some store of men of Name and Note, men by whose power and authoritie, greatnesse and grauitie, purse and presence the multitude afore mentioned, may be en­couraged, ordered, and guided. Common sense and reason can sufficiently enforme euery man, that no body can consist with­out a head▪ nor Army without a Generall, no company with­out a Conductor, and no societie without a Ruler. And Nature her selfe teaching the Amazonian Bees, not to swarme without their Ladie, and the Cranes not to flie without their Leader, may easily teach vs, that we shall transgresse the very order of Nature, and neglect that instinct which is ingraffed in all, if we shall make such a remouall without the conduct of such men, as for their place and power, birth and breed, may be fit to order and rule, to support and settle the rest And if men of this ranke would once roundly set their foot to this way, and their hand to this worke, as Moses did with the Elders of Israel to­wards the Land of Canaan, Aeneas and the noble Troians into Italie, and Brutus and his Allies for this Land, it were not to [Page 69] be doubted, but their example and industrie would more pre­uaile in one yeere or two to draw multitudes with and after them, then all the proiects hitherto, without such attempted, haue procured.

Resp.

If men of place and authoritie in the Temporall State (for of them onely you seeme to speake) be so necessarie vnto such a worke, as you seeme to imply, me thinkes it should be as neces­sary likewise, that there should goe some, that may carrie like autho­ritie and place in the estate Ecclesiasticall.

Enr.

I am of the same mind also. It cannot be but requisit14. And that in the Ecclesi­asticall estate as well as in the temporall. and necessarie, that as well for the gouerning of Ministers themselues alreadie made, as also for the ordering or making of more where need is, for the Institution of them to Chur­ches, for the Diuision of Parishes, the endowing, erecting, and consecrating of Churches, and other like Episcopall and Eccle­siasticall duties and emploiments, which must be followed and exercised instantly, if we meane to make a Christian and Reli­gious Plantation indeed, there should go some one or more, ac­cording to the greatnesse of the Plantation, to be Bishop there, and some others besides, that shall exercise vnder him or them Ecclesiasticall authoritie and iurisdiction, lest faction and con­fusion, like Tares among the Wheat, grow faster there, then Religion, Order, and Peace of the Church.

Resp.

Now I suppose, you haue said enough for this matter more it is I am sure, then euer I heard in all my life, and so much as makes me thinke certainly, that if in such a sort, as you haue implyed, and with such persons, a Plantation were set forth, then it would prosper indeed.

Enr.

You thinke I haue said all in all, that can be said: but I tell you, there is one thing yet vnsaid, which (in mine opinion) is more materiall then any one thing whatsoeuer hitherto men­tioned. That indeed which must and would giue life to all the rest, and without which, the whole attempt wheresoeuer it be, seemes to me, to be like a building on the sand, which you know will in the end haue a fall and the fall thereof will be very great, Mat. 7. 27.

Resp.

I long to heare what that should be, for I can conceiue no­thing [Page 70] to be so much yet wanting to this worke. I pray you hold my thoughts in suspence no longer.

Enr.

This it is▪ That his Maiestie would be pleased to enti­tleThe fifteenth and chiefest of all, is, That his Maiesty would entitle him­selfe King of that Countrey in which the present Plan­tation shall be. himselfe King and supreme Gouernour of that Countrey, wherein the Plantation shall proceed, as at this present of New-found-Land; that so they that plant and dwell there, may know directly and expresly vnder whose dominions they dwell, and so rest thereby assured of his Regall protection and defence vpon all occasions as well as if they remained in England. This, this obtained, would encourage and embolden many that now doubt and feare, to goe willingly, and to aduenture goods and life therein resolutely. This would make them ioyfull and io­uiall to proceed, who now are doubtfull and fearefull, as those that cannot tell in whose Land, and within whose kingdome it is that they shall dwell there, and that would be loth to dwell but within his Maiesties Dominions.

Resp.

That is knowne sufficiently by his Maiesties Letters Patents, granted to sundry honourable Personages and other, that send thither.

Enr.

It is knowne to them that haue the Patents, but it is not knowne to all them that should goe vnder the Patentees. It is also well knowne by common fame and rumour, but it is not so well knowne, as if by Proclamation it were published in euerie Towne and Citie; not so well, as if in euerie Church, he were prayed for by the Name of King of that Countrey, as well as of England, France, and Ireland.

Resp.

This must be a matter of great moment, out of doubt. It puts me in mind of somewhat that I read a great while agoe in our English Chronicles, in the time of King Edward the third, viz. How that when he made claime to the Crowne of France, to which he was the next lawfull heire and successour, yet all his certaine right and iust claime notwithstanding, some of his Allies and Confederates beyond Sea (being but voluntaries) refused to assist him in Armes, vnlesse he would first, and vntill he did take on him the stile and Ti­tle of King of France.

Enr.

By that you may perceiue, there is something in this particular, more then many doe conceiue. And now touching [Page 71] these two maine points before mentioned, viz. the procuring of Men and Money to such a businesse, as we intreat of, let this suffice.

Resp.

And well it may: For vnlesse it be, as you said before, by Act of Parliament, which alone is able to settle an absolute course for these excellent designes, this is as much, I thinke, as by most infe­riour courses can well be effected: but yet for my further satisfaction, let me, I pray you be bold to moue vnto you, a doubt or two more, that come to my mind.

Enr

Doe you so: I shall doe the best I can to put you out ofCertaine ob­iections an­swered. your doubts.

Resp.

The course you intimate, is a matter of great expence.1 Obiect.

Enr.

It is indeed: But thereof say I, First, Many a particu­larAnsw. will beare and disc [...]arge his owne: other-some, a great deale of his owne part.

Secondly, A great part of the expences will soone be repaid againe: some, in the Commodities thence returned: some, in the easement and disburdening of their wonted charge and in­combrance here at home.

Thirdly, People cannot liue any where without expence.

Fourthly, Be it a matter of some good quantitie, that must arise out of the Common Purse, is not our whole Land able to beare it? Suppose there should goe ten or twentie thousands yeerely for a time vnto our Plantations, what were that, with the helpe of particulars, to Englands Purse? If in time of war, it were able without any grieuance, almost any feeling, to maintaine sixe or seuen, yea, ten or twelue thousand Souldiers in the Field the whole yeere, from yeere to yeere for a time; as easily might it be able, or else I am much deceiued, to transport, and that with verie competent prouision yeerely, twice as ma­ny thousand persons at the least, into those Plantations.

Resp.

The remouing of so many, may seeme superfluous.2 Obiect.

Enr.

I will not say, but I may be deceiued: But surely in myAnsw. conceit, It were necessarie that there should goe rather more then fewer then I haue said. My reasons are:

First, The multitude that aboundeth in our Land, is so ex­ceeding great, that without great riddance, the benefit thereof at home, will be little seene, and lesse felt. For more will yerely [Page 72] arise then are remoued. To draw out a proportion some-what fit in this case; there are in England onely at this present, eight thousand Parishes at the least, as I coniecture, and certaine it is, as all the Church Registers in England, I thinke, will iustifie, there are more borne euerie yeere, then buried. Say, but two in a Parish one with another, and that is with the least, I am sure, yet that amounts to sixteene thousand in one yeere. The in­crease being such, what decrease there had need be made to bring the whole to abide some-what equall, may soone be per­ceiued. Farther, let men looke backe to the beginning of the late Queenes raigne, or there-about, and see in what state the Land stood then for people, and he shall perceiue, that euen then it did begin to exceed: so that vnlesse it may againe be reduced to that mediocritie at least, and there stand, it can be in no tolerable estate. This cannot be effected, but by such a num­ber at least, remoued as I haue intimated.

Resp.

Indeed within my remembrance, that is, within these fourtie or fiftie yeeres, our Parish is increased in such a sort, that there be now almost twice as many Houses in it, as once there were, and these newly encreased, but Cottages most of them set vp in waste places of the high-waies: the Inhabitants whereof, are nothing but a burthen vnto vs, and doe verie much trouble and annoy vs, that be the ancient Tenants, and true Housholders: and I perceiue that the remouing of one or two of them, were to little purpose. The greatest part of them, or rather all, if it were possible, must be rid away, or else we shall be little the neere for it. And so it had need be, in your vn­derstanding, the whole Land ouer.

Enr.

You conceiue me aright. Secondly, Farther, the Plan­tations now in hand are diuers: these all cannot be setled in any forme, nor brought to any good estate, without the like numbers transported, whereby they may be enabled in euerie of them: First, To occupate or take in forthwith, such a large continent of ground, as may be fit for setling the bounds of their Plantation there. Secondly, That they may be able to be­ [...]in their Cities, Townes, and Parishes, in such reasonable spaci­ [...]snesse, as may become so worthy an attempt: which cannot be, vnless their number be such, that they may haue to begin withall, for euerie Citie they build, a thousand; for euerie Mar­ket [Page 73] Towne, an hundred; and for euerie Countrey Parish, twen­tie or thirtie Housholds at the least. Which begun with such conuenient distance, and sufficient amplenesse of ground an­nexed, may admit in time, a double or treble increase. And thirdly, To haue and set vp among themselues, all manner of Sciences, Trades, Handicrafts, and Employments necessarie and conuenient for the cohabitation and life of Man.

Resp.

This would require a greater number then yet you haue3 Obiect. spoken of, I thinke: so great out of all question, as in all England is not to be had.

Enr.

I am not of your mind: Few men doe well considerAnsw. what a number for such a purpose in all England, is to be had, if there were once good courses taken for the hauing of them. For my owne part truly, I am fully perswaded, That there are few Townes and Parishes in England, but haue in them of all sorts How great a number in England may be spared for Plantations. one and other that might to such a purpose be spared, enough to make and plant in such a sort as I haue said before, as great a Towne and Parish in some new Plantation, as that within England, in which at this present, they doe dwell and abide. A number I suppose suffi­cient presently to furnish at large, more then all any one Planta­tion that is now in hand.

Thirdly, The attempts, at the beginning specially, cannot but be liable to some dangers of the Enemie. If then their number be but small, and they goe forth, as hitherto by scores or hun­dreds, Alas, what strength can they be of, either to subdue the Borderers, or resist the Inuaders? The Aduersarie may wait a time at his best leasure, when they are growne a litle worth the rifling, to displant them of their seates: and as to the French, in Terra Florida, the Spaniard did, to dispatch them of their liues. Whereas, if they goe out by thousands, or ten thousands, as all good Plantations should, and euer haue done. First, They shall be able to withstand, and (if need be) to subdue the Naturalls adiacent: and then within a few yeeres, partly of themselues, and partly by the assistance of their Confederates, which the stronger they see ours to be, the firmer no doubt will they be vnto them, they will by Gods blessing and aid, be so well forti­fied by Land, and prouided by Sea, that they shall as little need to feare any forraine forces there, as we, God be praysed, doe [Page 74] here: and happely, grow no lesse famous for martiall and ciuill policie both, in that Continent, then our Nation is in this.

Fourthly, Now it is a fit time, and we are well at leisure for such a purpose, to attend such an employment, whereas, if any trouble, if any warres, by Sea, or by Land, should arise vs here, (And doe we thinke, or are we sure, these Halcion dayes▪ will euer hold?) we should haue neither time, nor meanes to spare, to prosecute any such businesse abroad. As therefore, a man that will build a great House, must follow it closely, while the Summer lasteth, and the weather is faire, lest the Winter come on, which will both hurt and hinder his worke: so, it is good for vs, in this faire time of Peace, and Summer like weather of leisure and libertie, to follow these businesses with speed, lest in time we say: Had we thought this. We know, Pòst est occasio calua. This is a point of that worth, and weight, that it alone, me thinkes, should be enough to stir vp all England, to take heed that she doe not sit still, Iudg. 18. 9. and let it slip out of her hands. For, as saith the Poet:

Nec quae praeterijt, cursu reuocabitur vnda:
Nec quae praeterijt, hora redire potest.

That is:

Nor can the tide that's eb'd and gone, int's proper course reuoked be:
Nor can the time when once it's past, returne againe, we plainely see.

Fifthly, If this worke should be intercepted by any vnexpe­cted accident, before it be brought to some perfection, that is: That the present Plantation may, if need be, for a time subsist of it selfe; in what a miserie should they be (poore wretches) that haue aduentured the first attempt? And (which God forbid) who can tell, if we dally and delay, and make not grea­ter speed thither, and thereabout, then yet we doe, whether some other Nation, of better spirit, and worthier resolution, may not, to our great shame and confusion, step in before vs, and stop the gate against vs?

[Page 75]Sixthly, Besides, the setting forth by great numbers, is no small incouragement vnto them that doe goe forth for the pre­sent, and a notable inducement to others, as vnto a hopefull businesse, to second them from time to time hereafter: where­as, on the contrarie (as experience plainely proues) this going forth by handfuls, discomforts them that be sent away, embol­dens the Aduersarie, dis [...]redites the Action, and (But who can reckon vp all the euils thereof?) discourageth euerie one that heareth thereof, to aduenture either his person, or his purse in it; as doubting lest the attempt come at length, as other-like heretofore haue done, to iust nothing: and that they which are thither gone, are, as banished or condemned persons, but cast away.

These causes and reasons considered, I rest confident that it is necessarie, there should into these Plantations be remoued, yeerely for a time, ten or twelue thousands at the least.

Whom these satisfie not, I might send to the Bee-hiues, where they may obserue, that the smallest swarmes doe seldome prosper, but the greatest neuer lightly faile: or to the Locusts of the Earth, in whom Salomon, Prou. 30. 37. noteth this for a point of their excellent wisdome, that they goe forth by heap [...]s, or great troupes. But not resting thereon, though these natu­rall experiments are not to be despised, I will remit them to one of the greatest Politicians that euer was among men, I meane Moses, a man full of the Spirit of God, and all wise­dome, who conducting the Children of Israel to the Land­ward of promise, a Land formerly inhabited, a Land alreadie builded and planted, a Land reasonably well cleared of Woods and wild-Beasts; yet tels them (whose number was not small, as this one instance may declare, viz. that when they came out of Aegypt, there were of them, men, besides Children and Strangers, Sixe hundred thousand, and this withall, that when they passed into the Land, fourtie yeeres after, vnder the hand of Ioshua, out of two Tribes and an halfe, that dwelt on this side Iordan, there went, fourtie thousand men of warre to assist the rest) that therefore the Lord would not destroy their Enemies all at once, but by little and little, lest the wild-Beasts of the Field should increase vpon them, Deuter. 7. 22. Whence [Page 76] they may gather, That if so great a multitude were, in Moses opinion, with the least, to inhabite an emptie Land, of no greater Continent and spaciousnesse then that was, and it were but for feare of the increase of the wild-Beasts against them, and therefore vpon good pollicie, and for a time, it were better some of the men of that Land, the former Inhabitants, were suffered to remaine among them, till themselues were more increased, then may not so small a number, as we com­monly send into our Plantations, suffice thereto, and that some greater number then any yet I haue intimated, rather then a lesse (all things considered) were rather more requisite and necessarie.

Resp.

This, the remouing of so great a number, will be a great4 Obiect. weakning and impouerishing to our Land.

Enr.

No, none at all. For first, The strength of a I and, con­sistethAnsw. not so much in the number of people, as, in the aptnesse, and ablenesse of them vnto seruice. Now, whoso will not be blind, cannot but see, that this multitude, whose remouall should chiefly be intended, is neither apt, for want of educati­on, being of the ruder sort; nor able for want of meanes; being for the most part, of the poorer sort, to strengthen vs. There may be more doubt of them rather, lest in time of Peace they raise tumults, and fall to vproares for their bellies sake, and in time of Warre lest they ioyne with the Enemie, and take parts against vs, for our pillage and liuings sake: then hope that in Peace, they will inrich and benefit; or in trouble, assist and strengthen our Common-wealth and Countrey.

2. If Number onely bee respected, it will no whit be em­paired, but rather bettered, not diminished, but augmented, in that so great a Multitude of vs being planted other­where, shall become, as it were, mother England, ready, and a­ble vpon, all occasions, to ioyne with this. Indeed, if such a number and multitude, as is needfull to be remoued, should either die in our Land, or be translated out of our Land, into some other Princes dominion, the want of them might happely be some losse and lacke vnto our Land: yet when for forty or fifty yeeres agoe it was not so ouercloied and pestered with multitude, as now it is, it was not found, God be than­ked, [Page 77] to want strength: but abiding still subiects to the same king and members of the same dominion, being made by the benefit of Plantation more auaileable to the one, and seruice­able to the other, then before, so farre is it off, that the absence and want of them shall weaken, that out of all doubt it shal no­tably strengthen our Land.

3. As for the impouerishing of the Land this way, there is thereof, nor probabilitie, nor possibilitie, seeing the greatest number of them, whose Transplantation is most necessary, are they that aboue all other, doe for the present, by their abiding here impouerish and begger it. For on them is bestowed yeere­ly, the greatest part of all that money, the summe where of is almost inestimable, which is by Ouerseers and Churchwar­dens, in euery seuerall parish of the Land collected and distri­buted. And whereas, of this sort of people, this superfuous number, there are increased among vs, out of all doubt, here in England alone, within these fiftie yeeres, not so few as an hun­dred thousand (I say not persons, but) families, I presume, if view thereof were made, it would appeare, that among them all, there would hardly be found one thousand of subsidie men, as you may perceiue by the state of our owne parish and others neere-adioyning, wherein if there bee now any more subsidie men then were in the Queenes time, they are such onely, as are of the ancient inhabitants, and tenants, and not one, or scarce one of the late and new increase.

4. If there doe remoue hence any of the better and richer sort that shall, and may carry some store of wealth with them, as there must, if euer there be any good Plantation indeed any where, yet the number of them, both will, and need be but few in respect of the rest: and whatsoeuer the Land is damnified by that they carry with them, it will soone be recompensed, partly by their absence, partly in the estates of those which shall be, by hauing their liuings and some other of their meanes inriched & bettered by their remouall, and lastly, by the com­modities and benefits which from and by such cannot to this Land but redound againe out of the Plantations.

Resp.

But the reuenues of the Crowne must needs be, by this [Page 78] meanes, extremely spent and diminished.

Enr.

That the reuenues of the Crowne of England should thereby be exhausted or empaired, seemeth in mine eye so im­probable, that altogether contrariwise, it seemeth, and must needs be, the readiest way, and surest course that can be, excee­dingly to augment the same, both at home and abroad.

At home, in that they which remaine behind, shall (the Land being thus disburdened and cleared) the better reape to them­selues the benefit of the Land, and so grow and increase in wealth, that they may be inabled to pay to his Maiestie with the more [...]ase and alacritie, & in more quantities his dues, and impositions: whereas now, what by the great charge they be at for releeuing many of these, that now encomber their pa­rish on the one side (a charge not so small in many parishes yeerely, as their part of one whole Subsidie to the king) and what by the extreme fines and rents whereto their liuings, and the high prices whereto all things to liue by, through the excessiue mul­titude of people in our land, are rackt and raised on the other side, euen they that haue reasonable good liuings and meanes, are so kept downe, and, as it were, eaten out, from time to time, that they are worse able now, then either they, or their predecessors, for thirtie or fortie yeeres past, either to keepe house, or pay impositions and dueties required.

Abroad, while as probable it is, that by the good of Plan­tation, they which goe away from hence very poore, may within a little while become very rich: they that here were but needy & of meane estate, may there arise to be, as we terme men of substance and good abilitie, Subsidie men themselues, and so yeeld profit, and pay to the Kings Coffers in such store and plentie, that, by Gods blessing attending on mens inde­uours, the income thereto from such onely, (that I speake no­thing now of what may in great probabilitie arise by those great hopes of pearle, metall-mines, &c.) may within a little time equall, if not surmount the present reuenues which now all England yeeld, whereby, by the helpe of God; (for of the e­uent, if the fault be not in our selues, there is no doubt) his Maiestie shall haue lesse cause then hitherto, to be either charge­able [Page 79] or beholding to his subiects at home, and yet be as rich in treasure, and as well stored in money and meanes for wealth, as any Monarch in Christendome.

Resp.

I haue heard some men better learned then my selfe say, That the truth is neuer better cleared and manifested, then when by aduersaries of the truth seeking to darken it, it is oppugned & con­tradicted, which I see verified in our Conference. For the longer wee talke, the more I finde mine errour and ignorance; and the more I obiect against you, the better appeares the soundnesse of your opinion about the things we haue talked of.

Enr.

Whether you spake as you did, of Ignorance, or for triall, to proue what I could, or would say in these cases, it is not greatly materiall. I haue spoken nothing, I hope, but what is [...]it and probable in the cause, and the same in such sort, as may suffice to satisfie you, or any other that will with veritie and probabilitie be satisfied in these points; & therefore I trust, that you will take all that I haue spoken in good part, as procee­ding from a minde that would willingly gratifie all, but offend none.

Resp.

You haue in truth satisfied me to the sull, concerning thoseThe summe of the second part. things of which I desired a Resolution, and did somewhat doubt with my selfe, that it was not to be had. For now I perceiue, that to make a good Plantation, store of people to inhabit, and store of Prouision to inable them to inhabite it, are necessary. I per­ceiue also, that our Land is able to affoord both, both People and Prouision plentifully, if good courses might be taken for procuring them. Wherefore, as I cannot but acknowledg my selfe much beholding vnto you, for that you haue brought me out of errour into the truth, as out of darknesse into light: so I cannot but prosesse, that I now wish with all my heart, that I might liue to heare and know these or some of these worthy, commendable, and necessary Proiects brought to some good effect, and will from henceforth bee as ready to incou­rage and perswade others thereunto, as I haue beene heretofore to discourage and disswade them therefrom.

Enr.

If you be so well minded, whereof I am very glad, then you haue done contradicting, and I shall not need to bethinke my selfe of any further answers.

Resp.
[Page 80]

I haue done obiecting and opposing: for I perceiue, it is to [...] [...]nd: but if there doe come any thing into my mind concerning these proiects, wherein, I shall need some better information then I can ga­ther to my selfe, I will make bold to come vnto you once more, but that shall be, not as an opposite and gain-saier; but as a Scholler that desi­reth to learne, that so I may haue mine owne mind and vnderstand­ing so well informed and prepared, that I may be able to confer with, and, if need be, to informe others.

Enr.

Come and welcome, whensoeuer you see it good▪

The end of the second Part.
A PLAINE PATH-WAY TO …

A PLAINE PATH-WAY TO PLANTATIONS:

That is, A Discourse in generall concerning the Plantation of our English people in other Countries.

The third Part.

[figure]

LONDON, Printed by G. P. for Iohn Marriot.

THE PATH-WAY TO PLANTA­TIONS. The third Part.

The Speakers be Respire, a Farmer. Enrubie, a Merchant.

Respire.

ONce againe M. Enrubie I am come to trouble you a little: For by often thinking, and as it were meditating vpon these new and notable businesses of Plantation, which I hope will, and wish may take good effect, some things are come into my mind, that need a better wit and vnderstanding then mine, to open them to me. I pray you therefore a little to instruct me therein.

Enr.

With a verie good will. I will doe what I may. Aske me what you will.

Resp.

The great and goodly workes that we haue talked of, I see to be exceeding good and necessarie for our people, and meanes enough to be had, for setting them forward. What therefore may be the reason they goe on no better?Causes why our Plantati­ons proceed no better.

Enr.

There may diuers reasons or causes thereof be concei­ued. The maine or principall whereof, in my conceit is this. [Page 90] There wanteth among vs a generall and setled resolution toFirst, want of a generall resolution. proceed with them.

Resp.

What might worke such a Resolution?

Enr.

A like knowledge and perswasion of the Necessitie, Abilitie, and Opportunitie that our whole Nation hath there­unto.

Resp.

I pray you speake somewhat of each of these seuerally.

Enr.

I haue reasonably well done it alreadie, if you call to mind, what hath passed betweene vs in conference. For in our first dayes Labour, I shewed you manifoldly, that a Plantation is for our Land, at this present time, verie needfull. And indeed, it is so needfull and necessarie, that vnlesse God take away the present necessitie thereof by war or pestilence, or both, if it be not this way remedied, this Land cannot but shortly come, for want thereof, to verie great miserie and euill.

And at our next meeting, I shewed you; that there are both people enow, and meanes for prouision enough, to performe such a businesse, and that in a large and ample, both manner and measure, if good courses be taken for it accordingly: which can be best done by some Act of Parliament, if the Estates of the Land might be pleased to take this matter into their considera­tion, as a matter that highly and neerely concerneth the com­mon good at this instant Matters of ten times lesse moment, are ordinarily vouchsafed the help and authoritie of that most high and honourable Court, and therefore great hope we may conceiue, that in due time, which is euen now, this also shall.

For opportunitie I take it, it hath passed betweene vs in our whole conference, as a matter granted, that there is opportu­nitie thereto offered vs abundantly, because (as it is most cer­tainly knowne, and out of all controuersie) there are sundry Places and Countreys, where Plantations may be made, and our people may inhabite, if they will.

Resp.

What take you for a second cause?

Enr.

The want of some good order and course for such a purpose, such I meane, as may be setled generally all the LandSecondly, The want of some good course for it. ouer, by Regall and Legall authoritie, and not by priuate agree­ments and directions only, which if I be not much deceiued, will neuer effect such a worke while the world standeth.

[Page 91]The ancient Romans well vnderstanding this, neuer there­fore attempted the plantation of any one Collony, or City alone, or of any of those lands they had gotten in warre, but that first there was L [...]x l [...]ta, a speciall Law, or publike Decree, much like an Act of Parliament with vs, made for it, the titles whereof were, De Colonys ded [...]cendis, De Agris diuide [...]dis, and other like.

Resp.

The Kings Maiesty permitteth any that will to goe.

Enr.

1. First, that is more then we doe know, whatsoeuer folke doe say. 2. Experience doth shew, there must be vsed to the thorow effecting of any such att [...]mpt, a Coacti [...]e as well as a Permissiue power. It is not an easie matter, scarce to be hoped for in these daies, and in our land, to make (if need should be) any great army for the field, much lesse to get Voluntaries enough for a Plantation, considering that it is easier to get care­lesse young men and single men to goe out of their Country vnto a warfare, then to get setled Housholders, and whole Fa­milies, men, women and children, to goe into a strange country to a plantation and habitation.

Resp.

What may be a third cause?

Enr.

The want of industry and inclination to labour and take3. Want of [...] ­dustry in [...] people. any paines, in our people: who at this present are so ouer­growne, as I may say, with that pestiserous w [...]d Idle [...]esse, and so giuen to immoderate ease and quietnesse, that it is not possible almost to moue them to heare of any Plantation, which they con­ceiue cannot be effected, as indeed it cannot, without much la­bour and paines taking, without industrious endeuours and much diligence. It is reported by Authors of good credit, of [...]. in [...] Hannibal that Hammer (as I may wel terme him) of the Romans, That his army and souldiers were more hurt and disabled to mar­tiall affaires by his suffering of them to lie and liue in Capua, a City of Italy, but one halfe yeere in idlenesse and luxury, then the whole Host of the Romans had done in some whole yeeres before. We must not greatly maruell, if our so long continued rest and peace from warres and warlike imployments, our vn­speakable idlenesse and dissolute life, haue so corrupted and in manner esseminated our people generally and for the most part, that they cannot endure the hearing, much lesse the doing of any [Page 92] laborious attempts, of any thing that shall be troublous or any whit dangerous vnto them.

Resp.

What remody may there be for this perillous disease?

Enr.

None, or at le [...]st none better I thinke, then a Plantation, as I shewed you the first day at large.

Resp.

H [...]ue you any other cause to alleage for our backwardnesse this way?

Enr.

Yes. The immoderate loue of our owne Ceuntry. Euery4. The immo­deiate loue of their owne Count [...]y. man almost is so, as I may say, [...] therewith, that it is almost impossible vpon any aduantage to get them out of it.

Resp.

And blame them n [...]t. You know (I am sure) the old say­ing, F [...]mus [...] alieno luc [...]lentior: The smoake of a mans owne Country is cleerer in his eies, then the fire of ano­ther. And you haue read bow the children of Israel hauing dw [...]lt in the land of Aegypt, some two or three hundred yeeres, whereby it was to them their natiue Country, that albeit they were therein most cruelly oppressed by the Aegyptians, yet when Moses came to deli­uer them, they were not easily drawne to goe out of it, and that to a good Land, a Land that flowed with milke and hony: and how once or twice, being well on the way, they were ready to make head to haue returned. And therefore no great maruell if our English peo­ple bee so loth to goe out of a good land, so good a land as England is, a land to which scarce any in Christendome is comparable, and to goe into they know not what wilde and desol [...]te Countries.

Enr.

That you say were somewhat to the purpose, if it were purposed that they should remoue which doe enioy and eat the good and fat of the land. But seeing they are either chiefly or onely intended to be remoued hence, that haue nothing here but need and misery: they that haue not a foot of ground to rest vpon, nor a house to put their head in: they which by the extreme dearth and want of necessaries for mans life are ready to pine and perish; they haue little reason to be so in loue with that Country, that is so much out of loue with them, that shee seemes rather a stepdame then a mother vnto them, and to re­fuse and forsake that Country which will bee to them a kinde and louing Mother indeed: that Country that is ready to re­ceiue them with both her armes: that Country where they may (if they will) haue abundance of that which here they want, that [Page 93] Country which will vouchsafe them such liuings and meanes to liue by, as they are sure in England they shall neuer attaine vnto▪ as if they had neuer heard, that vbi [...]nque benè, ibi patria: where­soeuer a man is or may be best at ease, it is best to account that for his Country: and that it is but meere vanity for men to preferre the soile of any Region before themselues.

In a word, all that you say or can say for this point, is as farre out of the way, as if you would say, because children haue beene borne and bred vp in their fathers house, therefore what need soeuer they haue, and how bad maintenance and keeping soeuer they haue there, yet they ought not, nor haue they any reason to goe out of that their fathers house, and to passe into other else­where, tanquam in Colonias, as into new Colonies or Habitati­ons, there to be prouided for and to liue in farre better sort.

Resp.

I see mine ouersight, and that all this hath formerly beene touched, but that either ignorant corruption or partiall affection so blinded and ouer-ruled me, that I could not so well perceiue it as now by this your Repetition and Recollection thereof I doe.

Enr.

Of this matter then let this suffice. And if you haue any thing else to enquire of, proceed vnto it if you please.

Resp.

I haue heard both you and others say, there be diuers Plan­tationsHow many Plantations now in hand. now either already in hand, or to be taken in hand, if we will: and I pray you tell me by Name, what, and how many they be?

Enr.

They are these, as neere as I can remember, New-found land, Summer Ilands, Virginia, Guiana, New England, and as I heare of late, New Scotland too.

Resp.

What so many? Then there cannot want opportunity of plantation for our people, if we be not wanting to it. And God for­bid that so great an opportunity, or rather so many, and all so faire opportunities (for that also you haue already shewed) should bee ouerslipt and neglected. It may bee feared if they should, God would not be pleased therewith. For what can be doe more for vs, then to make vs so many and so faire offers for our good from time to time, as one that loueth our Nation, if we will see it, and is willing, by spreading of it into sundry parts of the world, to make it famous and great vpon earth?

Enr.

You say very well. Happy therefore shall we be, if wee make vse of it.

Resp.
[Page 94]

But now I pray you tell me, what manner of countries those are?

Enr.

I haue already done that also, if you remember well our first daies labour, by shewing what good is in them to be h [...]d; and by answering your Obiections pretended against them, as if they were not worth the accepting.

Resp.

I remember th [...]t well. But my desire is, that you would relate vnto me the state of those Count [...]ies particularly one by one.

Enr.

That were an endlesse and a needlesse labour. Endlesse, for that it would require more then one or two daies time there­to: and needlesse, for that it is already done, better then I can doe it againe, in seuerall bookes or descriptions of those Coun­tries set forth by other men, such as haue either found out the Countries themselues, or desire to farther our Plantations there­in: vnto the which let it suffice that I remit you, as by which you may be satisfied for this point at full, and that at your best leisure.

Resp.

That is a matter of cost to buy such bookes.

Enr.

A little mony will doe it. I doe not thinke but that you spend more a great deale in any one yeere in idle and vnnecessa­ry expences: which you may spare to lay out on these good vses. The Bookes are delightfull of themselues, as all historicall trea­tises commonly ar [...], and so will be a good recreation when you haue beene wearied other waies. Also they will often put you in minde of these things, whereas my relation will be but once: and when you haue read them ouer and ouer, they will serue for your children and others, to exercise them to the reading of English as well as any other bookes; the sacred Histories and bookes diuine, that season the soule as well as the vnderstan­ding with piety and godlinesse, alwaies and only excepted.

Resp.

The Countries being so many, is it intended that there shall be Plantations in them all by the English?

Enr.

What is intended I cannot tell. But this I can tell, some­what to that purpose is or hath beene attempted in them all.

Resp.

But it is not possible, they should all be finished, is it?

Enr.

Whether it be possible, God knowes, but surely in mine opinion, it is somewhat vnlikely. It is not good to haue many works, great workes in hand a [...] once. It were better haply, that [Page 95] some of them were quite giuen ouer, or at least deserred till some were either finished or brought to some perfection. Vis vnita, the old saying is, fortior. Forces vnited must needs bee the stronger, and dispersed the weaker.

A time may come for the filling vp, and full storing of them all. For if God vouchsafe to continue our health and peace in this land, as now of long time he hath done, there is no question to be made of it, but that were all presently remoued, that our Land is able to spare, which doubtlesse are many score thousands, yet within few yeeres, it will looke againe for a new remouing place for those which out of its yeerely increase will be sprun [...] vp. And therefore it were not amisse, but a thing to be wished and endeuoured, that though the full finishing of some one or two Plantations be chiefly for the present followed and inten­ded, yet vpon a prouident, or (if I may so speake) a preuident consideration of our occasions and wants for time to come, some both Possession and Plantation might be continued in all those Countries, which by Gods speciall fauour to vs ward, doe at this present rest, and remaine as it were offered to and into our hands.

Resp.

And which of all these seemeth to be most likely to be the best, to be set forward before the rest?

Enr.

Diuers men no doubt will thinke diuersly, as eitherWhich of them seemet [...] best to be se [...] forward [...]. their affection carries, or their reason perswades them. Disli­king therefore of and detracting from no mans, but leauing eue­ry man to his owne, as I desire they will me to mine, this is mine opinion, that if the Plantation proceed by hundreds, Guiana is the best; if by thousands, New foundland is best.

Resp.

I conceiue not the reason of this difference, which yet I per­swade my selfe, you doe make vpon good reason.

Enr.

Any that vnderstands either the state of those Coun­tries, or the true nature of a Plantation, would easily vnder­stand me.

Resp.

Helpe me to vnderstand it also.

Enr.

It is this. If we seeke for riches, for good Merchandi­zes, and goodly Commodities to be brought hither, the richest Coun [...]ry, and the wealthiest for [...]he present, that also whence with [...]ewest hand [...] it may be returned, is the best: Such is Gui­an [...]. [Page 96] If we seeke for roome for our ouer swarming multitudes of people of many sorts to be placed in, the most desolate and emp­tiest Country, voidest of inhabitants, and neerest and easiest for transportation, is the best: Such is New-found land. And againe, if we plant by Composition, Guiana is fittest: if by Preoccupation, (for a fitter English word on the sudden I finde not) New-found land is best.

Resp.

I pray you explaine your selfe againe a little better; for whatHow many waies there be to make Plan­tations. you meane by planting by Composition and Preoccupation I vn­derstand not.

Enr.

Then are you little acquainted with these courses. The meaning is this; We plant by Composition, when seeking to gaine a Country already somewhat peopled and reasonably in­habited, as is Guiana, we doe vpon faire conditions, as by pro­fering them defence against their enemies, supply of their wants, namely Apparell, Armour, Edge-tooles, and the like, allure and winne them to enter league with vs, to agree that we shall dwell among them, and haue Lands and other Commo­dities of them to our content. We plant by Preoccupation, when finding a Country quite void of people, as no doubt in Ame­rica yet there are many, as was the Barmudas, now called Sum­mer Ilands, for few yeeres past, and as is at this present, for the most part, New-found land, we seize vpon it, take it, possesse it, and as by the Lawes of God and Nations, lawfully we may hold it as our owne, and so fill and replenish it with our people. In the first manner a few people may suffice, but to the latter, ma­ny, very many are necessary.

Resp.

This is very plaine. But why speake you nothing of plan­ting by Inuasion, which some men thinke to be as it hath proued to them that haue vsed it, the richest, the readiest and the speediest course of the three?

Enr.

First, because wee need it not. There are CountriesPlantation by Inuasion dis­liked. cnow besides (and such are all those now in hand) in which we may safely plant, either by our selues, or with others, without any Inuasion or warre at all.

Secondly, if we needed it, or any would goe that way to worke, yet our people generally will not endure it. Wee see they can hardly, nay, they cannot be gotten to goe and plant themselues [Page 97] where they may doe it with all ease and freedome that can be, and therefore there is no probability, they will once moue a foot, to goe and seeke out a Country by the sword.

We reade, Ex. 13. 17. that God, when he brought the children [...] 13. 17▪ of Israel out of Aegypt, would not carry them into the land of Canaan by the way of the Philistines Countries, though it were the neerer way a great deale, lest the people should repent them when they see warre, and turne backe into Aegypt: but God made the people to goe about by the way of the Wildernesse of the red Sea. Teaching vs therein, how fearefull people naturally are of warre, as willing rather to forgoe euen an exceeding good Land, as Canaan was, rather then to goe into it by the sword: and that God himselfe dislikes not such a feare.

Thirdly, that were a double charge. For so our people must goe first, they that are men onely, as an Army of Souldiers to subdue the Inhabitants and take the Country, and then after to goe, men, women and children, to inhabit, and keepe it, if they can. For many times in such cases, the euent of warre proues vn­certaine, whereas going where needs no Inuasion, they may make theirfull remoue, young and old at first, and rest secure of setling there.

Fourthly, and for mine owne part, I doe not like it. I nor am, nor can be perswaded, that it may be lawfull for one Nation to fight against and destroy another in that sort, and vpon no better title then the desire of their lands and goods, to bereaue each other of their rights and liues.

Resp.

Indeed the Scripture saith, all the whole Heauens are the Lords, the earth hath he giuen to the children of men, Psal▪ 115. 16. Psal [...] By which words I gather that whatsoeuer Country any people doe possesse and inhabit, it is Gods gift vnto them. God hath [...] and bestowed that on them for their portion. Which being so, [...]t seemes to me to stand with reason and Religion both, that eu [...]ry peo­ple whatsoeuer they be, should be permitted quietly and peaceably to hold and enioy their owne Country▪ and that it ought not of any▪ by violence to be taken from them: we must doe to all men, Iew or Gen­tile, [...] faithfull or vnfaithfull, as we would be done vnto: and therefore I cannot but like well of your opinion in that point.

Enr.

Examples there are I grant many in sundry Histories to [Page 98] the contrary, but you know the old rule, Viuitur legibus, non ex­amplis: We must liue by lawes, and not by examples. And there­fore till we finde better proofe then practise, and further war­rant then, Thus and thus others haue done before vs, I hold it not safe to doe the like.

Resp.

I see that Inuasion is neither the best, nor so much as a good course for Plantation. And therefore I maruell how they ei­ther are deceiued, or doe vnderstand themselues, that say, as I haue heard some, that seeme to be of good vnderstanding this way, Inua­sion and Plantation are cousen gormans, and so like one the other, that a man may take a patterne for the one from the other.

Enr.

They that so say, and I am one of them, haue very faire probability of that they say, as I suppose.

Resp.

I am glad then▪ that I made mention thereof▪ since you are of that minde also: for now I hope I shall be made to conceiue how that may be. I pray you therefore declare it vnto me.

Enr.

I will, but briefly, lest I make you as weary to heare, asWherein In­uasion and Plantation are somewhat like. you seeme willing to learne. Thus it is.

There be fiue things wherein these two actions doe very much accord, and which the one must vse as well as the other, or else they cannot prosper. The first of them is Discouery. The party1. Discouery. inuading, or they that will inuade another Nation or Country, must first of all make a perfect Discouery thereof, that knowing the situation of the place, the largenesse or quantity, the state and quality thereof, the alliance it hath with other people, neere or farre off, weake or strong, and other like, accordingly they may prepare for the attempt. The same must they doe, that will plant in another Country. They must know certainly the situa­tion of it, the largenesse and quantity thereof, the nature and quality of the Soile, the state of the Climate, the tempera­ture of the Aire, the easinesse or difficulty of accesse and en­trance vnto it, the most conuenient places for erecting Cities, Townes, and Fortifications there. Also whether it be inhabited already or not, and how much, and in what sort. What kinde of people they be, likewise what Borderers and Allies vnto it, what fruits and commodities there, or likely there to bee had, what dangers or inconueniences there to be feared, with other like. For according as they haue notice of these particulars, they may and must proceed.

[Page 99]The second is, people to make the attempt withall. They that2. Number of people▪ will inuade others, must be sure to raise an Army so great and good, as in all probabilitie may bee able either for number or valour, or both, to match and ouer-match the partie inuaded. And they that will plant other-where, must raise such a multi­tude, as in all probabilitie may be able for number and industry, in some measure to take vp and inhabit the Countrey they goe to. To goe downe as Iacob did into Egypt with seuentie soules, and within a few scores of yeares, to multiply and increase vnto six or seuen hundred thousands and aboue: and to giue an onset and preuaile, as Gedeon did, with three hundred halfe armed men, vpon two or three hundred thousands of well appointed Souldiers, is a matter of Admiration, shewing vs what God can doe, not of Imitation, what we may or must doe.

Resp.

What number of people, or how many thousands may thereWhat number of people may suffice to be­gin a Planta­tion withall. suff [...], or be necessary for vs to begin a Plantation withall?

Enr.

That cannot regularly and certainly be determined. For as to inuade a Countrey withall, the Army must be more or lesse, according to the state and strength of the Countrey or partie in­uaded: so to plant a Countrey withall, the multitude remouing must be great or smal, according to the greatnesse or smalnesse of the Plantation, and the facilitie or difficultie of planting, by rea­son of either open enemies, or suspected friends, with other like circumstances and occurrents. This is as much as can be said: That without a number somewhat great, no good Plantation Romane Colonies. can be made at all. And though for mine owne part, I will speake of no certaine number, yet this much I will tell you, That I finde that the ancient Romanes, who were a people of great policy, and planted many Colonies, when they sent forth any number of people, and it were but for one Colony (that is, but one Citie) alone, did neuer send forth a lesse number then three thousand, more of tentimes. And they were so precise vpon the point (as they that knew well, without a number somewhat great, their Colonies could not possibly stand and prosper) that though they planted diuers Colonies in one yeare, as somtimes they did, yet they failed not of that number, that is, to send forth to euery seuerall place three thousand a peece at the least. By which practise of theirs, I leaue it to you and others to iudge, [Page 100] ‘what it is likely they in their policy could haue thought to haue beene a sufficient number, to send forth to plant a whole Coun­trey withall, wherein they were to settle and imploy diuers Ci­ties, Townes and Villages at once: and doe rest the more confir­med, That I am not in an error when I doe intimate or moue that into our Plantations, being so spacious and ample as they are, our people should goe forth by thousands, and not by hundreds.’

Resp.

What is the third thing wherein these Actions be somewhat like▪

Enr.

The third Resemblance is Prouision for the people▪ [...]. Prouision. They that will inuade others, must prouide and take such order for Prouision for their owne side, that they want not necessaries for victuals, for Armour, and other like, which in all mens opi­nion, are the strength and sinewes of warre, lest they be inforced to giue ouer the Attempt with losse and infamie, or be pressed with famine, and endangered with sicknesse and mutinies, which commonly attend the same. And they that will plant other-where, must be sure of Prouision, both of victuals for themselues, and necessaties for building and other vses, till they be setled and haue of their owne there.

Resp.

This is it, as some thinke, that marres all. For as it is thought, there is no possibilitie to haue Prouision for such a multi­tude or great number of people, as must or need to be remoued. And indeed how can it be possible, that ten or twenty thousand remouing in one yeare, they can haue along with them▪ a yeares, or (which is the least that may be) but halfe a yeares prouision, which may su­staine them till the Countrey it selfe can succour them?

Enr.

You and they too are very much mistaken. For as to an Armie of thirtie or fortie thousand Souldiers, Prouision must be had for them al the time they are abroad, but it is not of neces­sity, that they must carie it all with them at the first setting forth; it is sufficient, if order be taken how it may bee brought vnto them by Sea or by Land, from time to time, weekly or monethly, [...], and can best be performed: And euen so it is for a [...] remouing into a Plantation. And this I hope you [...] is possible enough to be obtained and done: and this [...], if you vnderstand withall, that into any of the [Page 101] Countries to be planted, our ships may easily make two, three, or foure voyages in a yeare.

Resp.

I see that as the Prouerbe saith, There be more waies to the wood then one. Proceed I pray you to your fourth Affinitie.

Enr.

That is Celeritie. In making an Inuasion, there is no­thing4▪ Celeritie. more requisite for many causes, then that it be done, when it is once intended it shall be done, with all speedinesse and cele­ritie: A point wherein the ancient Romane Captaines common­ly excelled and ouer-reached all other, and their Iul. Caesar them all: and a thing which oftentimes stood them more in stead then any other proiect or course they could deuise. And surely in ma­king of a Plantation, I thinke it to be none of the least points to be obserued, for many questionlesse, are the commodities there­of. Nothing is more dangerous then a lingring warre: and no­thing more discommodious then a slow Plantation.

Resp.

What Celeritie thinke you needfull to be vsed in that case?What celerity needfull in a Plantation.

Enr.

Such, that the whole Plantation might in some rea­sonable measure be finished in two, three, or foure yeares at the most.

Resp.

That seemes a thing altogether vnpossible.

Enr.

Why so? Is it not possible (for examples sake) thinke you) that if wee should make a Plantation in New-found land▪ there might be sent thither the first yeare so many as might in ha­bit it all along one side thereof, and ten or twelue miles into the Land: the like on the other side the second yeare: and the third yeare ten or twelue miles farther on both sides; the rest remai­ning void, in the middest, may either be filled vp in the fourth yeare, or (if it be not much, and who hath yet related the bredth of that Country from Sea to Sea?) remaine for the spreading of the first number as they doe propagate and increase. All which to doe, will not require so great store of people as some happily may imagine, considering that the Parishes there cannot at first be halfe so thicke, and need not be one quarter so full, as they be here.

Resp.

I doe not see but that it is possible enough such a thing might be. For we haue both people enow and meanes enough to set them forth withall, for such a speedy Plantation.

Enr.

‘Such celeritie vsed, would make a better Plantation [Page 102] any where in three or foure yeares, then is likely to be made by any course that I can heare of yet vsed in three or fourescore yeares. 2. It would be maruellous comfortable and profitable to the people remoued. 3. It would secure the Plantation from all enemies that shall either enuy it, or endanger it.’ 4. And it would set vs at libertie for another Plantation other-where: which so well and roundly finished in one place, would be a notable pat­terne and incouragement to any to participate in some other.

Resp.

Now proceed, if it please you, to your last Resemblance.

Enr.

The fift is Policie: which in both these Cases must much5. Policie. be vsed. There must be policie for the getting, and policie for the keeping of that which is gotten. For getting victory against those they did inuade, good Martiall Commanders, whose de­sire and indeuour hath euer beene to performe more Concilio quam vi, by policy and good aduice, then by power and force, haue vsed in former times a three-fold policie, Honour, Prefer­ment, and Reward. 1. Honour, He that first climbed the walls had his Crowne. 2. Preferment, He that shewed most valour, was euer aduanced to higher place and office in the Campe and Armie, and sometimes to incourage them all. 3. For their Re­ward, they gaue them the spoile of the enemy. The whole boo­tie was theirs if they could win the Towne. The like must be vsed in a Plantation. That the better sort, men of dexteritie, industry, and vnderstanding, be preferred to places of Prehemi­nence and Authoritie: and that all that will aduenture to inha­bit the Plantation, be vouchsafed by a liberall distribution of the Lands and Commodities of the Countrey planted vnto them, riches and meanes for them and theirs abundantly and gallantly to liue vpon. ‘Such liberalitie and aduancement will incourage men to goe, and will quickly make a good Plantati­on, which Couetousnesse and neglect of persons will neuer doe.’

2. For keeping of that they haue gotten, Martiall men doe vse a two-fold policie, viz. to strengthen themselues, and to wea­ken the enemy. 1. They strengthen themselues by making for­tifications and setling garisons, if need be, to keepe the Citie or Countrey gotten. 2. They weaken the enemy, by taking from them their Armour, that they shall not be able to resist, though they would, and by taking of them their children and others [Page 103] for Hostages, that they may not dare to resist though they could. And they that will make a good Plantation must (as occasion shall require) vse the very like.

And whereas the people of those parts are all, or for the most part destitute of Armour, and vnskilfull in feates of armes, by all meanes it is expedient so to keepe and continue them. For see­ing they doe, for the most part, in number of persons, and strength of body already exceed vs, if we suffer them to haue ar­mour, and inure them to vse it, probable it is that within a little time, they will in valour too excell vs, and so beat vs with our owne weapons. These be the things wherein betwixt Inuasion and Plantation, there is so much affinity. To which I might adde two more, Equity and Authority, without the former whereof, an Inuasion is not bellum, but Latrocinium, not a warfare but a robbery, and Plantation, not a lawfull Possession, but a cruell Oppression: and without the latter whereof, neither can an Army be leuied for Inuasion, nor will a multitude of people be gotten to set forth for a Plantation. But I passe by these, both because of the one I spake but little before vpon another occasi­on, and of the other, needs no question, seeing it is out of que­stion, that all the places and Countries intended for Plantations by vs, are such as in all equity we may, by the Law of God and Nations enter vpon.

Resp.

Your speech hath satisfied me very well: but if you would be pleased for your later point of Policie, to adde some particulars how it might well be practised▪ you should giue me much more con­tent. For it is a thing that I desire much to heare.

Enr.

That would I doe also, were it not that I doubt lest howsoeuer you may accept it, yet some other (hearing hereof) would say vnto me, as Apelles to the Shoomaker, Ne Sutor vltra Crepidam: No man should intermeddle but with that which belongs to his owne profession: or which is worse, That I haue cut large thongs out of other folkes leather. Wherefore for that point, let me desire you rather to hearken as I doe, to heare the words or voice of him or them that shall say, Thus and thus it shall be. This and that they shall haue that will aduenture, and ha­uing said it, haue power what they haue spoken in words to performe and make good in deeds, then to presse me to say what [Page 104] may or might be done, that am not able to say or assure any man, that euer any such thing shall be done. Farther, this would re­quire a more large Discourse by farre, then the breuity which I promised and intended will admit.

Resp.

Let that matter goe then▪ and now tell me I pray you, whe­therWhether is better to plant in an Iland or in a Continent. it were better that a Plantation be made in an Iland, or in a Country at large, that is no Iland?

Enr.

That I cannot certainly tell you. For in seuerall re­spects, either of them may be better one then the other. As in re­spect of certainty, celerity, facility, and security, it is better to plant in an Iland, so it be somewhat large, then in a large Conti­nent. But in other respects, as for Opportunity to enlarge the bounds of the Plantation, for variety of Commodities, which a large Continent may rather yeeld then a lesser Iland, for vicinity vnto other Countries, and for league and amity with neighbour Nations, and other like, it may be better (Cateris pa­ribus) other things being sutable, to plant in a spacious Conti­nent, then in an Iland.

Resp.

You said but now, of such Countries as are deuoid of Inha­bitants, you thought New found land the best for a present 'Planta­tion, what moues you to be of that minde? for I heare that some doe dislike it very much.

Enr.

I can giue you no reason for it out of my own experience,Mo [...]ues for a present Plan­tation in New found land. for, as you know, I was neuer there. For that point therefore, I had rather referre you to Captaine Ric. Whitbourne, I meane to hi [...] booke of the Discouery of that Country, which he hath lately set forth whereby you may for that matter be satisfied at large.

Resp.

But in the meane time, till I can g [...]t that Booke, and be at leisure to [...] it, you shall doe me a pleasure, if you will in briefe re­late vnto me, what you haue obserued out of it to that purpose.

Enr.

That I will doe willingly. The summe is this. First, it is the neerest place that now is to be planted, not aboue 14. or 15. daies saile with a good wind: whereas Virginia, and some of the rest, are twise as far at the least, and more dangerous for passage.

Secondly, it is the safest place for Plantation, as which is out of the Road, as I may say, both of the Spaniard to his Countries and Plantations, and also of Pirats at Sea, who are most for the Straights. And, if need should be, whither soonest, [viz. with­in [Page 105] a few daies warning, they there may haue succour from Eng­land, and England againe from it.

Thirdly, It is the cheapest and readiest for passage and trans­portation, both of men and meanes of all sorts to plant with, both because our ships doe yeerely and vsually, two or three hun­dred saile of them goe thither on fishing voyages, and that most of them but halfe loaden, and some with no lading at all: and by Plantation no doubt more may and will.

Fourthly, it may soonest be finished, and so we freed againe for some other Plantation, because it is but an Iland of no great con­tent; not so big as England, but neere about the greatnesse of Ireland.

Fifthly, the Country it selfe is healthy and temperate, very agreeable to the Constitution of our English bodies, as which is ve­ry neere in the same temperature for heat and cold, that England is, rather warmer then colder, as which lieth aboue foure degrees neerer the South then England: and is incumbred with no noisome beasts or vermine whatsoeuer.

Sixthly, the soile of the Country is very fat, rich, and good: fit for pasture and tillage, equall to most of our grounds in Eng­land.

Seuenthly, the whole Country is rich, viz. the Sea coast with fish beyond measure, as where our Nation and some others haue fished these fourescore yeeres, and where there is neuer like to be an end or want of that Commodity. The Land stored with beasts, birds of the field; fish of the riuers, water-fowle, wood, grasse and fruits of the earth, &c.

Eighthly, the Country, for the most part, is vtterly void of all Inhabitants, Saluages or other, so that there is no feare of Ene­mies in it, nor of Corruption of Language or Bloud from it. Little Armour will suffice there for offence or defence.

Ninthly, It lieth very neere vnto some parts of America, as neere as doth England to France, and therefore may be a good meanes for our possessing of some other and neerer parts there­of, then any we doe yet, and for conuersion of the people thereof to the Christian faith hereafter, and for our present and continuall hauing of such Commodities, as those parts may, and doe afford.

[Page 106]Tenthly, it is not farre also, viz. not a daies saile from an Iland called the Banke, an excellent place for fishing all the yeere: and not aboue foure or fiue daies saile from the Ilands of Flowers and Azores, which are very rich and well stored with Wheat, Beeues, Sheepe, Goats, Hogs, Hens, and many other good com­modities for a Plantation, which from those parts may be had, easier, sooner and cheaper then from England.

11. It is a Country very strong by Nature, as which is stored with many goodly Harbours so well made and fenced by Gods handy-worke, with Rocks and Cliffes, that a little For­tification will make the whole, being but an Iland, and that not great, inuin [...]ible by Sea.

12. It may be a meanes to increase the shipping of our Land, which is as it were, the wall thereof, wonderfully, and with­all our Seamen and Souldiers, for seruices by Sea, and so to gaine vs in time the freedome, soueraignty and safety of the Seas beyond all other nations whatsoeuer.

13. It is likely to yeeld vs many rich and necessary Com­modities for our Land, which now our Merchants doe fetch as farre or farther off, at a dearer rate, or with more danger a great deale, then there or thence they shall.

14. Beeing first and forthwith planted by vs, it may bee a meanes of the furtherance of the rest of our Plantations in­tended, which from thence may haue many supplies: and which may serue for a resting place for the refreshing of those that goe to or from them: this being as it were, in the mid-way and high way to them all.

15. It is very necessary for our Land, because if it should (through our negligence and backwardnesse) bee intercep­ted by any other Nation, it would bee as ill a Neighbour to England, as being accepted by vs it may be a good. And namely, it would hazard the destruction and ouerthrow of all the rest of our Plantations, which can hardly stand without this, and the losse for euer of our fishing voyages there, which these fourescore yeeres we haue frequented and enioyed: which losse alone, would be euen the vndoing of many of our Sea-cost Townes in England, that doe now liue much by them.

16. Last of all, diuers honourable and worshipfull persons [Page 107] haue already begun seuerall Plantations in that Country, and so laid the foundation of so famous and notable an attempt, as all after ages shall haue cause, I doubt it not, to commend their va­lour, and honour their memory. With whom, [...]f others, or, which were much to be wished, if our whole Land would ioine, the worke could not, by the blessing of God, vpon so blessed ar­action, but luckily and speedily prosper.

Resp.

Who, I pray you, are those worthy persons that haue made the first aduenture of planting there?

Enr.

They are these. First, the right Honourable, Henry The name▪ of such as al­ready haue begun a Plan­tation in New-found Land. Lord Cary, Viscount Falkland, and now Lord Deputy of Ireland, hath begunne a great and faire Plantation there some few yeeres since: and is well pleased to entertaine any such as will aduen­ture with him, either in purse or in person, vpon very fit and reasonable conditions.

Secondly, the right Honourable, Sir George Caluert, Knight, and principall Secretary to the Kings most excellent Maiesty, hath also a very large and goodly Plantation there, which though it be as yet but in the Infancy, viz. of not aboue 5. or 6. yeeres vndertaking, yet doth it already well flourish in a place well for­tified and secured: wherein are some hundred people or there­about in habiting and emploied in building of houses, ridding or clearing of grounds for pasture, arable and other like vses: and in making of salt for the preseruing of fish and diuers other ser­uices. And his Honour is likewise well pleased to entertaine any that will either aduen [...]ure with him, or serue vnder him vpon very fit and faire conditions.

Thirdly, Master Iohn Sla [...]y of London, Merchant, and some others with him, haue maintained a Colony of his Maiesties sub­iects there for diuers yeeres past.

Fourthly, diuers worshipfull Citizens of the City of Bristoll, haue vndertaken to plant a large Circuit of that Country, and haue had people there inhabiting these 5. or 6. yeeres with good and hopefull successe.

Fifthly, Master William Vaughan of Tarracod in the Coun­tie of Carmarthen, Doctor of the Ciuill Law, hath also done the like: and hath within these two or three yeeres last sent thither di­uers [Page 108] men and women that doe inhabite there, and prosper well.

Sixtly, some other worthy persons there are that be aduentu­rers in the said Plantation, whose names yet I know not.

By all which you may vnderstand that there is already a faire beginning of this worthy worke: and that they which hence­forth shall goe thither, shall not be the first that shall aduenture to dwell there. Which considered, may bee a good Motiue to others to follow them and to ioyne themselues vnto them, assu­red by the manifold experiments of those many and worthy persons, as haue already aduentured their fortunes and meanes there, and that in seuerall and farre distant parts of that Land, that the Country is very habitable and good for a present and speedy Plantation.

Resp.

These be good Motiues indeed, for the aduancement and hasting of this Plantation. And I like them so well that if I were but twenty yeeres younger then I am, I thinke I should be like enough to see it my selfe: and that now I cannot, yet I shall be willing, if I once see the same well set forward, what I may to animate and per­swade others, my Children, Kinsfolke, Friends, Allies and Neigh­bours thereunto, as vnto a place and action that is likely to proue greatly to the good of all them and theirs for euer, that will ingage themselues therein.

Enr.

So doing, and but so doing, you shall doe well. For assure your selfe, you shall thereby much further the honour and glory of God, benefit your natiue Country and people, doe good ser­uice to our renowned King and Soueraigne, and highly gratifie all those that haue vndertaken so honourable and excellent, so necessary and difficult an enterprise. But now answer mee one question, as I haue done many to you.

Resp.

I will if I can: what is it?

Enr.

What lets you, notwithstanding your age, but that youExcuses and delaies for not going in­ [...]o a Plantati­on answered. may goe also your selfe and see it, and inhabit it too, if you please, as well as if you were 20. yeeres younger then you are?

Resp.

Being so farre stricken in yeeres as I am, I am not very willing to trauell into other Countries; but am content and desirous too, to end my life at home, and let them that be young, strong and [...]y goe: for they are fit for it.

Enr.
[Page 109]

You are not so old and broken with age, that you may1. Agedness▪ say as father Barzillai did to Dauid, 2. Sam. 19. 35. when he of­fered him more then an ordinary fauour: I am (said he) this day. fourescore yeere old. I cannot discerne betweene good and euill: nor hath thy seruant any taste in that he doth eat and drink [...]. I cannot heare any more the voice of singing men and women: and I shall bee but aburthen to him that would pleasure me. If you bee come to this state, you shall by my consent haue A placard of [...]ase to abide at home, or Bill of Dotage▪ to trouble you no farther.

Resp.

Truly I cannot so say: I am reasonable strong and healthy yet: I could rather say almost as old Caleb did to Captaine Ioshua, Iosh. 14. 6. As strong as I was for 20. yeeres agoe, so strong well neere am I yet, I thanke God, and am as apt and able for trauell and employment. My senses are good, and my [...]ic sight serues me al­most as well as euer it did.

Enr.

Then are you as fit to goe in such a businesse as euer you were, and fitter too in some respect by your age. Your age hath taught you experience and discretion how to behaue your selfe, and helpe to manage such a worke better then younger men, that haue had no time to gather obseruation in the world. Your age will cause, that for your gray haires and grauity you shall bee respected, reuerenced and obeied farre more then young men, who being for the most part vnskilfull, will get con­tempt. And lastly, your personall example will fiue times more preuaile to perswade others to goe, then any verball Arguments that you can make. But say once you will goe your selfe, and which of your children will not bee ready to runne with you? but as long as you abide behinde, you shall not easily get any one of them to goe by himselfe. The like shall you finde in other your kindred and acquaintance.

Resp.

But it is not an vsuall thing for old men to goe in such im­ploiments.

Enr.

Therefore they prosper much the worse. They send2. Not vsuall for old men. out a few young and single men, that haue little or no experi­ence in the world, and so are readier indeed and likelier to ouer­throw then to vphold a Plantation. But thus it should not be, nor hath it beene in former times. Looke but into the Bee-hiues [Page 110] when they swarme, and you shall finde, as one faith well, That the swarme is as old as the stocke, that is, that there are inButler in his feminine Mo­nar. cap. 5. Num. 3. it as well old Bees as young. And if you will haue better proofe, call to minde the sacred Histories of blessed father Abrahams life, what age hee was of, when hee left his Countrie, his kindred and his fathers house, and went to dwell in the Land of Canaan, and you shall finde I warrant you, thatGen. 1 [...]. 4. Exod. 7. 7. hee was threescore and ten yeere old at least, that is elder a good deale then you are yet. And was not Moses fourescore yeere old, and his brother Aaron fourescore and three when they lead the children of Israel out of Aegypt, and Ioshua 80. yeere old when he conducted them into the land of Canaan? And we may be sure that in that great multitude of 600. thousand at the least, that remoued, there were a number of aged people both men & women. So that you may see, it is no strange thing for those that are well stricken in yeeres, to goe and seeke new Countries.

Resp.

Old men be sit to goe, but young men me thinkes, be fitter, because they haue none but themselues to care for.

Enr.

Therefore are they the lesse fit for a Plantation, and old3. Young men and single not so fit as elder and married men. men fitter then they, not onely because of their better experi­ence in the world, their grauitie and authoritie, as I said before, but also because they haue families, and so children vnder them, which will helpe to fill the Plantation apace. But young men and single men, besides the want of experience in them, they can doe little good to the Plantation but in their owne single persons at most. Being vnmaried, if they continue so, they will hur and hinder the Plantation thereby, which will be no lesse hindred by the vnmaried there, then our land is hindred by the (poore) maried here. If they will marrie, they shall not easily finde with whom, vnlesse it be with the Natiues of those Countries, which haply wil be nor handsome nor wholesome for them, cer­tainly profitable and conuenient (they hauing had no such bree­ding as our women haue) i [...]cannot be. And when they are ma­ried, long it will be before my fruit of their marriage can be vp to yeeld any force or enlargement to the Plantation: whereas if such as bee already maried goe ouer, they hauing children, some more, some lesse, of different ages and growth, they also [Page 111] will be able and readie in a little while, some one yeare and some another, to enlarge and fill vp the Plantation, by addition of new families, as it were little new Colonies, euery where. Fur­ther, whereas young and single men when they come there, vp­on any little dislike, will bee apt and ready to returne and for­sake the place, and so comming home againe to discredit the Action, maried men and house-keepers must and will abide: and if haply vpon any occasion, the man himselfe come ouer into England now and then, yet he leaues behinde him such a pledge and hostage, I meane his Wife, Children, and Family, for his returne, as may well assure the Countrey that he will not faile, because that now is absolutely his home and proper Habitation. Lastly, [...] any enemy shall assault them, who is likely to sticke close to him, the maried that fights proaris & focis, as they say, for God and his Countrey, for his Wife and Children, with whom and for whom he must and will liue and die, or the single man who fights or rather shifts for himselfe, and therefore will soone either yeeld or runne away, as he shall perceiue to be most for his ease and safetie? In good policie therefore I suppose, it were good and fit that such, that is, maried folkes, and such as haue families, aboue others should be procured and inuited to goe, yea and with some augmentation and reward in Lands or other benefits, aboue single persons, be induced, incouraged, and as it were hired thereunto.

Resp.

I doubt, because I was neuer at Sea before in all my life, that I shall not be able to endure the Seas.

Enr.

1. The voyage or iourney is not long, not aboue foureteen4. t [...] ­uell by Sea. or fifteene daies saile with a good wind: or if any crosse wind come, not aboue twentie, or one and twentie daies commonly.

2. What hardnesse or difficultie is there of trauelling by Sea, more then at Land? It is rather the easier and pleasanter of the two; vnlesse God send any great tempest, which is not very vsu­all all the Summer season, it is of the two, the more pleasant and easie: For there you may sit in your chaire, or lie in your bed at will, and passe along as delieately as, or more delicately, then doe our Gentlemen that ride in their Coach: and bee at your waies end before you be either aware or wearie.

[Page 112]3. Why should you not endure the Seas as well as doe Prin­ces, Noble and Gentle-men and women both, that be of a more tender and delicate breeding and constitution of body then you by farre, who yet, as no doubt you haue often heard, doe yearely and ordinarily passe the Seas to Countries farre and neere.

Resp.

I haue no need to goe: The intendment is for the poorer sort of the Land that haue n [...]thing to trust to, and for my part, I thanke God, I haue a Liuing t [...]t is able reasonably well to helpe me and mine.

Enr.

1. The lesse need you haue to goe, the more is our1. Of them that haue li­uings here. Countrey here beholding vnto you, if you will goe; and the more shall the Country there be beholding to you, if you come thither. For the comming in of one or two that haue some good meanes of their owne, to bring with them is better fo [...] it, then of fiue or six that come with little or nothing. 2. The Intend­ment is for any that will goe whosoeuer. The poorer sort, be­cause they are likeliest to be gotten, though they be chiefly, yet they are not onely intended. 3. And the liuing that you haue here, how long will it hold?

Resp.

As long as my life doth hold, but no longer I grant. But if God giue me time to liue a while, I hope I shall be able to doe some­what for my children too, and see them all reasonably well prouided to liue, when I am gone.

Enr.

But by your owne saying, if you should die within a lit­tle while, (and what Charter haue you of your life more then other men?) You must needs leaue them ill prouided for, and most of them either to the mercy of the world, which is little, or to the courtesie of their friends, which haply will bee lesle. And what need this, when by your remouing you may prouide for them your selfe, and see them in that good state, that they need not be beholding to any others, but rather able to helpe others.

4. Farther, the best prouision you can possibly prouide them here, if you might liue yet these twentie yeares, can be but for their owne time: but remouing as you may, it is very probable, hauing that meanes which you haue now, you may be able to settle both your selfe and euery one of them, though they bee [Page 113] halfe a dozen, or halfe a score of them, in as good a Liuing or better, as your Farme that you now dwell vpon, for you and yours, and for them and theirs in perpetuum, for euer.

5. Consider also. 1. That it is so hard a matter to place a­broad a childe well here, that the placing but of one of your chil­dren, may bring you so farre behinde hand, that you may not be able to doe any thing for any other of them in seuen yeares after, there they may all be prouided for in some measure pre­sently. 2. How grieuous and reproachfull a thing it would be to your children, if hauing liued well in your time, they should come to liue in a poore, needie and beggerly fashion. To arise from a poore estate to a richer, is commendable and delectable: but to fall from a good estate to a worse, of all gricuous things it is one of the most gricuous and misorable. 3. Whether it be not an euill thing and vnaduised to put that vpon vncertainties, which a man needs not, but may be assured of, and put out of all doubt.

Resp.

What certaintie can I haue of my life there, more then here?

Enr.

None at all. But of good estate and prouision for you and yours exceeding much more. For whereas though by the course of Nature and present state of your body, you may haply liue yet these ten or twentie yeeres, yet that is exceeding doubtfull and vncertaine. For of one that liues to that age, there bee an hundred that doe not: but that you may liue yet ten, or twelue, or twentie moneths to an end, there is great probabilitie by the helpe of God: and within that time you may haue gotten and setled a good estate in a Plantation to you and yours. For if you liue in the Plantation but one moneth more, if you but once remoue hence, and bee but on ship-board for the Plantation, though you die before you come there, (for I suppose such or­der will be taken, if euer there be good order taken for a Planta­tion) you and yours shall enioy, and be assured of the benefit thereof, as well as if you had liued therein seuen yeeres.

4. Last of all consider you well, that the Apostle and Nature too, (for he speaketh according to the Law of Nature) saith, Fathers must lay vp, that is, prouide the best they can for their [...]. Cor. 12. 14. [Page 114] children, against the time to come: and againe, He that doth not [...]. Tim. 5. 8. prouide for his owne (meaning no doubt, if he may doe it, and haue good and fit opportunitie thereto, as you now haue) and specially for them of his owne house, hee denieth the Faith, and is worse then an I [...]fidell.

Resp.

You presse me exceeding hard vpon this point, and doe en­force me in manner to consider, which I will doe, God willingly, more deeply vpon it.

Enr.

It was necessarie to presse you hard vpon it, for this is a starting hole, out of the which I knew well enough you would not easily be beaten.

Resp.

You runne away vpon these points I see, as fast as lusti [...] Horses doe with an emptie Cart: but I haue somewhat yet behinde that will lade you better, and finde you more to doe, or else I am much deceiued.

Enr.

What is that? Let vs haue it for Gods sake.

Resp.

It is not a thing vsuall for such to goe as haue good liuings6. It is not vsu­all for men that haue li­uings here to goe. here of their owne, as I haue; but for the poorer sort onely, that haue none at all, and therefore what reason haue I to breake the custome?

Enr.

Is this the point you thought would plunge me, or set me a stand? This something is as much as nothing.

1. Now adaies indeed, and with vs, it is not very vsuall. But in ancient times, when Plantations were better followed then now they are, it was very vsuall, as you may see in the persons of Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob, who were all men of great state, and in the men of Ioseph, Iosh. 17. 14. and in the men of Iudah, ludg. 1. almost thorowout. And as I could shew by the practise ofThe manner in ancient times, how to raise people for a Planta­tion. many Nations, who vsed when they intended a Plantation, to consider what number it were expedient for them to remoue, and that was vsually one halfe, a third or fourth part of the whole, both great and small, and then to cast lots, and as the lot sell so they went away, were they rich or poore, whether they had Li­uings or not.

2. If the custome be otherwise now, that custome may and must bee broken, because it is not good: All good Lawes and Policie intending alwaies this, that Customes which are good and [Page 115] landable onely, should be kept and continued: The other that are not such, as diseases, though of long continuance out of the bodie, should be expelled. Now certaine it is such a custome, that is, that none but the p [...]oter sort should goe ouer, and none of the better sort that haue any Lands or Liuings here, would proue very hurtfull and pestiferous to the Plantation. For who shall be Gouernors and Rulers in the Countrey, as I said the last day, and all men know some there must bee? What, poore, needy, and ignorant fellowes, that haue neither learning nor vnderstanding to such a seruice? Doth not very reason shew, that there must goe some of better breeding and experience, Gentl [...]men at the least? And if of them there can­not, as it is likely there will not en [...]w be inuited thither for such imployments, what supply can there be, vnlesse sundry others of a next degree vnto Gentlemen, that is, Yeomen and Yeomenlike men, that haue in them some good knowledge and courage be there to be found, who may in defect of better men, be aduanced to places of preferment and gouernment there, and haply approue not altogether vnworthy thereof?

Further, what shall the poorer sort doe there by themselues without some, and that some store of others better stored in money and meanes then they, that may employ the poorer sort, and set them on worke, whereby they may be able to get money to sustaine them and theirs?

3. And euen in our times, it is not so vnusuall a thing as you seeme to vnderstand it to be: for you may soone learne, if you will but a little inquire; That in our time also, diuers men that had reasonable good meanes and Liuings here, haue re­moued into Ireland, and planted themselues there to their great good and preferment. And thus you see that the cloake you haue made you of vsage and custome, will doe you as little seruice to couer your backwardnesse, as Adams and his wiues aprons made of Fig-leaues to hide their nakednesse.

Resp.

If that be but bad, I haue a better. My wife will not beare7. Women are vnwil [...]ing to goe. to goe any whither beyond Sea, and therefore for her sake, though I were willing my selfe▪ I must be content to abid [...] as home, and end my [...] in England.

Enr.
[Page 116]

This indeed is somewhat; I hearkned for it long since. I know it is a point that pincheth many, and makes them more vnwilling then else they would be. Women be vnwilling, and their wiues will not endure to heare of it. Yet this knot is no [...] so ha [...]d twisted, but that it may be vn [...]wined I hope. Or, if it be [...] [...] knot, yet the sword of Alex­ander can h [...]w it in peeces. To this therefore I say thus:

1. Women also haue vnderstanding, and many of them doe vnfainedly feare God. And therefore being well put in minde of their dutie, which is, To forsake father and friends, and to clea [...]e vnto their husband [...], and that so inseparably, That nothing part them but Death, it is not vnlikely, but that at length they will yeeld, and not vtterly refuse that which they cannot lawfully refuse, how ha [...]d soeuer at first it seeme to them to be, and how lo [...]h soeuer they are to doe it, if they might lawfully leaue it vndone.

2. They also doe naturally and [...]enderly loue their children and posteritie, and wish and desire their good. Probable it is therefore, that when they shall thorowly vnderstand, that such a trauaile may, nay will certainly be a meanes to prouide good estates for them and theirs for euer, such as by no possi­bilitie nor probabilitie are here to be had, they will be per­swaded at length to aduenture as the hen to saue her chickens, and the Pellican to feed her young, if need should be, their life and bloud.

3. When the examples of worthy Matrones, women ofExamples of Women. fa [...]e greater esteeme and estate then they, that haue done the like▪ as of the Ladie Sara in accompanying Abraham fromSara. place to place till her dying day, and that sometime with the perill of her life and her chasti [...]ie: of Mistresse Rebecca in fo [...] ­sakingRebecca. her fathers house and all her friend [...], to go [...] out of M [...] ­sopatamia into the Land of Canaan, to be wi [...]e to a man that she had not seene, to Isaac, the sonne and heire of Abraham, before named; and of Rahel and Leah, the daughters of La­ban, Rachel. [...]. that were ready to goe from their fathers with Iacob their husband they knew not whither, and others [...]ny that in [Page 117] s [...]red Histories are mentioned, i [...] is likely they will not think themselues too good to doe the like, nor be afraid to imitate them in this fashion.

To these worthy Precedents I could adde out of humane Histories not a [...]ew, worthy imitation and commendation in this case: as namely, Queene Elianor, wife to King Edward Queene E [...]a­nor. the first, King of England, who, her Husband going a long and very dangerous voyage of warfare, viz. into the Holy Land, would by no mean [...]s be perswaded to tarie at home, but would needs accompany him, s [...]ying, Nothing must part them asund [...]r, whom God hath ioyned together: And, The way to heauen is as neere in the Holy Land, as in England. And that, worthy Spartan Dame, the wife of Panteus, a No­blePlut [...]rc. i [...] [...] man in Greece, who being retained by her parents, and other friends by force, that she should not goe with her hus­band into Aegypt. within a while after secretly stole away by night, and got shipping to carrie her to her husband, with whom she continued there cheerefully, and contentedly till his dying day.

And it cannot be, but that when they shall see some, and heare of more of their owne Neighbours and Country folkes, English Women as they are, that doe and will goe the same voyages, their example and present practise will be such a speciall Motiue euen to those that be very vnwilling, either to accompany or follow them, assured they shall doe no worse then they doe, as there will not need many more arguments thereto.

4. There be also diuers and sundry causes in consideration whereof, as S. Paul▪ 1 Cor. 7 6. in one case allowes, by con­sent1. Cor. 7. 6. of both parties, some of them may be borne with for a time, and permitted to remaine behinde, that at the second or third r [...]turne of their Husbands, all impediments that at first hundred being remoued, they may go [...] ouer with them also▪ without any farther delay.

Fifthly, if any bee vtterly so obstinate and froward or selfe­willed, that no reason, no perswasion, no example seene [Page 118] or heard of, no respect of duty will preuaile with them, there is farther remedy to bee had, that is, that on them bee inflicted 'Paena Desertricis, such punishment as is fit for those that vtterly and wilfully forsake their husbands.

Resp.

What penalty or punishment is that?

Enr.

That I leaue to those that haue authority, as to in­flict it, so to appoint it, as they shall see instant and neces­sary occasion to require. A new kinde of sinne, may haue a new kinde of punishment, as oft, Ex malis [...]oribus, bon [...] leges: Of euill manners haue risen vp good lawes.

Resp.

You haue pressed me so farre, and by your speeches pre­uailed with me so much, that I haue nothing more to say for my selfe why I should not goe, vnlesse I should say that to you, which som [...] haue said to me of late: but I am loth to doe it, lest you should be offended.

Enr.

What is that? let me haue it I pray you in any wise: For it shall not offend me, I warrant you.

Resp.

Seeing you so earnestly and effectually moue me to goe, Why doe not you your selfe goe also? you that so fame would haue others to goe, should also goe your selfe.

Enr.

You shall haue my answer thereunto very willingly: that so you may the better bee able to answer those that goe about that way to stop your mouth, and make stay or delay for themselues.

Resp.

That is the end for which I purposely and principally moue the question.

Enr.

My answer is this. First, though it be not of necessity that euery one must goe himselfe, that perswadeth or moueth others thereunto: For Plantation is no matter of our Faith and Saluation▪ There may be as great reasons and iust occasions, why he should not goe, as why they, others whom hee per­swadeth,The Author [...]mselfe doth purpose God willing to goe into one or other Planta­ [...]ion. should goe: yet because no man shall take any excep­tion at all against m [...], or my perswasions that way, I say, I doe purpose. God willing, to goe. And I shall thinke my selfe happy, if I may bee one of those that may lay the first stones of such a building, and spend and end my daies in being on [...] [Page 119] Instrument among the many thousands of our English Nati­tion, that shall betake and bestow themselues in such a man­ner to the enlargement of Gods Church, of the Kings domi­nions, and of our owne English habitations. But I say with­all: Secondly, I cannot goe as yet, because I haue not my meanes and estate so setled and prouided, as it is fit for one that will goe well. Thirdly, if I goe, it shall bee (partly) in hope by Gods mercifull prouidence toward me and mine, to better mine estate, and to doe good, as to others, so specially to those that are mine owne, or doe otherwise depend vpon me. And therefore I haue no reason to goe, till I see some good likelihood of probability and assurance that it may and will be done. Fourthly, I will not goe, by my goodwill, till I finde some good course taken for a good Plantation in that place or Country, wheremy desire and purpose is, aboue any I heare of yet, to plant my selfe. When some such course shall be taken and followed effectually, I will not (God willing) be one of the last, that shall make vse of it. Fifthly, I suppose I ought not either to tempt God, by going without good and necessary meanes; nor seeke my owne destruction by running before I am sent in good order: And therefore expecting a conuenient and appointed time, it is enough that I doe for the present prepare my selfe to be ready prepared against that time, and hauing my minde and affection setled that way, doe hearken as the good Souldier for the sound of the trumpet to the battell, for the publishing of that decree, that may rouse vp all Eng­land to such an attempt and expedition.

Resp.

I like your answer so well, that besides other good vses which I shall make of it the while, by Gods helpe, whensoeuer you shall goe, (for I see you will not goe but vpon good ground.) You shall haue me ready on reasonable warning to beare you com­pany.And many will accompa­ny him. And I doe not thinke, but that you shall haue many more of our Neighbours and Acquaintance, that will doe the like.

Enr.

The more the merrier, by the grace of God. And I pray God of his loue and goodnesse to our Nation, and for the furtherance and increase of his Gospell, to vouchsafe to [Page 120] these actions, and to all that shall goe in them, a happy and speedy proceeding: [...]fid to vs in particular, i [...] it be his will that wee shall be partakers in the same, a ioyfull and good successe therein.

Respire.

AMEN.

The end of the third and last part, An [...]o Domini 1624.

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