THE MORAL PHILOSO­phie of the Stoicks.

Written in French, and englished for the benefit of them which are igno­rant of that tongue.

By T. I. Fellow of New­Colledge in Oxford.

Non quaero quod mihi vtile est, sed quod multis.

AT LONDON Printed by Felix Kingston, for Thomas Man.


TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE SIR Charles Blunt, Lord Mountioy, Knight of the most noble order of the Garter, Captaine of Portsmouth, and one of her Maiesties Lieute­nants for the Countie of South.
T. I. wisheth increase and continuance of honour and vertue.

IF Christians in these daies were as religi­ous in dedicating of their books, as Hea­then men in former time were superstitious in dedi­cating of their Churches, I doubt not but men would bee as farre [Page] from writing of bookes, as they are from building of Churches. In dedication of their Temples they were (as it is reported) too curi­ous; in dedicating of our bookes we are (as it appeareth) too negli­gent. They regarded time, place, circumstance and person; we nei­ther respect time, place, circum­stance nor person. Indeede the three former doe not much con­cerne vs at all, but as for the last it should be the first thing which is to bee considered in euery booke: for it sufficeth not that the booke be well written, vnlesse the person to whom it is written bee fitting and agreeable with the booke. For as the Heathens neuer, or seldome [...]imes, dedicated their Temples to men touched with the same infir­mities that they were, but either [...]nto the person of some great god [Page] or goddesse, who might if neede were, be able to defend them: so should not wee commit our la­bours and workes vnto their pa­tronage and protection which are but simply men, scarce able for to helpe themselues: but vnto such as either for their vertues sakes are better then men, as Aristotle saith, orels by reason of their places and offices in the Common-wealth, are farre aboue all other men in dignitie, and equall vnto GOD himselfe (as the Scripture testifi­eth) in name. This respectiue care (Right Honorable) hath not som­what, but altogether perswaded me to offer vp this small booke of Morall Philosophie (which I tran­slated as well vpon iust commen­dations of the author, as also vpon intreatie of my kind friend a lear­ned Doctor of Diuinitie) into your [Page] Honors hands: not as if I meant to interprete the same vnto your Lordship, which better knoweth the French tongue and other lan­guages then my self, or most men doe: but for as much as this small booke had great neede of some worthie Patron, and none more worthie then your Honor was to be found, whether your rare ver­tues bee to bee regarded, or the place which you hold with honor in this Common-w [...]alth: it see­med good therefore vnto mee to vse your Lordships name aboue all others for patronage of this booke, if it shall neede defence, as doubtles it will, though it were neuer so well written (as it is most excellently compiled in French) such is the priuate malice of cer­taine euill men, and common de­ [...]tinie of al good writers. For who [Page] is he that will regard a booke if it be little? so little doe men consi­der the goodnes of things, when they measure all things by great­nes: as if Dauid were not little when he slew Goliah the giant; the clowde little which threatned all Israel with raine; the oyle little in the pitcher which filled all the emptie vessels of the widow. And as that oyle was little vntill the time that it was powred foorth: so small bookes when they come a­broad into mens hands, if they be furnished with doctrine, are of great power to conuert men vn­to p [...]etie and godlines. The title of this booke is, The Morall Philo­sophie of the Sto [...]cks. Let it not seeme strange vnto vs that Philo­sophie should be a meanes to help Diuinitie, or that Christians may profit by the Stoicks. Indeede the licentious loosenes of our times [Page] cannot well brooke the stri [...]nes of this sect. The Stoicks are as o­dious vnto some men, as they themselues are hated of others: they call the professors hereof in their gibing manner stockes, and not Stoicks, because of the affini­tie of their names. And I pray why may not wee call them wisards as well as wise men by the same rea­son? Philosophie in generall is profitable vnto a Christian man, if it be well and rightly vsed: but no kinde of philosophie is more profitable and neerer approching vnto Christianitie (as S. Hierome saith) then the philosophie of the Stoicks. Let vs then that are Chri­stians follow them as farre [...]oorth as they haue followed the trueth: for truth, as a learned writer saith, Vndecung, est à spiritu sancto est: from whence or whom so euer it [Page] [...]ommeth commeth from the ho­lie Ghost. The Israelites when they departed from the Egyptians stole away their iewels: wee are permitted to vse the wordes and sentences of the Heathen wri­ters to our purpose in case of doc­trine and exhortation, but as it were by stealth very warilie and sparingly, as S. Pa [...]l vsed for to do. This libertie Master Caluin in his Commentarie vpon those places liberally granteth vs, and I suppose it cannot lawfully bee denyed: for gold and [...]iluer and pretious iewels were euer vsed as ornamēts in the old law to decke and gar­nish the Temple withall. As for the wordes of the Apostle, which biddeth vs to beware of philoso­phie least they beguile vs, they are most profitabl [...] for our instruc­tion, to teach vs not to attribute [Page] more vnto philosophie, then phi­losophie or the Arts deserue. A­braham was married vnto Sarah, Hagar was but his handmaid, or at the most but his concubine, yet both liued with him in the same house, and lay with him in the same bed. Euery Christian must endeuour to be as Abraham was married vnto Sarah, that is, vnto Diuinitie: for Sarah signifieth a Ladie and mistresse, and who fit­ter to be Ladie and mistresse then Diuinit [...]e, which must be attended on with Philosophie, which is in stead of Hagar her handmaide, which must be vsed no otherwise then as a concubine or as a stran­ger, as her name in the original be­tokeneth. If Philosophie, with her yong sonne Ismael the Ar [...]s, begin to despise Diuinitie, as Hagar de­spised Sarah, shee must bee cast [Page] [...]oorth to be taught her obedience abroad, which she might as well [...]aue learned at home. But where­ [...]ore need all these words? why do I goe about to perswade your Honor vnto the embracing of this kind of Heathen diuinitie, which is better knowne together with the right vse thereof vnto your godly wisedome, then my foolish ignorāce can informe you? Doth not the temperance of your wel­gouerned life and sober discipline in manners shew that you are a perfect Philosopher, not in word onely but in deede also? There be many which are Stoickes in the schooles, as Arrian vpon Epicte­tus noteth, but are Epicures at home; that speake well in pub­like, but liue ill in priuate: your Honor is right well knowne to be [...]one of these. For your life in priu [...]te [Page] is answerable vnto your life in publike, and your words agree­able with your deeds. And whence proceedeth al this, if a man should search the fountaine of all your actions, but from the fountaine and liuely source of all true lear­ning? which is so vnited and in­gra [...]ted into your stocke, that few haue been of your kind, which haue not been either greatly lear­ned, or great louers & embracers of learning [...] so that learning com­meth vnto your Honour, as the Priesthood did vnto the Leuits, by [...]ght of succession from the father vnto the sonne. Continue there­fore (Right Honorable) continu­ally to cherish the Artes, and loue learning and learned men, as you haue done: and amongst the rest let the worthie work of this noble Ge [...]tleman of France, whose [Page] name is not as yet knowne in En­gland, haue a small roume among your other bookes, till such time as the French copie be to be had, which now is hardly to be gotten: and so as there is ioy in your Ho­nors name in this life, so shall you most assuredly in the next world, your name being written in the booke of life, haue ioyes without end: which God grant, to whom I leaue your Lordship: hum­bly crauing pardon of the same for my bold­nes.

Your Honors in duti [...] euer to command, TH. IAMES.

To the French Reader.

MEn that are thank­full vnto vs for for­mer benefites, doe binde vs as it were by waie of obliga­tion to followe them with second curtesies: euen God himselfe which hath no other subiect to giue vnto vs but for exercising of his boun­tie, asketh nothing for recompence of all his fauours, but a dutifull and heartie acknowledgement of the same. For as he seeth we make [Page 2] account of his fauours, so doth he multipli [...] the same vpon vs: what then ought man to do for man, and one citizen for another; seeing that he cannot do so much good for him, but hee must needes owe him a great deale more? Wherfore, seeing the Manuell of Epictetus, which I lately sent vnto you so generally well esteemed and liked, I haue been encouraged againe the second time to offer vp vnto you this small Treatise, which is of the same stuffe, but a little better laboured. And sending the whole treatise vnto you, I haue thought good to send these letters of aduertisement along with it; for feare, least if it chaunce to light into certaine ma­licio [...]s persons hāds (such as there are too many now adaies in this world) the booke might happen to [Page 3] bee iniuried before it were fullie read or perused. These shall bee therefore to aduertise you, and as many as shall happen to reade this booke, that it is nothing els but the selfe same Manuell of Epictetus owne making, which I haue taken in peeces, and transp [...]sed according to that method and order which I haue thought most conuenient; hauing gathered together certaine precepts, sentences, and examples of diuers others, which haue been of the same sect; and bound them vp together in certaine small and short discourses, which I haue thought most fit and proper, to giue light vnto that which was before in their doctrine somewhat darke and obscure: in such sort, that it may serue for the present, in stead of a summarie treatise or short abridgement [Page 4] of all the morall do­ctrine of the Stoicks. Now I doe not present you their opinions, as if J could warrant them for good: and least of all, so recommending them vnto you, as if vpon the sight and view of them, you should whol­ly betake your selfe vnto this pro­phane and puddle water, leauing the cleere and sacred fountaine of Gods word, from whence all holi [...] and wholesome precepts of man­ners & discipline must be drawne: but onely to let you vnderstand, that they haue been and will be a repr [...]ch vnto vs Christians, who being borne and bred in the true light of the Gospel, shal see and per­cei [...]e how many there be that ha [...]e been louers and earnest embracers of vertue euen [...]midst the times of darknesse and ignorance. Now [Page 5] as concerning this small labour of mine, which hath been employed onely in disposing of the matter, and finding out of words; I present it vnto you, as Appelles and Poli­cletus did their tables and Ima­ges, with the pencill and caruing knife in my hande, readie to re­forme whatsoeuer men of more profound and delicate iudgements shall thinke good to be amended: neuer thinking that my labour is throughly ended, till such time as it shall please all them which are accounted m [...]n of good iudgemēt. Peraduenture they shall finde in this treatise many things worthie to bee corrected, yet notwithstan­ding I hope they shall haue cause to thanke me (if their bringing vp bee not altogether rusticall and [Page 6] vnciuill) for striuing to enrich my natiue tongue with the spoyles of straungers, and making the hard and sharpe thornes of this kind of Philosophie tractable, and able to bee h [...]ndled and touched of the most daintie and tender hands of my countrimen. And this fauour if I may be so happie as to obtaine at their hands, I shall not thinke my labour and watchings ill im­ployed: for I shall haue g [...]tten the greatest h [...]nor whereunto my am­bitious thoughts may aspir [...]; which is to be knowne to bee a louer of my countrie, and seeker of her good. And being not able otherwise (to my great griefe and sorrow I speake it) to testifie my loue vnto her, I comfort her as well as I may in her calamitie, c [...]asing not to [...]ake my [Page 7] daily prayers vnto GOD for her good and welfare. God almightie, to whose fatherlie protection I no [...] leaue her, make her as happie and fortunate, as she is honest and wel-meaning.

The Morall Philoso­phie of the Stoicks.

THere is nothing in the worlde, which tendeth not to one end or other: yea, euen thinges insen­sible doe aduance themselues (as it seemeth) and make themselues fit for that vse, vnto ye which they doe properlie belong: and being applied thereunto, doe shew forth a kind of ioy, and seeme to haue a feeling of the perfection and hap­pines of their estates. Things that haue action in them, mooue of [Page 10] themselues in such sort as we see; all creatures in generall, and eue­ry one seuerally in his kinde, with great vehemencie & contention, followeth and pursueth after that, for which they are borne & bred, and doe most certainlie reioyce and exult in the fruition of that which they seeke, when they haue found it out. What then ought man to doe, vpon whom nature, besides this inclination and mo­tion which dead things doe par­take with him, hath endued with sence, and ouer and besides sence, which is common to him and o­ther creatures, hath giuen the be­nefit of discourse and reason, to be able to discerne and chuse the best things of all thinges which present themselues vnto his con­sideration, and that which is most [Page 11] fit and proper to his vse? May we not safely conclude, that man also hath his ende, as well as all other creatures; which is set before him as the furthermost marke and butte, whereto all his actiōs shuld be directed: and sithence that the happines of all things is their per­fection, and their perfection the fruition of their end, shall not the happines and felicitie of man con­sist in the [...]ul obtaining and attai­ning vnto that which is proposed vnto him, and whereunto all his actions are to bee referred? Now the ende of man and of all his thoughts & meditations is good. And truely, there is not one a­mongst many, so diuers in nature and condition of life, which desi­reth not that which is good, and eschueth not that which is euill: [Page 12] and being demanded wherefore hee doth this or that, answereth not, but that he doth it, or thinkes that he doth it for his good and welfare. And albeit in our actiōs, a man may finde a great manie more bad then good; yet the ge­nerall intention, whereby wee are directed and guided, is to come vnto that which is good. But as it fareth manie times with him which aymeth at a marke, if his sight be hindered, either by some disease of the eye, or fault in the ayre, or if hee take one thing for another, although he desire to hit the marke, so that he couet no­thing more, yet it is impossible but he should be wide from it: so likewise wee, because we doe not knowe wherein consisteth our good, but oftentimes take that [Page 13] which is about it, for it; do there­fore in our particular actions take our ayme amisse, and shoot wide from our generall marke and in­tention.

Good, in good trueth, is not so placed that all the world may see and perceiue it; nature hath sowed and scattered heere beneath a­mongst vs certaine weake and feeble sparklinges of that heate, which notwithstanding beeing rightly applied vnto our mindes, are able to kindle a pure light in them, and cause vs to see good, as it is, and not as it seemeth. So then, wee must seeke it, and wee shall finde it; hauing found it, we must acknowledge it; acknow­ledging it, wee cannot choose but loue it; and louing it, wee shall fa­sten all our desires thereunto, and [Page 14] enioy it with great happines. For euen as trueth presenting it selfe vnto our vnderstanding, is there entertained with great ioy and contentednes: euen so good offe­ring it selfe vnto our will, is re­ceiued by her with great pleasure, as being her naturall obiect. And therefore, I thinke, that if a man would properly define good, hee must affirme it to bee nothing els, but the essence & vsage of a thing, according vnto his nature. For this same nature is so prudent and prouident a mistresse, that she al­waies disposeth all things vnto their greatest good, and therefore hath giuen them a first motion vnto that which is good, and vn­to that ende which they should seeke and search after: in such sort, that he that will followe after it, [Page 15] cannot choose but compasse and obtaine it. Now by the rules of na­ture, man should be so composed and fashioned, that that which is most excellent in him, should beare rule and commaund, and that reason should [...]se all that which is presented vnto her, as best beseemeth her, and shal most serue for her purpose.

Well then, the good & happi­nes of man, consisteth in the right vse of reason [...] and what is that but vertue, which is nothing els but a constant disposition of will, to followe that which is honest and conuenient. There is no man, as I suppose, but wil auouch this to be good: but yet for all that, there wil bee a great many found out, which will affirme, yt herein onely consisteth not mans good & happines, [Page 16] but that hee must haue a sound and well disposed bodie, and a hundred more commodi­ties, without the which it is not possible for mans life to be, much lesse to be happie and [...]ortunate. But if our position which we haue set downe vnto you at the first bee true, (as true it is) that the end of euery thing is his good, and his good is his end, and that these two are so reciprocable and con­uertible the one with the other, that the one cannot bee without the other, then may we not iust­ly say, that health, or riches, are mans good, seeing that they are not his end which he regardeth. For hee cannot possesse or vse them, but to some other end. And so too, that the greatest part of his time, whilest hee enioyeth them, [Page 17] he cannot ioy in them, but is with them vnfortunate and vnhappie: vnlesse peraduenture some man will saye, that they are happie, which make their riches & health serue them (as they doe full many in the world) to nourish their vi­ces, and cherish them vp in their wicked passions and affections. But happily will some man say, they doe serue, as meanes and in­struments disposed vnto the at­tainment of this good, without the which it is not possible that a man should get it, and therefore by a necessarie consequent they are to be accounted necessarie, to the obtayning thereof, and there­fore good. Truely it is a harsh and improper kinde of speech, to call that good, which serues to the procurement and obtaining of [Page 18] that which is good; or that which is the subiect and matter of good. For vertue, which we haue pro­ued before to be the true good, is of such a nature, that she can make her benefit indifferently of things contrary in nature, she profiteth and helpeth her selfe as wel by po­uerti [...] as by riches, by sicknes as by health. For wee doe as much commend him that can patiently endure his pouertie, and con­stantly beare his griefes or disease, as we doe him that liberallie be­stoweth his goods, and being in health, honestly laboureth in his vocation. So that if you wil needs call riches good, because they serue to the obtaining and getting of vertue, why may you not as well call pouertie by the same name, seeing that it serues to the [Page 19] selfe same vse, and that more pro­fitablie also? Now to call things so contrary and repugnant, as riches & pouertie are, by the same name, hath not so much as any shew or apparance of any trueth. Wherefore, let all these things re­maine indifferent, as being made good or euil, by the mind of man which knoweth how to vse them rightly, which if he want, yet will he not want the meanes of attay­ning vnto his ende, which is to be fashioned and framed rightly ac­cording vnto reason, and to make vse and benefit of all things which shall happen whatsoeuer, & con­sequently to purchase his chiefe good and felicitie.

If wee will truly know wherein consisteth this good, let vs con­sider within our selues what that is [Page 20] which seekes it: for it must needs be the good of that part [...] Nothing seeks after that which is anothers, vnles it bee coupled and ioyned with his owne. Now then there is no doubt but that the begin­ning and first motion of all our actions commeth from the vn­derstanding and will, and there­fore the good which we seeke af­ter, must needs be the perfection, rest and contentment of the same. But if wee place riches and health in this account, and esteeme them for things good, and by a conse­quent repute all things contrary vnto them euil; what doe we els, but tes [...]ifie vnto all men, that there is no true felicitie in this world, and that our minds are here held in perpetuall torment? For a man must needes haue death and griefe [Page 21] continuallie before his eyes, both which are esteemed euils, and whereof one is oftentimes present with him, the other neuer [...]easeth to threaten and menace him. If then they be things euill, the feare of them is iust, & if he be alwaies in feare, how can hee bee at any time happie? Let vs therefore confesse, that either man hath no good ordained and prepared for him in this world, which he may compasse and attaine vnto, or els acknowledge, that this good doth wholly and entirely consist in ver­tue. For it must needs be that the end of euery thing should be pro­portionable vnto the strength and nature of the thing it selfe: for o­ther wise, if the end were vnpossible to be atchieued, in stead of be­ing mans good, it would turne to [Page 22] be mans further torment. And so he should nothing but labour and trauaile in vaine, as the daughters of Danaus are sayd to doe in hell, striuing to fill certaine bottomles vessels with water, which cā hold no water at all. Againe, if there bee no Science nor Arte in the world, which hath not one end or other limited her, which they may come vnto by keeping of certaine precepts and rules; what shall we thinke that nature, the mother of Arts and Sciences, hath proposed vnto man (which is her chiefe worke) an end, which it is vnpos­sible for him to come vnto, be­cause it is out of his power?

Will (as we say) is that which seeketh after our good: now a ru­led and well gouerned will neuer coueteth (as indeede it ought not [Page 23] to doe) but that which she may, and which it is in her power to procure, she busieth not her selfe about hauing of that which it is not in her power to haue when she will; as health, riches, and honors. For if our good did consist and depend of them, wee should not neede to imploy reason or will to the procurement of them, but we might as well compasse them by prayers & wishes: for it is a thing which is subiect vnto a thousand casualties, which cannot bee pr [...] ­ [...]ented or fores [...]ene, as not being in our hands to dispose of them as we list, but subiect vnto the rule of Fortune their good Ladie and mi­stris. What shew or probabilitie of reason is there I pray you in this, that Nature should so create man, the perfection of all other [Page 24] creatures, that his good, which is his perfection, should depend not onely vpon other matters, but vp­on so many things, that a mā hath no hope to haue them all fauou­rable vnto him; but that he shuld here bene [...]th with Tantalus, lye miserabli [...] thirsting and crying af­ter water. Nay doubtles, Nature doth offer you so much to the get­ting of this good, as a minde well disposed and fit to vse any thing which shall be layd before it, and to passe ouer those things which doe farre passe his reach and capa­citie. Will you then rather choose to runne vnto Fortune, and waite at her deceitfull handes for that good, which you may giue vnto your selfe and if you will? For this is a diuine and inuiolable lawe, which hath been made since the [Page 25] beginning of the world, that if we will haue any good, we must pur­chase and get it our selues, by our owne labour and industrie. For nature hath prouided a rich store­house of all good things, and in­closed it in our minds: let vs then but stretch forth the hands of our will, and we shall take as much as we will. For if the will of man bee well guided and ordered, it will turne all things to her good, as M [...]das turned all things that he touched into golde. There is no accident so grieuous, which can befall a man either in bodie or ri­ches, whence a man may not reap some rest and comfort of minde: so that if we can here rest & con­tent our selues, wee haue alreadie found out our end. For though we should remit so much of the seueritie [Page 26] of this sect, as to confesse that the bodie or goods, which are but instruments of mans life, were a part of mans substance, and might by their qualitie alter the qualitie of the soule; yet may wee not a­uouch this for good, that losse [...]i­ther in goods or bod [...]e, is able to hinder the felicitie and happines of man, if his minde enioy quiet rest and content.

In things which are compoun­ded of many partes, the most noble part giueth both name and lawes vnto the rest, and they take their denominatiō from her: what doubt then can there bee, but that man should bee wholly happie, if his minde enioyeth his happines. And so wee say, that a Common­wealth is happie after a great vic­torie, although there bee many citizens [Page 27] lost, because the happinesse thereof is measured by the person of the Prince, or els of the state, to the good and seruice of whom all the rest must be obedient. Hence is it that particular men doe euen glorie in their wounds, doe euen bragge and boast of them, if they haue receiued them in the defence of either Prince or countrie. Shall we than assigne vnto the bodie a­ny other motion or desire then that, by the which it referreth all things that come vnto him, vnto the ioy and happines of the mind? shall we, I say bee so foolish as to linke and knit the soule so fast vn­to the bodie, that the good thereof should remaine as a slaue within his members, and so farre foorth depend on them, that accordingly as the bodie should be well or ill [Page 28] disposed, the mind should be alte­red, and accounted either happie or vnhappie? Truly, if so bee that nature would haue had mans hap­pines and perfection to haue de­pended on his bodie, or consisted in his goods, she would haue giuē vnto all men like bodies, and like measure and quantitie of goods: for so she should not haue been partiall [...] but equall vnto all, and so haue passed from the generall vn­to euery particular of that kinde. But on the contrary side, she ha­uing made all men of very diuers natures and conditions, both in respect of their bodies, as also in regarde of their goods, hath not­withstanding graunted vnto all men like power and abilitie of wel vsing their bodies or riches of what sort soeuer they bee, in such sort, [Page 29] that the action of the minde may bee as honorable and glorious in one sort as in another: yea, the ex­cellencie thereof doth appeare & shine foorth more gloriously, and merit more praise then, when be­ing destitute of meanes and in­struments, he commeth of himself vnto his wished end. For so in my opinion, wee are to iudge him to bee the skilfuller pilot in a shippe, which can in a great tempest, a­midst the raging flouds, guide an old sea-beaten ship full of holes, whose sayles are rent, and ropes broken; then hee which can tell how to gouerne a new ship well rigged and furnished with all ne­cessaries, hauing winde at wil, and seas fauourable. Therefore we will heere conclude this poynt thus: Seeing that the happines of man [Page 30] doth lye in procuring of his good, and that his good is to li [...]e accor­ding vnto nature; and to liue ac­cording vnto nature, is not to bee troubled with any passions or per­turbations of the minde, but so to behaue himself, happen what hap­pen may, as that he do not exceed patience, or passe the bounds of reason; that if wee will bee truelie happie, we must purge our minds of all manner of passions, & learne how to be affected in minde to­wards all things which shall hap­pen.

Now there is nothing which can so soone set vs in this way, and learne vs how to obtaine the right course of ordering our affections, mindes and wils according vnto reason, as Wisedome, which is (in my simple opinion) both the beginning [Page 31] and end of all vertues. For causing vs to haue an exact and true knowledge of the condition and qualitie of things which come into our considerations & viewes, she teacheth and telleth vs what is according vnto nature, and what not, and like wise what is to be de­sired and followed, or shunned and auoyded. She remoues al false opinions out of our heads which trouble our braines, makes our af­fections kind and naturall, and fi­nally vpon her waite all other ver­tues, as being their mother, nurse, and keeper. O how happie would mans life bee, if it were alwayes led and guided by her direction? But alas, as this vertue is most faire and excellent, so she is most rare and hard to be found: for she is so hidden in the bottome of our [Page 32] mindes, as the veynes of gold lye secret in the bowels of the earth, and are found but in few places. This is (as I bele [...]ue) that great, stately, and impenetrable buckler which Vulcan forged for Achilles, wherein were ingrauen heauen & earth, the sea, clowdes, starres, lightnings, cities, weapons, assem­blies of people, and combats: and in a word, there was nothing in the world which was not there to bee seene: signifying vnto vs by that deuice, that wisedome & the true knowledge of things, doth better preserue the minde of man from danger, then the buckler or helmet doth keep the bodie from wounds. But as Achilles went to schoole vnto Chiron to learne the vse of that buckler: so we must go to schoole to Philosophy, to know [Page 33] the right vse of wisedoome. And if wee will hearken vnto her, she will tell vs, that wisedome hath two properties and vses, the one to prick vs forward to that which is good, the other to pull vs backe from following that which is euil. Now because when we come vn­to Philosophie, we doe not bring with vs a mind pure and neat, but alreadie distempered, euilly dis­posed, and possessed with filthie humours, and such as are incident vnto the common sort of people; because, I say, wee come vnto her as vnto a skilfull leach or cunning phisition: therefore if we will bee cured, wee must doe as surgeons doe which haue to doe with sores and wounds, who before they ap­ply any medicine or salue to cure them, doe first draw out all the [Page 34] bad humours and dead flesh: and so must we also in like manner be­gin first of all to purge our minds of all such passions as doe arise in them, and with the smoke of them darken and obscure the eye of rea­son: for otherwise precepts of manners and wholesome instruc­tions would profite our soules as little, as plentie of meate doth a corrupted bodie, which the more you feede the more you offend.

Now to know what these pas­sions are, you must vnderstande, that we doe terme them a viol [...]nt or vehement motion of the soule in the sensitiue part, which is cau­sed in the following or eschuing of that which seemeth to be either good or euill. For albeit there be but one soule in euery one of vs, which is the cause of life, & fountaine [Page 35] of all our actions, and is all in all, and all in [...]uery part: yet there bee many faculties in the soule, which it is straunge to see, how diuers, yea how contrari [...] they be many times one towards another, according vnto the di­uersitie of instruments and vessels where it is kept, and varietie of ob­iects which are offered vnto her. In one place she causeth vegeta­tion, in another motion, in ano­ther sence, in another desire or ap­petite, in another imagination, in another remembrance, in another reason and discourse: euen as the Sunne, which though he bee all in his owne essence, yet diuiding and parting his beames in diuers pla­ces, he bringeth heat to one place, and light to another, softeneth waxe and hardens clay, scattereth [Page 36] the clowds, and drieth vp standing pooles and lakes. And when the parts where the soule lieth inclo­sed, doc retaine and vse her but in a proportion of their capacities, and as farr [...] foorth as it is necessa­rie for their conuenient vse, then she bringeth foorth gentle, sweet, and orderly effects: but contrari­wise, if her parts doe take mor [...] heate and motion then is requisite and conuenient, you shall haue cleane cōtrary operations, & such as will proue very hurtful and pre­iudiciall vnto the soule: and right so for all the world fareth it with the Sunne, who as long as his beames do wanderabroad, accor­ding vnto their naturall and won­ted libertie, doe gently and mo­deratly heate the earth: but if they be gathered and knit together in [Page 37] the hollow of a burning Christall, they doe burne and [...]nsume that, which they were wont before to cherish and quicken. Now it hath pleased nature to grant vnto sence this power and strength which commeth from the soule, to applie it selfe vnto things, and extract their formes, and afterwards either to choose or refuse them, as they shall best please or displease him, and agree or disagree with his na­ture. And this is done for two rea­sons: one, because they should be in stead of sentinels vnto the bo­die still watching and warding for his good: the other, which is a principall cause indeede, because they should bee messengers and vantcouriers from the soueraigne and chiefest part of the soule, and also serue for ministers and instruments [Page 38] of bettering our discourse and reason. But as she hath alotted them this power and authoritie: so she doth most straitly will and command them to cōtent them­selues with their office, which is to call to mind things past, & there­upon to aduise themselues what is best to be done: not presuming or daring to disquiet the higher and stronger faculties, or breede any further vprore or confusion. For so it falleth out many times in an armie, that the watch because they know not the purpose of the Generall, whose direction they should follow, may be deceiued, and take the enemie comming vnto them disguised, for friends, and their friends which come in good will to succour and relieue them for enemies: and euen so [Page 39] the sences, because they cannot throughly conceiue and compre­hend thinges appertaining vnto reason, as being aboue their reach, are beguiled with shew and ap­pearance of thinges, and doe oft times iudge that for a friend vnto vs, which is our greatest aduersa­rie. And so whilest they presently rush forward without staying, or looking for any commandement from reason, they prouoke and stir vp that part of the soule where concupiscence and anger dooth lodge, whereby springeth such a [...]umult & hurly burly in the mind, that reason during this furie can not bee heard, nor vnderstanding o [...]eied, no more thē lawes or Ma­gistrates are regarded in a state rent and torne with euill dissen­tion. But in this trouble, the passions [Page 40] which doe waxe most muti­nous and troublesome vnto the quiet rest of the spirit, doe first a­rise in the appetible or concupis­cible parte, that is to say, in that place where the soule doth exe [...] ­cise this facultie of desiring or re­iecting things presented vnto her, as being things proper or contrary vnto her welfare and preseruation. So then, their first moouing and springing is vpon a shew and ap­parance or imagination of some good or euill. Now if it be of some present good, which she doth al­readie begin to possesse, wee call this motion by the name of ple [...] ­sure: but if it bee of some good [...]o come, which is as yet farre estran­ged from vs, we call it desire: [...]f it be of a present euill, the inco [...]ue­nience and griefe whereof we doe [Page 41] alreadie feele, being moued and incensed against another, we call it hatred or horror: and being mo­ued within our selues, discon­tentednes, which if it happen vpon occasion of any thing which con­cernes vs, we call it sorrow: if by reason of another mans euill, pi­tie: if by occasion of an apparant good where wee pretend a part, ielousie: if otherwise, enuie. A­gaine, to fall backe vnto the se­cond part of our second generall diuision: if it be of some after en­suing euill, it is rightly termed by the name of feare.

See here the first band of these seditious passions, which so much trouble the quiet rest of our soule, which are accōpanied with most daungerous effects, and yet no­thing like so daungerous as are [Page 42] those which follow after. For why? these first motions being bred and formed in that part, by meanes of the obiect which presents it selfe, doe passe foorth incontinentlie vnto the irascible part of ye mind, that is to say, to the place where the soule seekes al meanes possible of obtayning or auoyding that which seeme [...]h vnto [...]er good or euill. And then, foort [...]with as a wheele which is alreadie mou [...]d, being to receiue a fresh motion is carried about with greater swift­nes: so the minde being moo [...]ed with the first apprehension, ha­uing a second strength added vn­to the former, is whirled about with greater violence then before, and stirres vp more strong and vn­tameable passions, because they are doubled and coupled with the [Page 43] former, and so being ioyned toge­ther, doe stay and strengthen one another with mutuall helpe and consent. For the first passions, which are found of the obiect of some imagined or seeming good, considering with themselues of the meanes how to obtaine and acquire it, do stirre vp in vs either hope or despayre: but those affec­tions which are made of the ob­iect of some seeming euill, doe bring forth feare and anger: which foure passions are wonderfullie strong and violent, and doe whol­ly ouerturne the frame of reason which they finde alreadie totte­ring.

Heere beholde and marke the foure winds (as I verely suppose) from whence spring the cruell tempests of our soules. Their den [Page 44] from whence they come, is no­thing els (as hath been alreadie shewed you) but a false imagi­nation which wee haue, that those things which are presented vnto vs are either good or euill. For by this meanes attributing that qualitie vnto them, which in­deede is not in them, wee flye or follow after them with vehemen­cie: and this is the very originall and spring of these passions. Well then to stoppe this den, assure the rest of our soules, and prouide that they be not otherwise moued then it is meete for them to bee, let vs call to minde that which was pro­ued vnto vs in the very beginning and entrance into this discourse. To wit, that the good of a man, and the perfection of his nature, consisteth in the disposing and [Page 45] fashioning of his will to the right vse of things according vnto rea­son: and contrariwise, that his euill commeth from a disordered or vnskilfull vsing, or rather abu­sing of them. For by the first hee shall reape much profite, receiue much content and quietnes, and chance what chance, nay he may set vp his rest, and remain as stable andimmoueable as a rocke in the middest of the sea: by the second, euery small thing that chaunceth will trouble him and turne to his great griefe and disaduantage. Now this disposition of our will lieth whollie in our power, and consequently our good and euill. Wherefore, if at anytime there be presented vnto vs any obiect, to the endethat we may not be trou­bled at all as with some good or [Page 46] euill which doth follow vs, let vs consider whether the thing which happeneth be in our power or no. If it bee in our power well and good, it may bee good or ill vnto vs. And yet in this case too, wee must not be too passionaetly affe­cted in any sort: for if we can but moderate and guide our willes a­right, we shall make it good, and so continue it still. If it be out of our power, then it is neither good nor euill, and consequently wee ought not to seeke or prouide it.

Now the things which are in our power are these; to approue, vndertake, desire, and eschue a matter, and in a word, all our ac­tions. For our will hath authoritie and power to rule and gouerne them according vnto reason, till they come vnto the place from [Page 47] whence our good and happinesse must come. As for example sake, she is able to dispose our opinion, so that it yeeld not consent but to that which it is meete it should, and which shall bee examined ei­ther by sence or reason, that shee shal cleaue fast vnto things which are euidently true of themselues, and keepe her selfe in suspence in things doubtfull, and vtterly re­iect thinges which are of them­selues plainly vntrue and false. Be­sides, shee can so rule our desire, that it shall follow after nothing but that which is agreeable with nature, and eschue the contrarie. The things which are out of our power are these; our riches, repu­tation, and briefly, that which doth no way depend of our willes: and here, if any thing doe happen, wee [Page 48] may not say that it is contrarie to our natures: because it happeneth either by the vniuersall and conti­nuall order of things, and ordinary co [...]tinuance of causes, and there­fore should not seeme strange vn­to vs: or els commeth to passe by some particular prouidence so or­dering it, and then we must know that nature hath made vs subiect thereunto. Furthermore, she hath giuen vs a power and abilitie in the soule of well vsing and apply­ing our selues to all that which shall happen vnto vs from with­out; which sheweth that she hath not made vs fit and proper to one thing, but to euery thing which shall come vnto vs whatsoeuer: in such sort that we may not desire or flie any such externall thing which is not in our power, as well [Page 49] for that is a very foolish and vaine affection to will that which it is not in our power to haue, as also because that howsoeuer it hap­pen, it may proue good vnto vs, and be the subiect of many wor­thie and laudable actions. Now then if we can so commaund our selues and our minds, as not to de­sire or flye any thing which is out of our powers, but with a sober & moderate affection receiue and entertaine it when it commeth, we shall bee altogether exempted from all troubles and perturba­tions of the minde, wee shall bee free and happie, and neuer frustra­ted of our expectations, or hinde­red in our affayres and enterprises: wee shall not neede to hate any man, to complaine of any man, to feare any man, or to be angry with [Page 50] any man: for no man shall be able to do vs harme. On the other side, if we desire and labour to auoyde that which is out of our powers, wee shall oftentimes fall from our hopes and wished ends, and misse of our purposes, and light vpon that which wee so much abhorre, wee shall trouble our selues, vexe and torment our selues, and all to no purpose or end in the world.

There is no man so foolish or vnaduised, but that hee confesseth that he had rather haue his desires then be depriued of them, and ra­ther be free from passions, then to be troubled with them, if hee may doe otherwise. Is there any man then that will denye this to bee a very good, profitable, and natural rule, by the which he may obtaine any thing which he desires, if hee [Page 51] desire not any thing which he can not obtaine? and by the which we learne not to bee passionate, or o­uermuch pensiue for any thing which shal happen, placing good and euill in ou [...] power, giuing vs one, and taking away the other from vs when we will? Therefore when any thing doth chance vn­to vs, that we may not trouble or vexe our selues, let vs consider foorthwith whether it bee in our power or no: if it bee, let vs so or­der our will that wee may direct and guide all things vnto their true and naturall vses: and if we do so, we shall bee sure to receiue good thereby: but if vpon inquirie we find them not to be in our power, let vs not bee mooued a whit, but haue this worde alwaies in ou [...] mouthes, as a very profitable and [Page 52] wholesome instruction. This thing toucheth not me at all, it cōcernes not me, that is to say, it is neither my good nor my euill, and conse­quently neither seeke after nor a­uoyde it: but when it happeneth I wil make the best of it that I can, by applying it vnto the best vse I can, and which it is possible for me to referre it vnto. And if wee finde our selues to be further mo­ued, and y any one of the aforena­med passions be stirred vp in vs, by apprehending the obiect of things which are out of our power, let vs straight waies weigh and consi­der the nature of it which offereth it selfe, and wherefore it is sent vn­to vs: thē let vs examine our selues, to know vnto what passion we are most inclined [...] and what effects it bringeth with it: afterwards let vs [Page 53] marke in our selues what vertue is opposed against it, & what power and abilitie nature hath granted to rule and gouerne it. For as the pas­sion commeth from without, and entereth into vs together with the image of the subiect, which offe­reth it selfe vnto our view: so na­ture hath [...]enced vs within with a strong bulwarke or rampire to backe vs against the force hereof, that is, hath graunted vs sufficient strength to resist it, and if that we bee willing thereunto. Therefore the better to fortifie and strengthē this power, let vs furnish our selues with certaine wise precepts and short sentences touching euerie passion, wherewith wee may the better bee able to maintaine rea­son, and as it were with the edge of the sword cu [...] off all such first and [Page 54] sudden motions of the minde, as may any waies violence it. And to make these precepts stronger and harder to bee ouercome, let vs stuffe them out with braue and worthie examples of men in for­mer time, which haue behaued themselues right valiantly vpon such or the like occasions. For the example of vertue in others, enga­geth vs to bee likewise vertuous, and their commendation is a pro­fitable instruction for vs to imi­tate and resemble them.

Therefore as soone as any sub­iect of pleasure for the bodie, as delicate and daintie meates doe come into our mind, and that we doe finde our selues mooued; let vs think thus, that this is one of the things which is not in our power, neither good nor euill: but an indifferent [Page 55] thing, a thing which na­ [...]ure hath giuen vs for our suste­ [...]ance, and being taken moderat­ly, preserues the bodie in health, and makes it a fit and able instru­ment for the minde: but contra­riwise, the excesse and superfluitie thereof greatly weakeneth the bo­die, and engendreth many grie­uous and daungerous diseases, which are the punishment which nature vseth to bridle our intem­perance withall. But if once wee loose the reines vnto our appetites to follow abundance or delicate­nes of meate, we shall bee held in perpetuall torment and paine, things superfluous will proue but necessarie vnto vs, and the minde e [...]tsoones will become a slaue vn­to the bodie, and wee shall finde that we liue but to eate & drink. [Page 56] Therefore wee must temper thi [...] pleasure with a moderate vse, and learne to know that it is sobrietie that doth preserue the bodie sound and the mind pure. And therefor [...] let vs frame vnto our selues this rule in our diet, to vse meate for our necessitie of foode and main­tenance, and let vs not accustom [...] our selues to delicious fare an [...] daintie meats, least happily being depriued of them our bodies be [...]ll disposed, and our mindes discon­tented: but contrariwise, let vs or­dinarily vse our selues to grosser meates, as well for that they make vs more strong and sound, as also for that they are more easily to be gotten. For it is an especial fauour of nature, for the which she deser­ueth singular great thankes at our hands, that she hath made things [Page 57] necessarie for our life most easie to be found, & that the things which are not found but with great diffi­cultie, are nothing necessarie at all. And truly I cannot chuse but admire the words of Epicurus, but I would they had proceeded out of another mans mouth, because I would not haue so worthie a sen­tence marred with the effemi­natenes of the rest of his opiniōs: My bodie (quoth he) daunceth for ioy, and my heart within me is ra­uished with pleasure, to think that I being content with bread & wa­ter, should bee able to contemne all the delicate fare of the world. And now if Epicurus gloried so much in the contempt of all dain­ties, what thinke you should the Stoicks doe? should not they re­uerence and honour sobrietie as [Page 58] the very foundation of all other vertues, and such a one as stifles all other vices in the cradle, & chokes them in the seede?

We reade that the families of the Curij and Fabricij in Rome did get many ample victories o­uer their enemies, yet were they not renowmed for any thing but for their frugalitie. Their feates of armes did for a certaine time as­sure the state of the Romanes a­gainst their forraine enemies: but their sobernes and frugalitie hath been a law to frame and fashion the mindes and courages of them which did afterwards ouercome all the world: the figges and car­rots which they preferred before the riches of the Samnites, were more pleasant in taste to them which succeeded them, then were [Page 59] the delicate meates of Axicius in his time. These reasons may like­wise serue vs to moderate those exceeding great pleasures which wee take in wearing costly appa­rell, and building stately houses, & such other things which are to be referred vnto the vse of the bodie: for otherwise, if we doe not mode­rate and measure the pleasures which wee conceiue in them by the necessitie of nature, the very opinion will draw vs into a peri­lous downfall, where we shal nei­ther finde shore nor bottome. For example, first our shewes must be made of veluet, then of cloath of gold, and lastly they must be fine­ly embroydered with pearles and diamonds: and so likewise our houses must bee first built with Marble, then with Iasper, and finally [Page 60] with Porphyre. It shall bee good therefore for vs to obserue this course, that our apparell bee sufficient to defend vs from the violence of heate and colde, and our houses strong enough to resist winde and raine, and let vs not seeke any thing els: and if happily we finde any thing besides, let vs not be moued therewith at all.

But it seemeth that reason hath more adoe in resisting the plea­sures which come by sight, and fruition of fayre and beautifull things, then it hath in conquering the pleasures which wee haue but earst entreated of. For wee ima­gine that the person which car­rieth on his face the fauours of nature printed in a rare and beau­tifull sort, hath a lawfull power o­uer vs, and that drawing our eyes [Page 61] vnto it, it draweth our affections likewise thither, and enthralles thē vnto it euen against our willes. But what then? let vs remember that it is a thing meerely without vs, and that it is a grace and fauour which nature hath bestowed vpō the person which enioyeth it, and not vpon vs: and that it is a thing, the vse and possession wherof may be as preiudiciall as profitable vn­to vs: and last of all, let vs consider that it is but a floure which conti­nually fadeth, and nothing els but as it were the colour of a bodie. If you suffer your selfe to bee carried away with this mad and frantike passion, where shall a man finde you? you cannot bee your owne man any longer; your bodie must needes endure a thousand paynes to seeke your pleasure, and your [Page 62] mind a thousand torments to sa­tisfie your desire. When this desire shall grow to his full height, it wil become low, & loue neuer leaues encreasing till in the end it proue starke madnes.

Let vs therefore prouide our selues of strong rampires and bul­warkes to warde vs against this passion, and let vs take heede that we bee not cosoned or deceiued with her entising baits. The more she dallieth with vs, the more let vs defie her, and let vs take this warning in good time, that she neuer comes to embrace vs, but she meanes to strangle vs: that she neuer giues vs liberty and license, but to bring vs into thraldome and slauerie: she baites vs with honie, to glut vs with gall: she setteth before our eyes a vaine [Page 63] shew of pleasure, which passeth a­way in a moment, and leaues vs sorrow and griefe which remai­neth for euer. Let vs therefore or­der our mindes in such sort, that in considering the excellencie of beautie, we doe acknowledge the cunning workmanship of nature, and let vs so esteeme it as wee doe the Sunne and Moone, for the ex­cellency which is contained with­in them. And if the law doe grant vs any more particular fruition of it, let it bee taken to that end that nature desires, and so that we doe not lose the vse of reason which ought still to beare rule in vs; re­membring alwaies how much harme commeth by the immode­rate vse of this pleasure; how it wasteth the bodie, weakeneth the soule, and duls the spirit. Let vs [Page 64] altogether abstaine from it (if it be possible) before wee bee married: for besides that, it wipes away all shame and modestie in youth, it makes them lose the sweetnesse of marriage which they [...]lone doe taste which haue not vsed it be­fore, a sweetnes which souldereth and knitteth together the friend­ship of marriage: and ouer and besides all these inconueniences before mentioned, it nourisheth vs in the libertie and license of an vnruly and inconstant loue. But aboue all things let vs take heede that wee doe not commit any dis­honestie the sooner to accomplish our filthie pleasures. Let vs repre­sent vnto our selues the manifolde dangers which haue befallen thē which haue bin too deeply plun­ged in them, how some haue lost [Page 65] their goods, others their liues, o­thers their mindes and wits. A­gaine, let vs on the contrary side consider how much more plea­sure it will bee to vs to resist and conquer pleasure, then to possesse it; and how much more praise and commendation of all poste­rities hath Alexander deserued by his continencie, then Darius wife and her daughters purchased by their exceeding pleasant & beau­tifull faces. Cleopatras eyes trium­phed ouer C [...]sar and Anthonie, but Augustus eyes did triumph o­uer Cleopatras.

Last of all, this kind of pleasure is accompanied with a kinde of delight which concernes the bo­die, and in this regarde it seemeth that it is somewhat naturall: but the desire of goods and honours, [Page 66] and the pleasure which men take in possessing of thē, is rooted alto­gether vpō a bare opiniō. I know not what he was that first begui­led vs in giuing of names, in cal­ling that good which doth in no wise depend of vs: but this I am sure that he hath fastened our hap­pines vnto a rotten cable, and an­chored our felicitie vpō the brittle and vnstable sand. For what is there in the world so vncertaine and vnsure, as the possession of such goods as goe and come, slide and passe away as a torrent? And I may very well say as a torrent, for they make a noyse at their comming vnto a man, are full of violence being possessed of him, and are indeede nothing els but troubles and griefes: it is long be­fore they come, and when they are [Page 67] come they stay not long with vs, but vanish away suddenly and in a moment, & when they are gone they leaue nothing behinde them in the bottome but dirt and filth.

O riches, if men could bee so happie as to see the rust of cares and grie [...]es which are ingendered in the hearts of men, by looking vpon the brightnes and glorie of your gold and siluer, doubtles they would then hate you as much as they doe now loue you. And truly those which do loue you, I can say no more of them but this, that they haue one vertue in them, and that is this, to be very constant in concealing their griefes, for feare of discouering their shames: and were it lawfull for sorro we freely to vtter her complaints against Fortune, think you that she could [Page 68] not answere the accusation of so many men, as she hath cousoned by giuing of them euils, vnder pre­tence and title of good things? Verely my opinion is, that she [...] would haue nothing els to say vn­to them for her excuse but this, that she hath bestowed them vpō none but such as did heartely de­sire them. Let vs then acknow­ledge riches to be as they are, that is, presents of Fortune, which she doth but lend vnto vs for a while: for goods that ordinarily happen vnto bad men, for goods which are not goods, but whē they haue gotten them good masters: for good which oftentimes corrupt goods manners, but neuer amend the bad: for goods without the which so many wise men haue made their liues most fortunate: [Page 69] for goods which so many wicked men hauing had, haue suffered most pitifull deaths. Let vs know what this vnruly desire of hauing them doth profit vs. It is a gan­grene in our soules, which consu­meth our naturall affections with her venemous heate, to fill vs with certaine poysoned and virulent humours. As soone as it is lodged within our hearts, all honestie and natural affection which is due vn­to parents, friends, & to our selues, vanisheth away: all the rest being compared with our profits, seeme nothing: we, euen we for our pro­fits sake neglect our selues, & de­spise our mindes and bodies, and as it is in the prouerbe, sell the horse to buy hay. It seemes that nature in the very growing of gold, hath in some sort presaged [Page 70] their miseries which should bee earnest louers of it. For she hath made that in those parts where it groweth nothing prospereth, nei­ther hearbes, nor plants, nor any thing els which is of any value; [...]s it were foretelling vs that in the spirits of those men in whom the desire of this mettall should rule, there should bee left no sparkle of honour or vertue.

Let vs therfore chase away this [...]urious desire farre from vs, and leauing the foolish opinions of the vulgar sort of people which poi­zeth goods in goldsmiths balan­ces, let vs follow the will & coun­sell of Nature which measureth them with the ell of necessitie. We shall learne of her, that our good cōmeth not from riches, no more then the heate which we [...]eele may [Page 71] bee sayd to come from our gar­ments; but issuing from vs is kept & preserued in them. That which cannot reach so farre as them, may be sayd to be within vs: and so our vertue, though Fortune clippe her wings, shall not be lessened there­by: for though it haue lesse mo­tion, yet shal it haue more rest and contentment. There bee some notwithstanding, which would faine corrupt vs with their vaine and foolish opinions, going about to perswade vs to think vpon no­thing els but vpon getting of ri­ches. For what say they? If I doe not take care in time to get riches, how shall I bee able hereafter to help my friends, or serue my coun­trie? But let vs shape them this wise answere: that it is meete that euery one should serue the Commonwealth [Page 72] in his seuerall trade and vocation. It is the Philoso­phers dutie to make his fellow ci­tizens modest and obedient: if he doe so, it may be truly sayd that he hath discharged his dutie, and pro­ [...]ited both his friends and country. Besides all this, I would say thus vnto him: set me down any honest course of getting riches, and I wil not refuse to take it: for my part as I doe not greatly desire them, so I would not refuse any honest meanes and paines to get them. Now if you cannot shew me this honest meanes, why are you so instant with me to seeke them by vnlawfull meanes? Let vs learne to seeke that without passiō which nature desires, and we shall finde that Fortune cannot hinder vs from atchieuing our purposes. But [Page 73] indeed the speediest & truest way of attaining vnto riches, is by de­spising of riches. If we would faine be rich, we neede not encrease the meanes of getting them, but ra­ther diminish the desires of seek­ing them: hee that is a contented man, is a rich man, hee may haue riches when he will. Thus Bias made himselfe rich by [...]orsaking his goods which hee might haue carried with him out o [...] the citie as well as the rest, (because this was one of the conditions in yeel­ding vp the towne into the ene­mies hands for in saying that hee carried all his goods with him, doubtles hee meant his vertues. Thus Diogenes grew not onely to bee ri [...]h and mightie, but richer and mightier then Alexander, when he refused his largesse, and [Page 74] in recompence of former curte­sies asked onely this boone at his hand, that it would please him to stand a little further from him: (for at that time hee stood betweene him and the Sunne) and truly as Alexander dealt with `Diogenes: so do [...] they deale with vs which present vs with the goods of For­tune: for they doe cleane take from vs the gifts of Nature. And this appeareth most manifestly in them which suffered themselues to bee allured with the pleasant baites of honors (as we call them) and to bee tossed about with the wind of ambition. For forthwith they finde, that in stead of light and brightnes they haue nothing left them but smoke.

Indeede true honour is the glit­tering & beaming brightnes of a [Page 75] good and vertuous action, which rebounds from our consciences vnto the sight of them with whom wee liue, and so by a reflexion in our selues, brings vs a testimonie from others of the good opinion which they haue of vs, which makes vs to enioy great comfort of minde. Now this good dooth wholly depend on vs. Nature pro­cures vs this good, when, and as often as wee will haue it, wee may haue it. But if wee once forsake it, wee doe but embrace a shadowe in stead of a bodie, and fasten the rest of our minds vpon the opiniō of the vulgar sort of people, and so voluntarily renounce our liber­ties, to serue the humours and pas­sions of other men, and are com­pelled to displease our selues to please them which doe behold vs: [Page 76] so that our affections are hanged vpon the eyes of other men: and wee loue not vertue, but as the common people doe loue and fa­uour it: if wee chance to attempt or doe any good thing, it is not done for the loue of good, but for desire of honour. And so wee be­come like pearced hogges-heads which suffer no licour to come foorth, till there bee a vent made. But what bounds hath this pas­sion? how is it limited and confi­ned? Doth age waste it? No [...] Doe dignities and honours content it? No. It is a gulfe which hath nei­ther shore nor bottome. No, no, it is that vacuum which the Phi­losophers could neuer yet finde, it is a fire which daily increaseth be­ing daily fed and nourished. They which would smooth and flatter [Page 77] ambition, would faine make men beleeue that shee is in stead of a staire for vertue to mount vp to the top of honour: for, say they, for ambition sake men leaue all o­ther vices, and in fine forsake am­bition too for the loue of vertue. But stay, this is not true: if ambi­tion couer and hide all other vi­ces, yet she doth not take them a­way for all that, but suffers them to lurke for a time vnder the craf­tie ashes of a malicious and fained dissimulation, hoping that they shall haue the opportunitie here­after to break foorth into a flame, when they shal get credit enough to raigne & rage publikely where they will with impunitie.

Serpents lose not their venome being benummed with cold, nei­ther doe ambitious men forsake [Page 78] their vices, whilest they couer thē with the cold of dissimulation: for when it is come to the place whither she desires to goe, then she displayeth her force & makes men feele her strength. And were it so that ambition should aban­don all other vices, yet would she neuer leaue her selfe, being onely in this one thing iust, that she suf­ficeth to her owne punishment, and willingly offer [...]th vp her selfe vnto torment. The motion of her desires is like vnto the wheele of Ixion, it is turned vp and downe continually, and neuer suffers a mans minde to rest quietly. Let vs therefore fortifie and stablish our minds against these grieuous mo­tions which so much disease our quiet rest and repose. [...]et vs so go­uerne our affectiōs, that the luster [Page 79] of honours doe not dazle or dar­ken the eyes of reason, and let vs plant certaine noble resolutions in our minds in stead of bars and barricadoes against the furious assaults of ambition. First of all let vs perswade our selues that there is no true honor in the world but that which commeth from vertue. Secondly, that vertue seeks no greater or ampler theater to shew her selfe in, then her owne conscience. The higher the Sunne is the lesse shadow it makes, and the greater a mans vertue is the lesse glorie it seekes. And indeed a man may very well liken glorie vnto a shadowe, for it followes them which flye from it, and flyes them that seek after it. Let vs con­sider that we come into the world as to a comedie, where wee may [Page 80] not chuse what part we will play, but onely looke that we play that parte well which is giuen vs in charge. If the Poet bid vs play a kings part, we must take care that we doe it well, and so if he charge vs with the porter or clowns part, we must do it likewise: for a man may get as much credit by play­ing the one wel, as by well acting the other: and like discredit re­doundeth vnto him if neither bee done well.

As for dishonours, we must vse them as wee doe meates at a ban­quet, where wee taste of them which are set before vs, but ac­count it an vnmannerly part to reach our hands after those dishes which are set at the further end of the table, or to take the platters out of the stewards hands. And so [Page 81] we, if the testimonie of our vertue, profit of our countrie, and fauour of our friends commit any matter of weight and credit to vs for to be done, which we know wee are well able to bring to passe, let vs accept it modestly, and discharge it faithfully and truly, thinking it to be Gods will and pleasure that we should watch and ward, whi­lest others take their quiet rest and sleepe. Let not vs seeke any other recompence of our labours, but the conscience of well doing, and let vs rather couet to haue the testimony of our vertues in grauen in the minds and hearts of our fel­low citizens, then on the top of pillers or publike statues: for ma­ny times it is a greater honour for a man not to haue that which hee deserueth, then to haue it. I account [Page 82] it (said Cat [...]) more honour to me that men should aske why there were no images erected in honor of me, in this or that place, then if they should aske why these images were erected, to what ende, or for what cause. To bee short, let vs hold this for a maxi­me, that the fruit of noble actions is to bee sayd to haue performed them most nobly, and that vertue cannot finde out of her selfe any recompence sufficient to guerdon her selfe withall. For without doubt, ambition is a most gentle passion, which diues most gently downe into the most gentle man­like and heroical spirits: but being there, is not to bee drawne out a­gaine but with great paine. Wee thinke that euery man is bound to seeke and follow after good, [Page 83] and amongst therest wee reckon honour to bee one of the chiefest, nay more to be accounted of then all the rest.

See here the cause why men should take such pains to ride and runne, to labour and trauell so ear­nestly and vehemently as they do, and yet for all this, I can assure you that the other passions which are within vs, which grow in vs by apprehēsion of the obiect of some apparant euill, which wee are to shunne and auoyd, doe sinke dee­per into our hearts, and are hardly to be taken out of them. As name­ly [...]eare, which is an apprehension of some euill to come, which kee­peth vs continually in a bodilie feare, and preuenteth the euils which Fortune threatneth & me­naceth vs withall. For certainly it [Page 84] is one of the cruellest instruments which opinion hath to torment vs withall: for because she cannot worke vpon vs, but by cosoning and beguiling vs, and that euery man can better see things present, then foresee things to come: ther­fore she serues her self with things to come, the sooner to come to her purposes, she lieth lurking in some darke or blinde corner, to [...]atch her time and opportunitie, as theeues obserue the night for their robberies, because she would not be discouered in her actions. Afterwards she feares & affrights vs with maskes of euils, which haue but a bare shew and appa­rance of euill, hauing nothing in her which may hurt vs, but the ap­prehension of a conceiued and i­maginarie euil, which maketh the [Page 85] thing seeme euill, though it be not so indeede, and euen from that which is good draweth a kinde of euill to vexe and trouble vs with­all. And good God, how many men may we see continually, who for feare of beeing vnfortunate haue become miserable, and so turned their vaine feares into cer­taine miseries? How many men are there in the world which haue lost their friends for feare of di­strusting them? and how manie haue been sicke for feare of being sicke? so that it may be truly said, that feare is a heauy weight, which maketh vs stoope downe to the ground, and stumble as we runne hastily from that which we thinke is to be auoyded. Therefore let vs take awayfeare, and we shall re­moue al danger of euill farre from [Page 86] vs: at least wee shall not feele it before it come, and when it comes it will neuer trouble vs so much, that we need greatly to feare it.

If a man might haue his mind to chuse from what euil he would bee exempted, in mine opinion hee should choose to bee freest from feare: because the paine of other euils dureth no longer then the cause, but feare is formed in­differently as well of that which is, as of that which is not, & which peraduenture is neuer likely to be; yea of [...] which cannot be at all. O what a cra [...]tie and subtill passion is this, which can out of an imagi­ned euill draw [...]oorth such a true and liuely griefe? Thus he inueig­led the painter Parrhasus, to tor­ment some of his seruants, that he might the better bee able to imitate [Page 87] and expresse the lamentable and sorrowfull passions of the fa­bulous Prometheus. Now tell me why should we be so ambitious in seeking our owne harmes, as once to runne to meete and preuent them with our thoughts and me­ditations? Nay rather on Gods name, let vs stay til they come, but neuer make any great looking af­ter them, and it may bee they will not come so farre as to vs. There bee a thousand lets and hinderan­ces (which cannot bee foreseene) to ward the blow from vs, which we feare is comming vpon vs. For euen our feares are as easily be­guiled as are our hopes. But alas, what is there to bee feared? Feare we that which is in our power or no? No: for then perhaps wee might remedie it. What then? is [Page 88] it a thing out of our power? If it be so, it is no euill, and what cause then haue wee to feare it? Where­fore serues this feare then? Mary it serues for a voluntarie punish­ment to vexe our selues withall. On the contrary side, if wee can but beare a braue minde and re­solute courage agaynst this pas­sion, we shall bee well able to re­medie and redresse many things which happen vnto vs, which by feare and astonishment are made farre worse then they are: but a­mongst many other euill effects which feare bringeth with it, this is one most dangerous, that ordi­narily it maketh a mā to hate that which he feares.

Now hatred is a most deadlie passion, which troubleth vs very strangely. For I pray, stay a while [Page 89] and consider with your selues how when wee meane to hate a thing indeed, this affection of hatred is nourished and increased within vs, though it bee neither watered nor laboured, and finally how it causeth in vs an vtter loathing and detestation of that which is hated. And what is that which we doe so greatly hate and abhorre? Mary that you may bee sure which wee should not: for if there bee any thing in the world which deserues to be hated, it is hatred it selfe, and such like passions which are con­trarie to the nature of that which should commaund in vs. This is the onely griefe in the worlde to vexe vs withall. We hate the per­sons themselues, and we hate their actions, either because wee feare some euill to come, or remember [Page 90] some euill past which we haue re­ceiued by them, or els because the nature of our sences hath a kinde of contrarietie, antipathie, or con­trepassion with the thing hated. And is there any thing that can trouble vs more then this? By this passion we [...] bring our selues into the power of that which we hate, to vexe and trouble vs as it listeth. First [...]ight moues sence, then re­membrance wakeneth the spirit, and so whether we be waking or sleeping, wee represent the thing hated vnto our selues, with a kind of despite and gnashing of teeth, which brings vs cleane out of or­der, carrieth vs out of our selues, & rents our hearts in peeces most pitifully. Whereby it so commeth to passe, that the paine of that euil which we doe wish vnto another [Page 91] man, doth [...]al vpō our own heads. Wherefore let vs shut the gate of our soule against this great & ter­rible passion: and to take away all pretence of entring in vpon vs, by a mislike and lothing of thinges which may come into our imagi­natiō, let vs propoūd to our selues this rule which is most true and infallible, to wit, that euery thing hath two handles, by the which a man may take and lift it vp: if we take it by one of the handles it wil seeme heauie and grieuous: if by the other, wee shall finde it light and [...]asie to be borne. Now na­ture may speake vnto vs, as the Philosopher did vnto his schol­lers; that which I offer vnto you with the right hand, you take with the left, you alwaies choose the worst; if there be any good thing [Page 92] you leaue it, and if there bee any bad thing that you will bee sure to take. For example, there is one of your neighbours which sueth you in the law, and therefore you can not thinke on him, but you must dreame of his processe, and con­sequently curse and blame him therfore. See here the bad handle, for take him by the other handle, and then straight waies you will thinke that he is a man as well as you, & that God hath bound you to loue him by a likenes of nature, that he is your fellow citizen, and that you are ioyned together in a communitie of the same lawes, the same Churches, the same Al­tars, and the selfe same sacrifices: againe, that you are fellow neigh­bours, bound by charitie to suc­cour and relieue one another, and [Page 93] shall not so many subiects of good will bee able to quench one little sparke of hatred? Peraduenture you haue a brother which hath of­fended you, and if you chaunce to meditate on him, you thinke and meditate on him that hath offen­ded you, and not on him which was cōceiued in the same wombe, that sucked the same breasts, was brought vp in the same house, and lastly that hee is the one halfe of you. Let vs learne then to handle things rightly, to take them by the good handle, and so we shall find that there is somewhat or other to be loued in that which is now ha­ted of vs. For certainly there is no­thing in the worlde which is not created for mans good. If there be any vicious thing in it which wee do hate, it is the euill of the vicious [Page 94] person himselfe, and not ours. If happily hee offend vs, wee haue more cause to pitie and lament his case, then to hate and abhorre him. For he himself is the first that is offended, and receiueth most harme therby: for by this meanes he commeth to lose thevse of rea­son, and what greater harme can there happen vnto a man in this world? Wherefore in such & the like cases, let vs turne our hatred into pitie, and studie to make thē worthie of our loues which wee would so [...]aine hate. Thus dealt Licurgus when euery one forsook the companie of a certaine fellow which had thrust out one of his eyes, hee abandoned not his com­panie, but carried him home with him, gently entreated him, and enioyned him no other punishment [Page 95] but this, that he should stu­die more earnestly to bee soberly and vertuously brought vp: which being done, hee returned him to his fellowe citizens, which found that whereas he before was a very quarrellous and iniurious fellow, now he was become a good, ho­nest, and sober citizen.

And looke as we ought to shun hatred, so likewise must we auoyd enuie: for they are sisters germaine of the same colour, and the same port, and both of them haue ef­fects equally daungerous. Enuie stirreth vp within vs a kind of sor­row at the good which other men enioy, which still lieth gnawing at our hearts, and tormenteth vs most cruelly. Indeede it is a cruel passion, and so cruell, that all the torments of the most cunning [Page 96] and exquisite and professed ty­rants in the worlde, could neuer haue found out a greater. For see­ing it is of power to conuert and turne another mans good into her harme, what limits can there bee prescribed vnto her torments, when both her owne euils and o­ther mens goods shal ioyne toge­ther to torment and trouble her? Let vs therefore runne away from her as wee would doe from some wilde beast, which neuer ceaseth to deuoure and gnaw our hearts, and seeke vtterly to depriue vs of any good that shall happen vnto vs. Whilest the enuious man loo­keth wistly and ouerth wartly ouer another mans good, he letteth his owne be spoyled, and so loseth the pleasure thereof. Now the readie way to take away the feare of this [Page 97] enuie, will be to ponder and con­sider with our selues what is that which wee esteeme good, and en­uie another man the hauing: and we shal find, that all being put to­gether, yet there is nothing which wee would willinglie haue our selues. For I finde that the things which commonly we enuie other men the hauing, are these: riches, honours, and fauours: but if a man should speake thus vnto vs, I am content that you should haue as much as they at the same rate, I warrant you wee would straight waies answer that we would haue none of them. For if wee would haue them as they haue them, wee must flatter and cosen as they do, suffer many iniuries, and needes lose our libertie. For as the world goeth now, there is nothing to be [Page 98] gotten for bare nothing. Perhaps you make profession of honor and vertue: wel this cannot be bought but with the losse of other things which are gotten by a modest and shamefast kinde of patience. Ri­ches, dignities and fauours are be­stowed on them onely which can tell how to sooth men vp in their humours, and apply themselues vnto their pleasures and affectiōs. This is a law, or at leastwise the custome of the world, and it was a custome before euer you were borne, and therefore why doth it grieue you to see it obserued? This man sels his libertie and freedome to receiue the price of an office or dignitie: why do you enuie there­at, for I am sure you would not sel yours to gain as much: you would faine haue siluer and cloath and [Page 99] such like thinges which this man exchaungeth for his libertie, and yet you would keepe yours: but you may not doe so, the law of na­tions is against it, either you must be content with your ware, or els with the price. I goe to the mar­ket, and there I see one open his purse and deliuer out a peny, and [...]ee carrieth away with him a let­tise, or some such thing: I which giue nothing carry nothing home with me, and yet I thinke my selfe as good a man as he euery day of the weeke. For loe here is all the difference, he hath his lettise, and I haue my mony. I espie my neigh­bour comming from a feast; when I consider onely the good cheare which hath been made him, I shall be sorrie that I was not there with him: but when I think how a man [Page 100] must flatter the master of the house, if he will be welcome, I had rather neuer haue good cheare, then at any time to neglect the dutie of an honest man. Let vs therefore, as we tender our rest and quietnes in this world, take heede that wee grow not too enuious of another mans good. For if it be a true good which hath happened vnto him, we should rather reioyce and bee glad with him for it: for euery mā should desire the good one of an other; and to reioyce at the good of another is the way to encrease a mans owne.

The very same rules are to bee obserued concerning i [...]lousie: for it is as like it in nature and effect as may bee; vnles this bee the diffe­rence, that in respect of enuie wee consider not good, but when it is [Page 101] come vnto another man which wee desire to haue our selues: but iealousie is of our owne proper good, when wee feare least ano­ther man should haue part with vs. But verely it is a sottish and irksome passiō, it is the gall which maketh bitter the honey-sweet of our life: for it is ordinarily seene in our pleasantest & sweetest actions which it maketh so bitter and sharp [...], as nothing can bee more: for it chaungeth loue into hatred, respect into disdaine, and certain­tie into distrust. Make this account with your selfe, that whosoeuer meanes to leade a ielous life, must leade a miserable life. The onely meanes of shunning and auoy­ding it, is to make a man worthie of that which is desired: for iea­lousie is nothing els but a distrust [Page 102] of a mansselfe, and a bearing wit­nes of himselfe against himsel [...]e of his small deseruings. In my opi­nion, it was a very worthie answer which the Emperour [...] made vnto Faustine, whē she as­ked him what hee would doe if Cassiu [...] happe [...]ed to get the victo­rie ouer him. Mary (quoth hee) I hope I doe not [...]eru [...] the gods so ill, as that they will suffer this mis­fortune to light vpon me. Let thē which feare to lose the part which they haue in other mens affectiōs say in like sort, I haue made more account of his friendship, then to deserue any such thing at his hāds, as to bee lawfully disfriended of him.

The presumption and confi­dence of our owne worthines, is a great pledge to assure vs of another [Page 103] mans goodwill: for hee that [...]eeketh a thing with a vertuous in­tent, is glad to haue a companion ioyned with him in the pursuite thereof: for he may serue to pro­uoke his dulnes, and succour his weaknes and imbecillitie, in pur­suing of that which is good, be­cause of the shining glorie & ho­nour of the others estate. Onely weaknes feares to be encountred, because she is afraid, yt being com­pared with another, she shall by and by shew foorth her imperfec­tion. Who is he that would if hee might sport himselfe alone at the games of Olympus? Take away emulation, and take away glorie, and take away the very spurre of vertue. It is a straunge thing, that accordingly as we are disposed to vse and receiue the things which [Page 104] happen vnto other men, so they serue vs either to a good vse or to a had vse: for marke, if the good of another man doe not breed ielou­sie within vs, and keep vs in a con­tinuall feare and perplexitie. A­gaine on the other side, how ano­ther mans euill doth cause a kinde of remorse and piti [...]: so that what for the one and what for the other, wee are cleane transported ou [...] of our selues, and doe come to our wits ends. And whether it bee be­cause of a secret consent within vs, whereby we do communicate with one anothers miseries, or whether it be for that we feare lest that should happen vnto vs, which hath chanced vnto our friends, we sigh and groane, suffer and endure with them in their miseries. And we are not greatly to bee blamed [Page 105] for so doing: prouided that it bee done moderatly and so farre [...] as that it may serue as a mean [...]s [...] waken and stirre vs vp to help and succour them. For this is comman­ded by the law of humanitie: but we are not bi [...] to adopt vnto our s [...]l [...]es their griefes [...] or to darke [...] the cleeren [...] of our mindes with the smoake of their miseries.

Now the [...]ecessarie remedies which we must be prouided of, a­gainst the discontentednes which wee take by another mans e [...]ill, called pitie, are common to that other kind of discontent which is called by ye name of griefe, which is the feeling of some pretended euill in our selues. For as soone as these euils (for so wee call them) doe assault vs, foorthwith the strength of our soules withere [...] [Page 106] [...]way, v [...]lesse wee take the better [...]eede, and wee are drawne head­long into a kinde of languor, wo­mani [...]hnes and want of courag [...], that it is strange to [...]ee, which [...] ­keth from vs the vse of reason, and meanes of [...] for our own affay [...]es. In this ca [...]e it shall bee good for vs to remember what things are in our power, and what not, & to [...] that [...]uill which is contrari [...] vnto the perfect dis­position of our will. For by this meanes wee [...] [...]me to know, that grie [...] and plea [...]re are drawn [...] both of them out of the [...]ame well, if a man haue but the skill to turne his bucket when he would [...]ill him with either: for the vse is all in a thing, and euerything is as it is v­sed good or bad. Thus wee make [...]iches become [...]uill, when wee [Page 107] make them serue i [...] stead of means to execute [...] out euill passions: and [...] pou [...]tie prooueth good vnto vs, if we accompanie it with [...]rugaliti [...] and [...] th [...]s rest and qu [...]etnes in [...]easeth our miserie if it inc [...]ase our sloth and sluggishnes; and labour and paine [...] sweete [...] when by ou [...] la­bour and industrie in seruing our [...] we p [...]hase honour and credit [...]. Wherefore let vs so take and estee [...]e of euerything, as it is to be taken and esteeme [...] of [...] and we shal finde that ther [...] is nothing but will yeeld vs some commodi­ti [...] or other. For there is no chance in the world which can happen so cro [...]ely, but nature hath prouided a habit and disposition in vs to re­ceiue it when it cōmeth, & turne it to our ioy and contentment.

[Page 108] Therefore when any thing d [...]th vse to trouble vs, let vs consider two things: the one, the nature of that which hath chaunced vnto vs: the other, the nature of that which is in vs: and then let vs learne to vse euery thing accor­ding vnto his nature, and so wee shall be sure neuer to [...]ceiue any lothing or discontentment at all. For discontent being a dise [...]e of the soule is contra [...]ie vnto nature, and therefore we may not suffer it to take deep [...]oote within vs. Now there is nothing that causeth more offence o [...] di [...]contentment, then the newnes or straungenes of a thing when it happeneth. And this appeareth mo [...] euidently, in that the things which displease vs most are made pleasant and sweete by custome and continuance. The [Page 109] gally slaues when they goe to sea, weepe at first shipping, but after three or foure moneths they sing as merrily as birds. So that you see custome is al: for they which haue not been accustomed to the sea, are afraid and looke pale when they see them weigh anchors and lanch foorth into the sea, though it be in a calme: where contrarily the old and tried marriners laugh and are merrie in a tempest. And looke what good custome bring­eth vnto the common sort of peo­ple, the same meditation bringeth vnto a Philosopher: for by often thinking and meditating vpon things, hee maketh them seeme most familia [...] and ordinarie vnto him. Let vs therefore exactly con­sider & ruminate with our s [...]lues, the nature of each thing that may [Page 110] molest and trouble vs, and let vs cast before hand the worst that maye happen; as sicknesse, po­uertie, banishment and iniuries, and let them sift them narrowly to finde out the nature of them, or els that which is most contrarie vnto their natures. It so falleth out that some of vs are diseased in bo­die: well, it is not wee that are of­ [...]ended but our bodies: for the of­ [...]ence being taken, many time [...] hindereth the excellencie and per­fection of the thing: whereas o­therwise the disease may happen to bee a great deale fitter subiect and occasion to exercise our pa­tience with praise and commen­dation then health: now where there is most occasion of praise, is there least good to be gotten?

As much as the mind is more [Page 111] to be acco [...]ted of then the body; so [...] the goods of the minde are more to bee valued and estee­med of then the goods of the bo­die. If then the bodie be the in­strument of the mi [...]de, who will be so foolish as to complaine, whē hee seeth the instrument applyed vnto that vse for the which it is or­dained? A mans bodie is sick and diseased: no great maruel, for see­ing it is a compound thing, there­fore it is subiect vnto alteration. Yea sir, it is true, as you say: but yet for all that the griefe of the disease is felt so violently, that it makes vs cry out in spight of our teeth. I grant indeed that it is felt, I must needes confesse that, but it is felt onely in bodie, and it makes vs crie too and if we wil be so foo­lish. Griefe is not intollerable, but [Page 112] vnto them which [...] that it is so:for there bee which can indure and suffer it when it is at the shar­pest. Possidonius the Philosopher discoursing at large of certaine matters in the pre [...]ence of Pom­pey, was sorely troubled with the gowt, and whē the disease pained him most, hee sayd no more but this: Sir griefe, you haue attemp­ted your worst against mee, what remedie but patience: you thinke to make mee curse and speake ill of you: no, no, farre be it from me that eu [...]r I should say that you are euill: and so hee went forwarde with his discourse, and made as if he had neuer felt it. Now I pray tell me and if you can, what new remedies had this Philosopher found out against this griefe? what plaisters and oyntments had hee [Page 113] stored vp against the gowt? Tru­ly these two, the knowledge of things, and courage of minde. For he was thorowly resolued, that the body was made to serue the soule, and that if so be the soule should be grieued for that which happe­ned vnto the bodie, that then it must [...]f force bee subiect to the bodie. Now if it ought not to bee troubled for that which happe­neth vnto the bodie, how much lesse ought she to bee grieued for the losse of goods? For the losse of a mans goods dooth not touch a man so neere as the want of his health. Indeed both of them are things meerely without vs, yet of the two the bodie is neerer vnto vs then goods.

Man commeth naked into the world, and shall goe naked out of [Page 114] the world, can hee then truelie say that any thing is his, which he nei­ther brought hither with him, nei­ther may carrie away with him when he departeth? The goods of the earth are like vnto household stuffe in an Inne, which a man need not care for but as long as h [...] lodgeth in it. Yea, perhaps will some man say, but if I haue them not, I may happen to dye for hun­ger. Well, if this bee all the care that may trouble your minde, fol­low mine aduise and you shall do well enough: you were better dy [...] for hunge [...] in a good minde, then to liue richly and fare daintily be­ing in continuall griefe and tor­ment. You must make this ac­count, that the losses which you suffer, are the prises wherwith you purchase quiet rest and content [Page 115] of mind. If you employ them to some vse, why then they are not lost: if you doe not employ them, then you lose both your goods and your mindes both together. Would you therefore faine know an easie way to cure you of these wounds? I will shew you it pre­sently; look vpon the skarres and wounds which other men of good account & great resolution haue receiued: and consider how they haue laught at such losses, and ta­ken occasion to thanke God for them. Hearken what Z [...]no sayd, that at that time when he suffered ship wracke, the windes blew very luckely: for they brought him vn­to the hauen of Philosophie, where he bestowed the remainder of his life in a most quiet and peaceable Sun-shine, amidst the tempests of [Page 116] ciuill discorde, and had a safe co­uert to defend him from a thou­sand scorching griefs, which trou­ble and torment men in the af­fayres of this world.

Doe you know how to suffer losse of things so that it shall not trouble you? It is quickly learned, there is no more in it but this, not to accustome your selfe to loue a­ny thing otherwise then it is, or better then it deserueth. If a man haue an earthē vessell, let him loue it as a vessell of earth, which may beebroken, and so if it chance to be broken, the matter will neuer trouble him much. Let vs passe from smaller thinges to greater things, from vile and baser things to things of greater value & more account, and let vs doe the like. If wee loue our children, let vs loue [Page 117] the [...] as men, that is to say, as men subiect vnto infinit casualties of death, and then afterwards when they happen to dye, their deaths will be neither straunge nor grie­uous vnto vs.

Indeed it is an imagination and opinion that vexeth and tormen­teth vs more then the things them­selues, which is formed of those words which a man vseth when he is surprised with such accidēts: for we call one thing by the name of another, and imagine it to bee like vnto that other, & the image and Idea thereof remaineth so in our mindes. And therefore let vs mollifie and sweeten our words as well as we can: for if one of our children chaunce to dye, say not I haue lost one of my children: but this, I haue restored one of my [Page 118] children to God, of whom I bor­rowed them. And likewise if wee lose any other of our goods, let vs vse the like wordes. If a naughtie fellow take away our goods from vs, and it grieues vs at the verie heart, say no more but this: Was it not meet that God should haue that againe which he had lent me for a time? For the rest, remember your own opinion of the like mis­haps when they did happen vnto others [...] and consider with your self how thē you were not much mo­ued, but rather how you did blame them, and neglect their friuolous and vaine complaints. Suppose that the iudgement which you giue of them, is a preiudice against your selfe which cannot be auoy­ded. For our iudgements in ano­ther mans behalf are alwaies more [Page 119] iust and fauourable, thē in a mans owne cause. If a seruant of your neighbours chaunce to breake a glasse, you say, there is no great harme done, it was but a glasse broken. If his sonne dye, you say, he was of estate mortall, not borne to liue euer: and I pray why can you not say as much when your owne sonne dyeth, without cry­ing out, tormenting your selfe, or accusing God and men for the losse of that which is so ordinarie? There happeneth nothing vnto you but that which you haue fore­seene and thought on a thousand times: and wherfore then are you so much astonished? For verely I am perswaded, that if wee were as prouident and careful as we ought to be, and may be if we will, wee shall little neede to bee afraide or [Page 120] troubled when any thing happe­neth, and principally wee should not greatly care for that which we call iniurie. For let vs but set be­fore the eyes of our mindes the manners and humours of men, with whom we doe conuerse, (as they are for the most part) and we shall bee quickly resolued, I war­rant you, to suffer many lewd parts at their hands, and to indure much of their indiscretion: for the common nature of men is to reioyce in euil doing, and to mea­sure their authorities by nothing but by the iniuries and contempts of other men. So few there be that take pleasure in well doing.

Let vs therefore determine with our selues, that on what side so e­uer wee turne our selues, wee shall finde some or other that will bee [Page 121] readie to offend vs, so that a man may finde, as many men so many iniuries. But let vs take heed that we be not surprised by them, stan­ding alwaies vpon our garde, and hauing due regarde vnto them when they come. So that whither so euer wee goe, and what busines so euer we vndertake, let vs consi­der before hand what the euent is likely for to be, and how we shall be entreated. If we bee desirous to goe to the baths, let vs wisely cast with our selues before hand what the actions of men are when wee shall come thither, how one gap­ples and cryes, another iustles and iumbles his fellow, here one dash­ing them with water, and there another readie to steale their gar­ments. If wee haue well premedi­tated and forethought vpon all [Page 122] this, wee shall doe nothing but laugh at matters when they hap­pen. If we haue occasion to visite some great man, let vs imagine that hee will make vs wa [...]te at his gate, and when we seeke to get in at the doore, the porter will shut vs out, and clap the doore against vs; that we shall finde him busie, or in such a case that hee will not bee spoken withall, or when all is done that he wil not giue vs good countenance, and scarse bid vs welcome. When we haue deba­ted all this with our selues, little cause shall we haue to be moued or troubled.

Besides all this, there is another thing which serueth greatly to sweeten our iniuries, and that is whē we excuse them in our selues which haue offered vs any iniurie, [Page 123] presuming that they would nor haue done it without some occasion. For example, if you should call to your seruant, and he not answere you againe, thinke that hee did not heare you wh [...]n you called him [...] he hath not been there whither you sent him, sup­pose that hee was not at leisure [...]o goethither: and thus let vs doe in other matters, fr [...]ming still excu­ses vnto our selues in the behalfe of other men: but especially in matters of iniuries, let vs serue our selues with the commodity which they offer vs. For as there is no kinde of hearbe how venemous so euer it bee, which being well tempered and ordered to the pur­pose, hath not some profitable vse in it selfe: so is it in case of iniu­ries. We may (to speake with the [Page 124] least) reape two commodities by them: the on [...], that they make vs know them which offer vs iniu­ries, to learne to take heede of thē against another time: the other, in that they discouer our weake­nes and infirmitie, and the place which lyeth so open to the batt [...] ­ri [...], that we may be the better able to fortifie and strengthen it. In such sort that if you chance to see a man which speakes ill of you, conclude by a [...]d by with your self; doubtles this man is an euil man, I may not trust him at any hand. Thē examine whether that which he saith be true, either in whole or in part, and correct that fault in your selfe, least happily another man take occasion to speake as much, or more of you. For I pray you, what better reuenge can a [Page 125] man take of his enemies, then to profit by their iniuries? But in­deede the last fence and strongest rampier that we can haue against these or the like accidents is this, to be resolued that we cannot re­ceiue any harme but of our selues: and that if so be our reason be so well gouerned as it ought to bee, we cannot be wounded at al. And therefore wee may crye out with Socrates; Anitus and Melitus may put me to death, but they can not doe me any harme.

Now he that is prepared to sur­fer the iniuries & rebukes of men, will not bee to seeke to beare the paine of banishment. For com­monly it is allotted vnto honest and good men, by the iniurious dealings of the wicked. But be­cause it is but a vaine shew of euill, [Page 126] where with opinion terrifieth our minds, and vseth to draw forth the bitternes of griefe and sorrow; let vs therefore consider it more particularly, and try whether it be as grieuous vnto a man when he stands by it and viewes it more ex­actly, as it seemeth vnto him when he is a farre of. Who hath taught vs that it is the nature of man to stay still in the same place? What greater displeasure [...]ā there come vnto a man then to bee confined & limitted within certaine boūds? Looke vpon all the cities of the world, and obserue the inhabitāts there dwelling, to see how many you can find which were townes­borne children bred and brought vp in the same place; & I beleeue you shall finde, that the greatest part of the inhabitants are voluntarie [Page 127] exiles frō their natiue coun­trie. Euery place in the world is a wise mans countrie, or rather no place at all is his countrie. For his habitation is in heauen, whither hee aspireth after hee hath pas­sed the time here beneath of his sorrowfull pilgrimage; making his abode in cities and prouinces, as trauailers do in Innes and ostel­ries. Againe, we cannot see past ten or twelue leagues of ground: but the face of this great heauen glistering with so many faire and beautifull starres, doth shew her selfe once a day, because we shuld see her turne round about when she displaieth her beautie to the full. Wherefore then should it grieue vs so much to lose the sight of the place where we were borne? It was in ye power of our mothers [Page 128] (and if they listed) to haue been brought a bed in other places, and so to haue made vs changed our countries.

This is a barre against all that may be obiected concerning this matter, that we were borne either here or there, it matters not where, and therefore we need not sorrow so much at our banishments. Pompey seeing the effeminatenes of the Romanes mindes which were with him at the battaile of Pharsalia, and perceiuing how they turned their eyes & thoughts towards the citie of Rome, sor­rowfully regreeting their houses, and sighing as mē banished from their countrie: My friends (quoth he) the countrie where good men dwell in, is their libertie. Rutilius declared this most manifestly vnto [Page 129] Sylla: for being by him sent for back againe from banishment, he would not repayre vnto Rome, but rather endure the vasues of a desert and solitude of an Iland, rather then to abide the face of the tyrant in his owne citie. Euery country is fit to nourish and bring vp men, euery countrie yeeldeth them parents: for nature hath ioy­ned al of vs together in bloud and charitie: euery countrie bringeth foorth friends vnto vertue, for ver­tue is of power to make men loue one another. What then is there which may cause vs to grieue at our departure from the place of our naturall abode? for the same heauen hangs still on our heads, and the selfe same elements conti­nue. If we lose not our courages, we shall not lose any thing by our [Page 130] banishments. Now if you can re­solue vpō that which I haue pro­pounded vnto you, to auoyd these first passions well and good, I shal not neede to employ any further time to discourse vnto you the way and means of preparing your selfe against the other. For if you neuer receiue into your minde those passions which grow in the concupiscible part of the soule, you shall neuer be vexed with thē which are formed in the irascible part. For as much as these, which are despayre, and hope, feare, and choler neuer rise and stirre in ou [...] minds, but after desire & loathing are ingendred within vs. And as the former (whereof we haue he­therto spoken) grow by an appli­cation of the obiect and opinio [...] conceiued, that they wil be fauourable [Page 131] or contrarie vnto vs: so these other spring from a consideration and search of the soule which it hath to obtaine or auoyde that which she desireth or flyeth. This is but as it were a mouing of the soule out of it selfe, which is cau­sed by a redoubling of the former passion, and therefore as a fire bet­ter kindled they are hard to bee quenched: for in a moment they gain the greatest part of the soule, and shake her strongest passions. Now for a remedie to garde vs from them, let vs learne to call them all by their seuerall names, and knowe them by the liueries which they weare, made of certain terrible and grieuous accidents.

For the first, which is hope, kind­ling our foolish desires with a soft and pleasant winde, causeth a certaine [Page 132] fire in our hearts full of a thicke smoke which dazels our vnderstanding, carrieth our cogi­tations away with violence, and holdeth them hanging in the clowdes, vtterly depriueth vs of iudgement, and maketh vs to dreame waking. And as long as our hopes dure, we cannot be per­swaded to forsake our desires. On the contrary part, when despayre is once lodged within vs, it so tor­menteth our soule with an opiniō of our disabilitie in obtaining of that which wee desire, that euerie thing must yeeld vnto her becke, and giue her place: so that for the very loue of that which wee ima­gine we shall neuer be able to at­taine vnto, we forgo the quiet rest which wee alreadie enioy. This passion is like vnto little children, [Page 133] which for spight that one of their toyes should be taken away from thē, throw al ye rest in the fire. This passion is angrie with her selfe, and of her selfe exacteth the paine of her misfortune. The meanes to cure a man of it, is to arrest his desires at their first peeping forth, and if they bee wicked not to per­mit them to goe any further, and if they bee good to temper and make them goe and grow into a sweete and peaceable affection, without looking afterwards for a­nymore fauour, then the nature of the thing and inconstancie of For­tune doth suffer and permit: still ballancing our hopes and feares together. For a wise man ought not to liue in hope more then in feare; and it is not his part to cō ­mit himselfe into Fortunes hands, [Page 134] to hinder or diminish any thing from his pleasures. In like manner he should not despayre or doubt of any thing, as well for that his desires should be bounded within the limits of his power, as also for that such is the vnsteadfastnes of things, that it doth as well relieue things desperate, as altogether o­uerturne and quaile the hopes of things wished for.

Now for [...]eare, which is a vio­lent trouble, whereby the soule be­ing frighted retireth backe into her selfe, and there stayeth because she seeth not the meanes of a­uoyding the danger which is im­minent ouer her head, it is a dan­gerous passion: for besides the great discouragement which it bringeth vnto vs, it seaseth vs with such a kind of astonishment, that [Page 135] wee haue no meanes of discourse left vnto vs: yea euen at that time when our sences are most quick­est. For then our eyes are opened and yet wee can see nothing, men speake and talke vnto vs, but wee heare them not, and when wee would runne away from the dan­ger, wee haue not the power so much as to li [...]t vp our legs. To say the trueth, it commeth vnto vs at the first by a disposition of nature, but after wards delicate nouriture and fonde education, preuaileth much vnto the increasing of it. For because we were not nourish­ed and brought vp in the time of our youth vnto labour and paine, therefore wee begin to feare those things which wee haue no reason to stand in feare of. Wherefore if wee meane to arme our selues against [Page 136] these passions, wee must haue recourse vnto Wisedome, and by her good meanes we shall soone come to know the nature of things: which being knowne, it will euidently appeare, that there is nothing which ought to bee so much feared and dreaded of vs. For take but away the maske of opinion, and wee shall finde their natures altogether pure, friendly, and agreeable vnto vs. Moreouer, we must accustome our selues a long time before to the terriblest and fearfullest things that are, and let vs set before our eyes the most gastly dangers which can fall vpō vs, and with ioy of heart some­times commit our selues vnto the most dang [...]rous hazards [...] for triall of our courages. To preuent a mans euill fortunes by running as [Page 137] it were to meete them, is to take Fortunes weapons into our hands and wound our selues with them. Were it not better for vs to bee prouided before hand to withstād her force when she assaulteth vs, then vpon the sudden to be put to our shifts to defend our selues? For if we doe so, wee shall be sure to haue leisure to put on our wea­pons [...] to take our aduantages, and [...]oresee a place where to retire if neede be: where on the co [...]trarie side, if she set on vs vpon the sud­den, she may easily surprise vs, and deale with vs as she list. And ther­fore it shall be good for vs before the assault, to try how we can de­fende our selues, to make many false alarmes, & propose vnto our selues the dangers which worthie men haue suffered in our remembrances: [Page 138] how some haue escaped the greatest, because they would not bee daunted: and others haue been ouercome by the least, be­cause they were not wel resolued. But aboue all other things let vs so handle the matter, that wee doe not at anytime apprehend [...] or the feare thereof when it com­meth: for it is a common obiec [...] which troubleth our minde, and destroyeth our iudgements, and maketh vs abandon al offices and duties, and finally it causeth vs to forget our selues.

O that we could be once fullie perswaded in this poynt not to feare death, good God how hap­pie should we then be? For in this one thing more then in any other, opinion taketh occasion to band her selfe against reason, that so she [Page 139] might terrifie vs by wearing the vgly vizard of death. And albeit there bee but one death in all the world, yet she painteth him foorth vnto vs after an infinite kinde of fashions. Beleeue me there is no­thing in death which is to be fea­red: but here is the mischiefe, she sendeth foorth certaine fearefull and cowardly spies abroad, to spie what is done, which report not the trueth what they haue seene, but what they haue heard mē say, and which they themselues feare is likely for to happen. Indeed we trust too much vnto the sayings of the vulgar sort of people, which are most inconsiderate, affirming it to be a great euill, and yeeld no credite vnto Phil [...]sophie, which teacheth vs that it is the hauen of mans life. If Socrates be to be beleeued, [Page 140] death is not to be feared. If Ca [...]o haue any credit with vs, he will perswade vs to runne and meete her comming vnto vs: and so will Arria the wife of Petus, which dyed to keepe her husband companie, for feare of sundring their loues which were sodered together by chast and holie wed­locke. After she had opened her breast with the first wound, and made a broad passage for death to come in at, she sayd vnto Pet [...]; O Petus, death is not grieuous vnto me. She sayd this vnto him which well vnderstood that death was not euill, but the end of all euils to that man which was seased with her. For how should she bee euill being naturall [...] or irkesome and grieuous being so ordinarie and common?

[Page 141] The contempt of death is the true and liuely source of all noble and commendable actions. From hence were deriued so many no­table and excellent words of ver­t [...]e, which vttered her sentences by the mouthes of so many valiāt men of the world. This is the spi­rit which animated Demetr [...]us, and put that w [...]rthie answere in­to his mouth which he made vnto Nero. Nero menaced him in this wise: Sirrha, I will cause you to be done to death. So will nature (quoth he) cause you to dye also ere [...]t bee long. This is the ground of that inuincible resolutiō, which hardened & heartened Heluidi [...] Priscus against Ʋespasian: Vespa­sian sent vnto him to will him not to come vnto the Senate. He re­turned him this answere: that it [Page 142] was in his power to strike him o [...] of the number of Senatours, bu [...] as long as hee was a Senatour he [...] should not keepe him from that place, if he might doe withall. H [...] sent him backe word againe, that he might repayre vnto the Senate­house, but withall charged him to say nothing whē he came thither [...] He told him hee would doe so, if no man asked his aduise. Nay that may not be, sayd he: for I must for mine honour sake aske your opi­nion as well as the rest. And I for my honour and credit (answered Heluidius) must needes speake what my conscience biddeth me. Well, if you doe, replyed Ner [...], looke not to liue one houre lon­ger. Why, sayd hee, did I euer tell you that I was immortall? you may do [...] your pleasure, but I will [Page 143] doe my dutie. It may be it is your pleasure to put mee to death wrongfully, then it will bee my part to dye constantly, and this is the shortest and longest of it. O wonder [...]ull couragious and wor­t [...]ie sentence, thrise worthie to be heard and learned of them which [...]re to stand in defence of iustice and reason, against violence and force! O true and liuely image of constancie, what a braue and no­table example shalt thou be vnto all posterities? Surely they which propose vnto themselues the liues of such noble personages to bee i­mitated of them, shall neue [...] haue their minds troubled with appre­hension of any ill chance whatso­euer: but with a couragious and vndaunted mindes they shall bee able to runne through fire and [Page 144] flame to purchase vertue and ho­nour.

But as wee must shunne fear [...], so wee must take great heede that we doe not fall into choler, which is the other extremitie and flatl [...] opposed against it: for where a [...] feare dooth make vs to retire and withdraw our selues wholly into our selues; on the other side cho­ler carrieth vs cleane besides ou [...] selues, and seeking the meanes to repulse the euill which either a farre off threatneth vs, or presently seaseth vs, she maketh the bloud boyle in our hearts, and stirreth vp certaine [...]urious vapours in ou [...] spirits which blind our eyes, and so throw vs down headlong vnto a speedie desire of reuenge, which greatly reioyceth our minds. That w [...]ch most of al tickleth and delighteth [Page 145] vs in this passion, is, that it seemeth to arise vppon a good ground, and may be iustly excused by the malice of other men. But what an excuse is this? as if another mans iniustice could make the thing iust which is not iust of it [...]elfe, or the losse which we receiue by another man could be deemed any way profitable vnto vs? Alas, she wanteth that strength which she should haue to doe vs good: she is willing to cure one euill but by another. Briefly to commit the correction of offences vnto cho­ler, were to correct one vice by an other. But reason which should command in vs, will haue no such officers which do al things of their owne heads, without staying for any direction: she desireth to doe all things orderly and lawfully, as [Page 146] well as nature. And because it is not her propertie to vse violence, therefore wee oftentimes thinke that where there is violence there is strength. But alas wee deceiue our selues: for there is nothing so weake as an vnruly and disorde­red motion. Now all violent mo­tions proceede rather from weak­nes then from strength: and may bee well resembled vnto the force of young children and old folkes, which runne when they thinke they doe but walke and goe a­bout. For trust me, anger and cho­ler is but an argument of weake­nes, and they are much deceiued that thinke otherwise. But what then, may some man say, shall ver­tue see vice waxe insolent, and yet not bee mooued at all? shall wee take away all manner of libertie [Page 147] from them, so that they shall not haue so much leaue as to shewe foorth their anger against the wic­ked? For answere to this I say, that vertue desireth no more libertie then it is fit and meete for her to haue; shee maye not turne her strength against her selfe, or bee a­ny thing mooued with another mans euill. For it is the propertie of a wise man as well to suffer the vices of euill men without choler, as to brooke their prosperities without enuie: and he must be as readie patiently to suffer the indis­creete parts of many rash headed persons, as the Phisition can bee content many times to beare ma­ny iniuries at his patients hands, being sicke of a phrensie.

Truly there is no greater wise­dome, nor more profitable in this [Page 148] world, then patience in enduring the follie of other men. For other­wise it so falleth out diuers times, that because wee cannot suffer their foolishnes, wee make it be­come ours, and soreceiue much harme thereby. For first it makes vs lose our iudgemēts, then it cau­seth vs to hurt our selues, till in the end we throw our selues headlong into that danger which we would willingly auoyd. This passion also may be very well and fitly likened vnto great walles or houses when they fall, which breake and bruse all that they light vpon: and she is so earnest in procuring another mans euill, that she hath no re­spect at all vnto her owne good. Adde vnto all this that hath been spoken, that she is very inconside­rate, and for the most part vniust: [Page 149] and to speake the trueth, offence and reuenge is but one sinne, that hath diuers excuses: for both of them haue one end, and that is to mischiefe other men. Therefore let vs be diligent and careful, that wee doe not suffer any such pas­sions to arise in our minds: but as soone as any thing doth begin to moue vs any whit, or touch vs to the quicke, let vs pause and thinke vpon it a while: for if wee could but once find in our hearts to rea­son the case with our selues, wee should be well able to stoppe the course of this cruell feuer of the minde. For looke but vpon the a­ctions and gestures of men when they are once in choler, marke how ill euery thing becommeth them. Contra [...]ily, let vs recount with our selues the fruite of clemenci [...] [Page 150] and gentlenes, how it ma­keth vs seeme gratious and accep­table to others, and profitable or commodious vnto our selues. This is a loadstone of power attractiue to draw mens hearts and good­wils vnto her.

Let vs therefore accustome our selues to forgiue all the whole worlde. Let not the greatnes or grieuousnes of the iniurie with­hold vs from pardoning them: but on the contrarie side let vs thinke, that the greater the iniurie is, the better it deserueth to bee pardo­ned, and that the more iust our re­uenge is, the more our gentlenes is to bee praised. But especiallie such as are seated by fortune in the highest degree of honour, should take heede to their motions that they be remisse and temperate: for [Page 151] for as their actions are of greater importance, so their faults are har­der to bee cured. The heauen it selfe presenteth them daily with an example and doctrine of auoy­ding all manner of haste and pre­cipitation, in shewing them that Saturne the very highest of all the Planets, is most remisse and slow­est in his course. And Astrono­mers say, that Iupiter alone by himselfe is able to shoote foorth profitable and pleasing lightnings and good abodes: but when there is a question of sending foorth hurtfull and reuenging stormes and lightnings, then he cannot do this of his owne authoritie, but is to craue the counsel and assistance of twelue other gods. And is it not a very strange case, that he that is the greatest of all the gods, that [Page 152] [...]an doe good vnto all the whole world, is not able to hurt one per­son, but after a solemne counsel & deliberation? so that Iupiter him­selfe, though that he bee very wise, yet is hee afraid least he should o­uershoote himselfe in a matter of reuenge, and therefore thinketh he had neede of good counsell to ad­uise him. Wherefore if at any time we happen to haue feeling of this passiō within vs let vs repayre vn­to our friends, & ripen our cholers with their pleasant discourses. For take the best man that is in the world when he is moued, & you shall see whether he be able to doe any thing as he ought to doe. For reason being hindered with pas­sions, stands a man in as much stead, as wings doe birds when they are caught with lime-twigs [Page 153] fast by the feete. And this is the reason why wee should studie to lift vp our hearts from the earth, and place thē in a quiet and peace­able estate, if wee desire to make our soules capable of al good and vertuous actions. We must neuer leaue till wee haue brought our minds to be of such a disposition, as the highest region of the ayre is, which is neuer darkened with clowdes, nor shaked with thun­derbolts, but enioyeth a continu­all fairenes: for so the mind shuld neuer bee darkened with sorrow, nor mooued with choler. And if once a man could bring his mind vnto this passe, he should very ea­sily rule his other actions, & bring them vnto their wished end: for then doubtles hee would followe nature hard by the heeles, tread [Page 154] altogether in her steps, and ioyne himselfe by a pleasant and tempe­rate affection vnto those other parts of the world, of which man is the knot, the marriage knot which linketh heauenly & earth­ly things together.

The effects of this soft and tem­perate affectiō which mā beareth towards other things of ye world, are called duties, as if they did shew vs our dueties & behauiours towards other things. Therefore if we would learne to rule and mo­derate this dutie, and to bee infor­med in the right vse thereof, wee cannot haue a better mistresse then Nature to teach and informe vs. For she hath established an order and dispos [...]tion in euerie thing, by vertue wherof she com­mitteth things one vnder another, [Page 155] and yet chaineth them altogether with the linkes of mutuall respect which they owe one to another, which she hath engrauen in the forehead of each thing, as Princes stamp their images in their coine, to shew that they are good and lawfull money. Let vs therefore in euery thing cōsider the order and course of nature, and wee shall straightwaies know the value of it, whether it bee currant or no, and how much will be giuen for it. Good being the obiect of mans will, where perfect and true good is to be foūd, there our will ought to be moued.

This being graunted, it must needes follow that the strongest and chie [...]est affection of man, ought to be accounted that which ioyneth vs together with the author [Page 156] and fountaine of all good, to wit, godlines: for by it a man is reunited and substantiallie in­gra [...]ted in his first cause, as being the roote which keepeth him (as long as hee abideth and dwel­leth in it) in his full perfection: [...]ut contrarily, being separated from it, withereth and drieth away in­continently. Now the principall effect of pietie is to teach vs how to know God: for the honour and respect which we beare vnto anything, proc [...]edeth from the true knowledge of it. There [...]ore first of all wee must bel [...]eue that there is a God: secondly, that hee hath created the worlde by his mightie power, bountie & wi [...]e­dome, and by them gouerneth it: then, that his prouidence watch­ [...]th ouer al things, yea the smallest [Page 157] things in the world. Againe, that whatsoeuer he sendeth vnto vs, is for our good, and that our euill commeth not but from our selues. For if wee esteeme those chaunces euill which God sendeth vnto vs, we shall oftentimes take occasion to blaspheme him; because that naturally wee honour them which seeke our good, and hate them which procure vs any euill. And therefore wee must resolue with our selues to bee obedient vnto him, and take in good part what­soeuer commeth from his hands. And seeing that his knowledge is most perfect, his power thrise in­finit, and his will most louing and charitable: what resteth th [...]n, but that we should cōclude that God sendeth nothing vnto vs, but ten­deth to our great good? And albeit [Page 158] we for our parts cannot con­ceiue the good which wee ought to receiue of that which hee sen­deth vs; yet neuerthelesse we hope all is for the best: supposing, that as the Phisition doth oftentimes many things for the safetie of the bodie, which may seeme at the be­ginning to hurt it: so God in the guiding of our liues doth saue vs by means, which may seeme grie­uous and hurt full.

The Phisition diuers times pricketh the eye to recouer a ma [...]s sight: and oftentimes GOD al­mightie vseth to pricke & wound our hearts with sharpe afflictions, to restore our mindes vnto their brightnes. Vnder the seale of this assurance wee ought to commit and submit our selues vnto him, confessing that we come into the [Page 159] world not to command, but to o­bey, finding lawes alreadie made which wee [...]ught to follow. And therefore continually we ought to haue in mind (as a profitable les­son of our wise obedience vnto Gods ordinance) these noble ver­ses of Cleanthes:

My God direct and guide my feet [...]
in thy most knowen way:
For willingly Ile follow thee
forthwith, without delay.
For feare lest bound in fetters strong,
I be not there held fast,
Where gainst my will, being once fast bound,
I cannot come in hast.
But as a man that honest is,
I may thereto at taine,
Whereto the fates and destinies,
my sta [...]e of life ordaine.

And so for the rest, let vs neuer addresse our prayers and petitions vnto him, but to obtaine that at his hands which he hath purposely [Page 160] ordained for vs. For to aske any thing at Gods hands against his prouidence, were as much as in vs lieth to corrupt the Iudge and go­uernour of the world. The best praier that we can make vnto him both for his honour and our pro­fit, is, that he would vouchsafe to preserue our affections pure and holie, and to rule and gouerne our will, that it may alwaies be direc­ted towards the attaining of that which is good.

The sacrifice which he requireth at our hands, is nothing els but an innocent life: he desireth not our goods, onely his wil and desire is, that wee should make our selues worthie of his: for there is not so small an offering but pleaseth him well, if it bee presented vnto him with chast and innocent hands. [Page 161] Againe, there is no sacrifice bee it neuer so rich and costly, but dis­pleaseth him as much, if it come from polluted and defiled hands. Apollo being vpon a time deman­ded how he liked the sacrifice of an hundred oxen which was offe­red vp vnto him, gaue this answer:

Hermions ca [...]e which he to [...]
in earthen vessell ga [...]
Pleasde me full well [...] and for the sa [...]
he had what he did craue.

As if he should haue sayd in o­ther words [...] A vertuous and wise man is the onely true priest of the great God, his spirit is his temple, wherein he offereth vp daily sacri­fices, his soule is his image, his af­fections are his offerings, and the greatest and solemuest sacrifice which you can offer vnto him, is a true & vertuous imitation of him. [Page 162] I say not this, as if the vsuall cere­monies in each countrie were not to be obserued, so that there be an honest moderation of them with­out excesse or couetousnesse, but because I am of opinion that God will be serued inspirit. And there­fore to conclude this poynt, this is that I say, yt the best māner of ser­uing & worshipping him is, after we haue ascribed all praise & glo­ry vnto him, and decked him with all manner of titles which mans spirit can imagine, to hold this for a most constant resolution, and confesse it publikely, that we haue presented nothing vnto him wor­thie of his diuine Maiestie; the fault being not in his Godhead, but in our impotencie and weak­nes, which can neuer conceiue so highly of him as he is.

[Page 163] From this worship and honour which is due vnto God, procee­det [...] t [...]is opinion which we ought to haue of him: that he is alwaies present to view and ma [...]ke all our actions, whether it bee that wee come and present our selues be­fore him, or els conuerse with mē. And therefore wee must so speake vnto God, as if men heard vs, and so liue amongst mē as if God saw vs. But aboue all other things, we must bee very religious in inuoca­t [...]ng him for a witnes of the truth: for the due obs [...]ruation of an oth, is the principall part of godlines and pietie. For an oth is nothing [...]ls but an image of [...]hat vniue [...]sall law which proceedeth from the goodnes of God, for contayning of all parts of the worlde in their place, and making them to be tha [...] [Page 164] which they ought to be of righ [...]. It is a band which [...] mens will [...] together, it is the gardian and [...]u­tor of constancie and trueth, the knot of ciuill soci [...]ti [...], which [...]lo­seth & shutteth vp all things most strongly with the name of God al­mightie, the chiefe president and ruler of all mens actions. And yet for al this, this is most certaine and true, that if a man can obtaine so much credit and fauour with mē, by liuing honestly and godly a­mōgst them, as that his word may be taken without any further ado [...] it were better not to vse any oth at all: but if it may not be other­wise, but for [...]estimonie of th [...] trueth we must neede [...] sweare, we must looke that we vse to doe it as soberly and sparingly as we may. For the vse of any thing whatsoeuer, [Page 165] if it bee too vulgar and com­mon, makes it to bee neglected and despised. And in any case look well to it, yt it be vsed to no other end but for assurance and confir­mation of the truth; representing GOD before our eyes, sitting on high as protector of the faithfull, and sharpe punisher of periured persons.

Now from the honour duevn­to God, the first cause of all, wee must descend as it were a step lo­wer vnto that duty which we owe vnto the heauenly powers, orday­ned by God, for administration and gouernmēt of the world, and in them also wee must acknow­ledge a kind of excellencie & con­stancie of vertue in their perfectiō, admiring the greatnes of their creator, and honouring their ministerie, [Page 166] imployed for preseruation and protection of vs men.

From thence let vs goe a little lower vnto the reuerence and re­spect which wee owe vnto them, by whose means as through pipes and conduits chosen by God, wee are deriued into this world. And in this place wee shall finde that our countrie may iustly challenge her prerogatiue, which vnder a fained and compound name, cō ­prehendeth an vnfained, true and naturall loue. For good cause wee owe of dutie more loue vnto our countrie, then vnto al otherthings contained in the world: because indeed it containeth infolden and wrapped within her safetie, the sa­fetie and good of euery thing that wee doe loue and cherish: and contrariwise with her all the rest [Page 167] will soone perish and be brought to nought. Out of the fountaine of this worthie affection, what a number of worthie and excellent deedes haue gushed and streamed foorth? of some that haue spent their liues for the good of their countrie: and other some which haue been content to forgoe their owne priuate iniuries, for feare least if they should haue sought to haue reuenged them, they should haue preiudiced the Common­wealth: of others that haue chose to leade a miserable and sorrow­full life, to the end that they might procure their countries quiet rest and happines. Still represent and lay before your eyes your countrie which hath brought you into this world, and here preserueth you in [...]afetie, suppose that she is euer a [Page 168] redemanding & asking of you the rights of pietie, and requiring the dutie and deuoir of a good & loy­all citizen, and that she doth con­iure you to seeke and couet after her good by the countrie of your natiuitie, by the lawes of your ci­tie, by the faith of ciuill societie, by the safetie of your parents, chil­dren and friends, and lastly by your owne safetie and good. I be­seech you therefore to haue more care of your countrie, then of all the world besides, and neuer pre­ferre your particular profit before the good thereof: seeke not to a­uoyd the euill which is falling vp­on you by turning it vpon he head.

Now your countrie being onc [...] serued in all dutifull sort, next a [...] ­ter in order of respect follow o [...]r [Page 169] parents to be regarded. For God hauing chosen them as the means whereby he vseth to dispense and impart life vnto vs, as hee hath in some sort made them partakers of his vertue, so is hee willing to communicate vnto them some part of his honour. If God hath granted vs wi [...]e and vertuous pa­rents, wee ought to estee [...]e them as gods vpon earth, giuen vnto vs not onely as meanes whereby we may liue, but liue a happie life, by their wi [...]e and vertuous educatiō. If they be wicked and euill yet stil wee must remember that they are our parents, & therefore with pa­tience endure their authority ouer vs: and for the very names sake of father and mother, yeeld them helpe and succour o [...] euery thing which we receiue of them: that is [Page 170] [...]o say, of our goods, persons and liues. And if we doe so, wee shew that wee beare homage vnto na­ture, and yeeld condigne thankes vnto her for all her benefits.

From our parents let vs enter into consideration of our chil­dren, whom though wee doe not reuerence with like affection, yet haue we like care or rather a grea­ter regarde of their welfare. For seeing that God hath placed and put vs in this world to garde and keep it, it seemeth that before we goe out of the worlde, wee are bound and obliged to subrogate and substitute others in our pla­ces to minister and serue the so­ueraigne power in this common temple. The bringing [...]oorth of children is ours but in part, there bee many thinges herein which [Page 171] contribute with vs, but the bring­ing vp and institution of them is altogether in our hands, which wee must owe of dutie, first vnto God to whom wee must present and offer them: secondly to our countrie, for whose seruice they are borne: and lastly to our selues, which are to looke for at their hands (if they bee well and vertu­ously brought vp) for al manne [...] of help & succour in our old age. Therfore for these and the like re­spects, we ought to be most vigi­lant and carefull ouer them, and to procure as farre as in vs lieth their good.

Now after our children follow our wiues, who being vnited vn­to vs by the law, and entring into societie and fellowship with vs, vnder the deare pledge of children [Page 172] which they bring vs, ha [...]e a reasouable gr [...]at part in our affe­ctions. The sharpe sawce of our life is sweetened by the sugar of their friendships, by their care the care of our busines is abated, nay wee may safely rest our selues vn­der their labours and industrie: let vs therfore haue such a respectiue care ouer them, as they haue ouer vs; let vs think and dreame vpon nothing but vpon their rest and quietnes, as being the moytie and the other halfe of our selues. But especially let vs make it knowne vnto them, that we do not honor them for any pleasure which their youth or beauties may affoord vs; as well for feare least if we doe so, wee happen to puffe vp their courages, and make them take more state vpon them then necdeth: [Page 173] as also in this respect, that whereas this affection is founded and grounded vpon such a slippe­rie and running thing, it is to bee feared least the heate thereof bee soone quenched: but let vs re­spect and worship them for the faith and loyaltie which we looke for at their hands, for their good qualities and modest behauiours: and last of all, for the especial care which they haue of their children [...] which are common betweene v [...] and them. And the better to pro­uoke and stirre them vp to loue and cherish vs, let vs shew that we wil not appropriate anything from them vnto our selues, but make them equally partakers of our goods, thoughts & affections. For this communitie of all things maye greatly serue to nourish [Page 174] good will and amitie betweene vs, which is cleane lost and abo­lished in the diuersitie of willes and determinations.

This affection passeth from our wiues vnto their kinsfolke, which are allied vnto vs by nature, their rūning together with their bloud, a secret inclination of good will and affection towards all them which are sprung from the same branch, and accordingly as they are neerer vnto vs in bloud, so are wee more liuely affected towards them, & bound to performe and yeeld vnto them neerer duties and seruices. Therefore herein as well as in all other matters to obserue the order of nature, as being the soueraigne ornament of all crea­tures, let vs (as I haue sayd before) so dispense the loue and affection [Page 175] which wee owe vnto our parents, as they doe neerer concerne and regard vs, yeelding them all man­ner of helpe and succour which can possibly be deuised.

Hetherto nature hath as it were with her owne hand moued our affections: now wee must of ne­cessitie come to speake of the mo­tions and inclinations which ver­tue giueth, which bindeth vs to loue and honour vertuous & wise men. And truely of all the goods which we enioy by the benefit of common societie, there is no one that ought to bee more esteemed and cherished, then the friendship and amitie of honest men: for it is the very piller and vpholder of our happines: it is she that gouernes our liues, sweetneth our sowre, and seasoneth our sweete: she giueth [Page 176] vs in prosperitie one vpon whom wee may bestow part of our goods and enioy the comforts of our prosperitie, who in time of affliction wil be readie to succour and comfort vs, one that can teach and instruct vs in our youth [...] helpe and relieue vs when we bee olde, assist and second vs in our middle ages. And as the possession hereof is pretious, so we ought to employ our wisedoms to haue this friend­ship as perfect as may be. And to this ende and purpose wee must hunt and seeke after men of the greatest merits, honouring and cherishing them as if they were sent from God to ioyne with vs in a societie of certaine noble and worthie actions. Wee must seeke to purchase it by honest occasiōs: and hauing once gotten it, studie [...] [Page 177] to preserue it by a due performāce of all duties. For all creatures, and principally men, are borne with a kinde of inclination of loue to­wards that which may any waies profit or auaile them. And yet for al this, a vertuous man doth neuer measure his profite by the ell of goods (as we call them) or riches: but by the commoditie which hee receiueth & reapeth by his friends in the studie of vertue. And if it so fall out that there be any commo­ditie, bee it neuer so small, to bee parted betweene vs & our friends, touching our goods and honours, or such like things, it shall bee our parts to giue place vnto them: for all this cannot be better imployed then in purchasing of true friends. On the contrary side, there is but one onely reason which may excuse [Page 178] vs from leauing their friend­ship and amitie, and that is when they abandon reason and philo­sophie, which ioyneth and com­bineth vs together. And yet this must be done very warily: for we may not be at plaine enmitie with them for all this. We must rather vnrip then rent their friendships from vs, and seeke out all reaso­nable meanes (if it be possible) to bring them backe againe vnto their duties, without blaming their actions, or checking their opinios: neuer fighting with them, vnles it be by way of disputation and dis­course, which are the sacred wea­pons of true friēdship: but though we lose al hope of preuailing with them this way, yet wee may not become their open and professed enemies. For though a good man [Page 179] leaue his friends when they leaue off to bee vertuous: yet not with­standing so it is, that in forsaking that friendshippe and familiaritie which hath been in former time betweene them, he retaineth that common affection which ought to bee amongst men, which bin­deth them to wish wel vnto those which haue not well deserued at their hands: telling them that this is to imitate God, which as he lo­ueth the good, so he doth not hate the bad. And therefore we haue a common saying, that a good man hath no enemies at all, because he hateth no bodie.

Thus you see the degrees of af­fection which are betweene man and the things which are without him. But because it commeth so to passe many times, that they doe [Page 180] draw vs vnto diuers ends, and so hold vs suspended in doubtfulnes and incertaintie, therfore we must establish a rule vnto our selues of preferring the former duties be­fore the latter. We ought to make great account of an oth, and yet it were better broken then kept, if by keeping of it we offend God. We must of force highly reuerēce our fathers and mothers: and yet if their wils doe contradict right reason, which is appoynted by God himselfe to gouerne vs, wee must rather forsake them, then for­sake God and reason. Our kins­folkes are to bee esteemed deare vnto vs, but yet if they seeke to an­noy and molest father or mother, we may lawfully diss [...]nt from thē. Friends may preuaile much with a man, his wife and childrē much [Page 181] more: and yet for all this, there are certaine particular and priuate duties which are rather to be per­formed to them which are further off from vs, then to them which be neerer: but commonly it is in a matter of no great waight when ciuill societie (because of the com­mon necessitie of men) incrocheth and vsurpeth somewhat vpon na­ture. As when wee say we should helpe our neighbour in fetching in of his haruest, and not our kins­man, and in such like cases.

I haue hetherto, as you see, re­presented vnto you the respect which man oweth vnto thinges which are without him: it is now high time to cause him to descend into himselfe, and bring backe his affections vnto his owne proper person, as lines are reduced vnto [Page 182] their center. A wise man without doubt yeeldeth much respect vn­to himsel [...]e: and though no body regard him but his owne consci­ence, yet hee will bee very carefull that he doe neither speake nor doe any thing which is not fit and cō ­uenient. For right ordered reason, which ought to gouerne all his actions, is vnto him the seuerest iudge and censor of his actions that can be found. And therefore wee must studie as well pub [...]kely as priuatly so to frame and fashiō our actions in such sort, that wee may not haue occasion to blush and be ashamed of them: & that nature which ought to be [...]he rule of all our actions, be not violated in any sort. Now it hath pleased nature to giue vs a bodie, as a ne­cessarie instrument for the preseruation [Page 183] of mans life. Therefore we must take care for the bodie, but no otherwise then we would doe for a thing which is vnder the pro­tection of the minde, which must bee carefull for the safetie thereof, but no waies seruiceable vnto it: he must entreate it so as if he were a Lord and no tyrant ouer the bo­die, still nourishing it without en­grossing or fatting it: so that it may euidently appeare vnto all men that hee doth not liue for it, but that hee cannot liue with­out it.

A cunning workman is not a little forward in his busines, when he hath gotten all his tooles about him in a readines: and so hee that loueth philosophy doth not a little thing profit himselfe, if he doe but once know how to serue himselfe [Page 184] with his bodie, and make it a fit instrumēt for him to exercise ver­tue. Now the bodie may be pre­serued in health two manner of waies: the one is by moderation in his diet: the other, by good or­der in his exercise. For why the nature of things here beneath is so slipperie and vncertaine, that vnlesse a man doe continually re­payre that which time doth waste and consume, things will by little and little come in the ende to nought. Therefore wee must su­staine and helpe the bodie once decaying by vse of meates; but with this prouiso or caueat, that wee doe not make it, by making too great cheare, heauie, dull, and vnfit for contemplation: nor by too spare diet and ill entreatance, weake and sickly: so that it bee [Page 185] neither effeminated with riot, nor by neglect of it accustome it selfe to filth and beastlines.

After meate followeth exer­cise, although they seeme to bee confounded and to follow one an other indifferently. For first wee exercise our selues, and then wee take our repast: and after meate then we fall a fresh to exercise: the first exercise serues to prepare vs to the better appetite and recei­uing our meates: the second, to waken nature, and keepe the parts of the bodie in continuall motion. We must vse our exercises so, that the bodie may bee the better for them, and our minde nothing the worse: but we must not seek such exercises as wrastlers vse, and such like, which doe all things by com­passe and measure, and many obseruations, [Page 186] which serue indeede to keepe the bodie vpright & strong, & to no other vse: but therby they weaken the strength of the soule, and take away from her her true and naturall motions. It is an ab­surditie for a wise man to be care­full for to find out fit exercises for the bodie, seeing that he may find euery where so many as are requi­site and needfull for the health thereof.

After the bodie is once nouri­shed and exercised in such sort as I haue shewed you, it is most ea­sily fashioned and framed vnto modest & seemely actions, which we should so much regard and la­bour to attaine vnto, that in our very countenances and gate shuld appeare a great tranquilitie of mind, mixed with a sober & pleasant [Page 187] kinde of grauitie. I doe not speake this as if I would haue you to vse anie affectation in your countenance and gestures, as to looke with the flatterers smile, or the Philosophers frowne. For as a sober grauitie maketh a man to be reuerenced of all: so a kinde of portlike and constrained austeri­tie, makes him to appeare ridicu­lous and odious vnto all.

But because it is speech which giueth life vnto our countenances and dead gestures, therefore wee must take great heede that we be able to rule and gouerne it. And surely the best precept which wee can giue any man in this case, is silence. For to know how to be si­lent with reason is a great aduan­tage, if a man mark it, to him that meanes to speake well: [...]or it is not [Page 188] possible for a man to speake well, & to speake much, one mā cannot doe both. Silence is the father of discourse and fountaine of reason: contrarily in much talke there is much offence. They that ayme directly at anything, shut one of their eyes and winke with the o­ther: and wherefore doe they so? but to strengthen and encrease the vertue of their sight. This teacheth vs yt the sences being cast abroad, doe by the very powring foorth of themselues waxe feeble & weake: and euen so is it with the spirit, being cast abroad by speech, and scattered and difused into many wordes, it loseth his force and vertue. But on the contrarie side, if it be restrained with silence, it ga­thereth his wonted strength, and stores himselfe with prudence and [Page 189] wi [...]edome. The vse of words whē occasion bids vs speake, ought to bee this: to ayde the trueth, and to carrie the candle before her that she may be seene: & contrariwise to discouer and reiect lyes and vn­truth: to praise that which is good, and blame that which is other­wise. We must not accōpanie our speech with too great vehemēcie or contention, for this sheweth our passions. Againe, we must not vse to discourse of matters that doe happen in common assem­blies or Theaters, or to entertaine them that bee in our companie with such or the like discourses: for this sheweth much leisure and small profit.

Furthermore, it is not conueni­ent to stand much vpon our ac­tions, or to tell men what we haue [Page 190] done, & what hath chanced vnto vs in our times: for there is much vanitie herein. Others peraduen­ture take not so much pleasure in hearing you talk, as you do in tel­ling & recounting your owne va­nities. To speake of other mēs ac­tions, without offence, is a very dangerous and hard matter: for either wee commend them with­out reason, or els blame thē with­out knowing their intention. But aboue all other things, let vs take heede of making songs of men, or laughing and gibing at them: for so doth euery common iester, and it makes vs lose our reputatiō with good men. Besides, these iests are for the most part mixed with fil­thie and lewd wordes, which wee should shunne and auoyd. Now the libertie of speaking vnhonest [Page 191] and vns [...]emely wordes, draweth after it the like effects. But wee must striue (if it be possible) that our wordes may redound to the profit of them which shall heare vs, that they be stuffed with good and wholesom precepts, that they serue to bring them back vnto the studie of vertue which wander in the way of sinne and wickednes. In our common discourse wee must auoyd too profound and subtill questions. For a man may compare thē to creyfishes, which affoord a mā more picking worth then meate: the ende of them is nothing els but braules and con­tention: and most commonly it so [...]areth with them as it doth with men that haue weake stomackes, which vomit vp al that which they cannot well disgest. As wee desire [Page 192] to haue audience when we speake our selues, so must we be attentiue to other mens speeches, and heare them to the end without interrup­tion. We must not accord and a­gree vnto all that is sayd: for there bee some which will not sticke to say anything, and others that will contradict them as fast: some be flatterers, others bee rash and in­considerate: but wee must yeeld our consents to that which is eui­dently true, and peremptorily de­nie that which is euidently false, and in doubtfull thinges suspend our iudgemēts, till we haue found some reason or ground to stand vpon.

Now because a mans wordes and gestures are framed by long custome and imitation of others, we should not sort our selues too [Page 193] much with the common sort of people, or haunt the Theaters and common places of assemblie, or haue often recourse to feasts and banquets: for in euery one of these places it is not possible but a man should draw some vile humour or other from the common peo­ple. If it so happen that wee must needes bee there for ourhonours and credits sakes, yet wee must al­waies haue our minds so straight bound, that wee will not remit a iot of our courage and resolution, that is, to gouerne our selues in like sort as I haue shewed you be­fore. And the better to strengthen & fortifie our selues, let vs in each thing that we go about, lay before our eyes the examples of wise and graue men, and imagine with our selues what a Socrates or a Zeno [Page 194] woulde haue done, if they had been in our places: and by and by you [...]all see their vertues will minister vnto vs an example of well doing. But the best lesson of all which Philosophie can teach vs to behaue our selues in all our actions, is carefully to set down [...] and examine with our selues the proceeding and ending of euerie busines which we doe take in hād, to measure our strengths and abi­litie, & try whether it be not pro­portionable vnto our desseigne­ments. He that taketh wise coun­sell before hand, shall soone arriue at his wished port: but he [...] that taketh no counsell, is like vnto him that flotes vp and downe in a ri­uer, he [...] doth not goe whither he [...] would goe, but is violently carried away against his intended course, [Page 195] and so committing himselfe vnto the mercie of the flouds, arriueth at length at the sea: that is to say, a vast and turbulent kind of incer­titude.

Therefore before we enterprise any matter, let vs wisely foresee what the end of it is likely for to be, then let, vs cōsider what means we haue to atchieue it, and so wee shall bee able euen in thought to preuent all euill chances that are likely to encounter vs. Would you [...]aine bee one of them which ex­ercise themselues at the games of Olympus? think then how much it behoueth you to bestirre you, if you will doe it for your credits sake, you must liue by rule and square, diet your selfe to certaine meates, and certaine houres, ac­custome your selfe to heate and [Page 196] cold, annoynt your bodie with oyle, then haue dust throwne ouer it, enter within the lists, be hurt, & it may be [...]leane vanquished and disgraced. After you haue wisely foreseene all this, consider the ha­bitude and disposition of your bodie, whether it will brooke this kinde of exercise or no, and then vndertake it if you please. If you haue a desire to be of the Philoso­phers profession, represent & lay before your face the manifolde troubles which your poore [...]oule must be contented to endure: as to be depriued of many pleasures and commodi [...]ies, and with great patience to suffer all the world to gibe and iest at you. If your cou­rage will serue you to endure all this and a great deale more, you may take this course of life vpon [Page 197] you: but when you haue one vn­dertaken it, forgoe or forslow it not at any hand, constantly perse­uer and follow your determina­tion as a law inuiolable. For be­sides this inconuenience which commeth by changing our pur­poses, that it maketh our mindes doubtfull and vncertaine, there is this harme in it, that it causeth vs to become ridiculous vnto o­thers: where on the contrary side, constancie in the end makes vs to be admi [...]ed of them which at the first laughed and iested at vs.

And because I would not haue you be terrified with mens iudge­ments which they shall giue con­cerning your actions [...] let this be al your care and industrie, that your actions be such as they ought to be. Doe not studie to conceale or [Page 198] hide them from them which say they doe not like them; if they be not good, it behoued you not then to haue done them; and if they be good, the better they shall bee knowne the more assurance shall you haue of them. I doe not speak this as if my meaning were that you should couet to bee seene in well doing, or call all the people about you to see your vertues, as they do which betake themselues vnto Images for sanctuarie. As the colour shineth and glistereth in the day time, yet seekes not the Sunne to come and gild it; onely stands readie prest to receiue the light thereof whē it shineth: euen so vertue ought not to seeke and hunt after glorie, but onely be rea­die disposed to entertaine and ad­mit of it, as the testimonie of those [Page 199] which iudge vn [...]ainedly of he [...] merits. He that loueth praise and ostentation, forsakes reason to follow opinion: for he [...] setteth downe this as a maine rule vnto himselfe, that he had rather please another man then himselfe.

There is nothing which can help vs so much to make that sort well which wee haue luckely vnderta­ken, as the taking of times and opportunities. For time carrieth with it certaine moments, which are the seasons and opportunities of busines. If you lose them, or let them slip, you lose all your labour and pains. But if occasion be once taken with opportunitie, and fol­lowed with diligence, you shall seldome misse of your purpose, but haue alwaies good successe in your affayres. And therefore [Page 200] wee must looke that that which hath been maturely deliberated and thought vpon, be speedily put in execution: and let vs not accu­stome our selues to post that ouer to the morrow, which may be as well done the same day. But whē we doe anything, though we doe it neuer so wisely, take all aduan­tages, chuse all opportunities, vse all possible diligence: yet for all this we must know that the grea­test part of the euent is altogether ouer mastered by Fortune. Wee are lords and masters of our coun­sels and determinations, but al the rest dependeth vpō other matters which are not in our power. And therefore we can doe no more but vndertake a matter with wise­dome, pursue it with hope, and be readie to suffer whatsoeuer shall [Page 201] happen with patience. If good enterprises haue bad successe, the answere which the noble man of Persia made, may serue for an ex­cuse to all them which are wise, but vnfortunat. One was desirous to know of him wherefore (seeing yt he knew him to bee a very wise & valiant gentleman) his affayres went no better forward. Because (quoth hee) in my affayres I can but giue good counsell, that is all I can doe, the successe belongeth altogether vnto Fortune or God that is Lord ouer her. Therefore it is sufficient for vs if wee doe all that belongeth vnto vs, that is, if wee attempt nothing but with a good end, and follow it not but by lawfull and honest meanes.

Thus at the length (to grow to an end) you haue heard discoursed [Page 202] vnto you the principall lawes which the Stoickes thinke expe­dient to vse for the better ordering and gouerning of mans life: but because lawes without iudge­ments are nothing worth, but like dead words, therefore if wee will make our profite and benefit of them, wee must euery day in the euening narrowly [...]i [...]t and exa­mine our selues, to see whether our actions be conformable vnto the rules which haue been taught vs, smoothing that which is rug­ged, and closing vp all chinks and holes: and last of all, making that which is crooked right, by recti­fying and righting it according vnto the rule of reason: but if we [...]inde that all thinges sort as they should doe, and that euery thing is very conformable vnto these [Page 203] holy [...]d sacred lawes, we shall re­ceiue a secret ioy into our hearts, which shall bee the pleasant fruite which we shall reape of our inno­cent and vnspotted liues. This shall be in my opinion the swee­test and most melodious nigh [...] song which we cā sing vnto God: for I am verely perswaded that he taketh not so much pleasure and delight in any thing here in this lower world, as in seeing man his dearest and costliest worke, keepe and maintaine his beautie & per­ [...]ection wherein he was at the first created. But because such is the nature of things created, by rea­son of the naturall infirmitie and weakenes which they doe carrie about with them, that the good which God bestoweth vpon vs as soone as we are borne, doth daily [Page 204] waste and consume away, [...]lesse it bee continually repayred and supplied by the flowing streames of his bounty and liberality which runne continually: and whereas our naturall forces can neuer bee sufficient of themselues to keepe vs in this per [...]ection, l [...]t vs adde vnto the former canticle an E­pode or sacred song of enchant­ment, in inuocation of his diuine fauour; let vs (I say) continuallie all the daies of our life, at the very same houre close vp this present action with this prayer, saying: O almightie, all wise, and all merci­full God, which hast giuen vs an vnderstanding minde to know how to gouerne and direct the course of our liues; make vs to knowe and loue the excellencie where with thou hast adorned vs, [Page 205] [...] the end that when it shal come to moue the powers of oursoules, it may find our members and sen­ces purged of all manner of pas­sions, readie and prompt to follow and obey it. Take away from the eyes of our minds the trouble some clowds & mists which ignorance or couetousnes doth cast before them, to the end that our reason being cleered by the light of thy diuine trueth, we may alwaies ad­dresse our selues vnto the search­ing and following after that which is the true and euerla­sting good, which shall continue for euer and euer.


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