[Page] A BREEFE AVN­SWERE OF IOSEPHVS QVERCETANVS ARMENIA­cus, Doctor of Phisick, to the exposition of Iaco­bus Aubertus Vindonis, concerning the original, and causes of Mettalles. Set foorth against Chimists.

❧ Another exquisite and plaine Treatise of the same Josephus, concerning the Spagericall preparati­ons, and vse of minerall, animall, and vegitable Medicines.

Whereunto is added diuers rare secretes, not heeretofore knowne of many. By Iohn Hester, practicioner in the Spagericall Arte.


At London, Printed Anno. Dom. 1591.

conceale or fraudulentlie obscure, and with many falla­cies and subtilties shadow and couer those things, which beeing plainly sette downe, might redounde to a more generall good then easily may be expressed. And how­soeuer this malicious suppressing, or sophisticate publi­shing of diuers secrets, be generall in many▪Artes and knowledges, yet I thinke it is in no one thing more com­mon then in the Spagericall Arte. In the which Arte, after I had bestowed many yeeres studie and trauaile, J freely imparted to my Countrimē at diuers times heer­tofore, such secrets as by often reading in the best Au­thors of the same Arte, or by many experiments of my great labour and charge, I haue founde out most cer­taine and without deceit. And now vnder your wor­ships fauourable protection, J offer to my Countrimens freendly acceptance the Spagericall practises of Iose­phus Quercetanus, augmented with diuers rare se­crets not commonly knowne, all which J doubt not, will with more fauour be receiued in generall, if they may be graciously shadowed and defended vnder your wor­shipfull name, whose prosperous successe in all your ho­norable and vertuous attempts & actions, with a most deuote affection, J doe most earnestly wish.

Your dutifull Seruaunt, Iohn Hester.

❧ To the gentle Reader.

EXperientia stultorum gubernatrix, is with some held as a Prouerbe au­tenticke: but in mine opinion, (freendlie Reader) they are most fooles that want it. For without it howsoeuer otherwise well read, a man can say no more in Artes then the great Trauailer, (who in some fewe daies, hauing coasted the worlde in a Card-makers shop) can discourse directlie eyther of this or that, but must be faine if fault be found, to confesse his owne ignoraunce, and blame the Maps falsenes; yet as wee haue with vs a custome, when we heare thinges incredible spoken from a far, to say, it is better beleeuing it, then going the­ther to disproue it: so are there many, yea the most, which will not stick to talke most, that least of all aduenture in this perrilous passage to Science, and yet the onely directed path called experience: for besides the daily cares, nightly watchings, external woundes, internall woes, deforming of members, disquieting of minde, debilitie of senses, and losse of sight, with infinite other incombrances, which lie as Adders in his way that treads this walke, he shall on each hand be terrified with Legions of ly­ing Spirits, deluding flatterers, of tame beastes by the Philosopher held the most deuouring, and in­iurious slaunders of wilde beasts, the most impla­cable, selfe tryall hath taught mee this since I first [Page] vndertooke to search the secrets of Earthes flow­ing bountie, and her Minerall vaines, I haue suf­fered all the vnpleasant sharpnes that experiences pathes yeeldes, and endured euery enuie that ma­lice could deuise: yet the end I hope for, beeing the benefite of this Weale publique, in which I lyue, a willing, (though vnworthy member) animates me in despight of enuie, to professe the neuer dying labors of my ouer-wearied powers, to those that are willing to buy, (for nothing in a manner) what I haue obtained with my precious life. O the God that rewardeth all things, & will in my Redeemer, accept (I doubt not) of my intent, hath secretlie summoned my soule to discharge the fruites of her experience.

I haue translated this insuing worke, and writ­ten these present lines for thy good (gentle Rea­der.) On these flowers let no Spyder presume, for they are ful of vertue, that makes enuy mute. They are free gifts, and shoulde bee gratefully accepted, the best intend the best, the worst I write not for.

Such faultes gentle Reader, as by vnskilfulnesse of the Printer in this argument, and want of my continu­all presence in the printing, which are in any place to be found, J pray thee courteously to pardon, and freendly to correct.

A BRIEFE ANSVVERE OF Iosephus Quercitanus Armeniacus, Doctor of Physicke, to the exposition of Iacobus Aubertus Vindonis: Concer ­ning the originall and causes of Mettalles.
ANOTHER EXQVISITE AND plaine treatise of the same Iosephus, concer­ning the Spagericall preparation, and vse of Minerall, Animall, and Vegeta­ble medicines.
AND FIRST AN ANSWEARE TO his slaunderous Epistle, wherein he goeth about to ouerthrow certaine medicines of those whom hee calleth Paracelsians.

MInding to answeare the little booke of Aubertus, concerning the origi­nall of mettals, and their causes, although it be not greatly worthie of answere, yet I neither can, or may passe ouer this: greatlie mar­uelling at the rashnes of those mē which dare curse and condemne this arte, approued by the authoritie of so many ancient and great men, especiallie Hermes▪Trismegistus, Geber, Lullus, Arnoldus, Villanouanus, and our Auicen himselfe, Whose testimonies, confirmed with authoritie and argu­ments, yea and with practise it selfe, are of more waight, then that they should so easily be shakē of, with the slen­der reasons, & t [...]unts of such mē. But this truely I grant, that through the fault and deceits of some ignorant and [Page] wicked men, that the Chymistes are euill spoken of: but to condemne thinges for their abuse, specially of so great weight (as I know and defend this to be) truely it neither can, or ought to be so. For it openeth vnto vs so many works of the almightie God, it laie [...]h open so many se­cretes of nature, and preparations of herbes, beastes, and mineralies hetherto vnknowen, and sheweth the vses al­most of all things, which were hidden and laid vp in the bosom [...] of Nature, that they shew themselues vnkinde toward man that would haue this art buried.

As touching Paracelsus, I haue not taken vpon mee the defence of his diuinitie, neither did I euer thinke to agree with him in all points, as though I were sworne to his doctrine: but besides the testimonie wherewith Eras­mus adorneth him in certaine Epistles, I dare be bolde to say and defend, that he teacheth many things almost di­uinely, in Phisicke, which the thankfull posteritie can ne­uer commend and praise sufficientle: whereof I trust oc­casion shall be geuen to speake in another place. But that all men may know with what discretion (thou Au­bertus) hast taken in hand to oppugne these things: goe to, we will reason of those two points, which in the Pre­face of thy little book thou hast taken vpon thee to han­dle. But thou art a man truelie (as I perceuie) of a verie sharpe witte. The one of thy points which thou handlest, is concerning Laudanum, accounted verie perilous: the other of the burnt eyes of a crabbe, which you also think to be ridiculous.

And first, because you thinke it not to be the Laudanum of Dioscorides, you demaund what it should be. Learn then this of ine, that this laudable medicine is so called of the Chymical Physicians, and that it doeth plainlie answeare vnto his name, if you call it Lawdanum. But you say it is made of Opium, Is that it that bringeth such a maze into your minde? Indeede Opium is put into it, but of a farre better preparation then is commonlie in vse: not with­out the spirite of wine, or the infusion of Diambrae, by cer­taine [Page 2] monethes, not without the essence of Safferon, Ca­storeum, Coralles, Perles, Mumia, and the oiles of C [...]namon, Cloues, Mace, and Anniseedes: of all which, being right­ly mingled (as it is the manner of arte) is made that most excellent medicine, to put away all vnkinde heates, to stay all fluxes, and to asswage in marueilous sort all man­ner of greefes: yet so, that it doeth not extinguish the na­turall heate, but rather preserue and defende it by stren­thening the spirites, much lesse that it doeth benumme them, or take away the motions from the parts (which is ridicular to be spoken) but with a certeine marueilous qualitie wherewith it excelleth, it helpeth the powers, as by the description of the foresaid things, and their due and not common preparation and mixture may easilie be gathered.

What will you say if I adde more, that there is put into it the true essence of golde, which is so commended in olde time, by the writings of learned Philosophers and Physicians? I beleeue you would laugh at this essence, which is vnknowen vnto you, yet familiar vnto many phi­losophers. But I affirme that golde to be a most tempe­rate and effectuall remedie to helpe the strength of na­ture, against melancholike affections, weake stomackes, passions of the heart, and such as be extreamly sadde.

Truelie you may worthe lie beleue, that there is much more force in his essence, then in your leafe golde. And this you will graunt (my friend Aubertus) that there is greater force of secrete qualities in that most fine golde, then in your brothes sodden with golde. Neither yet doe I thinke you doe beleeue (for that were too absurde) that golde which cannot be wasted or burned with the heate of the fire, can be so digested or ouercome by naturall heare, but that it may by some meane streng hen the hart the substance remaining whole, when as the opinion of the Philosophers is this, that all earth is dead, and that it is only the spirites of things that can worke in bodies. But Laudanum it selfe, although it be opiat, yet is it not so [Page] to be reprehended. For if it were not so corrected afore, it were very dangerous, & for his extreame coldnes dead­lie, as the Paracelsians which are the folowers of the true and auncient phisicke, doe well vnderstand. For nei­ther doeth any of them doubt, but that Opinm, to take away his venemous force, is corrected of many, only with safferon, castoreum and mirre, which correction doeth nothing hinder, but that it may be done with a better preparation: for Aloes also is washed, that it frette not the veines with his sharpnes: and blacke Elebore is made so commodious for vse, with the spirite of wine, and oile of Anieseedes, (that you may learne also of the Chymicke Phisicians) that it may be safelie geuen to children a­gainst the dropsey, and all melancholie affections. There­fore opiat medicines are not so rashlie and vnaduisedlie to be condemned, of which are made sundrie medicines to asswage the vehement paines of the collicke, reines, plurisies, and goutes: to prouoke sleepe, to ease the cough, to stoppe spitting of bloud, and to stay all reumes, such as is that Philonium which is allowed of all auncient Physi­cions.

Also opiat things are necessarie in medicines that ex­pell poison, Antidotes▪ to strengthen the principall partes, to withstande the malignitie of any poison, and infinite other affects, as may be seene in that excellent triacle, described by Andromachus the elder, into which 3. ounces of Opium is put▪ Likewise in the fourth and last preparati­on of Mitridate, which Galen, Aetius, and other Greekes, haue drawen from the ancient Phisicians, Antipater and Cleophantus, whose qualities they haue described to be most like vnto the triacle. Peraduenture you will except, that the composition of this our Laudanum, is not so tem­perate, as this composition of triacle. Therefore you should know it first before you reprehende it, which not­withstanding, both reason doeth commend, and experi­ence shewe [...]h to be very profitable. Which onely medi­cine it were much better for you and such like to haue, [Page 3] for the curing of many diseases, then those sundrie deco­ctions of herbes, wherwith many are most miserably tor­mented. Plin. lib. 20 nat hist. cap. 18. Plinius writeth, that Licinius the father of Ce­cinna, killed himselfe with Opium, being wearie of his life. But I am assured, that there can none be found that hath been hurt by the vse of our Laudanum, which you not­withstanding falsly and shameleslie doe write: yea many learned and godlie men will auouch, that it is not with­out reason geuen, but with most happie successe, and pro­fite to the sicke, in all manner of rewmes, and to swage inflammations, and all other griefes aforesaid. The com­position of which most excellent medicine, and the pre­paration described, which is vnknowen to you, and such as you are: I had put in print if your writings had not for­ced me to consider, whether it were expedient to caste pearles before euery one to treade vpon.

Now I come to the other medicine, which you call a iest, and laugh because we minister the eies of Crabs cal­cined, to those that are sicke of a quartane: and specially because we prescribe for one dose. ʒ. i. ss. of this powder, and his mixture, for the cure of the quartane: and you conclude, that the whole Lacus Lemanus will scarce yeld so many eies of Crabbes, which certeinly is most true: for there be no crabbes in that lake, but many Creuises, which you (my Aubert) haue not well noted. For there be foure kindes of those shell fishes, which the Greekes call [...]. The one is called [...], that is, a Lo­cust. Another they call Gamarum, which Galen calleth [...]. The thirde [...], which they call Squilla. The fourth is the Crabbe, which the Greekes call [...] ▪ All these the learned know to be sundrie kindes.

The Astachi which you supposed to be Crabbes, and of the Frenchmen are called Escreuises, are like vnto Lo­custes, and doe little or nothing differ, but onely by a va­rietie of certaine forepartes and armes: for they haue a long bodie, and a long taile, whereupon there are founde fiue sinnes. Only the Crabbes haue a round bodie, and [Page] no taile, for they haue little vse of it, because they liue neere the earth, and creepe into hollowe places, & swim not much. But for your better vnderstanding, you maie consult with Aristotle, Pl [...]nie, and speciallie with Edwarde Plin. lib. na [...] hist. 6. cap. 71. Wottonne in his tenth booke of the difference of beastes, also the Commentaries of Matheolus vpon Dioscorides, which altogether will teach you, that there is very great difference betweene the Astachum, whereof you vndis­creetlie speake, and the riuer or sea crabbe. But you will say, there is no great regard to be geuen vnto words, and that these kindes of shell fish, for the most parte, are con­founded among them selues. Let it be so, this I would al­so speake by the way, because I see you doe lacke them, and that our disputation might be both more euident, you thinke it two waies absurd, that the eies of crabbes calcined, should be prescribed in a quartane, because that by their drith and sharpenes they increase the dis­case. O subtile argument, and worthie of such a Phisici­on. We are not ignorant (my Aubertus) that the continent cause or matter of the quartane ague, is the very iuice of melancholie, which by his proper causes being gathe­red much together, that it cannot be ruled by the natu­rall heate, at length putrifieng, it inflameth this feuer. This melancholie humor the Phisicians make double: the one naturall, which is as the fex and slime of bloud: the other adust, which is as it were, the congeled tartar or ashes of certaine burnt h [...]mors: and that commeth spe­ciallie of yellowe coller, and melancholie adust, although sometime it come of burnt flegme, if we credite the Ara­bians. Therefore seeing that the melancholicke humor which is colde and drie, is the matter of these feuers, we will confesse with you, the couse of them to be partly cold and drie: but that it is increase [...] by the vse of all drie and sharp things, we denie as false. For whereas this humor by nature is gro [...]se, sh [...]e and tough and that abounding speciallie in the spleene Mesenterium, and vseth to be ga­thered about the Hipochondria or sides, and by successe of [Page 4] time to be indurate: truel [...]e there is no learned Physician that doubteth, but that it is to be mollified, digested, ra­refied, made thinne, and cutte: but those thinges which for this purpose are of least force, are mollifying, which the Greekes call [...], and those which are o [...] a greater force, whotte and thinne, to the seconde o [...] thirde degree, are called of the Greekes [...] of the Latinists, rarifying, which with their heate and meane drith, doe dissolue and disperse, mollifie and digest all the hardnes of the spleene, and greeued bowels. The timelie vse of which medicines, chieflie is both requisite and greatlie commended in quartanes. So the barke of the Ashe, and of Cappars▪ the roote of Brionia, the wilde Cowcumber▪ Walwort, and Ireos, all whotte and drie some euen in the third degree, being taken, they mollifie and driue away all hardnes, or being applied outwarde, doe dissolue and consume the harde spleene: So may I fay of Amoniacum, bdellium, opoponax, galbanum, which although they be all whotte and drie, euen Barbers know that they haue a great force to mollifie and digest. Seeing then mollifying and rarefying things are conuenient to cure the quartane, as all men confesse being taken in season, thinke it not so absurde or ridiculous (my Iacobus) if ani [...] doe also vse the ashes of the eyes, or sometimes of the heads of Crabbes, or for lacke of them, Creuisses. For the ashes of those shell fishes, speciallie of the eyes, haue great force to extenuate and dissolue that fex of the me­lancholie humor, which those (whom you call Paracelsi­ans) doe name tartar congealed. But if you doe so much abhorre these calcinations, which we often vse, and doe aske why we doe it, learne this Auberius, out of Galen, in the eleuenth booke de simpl. medic. faculs. whereas spea­king of salt, he vseth these words: Salt burned, digesteth Cap. 11.more stronglie then vnburned, by how much the bodie is made more subtile, rcceiuing his qualities of the fire. Also he writeth in the same book those medicines which consist of thinne partes, haue more force then they of [Page] grosse partes, although they had like qualitie, because they pearce better: for which cause onely wee vse calci­ned Crabbes, to loose those feces, and tartarous humors. For by calcination, the salt of things is drawen out, and salt must be dissolued with salt onely, if you doe well vn­derstand it, and so you shall learne that diseases are not to be cured with cōtraries, but like with like, although as yet you perceiue not the reason. Otherwise, how could you say that the stones of spunges, burnt glasse, Goates bloud dried, the ashes of Cocles, Lapis Iudaicus calcined, or the bone of a cuttle, with so great force coulde helpe the stone, or grauell of the reines. I know you will flie to the Asses sacred anchore, namelie, of secrete qualities, which notwithstanding, reason it selfe teacheth to be done with the salt which doeth dissolue them, and expel them by vrine, what will you then say of the hedge spar­row, that laudable medicine of auncient Physicians, for the same disease, whereof Paul Aeginet. lib. 3. cap. 45. where he leaueth it thus written: This (saith hee) pouthered whole with salt, and often eaten rawe, driueth out the stones that are alreadie growen by vrine, and letteth thē not to growe againe afterward: but if it be burned whole with his feathers, & all his ashes, by it selfe, or with a little pepper dronk with old wine & hony, it worketh the same effect. Thus you see how the ancient Physiciās did vse the ashes, which you call absurd, and in what diseases: euen in curing the stone of the reines, whose matter is also such a grosse humor, that with heat it groweth to a stone. How much more Crabbes calcined preuaile against that disease, is noted of Hollerius & Mathiolus, and a thousand times hath beene proued by certain experience. Neither will I passe ouer (among other medicines which are vsed for this disease) Christall, which is the chiefe: Christall (I say) calcined, in a reuerberatorie, out of which after is drawen his salt, of whose dissolution, in a moist place, is made a most excellent oile, very profitable to put away all obstructions of the bowels. Wherefore you may not [Page 5] thinke it so ridiculous, that a medicine should be taken out of the calcined eyes of Crabbes, neither so to spue out your bitter poison against it. This will I also adde out of Galene, and the opinion of all the auncientest, that the Crabs them selues calcined, euen by the propertie of their whole sub­stance, are marueilous effectuall against the biting of mad De simpl. med facult. cap. 30. lib. 7.dogges. And Galens wordes which he reporteth of his ma­ster Pelope, doe shewe that madnes to be a most drie infecti­on▪ It is not without cause (saith hee) that the Crabbe (be­ing a waterie creature) should helpe them that are bitten of a mad dog, in whom it is to be feared, least they should fall into a most drie disease, that is, madnesse. Nowe there re­maineth that I should speak of the sharpnes which you finde in the calcination of Crabbes: which (as you say) doeth in­crease the quartane. But I feare least by those wordes the learned may thinke you vtterly ignorant what a sharpe tast is. For it is easie for vs to shewe, that the ashes of Crabs are not sharpe: for al sharpe thinges (as it is knowen to Physici­ans) are verie hote, of which Phisicians make two sortes. The one sorte may be eaten, the other vnapt to be eaten. These haue a certaine sweete, although obscure qualitie De simpl. med. facul. lib. 2. cap. 17.mixed. The other are deadly (if we beleue Galen) or at the least being laid vpon the skin, do quickle raise a blister. And those truelie are to be called sharpe when they are not min­gled with strange qualities, whose proper terme and ende is to burne, as it is the qualitie of sower things to cleanse, of sweete, to nourish. And that the ashes of Crabbes worke not that effect, Galens wordes doe shewe, where hee disputeth of De simpl. med. facul. cap. 18.the differences of bitter and sharpe taste: for the sharpe (saith he) hath certaine moisture mingled with it, but the bitter he confesseth to haue a hotte and drie qualitie, and saith they are like (as a man may well compare them) vnto ashes. By which reason you should better haue saide, that the ashes of the eies of crabbes are rather bitter then sharp, whose moisture being consumed and vapored away by hear, they are made drith and ashes: whereby they get not [...] sharpe, but a bitter qualitie: and although an earthlie sub­stance, yet thinne, by how much the bodie is made more [Page] subtile, taking his qualitie of the fire, as before wee shewed Simpl. 11. cap. 51out of Galen, and of necessity is made hot and drye, and therefore bitter, to clense, breake asunder, and cut grosse and viscose humors, as no doubt ashes and nitre doth (as Simpl. 4. cap. 18. Galen teacheth) whom at an other time you may better cō ­sult withall, least you appeare plainly ignorant of your first principles. But because I see some thinges must be pardo­ned you, go to, I willingly grant you that the calce of crabbes is sharpe: but that with his sharpnes, it doth increase the quartane, I vtterly deny. For I pray you (good Sir) is not Mustard, Peper, and Garlike, so far forth granted vnto him that is sicke of the quartane, by all the learned Greekes, A­rabians and of Paul Aegineta himselfe, that they are also prescribed them for a diet. And the Diatrion Pipereon, or that they call Diospoliticon, are they not reckoned amongest the remedies for the quartane? neither is it besides the pur­pose Lib. de fe­bribus.to shew the words of the famous Phisition Hollerius vp­pon this point, where he writeth of the diet of the sicke of the quartane. As touching the diet (saith he) at the begin­ning of a mean matter, & by spaces frō the beginning to the force of the disease, you may vse sharpe thinges as mustard, and salt meates, and after the force of the fitte the vse of them is necessarie, towards the end he addeth. Therefore are salt meates commended, because salt doth extenuat and driue away the excrementes, dryeth them vp, gathereth strength and comforteth.

By this I thinke you and all other do sufficiently perceiue how greatly you are deceaued in contemning our remedy taken out of the true doctrine of the learned. But because you know not the other simples which are put into this me­decine, or at the least passe them ouer with silence, beholde I will gratify you and shew you the composition. It taketh the roote of Aron, or Cockow-pintell prepared, also the rootes of common Acorus, and Pimpinella, prepared and dried, the eies of the Crabbe calcyned (of which for one dose, there is vsed not halfe a scruple) with semē nastortij & su­ger a mixture is made of all. The dose is one spoonful in the morning for to comfort the weake stomacke, to put away all [Page 6] obstructions of the bowels, and hardnes of the splene, an ex­cellent medicine often proued, and at this day in vse, with most learned Phisitions. I thinke there is no Doctor wil say this to be so absurd & hurtfull for the quartane. You should therefore if you reproue Paracelsus medicines, haue chosen some other more speciall thinges, wherein you might haue exercised the greatnes of your witte and proued your cun­ning. For these thinges (although you enuiously call them Theophrasticall) are both agreeable to reason, and to bee al­lowed of euery learned Phisition. But peraduenture you will say these thinges haue not beene knowen to the diuine Hippocrates, nor vnto Galen, and therefore you will cōclude that they are to be reiected: but that is onely by your owne iudgement, and not by any reason, wee do not despise their excellent knowledge and diuine learning, neither violate their lawdable memory, when as we say they were the first that florished in Phisicke: yet therewithall we affirme that they had not tried all kinde of medecines, or knew the properties of them all. Life is short saith Hippocrates, & this Aphor. 1.art which is occupied about this perillous practise is ouer long: Neither was Galen ashamed to confesse where he wri­teth of Hydrargyrū, or quickesiluer 9. of simp. cap. 19. that he had neuer made any tryall, neither that it would kill if it were eaten, neither if it were applyed outwardly: nor is it to bee thought that Theophrastus was the first and onely inuenter of so many remedies, the knowledge whereof (he himselfe confesseth in his bookes) he attained by the conference of diuerse learned Philosophers and Phisitions, both Egypti­ans and Arabians, amongest whom for learning sake, he re­mayned certaine yeares captiue, from whom at the length he brought away so many faire prises of remedies, all which are takē partly out of the true oiles drawne of spices, herbes, fruites, flowers, and seedes, and thessence of all laxatiues, whereof one drop will profit more, then so many drammes and ounces: which also (that they may worke by their whole substance) may bee sowed and cast vpon their proper salt, which in many may be done, as in other the earth is to bee cast away as vtterly dead and contrary to purgation. Also [Page] of diuers rosins, gummes, and other kindes of vegetables are drawen many faire and very profitable preparations: as also of diuers partes of sundrie beastes, of which rightly pre­pared are made many verie holsome medicines, as by the true preparations of Mumia onely knowen vnto the Para­celsians is made a most laudable medecine in all pestilent infections. Of the oile and salt of a mans scull not buried for the epilepsye: of the oile of honie and wax for the to­phy: of greases and other preparations the better to mol­lify and dissolue. So also of Muske, Ciuet, Castoreum, the Vnicornes horne, Iuorie, the horne and bone of the Hart, of a Stagge, and infinite other thinges are made many extrac­tions for the paines of the hart and such like. Of all which the Chimicall art hath taught the true preparations which you do condemne. For the Paracelsian remedies are not onely taken out of the metalliyne bodies, perles, and preti­ous stones, as many foolishly thinke and perswade the whole world: neither are they sharpe and violent (as the ignorant and vnskilfull prattle) but most sweete and familier to our nature, which through the excellencie of the spirites they often preserue, quicken and clense from all impurities onlie by sweates: and finallie are not a little profitable by their whole substance, as many learned men daily (with great successe) doe practice: but of these thinges more then e­nough. Therefore now we will goe forward to those thinges which you write tou­ching mettalles.

A briefe answeare of Iosephus Quer­citanus Armeniacus doctor of Phisicke, to the exposition of Iacobus Aubertus Vyn­don. concerning the originall and causes of mettalles against the Chimistes.

MANY write that mettell is a bodie to be digged vp by nature, either li­quid, Agric. lib. 8. de natura fossil.as quick-siluer, or hard, which may be molté with the heate of the fier, as gold, siluer copper, leade and tinne, or softened as Iron. Other call all things that are digged out of the bowels of the earth by the proper name of mettalles. So Onesicritus writeth that in Carma­nia there is a mettall of a red chalke. Herodotus affirmeth▪ that in Lybia about Atlantus, is a mettall of salt, and this doth Plinie testify in his 33. booke of his naturall historie. Others say that is proper mettall, which being molten is brought againe to his former forme, and that may be bea­ten out with hammer, is hard and apt to take impression & for that cause they deuide it into six, that is, golde, siluer, copper tinne, leade, and Iron: whereunto some haue added mercurie, not that it is a mettall indeede, but it may be. The Chimistes vse to call them by the names of the planets, not to referre their substance to the planets, as Aubertus foo­lishly thinketh: but partly moued with a certaine likenes of the greatest and principall starres (for which cause they na­med the two most perfect mettalles, the Sunne and Moone) and Iron for his hardnes, Mars, whom the Poets faine to be the God of armes and battell, and quicksiluer for the great and vncertaine motion they called Mercurie, and partly af­ter the Pythagoreans, that they might hide their secrets vn­der darke speeches. But I see no reason why Antimony should be properly receiued among mettalles (wherefore by Agricola his leaue, whose aucthoritie Aubertus leaneth [Page] vnto) it is to be excepted out of their kinde, for that it is all­together repugnāt to their definition: for all mettalles mol­ten doe returne to their, proper forme, and such as are ea­sie to be driuen, be hard, and apt to receiue impression: by which reason they differ from many liquable stones, in which the humiditie is not strongly mixed with the dry earthines, as also from infinite kindes of marcasites and halfe metalles. But Antymony molten doth vtterly loose his first forme, as practisioners doe daily trie, neither is it easye to be driuen, and practise sheweth it will take no print, and therefore pro­perly it cannot be called mettall. But it pleased Aubertus which is so learned in mettalles to affirme this, that yet he dreameth that tynne glasse (which is that Bisemutum, and that sinder or ashie kinde of leade whereof Agricola speaketh much in the 8. booke de natura fossil.) to be Stibium molten, and the Chimists, basiliske, which is most absurd. For that tinne-glasse which is commonly called bisemutum, is not stibium any way prepared, neither the Chimistes basiliske, extract with tartar & niter, may be called bisemutum, which I leaue to the iudgement of al that be of vpright mindes: but this is small to the purpose, when many thinges are called by the name of mettall, and yet not properly. But let vs pardon Aubertus in this which neuer saw any mines that he might iudge rightly of thē, neither vnderstandeth the minde of Agricola. In the meane time hee complaineth that Chi­mistes deuide the metalles into perfect and vnperfect, and that he thinketh ridiculous for many causes. First because of a certaine diffinition giuen by Geber, which agreeth no lesse to one mettall then an other: whereas the perfecte might be discried from the imperfect, one diffinition were to be giuen to the one an other to the other. As though the diffinition of a man were not agreeable to a child, although he be not yet come to a mans age: or in other accidentes seeme to differ from him, as mettals do differ among them­selues. So the diffinitions of white and red coralles should be sundrie and diuers, that by reason of absolute and perfect concoctiō the white haue not attained the vttermost degree, whose definition notwithstanding is all one. But Aubertus to [Page 8] proue his opinion the better, writeth that all thinges, which haue essentiall forme (as it is certaine mettalles haue) must of necessitie be perfect. And that nature the godly parent of all thinges in doing of her office doth not cease or rest (ex­cept it be letted) vntill she hath attained her purposed end and scope. He addeth that the matter whereof any naturall thing is made, and whereabout nature is occupied, doth moue so long vntill it hath attained the essentiall forme. He concludeth that mettall cannot rightly be deuided into per­fect and vnperfect, neither that gold ought by any meanes to be called more excellent and perfect, although it be more bewtifull and temperat then other mettalles, all which wee must confute, as sriuolous and vaine. And to prosecute all thinges in due order, we must shew that golde it selfe of the true Philosophers is worthily called more perfect, ex­cellent, and pure then other mettals: that hereuppon wee may conclude, mettalles not without reason to be deuided of the Chimistes into perfect and vnperfect. Therefore that I may also stay vpon the aucthoritie of Agricola (out of whom Aubertus hath specially taken those his wordes) he writeth in lib. 5. de ortu & causis subterraneorum, that mettalles do dif­fer among themselues, not onely in shining, but also in co­lour, sauour, sent, weight and power. And specially speaking of shining (which you Aubertus confesse to be in golde and siluer) he saith. But by how much the humor is more sub­tile, thicke and pure, by so much the mettall is more cleere and shining: for which cause in this behalfe gold excelleth the other. The excellencie of which gold Agricola himselfe seeketh in the difference of sent, sauour, and waight. For the vnperfect mettalles, when they come in any liquor are perceiued to be sower of taste, as copper and Iron: for the adust earth is cause of their sowernes, whereof those met­talles do participat, as Agricola himselfe witnesseth. But the other because of their pure earth, and more abundant wa­ter do not giue the liquors so sensible a sauor, bur rather a sweetish tast, as gold and siluer. Also for as much as in gold the earth is most pure and verie wel tempered with his wa­ter, it giueth verie litle or scarse sensible smoke when it is [Page] burned, and rather sweete then stinking. And Agricola ad­deth more that gold when it is purged in the fier hath in a maner no excremente▪ because of his puritie, in others there is more, but so much more in one, then an other, as it is more vnpure. Also the excellency of golde is to bee sought for in his force and strength, because that besides it and sil­uer all other mettalles do vanish away in smoke, and perish with the violence of fier vppon the test or cople: which hap­peneth vnto them, as the earth in them is found to be lesse pure and their temperature not so good. As it hapneth vn­to Iron through the impure earth, whereof there is great store in it. But when as gold alone cannot bee consumed 3. Meteor. cap. 6.with anie fierie heate, as Aristotle saith, and looseth nothing of his waight though it bee burned or tried, of necessity it must haue a most pure earth, and well compact with his wa­ter, whereby it commeth to passe, that his earth doth hold and let his humor, that it vapour not away, and contrari­wise the humour defendeth the earth, that it butne not (as saith Agricola) which commeth to passe, as others do affirme, because of a most subtill, moist, and drye, that hath not any impuritie mixed. By this reason gold according to the na­ture of thinge▪ is purer then other mettalles, and surmoun­teth them in price, because it is the most simple and purest mettall, and furthest from imperfection of elementes by reason of his forme. So Pliny saith, vnto one thing, which Lib. natu. hist. 33. cap. 3.is golde, nothing decayeth by fier (as the Poet also saith) and as appeareth by that aforesaid. By this we may gather, that amongest all mettalles, gold is not onely the brightest, but most temperat and perfect, in respect of which all other mettalles may worthely be called vnperfect. For nature al­waies tendeth to perfection, that is, to the making of golde, which alone amongest mettals is called perfect: for no a­gent naturall (as the Philosophers say) ceaseth from worke in his owne matter, neither is seperat, but with putting on some forme in that matter. Therefore so long as the agent is ioyned to the matter, or worketh vpon the matter, that is said to be vnperfect: for the perfection of any thing is not but by putting on of forme. For so much then as in all [Page 9] mettalles there is a certaine viscous water, which the Chi­mistes Philosophers call quickesiluer, because of the like­nes which is put in place of the matter, and that which they call sulphur by like similitude of the agent or inducer of form in that matter: no mettall can bee called perfect, but that frō which the sulphur is separated, But because other met­talles haue their sulphur mixed in the matter, whereby they are killed, made blacke, calcined and burned (which hap­peneth vnto them onely by that dry exhalation, that is, the sulphur because it is a matter apt to be set on fire) for that cause they be altogether called vnperfect. But on the con­trary part because onely golde is altogether without this sulphur, which the affinitie of gold and quicksiluer by it selfe doth sufficiētly declare. (For as Pliny writeth, all things swimme vppon it but gold, which alone it draweth vnto it) Lib nat. hist. 33. cap. 6.By this meanes it is free from corruption both in the fier & out of the fier, Of right therefore, it alone is called per­fect, and formed according to the first and true intention of nature, and complete, because it is come to the vttermost end wherein it is complete, and pure because the agent is not mingled with the matter, but is seperat from it. To this purpose writeth Aristotle Met. 3. cap. vltimo speaking of met­talles: wherefore saith he they conteine earth in them, and are all burned because they haue a drye exhalation, But gold alone of all the rest vseth not to be burned. But Auber­tus not content with these reasons will answeare: what so e­uer hath attained an essentiall forme, of necessity must bee perfect. But all mettalles haue their substantial forme. No man will deny (saith he) except it be some blockhead ashes blower: and by that meanes hereupon concludeth, that all are perfect. But it is easy enough for vs to answere this ob­iection. For those thinges which perseuer in their nature are called perfect in their kinde through their substantiall forme: but some continue by nature in their kinde, which notwithstanding are made perfect by some meanes through their substantiall forme, to the which their is a certaine mo­tion and end: but because they are carried to another la­ter essentiall forme, which altogether finisheth the matter [Page] it selfe, and maketh it complet: therfore they are called vn­perfect▪ so long as they remaine vnder that first forme, in respect of the later, to the attaining whereof they do ende­uor themselues. But if no accompt be made of that later forme, but they be considered onely in themselues: they are truely perfect in that their kinde (through their essentiall forme) as that kinde doth require. This all men see in the generation of egges, in which there is a certaine determi­ned motion in the getting of his substantiall forme, which doth so remaine. But because those egges are by nature or­deined to this end, not to remaine vnder that forme, but to bring forth a byrde, and so is made the begetting of the lat­ter substantiall forme: Therefore egges are called vnper­fect vnder the forme of an egge: but it is a perfect thing af­ter the bringing forth of a birde, for that is the last ende of egges. This is likewise to be iudged of mettalles, which albeit they haue in their kinde gotten an essentiall forme, yet can they not be called perfect, in respect of gold, which a­lone is said to bee perfect, vntill they come to that last & perfect end, that is, to the perfection of golde, and become golde. And like as in the generation of the Embrio, there is comparison of the vegetable soule to the sensible and of the sensible to the rationall, and not as formes so other imper­fect mettalles are in respect of gold. Therefore the Chimi­sticall Philosophers haue worthily deuided the mettalles into perfect and vnperfect. For although the difference of mettalles be in the forme it selfe, yet shall it not be proper­ly the difference of the kindes, as the difference of man and horse, but shall be taken more properly of the matter, & his partes that is according as it is digested or vndigested, complete or incomplete, seeing those are altogether of one proper matter. But indigest and incomplete is spoken in respect of gold. But whereas Aubertus judgeth Iron more noble then golde, because it serueth more to the vse man, I thinke he shall neuer perswade any Phisitions (be they neuer so vnlearned) which rather desire to catch gold then Iton. But I suppose there is suff [...]ciently spoken touching the ex­cellencie and perfection of gold: and because we said that [Page 10] mettalles are of one proper matter, although not in all alike digested, herein consisteth the point of the questi­on, therefore we must now come to seeke out that matter of mettalles. The Philosophers make two causes of mettals, as also of all other mixed bodies. The one generall and far of, which is taken of the elements, as of the first causes of all things, of which they cōsist, as of most simple, & are resolued againe as into most simple. The Peripatecians contende against the Stoickes, that onely the qualities and vertues of the elementes doe passe one into another, and altogether mingled. The Stoickes contrarily doe affirme that whole substances are mingled with the whole: but leauing these waues of slipperie opinions we will goe to the safe and quiet port. And in this point we do allow the opinion of Aubertus, who thinketh the elementes not to be mixed bodies essen­tially, or in deede, but in power, which Galen witnesseth in the first book, de methodo medendi, where he writeth that the elements are to be mingled wholly with the whole, onely by their qualities. Of the second or proper matter of mettalles, the opinion of many Philosophers is not agreeable, but ve­ry diuers. For some said the neerest matter of mettals is a moist breath, as Aristotle: & some hold it to be a water drawē from other elementes, which Agricola alloweth, whose opi­nion our Aubertus agreeth vnto. Other deeme it ashes moi­stened with water. But the Chimist whose opinion Aubertus goeth about to ouerthrow, saith quicksiluer is the matter of them: some haue ioyned sulphur: all which opinions are breefly and diligently to be examined by vs, that the matter may bee more euident, and that all men may vnderstand how vnworthely Aubertus & others haue inue [...]ghed against so many famous Chimist philosophers. Aristotle the prince of 3 met. cap. vltimo.philosophers assineth a double matter of those things which are made within and vppon the earth, by the supernaturall power and force, that is a breath and a vapour, by the mix­ture whereof, in the bowelles of the earth h [...]ethinketh all are made and haue their originall▪ and those hee d [...]uideth according to the diuer [...]e nature of the matter into two sortes, that is, into thinges to be digged, and [...]e [...]allyne. [Page] They are called fossilia, because they are digged out of the earth, and like vnto the earth that is digged, neither are they liquable, as all kind of stones which are made of a dry exhalation set on fier, and with the heate consuming the moisture, and in a manner burning it. The other sort are metallyne, whereof some are fusible and liquable, because they draw neerer to the nature of moisture, then of drith, as leade and tinne, and are so called because they are easelier molten then beaten. On the contrary, those that are to be beaten, which are molten with greater difficulty, as Iron, whose next matter is a vaperous breath congealed by cold, and groweth into mettall according to the opinion of Ari­stotle, whom our Aubertus thinketh worthy to be reprooued: For saith he, it cannot come to passe in the nature of things that there may be a passage from one extreame or contrary into an other without any meane: for it is euident that mettalles and breathes are of contrary qualities, for these are very subtill, and the other very grose. Hereupon he con­cludeth in the originall of mettalles, breathes and va­poures Lib▪ 5. de or­tu & causis sub [...]er.doe of necessitie first congeale into humors before they harden into mettalls. This did he take out of Agricola: but that excellent learned man, Iacobus Scheggius in his cō ­mentaries vpon Arist. Meteors, doth sufficiently defend A­ristotle, being vnworthily reproued, where he teacheth, that the breath or vapor whereof water commeth is one. & that whereof mettalles concreteth is an other, as also that wher­of a storme groweth another: for it is sometime more pon­derouse and grosse then that whereof water groweth. By which reason they propose a further distant matter of met­talles which say it is water, thē they which say it is a breath, when as the greatest part of meteors do growe vpon these breathes and vaperous matters raised vp out of the water and earth by the force of heate: for so much as there is no fertility of the water or earth without heat: for heate doth procre at these two as a first childe in whose nature the force of the parentes (that is of the foure elementes) is represen­ted, and as it were an ingendring power of them doth con­sent together, two qualities working by a masculine force, [Page 11] the other two suffering as feminine. But either of them o­baying the celestiall temperature as their father, whereby these thinges without life are accustomed to be procreat, by the instrument of the first qualities. And this may be per­ceaued by the verie sence, that so grosse vapors do often breake out in places vnder the ground that the diggers can not take breath, and sometimes through the grosenes ther­of as Galen witnesseth, are choked. If they be so grosse, who will iudge that mettalles and breathes, are of contrary qualities, but that they may grow into a sound matter of mettalles, without any other meane, as the ponderous va­por doth into a storme? Furthermore (as multitudes of peo­ple can testify) if it hath rained copper and Iron, and that stones and such other bodies do grow and are made in the vppermost aire, how should these be engendred of water, & earth, for whom there is no place to tarrie in the aire, ra­ther then of vapour and breath, which both can pearce & stay there for their thinnes and heate. Wherefore it is certaine that mettalles rather haue their originall of breath then of water: which breath because it is grosse, doth also ea­sely congeale. But what needeth more of this, when it is manifest to all Philosophers that all thinge haue their ori­ginall of that whereunto they may at last be reduced, For all mettalles (except the two perfect) which by greater de­coction haue their matter more compact and fixed, are they not reduced into a breath of vapor? & in the examinatiō of the test or cople do they not vanish away into smoke? Yes truly into smoke, which is not turned into water, or moiste­neth, but grosse because of the earthines mixed with it, be­ing cōgeled & thickned with cold, which by certain experi­ence may daily be seene & perceaued of those which work in fier and more easily also of the Philosophers in their subli­mations. The same doth Tutia, Cadmia and Pompholix with other such like prooue, which comming of the vapoures of mettalles sticke to the walles of the furnaces, and shew them to be grosse in the mines, neither do represent water by a­ny meanes. Let Aubertus therefore with his leaden argu­ment hold his tongue which goeth about to ouerthrow A­ristotles [Page] opinion, neither let him iudge rashly of things which he knoweth not, but credit those which haue experience, & know those vapors to bee most thicke, whereof mettals are first congealed, and without any other meane hardned. But hauing ouerthrowen Aristotle, let vs see what iudgement he will giue of other lerrned men and Philosophers, as of Al­bertus magnus, Geber, and other Collars (for by that name this our noble censor adorneth those excellent men) whose opi­nions Aubertus refelleth in this point, because they say, that quicksiluer and sulphur is the next matter of mettalles, and goeth about with certeine arguments to shew, how they are out of the way. First touching quicksiluer, he saith, it is not likely to be the propper matter of mettalles, because it can not congeale into hardnes: surely an excellent argument and worthy to bee often repeated of the author, whereunto notwithstanding he is answered by vs before the saith it can not congeale▪ because it is of an airy substance. But the va­por which we concluded out of Aristotle, to be the next mat­ter of mettalles, who will not confesse to be airy in respect of water, and notwithstanding who will denie but it may cō ­geale? then I confesse that quicksiluer is airy: and therefore many Philosophers iudge it not to be a mettall but onely in Power: but I do call it so to bee airy, that it sendeth forth a most grosse vapour, which by colde congealeth, as may bee seene in Mercurie [...]u [...]limat, and many other his preparati­ons, wherein he sendeth forth his smokes and vapors, but not so a [...]rye, but they will grow thicke. But what will you say to those vnp [...]rfect mettalles, which as wee before said in examination do fl [...]e away into smokes and vapors: what fi­nally shall wee thinke of their matter and forme brought to nothing, will you not confesse the grosse vapour which wee call quicksiluer to bee the matter of them, when at the last mettalles are reduced againe into it. But Aubertus alledgeth this out of Aristotle: those thinge▪ which perteine vnto wa­ter▪ if they conte [...]ne [...]n them [...] o [...] a [...]re then water, they can not congeale as o [...]le and quicksiluer. But the matter of [...] is [...] to be [...] rought to a hardnes, otherwise they cou [...] not put on the forme of mettalles: ther fore [Page 12] their matter can not bee quicksiluer, for so much as it can not congeale to hardnes. But this argument is no more ef­fectuall then the former: For he setteth downe as graunted that which he hath not by any means prou [...]d, and which we haue alreadie denyed: for we graunted vnto him that quick­siluer was of an a [...]rie substance, but that it cannot therfore congeale, wee deny, when contrary to his minde we haue shewed his vapors do congeale. And truly Aubertus doth not deny but by art it doth harden, but hee thinketh that neither by art or nature it may congeale into mettalle in hardnes or forme, as thoughe to thinke, were to demon­strate a thing. Therefore he denyeth quicksiluer to be the matter of mettalles: the cause which he alledgeth, that it is of an airy substance, is of no force. For wee haue showed out of Aristotle, that it is a vapour of an airy substance in res­pect of water, and neuerthelesse the next matter of mettals. Therefore airy thinges are to bee distinguished: for such as are altogether and simply airy because of the predominant matter cannot be coagulated neither by heat or by cold, be­cause their airie moisture cannot bee dryed vp, the earth w [...]nting, by which reason also they swimme vpon the water, witnesse Aristotle as oile, and are easily set on fire, because it is matter of fire, as oile it selfe and wooddes which swimme vpon the water, except ebenum which is more earthly, as by his waight may be iudged: but quicksiluer is neither set on fire, neither matter of fire, but most contrary vnto it like water, neither is it light but ponderous, that in it the soū ­dest boddies of all mettalles will swimme vpon golde onely except for the great affinitie of them both, whereby it ap­peareth, that it is of an other substance, then simply aire like oile. Therefore to the similitude of this quicksiluer, the next matter of mettalles: the Chimicall Philosophers haue said, that this quicksiluer is ingendred of a strong commixtion of the first matter of all mettals, that is of a moist viscous in­combustible humour, incorporat with a subtill earth, equal­ly and strongly mixed by small partes in the minerall caues of the earth. Vnto this wise nature (because the matter bringeth not it selfe to effect) ioyneth his proper agent, that [Page] is sulphur, which is nothing else then a certaine fatnesse of the earth engendred in the proper mines, and by tempe­rat decoction thickned, that it may turne the quicksiluer by digestion, and concoction into forme of mettall. Therefore this sulphur is to the quicksiluer as the man to the woman, and as the proper agent to the proper matter. Not that this quicksiluer and sulpur (as some foolishly thinke) are found by themselues in their nature in the mines, but that these are alreadie mingled by nature, and by longe concoction brought into the nature of earth. And this truly is the ne [...] ­rest matter of mettalles, as in the generation of man meate is neerer matter then the elements, the blood neerer then meate, and the sperme neerer then blood it selfe: and at last by apt digestion the matter receiueth the shape of a man. So when as it is said, that mettals are first made of the foure elements, as of their generall and first matter: the same order kept, it is necessarie that of those elements come va­pours, of vapours a slimie water (which is yet a neerer mat­ter thē the vapors, lest by defending Aristotle, Aubertus may thinke mee to gainsay my selfe) and heauy, mingled with a subtile sulphureous earth which is called quicksiluer: of which as of a neerer matter by meane of the mixture and working of the outward sulphur is made gold or other met­tall according to the great or lesser digestion of nature. For as the Philosopher writeth Metaph. 6. when any thing is said to be made of another, either an extreme & perfect, is made of a meane and vnperfect, as of a childe, a man, or else an ex­treme▪ of extreme, as aire of water: but let vs returne to our Aubertus. He writeth that sulphur also can not bee the mat­ter of mettalles. But let vs heare by what reasons he doth proue it. Sulphur, saith he, according to Aristotle, is ingen­dred of a hot, drie, and vnctuous breath, but mettals are in­gendred of an other breath hot and moist, and a litle vnctu­ous. Truly a goodly, but sophisticall argument, by which he goeth about to proue his purpose, by the opinions which he hath already impugned, Let him therefore remember that he before hath affirmed against Aristotle, that breath was not the matter of mettalles: and now he doth confesse that [Page 13] mettalles are ingendred of breaths. Therefore he speaketh against himselfe, that he shall not neede my refutation: hee addeth to proue his opinion, that sulphur waxeth soft with moisture like salt, and that mettalles are molten only with strong fire: but of a false antecedent can not follow a good consequent. For by no meanes is sulphur dissolued in­to water, but by heat is molten like leade: and this should our searcher of thinges vnder ground first haue tryed, then to affirme so boldl [...]e that which is false. Therefore that dart may be bent against him wherewith hee supposed to haue wounded [...]he Chimistes. Also he saith, that sulphur is of an airy and fi [...]ie substance, and therefore can not bee increased or congealed. But I haue afore shewed the contrary, wher­fore he is not to looke for any other answeare of me, because he hath neither reproued my argument, neither made any demonstration of his opinion by firme reasons. But this one thing sufficeth, that all wise Chimistes do affirme, that this which they call sulphur, is not the common sulphur which burneth with combustion of blacknes and adustiō & is bur­ned: whereas their proper sulphur doth whiten, rubify, coa­gulat, and finally make perfect that Chimicall quickesiluer which is commonly vnknowen into the substance of golde, according to nature, or of the philosophers stone, and gold according to art. And this is the true secret sulphur, and the onely tincture and shadow of the sonne and the pro­per congeler of his quicksiluer which the Philosophers haue shadowed with diuers names their dark speeches and enig­maes▪ whereby it appeareth Aubertus to haue farre erred, and by all meanes to bee refused, because he speaketh of a sulphur which he knoweth not: and that the Chimick Phi­losophers are not to be blamed because they say quicksiluer and sulphur to be the matter of mettalls, which do not vn­derstand it of the common quicksiluer & sulphur. For they know that these things whereof they speake are not founde in the mettal mines in their verie nature: but o [...] those two they say, there is made a third mixture, hauing the natures, properties & vertues of them, that of it may be engendred, any mettall according to the diuersitie of the composition, [Page] digestion and place. These shall suffice touching the next matter of mettalles which Aubertus would haue to be water wrought vpon by the other elements, but he hath kept silēt the cause why he thinketh so being contented to say that it is set forth by others, or that he hath found it in other mens writings, which is the saying of a man that will proue his o­pinion by an other mans credit, and not by reason, as the true Philosophers doe. But now the efficient causes call vs which the Philosophers make double and so many passiōs. for heat and cold are called [...], because they haue po­wer to moue: moist and drie [...], for because they ra­ther suffer any thing then worke, and are said to be wrought vpon of the first qualities, as of the most noble and higher in nature, by whose worke forme is ingendred in thinges: for the matter is not knowen by it selfe, but by the chaunge which cannot be without suffering, as neither that without touching, the which by coniunction, and cogelation, and by introduction of act and forme is abolished. But it is to be obserued that by the mixture of drie and moist the bodies are first called congealed, then harde or soft: of which con­gealed bodies there is a triple difference? for it is either a watrie humor that is congealed, or some dry earthly thing, or a mixture of them both. Also these, some of them are molten, some dried, some moistened, and some made soft. But those thinges which are drye and fierie, as hony and must, will neuer be congealed, and they which are moist & airie predominant as all oily thinges. Wherefore these al­so are not elements, neither the matter of these sufferinges. But of bodies which doe congeale and are hardened accor­ding to Aristotle, some are affected by heate and some by cold: by heate drying vp the humor, by cold driuing out the heate▪ Therefore those thinges that are congealed by heat by want of moisture are dissolued of cold, which maketh the moisture to enter in againe as salt. And those thinges which for lacke of heate are congealed, are dissolued againe by heate, entring in againe as mettals: for whatsoeuer is dis­solued melting, is molten either by fire or water. Whatso­euer melteth by water must needes be congealed by hot & [Page 14] drie, that is, fiery heate: and those which fier melteth, or whose congelacion in any part it doth dissolue (as horne) are congealed by colde, for of contrarie effectes the causes be contrarie: and because that mettalles do melt by heat, it is of necessitie that first they were congealed by cold, as the efficient cause, whereof none of the Chimist philosophers doth doubt, although, as Aristotle some time saith, experi­ence sheweth vs the contrary: for salt is congealed by heate, and may bee dissolued and molten by fier as I haue often tried, and it is called fusible salt. Neither Albertus Magnus that great Philosopher ought to be reprehended of our Aubertus because he referreth the power of making met­talles vnto heate, when as Albertus doth not meane it of on­ly heat, as he thinketh. Therefore it is to be knowen, as Aristotle witnesseth thinges by meanes of colde to suffer ra­ther then to worke, because that cold is proper to the pati­ent elements, that is water and earth, which both by nature are cold. For they do not receiue cold from any other thing as they do heate, but by taking away the heat they coole of their owne nature, neither are they cooled by any exter­nall cause, as the aier and fier. Wherfore albeit cold in mix­ed thinges hath an efficient force, yet it preuaileth rather to corruption then to generation, Therefore the Chimists are not to be reprooued, although they say that nature nee­deth a heat vnder the earth for the procreatiō of mettals, as a more effectuall efficient cause which may mingle, alter, dispose, digest, and concoct their matter, & at last with long tract of time frame it into gold as into his last end. Neither are they to be reproued in this that they refer some force to the influēce of the heauenly bodies: for Aristotle [...]onfirmeth their opinion in his booke de coelo & mundo and his booke of the causes of the properties of elements in these wordes. For saith he the first beginnings mouing to generation, and inducing forme in euery thing are the starrie and heauenlie bodies, by their mouing and light. For they are the first that moue, moued of the intelligences to performe the nature of generation or corruption for the preseruation of kindes, and of them is giuen forme and perfection, and as hee said [Page] in an other place: the sonne and man engendreth man▪ ne­ther doth Aubertus rightly conclude vppon this reason, the art of Alchemy to be vaine, if mettalles bee ingendred by force of the starres, when as the Chimiste s can not haue the fruition of this heauenly power: for they beleeue with the Philosopher, that if formes bee put on vppon inferiour thinges by the motion and light of the heauenly bodies, & by their site and aspect, the same by consequent to come to passe in mettalles, but that is done as it were by a generall cause and farre off: but they haue a neerer efficient cause, as we said that is heate, by force whereof mettalles congea­led in the bowels of the earth are disposed, digested & made perfect. These thinges thus declared, we must see to what end Aubertus tendeth and what is his vttermost scope, hee would haue the labour of the Chimistes, which they take v­pon them in making perfect of mettalles to be vtterly vaine and lost, and he denyeth that copper, tinne, Iron or leade, (which of them are called vnperfect mettalles) can by any art be made perfect, and be turned into gold and siluer. And first saith hee, it is euident those foure mettalles to bee perfect: but we haue before shewed they are altogether vn­perfect for many causes, neither can it be denied but that by art and right preparation they are made much more per­fect and excellent in their kinde. Therefore Aristotle 4. met. cap. 6. Iron saith hee, wrought is molten that it becommeth moist and congealeth againe: and no otherwise are they ac­customed to make steele, for the fex of the Iron setleth and is seperat into the bottom: and when it is after made pure and cleane from his forces it becommeth steele: but Iron is so much the better as it hath least excrements. But let vs passe ouer authorities, when we haue sufficiently approued this by philosophicall reasons, by which we haue more then sufficiently shewed onely gold to be perfect, all other met­talles to be vnperfect. Moreouer Aubertus addeth, that he might make the art of transmutatiō vnpossible. Those things which are ma [...]e perfect and formed by art are artificiall, but mettalles both by knowledge of the name and diffinition of the essence are naturall, for they are mineralles saith he and [Page 15] haue their originall onely from a naturall beginning, there­fore they are naturall, and that according to Aristotle. For naturall thinges haue the beginning of their making in thē ­selues. but those which are made by art, not: but haue it outwardly from some other▪ and brieflie to end, hee addeth that no naturall forme can bee put on by art, whereby hee concludeth that there can be no artificiall mettalles. Now therfore goe too, it is our part to ouerthrow these argumēts, and finally to proue the Chimick art to be true, which imi­tating nature it selfe doth transmute mettalles, we said be­fore they were called vnperfect, which were in motion to that forme whereunto they were last decreed, and those per­fect, which haue attained the end of their motion. And be­cause gold is come to the vttermost terme of his motion, & is formed according to the true intent of nature as we haue alreadie shewed: therefore we hane concluded that alone to be perfect, and all othe [...] that be in their motion to the forme of gold to be vnperfect, whose perfection notwithstanding nature doth still prosecute in her bosome that she might con­uert them, although in long time into golde. This can the diggers of mettalles testify which in one hundred waight of lead finde certaine ounces of fine siluer, which is their great gaine. So also in many copper mines there is found gold: and likewise in siluer mines, which when as such as are skil­full of these thinges perceiued, or as often as they found any vnperfect siluer through indigestiō, they vse to shut vp their mines, and prouide that they be so let alone for 30. yeares or more vntill there bee made a perfect concoction by the heate vnder the earth. So also writeth Plinius, that there Hist. lib. 33 cap. 4.is siluer in golde by diuers waight, in some the tenth part, some nine, and some eight. In one onely mettall saith Galen, which they call Albi [...]rarense, the 26, part is found, and ther­fore it is more excellent then other, because it is according to the greater or lesse digestion of nature, as may be iudged▪ For when as digestion is complete, then is found most pure and perfect gold. Whereby it appeareth that albeit mettals be in a certaine terme of motion, yet not to bee in the last, and that they are in the way and passage to gold, as to that [Page] Hist. lib. 33. cap. 6. which is only perfect. For where any vaine of mettal is found neere therto is also foūd another: wherupon after Pliny they are called mettals of the Greeks [...] that one is sounde after another. But Aubertus wil say to this. If vnperfect met­tals by longer decoctiō may be reduced into gold by nature, why do not the diggers expect that time, speciallie seeing, if that should come to passe, they should haue much grea­ter gaine by the thing: we answere there are certaine things which make the generation of mettalles diuers not onely in kinde but in properties and accidents, according to the re­gions and places where they grow, as also beastes are made diuers, as writeth Aristotle 6. de animalibus. For in Egipt Scorpions are not venemouse, in other places contrary: and wheat in time & in some places doth degenerate into rye, & rye into wheat: So is to be said of mettalles which although they be appointed of nature vnto their end, that is that they should be gold, notwithstanding by the diuersity of Regions and mines and their corruption some are brought to their degree of perfection that they become golde, and some re­maine in the path of imperfection according to the diuersi­tie of digestion or purifying: For by weaker heate nature doth congeale some vndigested thinges as lead and tinne, & some with a superfluous and burning heate, as copper and Iron, and some contrariwise for want of heate and lacke of an agent doth not congeale as quicksiluer. But nature it selfe bringeth forth siluer with a reasonable temporat heate, but gold with a most temperate which needeth no workeman­ship to be made perfect, as that hath attained the vttermost end and accomplishment. For as Aristotle saith in his 2. booke de Coelo & mundo: that onely is good accomplishment that needeth no labour to make it good, and all perfection of thinges consisteth in this point, that they receiue their last accomplishment, For so much then as the vnperfect met­tals haue not attained to that last ende of perfection for the causes aforesaid: therefore they lacke the worke of art, by whose help following nature it selfe, they are at length made perfect, and attaine that last end whereunto they were or­deined of nature, that is they become golde. For as the [Page 16] Philosopher writeth 2. Ethicor. truely sometime art maketh perfect some things which nature cannot worke, other some it doth follow. So nature being holpen by art, trees bring forth their flowers and fruites euen in the winter season, and in cold countries, which nature of it selfe could not do, as is to be seene in the county palatines orchard at Hedelberge, and in many other places: but that which Aubertus saith, that in the whole work of Alchemy nature doth vtterly rest, and onely art doth moue the subiect, it is most falsly spoken: for by reason of nature being agent Chymia is a naturall worke, for the matter in the selfe same stone which by de­coction it desireth, retaineth, digesteth, expelleth, corrup­teth, engendreth, and formeth in his time by the comman­dement of almightie God, wherewith nature doth forme mettalles by the mixture of it: but by reason of the ministe­rie I confesse Chimia to be an artificiall worke, not that art doth corrupt engender and forme, but thus farre onely that it ministreth all this vnto natures working, which otherwise of it selfe it could not alone performe: for nature worketh two manner of waies to engender golde: one by it selfe: and first of all when it doth engender gold in his proper mines, and of his proper beginninges, in which it is vnpossible for art to imitate nature. Secondly it worketh by it selfe but not first, because first it engendreth some vnperfect mettall of the same beginninges in his mine: and lastly conuerteth it into gold, in which point art followeth nature it selfe, in that of vnperfect mettalles it maketh gold as nature it selfe doth. Hereby it is euident something to be made of some­thing: two manner of waies mediatly and immediatly. For according to Arist. lib 9. Meta. There may be many matters of one thing, as mediat and immediat: albeit at the last the mediat matter must bee reduced into the immediat, for o­therwise of diuerse matters diuers thinges would rise. Ther­fore because art taketh both the mediat & immediat matter which nature doth, & reduceth the mediat at the last to the immediat as nature also doth, & hath one and the selfe same agent which shall spoile the quicksiluer, and at last transfor­me it, and the end of art and nature is all one, that is by the [Page] vniting of this forme with his matter, at last to ingender gold: there is no doubt, but that art imitating nature it selfe in all pointes can make an vnperfect mettall a perfect, as nature it selfe doth make, as we haue aforesaid. Where­fore the causes being all one, of necessitie they also must be one, and bring forth the like effectes. Neither do I thinke them to be excused which seeke the subiect of the Chymick Philosophers in the vegitalles. Their lahour is in vaine, for there can be no generation but by the neerest, conuenient and immediates, Others haue bestowed their labors vpon animall thinges, specially in an egge, because the Chimick Philosophers moued with a certaine similitude of egges cal­led their worke the egge, and said that the egge euen as the Elixir doth conteine 4 elements, whose shell they called the earth, the thinne skinne the aire, the white water, and the yelke fier. So also the same Philosophers by a darke speech said, their stone was one in three, and three in one, because it conteineth in it a bodie that standeth, a soule that g [...]ueth life, and a spirit that staineth. They which vnderstand not these darke speeches, perswaded themselues that an egge was the Philosophers stone, because it conteined three in one, the shell, the yelke, and the water: and therefore at last concluded the egge to be the onely matter sought for by the Chim [...]stes, being no lesse deceaued then other, not conside­ring this matter not to be fit to draw out mettall out of. For a man begetteth a man & a beast a beast. But because good Au [...]ertus hath tried this with his losse (as I hard) which de­cocting egges philosophically consumed some hundred of crownes: therefore he quarrelleth with the art, as though it had deceiued him, but vndeserued, when he himselfe rather erred: for art is not bound to maintaine his fault. For kinde ought to be ioyned with kinde, and like with like, and euery blossom to answere to his seede, as we said afore. And there be some which seek the matter of their Elixir not in vegitals or animalls, but in thinges vnder the earth and neerer. For they say that art doth immitate nature, and therefore thinke to labor vpon those first matters wherupon nature, wrought and decoct quicksiluer and sulphur, which they heare to bee▪ [Page 17] the next matter of mettalles. But sillie men they loose both their cost and labour: For the Philosophers quicksiluer is not that common, neither also the common sulphur as I said. For is there any man which can attaine the intent of nature in due proportion and measure? no man truely. Moreouer quicksiluer if you set it but to a verie litle [...]ier, it vaporeth away, & being mixed is seperated, & sulphur also not hard­ly, when notwithstanding the coniunction of both these is necessarie euen to the end of digestion in the generation of mettalles: so are they deceaued as many as seeke the stone in marchasites, tuty, antimony, ar [...]ick, & orpment, when as it is either altogether an inseperable sulphur, & yet ought to be seperat at lest, as wee haue said: or because it is seperat with a small fier, all the Philosophers writings sufficiently declare that it can not bee the Philosophers subiect. They also erre which think to take gold for the man and siluer for the woman: which two they amalgame (for we may vse the words of the art) with common mercurie, & of three make one, which they decoct chyminically, sublyme: and out of it at last drawe the spirit, which afterward they goe about to fix. For they depart from the philosophers writinges which confesse all with one mouth, that the agent is ioyned and proportionat by nature in the mines with his owne matter, and they say, that it is but one thing wherein are the foure elementes well proportioned, that there is the [...]ixer & the [...]ixed, the stayner and the stained, white and red, male and female compound together. It is therefore as wee said be­fore a certaine third nature, common and altered of diuerse mixture and digestion of sulphur and quicksiluer, in which is a mineral power to ingender a mixt thing, which to do so, perpetuallie worke and suffer betweene themselues vntill they be translaved from the forme of vnperfect bodies, first begotten (the agent not being yet seperat from his matter) into an other forme, and at last come by continuall digosti­on and purifications to the last & true perfect forme which is the forme of golde, in which is the last tearme of motion where also the agent is v [...]terly seperate from his matter. Many see [...]e what this is, few finde it, or if they do finde it, [Page] they know not the preparations and intentions of the phi­losophers, whose medecine is also drawē out of those things by art, in which it dwelleth potentially by nature, and in Philosophi­ci lapidis o­perationes. Calcinatio. 1which the perfection of the first matter, and all mettalles are found. This matter after they haue founde it, first they thinke meete to be calcined, and purged from all his filths restoring his h [...]a [...]e and preseruing his naturall moisture: for in the Chimicke calcination there ought to be no diminuti­on Solutio. 2of▪ the body, but rather multiplication. Then they reduce the calcined matter by making thin his groines into a cer­taine liquid substance, as into his first matter, which they call minerall water, which doth not wet the handes. then is it made one in kinde, but not so in number: whose father they call the sunne, the moone the mother, and mercury the mediator, & the bodie is altered from his proper forme, but a new is induced immediatly: for there is nothing Element. separatio. 3founde in the nature of thinges spoiled of all forme. That done, out of that so dissolued they seperat the four elements and deuide them into two partes into the ascendenter spiri­tuall, and into the inferiour or earthly, which twoo partes yet are of one nature, for the inferiour is the leauē fixing it, and the superior part is the soule quickning the whole matter. Notwithstanding their diuision is necessarie, that they all might be the easilier changd amongest themselues, and therewith part by passing into water wax blacke, and the water by passing into airie wax white, and the aire be [...] turned into fier.

Coniunctio 4 The separation of elements made, they make a coniuncti­on of water & earth with aire and fire keeping a proporti­on that euery element may be dispersed with other, & giue vnto the male 3. partes of his water, and vnto the women ix. parts then euery like reioyceth with his like, for the de­sire of the ioyning specially of the materiall & sulphureouse forme. These thus ioyned, they putrify it in a moist heate Putrefactio: 5(lest by hot fier the mercurie should be seperat or carried vp on high through his spirituall nature) that by this corrupti­on the matter might be changed, and the elementes natu­rally deuided, that regeneration may followe: for there is [Page 14] nothing borne or groweth, nor without life, but first things putrifaction is made.

Coagulatio 6 After putrefaction they come to coagulation, and with the same most temperat heate continually altering the matter, as well inwardly as outwardly, they do worke vntill all the matter be white like vnto pearles, then is there a true fixing and congealing of the shining spirites with the bodies The Chimick philosophers call this the white thorne, and white sulphur incombustible, which neuer departeth from the fier.

Cibatio. 7 Finally they proceede vnto Cibation, that is, to the ma­king thicke of the thinne, and making subtile the grosse mingling his water with the ashes, and his milke with the foliat earth: but moderatly that so the whitenes and rednes, goodnes, quantitie and vertue of it may increase and grow, and by decocting and decocting againe, the matter might be nourished.

Sublimatio 8 Then they sublyme the matter, but not with common sublimation, and so purge it from all vncleannes lifting vp the bodie, and making it spirituall, and the spirit corporal, & fixed by taking away the sulphureous saltnes that it may all be white and easily be molten,

Formeuta­tio. 9 Hauing finished the sublimation, they leuen the water by ioyning the spirit with his whitened earth or calce, as with his ferment, or incorporating the soule with the bodie. For the spirituall accidentes cannot shew their permanent qua­lities, except they be ioyned with fixed bodies, as with his leuen, which bringeth vnro him his aptnes to his nature, colour and sauour by the mutuall and common impression of the bodie, and spirit, without the which the worke can not bee finished, as paste cannot be leuened without leuen.

Exaltatio. 10 But for the greater nobilitie of the matter, they thinke it must be exalted by increasing the spirit, and sublyming & making subtil the earth by naturall, rectifying of all the ele­ments, and the true circulation and graduation of them vn­till they be brought to a perfect [...]mbrasing.

Augmen­tatio. 11 Then they increase the force of their Salamander by rei­terating their solutions and coagulations, and with new [Page] leuen in force and quantitie, and that into infinite.

Proiectio. 12. Last they make proiection of one waight vpon many, vp­pon the vnperfect according to the perfection of the mede­cine: for by how much the more it is made subtill and stai­ned, so much the more abundantlie it worketh: and so fol­lowing nature they make perfect vnperfect mettalles, and turn them into the sunne & moone: & of their proper mat­ter purified and made subtile by art, and then fixed by de­coction, and digested vntill it come to a white, and after in­to a red colour, and is made againe flying, and againe fix­ed vntill it haue his entrance and sta [...]ne perfectly, they ma e their medecine and their powder, which they call the philosoph rs stone. And that by sundry workes, [...]iuers thinges, many vessels, and many furnaces, as by that is a­foresaid, the vnskilfull of art peraduenture will iudge, when as vnto the true Philosopher in all this great worke, there is but one worke, one way, one thing, one vessell, one onely fier and furnace, as all do confesse. All these things would I note by the way, whereby I might ouerthrow maister Aubertus opinion touching the philosophers stone (for it is lawfull for any m [...]n by i [...]sting to vtter his follie in thinges vnknowen and that I might demonstrat, that not the bare forme of gold or siluer drawen from his substance (as hee thinketh) is not the matter of the philosophers medecine, But saith he, I care not of what matter the stone bee com­pounded. Notwithstanding because it is not a naturall sub­stance it cannot put on a natural [...] forme, but onely artifici­all and deceitfull. I could here appeale to the witnesse of many notable men, but I thinke it better to deale by rea­son. Therefore I say that mettalles truely altered are knowē to be perfect, not by the forme the [...] had afore, or that is put in (for that were impossible) but by the accidents, proper­ties, and passions which follow the formes, Therefore if in mettall altered all those thinges are found, in euery exa­mination that are in the true mettall: truely it is to be iud­ged they haue not a counterfect form, but the true forme of mineral gold and siluer. For that which worketh the worke of the [...]i [...] is the [...]i [...], as the philosopher writeth 4. Meteor. and [Page 19] so contrarie. Further more we haue shewed the Philosophers stone to be naturall, by reason of his making, and that by meanes of the naturall agent, that is fier, with his naturall colour sent, and forme, which are accidentall formes, follow­ing his determinat substantiall forme, art ministring mat­ter vnto it. For art is ioyned with nature, for the beginning of art is nature it selfe, as the philosopher writeth 2. phisic. [...]y which reason art may be called natural, his workes naturall, & his formes are called naturall in two sortes, that is when nature prepareth matter for it selfe, and afterward indu­ceth forme, as in man and stone: or when art doth minister and prepare matter for it selfe (yet not with the last prepa­tion) with nature notwithstanding doth dispose and prepare euen to the end, and doth induce a forme vpon it, as is to be seene in the making of ceruse and red lead. Neither is it a­ny new thing, that art in many points followeth nature, and that many naturall thinges are made by art, which Arist. af­firmeth 4▪ Metaph. spheaking of colchota and calchant. For nature, saith hee) in the mines of Atraments engendreth A­traments, and he sheweth the manner of the making. And a little after hee saith, the two atraments may be made and compounded by art: for art being the follower of nature, as he writeth 2. Metaph. by taking the substance of Iron or cop­per (whereof naturally they are made) ministring it vnto nature, with often dissolutions, distillations and coagula­tions doth so perfectly and ingeniously make them, that they haue the same properties and operations actiue & pas­siue that the two mineral attraments haue. The like is seene in making of salt. There is some minerall salt founde, as in Polonia, other some is made, as in France, yet hauing the same properties and passions as the minerall, by which rea­son it may be called verie naturall, and his forme also natu­rall and verie perfect. The like is to be thought of mettals, for as the want of proper matter is the cause chiefly, why that of euery thing an other the like is not ingendred: so if fit matter be found out, it is the chiefe cause why that of one another the like is ingendred. Therefore for so much as it is possible for the art of transmutation to finde out the [Page] same matter of gold and siluer which is altogether naturall, that is that third nature, the quicksiluer coagulat and mixed with his sulphur, and that it is easie to follow and imi [...]at na­ture it selfe in his working, because it doth decoct and di­gest that matter with most pleasant heate, vntill in the last terme of his motion his agent be seperat from it, that is his strange sulphur. It followeth both on the behalfe of the a­gent, and of the proper and naturall matter, the art may be called possible and truely naturall: but at the length Auber­tus will flye to this argument. If this Philosophers stone could iuduce the shape of siluer and golde, it would make it like vnto it selfe, and by that meanes frame another Philo­sophers stone. I answere, this conuersion of mettalles is the reducing of them vnto a certaine meane, that is, to a tempe­rature, and that excellent equallitie (which is onely found in gold) in substance colour digestion, fusion, sound and other properties. These hetherto disputed shall suffice, not that I would take away any thing from Aubertus estimation in other pointes, but to shew him and such as thinke his lit­tle booke to bee adorned with tauntes, that they haue vsed their sharpe tauntes against such as haue not deserued. And finally that I might defend the truth, whereof it were meete that he also were studious, if he be a good mā such as I think him to be: neither are these things deuised by me, but set vide plin. lib. natural. histor. 33. cap. 4. qui ex auri pig­mento au­rum perfec­tioni factū fuisse scri­bit.forth by most learned men, & confirmed with most certaine argumēts: notwithstanding least any man may think one to vse only their authority, which Aubertus ought not vtterly to contemne, for who will thinke that they haue left vnto vs rashly or without credite those se [...]retes euen vnder a holy oth. Therefore this same part of philosophie which hee so sharply doth taunt improue and cauell: I on the contrary dare boldly affirme, that it can neuer be sufficiently com­mended and praised according to desert. If wee do beholde only the miracles of nature which it bringeth out of his se­cret bosome, or the commodi [...]ities thereof, which are al­most innumerable, besides the infinite thinges wherewith it doth open many artes. For to passe ouer al other, the vertue of the Philosophers stone is such, and his excellencie snch, [Page 20] that it is sufficient for the healing of most diseases and it sheweth the true and exquisite preparations of medecines: but it is no maruel if the thing sti [...]ke to them that are accus­tomed with most vncleane thinges or with whom onely cus­tome maketh a law. But I do counsaile such men either to learne better thinges, or not to enuie those that are better taught, or at least that [...]hey will not reproue thinges they know not. If not, yet we will not care for their enter­prises, because wee know that at the last truth shall haue the victory, & with his bright­nes will driue away those darknes, & make all things manifest, as it is indeede.

[Page] THE TRVE AND PER­FECT SPAGERIKE PRE­PARATION OF MINERALS, animalles, and vegitables with theyr vse.

Set forth by Iosephus Quercetanus of Armenia Doctor. Whereunto are added, dyuers rare secrets, not heeretofore knowne of many. By I. H. practisioner in the Spagericall Arte.


AT LONDON, Printed, Anno. Dom. 1591.

[Page] ¶ The spagyricall Preparati­on of Mineralles and precious stones.

And first of Gold, Chap. 1.

De au [...] ALL medicines are taken out of thinges, minerall, animall, or ve­getable, by preparation. Amongest the mineralls gold only is most tem­perate and perfect, the which being brought in to thin leaues, is mini­stred by all the Greeke and Arabian phisitions, to strengthen nature a­gainst the passions of the hart, vnto such as are much addi­ted to sadnes, and against all melancholy diseases, as we haue shewed in another place. Wherefore they prescribe it in their electuaries of pearles, and in laeticia Galeni (although some thinke it falsly ascribed vnto Galen) in their Antidote of Coccus baphicus, otherwise called alkermes, in Aurea Alexandrina of Nicolas Mirepsi, and in his Analeptike elec­tuarie: In their diamargariton of Auicen his description & many other medicines, All which according to their na­ture and qualitie do exhilerate the hart, subdue melancho­ly and frensies, restore the spirites, and strength decayed: and this they vse to giue without any other preparation. But the Chimicall phisitions do draw out of gold a true tyn­cture to cure the same diseases: and many other incurable greefes, specially the leprosy, canker, and other corrosiue vlcers: and so make thereof a perfect holesome medicine [Page] which may easily bee caryed by the meseraicall veines vnto the liuer, and so vnto the hart, and through the wholl body: where as being otherwise vsed, it helpeth litle or nothing, but rather hu [...]teth much, because it cannot be ouercome by naturall heat: for as the fier with any heat cannot burne or consume the same, much lesse the strongest stomacke, hart, or liuer of any man what [...]oeuer: wherefore after this man­ner following you shall draw forth his tyncture.

Of the tincture of Gold.

tinctura au­ri. THe tincture of gold is his colour, so separated from the bodie, that it remaineth altogether white, and is pre­pared thus. First ye must purge your gold by Antimony ac­cording to art, than Amallgame it with mercury, and sette it in a furnes of reuerberation vntill it become spongious & light, and of a purple colour, & so that it cannot be brought to gold againe, out of the which yee shall draw his tyncture with Acetum alcalisatum, by digesting it in Balneo 40. dayes, being close luted with hermes seale: The which yee shall af­terward vapour away, and circulat it with Alcoholl vini, al­calisated, whereby his force shall be meruailously increased, for the curing of diuers and sundrie diseases, of the which tincture ʒ i. being mixed with ℥ i. of Aqua theriacalis, is taken euery morning ℈ i. fasting for the space 10. dayes. This me­dicine is diaphoreticall purging the superfluous and noy­some humors of the whole bodie, by sweat, the white body of gold, which is true lune fixed, the tincture being drawen away (as afore) is by an expert practisioner in few daies brought into Mercurie: which beeing precipitated by him­selfe into a red powder 8 grames thereof is giuen in wine or Aqua theriacalis to cure the dropsie and the pox, and that on­ly by sweat. If thou cast this Mercurie of golde vpon a due proportion of his proper sulphur, low it and digest it philo­phically, then shalt [...]hou make a most excellent medicine of all other to cure the leprosie, for it doth purify the bloud that is corrupted, and clenseth the whole body from all ex­crements, onely by sweates, and maketh a man as it were [Page 23] yong againe. There are diuers and sundrie preparations made thereof, which here I do omit for breuity sake.

Of Siluer Cap. 2.

De argento. SIluer which amongest all other metalles obtaineth the second degree of perfection is also temperat, and doth some way emoulate the qualities of gold, which Phisitions do minister against the same diseases especially against fren­sies and all melancholy greefes, and to comfort the braine: It is put into the Electuary of peatles, laeticia Galeni, aurea alexandrina, and almost in all Antidotes wherein gold is v­sed. Neither is it otherwise prepared then after the man­ner of gold only that it is brought into thinne leaues and fi­linges. But the spagerickes out of siluer itselfe draw an oile, wherof 2 or 3, drops are giuen with water of Betony flowers, sage, or balme, against the falling sicknes, and all diseases of the braine (as wee haue shewed) and it is thus prepared: Then Calcine fine coppell siluer with the oile of salt, so often that it can not be brought into his body againe: and thenwash the calx or powder vntill it bee sweet, and reuer­berate it: out of the which thou shalt draw forth his proper salt in balneo, then circulate it with the spirit of wine 15. daies in a pellicane to his perfect graduation: the men­strue being seperated in balneo, there remaineth in the bot­tom, the oile of Lune fixed, which is the best medecine for the aforesaid purposes.

Of Jron. Cap. 3.

Do ferro. THe ancient phisitions vsed Iron especially the scalles of steele to drye, and a stringe: and for that cause they quenched steele oftentimes in water, whereby the water did gather a vehement force of drying, which being dronke did cure the splene: and the wine also wherein it is quenched doth helpe the chollike and disenterie, & is good for those that are troubled with choller, and to strengthen weake Aeginet. lib. 7. Act. li. 10.stomackes (as Aegneta and Actius haue learnedly written) [Page 20] cap. 11. & lib. 14. cap. 24. for A [...]tius in his 14. booke reporteth that the scalles of steele brought into powder is giuē by it selfe vnto those that haue the splene especially to countriemen and such as are strong, which kind of remedie is much vsed now a daies amongest Phisicions for the curing of the same diseases: yet many of them condemne our mettalline remedies, and conclude that they are to bee reiected as most venemous: notwith­standing the ancient Phisitions haue drawen many inwarde medicines out of mettalles, wherewith they helped many diseases, as it may be seene. Who then will disalow their due preparations, and extractions of their quintessences. Concerning Iron as it is not without byting, so by spagyri­call preparation it looseth his corrosiue qualities, because there is a certaine sub till substance drawne out of it, or els it is brought into oile which may be ministred inwardly with more safetee and with great profite against the same disea­ses because it may be suffered of the naturall heate, and it wil also worke kindly vpon the bodie. This Galen also doth te­stify in his 9. boke of the properties of simple medicines 42. chap. where he speaketh of the scalles of brasse, all scalles saith he doe drie verie sore, but they differ among them­selues, for some drie more, some lesse, because some are of a more grosse, and some of a more thinne essence, afterward he addeth: but all flakes or scalles are strongly byting, wher­by it is euident that the matter of their substance is not thin but rather grosse, for amongest those thinges which haue that quallitye, that which is the thinnest is least byting. The Spagyrikes therefore do draw out of Iron, but especi­ally of steele a most subtill substance, which also with the fier of reuerberation they make thinner, and thereof pre­pare crocus martis: out of the which afterward they draw their oile which is a most excellent and no byting medicine a­gainst the Diarrheam, lienteria, Disenteria, & flux of the liuer, a notable medicine for the stomacke, and against all is­sues of bloud as well inward as outward, if it be mixed with conserue of Roses or Comferie, being prepared and con­fected after this manner.

Rec. the filinges of steele, wash it often with salt water, & [Page 24] then afterwarde with fresh water, then put thereon sharpe vineger that it may be couered foure fingers high, let it stād certaine daies in the sunne, powring on fresh viniger often­times that the filings may be made subtill. This ye shall re­uerberate a whole day in an open vessall vntil it be brought into a fine light red powder by the force of fire, the which you may vse: Then with his sharpe menstrue or the spirit of wine well prepared, you may drawe easily forth his spirite, whereof ye may make his oile, whereof one drop is giuen in a conuenient decoction, or mingled with some astringēt conserue, to the vses afore said: In this manner also is a law­dable medecine made out of Iron: Calcine the filinges of Iron in a violent fire with the flower of sulphur vntill all the filings be come red, and till the stinking earth be vanished a­way: reuerberat this the space of a whole day, and it will come, to a very fine purple powder, the which as I say be­fore may be kept for your vse.

Balsamum martis. Balsamum martis.

VPon the filinges of Iron often washed with salt water, powre sharpe vineger, that it may bee couered four fin­gers aboue your filinges, set it vpon warme ashes eight daies euery day stirring the matter: and seperat the vineger which will be coloured red, and powring on new vineger a­gaine. And that so long till the vineger be no more colou­red red: which being taken away take the powder that re­mained in the bottom, and sub lime it with a like portion of sal armoniake: the same sublimate yee shall returne againe so often vpon his feeces, and sublime againe vntill they ap­pear of the colour of a Rubie, then cast all into scalding wa­ter that the salt may dissolue, which done by and by put on cold water, & the feeces of Mars wil remaine in the botom, like the calxe of gold, powre away the water, and power on fresh that the balme may bee made sweat. In the aforesaid order you may make crocus veneris and balsamum veneris.

Of Coper. Cap. 4.

De Aere THe Phisitions doe vse copper diuersly prepared in their plasters and vnguentes for chi urgerie, viz. For Empla­strum Apostolicum Nicolai Alexandrim, and Viride aeris, Em­plastrum diuinum Nicolai Praepositi, unguenium Apostolorum A­uicenae and Egyptiacum Mesue. All which do clense vehement­ly, but not without some biting, for they are sharpe: out of the which notwithstanding by often washinges before they be mingled the sharpenes is taken away, and they be made in manner of Epulotica, medicines most apt to clense ro [...]ten: and hollow vlcers. The Ch [...]micall phisitions prepare out of the said coper other medicines against the same diseases, and to cure all eating hollow and rotten vlcers, much more excellent, which will worke without any byting or paine: Calcine therefore your copper after the common maner­then out of that cum acida muria, being prepared and Alco­lisated, you shall according to art draw forth his greene spi­rit in Balneo, vntill the menstrua be no more greene, seperat it in Balneo, and that which remaineth dissolue in a moist place, and it will come to a cleere oile, which must bee cir­culated with, vini dulcedine, that it may take awaye all the sharpnes of the menstrua, and then you shall haue a most excellent medicine to heale all the aforesaid vlcers if it be mingled with butter.

Out of coper also calcined and reuerberated with the proper menstrua of vitrioll, that it may bee couered 10. fin­gers there is drawne a cleere blue vitrioll: they being circu­lated together in Balneo 15. dayes. And then the menstrua being seperated by distillation in ashes: This vitryoll of co­per being made sweete with conuenient washings, & rubisi­ed by calcination is good to cure all maling vlcers, and to take a way the hardnes, if it be put into a fistula that is hard­ned with a tough skinne, and to take away all prowd flesh without paine: it helpeth the flesh that groweth in the neck of the blather if it be mingled with any conuenient plaster: and put in as it ought to be with a wax candell. Misi, chal­citis [Page 25] Calcanthum vulgare. Sory, and the rest of that sort may in like maner be prepared to cure all maligne vlcers, & very effectually to clense all fistulaes without byting or paine, for by these meanes they shall loose their corrosiue quallitie, & burning nature or strength.

Of Leade. Chap. 5.

De Plumbo LEade is of a cooling quality (as Galen saith in his 9. booke of simples,) and therefore it is good for hollow, cancred, and rotten vlcers either by it selfe, or mixed with certaine other thinges, whereof Ceruse and red lead are made by art, which the phisitions vse against the inflāmation of the eies when they would refrigerate, drie, repell or binde: & ther­of they make their vnguentes with colde waters. They are also put into vnguentum album rasis, citrinum, & diapompholygos, it is put also into plasters called by their names, as of ceruse and red lead.

These are destitute of all maner of byting, and the phisi­tions vse them to close vp vlcers withall. Many do vse onely Gal. 9. simp.a plate of leade to drie vp vlcers, other some vse burnt lead, which doth more effectuallie drie vp vlcers, and is more cō ­modious for those that are rebellious, according to Galén his iudgement. But by this praeperation following, which is better, it is made more excellent to dry and heale all ma­ner of maligne woundes and inueterat vlcers, which pre­paration is made after this maner following.

Take lead well calcined, out of the which with distilled vi­neger Alcalisated and prepared as it ought to bee, y [...]e shall draw out the essence in Balneo, and this ye shall do so often times vntil all the lead be dissolued: and by these meanes let it be purged from his leprosie and all impurities: Then se­perate the menstrue in Balneo, and that which remaineth in the bottom of the vessal dissolue againe in Alcoole vini tarta­risato, and circulate all together certaine daies to take away the sharpnes of the menstrue: and by these meanes you shall make of lead a most sweete sugar and temperat, most friend­ly to our nature, seruing for many infirmities. This in a [Page] moist place is dissolued into oile a most excellent medicine to heale all maner of maligne vlc [...]rs in short space: Of the same is made a most precious balme against the paines and inflammations of the eies, so that it be first well dulcifyed & prepared. The like ye may make of tinne, whereof among the old phisicions there was no vse that I knowe of. Moreo­uer you may so deale with tucia, litarge, the true cadmia, spodium, and pompholix: all which may be well prepared & made so gentle that without any byting they will take away the spottes and ouergrowinges of the eies, asswaging the in­flamacions and great paines of the same, curing all vlcers without paine and close them vp.

Balsamum saturni.

Balsamum saturni. TAke the aforesaid salt of lead being dulcerated with the spirit of wine, and circulat it 15. da [...]es, then seperat the menstrue by distillation, and put on fresh and circulate it a­gaine putting thereto a fittewaight or quantity of the salt of tartar cristalline, and you shall haue a balme sweeter then sugar, which will meruellously preuaile against all maligne vlcers, and diseases of the eies.

The making oile of lead, told me of a learned D. of Germanie.

TAke leade calcined, and set it in a strong fier to vitrifie, then beate it to powder, and draw away his essence with distilled vineger, as is shewed afore, then vapor away that viniger vntill it come to the thicknes of hony, then while it is hot put it into a retort of glasse, and distill it with a gen­tle fire, vntill ther appeare certaine white fumes, then chāge the receauer and augment the fier according to art, vntil all the fumes be come forth, the which is the oile of satu [...]ne. This ye shall rectify many times, the which is thus to be vn­derstoode. Calcine, dissolue, vapour, and distill as ye did a­fore: but if it happen that all the matter be not dissolued ye shall take that powder that remained in the bottome of your [Page 26] matters and drye it in a crusible, then grinde it on a stone and dissolue it in fresh vineger, and distill and vapour as a­fore is said: then if thou wilt make another oile thereof to beautify the face, and to drye vp olde vlcers, and to distroy fistulaes. Take the said powder after the oile is distilled from it, calcine it, and dissolue it with fresh vineger, and vapour it away to the thicknes of honye, then let it coole and one part will turne to salt being very white in the bottome, & the oile will be yellow and swim on the top the which yee shall power of into another glasse, for it is the sweete oile of sa­turne, the which if one drop be put into faire water it wil be turned like milke, the which is vsed to beautify the face, and is called lac virginis. Then if yee will vse the salt that remained in the bottome to bewtify: take the quantity of a small nut, and dissolue it with the iuice of lemondes and there with annoint the face slightly. Also if yee rectify the said oile in Balneo, there will come forth an aqua vite more stronger then of wine, the which serueth to dissolue gold af­ter it is throughly calcined: that being done there will re­maine in the bottome of the glasse a white matter: hauing an oile swimming thereon of a yellowish coloure, the which being dronke is singular good against spasmus, and sincope: The first oile not being rectifyed is good to whiten scares, & cicatrises, against burnings and noli me tangere, and herpes: The rectifyed oile is good against cancres, and such like sores. This salt is by nature cold and drie, and is vsed with good successe in hot and moist bodies, where the liuer sen­deth forth certaine vapours like fat scabbes, and viscous flegme, and such like: it helpeth all weeping woundes and vlcers in few dayes. Being mixed with oile of turpentine & annointed, it cureth conuulciones and resolutions, being mixed with oile of camomill, it dissolueth tumors, and sup­presseth burnings & scaldings 3. or 4. graines being dronke helpeth the chollicke, being mixed with oile of roses, it coo­leth and dryeth meruellously all heates, scabbes, and itch. &c.

Of Quickesiluer. Chap. 6.

Lib. 9. simp. cap. 59. THe Phisitions in times past haue made sundrie experi­mentes of quicksiluer: but Galen doth plainly confesse, that hee neuer made any tryall of it, either by ministring it inwardly or outwardly. Paulus Aegineta writeth this of Mer­cury in his 7 booke: Many haue giuen to drinke Mercury burned to ashes, mingled with other spices to those that haue had the chollike and paine in the bowels: latter Phisi­tions doe vse crude Mercury to kill the wormes in children as Mathiolus reporteth in the 5. of his commentaries vpon Dios [...]crides out of brassauola. Many vse crude Mercury to cure the poxe and make thereof pilles which they call De barberossa: the discription whereof Rondelecius a learned man (my maister) hath shewed in his boke de morbo gallico. In outward diseases many do onely vse precipitate prepa­red with Aqua fortis which is good to heal al maligne vlcers, especially of the pox, and that without paine if it bee well prepared. With this remedie my father (A man of godly memorie, and one that deserued well of all men for his phi­sicke) did vse to take away the flesh of the necke of the bla­ther, whereof when hee had shewed me the true prepa­ration, I vsed it often with most happie successe both to cure that disease, as also the vlcer of the blather: whereof Steph. caretonus, an Appoticary famous both for learning and ex­perience was an eye witnes. For a certaine noble man frend to vs both, which had bin sicke three yeares of a perilous vl­cer in the necke of his bladder, by meanes of a fowle Gonor­rhoea vnperfectly cured. At the last after long vse of Guai­cum (whereof they say diet is made) and many remedies so often reiterated taken, and cast in, and all those by the counsaile of the learned Phisition Doctor. Isandon, this onely remedie put in by a waxe candell, or smal [...]ent, within fifteen daies he was fully cured. Thus much by the way of digressiō: but to returne to Mercurie, these before named are almost all the remedies which are made thereof, sauing that it is al­so put in ointments. And many diseases otherwise vncurable [Page 27] haue enforced Phisitions (euen without the counsail of Ga­len) to search out these properties, wherof at the length ex­perience (the mistris of all thinges) hath made them cer­taine. For the truth which consisteth in reason ought to be manifested vnto the sence, and experience is not perceaued but by the sence, as Galen testifyeth in his 6. book De sanitate tuenda. It is necessarie (saith hee) that those thinges which are to be thought vpon be considered by reason, and after­ward certifyed by experience to the intent that reason by experience may be confirmed. And in the second of the same booke hee writeth thus: the force of reason sheweth the strength of the experiment. Who could otherwise prooue that the Cyaneum and Armenie stones do helpe melancho­ly affections? Persely to hurt women with childe, and to doe no good against the fallyng sicknesse? That Harmodactiles could purge flegme out of the ioyntes? that Lapis Iudaicus and Lyncis shoulde breake the stone? that pearles should strengthen the hart, or that Napellus is so deadly a poison, saue onely that by the practise and working of the foresaid thinges it had bin proued by diuers experiences▪ In like ma­ner by experience it is found out that Mercury is a fit reme­die to cure many infirmities. As for example Doctor Iou­bertus a learned man, lately tried it to be a most excellent re­medie to cure the woundes made with shot, who thereof cō ­poseth his Triapharmacum. Neither is it to bee maruelled, when as with slender preparations it becommeth so forci­ble, if with far better it attaineth the highest degree of per­fection amongest medicines to cure many, and those other­wise vncurable diseases, as well inward as outward. This ex­cellent preparation of Mercury is hard and difficult and not onely vnknowen vnto manie Phisitions and Poticarieso [...]f one sort, but verie few of the spagerikes haue truely attained thereunto. For Mercurie is a flying spirit hauing a certaine arsenicall aire verie hurtfull to the bodie: whereof at length being clensed and fixed, are made so excellent medicines▪ & those so holsome: (for it is the propertie of euery perfect spirit to quicken the bodie) that it seemeth not credible ex­cept vnto such as are cunning and experienced, I wish har­tely [Page] and desire earnestlye (least my iudgement may seeme different from reason) that the learned would consider the nature of these three Mercuries, the common Mercurye, the Mercury sublimate, and Mercury precipitate: I knowe that there is not any man except he be altogether ignorant, but he will affirme that the sublimate Mercurie is more ve­nemous, then either the crude which some doe minister in pilles inwardly to kill wormes (as is aforesaid) or the pre­cipitate: whereof Paulus Aegineta, seemeth to speake where he intrcateth of Mercurie brought into ashes, which in time past was geuen for the collike, which is made thus, or at least with sulphur. And many men at this day without any other preparation than with bare and simple washinges do giue Mercurie precipitate to cure the pox. (as Matheolus witnes­seth) neither do we perceiue although it purge vpwarde and downeward, that it doth hurt like vnto the sublimat, where­of halfe a scruple will kill a man. If this which is true be grā ­ted, that mercurie sublimat is stronger poison thē the crude, or pr [...]ecipate, how commeth it to passe (I pray you) that sub­limation (the only purifying which al philosophers do vse) I meane this spirit exalted should get such malignitie & vene­mous force. Some will answeare peraduenture our Auberius, that this doth not come by sublimation (by which it is cer­taine all thinges are purifyed) but by carying with it a cer­taine subtil sharpnes from the things that are mingled with it. Let vs then examine this, of one pound of crude mercury, another pound of crude vitrioll, and as much common salt, not armonicke (as Matheolus thinketh) mingled altogether, at a soft fire, and ground on a stone, or morter, that it might be well incorporated, and brought into a pouder, and put in to a subliming glasse, giuing fier thereto by degrees for the space of 40. howers, is made your mercurie by sublimate. If then he draw venemous quallity from the things it is ming­led withall, of necessitie it must be from salt and vitrioll. But that common salt and vitrioll do not hurt as poison. Infinite numbers doe daily prooue the same which eate salt in their meates, and drincke vitrioll water in their baths: And ma­ny other throughout Germany and Italie do vse the spirit [Page 28] and oile of vitrioll for the curing of the falling sicknesse, the stone and asthma, with great ease and meruellous profit. simp. ca. 60. lib. 5.And Dioscorides speaking of vitrioll saith thus: it killeth the broad wormes in the bellie ʒ i. of it being taken inward. Be­ing dronke with water, it helpeth against the poyson of toad­stooles: and dissolued in water, dropped into the nose pur­geth the head. By this it doth sufficiently appeare that so great a venemous quallitie is not in Mercury sublimat by meanes of vitrioll: much lesse it is to be thought of commō salt. Finally if so great malignitie were in it by meanes of the salte or vitrioll, because it carrieth vp the spirites with him this malignitie also would be in Mercurie precipitat, for the strong water wherwith it is made is compounded of the spirites of vitrioll and salte: with the which also the phisiti­ons make their precipitate, which many of them doe mini­ster without further preparation: which albeit through his great sharpnes by meanes of the spirits inclosed in the strōg water it purgeth the bodie violently, yet it is well knowen vnto many learned men at this day, that it doth not hurt as the sublimat doth. This malignity therefore in the subli­mat commeth by how much the more it is made subtill and stronger by exaltation and flyeth with a small heate: but in the precipitate it is not so, for it is mortifyed and so fixed with that philosophilall fier the strong water, that it will suf­fer great heat, neither can that maligne aire be sent vnto the hart (if it containe any) which by nature is easily assaulted with all poysons, because that the naturall heat cannot cause the precipitate to fume, which no violence of fier can cause to vanish away, as by certaine experiences is appro­ued: the fixing therefore of his spirit is the true preparation that either taken inward or applied outward cānot hurt: the which many go about to do sundry wayes (I speake of them which seeke his preparation onely for phisicke) which think by powring on the water twise or thrise vpō the feces (which they call caput mortuum) and so distill it againe that the true preparation of so great a medecine may be attayned, but they are not a little deceaued, specially because they are not carefull to take away his corrosiue, or else know not how to [Page] do it: for truly Mercury precipitat can neuer be a sufficient profitable medicine so long as the corrosiue quality taken of the strong water is ioyned with it, which is not taken away as many suppose with common washings, but with farre o­ther preparations and dulcifyinges, which beyng vnknowen no perfect thing can be wrought, therefore ye mustworke af­ter this order following, specially for the making of turpe­tum that wonderfull medicine.

Rec. Calcis terrae pellucidae & fixae, Talcum well calcined, the [...]urpeti mi­neralis des­criptio.which calcination shall be shewed in another place, of each one pound, make of them a strong capitall lye, in the which ye shall boile one pound of Mercury, first fiue times subli­med & euery time quickened according to art, the space of 7. howers, and so shall ye attaine vnto the perfect purging of Mercury, and the beginning of true fixing to all workes: for these calces are so fixing, that with sublimations reite­rated vppon them at the length, the mercury shall be fixed. This mercury so prepared, dissolue with regali foetido, and proper menstrua: dissolue also by it selfe ʒ iij, of the mercury of Antimony well prepared, and ℥ i. of gold purged by anti­mony according to art. All these dissolutions put into a bodie of glasse, and the vessell will be darkned or clowdy, set that glasse in an Athenor giuing thē soft fire vntil they wax cleare, then increase the fire, and distill away the water by alimbecke from the feces till they bee drye, powring on the water againe vpon the dead head four tymes: then put on new fixing water that the matter may be couered 4 fingers, set that to digest 2. or 3. dayes, then distill it twise or thrise vppon the feces, and toward the end giue it fier of sublima­tion that those thinges which are not truely mortifyed, may rise and be exalted, which must be kept a part, for they serue not for our purpose: then take the dead masse, and bring it to powder, and put it in a scaruell stirring it the space of 12. howres in the second degree of the fire in a fornes of reuer­beration vntill it come to the rednesse of a Salamander, out of the which ye shall drawe all the sharpnes and venom on this manner.

Rec. Of the sleume of vitrioll and allome ana. lb. ij. fs. di­stilled [Page 29] vineger. lb. ij. calcis terrae nostrae pellucidae ae fixae ℥ 4. sulis corneoli cristallint ℥ i. whites of egges 20. distill all these by alimbeke twice vpon the feces: put three pound of this wa­ter to one poūd of the powder of Mercury prepared as afore, and distiil it away from the feces in alimbeke 4. times: and the last time distill it vntil the feces be dry. This done grind your powder vpon a stone, powring to it againe new fixing water, distill it againe foure times as before. Then you shal fixe and make sweate thy mercurie, by distilling from it the Alchooli vini fiue times, putting on fresh euery time. This the chyminicall phisitions call precipitate or turbith mine­rall, by cause it purgeth grosse and slymie humours, eight graines of this is giuen with conserue of Betony, and aqua theriacalis, to cure the pox, due purgations being vsed be­fore.

With two drammes of the extract of wild cucūbers one dramme of the extract of Hermodactiles & ℈ ss. of this pre­cipitat is made a mixture, whereof halfe a scruple is mingled with two drammes of aquae theriacalis, and is giuen for the gout 4. or 5. times according to the age and hardnes of the disease, and the strength of the sicke bodie in the spring & Autumne. For without any greefe it doth meruellously purge the sharpe excrements, and draweth them out of the ioyntes. For to cure the dropsie there is made this compo­sition which doth purge the sharpe excrementes and streng­then the nutritue parts.

Rec. Of this precipitat aforesaid ℈ i. the extract of alhan­dall and Elaterium ana. one scruple & a halfe, of the extrac­tion of Elebori nigri, well prepered and Rhuberbe, ana one scruple the essence of red corall and yellow sanders ana. 2. scruples spiritus vitrioli i. scruple olei mafliichini and cinamo­mi ana. halfe a scruple mingle thē with the powder of cu­bebes, and the muslage of gumme tragagant and make it in­to pilles. The dose is from halfe a scruple to one scruple: it must be geuen twice in a weeke, if their strength will beare it.

If it be mingled with Diaphoreticall thinges it onely pro­uoketh sweates, and by that meanes helpeth also many [Page] diseases: mingled alone with butter it cureth cankered and eating vlcers specially that come of the pox. Likewise the fistula and all callowes matters.

Ex triapharmaco, and the aforesaid precipitate is made a plaster, which being put into the necke of the bladder with a waxe candle or small tent as it ought, cureth the vlcers of it, and taketh away the flesh without paine or danger. The fixing water for the said turpetum is made, ex Climia, lapide Sedenegi, lapide perlato, marchasitarum sulphure rubicundo, la­certa Aqua fixa­toria pro [...]urpeto. viridi & rubra, halinitro, & sale aluminoso, this made af­ter the manner of Aqua fortis: among all waters of gradua­tion, this is the chiefest and verie fixing, if any attaine vn­to it truely.

Of mercury also are made other medicines: for there is made of it being first prepared as it ought Amalgamy, with gold which is put into a bolts head, and closed with Hermes seall, & so being kept in a temperate fire 20. daies is brought to a yellowish fixed powder, the signe of perfection is when it will not vapour away by force of fire, neither be quickned againe in water. This medicine is Diaphoretical, and is mi­nistred for the forenamed diseases, specially to cure the pox onely by sweates. There is also made of Mercurie a balme with the water of the calex of egge-shelles and tartar, also a most excellent oile for fistulaes, all vlcers, and callosites, this shall suffice to bee spoken of Mercurie, so that this one thing being noted, that the whole perfection of this me­dicine consisteth in the fixing and dulcifying of it.

Of Arsenicke Chap. 7.

De arseni­co. AMongest the corrosiue medicines which by the ex­treame sharpnes of heat do distroy our naturall heate, or conuert it into fiery quallity, and by their malignant na­ture dissolue the naturall moysture, consume all the substāce of the bodie, and cause putrifaction with stinche: the Phi­sitions do accompt Arsenicke, sandrake, and orpiment: and therefore do iudge the vse of those medicines very perilous in chirurgery nether by any meanes necessary because they [Page 30] are so venemous and contrary to our nature. This they may verie well say if they knew not their true preparatiōs, wher­by they are made apt to cure many outward infirmities. These medecines are said to be venemous, for their maligne quallitie and sharpnes. But that euil quallity consisteth in the spirit, stinking aire, or blacke smoake which it sendeth out with a small heate, but the sharpnes is onely in the salt: This venemous and blacke smoke when it is raised by natu­ral heate doth weake the matter of the part, corrupteth it, & oftentimes killeth, as if one had dronke poison, if it be not laide too farre from the principall partes, specially the skin being wounded, which happened to a certaine woman: and Fernelius the chiefe of phisitions of our time witnesseth, that he saw it: seeing that maligne quality is in the blacke smoke, it must be altogether fixed: for by fixing as we said before in the chapter of mercurie all the venom is taken away from the spirites, as from arsenicke, mercurie, orpiment, & others: The sharpnes is taken away by extracting the salt, which may be done by their proper washinges, as wee haue before shewed, by which reason arsenike shall not hurt, but profit much in locall medicines for poisoned woundes, the wolfe, fistula, canker and gangrena, if it be dulie prepared, fixed, and sweetned. Of which true preparation Dioscorides see­meth secretly to intreat of, when as hee speaketh of that simpl. 5. cap. 71.metalline sandaraca, which in the beginning of the chapter he writeth to smell of sulfur. It is giuen with mulsum to those that coughe out rotten matter, and to those that are short winded, it is verie well giuen in drinke with rosen. It is ve­rie hurtful to geue sandrake vnprepared: when as Galen doth witnes, it is of a burning quallitie, vnto whose opinion Di­oscorides also agreeth in the sixt booke 29. chapter of simples. Lib. 9. simp. cap. 53.Therefore it will not be amisse or hurtfull to vse arsenicke, or any other corosiue medicine being prepared in chirurge­rie specially, the preparation therof is thus: sublime arse­nicke 3. times with salt prepared and rubifyed vitrioll & the scalles of Iron that yee may purge it, which afterward yee shall fixe with salt peeter, giuing fyer by degrees the space of 24. howres, and it will be a masse whiter then snow. Re­sembling [Page] the colour of pearles, which yee shall dissolue in warme water to draw out his salt, and there will remaine in the bottome a verie white powder which being dried, ye shal fix with the like waight of olei inceratiuiex talco confecti, and set it in a fournace of reuerberation on whole day: then a­gaine dissolue it in warme water, that the powder may re­maine white fixed & sweet, mhich in a moist place wil turne into a fat thicke oile like buter, swaging paines: for like as arsenike not prepared, bringeth great paines, and by the maligne qualities is poison: so contrariwise by his fixing he looseth that, and worketh without paine, and is a profitable medicine for curing of poisoned woundes, if 1. ounce of it be mingled with 2. ounces of oile of mirrha.

Many also sublime arsenicke 3. times cum calce fixa & col­chothare, then dissolue it in aqua stigia, fixatoria, ac conueniente, for that purpose distilling the water often from the feces, thā reuerberate the caput mortuum, which will come to a white powder fixed, from which the alkalie is drawen out with the alchoole of wine, and so is made sweete, the vse of this is to cure fistulaes and cankers.

Of Sulphur chap. 8.

De sulphu­re. SVlfur is the balme of the lunges, which the Chimist doe 3. or 4. times sublime with colcothar to purge it from his impurities, and make thereof many profitable medicines, to cure asthmatis, if sugar be mixed with it: also of the flowers of sulfur and his proper menstrua Therebinthinat, digested certaine daies in a drie heate, there is drawne out a balme like to a rubine, the menstrua being seperated, there remai­neth a verie red oile of sulphur, which must bee circulated with vin [...] distillato & alcholisato, and be this means is a balme drawne out of sulfur, whereof 3. or 4 droppes is geuen with water of Isope to those that are short winded and spitte rot­ten matter, It healeth all manner of woundes quickly, &c.

Notwithstanding, the auncient Phisitions, seeme to haue thought that sulfure did only cure outward greefes, that it had a drawing quallitie, and was of a whot temperature, and [Page 31] thin essence as Galen and Aegineta wrote, and that it was Galen. 9. Si [...]pli. cap. 36. Aegin. li. 7.good against venemous beastes, specially against the Sea Turtle, and Dragon, either cast on drie or mingled: yet Ga­len seemeth to allowe the vse of sulfurie waters by these wordes. The bathes or drinking of sweet waters, is very hurt­full to the sicke of the dropsie: But of salte sulpherie and pitchie waters is very profitable. Dioscorides, writeth that sulfur eaten with a rere egge, helpeth those that are shorte winded: But the Spagirickes haue attained to many things vnknowne to the auncient Phisitions. Finally of sulfur is al­so madeth sower oyle by a bell, which is a very profitable re­medie for the teeth, and cureth also cancered vlcers.

Of Vitriolle. Cap. 9.

GAlene and Aegineta, as [...]irmeth that vitrioll dooth moste De vitriolo. Galen. 9. Simpli. Agineta. [...]. 7.effectually preserue moyst flesh, if it be powdred with it: Dioscorides also writeth that the same drunken with water, helpeth against the poyson of Tode stooles, and for outward greefes it is put into Emplastrum Diachalcites, to cure vlcers: The later Phisitions make an oyle of vitrioll for the fallinge sickenesse, and other diseases▪ where of Matheolus and manie other moe make mentione: But wee make many medicines of vitrioll as his spirite, a sweete and sower oyle his Colco­thar, Salte, and Oker. The spirit is driuen foorth by the ix a­limbeke, powringe on againe all waies the liquor vpon the dead head: and circulating it in Balneo 8. daies, this is profita­able against the falling sickenesse, but the fleme beeing sepe­rated from the redde Colcothar; by force of fire there is drawne out a sower oyle, which is made sweete by circula­ting it with the spirite of wine, and is giuen with succ [...]ie water or with Ptysane in rotten agues, for with the sowrenes, it driueth away rottennes, as the sirope of the iuice of L [...] ­mondes doth, and putteth away obstructiones with the sub­tilite of the partes: Wherefore it is verye effectuall to helpe the obstructions of the bowels, liuer and splene, sometime a fewe dropes of it are mingled with the conserue of the flo­wers of Succorie, and is a medicine of a pleasaunt taste to [Page] quench immoderate thirst, yet the ignoraunt fay that this medicine is sharpe and therefore to be reiected, but those good men are farre deceiued for it being well prepared is sweetish, and the iuice of Lemones the vse where of is allow­ed in Phisicke; is much sowrer then it: as with the which Perles are dissolued, and vessels of tinne eaten thorowe, and that iuice giuen alone would hurt the stomacke as much as the oyle of Vitrioll, but mixed with sugar it restraineth with his sowrenes the rottennes of burning feuers, & the malig­nite of Pestilent agues, which thing also oyle of vitriol doth without hurt of the stomacke, not by it selfe, but mixed with conuenient thinges, as many Spagiricke Phisitions at this day haue experimented, who also in outward causes, vse the vnsauery and sweetned Colcothar, to dry vp vlcers and to stanch blood.

Of Antimoni. Cap. 10.

De antimo­nio. NOt onely for outward greefes but also for inwarde, are medicines made of Antimoni. The chymical Phisitions drawe out of it a most excellent medicine, which they call the tincture of antimoni, for they minding to try the force of Antimoni in mans body, feared not to seeke out the secrets of it, especially when they perceiued it to bee the greatest purger of gold, and that it could driue away all impurities. By which meanes they labour to seeke out the qualities of Antimoni, that they might prooue whether it would worke the same effect in purging of mans body, as it was euident to worke in the purging of golde, at the length they obtained their desired purpose, and found out the great excellencie of this medicine: both to restore & renue the body of man, specially to cure the Mophew, the Dead euill, the Wolfe, and all maligne vlcers, for that tincture purgeth black bloud and all other viscious humors without any manifest euacu­ationes, but onely by corrections of ill humors. Let no man thinke that I speake of Vitrum Antimonij, which many vnskil­full doo vse now a daies with great danger, it is a noy-some medicine which by his sharpenes prouoketh the expulsiue [Page 32] power, and purgeth both vpwarde and downe-warde with great vexation, the which I can by no meanes allowe. For all diseases are not cured with violence, but with fitte and conuenient purgations, For as Hipocrates saith. 1. Aphori. if such things be purged as ought to be purged it doth helpe, and they beare it easily: if not contrariwise. But all true Phi­losophers therfore auoide these vitrifications, and not seeke their medicines or tinctures in them, vse therfore this me­thod following.

Rec. The purest part of Antimoni, that is his Mercury, and subline it 3. times, that nothing remaine in the botome, so shall ye haue all his sulfure with his proportionate mer­cury, which is called the true Lilly: this digest in a reuerbe­ratory being closed with hermes seale, in degrees of the fire vntill it wax white, and afterward there appeare the collour of a Rubine. Out of the which with Alcoole glacia [...] Cornioli, that it may bee couered 8. fingers▪ you shall drawe out the precious tincture which ye shal circulate in a Pellicand, to his perfect graduation and fixing.

It is fixed also Cum terra muria, and with washings the alka­ly is drawne foorth, and there remaine the white flowers of Antimoni, which do strongly mooue sweate if you giue 3. [...]s. of them with water of Cardus Benedictus, a most excellent medicine for intermitting feuers.

For outward greefes there is drawne out of Antimoni, a very reade sulfure with tartar and nite [...], or onely with a lye made of quicke lime and ashes, and many waies an oyle is drawne out, all which are profitable to cure festered vlcers, these shall suffise to be spoken of vs for the preparations of metalline thinges, of the which God willinge wee will in­treate shortly in an other booke more plainer.

Of the true preparation of Gemes and precious stones. Cap. 11.

OF sundry stones are made sundry healthfull medicines, cheefely out of precious stones, which of all Phisitiones are though according to the propertie of the whole sub­stance, [Page] & according to their quality do take away sounding, doo with stand corruption, to strengthen the hart, & defend it from all kinde of poison. By reason where of Electuariae A­nalepi, Nicolai, Myrep. Diamargarit, Antidotum [...]e gemmis, confec­tio ex Hiacinth & Alkermes, are prescribed vnto sicke persons in pestilent diseafes, and continuall burning feuers. Into which are put Perle, Saphires, Smarages, Granates, Iasintes, Sarda that is Corneola, Iasper and Corall, which kinde of stones may be worthely said to excell the rest, both for their temperance and for their great cleerenesse, which are nei­ther lost nor spoiled by any heate of fire, for the onely fixa­tion of their spirites, which may bee sufficientlie perceiued in them, for which cause in manie respectes they may bee compared with golde for the cure of diseases. Amonge the rest they be called precious stones, euen as gold among all other metalles is called the most precious. And although the quallitie of these stones are cordiall, yet euery one hath his proper and peculier vertue to cure sundry diseases: The Saphire being drunke dooth speciallie helpe them that bee stunge with a Scorpion. The lacent also doth helpe wounds of venamos beastes, and causeth sleepe. The Smarage not onely drunke but also hung about the necke, helpeth melan­cholie diseases and striueth against the falling sicknes, as it were against an enemie. The Iasper either hung about the necke that it may touch the mouth of the stomacke, or else Galen. 9. Simp. cap. 26. lib. 5. Cap. 107.borne in a ring comforteth the stomacke: which Galen wri­teth that he made proofe.

It also helpeth to hasten the birth as Diosorides, saith: Pearles take away sounding. Corall by his bindinge dooth strengthen the stomacke and stayeth spitting of bloude. All which pretious stones the Phisitians vse against the afore­said diseases, without anie other preparation, sauing bring­ing them into most fine powder as Alcool, the which surelie profiteth very little for strengthening the heart, if the pure essence be not first taken out of it, which onely the Spagi­tickes art teacheth to doe: according to which the tincture of corall is drawen out as followeth, which is said to be gi­uen not onely to the aforesaid vses, but to purge the bloud, [Page 33] and against the Morphew and Herpes, and to cure all the dis­cases of the Matrix.

Calcine the best redde corall in a fornace of reuerbera­tion in the second degree of the fire, lest their tincture by Tinctura corallorum.the violence of the fire consume away, then grinde them vp­on a stone very fine and put them into a glasse, with Men­struum caeleste distillatum, cum proprio suo saccaro, that it may be couered 7. fingers highe, then lente the glasse with Hermes seale, and set it in Balneo. x. daies vntill the menstrua haue ta­ken away all the tincture, then seperate the menst [...]ua in Bal­neo, and there will remaine a precious tincture in the bo­tome, of which a little droppe is giuen with water of succorie or fumetorie: That celestiall menstrua is the true menstrua of algemmes, which dissolueth them with true solution, and from thence is the true essence taken: and this all learned Phisitions will iudge to be more profitable for to cure the body, then the only powder of them: that menstrua dooth also make softe and dissolue the adamante stone, which contrarie to the opinion of many doth take away poyson, if vpon thē be cast the salt drawn out of the blood of a goate, and distilled togeather, reiterating the water 3. times vpon the deatheade [...] let passe the preparations of the Adamant and also of the rubine, because they be stones of great price and fit onely for Kinges.

You shall also rightlie dissolue pearles with the aforesaide menstrua, but if ye wante it you shall vse Acido menstruum al­colisato▪ Essentia margarita­rum.with his equall proportion of the spirit of wine also alcolisated, they doo the same also with the iuice of Lemon­des and Barberes purified and filtred, and prepared as it ought to be, with ablutiones you shall take away the sharpe­nes from the Pearles, if any remaine in them by meanes of the menstrua 2. or 3. graines of this essence is giuen with conuenient broth to strengthen the hart, and to re­fresh the powers, this essence dooth resist putrification a­bout the hart, the pestilence and poisons, & is giuen against resolution of sinewes, conuulcions frenzes, and vnto those that are waxen leane thorowe age or sicknesse. Arnoldus wri­teth that the dissolution of pearle comforteth naturall heat, [Page] helpeth the trembling of the hart, and properly purifieth the bloud of the hart, and many diseases are cured by them. In the same order yee may drawe out of the other aforesaide gemmes their proper essence, & may haue their true pre­paration to cure many diseases: In this order ye shal prepare the little stones of spunges. Lapis, Iodaicus, Lincis, and Chris­tall to breake the stone in the raines.

The quintaessence of bolearmeni & terra lemnij do mar­uelous much good against pestilent diseases, and doo with­stand deadly and venemous poisons that they cannot hurt. But if ye will vse them to suppresse bloud they neede no o­ther preparation, seeing that it is the yearthes propertie to thicken and to bind, as it is of the essence to quicken, so dooth terra samia, and the stone called Hematites and Corna­lino, which a learned Philosopher shall easilie attaine vnto.

The Spagiricall preparations of medicines, which are taken out of Animalles. Cap. 1.

De triplici­mumia. MEdicines which are made out of Animalles, doo ob­taine the second degree of perfection, for they haue more force then they that were wont to be prepared out of vegitables, which doo perish with lesse heate or colde, and therefore is easelie destroyed, that they scarcely profite any thing at all for the cure of diseases, especially when they are commonly prepared, among animalles man by right obtai­neth the first place, out of whose 3. fold Mūmia, that is to say: liquid, fresh and drie, or transmarina, of the which are made sundry most whole-some medicines to cure infinite sortes of diseases. This last Mummia only was known to the auncient Phisitions, which was nothing else but mans body, laid in the De his con­sule. strab. Auicennam & serapio. Cap. 304.tombe inbalmed with Frankensence, Myrra, and Aloes. By which kinde of funerall the Sirians, Egiptians, Arabians, and Iewes, vsed in olde time to keepe their dead bodies from corrupting, which natiuemummia, the Greciās called Pissas­phaltus: for they with that kind of pitch did inbalm their dead bodies, which Mummia they vsed both inwardly and out­wardly to staie bloud, wheresoeuer it brake out, & to streng­then [Page 34] the stomacke and hart and to cure othr infinite disea­ses, specially when the fragments of bones being cast away, the earth and flesh being drie, they tooke vp a liquor con­creted and gathered in the hollow partes of the mans body, but at this day we want that true & natiue mummia of the auncients, and the Phisitions and Apothicaries in steede of it, vse the dried flesh and that without any preparation, all be it out of it there may be taken or drawne a certaine pure essence, which may after a sorte be compared in vertue and propertie with the true Mummia, rather then that earthlie substance or only dried fleshe, which scarcely auaileth any thinge to cure bodies, therefore thus thou shalt prepare the common Mummia.

Praepara­tio mumiae siccae. Take the best Mummia broken and cut in little peeces 1. poūd, put it in a glasse with as much Spiritus vini alcolisati & tere binthinati clari menstrui ana, that it may be couered 4. fin­gers: then shut it with hermes seale, and putrifie it in the first degree of the fire. 15. daies vntill the menstrua be of the colouer of a Rubine, the which ye shal seperat in Balneo for the said purpose againe, & in the botome thou shalt find the true tincture of mummia, the which ye shal circulate with the spirite of wine certaine daies and so thou shalt haue a more pure essence, which is most profitable to the cure of al poisons, either alone, or if it bee mixed with theriakle. A­gainst the plague it is a most excellent medicine, that it cannot be sufficiently commended: It defendeth all bodies from corruption, and is profitablie giuen to cure Phthisis & Asthmatis, if it be mingled with the conserue of Enula cam­pane and violets, it is also profitable against many other dis­eases, the feces which remained are put into vnguentes to swage paines and aches. Praep arati mummiae li­quidae.

Now remaineth to speake of the Mummia, that the Chi­mistes know of which are 2. sorts, fresh and liquid, which they thinke best to be thus prepared.

Rec. The pure and best liquid Mummia Alcoolis vini ana 1. poūd, mixe them well together in a glasse, and digest it in warme horse dunge or Balneo 12. daies, afterward distill it as it ought, reiterating the distillation twise againe, then digest [Page] it againe 20. daies and distill it the third time, then leaue thy glasse in the heat of dunge or Balneo, till there be 2. essences perceiued, one of a golden colour, and the other white, let these essences bee taken forth and circulated with his like menstrue in a Pellican many daies, alwaies separatinge the feces and the impure from that which is subtill and pure, and so with reiterating his digestions and rectifications you shall haue a most excellent medicine: of this is giuen euery month in the full moone I. Scrup▪ to them that haue the fal­ling sicknesse, it dooth mittigate that disease and driueth it away, for it is his proper Alexipharmacum, also it purifieth the bould.

Praeparatio, [...]nummie re­o [...]ntis. Rec. The newest and best Mummia and cut it small, then put it into a glasse with a long necke, powring thereon the menstrua of Oliues, and close it with Hermes seale, then pu­trifie it a month that there may bee a solution, then open the vessel and put it into a cucurbite of glasse and set in Bal­neo, the vessell being open that the Mercurie maye flie a­way, which it will doo with an incredible stincke, and there let it remaine tell there come foorth no stincke, and that all the Mummia be dissolued, that which is dissolued, put into another vessell and digest it in Balneo againe vntill it come to a thick oile and fatty like sirope of a duskish colour. That being done circulate all with the spirit of wine in Balneo, 20. daies then seperate the spirit and in the bottome will re­maine a redde and sweete oile hauing the vertue of all na­turall balmes: which dooth greatly helpe all venemous and pestilent diseases.

Take of the Mummia so prepared 2. ounces of the best Alcoole vini, 2. pound circulate them a moneth, then di­still Tinctura mummiae.awaie the menstrua, per alimbicum, then againe let it digest in a vessell closed with hermes seale, and reiterat it 3. times as is aboue said, vntill the matter abouesaid, do al­together loose the nature of his bodie, and become a tin­cture, which truly doth excell with such a quickning power, that there is no part wherevnto it doth not pearce. No vl­cer or any corruption which it doth not cure, if ye giue e­uery day twice for a certaine time foure or fiue graines of it [Page 35] with a conuenient decoction.

Of the essence of mans scull. Chap. 2.

De cran [...] humane. MAny learned men haue written that the scull of a man not buried is by a certaine propertie profitable against the falling sicknes: for which cause I thought it not amisse to set forth the true preparation of it, for I do not thinke that there is anie of the learned that doubteth, but this me­decine rightly prepared, and brought into a thinne essence will be a great deale more effectuall and profitable to cure those diseases, chiefly if you do dilligently consider the es­sence of the sicknes, his causes, and the remedie thereof: therefore I will intreat of the preparation, of which 1. scru­ple will profite more then a whole scull dried and beaten to powder, whose essence is thus drawne out.

Essentiae cranij hu­mani. Rec. the scull of a man that hath not bin buried, and beat it to powder, and put it into spiritu vini saluiati, so that it may be couered 6. fingers, and set it to digest in Balneo 14. daies being close stopped, then distill it in a retort according to the maner of aqua fortis, then powre on that liquor vpon the feces or caput mort [...]m againe, but first grind the feces, then putrify it 8. daies, & distil it as at the first, and that do 3 times, than circulat all together certaine dayes, that being done, then seperat the menstrua, and in the bottom thou shalt find the essence of the scull coagulated, of which yee shall geue halfe a scruple with the water of the flowers of lintre in the fit and before the fit. Or prepare it thus: seeth the scrapinges of a scull that hath not bin buried with the spirit of Mellissa, or Betony boyled, powre that decoction by it selfe, and againe powre on more fresh till there remaine no more force in the scull, then vapor away all that water in Balneo, and it will remaine in the bottom coagulated, the which it shall resolue againe, and vapour and coagulat so long till the matter remaining in the bottome may be sub­limed with a most easie fire. This sublimat doth helpe much them that haue the falling sicknes, and looseth the belly a­boundantly without any trauell or molestation.

Of Viperis. Chap. 3.

Galen lib. de theriaca. ad pisonem Aegi. li. 7. GAlen and other great phisitions haue taught vs many thinges out of Andromacus touching the preparation of vipers and their vertue for the cure of the leprosie which they had proued, chiefly that it purgeth the whole body by the skinne, out of whose flesh (the head and taile being first cut of, which are the most venemous partes, and haue litle flesh in them) being boyled in a pot with faire water, dill & salt, and putting thereto stale wheaten bread, they made pa­stillos, the which is also put into theriakle. Out of vipers al­so you shall make a most notable medecine against the le­prosie, plague and all venemous woundes in this maner. In the moneth of Iune take 4 or 6. vipers, of the which yee shall cast away the taile and the head, and pull away the skinne and the intralles, but cut the flesh in small peeces, and put it in acucurbit of glasse 3. or 4. daies in the vapor of Balneo or of moist dung to driue forth the sweat. But take heede ye receaue not the air of that fume which is corrupted & vene­mous through the vapors of the vipers, which being done powre vpon it the spirit of wine Alcolisati & terebinthinati so­lutiui ana. that it might bee couered 8. fingers high, digest them in a vessel closed with Hermes seale in Balneo, or moist dung twelue daies, vntill all the flesh of the vipers be dissol­ued in the aforesaid menstrua: then powre of the said men­strua from his feeces, and vapor it away in Balneo, and it will be coagulated like a iellie, vpon the which powre againe spiritum vini cariophillatum & circulat them in a pellicane 10. daies: then seperat the menstrua, and the flesh of the vipers wil remaine excellently prepared & essentificated, with the which mingle vpō a gentle fire oleum anethi & cinamomi ana. 1 scrup. & a halfe, essentia croci & margaritarum ana. 1. scrup. then with the muslege of gum tragagant make it in pilles, or if yee will make pastillos after the olde manner with drye wheaten bread, 1. scrup. of this medicine is giuen against the leprosie, the plague and all other venemous diseases.

Of the skin of vipers, and of other serpentes being dryed [Page 36] and prepared according to art is made a powder that hel­peth very much against the woundes made by beastes or serpentes, if it be laied thereon, also to cure all cankers & maligne vlcers.

Of the preparing of hornes, and cordiall bones muske, ciuet, and castoreum. Chap. 4.

De corni­bus. Moscho zi­betta & ca­storeo. BOnes are either burnt or sodden with their conuenient liquor, that out of them with the spirite of wine may be gotten the pure essence, the which will bee done in the same order, as we haue written of before in the preparing of a mans scull, therefore thus shalt thou drawe out the es­sence of the bone of the Hartes hart, which by a certaine likeliehod of substance doth strengthen mans hart, and is cheiflie profitable against the paines of mās hart, & fincope: his preparation differeth from the aforesaid, because it is to be drawen with the spirit of Celandine alcolisated with his proper menstrua. The hartes horne is vsed in stead of that bone for the said diseases, whose essence is drawē forth with Hipericonis alcoole which is giuen vnto young children that be sicke of the wormes.

The horne of the Vnicorne (which is the chiefest of al, you shall prepare in the same order: it defendeth the hart and driueth away all poisons: it is good against pestilent difea­ses, his proper menstrua is Alcoole melissae. Ebur or Iuerie is also thus prepared, whose vertue is to de­fend the strength of the hart, and to helpe conception. Out of Muske is also drawen a certaine precious essence cum vini spiritu terebinthinato, as with his proper dissolution, which doth strengthen and confirme the languishing partes, and helpeth the weakned powers: in like sort may you draw forh the essence of zibet.

In the like manner is the essence of Castoreum drawne forth: of the which one drop is giuen with great profit in the decoction of the flowers of rosemarie, sage, and betony a­gainst tremblinges, conuulsions, or crampes, and all diseases [Page] of the sinewes: it is also applyed outwardly in conuulcions, chieflie if it come of fulnesse and not of emptines: and then that which is contained in the sinues contrarie to nature must be purged, being dronke with water of penyryall, it prouoketh womens termes and casteth forth the after bur­then, and it doth correct opium which is otherwise deadly.

The preparation of oiles out of fattes and greases. Chap. 5.

De pingus­num & ex­ungiarum praeparatto­nibus ac o­leis. THe Chimistes doe draw oile out of the fat of all liuing thinges with a most gentle fire, in the which is found a greater power to extenuate, dissolue and supple, then in the onely fatte not prepared, because they be made more thin­ner & subtiller: which opinion Galen confirmeth 11. simpl. where he intreateth of Castoreum, furthermore (saith he) because it is of the subtill partes: therefore it is more auaile­able then the other things which do both heate and drie, as it doth, hee addeth that those m [...]dicines which consist of more subtil partes are more forcible then they which be of thinner although they haue both like facultie, because they penetrat and goe deeper into the parts to which they be laied on, chiefly if the partes be thick, as the sinowy parts be. I thinke there is no man if he way these wordes of Ga­len which will not allow these extractions both of oiles and essences which we vse, and commend the vse of them in phi­sicke. In this manner are oiles drawne out of the fat of men, of the brocke, of beares, of wolues, of hartes, cattes eeles, capons, geese, duckes, calues, hogges, and of all Marrowes, which do all resolue and supple, and are good to cure many diseases.

Out of Butter is drawne an oile in the same order, the which is Anodinum, for the saide vses and to cease all paines.

Out of waxe is made an oile to resolue, & attenuate, and is profitable against all colde greefes of the sine wes, and is made thus. Take one pound of yellow wax, and melt it, then powre it in sweet wine & wring it out with your hands, [Page 37] then melt it againe, & powre it into the same wine, and this doe 4. or fiue times, then put it into a retort with an halfe poūd of calcined allome, and a handfull of sage, and distill it with a gentel fire, and there wil come forth a grosse thick oile and white, the which if it bee rectifyed three times, it will be perfect cleere, and will congeale no more.

The vertues of oile of wax experimented by Monsure le counte de Shenaus, & his brother Monsure de Argenteaw in the warres in France. This oile is of a temperat nature to be v­sed either into the bodie or outward, and may be vsed with out all danger: it taketh away the paines of the gout if yee annoint the partes therewith, it comforteth hard sine wes, and ioynt aches, the sciatica, choppes in the lippes, breast, handes or feete, and woundes, burninges either with fire or water, if ye annoint therewith and lay thereon a plaster of the same, being put into the eare with black wool, it helpeth deafnes, it staieth haire from falling. It is also good against the winde collicke, and prouoketh vrine, if ye vse to drinke euery morning ʒ. 1. with malmesie: it preuaileth against the stitch in the side, if yee drinke thereof and annoint the parts therewith. To be short, it helpeth against all manner of in­firmities, as hath bin diuers times prooued.

Of sundrie partes of liuing thinges. Chap. 6.

SVndrie profitable remedies are taken out of diuers parts of sundry beastes, which neede verie little preparation, notwithstanding are to be reserued in shoppes for the great vertues they haue in healing: for the Riuer Crabbe being calcined to a white ashes is commended against the biting of a mad dogge.

The eies of Crabbes calcined in a reuerberatorie are gi­uen with good successe to them that are troubled with the stone, and expelleth all obstructions of the bowelles, of which we haue spoken of before against Aubertus.

The water of earth wormes distilled is profitable against the dropsie, and to kill wormes in children, and being boūd quicke vppon a panat [...]tio, they profit much.

[Page] The water of cowe dung gathered in May is good against the dropsie, and to cure all can [...]erd vlcers.

The powder of the worms called mille pedū is good against affectes of the eies.

Cattes pisse distilled, against deafnes.

The bones cheiflie of a wolfe dryed and brought to pow­der, helpeth the disease in the ribbes, stitches and prickings.

Water of swallowes, against the falling sicknes.

Water of the spawne of frogges, to repell and stay all fluxes of bloud, and rednes of the face.

Coagulu [...] le poris, dronke with Hidromell against the fal­ling sicknes.

Cer [...]aine litle bones which are found in the sorefeete of the hare, prouoke vrine mightily if the powder bee giuen with white wine.

Orsepiae is with good successe giuen against the said disea­ses.

The powder of the liuer of frogges dryed is very well ta­ken against the comming of the fit of a feuer, especially the quartane.

Neither wil I let passe amongest others an especial reme­die and experiment often proued against the stone in the raines which is prepared in this order. In March there are found in the Maw of an oxe, certaine little stones, which if they be taken with white wine, dissolueth the stone. Also in the moneth of May in the bladder of the gall of a bull is found a certaine stone, which if it bee put in white wine, it changeth it to a yellow colour like safron, changing the tast but litle: if the sicke drinke euerie day of this wine, daily powring on freshe vntill the stone be consumed: by these meanes it is manifest by experience that the stone is dimi­nished and at length consumed.

Many other medecines are prepared of the partes of ani­malles, which are not of themselues to be disallowed of ma­ny ignorant, neither their preparations reiected, because they are vnknowen vnto them all, which they may easily at­taine vnto in time, if so be they will not condemne at the first sight that which they know not, and thinke them so im­possible [Page 38] to themselues which are not able to conceaue such great thinges, which yet by searching and diligent labour of hand, not without great maruell and profit to the sicke, are proued most true and certaine to a true phisitian.

The Spagyricall preparation of Me­dicines taken out of Vegitables, and first of wine.

Chapter 1.

TAke the purest and strongest wine ye can get, & distil it in a gourd of glasse with a narrow mouth, ouer the which De vina▪ye shal paste a paper, the which being drye annoint it with oile of sweete al­mondes, then set on the head and receauer, and distill it in Balneo, and the spirit wil flye through the oily pa­per, the which yee shall circulat and keepe in a cold place, close stopped, whose vertues are infinite for the health of mans bodie, the spirit being taken away, yee shall boile the feces vntill it come thicke like a sirop, & set it in a moist sel­ler, the which in short time wil congeale into hard stones or salt, which is called of some lapilli vini, the which ye shal kepe in a dry place to your vse, that is, to dissolue gold therewith, the which thou maist do in this order. First calcine thy gold into an impalpable powder, that it cānot be brought to gold again, thē take therof ℥. ss. lapillorū vini, prepared as afore. ℥. i. fs. Alcooli viniq. s. digest thē together 14. daies, then distil it, & there wil come forth a water of a golden colour, then powre on more spirit of wine prepared as afore, & digest it againe, [Page] and distill it as aforesaid, and this ye shall doe vntill the spi­rit of the gold be drawen forth.

Vinum al­calisatum. Vinum alcalisatum.

TAke those feces that remained after the spirit is taken away, and calcine them white, then with his proper fleme ye shall draw away his salt, the which is called sal vini, of the which take ℥ si▪ spiritus vini ℥ 2. digest it in Balneo 20. daies then distil it vntil it be drie in the bottom, then put on more spirit, and digest it as afore, and this ye shall doe vn­till the salt be distilled ouer the helme, and then it is pre­pared.

The preparation of tartar, and first of spiritus tarta­ri, vel liquor fecularum vini.

Preparatio tartari. TAke white tartar lib. 4. & distil it in maner of aquafortis, vntil all the spirits become forth, the which ye shall sepe­rate in Balneo from the oile, then take that oile which re­mained in the bottom, and rectify it in sand, and thou shalt haue a most precious oile or balme: thou shalt note that the first liquor seperated in Balneo is called liquor fecularū vini, or spiritus tartari, which would be rectified frō the colcothar 3. or 4. times to take away his stinking smell: the oile which ye rectifyed is called oleum fecularum vini, siue mumia fecula­rum vini, the which is most profitable in curing of running and corroding vlcers, and sores which goe creeping vpon the flesh, and especiallie those that come ex lue venerea, being d [...]onke in wine, it breaketh the grauell in the raines & blad­der and expelleth it by vrine: certaine drops being dronke with the decoction of frogges is conuenient for the pthisick: It preuenteth the infection of the plague if yee annoint the [...]ostrelles therewith: It drieth and consumeth ficus in ano in short time without any paine. Furthermore ʒ. 1. of the spi­rit of tartar being dronke with the water of fumetorie, or hirundinaria, or such like, is conuenient for pustulas galli­cas, exanthemata, erisipelas, the dropsie, water betweene the [Page 39] skinne, and the flesh, menstrual fluxe, and all obstructions of those partes, as the iaunders. It taketh away the leprosie in the beginning: ye shall note that ye may augment his force meruellously in this order.

Ye shal mixe it with Aqua theriacalis, which is made thus. Take perfect good theriakle ℥. 5. redde mirra ℥. 2. Safrone ℥. ss. the spirite of wine ℥. 10. mixe them in a glasse and set it to digest 6▪ or 7. daies, then distill it in Balneo: Sometimes they put into this water ʒ. 2. of Campher, especiallie when it is vsed in whot burning agewes, and inflamations and then it is called Aquae theriacalis camphorata. As for ex­ample: Take Spiritus vitriolli 1. ounce, Liquoris fecularum vini correcti 3. ounces, Aquae theriacalis 5. ounces: mixe them and digest them in Balneo. 40. daies, then giue thereof 1. dram with good strong wine, or other conuenient liquor, bothe for the aforesaid effectes, and also to cure and preuent infi­nite other diseases, for this composition hath a singuler per­cing qualitie aboue many others: yee shall note that the liquor of Lignum vite may be vsed in the same order, and so it will worke his effect with more speede.

Sal tartari.

Sal tartari TAke those feces that remained of the Tartar at the first distillation, and calcine them vntill they be white, then dissolue it in faire water distilled beeing warme, filter and congeale it and in the bottome ye shall finde a white salte, which laied in a moyst place will turne into oile, the which taketh away spottes in the face or any other partes: also it clenseth vlcers if ye mixe 1. dram, with 1. ounce of the spi­rit of wine, this oile maketh the haire faire and yellowe: yee shall note that if this salte be often calcined and congeled, it will become Christaline, and is of great force against di­uers infirmities, as hereafter God willing shall be taught.

The liquor of Honie. Cap. 2.

Oleum mel­lu. THat which diuers men call the oile of H onie, is not a [Page] vnctuous oile like vnto other oiles, but rather a certaine element the which is neither oile nor water, although it bee cleere: & this is not much vsed in chirurgerie by cause it is not conuenient in sores, but rather a thing appertaining to phisicke, because it comforteth the stomacke, strengtheneth the spirites, and extinguisheth all feuers, it helpeth the col­licke. It dissolueth the stone in the raines and prouoketh v­rine. The last liquor that is redde maketh the heare yellowe as golde, if ye wash it there with diuers times. It taketh away spots in the eies, and is thus made. Take pure honie 2. poūd and distil it in a glasse that containeth 2. gallons, with a gen­tle fire in sand till it changeth colour, then change the recei­uer & increase the fire a little, vntill all the fumes be come foorth, the which will afterwarde turne into a redde liquor which some call the oile, ex leonardo Phiorauanti.

There is also a quintaessence or burning spirit made out of honie, the which hath the vertues and quailities that the spirite of wine hath in all pointes and may be vsed in steede therof, some affirme that this quintaessence or spirite of ho­nie will dissoule golde, being firste calcined and circulated therewith certaine daies: It dissolueth like wise any kinde of iewell that is put therein. It healeth woundes with greate speede, if ye wash them therewith: It helpeth againste the cough, cattar and paines of the milte, it cureth spots in the eies and preserueth the sight. It is affirmed that one vsinge this essence 40▪ daies, was cured of the Palsie and fallinge­sicknesse, also this quintaessence beeing distilled 20. times with perfect pure siluer calcined, it wil restore the sight vnto those that are in manner blinde.

The extra [...]ction of liquors out of plantes, flowers, seedes and rootes. Cap. 3.

PVt Celandine brused into a glasse cucurbit well stopped, Herbarum esseutiae.set itto digest 15. daies in warm dung, then distil it with a gentle fire vntill the feces remaine drie, the which ye shall stampe, pow [...]ring there on the element of water before dis­tilled, that i [...]t may be couered 4▪ fingers, thē stop the glasse & [Page 40] putrifie it 8. daies in Balneo, after distill it againe giuing fire by degrees til ther come forth no more spirits, & in this 2. di­stillation thou shalt haue the water & aire, the fleme if ye wil ye may seperate by Balneo which reserue: then calcine the feces that remaine, which imbibe with the fleme reserued, puttifie it in Balneo, and distill it per alembicum, vntill the matter appeare in white stones, the which by often soluti­ons and coagulations with his proper water become crista­line, and so the earth shall remaine well purified, which al­though it be white notwithstanding containeth his fire and inward tincture: vpon this put on your 2. first elementes before reserued, and circulate al together in Balneo till the oile appeare and swim vpon, which is called the true es­sence endued with infinite quallities.

In like manner ye may attaine the true preparations of Melissa, sage, and Valerian and all other hearbes.

Olea floril. In that manner ye may prepare the oyles of flowers, but the herbes and flowers which yeeld small quantitie of oyle must be cut, or stamped small, and then put it into a glasse mixing with them if they be drie faire water distilled. But if they be moist or waterish ye shall put them in a glasse, alone close stopped, and set them in the sunne or some warme place to macerate, vntill ye see the oile swimme vppon the toppe, the which ye shall power foorth, and making it warme ye may seperate it by a funnell or conuenient instrumente. Some vse to take those herbes and flowers thus, macerated and distil them in a vessel of copper with a refrigeratory and after seperate the oile, ye shall note that what vertue the herbe is of, the oile is of the same, but much more forcible & subtile.

Oyle of Time his vertues. Oleum thymi.

THree or 4. droppes being drunke with aqua mulsa, helpeth the painefull cough, shortnes of breath, clenseth the brest and ripeneth the fleme, it prouoketh vrine, expelleth the secundine and dead fruite from the ma [...]rix▪ in di [...]olueth clotted and cōgealed bloud within the body, being vsed with [Page] Oximell and a little salte, it purgeth toughe and clammie fleme, and sharpe cholerike humours, and corruption of the bloud. It preuaileth against blastings and winde in the bellie and stones, being often vsed it preuaileth against melancho­lie diseases, and the goute: the smell of this oile is profitable for those that are toubled with the falling sicknesse: Beeing put in to a hollowe tooth it taketh away the paines present­lie.

Oyle of sweete Margerom.

Ol. Ma [...]o­ranae. THis oile being often vsed with other conuenient medi­cines, is most profitable for those that are fallen into a dropsie, and cannot make water but with great difficultie. It preuaileth against winde and gripings in the belly, and pro­uoketh neesing, it is comfortable against all paines of the heade, and restoreth smelling beeing lost if it bee put into the eare & nostrels: it is good against poison and the sting­ing of Scorpiones.

Oyle of Sage.

THis oile dissolueth congeled bloud within the body, cu­reth inward woundes and bruses comming either of a stripe or fall: It prouoketh vrine and expelleth grauell, Ole. Saluia.comforteth the hart and head that is greeued with cold hu­mours, it is profitable for women with child because it clo­seth the matrix, and comforteth the childe, it is profitable for those that are troubled with the gout, palsie or weakenes of the sinewes, if ye mixe it with oile of waxe & annoint the partes therewith, it helpeth the cough and openeth obstru­ctions of the liuer and swageth paines in the side, beeing drunke with wormewood wine, it is profitable against the bitings of venemous beastes, for it cleanseth the sores and healeth them if it be put into vnguentes fitte for that pur­pose.

Oyle of Peniriall.

THis oile being drunke with conuenient liquors proue­keth Menstrua, and bringeth foorth the after burthen, [Page 41] the dead fruite and vnnatural birth: It prouoketh vrine, and breaketh the stone especially in the kidnes, being taken with conuenient siropes it clenseth the lunges and breast from al grosse and thicke humors, beeing taken with aloes and ho­nie it preuaileth against crampes and contractions of the si­newes, being dronke with water and vineger it stayeth the inordinat desire to vomit & gnawing paines of the stomack, and is profitable against the biting of venemous beastes: the annointing of the temples and nostrelles with this oile is profitable against the falling sicknes, and taketh away the swimming paines thereof, and is most profitable for those that haue a colde and moist braine, it slaketh the paines of the gout: the fume of this oile being receaued at the lower partes with a funnell is profitable against windines and bla­stinges, and also against hardnes & stoppings of the matrix.

Oile of Mintes.

Ole. menth [...]. THis warmeth and strengtheneth the stomacke, and dry­eth vp moist and superfluous humors gathered in the same, and causeth good digestion, it stayeth vomitting, be­ing dronke and annointing the stomacke therewith, and kil­leth round wormes being often vsed: it helpeth the griping paines of the collicke, and stayeth the menstruall fluxe, be­ing either eaten or dronk with some conuenient medicine: it easeth women which are much troubled with harde and perillous trauell in childe birth: It helpeth deafnes if it be dropped into the eares, the onely smell of this oile maketh the hart mery.

Oile of Hisope.

Ole. Hisopi. BEing dronke with some conuenient liquor it openeth all obstructiōs of the brest, it helpeth the shortnes of breath and cough, being dronke with the sirope of vineger it ex­pelleth tough and clammy fleme, it killeth & driueth forth wormes, it hath the like operation if it be eaten with figges.

Oile of wormewood.

ole. a [...]sinthi. THIS oile is a profitable medicine against all paines of [Page] the stomacke that is oppressed with hot cholericke humors, for it expelleth them partly by the stoole, and partly by v­rine, and comforteth the stomacke: likewise it purgeth all cholericke humors gathered together in the vaines and li­uer. The vse thereof helpeth the yellow iaunders, and all obstructions of those partes. It is profitable against windi­nes and blastinges of the belly, against paines and appetite to vomit, and the wamblinges of the stomacke, if it be mix­ed with oile of Aniseede and eaten in losenges or drinke, it resisteth venome, and killeth wormes being dronke, and the belly annointed therewith, it helpeth digestion, purifyeth the bloud, prouoketh sleepe, and preserueth them in good temperature that vse it, either with wine or some other con­uenient thing, it is profitable against the dropsie, comfor­teth the liuer and hart, and resolueth the milte, if yee mixe with it 2. or 3. drops of oile of vitrioll, it helpeth long sick­nesses, being often vsed in the morning with conuenient liquors, it is very profitable for those that are waxen leane and are euill coloured in the face and bodie: wormewood wine: is verie fit to drinke it withall.

Oile of Rosemarie flowers.

Ole. Anthos THis oile is most commodious against all paines of the head proceeding of cold, although it haue continued a­long time, it comforteth the memorie, and preserueth the sight, it helpeth deafnes if it be dropped into the eares, it o­peneth all obstructions of the liuer and milte, and is profi­table against the dropsie and yellow iaunders, it breaketh wind, and is profitable against the collicke, and rising of the mother, it is also good for those that haue dronke poi­son, or that are infected with the pestilence if it be dronke with some conuenient liquor and sweat thereon: It comfor­teth the hart and clenseth the bloud and maketh a man me­rie [...]: to conclude, it comforteth against all diseases of the bodie comming of colde and moist humors, it helpeth the canker and fistula.

Oiles of seedes must thus be prepared.

ole. seminū TAke your seedes and beate or bruse them, and lay them to steepe 2. or 3. daies in distilled water or wine, then distill them with a refrigeratory, with a gentle fire vntill all the oile be come forth, the which ye shall seperate by a fun­nell.

Oile of Aniscede. oleum A­nisi.

BEing dronk or eatē fasting in losenges in the morning, it causeth a sweet breath, & is profitable for those that are short winded and cannot fetch their breath, but with great paine: it breaketh winde in the stomacke, belly, and guttes, it breaketh fleme, and causeth it to be spitte forth, it increa­seth nature, it driueth forth poison by sweat, it comforteth the breast and lunges, it prouoketh vrine, and breaketh the stone in the raines & bladder, it is good against the bloudy flixe and piles. The nostrels being annointed therewith at night when ye goe to bed prouoketh sleepe, and wood being annointed therewith wil not suffer mothes to breede there.

Oile of Fenell seede.

ole. feniculi. IT comforteth the affectes of the head. It sharpneth the sight, it helpeth the straitnes of the breast, and horsnes of the voice, it helpeth concoction & dissolueth wind, It brea­keth the grauell and prouoketh vrine and the menstruall flux: it openeth the obstructions of the liuer and milt, and profiteth greatly against the dropsie and yellow [...]anders be­ing vsed with conuenient liquors or medicines.

Oile of commin seede.

oleum cimi­ni. IT is good against woundes in the splene, and disperseth winde in the stomacke, belly, bowelles, and matrix: It hel­peth the cough and shortnes of wind, it is good against the fretting of the belly, either taken by potion or glister. It is [Page] profitable for those that haue the burning of vrine and can­not hold their water, being dronke with water of ferne: it helpeth digestion of grosse humours in the stomacke.

Oile of caraway seede.

oleum Car­ui. THe vse of this oile is most conuenient against windines in the stomacke, and helpeth digestion, it prouoketh vrine and hath in manner all the vertues that are ascri­bed vnto aniseede.

Oile of Dill seede.

Oleum A­neti. THe vse of this oile driueth away vētosity or windines, as­swageth blastinges and gripinge tormentes in the belly: It staieth vomitting and the flux, it prouoketh vrine, it is a­uaileable against the suffocation and strangling of the ma­trix, if the fume thereof bee receaued with a funnell at the lower partes, it stayeth the yex or hicocke, it healeth hol­low and moist vlcers in the share or priuie partes, it diges­teth, resolueth and swageth paines, and ripeneth all rawe humors, this oile may not be vsed too much inwardly, for it diminisheth the sight and seede of generation.

Oile of Percelie seede.

oleum Pe­ [...]roselini. THis oile openeth all obstructions of the liuer & kid­neis, and prouoketh the menstruall flux if it be dronke with conuenient liquors, it causeth appetite, helpeth di­gestion, and comforteth the stomacke. It expelleth the stone and grauell in the mines and prouoketh vrine: it is a good remedie against poisons, it expelleth all blastings, and windines, it is good against the cough, being taken with conuenient liquor.

Oile of the seed of Rue or hearbe grace.

oleum rutae. CARDANVS writeth, that this oile being dronke [Page 43] with wine it is of great vertue against poison, for it causeth the patient to cast it foorth by vomite at the first time that it is taken. And at the second it expelleth the other euill hu­mors, that are infected therewith. And at the third time it cureth the patient and maketh him whole: It helpeth all diseases of the eyes so that the apple of the eye be not pe­rished, if ye wash them with the water and droppe one drop of the oile into the eie: being drunke it suffereth no poison to remaine in a man that day, also beeing drunke it mitiga­teth the goute and dropsie, comming of colde humours: It restoreth all benummed members taken with the palsie if ye annointe them therewith: Cardanus also affirmeth in his second booke De Subtilitate that there are certaine poisons the which do slaie onely with their touching, against which poisons (saith hee) the best remedie is not to staie in any place, vntill the hand waxe whote, and often bathe the parts with warme water, and annoint them with oile of Rewe.

ole. fructuū, & radicū. YOur fruits and rootes must first bee beaten, & put them into a distilling vessel with as many gallons of distilled water as there are poundes of stuffe, and so let them mace­rate 3. or 4. daies, thē distil them with a refrigeratory, as it is said afore.

Oile of Iuniper beries.

Oleum Iu­niperi. THis oile is profitable against griping paines or winde in the guttes, and may be compared to balme: 4 or 5. drops being drunke preuenteth the resolution of the Sinewes, the falling sickenes and other diseases of the braine, it pre­serueth the body from poison and pestilent aires, it com [...]or­teth a weake & cold stomacke & staieth vomiting, it purgeth the raines, breaketh grauell and prouoketh vrine, and is pro­fitable against the dropsie, and water betweene the skinne and the flesh, it killeth wormes, to conclude it comforteth all weake members by his piercing vertue, it helpeth con­uulsiones and shakings and paines in the necke comming of a Catar if ye annointe the partes therewith, it easeth the paines of the sciatica in the hippes, the gout and the collicke and all malign vlcers being annointed therewith.

Oile of Baie berries.

oleū è bac­cis lauri. OVt of lb. 1. of Baies there is not drawne aboue ℈. 2. of oile by distillation, the which is most profitable against Collicum iliacum & sciaticam passionem.

Oile of Iuie berries.

oleum è baccis hede­rae. THis oile is distilled as the oile of Iuniper berries, but some doo take the berries, wood, gum and all together and distil it by descention, out of the which there will come foorth a thicke blacke oile that is profitable against colde diseases of the iointes, it prouoketh the Flux Menstruall, ex­pelleth the stone, and purgeth vlcers.

Oiles of sweete smelling thinges are thus prepared.

ole. Aro­matum. BEate them grosely, then infuse thē in faire distilled wa­ter as afore is said, and distil them with a refrigeratorie.

Oile of Cinamom.

oleum cina­momi. THis reuiueth the naturall spirits marueilously, it disper­seth the euil humors in the stomack, it openeth obstru­ctions and is profitable against all cold diseases, it preserueth from putrefaction, it cureth woundes and vlcers as the na­turall balme doth, it causeth faire deliuerie of child birth, it is a most precious remedie for those that lie speechlesse if ye put 3. or 4. drops into their mouth either by it selfe or ming­led with cinamom water, it helpeth concoction, the lyke vertue the water hath but it must be vsed in greater quātity. This oile is of such a piercing nature that it pierceth tho­rough the whole bodie, and finally it is a present remedie for a woman that soundeth in her trauaile if she drinke 3. or 4. droppes.

The Oile or essence of Safrone.

Essentia croci. TAke drie Safron and drawe awaie his tincture with the spirit of wine, vntill the feces remaine white, the which [Page 44] ye shall calcine according to arte and circulate them in Balneo with the said mēstrua, afterward let it settle & vapor away the said Menstrua in Balneo, and the essence of Safron will remaine in the bottome, the which is excellent to com­forte the spirites, for if ye mixe a droppe or two with brothe or some conuenient liquor, it restoreth and strengtheneth the weake spirites marueilouslie, but especiallye the hart with infinite other vertues which wee omitte tyll another time.

Oile of Mace. oleum Ma­cis.

THis oile is of a hot facultie, and therefore it is commo­diouslie vsed in the Collicke, comming of a cold cause, or of a Catar descending from the heade, it comforteth the hart, belly and Matrix: It is also good against trembling of the hart, the obstructions of the bladder and Matrix, it hel­peth the strangurie and all diseases hauing their original of colde. It strengtheneth the stomacke and wombe being vsed in wine, or broth, or made in losenges.

Oile of Cloues.

oleum cari­ophilorum. THis oile is very profitable for the bellie, hart and liuer, and hath all the qualities of naturall balme, it healeth all fresh woundes and punctures, it strengtheneth the hart and head and helpeth the megrim, it purgeth melancholie bloud, it sharpeneth the sight, comforteth the stomacke, cau­seth digestion, and maketh a sweete breath: it helpeth the collicke and all the paines in the bellie comming of colde, if ye drink two or three drops in wine or eate losenges made with the same oile.

Oile of Pepper.

oleum pipe­ris. THis oile hath much more vertue then the Pepper it selfe in piercing, and specially in the windie collicke, & other weake partes filled with fleame, it staieth the shaking of the feuer tertain, if ye take three or foure droppes with sirope [Page] of quinces two houres afore the fitte, prouided that the bo­die be first well purged and let bloud as occasion shal serue, ye shal note this oile is onely the ayrie parte seperated from the other elementes.

Oile of Nutmegges.

THis oile being drunke with cōuenient liquors bringeth downe the menstruall fluxe, and also the quicke and oleum nucis muschatae.deade fruite, and therefore women with childe shall not vse this oile vntill such time as they be in trauell, and then it causeth faire deliuerie without any danger: it is profitable against all paines of the heade comming of colde, it causeth a sweete breath and warmeth and strengtheneth a cold sto­macke and consumeth superfluous humors of the same, it dispearseth winde and appeaseth the collicke, & is profita­ble for the affects of the bladder: it helpeth inward woundes beeing drunke with some conuenient wound drinke, it helpeth colde diseases of the sinewes and swellinge of the Spleene two or three droppes being taken in broth.

Oiles of Woodes are thus prepared.

TAke Lignum vite rasped in powder, and put it into a glasse or stone pot close stopped, and set it in Balneo or warme dunge certaine daies to digest: then distill it with oleum gua­ics.a gentle fire Per descensum, and there will come foorth a li­quor called of the chimistes, Mercurie: then increase the fire and there will come foorth an oile which is called the sul­fure, the which must bee purged by arte from his stincking smel, then take the ashes of the woode and drawe foorth his salt with Fumetorie water, the which ye shall calcine, dis­solue and congele diuers times, vntill it be as white as snow, the which salte by a workeman may be brought Cristalline: Of the Mercury or first liquor is giuen one spoonful or more with 2. ounces of Fumetorie water against all vicious hu­mours in the body, and driueth them out by sweate: with the oile or sulfure ye shall cure the vlcers or other greefes after [Page 45] the bodie is well purged with the salt, the which is done in this order. Take of the salte ʒ i. good theriakle ℥ ss. mixe them and giue thereof ʒ. ss, more or lesse according to the discretion of the phisicion, and the strength of the partie: in this order must thou draw forth the Mercurie, sulfur, & salt, of all maner of woods: there are diuers other orders to giue this Mercurie or liquor, whereof some are written in the chapter, where wee intreat of spiritus tartars.

Oile of Iuniper wood.

Oleum ex lignis iuni­peris. THis oile is profitable for members that are weakened through cold, it strengtheneth the raines and matrix, and helpeth conception, it cureth maligne vlcers & wounds, and swageth paine, it taketh away the fit of a quartane fe­uer, especiallie being annointed from the nauell downe­ward.

Oile of the wood of Ashe.

Oleum e lignis frax­ini. THis oile doth cure the colde gout, and cicatriceth raw places, it dissolueth the white morphew, and maketh it blacke, it cureth those that haue the palsie, and is profita­ble for those that are vexed with the splene, not only dronke, but also annointed therewith.

The true order to prepare and make oiles out of Rosens concreat liquors and gummes. Chap. 4.

Oleum tere­binthinae. THis oile is distilled with a gētle fire in Balneo, and is most pure & cleer: some distil it in fand or ashes, putting ther­to a hādful of salt & a litle aqua vitae: some put to it for euery lb. of turpentine ℥ iij. of sifted ashes, to keep the matter frō running ouer. This oile is most profitable against cold dis­eases of the sinewes, & against asthma, & difficultie of brea­thing, if ye drinke thereof ʒ ij. euery morning, it preuaileth a­gainst grosse humors gathered together in the breast, it cea­seth the paines of the collicke, it helpeth chappes in womēs [Page] breastes, and woundes, it taketh away the crampe, it helpeth deafnes and prouoketh vrine.

Oile of Frankensence.

THis oile is distilled as afore is said in sand with a gentle Oleum re­sine pine.fire according to art, vntill all the substance be come forth, the which will be both oile and water, the which yee must seperate by a funnell, the water is good against winde in the stomacke if it be dronke, it helpeth all chappes and chilblaines, and such like either in the hands or feete, if ye wash them therwith and annoint them with the oile against the fire, and straight waies put on a paire of gloues: it hel­peth the white scall if yee wash it therewith, & also all ma­ner of scabbes, laying thereon morning and euening a cloth wet in the same: it dryeth vp vlcers & sores: the oile is most precious against woundes in all partes of the body, because it preserueth from putrefaction and alteration, and taketh a­way paines, if ye ioine the wound close together and lay this oile warm heron. The first oile that commeth forth is cleere and preserueth the handes and face being annointed there­with: it is also most profitable against all colde diseases in­wardly, if yee geue thereof ʒ. i. with conuenient liquors, it dissolueth all tumors and aches comming of colde, it taketh away the blacknes of any bruise being new done in two or three houres by continuall annointing the place so fast as it dryeth in.

Oile of Succinum or Amber.

Oleum suc­cini. STamp your amber small & distill it in a retort with the powder of flint stones, giuing it fire according to art vn­till all the substance be come forth, the which will bee both water and oile, and a sal armoniacke, the which wil hange about the Receauer, the which keepe as a precious iu­ell, then seperat one from another: the oile is good against all affectes of the head, comming of colde & moist humors, it helpeth the resolution of the sinewes, the Apoplexia, the [Page 46] falling sicknes, and being put into the nostrelles when they fall, it will recouer them presently, it preserueth a man from poison, and pestilent aires if yee annoint the nostrelles ther­with, it is good against diseases of the raines and bladder, it dryueth forth grauell and prouoketh vrine if it be dronke with conuenient liquors: it helpeth the collicke & choking of the matrix being annointed therewith, it bringeth forth the fruit, and causeth faire deliuerance if it be dronke with conuenient liquors, it strengtheneth and comforteth all the powres of the bodie, it consumeth superfluous humors.

Oile of Masticke.

Oleum [...] ­sticis. THe Apothecaries of ℥. 4. of Mastike & lb. i. of the oile of vnripe Oliues, with ℥ 4. of rosewater do make an oile, which the Phisi ions prescribe to cure the lienterie, and vo­mitting, and to strengthen the stomacke and liuer: which preparation is accounted ridiculous vnto those which out of lb. i. of mastike by their art draw ℥. 10. of most pure oile, whereof two droppes taken either with wine or broth, or applied to the grieued place, will profit more to cure the aforesaid diseases, then lb. i. not of mastike, but o [...]iues ra­ther which our Phisitions (I know not by what reason) do vse now adaies: wherefore yee shall prepare your oile in this manner.

Take of pure mastike lb. i. put it in a glasse with distilled wa­ter, and aqua vitae of each alike, so that it may be couered 4. fingers high, then lute it close and set it in warme dung to putrify certaine daies, afterward distill it in sand, giuing fire by degrees, and first there wil come forth with the menstru [...], a yellow oile, the which keepe by it selfe, then augment the fire, and there will come forth a redde oile, then at the last there will come forth a thicke blacke oile smelling of the fire, the which ye shall circulate with the spirit of wine se­perated from the first, and then distill it againe, and thou shalt haue a perfect oile profitable for outward griefes, espe­cially for his piercing force, whereby it doth refresh all the members, it strengtheneth the stomacke, it helpeth con­coction [Page] and inflations of the bowels, it mollifyeth and as­swageth their sorenes. It comforteth and strengtheneth all the sinewes, also the first yellow oile is geuen with wine or his proper decoction for the same diseases, and to stoppe reumes: if ye feare his fyrie heate after the aqua vite is se­perated, ye may wash it with rose water or faire water di­stilled: and so ye shall make an excellent medicine against diuers infirmities. Philippus Hermanus writeth, that this oile is of a most subtill nature, and stoppeth the menstruall flox, and all other flixes being vsed with conuenient medicines, either inward or outward, it is good against falling downe of the fundement, if ye annoint the parts therwith, and put thē into their naturall place, it is also profitable against the rupture in yong children, it healeth woundes, it fasteneth the teeth if yee annoint the gummes therewith.

Oile of Mirrha.

Oleum ex Mirrha. TAke pure mirrha ℥ vj. and put thereto ℥ xij. of the spirit of wine, & set it in warme dung 6 daies, then seperat the menstrua, and the tincture or oile will remaine in the bot­tom. This oile hath the vertues of naturall balme, and preserueth all thinges from putrefaction that is annointed therewith. Also the face being annointed therewith in a bath or stoue, is preserued in youthfull state a long time, it healeth woundes quicklie, it helpeth foule & stinking vlcers, it helpeth those that are deafe, it helpeth the paines of the mother if it be annointed therewith: This oile dryeth and consumeth all accidents after child birth, being dronke it maketh a sweete breath, and helpeth the cough and short­nes of winde, it helpeth the stitch in the side, and all other inward diseases if ye drinke ʒ ij. thereof: it stayeth haire frō falling. If any be troubled with a feuer, let them annoint all their bodie therewith, and lay them downe to sweate, and they shall be cured: it taketh away the stinch of the arme­pittes if ye annoint the partes therewith in a bath or stoue, being mixed with wine, and the mouth washed therewith, it fasteneth the teeth and gummes: when ye will vse this oile [Page 47] to preserue any part, yee must first hold it ouer the [...]ume of nettels boiled in faire water vntill the pores bee open, then drie it well, and annoint it with this oile, and it will preserue it long time in youthfull state.

Oile of Galbanum.

Oleum ex Galbano. THis gumme must first be dissolued in distilled vineger, and then distilled in a retort with a gentle fire: this oile is most profitable against inwarde bruses, and crampes, and shtinking of sinewes: being dronke with oile of mirrha, it is good against venome being either dronke or shotte into the body with venemous arrowes: also dronke in the same or­der it prouoketh womens termes, and deliuereth the dead fruit, the fume of this oile being receaued at the lower partes, worketh the same effect. Also the fume of this oile being taken at the mouth, helpeth the rising of the mother, being layd to the nauell it causeth the matrix to stay in his naturall place: the fume of this oile is profitable against the falling sicknes if ye annoint the nostrelles therewith. In this maner ye may make oile of labdanū, opoponax, sagapenum, Amoniacum, and such like, which doe soften the knots of the gout, and doth mightily dissolue the hardnes of the li­uer, splene and other members if they be distilled all toge­ther, or taken euerie one by himselfe, according to the me­thod prescribed.

Oile of Egges.

Oleum ouo­rum. SOme make this oile by distillation of the yolks of egges, & some by stirring them in a pan ouer the fire after they be sodden hard. The water of egges being distilled taketh away scarres and spottes in the face or other places. The oile comforteth against all paines, it helpeth woundes by gunshot, it preuaileth much against burninges and scal­dings, either with fire, or water, or powder: it maketh haire blacke, if ye annoint it therewith, it slaketh the paines of the hemeroides if yee annoint them therewith often times. [Page] The yolkes of egges being distilled with as much white wax, is most precious to heale woundes and bruses, for it resolueth them with great speede, the stomacke being annointed ther­with causeth good digestion, and comforteth it meruel­louslie.

The true preparation of certaine oiles which are com­monlie vsed in Apothecaries shops, to be applied outwardly.

Oleorum officinario­rum vera pr [...]parandi methodus pro topicis. FOr outward medicines you shall best draw forth the hole strength of roses, violets, nymphaea, white popie, hen­bane and Mandrake with oile oliue, which are commonly v­sed in shoppes, all which do quench inflamations and great heates, asswage hot swellinges, strengthen and thicken the member, stoppe fluxes, helpe madnes, and prouoke sleepe, if you vse this method following.

Oile of Roses.

Oleum ro­s [...]rum. TAke oleum omphacinum, and wash it with common water distilled diuers times, then purify it in Balneo, vntill it leaue no more feces, then take lb. j. of this oile so prepared, of red roses the whites being cutte off and brused in a stone morter lb. j. ss. put them into a glasse, and set it to putrify in warme dung twelue daies being close luted, thē presse forth the oile, and put in fresh leaues, as afore is said, and putrify it againe: and this ye shall doe three or foure times, and so shall ye haue a perfect good oile: in like sort shall you make all other cooling oiles for topicall medecines very well. So is oile of Quinces, and myrtilles made, which refrige­rat and astringe, and are applied to the stomacke, liuer, braine and weake bowelles, and also to the fundement. In like manner are oiles made of Camomill and Lilies which doth strengthen the sinewes, moderat, resolue, and swage aches: but these are made with ripe sweet oile prepared as afore.

Of mintes, wormewood, lentiscus, and others after the [Page 48] same order, are oiles made with oleum omphacinum, which be­ing annointed doth moderatly warme the stomacke, and strengthen the other partes, and helpe concoction, but first they are prepared with their proper water, and astringent wine, and must be clensed from all feces in Balneo certaine daies as is afore said: But if any man will warme, attenuat, and digest the more strongly by these oiles, let him take like portions of oile purifyed in Balneo and the spirit of wine.

Out of baies and such like beries ye may make oile, if ye digest them the space of a moneth in warme dung, and then presse them forth & serua. They are good for all colde greefes of the braine or sinewes, and disperse winde: But all these oiles of hot quallities will be much better if they be drawne onely with the spirit of wine in Balneo, without any addition of other oile, as Galen 1. simp. cap. 15. Although it doth easilie inflame, yet it doth not so quickly heate vs: for through his grose and slimie substance sticking fast to that it first toucheth, and therfore indureth long vpon all things wherewith it is annointed: neither is it extenuated or dige­sted of the aire about it, or easily made to passe into the bodie.

Of artificiall saltes, and their properties. Chap. 1.

Of artifici­all saltes. THe vse and profit of saltes that are drawen out of sim­ples by calcination are in maner as great in phisicke as the rocke or common salt is, which daily and in general ser­ueth to mans releefe: for when from simples a grosse fleme is taken awaye, which in troth hindereth their operation, how much more woulde they performe their operation if they were conuerted into a spirituall matter, which by long distillations and filtrings is caused that they may change by a certaine manner into a firye matter: therefore it is not to be doubted that when the simples be conuerted into a salte, and the element of fire hath in no such wise dominion in them, but that they pierce sooner, and may performe their proper action: that such a heape or companie of diuers sim­ples, [Page] shall not neede besides in the composition of remedies: for such salts haue certaine properties the which other pur­gers being distilled want: for euerie salt saith Theophrastus Paracelsus purgeth, but the distilled waters of the purgers lacke or haue not the same propertie, because his salt is not ioyned in the same, so that I suppose a great tartnes or sharpnes consifteth in them all.

The manner and fashion to prepare these saltes are di­uers according to the opinion of the Authors. Some will the hearbes to be gathered in their due time, and distill a­way the water in Balneo, then calcine the feces, and with their proper water draw forth the salt, the which yee shall calcine in a fornace of calcination, and dissolue it againe and congeale it: and this ye shall do vntill it be white as snowe: the which afterward by a workeman may be brought chri­stalline. These saltes called alkalye, must be kept in a glasse close stopped, because the aire will soon resolue them, which happeneth (especially to those that are made of hearbes, & those substances) which possesse and haue more quantity of eile, and the subtiller.

Obseruati­ons. Some calcine them slightly, some more, some lesse, some make their salte with their owne water distilled from the hearbes: some with raine water distilled from those kind of hearbes being drie or greene, some put on the water colde, some hot, and so let it stand certaine daies stirring it often, the which is not amisse, then distill it by a filter vntill it bee cleere, and vapor it away in Balneo, vntill it bee drie, then calcine it againe, and dissolue it in some conuenient liquor, and then congeale it againe, and this yee shall doe vntill it be white as snow, the which by often calcining and dissol­uing may be brought christalline, whereof one graine is of more force then fixe of the first.

De salibus purgantibus per tussim.

Sal Hiperi­conis. THe salt of Hipericone or saint Iohns wort, certaine af­firme to bee highly commended, and approued in the pluresie, giuing the patient in warme wine so much as will [Page 49] goe into halfe a hasell nutshell. A certaine singular phisi­tion in the pluresie gaue as much of this salt as he cold hold betweene the ende of his fingers in malmsie, and God is the witnes that the patient was cured by it: the like vertue hath the salt of Polipodij. sal polipodij

De salibus purgantibus per vrinam.

sal chamo­ [...]hillae. AS much as a man may hold betweene the end of his fin­gers, of this salt was giuen with warme wine vnto one that could not make water, and he was presently deliuered, as Leo Suauius writeth.

Salt of Woormewood.

sal ab [...]inihij THis salt is geuen in maner in all diseases or sicknesses, with profit: but especiallie in the pestilence, it is profi­table against all obstructions of the [...]iuer and kidneis, it pro­uoketh vrine, it helpeth the dropsie and water betweene the skinne and the flesh proceeding of a salt cholericke humor, and is profitable against the yellow iaundies, it prouoketh sweat, it helpeth and driueth forth from the inward partes the poxe (Feiguarzen, and such like diseases.) It comforteth the stomacke, purgeth waterish bloud gathered together in the vaines and liuer, causeth good digestion, and slaketh the griping paines and blastinges in the bellie, being vsed with conuenient liquors or medicines, it mundifieth all foule sores, if it bee strowed thereon, or mixed with conuenient li­quors or vnguents.

Sal Gentiane.

sal gētiane. This salt is profitable against all feuers, it openeth and purgeth all obstructions of the bowelles, it prouoketh men­strua and vrine being dronke with conuenient liquors.

Sal Gratiolae.

sal gratiolae This salt is effectuall against the dropsie.

Sal Anonidis.

sal anonidi [...] This salt diminisheth the stone, and prouoketh vrine, & is profitable against the strangury.

Sal Raphani.

sal raphani This salt hath the aforesaid vertues.

Sal Genistae.

sal geniste. This salt breaketh the stone and prouoketh vrine.

Sal Stipitum Fabarum.

sal stipitum fabarum. This salt helpeth the difficultie of vrine, and breaketh the stone.

Sal Iuniperi.

sal Iuniperi This salt of Iuniper is of a piercing nature and hath the aforesaid vertues.

De salibus purgantibus per vterum.

sal arthe­misiae. sal melissae. THis salt doth prouoke womens termes.

This salt also prouoketh menstrua, purgeth the womb and helpeth the suffocation of the matrix.

Sal Chelidoniae.

sal chelido­ [...]i [...]. Take the rootes of celandine cleane scraped and not washed q. v. stampe them well in a stone morter, then digest them 24 howres with the spirit of wine in Balneo, thē powre it out without pressing, and vapour away the said spirit in Balneo, and in the bottom will remaine a yellow tincture or powder, the which profiteth much in prouoking of womens termes, the dose is about ℈ i. in white wine or other conue­nient liquor.

De salibus purgantibus per sudorem.

THis salt is verie profitable against the pox or such like sal ligni guaici.diseases, either to be vsed inward or outward: it prouo­keth sweate mightily if it be mixed with diaphoreticall me­dicines.

sal scabiosae. The salt of Scabious hath the like vertue in prouoking sweat.

De salibus dolorem sedantibus.

Olei macro­bij, sal e­iusdem. TAke the bloud of an old Hart or Stagge being yet warm, and distill it in Balneo with a gentle fire vntill all the fleme be come away, then change the Receauer, and set thy vessell in sand, and augment the fire, and there will com [...] [Page 50] forth both oile and salt, the which will hange round about the glasse, the which must be mixed with the oile. Yee shall note that the stinking smell of the oilemay be taken away by often washinges in warme water afore yee mixe it with his salt. This oile swageth all paines of the gout if ye annoint the partes therewith.

Sal sanguinis humani.

sal sangui­nu humane. THe salt of the bloud of a man and a goate is made in the same order, the which haue great vertue to helpe the raines, bladder, and all diseases of the articular partes, as Chiragra, Gonagra, and Podagra.

A composition of saltes that seperateth fleme.

puluis ex s [...] ­libus. TAke hisop, penirial, ana. ℥ ss. Origanū ʒ ij. fenel seed ℥ ss. Caraway seed ʒ ij. licorice ℥ i. Salis vsti ℥ vj. Salis absinthij ʒ ij. salis Iumperi totidē, cinamomi. oū. i. ss. piperis longi ʒ vj. carda momum, granorum paradisi, cariophilorum ana. ℥ ss. Gingiberis ℥. i. misco, fiat puluis.

Sal perigrinorum.

sal peregri­norum. TAke sails nitri fusi, salis gemmae ana. ℥ i. galangae, macis, cu­bebarū ana. ℈ i. fiat puluis. The dose is foure or sixe grains in the morning fasting vpon a peece of bread: this comfor­teth the stomake, maketh good digestion, and preserueth the bodie from putrifaction: the vse of this salt being at the sea will preserue from vomitting.

An addition to that salt to preserue the bodi [...] in health.

Additi [...] TAke of the aforesaid salt so prepared ℥ iij. Alcoolis vini exiccati lb. ss. extrahatur alcali, of the which take ʒ ij. & put thereunto kist vnum liquor is granorum Iuniperi, mixe them, (the dose is 1. or 2. gr.) in wine: ye shall not adde any other [Page] thing vnto this, lest the vertue of the salt be spoiled: this salt was of great estimation with Hermes trimigistes to preserue the bodie in health.

Balsamum vrinae, the which through the great vertues it hath, deserueth to be called Catholicum, and is made thus.

TAke the vrine of yong Children aboute the age of 12. Balsamum vrinae.yeares, that hath dronke wine for certaine moneths if it be possible, the same putrify in Balneo, or dung, a philo­sophers yeare, then distill it with a gentle fire in sand being also luted, the which ye shall note diligently: the fleme ye shall put vpon the feces 4. times, then the last water keepe close shut, the which is white and stinking, and therfore ye may giue it both tast and smell with sinamom and sugar, the feces that remained in the bottom being blacke yee shall sublime by degrees of fire, and you shall haue a most pre­cious salt, the which some affirme will dissolue gold, siluer & other mettalles: some philosophers call it their menstrua. The vertues of this Balsamum vrinae are infinite, and may rightly be called Catholicum remedium, because it hath mar­uellous vertues in all maner of diseases, and doth nourish nature wonderfullie by his similitude and not by contrarie­tie. It cureth the dropsie, prouoketh vrine and menstrua that are suppressed, it resisteth corruption, it cureth the plague, and sundrie feuers, as pestilential, tercians, quartanes, and quotidianes, it withstandeth vomitting.

There is no doubt but that al these vertues are contained in this blessed Mumia: for that we see the effect in crude v­rine, for it moueth vrine and menstrua, it cureth tumors & the dropsie, it helpeth the paines and wind in the gut [...]es, & collicke, it is profitable against the feuer tercian, quartan, & quotidian, and against the plage and pestilent feuer it is a re­medy, if it be dronke 15. daies together with safron: or cer­taine graines of this powder following, whose wonderfull vertues daily experience doth shew as well in curing as pre­uenting, as hath bin proued in the time of the pestilence.

[Page 51] Take Maces laied to steepe in vineger 24▪ houres oū. ij. cāphir oū. ss. Manus Christi made with dissolued perle & oile of cinamom oū. iiij. beat them in fine powder, and keepe it to thy vse.

Vrine also breaketh the stone in the raines and bladder, it dissolueth the obstructions of the liuer, it cureth the ian­dies, it purgeth the lunges, and killeth wormes, with diuers other vertues, which ye shall find written in a booke called Vrinarum probationes, Iodoci Wilichij: the dose of the es­sence is from oū. i. to oū. ij. with sugar & cinamom: of the crude vrine yee may drinke greater quantitie.

Rebisola. Paracelsus writeth a great arcaū of vrine, and calleth it Rebisola, and sal cristalline the which cureth the iandies: take the vrine of a yong child as a fore, and boile it in a glasse or stone vessell, and skum it cleane, then put it in a glasse, and set it in a moist place certaine daies, and in the bottom ye shall finde certaine stones [...]f salt congealed, the which are called Rebisola, and are of a wonderfull vertue against all obstructions of the body.

Puluis con­ducens op­thalmis, suffusioni­bus alijsqu [...] [...]gritudini­bus oculori [...] externis. Aqua ad suffusionē. The feces remaining in the bottom after the vrine is quite boiled away, being calcined white, and dissolued in a conue­nient distilled water, and congealed againe into a most white powder, is a most approued experiment against all outward greefes of the eies, if it bee put therin twice a day▪

Rec. Euphrasiae, faeniculi, rutae, chelidoniae, ve [...]benae, be­tonicae ana. m. i▪ Rosmarini. m. ss. semen feniculi, anisi. car­ui, sileris montani ana. oū. ss. Calami aromatici ʒ vi. thuris­mirrhae, aloes, ana ʒ ij. aque rosarū lb ij. aque rutae. vini odora­ti ana lb i. vrinae pueri lb ss. let them stande together foure daies, and then distill them in a glasse, and therewith wash your eies. Also yee shall hange in this water a fine linnen cloth, wherein is the powder of white amber or succinum, or else put in the powder it selfe. Also it would bee good to wash their feet in the morning with the decoctiō of betonye and sometime to take the fume of Xyloaloes in the eies, the which is a present remedy against Opthalmia.

Of common salt.

Common sals. THere are founde three sortes of saltes, the one naturall▪ [Page] which is a meane mineral called sal gemmae, or stone salt, the which is found in mountaines in the prouince of Calabria, and in Spaine in the Ile of Iuiza, whereof there are diuers medicines prepared, the second is artificiall, as is made in Cheshire, and diuers other places by boiling it. The third kinde is made in the sand by extreame heate of the sunne: but the most pleasantest and well relished salt is that which is boiled on the fire, for it is pure and white, neuerthelesse the salt of the mountaine is of more vertue in phisicall cau­ses: for if it be calcined 40. dayes and then dissolued in the quintessence of honie, it is of such vertue that it will in maner reuiue a man that lies speechlesse if yee giue him a spoonefull thereof to drinke: also this salt being made in a pultus with branne and oile, and applied warme, helpeth many griefes. Also a decoction of sal gēmae with wine and oile being giuen in a clister is most profitable against pains of the head, the sciatica, and paines of the raines, and like­wise is profitable for those that are troubled with a carnosi­tie in the yard: for by nature it preserueth all thinges from putrefaction: also this salt being often calcined, dissolued & congealed, may be vsed in meates in stead of common salt, for it procureth an appetite, causeth digestion, killeth wormes with diuers other vertues. Also it may be made fu­sible in this order.

Sal gēmae. Rec. lb. i. of sal gēmae and 2. ounces of tartar calcined, one ounce of sal nitri, and boile them in distilled vineger vntil it be drye, then grind it to powder, and boile it with as much faire water vntill it be drie: and this ye shall doo so often vn­till it remaine like an oile in the bottome, for as soone as it feeleth the aire it will turne to water. This oile doth retaine all volatill spirits, & is called of the Alchemistes their susi­ble salt. It helpeth in manner all kind of vlcers if ye touch them therewith in short time. L. F.

Oleum salis.

Oleum salis Rec. cōmon salt lb. 3. terrae luteae lb. 6. salis nitri purgati oū. i. ss. mixe them well together, & distil thē in a retort of earth, as ye would do aqua fortis, vntil all the spirits be come forth, the which ye shall rectify in sand vntill all the fleme be separa­ted [Page 52] from the spirites. This oile being mixed with oile of verbascum, and annointed taketh away the paines of the gout, and dissolueth hard swellinges, It quickneth a man, it consumeth water betweene the flesh and the skinne, it dri­ueth away the falling sicknesse, it profiteth against the drop­sie and feuers, if three or foure droppes be dronke with aqua vitae.

Sal nitri.

THis salt is a kind of salt of vrine the which is taken forth of the earth by art, and is verie profitable against many Sal nitri.infirmities, and worketh two contrarie effectes, the first is, that it cooleth greatly, as yee may see in sommer when the weather is most hot, how that for to coole their wine pre­sently they take sal nitri, and mixe it with water, and therin shake or moue their bottelles of tinne or glasse being full of wine, presently it waxeth as cold as Ise: also laid vppon the tong, it cooleth maruellouslie. To the cōtrary, if ye drink the waight of ʒ i. it will heate the bodie maruellouslie. Also a wa­ter made of sal nitri and roch allome according to art is of such an extreme heat that it wil dissolue siluer, copper, Iron, steele, and all other sortes of mettalles presently into wa­ter. Moreouer being mixed with cole and sulfur, it maketh gunpowder. Also sal nitri being calcined 30. daies with as much tartar, and circulated with the spirites of wine mixed with the spirites of cinamom, ginger, and cloues, it will bee a most rare medicine to cure the Etisie, and dropsie, & such like diseases.

Oleum salis nitri.

Oleum sali [...] nitri. There is also an oile made of sal nitri▪ the which doth cui and disperse humors in the bellie, it dischargeth the blad­der of superfluous humours, it preserueth health, linguae ni­grae calidaeque medetur, it helpeth vlcers in the mouth, vlcer [...] bus canis conuenit, &c.

Sal petrae fusibills.

Sal petre fusibili [...] Salt peter is a certaine matter made of stones and is thus prepared.

Rec. Calcis viui q. v. and couer it two fingers high with water; and stirre it well, then let it stand 24. howres, & you [Page] shall finde vppon it a certaine skumme or skin the which is the salt, which gather diligently with a scummer: take of that salt, and put thereunto a third part of pure oile of tar­tar, and it will be fusible, for this is the true salt peter: this serueth also to the making of glasse and smaltes, and is apt to cause all mettalles to melt, and mixe with any alchimi­call medicine, and is of great vertue.

Colirium contra pustulas, maculas▪ pannas, cataractas, & similes affectus oculorum quod visum acuit, & mirè conseruat.

Colirium contra ma­culas. REcip. Limature auri purissimi ʒ ss. Balsami, Croci, ambrae, ana. scru. 2. Musci, opij anae scru. 1. tutiae extinctae nouies in v­rina pueri, ʒ 1. tragaganthi, sagapeni, galbani, stercoris lacertae ana. ʒ ss. lapidis calaminaris, vitrioli albi, saccari candi, aloes hepati­ca ana. 1. scru Cortic myrobalan, citrinarū & indarū ana ʒ i. Ca­storei, Ossis sepiae ana. ℈ ss. fellis vulturis, humani, vrsini, aquilae an [...] ʒ ij. make of all these a coliri, with sufficient quantitie of the iuice of fennell, rue and celandine, of the which yee shall put two or three droppes in the corner of the eie.

In steed of that yee may vse many times this medicin, the which hath a great vertue in all liuing creatures.

Rec. A glasse and fill it halfe ful of wine, and set it in an Ant hill, that they may creepe into the wine, then distill them altogether, or else let the antes stande in putrifaction 5. or 6. daies in the wine and straine them forth, then distill it: of the which essence yee shall put 2. or 3. drops into the eies: It is most chiefly against cataractes, redde and painful eies, if the disease haue longe continued, and hath fattie [...]arnositie in the eie, first yee shall put into the eie a litle burnt allome, vntill the flesh be eaten away, and then leaue,

A most excellent clister dispereing wind, dryuing forth water against Hidropem asciten, adiuncta timpanit [...], ascirrho i [...]cinor [...]

[...] discutiens. REcip. the vrine of a sucking child ℥ 10. and boile therein wheat the feede of fenel, aniseed, dyll ana. ℥ i. ss. purify­ed hony ℥ i. fiat Clister.

Of the causes and reasons of spagiricke pre­parations of simple purgations.

HYpocrates, in his booke de natura humana doth write, that purging medicines doe drawe vnto them the humors which are vn­naturall in the body, not by a common mingled quallitie, but by the simillytude or property of the whole substance, and an in­grafted famillyaritie. Whose sentence Galen confirmeth against Asclepiadem and Erassistratum, who thought that purging medicynes, could not drawe any one humor, Lib de purgans med facult,but whatsoeuer they touched, they could conuert & turne it into their owne nature, and so indifferently like leaches or boxes, to draw the sharpe thinne humors as is most apt to purge, rather then grosse and thicke: But whereas al al­terations are done either by force of heate, or by driuing away the emptie, or by a similitude of the whole substance, that onely (as Galen writeth) is done with the Sim [...]athiae of quallities, or els with the likenes of the whole essence: which things though I haue plainely shewed them, yet they cannot be expressed with wotdes, and the Greekes call it [...], that is a propertie, which can­not be declared. So the Amber doth draw strawes, and the loadstone Iron: by which reason it is saide that Rhabarbe expelleth coller, Agaricke fleame, and Senna blacke chol­ler, although besides this peculier power of purging, e­uery one of them haue a certaine generall facultie to drawe other humors, which is to be iudged by the com­position of many medycines, with which we vse to purge diuers humors, which alone would not suffice to purge by themselues, if those simples did not worke together, with naturall helpe to euacuate, & with a common force did prouoke the expulsiue power. It is ment (saith Galen) that the simples mingled together doe agree and not dif­fer Lib quos purg conue quibus & quo nodos▪in any thing. Amongst these medicines some bee dy­gestiues of choller which cheifly euacuate yellow choller▪ some of fleagme, that euacuat fleame, some of mellan­cholly [Page] which euacuate blacke choller, and so forth of the other humors. Therebe also other medicines which by the vaines of the inward partes and belly doe cast out the bloud it selfe, which are called Jmpropriae seeing they bee poysons; neither doe they alone purge, but also destroye and kill as Galen witnesseth, who telleth a historie of a certaine man that had found an herbe, which firste toke Libro de purg medicam fac Chap. 6.awaye the blood of them that tooke it, and then after­warde the life also; but those are to be reiected of al other: for the true & only euacuating of blood is done by ope­ning of a vaine, & not by those medicines which by a cer­taine maligne and sharpe quallitie and deadly propertie, doe eate the vaines, and by alteration cast out the blood, the treasure of life not without great violence of spirites and vexation of nature,

But of these purging medicines there are▪ 3. orders or sortes. The first malignaunt, in which is a certaine ven­namous power and substance, except they be prepared as they ought, among which are numbred of the roots these, Eleborus niger, turbith, hermodactilus. Esula, Cucumeris agrestis Asarum, Thymelaea, Chamaelaea, Among gumes, scamonium, Euforbium, sagapenum. Among fruits and seedes, Colocynthis Lib. 3. Capit 5. med facult Chap. 24. Lathyris. Among stones, Armenus, Cyanus.

Which medicines if at any time they doe not purge as they should, they doe the bodie much hurt, as Galen writeth.

The second are more milder, or gentle, which are so called because they purge gentlie without any greife, and they voide the hurtfull humors, not of the whole body, but of certain partes, and soften the belly, and do but litle decline from nourishing of nature, which among herbes are theise, Malua, Mercurialis, Violae, Rosae, Brassica, Beta, se­rum lactis purnes, manna theribinthina & cassia medulla, which neede no other preparation then the common, that they may be safly taken.

The third sorte are of meane, among the which are, Aloe, Agaricus, Cnicus, Senna. Amongst rootes Rhabarbari, [...]oli [...]odij Jridis, raphani siluestris, mechoacam & Eupatorij me­suae: [Page] Which last simples were lately found out, and the roote of the former is all together like in force vnto the vitis ingrae. All these are called Men because they euacu­ate only superfluous humors which are vnfit to norrish the body, and that without great labor, and cheifly if they be well prepared and their due dossis obserued. The cause of the purging quallitie of all these simples is this: that a certaine thinne portion of it stirred vp by naturall heate, creepeth in by the open conditts or passages, into the lesser vaines, and from thence floweth into the greater, from the which by the liuer it is turned into the intesti­nalls, and into the reynes it selfe, and then followeth eua­cuation of humores, by the belly, which sometimes are discerned by the vrine, in which, as well the coloure as the sauor of the medicine receaued is manifestly seene, which any man may trie in Rhabarbe & senuae.

Seing therfore the vapor of these medicines which we call the essence, being stirred vp by naturall heate from the earthy partes, doth attenuate the resting humor and moueth the nature of the parte with a contrarie quallitie, and prouoketh it to cast out their earthly substance, or feces remaining in the stomake and the inward partes, who then is so doltish, that wil not commend the spagiri­call preparation of these medicines, wherewith wee doe drawe forth the essence which is the true purger, and take away the maligne quallitie: Or at the least we suppresse it with his owne menstrua, which agreeth with his proper­ties, and haue an vnitie with them. We seperate the feces or yearth as deadly and hurtfull, which doth much offend for his thicknes, cleauing vnto the tunicle of the stomake which Galen affirmeth out of Hipocrates in these wordes: Lib quos purg conue & er [...] Cap. 6.For saith he, the purging medicine how smal soeuer it be, it must needes goe to the bottom of the stomacke, and in going do wne the stomake, and what soeuer is found a­bout it is infected, not onely by the quallitie of the medi­cine, but also by the cleauing of the substance: in the swal­lowing it is greatly hurte, and againe, those that are of more thinner essences, more readily executed their pro­per [Page] Cap. 11. & lib [...]. simp▪ accions, then the grosse, as Galen witnesseth in many places: Also where as he saith in the first booke of simples, that those things which haue but a smal bodyly substance doe worke more then they that haue great. Our extracti­ons of essēces is to be commēded in which al these things are performed the proper purgatiue quallitie of the hu­mor notwithstanding reserued in the medicine as also it is made so much the stronger in that his vnprofitable earth and fex is seperated from it, and by his proper menstrua ioined vnto it all the maligne quallitie is taken awaye, Lib quos purg, dec & caet cap 8.which Galen writeth is to bee done, where he saith, those seedes are to be mingled with medicines, which mitty­gate their mallignitie and hinder not their worke which haue force to extenuate & to cut, that they may cutt a­sunder grosse humors, and open the wayes by which they must be auoyded. All which thinges all learned men may iudge to be done in our preparations. But some will saye the extraction of essences is not so necessarie, when as Lib. 7. Actuarius commaundeth (vnto whose opynion Paulus a­greeth) that to such as are of a weake stomacke. 15. or. 20. graines of Lathiris are to be swallowed whole, & he saith, that though they be not brused minime (que) in Corpus perme­ent, yet they purge verie much: Which place is not a­gainst our saying, but doth rather affirme it, because alitle after he willeth that those who must bee more effectually purged must eate them; by which it is manifest enough that there is a greater vertue by bringing the medicine in­to a fine substance. then in the whole mase, and in the es­sence it selfe a greater force then in the residence of it: which may be perceaued in Rhabarbe it selfe, the infusion thereof doth purge more mightely then the whole sub­stance doth, for▪ which cause I doubt not, but that the same graines of Lathyris are prescribed rather whole then bru­sed by any meanes to a weake stomake, because the force and strength of the Lathiris (as Galen saith) is much like in Simp med. 7.force to Esullae, and these medicines are so sharpe and ve­hement, that they purge both vpward and doneward, with great vexation, and by that meanes the more violent they [Page] be, the more they hurt the stomak: but the slender body, as Simp. 1. caq. 12. Galen writeth, is easier altered and chaunged of that whereunto it is applyed: but that which is grosser is not chaunged but in a great time, and scarce at length fee­leth any sensible alteration, for we trye by experience that we are so much the soner heated with pepper, as by how much the smaller it is beaten, and euen so must we iudge of the purging medicines, therefore in steade of those In­futions and decoctions after the cōmon sorte we vse their essences, and that healthfully & without hurting of the stomak, or any of the other partes. But those vehement medicines otherwise to be feared, haue beene so rightly prepared of the true spagiricks, that their malitious qualli­ties and sharpnes haue bin altogether bridled with their proper corrections, and so haue serued in steade of gent­ler medicines for the cure of diuerse diseases. So our Essence of Elcborus Niger being well prepared is ministred at this day in many places, and is safly giuen to children to losen the belly without any labor: In the meane season there bee a great number which ignorantly condemne these essences, and speake against the vse of them, and spew out the poyson of their gaule against them, at whose rayling I cease to meruaile: because the Poet saith, that to those men that think nothing right but what them selues doe, nothing can be founde more vniust or wicked then that they doe not: But there bee other which being ouercome with reason, will at last commend these our ex­tractions of essences out of all thinges, but yet they feare this one thing, that is their fierie nature in them by a cer­teine quallitie receaued of the outwarde fire, and there­fore they refuse the vse of them, chiefly in agues, and for curing of hott effectes, by which they shew themselues to be vnskillful in the Spagirick Arte, and to giue rashly iudg­ment of thinges vnknowen: For almost all Essences are drawen forth with the, temperate heate of balneo, or hors­donge, with proper meanes belonging thereto, which we call Menstrues, because the skillfull spagirickes by it, with their art and labor do drawe forth al the strength and ver­tue [Page] of any thing, seperating that which is pure from the earth and stinking feces, reseruing onely the quickning es­cence, whose power rising vp, as it were, breaking his bondes, doth drawe it selfe higher and sheweth much greater force then it did before, and more effectuall for helping of the bodie. And if they will saye that all the menstrues be hot, they are verie much deceaued; for the iuce of Lemonds prepared after our order is the mēstrue for pearles, because it dissolueth them and chaungeth thē into a thinner essence, and yet the iuce is not hot, nor the essence of the pearles hot which remayneth. When the menstrua is separated awaye: And as (Galen writeth) wee must not call whatsoeuer is subtill, hot also, for water it selfe is of a more subbil essence, which is manifest because it runneth spedily throwe haire and garments, and yet being so thinne, it neuer heateth as by his nature, neither is it the proper norishment of fire, but it is contrarie to it. But they will aunswere Vini alcool, his essence or spirite (which menstrue we oftenest vse) to drawe out the essence of all other thinges is most hot: let it be so: shall it there­fore bee called daungerous by any meanes: Seeing the proper menstrua is alwaies seperated out of euery essence of thinges and all his force is taken away, and euerie me­dicine remaineth simple with his proper quallities, being onely increased in vertue. Finally, to returne to purgings, who will deny that they haue a hidden power of heate to stirre vp? with which notwithstanding, must bee mingled such things as must take awaie their malignitie and make it more subtill and pearcing, and quicken his slow operation, and make it effectuall according to the opinion Lib quos purg & caet cap. 8.of Galen. Therefore Paulus wileth to mingle with Eleborus, Peniroyall and sauerie, or any of those that soddenly passe through and are not hurtful to the stomack. Item all phi­sitions doe will to mingle with Rhabarbe, Cinamond, and spikenard with hermodactilis Radish, & Cōmin, with Cni­cos, Cardamomum, Aloes with Nutmegges, masticke and cloues. with Agarick▪ turbith & sennae, ginger: which although they bee hot, yet they are mingled in purgations: which [Page] also are safly giuen to the sicke of the Agew; not that a hot medicine is giuen for the Agews sake, but that greater commoditie might followe in rooting out the humors, which cause the feauers: for the commoditie is greater, saith Galen, in taking awaie the molesting humors, then the hurt which necessarily is done to the body by the pur­gations; which yet wil bee more commodiously donne, if whatsoeuer hurteth be taken away without payne by me­dicines prepared and corrected, which the cōmon phisiti­ons do, although they take not away the heat of the simple mixed in the corecting of their purgations, and not­withstanding, they feare not to minnister them to hott diseases. But our Menstrua of Alcoole Vini although they cal it hott, yet is it so spiritual (Yf we may vse words of art) that with the least, heate it vaporeth away, and is altoge­ther seperated from that which it dissolueth, which is so separated from the feces that his power and subtil essence only remaineth, which also more aptly doth execute his proper action, whether it be to coole or heate, or to purge, and that with lesse daunger for 2 causes. First because the essence of the medicine doth more swiftly passe thorow the bowells, and thereby the sharpe and yearthy partes of them, cleauing to the inward partes, cannot vlcerate them, according to which opinion, Paulus speaketh thus of Colocinthide, let it, saith he, be diligētly corrected, because Lib. 7. cap. 4.his sharpenes cleauing to the entrailes doe cause vlcers, and trouble the sinnowes with like effects. Secondly be­cause all the noysome qualities of those Essences (yf they cannot be wholly taken awaye in the first preparation may yet be taken away or easily corrected with mixing of other conuenient essence: So the of Alloes, otherwise is slowe in purging, wil most swiftly purge, and least it should open the vaines by his to much subtilnes it may eassily be corrected with our oyle of Masticke, and so safly mini­stred. But let vs heare Mesues Iudgement of all these pre­parations, who agreeing with Paulus and Auicen, that wri­teth Colocinthides is to be beaten small for our reasons a­foresaide in these wordes: It doeth require (saith he) long [Page] decoction and it is (as it seemeth to me) with the sonne of Serapion, contrarie to the minde of the sonne of Zezaz, to be beaten to small pouder, that his malicious power may be mixed with other exquisite things to correct him, that it may the sooner passe thorow the bowels, and not stay in them for the thicknes of some part not wel beaten, whereby it may peraduenture be longer staied in the bo­wels, and exulcerate them, chieflie when by some little partes of it sensiblie felt. who cānot denie, but that al these are done more commodiouslie with our essences, & with greater profit to the patient then the simple pouder. I thinke none, except some donghill raker, that is altoge­ther vnskilfull in phisicke. It remaineth that we set downe the extractions of purgers: and their preparations, and so to prosecute in order.

Of Eleborus.

Extractio sine essentia Ele­borie. TAke the rootes of blacke Eleborus, fresh gathered in Autumne, 1. li. boile thē in water of Aniseede & peniroyal, out of which the oile is drawen Chimi­callie, closlie stopped in Balneo, a whole day, then straine it foorth harde, and distill it by a filter, vntill it be cleare: then seperate the menstrua, and in the bottome will remaine a slimie substance: vnto which poure the spirite of wine that it may be couered foure fingers, and so let it stand two or three daies close stopped, to digest in Balneo, then poure away that part which is cleare, & put on more, doing as ye did before, vntill you haue drawen out all the essence, with reiterating the digestions, alwaies seperating the feces, according to arte: which done, se­perate the first menstrua in Balneo, that being done, cir­culate it with new spirites of wine of the infusiō of maces, for certaine daies, then seperate the Menstrue againe, & in the bottome shall remaine Essentia Ellebori in forme of a sirop, and Duskish of Coulor, the which thou shalt keepe to many vses.

℈ j of these essence mixed with certaine dropes of oyle of [Page 57] And myntes is giuen fasting with some conuenient decocti­on or water of wormes against the dropsie. Item with water of Betony it helpeth against diseases of the braine, as Ma­niae, Melancholiae, Vertiginis, Epilepsiae, and Paralysis, it purgeth choller and fleame without any paine, and finally the whole bodie of all corrupt-excrements, which (as Hipocrates saith) maketh a man healthfull, and as it were young: it draweth not onely the hurtfull humors and excrements out of the vessels by purging the bloud, but also from the whole bodie and skinne it selfe, and therefore it is very healthfull against Elephantiasis, the canker, Erisipelas, malomortuo, all eating Lib. 7. cap. 4.sores. Paulus did giue about ʒ i. of the roote of Eleborus ni­ger infused in aqua mulsa fasting against the aforesaid disea­ses. I know not why in our time wee haue left the vse of it, and shunne it as it were some strong poison: and yet in the ancient time it was so much commended (except it bee through the vnskilfulnes of the Phisitions) seeing the mal­lice of this medicine, and all other may easily be taken away with their true preparations, as we haue declared: and that this doth good, Hypocrates witnesseth, where he maketh mē ­tion of white Eleborus, saying thus. To some bodies (saith Aph. 16. lib 4.he) Eleborus is troublesome: as in other places hee saith, that all byting medicines are naught for them, but it being corrected by art and industrie may rightly bee ministred to whom and when it ought, and worketh healthfully: but these men will say, that in the time of Hypocrates their bo­dies were more stronger, or else Heleborus in those coun­tries had no malitious qualities (for simples according to their seuerall regions and places haue seuerall qualities) neither stirreth vp such fearfull passions as in our countrey: Lib. 2. cap. 20to which purpose Messue speaketh this of Eleborus, the white because it is troublesome to the bodies of this our time, let it be shunned as it were a strangling poison: and hee addeth, but the vertue of the black is tollerable euen vnto our time, although also verie hardlie. I thinke onely by this opinion many Phisitions to be so feared, that being content with the reading of some writers alone, they condemne thinges they know not, and whereof they haue no experience, with­out [Page] any reason disalowing medicins, which is altogether an absurditie, and vnfitly for a Phisition at the length they will answere, that both the Greekes and Arabian Phisitions did vse those violent medicines, because they wanted the lighter as Rhabarb, Cassia Manna, and such like which may bee safely giuen and with more profit. But oh what great praise they get by these medecines in the curing of many diseases. Do not these men know out of Hypocrates, that to extreame dis­eases extreame medicines must bee applied, and that some times the excrements mingled with bloud in the vains must be drawen out, not from the onely concauitie of the partes, but from the whole bodie and from the partes farthest of, yea and the braine it selfe sometimes, and the whole head & the instruments of the sences▪ and the sinewes, and the rest of the intrailes must bee purged of many affectes: which when those sleight medicines can not doe, we must take the stronger, as Eleborus Niger chiefly. Although I knowe that at this day many notable Phisitions both in Germany and I­talie doe vse the white with good successe, out of the which if the essence be taken, as we haue taught, it may be giuen with meruellous profit of the sicke and praise of the Phisiti­on to daily diseases, and to such as the superfluities are bro­ken out in the vttermost partes as the leprosie & Impetigo, for therein is a great and peculier power of essence, in that to bring foorth whatsoeuer is mingled with the bloud that doth corrupt it. It is also giuen to such as haue the quar­taine, dropsie, and are Melancholike, and to many other dis­eases, as wee haue declared, because it doth purge gently without any trouble or vomiting the excremēt of the whole bodie.

Of Turpetum, Hermodactilis, Thymelea, Chamelea, Esula, and other milkie purgations.

Extractum turpeti. MAke Mesues Turbyth into powder, and choose that which is whitest, and gummy, and reasonable newe, then put it into a glasse with a long necke, and put thereon the spirit of wine that it may be couered foure fingers, then [Page 58] lute it with Hermes seale, and set it in Balneo two or three daies that the menstrua may draw forth all the essence, then powre out that menstrua & put on fresh, and do so still vntill all the substance or tincture be drawen out: then circulate all the menstrua together, that it may come to the highest perfection of degree, then seperat thy menstrua, and in the bottom will remaine thy essence, the which will bee more perfecter: if then in the correction of it yee adde for euery ℥ i. of essence, oile of nutmegges and Ginger ana. scrup. 1. For with this his operation is so altered, with a certaine mer­uellous propertie, that it worketh without lothsomnes & perturbations, and purgeth the ioyntes, and those farthest places from slime and thicke fleame whereas else it would onely drawe the thinne matter, and that very slouthfully. The dose of this essence is 1 scru. with red wine, or some de­coction pectorall. It helpeth against the Hed [...]opes and all phlegmatick diseases.

Extractio Hermodac­tilorum. Dios [...]or. 45. cap. 79. Gal. simp. 6. Paul. lib. 7. THe essence is drawen out of the white & chosen root of Hermodactilis of Aegineta after the same maner, as out of Eleborus. (Not the root of Cholchicus ephemeris: of the apothecaries, which Dioscorides, Galen, and Paulus affirme to be poison.) This draweth grosse slimie steam especially from the ioynts, and therefore it helpeth much Arthrites: Yet it must bee corrected with the oile of comin and cloues, least with his windie humour it hurt the stomacke and prouoke lothsomnes in it: it is giuen either by it selfe or with some conuenient decoction. The dose is 1. scru. either more or lesse according to the strength of the patient. The rootes of Esulae, Thymelee and Chameleae, seu Meserij serapionis and Thap­si [...]e succus: which draw forth partly fleame, partly choller, & Extractio Lactario [...]yet not without byting because they be all sharpe and fiery, and verie dangerous, for they excoriat the bowels, & breake the mouthes of the vaines: the which are prepared in the same manner that Eleborus is, and their extraction is giuen without danger, if it be mixed with the extractiō of Myrabo­lan [...] against the Hydropsie, and to purge sharpe humors out of the iointes themselues. The dose is about 1. scrup. with ℥ 1. of the oile of sweet almondes. In the same maner yee may [Page] draw the essence out of the graines of Lathiridis being beatē vnto the which to correct it ye shall put oile of Masticke and oile of Nutmegges.

Of wilde Cucumbers, Ebulo, sambuco, and Squilla.

Extractum rad. cucu. agrestis. THe rootes of wild cucumbers must be gathered in May, and then stamped, and their iuice taken forth, the which must be filtred verie cleare: vpon which powre the spirit of wine santalatum & optime praeparatum, then set all in Balneo 3. or 4. daies, and what is pure powre of, and put on more spi­rit of wine, vntill their remaine no more feces, then circulat all together for certaine daies vntill a higher degree, the which being done, seperat thy menstrua in Balneo, and con­geale thy essence with a soft fire in sande vntill it be thicke, vnto which ad for euery ℥ i. of essence 1. s [...]r. of oile of c [...]na­mō & ℈ ss. of the essence of safrō. This medicin doth purge sharpe humors mightyly, by which reason it helpeth the Hi­dropsie, the iaundies, and all obstructions of the liuer and spleene. If 1. halfe scru. or more according to the strength of the patient bee giuen with white wine in the morning fa­sting.

Out of the iuice of wilde cucumbers being gathered in Au­tumne when they are ripe is made a noble medicine, if it be rightly prepared to purge cholerick and sharpe excrements. Elaterium.This medicine the Greekes call Elaterium, whose prepara­tions Dioscorides sheweth in his fourth booke of symples. But if it be thus prepared, it is more effectuall, and with lesse danger or hurt. The iuice must be gently pressed out, & thē distilled by a filter vntill it be cleare, then put it into a glasse with a long necke, with as much of the spirit of wine, and let them digest in Balneo certaine dayes vntill it is seperated from his feces▪ then seperat the menstrua with a soft fire, & put on new spirits of wine infusionis diamarg. frigidi, and cir­culate them altogether 10. dayes in a Pellican, that the force of the medicine may bee increased, and all malignity taken from it: at length seperat the last menstrua, and coa­gulate [Page 59] it with a most gentle fire, which will be done in a few daies, of the which take 1. oū. and put thereunto oile of nut­megs and cinamom ana, 1. scru. and mixe them together, & so haue ye the Spagiricall preparation of Elaterium, or his Essence, which doth drawe meruellouslie all sharpe excre­mentes out of the ioyntes, and from the braine, and ther­fore helpeth much Arthritides, dropsies, old headach, and the falling sicknes, the dose is ℈ ss.

Out of the root of Squilla, after the same order you shall draw and prepare the iuice: but to doe it better ye shal take Extractum squillae.sweete malmsie, it doth euacuat grosse and slimie humors, that sticke in the breast, by cutting, extenuating, clensing, dissoluing, and digesting them, and taketh away the obstruc­tions of the liuer and splene, the dose is ℈ 2. with some pec­torall decoction, or cinamome water.

De lachrimis purgantihus & Colocynthide.

Extractum scammoniae. ALL Phisitians doe agree that Scammony is a most vio­lent and dangerous medicine, and that for many cau­ses, for with his biting blastes it hurteth the stomacke very much, and ouerturneth it. Further with his immoderate drawing it doth open the vaines, & with his sharpnes doth excoriat the verie intrailes, and by that meanes bringeth great paines: for which cause Galen doth mixe him with Quinces, others do boile it with Galingale, Ginger, Aniseed, Lib, 1. a lim.Daucus, or Smaledge seedes, or with the muscledge of Psyllium, or boile it in a sower or tart apple to make it more milde: but by the Spagiricall preparation it may be made so commodious to be vsed that it may be mixed with any o­ther medicines without any danger, and safly ministred to purge choller and fleame.

Dissolue Scammonie in oile of Masticke drawen out by the art spagirical with the spirit of wine, that being done di­gest it eight daies in Balneo close stopped: that which is cleere and shining powre of, and powre on new menstrua, vntill you haue drawen out all the essence, notwithstanding put apart all the feces, then seperat all the menstrua, and [Page] put on new spirit of wine corolisated, that it may be couered, four fingers, circulat them all in Balneo 10. dayes or more, then draw away the menstrua, and for euerie ounce of es­sence that remaineth in the bottome, yee shall put thereto the true essence of corall and pearles, ana 1. scrup. the es­sence of safron halfe a scru. oile of Aniseedes and cinamon ana 1. scrup. & a halfe, mixe them all together on a soft fire vntill a reasonable thicknes. Mingle this essence so prepa­red with the essence of aloes and Mirabolanes, and it will be a compounded medicine verie profitable to purge cho­ler, and to draw downe sharpe excrements from the head, halfe a scruple may be giuen by it selfe with 2. oū. of oile of sweet almondes without any trouble or heate of the hart or stomacke, or liuer and bringeth from those places choler. To prepare Euforbium, Sagapenum, and Opoponax, you must dissolue them first in white rose vineger distilled in Balneo, then straine them through a searce from all their terrestriall matter, and thus thou shalt doe 3. times that it may bee the purer: then vapor away the vineger, that the sharpenes may be taken away with often washing it with rose water, for these medicines are sharpe, and of a thinne and fierie substance: but Euphorbium of all gummes is the hot­test, subtillest & swiftest, and burneth most with a fierie force (as Galen witnesseth) which it doth with such violence, that Lib. 7. simp.we must greatly beware of the vse of it except it bee rightly prepared: Serapio and Auicen haue written that ʒ iij. taken of it doth kil: and yet Aetius and Actuarius vsed it not only to purge fleame, but also mightily to expulse all sharpe ex­crements. Lib. 3. cap. 80.And Dioscorides witnesseth, that we must giue it to the sicke of Ischiadis onely mingled with honie. Pau­lus also saith ʒ i. of Euforbium being dronke with honie doth rather expell fleame then water. But by this preparatiō following all his maligne quall [...]tie may bee taken away, so that it will helpe verie much against the palsie, Arthritide, Crampe, dropsie, & purge fleame without any trouble whe­ther it be thinne or thicke or lying among the sinewes and Extractum Euforbij.ioyntes, and it is prepared in this order.

Take your Euforbium prepared and washed as is afore­sayd, [Page 60] and couer it with the spirit of wine, so that you may draw forth his essence, seperating the feces, and all the im­purity, then circulat al with new Alcoole sacharino 10. daies, then seperat the menstrua and coagulat it with a gentle fier putting therunto at the end the oile of masticke 2. scru. olei Anisi 1. scrup. Essentia Corralli halfe a scrup. & make there­of a mixture. The is dose 1. scrup. with some conuenient de­coction to cure all the aforesaid diseases.

Thus are medicines prepared of Opoponax, Sarcocolla and sagapenum most profitable against the same diseases, of Extractum opoponax sar. sagap. &c.whose force purging downward the Grecians haue not spo­ken, but it was found out by the Arabians: and these purge more gentlier then doth Euforbium. of all these is made a compound medicine, purging thicke and slimie fleame e­uen from the furthest partes of, as the head, the sinewes, the ioyntes and the breast. I will shortly if God giue mee leaue set forth a description of our spagiricall practise, in which I will more fullie and at large declare the compositi­ons and vse of all these medicines.

Extractum colocynthi­dis. The force of Colocynthida is so vehement in purging that sometime with his onely touching, and yea, with his only smel he doth purge the belly of some. This medicine though it be otherwise most vehement, yet by the preparation fol­lowing it may safely be ministred. Beate Colocynthida in most fine powder, and put thereon the Alcoole of wine well prepared, that it may be couered sixe fingers, then digest it in Balneo 3. weekes being close nipped, and in that time it will loose all his sharpnes: but if it be digested a longer time, the extraction will wax sweet, and so it will be made a no­ble medicine against fleame and all other grosse and clam­my humors to draw them from the lower partes, and that without any harme, as wee haue declared, and therefore it is ministred with the Syrop of roses or myrtels, against dis­eases in the head, and megrim, and falling sicknes, and apo­plexia, and is also corrected with oile of Masticke, Nutmegs, and cynamon.

Of stones that purge.

LApis Armeninus & Cyaneus must be made red hot vj. [Page] times and quenched in aqua ardenti, then beat them to pow­der very fine, and wash them with faire water, casting away the earth, & that which wil swim vpon the water, and do thus often times: then wash the rest of the powder that is left af­ter it hath been first dried with water of Buglosse or melissa, euaporate away the water with a gentle fire, which being drie digest with our heauenly menstrua & the spirit of wine in Balneo, and circulat it 30. daies to the highest degree, thē seperat the menstrua, and congeale it with a gentle fire: and to correct it, ad the essence of pearles, corall, and saffron, with oile of cinamone and cloues, it helpeth against me­lancolike affects, the frensie, vertigo, Epilepsia, Cephalal­gia, quartaines, and the canker▪ His dose is 1. scrup▪ & halfe with water of balme or Buglosse: it purgeth blacke choller, and whatsoeuer grosse slimie thing is mixed with the bloud.

The stone Cyaneus thus prepared may more cōmodiously bee giuen in the confection of Alkermes, being commen­ded by all Phisitions against the trembling of the hart, syn­cope, sadnes, and to strengthen all the spirites, and to driue away all poisons.

Of the preparation of Rhabarb, Aloes, Sennae, Agaricke, Myrabolanes, Oxiphenicis, and of such like of a meaner sort.

THese medicines are compounded by Actuarius and the rest of the Phisitions among the true purgers, because euerie of them do draw by his whole substance, their proper humor: for they purge not the whole bodie from the roote (as I may say) but not with so great trouble. Phisitions vse them chiefly to cure almost all diseases, either because they may bee vsed without any greater preparation then that which they themselues know, or else because they dare not trie any better, seeing they are ignorant of the preparations of their medecines. In the meane season the purging power of these meane purgers may be greatly encreased with Spa­gyricall preparations by taking out of them that which is pure and seperating the feces which are contrarie to the [Page 61] purging of mans bodie, & thereby will great profit follow. First, for that the stomake will not be hurt with the medicine, when nothing shal hinder, but that it may performe his worke & spe­dily moue the bodie & be likewise moued of it againe. And se­condly the sick or diseased person wil more easily a great deale take it, for that there is but a little quantity of the medicine, which are sometimes found to be harde, that they had rather change life for death, then they would drinke vp whole cupfuls of those troubled & thicke medicines, which the stomacke of many can not abide before they take them, or else is made so weake that it loathing them, do cast them vp againe, and that with great trouble. True phisitions therefore should giue dili­gent heede to seeke out these preparations of medicines, both for their honour of the art of Phisicke, & for the health of the diseased. It is manifest that the essence of Rhabarb is of a pur­ging Ex Rab [...]power, because of his sub [...]ill part, which is left in his de­coction▪ so that thereby he looseth his purging vertue, which by Phisitions is taken out, if it be macerated in some thinne liquor by putting too white wine & Cinamom. They call this the infusion of Rhabarbe, because they do after a sort draw out the force and essence of the Rhabarbe casting away the seces. But by this methode following, that medicine will be made a great deale better and more profitable.

Beate thy Rhabarb to powder and put thereon the Alcool of wine that it may be couered foure fingers, then close it fast and set it to digest three or foure daies in Balneo, vntill the men­strua be coloured, then powre it out & put on fresh, & do so vn­til the menstrua will be no more coloured, that the feces re­maine white, all being well circulated according to art, seperat the menstrua by Balneo, and the essence of the Rhabarbe will remaine in the bottom: then to euery ounce thereof ad oile of cinamon 2. scrup. of which if you giue 1. scrup. with a spoonfull of white wine, it doth purge more mightely then 1. oū. of the in­fusion, & yet with lesse trouble. This medicine may be ministred vnto children & to women with child & old men, and to those that are weake through sicknes. It purgeth and bringeth forth yellow choller. The feces or earth that doth remain is of a bin­ding qualitie, and therfore it is prescribed against Lienteria, Di­ssenteria, & al [...] fluoribus. But if any desire to haue it purge more stronger, let him calcine the feces in a reuerberatorie, & then [Page] with water draw forth his salt, & with reiterating his filteratiō [...] it wil bee purifyed like christall: then cast his essence that was drawen out vpon his alkaly, & digest him, & then distill him, for by this meanes the strength of all medicines shall be increased.

So shal you prepare the extractiō of alloes, which doth purge [...]actum [...]es.choller and thicke fleame, but gently chiefly from the stomacke and intrailles, and strengtheneth those parts as wel in clensing as purging them, to this extraction ad oile of cloues and mace, to resist his force, & the oile of masticke to take away his sharp­nes [...]actum [...]rici.and corroding quallity. Agaricke being prepared after the same order doth purge chiefly fleame out of the stomack, me­senterion, liuer, spleen, and lungs from the braine and sinewes, not so swiftly because his power is weake. His dose is 2. scrup. aswell to the young as to the old, but because it doth somwhat offend the stomake, it is corrected with the oile of ginger and spike. Thus may you haue out the extractiōs or essence of sene, polypody, mechoacam, mirabolanes, and such like, which you may minister to whom and when they be conuenient, by put­ting to them their proper corrections according to the qua­litie of the sicknes and the strength of the diseased.

These are they which I purposed to set forth of the Spagiri­call preparations, meaning shortly (God willing) to set forth greater thinges, that thereby those that are studious for true phisicke, may enioy my labors, watchinges, and trauelles, and the profit that I haue gotten thereby through the talke of di­uers learned men. Of which I thought good to shadow certaine thinges with certaine secret words of art, lest I should seeme rashly to cast forth those pretious pearles heare set forth prin­cipally for the Spagyricall Phisitions to the Sophisters of all good discipline, and contemners of the secrets of nature, who when they haue gotten any commō or neuer so sleight a thing out of the neast of Cadmi fillius, they contemne things vnknown, and are not afraide to raile at that art, and vnwiselye to taunt with all kind of bitter words, at that which they neuer so much once did see.


The vertues of aqua Balsamie.

IT preserueth all things from putrifaction that is put therein or annointed therewith, as the naturall balme doth in all respectes.

If any bee touched with the pestilence, so that the hart or braine be not infected, geue them ʒ 2. thereof to drinke, and annoint his stomacke with the same, & lay him downe to sweat, and in once or twise vsing it, by the grace of God they shall be holpe, for it will suffer no venome to remaine within the body. Being taken in the aforesaid order, it helpeth those that haue surfeted by any meanes.

Being anointed on the stomacke morning & euening, it cau­seth an apetite, and consumeth cold humors: also if you drinke thereof euery morning ʒ i. fasting, it will purge the head and stomacke of all superfluous moisture and sharpeneth the sight, if ye drop now and then one drop into the eie.

Being drunke as is aforesaid, it helpeth those that are trou­bled with the Rume, Catarre, cough and stitch in the side caused of winde.

Being put into the eare, it comforteth the sight and hearing meruellously and all impediments in the head, and consumeth all euill humors by his proper qualitie and nature, so that if ye vse it, ye shall wonder at the operation. It helpeth all manner of woundes, in what place of the bodie soeuer they bee, if yee wash them therewith, and lay thereon a cloth wet in the same twise a day.

If yee wash the Sciatica therewith, and lay thereon a cloth wet in the same, it taketh away the paine in very short time.

It prouoketh vrine, and expelleth grauell in the raines, being drunk with parslie water, or some conuenient licour: it is good against the Feuer Quartane, if ye drinke thereof 10 or 12. daies together euerie morning ʒ 1. or ʒ 2. after that the stomacke hath bene euacuated. It resolueth all aches and swellinges, comming of cold, if ye bathe the place therwith. It helpeth the tooth ach, if ye hold it in your mouth so long as ye may suffer it. It helpeth those that are troubled with the Cramp, or that haue their mouthes drawen awrie by that meanes▪ if they drinke a smal quantity and hold the same in their mouth, & annoint the partes therewith morning and euening.

Aromatico, L F.

THis Armatico is good against most contagious diseases, as the falling sicknes, Melancolie, the Gout, Elephantiasy, & Resolutions, and such like kinde of diseases, as the quartane, the tertain, and quotidian. It is most profitable for those that are strooke with the pestilence, or that haue dronke poison, & for those that are continually pained in the head, also it is very profitable against the dropsie, and water betweene the skinne and the flesh, and those that cannot fetch their breath, and a­gainst obstruction of Menstrua, maligne vlcers, the Pox, and such like diseases: it is either to bee eaten or drunke in wine, or a litle warme broth: itpurgeth both the stomacke and bodie of all noysome humors.

Fodicationum Emplastri.

THe vertues of this plaster are innumerable, as well against old vlcers as new, and also woundes. It drieth, mundifyeth and increaseth good flesh, and healeth more in a weeke then a­ny other doth in a moneth. It will not suffer the flesh to cor­rupt nor putrify, nor euill flesh to grow. Against sinewes being thrust through or bruised it is an excellent remedy. It draweth forth Iron, Lead, Wood, & such like being layd vpon the woūd.

It cureth the biting or stinging of venemous beastes. It brin­geth an impostume to maturation, being onely laid thereon. It is excellent against the Canker, ignem persicum, and to mitigate all paines. And it may be kept 30. yeares in force.

These are to bee solde by Iohn Hester, dwelling at Pooles wharfe at the signe of the Stillitorie.


The Table of the first part of this Booke, those marked with R. signifieth remedies.

  • AIry things that can not bee congeled. fol, 12.
  • Alba spina philos. 14, Anima lapid philoso­phorum. 13,
  • All mettals swimme a­boue Quicksiluer, except Gold. fol, 9
  • Arte imitature of na­ture. 16, 17, 19.
  • Augmentatione, 14,
  • Asshes of Cockell shels, fol, 4
  • Affects of the pesti­lence, R, 6, 5,
  • Ad tophos. 6,
  • Asshes of Crabbes, thought rather bitter then to be sharpe, 5▪
  • Acorus the roote, 5,
  • The naturall agent or doer. 8, 18.
  • Agricola & Aubertus did without cause re­prehend Aristotle. 10
  • Aubertus is cōtrary to himselfe. 13
  • Aubertus perceiued not Agricola his mea­ning, fol, 8,
  • Aubertus in boiling of egs, boyled peeces of golde. 16,
  • A similitude drawne from the increasing or growing of the childe before it hath perfect shape. 9,
  • Aloes why it is wa­shed. 2.
  • Bitter things their ver­tues 5,
  • Briony roote. 4,
  • Byting of a mad dog, R, 5,
  • Barke of Capares, 4,
  • Barke of the Ashe, 4,
  • By the motion & o­peration of the cele­stiall bodies, formes and essences, are brought vpon earth­ly and inferiour bo­dies. 14,
  • Cōmendation of the chimicall Arte. 19,
  • Cibacio Coagulacio, fol, 14
  • Calcinatione, 4.
  • Coniunctione, 13.
  • Collicke. 2,
  • Conulciones, R, 4,
  • Corall, 7,
  • The Chimist subiect is not sought in ani­mall things. 19,
  • Cadmia, 11
  • Calcinatione was vsed of the Ancients, 4,
  • Crabs eyes calcined, 5,
  • Cordialles what they profite, 2, 6, 8,
  • Calchanthi et Colco­tharis generatio arte­ficialis, 19,
  • Cōmon sulphur is not the matter of the Phi­losophers stone, 16,
  • Cuttell bone, 4,
  • Chimicall Arte may sometime be termed naturall, and some­time arteficiall. 16.
  • Chimicall Arte is pos­sible, & may be at­tained vnto, & is ve­ry naturall, 19
  • Chimicall Arte tea­cheth the true prepa­rations of medicines. fol, 6, 19
  • Chimiste, why they haue such euil report spread of them, [...]1,
  • Crabs calex do not in­crease the quartayne, 5
  • Digesting, I fol, 4
  • Elixer, 17,
  • Expelling of the stone and grauell, fol, 4▪ 5,
  • Egges is no matter re­quisite amonge the Chimists. 16
  • Egges the chiefe ende whereto they serue 9
  • [Page]Fermentatione. fol, 18
  • Fermentum, fol, 17
  • Forma essentials, 10,
  • Feminine qualities. 11
  • Grose vapours vnder the earth. fol, 11
  • The great worke, 11.
  • Gold, 2, 7, 22, fire can not consume it. 2. 8. 9
  • Golde containeth Sil­uer, 15.
  • Golde to be in copper Mines, 15
  • Heate is the next effi­cient cause of met­tals, 14
  • Heate his force & ver­tue, 10, 13
  • How many kindes of congeled or cōcrete bodies there are, 13
  • How mettals are made of the elements, 13
  • Irō turned to steele. 14
  • Incoagubilia, 18
  • Leade, 7
  • Lac philosoph. 18
  • Laudanū, a most lau­dable medicine, & what simples go to the making therof, & why his descrip­tion is heere omit­ted. 23
  • Lapis philosophic. 16.
  • Like is holpe with the like, 4.
  • Meane minerals, 7,
  • Markasites idem,
  • Many and those verie erronious opinions, concerning the mat­ter of the Philoso­phers stone. 16, 17
  • Masculine qualities. 11
  • Molifying the cough, 2,
  • Naturalis formae du­plicis. 19
  • Naturall agent or do­er. 8, 19,
  • Opium not corrected is very perilous, 2
  • Opium killed the Fa­ther of Licinius, 2,
  • Out of what thinges the Paraselsians me­dicines are taken. 6
  • Paraselsus praise wor­thy. 1,
  • Proiectione, 18,
  • Puluis philosop. 18
  • Putrifaction. 17
  • Philosophers stone is not to be sought in vegetals, 16
  • Perfectio rei, 9, 16
  • Paraselsians, imitate most anciēt phisick. 2
  • Quicksiluer is not vn­known to the Chi­mists, 13, the Com­mon Mercury is not the matter of the phi­losophers stone. 16,
  • Quicksiluer is not mettall indeede, but may be brought vn­to mettall, 7, 42, that it may wexe hard & run together, 12, that it is of an airie nature that it is the next and nerest matter vnto mettals, 12, that it may be put in the beginning of the pre­paration of mettals, in steed of their mat­ter. 13.
  • Regeneration, 18
  • Rubrica metallum, 7.
  • Refreshing of the spy­rits, 2,
  • Rules of the Chimists. fol, 2,
  • Sharpe thinges what they are, 5
  • Siluer in Lead 13
  • Splene, R, 3, 6,
  • Sibium is not to bee numbred among the mettals. 7,
  • Sulphur of the Philo­sophers, is not the cō ­mon sulphur. 13,
  • White sulphur incō ­bustible, folio, idem, Salt arteficiall, 19. mi­nerall, [Page] 19, fusible, burnt, 14.
  • Salt of mettall, fol, 7,
  • Salt his force 5
  • Salamandra philos. 18
  • Sharp things their vse is to be graunted in a quartaine Feuer, 5,
  • Salt is resolued onelie with salt 4,
  • Salte which is conge­led by heate, may bee resolued by fire, 14,
  • Sulphur is the next matter of medicines vnto quicksiluer, 10, 8, 12
  • Spirits of things, haue only their actions in bodies, 2,
  • Terra foliata 17
  • Terra mortua 6,
  • Trogloditys vires, 4,
  • The efficient or pro­curing causes, are to be had in greater e­stimation, then the obiects whereunto they worke, 13,
  • That yron contrary to Aubertus opinion, is not more excellent then gold, 39,
  • That cold is proper to the element suffering 3, 15.
  • That Trees may bring forth fruites & flow­ers in winter seasō. 16
  • That the Lake Lema­nus hath no Crabs in it, contrary to Au­bertus opinion, 3.
  • There are not manie thinges or instru­ments required ne­cessarily vnto the fin­ding out or making of the Philosophers stone 17, 18
  • That the Philosophers stone, is a thing na­turall, 15,
  • The effects and ope­perations of the phy­losophers stone, 17, the true subiect, the force & vertue 18, 20
  • That there be manie matters of one & the same thing, 6, 16.
  • That mettal is a word signifying many thin­ges, 7, 15
  • The difference of met­tals among thēselues, 9. in the deuision, 7, 10, the matter, 10, 14, cause.
  • The differēce between mettall & stone, that melts with fire. 7
  • That in preseruatiues against poyson, such things are necessarie, wherein there is opi­um, 2, 3,
  • The secrete & hidden property of al things, is a holi-anker of as­ses, fol, 4,
  • The spirits & mettals are not indued with contrary qualities, 11
  • The forme of Gold or Siluer abstracted frō his concreat, is not the matter of the Phy­losophers stone, 19,
  • Why the Authour of this booke, tooke vp­pon him to aunswer Aubertus. 17
  • Whereunto a sweete tast tendeth, 5,
  • Where the elements giue no place in mix­ed bodies, 10
  • Whereof procreation or regeneration com­meth, 16,
  • What is the neerest & principall matter in the procreation of mankinde, fol, 12
  • What thinges are im­perfect, 15.
  • Why the Chimists do cal the mettals by the names of the planets. fol, 7,
  • Why bodies congeale & grow together. 14

A Table containing those chosen things men­tioned in the second part of this booke, whose markes with R. signifieth Remedies.

  • ADamant stone, made soft and dis­solued. folio, 33,
  • Adamant the prepara­tion why it is omit­ted, idem.
  • Aeris oleum, 24, Aeris vitriolū, aes vstum. 33
  • Affects of the pestilēce. R, 33, 34, 35, 36,
  • Against cold affects. 36
  • Against poysonne of Musshrompes, 28
  • A malgamy of Mer­cury and gold, 29,
  • Antimoni the purger of gold, his flowers, sulphur, tintur, and glasse, fol, 31,
  • Aqua bituminosa, 30 Chalibiata, 23, Fixa­torea pro turpeto, 29,
  • Arsenike his oyle, pre­paration, and subli­mation, 29,
  • Asmatiks, R. 28, 30, 31
  • Auripigmentum, 30,
  • Against all kinde of maling and putrified vlcers, R, 22, 24, 25,
  • Ad tartareos morbos, fo, 38
  • Affects of the braine, 23, 56, 58, 60,
  • The vse of apium very dangerous to womē with child. 27,
  • An excellent glister di­spercing wind, 52,
  • Aniseed oyle, 42
  • Aqua ad sufficionē o­culorum, 50
  • Agarike his extract, 53
  • Alloes 53, howe it is corrected, & his force increased, 56,
  • Apoplecticorū, R, 60,
  • Artritides, R, 58, 60
  • Ash wood his oyle, 45
  • A composition of sal­tes, that seperat fleme, 50 Arteficiall saltes, and theyr properties, 48,
  • Balmes for woundes, 45, 46, 47,
  • Bilē euacuantia, 57▪ 58
  • Blood his true euacu­ation, 53,
  • Bayberies his oyle, 43
  • Balsamum vrinae, 50
  • Colocinthis, wherfore it is beaten in pow­der, 54, 56, hys ex­tract, 59,
  • Colericum, R, 23
  • Collike, R. 26. 27
  • Comfortatiues for the hart, 22, 27, 32, 34,
  • Coral his tinture. 33.
  • Corneola, idem
  • Craniū humanij, his salt, oyle, essence, and sublimation 35
  • Crocus martis 23
  • Christall 33
  • Coper 24
  • Callos tolentia, 24, 29,
  • Crabs eyes calcined 37
  • Caput mortuū, what it is, 28,
  • Cordialles what they profite. 22
  • Ceruse or white leade folio, 25
  • Calcites, 24,
  • Celandine his essence, folio, 39
  • Cow dung, the water therof distilled, 37.
  • Comfortatiues for the stomack, R. 23. 32. 41
  • Cuttell bone, 37
  • Child birth. 36
  • Chollike cured, 23, 40,
  • Caraway seede, hys oyle, 42
  • Cominseed his oile. 42
  • Cloues his oyle, 44,
  • Cinamōd his oyle, 43.
  • Common salt 51
  • Colirium contra pu­stulars, et similibus affectis oculorū, 52,
  • Causes and reasons of of the spagerike pre­paration of simple
  • [Page] purgations. 53.
  • Diaphorelicum medi­camentorū. 22, 29, 32
  • Dropsy, 22, 27, 56, 58
  • Defenes, R, 27
  • Disinteria. R. 23, 60,
  • Diarrheae, R, 23,
  • Dill seed his oyle, 42,
  • Eyes, R, 35, 37
  • Eleborus of both sorts was vsed of the An­cients. 57, 58,
  • Elephantiae, R, 56,
  • Erisipelatis, idem,
  • Esula radix, 57
  • Expelling the stone, fol. 28, 33, 37, 54
  • Euphorbiū extractum fol, 60
  • Excoriacione of the in­testinals, 59,
  • Eating medicines, how to take away theyr malingnite & sharp­nesse, 30
  • Eating or coroding medicines, profitable to bee prepared in Chirurgery. 30,
  • Elephants tooth, or I­uorie, 36,
  • Experience, 27
  • Egs his oyle, 47
  • Falling sicknes, R, 23 28, 31, 33, 34, 35,
  • Flegme purged from the ioynts, 27, 58,
  • Flegme purged, R, 56, 58, 59, 60.
  • Fixationes vires, 29
  • Fistuloes, R, 24
  • Febris continua, 32,
  • Febris quartana, R, 37
  • Febris inter mittentis, R, idem.
  • Febrium putridiuem cohibentia, 31
  • Frogs their spawne di­stilled, 37
  • From whence all me­dicines are taken, 22,
  • For such as coughe forth matter & such like filthines, R, 30,
  • Fenell seede oyle, 42,
  • Fruites their oyles, 43,
  • Frankensence his oyle, folio, 45,
  • Giddines in the heade, R, 56
  • Galbanū his oyle, 47,
  • Gangrena, 30
  • Gold, as the common people doe take it, dooth more harme then good. 22
  • Golde his tinture, hys white body, essence, and mercurie, idem,
  • Hurting the stomack, fol, 59
  • Himicraniae, R, 60
  • Hermodactilis his ex­tract, 57
  • Hisope his oyle, 41,
  • Hony his liquor. 3 [...]
  • Impetigo, R, 57,
  • Iuniper woode hys oyle, 45
  • Iuniper berries theyr oyle, 43.
  • Iuie berries their oyle, fol, 43
  • Iron his oyle, 23,
  • Iliacorum, R, 26,
  • Iuyce of Lemons is the true menstrua for pearles, 31
  • Liuer, R, 46, 23, 31, [...]8
  • Lactariorum extracta, fol, 58,
  • Lapis armenius, 54, 60
  • Lapis cian [...]us, ibidē,
  • Latheris granorum es­senci. 58
  • Lodestone, 53,
  • Lunges, R, 31
  • Liuer of a Frog, 37,
  • Lienteria, R, 23, 46.
  • Lilium verum, 32,
  • Lapis cornalinus, 33,
  • Lapis iudaicus, idem,
  • Lapis lincis, 33
  • Lapis hematites 33
  • Lapis spungiarum, 33
  • Luna fixa, 22,
  • Mercuri balsamum, o­leū, precipitatus, pre­preparatione, et su­blimatione. 27, 28, 29
  • Mysy, 24
  • Morphe [...]e, 32
  • [Page] Muske. 36
  • Mumia of 3, sorts, his essence and prepara­tion, 34.
  • Mille pedum 37
  • Mirabolanes 60
  • Mali mortui, R, 32, 57
  • Manna, 53,
  • Mechoicam, ibid.
  • Melancholia, R, 22, 23, 27, 32, 56,
  • Menses mouentes, 36,
  • Menstrum quid, 55
  • Mellancholy purged, fol, 27, 57.
  • Mynts hys oyle 41.
  • Mirrhae his oyle, 46
  • Mastike, idem
  • Mace his oyle. 44
  • Napellus, 26,
  • Nutmegs theyr oyle, fol, 44,
  • Obstructions taken a­way, 31, 37, 38
  • Opium not corrected, is perrilous, howe it should be amended, fol, 36,
  • Oyle of sulphur, hys sublimation and bal­samum, 30, 31,
  • Oyle of siluer 23.
  • Oyles that swage paines, fol, 37,
  • Oleum inceratium, 30
  • Oleum macrobi, 49,
  • Sal euisdem ibidem
  • Oyle of sweet smelling things, 43
  • Oyles of seedes, theyr preparation. 42
  • Oleum salis nitri. 52,
  • Oleum salis. 51,
  • Panaricio, R, 37,
  • Ptisick, R, 34,
  • Pillule de barberossa, fol, 26
  • Pissa spaltus, 34
  • Plates of leade, theyr essence, the oyle, his Sugar or salt, 25,
  • Preparations of stones and gems. 32
  • Precious stones as they are commonly vsed, doth profite little, 32
  • The preparations of gums and rosens, 45
  • Perles theyr essence, 33
  • Punctures, R, 37,
  • The preparation of oyles out of woods, folio, 44,
  • The true preparation of oyles, which are commonly vsed in Apothicaries shops, to bee applyed out­wardly. 47
  • Puluis cōduceues op­thalmia. 50
  • Pepper his oyle. 44
  • Percellie seede hys oyle. 42
  • Peniryall 40
  • The Spagericall pre­paration of medi­cens taken out of Vegitables 38
  • The preparation of Spiritus tartary. 38
  • The extraction of ly­quors out of plants, flowers, seedes, and rootes. 39
  • Purging medicines of 3. orders. 54. & theyr preparations, 55, 60
  • Poysoned thinges. R. 30, 31, 34, 35s 53.
  • Quicksiluer neuer made tryall of by Galen. 27
  • Rebisola paracelfi. 51
  • Reuiuing of the bo­dy 22, 32, 56
  • Read leade, 28
  • Rednes in the face. 37
  • Rhabarb his extrac­tion 60
  • Refreshing the spy­rits. R. 43
  • Rosmary flowers hys oyle 41
  • Saffron his essence 43
  • Sinewes. R. 36
  • Sagapenum his ex­tract 60
  • Sarcocolla hys extract Ibidem
  • Scamoniae hys ex­tract 59
  • Silla his extract 58
  • [Page] Seoa his extract 60
  • Stopping of fluxes. 46
  • Such are to be put in purging medicynes, which do eyther take away theyr venome or doe very much weaken them 55
  • Sage his oyle 40
  • Sweete Margerum his oyle Ibidem
  • Sal Tartary 39
  • Succiuū or Amber. 45
  • Of Saltes purging by the cough 48
  • Salt of Saint Iohns worte Ibidem
  • Sal polipodi Ibidem
  • Of saltes purging by vrine 49
  • Salt of wormwood. 49
  • Salt of gentiane 49
  • Salt of gratiola 49
  • Salt of Anonidis 49
  • Salt of Radish 49
  • Salt of broome 46
  • Salt of Beane stalks. 49
  • Salt of Iuniper. 49
  • Of Saltes purging by the wombe 49
  • Salt of Mugworte. 49
  • Salt of Balme Ibidem
  • Salt of Celendine. 49
  • Of Saltes purging by sweate ibidem
  • Salt of lignum vite. 49
  • Salt of Scabiowes 49
  • Of Saltes swaging paines ibidem
  • Sal Macrobi, oleum e­iusdem Ibidem
  • Sal sanguinis huma­ni, 50
  • Sal perigrinorum 50
  • An addition to the same salt to preserue health 50
  • Salgeme 51
  • Sal nyter 52
  • Sal Petrae fusibilis 52
  • Stone in the gaule of a Bull. 37
  • Stone in the mawe of an Oxe. Ibidem
  • Swaging paines. 34, 36
  • Sharpnes how it may be drawn out of spi­rites 30
  • Shaking of the mem­bers 36
  • Salt of goates blood 32
  • Stinging of Scorpi­ons Ibidem
  • Sandaraca 30
  • Sublimation doth pu­rifie all thinges 28
  • Spotes in the face ta­ken away 38
  • Sigillum lemni es­sentia 33
  • Splene. R. 23, 31
  • Thyrst slaked 31
  • Turpeti mineralis discriptio 26
  • Tooth-ach 31
  • That the preparations of Mercury are hard and difficult thinges to be done 27
  • The olde Phisitions tooke many inward medicynes out of mettals 23
  • Things strengthning the stomacke, 22, 33, 46
  • Turpeti extractum. 57
  • That the extractions of essences wil yeeld no congeled matter in the Bulke of the body 55
  • That the graynes of Spurge though they be whole purge for­cible 54, 55
  • That the medicynes which are of thyn & subtyll partes, are the most excellent 63
  • That some medecynes are fitter then other, some for the purging of humors 53
  • That the venom or malingnyte of medi­cynes is taken away by theyr true perpa­ration 56
  • That al the menstures of the Spagerickes are not hot, 55. And although they were hot yet they hurt no thing in theyr ex­tractions 56
  • [Page] Turpētinehys oyle. 45
  • Time hys oyle 40
  • Of wine 38
  • Vinum alcalisatum. 38
  • Worme wood oyle. 41
  • Viscawes and thycke humors expelled▪ 27
  • Vitriolum, Col [...]oth [...]r▪ [...] Oleum, Sal spiri [...]s 31
  • Vipers prepared 35
  • Vnicornes horne 36
  • Water of earth wor­mes 37
  • The woolfe 30
  • Wounds, R, 30, [...]
  • Wormes killed 27, 36
  • Vaynes opened 60
  • Coroded 58
  • Vomyting stayed 46
  • Venamous medicynes R. 53
  • Wilde Radysh 54

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