A Breife and true report of the Proceedings of the Earle of Leycester for the re­liefe of the Towne of Sluce, from his artiuall at Vlisshing, about the end of Iune 1587. vntill the sur­rendrie thereof 26. Iulij next ensuing.

VVhereby it shall plainelie appeare his Excellencie was not in anie fault for the losse of that Towne.

Imprinted at London. 1590.

To the Reader Concerning this Addition of the hono­rable endeuours of the Earle of Leycester, for the reliefe of Sluce, vpon her Maiesties most gracious and great charges, in fa­uour of the States of the vnited Prouinces.

IF it bee tollerable for priuate men to deliuer in print, Apo­logies of their owne doings while they are aliue: mutch more reasonable I think it for the trothe of such matters to be published, as being concealed or misconceaued, may anie way touch the honor of so Publique a person as the Earle of Leycester, her Maiesties Generall, and Gouernor of the vnited Prouin­ces, by their owne free election, now deceased, and not aliue to answere for himselfe. Seeing therefore it pleased God so well to blesse his for­mer Actions euen from his entrance into that Countrie til his first returne to England, that he [Page] had cleered both the Vellow and Bettowe (two rich, pleasant, and most fertile countries) of al E­nemies, razed and defaced al their Sconces and Castles, or left thē possessed with souldiers of our own, and so greatlie enlarged the Territories & contribucions of the States, besides the taking in and assuring of Deuxburgh and Deuenter: therby also diuerting or remouing the great siedge from Berke in Ghelderland, besides the win­ning of Axell in Flaunders, without the loosing of any one Towne, Sconce, or Castle, either com­māded by the English, or wherin any one English band was garry soned, til after his Excellencies departure: some priuate pikes and particular am­bitious grudges (grown between Stanley, Yorke and others in those prouinces,) caused these bad persons for their particular passions (in the ab­sence of his Excellencie) so much to forget their dueties, as traiterously to deliuer into the Enemies hands that Towne and Sconce, by Zutphen. God hauing I say so exceedinglie alwaies prospe­red his Excellencie during his abode there, to the great honour and renowne of her Maiestie, as his most malicious Enemies had cause rather to enuie his Fortune, than backbite his Gouern­ment; [Page] & no one Town, Forte, Castle or Sconce lost, or foyle receaued any way by our nation vn­der him, till the losse of Sluyce; that being the one­ly thing wherein either his dispiteful Enemies, or ingrate friends or folowers (strangers or English) can finde any coullor to calumniate his militare actions. Finding yet in my hands a briefe and true relation of his Excellencies honorable ende­uours vpon her Maiesties gratious great and extraordinarie charges to relieue that Towne (by me euen at that time committed to writing, when these matters were in Action, and my self present both at the Consultations and Executions:) J haue thought it my duetie likewise herewith to Print and publish the same, that neither the Ho­nourable Patron of this Treatise now dead, by iniurious imputations be vniustlie wronged, nor for ignorance of the trueth the world seduced, to thinke the Swanne a Crowe, or the Dawe an Eagle. But conceiuing matters (as they are in deede) guided by Gods prouidence, we may learne in all things to giue him all glorie, and modestly acknowledging truly our own priuate Errors and infirmities, to endeuour hereafter to amend them.

¶ A true report of his Excellencies carefull proceedings, for the reliefe of Sluce, as it was briefelie set downe while the mat­ter was in action.

HIS Excellencie arriuing at Vlis­shing toward the ende of Iune, bringing with him about 30. En­signes of newe leuied Englishe souldiers, found the Town of Sluce beseiged by the Duke of Parma: his chiefe forces remay­ning in the Ile of Cassand, where himselfe was for the most part in person: the rest in St Anns Land vnder the commaundement of La Mote, salue that his horse-men, with some bands of foote, were dispersed vpon the Coast, and vpon Straites, for gard of Dikes and passages in sundrie places.

These forces of the Duke of Parma, were lodged in such a sort, that there was no accesse vnto them, but v­pon narrowe banks: the which were in manie places retrenched and cut off in such sort, as (in respect of the aduantage of the scituation) they were wel able to haue answered, treble their forces that should by land haue inuaded them.

By sea they had also by Piles, Shippes and boates in shew crossed the hauen, and planted certaine platformes of Ordinance, to beat such ships as should attempt to en­ter to succour the Towne.

[Page 2] Neuerthelesse, in the iudgement of the best Militarie men, this was founde the onely waie to relieue the Towne, and to that end preparation made of shippes of war to enter, & one or two shipes especially of purpose framed with fire workes very artificially, to haue bro­ken any Bridge and opened a passage, although it had bene much more forcibly closed than indeed that was.

True it is that the Admirall Nassau and his sea cap­taines made the matter verie dangerous, and required that the forces by land might be also attempted at the same time: and at the first it was by his Excellencie ment that the Camp should haue bene assailed 3. waies. viz, from Isendick Sconce towards Coxey, on Cassand, & frō Ostend. But vpon more deliberate consideration of the scituation of these places: it was found, that after wee should haue surprized the Sconce of Isendick there was no possibility to martch towards Sluce, or towards the Enemies Camp, but vpon straight Dikes, with sun­drie abrupt passages by them fortified in such sort: that a verie fewe might haue made head on that side to anie great Armie, and not to be passed without great slaughter of our people: and long time before we could approche to anie blowes with the Enemie. On the o­therside of Cassand the coast so flat and farre out into the Sea, as there was no landing, but as men must wade a great distance in the water, subiect to all the shot of the Enemie that might lye couered vnder the marsh banks, and then no way to approch the Camp, but vp­on fortified straights as before. It was therefore con­cluded, that the onely way to approch the Campe by land, was, from Ostend, where his Excellencie might in safetie land his forces, & so march to seeke the Ene­mie on firme ground in militarie order not confusedly [Page 3] with so great disaduantage as on the other parts. In the meane time diuers Burgers of Vlisshing (that mistrusted the coldnesse of the Admiraltie and States) made offer to his Excellencie, that if they might haue shipping they would vndertake to enter the Hauen: and put into the Town both men and munition without attending any attempt to bee made vpon the Enemie by land, which they sawe to be a matter of great hazard & not possible in reason to take anie effect, the strong scituation of the Enemies Campe considered.

The reasons that mooued them to doubt the colde­nesse of the Admiraltie were these. They knew them to bee persons whollie at the deuotion of the States: howe small care the States tooke of Sluce, Ostend, or anie other Townes in Flaunders was they say apparant long before, when their souldiers by their Euill pay & prouisions, were manie times reduced to such extremi­ties, as it was greatlie doubted that necessitie shoulde constraine them to deliuer vp the townes to the Ene­mie. And the yeare 1586. when his Excellencie was mooued to haue imployed his forces into Flaunders, (where no doubt he might haue wonne immortall ho­nour, and reduced againe the most part of that Country to the vnited prouinces) the States generally euer disli­ked of anie Enterprize that way: and perswaded his Excellencie wholly to that other course of Ghelderland, OuerYsell. &c.

The reasons that mooued the States thereto, some suppose were these.

First, if Flaunders should bee regained, then a great number of wealthie men (that were nowe in Holland setled) would returne thither, and so impouerish great­lie the wealth of Holland; and the States of Holland car­rieng [Page 4] now the whole or chiefe swaye, would none of that.

Another reason was, that they found those garrisons of Sluce, Axell, Ostend, &c. to exhaust much of the Holland contributions, and not to yeelde any commo­ditie againe.

But the third and most forcible of all, was, that they had as it was thought conceaued a certain icalousie that Flaunders lying so neere England, her Maiestie might seaze to her owne vse all such Ports, Townes, and pla­ces of strength as should bee gayned there, and hauing conuenient Ports so neere her Realme for conuenient receipt and succour of her Shipping, should by that meanes be able to rule them, and not be ruled by them. These iealousies and conceipts are supposed to bee the causes that haue made the Estates so colde and back­ward in the relieuing this Towne of Sluce, albeit the These insolent speeches of the people were re­pressed by a sharp penall [...]dict of the States made and proclay­med at Mid­dleburgh, im­mediatly after the losse of Sluce. common people in many places, speake more broadly, and say plainely that the States from time to time haue victualled the enemie, making to them of Holland, thereby an infinite gayne, and that the enemie had good assurance from some of them before his Siedge of Sluce, that hee should not bee impeached by them.

Whereunto they ad many shrewde Presumptions: First, that the Enemie was continuallie victualled by their sufferance and Licences: Secondly, that euen a little before Sluce was besiedged, the States sent for certaine of the best bands out of the Towne, which the Gouer­nour would not consent vnto: Thirdly, that certaine Shippes were of purpose run a groūd before Sluce in such sort as the enemies horsemen might take them: without which it was not possible to haue made any shewe of stopping vp the channell. Last of all their [Page 5] strange backwardnesse in giuing aide anie way by men or munition, when Captaine Hart and others of Vlis­shing offered them to enter before his Excellencies arri­uall. So that if Sir William Russell Lord Gouernour of Vlisshing, had not verie prouidentlie & earnestly trauai­led to send in such prouisions as vpon the sodaine hee prouided: the Towne had beene much more destitute of all meanes to hold out than it was.

But albeit I am not carried so farre as to belecue all the people speake (though vox populi be manie times for truth termed vox Dei: especiallie when it is grounded vpon long triall and experience:) yet that by fruits the tree may be discerned, and so a right estimate made of these coniectures; I will report as neere as I can the cer­taine truth how matters haue passed, & what assistance his Excellencie hath receiued from the States for this im­portant enterprize for the [...]eleife of Sluce.

First his Excellencie vpon his arriuall, finding in his absence strange effects wrought by bad practizes of his Enemies, who (perhaps aspiring to aduaunce them­selues, or to blemish his Honour) did in the meane time foster the seedes of most seditious discord, tending to the Ruyne of these Prouinces, and great hinderance of hir Maiesties seruice here: His Excellencie (I say) found it verie conuenient, first to do all his best endeuours to reduce this infected bodie to health: And to effect the same, forgiuing all iniuries doone to himselfe, laboring nothing but the safetie of these Prouinces committed to his charge, immediatly vpon his lāding wrote for an assemblie of the States at Middleburgh: where after he had too long time (in respect of his vrgēt affaires) atten­ded them in vaine, he went in persō to Berghen vp zome, and after to Dort, to effect onely his first purpose: to re­cure all seditious wounds, and to drawe all in one line [Page 6] to the reliefe of this beseiged Towne: Not omitting in the meane time to bestowe in seuerall Garrisons his newe leuied vnarmed Souldiers, with order for their speedie arming; and in steede of them calling togeather from Garrisons farre and wide dispersed, foure thow­sand or there abouts of the old bandes in her Maiesties pay, and such as being armed & furnished were before the fifteenth of Iulie in case to be employed in seruice. In the meane time his Excellencie beeing desirous to knowe what assistance he might expect from the States of the Countrie Forces, a booke was del [...]uered to the L. Marshall, of twentie foure thowsand souldiers in their pay, besides two thowsand horse or thereabouts, and besides hir Maiesties aydes. Of all these their Forces for so important a seruice, if they would onlie haue de­liuerd foure thowsand souldiers, his Excellencie was de­termined with them and the rest of his English bands without regard of any perrill to haue assalted the Campe. But notwithstanding the importunate solici­tations of his Excellencie, & pressing also of his auctho­ritie (albeit Count Hollock had at that time as it is saide six thowsand men in Brabant in Armes) before the losse of the Towne, he was neuer able to get from them any one band of theirs: and with great difficultie could ob­taine to haue the English which were with him.

True it is, that the Burgers of Middlebrough and Vlis­shing did verie willingly offer their assistance; but they were but fewe: and that was doone vtterlie without aide or assistance of the States.

With these smale forces of thirtie English Ensignes, with foure Cornets of horse; his Excellencie sent Sir William Pelham the L. Marshall accompanied with the Lord Willoughby, Sir William Russell, and manie other persons of Honor and account, into Flaunders: hauing [Page 7] besides some few Companies of this Country, that he had raised vpon hir Maiesties charge; & that volūtarily from Middleburgh and Vlisshing, offered themselues for the guard of his person, part whereof were also left to accompanie Collo: Morgan, who was by his Excellencie appoynted to ioyne with the Admirall Nassau to enter the Hauen.

In the meane time, the L. Marshall thus accompanied the twenty of Iuly arriued at Ostend: and being readie the xxij. to haue marched; his Excellencie arriued there, and resting the xxiij which was Sonday, the foure and twentie day in the morning, we marched towards the This 23. day in Ostend his Excellencie was like to haue beene slaine with a bullet that strake into a Iawme of his windowe right before him, and the Lord Wentworth with the splin­ters thereof hurt in the face. Enemie; his Excellencie being the same night returned toward the Fleete, which lay in readines at the mouth of the Harbor, to take the aduantage of the spring tides; and to haue entred the Hauen: aswell [...]o haue deuided the Forces, wherewith they of Cassand should haue suc­cored them of Saint Anns Land when wee should charge them, as also to put in men and Munition into the Towne.

With this small Armie of 30. or 32. Ensignes of Foote, and foure Cornets of horse, we marched on the plaine sands of Flaunders, 10 or 12. miles towards Sluce Towne, and rested not till wee came to Blanken­burgh Sluce where wee found a strong Sconce made to stop vp the passage: guarded with fiue or sixe En­signes of Wallons. The Sconce reached from the Mar­shes down to the Sea, and closed vp the passage in such sort that without taking in of that Sconce; there was no passage for our Armie to set on their Campe, but on­ly at very dead lowe water, and that with many diffi­culties & extreame discommodities too long to be par­ticularly set downe. Neuerthelesse it was resolued by the Lord Marshall, and the Militarie councel that with­out [Page 8] farther delay an attempt should bee made to hewe downe the Pallizado and by scale to enter: and if that tooke not effect, then in the Euening at dead lowe wa­ter without sarder delay to march by it. And albeit the Armie came wearie to that place about noone, yet was it resolued the assault should bee giuen before foure of the clock. In the meane time the Fort was viewed round by sundrie persons of iudgement, and 30. or 40. s [...]ine and hurt in the approaches and view therof with the shot both great and small, that played continuallie out of the Fort among vs.

In the meane time the Duke of Parma, being aduer­tised how nere our Armie was come to his Camp, and our Resolution perceaued by our discoueries and nere approaches, the Prince rose as we were enformed after with a choice Regiment to stay vsthere, which in deed he might ful easelie haue done to an Armie fiue times as great as ours was, the scituation of the fort conside­red. But his Excellencie being in the meane time by con­trarietie of winde stayed, could not reach the Floate but lay before Blankenburgh Sl [...]ce, & beholding the strength of the place, and the impossibilitie for vs to passe or to get so strong a plat in any conuenient time to relieue the siedged Towne, sent Sir Harry Goodyere a land vn­to vs with cōmandement immediatlie without losse of time to returne to Ostend, there to Imbarque the Armie againe, and speedely to returne to the Floate before the best spring tides should passe to enter the Hauen, & also to land our Army there vpon them, with resolution to put it to any fortune, rather than to loose that Towne.

The 25. at night we imbarked againe at Ostend, and T [...]esday the D [...]ke of Par­ [...]seeing the returne of our Armie yeelded to any condition of honorable parting, that our besiedged could dem [...]nd. [...]che denying them a [...]ie delay, or libertie to aduertise the Earle of L [...]ycester, being this day with his Army within one League of their Camp before the H [...]uen [...]outh, [...]nd readie at the highest spring to enter. [Page 9] the 26. being Wednesday being arriued at the Float, we found his Excellencie in consultation with Count Mau­rice, the Admirall, and the rest of the Sea Captaines for entring the Hauen: who alledging many di [...]ficulties and perrils, deliuering many reasons (such as they were) why they entred not the Hauen according to a­greement: At that time his Excellencie plainelie and o­penly charged both Count Maurice and his brother Nassau, that when the Burgers of Vlisshing made him the offer long before to haue performed it: that they answered, they had the best Pilots, Captaines and ship­ping readie in their handes, and could and would per­forme it themselues, which they could not well denie: & yet would not plainly confesse, but that it was with certaine conditions, Crauing that his Excellencie would first appoynt some with thē to view the Hauen. In the The Enemie very politique­lie made the Commanders in Sluce, belecue our Armie was fled at mid­night from Blanken­burgh whereas wee marched a way in the day before sunne­set, in order of Battaile, and no charge or attempt made by any one horse or foote vpon our rere­ward, nor shot dis [...]harged af­ter vs, but one­lie out of the Sconce. meane time by these their former dalliances: the Town being before growne desperate of succour, the verie same day while these thinges were thus in debating, Sir Roger Williams (not knowing vpon what resolution we were called back from Blankenburgh, entred into Parley; and the Duke denying no demaunds they could set downe of Honorable parting) onelie denying them anie time of respite to aduertize his Excellencie, because he knewe they might and of likelihood feared they should haue bene succoured by sea before the best spring tides were past. The cōmaunders of the Towne being of like out of hope of anie ayde by sea,) aswell in respect of the small comfort, retourned from the States by Captaine Hart, as also by the strange newes and aduertisements they receaued continually as they say frō their Enemies, being greatlie distressed by their vnhappie losse of the west Dike. And seeing how hard a matter, it should be with far greater Forces than ours [Page 10] in any short time to defeat the Camp, being so strongly lodged, hauing most honorable conditions of Surren­drie yeelded vnto by the Duke of Parma, they conclu­ded, and the same day after our Armie arriued at the Floate, whilst his Excellencie was in consultation for entrie of the Hauen, (viz.) on the 26. day of Iulie. 1587 they sent away Master Sentliger to his Excellencie with This surrendry was made two or three dayes before the spring tides were past, and the day before the highest spring was come. notice of their surrendrie alreadie made: and this is the plaine and naked trueth of this action.

I may not omit, that, albeit his Excellencie was fur­nished out of England with Pouder, Munition, and Mo­ney: So as there was nothing then frō the States requi­red but for Money, to haue victualls and boates and Skiffes to land our Armie, and Carriages to conuey, Munition, Victuals, &c. For boates and Skiffes to land our men, on those flat Coasts we had not sufficient to disbarke our little Armie in one whole day. And for Waggons his Excellencie could not get inough to carrie two daies victualls with vs to Blankenburgh, and yet diuers chiefe persons and officers of our small Ar­mie for want of Carriage forced to leaue their Tents behinde them: So that for this Action I knowe not what the States could doe more to make the world be­leeue the common voyce of the people (for their cor­respondence with the Enemie; or smal care for the losse of any Towne in Flaunders) to bee to true: neither can I imagine what was possible for any Generall (either for trauell of his owne bodie both by Land and Sea, or for contempt of all perrill to his owne person, or by carefull Prouidence, and singular Patience being so in­gratefully & maliciouslie crossed, to do more than his Excellencie hath done: whatsoeuer common opinion (led onelie with bare euents) may conceaue of it.

Another Addition concerning certain chiefe Officers of an Armie. Wherein by conference of the repugnant conditions in the Good and Bad, both the Of­ficers themselues may the better knowe and indeauour to perso [...]rme their duties: and all others also thereby discerning clecreliect what Ranke they bee, may yeelde them Honour or Reproofe, according to their merites.

HAuing both by reading, conference & experience found before I bare office in her Maiesties Armie commaunded by that right honorable Earle of Ley­cester in the Low Countreyes, how manie dangerous Inconueniences en­sue, where true militare Discipline is either contempned, neglected or vn­knowen, as I had more than 10. yeares since published this Militare Treatize concerning the duties & Offices of most degrees euen from the priuat souldier to the Gene­rall; so did I also during that my imployment, labour to my vt­most power to haue such good Lawes and Ordinances establish­ed, as might aduance the honour and seruice of God, our sacred Queene and Countrey. But as a bodie possessed with a pestilent feuer, dooth manie times abhorre not onely the curing medicine, but also the best and most wholsome meate, and affect the worst & most pernitious: so found I all these good Lawes and Ordinances then established, so odious & intollerable vnto some such men of warre as had been bred vp in those licentious ciuill Dissentions, that they not onely detested those good Ordinances, but also mor­tally or rather immortally hated such Officers, as (according to their dutie) tooke care to see them duely and indiffeiently put in execution; labouring also to make them odious euen to the com­mon souldiers and whole bodie of the Armie, (who were indeed [Page 12] their best friends and the onely meanes to relieue them in their wrongs and vniust oppressions. But because I knowe those Lawes and Ordinances then established by the Earle, to bee such as a­gree with all right Martiall Discipline and cannot be oppugned or disliked by anie, but such as deserue rather to be corrected for their faults, than tollerated in their insolent lawlesse presumpti­ons: I haue not doubted to commit them to publique iudgement, as matters worthie to remain for Precedents to posteritie. And because all warres are manadged and maigntaigned chiefly by Armes and Money, it is cleere that the good or bad choyce of chiefe Commaunders & other chiefe Officers for Militare Ac­compts, is the verie chiefest cause of the good or bad successe of anie warres: For as by the Good the Forces are maintaigned strong, well armed, trained, gouerned, conducted, paid and con­tented: so by the Bad demeanour of these Officers, the Princes Treasure (being the verie sinewes of the warres) may bee vn­duely wasted, the Bands neither compleate, well armed, nor trai­ned, the valiant souldiers for want of their due wages, discoura­ged, or starued, Honest creditors and alied friends for want of due paiments discontented, & the Princes most honourable pay slaundered and dishonoured. The consideration of these impor­tant causes (impressed deepely into my conceipt, not by super­ficiall Contemplations, but by actuall Experience) hath pro­uoked or rather enforced me (in discharge of my duetie to God almightie and her Maiestie my most gracious Soueraigne La­die and Mistresse, vpon the new Aedition of my Stratiati­cos) to enlarge it with these Additious: That all Comman­ders and sutch other Officers Militarie (seeing before their eyes proponed the Good & Bad, Light and Darcknes, Heauen and Hell, & knowing that thereby the world also cannot but see which course they holde) may resolue to leaue the l [...]crous, base, wicked, and dishonorable path, whose ende will bee confusion, shame, & endlesse torments in Hell, and to choose theright wai [...] of Vertue that leadeth vnto true honourable Fame, & finalli [...] shall be crowned with immortall ioyes in Heauen.

¶ A Conference of a good and bad Mustermaster, with his inferior Com­missaries of Musters: by the fruits to discerne the Tree.

The Good.The Bad.
THis officer will not willingly serue but with such a compe­tent and conuenient enter­teignment both for himselfe and his inferior Commissaries, Clarks and Substitutes, as hee neede not take Bribe or Beneuolence: or depend on the fauour of anie but the Generall alone.THis officer careth not howe li­tle Enterteignment certaine hee haue for himselfe, or his Substitutes: presuming hee can make what gaine hee list of his Office: and make such frends thereby also, as may beare him out in his lewdnesse, &c.
This officer will be in his Expences temperate, rather sparing than wast­ing: that he be not by want enforced to straigne his conscience & deceaue his Prince.Such an officer hauing so good meanes to get immeasurablie by playing the good fellow: will spend infinitlie, es­pectally in keeping company with such as must ioyne with him in deceiuing the Prince.
This officer seeketh by all means to cause the Generall to establish lawes and ordinances wherby orderly en­trances & discharges of souldiers may be registred: and therby neyther hir Maiestie, nor the Souldier abused.Such an officer can no more abide laws and ordinances in Musters, than lu­crous Captaine: saying, it barreth the officer of his discretion, whereby the office ought to bee directed, and braue men gratified.
This officer deliuereth these laws to his inferior commissaries with o­ther straight particular Instructions, and calleth them to accompt, howe they haue discharged their duties.Such an Officer likes none of these strict courses, saying, among Martiall men a man must play the good fellow: & not to be too pinching of a Princes purse.
This officer will not set down a­nie pennie checque certaine vpon a­nie Captaine or band, without appa­rant proose: & for such as cannot be decided, will respite them to farther triall: that neither Prince, Captaine, nor souidier be defrauded or iniured.Such an officer calleth this exami­nation, nice curiositie, and saieth, so there be some checkes for fashion sake, it is no matter, make them little e­nough, that the Captaines bee not an­grie and all is well: O [...] good Fellowe must pleasure another.
This officer, if any such doubta­rise in the checks as hee cannot deter­mine by the lawes established, he ei­ther desireth the Resolution of the Generall, or that it may bee determi­ned by a Councell at Wa [...]re, or some Commissioners, especiallie authori­zed to assist him.Such an Officer saieth, it is great Follie to loose that Prerogatiue of his Office, to resolue these doubtes as hee sees cause, and to subiect himselfe to Commissioners, that is Master of the Musters himselfe.
This officer (if the Captaines shew anie reasonable cause to bee relieued out of the checks, either in respect of the losse of horse, or Armor in sernice or such like that deserueth considera­tion, he presenteth his proofes there­of, together with his check to the Lord Generall, desiring his Lord­shippe to haue honorable considera­tion therof.Such an Officer will bee Chancel­lor himselfe, and neuer trouble the Lord Generall with these matters, who hath matters of greater impor­tance to thinke vpon: Saying, Princes purses must not be spared, and braue men must bee rewarded, and Officers must get Loue and Honour by dealing bountifullie.
This Officer (if hee see ouermuch familiaritie betweene any of his Cō ­missa [...]ies & the Captaines) is present­lie iealous of them, and calleth them to accompt: And if hee find them [...]onniuent or faultie, presentlie dis­placeth them: or if hee find no other proofe but vehement suspicion, yet remooueth thē to an other Ga [...]risō, & placeth such others in their roomes as may sift and examine their former behauiour.Such an Officer likes none of these se­uere Iealosies, but liketh well such Of­ficers as be plausible and gratefull to the Captaines: knowing the Captaines be liberall, and will not be vngratefull to him, seeing he mindes & hath good meanes to requite their courtesie ten [...]lde out of the Princes purse.
This Officer as hee would not (to gaine a Million) doo any Captaine a penie wrong. So will hee not for the fauour of the greatest persons in the Armie, [...] [...] [...]erest kinne or Friends straigne his conscience to abute his Prince one pennie: and therefore pre­sents the Checque t [...]ulie, as hee undes it: and leaues all fauour to be shewed by the Lord Generall onelie.Such an Officer being of another mould will none of these melancho­lie courses, he will pleasure his Friends and crosse his Enemies, and make them [...]o he is an Officer can please or displease them. But [...] hee will not for all that, and for his excuse alledg [...]th, that P [...]in [...]es Cookes may giue a good followe a peece of biese, and the Butlers or [...] a cup of of Wine or Beere, and that hee will shew his friends a cast of his Office.
This officer procureth orders also to bee established for training of the Souldiers, and himselfe requireth the Captaines to performe them: and to encourage men to doe well, will not spare out of his owne purse to giue rewardes to such shot as by proofe he findes the best marck men.Such an Officer wil none of this, say­ing, it is but a t [...] moyling of Cap­taines and Souldiers, and [...]ruding on the Captaines Offices to [...]ssend and discontent them, and that braue men should not be controlled, or the imper­fection of their Souldiers disc [...]uered by such open exercises, and that such ex­pences are foolish, and make more E­nemies than Friends.
This officer will not accept pennie nor pennie worth of anie Captaine or Souldier more than the Fee due to his office, and that not as a beneuo­lence secretely, but as his due openlie.Such an Officer will accept anie thing, Money or ware, so it come se­cretlie: and like a good fellowe will (on the Princes purse) requite it ten folde, as easely he may doo, and none but his Fellowe Theeues able to accuse him.
This officer reposing himselfe on­ly on God and his cleare conscience, laboreth not to make other frendes but his Prince and Generall: And for the Generall himselfe, will not straigne his conscience anie way, though hee bee sure of manie Ene­mies and small backing: & euen to his Prince for faithfull seruice store of false backbi [...]ings: yea the Swanne must be made a Crowe, and the Faul­con a Bussard.Such an Officer will not only for the Generall, but for ante other person of authoritie straine his Conscience any way, and to all other Captaines also so kinde and liberall of her Maiestie purse as he is generallie extolled for a braue man, an honorable Officer, an honorable minde: yea, and his Pri [...]ce also whome he deceaues horribly shall be perswaded the Dawe is an [...]agle, and the Cuckee a Nightingale.
This officer, as hee is thus precise himselfe, as neither to giue pen [...]i [...] for such an Office, nor to receiue [...]ibe or beneuolence more then dewe fees: So maketh hea matter of conscience whilest he carrieth such office to giue to anie of his honorable frendes anie present: least they or others shoulde haue cause to suspect he did it to bee borne out in a nie lewde action.Such an Officer hath no such [...] ­lancholie conceipt, but as hee will take [...], so will hee giue sran [...]elie to them can beare him [...]: and such a one as Captaines, C [...]llwells great Of­ficers, and all shall extoll, how shall his Prince but like of to, considering the more hee robbes her, the more Friends hee makes, and the more hee shall bee praised. So, as if there were no God, the honest were in deede to be begged for a right naturall Foole.

¶ A Briefe conference of two Paga­dores, or Militarie Threasurers.

The one a man iust and ho­nest, content with his sti­pend: yealding both to the Prince and subiect their dewe.

The other vnduely exacting. & by deuice meaning to abuse (if it bee not preuented) may defraud both Prince, subiect, soldier, & allies of there due.

For distinction sake expressed by the seuerall names of Threasurer, and Pa­gadore.

The Good.The bad.
THis Treasurer liueth modestlie, rather sparing then spending: that hee may haue no neede to abuse his Soueraigne, nor crush the Soul­dier.THis Pagadore liueth prodigalli [...], spending in vanities immeasura­blie: so that it is not possible for him to continue, vnlesse hee abuse both Soueraigne, Subiects, and allies excee­dingly.
This Treasurer will desire yearely, yea quarterlie to make his accompts that all may be cleare and liquide.Such a Padagore shūneth by almeans clere accompts, & would neither quar­terly nor yearely, nor once in 7. yeare make an orderly liquid account of he could by friends or deuice delay it.
This Treasurer will not by a [...]i meanes accept from anie Captaine, Victualler, Marchant or Souldier, Bill or Acquittance for a peny more than he truely paies him ready coyne.Such a Padagore will ha [...]e both warrat & acquittance for the whole, and then giue a priuate attestation of the due to the Captaine, clere about all desalcations.
This Treasurer will haue a speciall care to see the Souldiers first paid their dewe.Such a Pagadore cares not whether any Souldier be paide or no so he haue the Captaines warrant and acquit­tance to accompt with an absent Au­ditor, &c.
This Treasurer when hee [...]eccons with a captaine, and defaulkes billes of debt to Victuallers, Armorers, and other creditors, hee will not desire a­nie acquaintance of the Captaine for those defalcations, vnlesse he haue in deede paid them: and then will hee also deliuer vp to the Captaine those bills, when hee taketh the Captaines generall Acquittance.Such a Pagadore (after hee hath defaulked all bilis and debts he can get or heare of, for Victuallers, Mercers, Taylors, Merchants, &c.) taketh the Captaines quittance for al, & giueth him an attestation of the surplusage dew to him (if any bee) and so recco­neth with the absent Auditor of the presse with his warrant and quit­tance, as though all these defalcations were truelie paid, when the most part in trueth are vnpaide, and hereby the Princes pay iniuriously slandered, when this Pagadore hath it in his hands allowed him.
This Treasurer wil alwaies deliuer vnto the Captaine a bill, particularlie expressing how much hee hath paid in readie monie to the Captaine, and how much in defalcatious: expres­sing euerie defalcation, for what, to whom, and how much particularlie, taking a double therof signed by the Captaine, and this particular double will he leaue in the Auditors handes to be examined.Such a Pagadore will hardlie deli­uer vnder his hand to the Cattaine a­ny such particular of his defalcations, nor yet by any meanes any coppie or double thereof to the Auditor to be ex­amined: but rather seeke all deuices to huddle vp thinges in confusion: knowing, it is good Fishing in pudled water, according to the olde Prouerb.
This Treasurer hauing deliuered his Accompts in this plaine particu­ler manner to the Auditor, desires him to let all men see his Accompt that demaund it, and to giue copies of ani [...] part thereof to anie man that will pay the Auditors clarkes for it: w [...]sturgit it may be si [...]ted whether any de [...]eleation contained in the sōme of the [...]ptaines acqui [...]tance, bee not sust by him truely paid: For ver [...]t [...]s w [...]nq [...]ar [...]t Angulos.Such a Pagadore hauing reckoned with the warrant and Captaines ac­quittance in grosse, without expres­sing any particularities of the defalca­tions, desireth the Aaditor to [...] them safely vp in a Chest with two locks and keyes whereof the Treasurer to haue one. So as these accomptes that all men ought to see) must bee kept, tanquam Eleusina Mysteria: & [...]o part be seene of any griened person: till he can get the Treasurer and Au­ditor together: a matter as easie as to catch an hare with a Taber.
This Treasurer deales thus plainly to a [...]oyd all suspition of srand. mea­ning neither to abuse the Prince nor Subject of a pennie, and to keepe himselfe not onely voide of Faul [...]e, but of all suspition of Fraude and de­ceipt.Such a Pagadore hauing many thousands of the Princes Treasure in his hands of these defalcations preten­ded to bee payd by these former subtil­ties (keeping all in darke confusion) careth not what the world thinketh of him, or how they exclaime or slander the Queenes pay, nor how many pe­rish for want of that hee hath in his hands of theirs.
This Treasurer dealing iustly in the sight of God, laboureth not to get him manie frends or fauorers, by Banqucting, Presents, or otherwise: reposing his trust in God, and his iust dealing.Such a Pagadore bendeth all his witts to vse almeanes to make friends knowing that Iustice and right is his Confusion, and therefore Per fas atque nefas hunteth for Fauour to keep him from accompts liquid, and to keepe all in darkenes by delayes: Qui malè a­git, odit lucem.
This Treasurerif he haue not trea­sure sufficient to pay all defalcations, setreth down plainlie to the Auditor which are paid, & which are vnpaid: [...]olding it a burden of conscience that anie man should die vnpaid by his default.Such a Pagadore cares not how ma­ny creditors dye after hee hath made his obscure defalcations: knowing that by their death it is clerely gained to himselfe: Neither forcing how the Princes honorable pay bee slandered, nor how many die for want of their dew by him wasted prodigallie.
This Treasurer thinketh it a mat­ter of conscience while he is Officer, to make anie presentes, euen to his honorable good frendes: least either they or other, should think he did it to be fauor [...]d in some vniust actionsSuch a Pagadore hath no such me­lancholie conceipt, but will giue or lend lustely to any that will take, if he see any meanes how they may protract his accompt, yea to such honorable persons as hee knoweth will not bee induced to farder his corruptions if they see thē, yet wil he offer presents, know­ing Salomons wise saying, that Dona coecant oculos ctiam Prudentum & Iustorum.
This Treasurer desireth nothing more than to haue a Muster-master and Auditor resident in the Armie: to assist him in examinatiō of frauds, and to do both the Prince and Soul­dier right: knowing the more they si [...]t his dooings, the more for his credite and reputation.Such a Pagadore can by no meanes endure an Auditor or Mustermaster in the Armie, but onely such inferior Cōmissaries as dare not offend him or looke into his dooings. And in this he will make all his Friends and spare no deuise, &c. to haue these two Officers lifted out, that then hee may without comptrolement doo what hee list, the very eyes of the Armie being put out.
This Treasurer will neuer desire the Captaines warrants, till he haue truelie paid not onelie defalcations, but also all due vpon the said war­rants: contenting himselfe with his warrants for Imprests in the meane time.Such a Pagadore if hee cannot get the Captaines owne warrants, he will by deuice seeke to get coppies vnder the Lord Generalls or the Mustermasters hands which are good constants to rec­con with the Auditor. And if the Mu­stermaster will not consent vnto it he [...] wil become his secret dāgerous Enemy and labor all meanes to remoue him.
This Treasurer desires to haue the trueth of all matters plainly layde o­pen to the Lords of the Counsaile, and is not iealous of any man that shall exhibite writings for the seruice vnto any of their Lordships.Such a Pagadore broyleth like En­celadus in Actna when he heares of a­ny thing deliuered, till by some of his meanes hee can get the sight of it to countermine, &c. and perswadeth o­ther Officers not to open matters plainely vnto their Honors, saying, it is no wisdome to make thē too cunning.
This Treasurer contenteth himself with a competent pay., because his Expences be moderate, and needeth not giue or present extraordinarilie to purchase friends, and will not ex­act a Pennie vnduely from poore or ritch.Such a Pagadore cannot content himselfe with most honorable or ex­cessiue entertainement, but exacteth hundreths and thousands, and not on­ly from the rich, but euen from the most poore and needie of the Armie, besides al trafiks, chafferings, secret beneuolences, and other Engins to an­gle Money, quorū non est Numerus.

¶ A Conference of two Auditors.

The one honest and Skilfull.

The other either corrupt or vnskil­full.

The Good.The Bad.
THis Auditor will demaund com­petent Enterteignment for him selfe and Clarkes, that he neede not straigne his conscience.THis Auditor forceth not much of Entertainment, knowing meanes inough by collusion (if the Treasurer bee bad also) to help himselfe.
This Auditor will not take a pen­ny of the Treasurer, though he would giue it vtterly without condition,Such an Auditor will not spare to take without condition and with con­dition too, so hee offer like a C [...]ates­man
This Auditor knowing hee that will no ill doe, must doe nothing that longs therto, will as much shun fa­miliaritie with the Treasurer, as all dutifull Muster-masters ought o­uermuch familiaritie with Captains.Such an Auditor will bee as great with a corrupt Treasurer, as lewds Muster masters or Commissaries will be with lucrous Captaines.
This Auditor will haue as diligent an eye and especially ouer the Trea­surer and his deputies, as a good Muster Maister will haue ouer lu­crous Captaines or Clarks of Bands.Such an Officer will none of these Melancholie Conceipts, but make good cheare with the Treasurer and play the good Fellowe.
This Auditor keeps perfect records of all billes of debt, for Munition, Powder, Armes, and other defalca­tions, and will see the auncientst billes first paide before latter, if they bee of one nature.Such an Auditor hath no regard to antiquitie, but to such as M Treasu­rer and he shall agree vpon: they must[Page 21] be first payde, and the rest tarrie a se­cond markes.
This Auditor being resident in the Armie, vil haue an care to the poore Souldiers greeues and see their debts paide before any billes of Captaines Creditors, for silkes, golde lace, or such Vanities.Such an Auditor wil not offend the Captaines, but knowing the sweete of their liberalities will see such bills first satisfied as best like thē, saying, he will not offend braue men for beggerli [...] knaues.
This Auditor (if a Treasurer offer him Bribes, willnot onely reiect him but also looke the more narrowly to him in all his doings afterward, kno­wing thereby (onely) hee is a corrupt person.Such an Auditor is of no such sour [...] or Melancholie humor, knowing the Poet not without cause saieth: Placa­tur donis Iupiter ipse datis.
This Auditor hath a vigilant eye to the Princes profite and honor, to sift all particuler defalcations whe­ther they be paid indeede, or onely pretended to be paide by collusion bet weene the Treasurer & Captains, or their Acomptant Clarks or Offi­cers, that the Princes pay be not slan­dered and her Maiestie dishonoured by such Corruptions.Such an Officer lookes no farther but to warrant and quittance, not ca­ring how the Princes pay bee dishono­red and slandered, so long as hee may haue apparance of matter to dis­charge himselfe, knowing the more the Treasurer by such sleights robbes the Prince and Souldiers, the greater his share, for Manus manum fricat.
This Auditor will diligentlie see, that if anie defalcation bee made for anie person indebted to her Maiestie, that the same bee staied in the Trea­surers hand to her Maiesties vse: and not cunningly conuaied to other vses by Assignation or other like deuices to defraud hi [...] Maiestie.Such an Auditor careth not how these defalcations be iugled by assig­nations or other practizes, to deceaue the Prince and enritch pri [...]at persons, so as the Treasurer and he may haue their Fleeces of the spoyle: for these Of­ficers must accord, or else when thee [...]es fall out, true men come by their goods after the olde Preuerbe.
This Auditor will set down orders that the Treasurer shall keepe in his accompt: viz not to exhibite onelie the Captaines quittances in grosle, but to shew particularlie, how much paid to the Captaines hands in mo­nie, howe much in victuall, howe much in munition: and so particu­larlie euerie other Defaulcation: wherefore, how much, to whom, & when paid, that it be not by c [...]llusi­on double charged.Such an Auditor will none of these plaine courses, saying they are Curiosi­ties that will make him odious both to the Treasurer and Captaines: And that if he should deale thus plainely, Officers cannot gaine: Yea they shall make so many Enemies, as the Prince (whom they best deserue of) shall be made to dislike them. In briefs that this honestie for want of Friends shall starue, or die in the Hospitall.
This Auditor reposing him selfe on God only & his good conscience, laboreth not to make Friendes, but thinketh his honest courses shall pro­tect him against his lewd Enemies, & make him acceptable to his Prince.Such an Auditor perhapps by the calamitie of other honest Officers (learning that Parum valet probitas quam nulla potentia fulcit) will not offend rich or great persons, but ioyne with them in plowing the golden soile, and see no more than that which hee knows shall not offend them.
This Auditor (after hee perceiues that a Captain hath receiued so much on his warrant, that there will not re­maine more than may pay his soul­diers, and due debts of his Band, for Armes, Pouder, apparrell, and such necessaries as ought to be first paide) giues Caueat to the Treasurer there­of, that he deliuer not the Captaine that money which should paye the Souldier and these honest Creditors.Such an Auditor knowing that these honest Creditors cannot giue the Treasurer 10. pro 100. to haue their Money, whereas other Creditors of silkes, Gold lace or such like vanities, or others (that by collusion haue bills made of purpose to drawe out Money) may giue and will giue the Treasurer 30. 40. or 50. pro 100. he will not be curious to search, which are true and honest debts, and which contrarie: but meeting with a bountifull Treasurer will allow such as he likes, and he hath reason to like those best that offer most bountifullie.
This Auditor will not set downe in his Accompt a penny paide either of money to the Captaines or defal­cations to the Creditors then he see­eth in trueth, is indeede issued of her Maiesties Treasure, albeit the Trea­surer perhaps shew his warrant & ac­quitance to prooue he hath issued all, when he hath indeede Fortie thow­sand poundes in his handes, & there­by causeth the Treasurer to pay true­ly, and that Vitualers, Armorers, and honest Creditors shall not exclaime and slaunder the Princes honorable pay when the Treasurer hath it in his owne handes to make his profite by it.But such an Auditor seeing by his honest plaine course neither Treasu­rer nor Captaines can abuse eyther Prince or Souldiers, that consequently they neither can nor will deale bounti­fullie with him, he will none of this, but rather without more curiosity Secundum vsum Sarum make his rec­konings with Warranto and Acquit­tancia and pro forma: to excuse him­selfe, if his accompt should bee [...]i [...]ted: will not directly say it is all issued, but issuing and issued, or some parcell not issued: when perhaps that parcell wel examined, may prooue many ten thou­sand poundes.
Finally this Auditor being resident in the Armie will hold so plaine and precise a course as hee will be able at all times to say how much treasure is Issued indeed, and what remaines in the Treasurers hands: which Credi­tors, &c. are paied indeede, & which are not paide: So that no Iugling can be vsed to defeate honest men of their due, but he will comptroll it, & by conference with the Muster Mai­ster also will see howe the Souldiers are satisfied.But such an Auditor knowing such an Officer is intollerable to a corrupt Pagadore, &c. and that he hauing his Princes purse to make frends: is likely to disgrace or lift out any honest Offi­cers that shall not cons [...]rt with him. This Auditor sayeth, I will leaue that thanklesse honest course, and play the good Fellow, and fill my purse with Crownes, when honest Officers may goe to the Hospitall for any Comfort or Countenance they shall receaue.


Abuses that may be practized to the great dishonour of the Prince, the de­frauding of Souldiers and honest Credi­tours: and vtter ruine and confusion of an Armie, where they shall be continued, and not preuented.

IT is a thing too wel knowen, that if al Captaines bills shuld be payd and defalked vpon the warrants for their bands, that both Souldi­ers many times should vtterly lose a great part of their wages dewe, & the honest Creditors also their debts, by reason of such practises as ensue.

Inprimis, if any Captaines take vp Silkes, Gold lace, Iewels, or other like matters for their owne vse amoun­ting to treble their owne entertainement: This being defalked on the warrant for the band, must needs vniust­ly take from the poore Souldier part of his pay.

If a Captaine borrowe Money of the Treasurer or a­ny other for his owne priuat expences, or giue his bill to the Treasurer to pay his losses in play, or charges in wast­full houses, the Bills must alwaies be made in one forme viz. Receaued of Master Treasurer so much for the vse of the Companie, &c. albeit the poore Companie may [Page 25] very well pleade not guiltie of any part therof. The same being defaulked by the Treasurer on the warrant for the band, the poore Souldier is defeated, how trewly so­euer her Maiestie paye.

Or when such multitude of bills signed with any Captaines hand shall be brought vnto the Treasurer, as the whole warrant, both Captaines pay, Officers pay, & Souldiers pay is not able to discharge, hee must needes choose some, and reiect others. In which choyse if the Treasurer be a man that regardes his owne benefit and the choyce left in him, he must needes reiect the honest Creditors, who vpon reasonable prizes and small gaine hauing serued the Companie, can offer little to haue their dew, and choose such as by their excessiue gaynes vndewly made, may offer most, and so the lewde onelie gaine, and the honest Creditors vtterlie defeated.

Againe if any Captaine haue once taken vp and gi­uen his bills for more than his own wages, and the war­rant of his whole Companie is able to paye, then to get notwithstanding some more Money to bee defalked on the same warrant, he may with gaine be content to giue 60 pro 100. or giue his bill of debt for 100. to the Treasurer, to be defaulked on his warrant to receaue 40, or lesse. And this bill must be made as formably as any other, viz. for Armes or apparrell for the vse of the Cō ­panie, and perhappes dated before any of the rest. And such a one being able with gaine to giue 30. or 40. in the 100. to be paid his bill, may bee as likely to speede as any of the honest Creditors, who perhappes are not able to giue 10. pro 100 without their losse, if the Treasurer bee a man that will bee moued with gaine and haue no Commissioners to guide him.

But seeing the fraudes and practizes are infinite, [Page 26] whereby the honest Creditors and poore Souldiers may be defeated vtterlie of their due: & her Maiesties pay slaū ­dred & exclaimed on, (how iustlie soeuer her Highnes pa [...]e) if great discretion and Iustice bee not vsed in the examination and allowance of suters bills, with due tri­all, which were in deede to the vse of the Companie, & which fraudulent, or to the Captaines or Treasurers pri­ [...]ate gaine. They ought to be persons of great sincerity and vprightnesse, that should make choyce which bills should be first allowed: and which reiected as the Cap­taines owne debt, and not defalcable on the Companie.

For, this cause I suppose in Ireland it hath beene ac­customed, that the Auditor onely (who hath no hand­ling of the Treasure) was the setter downe of all defal­cations, and the Treasurer onely to pay according to his Debentur.

For surelie when in one pay, a man (in fauoring of vniust bills) may gaine ten thowsand pounds or more, & by dealing iustlie can hardly gaine the twentieth part, it is a great temptatiō to misdrawe an indifferent honest mind: especiallie when the Raynes shall be left wholie in his owne hands. Or if the Treasurer were neuer so ho­nest a man, yet if his Officers vnder him be men that wil be temp [...]ed; he may easilie be seduced, euen to the Ru­yne of an Armie.

The only meane therefore to redresse so great Incō ­ueniences, & to rid both hit Maiestie of exclamations, hir Officers of slaunders; and do both Captaines and sol­diers right, is to appoynt some such choyce honest Cō ­missioners, as (hauing no fingring of the Treasure) may sit in some publique place, where openlie the Captaines and Creditors maie be heard; and also the complaints of the souldiers. And these Cōmissioners after they haue [Page 27] heard, & also the complaint of the Souldiers: And these Commissioners after they haue heard what is alleaged on all parts, to set downe a publique order: which Bills shal be defaulked on the warrant for the Companie, and which set on the Captaines owne head as debts of his owne.

But there may be also another greater mischiefe than al this, practized in the militarie accōptes of this time: whereby, albeit the best Auditors in England haue the examination of a Treasurers accompt: her Maiestie may be found still in the Treasurers debt, albeit he haue forty thowsand pounds of her Maiesties in his hands; & both Souldiers and Creditors defrauded, and her Maiesties pay slaundered by meanes of this course ensuing.

If the Treasurer (when hee accompteth with anie Captaine vpon his warrant) first sheweth him a note of all defaulcations, viz. Bills of imprest, Victuallers bills, Armorers bills, defaulcations certified by the States, & other his Creditors or Souldiers bills: his owne new found hundred peny, &c. All this being defaulked, hee setteth down the ouerplus as a debt due to the Captaine. For this cleare debt, the Treasurer giueth to the Cap­taine an Attestation, and for all the rest of the warrant ta­keth an Acquittance from the Captaine togeather with his warrant. If vpon these conditions (as perhaps on these and none other the Captaines must take their ac­compts) see then what is likelie to ensue.

In this course, lightlie if the warrant bee for 2 thow­sand pounds, the defalcations shall bee 1700. or more, and the cleare debt to the Captaine 300. or lesse. Nowe when the Treasurer shall bee called to his accompt, as is commonlie vsed before an Auditor of the presse in En­gland: he produceth his warrant for 2000 pounds, and [Page 28] this Quittance signed by the Captaine for 1700. pounds In this case, the precisest absent Auditor can allowe the Treasurer no lesse then the 1700. pounds vpon his Ac­compts, whereas commonly the greater part of all these defalcations are vnpaid. And in this manner in an Ac­compt of an hundred thousand poundes, the Trea­surer may haue thirtie or sortie thousand pounds in his owne hands, and yet the Auditor by Warrant and Quittance shall finde all payd, and perhappes some sur­plusage from the Queene to the Treasurer: So that this kinde of Accompt before a strange Auditor by Warrant and Quittance is friuolous, and no possibilitie for the best Auditor in the World in that sort to disco­uer Fraudes, or determine any certaintie, but both her Maiestie, the Souldierie, the Creditors, & all may be ex­tremely abused, and yet the Treasurer and his Associats goe clere away with an infinit gaine. And this kinde of Accompt before an absent Auditor per Warrantum & Acquittanciam without farther examination is in deede as ridiculous, and as impossible thereby to discouer the abuses of a Pagadores Accompt, & the wrongs done to Captaines, Souldiers, honest Creditors and chiefelie to the Prince, as particular Musters (taken in seuerall Gar­risons on seuerall daies) is able to discouer the Fraudes and deceipts vsually practized by Clarkes of Bandes or such Captaines as valew, lucour aboue Honour, or Honesty, & there­fore this course ensuing for exa­mination of Militarie Trea­surers Accompts fit to be established.

The onely or best salue to recure such vlcerous soares.

The onely meane therefore to vnrip and discouer fraudes in such accomptes of militarie Pagadores, and to doo both Captaines, Souldiers and Creditors right, and to maintaine the honer of her Maiesties pay, and to prouide that her Maiesties Treasure be not misconueied and vndewly wasted, is

FIrst not to suffer such Militarie Money Of­ficers to run on 1. 2. or 3. yeares without Ac­compt, but quarterly or euery halfe yeare at the farthest to deliuer vp to the Auditor at Warres his Accompts perfited, as he will stand to it vp­on his credit or discredit, to receaue triall, at his perrill.

Secondly, that for all such summes of Money as hee a­uerres payd, hee deliuer in together with the Captaines acquittance, a bill vnder his hand, particularly declaring how much was paide him in readie Money, and how much in defalcations for Armorers, Victuallers, or o­ther Creditors bills, expressing particularly, to whom, when, and for what the same was paid, that it be not af­ter cunningly double charged on her Maiestie.

Thirdly, that these Accompts of Treasurers may not ly so closed vp vnder locks, but that any mā (paying the Auditors Clarkes for their paines) may take coppies of any part: that if anie Souldier or Creditor finde him­selfe grieued, he may haue redresse by the Auditor, or a ground to complaine of his wrong.

Lastly, that if any Accompt haue run on, many quarters or yeares without such orderly setting downe of all De­falcations & publique notice vt supra: that it be the more [Page 30] diligentlie sifted by Officers of experience and skill, and that (after it is particularly set downe as the Treasurer will stand to it) it may bee open to all men to view as a­foresaid: and so to remaine as long time as the Accompt hath been differred, before the Treasurer at Warres haue his allowance or Quietus est.

By this means it wil come to passe that as he [...] Maiesties pay hath been euer the most honorable of any King or State in Christendome, and most honorable courses alrea­die taken, by her Maiestie and her honorable Councell for the redresse of manie abuses, whereby the poore Souldiers had receaued hard measure: So by such dew and orderly Examination of Accompts, all persons a­greeued shall receaue due satisfaction, or knowe where, and of whom to demannd their dueties, and neither ex­claime on Officers without iust cause, nor yet her Maie­sties most honorable pay slaundred and defamed, for that which perhappes may bee vndewly detaigned by such inferiour persons. And these Militarie Officers know­ing that by these Tutchstones their Actions shall plaine­lie appeare whether they be Golde or Brasse, will hap­pelie amend all that is amisse, and doo that hereafter shal most agree with their owne reputations, and the seruice of GOD, their Prince and Coun­trey. To which ende I haue publi­shed these briefe Collections.

¶ A Briefe conference of two Com­maunders of different properties and Conditions.

The one honorablie trayned in Royall Warres, gouerned by right Martiall Discipline.

The other bred vp in disor­derly ciuil dissentiōs among Freebooters, guided by law­lesse indiscretion.

The Good.The Bad.
THIS Commaunder establisheth martiall lawes full of Equitie, and causeth them to be inuiolablic obser­ued.THis Comma [...]der skof­feth at true Martiall Discipline and would haue all guided by his owne discretion, or rather lawlesse in dis­cretion.
This Commaunder selecteth a Councell militarie, with whome to conferre before he resolue of anie im­portant enterprize.Such a Commander partely to co­uer his owne ignorance, and partly for vaine glory to haue all the praise him­selse shunneth conference, and will giude or rather misguide al by his own vaine phantasie.
This Commaunder will not take vpon him anie enterprize, but he wil bee assured to bee prouided of all thinges necessarie to performe it Ho­norablie.Such a Commander will vndertake any thing how absurd soeuer, so hee may finger the Treasure, let the suc­cesse be what it will.
This Commaunder will also see such conuenient allowance of pay, as his souldiers may liue without spoyle of their freindes, or committing out­radge.Such a Commander eareth not what outrage, they cōmit, or how they crush their Friends, so as they craue no pay of him, but can liue by shifting other­wise, and such he calleth braue men, as by right Martiall law should be disar­med vnder a gallowes.[Page] This Cōmaunder imployeth his Princes Treasure in the true payment of his Cap aines and Souldiers, and su [...]h prouisions onelie as may ad­uan [...]e the pulique seruice.Such a Commander wasteth it ei­ther in his own pomp & vaineglorp, or othe silthie and base pleasures, neither seeking to pay his Captaines nor ca­rin gwhether they pay their Souldiers.
This Commaunder will see at the first generall muster all his Captaines and Officers well chosen: & his soul­diers well armed, and well appoyn­ted.Such a Commander after he hath fingered the Treasure neither careth whether his Souldiers be armed or na­ked, and for Captaines and Officers ta­keth such as will serue for least im­prest.
This Commaunder establisheth such order in his Musters and Disci­pline in his Armie, as euery Captaine may be trulie paid and cheequed ac­cording to their strength and weake­nesle of his Band: and being truelie paid himselfe, shall accordingly true­lic pay his Soudliers.Such a Cōmannder cannot endure such orders in Musters as are agreea­ble to true Martiall Discipline, but will haue all ordered by his own indis­cretion: and if his Captaines will be contributorie, they shall be paid Poule Ioule, without difference or check, and for their Souldiers, let them vse them as they list.
This Commaunder as he will see his Captaines haue their due, so will he heare the Souldiers greeues: being offered in supplication duetilullie, & without assembling in armes.Such a Commander (if a few poore Souldiers by supplication without Armes complaine they cannot receaue their pay,) will haue it a Mutenie and hang some of them in terrorem, for the Captaines cannot contribute largely to him, vnlesse they may crush the poore Souldier Impune.
This Commaunder will by con­ference examine the abilitie of his Captaines, and Officers: to remooue such as he findes insufficient & place sufficient in their roome.Such a Cōmaunder reiects none but such as will not be contributory, or im­portunes him for their Souldiers pay and cannot liue by crushing of their Friends and poore Souldiers as his o­ther braue men will.
This Commaunder will see his Captaines and Officers of enerie par­ticular Band, traine their Souldiers, and exercise them in the vse of euery kind of weapon.Such a Commander being both ig­norant himselfe and hauing manie like Captaines, will none of this: al­leadging it is a needles tyring of the poore Souldiers, and scoffe at them that do [...] it.
This Commaunder being in the field, will also before hee see the Ene­mies: cause his Souldiers to bee im­bettailed in seuerall sortes: and teach them howe to answere euerie charge of horse or other attempt of their E­nemies. And this will he often doe, as well to traine hts Souldiers: as to knowe the sufficiencie of his superior Officers.Such a Commander wanting iudge­ment to doo these things himselfe, doth not onely seldome or neuer vse any of these right Martiall exercises, but to couer the disabilitie of himselfe and his followers will ieast and scoffe at them that doo it, and call them Saint Georges Knights, or such like.
This Commaunder knoweth hee shoulde bee rather a Butcher then a Commaunder: if hee should bring his Souldiers to fight before they are thus trained and exercised.Such a Commander will not be a­shamed to maintaine this butcherlie opinion, that men are best trained in blood, and that other Traynings are ridiculous.
This Commaunder if his charge be of Footemen, will bee ashamed to bee mounted at anie time on a horse of force, or anie other than some litle nagge onelie for his case.Such a Commander will be moun­ted on such a horse, as he may out run the whole Field, and scape when hee list.
This commaunder will neuer see his Fantry in perrill, but if he happen to be mounted, he wi [...]l disinount: & if hee haue neuer so principall horses offered him to saue himselfe, will ra­ther choose to die or take their For­tune, than by horse or flight to saue himselfe: as the famous Romaine Ge­nerales in old time, and Mounsier La Noüe in our age hath done.Such a Commander so soone as he seeth his Fantery pressed by the Ene­mie, if hee bee not alreadie mounted on a choyce horse, hath one alwaies readie to run away with such other folowers like himselfe when his vali­ant men are cut in pieces, and then must these Runawaies by letters or Pamphlets magnifie him, and by de­uice disgrace these va [...]ant men that resolutely dyed in the place.
This Commaunder when he de­uiseth anie Enterprize vpon the Ene­mie, doth it onelie vpon matters of importance likelie to be effected: and for the benefite publique and reliese of his Souldiers.Such a Commander ca [...]th not how vnseazible the enterprize bee, so by pretence thereof he may get Money in­to his hands, regarding onely his own [...] profit, neither caring for the publiqu [...] nor reliefe of the Souldiers.
This Commaunder if vpon anie such enter [...]rize hee receaue Treasure, he imployeth it presentlie on the well arming and furnishing of his Souldi­ers and supplying of their needefull wants, that they may assayle their E­nemies couragiouslie, and attayne Victoris.Such a Commander when he hath receaued their pay, wi [...]l not pay them a penie till the seruice be past, no not so much as to supply them with armes and needefull furniture, knowing, the more of them are killed the more his gaine, who hauing their Money in his hand, meanes, according to such cor­rupt Freebooters lawes, To bee him­selfe their Heire or Exequutor.
This Commaunder seeketh by all meanes to spare his Princes purse and publique Treasure: and not to haue it wasted vnduelie, but imployed in matt [...]rs of importance: and for reliefe of the Souldiers that truely serue, and deserue.Such a Commander careth not how his Princes purse be picked, so hee may haue his share of the spoyle: and so that be large inough he careth neither for Captaine nor Souldier.
This Commander winneth the loue of his Captaines and Souldiers by dooing Iustice to both, by procu­ring their due to both, and seeing the one doo right to the other.Such a Commander currieth Fa­uour with the Captaines onely of his owne humor, by suffering them to crush and oppresse the Souldiers: and on his Souldiers hee taketh no more compassion then on Doggs: his gaine growing chie [...]elie by their staruing or killing.
This Commander vsing Iustice and right Martiall Discipline, God commonly prospereth and blesseth his Enterprizes.Such a Commander vsing the con­trarie, God seldome or neuer blesseth him with any good successe: but with shame and confusion, if by right Mar­tiall lawe he might rece [...]ue his due.
This Commaunder (to gaine a world of Treasure to himself) would not consent to the defrauding of his valient Souldiers of their due: or to the crushing or oppressing of freinds or duetifull Subiects.Such a Commander (to currie Fa­uour with the great ones, and gaine Treasure to maintaine his owne viti­ous prodegalitie) careth not how the p [...]ore Souldiers are abused, or the Friends, allies, and dutifull Subiects oppressed.
This Commaunder (by his iustice and good Discipline) winneth the hearts euen of Enemies, and encrea­seth his Princes Dominions and Ter­ritories.Such a Commander by his wicked life and bad Discipline alienateth the hearts euen of Friends and allies, and looseth by peecemeale great Proui [...] ­ces where he maintatneth his [...]itious Prodegalitie vpon their robbery and spoyle.[Page] 
This Cōmaunder seeketh no vn­honest or indirect meanes by false surmises or lewd practizes to disgrace othermen of value to aduaunce him­selfe: but reposing himselfe on true vertue, enuieth not the good seruice of other.Such a Commander (being v [...]ide of all true vertue) enuieth the same extreamelie in others, and engineth by all false and vnhonest practizes (by disgrace of his betters) to purchase a vaine fame among the ignorant that are blind, and not able to iudge aright of Cullors.
This Commander being suffici­ently honored by his owne true ver­tue and valew, contenteth himselfe therewith, and laboreth not by any indirect meanes to haue vntrue fames bruted of him.This other cōmitting manie shame­full and reprochfull errors (des [...]ruing in right Martiall Discipline ignomi­nious disarming, by running away when his Souldiers are butchered, or staruing them for want of their pay by him receiued, &c) is neuerthelesse so farre past shame by bad education in corrupt Discipline, that he will tri­umph of these shames: & cause Pam­phlets to hee published of his praise, & the blind multitude (manie times missed by these toyes) extoll the Cuc­kowe for a Faulcon, and make an Eagle of the Dawe.
Where these kinde of Com­manders are chosen and honored, God will blesse, encrease and ampli­fie the State and confound their Ene­mies, and the glorie of that state shall not bee blemished but protected by the omnipotent hand of the Lord of Hostes.Where these kind of Commaun­ders are suffered and not corrected or suppressed, the iust Iudgemēts of God are to bee feared: who neuer permit­teth such Iniquity to florish at any time but for their greater Ruyne.

This briefe Conference of Good and Bad Officers and Commanders may serue as a Glasse or Toutchstone for men to beholde [Page] and trie one sort from another, and by the Fruits to Iudge aright of the Trees, especial­lie for chief Magistrates to discerne by sound reason aright, and not to be abused by vaine Fame and vncertaine Opinion in a matter of so great Consequence: And if anie guiltie Conscience wintch at this, it is not I but them­selues bewray their Galled Backes.

TO Conclude, least my meaning should maliciously bee miscon­strued, I must protest, that albeit I haue in manie parts of this trea­tize seuerely inueighed against manie abuses and Corruptions bred & fostered in ciuill dissenti­ons, yet is it farre from my mea­ning to inueigh generally against all such Captaines, Commanders, or Generalls as haue borne charge or sway in these Intestine Warres, for I haue my selfe knowne many Captaines and great Commanders in those Warres that highlie esteemed of right Martiall Discipline, & by experience feelinglye, seeing the In­conueniences, that ensue by such Corruptions, haue the more detested and abhorred them. As likewise that fa­mous Prince of Orenge (I am able to say of mine owne [Page] knowledge, and from his owne mouth) mutch disliked many of those horrible disorders, which neuerthelesse necessitie for want of meanes to pay, inforced him to tollerate in some of his Mercenarie Commanders. The like appeareth by the Discipline before published by that worthie Prince of Coundy, and right Militare Ad­mirall Shattilion, who notwithstanding were enforced to suffer many of these things themselues condemned. But my meaning indeed is with Reproach to noate all such men of Warre as contemning all ancient and true Martiall Discipline, either ignorantly thinke all they see done in these Warres fit to be imitated, or Rauenously for their owne gaine and particular profit will not one­ly themselues be the Exequutioners of so foule Abuses, but shamelesly maintaigne such bad new Customes to bee good and Laudible: and knowing their skill vt­terlie vnable with any Eloquence or Cunning to defend so impious and bad a cause, wil either by Muti­nous factions violentlie endeuour to oppresse, or by false flaunders Malitiouslie seeke to disgrace such per­sons as they know able to discerne and willing to make their Prince and Countrey trewlie vnderstand, see, and abhorre such horrible Abuses. Neither doo I hate the person of a [...]ie one or other Militare man aliue for any respect whatsoeuer, but onlie such Extortions and Cor­ruptions in some of them, as I should likewise detest (if I should finde the same) in mine owne Brother. And therefore no particular or priuate respect, but onely the great Inconuenience I doubt may ensue, and the faith­full zeale, loue, and dewtie I beare to my most gracious Soueraigne and Countrey, hath moued and induced mee (aswell while I bare Office of Comptrolemēt in Mili­tare [Page] causes as now also, being happelie disburdened of that thankelesse place) so plainelie to declare a truth, not fearing to incurre or irritate the mallice of so vi­perous and pestilent slaunderous Enemies, as both my­selfe haue, and all other honest Officers shall finde such to bee, as haue vowed their seruice to Madam Pi­corea so liuelie with detestation painted out in her cullours by that worthie and famous Souldier Mounsieur de La Noüe.



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