CERTAINE TREATISES OF THE LATE REVEREND and Learned Divine, Mr Iohn Downe Rector of the Church of Instow. in Devonshire, Bachelour of Divi­nity, and sometimes Fellow of Ema­nuell Colledge in Cambridge.

Published at the instance of his friends.

Opera eorum sequentur cos.

OXFORD, Printed by Iohn Lichfield for Edward Forrest. A.D. 1633.

TO THE RIGHT REVEREND FATHER IN GOD, the Lord Bishop of Exeter his worthy Diocesan; AS ALSO TO HIS FELLOVV BRETHREN, THE REVEREND DIVINES of that Diocesse, THE PVBLISHER OF THESE ENSUING WORKES makes bold to dedicate them in the name of his deceased Friend.

The Contents of these treatises.

  • 1 The funerall Sermon on behalfe of the author of these ensuing workes.
  • 2 A letter of the Lord Bishop of Exeter concerning the Author of these workes.
  • 3 A treatise concerning the force and efficacy of reading.
  • 4 Christs prayer for his Church.
  • 5 A Godly discourse of selfe-denyall.
  • 6 An apology of the justice of God.
  • 7 An Amulet or preservatiue against the contempt of the Ministry.
  • 8 The Dowe-like serpent.
  • 9 Subiection to the Higher Powers.
  • 10 A defence of the lawfulnesse of Lots in gaming against the arguments of N.N.
  • 11 The reall presence by Transubstantiation vnknowne to the ancient Fathers.
  • 12 A defence of the former answere against the replie of N.N.
THE FVNERALL SERMON …

THE FVNERALL SERMON ON BEHALFE OF THE AVTHOR OF THESE ensuing workes, PREACHED BY GEORGE HAKEWILL Dr OF Divinity and Arch-deacon of Surrey, a neere neighbour and deere friend vnto him.

OXFORD Printed by I.L. for E. F. 1633.

DAN. 12.3. They that be wise, or So much doth the originall word beare and therefore our last trans­lators haue set it in the Margent. teachers shall shine as the bright­nesse of the firmament, and they that turne many vnto righteousnesse as the Starres for ever and ever.

WORDS worthy to bee drawne out in Capitall letters of Gold, to bee written with a beame of the Sunne, or (as Chry­sostome speakes in another case) with a quill taken from the wing of a Sera­phin: words which (as I am now informed) this deare and Reverend Bro­ther of ours deceased, the occasion of this pre­sent meeting, aboue twenty yeares since made choice of, vpon the like occasion, at the funerall of a worthy divine,M. Smith Preacher at Barstaple. well knowne to a great part here present; so that I cannot but herein obserue [Page 52] the speciall favour of God pointing mee as it were with the finger of his providence to the very same text, which himselfe made choice of vpon the like occasion; but my doubt is, that neither the straits of time nor my slender abilities will permit mee to handle it as I am assured hee did, though I heard him not.

They are the words of the Lord of hosts, the great Iehovah, sent by an Angel to the Prophet Daniel highly favoured of his God,Ezech. 14.14. and 28 3. and as high­ly commended for his singular vprightnesse and great Wisdome, and by him as a principall Secre­tary of the holy Ghost left vpon record to poste­rity for the Churches vse, so that whether we re­gard the matter of them, or the Author from whom they are sent, or the Person to whom, wee haue every way great reason to afford them our best attention.

Now that we may somewhat the better con­ceaue the sense of them, it shall not perchance be amisse a little to reflect vpon the words going before from the beginning of the chapter.

Ver. 1.1 At that time shall Michael stand vp, the great Prince which standeth for the children of thy people, and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was [Page 3] since there was a nation, even to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be deliuered every one that shall be found written in the booke.V. 2. And many of them that sleepe in the dust of the earth shall a­wake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.

Where by Michael (as I take it) mystically at least, if not historically Christ is meant, hee being the great Prince both of his and Daniels people which is his Church; by his standing vp, his com­ming to judgement, by the time of trouble, the day of the worlds dissolution, which shall be indeed terrible and troublesome to the vnbeleevers and impenitent, but to the righteous a day of refresh­ing and deliverance, whose names are written in the booke of life.

Then many, that is all, of them that sleepe that are dead and buried, and it may bee rotten in the dust of the earth, shall be awaked or raised vp by the power of God, some, that is, the godly to ever­lasting life, a life of ioy and happinesse, and some that is the wicked to everlasting shame and con­tempt, & not only so but to everlasting paine and torment; To which very words our Saviour seemes to allude,Ioh. 5.28.29. The houre is comming in the which [Page 4] all that are in the graues shall heare his voyce, And shall come forth, they that haue done good vnto the resurrecti­on of life, and they that haue done evill vnto the resur­rection of damnation.

The day of judgement and the resurrection of the dead thus described, then follow the words of my text, resuming the former branch of the precedent division. They that are wise shall shine as the brightnesse of the firmament, and they that turne ma­ny vnto righteousnesse as the starrs for ever and ever.

Which without straining kindly enough and of themselues fall asunder into two parts, the Per­sons to be rewarded, and the Reward; In the per­sons rewardable we haue a gift required, and two acts issuing from this gift: The gift is wisedome, the first act issueing there from is teaching, the second turning of men vnto righteousnesse by vertue of teaching: As our wisedome is from God, so it should be in part referred to the teaching of o­thers, and our teaching be directed to the conver­ting, or iustifying of sinners as the Hebrew hath it. In the Reward we haue the condition of it, shining, the different degrees of this shining resembled by the brightnesse of the firmament, and that of the starrs, the latter farre surpassing the former; and [Page 5] lastly the perpetuall duration of both these de­grees for ever and ever: I will beginne with the gift to be rewarded, wisedome.

Wisedome is of all vertues the most eminent and excellent, the most soveraigne and divine, making vs most like vnto him who is the only wise God, shee is the Mistres, the Lady, the Queene, the crowne of them all, and where shee is, none of them can be wanting,

Nullum numen abest si sit prudentia,

If they were all compacted into one body, one chaine, one ringe, the eye of this body, the me­daile of this chaine, the gemme of this ringe could be none other then wisedome.

The kinds thereof are diverse, being taken in the better sense, I will reduce them to foure heads, Intellectuall, Morall, Civill, and Spirituall; whereof the first consists in the activity of the rationall powers of the minde, in the knowledge of the languages, and the liberall arts and sciences, the second in a gracefull, a comely and discreet carriage of our selues, the third in an orderly go­vernment of corporations and societies commit­ted to our charge, and withall in a provident and honest care for those, who belong vnto vs, and [Page 6] depend vpon vs; The fourth and last, and chiefest in the knowledge of the true God, and in the ser­ving of him in a true manner, with a perfect heart and a willing minde, which is the summe of Da­vids Catechisme composed for the vse of his sonne Solomon. 1 Chron. 28.9.

For intellectuall wisedome, S. Paul himselfe was brought vp at the feet of Gamaliel a famous Lawyer; that he had well studied the Greeke Po­ets appeares by his quotations of them vpon se­verall occasions, and had he beene altogether ig­norant of Philosophy, he could not at Athens (at that time the most renowned Vniversity of the world) haue incountred the Philosophers both of the Epicureans and the Stoicks, being sects of con­trary opinions but bending and banding there forces both together against him. The first fruits of the Gentiles, who by the conduct of a starre came from Persia to adore our Sauiour, excelled no doubt in this kinde of wisedome. Moses was learned in all the wisedome of the Aegyptians, and so we may presume was Daniel in that of the Cal­daeans, once we are sure that Solomon even in this kinde of wisedome out-stripped all the Children of the East, hee was perfectly skil'd in all the pro­perties [Page 7] of vegetables, of foules, of fishes, of beasts and creeping things; whereas then the Apostle giues the Colossians a caveat and vs in them that no man spoile vs through Philosophy, his meaning is not to checke true Philosophy (whereof singu­lar vse may no doubt be made in Divinitie) but the errors of Philosophers, or their erroneous application of acknowledged truths; true Philo­sophie it selfe being indeed nothing else but a beame of the divine wisedome, the dictate of right reason subordinate to supernaturall revelation: which I am confident he neuer intended to gaine say or disswade.

Of Morall wisedome the same Apostle speakes Ephes. 5.15. Walke circumspectly not as fooles but as wise; and againe, walke in wisedome toward them which are without Col. 4.5 Of Ciuill our Saviour, Be wise as Serpents, but innocent as Doues; wise as Serpents for the iust defence of your selues, but in­nocent as Doues, that you doe not iustly offend o­thers. Of spirituall the Prophet Dauid, the feare of the Lord is the beginning of wisedome, as good vn­derstāding haue all they that doe thereafter: And as wisdome excelleth among all other vertues so doth this kinde of wisedome among all the other kinds.

[Page 8]
Velut inter ignes
Luna minores.

As doth the Moone to vs when in a cleare night shee fills her circle, among the lesser starres; the rest if they serue as dutifull hand-maids to her, may be very vsefull, but in case they should rebell against her, they may proue dangerous, hurts ra­ther then helps, as a knife in the hand of a child, or a sword, of a mad-man. As then those other kinds of wisedome if rightly applyed, are not to be excluded out of my text, so this kinde is it, which without all doubt is chiefly vnderstood, and which we are chiefly to labour for, and that we may so labour for it as we come to the end of our desires, the meanes to attaine are these.

Frequent and fervent prayer to which S. Iames directeth, vs, If any lacke wisedome let him aske it of God, without wavering and it shall be given him; A diligent and serious study of the holy scriptures whereby David professeth himselfe to haue beene made wiser then his enemies, his teachers, his anci­ents, A conversation comfortable to our know­ledge, To him that ordereth his conversation a­right, will I shew the saluation of the Lord; A good vse of afflictions schola crucis, schola lucis, the [Page 9] schoole of affliction is the schoole of wisedome: And lastly a daily meditation of our mortality, of the shortnesse of our liues, and the certaine vncer­tainty of our deaths: Teach vs O Lord to num­ber our dayes that so we may apply our hearts vn­to wisedome.

And as these are the meanes to attaine it, so the fruits of it are good workes, which our Savi­our calleth oile in our lampes; and therevpon those Virgins who provided oile in their vessells for the supply of their lampes are by him termed wise; and S. Iames more particularly specifies those fruits; The wisedome saith he, which is from aboue is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, easie to be in­treated, full of mercy & good fruits, without par­tiality, without hypocrisie: It is so pure as it is like­wise peaceable, without partiality, and without hypo­crisie: And as these be the pretious fruits, so the end of this wisedome is saluation, from a Child thou hast knowne the holy Scriptures which are able to make thee wise to saluation.

In reference both to the fruits aud the end thereof, the wise Solomon hath given vs in the third of the Proverbs, a singular description of this kinde of wisedome, yet not single, but ac­companied [Page 10] and attended on with the other kinds; Happie is the man that findeth wisedome, ver. 13. and the man that getteth vnderstanding. V. 14. For the merchan­dise of it is better then the merchandise of silver, and the gaine thereof then the fine gold, Shee is more precious then rubies:V. 15. and all the things thou canst desire are not to be compared vnto her. Length of daies is in her right hand:V. 16. and in her left hand riches and honour.V. 17. Her wayes are wayes of pleasantnesse, and all her paths are peace. Shee is a tree of life to them that lay hold vpon her,V. 18. and happie is every one that retaineth her. Happie is the man that findeth her so he beginns, and hap­pie is the man that retaineth her so he ends; yea thrice happie shall he be, in his life, in his death & after death; in the course of his life shee shall bring him true contentment, in the houre of death true comfort, and after death, true happinesse.

The first act issueing from wisedome is teach­ing, which though it be not expressed in the En­glish text yet is it necessarily implyed if not prima­rily intended in the originall word, and in some translations we haue it expressed in the very bo­dy of the text it selfe, as namely in that of Iunius and Tremellius, Erudientes teaching or teachers.

[Page 11]Some there are who desire wisedome for their owne private contentment only, this is vaine cu­riositie; some that they may be knowne to be wise, this is vaine glory; some that they may rise to honour by it, this is vaine ambition; some that by it they may grow rich, this is vaine covetousnesse; some that they may profit themselues in the way of godlinesse, this is Christian providence; and lastly some that they may doe good not only to themselues, but to others by teaching, and this is Christian Charitie. This the Angell foretells in the Chapter here goeing before, They that vn­derstand among the people shall instruct many; and againe in the latter part of the verse immedi­ately following my text, many shall runne too and froe and knowledge shall be increased. This the Apostle exhorts vnto, Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisedome, what to doe? teaching and admonishing one another; Nay this Solomon tells vs his preacher practised, The wiser he was the more he taught the people knowledge.

He that is wise only for himselfe is a candle his vnder a bushell, but he who is wise for others is a candle set in a candlesticke, which giveth light [Page 12] to all who are in the house; he who is wise on­ly for himselfe, is as a box of ointment shut and closed vp, he who is wise for others, as precious spiknard powred out, which yeelds a sweet savour to all that are in the roome; he who is wise only for himselfe, is a curtaine or carpet rooled vp, he who is wise for others, as a faire peece of Arras spread abroade and displaid to the veiw of all men. As God hath giuen vs eares to learne from others, so likewise a tongue to teach others what we haue learned: our eares being as the conduite pipes to con­uay it to the heart for our owne good, and our tongue as the cocke to conuay it forth againe frō the cisterne of the heart, for the good of others; And the tongue being thus imployed is the Glory of a man; Whereas our wisedome being con­cealed is as a treasure that is hid; of which Siraci­des, what profit is there in either of them? Such wisedome is none other then the talent wrapped vp in a napkin, which was not only taken from the owner of it, but himselfe cast into vtter dark­nesse.

Neither let vs feare that by drawing out our wisedome for the good of others we shall there­by draw it dry; one candle we see may serue for [Page 13] the lighting of a thousand and yet loose nothing of its owne light; as the Widdow of Sarepta at the Prophets command, drew out of her cruse oile enough for the filling of many vessels, yet was not that in the cruse at all diminished; nay we are so farre from diminishing the oile or light of our wisedome by this meanes, that it rather hereby in­creaseth, as the few loaues and fishes which were distributed among many thousands by Gods blessing multiplied into twelue baskets full; or as vessels of gold or siluer, of brasse or peuter, the more they are vsed, the sweeter and brighter they are by teaching others we call to minde many things, which we had either altogether or almost forgotten, and not only so, but thereby we fix and imprint the deeper in our minds such things as we remember, and so are vpon all occasions more ready to make vse of them aswell for our owne good, as the good of others.

Now as this office or act of teaching is thus pro­fitable both to our selues and others: so is it to God most acceptable, as being in sundry places com­manded by him, and commended vnto vs; Nei­ther is it lesse honourable in it selfe then to him acceptable, whosoeuer to the doing shall adde the [Page 14] teaching of his commandements, the same shall be called great in the kingdome of heauen. Tell me I be­seech you what were the Patriarks, the Prophets, the Priests, the Fore-runner of Christ, the Apostles, the Evangelists, the Disciples but teachers? though Dauid and Solomon were both of them great kings, yet is it doubtlesse no lesse honour to them to haue beene Teachers then kings; And for our blessed Saviour one speciall end as we knowe of his incarnation, why he was apparrel­led with our flesh, was, that he might teach; as he was a king to rule, and Priest by sacrifice to expi­ate, so likewise a Prophet to teach his Church; And surely he taught as neuer man taught, not as the Pharises faintly and formally, but as one having authority, all men wondring at the gratious words which as from an hony-combe dropped from his lipps; in so much that a poore woman stand­ing among the throng of the multitude, whom he taught could not hold, but cryed out, Blessed is the wombe that bare thee, and the papps that gaue thee sucke; When he left the world, the last legacie he bequeathed, was, Goe teach all nations; and being ascended he sends downe the Holy Ghost for the same purpose, not only to bee a comforter [Page 51] but a teacher, according to that promise of his be­fore his ascention, hee shall teach you all things; And as both God the Sonne, and God the Holy Ghost, the second and the third Person in Trinity are Teachers, so is God the Father to the first Per­son in the Trinitie, They shall be all taught of God; Ioh. 6.45. Cathedram habet in coelo qui corda docet; He is Doctor of the chaire in heauen, who touch­eth and teacheth the heart

Since then this office of teaching is so profita­ble both to our selues and others, to God so ac­ceptable, and in it selfe so honourable, Let him who hath this office waite vpon his office, not fleecing but feeding the flocke committed to his charge, not by constraint but willingly, not for filthy lucre, but of a readie minde, And let men so esteeme of vs as of Teachers, dispensers of the mysteries of God; we desire not to be better ac­counted of, & so we desire to be accounted, we ex­pect no more from you, neither can you in dutie performe lesse to vs. Philip King of Macedon held it a great part of his sonne Alexanders hap­pinesse, that he was borne in that age, in which A­ristotle might be his teacher; Alexander againe as­cribed his being to his father Philip, but his well [Page 16] being to his master Aristotle; and Aristotle him­selfe writes, that men can neuer yeeld sufficient thanks to the Gods, to their Parents, to their teach­ers: which if it be true of intellectuall or morall or civill wisedome, then much more of spirituall. Let them who are taught know that they owe them, who teach them by labouring in the word and doctrine, a double honour; an honour of maintenance, and an honour of reverence: He who is taught, should make him who teacheth him partaker of all his goods; and not only so, but the very feete of them, who preach the Gospell of peace, and bring glad tydings of good things, should be not only welcome but beautifull vnto vs▪ We should be ready if occasion so required with Cornelius to kisse the very ground they tread vpon, nay with the Galatians to pluck out our ve­ry eyes to doe them service; If they sow vnto vs spirituall things, let vs not thinke it a great matter, if they reape our carnall things. 1. Cor. 9.12.

The second act issuing from wisedome but by the interueining of teaching, is the turning of men vnto righteousnesse; The principall part of our conuersion standeth in faith, and faith commeth by hearing, now hearing there can not be with­out [Page 17] teaching, nor profitable teaching without wisedome; So that wisedome is as the roote, teaching, as the stalke springing from this roote, and this kinde of turning as the flowre shooting forth from this stalke I deny not but men may be and sometimes are turned vnto righteousnesse by miracles, by extraordinary reuelations, or the ministery of Angels, or that they who are not wise for themselues, by teaching may affect it in o­thers, as Noahs carpenters built an Arke for the sa­uing of others, being drowned themselues, and the braine imparts sense to the other members, be­ing insensible in it selfe; I know that a key of iron may open a locke as well as of siluer, and that wa­ter may be as commodiously conuaied through leaden as golden pipes; yet withall I beleeue, that Almighty God much rather and more frequently vseth the ministerie of those, who are truly wise and are turned themselues, for the making of o­thers wise and the turning of them to righteous­nesse, as water they say in its naturall course can­not be brought to mount higher then the spring: so neither can a man well speake to the heart but from the heart.

Our teaching then should not be for the win­ning [Page 18] of applause from men, or the gaining of cre­dit to our selues, but for the winning of glory to God, and the gaining of soules to him; The talents which he hath bestowed vpon vs and instructed vs with, should be put forth vpon interest not so much for our owne worldly profit, as our masters best aduantage.

Generare sibi simile est perfectissimum opus natu­rae, saith the Prince of Philosophers, For a na­turall body to propagate another in the same kinde like it selfe, is the most perfect worke of nature, and so regenerare sibi similem est per fectissimum opus gratiae, for a regenerate man to be an instrument vnder God, or as God himselfe is content to speake, a fellow-workeman with him in the regeneration of another, is the most absolute worke of grace; There cannot likely be a more apparent marke of a reprobate mind, then an endeauour to diuert and turne men away from righteousnesse, a [...] the apostate Angels, which bee­ing falne from God, themselues labour by all meanes to plunge mankinde in the same gulfe of perdition with themselues; neither can there well be a surer pawne and pledge of a regenerate minde, then a study of drawing men to God, and [Page 19] of turning many vnto righteousnes. The fire hath in it an inclination of turning all things it touch­eth into its owne nature, and it cannot be, but an heart truly enflamed with holy zeale as with fire from heauen, should desire to make all it touch­eth or comes neere vnto, like it selfe. The Alchy­mists they talke and bragge much of turning iron into gold by vertue of the Philosophers stone, as they call it, but sure it is, that the best Alchymie we can practise is the turning of mens iron hearts into the gold of righteousnesse and that by teach­ing, the true Philosophers stone ordained by God himselfe for the transmutation of such mettalls; by it euen whiles we walke in the flesh, but warre not after the flesh, are we made partakers of the diuine nature, we are transformed & metamorphized (as it were) from tares into wheat, from wolues in­to lambs, from kites into doues, from bryars and thistles into faire and fruitfull trees, to be trans­planted into the Paradise of God, which all the teaching of the Gentiles could neuer effect; they might perchance turne men to a seeming kind of righteousnesse, but to true righteousnesse they did not, they could not. But this was it that the Pro­phet Dauid in his teaching aymed at, and no doubt [Page 20] accomplished, Then shall I teach thy wayes vnto the wicked, and sinners shall be converted vnto thee; the end of his teaching was the conuersion of sinners, as they through the suggestion of Satan and wicked men (their owne inbred corruption working therewith) had by sinne turned themselues from the Creator to the Creature, so he by teaching en­deauoureth their returne backe againe from the Creature to the Creator. This was it which S. Paul proposeth to Timothy, and would haue Ti­mothy in his teaching propose to himselfe.1. Tim. 4 16. Take heede to thy selfe and to Doctrine, continue therein, for in so doeing thou shalt both saue thy selfe and them that heare thee; Take heede to thy selfe, that so thou maist saue thy selfe; Take heede to thy Doctrine, to thy teaching, that thereby thou maist saue others. And this is it which S. Iames seemes to cōmend vnto vs as a great worke indeede; Let him know (saith he) that he who con­verteth a sinner from the error of his way, shall saue a soule from death, and hide a multitude of sinnes; Let him know that he hath done a great, a glori­ous, a noble & a worthy worke, such a worke as he hath great reasō seriously to reioyce & triumph in, as no doubt S. Peter did in the conuersion of [Page 21] those three thousand which by one Sermon of his were turned vnto righteousnesse, more then if he had beene put into possession of both the Indies or of all the Kingdomes of the world and the glory of them.

It is worth our obseruation that in the message of the Angel touching the Baptist sent to his fa­ther Zachary, it is said▪ that he should haue great ioy and gladnesse and many should reioyce at his birth, and withall that he should be great in the sight of the Lord; now from whence should this ioy arise to his parents; this comfort to his friends, this greatnesse to himselfe? It followes, many of the Children of Israel shall he turne to the Lord their God; that is, he shall by his teaching turne many vnto righteousnesse, here then was matter indeed of true joy to his Parents, of true comfort to his friends, and of true greatnesse to himselfe; No mary aile then if our Sauiour accounted this his meat; if the life of S. Paul was not deare vnto him in respect of this, nay if he were willing to dye in this imployment,Phil. 2.15. Though I be offered vp vp­on the sacrifice and service of your faith, I am glad; Finally he accounted this his hope, his joy, and the crowne of his reioycing at the comming [Page 22] and in the presence of the Lord Iesus 1. Thess. 2.19.

Then shall Andrew come in with Achaia by him converted to the saving knowledge of the truth, Iohn with Asia, Thomas with India, Peter with the Iewes, and Paul with the Gentiles; and what shall we then plead for our selues, if being called to yeeld an account of our stewardship we cannot bring forth so much as one soule converted by vs in the whole course of our ministerie? Surely it is either because we teach not at all, or our teaching is not grounded vpon wisedome, or it is ground­ed vpon carnal and not vpon spirituall wisedome, revealed to vs in the sacred oracles of Gods word: Some there are who so are aloft in the clouds fil­ling the peoples eares with swelling words, and their heads with frothy speculations; Others, who feed them with the husks of vnsavoury tales and jests: thus whiles the one sort seeke to be ad­mired rather then vnderstood, & the other make themselues ridiculous rather then venerable, (both sorts so teaching as if neither the teachers themselues, nor the people taught had soules to be saued) they rather turne men out of the Church to Rome or Amsterdame, or harden them in their prophanenesse and irreligion, then turne them to [Page 23] righteousnesse; Yet let vs not wrong the age wherein we liue, nor slight the graces of God conferred on it: I am confident wee may boldly affirme of it, that God gaue the word and great is the company of the Preachers, neuer any age be­fore in this kingdōe, nor at this present any king­dome or country in the world, affording so ma­ny, so able, so faithfull Teachers; and if many thereby be not turned to righteousnesse, it is their owne fault, nay it serues to aggravate both their offence and their punishment, it takes away all colour from excuse, and adds weight to their con­demnation; And so I passe from the persons re­wardable to the reward it selfe, the second maine branch of my Text.

Though it be not lawfull to worke for the re­ward, yet is it not vnlawfull in our working to cast an eye vpon the reward for the better supporting of our patience, and the cheering vp of our faith and hope; Thus our Saviour set before himselfe the ioy to come; his Apostle, the price of the high calling; and Moses his servant the recompence of the reward. Now in this reward we haue, the condition, the different degrees in that condition, and the perpetuity of those degrees; first then of [Page 24] the condition which is shining, They shall shine.

The shining light was at leastwise of all the vi­sible creatures the first that Almighty God made, and among them all it is the most beautifull, the most cheerefull, the most vsefull. Now it seemes requisite and suteable that they who shine in wise­dome here in the mid'st of a crooked and perverse nation, should likewise shine in glory hereafter, that they who are filled with the light of know­ledge, and imparted their light to others in the Church militant, should themselues be filled with the light of glory in the Church triumphant.

We shall then behold him face to face, who is the light of the world, who lightneth every man that commeth into the world, who is the father of lights, who is cloathed with light as with a gar­ment, and dwelleth in light that is inaccessable, which no man can approach or attaine vnto, and in his light shall we see light, nay in his light shall we bee light. They looked vnto him and were lightned▪ psal. 34.5. Even in this pilgrimage and vally of teares, with open face we behold as in a glasse the glory of God, and thereby are changed into the same image from glory to glory, as by the spirit of the Lord 2. Cor. 3.18, much more then shall wee [Page 25] be changed into the same image, when we behold him not in a glasse, but as he is. The path of the iust saith Solomon, Prov. 4.18. is as the shining light, which shineth more and more vntill it be perfect day our shining then is begun here in this life but the perfect day, the perfection of this shining is reserued for the next, here it is that the day-starre ariseth in our hearts, and neuer leaues vs till it turnes vs into starres; In which regard the seaven Angels, that is the seaven Pastors of the seaven Churches are na­med starres. Rev. 1.16. And the twelue Apostles are represented by a crowne of twelue starres, Rev. 12.1. but this was in regard of the present conditi­on, the future both of them and all those who by their teaching should be turned vnto righte­ousnesse, our Saviour himselfe resembles to the shining of the Sunne,Math. 13.43. Then shall the righteous shine forth as the Sunne in the kingdome of my Father: they shall shine, and that as the Sunne; they shall shine forth, as the Sunne when hee darts his beames forth in their full strength at high noone.

All the shining, all the glittering pompe and brauerie of the great Monarchs of this world at their highest festiualls or greatest solemnities is noe more to this future shining of the Saints then [Page 26] is the light of a dim candle to the brightest starre, or the shining of a glowe-worme in the night to that of the Sunne when as a bride-groome he marcheth forth of his chamber, and reioyceth as a mighty Gyant to run his course. When Moses came downe from the mount and from talking with God, his face shoone so bright as the Israe­lites could not behold the brightnesse of it but he was forced to couer it with a vaile, that so he might talke with them; and of S. Stephen it is said, that all who sate in the counsell where he was conuented and arrained, looking stedfastly on him saw his face, as it had beene the face of an Angel: now if it please God thus to conferre such a wonderfull measure of shining glory vpon his seruants here on earth, what shall we conceaue he hath reserued for the glorified Saints in heauen? at the transfiguration of our Sauiour, we read that his face did shine as the Sunne, and his very ray­ment was white as the light, which Saint Peter standing by and beholding was so rauished as he talked of building tabernacles for Moses & Elias, not well knowing what he spake, yet was all this but a tipe as it were or shadowe of that glory and Maiesty, with which hee was afterward to be in­vested [Page 27] and to which we shall be conformed, for when hee shall appeare, wee shall be like him 1. Ioh 3.2. We shall be then like him for that he shall change our vile bodies, and make them like his glorious body; these vile bodies of ours sowne na­turall, shall be raised spirituall, sowne in corrupti­on, shall be raised in immortality, sowne in weak­nesse, shall be raised in power, sowne in basenesse, shall be raised againe in glory, in shining glory answerable to the citty in which they shall be placed, whose light is like to a stone most preti­ous, euen to a Iasper stone, cleare as Christall, the streets thereof of pure gold as trāsparent glasse, the foundations of the wall garnished with all man­ner of pretious stones, the Saphyr, the Emerald, the Chrysolite, the Iacinth, the Almethyst, and the like; the 12 gates of 12 entire pearles, such shall be the shining glory of the place, and that of the inhabi­tants thereof euery way correspondent there­unto.

Here we dwell God knowes in a great deale of darknesse, the darknesse of error and ignorance, the darknesse of sinne, the darknesse of misery, but then he who brought light out of darknesse, shall turne our darknesse into light, the darknesse of ig­norance [Page 28] into the light of knowledg, for then shall we know him as we are knowne of him, the dark­nesse of sin into the light of holinesse, resembled by those long white robes spoken of in the 17 of the Reuel [...]; and lastly the darknesse of misery into the light of happinesse. Then shall all teares be wiped of our eyes, we shall rest from all our la­bours, and not only so but enter into our masters ioy: it is not said that our masters ioy shall enter into vs, but we into it, in regard of the fulnesse thereof, for in his presence is the fulnesse of ioy, and at his right hand are pleasures for euermore: fulnesse of ioy, not drops or showres of ioy light­ly to bedewe or besprinkle vs, but riuers of ioy, flouds of ioy, euen to bath our selues in. And looke as vnwilling as a naturall man would be, who enioyes the light of the sunne to returne backe againe into his mothers wombe, so vnwil­ling would a glorified Saint be to returne from this shining glory and fulnesse of ioy to the ho­nours and pleasures of this world.

The seuerall and different degrees of this re­ward are clearely represented vnto vs by the diffe­rence betweene the brightnesse of the firmament & that of the starrs; They that be religiously wise, [Page 29] though they neuer haue the function nor the gifts to teach, shall shine as the one: but they who haue both the calling and abilitie to teach, and withall a blessing vpon their labours thereby to turne many vnto righteousnesse, as the other, as the brightest starres for ever and ever.

I am not ignorant that some learned Divines haue not only doubted of this disparity of glory in the Saints, but haue denyed it and disputed a­gainst it; yet those very men haue confessed it to haue beene agreed vpon by the generall consent of the Fathers, which for mine owne part I must professe I am vnwilling to forsake, specially where the Scripture and reasons drawne from thence are so faire for it, and in the analogie of faith no­thing against it.

That there are diversitie of gifts, and withall that we are to covet the best gifts, S. Paul hath made it evident, and our Sauiour that of the seed which fell in good ground, some brought forth an hundred, some sixtie, some thirty fold; and what they teach we find confirmed by daily ex­perience. That there are different degrees in grace then, there can be no question, and I thinke as little that there shall be in glory, since grace is but [Page 30] a steppe to glory, and glory againe the crowne of grace; He who hath told vs that in his Fathers house are many mansions, seemes to haue inten­ded not only a multitude in number, but a diffe­rence in order, and so did the ancients vnderstand it, Let vs heare one for thē all, Apud patrem mansio­nes multae sunt, & tamen evndem denarium dispares la­boratores accipiunt, quia vno cunctis erit beatitudo lae­titiae, quamuis non vna sit omnibus sublimitas vitae, saith the great Gregorie, in the last chapter of the fourth booke of his Moralls, In my Fathers house are many mansions, and yet the labourers, who en­tred the vineyard at different houres, receaued e­very one the same penny, because all shall enioy the same happinesse, though some be advanced to an higher pitch of glory; As in vessells some are bigger, some lesser, yet all are full to the very brimme; and of eyes some are stronger, some wea­ker, yet all behold the same sunne of righteous­nesse, yet shall not all vessells of glory be capable of the same measure, nor al gloryfied eyes be fixed vpon their blisfull object with the same strength, sed in eisdem mansionibus (saith the same Doctor) e­rit aliquo modo ipsa diversitas concors, quia tanta vis amoris in illa pace nos sociat, vt quod in se quisque non [Page 31] acceperit, hoc se accepisse in alio exuleet; But in these many mansions there shall be a friendly kinde of diversity, because so forceable shall be the charity of the Saints in that eternall peace, that what eve­ry one hath not receaued in himselfe, he shall re­ioyce to haue receaued in and by another.

He that gained two talents to his Master, and he that gained fiue, they are both commended for their faithfullnes, & both entred into their masters ioy; yet as their talents were at first bestowed vp­on them according to their seuerall abilities, so no doubt but their reward was in some sort propor­tionable to their severall gaines, which partly ap­peares in this, that the talent which was taken from him who had but one, was conferred vpon him who had gained fiue, and not vpon him who had gained but two. It is by all Divines freely ac­knowledged that there shall be different degrees of punishments in hell, in as much as it shall be ea­sier in the day of iudgment for some, then for o­thers; and some shall be beaten with more, others with fewer stripes; why not then different rewards, or rather different degrees of the same re­ward in heauen? It is true that for the greater ter­rour the degrees of punishments are thus differen­ced [Page 32] in Gods iustice according to our deserts, yet may it well be that for our better encouragement likewise in his mercy he hath thus proportioned out these different degrees in our reward, not for any merit of ours, but partly thereby to quicken vs in the way of vertue and godlinesse, and part­ly to shew his truth, as in disposing of all things so of his rewards, as a man that hath many sonnes, and promiseth to proportion out his Legacies to them, as they shall shoote neerer or farther off the marke, set up by himselfe, conditionally that they hitt the butt, is in a manner bound to bequeath him the fairest portion who comes neerest the white, not for the merit of the sonne, but by rea­son of his owne promise.

Little is the knowledge God knowes, very lit­tle which we poore wormes here crawling vpon the face of the earth, haue of things that are in heauen, farther then in holy Scripture they are re­vealed vnto vs yet thus much we know that those blessed ministring spirits, by their maker called Angels, because they are his messengers sent forth to minister for their sakes who shall be heires of saluation, are not all of equall ranke, some being Cherubins and Seraphins, others thrones and [Page 33] dominations, some of an inferiour sort and there­fore termed Angels only, others of a superiour & in that regard styled Arch-angels: which how to interpret or accord, were they all equall for my owne part I must professe I cannot possibly con­ceaue. Now as in the life to come we shall be like the Angels free from the vse and want of those perishable things which this life stands in neede of, so likewise it is not improbable but the glory­fied Saints, may some way resemble the different orders in the severall distribution of rewards; and to come somewhat neerer my text, and withall fully home to the poynt in hand, There is saith the Apostle, one glory of the sunne, another glory of the moone, another glory of the starres, and one starre diffe­reth from another in glory; & then presently inferres, so shall it be in the resurrection, as one starre diffe­reth from another in motion, in situation, in co­lour, in influence, in order (the starres in their or­der fought against Sisera) so likewise both in big­nesse and brightnesse: and so shall it be in the re­surrection.

Behold saith our Sauiour I come quickly and my reward is with me to render vnto euery man according as his worke shall be, not propter but se­cundum [Page 34] opera according to his works; according to the matter of his worke so shall be the substance of his reward, according to the manner of his worke, the kinde of his reward, and according to the measure of his worke the degree of his re­ward; As a man soweth, so he shall reape, that's for the kind; and he that soweth sparingly shall reape sparingly, he that soweth bountifully shall reape bountifully, that's for the degree. If a cup of cold water shall not passe without a reward, much lesse he whose whole study hath beene to ad­uance Gods glory in the works of charity and pi­ety.

There is no question but the confessors who for the profession of the truth patiently endured stripes, banishment, imprisonment, confiscation of the goods and the like, and much more the ho­ly Martyrs who chearefully sealed it with their bloud, shine more gloriously then ordinary Christians; There is no question but the Patri­archs, & the Prophets, specially Abraham the father of the faithfull, shine more gloriously then ordi­nary beleeuers; no doubt but Lazarus and Abra­ham were both in glory, yet Abrahams condition was of the two, the more eminent; There is no [Page 35] question but the blessed virgin the mother of our Sauiour, a chosen vessell full of grace, highly fa­voured, blessed among & aboue women; shineth more gloriously then Mary Magdalen or other women; There is [...] question but the Apostles of Christ, who not only laid downe their liues for the testimony of the truth, but were in a manner the first founders of Christian religion, and the Secretaries of the holy Ghost, being specially in­spired for the penning and publishing of those sa­cred Oracles, which they recommended to poste­rity, and are now extant for our saluation, shine more gloriously then ordinary Professors; in which regard our Sauiour at his comming to judgement assignes them twelue thrones, as as­sessors with himselfe in a speciall manner. Lastly there is no question but those faithfull Pastors, who like sacred lamps spend their oile and con­sume themselues to ashes to giue others light, and to direct them in the way to heauen by their pens and tongues, teaching and turning many to righteousnesse, shall shine more gloryously then those Disciples who by them are turned, but haue neither faculty nor authority to teach, and by teaching to turne others.

[Page 36]Here then is our comfort & incouragement▪ that howbeit from men we haue many times ve­ry little thankes for our great paines in teaching, yea even from those we haue taught, and endea­voured to turne▪ nay though [...]steed of thanks, the world frowne vpon vs and raise stormes against vs, yet our reward is the contentment of a good conscience, in the discharge of our duty here, and that shining crowne of glory hereafter, laid vp and promised to them who are faithfull to the death who haue fought the good fight, and haue finished their course; Our trust & assurance is that the lesse thanks and reward we haue on earth, the greater our reward shall be in heauen, and the more that those whome we haue turned vnto righteousnesse, shall increase in number, in know­ledge and in obedience the greater shall the aug­mentation of our reward be▪ and lastly, if in glo­ry we shall know one another as good Diuines probably coniecture, for that we shal vndoubtedly know our Sauiour in regard of his humane na­ture, and the Apostles present at his transfigurati­on perfectly knew Moses and Elias, though they had neuer seene them before; if I say we shall then and there know one another, it cannot be [Page 37] but a great addition to our happinesse to see and know them in the same state with our selues, of whose conuersion vnder God, we haue beene the happy instruments.

The last considerable point in this reward is perpetuitie, they shall shine as the starres for euer & euer; for though the degrees thereof be diffe­rent yet are [...]y all equall and agree in duration, and therefore are they all by the purchaser of them called mansions, not houses, because they e­uerlastingly abide, or houses not made with hands but eternall in the heauens; for here wee haue no cōtinuing citie, but we seeke one to come, this world passeth away, with the lust and fashi­on thereof, but that which is to come is laid vpon sure foundations, whose builder and maker is God, and as is the maker so is the citie, & as the ci­tie so the citizens, & as the citizens so the state of glory, all correspondent, each to other, all euerlast­ing, the shining is for euer and euer without vari­ation, without diminution, without intermission.

The moone is sometimes waxing and some­times waining, but with these starres it is not so, they are allwayes in the full; the sunne it selfe is somtimes eclipsed by the interposition of the bo­dy [Page 38] of the moone betweene vs & it, but with these starres it is not so, they neuer loose their light, nay those visible starres in the firmament which we now behold shining so brightly, shall one day fall from heauen, but these starres shall neuer fall,

Stella cadens non est stella cometa fu [...]t,

if they fall they were neuer starres, and if they be starres they shall neuer fall; Euen th [...] [...]tarres fixed in the firmament of heauen (which are but sha­dowes and resemblances of these blessed starrs) in that ordinary course of nature wherein Almighty God hath set and setled them, could neuer of themselues either fall or faile, according to that of Siracides, 43.20. At the commaundement of the holy one they will stand in their order and neuer faint in their watches; Agreeable whereunto is that of the Prophet Dauid speaking of the kingdome of Christ, His seede shall endure for euer, and his throne as the sunne before me, it shall be establsh­ed for euer as the moone and as a faithfull wit­nesse in heauen,148 36. and in another Psalme, praise yee him sunne and moone praise him all yee starrs of light, He hath established them for euer and euer: he hath made a decree which shall not passe. Though then at the dissolution of all things, Ig­nea [Page 39] pontum astra petent, these starrs we now gaze vp on with a delight mixed with wonder, shall by the extraordinary power of that hand which made them, be againe vnmade and cast downe from heauen, yet these wise, these teaching, these iustifijng starres resembled by them shall neuer faint but shine in the fulnesse of their strength for euer and euer, they shall neuer wander as the pla­nets, but remaine for euer as fixed starres; to them it shall neuer be said as to Lucifer, How art thou fallen from heauen O Lucifer, sonne of the mor­ning Esay. 14.12. Adam might and did fall from paradise, The Angels both might & did fall from their first habitation; but these starres shall neuer leaue their stations; If here they be preserued safe in the right hand of him who is Alpha and Ome­ga the first and the last. Reuel. 1.16. much more shall they there bee out of gun-shot, out of all doubt or feare or possibility of daunger, in this to they shall be like the elect Angels of God, which are now so confirmed by Iesus Christ, the head of men and Angels in their blessed estate as they can neuer fall either from grace or glory.

what a spurre then should this be vnto vs that our paines in teaching and turning men to righte­ousnesse, [Page 40] as also the difficulties and the affronts which many times attend them, are for a time only but, our reward eternall; It is a di [...]ine saying of Seneca, Dolor sileuts est feramus, non grauis est pati­entia, sigrauis est feramus non leuis est gloria; If our burden be light let vs endure it, our patience is not great, if great let vs endure it, our glory is not light; I may adde Non breuisest gloria, our glory is not short;2. Cor. 4.17. Nay our light afflictions which are but for a moment worke for vs a far more excellent & eternall waight of glory; our light afflictions which are but for a moment an excellent, a more excellent, a farre more excellent & eternall waight of glory; which is therefore called a crowne of life, because this life in comparison of it is not Vita vitalis, scarce worthy of the name of life; euerlast­ing life, the very life and soule, the period and per­fection of all the Articles of our faith, being infi­nite degrees beyond the longest threede of this present life, or the life of the world it selfe, should it last many thousand yeares longer then yet it hath done; There is not so much disproportion betwixt the life of a gnat and an elephant, or be­twixt the life of a Methusalem and a Child that is carried from the wombe to the tombe, as is be­twixt [Page 41] this present life of darknesse, and that life of shining for euer and euer; betwixt two finites, be the one neuer so long, and the other neuer so short there is some proportion; but betwixt a finite and an infinite, be the finite neuer so long there can be no proportion, and consequently no compa­rison; In which regard as the shining dazels our eyes, so doth the duration thereof infinitely ex­ceede the reach of all mortall vnderstanding and our deepest thoughts are presently lost and swal­lowed vp therein, as in a bottomlesse gulfe or endlesse maze.

Though then the combate perchance be sharp, yet let vs remember that our crowne is immarces­sible, a crowne that withereth not, as those crownes or garlands of oake, of ioy, of lawrell, of myrtle which by the ancients were bestowed vp­on the conquerors in the publique games; when the cheife sheapheard shall appeare, yee shall receaue a crowne of glory that fadeth not away. 1. Pet. 5.4. Though the race seeme tedious and wearisome, yet let vs remember that the crowne (the prize of our running) is incorruptible, 1. Cor. 9.25. Euery man that striueth for mastery is temperate in all things, now they doe it to obtaine a corruptible crowne, [Page 42] but we an incorruptible: The crownes of the grea­test Monarchs in the world though they last long, yet are they all but corruptible crownes subiect to wearing, to foyling, to cracking, to stealing, and sometimes by iuvasion from abroad, or insurrecti­on from at home, they are violently taken from their heads, or if their crownes be not taken from them, long it cannot be in the course of nature, before they may and must be taken from their crownes: but when this incorruptible crowne shall once be set vpon our heads by the hand of Almighty God, it shall neuer, it can neuer bee a­gaine taken from vs or we from it; as the figure of a crowne is circular, having neither beginning nor ending, so this crowne of immortality though it haue a beginning, yet neuer shall it nor can it haue any ending.

I haue now done with my text, and come to the application, though as vnwilling to part from the one, as to vndertake the other, but both must be done, and if I should hold my peace, these stones would speake.

This deare, this reverend, and worthy brother of ours, who hath now resigned vp his soule into the hands of his maker, & her presents his earth­ly [Page 43] tabernacle, the remainders of his mortality by vs to be interred with Christian buriall in assured hope of a ioyfull resurrection, might iustly ac­count it not the least part of his happinesse, that he was brought into the light, during the raigne of that truely noble and renowned Lady, Queene Elizabeth, and by that meanes was baptized in the same faith and religion in which he departed this life. He was descended of an honest, a vertu­ous, and religious parentage, brought vp in a libe­rall and free manner, first in the country, and then in the Vniuersity, where he receaued the highest degree that Mother of his could bestow vpon him saue one, but in the iudgment of all that knew him, deserued that too better then many who haue receaued it both before him and since him; so as whether his degrees more honoured him, or he them, as well by the exercise he performed for them, as by his sweet conversation and abili­ties in all kind of learning, is not easie to deter­mine: by the divine Providence he was there in­corporated into that seminary, which hath yeel­ded many goodly plants to our Church, and a­mong the rest our right reverend Diocesan, his contemporarie and ancient acquaintance, He had [Page 44] to Vncle by the Mothers side that Iewell of Pre­lates the mirrour of our age, for sanctitie, Pietie, and Theologie all in one, whom he proposed to himselfe as a patterne for imitation; He liued to see his Childrens Children, and his Elder sisters Childrens Childrens Children to his great com­fort, and yet by Gods blessing is his Fathers Bro­ther yet living too, and present at his funerall. Had his meanes been answearable to his worth, he had not layen in such obscuritie as he did, but had doubtlesse moued and shined in a farre higher and larger spheare then he did, yet God so blessed him with competent meanes, that he liued con­tentedly, brought vp his Children in a decent manner, furnished himselfe with a faire Librarie, releeued the poore, was not wanting to his kin­red that stood in want of his help, & for hospita­lity he was cōstant in it, entertaining his friends, and such as came to visite him in a cheerefull and plentifull manner; But vpon these I will not insist, chusing rather to come to those which are more proper both to him and my text: his intellectuall, his morall, his civil, his spiritual wisdōe, his teach­ing & his turning of many vnto righteousnesse.

First then for his intellectuall wisdome; the [Page 45] sharpnesse of his wit, the fastnesse of his memo­ry, and the soundnesse of his iudgment were in him all three so rarely mixed as few men attaine them single in that degree; His skill in the langua­ges was extraordinary, Hebrew, Greeke, Latin, French, Spanish, and I think Italian; His know­ledge in the liberall arts and Sciences was vni­versall, Grammar, Logick, Rhetorick, Poetry, History, Philosophy, Musick and the rest of the Mathematickes; in some of which Sciences he so far excelled, that I dare say in these westerne parts of the kingdome he hath not left his equall: nei­ther doe I speake any thing to amplifie by way of Rhetorick, I speake lesse then the truth.

His morall wisdome appeared in the checking of his appetite by temperance and sobrietie; free he was in the lawfull vse of Gods creatures, but neuer excessiue, nor euer could be drawne to it, either by example or perswasion: which in a constitution so crazie was no doubt vnder God a speciall meanes for the drawing out the thread of his life; in his carriage he was graue yet sociable enough, courteous yet without affectati­on or vaine complement, a sure friend to the vt­most of his power, where he professed it, yet without flatterie.

[Page 46]His ciuill wisdome appeared in the gouern­ment of his parrish and his family, in the educati­on of his Children and the Children of his freinds vpon speciall request committed to his charge, in his owne matches and the matches of his daugh­ters; and lastly in the preseruing, managing and disposing of that estate which God lent him, in an orderly manner.

His spirituall or diuine wisdome appeared, in his great knowledge in the sacred scripture, in which with Timothy he was trained vp from a Child, and as another Apollos grew mighty in them; whereunto he added the helpe of the best Interpreters both ancient and moderne, the seri­ous study of the Fathers, the schoole-diuines, the Ecclesiasticall story, and the controuersies of the present times, aswell with the Romanists as among our selues, & that in matters not only of Doctrine but discipline; in all which he was so well studied and vpon all fitting occasions so willing and rea­dy either by writing or speech to expresse him­selfe, as many, and those not vnlearned Divines were content, nay glad to draw water from his well, and to light their candles at his torch; nay some of his aduersaries in his life time, haue in [Page 47] open pulpit since his death, to Gods glory, their owne comfort, and his honour confessed as much. But the highest point of his spirituall wis­dome appeared in the practise of piety, in a due conformitie of his actions to his speculation drawing out as it were a faire coppy in the course of his life, of those wholesome lessons which he found in his bookes, formed in his braine, and taught to others; And herein indeede doe I take the very marrow and pith of spirituall wisdome to consist, in the possession and fruition of super­naturall truths, according to that of the great Earle of Mirandula, Veritatem Philosophia quaerit, Theologia inuenit, religio possidet, Philosophy seekes the truth, Diuinity finds it, but religion possess­eth it; Religion I say, which bindes vs to the per­formance of our duties to God and man.

One maine branch of this duty and effect of this wisdome was his Teaching; He taught euery where & euery way, by his example & by his pen, but specially by his tongue; by his tongue both priuately and publiquely, publiquely by expoun­ding, by catechizing, by preaching: in which he was so diligent, that since his entring into the Mi­nistery (which he often professed to be his grea­test [Page 48] honour and comfort in this world) he waded through the whole body of the Bible, from the beginning of Genesis to the end of the reuelati­on. And as he was thus diligent in teaching, so was he constant in his course as long as his health and strength would giue him leaue, and I may truly say beyond his strength, resoluing with that vncle of his no lesse good then great, that a Gene­ral should die in the feild, & a Preacher in the pul­pit. The manner of his teaching was not by loud vociferation, or ridiculous gesticulation, or osten­tation of wit, or affectation of words, but in the euident demonstration of the spirit and power, it was demonstratiue, masculine and mighty, through God to the pulling downe of strong holds, deepe it was and yet cleare, rationall and yet diuine, perspicuous yet punctuall, artificial yet profitable, calme yet peircing, pōderous yet fami­liar, so as the ablest of his hearers might alwayes learne somewhat, & yet the simplest vnderstand all: which was a rare mixture, and in this mixture hee ran a middle & moderate course, most agree­able to the Canons & constitutiōs of that Church in which hee was borne and bred, betwixt the apish superstition of some, and the peevish singu­larity [Page 49] of others, betwixt blind deuotion and ouer­bold presumption, betwixt vnreasonable obedi­ence, and vnwarrantable disconformitie, betwixt popish tyranny grounded vpon carnall policie, and popular confusion guided by meere fancie, the one labouring for an vsurped Monarchy, and to turne all the body into head, the other for a lawlesse anarchy, and to haue a body without a head.

Now though in his teaching he ranne this mid­dle course, yet did it alwayes aime not only at the information of the iudgment, but the reformati­on of the will, the beating downe of impiety, and the convincing of the conscience, to the drawing of his hearers as from ignorance to knowledge, and from errour to truth, so likewise thereby from rebellion to obedience, from prophanenesse to re­ligion; And truely I little doubt but many a good soule now a Saint in heauen did they vnderstand our actions and desires, and withall could make knowne their conceits to vs, would soone giue vs to vnderstand that vnder▪ God he was the instru­ment for the turning of them to righteousnesse, and so for the directing and conducting of them to that place of their blisse; and as little doubt I [Page 50] but many a good soule who heares me this day, in secret and in silence, blesseth God and the me­mory of this good man, for that spirituall know­ledge and comfort which they haue receaued by his Ministery; once I am sure that a vertuous Gen­tlewoman of good note and ranke, hath since his death by her letters written with her owne hand to some of his neerest freinds testified, her turning to righteousnesse to haue beene first wrought by his meanes; and noe question but many o­thers might as iustly and truly doe the like, were they so disposed, or occasion required it.

This was the course of his life here, now for the manner of his departure hence; when his last sicknesse first seazed on him, he accounted him­selfe noe man of this world; when he was in his best health though as a pilgrime he walked in it, yet as a souldier he neuer warred after it, but now being thus arested and imprisoned he professed to his friends who came to visite him (holding vp his hands to heauen) that though his body was here yet his heart was aboue, and consequently his treasure; for where a mans treasure is, there will his heart be also; He likewise assured vs that though he saw death approaching, yet he feared [Page 51] it not, death being now but a droane, & the sting thereof taken out; during his sicknes he made his household, his congregation, his chamber, his chappell, and his bed his pulpit, from whence he cast forth many hloy and heauenly eiaculations, and made a most diuine confession of his faith, not onely to the satisfaction and instruction, but admiration of his hearers; Among the rest two things there were, which he much and often in­sisted vpon, the one that he hoped onely to be sa­ued by the merits of Iesus Christ, the other that he constantly perseuered in the faith and religion professed and maintained in the Church of En­gland, in which he was borne, baptized and bred: and this he many times and earnestly protested in a very serious and solemne manner, pawning his soule vpon the truth thereof. His glasse being now almost runne, and the houre of his dissolution drawing on (though his memorie and senses no way failed him) he desired to be absolued after the manner prescribed by our Church, and ac­cording to his desire hauing first made a briefe confession, & therevpon expressing a hearty con­trition together with an assurance of remission [Page 52] by the pretious bloud of his deare Sauiour, he re­ceiued absolution frō the mouth of a lawfull mini­ster, & having receiued it, professed that he found great ease & cōfort therein, & withall that he was desirous likewise to haue receiued the blessed Sa­crament of the Eucharist, if the state of his body would haue permitted him; & not long after ima­gining with himselfe, that he heard some sweete Musike & calling vpō Christ, Sweet Iesus kill me that I may liue with thee, he sweetly fell asleepe in the Lord, as did the Protomartyr, who ready to yeeld vp the Ghost prayed and said, Lord Iesus receiue my spirit.

Thus he liued and thus he dyed, neere ap­proaching the great climactericall of his age; And by this time I am sure you find and feele with me that we haue all a great losse in the losse of this one man; His flocke hath lost a faithfull pastor, his wife a louing husband, his children a tender fa­ther, his seruants a good master, his neighbours a freindly neighbour, his freinds a trusty freind, his kindred a deare kinsman, this whole countrey a great ornament; The king hath lost a loyall sub­ject, the kingdome a true-hearted Englishman, the [Page 53] Cleargy a principall light, the Church a dutifull sonne, the Arts a zealous Patron, and religion a stout Champion▪ we haue all lost, onely he hath gotten by our losse, he hath made a happy ex­change; instead of his congregation & singing of Psalmes with them here, he is now ioyned to the congregation of the first borne, whose names are written in heauen, with whom he beares a part in the euerlasting Halleluiahs; instead of the Church militant, he is inrooled in the Church tri­vmphant, hauing his palme in his hand in token of victory; instead of his freinds and kinsfolke here, he is become the companion of the blessed Saints and glorious Angels; instead of his wife and Children, and lands, and goods, and attendants here, he now enioyes the blisfull vision of the face of God and the full fruition of Iesus Christ; by meanes whereof no doubt he shines as the brightnesse of the firmament, nay as the brightest starre in the firmament, and [...]o shall shine for euer and euer;

Sic mihi contingat viuere, sic (que) mori;

God graunt we may so liue, as with him we may dye comfortably, and so dye as with him we [Page 54] may liue againe, & shine in glory euerlastingly. Who so is wise will ponder these things, and they shall vnderstand the loving kindnesse of the Lord; Consider then what I haue said & the Lord giue you vnder­standing in all things.

SACRAE TRINITATI GLORIA.

This Sermon being presented to the veiw of the Right Reverend Father in God, the Lord Bishop of Exeter, together with the Authors purpose of publishing these ensuing workes of his deceased friend, it pleased his Lordship to returne this following answere, which together with the Sermon, may serue in part to let the world know his great worth, though in a manner buried in obscurity.

Worthy Mr Dr Hakewill;

I Doe heartily congratulate to my dead friend and Col­leagian, this your so iust and noble a commemoration; It is much that you haue said, but in this subiect no whit more then enough; I can second every word of your pray­ses, and can hardly restraine my hand from an additionall repetition; How much ingenuity, how much learning and worth, how much sweetnesse of conversation, how much elegance of expression, how much integrity and holinesse haue we lost in that man? No man euer knew him but must needs say that one of the brightest Starres in our West is now set; The excellent parts that were in him, were a fit instance for that your learnedly defended posi­tion of the vigour of this last age, wherevnto he gaue his accurate, and witty astipulation. I doe much reioyce, yet, to heare that we shall be beholden to you for some mitiga­tion [Page 56] of the sorrow of his losse, by preseruing aliue some of the post-hume issue of that gracious and exquisite brayne, which when the world shall see, they will marvell that such excellencies could lye so close; and shall confesse them as much past value, as recovery; Besides those skill­full and rare peeces of Divinity tracts, and Sermons; I hope (for my old loue to those studies) we shall see abroad some excellent monuments of his Latine Poesie; in which faculty I dare boldly say, few, if any, in our age exceeded him. In his Polemicall discourses (some whereof I haue by me) how easie is it for any judicious Reader to obserue the true Genius of his renowned Vncle, Bishop Iewell? such smoothnesse of style, such sharpnesse of witt, such in­terspersions of well-applyed reading, such graue and holy vrbanity: shortly (for I well foresaw how apt my Pen would bee to runne after you in this pleasing track of so well deserued praise) these workes shall be as the Cloake, which our Prophet left behind him in his rapture into heauen; What remaines but that we should looke vp after him, in a care, and indeauour of readinesse for our day; and earnestly pray to our God, that as he hath pleased to fetch him away in the Chariot of Death, so that he will double his spirit on those he hath thought good to leaue yet below: In the meane time I thanke you for the favour [Page 57] of this your graue, seasonable, and worthy Sermon, which I desire may be prefixed as a meet preface to the published Labours of this happy Author;

Fare-well from your loving friend and fellow-labourer, Ios. Exon.
TWO TREATISES1 Conce …

TWO TREATISES

  • 1 Concerning the force and efficacy of reading.
  • 2 Christs prayer for his Church.

OXFORD Printed by I.L. for E. F. 1633.

ACT. 15.21.‘For Moses of old time hath in every Citty them that Preach him being read in the Synagogues every Sabbath day.’

OMitting for the present whatsoeuer else might profitably be observed out of these words. I will at this time only inquire these three things. The first whether preaching in this place be distinguished from Reading. The second whether Reading be a kind of Preaching. The third, whether reading be an ordinary meanes to beget Faith and convert a soule. The truth of which three questions while I endeavour to resolue not so much with heat and vehemence of passion, as strength and evidence of reason: let me entreat you all, Right Worshipfull Reverend and beloued Christian brethren, but for the space of one houre to lay aside all preiudice, and to heare with indifference what I can say. When I haue done, if my resolutions appeare to be grounded vp­on sound and convincing arguments, I hope you will ac­cording to your duties readily yeeld vnto the truth: if o­therwise, every one may still abound in his owne sense and yee haue free liberty to carry home the same opinion ye brought hither with you. In the meane season I be­seech [Page 2] the Lord to direct your hearts, and to giue you a right iudgement in all things.

The first Quere is, whether preaching in this place be distinguished from reading. In resoluing whereof I will not be so peremptory as some are: only I will shew what I conceiue and vpon what grounds. This I conceiue, that Preaching here is no other then the publike Reading of Moses: and I conceiue so vpon these grounds, because there appeareth nothing in the words to force a distincti­on, but rather something importing an identity. That there is nothing to enforce a distinction appeares, if either yee consider the context and reason of the words, or the text it selfe and the forme of words vsed therein. First therefore as touching the Context, It is manifest by this particle For, that these words are inferred as a reason vp­on some thing premised. Thus. Some of the beleeuing Pharisees had taught the brethren at Antioch, Act. 15.5. that except they were circumcised and together with the faith of Christ obserued the ceremonie of Moses they could not be saved.vers. [...]. Whereof after much altercation and dispute the Apostles being advertized,vers. 4.6. they summon a counsell at Ierusalem to stint the quarrell.vers. 7. &c. In it Saint Peter expresly affirmeth, that salvation is impossible by the law, and that the grace of Christ is of it selfe every way sufficient which sentence Saint Iames hauing readily approved, he adds withall,vers. 13.14.15. that for the setling of the Churches peace, it would not be amisse to write vnto the beleeuing Gen­tiles, that they abstaine from pollutions of idols, vers. 19.20. from forni­cation, from things strangled, and from blood. For, saith he, Moses of old time hath in every Citty them that preach him, being read in the Synagogues every Sabbath day. Now how comes in this For? and what is that conclusi­on [Page 3] whereof this is a reason? Heere I finde difference of o­pinions: but among them all three seeme to me to bee most probable. Of them all take which you list, and the publike Reading of Moses alone will bee a sufficient proofe thereof.

The first opinion is Saint Chrysostoms, in whose iudge­ment, Saint Iames would proue this conclusion, that it is altogether needlesse to write vnto the beleeuing Iewes touching abstinence from these things. And why is it needlesse? Because they perfectly know these things al­ready. But how came they to the knowledge of them? By hearing Moses publikely read in the Synagogues eve­ry Sabbath day: for he in such cleare & expresse tearmes hath deliuered the same, that whosoeuer heareth cannot but take notice thereof, as besides sundry other places you may see in Num. 25. and Lev. 17. which you may pervse at your better leasure.Num. 25.1. &c Lev. 17.10. The second opinion is of the French translators: this. Ye may not thinke that by this decree the law of Moses will be vilipended or dise­steemed. Why? Because the Reading of Moses, saith the marginall note, will not be discontinued in the assemblies of the beleeuing Iewes, neyther will the beleeuing Gen­tiles make scruple to assist them therein. The third and last is the common opinion, and carries with it best like­lyhood: this. We must for a while condescend to the be­leeuing Iew in observation of the ceremonie, least wee scandall them, and cause them to stagger in the faith. The reason, because they know by the weekely reading of Moses that it is his ordinance: to whom they are so strongly addicted, that they cannot yet without danger to their faith be weaned from him. And thus take which of these conclusions you please, and the sole reading of [Page 4] Moses is a sufficient proofe thereof. You will say, so is interpretation also. I denie it not: only I affirme that from the context or reason of the words yee cannot force a di­stinction betweene Preaching and Reading.

No more can you from the Text, and the forme of words vsed therein. Indeed if the words were in the ori­ginall as Hieron. to whom wee are referred englishes them,In Preachers plea. debellatum esset, the warre were ended. For thus he renders them, Moses was both read and preached, then which a plainer distinction cannot bee. Whether so read­ing he intended the advantage of his cause, I will not say. Demortuis nil nisi bene: he was while hee liued a graue and reverend preacher. Howbeit the originall reads o­therwise, [...] hee hath them that preach him being read. Beza turnes it thus cum legatur, seeing he is read: others thus, in that, or inasmuch as hee is read. Which how it can inforce a distinction I see not: rather it imports the contrary, that Preaching here is no other then Reading. So seemeth the Syriack also to vn­derstand it, Moses hath Caroze, Haralds, or Criers in the Synagogues, who read him every Sabbath day. And indeed the word [...] here vsed (whence also Caroze as Casau­hon thinketh fetcheth its pettigree) properly imports the art of a Praeco or Crier. In Baron. [...]1 16. n. 23. Duplic. cont. Stapl. l. 1. c. 6. Now Praeco a crier, as Whitaker obserueth Recitat edicta non exponit, barely reads or re­cites his Princes edicts, doth not expound them. If then I should say, the King hath in every towne those that preach or publish his proclamations being openly read by the Towneclarke vpon market dayes: could any man of sense or vnderstanding distinguish the preaching or publishing of the proclamation from the publike reading thereof? No more can he Preaching from reading in [Page 5] this place: for the case is exactly the same.

Adde herevnto that such Preaching euen in the judgement of the adversarie is here meant, as was ever performed in every Synagogue vpon every Sabbath day. Now that Moses of old was read in the Synagogues every Sabbath day, Act. 13.27. it is cleare in my text. So is it also Act. 13.27. the voices of the Prophets are read every Sabbath day. But that Moses in every Synagogue every Sabbath day was interpreted and Sermons made vpon him, doth not appeare, and I thinke will hardly be proued. For as for those places where in mention is made of exhortation af­ter reading, they are to little purpose: inasmuch as they only show what sometimes and vsually, not what was al­waies done. In the Sabbatticall yeare vpon the feast of Tabernacles, Deut 33.10.11 the law was commanded to be read: of ex­pounding there is no mention at all. Nay seeing then the whole law was intirely to be read, it seemes very proba­ble that in such ascantling of time there could bee no ex­pounding. In the dayes of good King Iosiah, the booke of the law which Hilkiah had found in the house of the Lord was read in the eares of all the people:2 King. 23.2. but of expo­sition not a word.N [...]h. 8.3. Ezra also the Priest read the law before the congregation from morning till midday: but that his reading was interrupted by interpretation is not so cleare as you are borne in hand. For first, if any did in­terpret it was the Levites: but that Ezra the Priest, and a Scribe so learned should be put to the inferior and baser office of reading, and the Levites but pettie ones, in com­parison advanced vnto the higher and worthier of inter­preting, seemes altogether improbable. Secondly, where it is said the Levites caused the people to vnderstand the law: that it seemes was done not by way of expounding, [Page 6] but by causing the people to stand still in their places, and to giue due attention. As for that which followes they gaue the sense, and caused them to vnderstand the read­ing, it is in the originall thus, [...] and may fitly be rendred they made attention and vnderstood the reading: referring the distinct reading of the law vnto Ezra, making of attention to the Levites & vnderstanding to the people. And thus doe sundry wor­thy Divines conceiue of this place. All which not with­standing, because diverse other great clarkes, & amongst the rest our late translators are of another mind, I may not be too peremptorie herein. Yet will I be bold to inferre, that vnlesse they can proue that sermons were e­very Sabbath made in evey Synagogue (which I thinke they will neuer proue) Preaching in this place will be all one with Reading.

So will it be also, vnlesse they can shew that whatsoe­ver was read was expounded: for it seemes by the text that whatsoever was read was preached. But as with vs, the Psalmes and Lessons and Epistles and Gospells with other parcells of Scripture read every Lords day in our Churches, are not nor cannot all at once be expounded, but only some small portion: so the Petaroths or Sections of the law and the Prophets,Elias Levita. ordained by Ezra of old to be read in the Synagogues every Sabbath day, are as they are set downe by the sonne of Maimonie so large,Ben. Maimon. that they could not possibly, at leastwise conveniently bee interpreted at one time. I presume therefore all was not in­terpreted which was read: yet all was preached which was read: wherefore Preaching cannot in this place bee interpreted but only Reading.

Besides these reasons, least any should thinke I stand [Page 7] single, and by my selfe alone, it may please you to know that I am backed with the authority of sundry graue Di­vines: of whom I will name two onlie, with either of whom that one to whom we are referred is no way to be compared.Apol. against T.C. The one is reverend Whitgift late Archbishop of the See of Canterbury, in his defence against Cart­wright: the other is learned and profound Hooker, the hammer of our Schismatickes, whose bookes they are afraid to looke vpon least they be confounded,Eccles. Polit. l. 5. in his Ec­clesiasticall Politie. These both affirme Preaching in this place to be no other then Reading. Whitgift addes, that all expositors he could meet withall were of the same mind: so that in effect I am warranted with a cloud of witnesses. Against all which, besides confident assevera­tion, I find nothing opposed saue one only passage out of the second tome of Homilies:Hom. 1. p. 1. wherein say they, our church doth principallie fasten on this text to proue a di­stinction betweene Preaching and Reading. Wherevnto I answere, that the intent of the Homilie is to shew the right vse of Churches, and that in them the word of God should be both read and interpreted: and to this end are alledged sundry passages out of the Acts, together with this text, all which ioyntly but not severally conclude what was intended. For Act. 13.5. speaketh only of Preaching, this text only of Reading, and Act. 13.14. of both. But how soever the Homilie vnderstand this place, sure I am both this booke and the Church of England ac­count of Reading as an effectuall Preaching, as shall anon in the due place be demonstrated.

In the meane season I hope I may be bold out of all these premises to inferre this conclusion, that if any haue publikely said, that▪ whosoever collecteth out of this text [Page 8] Reading to be Preaching is no better then a seducing spirit, giues the lye to his mother the Church of England, yea to God himselfe, and is mad with reason. Hee himselfe at that time spake more out of Passion then reason. For a se­ducing Spirit is not every one that erreth and delivereth what he conceiueth to be true: but hee who out of the loue of errour endeavoureth to lead others astray from the truth. And ô thou glorious Archangell of the Church of England Whitgift, wert thou also a seducing Spirit? Or was it true of our Church in thy time which the Prophet spake of his, Doctores tui Seductores tui, thy teachers are thy seducers? And thou profound Hooker, then whom never any man spake with more reason, werst thou also mad with reason? And yee both when yee vn­dertooke the defence of the Politie and government of your Mother, did you vnder pretence thereof giue the lye vnto your Mother, yea even to God your Father al­so? What shall I say? The Lord forgiue these intempe­rate speeches. The best buckler to defend off such veni­mous arrowes is a good conscience and Christian pati­ence. And thus armed I passe to the second part.

The second Quere is, whether Reading be a kinde of Preaching. That Reading should be called or counted a kinde of Preaching there is a generation that at no hand can endure. Such language they hold to be a foule Sole­cisme in divinity: but the doctrine it selfe a great im­peachment vnto Preaching. What, say they, when our Saviour commanded his Apostles to goe into the World,Mar [...]. 16.15. and to preach the Gospell vnto all creatures, is it not a sottish thing to thinke hee meanes no more then this, goe learne to read well, then call the people toge­ther, and read the word vnto them? When St Paul saith [Page 9] to the Romans, How can they preach except they bee sent, doth not this imply that Preaching is more then bare Reading?2. Cor. 2.16. When the Prophet Esay said, How beautifull vpon the mountaines are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace, &c. Doe you thinke hee spake this of one that should come with a booke in his pocket and read vnto Sion? Who, saith S. Paul, is sufficient for these things? Now if Reading be Preaching who is not sufficient for these things?2. Tim. 4.1.2. Finally, When S. Paul char­geth Timothy to preach the word, to be instant in season, & out of season, to reproue, rebuke, exhort withall long suffe­ring and doctrine: What? meanes he no more then this, goe take a care to read well? These are their choicest ob­jections out of Scripture: vnto all which I briefly answer thus. [...]: I looked that they should punctually conclude, Ergo Reading is no kind of Preaching, but they insteed hereof substitute another conclusion, Reading is not all that Preaching that is re­quired in a Minister, which who denies? For wee freely confesse more is required then ability to Read: except only then when sufficient Ministers, or there where suffi­cient maintenance cannot be had. In such a case better a Reader then none, to publish Gods word, to baptize chil­dren, to administer the Communion, and to performe other necessary duties, which but by a Minister may not be done. As for the descant vpon this plainsong, what? did Christ command no more then to come with a book in ones pocket, and to read fairely? from what spirit it proceeds I will not say: sure I am it is a stale popish iest. Thinkest thou, Defens. eccles. author. l. 3. c. 7. saith Stapleton vnto Whitaker, when Paul preached vnto the Gentiles to convert them, hee deliuered them the booke of the old Testament, or recited and read the same vnto them?

[Page 10]But besides testimonie of Scripture they vouch the authority of the booke of Homilies and Canons: where­of the one distinguisheth Readers from Preachers, which were great wrong vnto them if they be Preachers. The other forbiddeth Ministers to preach in private, where­by I may not so much as read a chapter in my house if Reading be Preaching. This argument I thinke them­selues make as little reckoning of, as they doe of the au­thority whereon it is grounded. For it is a plaine fallacy of Equivocation, and they must needs be very blinde if they discerne it not. For when our Church putteth a di­stinction betwixt Readers and Preachers, shee vnderstan­deth Preaching in the strict and speciall signification for one kinde of Preaching, namely interpreting or making of Sermons. And in this sense it is most true Reading is not Preaching: and very simple must he be that holdeth bare Reading to be the making of a Sermon. But when we say Reading is Preaching, we vnderstand Preaching in a more large and generall signification, as by and by you shall heare: wherevnto because they speake not, they speake not to the purpose.

Furthermore, this doctrine, say they, is a maintainer of Idlers, and dumb dogs, and soule murtherers, & what not? Pax mifrater, good words I pray you, for these are but the evaporations of a hot braine. Farre be it from vs by any meanes to maintaine any such kinde of Cattle. Wee wish with all our hearts, that not only all Ministers, but all the people of God could prophecie. Howbeit, were there not an idler, nor dumb dog, nor soule-murtherer, as these men are pleased to tearme them, in our Church: yet if publicke Reading continue, and I hope it will continue so long as the Sunne and Moone endureth, Reading will [Page 11] ever bee a kinde of Preaching. In the meane season I could wish that they who are so eager against dumbe dogges, would sometimes remember to turne the edge of their tongues against bawling curres also, with whom the Church of God is as much pestered as the other: those I meane who behaue themselues so audaciously & confidently in the pulpit, yet haue neither the learning nor the wisdome to speake humbly, discreetly, and to the purpose.

One argument yet remaines, Preaching was before the word written: but before writing Reading could not be: Reading therefore cannot be Preaching. Pardon me my brethren if I call a spade a spade, and in plaine English say, this is a meere Popish argument. For in like manner reasoneth Charron a French Papist,Trois verites l. 3. c. 4. par. 3. to proue that Faith is not taught by Writing or Reading. The Scripture, saith he, came but late into the world: and the world had beene without it for the space of two thousand fiue hundred yeares, namely all the time from Adam to Moses. If then in the meane while the Faith was published to the world and receaued by it, it could not bee by the word written or read (which then was not) but onely by the word preached and heard. But in the same sort, as Fran­cis Iunius confronteth Charron, Confront. ibid so will I answere these men. First, although before Moses no part of the Ca­non was written: yet happily there might be other god­ly and holy bookes penned, out of which the true faith might be learned. Secondly, grant that at that time no­thing at all was written: yet the argument followeth not, The world was a long time without Scripture, Ergo neither now is it the purpose of God to teach by Writing or Reading. For contrarily, seeing it hath pleased God of his good­nesse [Page 12] at length to commit his word vnto writing, it is ma­nifest that he now intends men should learne the know­ledge thereof even by Reading also. Wherefore I con­clude, that as before Writing there was happily but one kinde of preaching, namely speaking to the eare: so now since the time that Gods word hath beene written, there are more kindes then one, namely speaking to the eye too.

Thus hauing remoued these rubs as it were out of our way, let vs proceed in Gods name to maintaine the truth propounded, that Reading is a kind of Preaching: where­in I must intreat you againe & againe not to mistake me, as if I held bare Reading to be all that Preaching which is required in a Minister; or that it is the making of a Ser­mon, that is, the expounding of a Text, deducing of do­ctrines, and particular application of the same by way of exhortation. Farre be such vanitie and folly from mee. What then? Surely by Preaching generally I vnderstand the publishing, or notifying, or making knowne of Gods word. Which seeing it may be done by sundry waies & meanes, as inwardly, outwardly, publikely, privately, by word, by writing, by speaking, by reading, by Catechi­zing, by conference, and the like: I boldly affirme that there are diverse kinds of Preaching, and that Reading is one of them. And least any man should thinke I stretch the word Preaching too farre: bee it knowne vnto you that I doe no more then Martin Bucer sometime Divini­ty Reader in Cambridge, as he is cited by D. Whitgift, hath long since done before me: for as he granteth that there are sundry sorts of Preaching, so among them he reckons Reading for one. And whatsoever some punies avouch to the contrary, I dare engage all the poore skill I haue [Page 13] in languages vpon it, that the originall words vsually translated Preaching, as [...] in the old Testa­ment, [...] in the new, are not in Scripture, no nor in other writers restrained vnto the mouth or scholying vpon a Text, but are of far larger extent and capacitie, even such as wee haue aboue deliuered. So that (to come to an issue) when we say rea­ding is a kinde of preaching, our plaine meaning is, that it is a way or meanes by which the word of God is pub [...]lished and made knowne.

Which being so, what is it, my bretheren, that so much offendeth and angreth you? Is it the inconvenience of the tearmes, or the vntruth of the proposition? For indeed I finde you so variable and vncertaine that I know not well where to finde you. Is it the language that see­meth so harsh and jarring to your eares? It seemed not so vnto the ancients, who made no scruple to speake so. Learned Hooker who carefully inquired into this busi­nesse, hath obserued to my hands divers passages. The Councell of Vaux saith, Canon. 4. If a Presbyter or Minister cannot through infirmity preach by himselfe, he may preach by his Deacon reading some Homily of the Fathers. Where note by the way that if reading an Homily bee Preaching, Reading of Gods word is much more.Can 11. The Councell of Toledo also calleth the Reading of the Gospell Preaching. So doth Isidor and Rupertus likewise, the reading of a Lesson in the Church. And a right learned Lawyer of our own country hath obserued it also in the Law,In ans. to the Abstract. Quae Prophetae Vaticinati sunt populis praedicare, id est, legere: to preach, that is, to read vnto the people what the Prophets haue fore­told. Thus they. But if it be so inconvenient to say Rea­ding is Preaching, why doe you yourselues call Prea­ching [Page 14] Reading? For doe you not in ordinary speech call your Preachers Lecturers? And what is that but Rea­ders? And when you would knowe who preaches, is it not your manner to aske who reades? And the Sermons of a Preacher, doe you not style them his Lectures or Readings? But to leaue descanting, besides that the Ori­ginall words, as we haue said, include both Reading and Sermoning: let it in particular be observed that the word [...] is in Scripture indifferently vsed for either. As namely in one place of Esay it is said,Esa. 29.12. The book is deliuered to him that is not learned saying, [...] Read this I pray thee: Id. 61.1.2. but in another place, the Lord hath annointed me [...] to preach or proclaime the acceptable yeare. Neither is it to bee neglected that from the selfe same root commeth also [...] Scripture. Thus the an­cients sticke not to call Reading Preaching.

Neither sticke they to call Writing Preaching. Iustin Martyr saith,Paraen. ad Gentes l. 17. Strom. l. 1. p. 1. that the very writings of the Gentiles preach iudgement to come. Clemens of Alexandria, Ambo verbum praedicant, &c. Both preach the word, one by writing, the o­ther by voice: and the science of Preaching availeth both waies, whether it worke by the hand or by the tongue. S. Au­gustine also,Doct. Christ. Prol. They who vnderstand these things produnt ea caeteris, notific or preach the same vnto others either by spea­king or writing. Vnto these ancients our moderne writers agree. Duplex est praedicandi modus Sermo & Scriptio, there is two sorts of Preaching,Cont. Bellar. contro. 1. Speech and Writing, saith Iunius. Confront. l. 3. c. 4. And againe, who dare say S. Paul preached not when as he wrote vnto the Corinthians, woe is me if I preach not the Gospell. In Rhem. Test Ro. 1. 15. Dr Fulke, S. Paule did preach the Gospell al­so by writing. Dr Whitaker, The Apostles were commanded [...] to preach or make Disciples, Cont. Bellar. con. 1. q. 6. c. 9. tum voce tum scripto, [Page 15] both by voice and writing. De Idol. Eccl. Ro. ep. ded. Dr Iohn Reynolds, I who now cannot with my voice as heretofore through the infirmitie of my body, evangelizo manu ac scriptione, preach yet with my hand and writing as well as I can. Advers. Cost. de Script. De S. script. Gomarus, There are two kinds of Preaching Enuntiation and writing. Zanchie not only approueth it but proueth it too, Goe teach all nations, saith Christ: here is a dutie commanded. Lo I am with you to the end of the world, this is a promise annexed. With whom is he? with the Apostles. How long? vn­to the end of the world. Therefore must they preach to the end of the world. They cannot by word of mouth, for they must die. By Writing therefore. Finally the booke of Homilies, and the learned Translators of our last Bible affirme the same. The booke of Homilies, in the Law written with his owne finger, Against peril of idol. p. 1. & that in the first table, & in the beginning thereof, is this doctrine against Images not briefly touched, but at large set forth and preached. The Translators,Preface to the Reader. The seaventie Interpreters, prepared the way for our Saviour among the Gentiles by written Preaching, as S. Iohn Baptist did among the Iewes by vocal. And thus if either ancient or later Divines knew how to speake fit­ly, it cannot be inconvenient or scandalous to call Rea­ding or Writing Preaching.

What then? Is there vntruth in the proposition? If so, then haue all those worthies, aboue cited spoken not on­ly inconveniently but vntruly also. But I beseech you my brethren, doe you indeed thinke Reading is no way a publishing or making knowne of Gods will? I can hardly beleeue it. When God first commanded the law, and afterward the Sermons of the Prophets, and succes­siuely the whole Canon of Faith to be written, the old Testament in the vulgar language of the Iewes, the new [Page 16] in the tongue that then was most generally vnderstood: what was his intent and purpose therein? Was it not to endoctrinate his Church, that we through patience & com­fort of the Scripture might haue hope? Rom. 15.4. When the Septua­gint by the speciall providence of God translated the bookes of the old Testament out of Hebrew into Greek, and the whole body of Scripture vnder Christianity was so carefully turned into all languages: was not the one done for the information of those Iewes that were Hellenists and vnderstood not Hebrew, and the other for the instruction of such Christians as knew no other but their mother tongue? Doubtlesse it was. For translation say our last learned translators,Preface to the Reader. is it that openeth the win­dow to let in the light, that breaketh the shell that wee may eat the kernell, that putteth aside the curtaine that wee may looke into the most holy place, that remoueth away the couer of the well that we may come by the water. Furthermore, what is the reason that so many graue and learned men haue in all ages published so many excellent bookes? and that Preachers also not content to haue spoken by word of mouth vnto their auditory, cause their Sermons to be set forth in print vnto the world? Is it not that they who never knewe nor heard them may yet reape benefit by their writing? True it is that neither Originall, nor Tran­slation, nor any booke whatsoever can availe, if it be loc­ked vp in a chest,Deut. 13.11. & 17.1. & 6.6. or laid on a deske, and never be opened or looked into. God therefore commanded in the old Testament that the law should be read both publikely & privately:Ioh. 5.39. and Christ hath ordained the same in the new. And S. Paul when he wrote his Epistles, meant not that they should lie still vnder seale:Col. 4.16. but, saith he, when this E­pistle is read among you, cause that it bee read also in the [Page 17] Church of the Laodiceans: and that yee likewise read the E­pistle from Laeodicea. 1 Thes. 5.27. And againe, I adiure you by the Lord that this Epistle be read vnto all the holy brethren. Accord­ing to this commandement hath the practice both of the Iewish and Christian Church ever beene,Act. [...].27.15.21. and is duly continued amongst vs to this day. Now all this cui bono? and to what end such a world of bookes, but that by reading them we may attaine to knowledge? Surely if wee poore schollers were no better furthered in our stu­dies by Reading then by Sermons: small would bee our knowledge, and poore God wot the entertainment yee were like to receiue from vs. Our Saviour Christ thought that Reading might instruct,Mat. 24.15. when hee said Qui legit intelligat, Eph. 3.4. let him that readeth vnderstand: and Saint Paul when he wrote, By reading ye may vnderstand my knowledge in the misterie of Christ. But what need wee to multiply arguments, seeing it is not only confessed that Reading is after a sort a publishing of Gods word, but also such a publishing as prepareth way vnto faith, and fur­thereth it when it is obtained, which cannot bee but by teaching and notifying the truth. I conclude therefore that reading is a meanes whereby the will of God is made knowne, and consequently is Preaching. Which if any yet againe purpose to gainesay, let me intreat them, not to say one thing, to wit, that Reading is not Preach­ing, and to meane another, thus, Reading is not Sermon­ing, or all the Preaching required: but to speake to the purpose, and punctually to demonstrate, that reading is not a publishing of Gods word, which I know they can never doe, and I thinke they will bee ashamed to goe a­bout. And so I passe from the second vnto the third part.

The third and last Quere is touching the vertue and ef­ficacie [Page 18] of Reading, whether it be an ordinary meanes to beget faith and to convert a soule. That it should haue such a faculty is with much confidence denied: Faith and conversion by all meanes must be restrained to Sermons and the Preachers mouth. Some little of their holy wa­ter sprinkle are they content to bestow vpon reading. It may pretily fit a man to heare a Sermon, and further him when he hath heard: it may serue to nourish, set for­ward, and increase faith when it is gotten, but to begin, to breed, to worke faith where it is not, that belongs vnto a Preacher, nothing can effect it but a Sermon. If wee say many haue beene converted by reading only, as name­ly St Augustine, Confes. l. 8. c. 12. if either we may beleeue himselfe, or Martyr, Iewell, and others testifying of him: and Anto­nie the Eremite, who as Hierom saith, was brought to the faith lectione Evangelicâ by reading the Gospell: and Iohn Isaac a Iew both by his birth and religion,Cont. Lind [...]n who pro­fesseth that he became a Christian by reading the 53. of Esay: In vita sua. and Iunius, who if I misremember not imputeth his owne conversion to the reading of Saint Iohns Gospell: and finally many of our fore-fathers, vnlesse wee will damne them all into the pit of hel, who liuing in the blind times of Poperie, came to the light of the truth, as Mr Foxe saith,Acts & Mon. either by reading themselues, or hearing o­thers read,Preach. plea. yea, as Hieron himselfe confesseth, by parcels of Scripture, the writings of good men, conference with others though seldome and secret, nay by knowing little more then the Lords prayer: these, I say, and sundry o­thers if we obiect vnto them, their answere is ready, it was Extraordinarie, Def. of Admō. it was miraculous. For ordinarily reading saith T. C. cannot deliuer a soule from famish­ment, from the wolfe from destruction:Preach. plea. yea, saith Hieron, [Page 19] knowledge so gotten is but vaine iangling, and swimmeth in the braine, but converts not the heart. So that had wee verbatim written all those heavenly Sermons which St Paul the Apostle of the Gentiles preached among them: had we that famous Sermon of St Peter by which three thousand soules at once were added to the Church:Act. 2.41. nay had we all the gratious words sanctified by our blessed Sauiours owne mouth while he liued here in the flesh: yet could they not beget faith or convert a soule, but only extraordinarily, and by way of miracle. A strange and incredible assertion, and they had need to be armed with mighty demonstrations to persuade it. Let vs therefore examine the force of them.

First they vrge that of Elihu in the booke of Iob, Iob. 33.23.24 If there be a messenger with him, an interpreter, one among a thousand to shew vnto man his righteousnesse: then is he gra­tious vnto him, and saith, deliuer him from going downe to the pit, I haue found a ransome. Here deliuerance is by a messenger: this messenger is a minister, and that not a Rea­der but Preacher, there being in Iobs time no Scripture and consequently no reading. Wherevnto I answere first, that [...] signifies also an Angell, & that therevpon some interpret it of a good Angell, others of the Angell of the covenant, rendring the words thus. If there be an Angell speaking for him, and shewing for man his righteousnesse. If so, as it is very probable, then is the argument of no force, here being no speech of a Minister but mediator, nor of a Preacher speaking to man, but of an advocate in­terceding for man. Secondly, be it that a Preaching Mi­nister is meant, yet not every one, but one among a thou­sand. For to say that not one among a thousand Mini­sters, but one Minister among a thousand men is vnder­stood, [Page 20] is too sleight. Mercer is of another minde; and Oecolampade conceiues it of a graue, intelligent, and wise teacher, such as is rarely to be found. And so by this rec­koning Faith should be tied very s [...]ort: and the Sermons of vulgar and ordinary Preachers should not be able to beget Faith, Lastlie, he that attributeth such efficacy to Sermons, doth not so doing deny it vnto other meanes: and who,Contra Char. l. 3. c. 4. saith Iunius, hauing any Christian sense or zeale dare say that Faith is not to be advanced by all meanes? yea, but in Iobs time Reading could not bee a meanes. True: yet it followeth not but now it may bee a meanes. Then it was not when there was nothing to be read: now it is as we haue shewed, the whole Canon being written.

Prov. 29.18.In the next place they vrge that of Solomon, where there is no vision there the people perish. Heere by vision vocall preaching is meant: but without vision no saluation, Ergo nor without Preaching or Sermons. I answere, [...] or vi­sion imports not the act of the seer or a Sermē: but the ob­iect or thing which he sees. Otherwise when it is said, the vision which Isaiah saw, we might read it thus, the Sermon which Isaiah saw:Esaiah. 1.1. & so to see a vision shall be no other then to make a Sermon, which is absurd. By vision then are we to vnderstand the law, as it is in the latter clause of the verse, or the revelation of Gods will: as if the wise man had said, where God revealeth not himselfe there the people perish; which is vndoubtedly true. And as vndou­ted is it that God revealeth himselfe by more waies then by Sermons. Howbeit I deny not but in some sense it may be truely said where vocall Preaching is not there the people perish: not for that they want the Ordinary meanes as long as they haue the written word, but because of their negligence and retchlesnesse who of themselues will [Page 21] not search the Scripture, nor seeke the truth vntill others bring it home vnto them.

Thirdly they object that of the Apostle, It pleased God by the foolishnesse of Preaching to saue them that beleeue;1. Cor. 1.21. where, say they, Faith and Salvation are tied vnto Prea­ching. But first I deny that Preaching is here the making of a Sermon: for it is not in the Originall [...] but [...]. Now [...] imports not the act of Prea­ching, but the object or thing preached.Duplic. cont. Stapl l. 2. c. 10 Hence Whitaker expresseth it by [...] that which is preached: and Zanchy yet more manifestly by Doctrina Evangelica, De S. Script. the doctrine of the Gospell. And this indeed seemes foolishnes vnto the naturall man, yet being knowne, by what way soeuer, it worketh Faith and is the power of God to [...]al­vation. Secondly suppose that preaching of Sermons were here meant, yet what consequence is this, Sermons breed Faith, ergo Reading doth not? For both may. This is their solemne errour they labour to shew what vertue sermons haue, but never shew that such vertue be­longs to Sermons only.

Lastly they obiect that of S. Paul to the Romans,Rom. 10 13.14 How shall they call on him in whom they haue not beleeued? How shall they beleeue in him of whom they haue not heard? And how shall they heare without a Preacher? Here Invocation is chained to Faith, Faith to Hearing, and Hearing to Preaching. This is their Achilles, and therefore will wee endeauour to giue it full satisfaction. First then graunt that Faith dependeth vpon such Preaching as may bee heard, yet this lets not but it may be the effect of reading: for when the word is publikely read, I hope it is heard also. But I answere secondly, and more roundly to the purpose, that Hearing in this place betokeneth not onely the outward act, or, as Philosophers call it, passion of the [Page 22] eare: but whatsoever else is analogicall and proportio­nable therevnto, as namely Reading, and Seeing, and the like. And herein, least any should thinke me singular, or to maintaine a strange Paradoxe, it may please you to knowe that I am warranted both by the language of ho­ly Scripture, and the judgement of our best Divines. In scripture,Ps. 19.1.2.3. the heavens and the firmament are said to haue a speech: and when by seeing and contemplating them we learne the invisible things of God, Rom. 1.20. wee are said to heare their voice? The word written hath in like manner a mouth, Deut. 17.11. 2. Thes. 2.8. Act. 13.27. Rom. 10.8. Ioh. 19.37. Rom. 3.19. Heb. 12.5. Rom. 9.27. Ioh. 5.39. Heb. 4.12. Luc. 16.29. Gal. 4.21.22. a voice, a speech giuen vnto it, whereby it speaketh, it cryeth, it testifieth: and when we looke vpon it or read if for our instruction we are said to heare. They haue Mo­ses and the Prophets, let them heare them, saith Abraham in the Parable: and S. Paul, Doe yee not heare the Law? Scriptum enim est, for it is written. And if as Cyprian saith, When we read God speaketh vnto vs, how can it bee but that in reading we heare the voice of God? When we receaue a letter from our friend, wee are said to heare from him: why not from God also when wee read his letter? For so the Fathers stile the Scriptures. Certainely our worthiest Divines conceaue of hearing no otherwise in this place.Confront. l. 3. c. 4. Learned Iunius, It will bee said Faith com­meth by hearing: the answer is ready, Hearing is of the word whether it be spoken or written. Ibid. And againe, As the word spoken and written differ only in this, that the one is soun­ded in the ayre, the other is apparelled in white paper, and garded with blacke lines, to the end one may see it, and hold it by the coat, which pronounced only would fly away: so hea­ring and seeing in regard of the effect is all one. Writing to speaking, and seeing the booke to Hearing is analogicall. So Iunius, De verb. scrip. Zanchie, Legendo Scriptur as audimus, In Reading [Page 23] we heare the Scriptures. In Rhem. Test. Rom. 1.15. Dr Fulke, S. Paul did preach the Gospell also by writing, and the people did heare by reading. D. Whitaker, Dupl. contr. Stapl. l. 2. c▪ 10. De script. q. 5. c. 8. arg. 2. writing is the imitation of speech, auditur er­go, therefore it is heard. And the same D. Whitaker in­terpreting these very words, Faith commeth by Hearing limiteth it not vnto the outward eare, but extendeth it thus, ex auditu, id est, ex sensu Scripturae rectè percepto, by Hearing, that is, by vnderstanding the right meaning of Scripture, Cont. A.D. c. 9 by what way soever. This exposition Wotton approuing, he further addes, that it is not the Apostles purpose to disable the word Read, but partly to shew that the meanes of salvation proceed from God alone, partly that no man might excuse himselfe by ignorance, God hauing sent his servants into all the world: without which sending none might preach either by word or writing, and without which preaching no man could be­leeue. And thus haue you both the true meaning of this place,, and a full answere vnto the objection. Other pas­sages besides these doe they vrge: but being either of the same nature, or of lesse moment, I will not trouble you with them.

Now it remaineth breefly to resolue and confirme the truth. Wherein to the end it may appeare, that what I haue often maintained in private, I am neither afraid nor ashamed publikely to professe in pulpit: I here openly proclaime, and confidently affirme, that Reading is an or­dinary meanes to beget Faith and convert a soule. Which that I may the more clearely and distinctly demonstrate, giue me leaue in few words to open the tearmes & mea­ning of the Proposition. First then by Faith I vnderstand not only that whereby wee yeeld assent vnto Scripture the Principle of Faith that it is Gods word, & to all those [Page 24] articles of Faith specially fundamentall established by this principle, which we call Historicall or Dogmaticall Faith: but that Faith also whereby we are justified, and by which we accept Christ to be our Mediator, King, Priest, and Prophet, together with the effects thereof, Re­pentance from dead workes, and new obedience. All this I comprehend vnder the name of Faith. Secondly by Meanes I vnderstand such middle or secondary causes as come betweene the first cause and the effect for the pro­ducing of it. And these meanes if they be praeter ordinem besides the perpetuall order placed in things, there being no coherence betweene them and the effect, or no aptnes in them to produce the effect, then doe we call them Ex­traordinary: and such was the feeding of Elias by Ravens and the curing of the blinde man by dawbing clay vpon his eyes.1. King. 17.6. Ioh. 19.6. But if they be secundum ordinem according to the perpetuall order established in things, having in them an aptnesse and fitnesse to produce the effect, then are they called Ordinary: and such is the nourishing and su­staining of man by bread. Now the soveraigne & prime cause of Faith is God. God worketh it by his word. The word worketh as a Doctrinall or Morall instrument by way of argument & perswasion. Before it can perswade it must be revealed. God therefore revealeth it, and that sometimes without meanes, by an immediate impression of light and grace vpon the soule,Act. 2.4. Act 9.3. &c. Gal. 1.12. as he did vnto the Apo­stles on the feast of Pentecost, and to S. Paul in his iour­ney towards Damascus. But generally and for the most part he revealeth it mediately and by the intervention of meanes. The Ordinary meanes is that which is setled and established to continue in the Church for ever. That is the Ministerie of the Church, whose office is by all meanes [Page 25] to publish the word, whether by Writing or by Speaking, and this againe whether by Reading or Interpreting. All which, if they haue in them an ability and fitnesse vnder God to convey into our hearts the knowledge of his word, then vndoubtedly are they all Ordinary meanes to beget faith. And such an ordinary meanes among the rest doe I affirme Reading to be. Which hauing thus fully explained the tearmes, I now come to demonstrate: and first in that faith whereby we yeeld assent vnto the Scrip­ture that it is the very word of God.

The last and highest principle whereinto Faith is re­solued, and wherevpon it finally stayeth it selfe is the Scripture: yet is it not so vnto vs vntill we be perswaded that it is the word of the eternall verity, which can nei­ther erre nor lead into errour. But how come we to bee. perswaded hereof? By Sermons? I deny not but Ser­mons are vnder God a sufficient meanes to perswade it. But when did you ever heare a Preacher treat of this ar­gument, or goe about to proue it? Or if any haue done it, did they not perswade you to that whereof you were al­ready perswaded? Yes questionlesse. For besides the te­stimonie of the Church, in the publike reading of the Scriptures as the word of God, there shineth forth in them such a Majestie and divinenesse as is not to be found in other writings: and when by Reading yet take notice of so many oracles, and miracles, and predictions, and sundry other things farre exceeding the power of nature,Dupl. cont. Stap. l. 2. c. 6. doth not reason it selfe tell you, saith Whitaker, that they must needs bee of God?In the way to the true Ch. The same saith D. Iohn White Many times Pagans and Atheists without the Ministery come to Faith by only Reading: whence but being convinced by Scripture it selfe? If then the very Reading of holy [Page 26] Scripture may bring vnto our knowledge such remon­strances and arguments as convince the minde that it is the word of God, certainely it is an ordinary meanes to beget this faith: for what can be more ordinary then ar­guments and demonstrations. But the former is true, as we haue proued: therefore the latter also.

If so, then much more is it apt and fit to beget that Faith whereby we yeeld assent to those articles which are built vpon Scripture: especially if two things may be granted, first that it is perfect, secondly that it is facile & easie to be vnderstood. That it is all-sufficient and con­taineth whatsoeuer is necessary either to bee beleeued or done vnto saluation, none but a Papist will deny. And surely if it be defectiue, either it is from God, or from the pen-men. Not from the pen-men, for they were but hands, and could not but write what the head indited to them. If from God, then either because he could not, or because he would not perfect it. To say he could not, is to derogate from his wisdome and power: to say hee would not is to detract from his loue, and to taxe him of envie. But what need mee to spend more time in this point, seeing I now deale against those who challenge vn­to it such a perfection, that nothing may be done, no not to the taking vp of a straw, without warrant from it. The Scripture then is perfect: is it also facile and easie to bee vnderstood? Aristotle saith of his Acroamaticks that they were [...], published in that they were writtē, not published because of their darknesse. In the books of Heraclitus there was so great obscurity, that he was there­fore called [...] Obscure. May wee iustly say the same of the Scriptures, and the pen-men thereof? Surely it cannot be denied but that some things are difficult: yet as [Page 27] there are deepe places where the Elephant may swim, so there are shallow where the Lamb may wade: and as there is harder meat which the strong man may chew, so there is milk also which the infant may suck. And I bold­ly affirme that all fundamentall points and duties necessa­ry to salvation are in Scripture so clearely delivered, that if they were written with a sunbeame they could not bee more cleare.In Ps. 26. God hath spoken so, that not a few, but all may vnderstand, Ep. 3. saith Hierom. Hee speaketh to the heart both of learned and vnlearned, Dial. cum Try phon. saith Augustin. Scriptures are so plaine as they need not to be expounded, L. 7. in Iulian saith Iustin Mar­tyr. They exceed no mans capacity, saith Cyril of Alexan­dria. They are easie, not to the wise onely, but women and boyes, Hom. 1. in Ioh saith Chrysostome: And againe, They are easie to bee vnderstood, to the Servant, to the Countryman, to the wi­dow, to the stripling, De Script q. 2. c. 14. arg. 5. to him that is very simple. The same say all our Divines against Papist. The Scripture, saith Whitaker, may easily be vnderstood of any if he will. And Zanchie, De verb. scrip. will a Father speake obscurely to his children in things concerning their salvation, that they shall need to seeke interpreters? No verily. But God being wise was able to expresse himselfe, and being good he would: and it was necessary to speake plainely in things so necessary. If then, to come to a conclusion, Scripture containe all what is necessary, and that in such plaine tearmes that whosoeuer readeth may easily vnderstand: how can it be but Reading should be an apt and fit meanes, and con­sequently an ordinary meanes to beget this Faith? For if once we beleeue that Scripture is the word of God, we cannot but yeeld assent vnto those verities that are so plainely deliuered therein, and which we knowe to bee witnessed by the truth it selfe.

[Page 28]The same doe I also affirme of that Faith which wee call iustifying, and of the fruits thereof, Repentance and New obedience, that the Reading of Scripture is an apt & fit meanes to beget that also. For it presenteth vnto vs store of strong motiues to perswade, sweet promises to allure, terrible threatnings to affright, notable examples to imitate, and the like: then which there cannot be a bet­ter outward meanes, and there needs no more but the in­ward concurrence of Gods spirit to worke a perfect con­version. Read among other places the 28 of the book of Deuteronomie, [...]ut. 28. and then tell mee whither the Sermons of any man, nay whither the tongue of men and Angels be able to perswade more effectually. Sermons you say or­dinarily beget Faith, work Repentance, and breed sanctity and newnesse of life: not so Reading. May it please you then to tell vs for our better satisfaction, what such coherence there is betwixt Sermons and Faith, which is not betwixt it and Reading? And what that intrinsicall and proper quality of Sermons is whereby Faith is begotten which is not also to be found in Reading. Is it in the doctrine and matter of Sermons? It is the very same which wee read. Is it in the arguments and motiues whereby they perswade? We read either the same, or as forcible in the Scripture. What then? Is it in the vtterance, voice, ge­sture, behauiour, or credit of the Preacher? Much lesse: for then should we be beholding for our Faith to acci­dents more then substance, Cor. 2.4. & to the plausible inticements of humane wisdome, rather then the evidence & demon­stration of the spirit. Wherein then lies the vertue? For­sooth in Gods blessing: for Preaching is the ordinance of God, and he hath promised to blesse it. But stay, my bretheren, is not Reading Gods ordinance also? And [Page 29] doth God, having imprinted in it such an aptnesse and fitnesse ordinarily to beget Faith, either curse his owne ordinance, or suspend the operation of it so, as it shall ne­ver worke but only extraordinarily? What shall I say? When they haue answered what they can vnto the que­stion, the summe of all, as Hooker obserueth will be this, Sermons are and must be the only ordinary meanes, but why and wherefore we cannot tell. And so I passe from the first argument, drawne from the aptnesse and fitnesse of Reading to produce all these kindes of Faith.

Now in the second place I dispute ex concessis, from that which is yeelded and granted by the adversarie. First it is granted by Hieron, and we haue proued it by the te­stimonie of M. Fox to be true, that many of our forefa­thers in the blinde time of Popery were converted to the true Faith by reading only. This, say they, was extraordi­nary: but I infer that therfore it was ordinary. For if rea­ding be excluded, & sermōs be the only ordinary means, it will follow that the Church at that time was without the ordinary meanes: for wholsome Sermons then were not to bee had. But it is a strange point in Divinity that the Ordinary meanes should at any time fayle in the Church: and I presume when that fayleth the Church of God will fayle also. If so, then is there some other or­dinary meanes besides Sermons; and what can that bee but the written word and the Reading thereof?

It is further granted, and that rightly, that whosoever readeth the Scriptures, or heareth them read, is therevp­on bound to beleeue. And this is so cleare a truth, that Whitaker could not forbare to charge his adversary Sta­pleton with much folly for holding the contrary:Dupl. contr. Stapl. l. 1. c. 9. Sic tu planè desipis, saith he, Art thou so very a foole as to thinke that the word of God hath no authority, or bindeth no man [Page 30] to beleeue, but then when it is preached? Certainely if the doctrine of Christ and his Apostles was to be beleeued when it was deliuered by them in their Sermons: it is as much now to be beleeued when it is convayed vnto vs by way of writing and reading. Wherevpon saith Caluin Although the Apostles be dead, yet their doctrine liueth & flourisheth, 2. Pet. 1.15. and it is our dutie to profit by their writing as much as if themselues were now publikely speaking before our eyes. Vnlesse therefore Gods word cease to bee his word when it is read, an obligation in reading is laid vp­on vs, to yeeld all credence and obedience vnto it. Now God bindeth not but by a commandement. He comman­deth therefore to beleeue by Reading. What? Doth he command vs to beleeue by a meanes that is vtterly vna­ble and vnfit to worke beleefe? And doth hee daily and hourely tye our Faith vnto that which hee meanes not to blesse vnto that end, but once as it were in an age and ex­traordinarily? Questionlesse, seeing God hath ordained that his holy Scriptures be ordinarily read both in pub­like and private, and hath bound vs all to beleeue when­soeuer we either read them or heare them read: it cannot be but that Reading is an ordinary meanes to beget faith, and that God will alwaies vouchsafe to blesse his owne ordinance to the same end.

In the third place I vrge the testimonie and authoritie of holy writ. But happily so doing I may be counted in the number of those vile men, who like venomous spi­ders suck poyson out of the sweetest flowres. [...], the die is cast: and angry speeches may not hinder me from maintaining truth by the word of truth. When all Israell, saith Moses, is come to appeare before the Lord thy God in the place which he shall chuse: Deut. 31.11.12. thou shalt read this [Page 31] law before all Israell in their hearing. Gather the people to­gether, men, and women, and children, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may heare, and that they may learne, and feare the Lord your God, and obserue to doe all the words of his Law. Here in expresse tearmes the Rea­ding of the law is commanded: and it is particularly com­manded to this end that men may learne thereby. What? the feare of God, and obedience to the Law. God there­fore hath appointed Reading to be an Ordinary meanes of conversion. It is answered that such Reading is meant as was accompanied with interpretation. So they dreame indeed: but in the text there is no mention of interpreta­tion. Neither is it likely, seeing now the whole law was to be read at once, as is aboue said, and the scantling of time would hardly beare any exposition. Howsoeuer, sure I am the holy Ghost ascribeth the effect vnto Rea­ding, and I thinke hee both knewe and meant what hee said.Ier. 36.2. &c. In the Prophecie of Ieremie God commandeth the Prophet to write all his Prophecies in a booke, that all the house of Iudah might heare them read, for it may bee, saith God, that hearing they may returne every man from his evill way, that I may forgiue their iniquity and their sinne. According to this commandement Ieremie dictates all the Prophecies vnto Baruch, Baruch writes them, and being written reads them in the house of the Lord. Here againe Reading is commanded by God, and to the same end, that the people thereby might bee moued to repen­tance. To this they answer, first that God speaketh after the manner of men. True, when he saith it may be, as if he knewe no more then man what the effect would bee. Yet is it plainely intimated that Reading is an ordinary meanes of repentance. Secondly, say they, Ieremie had [Page 32] preached the same before, and so they are Sermons that are commanded to be read. Be it so. Yet then the very Reading of Sermons may worke Repentance, which the Preaching of them could not. To say nothing that these Sermons written were Gods word both for matter and manner: so that if the Reading of them might be effectu­all to conversion, the like efficacie cannot reasonably bee denied vnto the Reading of that written word which now we haue. Lastly, say they, this was extraordinary, for Ieremie was in prison and could not come to preach. It is vntrue that Ieremie was now in prison: for then the Princes would not haue said vnto Baruch, V. 19. Goe hide thee thou and Ieremie, and let no man knowe where yee be. And whereas Ieremie saith,V. 5. I am shut vp I cannot goe into the house of the Lord, the best Expositors vnderstand it of some other impediment, and not imprisonment. But bee it that Ieremie was in prison, yet is the Reading of his prophecies no more extraordinary then the Reading of any other booke of Scripture, nor the Reading, of these lesse effectuall then of them. To let passe sundry other passages of Scripture, I vrge in the last place that of Saint Iohn, Ioh. 20.31. These things are written that yee might beleeue that Iesus is the Christ the sonne of God, and that beleeuing yee might haue life through his name. Here writing is made the meanes of beleeuing, as beleeuing is made the meanes of life everlasting. But Writing without Reading is void and of no effect: the meaning thereof is as if he had said, These are written to the end that by reading them yee may beleeue. For to restraine it thus, These thing are wri­ten to the end that a Preacher by discoursing or making Ser­mons vpon some parcells of them may worke Faith in you, is too absurd and shamelesse: although I deny not that [Page 33] Sermons are an excellent meanes to beget faith also.

Vnto the authority and testimony of Scripture I adde the consent of ancient Fathers: who although they be but little reckoned of by some children of these times, yet haue euer beene of great credit with those that are wise and learned.Cap. 18. Tertullian in his Apologeticum wishes the Gen­tiles to search for the Seventies translation in Ptolemies li­brary: or if they will not take the paines to goe into the Synagogues of the Iewes that are among them, there to heare the same translation read. To what end? that so they may finde the true God and beleeue.Comment in Psal. initio. S Basill affirmeth that the Scriptures are [...], a common Apothecaries shop as it were, of the soule: and that every one may be a Physitian to himselfe, and take from thence what he needs according to the nature of his disease.Ser. 35. St Ambrose saith, Sacrarum Scripturarū lectio vita est, the reading of the Holy Scripture is life, according to that of our Sauiour Iesus Christ,Iohn. 6.63. verba quae ego loquor spiritus sunt & vita, In Esa. 11. the words which I speake are spirit & life, Saint Hierome, Frequenter evenit vt homines saecula­res mystica nescientes simplici lectione pascantur: It of­tentimes cometh to passe that lay men ignorant of the myste­ries of religion, are fed and nourished by bare reading. St Augustine, Epist. 120. Ama Ecclesiasticas literas legere, &c. Ac­custome thy selfe to read the letters of the Church, that is, the Scriptures, and thou shalt not finde many things to demand of me: but by reading and meditating, if also with pure affection thou pray vnto God the giver of all good things, thou shalt learne all things that are worthy to be knowne, or certainely the most things rather by his inspiration then any admonition of men. Finallie Iohn Bishop of Constantinople, the noblest Preacher of all the [Page 33] Fathers, and stiled for his eloquence Chrysostome, that is Golden mouth, and whom for his pregnant speeches to this purpose I haue reserued to the last, saith as follow­eth, All thinges necessarie are in Scripture so manifest and open, In 2. Thes. Hom. 3. that wee need nor Homilies nor Sermons, were it not [...] through our owne sluggishnesse and neg­ligence. And againe,Prol. in Epist. ad Rom. If you will studiously and diligently read, [...] yee shall need no other thing: for he is true that saith, Quaerite & invenietis, seeke and yee shall find. Ad Col. Hom. 9. And againe, Ne (que) moreris alium doctorem, &c. Nei­ther stay thou for other Doctors: thou hast the oracles of God, none can teach thee better then Dr Peter or Dr Paul. Hom 3. de Lazaro. And yet againe, The Apostles and Prophets as the ge­nerall Schoolemasters of the world, haue made their writings so plaine to all, that every one of himselfe only by reading may learne: and yee need nothing else but read. And yet a­gaine lastlie,In 2. Thes. Hom. 3. why say they should I goe to the Church if there be no Sermon there? (right the language of some of our time) This saith he, is it that hath corrupted and overthrown all. For what need is there of a Preacher? This necessity comes through our own negligence. For what need sermons? All things are cleare and plaine in holy Scripture: whatsoe­ver things are necessary are manifest. But because yee are nice auditors, and seeke to haue your eares delighted, there­fore doe you call for sermons. Thus farre Chrysostom: and thus the Fathers.

With whom agree our moderne Divines both for­raine and domesticall, who perhaps are more gracious with our adversaries then the Fathers. And here I might alledge many passages out of P. Martyr, In loc. clas. 1. cap. 6 In loc. de Sc. Musculus, Are­tius, Zanchie, Piscator, and others, of whom one sweareth that whosoeuer diligently readeth shall at length be taken, [Page 34] another affirmeth that God would haue the Bible read of all thereby to know the truth and to be saued, De verbo script. Praef. in Math. and all of them though not in direct, yet in equivalent tearmes avouch my conclusion. But I will content my selfe with these few following.Francis Cha [...] ­ron l. 3. c. 4. In Test. Rhem 2. Pet. 3. parag 1. Francis Iunius, I beleeue because I haue read, and read it written: and againe, Faith is wrought by hearing and by reading also. Dr Fulke, By reading of the Scriptures ignorant men may learne to haue true knowledge, and wild wicked fellowes to become more staid in their wits. Duplic. contra Stapl. l. 1. c. 7. Ibid. c. 11. Dr Whitaker, by the reading and study of Scripture Faith is learned by the ordinary way to learne faith. Againe, Faith is cherished by reading saith Tertullian: now faith is nouri­shed and cherished, ex quibus existit, by the same meanes that bred it. Ibid. And yet againe, Reading is the ordinary meanes of edifying: and God is effectuall by reading, & giu­eth the Holy Ghost thereby. Against A▪ D. ca. 3. Wotton. Wee doubt not many haue, wee are sure they might and may attaine to the same faith, what if I say to iustifying faith too? without any Preaching by the reading of Scripture. For since it is partly the matter that must argue the Scripture to be the word of God, partly the maiesty which any man may discerne in the manner of writing: vnlesse it can be proved out of the Scrip­ture that the Holy Ghost will not worke by these vpon the heart of him that readeth, but only of him that heareth a man expound this word vnto him, I see no sufficient reason why faith may not be had by reading, where Gods ordinance of Preaching is only wanting, and not wilfully neglected. Dr Nowell in his Chatechisme appointed by authority to be taught in all schooles,Nowels Cha [...]. By what way or meanes is the knowledge of Gods will declared in his word to bee attained? By diligent reading and meditating of Gods word, or by at­tentiue hearing the same read and purely expounded by o­thers. [Page 36] The booke of Homilies affirmeth,Tom. [...]. hom. 1. p. 1. that the reading of Scripture breedeth knowledge, turneth, illuminateth, comforteth, incourageth: and againe expressely, The ordi­nary way to attaine the knowledge of God and our selues is with diligence to heare and read the holy Scripture. Final­ly, if the iudgement of the chiefe governours of our Church, and the publike authorizing of bookes for the maintenance hereof be a sufficient argument, I dare bee bold to say that this is the very doctrine of the Church of England. Sure I am that the reverend father of this Diocesse who best should know it, gaue expresse com­mandement that it should publikely in this pulpit bee ac­knowledged, that reading is an ordinary meanes to beget Faith, and not Preaching only as they tearme it. Thus our latter Divines.

I haue but one thing more to say in this point, and it is this, that howsoever these men may differ from Papists in other opinions, yet I see not how they can cleare them­selues from Popery in this. For to omit all consequences which necessarily follow vpon it, thus in plaine termes say the Iesuits of Rhemes, In Rom. 1.15. Faith cometh ordinarily of preaching and hearing and not of reading and writing. And Bellarmine, De verbo dei l. 4. c. 12. Scripture was not given to this end to be a rule of Faith, but to be a certaine profitable commonitory to pre­serue and nourish that doctrine which is receaued by preach­ing. And Stapleton, Defens. Eccles author. Reading is not via ordinaria, the ordi­nary way to Faith: and againe, Scripture binds not a man to beleeue, neither is Faith to be had by it, but only as it is preached by the Church. Trois verites l. 3. c. 4. Lastly Charron, Faith is by the word Preached and pronounced by voice, not written or read. Ibid. Againe, Thou beleeuest because thou readest: thou art no Christian: for the Christian beleeueth afore reading and [Page 37] without. Ibid. And againe, Faith got by Reading is acquisite, hu­mane, studied, not Christian: and he that hath it is no Chri­stian, his Faith must haue another name. Iump almost with that ere while quoted out of Hieron, ordinarily knowledge so gotten is but vaine iangling and swimmeth in the braine but renewes not the heart. Thus Papists: against whom our men mainely oppose themselues herein.

And thus haue I at length resolued the three Questi­ons in the beginning propounded, and as I trust maintai­ned the truth of God, and that as becommeth the truth with the spirit of meeknesse and sobriety. Withall as I suppose I haue made a sufficient Apologie both for my selfe and other my reverend brethren, who in the general vnderstanding of the ordinary auditory of this place haue beene publikely censured as Seducing Spirits, for holding that which I haue now maintained. Reason would that he who seemed to lay this scandall vpon vs should haue made publike amends, and either haue inter­preted himselfe if he were mis-vnderstood, or acknow­ledged his rashnesse if he did so censure. But seeing it will not be, and so much charity cannot be found in the heart, yea over and aboue, seeing I haue since that time beene braued to my face, and as I am credibly informed, often insulted vpon behinde my back, as if I durst not publike­ly shew my face in these points: though otherwise I could haue beene content to hold my peace for the peace of the Church, yet now I could doe no other then I haue done, and pardon me I beseech you, for herevnto haue I beene forced and constrained. Sooner perhaps would I haue discharged my selfe of this burthen, if sooner I could haue met with so fit an auditory. For who can bet­ter testifie of what I say, or are fitter to be iudges and vm­pires [Page 37] in such a businesse, then you my reverend and belo­ved bretheren of the Cleargie? To you therefore and to your graue censure doe I referre both my selfe, & what­soever I haue said, duly remembring that of the Apostle Paul, 1. Cor. 14.32. the spirit of the Prophets is subiect to the Prophets.

And now giue mee leaue to addresse my speech vnto you my beloued bretheren of the Laitie, specially you that are the ordinarie auditory of this place. Let mee in­treat you all not again to mistake me, as if by what I haue said I went about any way to derogate from Sermons. I say mistake me not againe, for once already haue I beene either ignorantly or wilfully misconstrued. Preaching some while since in this place on Luc. 20.34.35. and en­quiring as my Text occasioned me,Luc. 20.34.35. who they were that should be accounted worthy to obtaine the next world, and the resurrection from the dead, I affirmed first in generall that it was not semblance only or shew of religion that could make a man worthie, and then in particular, that a man might be a frequent auditor of Sermons, might goe two, three, foure, more miles to heare them, all the while might looke the Preacher starke in the face, afterward returne with ioy, call to minde, talke, conferre and repeat the same, and yet for all this still be counted vnworthy. And fearing least I should bee mis-vnderstood, I then in­treated you not to mistake me, as if I misliked Sermons, or the going to them. Nay I exhorted you to goe, provi­ded you went not with contempt of Divine Service at home, nor departing from your owne Minister how meane a Preacher soever, none I thinke being so meane but is able to teach you more then you knowe: provided also that you passe not through the Church-yards of as reverend and learned men as these parts afford any to go [Page 38] a mile further to heare a novice, and when you are retur­ned, that your repetitions bee not vaineglorious, with such a rumble, and after the manner of a riot, but modest and severally in your owne houses, and lastly that the fruit of your often hearing be not a demure looke onely and a prating tongue, but true humility & charity which best conformeth vs vnto IESVS CHRIST. These things I then said, and for ought I yet see said not amisse: yet am I censured as an enimie to Sermons, as one that greeues the hearts of Gods Saints, and lash the faults of Hypocrites on the backes of Gods children. Wherefore you see I haue reason now to be warie of my selfe, and to prevent the like danger that I bee not the second time mistaken, as if I spake in derogation of Sermons.

Sermons I acknowledge to be the blessed ordinance of God, & as learned Hooker saith, they are the keyes to the kingdome of heauen, wings to the soule, spurres to our good affections, food to them that are sound and healthy, and vnto diseased mindes physicke. Whatsoever any can truely say in honour of them, withall our hearts we sub­scribe vnto it. If comparison be made betweene Reading and Sermons, wee readily yeeld the precedencie to Ser­mons. For although it be the same word which is read & treated vpon: yet the manner which is or should be vsed in Sermons, by explaining that which is hard, deducing of doctrines, and applying them home vnto the consci­ence, doth more speedily and easily informe the vnder­standing and beget Faith, as he that is taught by one that is his crafts master shall sooner attaine to knowledge then he that is [...], and hath no other helpe then his owne industrie. I adde farther that whosoever neglecteth or contemneth Sermons, neglecteth and contemneth the [Page 40] ordinance of God, and consequently God himselfe: nei­ther may such a one looke for a blessing from God vpon his Reading or whatsoever other meanes hee vseth. So that my desire is by all meanes to encourage all, and by no meanes to disharten any from the frequent hearing of Sermons.

Howbeit I may not so advance Sermons but that I must giue Reading the due also. Never more need. A­mong Papists the Stewes passe vnpunished, but to read privately in the Bible is death: their publike reading is in a tongue vnknowne, whereby they make God a Barbari­an to the people. Smith a Puritan, a Brownist, an Anabap­tist, a Se-baptist, Mar. 4.17.20. what not? saith that Reading is but a ce­remonie, and that our Saviour read indeed to fulfill all righteousnes, but when he had done shut the book to put an end to the ceremonie. Hee saith farther that Reading is the Ministerie of the letter & so of death; and that it is vnlawfull in worship to hold a booke before the eye. Our brethren of the faction haue not only said it, but also printed it, that Reading is not feeding, but as evill as play­ing on a stage, and worse too. And is it not the manner of many,Admon. to the Parliament. neglecting publike Service and Reading, to send their servants or children to see whether the Preacher be ready to goe into the pulpit? For till then they list not come, and so according to the Frenchiest, turne all Gods worship into a meere preachment. To say nothing that they tie your Faith vnto the Preachers mouth, and deny vnto Reading all power to beget it: the contrarie whereof you haue now heard sufficiently, as I am perswaded, demon­strated vnto you.

Behold therefore, blessed bretheren, behold the large­nesse of Gods bountie and goodnesse in making the [Page 41] meanes of your saluation so facile and easie vnto you. He hath made every one of you capable of reading: there is none but may learne to read if he will. It is as easie as to learne to play at tables or cardes: and a little of the time which some spend in Alehouses and idle exercises would soone make them perfect schollers therein. But were it difficult to read, yet haue you eares, and you may daily heare Gods word both publikely and privately read vnto you in your mother tongue, if so you please. It is hid from none but those that will not seeke it, saith Chrysostome: and it is exposed and made obvious to every one, least any should perish for want of ability to finde it. It is not so high aboue thee,Deut. 30 11.12.13.14. as Moses saith, that thou shouldest say, who shall goe vp for vs to heauen and bring it to vs? Neither is it so farre from thee, that thou shoul­dest say, who shall goe ouer the Sea for vs and bring it vnto vs? But the word is very nigh thee: if thou wilt but open thy eyes, thou maist read it at thy pleasure, or if thou wilt but lend an eare, thou maist when thou wilt heare it read vnto thee. Let no man thinke himselfe abandond of God, or destitute of all meanes, as long as hee hath free liberty to read or heare the written word. Neither yet let any man say vnto mee, what need Sermons if reading be suf­ficient? For it is as if he should say, what need two eyes if a man may see with one? No, my brethren, God is more bountifull and liberall then so: and as he hath pro­vided more kinde of stuffes for our backe then one, and more kinde of meats for our belly then one, so hath hee ordained more meanes of Faith and Salvation then one. Among them, if you will, let Sermons bee the principall: yet is it not the only meanes, but reading is a meanes al­so. For as St Hierome saith, The Scriptures of God teach [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page 42] the people not only by the eares, but by the eyes also: and hee that sanctified sounds and words vnto the eares, hath also sanctified letters and characters to the eye, and blessed be the name of God for both.

Courage therefore, Christian brethren, courage: buy you bibles, and read them diligently: and when they are publikely read vnto you, listen vnto them carefully. It can not be but so doeing yee shall reap wonderfull benefit. Iosephus writeth of the Iewes that they were all generally very skilfull in the text of Scripture. It is reported of Al­phonsus the wise and learned King of Arragon, that hee had read ouer the whole Bible fourteene times, besides the Glosse and other commentaries vpon it. Yea diverse women, as Gorgonia sister to Gregory Nazianzen, Paula, Eustochium, Salonia, Celantia, with others, by frequent reading became marvelous ripe in Scripture. And Grego­ry the great tells vs of a man vtterly vnlearned, that could not so much as read, who notwithstanding bought him­selfe a bible, and entertained one in his house to read vn­to him, whereby, saith he, iuxta modum suum plene didi­cit Scripturas, according to his measure he perfectly lear­ned the Scriptures, though otherwise he were a man alto­gether vnlettered. Courage therefore againe Christian brethren,Ioh. 5.39. courage: search the Scripture, as our Saviour counselleth,Psal. 1.2. delight in the law of God & meditate there­in night and day, with David, and you shall vndoubted­ly aspire to the same degree of sauing knowledge that they haue done before you. Be you men, be you women, be you learned, be you vnlearned, be you of what trade or condition of life soever: God will deny his gratious assistance to none of you vnlesse you bee defectiue to your selues.

[Page 43]Only as he that will reape true comfort by the holy communion must come with due preparation therevnto: so must you also come to the reading of the word in prae­paratione animi, with a ready disposition to loue and em­brace the truth when it shall be discouered vnto you.2 Thes. 2.10.11 For vnto those that receiue not the loue of the truth, God will send strong delusions, that they shall beleeue lies. Wherevnto if you adde your humble and devout pray­ers vnto God, according to Gregory Nazianzens counsell [...], Pray and search, and shall say with David Aperi oculos, Lord open mine eyes, & doce me iustificatio­nes tuas, teach me thy statutes: then will the lambe of the tribe of Iudah come, and open the booke that is sealed, & by it giue vs such a measure of sanctifying knowledge & grace as may suffice to bring vs to the state of eternall blessednesse and glory: which the Lord grant vs all for his Christs sake.

TESTIMONIES OF SVNDRY moderne writers touching the efficacy of Reading, gathered by the Author since the Preaching of this Sermon.

Babington on the second petition.

TWo extremities there are which of all Gods chosen are to be eschewed: the one is an estimation of Reading, so great, as that being had wee feele no want, neither thinke it a want never or seldome to haue any Preaching. The other is so farre to extoll Preaching as that wee vtterly contemne Reading, yea exclude it from all power in the blessing of God to worke faith in vs or any. The meane betwixt both which is a right and true conceit both of Reading and Preaching. Know we there­fore that in the word they are both commended, yea commanded and ordained of the Lord as meanes to erect this kingdome of his in our hearts, for which wee pray and of which we now speake. And first for reading to name but a few places of a number, marke what the Lord saith in his law laid downe for all his people Deut. 31.9. Act. 13.15. Luc. 4.16. Ier. 36.6. See and marke both the warrant of Reading and a profit hoped for by it of the godly. So farre were they ever from either contemning this meanes, or from denying it power in Gods blessing [Page 45] to worke Faith and repentance in the hearers.

Also a little after:

Let no Harding therefore in the name of all blasphe­mous Papists call reading of the Scripture to the people in the Church, a spirituall dumbenesse and a thing vnprofita­ble: but let vs euer with the chosen of the Lord receiue the good of it, and blesse God for our liberty.

Dr Davenant B. of Sarum vpon the Epist. to the Coll [...]ssians pag. 522.

They erre who deny that the reading of the Scrip­tures doth not availe to the edifying of Christian people in Faith and Charity, vnlesse at the same time there bee ioyned therewith an enarration or explication of them by a Preacher. God forbid that we should extenuate the vtility or necessity of preaching: yet wee affirme with the Psalmist touching the word of God studiously and de­voutly read, that the law of God is immaculate converting soules, the testimony of the Lord is faithfull giuing wis­dome to the simple, Psal. 19.7.

Dr Fulke against Heskins.

Pag. 6. The force of Christs word is as great by his spirit in the Scriptures which this dogge calleth the dead letters, as it was in the voice when it was vttered.

Pag. 25. This (to wit, that the people must be taught and learne hard cases of the Priests.) shall be granted to the vttermost, so that you will allow the people to Learne such things as are easie not only of the Priests, but also of their owne reading, studie, and conference with them that are no Priests.

Dr Googe in his whole armour of God Pag. 217.

Quest. Whether is the word preached only, or the word read also a meanes of working Faith? Ans. It may [Page 46] not be denyed but the holy Scriptures themselues, and good commentaries on them, and printed Sermons or o­ther bookes laying forth the true doctrine of the Scrip­ture, being read and vnderstood may by the blessing of God worke faith. But the speciall ordinary meanes and most powerfull vsuall meanes is the word Preached. This is it which the Scripture layeth downe, Rom. 10.14. 1. Cor. 1.21.

Mayer on Iames cap. 1. v. 18. Pag. 183.

Quest. But is it necessarie that the word should bee Preached to the engendring of faith in vs, or will it not suffice to read it? Ans. It is not to be doubted, but a man may be converted by the word read. For Luther by read­ing was turned from Popery, and Iohn Huske by reading of Wickliffes bookes (And in the margent he noteth, that Saint Augustine saith he was converted by reading Confes. lib. 8. cap. 12.) & whatsoeuer is set forth in Preaching the same is read also: and the reading of the word in a large sence, as Preaching is put for publishing Gods will to the hea­rer, is said to be Preaching, Act. 15.21. and such as read are pronounced blessed Rev. 1.3. yet notwithstanding when the word is preached as preaching in a more strict sence signifieth expounding teaching and exhorting out of the word of God, it is more effectuall.

Wheatly in his new birth Pag. 17.

There may be a question made whether the word of God read only may become effectuall to regenerate: or whether it must want this efficacy vnlesse it be Preached as well as Read? To which question mee thinkes that this should be a true answer, that the instrumentall power of regenerating cannot bee denied to the Scriptures barely read, though Preaching be not ioyned withall. For why? [Page 47] seeing the doctrine of the Gospell is called the mi­nistration of the spirit, and it is the doctrine of the Gospell when it is offered to the vnderstanding by bare reading: therefore it must follow that in such case al­so it may become the power of God vnto salvation, and the instrument of the spirit vnto regeneration. The same precepts promises and threats are by reading delivered to the mind of the man that readeth or heareth the word read. And why then should wee thinke that the Holy Ghost either cannot or will not worke together with them? Yea doubtlesse hee can doe it when he will, and will doe it then whensoeuer he doth not (as oftentimes he doth not) afford to men a possibility of enioying any o­ther helpe then reading. Vnlesse the not being preached could make the word not to be the law of God, I see no reason that it should be thought vnable to convert soules without being preached. And a little after.

It will not at all follow that because the word read is able to beget Faith, either the Ministers may content themselues vsually to read it without preaching, or the people vsually content themselues to heare it so, and not be carefull to seeke for the preaching of it.

Amies in his Medulla Theologiae lib. 2. cap. 8.

Numb. 5. Hearing therefore in this place is any Percep­tion whatsoeuer or comprehension of the words of God whether they be communicated by Preaching or reading or by any other meanes.

Numb. 6. This word therefore (of Hearing) is not so narrowly and strictly to be vnderstood, that either prin­cipally or necessarily it should alwaies include the out­ward sence of hearing, but that it should denote any per­ception of the will of God.

[Page 48]Tilenus in his defence of the Perfection of Scripture

Pag. 5. Let vs see this enthymeme or imperfect argument of Pyrrhonian Logicke: The Apostles first taught by liuely voice, Ergo they pretended not to teach by their writings which succeeded their preaching. The consequence is as good as who should say, one eateth first for to nourish himselfe, therefore drinke serueth nothing to nourishmēt. A non distributo ad distributum &c. And a little after.

Wee know that to preach and to write are things very accordant, and which are comprehended in one and the same commandement giuen to the Apostles teach all na­tions, which yet to this day they teach by their writings. He which commanded them the thing which is to teach, commanded also the manners of teaching, which are to preach with liuely voice, and to set forth the doctrine in writing, both of them being fit for teaching, and this lat­ter most fit for to continue, and to transferre doctrines and instructions vnto posterity.

Daniel Chamier in his Panstratia Tomo. 1.

Lib. 1. c. 21. num. 6. To teach comprehendeth as well the liuely voice as writing. So Paul preached the Gospell vnto the Romanes no lesse by writing an epistle vnto thē, then teaching them by liuely voice out of the prison. And it is the solemne custome of the Fathers when they cite any thing out of the Apostles writings, to expresse it in these words, The Apostle teacheth: yea & St Paul ascrib­eth vnto the Scriptures that they make a man wise.

Ibid num. 7. All men know that a thing may be related two waies, both by liuely voice and by writing. For as those things which are in the voice are signes of those things which are in the minde: so those things which are in the writing are signes of those which are in the voice. [Page 49] And therefore the same is both waies equally signified or related.

Ibid. cap. 22. num. 2. Because the liuely voice is vsed to no other end, saue to expresse the meaning of the spea­ker, and Scripture doth evidently expresse the meaning of God speaking vnto vs: therefore in this respect it is false that the Scriptures are dumb. For we no lesse vnder­stand that a man is justified by Faith when wee read it in Paul, then when Paul himselfe pronounced it with his liuely voice.

Lib. 6. cap. 5. num. 7. The written word is distingui­shed from the word preached by no substantiall diffe­rence. For they differ neither in specie, nor in genere, nor in number, but only in accident—So, for example, that Sermon which first S. Peter made vnto the Iewes after the gift of the holy Ghost, differeth, not from that which we read Act. 2. related by S. Luke, saue only as writing is not a liuely voice: yet because writing is no other then the image of a liuely voice, so little difference letteth not but that I may affirme the Sermon which I there read to bee the same which S. Peter then made. —Wherefore if it be the same Sermon in number, why may not the same bee affirmed of the same? and I truely avouch it to bee read in S. Luke, Hauing heard these things they were pricked in heart? These things, I say, which both Peter then deliue­red by liuely voice, and now S. Luke representeth vnto vs.

Ibid. cap. 18. num. 8. Vergerius an Italian Bishop, who had negotiated many businesses for the Pope against Lu­ther, vndertaking to write a booke against the Apostates of Germanie (for so he tearmed them) and diligently seek­ing out their arguments to confute them, was himselfe so [Page 50] overcome by the strength of them, that rejecting his Bi­shopricke, and the hope of a Cardinalship, hee vtterly re­nounced all Popish tyranny.

Ibid. lib. 7. cap. 9. num. 17. The meditation of the Scri­ptures is doubtlesse an Ordinary meanes ordained by God to procure Faith. For, these things are written that yee might beleeue. Ioh. 20.

Ibid. lib. 10. cap. 6. num. 11. To preach comprehends not only the liuely voice but also writing: so that those words Preach the Gospell are thus to be vnderstood, inti­mate the Gospell vnto all nations by what meanes soe­ver it may be rightly intimated, whether it bee by liuely voice or by writing.

D. Davenant B. of Sarumon Coloss. 1.9. pag. 64.

They are not carried by an Apostolicall but Antichri­stian spirit, who deny vnto Laicks, the Ordinary meanes of begetting wisdome & spirituall vnderstanding, name­ly Reading and vnderstanding of Gods word. For the law of the Lord is immaculate converting soules: the testimonie of the Lord is faithfull giuing wisdome to the simple, Psal. 19-7.

Psal. 119.130. in English meeter.
When men first enter into the word,
They finde a light most cleare:
And very Idiots vnderstand,
When they it read or heare.
Phil: Melancthon Enarrat,
Symboli Niceni.

In conversion these causes concurre, the holy Ghost mouing the heart by the Gospell, the voice of the Go­spell weighed and considered either when it is heard, or [Page 51] when it is read, or in godly meditation, and the will of man not resisting the voice of God, but assenting although with some trepidation.

Ainsworth Counterpoison, p. 116.

The Gospell noted to bee the meanes of our calling. 2. Thes. 2.14. hee maketh knowne vnto his people out­wardly by his word, 2. Cor. 5.19. spoken Act. 5.20. and written Ioh. 20.31, and inwardly by his holy spirit, Neh. 9.20. 1, Cor. 2, 10.12.

FINIS.
IOH. 17.1. &c.‘These things spake IESVS, and lift vp his eyes to Heaven, and said, &c.’

ALL holy writ simply and in it selfe consi­dered is of equall worth and dignity: the Author, the Matter, and the Manner be­ing in every part alike Divine. Howbeit considered respectiuely and in relation vnto vs, one Scripture without impeachment or derogation may iustly be preferred to another. For as touching the Matter, some Scriptures are more importing vs, as con­taining doctrines of Absolute necessitie to bee beleeued: whereas others are so only in the Disposition and Prepa­ration of the Minde. And as for the Manner whereas others are darkly and obscurely deliuered, some are so attempered and proportioned vnto the weaknesse of our capacity, that they are more easie and available for our instruction and edification. In both these Respects, this seventeenth Chapter of the Gospell after S. Iohn, seemeth to me among all other to be the most eminent. For if you regard the Matter, it containes Doctrines of highest nature and consequence, as being the very foundation of the Churches happinesse, and the anchor of all her hope. If [Page 54] the For me, it is so heavenly and divine, so powerfull and perswasiue, that he must needs be destitute of all spiritu­all sense and tast, whosoeuer with the naked and bare rea­ding thereof is not extraordinarily ravished and affected.

The serious and due consideration of all which, toge­ther with the vnspeakable benefit that might grow to the people of God by the right dividing and handling there­of, hath at length ouercome and perswaded me, to vnder­take at times the interpretation of this whole Chapter in this place. That so, if it please God, before I sing my nunc dimittis, I may with these treasures satisfie some part of the debt I owe therevnto both for my birth & breeding. And because these first words now read seeme vnto mee not vnfitting the present occasion, or to succeed what I haue already deliuered vpon the like occasions: I haue thought good at this time to make entrance therevpon, & so as it is in the proverb, Vnâ fideliâ duos dealbare parietes, to dispatch two businesses at once. For hauing hereto­fore vindicated the Dignitie of the Ministrie from the Contempt whereto it is subject, by prescribing a soueraign Remedie & Defensatiue against it, as also hauing demon­strated the power and efficacie of Preaching, even of that which is only by Reading, which is the first office of the Ministery: method and order would that in the next place I speake of Prayer, which is the second. And herevnto am I also invited by this Text. For, to forbeare further prefacing, this seuenteenth Chapter containeth in it a most heauenly and divine Prayer, which our blessed Saviour and Mediator addresseth vnto his Father in behalfe of Christ mysticall, as the Fathers tearme it: that is, the whole Church consisting both of Head and Members. The Parts thereof are two, a short Preface prefixed by S. Iohn, and [Page 55] the Corps or body of the Prayer. The Preface is my Text, wherein relation is made of an Act invested with certaine circumstances. The Act is Prayer. The Circumstances are three, Quis, Quando, Quomodo. Quis, the Orator who prayes: Iesus, These things spake Iesus and lift vp his eyes. Quando, when he prayes, after he had spoken these things: These things spake Iesus and then lift vp his eyes. Quomodo, after what manner he prayed. The Manner is externall, and standeth in two things, in gestu oculorum, and in Ser­mone oris. In the Gesture of the Eyes, He lifted vp his eyes vnto heaven: in the Speech of his Mouth, He said. Of these things breefely & plainely, as it shall please God to assist.

Of all duties vniversally required of all men, Prayer seemes to mee the most noble. So noble that by it all the whole worship and service of God, is in Scripture vsually denominated. And although the Houses of God be conse­crated to other vses as well as it: yet are they not called Houses of Preaching, or Houses of Sacraments, but Ora­tories or Houses of Praier. Prayer, as Damascen expresseth it, is [...], the mounting or flying vp of the soule vnto the throne of Grace. It is the Sweet incense, that sweet smelling sacrifice, that savoureth so pleasingly in in the nostrills of our God. It is that strong cord that draweth downe all blessings and graces from Heauen vp­on vs. The importunity whereof of Iacobs makes vs Is­raels, wrestlers prevailers with God, that if wee will hee cannot goe from vs, vntill he hath granted vs his blessing. For it hath annexed vnto it the gratious promise of impe­tration; Aske and yee shall haue, seeke and yee shall finde, knocke and it shall be opened vnto you. Neither is there any thing so difficult or impossible with man, but by Prayer [Page 56] it may be obtained. By Prayer Abraham, when hee was farre stricken in yeares, and the wombe of his wife Sarah was now dead, obtained a sonne of God, even Isaack [...]. By Prayer Iacob escaped the fury and danger of his bro­ther Esau. By Prayer the children of Israell were delive­red from their cruell servitude and bondage in Egypt. By Prayer Moses stood in the gap, & pacified the wrath of God that he destroyed not his people. By Prayer and the lifting vp of his hands, the same Moses overthrew the host of the Amalekites. By Prayer Iosua stopped the course of the Sunne, and God was obedient vnto the voice of a man. By Prayer Sampson revenged himselfe vp­on his enimies, and ruined the house of Dagon vpon the Philistines. By Prayer Solomon obtained an incompara­ble measure of Wisdome from God. By Prayer Hezekiah being at the point of death, had fifteene yeares more ad­ded to his life. By Prayer Daniell stopped the mouths of Lions, the three children quenched the fiery fornace that not a haire of their head perished, Ionas was discharged out of the whales bellie, and the prison gates opened of their owne accord to enlarge St Peter. It is a Panchreston available for all things. It cureth diseases, dispossesseth divils, it sanctifieth the Creatures vnto vs, vnlocketh the gates of heauen, and procureth the coming of the Holy Ghost. It is seasonable for all times, fit for all places, ne­cessary to all persons; without it no businesse whatsoeuer we vndertake can thriue or prosper. It extendeth it selfe farre and wide to the benefit of all: and in that regard ex­celleth Faith. For the iust man shall liue, not by anothers, but by his owne faith: and therefore we say I beleeue. But Prayer is an act of Charity, which seeketh not her owne, but the good of others also: and therefore wee pray Our [Page 57] Father. Had not St Stephen prayed for his persecutors, haply St Paul might still haue continued in his Pharisa­isme. And had it not beene for the continuall teares of ho­ly Monica, perhaps her sonne Augustine had perished in his Manicheisme. Infinite are the brands that prayer hath pulled out of the fire, vnspeakable the benefits it hath procured vnto others. But what speake I of men? It make­eth wondrously to the [...]ing forth of Gods glory. Could wee of our selues command all good, wee would neuer become sutors for any thing: but according to the counsell of Seneca, fac te ipse faelicem, wee would make our selues happy. But by making our addresses vnto him, we acknowledge our selues to bee Mendicos Dei, Gods beggars, every way insufficient in our selues, and that we depend for all whatsoever either we are or haue vpon his alsufficiency alone: which maketh so much to the ad­vancement of Gods bounty and inexhaustible goodnesse, as nothing can doe more, you see, beloued brethren, how large a field I haue to expatiate in, and how easie it is to overflow the bankes in the commendation of this holy exercise: but that I remember how my Text limiteth me vnto the aboue named circumstances. And therefore leau­ing this generality I come vnto them in particular.

The first circumstance is, Quis, the Orator, who prayes, Iesus: These things spake Iesus and lifted vp his eyes. That Iesus was very frequent in Prayer, all the Evangelists with one consent testify. Sometimes he went vp into a moun­taine to pray, sometimes he retires himselfe into a solitary place to pray, sometimes he prayeth by himselfe alone, at other times he takes some of his Disciples with him, some times he spendeth whole nights together in Prayer, when he was baptized he prayed, and now that the time [Page 58] of his Passi [...]n is at hand, he is carefull to prepare himselfe by making this heavenly Intercession to his Father. In a word, the whole course of his life seemeth to haue beene no other then a continuall practice of this duty. This Du­ty I say: for indeed so it was, hee being a Priest, and it be­ing the office of a Priest to pray. Wherefore hee that be­stowed that Honor vpon him, even then when hee annoin­ted and consecrated him, charg [...] him therewith. Thou art my sonne, saith he, this day haue I begotten thee. Aske of mee. According to which Charge, now being made a Priest after the order of Melchizedek, In the dayes of his flesh he offered vp prayers and supplications with strong crying and teares, vnto him that was able to saue him from death. And although he be now set at the right hand of his father, crowned with glory and maiestie: yet being a Priest for ever, he never ceaseth in such sort as becometh his glorious estate to make Intercession for vs. Yet this is not all: for it is further to be observed, that Christ is not Priest as Man only, but as Emanuell on God-man. This the Apostle to the Hebrewes carefully demonstrateth. The law saith he, maketh men high Priests which haue infirmity: but the w [...]rd of the Oath which was since the law maketh the sonne who is consecrated for ever more. And againe Christ, saith he, by his eternall spirit offered himselfe without spot to God. And if he were a Priest after the order of Melchi­zedecke, as he was without Father or Mother, without genealogie, hauing neither beginning of daies nor end of life, as also being Vntithed in the loines of Abraham: it can­not be that he should be Priest as Man only (for of Man only these things cannot be verified) therefore as God al­so. If so, then Prayer being an act of Christs Priest-hood, it followeth that it is Emanuel, God-man that prayeth, and [Page 59] that his Prayer is a Theandricall action, as Divines terme it, Divinely-humane, or Humanely-divine. This speech haply may sound harshly in some eares, & there are who sticke not to charge it with [...]tat Arrianisme, as if thereby we made Christ inferiour to his Father: whereas hee him­selfe thought it no robbery to be equall vnto him. Giue mee leaue therefore to bestow a few words for the clearing of this difficulty: the rather, because it is, being rightly ap­prehended, the ground of singular comfort vnto vs.

It is a Fundamentall article of the Christian Faith that in Christ there are two distinct Natures, his Divinity & his Hu­manity: & that both these concurre to the constitution of one Person God-man. Whence it followeth that the Agent or Principle which acteth all the workes of Mediation, is but one by reason of the Vnitie of the Person, even Christ God-man: according to that protrite Maxime, Actiones sunt suppositorum, all actions issue and proceed from the Subiect, or person. Howbeit seeing the Person alwaies worketh by his Natures, and they, as wee haue said, in Christ are two: it followeth by reason of this Dualitie, that there are two distinct Principles by which Christ worketh or mediateth, according to that other rule in na­ture, Natura est principium motus & quietis, nature is the principle both of rest and motion. This for further illustra­tion may be exemplified in Humane actions. For as it is Man, or the Person of Man consisting of Soule and Body, that vnderstandeth, reasoneth, moueth, speaketh, yet it is the Soule by which he vnderstandeth and reasoneth, the Body by which he moueth and speaketh: so in the actions of Mediation, it is Christ God-man that worketh them all, yet some by his Godhead, and some by his Manhood. Here therefore are wee to distinguish. The workes of Me­diation, [Page 60] are either of Soueraignty and Authority, or of Subiection and Ministrie. Of Soveraignty and Authrity, as to send the Holy Ghost, to illuminate the Mind, to raise from death: of Subiection and Ministrie, as to suffer, to dy, to be raised from death. All these things did Christ as he was God-man both doe and suffer: but yet the former by the Principle of his deity, the latter by the Principle of his humanity. It is further to be observed, that although both the Natures in Christ remaine distinct, and consequently their severall operations also: yet as Leo truly saith, Agit v [...]ra (que) forma cum communione alterius quod cuius (que) propri­um est, both Natures doe that which is proper vnto them, but with Communion of each with other. This Communion is the concurrence of both Natures in the same Person by their severall proper actions, to the pro­ducing of one Apotelesma or outward effect pertaining to our Salvation. In which concurrence the Deity is ever the principall, and the Humanitie is the Organ or Instru­ment of the Deity: so that it never moueth to any thing, but as it is acted and moved by the Deity, and from it re­ceiues all its value, dignity, and efficacy, as in Man the Body doth from the Soule. These things being thus de­monstrated, let vs in a word applie them to our particu­lar. This Prayer of Christ is an act of his Priesthood. He [...] therefore prayes, that is the Priest. The Priest as we haue shewed, is Christ God-man. Christ therefore prayeth as God-man. But the act is Ministeriall not Soveraigne. He prayeth therefore, not by the Principle of his Deity, but in his Humanitie. Howbeit with Communion of the Deity: the Instrument partaking with the Principall Agent, and deriuing all its vertue and efficacy from the concurrence thereof.

[Page 61]Which being so, the more either ignorant or maliti­ous are our adversaries of the Church of Rome, who slan­der vs as if we held Christ prayed in his Divine nature. Nay we know Prayer is a worke of Ministry, and implies inferiority: whereas the Word is coequall to his Father. If may be the dreame of Iewes in their Talmud, that God prayes certaine houres every day: or of Turkes in their Alcoran, that he prayeth for Mahomet. But we know that God hath no superiour to whom he should pray: and that his will is omnipotent, and the effectuall cause of all things, so that he needs not pray. But it pleased the sonne of God to assume our nature, and in the same to make himselfe lesse then his Father, and to become obedient vnto him in all things. So that although it bee God-man that prayes, yet praying non qua Deus, sed qua homo, not in the forme of the Word but of a Servant, it can be no im­peachment to his Deity.

Now if it be God-man that prayes, is it possible hee should misse of his suit?Ioh. 11.41. Surely he himselfe saith, I knowe thou hearest me alwaies. Heb. 5.7. And the Apostle affirmes that in his Prayers and Supplications he was still heard. If hee bee the only Sonne in whom the Father is well pleased, Mat. 3 17. will he thinke you deny him any thing?Ioh 16.23. Nay if wee that are so vnworthy are yet heard for his sake: how can hee that is of such infinite worth but bee heard when as himselfe praies? He is therefore alwais heard. What is it then he here sues for? To himselfe Glorification, to his Apostles to know and teach all sauing truth, to vs that beleeue through their word, Sanctification, Vnion with him, Per­severance in grace, and the blessed-making vision of his Clo­ry. Doubtlesse therefore hee himselfe sitteth at the right hand of his Father: and swayeth all things both in Hea­ven [Page 62] and earth to his Churches good. His Apostles both knew and taught all the counsells of God: and wee may safely build vpon the Foundation they haue laid. As for vs, all those things shall surely bee made good vnto vs. And though Sathan desire to winnow vs, yet Hell gates shall never prevaile against vs. For he that never faileth to be heard, hath prayed for our Faith that it faile not: then which what surer ground of peace and ioy to the consci­ence can there be?

As it is the ground of comfort, so is it of Instruction al­so. For if he that is both God and man disdained not to pray: it may well become vs that are but dust and ashes to humble our selues to God in Prayer. Christs actions are our examples. Often had he by Preaching exhorted vnto Prayer. But exhortation prevaileth not so much as exam­ple, vnto precept therefore he addeth his owne practice. Hence praying at the graue of Lazarus, Ioh. 11.42. because, saith he, of the people that stand by I said it. Tract. 104. in Ioh. And St Agustine, Ita se Patri voluit exhibere Precatorem, vt meminisset se nostrum esse Doctorem: he so exhibited himselfe an intercessor vnto his Father, Idem in Psal. 56. as he remembred himselfe to bee our Doctor. Hearest thou then thy Master pray? Learne thy selfe to pray. Ad hoc enim oravit vt doceret orare: hee prayed to this end to teach thee to pray. The practice of other Saints should much moue thee: but the example of him who is the sanctifier of the Saints should moue thee much more. But most of all vs that are the Priests of God. For as he being a Priest, makes intercession for his Church vn­to his Father: so should wee vnto God for the people committed vnto our charge, and that not privately on­ly, but publikely also, and in the face of the congregation. A duty now adaies too much sleighted of many, & caus­ing [Page 63] in the people a generall disesteeme of the publike Prayers and blessings of Gods Ministers. The Lord per­swade those that are in authority betimes both to looke vnto it and to reforme it. And thus much of the Orator: who prayes.

The next circumstance is Quando, when hee prayes: it was after he had spoken these things. These things spake Iesus, and lift vp his eyes and said. So that first hee spake these things, and then lifted vp his eyes and said. He spake these things. What things? If it shall please you to reflect a little vpon the three former Chapters, you shall readily vnderstand what they are Our Saviour hauing a little be­fore his passion celebrated the Passeover with his Dis­ciples, and immediatly vpon it instituted the blessed Sa­crament of his Body and Blood, knowing that the time of his departure was neere at hand: out of the abundance of his loue towards them, he holds them together, and in the meane season delivers vnto them matters of won­drous consequence both for their edification and conso­lation. For hauing acquainted them with his departure, as also the great sorrowes and afflictions that would at­tend them after his ascention: he telleth them that this notwithstanding they ought rather to reioyce then bee dismaied. For he goes to prepare a mansion for them in his Fathers house, that he will not leaue them as Orphans but send the Comforter vnto them, who shall abide with them for ever, that he will leaue his Peace with them, and whatsoever they shall aske the Father in his name shall bee granted vnto them. Meane while that they continue in his loue, and testifie the same by keeping his commande­ments, abiding in him, & louing one another. As for him, he will see them again, & replenish their hearts with ever­lasting [Page 64] ioy. And albeit by the imminent tempest or ten­tation, they may for a time be scattered, yet let them not be ouermuch discomforted, for he hath overcome the world, and after a while he will returne againe, and take them home vnto himselfe for 'evermore. These things spake Iesus. Things as you see for the Matter most hea­venly and divine: and you need not doubt but the Manner was every way sutable to the Matter, full of grace and gravitie.

Whereby wee that are the Embassadors of Christ are exampled both what we are to speake, and how. Not what we list, or as we list: but these things and thus, this Matter, and thus for the Manner. But alas, how much wee faile too many to vs, either in the one, or in the o­ther or in both. For some of vs Nihil agimus, speake no­thing at all, or but very seldome, drowning our abilities in the depth of silence, and digging our talent into the earth, without any employment thereof to the advantage of Gods treasurie, little remembring that dreadfull sen­tence of the Apostle St Paul, Woe vnto me if I preach not the Gospell. Others againe aliud agunt, say indeed somewhat, but not these things; fictions and dreames of their owne braine, frivolous and impertinent matters, per­haps also Pelagianisme or Popery, or such like stuffe, forgetting that other as fearfull sentence of the same A­postle. Though wee, Gal. 1.8. or an Angell from heauen preach any o­ther Gospell vnto you, then that which wee haue preached vn­to you, let him be accursed. Others yet againe malè agunt, speake haply some of these things: but not with due gra­vity and discretion, in this manner, little regarding that weighty charge of the Apostle St Peter, If any man speake, let him speake as the oracles of God. 1. Pet. 4.11. Forsome, whether [Page 65] out of affectation, or for want of better breeding I knowe not, vtterly neglect all care of elocutiō, vsing a barbarous kind of rudenesse & rusticitie in delivering their mindes, & enforcing what they say with no other then lowd cla­mours and vociferation. That they hope will bee coun­ted plaine Preaching, this powerfull Preaching: as if there were no distance betweene plainesse and rudenesse, or that Powerfulnesse lay in such hoobubs and outcries, and not rather in the strength of arguments and reasons to perswade. As these by their slovenlinesse defile and de­forme the puritie and beauty of Gods words: so there are others who thinke to set a better grace vpon it, then euer the Holy Ghost himselfe did. For distasting the lan­guage of Canaan sanctified by Christ and his holy Apo­stles: they hunt after I knowe not what new fangled and quaint phrases, and as they tearme them, strong lines, as if the stile of the Scripture, and those Primitiue Preachers were too low and meane for their transcendent Divini­ty: But to what end are these curious webs? And why in weauing them doe they like Spiders thus vnbowell themselues? Is it to convert a sinner, or to saue a soule? No verily: but only to catch an Eugè or a Bellè, or some such flie of popular acclamation or applause. If divers Patients sick of severall diseases, as the Megrim, Pleuri­sie, Gout, Dropsie, and the like, should repaire vnto the Physitian for counsell, and the Physitian should forth­with take vp a peece of Galen or Hippocrates and read a neat and curious Lecture vnto them, and so dismisse thē, one hanging the head, another holding his sides, a third halting; and every one with the same disease hee brought with him: spectatum admissi risum ten [...]atis, could you for­beare laughter at so ridiculous an act? As ridiculous, or [Page 66] rather, because it is in a matter more serious, more ridicu­lous is it in a Minister, neglecting his maine end, to seek his owne praise by pleasing the itching eares of vaine mē, rather then to cute their sick soules, and to procure vnto them everlasting saluation.

But I beseech you, beloued brethren, tandem hoc aga­mus, let vs at length attend the businesse which Christ hath charged vs withall. What errand hee hath put into our mouthes, that and no other let vs freely deliuer. And let vs striue to deliuer it in such manner as may make most to our end, that is, the building vp of men in their most holy Faith. This shall we the better doe, if we looke vnto Christ, and what forme he vsed. A better precedent can we not possibly follow: for neuer spake man as he did. Him did the holy Apostles make their patterne, and by vertue thereof converted the world vnto the Christian Faith. If we looke vnto any other, and for the pleasing of them forme our Sermons after the humour of those whose hu­mour we should rectifie: neither shall we please God, nor happily in the end them. A certaine Painter hauing with all his skill drawne two pictures as like as possibly hee could, reserued the one in his chamber, and set forth the other on his stall to the view and censure of all that pas­sed by: and whatsoeuer they misliked he would with his pencill alter according to their iudgement vntill it was growne every way deformed. At length setting forth his other picture by it, and the people commending it as an exquisite peece, & condemning the other as a deformed monster: yet that, quoth hee, I drew according to your judgement, this according to my owne art and skill. Cer­tainely, certainely if we shall attend the seuerall censures of our auditors, and patch vp Sermons according to their [Page 67] liking, monstrous and enormious must they needs bee. Much better were it therefore by our owne art, our art being learned from the example of Christ and his Apo­stles, to frame all our Sermons: so shall wee gaine many soules vnto Christ, and purchase to our selues true praise with God, and in the consciences of all good men. What though this way we cannot make so much shew of lear­ning and eloquence? Yet therein shall we be like the A­postle S. Paul, whose preaching was not in the entising words of mans wisdome, 1. Cor. 3.4. but in demonstration of the spirit. Yea like vnto Christ himselfe, who though hee were rich, yet made himselfe poore, that he might make many rich. In a word,2. Cor. 4.7. let vs duly remember that although we be dispen­sers of heavenly treasures, yet is it the pleasure of God, wee haue them in earthen vessels, that the excellencie of the pow­er may be of God and not of vs. But of what Iesus spake enough.

After he had spoken these things, then hee lift vp his eyes and prayed. Not but that without Prayer he was able to effect what he prayed for. For being perfect God, and the absolute dispencer of all grace, wee cannot without fearefull impiety thinke, that out of infirmitie he seekes that by request which of himselfe he could not accom­plish. No, but as Ambrose saith, though he were Potestatis author, Lord of power: yet would be Obedientiae Ma­gister, the teacher of obedience, by due performing his owne dutie. For, as we haue said, he was a Priest: and the duties of Priesthood are three, Docere, Orare, Sacrificare, to teach,Ioh. 17.8. to pray, to sacrifice. As for the first, he hath al­ready carefully taught them, and giuen them the words which his Father gaue him. As touching the third, hee was now ready to offer vp himselfe as a propitiatory sa­crifice [Page 68] for the sinnes of the world: for so saith he by and by,Ib. v. 1. Father the houre is come. Betwixt these two intercedit intercessio, he maketh humble suit that both the one and the other might be effectuall to the eternall saluation of all those whom his Father had chosen out of the world and giuen vnto him. And thus as in Christs Priesthood, so also in his practise, Preaching and Prayer were vsually ioyned together.

What Christ therefore hath conioyned let no man dare to put asunder.Act. 6.4. The dispensation of the Word and Prayer, are by the ioint testimonie of all the Apostles, the two principall offices of the Ministery. Hardly therefore can they bee divorced without maiming or mangling thereof. As in Preaching we are the mouth of God vnto the people: so by Prayer ought we to bee the mouth of the people vnto God. By the one we teach them the will of God: by the other we blesse them in the name of God. As we are bound to plant and water by Preaching: so are we by Prayer to mediate vnto God for increase. For that will affect but coldly, except this quicken and inflame it. It is not the Word or Prayer severally, [...]. Tim▪ 4.4.5. but the Word and Prayer ioyntly, that both sanctifieth the Creature vnto vs, and the people vnto God. Whence it followeth also that as the Minister is to Preach and Pray: so are the People to Heare and Pray. For Preaching is to no purpose without Hearing: and to what end Praying in the Congregation if none concurre with him? Heare therefore they must, that they may beleeue:Rom. 10.17. for Faith commeth by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. And Pray they must both for their Pastors, faithfully and diligently to dispense the word of truth amongst them: and for themselues, that God would open the eares of their hearts also, that what [Page 69] they heare may be even the savour of life vnto life vnto them. This condemneth all those, who either out of a disrespect of Preaching are all for Prayer, such as were the ancient Euchetae, and too many also amongst vs now adayes: or out of a contempt of Common Prayer, are all for Preaching, seldome presenting themselues in the Church vntill the Preacher be in the Pulpit. No marvell if the Hearing of the one be fruitlesse, seeing they despise the Prayers of the Church by which the blessing is obtai­ned: and if the Prayer of the other be vneffectuall, seeing they little regard Preaching by which it is to be guided.

But here happily it will be demanded, whether of the twaine Preaching or Prayer is the more noble. A questi­on much debated of late, and with too much faction and vehemence. Wherevnto this I haue to say, that if the cō ­parison be intended betweene Preaching and the Prayer of private men: without doubt Preaching is the more ex­cellent. For it is publike, and therefore more profitable. A publike embassage from God, and therefore more ho­nourable then a private supplication vnto God. To say no­thing of the more solemne promise made vnto it, of shi­ning as the brightnesse of the firmament, Dan. 12.3. and the starres for ever and ever. Yea but Preaching is subordinate to Prayer: and the end is more worthie then that which is subordinate thereto. Nay but it is preordinate rather, as the Intelligences are to their orbs, or Prudence vnto ver­tuous actions. Or if it be subordinate, yet is it in order to the chiefest good: as the kingly office is vnto meaner trades for the publike weale, and the Mediation of Christ to the salvation of man for the glory of Gods grace, which yet are not therefore inferiour. But if the questi­on be of Preaching, and the publike prayer of the Church, [Page 70] God forbid that I should set or foment any such quarrell betweene them. By the eager preferring of the one vnto the other, both may easily be vilified. The overmagni­fying of Prayer hath heretofore shut Preaching out of the Church: and the oueraduancing of preaching hath almost excluded prayer. And it may be it is Lasinesse that spea­keth so much for all praying: and vaineglory that is so earnest for all preaching. But dares any man thus quar­rell the prophecie and Intercession of Christ? I trow no: for they are both alike infinite in worth and dignitie. Preaching and prayer are answerable vnto them: why then should we imagine such an inequality betweene them? If when we preach we speake in Gods name vnto the people: when we Pray we speake in Christs name vn­to God for the people. They are not subordinate one vn­to the other: but both coordinate vnto the same maine end. Ioyned together they are, as it were, a familiar Dia­logue betweene God and vs: wherein God discouereth his will vnto vs, and we say with S. Augustine, Da quod jubes, & jube quod vis, giue grace to doe what thou com­mandest, and command what thou wilt. They are the Angels of Iacobs ladder: our Prayers are Angels ascending vp vnto God for vs, and our Sermons are Angels descen­ding downe with a blessing from God vpon vs. In a word they are both necessary, and of singular vse in their place: and therefore let neither be vndervalued, but both haue their due honour. So shall God bee glorified in his Ordi­nances: and we enioy the benefit intended to vs by them. But of the second circumstance when hee prayed, so much.

The third and last is Quomodo, How, and in what Man­ner he prayed. The Manner here expressed is onely ex­ternall. [Page 71] Not that this Prayer wanted the internall Forme of truth and sincerity in the Heart. For he was a true Is­raelite in whom was no guile. Ye [...] he was Truth it selfe: forso he saith, I am the way, the truth, and the life. And being Truth, he taught others to worship God in Spirit & Truth: and condemned all those who drawe neere to God with their lips, their heart being farre off from him. But by this outward comportment, our blessed Saviour expres­seth his inward affection: and thereby lessoneth vs to take heed that wee presume not to appeare before God with holy countenances and hollow hearts. For he is the tryer and searcher of the reynes, and iudgeth not of the heart by the outward appearance, but of the outward appea­rance by the heart. Vnto these Hypocrites that dissemble both with God and man, and who loue to take religion on them, but not to haue it in them: giue me leaue to say in the words of S. Chrysostome. O Hypocrite, if it bee good to be good, why wilt thou not be that which thou wilt seeme to be? And if it be evill to be evill, why wilt thou bee that which thou wilt not seeme to be? If it be good to seeme to be good, it is better to be so: if it be evill to seeme to be evill, it is worse to be so. And therefore either seeme as thou art, or be as thou seemest to be. But to returne to the Manner, it is, as we haue said Externall, and double, ingestu O culorum, & Sermone Oris. Of the Eyes first.

He lifted vp his eyes to Heauen. Elsewhere hee vsed a contrary gesture,Mat. 26.39. and prayed groueling vpon his face. Nei­ther doe we read that the Saints in their Prayers alwaies vsed the same situation and posture of body.Act. 7.60. Steven prai­ed kneeling,Luk. 18.13. the Publican stood, David watered his couch with his teares lying therein, Elias making request for himselfe sate,1. King. 19.4. although Tertullian thinke it vtterly vnlaw­full [Page 72] to pray sitting.Ad Simpli [...]. l. 2. q. 4. So that as S. Augustin obserueth, that the certaine site of the body when we pray is not prescri­bed in Gods word, so as the minde be present, and per­forme its intention to God. The Iewes indeed were com­manded to looke vnto the Temple, and Daniel obserued it.Dan. 6.10. But that was typicall, and the date of the Ceremonies is expired.Ioh▪ 4.21. Now therefore the best rule is this, In publike Prayer, to conforme our selues vnto the vsuall and ap­pointed gesture for avoiding of scandall: in private deli­berate Prayer, to chuse such as wee thinke fittest for the present to affect the minde: in suddaine eiaculations [...], that wherein the motion of Gods spirit shall then find vs. But although religion lie not in gestures, and no one posture of the body be of absolute necessity: yet I know not how, these three naturally loue to accompany our affection in Prayer, the Knee, the Eye, and the Hand. The bent Knee betokening our humble subiection vnto God, and reverend feare of his presence. The Eye, either deiected and cast downe in token of humiliation for sin, or erected and lifted vp to heaven (as here) in token of our Faith and Hope, that we looke confidently to haue our desires granted of God who dwelleth in Heauen. The hand also lifted vp, as ready to receiue, what wee hope from aboue shall be granted vnto vs. Whether Christ at this time vsed all these three gestures, or no, is vncertain: for the Text saith not that he bent his knees, or lifted vp his hands, but only that he lifted vp his Eyes. And whether did he lift them? To Heaven. And why thither? Because there his Father dwelleth, who is the giver of every good gift. In regard whereof he taught vs also to say, Our Father which art in heauen, Et vbi pater ibi patria, where his Father dwells, there is his country, [Page 73] and the place of his everlasting abode where he longs to rest himselfe. And therefore no marvaile if thither hee lift vp his Eyes.

A certaine Separatist from this Gesture collecteth thus, yee must lift vp your eyes, therefore ye may not pray on a booke. Must lift vp? what necessity I pray? Did our Savi­our forget himselfe when he fell on his face? Or the Pub­lican doe amisse when he stood aloofe off, not daring to lift vp his eyes to Heaven? Certainly which way soever the Eye looketh, Sursum Corda; the lifting vp of the heart is the sacrifice which God accepteth. But what? is it vt­terly vnlawfull to pray on a booke? why then haue lear­ned and Godly men compiled so many bookes of Prayer to this end? and what vniformity is there like to be if in the publike Liturgy there be not a certaine forme of Praier? But God is the God of order not confusion: and will they nill they, to pray devoutly on a booke, is more plea­sing vnto God, then their proud and schismaticall praying without booke.

From this lifting vp of the eyes, wee may with better reason learne, when we make our addresses vnto God, to abandon earth, and to entertaine nothing but heauenly cogitations. The naturall erection of our countenances in­timates, both where our Hopes should lye, and with what contemplation our minds should continually be taken vp. To bend our eyes toward heauen, and fixe our hearts vp­on earth, is a fouler solecisme in religion, then that stage-player committed in action, who when he said O heaven, pointed to the earth, and when O earth pointed vnto hea­ven. Eies likewise that are vnchast & full of lust, how dare they looke vp vnto that holy place, or that holy one that dwelleth therein? As pure hands, so pure eyes are to be [Page 74] lifted vp: else shall our prayer be turned into sinne vnto vs. Such hands, such eyes wee cannot haue vntill the heart be sanctified. If that be cleane, the eyes are cleane also, and we may boldly advance them towards the throne of grace,Heb. 4.16. not wavering or doubting,Iacob. 1.6. 1 Tim. 2.8. but stedfastly beleeuing wee shall obtaine what we aske.Ma [...] ▪ 11.4. The same Spirit that per­swades vs to crie Abba Father, testifieth of the Fathers loue, and warranteth vs with confidence to repaire vnto him. Et quid negabit qui iam dedit filios esse? What will he deny who hath already vouchsafed vs the Adoption of Sonnes? Nay quid negabit qui filium nobis dedit? Haue­ing giuen vs his Sonne, how can he but with him giue vs all things. Indeed considering our owne vilenesse, and the glorious Maiesty of God: it is reason wee should cast downe our eyes, and approach vnto him with feare and trembling. Howbeit as hee said, Qui apud te Caesar, audet dicere, maiestatem tuam nescit: qui non audet, nescit hu­manitatem: so say I, whosoeuer dares to present himselfe before God, knowes not the greatnesse of his Maiestie: but whosoeuer knoweth his facility and louing kindnesse, needs not feare boldly to lift vp his eyes vnto the hils from whence his helpe cometh. And if such confidence may be vsed in Private Prayer, how much more in the publike congregation of the Saints? For a three-fold cord is stronger then a single, to draw downe the blessings of God from heaven. And so many congregations are so ma­ny armies as it were, offering such violence vnto the king­dome of God, and with such importunatenesse assaulting him, that it is impossible for them to be repulsed. They therefore are much to be blamed who neglect, I had al­most said despise the assembly of Gods people, prefer­ring their owne private devotions vnto the publike Litur­gy [Page 75] of the Church. Of whom I say no more but this, it is much to be feared least they that doe so, pray with more pride and hypocrisie, then true devotion when they are at home. But de gestu oculorum, of the gesture of his eyes so much.

Sermo oris, the speech of his mouth followeth, He lif­ted vp his eyes to heaven and said. The Prayer was vocall, and yet in regard of God voice needed not.1 Sam. 1 12.13. The Prayers of Hannah, of Moses, of Nehemiah were Mentall only, yet God heard them.Exod. 12.15. If he were such a God as Baall of whom the Prophet Elias jestingly said,Neh. 2.4. Cry aloud, 1 K. 18.27. for hee is a God, either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is in a iourney, or peradventure he sleepeth and must be awaked: then speech happily might be necessarie. But our God knoweth what is in man, Ioh. 2.25. and needeth not that any should te­stify of man. Heb. 4.12.13. He discerneth the thoughts and intents of the heart: and all things are open, yea he knowes thoughts long before they be conceiued. Neverthelesse this example of our Saviour Christ manifestly sheweth that Vocall prayer is also convenient: yea & in some cases necessary. In pub­like Prayer, and when wee pray with others (as now our Saviour did with his Disciples) speech is necessarie. Else how shall the rest consent and say Amen therevnto. Ex­pedient also it is in regard of the Angels both good and e­vill. The good: for as our Repentance, so our devout Pray­ers also doe much reioice them. The evill: for as a Father saith Confitearis Deum apud te, vt Diaboli audiant circa te, & contremiscant propter te, confesse God that the Di­vils may heare which are about thee, and tremble be­cause of thee. Neither is it inconvenient in respect of our selues. And first to discharge the debt we owe vnto God, offering vnto him the Calues of our lips. Hos. 14.6. For the tongue [Page 76] was created to blesse God withall. Iac. 3.9. And as Beleeuing is of the heart: Rom. 10.10. so ought we also to confesse with the mouth. A­gaine to stirre vp the more devotion in Prayer. For as St Augustine saith, Affectus cordis verbis excitatur orantis, care of speech restraines the wandring of the minde, and the more vehement and significant the words are, the more is the heart affected. Lastly because of the redun­dance of the affections vpon the body. For as a vessell full of new wine,Iob. 32.19. will burst with the working thereof ex­cept it be vented: so is it with vs in our strong passions vntill they be vttered.Psal. 39.2.3. While David held his peace hee was much troubled: his heart was hot within him and the fire burned, vntill hee spake with his tongue. When his heart was replenished with ioy, then his glory, that is, his tongue also reioiced. Psal. 16.9. Act. 2.26. And our Saviour Christ in the daies of his flesh, Heb. 5.7. because of his vehement sorrowes and feares, offered vp Prayers and supplications with strong crying and teares. And thus you see both what necessity and expedience there is of Vocall prayer. But this is not all: our blessed Saviour had a further aime in it, when he thus prayed. He vttered it by word of mouth, not only for the present comfort of those that heard him: but, as I con­ceiue, that it might be registred and recorded as a perpe­tuall Canon of that glorious Intercession which he maketh for his Church in heauen. For although it were deliuered here on earth, yet it pertaineth to the state of glory also▪ and therefore would our Saviour haue it registred, both that from hence the Saints might deriue sound comfort and consolation vnto their soules; and bee furnished of a true patterne of Prayer, with what wisdome, sobriety, and convenient brevitie they are to speake vnto God. So that this Prayer is of singular vse in the Church, and will bee [Page 77] throughout all generations for ever more. But I presse this point no further. All which hath beene said touch­ing it, I thus apply.

First it maketh for the comfort of plaine and simple, yet honest minded people, that although they haue but little skill to set words, and formally to deliver their minds: yet their Mentall Prayers and short Eiaculations are pleasing and acceptable vnto God. God forbid it should be otherwise. For in the approach of death when sicknesse hath sealed vp our lips, or in the time of persecu­tion when tyrants bereaue vs of our tongues: haue we to­gether with the losse of speech lost also ability to pray? No verily. For though with Moses wee s [...]y nothing, yet our thoughts may cry so loud in the eares of God, that he may say vnto vs as sometimes hee did vnto Moses, Quid clamas ad me, why dost thou crie vnto me? Multi sonant voce, & [...]orde muti sunt, many sound aloud, saith St Au­gustine, with their voice that are dumb in their heart. And the contrarie thereof is as true, Multi sonant corde & voce muti sunt, many are silent with their lips, yet loud with their affections. The common rime, though it bee not very elegant, yet carries good sense with it, Non vox sed votum, non cordula musica sed cor, non clamans sed a­mans cantat in aure Dei; not the voice but the vow, not the harp but the heart, not lowing but louing musicke for Gods eares.

Secondly it serueth for instruction, that although Men­tall prayer may be available without vocall: yet is not vo­call so without Mentall. For as the body without the soule, so words without concurrence of affection are dead. The Iewes drew neere vnto God with their mouth, & honoured him with their lips: but the heart being removed [Page 68] farre off, Ibid. 64.7. it is expressely said, they called not vpon his name. All Bablers therefore are here condemned, who hope to be heard for their heathnish battologie. Mat. 6.7. Such are all they, who pray in a language they know not: like vnto Parrats, or the Cardinalls Iay, that could repeat the whole Creed, but vnderstood never a word thereof. A thing vtterly re­pugnant to nature, to Scripture, and the practise of all an­tiquity: and is rather the dotage of a drunken braine, then the serious exercise of true piety. Such also are all they who vnderstand, but attend not what they say: suffe­ring their thoughts to range about impertinent businesses, as if a little lippe labour were enough for God. The Schoolemen ha [...]e a rule, that a generall intention without particular attention is sufficient. But it is a profane rule: & the Gentiles Hoc age shall rise vp in iudgement against it, and condemne all those that practise it.

Lastly it may serue for direction how & in what man­ner to mould and forme our Praying. For as our Preach­ing so our Praying also must be conformed to his exam­ple. Now if you please to search into it, you shall finde this Prayer, for the Matter most heavenly, for the Me­thod, most orderly, for the words most expresse and signi­ficant, and for the length, no way tedious, as wherein is, to vse the words of St Augustine, Non multa locutio, sed multa precatio, not much talking but much praying. Eve­ry thing is carried with deepe wisdome and advisednesse, nothing rashly or tumultuarily. Not a word but breath­eth forth perfect holinesse and charity; and to bee briefe, nothing but what every way may become the son of God himselfe. Oh that our Prayers might alwaies bee framed according to this patterne! How acceptable would they then be to him to whom they are addressed? But indeed [Page 79] wee imitate it not as wee ought. For on the one side, some of vs present vnto God, I know not what curious contriuing of words: as if he were sooner to be taken with the froth of humane wit, then with Christian gravity and simplicity. Others on the other side, and those God wot sillie ones, though they know neither what to say nor how; yet least they should seeme destitute of the Spirit of Prayer, they presume on the sudden, without any medi­tation, to poure out whole floods of words without one drop of sense, & spinning out their prayers to an enormi­ous length, forgetting that God being aboue in heaven, & themselues here on earth, their words should bee both weighty and few. Would a man preferre a petition to his Prince, without due consideration of all things be­fore hand? But these loue to be too homely and familiar with God: and I cannot better compare them then to little children, who would faine tell a tale to Father or Mother, not knowing either what it is, or how to vtter it. My ad­vice vnto these should be, first that they would no longer overweene themselues, mistaking the Lips of Calues for the Calues of the lips. Then, that vpon knowledge of their owne inability, they content themselues with short Eja­culations, and such Prayers as graue and learned men haue provided for them. Lastly, that Humility and Cha­ritie be their ordinary Prayers. For besides Mentall and Vocall, there is also Vitalis Oratio the Prayer of a godly life: which cries as loud vnto God for a blessing, as Abels murder, or notorious sins doe for vengeance. Without which though a man roare like Stentor, and multiply words as the sand: God turneth the deafe eare, and will not vouchsafe to heare him. But of this, as also of the whole Preface thus much.

[Page 80]Howbeit before I conclude, I must craue leaue to ad­dresse a few words vnto you also my Lord, who are the Angell of this Diocesse. You haue heard what foule abu­ses there are both of Preaching and Praying: it belongeth vnto your Lordship to see them redressed. Some are silent and say nothing: it were good their mouthes were ope­ned. Some insteed of Gods truth broach their owne per­verse opinions: it were fit their mouthes were stopt. O­thers with their rude behauiour and outcries disgrace Preaching: these might be taught a little more civility. And others weaken the power of Preaching with too much curiosity: these might be persuaded to a little more simplicity. As for Publike Prayer, it is too much negle­cted and despised, and I feare the scandalous liues of Mi­nisters is in part the cause thereof. For although the effi­cacie, as of the Word and Sacraments, so of it also, de­pend not vpon the quality of the Minister, but Gods ordinance, and the blessing of Balaam though a false Pro­phet were availeable, yet the people are not so conside­rate, but the lewd liues of Hophni and Phinees may soone bring the Sacrifices of God into contempt with them. Your Lordship therefore may be pleased to haue a speci­all eye vnto the reformation hereof. And seeing the re­misnesse of Heli will not effect it, by rigor and severity to procure it: that so the liues of your Clergy being answe­rable vnto their high calling & exemplarie to their flock, the Liturgy of the Church may recover its ancient credit and dignitie, to the glory of God, the honour of the Mi­nistry, and the building vp of Gods people in their most holy Faith. which the Lord grant for his Christs sake.

[Page 81]
V. 1.

Father, the houre is come, glorifie thy Sonne, that thy Sonne may glorifie thee.

Hauing dispatched the Preface, wee are now to enter vpon the Corps or Body of the Prayer, wherein you may be pleased to obserue with mee other three particulars, Quem, Pro quibus, Quid, to whom, for whom, and for what he prayes. For vnto these three heads as I conceaue, the whole prayer may conveniently bee reduced. Of them therefore in order, as it shall please God to assist. And first of the first, Quem orat, to whom hee prayes. This appeareth by the very first word of the Prayer, Fa­ther, the houre is come glorify thy sonne. It is his Father to whom he prayes, even the first Person in the Trinity. For although the word Father be oftentimes vnderstood Es­sentially, that is, for the whole Godhead subsisting in all the Persons, as namely when it hath reference vnto men, or Angells, or the rest of the creatures: yet here being re­ferred vnto the Sonne, or the second Person, it must needs be vnderstood Personally, for the Father of that Sonne, that is the first person in the Trinity. True it is, the Person of Christ consisteth of two natures, his Deity & his Huma­nity; & this humanity is a Creature as well as that of other men. Yet notwithstanding seeing the Person is but one, & the Humane nature subsisteth not of it selfe, but only in the Son of God, & by his Subsistance: it is the first Person in the Trinity, and he alone who is the Father of our Lord Iesus Christ. Howbeit the Natures being not one and the same, but differing, he is Sonne vnto his Father, not by one on­ly, but by a double Filiation. As he is the Word, by way of Naturall Generation, begotten from all Eternity of the Substance of his Father. Of his Substance, whereby he is Consubstantiall and Coessentiall with him, God of God [Page 82] Light of Light, very God of very God as it is in the Ni­cene Creed. From all Eternitie: for as the Sunne cannot be without his Beame, so neither could the Father ever be without his Word: but as himselfe is Eternall, so is his Sonne Cöeternall with him also. Lastly Begotten not made, as Athanasius saith: but how and after what manner is in­comprehensible and vnspeakable. It is enough for vs to know, saith Gregory Nazianzen, that the Father hath be­gotten to himselfe a Sonne: as for the rest [...], let it be adored with silence. And seeing as Ambrose saith, nei­ther Archangells know it, nor Angells haue heard it, nor the world comprehended it, nor the Prophets vnderstood it, nor the Apostles inquired after it, nor Christ taught it, but said, no man knoweth the Sonne but the Father, nor the Fa­ther but the Sunne, and he to whom the Sonne will reveale it: it is our duty to surcease from further searching into this deepe mistery. It is sufficient for vs by Faith simply to be­leeue that the Manner whereof Reason cannot reach vnto. As touching the Manhood of Christ, he is in regard there­of the Sonne of the Father also, yet not by way of Natu­rall generation, or else of Adoption, as all the Saints of God are: but by Grace of Personall Vnion: whereby be­ing prevented from hauing any Subsistance in it selfe, it hath the very Subsistance of the Word, or Second Person communicated vnto it. So that although as Man, he be not Generatus filius the Sonne begotten, yet is he Natus fi­lius Dei, borne the Sonne of God: according to that of the Angell Gabriell. That holy thing that shall bee borne of thee shall be called the sonne of God.

Now the Sonne prayeth vnto his Father, first to te­stify that his eternall Procession and Filiation is from him, and that of him he hath receiued both that individuall V­nion [Page 83] by which his Humane Nature is hypostatically as­sumpted and vnited vnto his Divine, & that oile of glad­nesse or pretious Vnction of the Spirit, wherewith hee is Habitually graced and annointed farre aboue all his fel­lowes. Secondly, to manifest his Dispensatiue and volun­tary subiection vnto his Father in the forme of a Seruant: wherein, though he were the Sonne and cöequall with the Father, yet he learned obedience, as the Apostle to the He­brewes witnesseth.Heb. 5.8. Lastly, to giue vs an example of imita­tion, both to whom, and to whom alone we are to addresse our Prayers: namely to God our Father & to none other. Not to pray vnto him is meere Atheisme and profanenes: to pray to any besides him is Idolatry and Superstition. First therefore as Christ to his, so are wee to pray to our Father. Our Father is the holy and blessed Trinity, both by Creation and Adoption. For being extrinsecall actions they are vndivided and common to them all: and so not the Father only, but the Sonne and the Holy Ghost toge­ther with him, created and adopted vs. To the holy Tri­nity therefore not excluding any of the Persons are wee to pray. And to this our Saviour, as by his example, so by his Precept also directs vs, when he commands vs thus to pray, Our Father which art in Heaven. Shall I spend time to proue that we are to pray vnto God our Father? This were but to light a candle at noone day. Search the Scriptures and you shall finde it every where comman­ded. Hath he not made all? doth he not sustaine all? doe we not depend vpon his goodnesse for all whatsoever ei­ther wee are or haue? If the eyes of all things looke vp vnto him, expecting a supply of all their needs from him: should not our eyes much more be fixed vpon him? The very light of reason dictates the same vnto all, and re­quires [Page 84] this duty at the hands of all. Even Gentiles and meere naturalists haue ever duly practised it, in all their needs invoking him whom they supposed to be God, yea some of the learned among them,Alcibia 2. fiue [...]. Diog. Laert. Dan. 6.7.9. as Plato and Aristotle, and others also, as Proclus saith, haue written bookes of this argument, and in them giuen excellent precepts and directions how to pray. A Giant therefore was hee (and we read of no more but hee) who commanded that for the space of thirty daies together no man should presume to aske any thing of any God or man, saue only of him selfe. Atheists and prophane wretches are all those, who in their heart denying either the Being or the Providence of God refuse to pray vnto him. Such as among the Gen­tiles were the Epicure Philosophers: and among Christi­ans some few furious Hereticks. Godles and irreligious also are they, who beleeuing and acknowledging both, yet never privately, and but seldome publikely, and then very slightly & perfunctorily performe this duty. Hence is it that the prophet David makes the not calling vpon God the speciall character of a foolish Atheist, Psal. 14.1.4. who if not with his mouth, yet in his heart denies God, and despi­ses all religion. [...]am. 4.2.3. No marvaile if they want the true wis­dome, seeing they aske it not of him who is the only do­nor thereof: or if they aske it that yet they haue it not, because they aske it overly with the lips, and not sincere­ly from the heart. But let vs, my beloued brethren, fol­low the president of our blessed saviour, and as he, so let vs ever addresse our prayers vnto him that is our Father. Nothing can be denied vs that wee aske of him in the name of his sonne.Ioh. 16.23. And if evill Fathers giue not insteed of bread a stone, Mat. 7.9.10.11 or insteed of a fish a serpent, or insteed of an egge a scorpion vnto their children: Luk. 11.11.12 13. how much more will [Page 85] our Heavenly father giue vs his spirit, and together with it all good thinges, if we aske them of him?

As to our Father, so to our Father only must we pray, if wee will keepe our selues to the example of Christ: for to his Father alone doth he addresse himselfe, Father, saith he, the houre is come. Giue me leaue to bestow a little paines in proofe hereof. For it is now high time to be at downe Popery by all meanes, it being of late growne too too impudent, as hauing beene but too much countenan­ced. Angells and Saints departed, say Papists, may be cal­led vpon. May be? and why not must be? Forsooth, howsoever they would faine haue the vulgar sort be­leeue it, yet dare not the learned among them affirme it to be necessary. And they haue reason. For were it other­wise, either it must be because we are so commanded, or for that without it wee cannot obtaine our end, namely grace and assistance in all our needs. But commandement we haue none. If we haue, let them shew it, together with promise of impetration if wee call vpon them, or of commination if we neglect it. But this they neither doe nor can shew. The fittest place for it, if any such were, had beene where our Saviour the best Doctor teach­eth vs how to pray. Yet there he sendeth vs neither to Saints nor Angells, but only to our Father. Had they had any right to our prayers, Christ was iust and would never haue appropriated that vnto God which was due al­so vnto them: & could they haue beene vnto vs all a pre­sent helpe in need, I am sure neither would his loue haue concealed it from vs, nor his goodnesse haue envied their help vnto vs. Directing vs therefore in this perfect plat­forme of Prayer vnto no other then our Father: it is more then evident his will is not wee should seeke vnto any o­ther. [Page 86] Now as it is not necessary in regard of commande­ment, so neither is it in respect of the end. For our end, namely impetration, and obtaining our desires may be at­tained otherwise. How so? By the intercession and medi­ation of Christ Iesus. This I trust they will not deny to be of it selfe sufficient every way. Certainly without much derogation from the honour of Christ they cannot. For he hath expressely promised that whatsoever we shall aske the Father in his name shall be granted vnto vs. Ioh. 16.23. So that neither in this respect is such invocation necessary.

How then? Forsooth Pious and Profitable: for so they state it. But if that only be Pious which is pleasing and acceptable vnto God, Conc. Trid. less. 9.2. Bell. de Beat. Sanct. l. 1. c. 19 and no worship bee accepted of him but that which is agreeable to his commandement: then cannot such invocation be Pious. For as we haue shewed, it is no where commanded: and not being commanded it is but a superstitious Willworship, which the Lord with much indignation reiecteth, demaunding, who hath requi­red these things at your hands?Esa. 1.12. And if it be not Pious, then neither is it Profitable, but vaine and to no purpose. For so saith our Saviour,Mat. 15.9. In vaine doe they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandements of men. But how vnpro­fitable and vnavaileable such Praiers are will more fullie appeare, if we duly consider how vnfurnished of abilities both Angels and Soules departed are to helpe and steed vs when we call vpon them. For to this end three things are necessarilie requisite, particular knowledge of all our do­ings, ready will to helpe, and power enabling them to helpe vs. First I say Knowledge, not of the state of the Church militant in generall (for such we deny not vnto the Saints departed, much lesse vnto the Angels whom God hath appointed to be the Gardians of his chosen peo­ple) [Page 87] but of vs all, and all our actions in particular, yea of the secret cogitations of the heart, and the inward sinceri­tie thereof. For Prayer is not alwaies Vocall, but some­times Mentall only,1 Sam. 13.25. such as was that of Hannah:Rom. 8.25. and often­times consisteth of such groanes and sighes as cannot bee vttered. And when it is vttered & becomes Vocal, speech and whatsoeuer is externall is but the carcase thereof, the life and soule thereof is the internall truth of the heart, it being nothing else but a powring out of the soule or dis­charging of the heart before God. Which being so, I would faine learne,Psal. 2.8. if God only be [...], as the Scrip­tures every where teach,1 King. 8.39. 2 Chron. 6.30 and it be a prerogatiue peculiar to him alone to trie and search the heart:Mat. 6.4. Rom. 8.26. how either An­gels or Spirits deceased come to the knowledge of those Prayers that are only conceived in the minde, or can dis­cerne with what affection they are delivered? They may perhaps say, This people approacheth with their lips, but whether the heart be neere or farre off, that is beyond their skill. So is it also particularly to know the out­ward state, and to heare the Vocall Prayers of all men wheresoever throughout the whole world. For they are not as God present at once every where, but as creatures bounded and measured by time and place: so that at one time they cannot occupie more then one place, and con­sequently cannot take notice of all what is done at the same time in every place. True it is the blessed Angels of God sometimes attend vpon vs here on earth; but ordina­rily they wait vpon the throne of God in heaven. When they are sent, with any message they come vnto vs: and when they haue done their errand they returne againe. So that as well ascending as descending Iacobs ladder,Gen. 28.12. nei­ther doe we know when any of them come vnto vs, or [Page 88] how long they stay with vs, neither doe themselues al­waies know in what state we are, or what wee pray for in particular. As for soules departed, as it is no part of their office to encomber themselues with our businesses:Esa. 63.16. 2 Reg. 22.20. so if we may beleeue Scripture they haue no particular know­ledge of them,Iob. 14.21. yea they are often taken from among vs,Eccl. 9.5. to the end they may not be troubled with them.Psal. 146.4. And in­deed not knowing of themselues as being absent, if they haue any such knowledge it must needs be by revelation or relation from others. Is it from the Angells then? But they know not all our needs, as not being alwaies with vs. And what a compasse is it, that the Angells come downe hither, and then returne backe againe, to acquaint the Saints with our needs, that they may pray for vs? Is it from Soules newly arrived? Surely they at their depar­ture are more carefull of themselues and their owne fu­ture state, then inquisitiue after the state of others. And the knowledge they carry hence with them can be but of a few things neere at hand which they haue seene and heard, not which were farre distant, or of all wheresoe­uer and whensoeuer done. Besides, what a dreame is it, that those ancient Saints should then only interceede for vs, when by some of these new comers they are particu­larly informed of vs? whence is it then? Forsooth from divine revelation? what? speciall and particular then when we pray?De beat Sanc. l. 1. c. 20. Nor so neither, saith Bellarmine. For then the Church would not so boldly say vnto the Saints Pray for vs, but sometimes remember to begge of God that he would reveale our prayers vnto them. Neither can a rea­son so readily be yeelded why the Saints before the com­ing of Christ were not called vpon, seeing God might as well haue revealed the Churches prayers vnto those then, [Page 89] as to these now, what revelation then? That whereby in the glasse of the Trinity they see all whatsoever may any way belong vnto them.Mor. l. 12. c. 13 Then belike not all things, as Gregory saith: else what needed this restriction? And yet, if all things be Christs, 1 Cor. 3.22. and whatsoever is Christs belong vnto them as being in Christ: then seeing all that belong­eth vnto them, they see therein all things which they will none of. But the truth is, this devise of the glasse is but a poore shift. For the essence of God is most simple and im­mutable, and varieth not as things here varie. Neither is it, as Aquinas saith a necessarie but a voluntary glasse, re­flecting not all that it knowes, but what it pleaseth to make knowne: which vpon the matter is no other revela­tion then that which Bellarmine himselfe reiects. By all which it appeares that nor Angells nor Saints haue suffi­cient meanes of particular knowledge.

As is their knowledge, so is their desire: for the will followes the direction of the vnderstanding, wherefore there is no particular knowledge, neither can there be a­ny particular will. That the Saints who are [...] like vnto the Angells doe together with the Angells desire in generall and wish for peace on earth and good will towards men, we no way deny: but that they haue a will to helpe this man, that man, every man, at all times, in every their severall needs and necessities we can no way grant. For of their Will wee are to iudge by their calling, and of their Calling by the Will of God, to which their Will only is conformed. If therefore it be the will of God that every one of them should take particular care of all our severall affaires, this must appeare by some commandement or promise of God made vnto them. But in Scripture, where God only revealeth his will such commandement & pro­mise [Page 90] we find none. True it is the Angells are Ministring spirits, and as it pleaseth God are sent forth to doe him service here below. But which of them, and for whom, and about what businesse, and when, and where, & how long, and the like, are circumstances hidden and concea­led from vs. Neither are they all employed in every bu­sinesse, but when and where it pleaseth God. Whence it followeth that where they are not employed they haue no particular will to helpe. As for the Saints departed, wee read not of any commandement they haue to attend vs or our affaires. Nay we read they are taken away, to the end they should not be troubled with them. So that resting from their labours, and hauing no further vocati­on thus to be employed: neither haue they any particu­la [...] will to helpe.

Now wanting both knowledge and will, to what end were ability, had they any? But indeed sufficient power they want also. For although they bee blessed, and haue the beatificall sight of God, yet Gods they are not, which yet they must needs be▪ if at one view they could behold all things that are done, or at one instant heare all the sutes that are made vnto them by so many thousands, in so ma­ny places, so farre a sunder, and at once. For ability to perfome so much belongs only vnto him who knowes all, is every where, and to whom nothing is impossible: and therefore not vnto the creature, which being of a fi­nite and limited nature cannot attend so many, so divers, and so distant businesses otherwise then successiuely. And thus seeing Angells and Saints neither haue particular knowledge of our estates, nor ready will to helpe, nor sufficient power enabling them to helpe: it followeth that to pray vnto them must needs be vaine and so no way Pi­ous or Profitable.

[Page 91]Perhaps will some say, though it be not Profitable yet neither is it Hurtfull. Yes hurtfull, and that in a high de­gree. For it is most derogatorie to the glory of God, and the mediation of Christ: and consequently is superstiti­ous, impious, and sacrilegious. It derogates from the glo­ry of God, in that it ascribes vnto the creature that which belongs only vnto him,Esa. 42.8. & 4 [...] 11. and cannot without much wrong be given to another. For he that prayeth vnto Saints or Angells acknowledgeth them so doeing to be omniscient, omnipresent, omnipotent, as is aboue insinuated: which yet are attributes so proper vnto God, that they are vtterly incommunicable vnto any other.Rom. 10.14. And if as Saint Paul saith we can call vpon none but him in whom wee beleeue, and wee may beleeue in none but only in God, not in St Peter, In Ioh. tract. 54. & Ser. 131 de temp. as Saint Augustine saith, because Peter iustifieth not the wicked, nor in the Church, because the Church is not God, but the house of God: then whosoever calleth vpon the creature, thereby testifieth that he placeth all his Faith and affiance, & so maketh it a God, which is no lesse thē high treason against God. Adde yet further, that Pray­er is a principall part of that worship which is due on­ly vnto God:Mat. 4.20. according to that of the Psalmist, Psal. 65.2. O thou that hearest prayer to thee shall all flesh come. And indeed so proper is it vnto God, that the ancient Fathers haue from it thus argued vnto the Deity of Christ and the blessed Spirit, They are to be called vpon, Ergo are God. which were but a silly consequence, might others also be invo­ked besides God. Derogatorie therefore it is vnto the ho­nour of God. So is it also vnto the Mediation of Christ. For holy Scripture maketh him our only Mediator and Advocate: and therefore only because he alone hath meri­ted and procured our redemption. So saith the Apostle, [Page 92] Christ who died, Rom. 8.34. or rather who is risen againe, who also is at the right hand of God, 1 Tim. 2.5.6. and maketh intercession for vs. And againe, There is one God, and one Mediator betweene God and Men, the man Christ Iesus who gaue himselfe a ransome for all. And Saint Iohn, 1 Ioh 2.1.2. If any man sinne wee haue an advo­cate with the Father, Iesus Christ the Righteous, and hee is the propitiation for our sinnes, whosoever therefore ioyn­eth fellowes with Christ in the office of Intercession (and so doe all that call vpon Saints or Angells) notoriously detracteth from him in his Mediation, and in that honour which he appropriateth to himselfe, of treading the wine presse alone, Esa 63.3. without any other to helpe him: which how sa­crilegious it is who seeth not?

One thing more I haue yet to say before I leaue this point: namely that against the Invocation of Saints wee haue the prescription of a very long time on our side. For in the old Testament and during the space of well neere four thousand yeares we haue no warrant at all for it. Praef. de eccl. triumph. & l. 1. c. 19.Nay Bellarmine himselfe (howsoever our adversaries to bleare the eye of the world make a flourish to the contra­rie) expressely confesseth that the Spirits of the Patriarchs and Prophets before the comming of Christ were not so worshipped and called vpon, as the Apostles and Martyrs now are, because as yet they were detained in those infer­nall prisons where they had not the beatificall sight of God. Now if the Patriarchs then saw the face of God as farre forth as the Saints doe now (as indeede they did) the argument is so much the stronger, if yet all that while they were never called vpon. In the new testament like­wise we finde no warrant for it even by their owne confes­sion. And Salmeron the Iesuite rendreth reasons thereof. For, saith he, the Iew that never had called vpon any of [Page 93] the Patriarchs or Prophets would hardly haue beene drawne to pray vnto those newer Saints: & the Gentiles would haue thought that insteed of those many Gods which they had forsaken, a multitude of other Gods had beene put vpon them. As for the times after Christ and his Apostles, it was long before it crept into the Church: and when it entred, it was but the opinion of some pri­vate men, and not the publike doctrine of the Church. All the Fathers which proued the Deitie of the Sonne & of the holy Ghost by this dutie of Invocation, must needs if they will not contradict themselues be against it. So must they also (and they are not the least or meanest part of them) who held that the Faithfull hence departed are not admitted into heauen, but continue elsewhere in some secret receptacles without the vision of God vntill the day of iudgement. For vpon that vision, even in the iudg­ment of our aduersaries, their particular knowledge of all things here done on earth dependeth, vpon this againe their Invocation. In a word whensoeuer or how­soeuer it began, as it grew on, so was it still opposed, and neuer gate publike strength vntill the blinde times of su­perstition overswaied true devotion.

The cafe then standing thus, that Invocation of Saints and Angels is neither necessary, nor pious, nor profitable, but rather impious and extreamely dangerous, as being derogatory to the glory of God & the honour of Christs Mediation, and that no ground or warrant at all can bee found for it, either in the old or new Testament, or in the writings and practise of those holy Fathers who flourish­ed when the Church was in her primitiue puritie: the case I say thus standing, our safest course will be to fol­low the precedence and direction of our blessed Saviour [Page 94] and with him to addresse our selues vnto our heauenly Father, and to none other. It is he alone who at all times can both heare and helpe. Neither is he more able then ready and willing to grant our requests, if we come vnto him in his sonnes name. Night and day he stretcheth out his armes towards vs, he invites vs with all louingnesse to come vnto him, hee chargeth and commandeth vs in all our needs and necessities to direct our prayers immedi­atly vnto him. Let vs not therefore sollicite any other mediators or spokesmen for vs, as if we doubted of his fa­therly goodnesse and affection towards vs: but let vs ra­ther come directly with all boldnesse vnto the throne of grace, Heb 4.16. to the end we may obtaine mercy, and finde grace to be holpen in due season. So to doe is not Presumption but Faith and Dutie. And so much for the first part of our Saviours prayer Quem orat, to whom he prayes. The se­cond is,

Pro quibus orat, for whom he prayes. Hee prayes for the Church mysticall, as some tearme it, or, as it may more fitly be called, for Christ mysticall, that is the whole body consisting both of the Head which is Christ, and all the rest of his members. That it may more fitly bee called Christ mysticall, we haue the warrant of S. Paul, who ex­pressely calleth it so. As, saith he, the bodie is one, and hath many members, 1. Cor. 12.1 [...]. and all the members of one body, though they be many, yet are one body: euen so is Christ ▪ Where by Christ nothing can be meant but the whole consisting both of Head and Members. Had the Church as its distinguished against the Head beene vnderstood, hee would haue said, as St Austin obserueth,De pece. mer. & rem. l. 1. c. 31 ita & Christi, so is Christs, that is, the body of Christ, or the members of Christ: but hee saith, ita & Christus, even so is Christ, vnum Christum appellans [Page 95] caput & corpus, calling both the head and the body one Christ. The same doth St Austin elsewhere also obserue vpon those words of the Apostle, He saith not, and to seeds as speaking of many, Gal. 3.16. In Psal. 142. but as of one, and to thy seed which is Christ. Now, saith he, some perhaps will say, if Christ be the seed of Abraham, are we so also? Remember that Christ is the seed of Abraham: and if by this wee also are the seed of Abraham, then are we also Christ. Vnto this warrant of Scripture adde we the reason thereof: that Christ and his Church being twaine and yet constituting but one mysti­call body, it is fit the denomination of the whole should be taken from the better and more worthy part, which is Christ, and not the inferiour, which is the Church. But of this by the way.

For Christ mysticall then doth our Saviour pray: but first for himselfe, and then for his members. For him­selfe, from hence vnto the ninth verse: for his mem­bers, from thence vnto the end of the Chapter. If any de­mand a reason of this order, I answere first, Christ is the more worthy person.Col. 1.18. For hee is Emanuel, God-man ap­pointed by his Father to be the Head of the Church, and in all things to haue the preheminence. And therefore as he hath in our Creed before the Church, so in this Pray­er also he deserues to haue precedencie. Secondly, hee knew it could not goe well with his Church, vnlesse first it went well with himselfe. For vnder his Father he was to be the fountaine of life and grace, the vniversall cause of all good vnto his Church, and to this end was hee to be annointed of the Spirit without stint or measure.Ps. 133.2. So that vnlesse the ointment be poured vpon Aarons head, it cannot descend vnto the beard, and from thence vnto the skirts of his garment. Ioh. 1.16▪ And vnlesse Christ be first repleni­shed [Page 98] himselfe, we cannot of his fulnes receiue either grace for grace or glory for glory. That therefore it might goe well with vs he prayes first for himselfe. But then in the next place he maketh sute for his Church, as if without her welfare it could not be well with him. For as for her he was incarnate, so without her hee counts himselfe im­perfect. For so it must needs be, if as St Paul saith, she be [...], the fulnesse of him that filleth all in all. The rea­son, because he is her Head.Eph. 1.23. And therefore though he fill all in all, yet without her he wanteth of his owne fulnesse, because he is no other then a head without a body. And this you see for whom he prayes, as also in what order, & why in such order he prayes for them. Whence briefly we may obserue, first to what height of honour it hath pleased Christ to advance his Church, in that hee hath made her not only Christian by vertue of her Spirituall vnction, but also Christ by reason of her mysticall vnion with him: then which what higher dignitie? Secondly, that in all things Christ is to be preferred even to our ve­ry liues, yea our soules and their saluation, as Moses and S. Paul sometime did, because hee is of infinite more worth and desert then all. Thirdly, that Christ is the Principle of all good, and that the life both of Grace and Glory is to be deriued from him alone. If we seek it from Saints, or Angells, or any other creature, they will but deceaue our hopes in the end, as water torrents that passe away doe the trauellers of Temah and Sheba. Ioh. 6.15. &c. Lastly, that as in hell the rich glutton could not finde so much as one drop of water so out of Christ not a drop of grace is to be had. Carefully therefore are wee to labour that wee may be in him. Being in him, we cannot but be partakers of all goods together with him. Neither need wee feare [Page 97] the losse thereof,Col. 3.3. for he hath receaued it for vs, and our life is hid with Christ in God. And thus much of the se­cond part Pro quibus, for whom he prayes. Come we vn­to the third.

Quid orat, what he prayes for: & first what to himselfe then what to his Church. To himselfe he prayes for Glo­rification, rendring divers reasons why it should be gran­ted vnto Him. Of all which we will speake in their order: but first of the thing demanded, Glorifie thy Sonne. Glorie is no other then the splendor, claritie, brightnesse, or shi­ning of a thing resulting and rising from the perfection, eminency, or excellency it hath aboue other things. For example, the Glory of God is the perfection of his nature and attributes infinitely surpassing and out-shining the perfection of all creatures.1. Cor. 15.41. Among the creatures, the Glo­ry of the Sunne, Moone, and Starres is their incompara­ble brightnesse aboue other lights.Mat. 6.29. Of Princes, their peer­lesse soveraignty and state aboue the subject.Gen. 49.6. Of Man, the soule and speech by which he excelleth the brute and dumb creature.Psal. 16.9. Of the Church, her speciall priviledges a­boue all other societies.Ib. 87.3. And so in other things. So that Glorie is no other then [...], greatnesse ioined with beauty or goodnesse. Not every beauty or good­nesse, but that which is exochally or eminently so. In re­gard whereof in Hebrew it is called [...] Weight, as cau­sing those that behold it, as it were, to sinke vnder the bur­den thereof. Wherevnto S. Paul, as it seemes, alluding, ioyneth an exceeding weight with Glorie. 2. Cor. 4.17. In the Chaldee it is called [...] Pretiousnesse, as being of greatest worth and value: in which respect the Apostle ioyneth Riches with Glory. Col. 1.27. In Greek it is [...], fame, opinion, from the ef­fect thereof: because in the minde it begetteth due estima­tion [Page 98] of it, and in speech honourable mention. In regard whereof it is defined by some, Clara cum laude notitia, an apprehension thereof together with praise: by others laus consentiens bonorum, or vox hominum incorruptè judican­tium, praise giuen by good men, or the report of them that iudge rightly thereof. Of which againe by and by. Such is Glory. Now to Glorifie imports two acts, the one of bounty and liberality, the other of Iustice. That whereby Glory is conferred & bestowed where it is not, or is augmented and increased where it is not in the full measure. And so God is said to glorifie the creature, ac­cording to that of the Psalmist, Grace and glory God will giue. This whereby the glorie that is is acknowledged & ascribed vnto the thing that is glorious, yea whereby it is made knowne & manifest to others to the praise and ho­nour thereof. And so the creature is said to glorifie God. And in this latter sense wee finde these three words of Praising, Honouring, and Glorifying in Scripture ordinari­ly to be vsed: although in proper speech each haue its se­verall and peculiar notion. For Praising is that act where by in words we giue testimonie of the vertue or good­nesse of a thing. So the Philosopher, Laus est oratio magni­tudinem virtutis indicans, praise is a speech declaring the greatnesse of vertue. Honouring is an higher degree where by not in words only, but by outward gestures and signes also we testifie of the excellence & goodnesse of a thing. Glorifying is the fruit or effect of both. For in praysing by words and honouring by signes wee cause the good­nesse and excellencie of a thing to spread it selfe vnto the knowledge of many. Whence insteed of glorificatio di­vers say clarificatio, deriuing gloria from clarus, as if it were claria, to import the making of a thing illustrious & [Page 99] to shine abroad. St. Basil therefore defining [...] to glorifie by [...], and S. Augustin by gloriosum dicere, to say a thing is glorious, say something but not all. For as we haue shewed, it steps further and includes more with­in. it. And thus you see in generall both what glory is, and what it is to glorifie: by which as by a threed we may ea­sily be guided to that particular which here our Saviour craues when he saith, Father glorifie thy Sonne. For vn­doubtedly he prayes that his father would bestow vpon him what glorie he wanted, if he wanted any: and the ma­nifestation of that glorie which already he had, if he had any, or should haue therefore. Wherefore to make all plaine, we will enquire three things. First, What glory he was presently possessed of, secondly, what glory yet he wanted, and thirdly how hee would be glorified. Of these in order, and first of the first.

That Christ now presently was possessed of glorie, though haply not as yet in the full measure, cannot bee denied. For although the Prophet say that hee had nei­ther forme, Esa. 53.2. nor comelinesse, nor beautie: yet indeed he was the fairest of all men, Psal. 45.2. & full of grace and truth. Outward­ly and in the eye of naturall men beauty he had none,Ioh. 1.14. he seemed a Worme rather then a Man: but inwardly and to them that were spirituall hee both was and appeared glorious, and they beheld his glory, not as of man, but as of the only begotten of the Father. Omitting therefore this as granted of all hands, let vs rather enquire touching his glory what it was. It was double, the glorie of his Person, and the glory of his Office. The glory of his Person againe is double. For being the word made flesh, & so consisting of two distinct natures the Word and the Flesh; though the Person be but one, yet is there a twofold glorie there­of, [Page 100] one of the Word, another of the Flesh. The glorie of the Word standeth in two things, first that hee is the eter­nall Sonne of the eternall Father, begotten after an vn­speakable manner of his owne substance: and therefore the brightnesse of his glory, Heb. 1 3. &c. and the expresse image of his Person. A name too excellent for the Angells themselues. For neuer did the Father say to any of them Thou art my sonne this day haue I begotten thee. Secondly that being so begotten hee is consubstantiall and coequall with his Fa­ther: neither counteth he it robbery to bee equall with him. Phil. 2.6. For though he be the Sonne and not the Father, yet being of the same Substance hee is one and the same God with him, and may iustly challenge vnto himselfe the fulnesse of the Deitie as farre forth as the Father. A glory infi­nitely transcending that of any creature. The glorie of his Flesh is likewise double, of Assumption and Communica­tion. Of Assumption by which it was taken into the di­vine nature. For as soone as it began to haue being in the wombe of the blessed virgin, it was prevented from sub­sisting in it selfe, and was drawne into the vnitie of the Person of the Sonne of God, eternally to subsist therein. The highest dignitie that a creature can aspire vnto. That of Communication is whereby glorious things are com­municated vnto his humane nature. And it is either Per­sonall or Habitual. Personall is that whereby as the nature of man is truely giuen to the Person of the Sonne, so the Person of the Sonne is truely communicated vnto the na­ture of man. Wherevpon because in the Person of the Sonne is the fulnesse of all perfection, and all the essentiall attributes of the Deitie, as namely Omniscience, omnipo­tence, omnipresence, and the rest: therefore doe wee say that all these attributes and that fulnesse of perfection [Page 101] are communicated also vnto the Manhood. Howbeit not Physically and by effusion, as if the same properties which are in God should formally and subiectiuely be in man, as heat transfused from the fire is inherent in the water. For that which is infinite cannot bee comprehended of that which is finite. How then? Personally in the sonne of God. So that by reason of the hypostaticall vnion there is such a reall communion betweene them, that the sonne of man is truly the Sonne of God, and consequently also Omnisci­ent, omnipotent, omnipresent, and the rest. The want of due consideration hereof was it that bred that monster of Vbiquitie, and that great quarrell betwixt vs and the Sax­on Churches.Ioh. 1.16. Communication habituall is that whereby the fulnesse of grace was bestowed vpon him to be subie­ctiuely and inherently in his Flesh. And this is the glory of his Vnction. Esa. 11.2. For the spirit of the Lord rested vpon him, the spirit of wisdome and vnderstanding, the spirit of coun­sell and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the feare of the Lord. Psal. 45.7. By this Spirit was he annointed with the oile of gladnesse aboue his fellowes, Ioh. 3.34. yea he receiued the spirit with­out measure or limit both for the essence & vertue, there­of, intensiuely and extensiuely, to all effects and purposes both for himselfe and others. So that in his Will there was perfect iustice without taint or staine: in his Minde perfect wisdome and knowledge, both Beatificall where­by he saw God farre more clearly then any other, as be­ing more neerely vnited vnto him, and Infused whereby he knew all heauenly and supernaturall verities, which without the revelation of grace cannot bee knowne, yea Acquisite and Experimentall also whereby hee knew all whatsoeuer by the light of reason and nature might bee knowne. So that he was ignorant of nothing which hee [Page 102] ought to know, or might make to his full happinesse. And this was his Habituall glory. Now the Glory of his Office breefely was to be the Mediator betweene God and Man. An office of so high a nature that it could bee performed by none but only him who was both God and Man. For herevnto it was necessary that he should be a Prophet, a Priest, and a King. A Prophet as an Arbiter to take know­ledge of the cause & quarrell depending betweene them, and as an Internuntius or legate to propound & expound the conditions of peace that are to be concluded vpon. A Priest ▪ to be an Intercessor, and to make interpellation for the party offending, and then to be a Fideiussor or Surety, making satisfaction to the party for him. A King hauing all power both in heauen and earth to keepe and preserue the Church so reconciled in the state of grace, & to tread downe vnder his feete all the enimies thereof. Wondrous Glory, and farre aboue that of any creature. And this is the Glory he was already possessed of.

Wanted he yet any further Glory? yes verily, and that in regard both of his Divine and Humane nature. Of his Divine: Phil. 2.7. for the Word had now emptied himselfe of his glory. Emptied himselfe I say, not simply and absolutely, for he could no more in such sort abdicate his glory then cease to be himselfe, it being essentiall vnto him, and his very selfe: but oeconomically and dispensatiuely, vailing & couering it vnder the cloud of his flesh. Serm. 12. For if as St Leo saith, the exinanition of the divine Maiesty was the ad­vancement of the servile forme vnto the highest pitch of honour: then by like proportion the advancement of the servile forme was the exinanition of the divine Maiesty. This Exinanition or Emptying of himselfe was in his Incarnation, conception, nativity, obedience, actiue [Page 103] to the law of nature as being the sonne of Adam, and to the law of Moses as being the sonne of Abraham, Passiue in suffering hunger and cold and wearinesse, & a thousand sorrowes wherevnto the infirmity of his flesh was sub­iect. In this state Christ now stood, neither had he as yet recovered the Glory whereof he had emptied himselfe, nay he was not as yet come to the lowest degree of his humiliation. For though they were instant and nere at hand, yet his agonie, his sweating of bloud, his arraign­ment, his crosse, his death, his emprisonment in the graue were not yet come. All which did more & more eclipse the glory of his Deity: so that this Glory of the word as yet he wanted. In regard of his Humane nature, hee had not yet deposed humane infirmities, as hunger, thirst, feare, sorrow, anguish, and the like. Neither had hee obtained incorruption, impassibility, immortality, nor that glori­ous purity, strength, agility, clarity of the body which he expected, together with the fulnesse of inward ioyes and comforts in the Soule. Adde herevnto that the acti­ons of his mediation, namely of his Prophecy, Priesthood and Kingdome, had not, nor could not bee hitherto per­forme gloriously, but only in such an humble manner as suted with the state of humiliation in which presently he stood. To make all plaine, though as the Schoole speak­eth he were Comprehensor & in termino affectione iustitiae, yet he was viator & extraterminum affectione commodi, that is, though in regard of holinesse and righteousnesse he were already pe [...]y blessed and arrived at his end, yet by reason of th [...] [...]pprehension of those vnpleasing and afflictiue evills which now were, and yet were more to be vpon him, the ioyes & delights of heauen were not imparted to him. So that the fulnesse and complement of [Page 104] Glory he had not yet attained.

Which being so, the third and last enquirie, how hee would be glorified, may easily be resolued. For as appeares by what we haue said, he desires the dispelling and remo­uing of all those thicke mists and clouds which hitherto eclipsed his Deity: that is the deposition, not of his Hu­mane nature (for that is now become an essentiall part of his Person, and shall continue therein vnto all eternity) but of all humane infirmities, and that low condition to which he had humbled himselfe, to the end the glory of his Deity might at length appeare and shine forth most perfectly. He desires furthermore that his Father would be pleased to glorifie him by preseruing and supporting him in the last act of his tragedy, I meane his bitter ago­nie and passion, by loosing the sorrowes of death and rais­ing him from the graue, by taking him vp into heaven, & setting him at his right hand crowned with maiesty and power, and finally by conferring vpon him all glorious endowments both of soule and body, and ioyning him vnto himselfe not only by the affection of perfect iustice, but of comfort and delight also. Hee desires lastly to bee glorified by the full manifestation of his Glory, both that which already he had, and that which yet he was to haue; that not only Iewes but Gentiles also by the mission of his holy spirit, and the preaching of his Apostles might know him to be the eternall Sonne of God, of the same substance with the Father, and no way inferiour vnto him. Man al­so, but such a man as is assumpted [...] the vnitie of the second person in the Trinitie, sla [...]ed and condemned yet iust and innocent, dead and buried yet raised vp a­gaine and liuing, humbled low yet exalted high, even to the highest top of all,Phil. 2.9. as hauing a name given him aboue e­very [Page 195] name: And that these things being generally knowne of all,vers. 10.11. he might be magnified and adored of all: and at the name of Iesus all knees might bow, both of things in Heaven, and things in earth, and things vnder the earth, and every tongue might confesse that Iesus Christ is the Lord, to the glory of God the Father. And thus you see how our Sa­viour would be glorified. The considera [...]ion of all which may be vnto vs of singular vse and comfort.

For first seeing Christ who cannot be denyed what e­ver he demands hath prayed for his glorification: what vanity is it for any man to thinke or hope that he can hin­der or obscure it? Let Iewes persecute him, put him to death, set a watch about his sepulcher to keepe him down: yet can they not let but hee shall reviue and rise againe. Though tyrants by open violence oppose the profession of his name, and Hereticks by Sophistrie seeke to vnder­mine it, and Antichrist assault it both waies by violence and sophistrie: yet maugre all their cunning and malice his Father shall surely glorifie him. Yea he is God manife­sted in the flesh, 1 Tim. 3.16. iustified in the spirit, seene of Angells, prea­ched vnto the Gentiles, beleeved on in the world, and recei­ved vp into glory. Onely now it remaines to expect and pray for his returne in glory. Secondly, the Glorification of Christ is the pledge and earnest of our Glorification. For had not he risen, ascended and beene receiued vp into glory, neither should wee. The gates of death had beene bard vpon vs, and of heaven shut against vs, & we should haue beene covered with eternall shame and ignominie. But now Christ like another Sampson hath broken through the gates of death, our head is risen and wee in him. Hee is ascended and gone from vs, but gone to pre­pare a place for vs, that where he is there we may be also, and [Page 106] behold that his glory; and beholding it be made like vnto him, bearing his glorious image. For as now because hee is full of grace wee of his fulnesse receiue even grace for grace: so being full of glory, of his fulnesse wee shall also receiue even glory for glory. Memorable is that saying of Tertullian, De resur. car. c. 51. As he hath left vnto vs the earnest of his spi­rit, so he hath receiued from vs the earnest of our flesh, and hath caried it into heaven as a pledge that the whole summe shall one day be reduced thither. Rest therefore secure oh flesh and bloud, yee haue livery & seizan of heauen and the king­dome of God already in Christ. Thirdly Christ so earnestly suing for his Glorification, it is our duty by all meanes both to procure and further his Glory, which if wee can­not doe in such sort as his Father doth, yet are wee to per­forme it in such a sort as we may. If not gloriosum facien­do, by bestowing glory vpon him: yet gloriosum dicendo, by praising and magnifying his glory. By faith we are to be assured thereof, by confession to acknowledge it, by our holy Christian life to testify that the faith of our hearts and the confession of our mouthes accord and a­gree together, and as much as lies in vs to labour that o­thers may glorifie Christ together with vs. Fourthly and lastly, as Christ did so are wee warranted by his exam­ple to pray for our owne Glorification: that God would be pleased to perfect that glory vpon vs which here by grace he hath begunne in vs. Hence is it that the Saints are said not only to loue, but also to long for the second com­ming of Christ, as knowing that till then it cannot be ob­tained: that the Church also so earnestly prayes, Turne my beloued and be like the Roe or young Hart vpon the moun­taines of Bether, Cant. 2.17. Rev. 22 20. and againe yea come Lord Iesu come quick­ly. But may we with Christ desire that the Glory begun [Page 107] in vs be manifested vnto others? we may. For wee are commanded to provide things honest in the fight of all men, Ro. 8.17. Mat. 5.16. and to let our light so shine before men that they also may see our good workes. Only wee must take heed that wee affect it not from men principally, nor make it our maine end (for this would be the foule sinne of Vaine-glo­ry) but that with Christ wee seeke it of our Father in the first place, and to the end that being glorified of him hee may be glorified by vs. For not hee that commendeth himselfe or is commended of others is approued, 1 Cor. 10.18. but hee whom God commendeth. And so much for Quid, what our Sauiour craueth to himselfe.

Now that he may not be denied his request, he presseth his Father with sundry weighty and important reasons: all which God willing we will handle in their order. The first is drawen from the circumstance of time, thus, The houre is come, therefore glorify thy Sonne. What Hour? vn­doubtedly the houre of his bitter passion. This appeareth evidently by that of our Saviour,Mat. 26.45. Loe the houre is at hand, and the sonne of man is betraid into the hands of sinners. That also of Saint Iohn, Ioh. 8.20. They laid not▪ hands on him, because his houre was not yet come. And yet more plainely by that of our Sauiour,Ioh. 12.23.24.27. where hauing said, the houre is come that the Sonne of man should be glorified, presently hee speaketh of his death, and addeth, Father saue mee from this houre, but therefore came I into this houre. This Houre is here by way of eminence called [...], the, or that houre, both in regard of the great work that was to be performed there­in, as also for that it was long before determined by the Father to that worke. But now, saith Christ, that hour is come, that is, it is instant and at hand. And so indeed it was. For the same night that hee vttered this prayer hee [Page 108] was betraid, and the next day cruelly executed. By which it is evidēt that he was not ignorant of the houre, but as he foreknew it, so he was ready also to enter into it. So that in these two words these three things come to bee consi­dered, the Houre, the worke of the houre, & the knowledge he had both of the Houre & the worke thereof. But before I spake of any of them, it is reason wee should shew the force of Christs argument, & how it followes, The houre of my Passion is now at hand: therefore thou oughtest to glo­rify mee. Some, as namely those of the Church of Rome, make the reason of the sequele to be the merit of his pas­sion, for that by it hee should deserue his glory. Now true it is that Christ both did and suffered many things worthy of most large and ample reward. Howbeit for ought we can find in Scripture, all was for vs with neg­lect of himselfe. There was no perfection but either hee was already possessed of it, or it was now due vnto him by vertue of the personall vnion. At the first instant whereof all glorie would haue flowen to his Humanity, had it not by speciall dispensation beene staid vntill hee was come to the lowest bottome of his humiliation. Which being done, and the stay remoued, it could not but naturally flow vnto him. So that how hee should merit for himselfe cannot well be conceiued without em­peachment of his glorious Vnion. Phil. 2.8.9. As for those texts they alledge for proofe,Heb. 2.9. all of them shew rather ordinem then meritum, Luc. 24.26. that his glory succeeded his passion, not that his passion merited his glory.Heb. 1.9. For as touching that to the Hebrewes, Thou hast loued righteousnesse and hated iniqui­ty: wherefore God even thy God hath annointed thee with the oile of gladnesse aboue thy fellowes: if it import merit, it must be of Vnction and not of finall Glorification, which [Page 109] they wil none of, & indeed cannot be. For in the very first instant of his assumption, & assoone as the Humanity had being, the ointment was poured vpon him, so that it could not possible be preuented by merit. Merit therfore is not the reason of the sequel. What thē Surely the Promise of his Father. For it was not the Fathers will that ignominie should alway rest vpon the sonne, or that the sl [...]es as it were of Glory should still be stopt against him. Where­fore he promised,Esa, 53.10.11. When he should make his soule a sacrifice for sinne, he should see his seed, and prolong his daies, and the pleasure of the Lord should prosper in his hand, so that hee should see of the travell of his soule, and be satisfied. Yea he sware vnto him,Ps. 110.4. and repented not of it, Thou art a Priest for ever after the order of Melchizedeck, Heb. 7.21. that is, who by performing the office of his Priesthood, should passe into his eternall and glorious kingdome. And vpon this ground it is that our Saviour affirmeth,Luc. 24.26. Christ ought first to suffer, and then to enter into his glory. And hence also it is that here he saith, The houre is come, glorifie thy sonne: as if he should say more fully, thou hast bound thy selfe by promise, yea and by oath too, that when by suffering I shall haue finished the worke of redemption for which thou sentest me, thou wouldest fully satisfie me with glo­ry. Now the houre of my passion is come, and I am ready and willing to vndergoe it. Remember therefore thy promise and performe it. For vnlesse thou wilt faile of thy word (and fayle of thy word thou canst not, because thou art truth it selfe) thou must needs glorifie me. And thus you see both the reason and necessity of the sequele in this enthymeme.

Whence we are lessoned, first, to imitate Christ, and with him to ground all our prayers and hopes▪ vpon our [Page 110] Fathers promise. For he is omnipotent and can, true & wil performe. Vnto Godlines he hath made the promise both of this & the other life. Liue we therefore godlily▪ & then feare we not boldly to approch vnto the throne of grace, and to charge him with his promise both for the one and for the other, thou hast promised, and therefore glorifie me. Againe, as Christ could not haue ignominie and shame alwaies to rest vpon him, but that obice remoto the stay and let being remoued, Glory would surely flow vn­to him by reason of the hypostaticall vnion: so by vertue of the mysticall vnion we haue with Christ, obice remoto, assoone as the let and stay is done away, it cannot be but that forthwith from him Glorie should bee deriued vnto vs. That let is Sinne. Sinne being crucified and slaine by death, when we are ready to yeeld vp the ghost, but spe­cially when the day of resurrection is come, we may say with Christ, Father, the houre is come, glorifie thy sonne. Lastly, if we will [...] raigne with Christ in glory, we must first [...] suffer with him in humilitie. Hee bare the Crosse before he could weare the Crowne: & we are predestinated to be conformed vnto the image of the Sonne. Rom. 8.29. And wee also in our flesh must fulfill the re­mainders of the afflictions of Christ,Col. 1.24. if we will be glori­fied with him. But of this enough. Now let vs resume the three particulars aboue mentioned to be considered. And first of the first.

[...], the or that houre, that is the houre decreed & de­termined vnto the Passion of Christ. For hee that is the creator of time,Act. 1.7. hath ever reserued the disposition there­of in his owne power. And as hee hath ordained of all that shall come to passe, euen to the lighting of a sparrow and the fall of a haire: so vnto every thing hath hee set a [Page 111] season,Eccl. 3.1 and a time to every purpose vnder heauen. If to every thing and purpose: then much more to this worke, as being a businesse of greatest weight and consequence. And seeing as the Prince of Physitians saith, [...], time is that wherein season is: it may not be doub­ted but God hath ordained such a time for it as was eve­ry way most seasonable. And truly did S. Augustin say, Omnia proprijs locis & temporibus gessit Saelvator, our Sa­viour acted all things in their proper times and places. Let vs therefore a little more particularly enquire touch­ing this time and season: and here first in what age of the world, secondly in what yeare of his owne age, thirdly and lastly in what time of that yeare he suffered.

As touching the age of the world, it was not instantly vpon the creation thereof, nor yet soone vpon the fall of man, but a long time after, euen towards the end of foure-thousand yeares, and the beginning of the last age of the world,Gal. 4.4. called therefore in Scripture, the fulnesse of time, and the last daies. Heb. 1.2. This time was of old foretold by the Prophets. For although the incarnation and suffering of the Messias was for a while preached indefinitely, with­out designation of any certaine time, as namely vnto Adam and Abraham ▪ yet afterward it pleased God to re­veale it more definitely,Gen 49.10. as by Iacob, the scepter shall not depart from Iudah, nor a law-giuer from betweene his feet, vntill Shiloh come, and by Daniel, Dan. 9.24. &c that seauenty weekes af­ter the going forth of the Commandement to restore & build Ierusalem being well neere expired, the most holy should be annointed and Messias be cut off. At the end of which time there was a generall expectation of the Messia [...] a­mong the Iewes, as appeareth by Scripture. [...] that very time he came, and suffered in the flesh, as by the [Page 112] same Scripture is purposely declared. Some that are counted skilfull in Chronologie ▪ and the computation of times, place the Passion of Christ in the yeare of the world three thousand nine hundred fiftie and three. Others I knowe reckon otherwise, but the numb [...] of yeares where in they differ is so small, that it is little o [...] nothing at all to be reckoned of. Haply you will demand why it pleased God rather to appoint this time then any other. I answer because this time was of all other the most seasonable & fitting. The time before the fall, and while man stood yet in his integritie could no way be fit. For as our Savi­our saith, He came not to call the iust, and againe, the whole need not the Physitian. Mat. 9.15.12. There being therefore as yet no sicknesse nor wound: neither was there any need of phy­sicke or salue. Had man persisted in his innocencie, Christ had never beene incarnate nor had suffered. To haue suf­fered soone after the fall would also haue beene very in­convenient. For it was reason that man sinning by pride should haue a time to humble him, to see his miserie, to seeke helpe, and to exercise his faith. The dignitie also of our Saviours person was such, and the worke of redemp­tion so important, that so much haste could not wel stand with either.Luc. 18.8. And if Christ suffering so lately shall at his second comming scarce finde faith on the earth: what a scarcity of faith would there haue beene, and how cold would charity haue waxed by this time, had hee suffered so long agoe, and presently vpon the fall? For which cause also it was not to bee deferred vnto the last period of the world, least in the interim religion and the know­ledge of God should quite bee extinguished. Besides it [...] [...]it that some time should be allowed betweene the worke of our redemption and glorification, to the end that [Page 113] the power of God our Saviour might bee praised and spread abroad, our faith exercised and tried not onely in regard of things past and present but future also, and our thankfulnesse testified by our faithfull and diligent ser­ving of him. The duest time therefore was by the wis­dome of God chosen▪ and Christ came and suffered nei­ther too soone nor too late, but in that season when both Iewes and Gentiles were come to their ripenesse, the one to be broken off by reason of their incredulitie, the other to be grafted in through Gods goodnesse and mercy. For as touching the Iewes, they were now growne to such an height of impietie, that as Iosephus saith, had the Romans neuer so little deferred their desolation, either the earth would haue swallowed them, or a deluge of waters haue drowned them, or fire from heauē haue consumed them, for Sodom was never so abominable. As for the Gentiles, their fulnesse was now come in, they were growne white and ready for the harvest, and the calling of them so long delayed was now to be commenced. And so much for the age of the world.

As touching the yeare of his age wherein hee suffered, it was, if wee may beleeue Irenaeus, about the fiftieth, which he voucheth to be an Apostolicall tradition. But indeed he is fowly mistaken, as is generally agreed vpon by all. Where by the way may bee obserued what small credit is to be giuen to Fathers in point of tradition. The ground of his opinion was that of the Iewes, Thou are not yet fiftie, Ioh. 8.57. and hast thou seene Abraham? But they spake at randome, and after the manner of disputers grant him more then might well be admitted. The common recea­ued opinion is, that hee suffered being three and thirtie compleate, & in the beginning of his foure and thirtieth. [Page 114] Howbeit Scaliger, and that as it seemes not without good reason, addeth one yeare more, and placeth his Passion in the beginning of his fiue and thirtieth. For taking it as granted that at his Baptisme he was full thirtie,Luc. 3.23. betweene that and his Passion he findes as hee supposeth fiue Passe­overs. The first in the second of Iohn, Ver. 13.23. And the Iewes Passe­over was at hand. Vers. 1. The second in the first of Iohn, After this there was a feast of the Iewes: which he proueth to be Easter by that in the former Chapter,Vers. 35. Say not yee, there are yet foure months and then commeth harvest?Vers. 1. The third in the twelfth of Mathew and the sixt of Luke where his Disciples walking through the corne fields plucked the eares of corne. Vers. 4. The fourth in the sixt of Iohn. And the Passe­ouer a feast of the Iewes was nigh. The fift and last was that wherein he was crucified. Which being so, then Christ being baptized in his thirtieth compleate, and dy­ing in the fift Passeouer after, his suffering must of neces­sity be in the beginning of his fiue and thirtieth. But a­bout this I will not contend. The oddes of one yeare can­not be great. Enquire wee rather why hee suffered at this age. First, because it was vnfit that old age should creepe into that nature which was so neerely vnited vnto the e­ternall sonne of God. Secondly to testifie how dearely he loued vs, that was content then to die for vs when as yet he was in the very flowre and vigor of his age. Third­ly, mystically to teach vs, that as hee grew in age and sta­ture, and then being come to his full consistence and strength declined not: so we should also grow from faith to faith, from grace to grace till we come to our full [...] in Christ, never more afterwards to feele any decay. Last­ly to shew, as St. Augustin probably conjectureth, in what age or stature we shall rise againe, how young or old so­euer [Page 115] we die: namely in that wherein Christ himselfe dy­ed and rose againe. And so much touching the yeare of his age.

The time of the yeare wherein he suffered was the day of the feast of Passeouer, even the fifteenth of the month Nisan. For the evening before he eate the Passeouer with his Disciples, which by the law of God ought to be done vpon the fourteenth of Nisan: & the next day after he dy­ed. Here perhaps it will be objected, that the Iewes began not their Passeouer till after Christ was crucified, as plain­ly appeares.Ioh. 13.1. [...]. cap. 19.14. & 18.2 [...]. Before the feast of Passeouer, supper being en­ded, saith St Iohn. And againe, It was the preparation of the Passeover, and about the sixt houre. And yet againe, they themselues went not into the hall of iudgement lest they should be defiled, but that they might eate the Passeouer. Wherevnto I answer, that by this it seemes to mee more then manifest, that Christ and the Iewes did not both eate the Passeouer at once, but our Saviour the euening before and the Iewes the euening after he was crucified. What then? Did Christ as Lord of the Passeouer prevent the due day prescribed by his Father? So some say, but very vnprobably. For Christ came to fulfill the law: & there­fore without doubt he precisely obserued it. How then? Surely the Iewes fayled, not he. For the day of the Passe­over and the weekly Sabbath falling immediatly this yeare one after the other, they according to their old cu­stome, translated the Passeouer vpon the Sabbath, and ob­serued both on one day. But our Saviour preferring his Fathers order vnto humane traditions, tooke order it should be prepared for him on that very day [...], in which,Luc. 22.7.8. as St Luke saith, the Passeouer ought to be sacrificed. So that, as we haue said, the feast day it selfe was the day [Page 116] of his suffering. Then which no time could be more cō ­venient or seasonable. For as by other Leviticall ceremo­nies, so was he also typed by the Paschal lambe. And therefore what time more fitting the sacrifice of the true Lambe, then that which presently followed vpon the slaying of the typicall? Wherevnto St Paul alluding, for euē Christ, [...]. Cor. [...].7. saith he, our Passeouer is sacrificed for vs. Adde herevnto the assertion of some, that as Adam [...] the same day he was created sinned: so the same day after the revolution of some yeares, mans sin by the death of Christ was done away, and hee againe created anew. Which if it could clearely and infallibly bee de­monstrated would argue a speciall providence of God in the dispensation of this day. Adde lastly, that at this time all the Iewes wheresoeuer were to appeare at Ierusalem, & to celebrate this feast before the Lord: and that in this regard also it was fit he should at this time suffer, that more publike notice might be taken thereof, and it the better be divulged and spread abroad. And thus also you see in what time and season of the yeare he suffered.

The consideration of this circumstance of time may serue first to convince the Iewes of obstinate incredulitie. For if God haue by his eternall decree determined a set houre vnto the comming and suffering of the Messias, & that houre be now many hundred of yeares past: then is Christ already come, or God fayleth of his purpose. But that such a precise houre was set, and that God cannot fayle of his purpose, the Iew knoweth well enough. Ob­stinate therefore needs must he be, still denying that the Messias is come. Secondly it may serue to confirme and settle our Faith in the truth of the promised seed. For they that came before or after the appointed houre could [Page 117] not be the true shepheard, but theeues only and robbers. But Iesus the sonne of Mary came and suffered in that ve­ry time, and in him were fulfilled all whatsoever was by the Prophets foretold concerning the Messias. He there­fore is the true Christ, neither are wee to looke for ano­ther. Thirdly, not whithstanding this appointed time, wee are to remember for our further consolation, that Ie­sus Christ is yesterday and to day and evermore. Heb. 13▪8▪ And there­fore as he was virtually the lambe slaine from the begin­ning of the world ▪ so the vertue of his death and passion reacheth downe to these times also, and evermore will be available to the iustification of a sinner, whosoever shall bee provided of true Faith thereby to apprehend it. Fourthly, as vnto this particular of Christs passion, so vn­to other things also, as namely our vocation, conversion & repentance, hath he appointed a due time. This is called the acceptable time, and our Hodie to day: which if wilful­ly we neglect, we may with Esau, seeke the blessing with teares, and never after recover it. Take wee heed there­fore while it is called to day, that we harden not our hearts, but harken vnto his voice, and duely obey it that wee may be admitted into his rest. Lastly, as God out of his deepe wisdome, so are wee in imitation of God to doe all things in due season. For as nothing is contented out of its proper place, so nothing is welcome or gratious that is done out of due season. It is not every word how true soever that is like an apple of gold with pictures of sil­ver, but that only which is Seasonable. Learned is the tongue of that man that speaketh a word of com­fort in fit time: and thrice blessed is hee who like a tree planted by the rivers of waters bringeth forth his [Page 118] fruite in his proper season. And thus much touching the time when Christ suffered.

The next point to be considered is the worke of that houre, what worke will you say? The bitter passion of our Lord and saviour Iesus Christ. what Passion? The suf­fering of that punishment which was due to sinne for the satisfaction of his Fathers iustice. What, was hee a sinner and deserved such punishment? No, by no meanes. For as touching Originall sinne, the passage of that was so stop­ped vp in his conception by the Holy Ghost, that it could no way enter into him. And for Actuall sinne there was not so much as guile found in his mouth. But hee was to suffer for our Sinnes, and to satisfie his Father. We had eaten sower grapes, and his teeth were set on edge, yea but what iustice is this, that Titius shall sinne, and Sempronius be punished? The cause is not alike. For Christ vndertooke to be our Surety, and to satisfie all our debts. And to this end the Word became Flesh, that being o­therwise impassible, hee might in it suffer the punishment due vnto vs. But might not God if he had beene so pleased haue vsed some other meanes for the appeasing of his wrath? Yes doubtlesse, for he had abundance of spirit & wisdome. But he chose this as the best course for the de­claration of his iustice and mercy: justice in the rigorous exacting of satisfaction for sinne yea even from his owne sonne, mercy in the free pardon of sinne by the death and passion of his sonne. Excellently to this purpose Camera­censis, God in the beginning gaue vnto man, truth to in­struct him, iustice to direct him, mercy to preserue him, and peace to delight him. But he rebelling against his crea­tor, they all fled from him, & returned vnto God. Where iustice called vpon him for satisfaction, and truth requi­red [Page 119] performance of his word: but Peace sought mitigati­on of wrath, and mercy sued for pardon. In this difficulty wisdome interposed her selfe, and found out a meanes to content all, namely by the incarnation and suffering of the sonne of God. Wherevnto the Father yeelding all were soone accorded: and so mercy and truth met together, and justice and peace kissed each other. For further ratifica­tion whereof it pleased the Father solemnely and vnalte­rably to decree, that his sonne should suffer in the flesh. Wherevpon our Saviour saith it was so determined: and the Scriptures as they foretell it, so they affirme that thus it must be, and that Christ ought to suffer. Luc. 22.28. Esa. 53. Mat. 26.54. Luc. 24.26. Act. 2.33.And according to this determinate counsell and fore-knowledge of God, when the houre appointed was come he was delivered and taken and by wicked hands crucified and slaine. Of which great worke being now to speake, and to enquire into the Pu­nishment fore appointed vnto him by his Father; because some extenuate it too much as if he seemed only to suffer, or suffered not what indeed hee did, others againe too much aggravate it as if he suffered the very paines of the damned in hell, wee will as warily and as carefully as we can steere betweene that Scylla and this Charybdis. And to this end wee will diligently enquire foure things, the spe­cies or kinde of punishment he suffered, the extention, the intention, and the duration thereof. And of each of these briefely in a word.

The kind of punishment was that which was due to sin, and every way equivalent for the expiation thereof: how­beit so farre forth and no further then was convenient for such a person. First, therefore he suffered not that Pu­nishment of sinne which is sinne (for God many times and that iustly punisheth one sinne by another) The reason; [Page 120] for that then he should haue beene a sinner either by in­herent or actuall sinne, and so could never haue made sufficient satisfaction for the sinnes of others. Neither secondly did he suffer the personall punishment of this or that man, as the gout, the stone, the dropsie, and the like. For he tooke not the person but the nature of man into him: and so made himselfe subiect not to Personall but to Naturall infirmities only. To say nothing that those paines are many of them so contrary and repugnant one vnto another, as they are incompatible in the same per­son. Nor yet thirdly did he suffer those punishments which proceede either from the conscience of inherent sinne, or the eternall continuance of sinne, such as are Re­morse and despaire. For in him was never any sinne whe­ther Originall or Actuall. Only it was imputed vnto him inasmuch as he vndertooke to satisfy for it. These fore­prised and excepted all other sorts of Punishment were laid vpon him. And because in Sinne there is a double act, an Aversion or turning away from God the chiefest good, and a Conversion or turning vnto that which is on­ly a seeming good, and consequently the desert of a dou­ble Punishment, the one of losse to be depriued of the true good, in regard of the Aversion, the other of sence, to feele smart both in body and soule in regard of the Con­version: our blessed Lord and Sauiour suffered both. The Punishment of Losse, being in regard of present comfort and ioy left vnto himselfe and in a sort forsaken of his Father, of which againe anon in the due place. The pu­nishment of Sence, for he felt during the while extreame both torment and paine outwardly in the body, and hor­ror and anguish, inwardly in the Soule.

The Extension whereof was also exceeding generall: [Page 121] for he suffered from all that any way could afflict him, and in all whatsoever belonged vnto him. From his Fa­ther therefore he suffered, who for a time abandoned him and delivered him into the hand of sinners, from the pow­ers of darknesse who laid vpon him whatsoever their ma­lice could devise, from the Iewes who stumbled at him and despised him, from the Gentiles who made a game and laughing-stocke of him, from Magistrates who con­vented and condemned him, from the people who arrested and accused him, from the Clergie who charged him with cozinage and blasphemy, from the Laity who cry­ed out crucifie him crucifie him, from his enimies who cruelly persecuted him, from his friends who in his greatest need started aside from him, from forrainers who disdainfully shooke the head at him, from those of his owne houshold who most treacherously betraied him, and in a word from all sorts both of men and women: yea from the Heaven which denied to giue him light, from the aire which refused to vouchsafe him breath, from the earth which would not so much as beare him, & frō what not? And as from all, so hee suffered also in all. In his goods, being stript even of his raiment, and lots cast thereon, in his good name being esteemed a deceiuer, a blasphemer, a drunkard, a glutton, a magitian, a traitor to Caesar, in his friends who were scattered as soone as the shepheard was smitten, in his mother through whose heart a sword was driuen, in his soule by strong feare be­fore his passion, and extreame sorrow in his passion, in all the parts of his body, his head being crowned with thornes, his face spit vpon, his cheekes buffited, his hands & feet nailed, his sides peirced, his backe & armes, scour­ged, and the whole vpon the crosse barbarously stretched [Page 122] and racked: in all his sences, the touch by wounds, the tast with myrre and vineger, the smell with the loathsome savour of Golgotha, the hearing with shamefull taunts and revilings, and the sight with mowes and disdainefull be­haviour, finally in the whole person by death, & the se­paration of the soule from the body.

The Intension of all which was likewise exceeding ve­hement, even proportionable vnto the desert of sinne, wherefore he sticketh not to say,Lam. 1.12. Behold and see if there be any sorrow like vnto my sorrow? And againe, the sor­rowes of hell compassed me round about. Not that he felt the flames of hell fire, or the same kind of torment which the damned suffer in hell (farre bee such impiety from our thoughts) but that which is equivalent therevnto. Had he suffered only the death of the crosse, and no more, his martyrs might seeme to haue endured more bitter paines, and with more patience then he. But this in no case may be imagined His [...], his feare and conster­nation, his strong cries, his agonie and bloudy sweat, his earnest prayer that if it were possible the cuppe might passe from him, and that lamentable expostulation, my God my God why hast thou forsaken me, doe all mainely ar­gue that his pangs were high strained and extraordinary. For although he were not forsaken of his Father either by breach of personall vnion, or losse of vnction, or diminution of grace, or despaire of protection and deliue­rance: yet he was abandond and [...]eft destitute of all pre­sent comfort, so that his sorrowes could not but bee a­boue all other sorrowes. And indeed how could it bee o­therwise? For not to speake of the paines of the body (which yet some affirme to be more intense then could be of other men by reason of the perfection and finenesse of [Page 123] his complection) his sorrowes were not for the sinnes of one man, but of the whole world, which could be no lesse then a world of sorrow. And if his loue to vs were so in­finite that he was content to suffer all these extremities for vs: his sorrow for the miseries wee were in could be no lesse, but must every way bee answerable vnto his loue. So must it vnto his wisdome also: for by it perfectly knowing and apprehending all the causes and reasons of sorrow, it cannot be avoided but that according to this knowledge & apprehension his sorrowes should be strai­ned and intended.

The last point is the Duration of his paines, or how long he suffered them. They were not eternell, nor might continue vpon him for ever. Had they so continued, hee had never conquered death nor hell: and hauing not freed himselfe from them, how could hee set vs free? They continued therefore vpon him but that houre, the time destined by his Father therevnto: which being once ex­pired; all his paines and sorrowes ceased together there­with. Here it will surely be obiected, the punishment due vnto sinne is an eternall punishment. If then the sufferings of Christ were only temporarie and not eternall, how hath he suffered and satisfied sufficiently for sinne? For time holdeth no proportion with eternity. Wherevnto I an­swer first, that in regard of the dignity of his person, the shortest punishment inflicted vpon him is equivalent to the eternall punishment laid vpon others. For hee is not a meere man, but God and man. And as there is not be­tweene time and eternity, so neither is there betweene God and meere man any proportion at all. I answere se­condly, that eternall punishment is due only to an eternall sinne, not to that which is interrupted and broken off by [Page 124] grace. Sinne though the act thereof bee transient, yet it leaueth such a staine vpon the soule, as continueth in it e­vermore, if by mercy it be not blotted out, and evermore disposeth vnto sinne. Now he that is so disposed sinneth in suo aeterno, and hauing as much as lies in him a perpe­tuall purpose of sinning, he shall as he deserues perpetual­ly and everlastingly bee punished. But they for whom Christ died, haue their sinnes broken off by grace, their soules by little and little cleansed from the staines of sin in his bloud, a hatred and detestation of sinne wrought in them, together with a sincere loue and study of holinesse, vntill sinne be vtterly destroyed and abolished in them. Christ therefore thus purposing to put a full end to all their sinnes, reason would that an end [...] should bee set vnto his sufferings, and their sinnes not being eternall, that neither his sufferings should bee eternall. And thus much for the Duration of his Passion.

The vse of all may be this. First, seeing Christ hath suf­fered all these things and that for vs, it is fit that we by all waies and meanes should study to come to the full know­ledge thereof. It was not for Angells, and yet they ear­nestly desired to looke into this mistery. Vs it concernes on­ly, and nothing more then it: and can wee possibly neglect the learning of it? The Apostle Saint Paul accounted the knowledge hereof to be of all other the most excellent, and all other things in comparison of it to bee but losse and dung. Phil 3. [...]. 1 Cor. 2.2. Wherevpon he protesteth that among the Corin­thians he was resolved not to know any thing saue Christ Iesus and him crucified. Why then should not wee bee of the same,Eph. 3.18. and pray with him that wee may be able to com­prehend with all Saints what is the breadth and length and depth and height? That knowing what great matters hee [Page 125] hath done for vs, wee may be the more incited to bee thankefull vnto him for it. Secondly, seeing it pleased the Father thus to decree that his sonne should suffer all these things for the satisfaction of his iustice, and that other­wise he would not be appeased for sinne: we may there­by learne [...], how precisely rigorous God is in the punishment of sinne, together with the vilenesse and odiousnesse thereof. The due consideration whereof would both terrifie vs from the committing of sinne, and worke in our hearts a loathing & detestation of sinne. For if God will not be pacified without full satisfaction, how dare we commit it? And if nothing can cleanse the lepro­sie thereof but only the bloud of the sonne of God, how can we but abhorre it? Thirdly, seeing he hath resolued to appease his wrath, and to rest satisfied for sinne in the sufferings of his sonne, wee may therein as in a crystall glasse clearly behold [...], the great loue of God towards man. It was not for the sinning Angells and their redemption that he gaue his sonne, but for vs men and our salvation. Rather then he would loose the whole race of mankind, he would spare nothing, no not his best be­loued. With whom although he were ever well pleased, yet he must needs suffer for vs, that in him he may be also well pleased with vs. Feare we not therefore nor despaire of grace. Though our sinnes be never so many and grei­vous: yet the sonne of God hath satisfied for them all. Tender wee this payment vnto his Father, and it cannot but be accepted. But yet lastly, seeing his sufferings were but a short time, and so not intended for eternall sinnes, but those only which were to haue an end: it may giue vs a cave at to breake off our sinnes be time, least being iustly cut off in them they proue eternall to vs, and so we haue [Page 126] no benefit in the sufferings of Christ. For as the Apostle St Paule saith,Heb. 10.26 & 29. if obstinately and wilfully we resolue to sinne af­ter we haue received the knowledge of the truth, there re­maineth no more sacrifice for sinnes. For this is to tread vn­der foot the Sonne of God, to count the bloud of the Coue­nant wherewith we were sanctified an vnholy thing, and to doe despite vnto the spirit of grace. But of this second part, the worke of the houre enough.

The third and last is the Knowledge he had both of the worke and the houre. The Houre, saith he, is come. Hee knew it therefore, else how could he say it. And out of this knowledge was it that so often he foretold of both. Of his Passion. Ioh. 3.14. As, saith he, Moses lifted vp the serpent in the wildernesse: even so must the sonne of man be lifted vp. And againe, more plainely vnto his disciples hee shewed, that he must goe vnto Ierusalem, Mat. 16.21. and suffer many things of the elders and chiefe Priests and Scribes, and be killed. Of the Houre. For sometime saith hee, Nondum venit hora mea, Ioh. 13.1. my houre is not yet come. Another time, Iesus knew that his houre was come. And if Simeon and Anna, and o­ther of the Iewes foreknew the time of his comming in the flesh, and accordingly expected him: should not hee much more know the houre appointed vnto his suffer­ings, and accordingly prepare himselfe for it? For, as himselfe witnesseth, for that houre he came into the world. But how came he to the knowledge hereof? First, by the Scripture, Luc. 24.46▪ and the prediction of the Prophets. For, thus, saith he, it is written, and thus it behooved Christ to suffer. But where is it written? Every where almost. And con­cerning his Passion, in the Psalmes of David especially, & the prophecy of Esay. And touching the houre, in the blessing of Iudah by Iacob recorded in Genesis, and that [Page 127] memorable prophecy of seaventy weekes in Daniell, as is aboue already specified. All which Scriptures he himselfe could not but vnderstand, who opened the minds of o­thers that they might vnderstand them.Luc. 24.45. Againe, he came to the knowledge hereof by speciall revelation, as being a Prophet, yea the greatest of all Prophets. For being in his humane nature assumpted into the Deity, and to this end assumpted that when the houre was come in it hee might suffer: it could not be that either the houre or the worke of the houre should be concealed from him. The Word vndoubtedly knew it, for he appointed it. As vndoubted­ly he made it knowne vnto his manhood which he had so neerely taken vnto him, for that the same so mainely con­cerned it. If this be so, will some say, why then knowing it did he not avoide it? was it because he could not? Not so. For he was omnipotent: and hee only had power of his life to lay it downe or to take it vp, neither could any without his owne permission take it from him. If hee would hee might haue prayed to his Father, & hee would haue sent him more then twelue legions of Angells to pre­serue him.Mat. 26.53. And if before the houre was come hee had so often freed himselfe from the hands of his most violent enimies: why should he not in the very houre be as able to deliver himselfe? For his power was still the same and never a whit diminished. He could then, but would not avoide it. And why would he not? First, because his Fa­ther had decreed it, and he would in no case bee disobedi­ent vnto him. For he came to doe his will, and therefore professed it was vnto him meat and drinke to doe it. In re­gard whereof he disclaimes his owne will. Not my will, saith he,Heb. 5.8. but thy will be done. Wherefore though hee were the Sonne, Phil. 2.8. yet he learned obedience: and became obedient [Page 128] vnto death, even the death of the crosse. Secondly, because of the tender loue his Father inspired into him towards mankind. For it was the loue he bare them which made him so willing:Rom. 5.8. and out of it though wee were his enimies, yet he was content to dye for vs, 1 Ioh. 3.16. and to lay downe his life though it were so deare vnto him. Lastly, had he not bin willing, neither had he satisfied. His willingnesse pro­ceeding from such loue was the very forme of his suffer­ings, and made them meritorious. Without thē sacrifice is vaine and without vertue, according to that misericor­diam volo non sacrificium, I will mercy and not sacrifice, and againe, melior est obedientia quam victimae, obedi­ence is better then sacrifice, But it will bee said, that all this notwithstāding he seemed very vnwilling to dye. For did not he very passionately entreat his Father to bee de­livered from that houre?Ioh. 12.27. And that if it were possible the cup might passe from him?Mat. 26 39. For satisfaction of which doubt we are to know, that Christ though his manhood were assumed into the Deity, yet was hee not thereby freed from ought that is humane. Being man therefore, as man he was measured by time, and his apprehensions could not all be in an instant, but one after another succes­siuely. Wherefore the first apprehension of his Passion was simple as of a thing evill in it selfe and afflictiue to his nature, without any further consideration: for so only Sence & inferiour reason at the first presented it vnto him. And thus farre it is true he desired to decline it. Neither was it evill so to doe, it being agreeable to that law of na­ture which in creation was imposed vpon vs. But when in the second place it was by superiour reason presented vnto him invested with other circumstances, as namely that it was his Fathers will, that for this end he was sent [Page 129] to the world, and that without it the world could not be redeemed there being no other meanes besides to effect it: forthwith apprehending it in this manner, hee yeelded most willingly therevnto, and said vnto his Father, not as I will, but as thou wilt. Iust as a Patient, who considering the potion offered him by the Physitian only as bitter & distastfull loatheth and abhorreth it: but considering with all the operation thereof and what good it may doe him, he readiy admitteth and accepteth of it. And thus much touching the knowledge Christ had of his Passion and the houre thereof, together with his willingnesse to suffer in obedience to his Father, and out of the loue he bare vs.

Whence we may learne, first from his knowledge, that as he knew both what and when hee was to suffer in his owne person, so he knowes also both what and when to suffer in his mysticall body. This may minister matter of singular comfort vnto vs. For if it be so, what harme can at any time betide vs? Hee will not suffer so much as a haire to fall from our head but as hee pleaseth. For hee hath numbered them all, and there is not a teare we shed from our eyes but he laies it vp in his bottle. Many may be the troubles of the Righteous, but as he foresees them all, so will he support vs in them, and one day deliver vs from them all. Secondly from his willingnesse to suffer for vs, to assure our selues that his free-will offering is accepted of his Father, & we may confidently r [...]ly there­on as a full satisfaction for all our sinnes. Withall that we be also ready and willing to suffer for him. What ever can be laid vpon vs, is nothing to that which hee endured for vs. Oh those glorious Martyrs who so ioyfully suffe­red such exquisite torments for his names sake! Hitherto wee sit quietly vnder our vines & figge trees. How soone [Page 130] the daies of triall may come who knowes? God grant vs to be of like minde whensoever it comes. Thirdly, from his obedience, to yeeld absolute obedience vnto the will of our Father, and denying our owne wills to say vnto him, not as I will but as thou wilt. Away with hypotheti­call and conditionall obedience, if it make for my profit and advantage, or may be without my losse & hinderance. Say we rather with Queene Hester, Dan. 3.16.17.18. If I perish I perish, and with the three children, Wee are not carefull ô Nebucadnet­sar to answer thee in this matter. Our God whom wee serue is both able and will deliver vs. If not, yet know wee will not serue thy Gods. Lastly from his loue, the best wee can to requite him with loue. The debt of loue we owe him is infinite because his loue to vs was infinite. Which seeing wee can never repay to the full, let vs endeavour what we can, and bestow our selues vpon him, even our reaso­nable service of him. And thus much touching the first argument whereby he would perswade his Father to glo­rify him.

The second is drawen from the highest and chiefest end of all things, the glory of God, in these words, that thy sonne may glorify thee. And it may bee reduced into this forme, That by which I shall glorifie thee, and with­out which I cannot glorifie thee, thou maist not deny vn­to mee. But by my Glorification I shall glorifie thee, and without it I cannot glorifie thee. Therefore my glorifi­cation thou maist not deny vnto me. Of the truth of both these Propositions I am now to speake: Which I shall eft­soones performe, if first we may know what the Glorie of the Father is. For what Glorie is in generall, & what it is to Glorifie, wee haue already spoken of at full, and therefore forbeare to speake any further of it. That God [Page 131] the Father is Glorious nothing is more evident. In Scrip­ture he is called Pater gloriae, Eph. 1.17. Psal. 24.8. the Father of glorie, Rex gloriae the king of glorie,Act. 7.2. Deus gloriae the God of glorie: and so great is his Glorie that it is therefore to be [...] an excellent or magnificent glory.2 Pet. 1.17. This glory is the splendor or brightnesse of his perfection aboue all other things. The ground thereof is perfection: that whereby it appeareth is the Splendor or brightnesse thereof.Iam. 1.4. Perfecti­on is cum nihil deest, when nothing is wanting. Whence in Hebrew it is called [...] from [...] which signifieth All. And it is double, either in suo genere in its kinde, and so the Sun is said to be perfect, because it hath the fulnesse of light, or absolute, to wit, an interminable, infinite en­tire possession of all good, and so God only is perfect. And this Perfection is againe double, Substantiall or Personall. The Substantiall, is the very Godhead it selfe considered in its Nature together with all the essentiall properties thereof, as knowledge, wisdome, iustice, mercy, power, e­ternity, and the like. And this is so the Glory of the Father as it is also the Glory of the Sonne and of the Holy Ghost. For as the Creed of Athanasius hath, The Godhead of the Father, and of the Sonne, and of the Ho­ly Ghost is one: and so the Glory equall and the maiesty coe­ternall. This Perfection exceeds that of the creature infi­nitely, and that in sundry respects. For first, whereas the Creature hath perfection only in its kind, and one is desti­tute of that which is bestowed vpon another: the Father hath the full possession of all Good whatsoeuer is or possi­bly can be imagined. secondly, whereas other things haue their perfection only suo modo, according their capacity, which because they are creatures can bee but finite: the Father hath his modo perfectissimo, after a most eminent and vnconceivable manner, which because he is of infi­nite [Page 132] capacity must needs be infinite, And lastly, whereas the creature hath his perfection aliunde, from another without him, not from himselfe, namely God, according to that of the Apostle, Quid habes quod non accepisti, what hast thou which thou hast not receiued: the Father hath his from himselfe and of himselfe, without dependency or beholdingnesse vnto any other. His Personall perfecti­on is his Fatherhood, or that whereby hee is the Father. And this is proper glory, incommunicable even to the Sonne or the Holy Ghost: for neither of them is the Father. And this glory stands in three things. First, that he is Pri­ma persona, the first person in order. In order, I say, not in dignity: for so all three are coequall. The Sonne is the se­cond, the Holy Ghost is the third: but hee neither is not may be called the second or third, but only the first. Se­condly, that he is the fountaine and originall of the Deity vnto the Sonne and the Holy Ghost: vnto the Sonne gig­nendo, by way of generation, vnto the Holy Ghost toge­ther with the Sonne spirando, by an vnspeakable manner of Proceeding. Thirdly and lastly, that he is [...] vn­begotten, and proceeding from none: so that whereas the Sonne and the Holy Ghost receiue their Personality from him, he receiueth his from neither. These privi­ledges are so great, that although the Father, Sonne, and Holy Ghost exceed not one the other either in essence or dignity, yet the Father in regard of these is in Scripture by a kinde of [...] or excellency called God. This dou­ble perfection of the Father is not without its Splendor & Brightnesse by which it shineth and appeareth. Were it without it, it could scarce be called glory. Now we know that the Father was neuer without his glory, no not then whē things were not as yet created. Else how could he be [Page 133] said to manifest his glory? For manifestation is of that which is.Ioh. 17.5. And doth not our Saviour likewise desire to be glorified with that glory which be had with his Father be­fore the world was? The Perfection thereof the Father by the Splendor and Brightnesse thereof shineth and appea­reth two waies, first inwardly to the holy and blessed Tri­nitie, and then outwardly vnto others. Inwardly to the Trinitie, by intervention of vnderstanding and know­ledge. For shining internally with the fullest clarity vnto them it cannot but appeare vnto them: and appearing they cannot but contemplate and admire it as the Ocean and magazin of all good. Outwardly vnto others by workes conformable vnto his perfection: as namely of Creation, Sustentation, Government, Redemption, and in the end Restauration of all things. For in these the good­nesse, Wisdome, Power, Iustice, and Mercy of God doe shine and appeare to vs, whom it hath pleased God to enable with vnderstanding to see and in some measure to com­prehend them. But the shining forth of all perfection, and the appearance thereof in full strength, is reserued vnto that day When the creature shall bee deliuered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the Sonnes of God:Rom. 8.21. and vnto Faith whereby wee see onely as in a mirrour, intuitiue beholding of the face of God by vision shall succeed. And this is the glory of the Fa­ther. Now to glori [...]ie him cannot bee to giue or adde glory vnto him. For, as we haue shewed, he is absolutely Perfect and lacketh nothing: and his propertie is to giue vnto all, but to receiue from none. It is therefore to mani­fest his glory, & to make it publikely known throughout the world: as if our Sauiour had said, Father vnlesse thou glorify me, the brightnes of thy glory will exceedingly [Page 134] be eclipsed & obscured: but if thou glorifie me, then shall the Glory bee greatly manifested by me, and I shall make it knowne farre and neere among the sonnes of men. This being the meaning of these tearmes, let vs now ex­amine both the Propositions of the argument aboue pro­pounded, & trie the truth of them.

The Maior is That by which I shall glorifie thee, and without which I cannot glorifie thee, thou maist not deny vnto me. An evident and vndoubted truth: else never would Christ haue said it, especially in a matter so much concerning him. For if, as Solomon saith, the lip of vanity becommeth not a Prince, much lesse would it become him who is the wisdome of the Father and very truth it selfe. And if nothing can concerne him more then his owne Glorification: then certainely to speake sleightly and im­pertinently in a matter of such moment would haue ar­gued much weaknesse. And indeed it is so apparently true that our Saviour only affirmes it without vouchsafing it any confirmation at all, as if hee knewe that his Father neither would nor could deny it. Neuerthelesse the truth thereof may yet further appeare: First by the continuall practise of all the Saints, conformable vnto this of Christ. For in all their addresses vnto God they ever vrged him with his Glory, as the strongest argument to perswade, when the Lord had threatned to smite the people of Israel with the pestilence and to disinherit them because of their murmuring and incredulitie,Num. 14.12. Moses thought nothing would sooner moue him to commiseration and pittie of them then the impeachment otherwise of his honour: For, Vers. 15.16. saith he, the nations which haue heard the fame of thee will speake, saying, Because the Lord was not able to bring this people into the land which he sware vnto them, there­fore [Page 135] hath he slaine them in the wildernesse. As if he should say, thou maist not doe it, because it will discredit both thy truth and power. Againe Daniel when the seauenty yeares of Iudahs captivity were neere at an end, entreateth the Lord to remember them in mercy, and to returne thē backe againe into their owne country. But what argu­ment vseth he to perswade?Dan 9.17.18.19. For thine owne sake, saith he, because the citty and thy people are called by thy name. As if he should say, least otherwise thy Glorie by failing in per­formance of thy promise towards thy people should bee called into question: what Psalme almost is there in which the Prophet David presseth not vpon God this rea­son? Returne O Lord, Ps. 6.4.5. deliuer my soule, oh saue mee for thy mercies sake. For in death there is no remembrance of thee, in the graue who shall giue thee thankes? Ib. 142.7. Bring my soule out of prison that I may praise thee: the righteous shall com­passe mee about, for thou shalt deale bountifully with mee. Quicken me O Lord for thy names sake: & 143.11. for thy righteous­nesse sake bring my soule out of trouble. It were infinite to quote particular passages. In a word, did not our Savi­our when he taught vs to pray direct vs ever to conclude with this argument, For thine is the kingdome, the power, and the glory? And did not St Paul according to this di­rection end his Prayer with ascribing Glory vnto God in the Church by Christ Iesus throughout all ages? Eph. 3.21. If then o­thers haue mightily prevailed with God in vrging him with his Glorie: shall we thinke that the Sonne of God can be lesse prevalent with his Father pressing him with the same argument, Father glorifie me, for so I shall bee able, else not, to glorifie thee.

Secondly, the manifestation of the Fathers Glory, is the architectonicall and soueraigne end of all things. This he [Page 136] himselfe principally intended in all his works: this he set vp as a marke for all to ayme at.Prov. 16.4. The Lord, saith Solomon, made all things for himselfe, even the wicked for the day of evill. The predestination also of the Saints, and their a­doption to be children by Iesus Christ, was, as S. Paul tes­tifieth, to the praise of the glory of his grace: Eph. 1.5.6. Rom. 11.36. yea of him and through him, and to him are all things: to whom be glory for euer, Amen. For to the praise of the glory of his Pow­er all things were created. To the praise of the glory of his Wisdome all things are ordered and gouerned. To the praise of the glory of his Mercy are wee ransomed in Christ from the bondage of misery. And to the praise of the glory of his Iustice are impenitent sinners reprobated and condemned. And reason it should bee thus. For as out of him all things were educed as being the fountaine and prime cause of all: so vnto him it was fit all things should be reduced as vnto the last and chiefest end of all. Right even as out of the sea all riuers flow, and then re­flow back againe vnto it. Neither indeed was it possible to be otherwise. For God being in himselfe blessed and all-sufficient, cannot rest in any thing that is extrinsecall and without himselfe. In himselfe therefore he must find it: and what other can that be then his Glorie? His Glorie therefore did he necessarily propound vnto himselfe as the soueraigne end of all his actions: and vnto it here doth our Saviour subordinate his owne Glorification. So that hence also the truth of our Maior plainely ap­peareth, that vnlesse the Father will be without his Glo­ry (and without his Glory he neither will nor can be) he must needs grant to his Sonne that without which hee cannot glorifie him.

Thirdly and lastly, the glory of the Father is most [Page 137] deere and pretious to him. It is vnto him as the apple of his eye, which at no hand may be touched: yea as his ve­ry selfe, because it is himselfe. Hence it is that hee is so iealous of his glory: neither can endure that it should be giuen to any other. And hence it is also that he threatens never to hold him guiltlesse whosoeuer taketh his name in vaine: yea that he will most severely bee revenged of all those that any way dishonour him.Rom. 1.21.22.23.24. Because, saith S. Paul, when they knew God they glorified him not as God, nor were thankfull, &c. therefore God also gaue them vp to vn­cleannesse, through the lusts of their own hearts to dishonour their bodies betweene themselues. This spirituall punish­ment is the greatest of all iudgements in this life: and is vsually attended with eternall shame and confusion of face in the next. And reason it is that they who sleight that which God holdeth so deare, should themselues be sleighted of him: and seeing they disdaine to glorifie him that he by iust vengeance should glorifie himselfe vpon them. So dealt he with Pharaoh, Nabuchadnetzar, Antio­chus, Herod, and other proud tyrants: and so will hee one day deale with all those that set so light of his Glory. Is then the glory of the Father so deare and pretious vnto him. Is he so iealous and charie of it that he will not haue it in any case touched or blemished? Then surely that which maketh for his Glory, and without which the Sonne cannot glorifie him, may not bee denied him. And so much for the Maior.

The Minor Proposition is, But by my glorification I shall glorifie thee, and without it I shall not be able to glorifie thee. This though it be as true as the former, yet the truth thereof is not so evident as of that. For it may bee obie­cted, that our Saviour now praying for his Glorification, [Page 138] implies therein that he was not as yet glorified. For wee vse not to sue for what we are already possessed of, but on­ly giue thankes for it. Yet by and by he saith, Ego glorifi­cauite, I haue already glorified thee on earth.Vers. 4. As he was God he had from all eternity glorified him in heauen. As he was Man he had here on earth glorified him by his doctrine, life, obedience, miracles. And if wee as yet vnglorified doe glorifie him: how should not the Sonne much more be able to doe it? Vnto all which I thus an­swer breifly, that glorifying is double, either Inchoate or Compleate. As touching the Inchoate, it is true that as the Father had in part already glorified him, as in particular by the raising vp of Lazarus:Ioh. 11.4. so had the Sonne also in part glorified the Father. But as touching that which is Com­pleate, neither had the Father as yet so glorified the Sonne nor the Sonne the Father. Wherefore as our Saviour is to be vnderstood here to pray for his perfect Glorification: so are we to conceiue it also of the Fathers, as if hee had said more fully, vnlesse the Father perfectly glorifie the Sonne, neither can the Sonne perfectly glorifie the Fa­ther. For as God declared the glory of his power in de­liuering Israel out of Egypt by a mighty hand, & with ma­ny signes and wonders, yet had his mercy and truth, yea & his power also beene much impeached, had hee not pro­ceeded according to promise to settle them safely in the land of Canaan: so the Father although he had begun to shew his glory in the incarnation of his Sonne, and all o­ther his noble acts, yet if he did not goe on to cōsummate and perfect his Sonnes glory, by supporting him in his last combate, raising him from death, taking him vp into hea­ven, and setting him at his right hand with all power and authority, the glory of his goodnesse, wisdome, mercy, iu­stice, [Page 139] and omnipotence, would bee exceedingly blemished. But when once the Sonne shall be so glorified, then shall he by vertue of the power giuen him, powre forth of his spirit vpon the sonnes of men, subdue the world vnto his obedience, trample all his enimies vnder his feet, and re­cover the kingdome vnto his Father. Whereby it will manifestly appeare, that hee is the eternall Father, very God, the author of life and saluation, sweet in his good­nesse, true in his promise, iust in retribution, wise in all his actions, and most powerfull also in his executions. And so much likewise of the Minor.

The vse whereof may serue, first, for confutation. For it answeres a vaine quarrell of the Arrians against the coequalitie of the Sonne with the Father. The Father, say they, must needs be greater then the Sonne, because the Sonne saith, Pater clarifica filium, father glorifie thy sonne: and he is greater who giues then he who receaues glory.De Trinit. l. 2. c. 4. Wherevnto I answer in the words of S. Augustin, Quòd si ille qui glorificat, &c. If he that glorifieth be grea­ter then he whom he doth glorifie, let them grant that they are equall who glorifie one the other. For it is writ­ten that the Sonne also glorifieth the Father, Ioh 17, 4. I, saith hee, haue glorified thee on earth. So also elsewhere, saith our Saviour, Ioh. 16.14. the spirit shall glorifie me. And there being in the holy and blessed Trinitie such an [...] or Circum­insession as whereby each Person dwelleth in other: it cā ­not be but each of them should knowe, and knowing mu­tually and eternally glorifie one another. Secondly it serues for information, that as Christ our head referred his owne Glorification vnto the glory of his Father, so we that are his members should doe the like and in all things seeke to glorifie our Father. Nay if Christ to the praise [Page 140] of the glory of his Fathers grace was content to become sinne and a curse for vs: how much more are wee bound in euery thing to intend his glory of whom hee exacteth no such thing. It is the rule of the Apostle S. Paul, Whe­ther yee eat or drinke, or doe any thing else, doe all to the praise and glory of God. All whatsoeuer either we are or haue we haue receiued of him, and it is he who by Christ hath redeemed vs both bodies and soules: let vs there­fore glorifie him both in bodies and soules, for they are his. Thirdly and lastly, seeing our Saviour vrgeth his desire to glorifie his Father as a speciall argument to perswade him to grant his request, it may serue for singular com­fort vnto vs, that as long as our actions respect Gods glo­ry and are ioined therewith they cannot but be accepted. He will surely blesse them, and giue them good successe, sith his glory cannot be divided from them. A holy life glorifying God is a vitall prayer. Though wee heare no speech from it, yet it cryeth aloud in the eares of God; and saith, Father thou maist not deny to glorifie me, for through the whole course of my life I study nothing more then to glorifie thee. And thus much of our Savi­ours second motiue drawne from the highest and most soueraigne end of all, the Glory of his Father.

Vers. 2.

As thou hast giuen him power ouer all flesh that he should giue eternall life to as many as thou hast giuen him.

His third reason is drawne from the Power bestowed vpon him by his Father, thus, Thou hast giuen him power over all flesh to the end he should giue eternall life to as ma­ny as thou hast giuen him: Ergo thou oughtest to glorifie thy sonne. The Antecedent of this Enthymeme is deliuered in the Text in expresse tearmes. The Consequence is only [Page 141] insinuated & implied. For clearing whereof it may please you to obserue with mee, first that the word [...] here translated as, is not a note of similitude, but importeth a reason or cause. In regard whereof Euthimius expoundeth it by [...], as if he had said forasmuch or because. Secondly, that the word Power is in the originall not [...] but [...] betwixt which two there is great difference. For [...] signifieth power of right or authority, and [...] Power of might or ability. Which although they may and of­tentimes doe concurre in the same person, yet many times they are divided. For some there are who haue right and authority, but want might and ability; and others there are who haue might and ability but want right and authority. These for want of right doe not iustly what they can doe, and they for want of might cannot doe that which other­wise they might justly doe. These things duly considered, the reason of the Consequence will easily appeare. For if God haue given him authority (as indeed hee had) hee ought withall to giue him ability. For that without this is fectlesse and to no purpose: and it sits not with the wis­dome of God to doe things in vaine. This were with Herod and the Iewes to set a crowne on his head, to put a reed in his hand, to clap a purple robe on his backe, & to make a mock king of him. As therefore he hath giuen him [...] right and authority: so must hee also giue him [...] strength and ability. But Ability hee can haue none, nor giue life to them that are giuen him (which is the end propounded vnto him) except his Father glorifie him. This appeares thus. The glorification which the Sonne desires, stands especially in his Resurrection, Ascention, Session at the right hand of his Father, and Returne to iudgement. If then he rise not againe, we are yet in our sins [Page 142] as St Paul saith,1 Cor. 15.17. and haue no right either in the first or se­cond resurrection. Death hath still power vpon vs, yea vpon Christ himselfe, and vtterly bars vs from eternall life. Againe if he ascend not neither can wee. The way vnto heauen is not opened, neither are there any mansi­ons there prepared for vs. And what life can there be, if we be excluded from those ioyes aboue. Thirdly, if hee sit not at his Fathers right hand, then can he not glorious­ly interceed for vs with his Father, nor send his spirit vn­to vs, nor governe vs by his spirit, nor subdue our eni­mies vnto vs, without which wee cannot be partakers of that life. Lastly, if hee returne not againe to iudge both the quicke and the dead, then can hee not (according to promise) returne any more to take vs home vnto him­selfe, that where he is, there we also may be, to behold that his glory, and by beholding to bee made like vnto him, wherein standeth our eternall life. And thus you see the necessity of this Consequence, Thou hast given mee power, Therefore must thou glorify mee. Come wee now to the Antecedent. In which, for the fuller handling thereof, we may obserue these foure particulars, Quid, In quos, A quo, & Quorsum. Quid, what is given him, [...], Power. In quos, over whom [...], over all flesh. A quo; from whom, from his Father, thou hast giuen. Quorsum, to what end, that he may giue eternall life to all that his Fa­ther gaue him. Of these in order.

First, Quid, what hath the Father given him? [...] power, that is, as we haue aboue shewed, Right and Au­thority over all flesh. This is double: for it is either Essen­tiall or Oeconomicall. Essentiall is that which he hath qua [...], as he is the Word. In regard whereof being God, & coequall with his Father▪ looke what Power the Father [Page 141] hath he hath the same also inhering in him, namely an in­finite, vnlimited, independent, and soveraigne power. And this, because it is of his very essence, so that hee can no more be without it then not be God, therefore doe I call it Essentiall. And yet, as I take it, this is not heere meant. For the end of the Power heere spoken of, is to giue eter­nall life. Now to purpose an end implies Election & De­liberation, and so an indifference before choice, so that it is arbitrary not necessary. But this Essentiall power of Christ is not arbitrarie but necessary, as proceeding not of choice, but of the necessity of his nature, and therefore cannot be here meant. The Oeconomicall Power then is that which he hath quà Emanuell, as he is God-man, and hath taken vpon him the forme of a servant. For the Man Christ Iesus is our Mediatour, & therefore our King, it be­ing one office of his Mediation to be a King. And hence it is that our Saviour affirmeth that authority is giuen him to execute iudgement because he is the sonne of man, Ioh. 5.27. or as some expound it, quatenus, as he is the sonne of man. In this nature also it is said that the government is vpon his shoulders, Esa 9.6. Mat. 2.6. & that he is made a Governor to rule his people Is­raell. This Power because he hath not as the former of the necessity of his nature, but only of voluntary dispensatiō, therefore I call it Oeconomicall. And because it is Oeconomi­call therefore is it not infinite & vnlimited as is the Essen­tiall, but Subordinate vnto it. True it is the humane nature subsisting in the Word, the very Word together with all the divine attributes are cōmunicated vnto it, so that it may be said, the man Christ is Omnipotent & hath infinite pow­er. But this must cautelously be vnderstood, not that the Manhood hath in it formally & subiectiuely such infinite power, but only personally and by grace of Vnion. O­therwise [Page 144] the humane nature being finite is no more capa­ble of infinite power then it is to be God, which is impos­sible. The Power then which the Manhood of Christ hath residing in it, is finite and created: but yet such as is farre greater then of any creature besides. For to which of the creatures besides is the Subsistence of the sonne of God communicated? If to none, then can they not haue such power as hee that subsisteth in the Deity. Eph. 1.21. Whence the holy Apostle affirmeth of him, that he is advanced farre aboue all Principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named not on­ly in this world, Phil. 2.9.10.11. but also in that which is to come: & againe that God hath highly exalted him; and giuen him a name which is aboue every name, that at the name of Iesus every knee should bow, of things in Heauen, and things in earth, & things vnder the earth, Heb. 1.4 and that every tongue should con­fesse that Iesus is the Lord. And yet againe that hee is made farre greater then the Angells, inasmuch as hee hath by in­heritance obtained a more excellent name then they. Read the rest of that Chapter, for all makes to this purpose. Now the power here meant not being that Essential, must needs be this Oeconomicall. For other power hee hath none, and this he hath receiued thereby to giue eternall life. But let vs enquire a little farther into the nature of this power.

There is a double created Power, the one Secular and Mundane, the other Heavenly and Spirituall. Is this Pow­er of Christ Secular and Mundane? Surely such a Power the Iewes expected in their Messias, and the Apostles them­selues were for a while swaied with the like hope con­cerning Christ. And now also some Papists there are who for the easier advancement of the Pope therevnto would [Page 145] faine haue it so:Mat. 28.18. because as here hee saith Power, so else where our Saviour saith,De Pont. Rhom. l. 5. c. 4. All power is given vnto me. But for these, Bellarmine himselfe may suffice to confute them. For saith hee, every kingdome is acquired by one of these waies, either by Inheritance, or Election, or Con­quest, or Donation. But Hereditary kingdome Christ had none. For although he were descended from David and so was of the blood royall: yet that he was next of blood vnto the crowne doth not appeare. And besides as touching the kingdome the seed of Iecon David had long before determined in Ieconiah, Ier. 22.30. neither was any of his race ever after King. King also by Election he was none, as ap­peares by that of Iohn, Ioh. 6.15. that when he perceiued they would come, and take him by force to make him a King, he de­parted from them into a mountaine himselfe alone.Luk. 12.13.14. And when he was requested to divide the inheritance be­tweene two brothers,Ioh. 12.31. Col. 2.15. he refused:1. Ioh. 3 8. Ioh. 18.36. for, said he, Man who made me a iudge or a divider over you: Neither was he so by conquest: for he neuer made warre vpon any mortall Prince, but only on the prince of darkenesse. Nor finally by Donation from God, for my kingdome, saith he, is not of this world, and againe, my kingdome is not from hence. as if he should say, a King I am, but no secular King. Nei­ther did he at any time exercise any kingly▪ power, but [...]ame rather to minister and to be iudged, then to iudge & to be ministred vnto. Furthermore, Kingly authority was neither necessary nor profitable vnto him, but super­fluous and vnprofitable. For the end of his comming was the redemption of mankind, wherevnto temporall pow­er was not necessary, but only spirituall. And whereas it was his office to perswade from the loue of worldly glo­ry, wealth and pleasures vnto the contempt thereof: tem­porall [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page 146] power would haue beene not only vnprofitable, but also a great let and hinderance therevnto. Lastly, all the Prophets foretell only of a spirituall and eternall kingdome, which should be restored to Israell. But tem­porall is not eternall: and how can such a kingdome bee said to be restored, seeing it continued still in the hands of the Romans, vntill by them they were rooted out from being a nation vpon earth. Secular and worldly power therefore our Saviour had none. What then?

Heavenly and Spirituall. And this appeareth first by the end of Christs comming, and the authority bestowed vp­on him. For this was Spirituall: namely to deliver man­kind from spirituall Egypt and Babylon, the bondage of Sinne and Satan, and to bring them vnto the eternall frui­tion of God, wherein standeth everlasting life. Secondly, by the meanes appointed for the atchieving of this end. For the weapons of his warfare are not carnall but spiritu­all. Outwardly hee worketh through the eare by the preaching of the Gospell; inwardly vpon the spirit & consci­ence by the power of his divine spirit, wherevpō saith the Apostle St Paul, Rom. 14.17. The kingdome of God is not meat & drinke, but righteousnesse, and peace, and ioy in the Holy Ghost. In a word, what more frequent in Scripture then to call this power of Christ the kingdome of Heaven? Which what other doth it import then that it is no way earthly, but al­together heavenly and spirituall. But you will say, where­in standeth this Spirituall authority of Christ? I answere in two things, whereof the first is [...], the enacting of wisdome and good lawes. For without lawes no king­dome or state can stand. And to him alone it belongs to command lawes who is the soveraigne. The soveraigne in this kingdome is Christ. He therefore is Legislator, the [Page 147] law maker,Iam. 4.12. yea, as St Iames saith, Vnus legislator, the on­ly law maker. And by vertue of this power hee prescrib­eth vnto the subiects of his kingdome both credenda, what articles we are by Faith to beleeue, & facienda what du­ties we are in life to performe. All which least any should pleade ignorance he hath caused publikely to be proclai­med both by word and writing. And to perswade the readier obedience to them, after the manner of all law­makers, he annexeth both promises and threatnings: pro­mises of rich and plentifull reward to them that shall be obedient, threatnings of rigorous and severe punishment to all that shall be rebellious and disobedient. To descend to farther particularity would bee infinite. I forbeare therefore, and passe to the other part of his power, which is [...], righteous iudgement. For lawes without due execution are vaine and to no purpose duly executed they will not be, vnlesse there be a superior to looke vnto it. As therefore Christ is the Lawmaker, so is he also Iudge, or­dained by God, according as we beleeue in the Articles of the Creed, Act. 10.42. to be the Iudge both of quick and dead. A sove­raigne Iudge, from whom lies no appeale. A righteous Iudge who accepteth the person or none, but pronounceth sentence precisely according to the worke. According I say to the worke. For herein standeth his power of judica­ture: namely in dispencing rewards and punishments ac­cording to the observation of his lawes, or the transgressi­on of them: which ever he doth vpon due cognizance of the cause, and conviction of the party. A power farre a­boue the reach of any other creature, and incident only to him who subsisteth in the person of the sonne, and that by vertue of such personall vnion. So that as the Priesthood of Christ is a [...] that which cannot passe from him [Page 148] vnto another: by the same proportion his kingly power is so proper vnto him, as it is vncommunicable to any o­ther whatsoever. And thus much of the first poynt Quid what is given.

Whence wee may obserue first, seeing the Power of Christ as he is man, be farre aboue all created Powers, yet is not infinite: it makes against all those who either swal­low vp the humane nature into the divine, and so turne it into God, such as were some of the ancient Heretikes, and among them the Eutychians: or who shed and poure out all the divine attributes, and so the omnipotence and infi­nite power of God into the humanity, such as are, if yet now adayes such there be, some of the rigider divines in Germanie. If there be such I say. For perhaps all the late quarrell risen betwixt them and vs grew only vpon mis­prision (as some worthy divines haue obserued) not well distinguishing betweene Essence and Subsistence, Zanch. Field. whereof that is finite this infinite. For Christs humanity though ac­cording to its essence or Naturall being it bee not every where, but determined vnto one place: yet in respect of his Subsistence or Personall being it is every where, and cir­cumscribed in no place. For proper Subsistence of its owne and in it selfe it hath none: only the Subsistence of the Sonne of God is communicated vnto it, which is infi­nite & vnlimited. Secondly, if this Power of Christ though finite yet be incommunicable and cannot passe from him to any other: what presumption, what arrogance is it in him, who not being Christ, yet dares say with Christ, Da­ta est mihi omnis potestas in coelo & in terrâ, all power is given me both in heaven and in earth? Who therevpon takes vpon him to forge new Articles of Faith, and to ob­trude them vpon the Church vnder paine of damnation? [Page 149] who also takes authority vnto him to make lawes equal­ly binding the conscience with Gods lawes, & that with­out any relation vnto divine law at all? Who finally (for to reckon vp all the blasphemies of this sort would bee infinite) pretends a power to dispence with the law of God, to grant indulgences for sin, & to free men from the punishment inflicted by God vpon them for sinne? Cer­tainly whosoever challengeth these things to himselfe can be no lesse then Christi aemulus, even Antichrist him­selfe: whose proud vsurpations vpon the power of Christ shall one day bee recompenced with equall shame and confusion. The rather because thirdly, whereas the pow­er of Christ is not secular but spirituall, hee claymeth both, and so assumeth to himselfe more then euer Christ did. Ecce in potestate nostrâ imperium vt demus illud cui volumus, Lo, saith Pope Adrian, the empire is in our pow­er to bestow it where we please. And hence I suppose it is that insteed of the old style Vicarius Christi the Vicar of Christ, they now begin to stile him Vicedeum the Vicar of God▪ for that by this they may perhaps wrench in his temporall power, which by the other they could not, inasmuch as Christ neuer had it. Lastly therefore, seeing Christ contented himselfe with his spirituall power only, reiecting that which is secular, let not vs looke after out­ward pomp or state in his kingdome, nor iudge of the Church by such deceitfull notes. Rather let vs iudge of it by the lawes thereof, and by the rule of Faith profes­sed therein. As the power of Christ is Spirituall, so is his kingdome also, and therefore by spirituall markes and notes to be discerned. But to proceed.

The second point is, in quos, ouer whom or how farre his authority extendeth. It is, saith my text, Over all flesh. This word Flesh is diuersly vsed in Scripture. Among o­ther [Page 150] significations vsually it is put for Mankinde. As where it is said,Gen. 6.12. that God saw all flesh had corrupted his way vpon earth, Esa. 40.6. that is, all men. And againe, All flesh is grasse, and all the goodlinesse thereof is as the flower in the field. And yet againe,Mat. 24.22. Except those daies should bee shortned, no flesh, that is, no man should be saued. And so is it to bee vn­derstood in this place, Christ hath power ouer all flesh, that is, ouer all mankinde. Now he that saith all excepts none. All men therefore of what age, sexe, degree, con­dition, or qualitie soeuer, are vnder the power and iuris­diction of Christ. And as touching the Saints, and those that are members of his mysticall body, it is question­lesse. For to them he is Caput a head to rule and governe them, a Husband to order and direct them, a Shepheard to feed and ouersee them. Hee hath bought them with his most pretious blood, he hath conquered them out of the hands of Satan and all that hated them, hee rules by the scepter of his word, and guides them by the manuducti­on of his blessed spirit. And as he hath many waies made himselfe Lord ouer them, and testified his authority and power by his mighty operations in them: so haue they freely and voluntarily submitted and resigned themselues vnto him. Power therefore hath he over these, as over his obedient and louing subiects. But question may be made touching reprobate and wicked men whether hee haue a­ny authority and power over them yea or no. For, as the Psalmist saith,Ps. 2.2.3. They band themselues and take counsell to­gether against the Lord, and against his anointed, saying, let vs breake their bands asunder and cast their cords from vs. And our Saviour in the parable, Nolumus hunc regnare super nos, we will not haue this man raigne ouer vs. But notwithstanding all this reluctation and resistance, yet [Page 151] power and authority hath he ouer them still. Rebellious subiects they may be, yet subiects they are. Will they, nil they Dominabitur in medio hostium, hee shall raigne in the midst of his enimies. If they will not submit vnto the gentle scepter of his word, he hath an yron rod in his hand wherewith to breake and dash them in peeces like a potters vessell. Psal. 2.9. Luc. 19.27. And those his enimies that would not hee should raigne ouer them, bring them hither will he say, and slay them here before me. Authority then he hath though they acknowledge it not: and ouerrule them he will, resist they neuer so much. Overrule them I say, either to their sal­vation by converting them, or to their confusion by deli­vering them vp vnto their owne lusts. In a word, whe­ther they be good or evill, how high or low soeuer they be,Rev. 19.6. he is Lord of them all, Rex regum & dominus domi­nantium, King of Kings and Lord of Lords,Rom. 14 9. yea Dominus tum mortuorum tum vivorum, Lord both of quicke and dead. But what? Hath he power only of men, and not of other things? Yes questionlesse. For, saith David, Om­nia subiecisti pedibus eius, Psal. 8.6. thou hast put all things vnder his feet. And the Apostle applying it vnto Christ addeth, In that he put all in subiection vnder him, Heb. 2.9. hee left nothing that is not put vnder him. Mat. 11.27. Ioh. 3.35. Our Saviour Christ also him­selfe affirmeth that all things are deliuered him of his Fa­ther: yea that al power is giuen him both in heauen & earth. Mat. 28.18. Particularly in heauen ouer the blessed Angels. For, saith S. Peter, 1. Pet. 3.22. he is gone into heauen, and is on the right hand of God, Angels and authorities and powers being made sub­iect vnto him. Eph. 1.10.21.22. Hee is vnto them a Head and Mediator, though not of Redemption, as vnto man, yet of Confirma­tion in the state of grace; and though not to deliuer out of misery, yet to preuent their falling into misery. Hence [Page 152] it is that they are reckoned in the number of those that pertaine vnto the Church,Heb. 12.22. Luc. 22.43. Heb. 1.14. that they minister both to the Head thereof and it also,Luc. 15.10. reioycing at the conversion of a sinner,1. Pet. 1.12. and desiring throughly to bee made acquainted with the mystery of the Gospell. In earth also hath hee power not only ouer men, as is aboue declared, but also as the Psalmist witnesseth,Ps. 8.6.7. over the beasts of the field, the foules of the ayre, Rom. 8.19.20.21. the fishes of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths thereof. Whence it is that the creature being sensible of the vanitie wherevnto it is now subiect, longeth and waiteth for his second comming, in hope then to be freed from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the sonnes of God. Even the divels them­selues and whatsoeuer is vnder the earth is subiect vnto him. While he liued here on earth he cast them out, com­manded and restrained them at pleasure: yea to others also he gaue power to cast them out in his name. It is hee that hath the keyes of hell and death: Mar. 16.17. Rev. 1.18. and by force of them he reserueth the sinning Angels in euerlasting vnder dark­nesse vnto the iudgement of the great day.Iud. 6. Finally vnto him is put in subiection not only this present world, but that also,Heb. 2.5. as S. Paul saith, that which is yet to come. If all this be so, will some say, and Christs power bee so large, why is it here restrained only vnto all Flesh, that is, vnto Mankinde? I answere, that these words are not to be vn­derstood exclusiuely, as if his power reached no further then vnto man, but principally and especially, and that for two causes. First because he tooke flesh and therein suf­fered not for Angels or any other creature, but only for vs men, according to that in the Nicene Creed, who for vs men and our saluation came downe from heauen and was incarnate. Heb. 2.16. Wherevpon saith the Apostle, Hee tooke not on [Page 153] him the nature of Angels, but tooke on him the seed of Abra­ham. Secondly, for that as all things in the first creation were made for man, so in the recreation and restoring of man it was fit that power should be giuen ouer all things for man. Wherevpon, saith the Apostle, All things are yours, and yee are Christs, and Christ is Gods.

The consideration of this large power of Christ, ex­tending it selfe not only over all flesh, but all other things also for our benefit, should teach vs in any ca [...]e not to re­bell against our Liege Lord, but as becommeth dutifull and loyall subiects with all humblenesse to submit our selues vnto his soueraigne authority. That which he re­quireth at our hands is, according as S. Paul teacheth, first to confesse with our tongues that Iesus Christ is the Lord to the glory of God the Father, Phil. 2.10.11. aduancing him aboue all powers, thrones, and dominations whatsoeuer: and neuer to be afraid or ashamed to professe our selues to bee his Christian seruants, notwithstanding any danger might accrew vnto vs thereby. And secondly to bow the knee at the name of Iesus, that is in heart to honour, to adore, to worship him, to loue and feare him, to put all our trust & confidence vpon him, and in one word to obey him. And to this end we are to vse all possible meanes to settle and confirme this faith in vs that he is our Lord, and hath ab­solute power and authority ouer vs: and then diligently to study and enquire what his lawes are, that so wee may both knowe what he commands, and wherein we are to obey. For the ignorance of the law excuseth not: and it is good to see with our owne and not with other menseies. For how doe we knowe whether they will direct vs? But then vnto faith and knowledge are we to ioyne practice, yeelding vnto him absolute, constant, and cheerefull o­bedience: [Page 154] and that not only actiuely, but if need bee pas­siuely also, even with the expence of our dearest blood. Neither need we to make question of doing any thing he commandeth.Psal. 45.6. For his scepter, as Dauid [...]aith, is a right scepter, and whatsoeuer he commandeth is iust. It is also easie and not hard to be done.Mat. 11.30. For my yoke, saith he, is ea­sie and my burthen light: and his commandements, [...]aith S. Iohn, 1. Ioh. 5.3. are not greiuous. The law indeed of workes is a rigorous law and vnsufferable. Wherefore by S. Paul: it is called a killing letter. But the law of Christ is a law of grace, requiring only repentance from dead workes, beleefe in him that hath merited forgiuenesse of sinne, and sincere [...]ndeauour of new obedience, God accepting the will for the deed. To this therefore if wee willingly submit our selues, we shall finde first Protection from him (and he is the stronger man) against all our enimies, then provision in all our needs and necessities, & lastly rest to our soules, by peace of conscience here, and eternall refreshment in the next world. Nay we our selues also shall haue pow­er over the nations,Rev. 2.26. and raigne with him as kings world without end. But if through stiffeneckednesse wee refuse the yoke, and pull backe the shoulder rebelling against him: knowe we that he who sitteth in heauen will laugh vs to scorne the while, and in the end recompence vs with weeping and wailing and gnashing of teeth. All those that will not bow vnto him, with the yron mace in his hand will he breake them to powder: and hew in peeces all such as would not haue him to raigne over them. Let vs therefore betimes serue the Lord with feare, and kisse the sonne least he be angry, and we perish from the way when his anger is kindled but a little. O how blessed are all they that put their trust in the Lord. And thus much of the se­cond [Page 155] point in quos over whom he hath power.

The third is A quo whence or from whom he hath his power. Not of himselfe, but from some other: for thou hast giuen, saith our Saviour. Who is that? He to whom he speaketh. He speaketh to his Father, Father glorifie thy Sonne. It is his Father therefore of whom he receaued it, and receaued it by gift. And indeed the power hee hath quâ [...] as he is the Word, hee hath receaued from his Father, and that by gift, donatione naturali & ab aeterno, by naturall donation and from all eternitie. For as hee is God of God and light of light, so is hee also Lord of Lord: the Father being the origen, source, and fountaine of the Deitie. If so, then the power he hath qua Emanuel as he is God-man, must needs be much more from him, I, saith God,Psal, 2.6.7. haue set my king vpon my holy hill of Sion. And that it is the Father speaking so of his Sonne appeareth when by and by he saith, Thou art my sonne, this day haue I be­gotten thee. Mat. 11.27. So saith our Saviour also, Omnia mihi tradita sunt à Patre, all things are deliuered vnto mee of my Fa­ther. And againe,Ioh. 3.35. The father loueth the sonne and hath gi­ven all things into his hands. C. 13.3. And S. Iohn, Iesus knowing that the father had giuen all things into his hands. And fi­nally S. Peter, Act. 2.36. God hath made that same Iesus whom yee haue crucified both Lord and Christ. Howbeit this power the Father giues not as the former Donatione naturali by naturall donation, sed gratuitâ by free & voluntary gift. And therefore as notwithstanding the former he was co-equall with the Father: so in regard of this hee is subiect to the Father. Wherefore in this respect hee saith Pater major me est, my Father is greater then I: and though he be Lord of all yet the Father calleth him his Servant. And the Schoole in regard of his humane nature saith that [Page 156] he is Subiectus sibi ipsi, subiect to his owne selfe. But it will be obiected that Christ obtained his kingdome by conquest, how then could he receaue it from his Father by gift. Wherevnto I answere first, that the right & title he had was from the gift of the Father before he went a­bout to conquer it: secondly, that the power also where­by he conquered it hee receaued from the gift of his Fa­ther. In regard whereof the Father sticketh not to chal­lenge the conquest vnto himselfe,Psal. 110.1▪ Sit thou, saith he vnto the Sonne, on my right hand vntill I make thine enimies thy footstoole. Which yet is thus to bee vnderstood, that the Father by the Sonne, and the Sonne vnder his Father by power receaued from him hath subdued and maste­red all his enimies.

But when receaued he this power from him, and how long was he to hold it? He receaued it then when hee re­ceaued his vnction. His Vnction he receaued in the instant of his Incarnation. For assoone as the Personall vnion be­gan, so soone was he annointed with the oyle of gladnesse aboue all his fellowes, that is with the fulnesse of all such graces as were fit for the menaging of so great power,Esa. 11.6.2. as wisdome, counsell, zeale of iustice, strength, and the like. And no sooner was he annointed but presently hee was a King: Melchizedeck a king of righteousnesse, wise to doe iudgement & iustice. It is true he suppressed this pow­er for a time. For the Word emptied himselfe of his glo­ry, and his humane nature was to suffer many things. Wherevpon it is said,Mar. 6.5. He could doe no miracle in his owne country, nor might not send his Disciples into the way of the Gentiles. It was as a sword in the sheath, or as Dauids authority before Sauls death. At times indeed he shew­ed some tokens thereof, as in stilling the Sea, comman­ding [Page 157] spirits, raising the dead, and the like: yet the execu­tion thereof could not be plenarie till after his resurrecti­on, and when he was set at the right hand of his Father Licet Christus quantum ad divinitatem, In Mat. 28. &c. saith Lira, Al­though Christ according to his divinity had from all eterni­ty this power in heauen and earth and authoritativè by way of authority, had it he also as man from the first instant of his conception: yet executivè by way of execution hee had it not before his resurrection, but would be subiect to possibili­ty for our redemption. But how long was this power to continue with him? Forever? For as he was a priest; so also was he to be a King for ever after the order of Mel­chizedecke. Thy throne ô God, Psal. 4 6.5. Heb 1.8. saith David, is for ever and ever:Dan 7.14. a text which Saint Paul to the Hebrewes applyeth vnto Christ. And Daniel, His dominion is an everlasting dominion which shall not passe a way, and his kingdome that which shall not be destroyed. Luc. 1.33. And the Angell Gabriell, Hee shall raigne over the house of Iacob forever, 1 Cor. 15.24.28. and of his king­dome there shall be no end. Yea but doth not the Apostle say, that when he shall haue put downe all rule and all au­thority and power, then the kingdome shall be delivered vp by him to God even the Father, and that then the sonne himselfe shall also be subiect vnto him? It is true, hee saith so. But we are further to know, that the kingdome of Christ containeth in it two things, the mediatory function of his Kingly office, and his Kingly glory. That he shall lay aside: for then there will be no further necessity nor vse thereof. He shall not need to fight any more with the prince of darknesse, nor to governe his Church as formerly by the word and sacrament. For God as he is now something in vs, so then shall he be all in all vnto vs. But this hee shall hold for ever, as being by the acts of his mediation iustly [Page 158] acquired, and according to covenant bestowed vpon him by his Father. As therefore the Father even now raignes although he haue delivered the kingdome to the Sonne: even so then shall the Sonne also raigne, although he deli­ver vp his kingdome vnto the Father. And thus hath Christ omnem potestatem, in omnia, & in omnia secula, all power, over all things, and vnto all eternity.

The vse of this point briefly may be this. First, seeing Christ vsurped not this power: but receiued it by lawfull donation from his Father, therefore neither should wee presume vpon any office or place vntill wee be lawfully called therevnto. Should we runne without sending, wee should but incurre the displeasure of God, & be authors of much confusion and mischiefe in the Church. Se­condly, seeing he receiued this power together with his Vnction, it may lesson vs not to affect any calling till wee be annointed with sufficient gifts for the discharge there­of. Go teach & baptize all nations, saith our Saviour to his Apostles: but withall he furnisheth them with cloven tongues, and filleth them with the Holy Ghost. To adven­ture on a businesse without due abilities, as it proceed­eth from abundance of boldnesse, so will it be recompen­ced with equall measure of shame. Lastly, seeing his power continueth for ever, and of his kingdome shall be no end, wee may take knowledge that it will bee in vaine for any to oppose themselues vnto it. Hell gates shall never be able to prevaile against it: how much lesse the policies of mortall men, or their strongest attempts? For that which is eternall is invincible, and can never be destroyed. And thus much of the third point A quo from whom.

The fourth and last is Quorsum, to what so great pow­er was given him. For wee may not thinke that God doth [Page 159] vse magno conatu nihil agere with much a doe to effect nothing. And if nature which is but the creature of God doe nothing in vaine, and wise men ever propound some end vnto their actions: much more ought we to iudge so of him who is both the author of nature and wisdome it selfe. An end therefore was intended: and that doubtlesse of highest consequence. For otherwise what need so great power and glory to atchieue it? If in the creation dixit & factum est, the word was no sooner said but the thing was done, yet here not words, no nor so great pow­er without his glorification will not serue the turne, this it seemes is of a higher straine then that. What then may it be? This, that to as many as are given him of his Father he may giue eternall life. Esa 8.14. This I say properly and directly: for accidentally he may be vnto some a rocke of offence, Rom. 9 33. and the savour of death vnto death, 1 Cor. 2.16. namely to all those that shall presume to rise vp against that authority and power which his Father hath giuen him. For the further vnfold­ing of this point foure things are here to bee observed, Quid, Vnde, Quibus, & Quamdiu. Quid, what the gift is? it is Life. Vnde whence it is, from the Sonne, that hee may giue. Quibus to whom it is giuen, to as many as thou hast giuen him. Quamdiu how long the gift lasteth, it is eternall life. And of these in order, though not according to their worth and desert (for who is sufficient for these things?) yet as it shall please God to enable and assist.

First Quid, what is the gift? It is Life. Life is double, Naturall and Spirituall. Naturall is that which things liue by power of nature. But this is not heare meant. For the Father bestowes this generally on all men, whereas the life here intended is to be conferred only on those whom the Father hath given vnto the sonne. The Spirituall is [Page 160] likewise double, Sinfull or Holy. Sinfull is that whereby men liue vnto sinne. But because they that so liue are dead vnto righteousnesse, & the wages thereof is nothing but death, neither can this be here meant. For this is to be counted rather a Death then a Life, whereas the Life here-spoken of is the end wherefore so great power was giuen vnto Christ, and so cannot bee but a happy and blessed life. The Holy life is therfore here vnderstood, a life which none can liue vntill he be dead vnto sinne, and ele­vated by grace aboue nature: even that life which in Scripture is called the new life, and includeth in it both the life of grace and the life of glory. Now because this Spirituall life is denominated Life from the proportion it holds with Naturall life, Rom. 6.4. especially that of man, vnlesse we first know what this is, distinct knowledge of that we cannot well haue any. This we cannot know but by the direction of Naturall Philosophy. For Naturall life is a terme properly belonging vnto it, and the rule of Logicke teacheth that looke to what art the termes doe belong, from thence are wee to fetch our demonstrations. I must craue pardon therefore if I search a little into it. Howbe­it I resolue to be very briefe, and to trouble you with no more then is necessary for clearing of what is intended.

Life is of some defined by motion and operation. And so seemeth Aristotle to define it where he saith, Vivere est intelligere, sentire, to liue is to vnderstand, heare, see, touch, and the like. But this definition is more popular then proper. For life is one thing; & the operations of life another, and they differ as the cause and the effect. Yet be­cause it is best discerned by the operations thereof, there­fore haue they thought good so to describe it. For those things are said to liue which any way moue themselues. [Page 161] Moue I say, for those things which moue not liue not. And moue themselues by an internall principle of their owne. For neither doe those things liue which are acted only by an extrinsecall and forreine principle: such as was that statue or engine of which the Poet, Duceris vt nervis alienis mobile signum, and such as are also clocks and watches and the like devices. The same Philosopher therefore elsewhere speaking more accurately of this matter,De Anima l. 2. c. 4. defineth life by Being: [...], saith hee, to liue is to be. Which is not yet Simply to be vnderstood, as if whatsoeuer had being had also life: but respectiuely vn­to things that liue, for their life is their being. And so much doth the Philosopher himselfe insinuate, saying more fully, [...], life to things that liue is be­ing, But such a Being as naturally moueth it selfe. Whēce it is not vnfitly defined by one to bee essentia parturiens actiones, such a being as is in trauell with action. This na­turall life is threefold, Vegetatiue, Sensitiue, and Intelle­ctual. The Vegetatiue is in Plants, that Being whereby they grow and receaue nourishment. The Sensitiue is of Beasts, Fowles, and Fishes, that Being whereby they see, heare, touch, tast, smell, and moue from place to place. The Intellectuall is of Angels and Spirits, that Being whereby they vnderstand and will. These all of them are iointly and together in man. For with plants hee hath growth and nourishment, with beasts, fowles, and fishes sense and lation, with Angels and Spirits vnderstanding and will. Wherevpon it is that the Philosopher maketh the life of man a rule to all the rest. And therefore is to be defined. Such a Being as is able to produce all these ope­rations, but specially those that are Rationall, because they are most properly Humane. To come then to an [Page 162] issue, by all that hath beene said it appeares that to the constitution of the natural life of man, and generally of all natural life three things are required, Esse, Posse, Ope­rari, being, ability, and operation. Being that there may bee ability, and ability that there may be operation. For no life where no operation, no operation where no ability, no ability where no being. And such is the naturall life of man.

Proportionably wherevnto, as to me it seemes, Spiri­tuall life may thus be defined, Such a new or spirituall be­ing as enableth to produce spirituall or supernaturall acti­ons. In which definition all those three things necessarily required vnto life are, as you see, comprehended. And first Being, not naturall but spirituall superadded vnto na­ture. Superadded then when we are first ingrafted and in­corporated into Christ. For no sooner doe we subsist in him, but forthwith old things passe away and all things are made new. 2. Cor. 5.17. Gal. 6.15. From thence forth become we new creatures, new men, Eph. 4.24. renewed in the inner man, and in the spirit of the minde:Col. 3.10. hauing new hearts, new affections, new senses, all new.2. Cor. 4.16. Eph. 4.25. In a word, then are we made Spirituall men, not only conformed vnto, Psal. 5.12. but also transformed into the image of Christ himselfe. Gal. 6.1. Rom. 8.28. Secondly, abilitie. For together with our new being we receaue also the Spirit of power: 2. Cor. 3.18. whereby as while we were out of Christ wee were able to doe no­thing, 2. Tim. 1.7. so now being in him we are able to all things. Ioh. 15.5 Phil. 4.13. For then the holy Ghost is pleased to infuse and imprint on our soules the gratious habits of Faith, Hope, and Charity, and the rest, and all to facilitate the performance of spiri­tuall duties. Lastly Operation, without which abilitie is but vaine. For to what end is power if it be never brought forth into act? Operate therefore it doth and bringeth [Page 163] forth the fruits of spirit, Gal. 5.22.23. loue, ioy, peace, long suffering, gen­tlenesse, goodnesse, Tit. 2.12. faith, meeknesse, temperance, and the rest. All which S. Paul reduceth vnto three,Eph. 4.24. Pietie, Sobrietie, Righteousnesse. Yea to two, Righteousnesse and true holi­nesse. And if we will proportion them vnto the operati­ons of the naturall life, then first answerable vnto the In­tellectuall life there is in the Vnderstanding a spiritual ap­prehension and knowledge of the things of God, at least so farre forth as is necessary: and in the Will; a holy pur­suit of that which is good and eschewing of that which is evill. Secondly vnto the Sensitiue, a wise direction of all the affections vpon the right obiect, and a due moderati­on of them, together with a sanctified vse of the senses, as seeing, hearing, tasting, and the rest, and a right employ­ment of all the members of the body, no more to be the instruments of iniquitie vnto sinne, but the weapons of righteousnesse vnto God. Lastly, vnto the Vegetatiue, an earnest desire of nourishment by the Word and Sacra­ments, and a continuall growing from grace to grace vn­till we come to our full [...] and consistence in Christ Ie­sus. Wherevnto when we are once aspired, then beginnes the life of Glory, consisting in a glorious being, glorious abilities, and glorious operations. Not that it is another life differing in substance from the life of grace, but the same in an higher degree of perfection. For Glory is no other then consummate and perfect Grace. The excellen­cie whereof as yet we knowe not: but this we knowe that when Christ shall appeare we shall be like vnto him, for wee shall see him as hee is. And of spirituall life what it is so much.

For the donation of this life, power over all flesh & per­fect glorification were, as my text insinuateth, necessary [Page 164] vnto Christ. It is therefore of great consequence, and im­ports vs farre more then our naturall life. For that is but our Being, this is our Wel being: that is nothing but life, this is a happy aud blessed life. Some sonne of Belial per­haps will deny this, esteeming it a sullen, sad, and misera­ble life. What pleasures, say they, what delight therein? And as for sorrowes, besides those the spirituall man as man is subiect vnto, as he is spirituall hee hath his proper and peculiar crosses. For he is in continuall combate not with flesh and bloud, Eph. 6.12. but with Principalities and powers and the rulers of the darknesse of this world and spirituall wic­kednesses in heauenly places. A traiterous Doeg also hee carries about within him, ever plotting how to betray him.Gen: 25.22. As the two twins in Rebeccas wombe, so in him the flesh and the spirit are continually warring one against another,Gal: 5.17. that oftentimes as she Why am I thus, so he with much anguish cries out,Rom. 7.24. O wretched man that I am, who shall deliuer me from the body of this death! In a word, the feares and horrors, and inward perplexities of conscience which times he feeles, are intolerable: and outwardly he is scorned, despised, persecuted, and troden vnder foot of all. So that if it be a life, it is but [...], a liuelesse life, or as it is said of the bow, [...], it may [...]eare the name of life, but in effect it is no other then death. But all this notwithstanding I affirme that this spi­ritual life is of all other the most comfortable & blessed. For true blessednesse standeth in two things, a freedome from the true evill, and a possession of the true good. The true evill is sinne, because it is opposite vnto the nature & will of God who is the cheefest good: and therefore is iustly attended with another evill, which is Gods wrath and eternall damnation. Now the naturall mā that liueth [Page 165] not this spirituall life lieth still in sinne, and is liable vnto the wofull consequences thereof: and therefore in the mids of all their pleasures must needs be most miserable. But the spirituall man no sooner receaues his new being. and with it his new life, but he receaues also pardon of all sinnes past, & peccata semel dimissa nunquam redeunt, sins once pardoned never returne againe to iudgement. It is true if afterward he sinne againe (as who sinneth not) hee incurreth the wrath of God and deserueth condemnati­on. Yet vpon a new act of faith and repentance (wherein God out of his meere grace never fayleth him) he recea­veth actuall pardon for them also. So that to them that are in Christ Iesus,Rom. 3.1. and liue not after the flesh, but after the spirit, there is no condemnation at all. Yea blessed are they, saith David, Psal. 32.1. because their iniquitie is forgiuen, and their sinne couered. Now sinne being remoued which onely se­perateth betweene God and man, the spirituall man is re­stored againe into the grace and fauour of God, wherein standeth the true good. This David saw and therefore said,Psal. 4.7. Many say vnto me, who will shew vs any good? But Lord lift thou vp the light of thy countenance vpon vs. And because vnto the complement of true blessednesse knowledge thereof is necessary (for according to the old Senarie, Non est beatus esse se qui nesciat, hee is not happy who knowes not himselfe to be happy) therefore hath it pleased God to giue him the earnest of the spirit, 2. Cor. 5, [...]. by which they may and doe knowe what things God hath vouchsafed to giue them.1. Cor. 2.12. Whence issueth and proceed­eth, first a contentment with our present state bee it neuer so meane. For being possessed of the true good, the want of these temporall goods cannot much affect vs. Second­ly, Christian courage both actiue and passiue, to adven­ture [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page 166] vpon and vndergoe any thing, rather then to forgoe the good we are possessed of. Thirdly tranquillity and peace of minde even in life and death. For knowing that being iustified from our sinnes by Faith wee haue peace with God through Iesus Christ our Lord:Rom. 5.1, how can wee bee without that peace of God which passeth all vnderstanding? Lastly, hope that maketh not ashamed. For out of the ex­perience of the present favours of God, we gather assu­rance that we shall not fayle of those eternall ioyes pro­mised vs in heauen. The expectation whereof sweetens vnto vs even the bitterest sorrowes of this present life, & replenisheth our soules with vnspeakable comforts. So that howsoeuer carnall and worldly men deeme of it. the spirituall life is the most cheerefull and blessed life, and a very heaven vpon earth.

Out of this definition of spirituall life wee may learne, first, that as by the operations of naturall life wee easily discerne who liues it: so may wee as easily by spirituall actions iudge who liues the spirituall life. By their fruits, saith our Saviour, yee shall know them. Doth any man heare, see, talke, walke, argue, and the like; hee liues. Lies he senslesse without breath or motion? he is dead. In like manner he whose workes are only carnall and sinfull, or at the best but ciuill and morall, is though aliue vnto sin, yet spiritually dead. Were he spiritually aliue hee would proceed further to the acting of holy and spirituall ope­rations. Which wheresoeuer they be truly and sincerely acted, there vndoubtedly is spirituall life. If it be in sem­blance only and shew, yet are wee still to iudge the best. For as in matters of Faith we are to thinke and speak ac­cording to Scripture which only is infallible: so in things concerning charity wee are to thinke and speake accor­ding [Page 167] to probabilitie. Which howsoeuer it may deceaue, yet is it not through any fault, or with danger of him who thinkes better of another then he deserueth, but only of the hypocrite who is farre other then hee seemed to be. But as touching our selues, because we are privie to the truth and sincerity of our owne hearts, we may certaine­ly conclude of our selues that we are spiritually aliue, & that by the certainty of Faith. For all conclusions are of Faith which are deduced though but from one propositi­on contained in Scripture, if the other be any way known to be true. He that operateth spirituall actions is spiritu­ally aliue, is a proposition verified by Scripture. But I operate spirituall actions, is a proposition not contained in Scripture, but testified to me by my conscience. Ergo I am spiritually aliue, is the conclusion issuing from both, and of Faith because of the Major grounded on Scrip­ture. Secondly it sheweth how impotent and incongru­ous the speech of those is who pretending to liue this spirituall life, yet when they taxed of their infirmities, as suppose too much distemper in passion, or impatience in wrongs, or the like, presently cry out, they can doe no otherwise, and who can endure it? But stay my brother, if thou be spirituall thou art not vnfurnisht of ability. What if I should say of a kinde of Omnipotencie? For so the Apostle, through Iesus Christ strengthning me I am able to doe all things. Why then saiest thou I cannot? To bee without spirituall power, is to be without spirituall life: and they only can doe nothing who are out of Christ. If therefore thou liue say no more I cannot. Nolle in causa est & non posse praetenditur: thou pretendest inability, but the cause is thou wilt not. There is a sparke within thee: doe but quicken that vp, and vse thy best endeavour, and [Page 168] through Christ strengthning thee thou shalt bee able to master any infirmitie. Thirdly and lastly, seeing the spiri­tuall life is the only happy and truely comfortable life, why study we not aboue all things to liue this life? With out it, to win the whole world, and to enioy all the plea­sures thereof, will proue but poore gaine. For what is it to the losse of the soule, which vnlesse it liue spiritually must needs die eternally. And when this life is obtained, striue we by all meanes to keepe and preserue it. Much power and glory must Christ haue before he can giue it: and shall we hauing by gift receaued it, bee carelesse and negligent to retaine and hold it? Skinne for skinne, said he who knew it well,Ioh. 2.4. and all that a man hath will hee giue for his life. If for his naturall life, how much more pretious should his spirituall life be vnto him? This rather then they would loose, the holy Martyrs of God were con­tent to part both with life and liuehood. Let the same preparation of mind be in vs, for it is the very life of our life. And thus much of the first point, Quid, what the gift is. It is Life.

The second is Vnde, whence it is. It is from the sonne, and that by way of gift. For so saith my Text, that hee may giue. First therefore it is from the Sonne. Which yet must not be vnderstood exclusiuely, as if it were not from the Father and the holy Ghost also. For the holy & blessed Trinitie is the author of all life both naturall and spirituall. This appeareth plainely. For to giue life is an extrinsecall action: and according to the old rule, actio­nes ad extra sunt indivisae, such actions as stay not with­in but issue forth from the Deity are common to all three persons. Hence touching Naturall life it is said, In him, that is in God,Act. 17.28. we liue and moue and haue our being. And [Page 169] you know who it was that first breathed the breath of life into Adam: even the wholy trinity who had said, Come let vs make man. And concerning spirituall life, hence is it that it is called Vita Dei the life of God: Gen 1 26. Eph. 4.18. and that Moses saith of Israell, Ipse est vita tua, He, to wit God, is thy life. Dent. 30.20. Howbeit wee are further to know that al­though God be the fountaine of all good, yet is he to vs in regard of spirituall grace vntill we be in Christ but fons obsignatus a fountaine sealed vp. In Christ hee is a foun­taine opened, not otherwise. For he passeth no grace but by a mediator. Him therefore hath he made the Principle of all good: and to this end hath hee filled him with the fulnesse of grace, Ioh. 1.16. that of his fulnesse wee might all receiue e­ven grace for grace. And in this sense is it that wee say Spirituall life is from him.2 Cor. 4.10.11 Col. 3.3. Whence also it is called the life of Christ: & Christ himselfe is called, the Lord & giver of life, yea and said to be our very life. But how this life is derived from him vnto vs let vs enquire a little farther. And because out of naturall Philosophy we haue hitherto proportioned the spirituall life for the substance thereof with the Naturall: giue me leaue a little to reflect againe vpon the same Science to proportion out the manner of conveying it also. First therefore vnto life a Soule is ne­cessary: for without it nothing can liue. Secondly, it is as necessary that the Soule haue life in it selfe: or else how can it giue life? for nothing giueth that which it selfe hath not. Thirdly, the Soule must not only haue life in it, but also a power to quicken and make aliue. For as Aristotle saith [...]the soule is the cause and principle of life to the liuing body. Fourthly, not­withstanding this life and quickning power of the Soule, it is necessary for the conveyance of life vnto the body, [Page 170] that it be first infused and hypostatically vnited therevn­to. For before God breathed the Soule into Adam, his bo­dy though otherwise organized and formed, lay but as a dead lumpe breathlesse and lifelesse. But no sooner was the soule powred into him, but forthwith he began to liue the life of a man. For fiftly, vpon the vnion of soule and body riseth the constitution and being of man. For neither is the soule nor the body severally and asunder called Man, but the whole ioyntly & composed together, vpon which constitution and being of Man resulteth in the sixt place the naturall life of man, and continually remaineth vntill the dissolution betwixt Soule and Body. And lastly, vpon this naturall life proceede 'those humane and connaturall operations, of which aboue. Now let vs as briefly apply all this vnto our present purpose. First that which in the conveyance of this spirituall life is answerable vnto the soule is Christ the Mediator: who therefore in six hundred places of Scripture is said to be our life. And himselfe saith of himselfe, I am the resurrection and the life: and againe, I am the way, the truth, and the life. Secondly, as the Soule, so hath Christ also life in himselfe. As the Father, saith he, hath life in himselfe, so hath he giuen vnto the Sonne al­so to haue life in himselfe. Ioh. 5.26. Rom. 8.2. and S. Paul saith, that the Spirit of life is in the Sonne. And S. Iohn, This life is in his Sonne. And againe,1 Ioh. 5.11. Ioh. 1.4. This life was in him, and the life was the light of men. Thirdly, as the soule hath not only life in it but al­so a quickning power,Ioh. 5.21. so hath Christ also. So S. Iohn, As the Father, 1 Cor. 15.45. so the Sonne quickneth whomsoeuer he will. And S. Paul, The first Adam was made a living soule, and the se­cond Adam was made a quickning spirit. Fourthly, as the soule vntill it be personally vnited quickneth not so neither doth Christ vntill he be mystically vnited. Of this Vnion [Page 171] I cannot now speake, I shall hereafter when I come to those words,vers. 22.23. That they may be one as we are one, I in them, and thou in me. Gal. 2.20. In the meane season thus S. Paul I liue, yet not I, but Christ liueth in me: that is, I liue by Christ vnited vnto me.1 Ioh. 5.12. And S. Iohn, He that hath the Son that is, he that is vnited vnto him, hath life: but he that hath not the Sonne, that is, is not vnited vnto him, hath not life. Fiftly, as the Vnion of soule and body makes and constitutes Man, so vpon our Vnion with Christ are we made new men,1 Cor. 12.12. Christian men, spirituall men, yea, as is aboue proued, very Christ. So speaketh S. Paul in the place alleadged: and else­where, yee are of God in Christ Iesus, 1 Cor. 1.30. that is, by being in Christ yee haue receiued of God a new essence or being. Sixtly, as from the naturall being of man comes naturall life,Ioh. 14.19. so from the spirituall issues spirituall life. Because I liue, saith our Saviour, yee (to wit who receiue of my spirit, and so are spirituall men, yee I say) shall liue. Seventhly and lastly, as from humane life proceed humane operations: so from the spirituall proceed spirituall actions. This hath beene already shewed, wherevnto I now only adde that of S. Paul, If Christ be in you, the body indeed is dead vnto sinne, Rom. 8.10. but the spirit is life vnto righteousnesse. And thus you see how and after what manner spirituall life is con­veyed vnto vs from Christ.

It is further added that this life is not only from Christ, but that he is the donour and giuer thereof. It is from him, but by way of gift.Iohn 6.33. For so it is said, that he may gi [...]e. So al­so elsewhere, The bread of God is he which commeth downe from heauen, Rom. 6.23. and giueth life vnto the world. And S. Paul, the wages of sinne is death, but the gift of God is eternall life through Iesus Christ our Lord. 1 Pet. 3.7. Wherevpon S. Peter calleth it the grace of life. And the scripture every where impu­teth [Page 172] the whole worke of our salvation from the beginning vnto the end thereof vnto meere grace. Now as he saith, Gratia non est gratia nisisit omnimodo gratuita: grace is not grace vnlesse it be every way of free gift. And certainly if it be not of free gift, it is of merit and due preparation in our selues. But I beseech you what merit, what preparati­on of himselfe was there in Adam vnto life, while as yet he lay like a dead lump of clay before his maker? What in Lazarus when he had beene quatriduanus foure dayes in the graue, and began to putrifie and corrupt? Surely none at all. No more can there be in vs, who before we re­ceiue this life, are vtterly dead in trespasses and sins. If the creature disposed not himselfe vnto his creation, nor man vnto his generation, nor the science vnto its incition: how can we prepare our selues either to our renovation, or re­generation, or ingrafting into the mysticall body of Christ? In a word, can sinne be a disposition or preparation vnto Grace? I trow no. Yet whatsoeuer we doe before we are new creatures and liue the spirituall life, is at the best but splendidum peccatum, a gay and glittering sinne. For the agent is altogether sinfull and carnall: and whatsoeuer is of flesh is flesh. Doe we gather grapes of thornes, or figgs of thistles, or good fruite of an evill tree? No verily. For such as the tree is, such fruit it yeeldeth, Good it cannot yeeld till it be made good. Made good we are not till wee beleeue. Till we beleeue therefore can wee doe no good. If so, then what is not of Faith, is sinne, and pleaseth not God. And what pleaseth not him cannot dispose vnto grace. Being then without merit and disposition vnto grace, it must needs follow, that as spirituall life is by Vnion, so it is also by way of gift from Christ.

The vse of all may be first, to teach vs that all they who [Page 173] are not vnto Christ mystically vnited are spiritually dead: and what actions soeuer proceed from them notwith­standing all the specious and goodly shew they make, are not living actions. For being not acted by the spirit of Christ, they are not like vnto bodies animated by a hu­mane soule: but vnto such dead bodies rather as are raised vp by magicians, and are stirred and moved only by the spirit of Satan. These may seeme to liue, but indeed liue not. And if spirituall life bee the only blessed life, then must these needs bee in a most ruefull and miserable case. Secondly it teacheth vs, that if we desire to liue this, wee must indeavour by all meanes to be vnited vnto Christ. He is come vnto vs that we might haue life, yea and that we might haue it in abundance. Ioh. 10.10. If we come not to him, it is our fault if we liue not. And iust cause shall we giue him to complaine of vs,Ioh. 5.40. as he did of the Iewes, yee will not come to me that yee might haue life. Eph. 17. Our comming is by Faith. By it Christ dwelleth in our harts: and by it is the iust man said to liue. This purgeth and purifieth our soules, and produceth in vs the works of charity, which are the right operations of Spirituall life. Thirdly, seeing we liue by Christ, it is reason we should also liue vnto him. For as S. Augustin saith, every thing should liue to that by which it liueth: as the body because it liveth by the Soule ought to liue vnto the Soule. Hence therefore is it that S. Paul would haue all that are dead vnto sinne to reckon them­selues aliue, Rom. 6.11. & 14.7.8. but aliue vnto God through Iesus Christ our Lord. Gal. 2.19. Hence also he affirmeth that none of vs liveth to himselfe, but that we liue vnto the Lord: and that himselfe through the law is dead to the law that he might liue vnto God. 2. Cor. 5.14. But most expresly, thus, saith he, we iudge that if one died for all, vers. 15. thē were all dead: & that he died for all, that they [Page 174] which liue should not henceforth liue vnto themselues, but vnto him which died for them and rose againe. You will say, how are we to liue vnto Christ? I answere, as the bo­dy liueth vnto the Soule. The Body liueth vnto the Soule when it is serviceable and obedient therevnto: especially when it followeth not the sway of inordinate passion, but the direction of right reason. In like manner we liue vnto Christ when we serue and obey him, not li­ving after the flesh but after the spirit. For not they that walke after the flesh, Rom. 8.1.9. are in Christ, but they only who are lead by the spirit of Christ. S. Peter expresseth it by liuing not to the lusts of men, 1 Pet: 4 2.3.6. but to the will of God. And by and by setteth down the Iusts of men to be the will of the Gen­tiles, namely lasciviousnesse, lusts, excesse of wine, revel­lings, banquetings, abominable idolatries, and the like. Vn­to all which he opposeth liuing according to God in the spirit. Fourthly and lastly, hence we may learne humility to ascribe nothing to our owne selues. For what are wee in nature but stinking carkasses? If we liue, it is by the meere grace of Christ. Come vnto him of our selues to be quickned by him we could not. It was his Father that drew vs vnto him. Not vnto vs therefore, not vnto vs, but vnto the Father through Iesus Christ bee ascribed the whole praise and glory thereof for evermore. And thus much of the second point, Vnde, whence this life is.

The third point is Quibus, vpon whom it is conferred and bestowed. Vpon those, saith my Text, and all those whom his Father hath giuen him. Who are they? For of them Christ very often speaketh.Ioh 6.37. All, saith he, that my fa­ther giueth me shall come vnto me, Ver [...]. [...]39. And againe, This is the Fathers will which hath sent me, that of all which hee hath giuen me I should loose nothing. And yet againe, My Fa­ther [Page 175] which gaue them me is greater then all. Ioh. 10.29. And so also sundry times in the sequele of this present Chapter.V. 6.9.11.12. For clearer vnderstanding hereof therefore we are to knowe that there is a double donation by which men are said to be giuen vnto Christ, the one Common, the other Singu­lar. The Common is that whereby the Father hauing gi­ven vnto the Sonne all power both in heauen and earth, deliuereth all things also into his hand, giuing as it were liverie and seizing of them, that from thenceforth hee may dispose of them at his pleasure. And thus all men whatsoeuer both elect and reprobate are giuen vnto him. But this is not here meant, as by and by shall appeare. Another donation therefore there is more speciall and singular whereby the Father deliuereth vnto the Sonne some of the creatures as vnto a head to be his members, or (to persist in our present similitude) giueth them as a body to the soule to be acted and quickned by him: that is, to be ruled and ordered not only by the Scepter of his Power, but of his Grace and sanctifying Spirit: Now who are these? Surely not all flesh: for all are not vnited to him, and so liue not by him. Who then? They that are elected and chosen vnto life: of whom it is said Multi vocati, pauci verò electi, many are called, but few are cho­sen. And that these are here meant plainely appeareth by and by where he saith,Vers [...] 6. I haue manifested thy name vnto the men which thou gauest me out of the world: that is, not to all, but some only selected and culled from the rest. And againe, Thine they were, and thou gauest them mee. How thine? By free election: and now mine by speciall donation.Vers: 9. And yet againe, I pray not for the world, but for them that thou hast giuen me, for they are thine. Where you see the world distinguished from them that are gi­ven [Page 176] him, and excluded from being the Fathers together with them. Whence it followeth necessarily, that the do­nation here meant is not of all, but those only who in spe­ciall sort are the Fathers, namely his chosen and peculiar ones. For the better vnderstanding hereof, and that you may knowe how and in what order the Father is pleased to proceed in this gracious worke, thus I take it you are to conceaue thereof. First, the Father seeing all mankind by the fall of Adam to bee corrupted and in the state of damnation, out of his meere mercy and loue decreed, not to loose the whole race of man, but to renew and repaire againe his image in some of them, to the praise of the glory of his grace: prouided yet alwaies that his iustice for sinne be fully satisfied. Secondly, for the satisfaction of his iu­stice, he further decreed to send his sonne into the world, that taking our nature vpon him, he might therein suffer whatsoeuer was due to sinne, and so mediate a peace be­tweene God and vs. Then thirdly, out of the corrupt Masse of mankinde he selecteth and chuseth some parti­culars, even such as he pleaseth, with a purpose infallibly to bring them to everlasting life. And in regard of this act it is that our Saviour saith tui erant they were from al eternity thine: and againe, tui sunt, by the constant conti­nuation of the same purpose they are still thine. In the fourth place those that are thus elected the Father giueth vnto the Sonne to accomplish his purpose vpon them, and by vertue of the power and life giuen him, to quicken them vnto eternall life. Being thus giuen wee are now Christs. Wherevpon also the Church is bold and saith, My welbeloued is mine, Cant. 2.16. and I am his: and S. Paul directly affirmeth that we are Christs. 1. Cor: 3.23. And being Christs, fiftly & lastly, he actually enliues & quickens them, raising them [Page 177] vp from the death of sinne, and convaying into them the spirit of life, in such sort as wee haue formerly declared.

But doth Christ bestow life vpon all them that are so given him? yea verily, my text expressely affirmeth it, that he should giue eternall life to as many as thou hast giuen him. This was the very end wherefore the Father gaue them to him. And shall we thinke that the Father tooke not order sufficient for the attaining of his end? God for­bid. For because he would not faile of his end, therefore did he giue so great power vnto his Sonne. Ioh. 10.28. Such power that nothing,ibid. 10.10. except he would, could plucke them out of his hands: and so much life, that if hee would hee might giue it in abundance. Shall we say that the Sonne though he hath power yet wants will? Farre be such blasphemy from vs.Ioh. 6.38. For he testifieth of himselfe that hee came downe from heauen with this resolution,Id. 5.30. not to doe his owne will, but the will of him that sent him:Id. 4.34. Ioh. 6.39. and now that he is come, that he seeketh not his owne will, but the will of the Father that sent him, yea that it is meat vnto him, to doe the will of him that sent him, and to finish his worke. Now this is the Fathers will that of all which he gaue him hee should loose nothing, but as my text saith, giue vnto them eternall life. It is therefore the will of the Sonne also. And because ac­cording to the old rule Qui potest & vult facit, hee that both can and will doth, vndoubtedly Christ being both able and willing giueth vnto all the elect everlasting life. Hence of his Sheepe that is of the elect he saith,Ioh. 10.28. I giue vn­to them eternall life, and they shall never perish. And a­gaine▪ All that the Father giueth me shall come vnto mee, Id. 6.37. that is, shall beleeue in me and liue, and him that commeth vnto mee I will in no wise cast out. If Christ giue not eter­nall life to as many as are giuen of his Father, then hee [Page 178] looseth some of them. For they that liue not eternally perish eternally. But the Sonne plainely affirmeth that all that are giuen him he keepeth in his Fathers name and loos­eth none of thē:Ioh. 17.12. & 18.9. Heb. 2.13. so that in the last day he may truly say, Loe here I am and the children which thou hast given mee. And thus to them and to all them whom the Father hath gi­ven him hee giueth life. But did the Father intend it, or doth the Sonne bestow it only on them, excluding all o­thers? To this question because my text directly answer­eth nothing, I shall haue iust occasion hereafter fully to handle it where our Saviour denieth that he praies for the World:vers 9. I forbeare the resolution of it for the present, and reserue it till then as the fitter place. In the meane season.

This vse may we briefly make hereof, First, it may serue as a cristall mirror wherein to behold the infinite & vnspeakable goodnesse & loue of the Father towards vs. When we were in the same masse of corruption together with all mankinde, it pleased him by free election to single vs from the rest, and to bestow vs vpon his Son, that hee might bring vs vnto life. Vpon what merit? None at all. For wee were as deepe in the same condemnation as the rest. But such was his good will and pleasure: and this is the glory of his grace, Miserebo [...] cuius misertus fuero, I will haue mercy on whom I will haue mercy. Seeing se­condly by the gift of the Father wee are Christs, let vs know that he is a good depositary, of such care and faith­fulnesse that he will not neglect his Fathers pledge, of such strength and ability that nothing is able to wrest it out of his hands. Were wee our owne, or were wee our owne keepers, we should surely perish. But now Christ is charged with vs who is the safest keeper, and who is re­solued [Page 179] to preserue vs safe vntill the time that he is to re­deliuer vs backe againe vnto his Father, who thenceforth shall be all in all vnto vs. Wherefore thirdly the best course we can take is wholly & absolutely to resigne our selues into his hands. To trust to our selues or to any o­ther, is to rely on a broken reed. But he is a sure rocke vp­on whom we may securely build. The Father is wiser then wee, and he knew well enough what he did when he commended vs to his Sonne. And the Sonne loueth vs farre better then we can loue our selues. When wee were his enemies he was content to dye for vs: now wee are his friends doth he abate of his loue towards vs? Not a whit. Let vs therefore with all confidence entrest our selues both soules and bodies vnto him to dispose of vs at plea­sure. So shall wee rest safe from all dangers, and in the end be prouided of everlasting salvation. In the meane sea­son let vs in the last place, loue, yea and long for his se­cond comming, that being his, there where hee is wee may be also. For here though wee be safe, yet are we not with­out assaults: & those assaults many times shake our Faith, and fill vs full of doubts and fears. This indeed is our weaknesse: For otherwise in regard of the Fathers pur­pose, and the Sonnes protection wee are safe: But when he shall returne againe to take vs home to himselfe, then shall all doubts and feares cleane be banished. For we shall no more beleeue, but see our selues free from all dangers, and in perfect safety. Wherfore come Lord Iesus come quickly. And of the third point Quibus, to whom thus much.

The fourth and last in Quamdiu, how long this life continues. It continues not for a time only as doth the na­turall life, which after a short while suffereth interrupti­on [Page 180] and is broken off by death: but it is an eternall life, as my text saith, and continueth for ever more, vnto the proofe whereof before I descend, I must craue leaue to remoue certaine rubs out of our way, which otherwise may let and hinder vs in our course. For Spirituall life in regard of the degrees thereof being double, of grace and of glory: there are who restraine eternity vnto this only excluding that: as if the life of grace sometime attained not the degree of glory, but the life of glory once attai­ned continued eternally. Howbeit that the life of Grace is also here meant plainely appeareth by the words imme­diatly following,Ioh. 6.47. where our saviour saith This is life e­verlasting to know thee, &c. For to know God in Christ is an operation of Spirituall life. 1 Ioh. 5.12.13. So also elsewhere, He that beleeueth hath eternall life. And againe, Hee that hath the sonne hath life, life I say eternall: for so it is forthwith ex­pounded, that yee may know that yee haue eternall life. Where you see that the words are not of the future tense shall haue, but of the present hath life: which what other can it be but the life of Grace? And of this it is affirmed that it is eternall, and so cannot faile of glory. But further when it is said to be eternall, we are to know that there is a double eternity, the one Simple and absolute, the other only Respectiue. Simple eternity is that which is so both a parte ante & a parte post hauing neither beginning nor ending. And so is God only eternall. The Respectiue is that which is so only a parte post, hauing indeed a beginning, but afterward never ending. And so Angells & the Soules of men are said to be eternall: and in the same sense doe we vnderstand it of Spirituall life, that in regard of the fu­ture it is eternall. Yet here againe we are to distinguish. To the constitution of life three things, as wee haue said, [Page 181] are required, Being, Power, and Operation. As touching the Operations of life, we confesse they may suffer inter­mission. For as in an Epilepsie, or fit of the falling sicknes no worke of life appeares, and yet the partie liues: so in the acting of sinne, from which the best men are not al­waies free, spirituall operations during the while cease, and yet life continues. As touching Power, that is Gracious ha­bits imprinted vpon the soule and enabling to operate, I distinguish againe. For some of them either in them­selues or vs argue defect and imperfection, and pertaine only to the condition of this present life, such as are, Faith, Hope, and Repentance, and the like. Others import perfection & pertaine also to the next life, among which excells Charity. The former in the end of this life cease. For we beleeue because we see not, and hope because we possesse not, and repent because we sinne. But when wee see, possesse, and are free from sinne, then Faith, Hope, and Repentance vanish away. As for the latter they never cease, but continue with vs evermore. Yet here againe are we once more to distinguish. For these habits may be considered, either in regard of Substance or Degree. In regard of degree we confesse they may suffer abatement. For Faith may fall from its Plerophorie o [...] fulnesse to an Oligopistie or lower degree thereof: and Charity also may remit much of its fervor. So that in this respect a man may be said to bee moribundus, Rev. 3.2. declining as it were vn­to death. But in regard of Substance or Being we confi­dently affirme in such sort as is aboue said that they never perish, and the spirituall man neuer dieth. To winde vp all in a word, actus intermitti potest, & gradus remitti, sed ha­bitus ipse nunquam potest amitti, the act may suffer inter­mission for a time, & the degree abatement or remission, [Page 182] but the habit or life it selfe never loosing or amission. The question being thus clearely stated, let vs now proceed to proofe.

That the life of Grace in all them that are giuen vnto Christ by the Father is eternall, might be proued by ma­ny arguments. All what I haue to say shall be reduced to one. If the life of grace at any time fayle, and the elect of God spiritually dye, either it is through the deficiencie of the Procreant and Conservant causes of life or the efficiencie & power of the contrary corrupting causes. But it is neither through the one or the other. Ergo neither doth the life of Grace at any time fayle, nor the elect of God die. The Ma­jor proposition needs no proofe. For a third cause cannot be named, and therefore of necessitie it must bee one of the two if there be any. The Minor therefore I am by all meanes to fortifie, and to maintaine that neither the Pro­creant and Conservant causes fayle, nor the contrary cor­rupting causes prevaile. The efficient and preseruing cau­ses of spirituall life is as wee haue shewed, the holy and blessed Trinitie, the Father through his Sonne by the powerfull operation and working of the holy Ghost. These if they fayle, either it is because they cannot or be­cause they will not continue this life. To say they can­not is no lesse then blasphemie, and contrary both to Scripture and reason. For Omnipotence is an essentiall at­tribute of the Deitie, so that he can no more cease to bee almightie, then cease to be himselfe and loose his being. In the Creed is this title ascribed vnto the Father: how-be it not exclusiuely.Ioh. 1.3. Heb. 1.2.3. For the Sonne and the holy Ghost being coessentiall with him,Iob: 33.4. they are coequall also in might and power.Ps. 33.6. The sonne by the word of his power cre­ated all things together with his Father, Rom. 15.9.13.19. and by the same [Page 183] word vpholdeth all things. And to the holy Ghost power also is attributed, even the same power whereby things were created, and wonders aboue the reach of nature are wrought. If it bee said that the Sonne by taking our na­ture vpon him made himselfe inferiour to his Father, I confesse it: and withall that his mediatorie power is lesse then his Fathers. Neverthelesse all power is giuen him both in heauen and earth, such a power as no creature be­sides is capable of, and which was giuen to this very ende that he might both giue life & continue it vnto eternity. Vnto which had it not beene sufficient without question greater had beene giuen▪ for the Father may not fayle of his end. Of the power of God therefore there can bee no doubt,Esa▪ 63.1. but that he is mighty to saue, able to make vs stand, able to keepe vs, Rom. 14.4. so that none vnlesse he will can take vs out of his hands. 2. Tim. 1.12. Ioh. 10.28. What say we then to his will? For as in him, that is by vertue of the first life wee liue: so if either hee withdraw himselfe from vs, or suffer others to withdraw vs from him, we cannot subsist. Surely as he is able, so if we may beleeue Scripture,2 Cor. 1.21. hee doth stablish vs in Christ, we are kept by the power of God to saluation, 1 Pet: 1. [...]. Col: 3.3. and our life is hid with God in Christ. But enquire we a little deeper into this mystery. And first the will of the Father appeareth many waies. By Election vnto life: which being absolute not conditionall is immutable.2 Tim. 2 19. For the foundation of God standeth sure, hauing this seale, the Lord knoweth who are his. Phil: 4.3. Act: 13.48. And the names of all the elect are written in the booke of life, out of which they can neuer be blotted. For they are ordained vnto life,1 Thes. 5.9. and appointed by God to obtaine salvation through Christ. By his loue also which is the cause of Election. Ier: 31 3. I haue loued thee, saith he, with an eter­nall loue, a loue which as it is without beginning, so shall [Page 184] it likewise be without ending. Nay if the loue of a mo­ther is more to her child when she beareth it in her armes then while it was in her womb: we may not think but the loue of the Father continueth at least as great towards vs when we are new borne of him, as it was when we were yet but conceaued, as it were, by election. Thirdly by donation of Christ to the elect. For what greater testi­monie either of his loue, or of his will to saue then this? So God loued the world, saith Christ, that hee gaue his onely begotten sonne, Ioh. 3.16. that whosoeuer beleeueth in him should not perish but haue euerlasting life. Fourthly by donation of vs vnto Christ.Ioh. 6.39. For it is the will of the Father that of those he hath giuen him he should loose none. And here it is said that he hath giuen vnto the Sonne power over all flesh, that to as many as he hath giuen him hee should giue vnto them everlasting life. And lastly by the couenant made with vs. It is a couenant o [...] salt, an euerlasting couenant. And I will betroth thee vnto me foreuer, Ier, 32.40. Hos. 2.19. saith God. And againe, This is my couenant with them, Esa: 59.21, saith the Lord, my spirit that is vpon thee, & my words which I haue put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seeds seed, saith the Lord from hence forth and foreuer. And thus you see the Father is willing, what the Sonne? His willingnesse also appeares many waies. First by his profession of conformitie and obedience to his Fathers will, whereof wee haue already spoken sufficiently. Wherein seeing he fayleth not, and it is his Fathers will, as we haue shewed, that he should giue them eternall life, vndoubtedly it is his will also. Second­ly, by giuing himselfe for vs. For if then hee was content with the expence of his dearest blood to ransome vs whē we were his enimies: how much more now is it his will [Page 185] & pleasure to saue vs,Rom▪ 5.9: hauing of enimies made vs friends, and begun the spirituall life in vs? Thirdly, by conioyning vs vnto himselfe in so straight a bond of vnion that we are of his bone and of his flesh. For it may not bee imagined that he hateth his owne flesh, but loueth all the members of his body so dearely, thas as long as hee is able hee will surely preserue them aliue. Fourthly, by his mediatory in­tercession. For as he prayed for Peter that his faith might not faile, so he intended the same vnto all beleeuers, as ap­peareth in the sequele of this prayer where he saith, I pray for them also which shall beleeue in me through their word, and requests his Father also to keepe them. Which hee would never haue done but that he earnestly desired their preservation in life. Fiftly, by his care and desire that wee should every way be conformed to him: that as he died and rose againe and from thenceforth dieth no more, so wee should first dye to sinne, and then liue to righteousnesse, and afterward spiritually never dye more. Lastly, by sen­ding vnto vs the holy Ghost, to lead vs into all truth, to comfort vs, and to consecrate vs vnto him both Soules and Bodies.

FINIS.
A GODLIE DISCOVRSE O …

A GODLIE DISCOVRSE OF SELFE-DENIALL.

OXFORD, Printed by I. L. for E. F. 1633.

LVKE. 9.23.‘And he said to them all, if any will come after me, let him deny himselfe, and take vp his crosse daily and follow me.’

THese are the words of our blessed Lord & Saviour Iesus Christ: and they containe in them Counsell of singular importance, gi­ven vnto all those that purpose to come af­ter him. Vpon what occasion it was gi­uen is not so fully recorded by our Evangelist S. Luke: Luk. 9.22. but what is defectiue in him is perfecty supplied by two other Evangelists, S. Mathew, Mat. 16.21.22.23.24. and S. Marke, Mar. 8.31.32.33.34. by Saint Mathew in his sixteenth Chapter, by S. Marke in his eighth. It was this. Our Saviour had signified vnto his Disciples, not obscurely and darkly, as at other times, but in expresse and plaine tearmes, that he was ere long, to goe vp to Ierusalem, and there to suffer many things of the Elders, chiefe Priests, and Scribes, and at length to bee put to death by them. Herevpon S. Peter, being as the Fa­thers obserue of him, [...], more hot and hastie then the rest of his fellowes, presently takes his Master aside, & consulting only with flesh & blood, begins to schoole him, Master, pittie thy selfe, this may not be vnto thee But [Page 2] Christ turning about, and looking vpon his Disciples, first in the hearing of them all sharply rebukes him, Get thee behinde me Satan, thou art a scandall vnto me, for thou sa­vourest not the things that be of God, but those that are of men: and then addressing his speech, as my Text saith, vn­to them all, he giueth them this wholsome and soueraigne Counsel, If any of you be disposed to come after mee, hee may not with Peter follow his owne carnall reason, nor presume by his advise and counsel to guide and direct me, nor finally must he timorously and fearefully shrugge and shrinke at the mention of the Crosse: no, hee must resolue, to deny his owne selfe, to take vp his Crosse daily, and to follow me, otherwise it is but in vaine to thinke of comming after me. This was the occasion of the Counsell, and this is the context and coherence of the words in this history.

In them, it may please you further to obserue with me these three particulars: First, the Parties to whom the counsell is giuen, secondly, the forme of words wherein it is deliuered, and lastly, the counsell it selfe. The Parties, Hee said vnto them all, the forme of words, If any will, let him, the counsell, Let him deny himselfe, take vp his Crosse daily and follow me. In the first yee haue the generalitie of the Counsell, He said vnto them all: in the second, the Liberty of them that are counselled, if any will, let him: in the last the conditionall necessitie of the counsell, if any will come after me, he must of necessity deny himselfe, take vp his cross daily, and follow me. Of these in order, as God shall assist, and the time permit.

The Parties to whom the Counsell is giuen are All, He said vnto them all. What All? All his Disciples, as it see­meth by S. Mathew, Mat. 16.24. for, saith he, Then said Iesus vnto his Disciples. Mar. 8.34. But S. Mark further affirmeth that hee gaue it [Page 3] to the multitude also, When, saith hee, hee had called the people vnto him together with his disciples, hee said vnto them. And these are St Lukes All, all the Disciples, all the People, all the present auditory. The present auditorie will some say? Thē it concernes not vs who were none of that auditorie. Yes vs as well as them: for although Christ at that time spake only to them that were present, yet the holy Evangelists haue written it for vs also. Yea it is clear that our Saviour intended it vniversally vnto all men: for that which Matthew and Luke deliver hypothetically and conditionally, thus, if any will come after me, let him, the same Saint Marke vttereth in a Categoricall and simple forme, thus, Whosoever will come after mee, as if hee should say Every man without exception. So that as our Saviour elsewhere said, What I say vnto you I say vnto all, Watch: in like sort is hee to bee vnderstood here, that what he spake vnto his auditorie then, was ge­nerally meant vnto all mankinde,Psal 119 96. if any whatsoever he bee will come after me, he must deny himselfe, take vp his crosse daily, and follow me. I haue seene an end of all perfection, saith David in his hundred and nineteenth psalme, but thy word is exceeding broad. Psal. 19.3.4. Broad as in sundry other re­spects, so especially in this that it stretcheth and reacheth vnto all men. There is no speech nor language, saith the same David in the nineteenth Psalme, v. 6. where the voice of the Heavens is not heard: their line is gone out throughout all the earth & their words vnto the end of the world. The Sunne which God hath placed therein, goeth forth from the end of heauen, and compasseth about vnto the ends of it, and nothing is hid from the heat thereof. This doth the A­postle Saint Paul in his tenth to the Romans, Rom. 10.18. apply vnto the word preached by the Apostles, plainely implying [Page 4] that no man in the world of what condition soever is pri­viledged from the authority thereof. When God first gaue the law vnto Adam; the tenour whereof runnes thus Hoc fac & vives, Doe this and thou shalt liue, hee gaue it not vnto the person of Adam alone, but vnto all those that were in his loines, even to all his posterity, who had the law printed in their hearts by nature. In like manner when Christ commanded the Gospell of Faith and repen­tance to be preached, he limited it not vnto a few, but said vnto his Apostles, Goe teach all nations, and goe into all the world, Mat. 28.19. Ma [...]. 16 15. and preach the Gospell vnto every creature. Neither from the law nor from the Gospell was any man excepted. God is no accepter of persons: the hand that swaies a scep­ter, and that diggeth with the spade are both alike vnto him. Idem ius Titio quod Seio, one rule vnto all, whether they be high or low, noble or base, rich or poore, lear­ned or vnlearned, bond or free, young or old, of what state, age, sexe, or condition soever they be. God hath not strowed the way to Heaven with roses for great ones to dance vpon, and with thornes for the meaner sort to tread vpon: neither hath hee appointed a spacious and broad way for some, and a strait & narrow way for other some to passe vnto life everlasting by. For the waies of the Lord are strait waies: and as betweene two points there can be but one strait line drawne, so can there bee but one strait way that leadeth vnto life. Vno quis (que) modo bonus est, mu­tis (que) nefandus: a man may be wicked many waies, but he can bee good only one way. A thousand by [...]pathes are there which lead vnto destruction, and but one only right path,Eph. 4.4.5.6. that leadeth to salvation. For there is but one body, and one spirit, and one hope in which all are called, one Lord, one faith, one baptisme, one God and father of vs all: [Page 5] in a word one Blessednesse which is the end, and one Religi­on which is the way to that end, through which way eve­ry man of necessity must passe, that meaneth to arriue at that end. Now I beseech you all that heare mee this day, of what place soever you be, whether high or low, that you will be pleased every one to apply this individually and singularly vnto himselfe: and to take notice that none of you can come after Christ but only by the same way. Every one must deny himselfe, every one must take vp his crosse daily, every one must follow Christ, or else yee can­not possibly come after him. There is none of you so meane whom God overseeth or neglecteth, none so great whom he priuiledgeth or exempteth. And thus much of the generality of the Counsell.

The Forme of words in which the Counsell was deliue­red is, if any will, let him, which as wee haue said import­eth the liberty of them that are counselled. For it is as if our Saviour should thus haue said, Behold I tell you all plainely, no man can come after me vnlesse hee deny him­selfe, take vp his crosse daily, and follow me. Now if any will thus come after me, I giue him good leaue, let him doe so: for my part, I will neither force him from me, nor after me, if he come he shall come willingly; If any will let him. First therefore, Christ putteth off, and forceth no man from him.1 Tim. 2.4. For God would haue all men to be saved, and to come vnto the knowledge of the truth:2 Pet. 3.9. neither is he willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repen­tance.. I haue no pleasure in the death of him that dieth, Ez. 1 [...].3 [...]. saith the Lord God: Id. 33.11. nay he sweares as he liues hee will not the death of a sinner, but that the wicked turne from his way and liue. And certainly seeing man is the creature of God, and creation is the first emanation & issue as it were [Page 6] of his loue, it cannot be that hee should delight in his de­struction. He made not death,Sap. 1.13. as the wise man saith: and when he inflicts it, alienum opus facit, he doth a worke not so pleasing him, for he had rather shew mercy, then exe­cute iudgement. Hence is it that he standeth at the doore of our heart and knocketh; yea that he continueth knocking vntill his head be filled with dew, Rev. 3.20. Cant. 5.2. and his lockes with the drops of the night: that he requesteth vs so louingly to giue him entrance,Ibid. Open vnto mee my sister, my loue, my doue, Rev. 3.20. my vndefiled, promising so bountifully that if wee shall open vnto him, he will come in vnto vs, and sup with vs and wee with him, Mat. 11.28. and threatning vs that as if we come vnto him, Heb. 10.38. wee shall finde refreshment, so if wee draw backe his soule shall haue no pleasure in vs. Neither let vs thinke but that God meaneth seriously in all this: for otherwise he should but mocke and deceiue vs, pretending one thing and intending another, and (which I tremble to speake) playing the hypocrite and dissembler with vs. Besides this, he should make vs the ministers of the Gospell no bet­ter then false witnesses vnto him, testifying things that are vntrue, and which he never purposed: whereas God be­ing omnipotent needeth not our lye, and being truth it selfe will not compasse his end by a lye. Finally, if Christ with his hands should push from him those whom by his word he inviteth to him, then they that come not are the more excusable: for every one may plead for himselfe, that he suffered violence, and Christ himselfe hindred him, whose force no creature is able to withstand. Christ then forceth no man from him.

If so, whence then is it that many who are invited come not? I answere, the fault is in themselues, they will not come.Prov. 1.24.25. I called, saith Wisdome, & yee refused, I stretch­ed [Page 7] out my hand & no man regarded: yee set at naught all my counsells and would none of my reproofe. Esa. 65.12. And againe, I cal­led saith God, and yee did not answere, I spake and yee did not heare: Osea. 13.9. but did evill before mine eyes, and did chuse that wherein I delighted not. Wherefore he protesteth by the prophet Osea, Perditio tua ex te Israell, thy destruction is of thy selfe oh Israell: and complaineth by the prophet Ezechiell, Ez. 18.31. why will ye dye ô house of Israell, as if he should say if yee dye, it is because yee will needs dye. They refused to harken, saith Zacharie, Zach. 7.11.12. and pulled away the shoulder, and stopped their eares that they should not heare, yea they made their hearts as an adamant stone least they should heare the law. In like manner in the new testament.Mat. 23.37. How often would I haue gathered thy children together as the hen gathereth her chickens vnder her wings, and yee would not. Marke the words, I would, therefore Christ forceth no man from him:Luc. 7.30. yee would not, therefore the fault is in our selues. The Pharisees and Lawyers, saith St Luke, reiected the counsell of God against themselues: & our Saviour testifieth of the Iewes, Io. 5.40. that they would not come vnto him that they might haue life:Act. 7.51. yea St Steven generally vpbraids them, yee stiffe­necked and vncircumcised in heart and eares, yee doe alwaies resist the holy Ghost: as your Fathers did so doe yee. All these Scriptures evidently demonstrate, that the cause of not cōming after Christ is not for that Christ forceth man from him, but because man himselfe refuseth to come. Let the blame thereforely where it ought, on man and not on God: Rom. 3.4. let God be true but every man a lyar, as it is written, that thou maist be iustified in thy sayings, and over­come when thou art iudged.

As Christ forceth no man from him, so neither doth he force any to come after him: If any will let him. God of­fereth [Page 8] violence to no mans will: for though he hate evill & loue good, yet neither doth he violently draw the will from the one, nor constraine it vnto the other. Good is not good if it be done of compulsion and not willingly. Hee that doth good by constraint, would not doe it, and [...]o doth ill: and God shall shew great mercy vpon him if he doe not punish him. For the sacrifices which God ac­cepteth are free will offerings: & it is the cheerefull giuer whom he approueth. Hence is it that God requireth our election and choice: and election importeth liberty. I call heauen & earth to record this day against you, Deut. 30.19. saith Moses, that I haue set before you life and death, blessing and cursing: therefore chuse life. And Ioshua, Ios. 24.15. chuse you this day whom you will serue, whether the Gods which your fathers served that were on the other side of the flood, or the Gods of the A­morites in whose land ye dwell. In a word, all the exhorta­tions, commandements, promises, and threatnings vsed in Scripture plainely argue, that it is Gods will that what we doe wee should doe willingly.

Here happily some will say, what, are you fled into the enimies campe? & are you also become a Proctor for free will? God forbid: Our comming after Christ, I as­cribe not with Papists vnto the freedome of our owne will, but vnto the free grace of God: for I confesse that if he prevent vs not with grace we cannot will, and being prevented if he pursue vs not with his grace wee shall will in vaine, according to that of Saint Paul▪ It is God which worketh in you to will and to doe of his good pleasure. Phil. 2.13. If it be so, will you yet say, why doth our Saviour Christ vse this forme of words, if any will let him? and doe you not o­verthrow all what hitherto you haue said, affirming that we can neither will nor doe, vnlesse by grace we be eleva­ted [Page 9] aboue nature? Herevnto, to expresse my selfe more fully, I answere foure things. First, if wee were such as we ought to be, we might of our selues by the meanes of­fered vnto vs come vnto Christ. That now wee cannot is through our owne default who haue disabled our selues. And yet the obligation still lieth vpon vs, and wee are bound to bring with vs power, abilility, and fit dispositions. If wee neither doe nor can, yet may God iustly exact them of vs, as the Creditor may his debt of the vnthrift that cannot pay him: neither is he bound againe to enable him by grace, no more then a Creditor is to supply the wants of his wastfull and pro­digall debter. Secondly, although in things supernaturall and spirituall the act of Willing be not in our power: yet are there many prerequisites going before which are in our power, as to goe to Church, to heare Gods word preached, to meditate vpon it, to seeke further informati­on, &c. without which ordinarily God saueth none. God blesseth not our idlenesse, but our labour▪ he that will not labour shall not eate, he shall eat that seeketh his bread in the sweat of his browes. He that will not plow nor sow, shall not reap the crop: and he that will not striue and en­deauour himselfe shall not obtaine grace. Thirdly, if a man hauing the meanes of grace offered him, shall there­vnto adde his owne endeavour, and doe whatsoeuer lieth in his owne power: who knoweth but that God will bee gracious to that man? Or rather to declare my mind free­ly, I doubt not but that God will be gracious vnto him. And although others wrench and stretch the place too farre for their owne advantage, yet will I not bee afraid with as graue Divines as this land affordeth any to ap­ply it vnto this purpose,Mat. 25.28 29. Habenti dabitur, to him that hath [Page 10] shall be giuen. God forsaketh not man vntill man forsa­keth him: neither fayles any vntill hee bee defectiue vnto himselfe. Then indeed the talent which he would not im­ploy shal be taken from him: but he that imploies it care­fully shall receaue more, yea shall haue abundance. Being thus called and affected God will never cease to further our conversion, vnlesse wee our selues stop his course ei­ther by carelesse neglect or wilfull rejection of grace. Lastly, when we haue done whatsoeuer we can doe, yet is conversion out of our power, it is the work of Gods free grace, which grace of vnwilling maketh vs willing, not by forcing and constraining the will, but sweetly inclining and bending it.Cant. 1.4. For albeit God in converting vs bee said to draw vs,Ioh. 6.44. yet may we not conceaue this Drawing to be constraint or violent coaction. Hee drawes vs indeed: what? as stocks and stones? No, but as men: I will draw them, saith God, with the cords of a man, with the bands of loue. Ose. 11.4. Grace so prevaileth vpon the will, as it preserueth the libertie thereof. It cannot will before Grace, grace maketh it willing. When we are first converted by grace, we convert willingly: and whensoeuer we will, wee will freely. For will is not will vnlesse it be free. Grace indeed setteth free the will: yet except wee will our conversion freely we can neither be converted nor saued, according that of Bernard, Nisi sit liberum arbitrium non est quod saluetur, nisi sit gratia non est vnde saluetur, vnlesse there be free will there is nothing to be saued, vnlesse there be grace, there is no meanes whereby to bee saued. And thus much haue I thought good to speake touching the forme of words, or the liberty of them that are counselled, part­ly to cleare God from being the cause why wee follow not this counsell, and partly to set an edge vpon our en­deauour to follow it.

[Page 11]The Counsell it selfe is threefold, first, abnegation of our selues, secondly, bearing of the crosse, thirdly, following of Christ. And of every of them there is a conditionall ne­cessity, if we will come after Christ. For howsoeuer sim­ply we may chuse whether we will deny our selues or not deny our selues, take vp the crosse, or not take vp the crosse, follow Christ, or not follow him: yet conditionally if wee will come after Christ we must of necessity deny our selues, take vp our crosse daily, and follow him. So that in euery of these Counsels we are to consider, first the Substance, and then the Necessity of it. But before we come particu­larly vnto them, we must needs premise a word or two touching the condition, and enquire what it is to come af­ter Christ. Among divers interpretations, two there are which to me seeme most likely. The first is, if any will come after me, that is, if any will be my Disciple. Thus S. Luke himselfe seemeth to expound it, where speaking in a manner to the same purpose he saith,Luc. 14.27. whosoeuer beareth not his crosse and followeth mee, cannot bee my Disciple. Wherevnto reason also agreeth, for Schollers vse not to goe before their Masters, but to come after them: whence vsually they are called Followers, as the Followers of Pla­to, the Followers of Aristotle. In this sence then it is as if our Saviour should say, If any will be my scholler. But hee meanes a scholler not titularlie and in name only, like Apo­thecaries boxes quorum tituli habent remedia, pyxides ve­nena, which containe in them poisons hauing the titles of remedies: but really and truely, one that is so indeed, and to speake plaine English, a [...]rue Christian. The second in­terpretation is, if any will come after me, that is, if any will arriue at that end to the which I am aspiring before him, namely, eternall glory. Neither is this vnlikely: for Christ [Page 12] is the author and finisher of our Faith, Heb. 1 [...].2. who for the ioy that was set before him endured the crosse, despising shame, and is set at the right hand of the throne of God. Heb. 10.19.20. Hee by his blood hath consecrated a new and liuing way for vs into the holy of holies, whether he is ascended before vs, there to pre­pare mansions for all such as will come after him. And in this sense it is as if our Saviour should say,Ioh. 14.2. if any will come to eternall life and glory after me. Now whether of these two sences shall we take? I suppose both: for first the cir­cumstances of the Text admit both, secondly both agree with the analogie of faith, thirdly the safest rule is, not to straighten but to enlarge the meaning of the holy Ghost as much as may be: and lastly what God hath ioyned toge­ther let no man put asunder. Now no man can bee a Ci­tizen of heauen, vnlesse he be a Disciple of Christ here on earth. The Schoole of Christ and the kingdome of hea­ven are contriued like Marcellus two Temples of Ver­tue and Honour. For as none could enter into the Temple of Honour but he must first passe through the Temple of Vertue: so neither can any man passe into the kingdome of glory but by the schoole of grace. He that will be glo­rious there must first be gracious here. There is no salva­tion but only by the Mediation of Christ, his Mediation stands in his Priesthood, Kingdome, and Prophecie. Hee is not a Priest to one, a King to another, and a Prophet to a third, but he is all three vnto a man, or he is none at all vn­to him:1 Cor. 1.13. for Christ is not divided. Whence it followeth that whosoeuer will be saued, Christ must bee a Prophet vnto him, and he must be a Disciple vnto Christ. The meaning then of this condition is as if our Saviour more fully and plainely had said, If any will be my Disciple, and by being my Disciple will come vnto the kingdome of hea­ven [Page 13] after me. Now let vs descend in due order vnto the counsels, and consider both the substance and necessity of them. First of the first.

Let him deny himselfe. What is that? God, saith the A­postle, is faithfull, he cannot deny himselfe, that is, he can­not say and vnsay,2 Tim. 2.13. for his promises are not Yea and nay, but Yea and Amen: neither can he say otherwise of him­selfe then he is, for he is truth it selfe & cannot lye. Must we thus deny our selues? God forbid. For then how can we resemble our heavenly Father, and be perfect as hee is perfect? for he neither doth nor can deny himselfe. And seeing Christ is the expresse image of his Father, Heb. 1.3. and wee are to be conformed vnto the image of Christ: it cannot be that he should advise vs to bee so vnlike either to his Father or himselfe, as in this sense to deny our selues. No this we leaue to cheating Priests and Iesuits, who haue devised a new doctrine of Equivocation and Mentall Re­servation. If yee aske of a Priest, art thou a Priest? Hee will confidently and boldly deny himselfe and say, I am no Priest, reseruing in his minde, of Baal, or of Apollo, which speech and reservation put together, make vp, they say, one entire and true sentence, I am no Priest of Baal or Apollo. And this is the starting hole which these Foxes haue provided for themselues in the time of danger. But O thou thrice blessed Lord and Saviour Christ, and O yee blessed and holy Apostles and Martyrs of Christ, how simple and ignorant were yee that yee knewe not this do­ctrine? Had you knowne it, how easily might you haue avoided those many troubles, vexations, and torments that yee endured? Thou O Christ being demanded whe­ther thou were the Christ, mightst readily haue answe­red, I am not, with this reservation, such as yee looke for: & [Page 14] yee Apostles and Martyrs of Christ being questioned whether yee were Christians, might easily haue replyed, we are not, reseruing only in your mind, such as yee slander vs to be, devourers of young children, incestuous, and the like. But the schoole of Machiavel and Loiola was not yet opened, and Christians hitherto were trained vp on­ly in the schoole of Christ: all were of the minde of that Bishop, who as Augustin saith, was Firme both in name and deed, who being demanded by persecutors for a Christian whom he had hidden, answered roundly and without all Equivocation, neither is it for a Christian to lie, nor for a Bishop to betray a Christian and therefore I will not tell you. I feare me, when these Deniers of thē ­selues shall appeare before Christ at the last day, mentall reseruation will hardly excuse them: and because they would not be knowne to be the Priests of Christ (for so they pretend) neither will Christ knowe them to bee of his flocke. But of this enough, being but by the way.

To Deny then in this place, is not litterally and pro­perly to be vnderstood, but thus, to disclaime, to renounce, to reiect, to despise, to make no reckoning and to take no no­tice of. Mat. 10.33. When our Saviour threatneth that hee will deny them before his Father in heauen whosoeuer shall deny him before men, what meaneth he but this, Hee will renounce them, Deut▪ 33.19: and not owne them for his? Even as it is said of Levi to his great honour, He said vnto his Father and to his mother I haue not seene him, neither did he acknowledge his brethren, nor knewe his owne, that is, he regarded them not, nor tooke any notice of them. But what must wee thus Deny? Our selues. He saith not, Father, Mother, Brother, Sister, Wife, children, Friends, Honour, Wealth, Pleasure, and yet these things must be denied too: but hee [Page 15] saith, Let him deny himselfe. Himselfe? What meanes he by that?1. Cor. 2.14.15 There are two sorts of men: for as S. Paul di­stinguisheth, there is a Spirituall and there is a Naturall man. The Spirituall man is he who is borne a new of wa­ter and the holy Ghost, & by grace is become a new crea­ture, a new man, transformed into the image of Christ. The naturall man is he that is as yet vnregenerate, & hath nothing in him but nature & the corruption thereof, bea­ring only the image of the old Adam. Must the spirituall man deny himselfe? No verily, so farre forth as he is spi­rituall: for so doing, he should disclaime and disesteeme the very grace of God by which hee is whatsoeuer he is. It is the Naturall man then that must be denied. Now in the Naturall man there is, first Nature, and then the cor­ruption of nature. By Nature I vnderstand, the powers & faculties of the soule, such as are the Vnderstanding and the light of reason, whose office is to discerne truth from falsehood: and the Will (vnder which also I comprehend Passions and Affections) whose dutie is to pursue that which is good, and to shun that which is evill. The cor­ruption of nature, is that which in Scripture is called flesh & concupiscence, and is commonly known in the Church by the name of Originall sinne, because it is traduced vn­to vs from our parents, and wee are polluted therewith in every part both of soule and body from our very con­ception and birth. Now which of these two must be de­nied? I answer both: yet not both alike, but the corrupti­on of Nature simply and absolutely, and Nature it selfe on­ly in some respect.

First then Nature it selfe must bee denied. What sim­ply and absolutely as the corruption of Nature? No, by no meanes▪ [...]o [...] it is the good creature of God, & with­out [Page 16] it, neither are we capable of blessednesse, nor can bee schollers in the schoole of Christ. Nature is not oppo­site but subordinate vnto Grace: and Grace destroyeth not nor abolisheth, but healeth and perfecteth Nature. Nei­ther is it without cause that God spoiling man of his su­pernaturals for sinne, only wounded him in his naturals, and left vnto him both a light in his Vnderstanding, and a liberty in his Will. Rom. 1.18. By the light of reason, the invisible things of God, Psal. 19.1. euen his eternall Power and Godhead are clearely scene: & there is no nation so barbarous, but part­ly by inbred principles, partly by the booke of the crea­tures knowe him. By the same light of reason doe we in part also know the will of God:Rom. 2.14.15. for the law morall is writ­ten in our hearts by nature, and how many excellent pre­cepts of moralitie doe we finde in the writings of meere naturall men? Finally, even in the matter of the Gospell, reason seeth thus farre, that it is not vnpossible if God will: and vpon this ground, Iustin Martyr, Tertullian, Ar­nobius, Lactantius, Athenagoras, Augustin anciently, and Aquinas, Vives, Mornay of late, haue attempted to proue by reason, the truenesse of Christian religion. As for the Will, it is yeelded of all hands, that in matters morally good, it hath free liberty, and may of it selfe either chuse it or refuse it at pleasure. So that hitherto Nature & the power thereof is no way to bee denied or disclaimed. Wherein then? Surely in things meerely supernaturall. For that which is aboue reason cannot be comprehended by reason: and that which passeth the reach of nature cā ­not be attained only by the power of nature. The naturall man, saith S. Paul, perceaueth not the things of God, nor can knowe them, 1. Cor. 2▪14. because they are spiritually discerned. In these things reason is starke blinde, and seeth nothing. [Page 17] Search the writings of the subtilest and sharpest Natura­list, and ye shall finde in them of Christ and his Gospell nor palme nor footstep. Here therefore reason must bee deni­ed, and as a woman may not speake in the Church, so must reason also be silent in things supernaturall. In things not revealed, it must be contented not to know: & docta igno­rantia est, it is a learned ignorance. In things revealed, it must beleeue without and aboue reason: reason must bee captived vnto the obedience of faith. And as where the naturall Philosopher endeth there the Physitian begins: so where naturall reason stoppeth divine Faith must come in place. Otherwise if reason will needs be prying into Gods arke, and search into those mysteries that are aboue the reach thereof: it is the corruption of reason, and no mar­vaile if it become vaine and foolish in her imaginations. Yea when men in their curiosity thinke themselues most wise, then are they most infatuated. And as Ixion, in the fable, embraceing a cloud insteed of Iuno begat Centaures thereon: so they entertaining their owne fancies insteed of divine veritie bring forth nothing but monsters of errors and strange opinions. What I say of reason must be vnder­stood of the will also: in spirituall matters the one want­eth light to see, and the other strength to doe: It is not in him that willeth, nor in him that runneth, but in God that sheweth mercy: for (as we haue already demonstrated) nei­ther can we will of our selues without preventing grace, nor doe when wee haue willed without pursuing grace. So that if a man will be no more then the scholler of Na­ture, he cannot be the scholler of Christ. For as nature is vnable both to know the mysteries which Christ teacheth and to doe the duties which he requireth: so doth Christ command vs to renounce our naturall abilities, & to come [Page 18] as infants vnto the kingdome of heauen.

But if Nature it selfe must be denied, much more the Corruption of Nature. For as the Scripture saith Corrup­tion cannot inherit vncorruption: and without holinesse it is impossible to see God. Now the leprosie of Originall Cor­ruption not only infects the inferiour part of the soule as Papists dreame, but spreads it selfe to every part, even the superiour also. For as for the mind, it is not only blind and ignorant, but Corrupt also and full of vanity: it savoureth not the things of God, 2 Tim. 3. but they seeme vnto it meere folly. As for the will it is not only vnable to performe spirituall duties,Eph. 4.17.18. Rom 8. 1 Cor. 2 but full of hardnesse also and perversnesse and vn­towardensse vnto any thing that is good. Finally the infe­riour part is but a shop of all turpitude & outragiousnesse, full of nothing else but tempestuous, tumultuous, vnruly, and sinfull lusts. These all as the Scripture saith, must be crucified, must be mortified, must be killed, that is must vt­terly be renounced and denied if wee will bee the follow­ers of Christ. And reason. For the flesh lusteth and fighteth against the spirit: by reason whereof the good wee would doe we cannot doe; and the evill wee would not doe wee doe. They that walke after the flesh, saith St Paul, are not in Christ, but they that walke after the spirit. And, they that liue after the flesh shall die: neither can any man liue, vn­lesse by the spirit he mortify the deeds of the body. In a word, to this end hath the grace of God appeared vnto all men, Tit. 2.11.12. and instructed vs, that we denying all vngodlinesse and worldly lusts, might liue soberly, iustly, & godly, in this presēt world. By all which it is cleare, that all our corrupt lusts & affe­ctions must be denied if we will be disciples in the schoole of Grace, yet is it further to be observed, that whē the A­post. saith, we must deny all worldly lusts, he meaneth fleshly [Page 19] lusts, as they haue reference vnto the world, & to the pro­fits & pleasures of this present life. So that in comparison of Christ, & when they let and hinder vs from comming after him, whatsoeuer in the world is most deare & pre­tious vnto vs, must be despised and trod [...]n vnder foot. We must with the holy Apostles be content to forsake all and to follow him. Mat. 19▪27. Mat▪ 10.37. If wee loue father or mother or sonne or daughter more then him, Luc. 14.26. we are vnworthy of him. Nay if any come vnto him and hate not his father and mother, and wife and Children, and brethren and sisters, yea & his owne life also (or as some thinke it may not vnfitly be transla­ted, his owne soule) he cannot be my Disciple. Wherefore as Hierom saith, if Father or Mother shall lye in the way to hinder thee from comming after Christ, bee not afraid to tread vpon the gray beard of thy Father, and to tram­ple vpon the belly of her that bare thee, rather then to be barred from cōming vnto him. As therefore, to conclude this point, a young man in the iudgement of Aristotle is an vnfit auditor of Morall Philosophy: even so the meere Animall man by the verdict of Iesus Christ, is vtterly vn­meet to be scholler in Christian Philosophy. If hee will make himselfe meet for Christs schoole, hee must of ne­cessity deny himselfe, which is the first Counsell.

The second is, let him take vp his crosse daily. The Crosse properly is a tree or engine of wood framed into such a forme, where vpon malefactors were wont to bee executed and put to death. The manner was either with cords to bind them, or which was more vsuall with nailes to fasten them hand and foot vnto it, and there to suffer them to languish and pine away vnto death: in regard whereof they were wont aunciently to call it vltimum supplicium, the extremest and greatest punishment: & be­cause [Page 20] the basest sort of people only, and such as were ser­vants or slaues were in this manner executed, there­fore was it also termed servile supplicium a servile pu­nishment. This cruell and slavish death did our Lord and Saviour Iesus Christ suffer, to free vs from eternall death, and to procure vnto vs everlasting life. Wherevpon those pressures, tribulations, afflictions, persecutions that doe befall a man, not for his wickednesse but for righteous­nesse sake, & for the profession of the Gospell of Christ, are in the language of Canaan called the Crosse, because they are the remainders of the afflictions of Christ, Col. 1.24. which he in his body, that is the Church, doth yet still suffer. And this is the Crosse which is here meant. But it is further said, His crosse. Not that Crosse which a man frameth vnto his owne selfe, or rashly pulleth vpon himselfe, as sundry Martyrs in the primitiue Church seemed to doe, whom yet I dare not censure, because I know not with what spi­rit they did it. For we may not like Coecias draw stormes and clouds vpon our owne heads: and our Saviour him­selfe advizeth vs, when they persecute vs in one Citty, to fly into another. Then only are we bound to beare the crosse, when without denying the truth we cannot avoid it. Our Crosse then is that which is imposed vpon vs by God, whe­ther it be poverty, or ignominy, or imprisonment, or ba­nishment, or whipping, or racking, or torment, or death of what kind soeuer. For God layeth not the same crosse on all, but one Crosse on one, and another on another, as hee in his wisdome thinketh best. But whatsoever the crosse is which God appointeth vnto a man, that is his crosse. And this crosse saith Christ must be taken vp. It was the man­ner that he that was cruciarius to bee crucified, was to beare his crosse or some part thereof vnto the place of ex­ecution. [Page 21] So did Christ, vntill meeting with Simon of Cy­rene, they compelled him to beare his crosse. But malefactors beare it against their wills, our Saviour willingly, which was the very forme of his suffering: and he requireth all those that will come after him to doe so too. For to take vp the crosse imports not only a patient bearing of it when it is laid vpon vs, but also a ready and voluntary vndergo­ing of it. And this also saith our Saviour, must bee done daily, that is, at all times, and continually. Not but that the Church hath sometimes her lucida intervalla, her good daies: for the rod of the wicked resteth not alwaies vpon the lot of the righteous, Psal. 125.3. and after stormes and tem­pests God sendeth calme & Halcionian times. How then? Thus. Whensoever God sendeth the crosse vnto any, he must actually take it vp: in the time of peace, and when there is no crosse, though actually he cannot, yet must he take it vp in the preparation and disposition of the mind. And this is the substance of the second Counsell, Let him take vp his crosse daily.

The Necessity of it if wee will come after Christ is easie to be demonstrated. What more manifest in the Scripture then this that the Crosse is an vnseparable companion of the Church? The Church is Lilium inter spinas, a lilie a­mong thornes. Christ without his crosse is but a Chimoe­ra, & so is the Church also without afflictions, Psal. 34.19. Many are the troubles of the righteous, saith David, In the world yee shall haue tribulations, Ioh. 16.33. saith our Saviour Christ. Through much tribulation must we enter into the kingdome of God, Act. 14.2. saith Saint Paul: 2 Tim. 3.12. and againe, All that will liue Godly in Ie­sus Christ shall suffer persecution. Search the records of all times from the beginning of the world downe to this present, and you shall find that Persecution hath ever at­tended [Page 22] vpon the Church. Not to speake of particular per­sons, the bondage of Egypt, the captivity of Babylon, the ty­ranny of Antiochus, the ten bloudy persecutions of heathen Emperours, the barbarous cruelties of Antichrist, finally the fire, the sword, the massacres of this last age wherein our Fathers lived, and we our selues yet liue, doe make it more then manifest. And indeed as long as Satan conti­nueth to be malitious against vs, how can it be otherwise? Knowing himselfe to be eternally reiected, and without redemption, he beareth an eternall hatred against God. And because he cannot wreake his teene vpon him, being out of his reach: he turneth his malice against mankind, and among them those principally who by Christ are conquered out of his hands. For as the Panther raging vpon the picture of a man bewrayes the hatred he beares vnto him: so the divill to testifie how much hee hates God himselfe, spends all his fury vpon him that beareth the image of God. Rev. 12.13.15.17. Hence is it that he is so wroth with the woman: and from this Wrath is it that hee still, persecutes her, casts out floods of water to overwhelme her, and maketh warre with the remnant of her seede, which keepe the com­mandements of God, and haue the testimony of Iesus Christ. As Satan so Satanicall and wicked men are deadly enimies vnto the Saints and holy members of Christ. Qui male a­git odit lucem, 1 Ioh. 5.19. he that doth evill hates the light. Now the whole world lyeth in wickednesse, and therefore cannot en­dure the light either of Christs truth or their life.Ioh. 15.19. If they were of the world the world would loue his owne, but because they are not of the World, but chosen out of the world, there­fore the world hateth them. [...] Pet. 4.4. They thinke it strange that the Saints run not into the same excesse of riot with them. What marvell then if hating them, and being separated in [Page 23] life and conversation from them, they continually stirre vp persecutions against them? But it will bee said, why doth not God hinder them, being able? Doth he not loue his Church? yes he loues her as the apple of his eye: and because her, therefore he permits them. For as our Savi­our saith.Rev. 3.19. As many as I loue I rebuke and chasten: & the A­postle to the Hebrewes, Heb. 12.6. whom the Lord loueth he chastneth, and scourgeth every sonne whom he receiueth. Whereby it appeareth also that God not only permitteth, but hath a hand in the afflictions of his children, himselfe delivering them over vnto their adversaries to correct them. Yea the Apostle S. Paul yet farther saith,1 Thes. 3.3. that wee are appointed to afflictions, Ro. 8.29.18. & predestinated to be conformed vnto the image of the sonne of God, as in other things, so also to suffer with him that we may be glorified together. The ends which God propounded to himselfe herein are, partly his owne glory, partly our good. His owne glory in the manifestati­on of his iustice, power, and wisdome. Iustice, in that he be­ginnneth iudgement at his owne house, 1. Pet 4.17. not sparing them whom he loues most dearely: nor suffering them to reco­ver paradise so easily, who had abandond it so wilfully. Parvo parari tanta res non debuit it was not fit that such a peece should be won without striking any stroke: His pow­er, in preseruing such earthen vessels notwithstanding all the knocks and blowes laid vpon them, not suffering the bush to consume though flaming and all on fire, yea multi­plying his Church the more they are slaine, and making the bloud of his Martyrs the seede of his Gospell and final­ly in her greatest distresses and extremities delivering her most miraculously. His Wisdome, in proportioning the body to the head: for it was not fit that Christ should weare a crowne of thornes, Luc. 16.19. and we be clothed in purple and [Page 24] fine linnen, and fare sumptuously every day, but as he entred into glory by the crosse, so should wee aspire to the same end by the same way. As God in the afflictions of his Church respected his owne glory, so also hee intended our good and benefit.Psal. 119.71. It is good for me, saith David that I haue beene afflicted. Heb. 12.10. Hee chastneth vs for our benefit, saith the Apostle to the Hebrewes. First by the crosse he fanneth away from the church, palea [...] levis fidei, the chaffe of those that are vnstable in the faith. Mat. 13.20.21. For the seede that fal­leth in the stony ground that is, he that hath no root in him­selfe, dureth but for a while, and when tribulation or perse­cution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended. And so the chaffe flying away, the heape of corne remain­eth more cleane in the garner of God, as Tertullian speak­eth. Againe, by it are wee much bettered: for as a Corro­siue it frets away our ranke flesh, and as a fire it purgeth away the drosse of corruption and refines vs. It worketh repentance of sinnes past, it preventeh future sinnes, it quickneth the spirit of grace within vs, and maketh vs more carefull to obserue Gods commandements.Psal. 119 71. Third­ly, it honours vs greatly by making our vertues knowne vnto the world. For as the valour of a souldier is best seene in the battle, and the skill of a pilote in a tempest: so is the fortitude and patience of a Christian best discerned in tribulation. Spices brayed yeeld the sweetest smell [...] & as the broaching of heresies tries how much we know of God so the fire of persecution discouereth how much we loue the truth of God. Fourthly it weaneth vs from the loue of this world, and worketh in vs a longing to be dissolued and to bee with Christ, which otherwise wee would hardly doe: even as children would hardly for­beare sucking, vnlesse the teat bee striken with worme­wood [Page 25] or some other bitter and distastfull iuyce. Lastly, si compatimur etiam conregnabimus, 2 Tim. 2.12. if wee suffer with Christ,Mat 5.12. wee shall also raigne with him. Exceeding great shall be our reward in heaven, Heb. 12.11. saith Christ. Here on earth shall we reape the peaceable fruite of righteousnesse, and in heaven an exceeding weight of glory, Rom. 8.18. wherewith our suf­ferings are no way to be compared. Thus by Scripture, ex­perience, malice of adversaries, & divine ordinance it plain­ly appeares, that every one that will come after Christ must of necessity beare his crosse.

I adde farther, he must not only beare it, but hee must take it vp also and that Daily. He must not only endure it with patience, but also willingly, ioyfully, thankfully. Wil­lingly, for so did Christ, who foreseeing it, and hauing power to avoide it, yet would not. Nothing that is forced pleaseth God, but only that which is voluntarie. Ioyfully, so did the Apostles, Act. 5 41. reioycing that they were accounted wor­thy to suffer shame for the name of Christ: and our Saviour commanded vs,Mat. 5.11.12. in the midst of persecutions to reioyce & be exceeding glad. Heb. 12.11. Nor but that affliction is in it selfe and for the present greevous not ioyous, but inasmuch as it is for Christs sake, and to giue testimony vnto the truth. Thankfully, in regard of the benefit and reward we reape thereby.Heb. 11.26. So did Moses esteeme the reproach of Christ grea­ter riches then the treasures of Aegypt. And it is reason wee should thanke the Chirurgion that cures vs, as well for his Corrosiues as his Lenitiues. Neither must wee only take vp the crosse willingly, ioyfully, thankfully, but also daily, that is with constancy and perseverance. He fighteth not the good fight, that finisheth not his course. It is not suf­ficient to beare out a brunt or two,Eph. 6.13. vnlesse hauing done all we stand. God regardeth not so much the beginning as [Page 26] the end. Finis coronat opus, it is the end that crowneth the worke. The reward is promised, non pugnanti sed vincen­ti not to him that fighteth, but to him that overcometh. In a word he that continueth to the end shall be saved, and no other. Ye see, brethren, what a large field I haue to ex­patiate in: but the time forceth me to be briefe. In other Churches vpon whom the Crosse now lieth heauily this theam perhaps requires a larger handling: yet is it not vn­seasonable in this our peace to touch it in a few words in regard of the hopes of our enimies, and our owne feares, if need be to prepare vs for the Crosse. And thus much of the second counsell.

The third and last is, let him follow me. This many happily would thinke, and many indeed doe thinke to be all one with comming after Christ: for what is it to follow but to come after? Were it so, then were I here to make an end. But I suppose there is a farther matter intended in it: and therefore let me intreat [...] your patience to adde a word or twaine concerning it. Wee are to follow Christ, non pedibus sed affectibus, not with our feet but with our hearts and affections: and we are to follow him Docentem & Ducentem, both teaching & leading vs. For it might be demanded, if we must deny our owne selues, that is, our rea­son and wills with all their ability and power, who then shall direct vs, who shall guide vs? For our minds being blind we cannot of our selues see the way, and our wills being in bondage vnto sin, we cannot walke in the way. Wherevnto Christ readily returneth this plaine answere, Follow me: I will be your Teacher, I will be your Leader. First then Christ is our Teacher, even hee who is every way most sufficient to teach. He is the eternall word of his eternall Father, Ioh 1.1 the very Truth it selfe, and the substanti­all [Page 27] Wisdome of God. Ioh. 14.6. He is made of God the grand Coun­seller of the Church,Prov. 8.22. the Angell of the covenant, Esa. 9.6. the Apo­stle of our profession, Mal. 3.1. the only Prophet and Doctor of the Church. Heb 3 1. He came out of the bosome of the Father and knoweth all his counsells: Mat 3 [...].8. Ioh. 1 18. in him are hid all the treasures of wisdome and knowledge, Col. 2.3. and he hath received the Spirit without measure. Ioh. 3 34. Being therefore such a Teacher, him are we to follow, and we are to follow his teaching Audien­do & credendo, by hearing and beleeuing whatsoever he saith. The divine oracle from heaven expressely com­mandeth vs to heare him. Mat▪ 17.5.10.10.27. vers: 8. This is my beloved sonne in whom I am well pleased heare yee him. And our Saviour affirm­eth that whosoever are his sheepe heare his voice, and will not heare the voice of any other, implying that whatso­ever heareth him not is none of his sheepe. But it is not suffi­cient to heare vnlesse we also Beleeue, that is assent to all that he saies, assuring our selues that whatsoever hee af­firmes is true, and whatsoever he commands is iust. To be­leeue is the first ground of Christianity. He that beleeueth not cannot vnderstand the mysteries thereof. O portet dis­centem credere, he that will be a scholler must beleeve his Master; if hee will not hee deserues to bee turned out of schoole. Christ will not be argued with: be it aboue rea­son, or seeme it against reason, yet will he be absolutely beleeued. And reason; for being God who neither can de­ceiue nor be deceived, his bare word is more certaine then a thousand demonstrations. Certainely, they are none of Christs sheepe that doe not Beleeue: and without Faith it is impossible to please God, to be iustified in his sight, or to obtaine life everlasting. Therefore whosoever will come after Christ must thus follow him docentem teaching.

So must he also Ducentem follow him Leading. Hee [Page 28] leadeth and guideth vs two waies Spiritu, Exemplo, in­wardly by his Spirit, outwardly by his example. By his Spirit first. For as Saint Paul saith, As many as are lead by the spirit of God are the sonnes of God: Rom. 8.14. vers: 9. but if any haue not the spirit of Christ he is none of his. Now as the word of Christ sounds outwardly to the eare, so doth the Spirit of Christ speake inwardly to the heart. He helpeth our in­firmities, and after a secret and vnconceivable manner suggesteth and putteth good motions into our minds,Rom: 8.26: ex­horting and persuading vs to the practice of all holy and good duties. Which direction of the spirit we are to fol­low, Obediendo, by obedience. Not to obey the good motions of the Spirit is to resist him, to greeue him, and to quench him: but to cherish the sparke that he hath kind­led in vs, and to yeeld obedience vnto his holy inspi­rations and perswasions, this is indeed to follow him. Which if we doe not wee are yet in the flesh and if wee bee in the flesh we are not in Christ Iesus: for they on­ly are in Christ who walke not after the flesh but af­ter the Spirit. Rom: 8.1: As Christ leadeth by his Spirit, so doth hee also goe before vs by his Example. Longum i­ter per praecepta, breve & efficax per exempla, the way of precept is long and tedious, but of example short and ef­fectuall. But whose example are we to follow? Mans? It is not safe: for be he neuer so good, yet may he erre him­selfe and mislead vs. Gods? That indeed is safe, because he cannot erre nor misguide vs: but he is invisible & can­not be seene. Therefore he became man, that being visi­ble in the flesh he might giue vs example. Which we are to follow imitando by imitation.Civ: lib: 8: c: 27 For as Augustine saith, Summa religionis est imitari quem colis, It is a chiefe point of religion to imitate him whom wee worship. But [Page 29] wherein are we to imitate him? In creation of the world? in redeeming mankind? in meriting for others? In work­ing miracles, and the like? as it is reported of that mad Salmoneus, Virg. Aen. 6. Qui nimbos & non imitabile fulmen Aere & cornipedum cursu simularat equorum, who would needs counterfeit Iupiters thundring, and lightning by driuing his chariot over a copper bridge, & darting torches at the faces of men. No, if wee would burst our selues with pride, we cannot imitate God in these things. Potestas subiectionem, maiestas exigit admirationem, neutra imita­tionem, saith Bernard, the power of God requireth sub­iection, his maiesty admiration, neither imitation. How then? Appareat Domine bonitas tua cui possit homo quia ad imaginem tuam creatus est conformari, let thy goodnes o Lord appeare wherevnto man being created after thine owne image may be conformed. To be breefe, wee are to imitate Christ in all those holy duties which hee com­mandeth and whereof he hath made himselfe an example. They are all summed vp in one word Obedience: this hee commanded, this he practised. And he practised it both actiuely and passiuely: and in both is he to be imitated. He obeyed the law of his father: the Morall law as being the sonne of Adam, the Ceremoniall as being the sonne of A­braham. And this actiuely, exampling vs to walke even as he walked in all duties by God enioyned vs.1 Ioh 2.6. It would bee too long to particularize in all those actions wherein wee are to imitate him: I would therefore commend vnto you these three especially.Io. 1.14. His truth, his humility, his cha­rity. He was full of grace and truth, he loved it, he spake it, never was guile found either in his heart or mouth. So humble was he, that being in the forme of God, and think­ing it no robberie to be equall with God, Phil. 2.6.7.8. he made himselfe [Page 30] of no reputation, tooke vpon him the shape of a Servant, and humbled himselfe vnto the death of the crosse. Rom. 5.8. Lastly such was his Charity, that hee was content to shed his most pretious blood for vs even when we were his enimies, thē which, greater loue cannot be. This is the patterne, this is the precedent which we must follow. He chargeth vs to know the truth, to loue the truth, to speake the truth, to keepe the Feast with the vnleavened bread of sincerity and truth. 2 Cor. 5.8. He commandeth vs to learne of him that he is meeke and lowly in heart; Mat. 11.29. and to walke worthy of the vocation wherewith we are called in all lowlinesse and meekenesse. Eph. 4 2. Fi­nally he straitly enioyneth vs to loue one another,Ioh. 15.17. yea e­ven our very enimies.Mat. 5.44: Certainly whosoeuer resembleth not Christ in these things is not Christs disciple. All o­ther markes of Christianity deceiue, if these faile. Seeme we never so desirous of knowledge, and make wee never so faire a shew, yet if we loue not truth, if we be proud & arrogant, if we be vncharitable censorious of others wee are no true Christians. But Christ obeied Passiuely also, for he was obedient vnto death, Phil. 2.8. even the death of the Crosse. And,1 Pe [...]. 2.21. he suffered for vs, leauing vs an example, that wee should follow his steps. He was crucified, so must wee bee crucified to the world. He died and we must dye vnto sinne. He was buried, and wee must still continue dead vnto sin. He bore his crosse, and wee must take vp our crosse also. Of which at large already. And thus haue I at length fini­shed all the three counsells of Christ. It remaineth to adde a word or two by way of application and vse.

Is it so that whosoever will come after Christ, that is, be his scholler & obtaine everlasting life must deny him­selfe, take vp his crosse daily and follow him? O then the difficulty! o the paucity! the difficulty of christianity and [Page 31] salvation, the paucity of good christians and them that shall be saued. Is it an easy thing thinke you for a man to deny himselfe, that is, to pull out the eyes as it were of his owne head, and then to giue his hand to another to lead him which way soever he pleaseth? to renounce his owne will, and to yeeld blind obedience vnto the will and plea­sure of another? Is it so easy a matter to take vp the crosse daily, that is, to forsake, to abandon, to lothe, and detest the delights and comforts of this life, and whatsoever is dearest vnto vs, and in the meane season to be hated, con­temned, and troden vnder foot of all? yea in the midst of the cruellest persecutions and torments, to reioyce as if we were bathing in the greatest pleasures, and to giue thankes as if we had receiued some inestimable benefit? Finally, is it so easie to follow Christ, that is, to disclaime our owne lusts and desires, and leauing the broad and beaten way which all men almost walke in, finding there­in great contentment, to imitate Christ in a strict and se­vere course of life, so irkesome to the flesh and so odious to the World? They are deceiued then who thinke to dance on roses, or to be carried to heauē on a featherbed. No, Christianity is not Libertinisme nor Epicurisme. Vta arcta est, the way is narrow, and Faith, the crosse, and Strictnesse of life, three necessary conditions thereof make it so. O the difficulty!

O the paucity also? How few good Christians are there? how few are there that shall bee saved? Every one would willingly attaine the end, everlasting life: but they are loath to endure the roughnesse of the way which leads vnto the end. They would with Zebedees children sit at the right or at the left hand of Christs throne if his kingdome: But to drinke of the same cup that he dranke of [Page 32] and to be baptized with his baptisme, that can they not abide If we should as Diogenes is said to haue done, search with a candle every corner of Christendome for a man that denies himselfe, that takes vp his crosse daily, that fol­lowes Christ in such sort as wee haue declared: question­lesse wee should hardly finde him. Such men are nowa­daies very thin sowne. On the contrarie side, those that giue themselues over to their owne lusts, that wallow in sensuality and fleshly pleasure, that imitate, not Christ in sanctity and newnesse of life, but the Divill in all kinde of intemperance, iniquity & impiety, these I say abound and swarme every where. O the multitude! O the Pauci­tie! the multitude of titular Christians, who haue the name of what they are not: the Paucitie of true Christians who are so indeed not only called so. No marvell there­fore that our Saviour affirmeth both, that the gate is strait and the way narrow and that very few doe finde it. Mat. 6▪ 14:

But although it be so hard thus to come after Christ, yet is it not impossible: and although but few doe thus come, yet is it not in Christ that more come not, but in themselues. Let vs therefore in the name of God quic­ken vp our dull spirits, and striue what wee can to over­come all difficulties. On our part nothing is required but Willingnesse and Endeavour: the rest God of his grace will supply. To worke in vs a Willingnesse, I suppose it will not be amisse seriously to consider, first, as touching the Deniall of our selues, what we are by nature, & thence to learne Humilitie: that in vs there is no good at all, that of our selues we cannot so much as thinke a good thought, much lesse performe any action pleasing and acceptable vnto God. Our minde is blinde, our will is vnable, and as our Saviour saith, without him we can doe nothing. Why [Page 33] should we then proudly & vainely stand vpon our selues? Nay rather why should we not in all humility vtterly de­ny our selues? Secondly, as touching the Crosse and the taking vp of it, that although it bee in it selfe bitter and greevous, yet the end is sweet and glorious, even an in­corruptible crowne of glory. So we may attaine eternall blessednesse, what mattereth it though we passe through rough and tempestuous seas vnto it? Were it not far bet­ter for vs with Lazarus to suffer affliction for a short sea­son here, and after to receaue eternall comfort in heaven: then with the rich glutton to enioy the pleasures of this present life and afterward to be everlastingly tormented in hell? If we suffer for Christ, he will be in the fierie fur­nace with vs, and refresh vs with the sweet comforts of his blessed spirit. He hath willingly borne the Crosse for vs: and why should not we willingly take vp our Crosse for him. As touching the last, which is our Following of Christ know wee it is our safest course absolutely to re­signe our selues into his hands. He is farre wiser then we are, as being the very wisdome of his Father: and therefore knoweth both what is best for vs, and how to provide for vs better then we our selues. Againe, his loue is far grea­ter then ours either is or can be towards vs. The heathen Poet even by the light of nature could say Charior est illis homo quam sibi, Man is more deare to God then to him­selfe: but the light of revelation demonstrateth it more fully in that out of his infinite loue he gaue his only sonne for vs. His loue then being such, it cannot be but that hee is most willing to doe vs the best good hee can. Now what his wisdome and loue resolue concerning vs, his power is able to effect: for he is omnipotent, and nothing is impossible vnto him. What then should let but that it [Page 34] is our safest course to make a perfect surrender of our selues vnto him? If we be left vnto our owne selues, wee are ever in danger, and in the end shall surely perish, but being Christs and following him, wee can neuer miscarry nor doe amisse. All these things being duly weighed & considered are sufficient to make vs willing: willing I say to deny our selues, to take vp our crosse daily, and to follow Christ. Vnto which Willingnesse if wee further adde our owne Endeauour, doing what lieth in our power, confecta res est, we shall surely come after Christ, that is, bee his schollers here, and raigne with him for ever hereafter. Without trauell and labour, nothing can bee had in this world: much lesse will the kingdome of heauen be obtai­ned with sitting still and doing nothing. No it must suffer violence, & violent men must take it by force: which who­soeuer shall doe, he shall never fayle of it. Christ will in­struct him by his word, guid him by his spirit, protect him with his providence, gard him with his Angels, and ever pursue him with his grace vntill he haue brought him vn­to the end of his hopes, even the eternall saluation of his soule. Vnto the which the Lord bring vs all for his Christs sake. AMEN.

FINIS.
AN APOLOGIE OF THE I …

AN APOLOGIE OF THE IVSTICE OF GOD.

OXFORD, Printed by I. L for E. F. 1633.

GEN. 18.25.‘Be it farre from thee from doing this thing, to slay the righteous with the wicked, & that the righ­teous should be even as the wicked, bee it farre from thee: should not the iudge of the whole world doe right?’

ALthough the good in regard of Gods knowledge and their owne affection are chosen out of the world & separated from the wicked: yet are they not remoued out of the world, but still remaine therein, mixed with them in place and conversation. So that the Church of God while it is militant here on earth is no other then a floore wherein is both chaffe and wheat, a field both of corne & cockle, a net containing both good and bad fishes, a flocke consisting both of sheep & goats: and shall so continue vntill the fanning time come, vntill the harvest be cut, vntill the net be drawne to the shore, vntill the high shepheard survey his flocke, but they shall eternally then be divided one from another, & be ranged into severall places, the one into a place of refreshment & everlasting ioy, the other into a place of torment & ever­lasting woe. In the meane season both good and bad be­ing [Page 2] embarked as it were together in the same vessell, how can the good escape the common shipwracke of humane calamitie? Or being enwrapt in the same punishment, with the wicked, how is God iust? Abraham the father of the faithfull, & a man of deepe vnderstanding in the my­steries of Gods providence, yet stood astonished hereat in Sodoms case: where righteous Lot, and for ought hee knew divers other holy men dwelling, he marvelled how it might stand with the iustice of God in the destruction thereof to involue both righteous and wicked together, and therefore saith according to my Text, Bee it far from thee from doing this thing. A point, as you see, of great importance, and as will evidently appeare by the sequele, every way worthy our present consideration, which was the cause why I made choice thereof at this time. God grant vnto vs the assistance of his blessed spirit that wee may handle it as it deserueth, and that it may bee vnto vs as profitable as it is pertinent.

All that I haue now to say touching these words may be reduced vnto these three heads, Gods action, Abrahams affection, Abrahams argument. Gods action, how hee dea­leth with these mixt societies consisting both of good & bad. Abrahams affection how hee standeth affected to­wards them. Abrahams argument, which so much sway­ed his owne affection, and whereby hee would perswade God also to be of his minde. Gods action is intimated & implied generally, through the whole Text, in the words going before it in the twentieth and one and twentieth verses, wherein God acquainted Abraham how he meant to proceede with Sodom and Gomorrha. Abrahams affecti­on is plainely declared in the Deprecation he maketh vn­to God for them. His argument is expresly set downe in [Page 3] these words, Shall not the iudge of the whole world doe right? Which being a question propounded negatiuely, is to be vnderstood as an affirmatiue proposition, thus, The judge of the whole world must needs doe right. Of these things briefly and in order.

The actions of God in this case are not alwaies one & the same, but as his Wisdome is (to vse the Apostles word) [...] full of variety, so are his actions also manifold yet alwaies iust. For iustice is vnto God, not accidentall as it is vnto man, but essentiall and inseparable, so that hee can no more doe that which is vniust, then cease to bee that which eternally and necessarily hee is, namely God. First then, so great loue beareth God vnto his deare Saints and children, that the wicked among whom they liue oftentimes fare the better for them, and their tempo­rall prosperitie and deliuerance from dangers is to be im­puted vnto them. Was not wicked Cham preserued in the Arke from that deluge which overwhelmed the whole earth for his good father Noahs sake? Were not the sinfull Sodomites reskued out of the hands of their enimies by the sword of Abraham for righteous Lots sake? If fiftie, if fortie, if thirtie, if twentie, nay if but ten iust men might haue beene found in Sodom, had they not escaped that fearefull storme of fire & brimstone which after fell from heauen vpon them, even for tennes sake? What speak I of ten?Ps. 106.23. One Moses standing in the breach before God, turned away his wrath, so that he did not destroy his people Israel. And God himselfe by the Prophet Iere­mie saith thus,Ier. 5.1. Run to and fro by the streets of Ierusalem, & behold now and knowe, and inquire in the open places there­of if yee can finde a man, or if there bee any that executeth judgement and seeketh the truth and I will spare it. Accor­ding [Page 4] wherevnto as it is recorded by S. Luke, all those that sailed with S. Paul being in number two hundred seaventy and six soules, Act. 27.24.34.37. were giuen vnto him, that not one of them in that exceeding dangerous tempest lost so much as a haire from his head. When Augustus the Emperour had conquered Mark Antonie, Plut. Ant. and taken the Citie of Alex­andria, and the Citizens looked for nothing but extremi­tie, the Emperour in the hearing of them all freely par­doned them for Arius sake, a Philosopher of that Citie, one whom he honoured much for his learning, and lo­ved for his vertue. If the heathen who knowe not God can for one friends sake remit the offences of many: shall not God doe much more for their sakes whom he calleth and counteth his friends? Certainely hee will. Egypt shall fare the better for Ioseph, and the very remembrance of Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob shall moue God to persist in doing good to their rebellious posterity. The charity of the Saints towards the wicked is very great, and the prai­ers they make vnto God for them are many, and so avail­able are they that by them oftentimes the arme of God is held from striking them, oftentimes his hand is opened to blesse them. And thus sometimes God prospereth evill men for a few good mens sakes that liue among them,

Sometimes againe hee dealeth otherwise with these mixt companies, and when he punisheth a wicked nation, nor will be perswaded to spare them, hee preserueth the godly that they tast not of the common calamitie. For sometime he preventeth them by death, and taketh them into his rest before the misery come. Thus all the Fa­thers died before the floud came vpon the world▪ and good Iosiah, 2. King. 22.18.19.20. according to the prediction of Huldah the [Page 5] prophetesse, was gathered to his fathers and laid in his graue in peace that his eyes might not behold all the evill which God resolued to bring vpon his kingdome. For as it is in the booke of Wisdome, Sap 4.14.16.19. Because the Lord loueth the soule of the righteous, therefore he hastneth to take them a­way from the wicked: and, the righteous that is dead con­demneth the vniust man that is liuing, for God will shake his foundations and lay him vtterly wast, they shall be in sor­row and their memoriall perish. So that as it is a great signe that God intends to continue his mercies to a nation while as good men remaine among them, according to that of old. Althes in the Poet: Non tamen omnino Teucros del [...]re paratis, Virg. Aen. l. 9. Cum tales animos iuvenum & tam certa tulistis Pe­ctora, I see God hath not determined vtterly to destroy the Troians, seeing such valiant hearts and braue spirits still rise vp among them: so is it as great a token of immi­nent destruction when the good are taken away, and as the Psalmist speaketh,Psal. 74.9. their signes are no longer to be seene among them. Now as▪ sometimes hee preventeth the righteous by death that they partake not in the punish­ment of the wicked: so sometimes hee prolongeth their life to see it, but withall sendeth them strange and mira­culous deliverance that they feele it not. Thus was Noah delivered by an Arke when all the rest of the world were drowned. Lot and his family by a gard of Angells, when Sodom and the neighbour Citties were consumed, Israel by a speciall protection when the Egyptians were many waies plagued, Rahab by a cord of red thred when all the rest of the soule in Ierico were put to the sword, the Chri­stians by oracle at Pella, in the generall vastity and deso­lation of Iudea. So that God knoweth well how to sepa­rate betweene the pretious and the vile, and in the greatest [Page 6] perplexities if he please can find an issue and enlargement for all such as he loueth.

Howbeit almighty God doth not alwaies thus deliuer his Saints, but sometimes involueth both good and bad in the same calamity. And even as the evill because they are mingled with the good partake with them of temporall benefits as the shining of the Sun, & the showres of raine: so the good also because they are mingled with the evill partake with them in temporall afflictions. Aliquid mali propter vicinum malum, the neighbourhood of evill can­not but worke them some evill. Both good and bad are one common flesh, & common flesh as Cyprian saith is sub­iect to the same common inconveniences, and ever will be vntill corruption be swallowed vp of incorruption. Hence is it that in the time of famine or pestilence there is a com­mon mortality, in hostile impressions and conquests a common captivity, in shipwracke at sea a common drowning. If then the Sodomites loose the day and bee made prisoners vnto Chedor-laomer, so is Lot also: if Ne­buchadnezzar King of Babilon lead away the Iewes into captivity, Daniel and Ezechiell, and the three children are lead away also. If Totilas overflow Europe with his barbarous troopes, Christians are not freer then Gentiles. Behold, Ezek. 21.3. saith the Lord by the prophet Ezechiell, I come a­gainst thee, and will draw my sword out of his sheath, and cut off from thee both the righteous and the wicked. Also by Saint Iohn he straitly chargeth his people to depart out of Babylon least they be partakers in her plagues. Rev. 18.4. Nay if one Achan only trespasse in the execrable thing,Ios. 7.1. &c. hee a­lone perisheth not, but wrath falleth on the whole congre­gation, which the heathen poet also obseruing said [...],Hesiod. many times a [Page 7] whole citty smarts for the offence of one. But this speci­ally if any publike man commit some notorious wicked­nesse: for as when the head akes or is distempered, the arme vaine many times is opened, so for the offence of Kings and Princes, the people oftentimes are punished, as appeares in Davids case for whose sinne in numbering the people seaventy thousand of his subiects perished.2 Sam. 24. That all these were wicked men, and that none of them feared God, it is both vnreasonable and vncharitable to imagine: and therefore not doubting but that good and bad pell mell were cut off in that pestilence, I conclude this point with that aphorisme of the Rabbins, When once the sentence of punishment is pronounced and resolued by God, and power is given to the destroyer to execute the same, he from thence respecteth the person of no man, nor putteth difference be­tweene the iust and the vniust. And thus yee see how di­versly God dealeth with these mixt societies: let vs before we proceed vnto the next point, make some vse of what hath beene deliuered.

First then doe the wicked fare the better for the godly that liue among them? and are their prosperities and de­liverances to bee imputed vnto them? Oh then the ex­treame folly, Oh the monstrous ingratitude of wicked men: folly in imputing all the crosses and evills that befall them vnto the godly, as in old time the gentiles did to the Christians, and nowadaies Papists doe to Protestants: ingratitude, in requiting the much good they enioy by them with nothing else but hatred and persecution. Well doth Solomon confound Fooles and Wicked: for were not wicked men meere fooles they would neuer thus malice their best friends, nor seeke to destroy them by whom themselues are preserved from destruction. For certainly [Page 8] will they nill they sapiens est stulti redemptio, De sacrif. A­bel. & Cain. the wise man is the fooles ransome, as saith Philo, and iust men are the pillers of the house, the brazen walls of a country, the charets and horsemen of a nation, without whom the world is but a stage of vanity, & a cage of vncleane birds, & cannot long subsist. Wherefore although to our griefe we see wicked men too thicke sowne among vs, yet be­cause so many good men are mingled with them, let vs reioyce and be glad & giue God hearty thankes for them, hoping that while they continue with vs, Gods blessing shall continue vpon vs also. And when it shall please him to translate any of them from hence, let vs solicite him with our devoutest prayers, vt vno avulso suppullulet al­ter Aureus & simili frondescat virga metallo, Virg. Aen. 6. the one branch being pluckt off, another golden one may grow vp in the place thereof for the perpetuation of his fa­vours towards vs.

Secondly, doth God in executing iudgement distin­guish betweene good and bad, sparing the one and punish­ing the other? here is a right precedent for you my Lords and other iudges, and rulers of the land to imitate. Yee are in scripture stiled Gods, and in this principally are yee to resemble God. Ye are carefully to separate betwixt the pretious and the vile, not so as to iustifie the wicked, and to condemne the innocent, for both are an abomination to the Lord, saith Solomon: but to punish the evill doers, and to praise them that doe well, for to this end are ye sent, as St Peter saith.1 Pet. 2.14. There is no greater cause either of apostasie in the Church or of sedition in the commonwealth, then when they that deserue well of both are vilipended or neglected, and lewd vnworthy men are honoured with the reward due vnto vertue. Oh therefore let vertuous [Page 9] worthy men find grace in your eyes, let them in the name of God be cherished and countenanced by you, ever re­mēbring that they are the meanes of much good vnto the place where they liue. As for wicked men, bend your browes vpon them, and as they deserue it let them feele the edge of your sword. Pinguior victima mactari Deo non potest quam homo sceleratus:Sen. a fatter sacrifice can yee not kill vnto God then a wicked man. If yee spare him yee spare not your owne selues: judex ipse damna­tur cum nocens absolvitur, the iudge himselfe is con­demned when the guilty person is absolved. And seeing so many Amorites yet remaining in the land, & they now begin to pricke sorer in our sides then heretofore, hoping for a linsey wolsey Church at least ere long: it is high time for you to looke carefully herevnto. Tranquillitas est vbi solus Petrus navigat, tempestas vbi Iudas adiungi­tur, saith Ambrose, if Peter saile alone all is calme, if Iudas saile with him nought but storme and tempest. If we can­not vtterly be rid of them, let them be hewers of wood & drawers of water with the Gibeonits: Ios. 9 27. God forbid they should steere at the helme, and be proud commanders.

Thirdly and lastly, doth God sometimes enwrap both good and bad in the same punishment? This my Lords, is a mysterie vnimitable, and farre aboue your reach: and to follow God in such actions were to make your selues as ridiculous as little children, who will needs put vpon them their fathers coats though they be no way propor­tionable vnto them. Theodosius the Emperour for the fault of one man at Thessalonica involved many innocents into the same punishment, but hee was faine to doe pe­nance for it before he could be receiued into the Church by Saint Ambrose. If Polititians thinke they see reason of [Page 10] state in it, yet policy must yeeld to religion, the rule whereof is Fiat iustitia & ruant coeli, evill may not bee done that good may come of it. For the least evill of fault is greater then the greatest evill of punishment, that be­ing evill in nature, this only to sence, otherwise an act of iustice it selfe. Neverthelesse, albeit this act of God be not to be imitated by vs, yet seeing the wicked by reason of their mixture with the Godly draw downe common plagues vpon them both: it ought to be our wisdome first to labour for their conversion, and if it may be, to worke them into Gods favour: then, if this cannot bee effected, either to separate them from vs by the hand of iustice, or to separate our selues from them at least wise in dislike & affection.Prov. 13.20. For as Solomon saith, He that walketh with the wise shall be wise, but a companion of fooles shall be afflicted. And thus much of the first part, which is Gods action: now of the second which is Abrahams affection.

How Abraham stands affected in this particular case of Sodom is cleare and evident by his words, Be it farre saith he, from thee to doe this thing, to stay the righteous with the wicked, and that the righteous should be even as the wicked: be it farre from thee. He vtterly mislikes that the righte­ous should perish together with the wicked: and desires rather that God would be pleased either to spare the wick­ed Sodomites for those righteous ones which happily were among them, or else to deliver the righteous from the destruction of the wicked. In a word he seemes to be solicitous for them all, both for the Sodomites whether good or evill in generall, and in particular for his bro­ther Lot who dwelt among them. But here it will happily be said, what? doth Abraham prescribe vnto God & im­pose a law vpon him? Is God to be ruled by man, and [Page 11] divine actions to be directed by humane affections? Farre be such temerity,Vers. 27. farre be such presumption from the Fa­ther of the faithfull. No, he knowes and confesses him­selfe to be but dust and ashes, and that God is not only Li­berrimus agens one that freely doth whatsoever hee will both in heauen and earth, but also Sapientissimus needing no counsellor to advise him, but knowing best himselfe what is to be done. He doth, not therefore presume to order the actions of God, but only proposeth his humble sute vnto God; neither doth he take vpon him to direct him, but to deprecate for others.

It will peradventure yet farther be said, that God had already signified his purpose vnto Abraham, and what he meant to doe. Which being so, it had beene his dutie to laid his hand vpon his mouth, and to haue rested in his will, without farther contradiction or opposition. And here caeca obedientia, blinde and absolute obedience is as necessary & commendable, as in Friars to their superiours it is foolish and vnreasonable. To this I answere, that God indeed had intimated his purpose vnto Abraham, but yet in this forme of words,Vers. 20 21. Because the cry of Sodom and Go­morrah is great, and because their sinne is exceeding grie­vous. I will goe downe now and see whether they haue done altogether according to that crie which is come vnto me, and if not that I may know. In these words you see he doth not say that he would destroy the godly with the wicked, and by the deliverance of Lot it plainely appeares he never intended so to doe: and therefore it could be no arrogance in Abraham to make such a charitable deprecation for them. Neither doth that appeare by the words that God had past an absolute and peremptory sentence against the wicked Sodomites: for if ten righteous men had beene [Page 12] found amongst them they had beene spared: and the threatnings of God ordinarily are to be vnderstood with a condition annexed vnto them, if men repent not, yea al­though it be not in plaine tearmes expressed, as in that a­gainst Niniveh, yet forty daies & Niniveh shall be destroy­ed, for this notwithstanding vpon their repentance they were not destroyed. So that this condition being here al­so vnderstood, what presumption could it be in Abraham to desire favour for the Sodomites, at least vpon their re­pentance. Finally had God absolutely threatned, & with­out condition, yet ought not man so much to attend what God intendeth to doe agreeable vnto his owne will and iustice, as what he himselfe is to doe agreeable to the law of God, and nature: and then shall he find that God in de­nouncing and executing iudgement wills two things, both that they perish and that he greeue. God had laid Iudea wast and sent away the inhabitants thereof into captivity, yet Ieremy lamented for it. Christ knew well that God had absolutely determined to destroy Ierusalem, yet hee wept over it: a sonne may know by evident symptomes that his Father cannot liue, and yet desire the prolonging of his life, and all without sinne. In like manner might Abraham without offence wish all good vnto the Sodo­mites notwithstanding Gods will vnto the contrary.

Now this affection of this holy Patriarch is iustifiable both by the law of God and nature, hauing a three fold foundation to support it, Humanitie, Consanguinitie, Pie­ty. First Humanity ▪ for what heart of flint or adamant would not melt to behold so many thousands so fearful­ly to perish? It is reported of Xerxes a king of Persia that leading into Greece a huge hoast of about a leauen hun­dred thousand men, and being desirous on a time to take [Page 13] a view of them from the top of a hill, while he beheld thē he burst forth into weeping and shed many teares: and being demanded the reason, because, quoth hee, within one age not one of all these will be left. If Xerxes were so affected at the consideration of the naturall death of so many: should not Abraham be much more moved at the destruction of the Sodomites, so sudden, so violent so ter­rible? for the manner of death is far more fearfull then death it selfe. Nay if God himselfe pittied the great City of Niniveh in which were sixscore thousand persons that could not discerne betweene the right and the left hand▪ why should not Abraham also commiserate these fiue cit­ties, in which without question were many thousands of young tender babes and infants who never partaked in their parents transgressions? Aboue all. If yee consider that this temporall plague of fire and brimstone from heaven was praeludium aeterni, a fore runner of eternall miserie in hell: what man is he that hath but a sparke of humanity in him, but would wish it to be otherwise and prevent it if he could? For one man not to sympathize and compassionate with another in his miseries is meere inhumanity.

Another ground of this affectio [...] in Abraham was Bloud and Consanguinity:Gen. 11.27. for there liued among the So­domites, Lot, his children and family. Now Abraham was vnkle vnto Lot, Lot being Harans sonne, which Haran was brother vnto Abraham, and this is so great a neere­nesse in bloud that by the very law of nature marriage betweene vnkle and neece, aunt and nephew is interdict­ed, and vnkles are accounted as fathers to their nephewes. Betweene these therefore there must needs passe a natu­rall [...] and affection, more then betweene them and o­thers, [Page 14] inasmuch as there is a neerer vnion and coniuncti­on betweene them. Others may be glewed together by friendship or alliance: but these are of the same peece, na­turally one, bone of bone and flesh of flesh. Here there ought to be no difference at all, let there bee no strife be­tweene me and thee, Gen. 13.8. saith Abraham to Lot, for wee are bre­thren: yea extraordinary loue and amity,Psal. 3.145. I behaued my selfe, saith David, as to my friend or to my brother: and the more the loue is, the more earnest and vehement will the desire be for the prevention of such evills as doe threaten them.

The third and last ground of Abrahams affection was Religion and Piety. For where there is a profession of the same true religion there is a straiter bond then that of bloud, being members of the same mysticall body in Christ Iesus, Eph. 4.4.5.6. hauing one Lord, one Faith, one Baptisme, one body, one spirit, one hope, one God and Father of all, which is aboue all through all, and in all. And out of this Vnion issu­eth that holy communion of Saints mentioned in the arti­cles of our Creed, in regard whereof we are bound to loue the Saints farre aboue other men, according to that of St Paul, while we haue time let vs doe good vnto all, special­ly vnto those that are of the houshold of faith. Gal. 6.20. Of this fami­ly was Lot and his houshold, and many others for ought Abraham knew, and therefore vnlesse hee would be not only without naturall affection, but also without religi­ous sympathie and compassion, he must needs stand thus affected towards this mixt company in Sodom, and be­seech God either to spare the wicked for the godlies sake, or to preserue the Godly in the destruction of the wicked that it may not every way be [...] as to the one so to the other. And thus you see the affection of Abra­ham [Page 15] both what it is, and by what grounds it is justified & warranted. Let vs apply this before we proceede farther.

As we all professe our selues to be the children of A­braham according to the faith, so is it our duty also to be his children in affection. And first, even towards the wicked ought wee to be tenderly affected, and to pittie them more then they pitty themselues. Thus doth A­braham in this place: thus did David a true son of Abra­ham, when they were sicke, Psal. 35.13. saith he, I clothed my selfe with sacke cloath, and humbled my soule with fasting. Thus did Christ a true sonne both of David and Abraham, he wept for the miseries which he foresaw would fall vpon them, and for preventing of them, often would he haue gathe­red them vnder his wings as the hen doth her chickens, but they would not: he, I say, would, and they would not. Oh the bowels, oh the compassion, oh the perfectiō of Chri­stianity! wicked men are hard hearted towards vs, our bowels yearn & melt towards thē, they curse vs, we blesse them, they afflict and persecute vs, and we desire to keepe off all trouble and sorrow from them, except that sorrow which will worke vnto them such ioy as shall neuer be ta­ken from them. This is a hard lesson to flesh & blood, yet hitherto must we come or we passe not beyond Scribes and Pharisees: and except our righteousnesse exceed theirs, we cannot possibly enter into the kingdome of heaven.

Againe, as no man, no not the wicked ought to bee strangers vnto our affection, so least of all those that are of the same faith with vs. Wee should be like Hippo [...]ra [...]es twins weeping together and laughing together. In the bo­dy of man if but a finger ake all the rest of the members are sensible of it: & can we be members of the mysticall body of Christ and haue no feeling of the miseries of our [Page 16] brethren? If any man offer to strike at our head, the arme presently lifts it selfe to ward of the blow: and shall not we, if God shake the sword of his heavy displeasure against any of his children, speedily lift vp our hands vnto him, & by the importunity of our prayers turne away the plague that it light not vpon them? Certainely they that are not touched with compassion in the dangers of Gods Saints are not the true Children of Abraham: and because they refused to be advocates for them in the day of need, nei­ther shall themselues finde an advocate that will open his mouth to speake for them in the day of their extremity.

Lastly, seeing Abrahams desire is rather that evill men be spared then the good destroyed, and his hart inclineth so much vnto pittie, it lessons you, my Lords, also, that although through hope of impunity yee may not giue li­berty to sinne, yet should you rather incline to too much mildnesse then severity. In doubtfull matters it is not only more iust but more safe also to follow the favourablest construction: and more Christian like is it in such a case to let the guilty escape then to condemne the innocent. It is much safer for a man to render account of his merciful­nesse then of his cruelty. Nero in his fiue first good yeares when he was to subscribe to the condemnation or execu­tion of any, was wont to say Qu [...]m Vellem nescire literas, would to God I could not write a letter. Nay God him­selfe saith, Why will yee die, ô yee house of Israell: and as I liue I will not the death of a sinner. And therefore it should be your delight also suffundere potius quam effundere san­guinem, rather to bring bloud into the face then to shed it out of the body. Cuncta prius tentanda: sed immedicabile vulnus Ense recidendum ect, ne pars sincera trahatur, all other waies must first be tried, but if the wound grow in­curable, [Page 17] it is better to cut off a part then to hazard that which is [...]ound too. And so much for the second part which is Abrahams affection.

The third and last part is the Argument whereby hee would both warrant his owne affection, and perswade God to be of his minde, and is laid downe in these words Should not the iudge of the whole world doe right? that is as we haue shewed, the iudge of the whole world must needs doe right. The reason stands thus, To enwrap the good together with the wicked in the same punishment seemes not to be iust, and therefore neither maiest thou doe it, for thou art the iudge of the whole world & must doe right. Surely if so to enwrap good and bad were vniust, God may not doe it and the argument followes necessarily. But is it vniust so to doe? Abraham seemes to make no doubt of it, for he goes not about to proue it, and yet we haue in the first part clearely demonstrated that God of­tentimes doth so. What then? is there any vniustice with God? God forbid: yea let him be iust in all his sayings & cleare when he is iudged. In rebus divinis magna caligo, said Cato, in many of Gods actions there is so much obscurity that we see not the reasons of them; yet this is certaine, Occulta esse causa potest, iniusta esse non potest, the reason of them may be secret, but vniust it cannot be. For he is es­sentially iust, even iustice it selfe, and in rebus divinis ratio facti est voluntas facientis, in divine actions the will of the doer is sufficient to iustify the deed. For the will of God is the prime rule of iustice, and to seeke higher is to seeke a former then the first, which is meere folly, whereas therefore I finde a reason I will praise him, where I finde none I will admire him, and acknowledge my selfe that am but a bubble, but a shadow, but the dreame of a sha­dow [Page 18] rather to faile in vnderstanding then God in iustice. Howbeit in this point we haue sufficient reason to cleare the iustice of God. For which of the Saints of God is without sinne? And which of them hath not deserved by sin to be severely punished? Suppose they liue vnblamably in the sight of men, yet the eye of God that trieth even the heart and raines beholdeth much folly and iniquity in them. Doe they not together with the wicked too much loue temporall things? Too much I say, though happily not so much? Doe they not liue too familiarly with them, never rebuking them nor shewing any dislike of their wicked courses? Questionlesse they doe, and there­fore no marvell if partaking in the same sin, they partake also in the same punishment, et amara sentiant quia amari esse noluerunt, drinke with them of the same bitter cup, because for their amendment they would not bee sharpe and bitter vnto them.

The action of God being thus cleared from vniustice, what shall we say of Abraham and his assertion? I might dispatch him in a word and say let God be true and every man a lier: saue that I desire to dismisse him with all reve­rence, and as farre as I can to free him from blame also. Shall I say then with some, that he speaketh in the opini­on of infidels who thinke it a high point of vniustice so to involue both good and bad together? I cannot: for it be­cometh not the father of the faithfull to presse vpon God the arguments of vnbeleeuers. Shall I say his meaning is, that it cannot every way and in all respects bee alike to both without vniustice? This indeed I confesse would be great vniustice: but God never suffers it to be so. Sub vno igni aurum rutilat, palea [...]umat, in the same fire gold gli­fters and chaffe smokes: pari m [...]tu exagitatum et exhalat [Page 19] horribiliter coenum et suaviter fragrat vnguentum, with the same agitation and stirring, mire sends forth a loath­some stench, and ointment a sweet savour. In like man­ner, the same afflictions are vnto the wicked, arguments of Gods wrath, an act of revenge, the satisfaction of iu­stice, an earnest penie of eternall torment, and if they take away life a firy thunderbolt driuing them downe into hell: but vnto the Godly the chastisements of a louing father, corrosiues vnto the flesh, exercises of their vertue, worme­wood vnto the teat to weane them from the pleasures of this world, and if they bring death with them, a firie cha­riot transporting them vp into heaven. So that in the same punishment neither is the same end intended, nor the same effect wrought: tantum interest non qualia sed qua­lisquis (que) patiatur, so materiall is it not what the paines are, as what the partie is which [...]uffereth. What shall we say then. This, that Abrahams argument is rather passionate then demonstratiue, yet such as holy men oftentimes vse in their devotions to God, and that without sin. Cast mee not off from thee, saith David. Why not? Because I am the workemanship of thy owne hands. The reason followeth not, for many such haue beene cast off. True: yet is it a motiue of affection; for what pittie is it for one to cast a­way his owne workemanship. So in this case, Oh, saith Abraham, destroy not the righteous with the wicked: ra­ther preserue the wicked for the righteous sake. Why so? Because the iudge of the whole World should doe righte­ously. It followeth not as we haue shewed. True, not ne­cessarily: yet pittying the Sodomites, and hauing no better plea for so bad a people, he vsed it to stirre affection, alas that the righteous should be consumed with fire & brim­stone from heauen together with the wicked, and that by [Page 20] him who is the iudge of the whole world, & should doe right. But whatsoever become of the Consequence and whethersoever it were either defect of iudgement or a­bundance of passion that framed it: sure I am the Antece­dent which he layes for his foundation is sound & good The iudge of the whole world should doe right, and of this briefly and in a word.

In all states and commonwealths for the better orde­ring of them, and that vice may be suppressed, and vertue maintained, and every man peaceably and quietly enioy his owne, Iudges are in severall places ordeined, to heare all causes, and according to iustice and equity to deter­mine them. Among these there is one who is soveraigne and aboue all vnto whom appeale from all other may be made, from whom no appeale vnto any vnder heaven may be made. But how many villanies are there com­mitted in the world which never come to the knowledge of the magistrate, and so escape without punishment? How many noble and vertuous actions are there done whereof no notice is taken, or if it be, yet the authors neither are nor will be knowne and so passe vnrewarded? Iudges themselues doe they not oftentimes either vpon errour and mistaking as men, or for fee and favour as cor­rupt men pervert iustice? If appeale be made vnto the su­preame power, what redresse? many times none at all, they being the worst of all men, witnesse Sardanapalus, Caligula, Nero, Heliogabalus, and the like. All which considered, it cannot bee imagined but that there must needs be an vniversall iudge over the whole world, to call all men of what degree soever to account, and to render vnto every one according to his workes, reward to whom reward, and punishment to whom punishment is due. [Page 21] This iudge whosoever it be, must needs bee of infinite knowledge, of infinite wisdome, of infinite power. Of infi­nite knowledge, to take notice of all the actions of all men whensoever and wheresoever. Of infinite wisdome, to dis­cerne the sinceritie or hypocrisie of every action, and ac­cording to the degree of good or evill in them so to pro­portion iudgement. Of infinite power, to see the sentence notwithstanding the greatnesse of any yet to be duly exe­cuted. Of this knowledge, this wisdome, this power who is there in the world but only God? and therefore who can be this vniversall iudge of the whole world but only hee? Hee it is whom Abraham vnderstands here when he saith, Should not the iudge of the whole world doe right? as appeares by that of Saint Paul alluding herevnto, Else how shall God iudge the world? and this is so cleare a point in Christian religion that he is no lesse then an infidell that beleeues it not.

As cleare a point is it that this iudge in all things doth right. I or, as wee haue shewed, he is essentially iust, and whatsoever he doth of the necessity of his nature must needs be so. So that as the Sunne cannot possibly bee the cause of darknesse, nor the fire of coldnesse, nor a sweet fountaine send forth bitter streames: no more can be who is iustice it selfe doe any thing that is vniust. Hence is it that in scripture he is stiled the righteous Iudge: and that Saint Paul saith,1 Tim. 4.8. Absit, Rom 9.14. Farre be it from vs to say there is vnrighteousnesse with God. This notwithstanding, some Atheist happily who thinkes the Intelligence that moues the wheeles of this nether world to bee not Divine Pro­vidence but Blinde Fortune only, will obiect and say, If there be such a generall iudge of the whole world, and he so iust a judge, how comes it to passe that so many [Page 22] wicked men liue and die without punishment? As for example that bloudy and sacrilegious tyrant of Sicilie Dionysius. Nat Deor. Him, as Cicero saith, never did Iupiter dart with his thunderbolt, nor Aesculapius kill with a misera­ble and lingring sicknesse, but he died quietly in his bed, and in triumphant manner was brought into his graue, and the power which by horrible wickednesse hee had gotten, he left to his sonne as a iust and lawfull inheri­tance. To this I answere, first if men could see the secret stripes and lashes which a guilty conscience inwardly giues the soule of the wicked, they would never thinke that they escaped without punishment. For certainly Qui pecc [...]t paenam meruit, qui meruit expectat, qui expectat iam dedit, he that sins deserues punishment, he that deserues it lookes for it, & whosoever lookes for it already feeles it. Secondly, if God here in this world publikely should re­ward the good and punish the wicked, men would thinke there were no other happinesse nor misery then that of this life. As therefore God sometimes holdeth his Sessions here on earth, iudging the wicked, and causing publike execution to be done vpon them that men may know there is a God that iudgeth the earth: so sometimes he re­serueth them vnto the generall affizes of the last day, to teach vs that besides temporall there is an eternall reward and punishment to be expected after this life, the dispen­ser whereof is this great iudge of the whole world who nor can nor will doe otherwise then right. In that day, saith the Scripture,1 Thes. 4.16. shall the Lord himselfe come downe from heauen with a shout, Dan 7.9.10. and, a throne shall bee set in the clouds, and the auncient of daies shall sit thereon, whose gar­ment is white as snow, and the haire of his head like the pure wooll, his throne is like the firy flame, and his wheeles as burn­ing [Page 23] fire: a fiery streame shall issue and come forth before him, thousand thousands shall minister vnto him, and ten thou­sand thousands stand before him, the iudgement shall be set and the bookes opened. Mat. 24.31. Then shall the Archangells trumpet sound, 1 Cor. 15.52. and the dead shall rise, 2 Thes. 4.16. and the Angells shall goe forth and gather both good and bad together, Mat. 13.41.24.31. and we all must ap­peare before the tribunall of Christ, that every man may re­ceiue the things done in the body, 2 Cor 5.10. according to that he hath done, Mat. 25.46. whether it be good or evill, and the wicked shall goe in­to everlasting paine, and the righteous into life eternall.

Goe too now yee Epicures, Act. 17.18.32. yee Stoicks, yee Philoso­phers that are so wise in your owne conceit, and account the preachers of iudgement no better then Bablers: goe too yee mockers and scoffers of this last time,2 Pet. 3.3.4. who say where is the promise of his comming? For since the Fathers died all things continue alike from the beginning of the Creation: Manil. l 1. non alium videre paeres aliumue nepotes, the world which our ancestors saw of old, is the same which wee their posterity see now: Goe to I say, eate, drinke, make you merrie, crowne your heads with rose buds be­fore they be withered, delight your selues in the tab [...]et, and harpe, enioy the pleasures that are present, let not the flower of life passe by,Eccl. 11.9. walke in the waies of your owne heart, and in the sight of your owne eyes: but yet know that for all these things God will bring thee to iudgement. I re­member that a gallant of this stampe some time said vnto a reverend Prelate, what if there bee no iudgement to come, are you not then a very foole to barre your selfe from the pleasure of this present life? to whom the Pre­late, and what if there be a iudgement to come, are not you then a very foole for the short pleasures of this pre­sent life to barre yourselfe from those eternall ioyes of [Page 24] the life to come? Thou vaine man, art thou infallibly cer­taine thou shalt not come to iudgement? is there no scru­ple, no doubting remaining in thee to the contrary? I know thou wouldest faine haue it so that thou maist sinne withall impunity: howbeit I am sure thy Conscience doth so counterchecke thee, that thou canst not but doubt thereof. In a case so doubtfull vnto thee what folly, nay what madnesse is it for time to hazard eternity? and for a few fading pleasures to adventure thy selfe vpon end­les woe and misery? The wise heathen could say, Lon­gum illudtempus cum non ero, magis me movet quam hoc tam exiguum, the long time which shall be after this life doth more affect me then this short life. If it bee possible let it affect thee also: if not, sit still in the chaire of scor­ners, scoffe on thy fil, and seeing thou wilt not beleeue that fire is hot vntill it burne thee, thou shalt one day be convinced that there is a iudgement when thou shalt feele the intollerable torments of those flames that never shall be quenched.

In the meane season let vs who haue better learned Christ and know the terror of the Lord, let vs I say prepare our selues against this great & dreadfull day of the Lord, giuing all diligence that we may be found of him in peace without spot and blamelesse. 2 Pet. 3.14. And to this end let vs alwaies haue it in mind, and with Saint Hierom ever be medita­ting therevpon. Quoties diem illum considero, saith he, to­to corpore contremisco: siue enim comedo, siue bibo, siue a­liud facio, semper videtur tuba illa terribilis sonare in au­ribus meis, Surgite mortui et venite ad iudicium: as often as I thinke of that day I tremble every limbe, for whether I eate or drinke or doe any thing, me thinkes I heare that terrible trumpet sounding in mine eares, arise yee dead [Page 25] and come to iudgement. If any thing in the world will make a man sober and keepe him within his bankes, it is the consideration hereof. Thinke of this I beseech you, and thinke of it seriously all yee that heare me this day. Yee Iudges of the land be yee wise and learned, Psa [...]. [...]0.2.11.12 Ps. 2 [...] 3.4. serue the Lord, and kisse the sonne, doe right to the poore and father­lesse, deliver the poore and needy, and saue them from the hand of the wicked, doe nothing vniustly, accept no mans person, execute iustice without bribery and partiality, for your selues must come vnto iudgement, and as you iudge so shall yee be iudged. Yee lawyers and advocates, see that yee entertaine none but good causes, sell not breath only for your fees, spin not matters out at such a length for your owne advantage, in every cause deale conscio­nably and honestly, for your selues shall need an advo­cate in that day to speake for you, quando plus valebunt pura corda quam astuta verba, when a good heart shall farre more availe then cunning and plausible words. Yee Priests and Levites of the Lord, feed yee diligently the flocke whereof the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, Ez 34.4. strengthen the weake, heale the sicke, binde vp the broken, bring againe that which was driven away, seeke that which is lost, be instant in season, out of season: thrice happy are you if your Lord when he cometh, finde you so doing, for you shall stand in iudgement, and hauing iustified many, yee shall shine as the starres for ever and ever. Dan. 12.3. And yee the rest of my brethren whatsoeuer whether gentle or vngen­tle, rich or poore, take heed to your selues also, and for these outward vanities of birth and wealth, see that yee neither despise nor envy one another. In that day not the first but the second birth will be regarded, and a good conscience will bee more esteemed then a full purse. [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page 26] Watch therefore & be sober,1 Tim. 5.11.18.19. flee vngodlinesse and world­ly l [...]sts, and follow after righteousnesse, piety, faith, loue, patience, meekenesse, doe good, and be rich in good workes, laying vp in store a good foundation for your selues against the time to come, that ye may obtaine eternall life. Then shall yee not need with guilty reprobates to hang downe your countenances, and to request the hills to cover you from the wrath of the terrible iudge: for ye shall earnest­ly long for his speedy comming, and at his appearance shall yee lift vp your heads for ioy,Luc. 21.28. knowing that your re­demption draweth neere, and that now is to bee pronoun­ced that more then ioyfull sentence,Mat. 25.34. Come yee blessed of my father inherit yee the kingdome prepared for you from the foundation of the world: vnto the which kingdome the Lord bring vs all for his Christs sake. Amen.

FINIS.
AN AMVLET OR PRESERV …

AN AMVLET OR PRESERVATIVE against the contempt of the MINISTERY.

OXFORD Printed by I.L. for E. F. 1633.

TIT. 2 15.‘See that no man despise thee.’

BEing in regard of the present oportunity to addresse my speech at this time vnto you principally, reuerend Fathers, and beloued brethren of the Clergie: I haue by the di­rection I trust of Gods blessed spirit made speciall choice of this Text, as affording matter both of great importance, and euery way concerning you. That the office and calling of the Ministery is of all other the most honourable & worthy, euery one of vs presumeth. That of all other it is generally most obnoxious and sub­ject to contempt, wee all by lamentable experience feele. How it may be freed from this contempt, and againe re­couer its ancient dignitie, is a point of high nature, and well worth the hearing. And this is the very purpose & intent of this Apostolicall charge. For as St Pauls care that Titus be not despised implies the honour of his calling, and his feare least he be despised argues it is subject there­vnto: so his charge vnto Titus to looke vnto it that hee be not despised, evidently shewes both where the cause of this contempt mostly lies, and how our selues if wee list may preuent it. So that this Text may not vnfitly be [Page 2] called An Amulet or Preservatiue against the contempt of th [...] Ministery. And it offereth as you see vnto our medi­ [...]ation these three particulars, first the dignity of the Mi­nistry: secondly, the contempt of the Ministry: thirdly, the redresse of this contempt. Of which while I discourse vn­to you plainely, according to my poore abilitie, & breef­ly in regard of the businesses to succeed: lend mee I be­seech you blessed brethren both the assistance of your prayers, and the encouragement of your fauorable atten­tion.

And first as touching the Dignitie of the Ministrie, cui non dictus his Hylas? Virg. Georg. 3. What tongue or penne almost hath not travailed in this argument? Or what can herein bee said which hath not beene already said? And to say all that may be said in this short scantling of time is impossi­ble.Heb. 5.4. I omit therefore that Scripture expresly calleth Priesthood an Honour, 1 Tim. 5.17. and affirmeth Elders to be worthie of double honour, 1 Thes. 5.13. charging all to haue them not onely in honour, but also in singular reputation. Neither will I stand to reckon vp all those titles wherewith Ministers are honoured,1. Cor. 4.1. as Stewards, Fathers, Rulers, Men of God, Gods Embassadors, Tit. 1.7. the light of the world, the salt of the earth, 2 King 2.12. Saviours, 1 Cor. 4.15. Starres, Angells. Nor lastly will I spend time in mustering vp all those honourable personages,Heb. 13.17. who haue borne this office,2 Tim. 3 17. as the First borne of euery fa­mily before the Law,2 Cor. 5.20. vnder the Law the house of Aaron in both mighty Kings as Melchizedeck and Solomon, Mat. 5.13.14. 1 Tim. 4.16. and finally vnder the Gospel Christ himselfe the King of Kings and Lord of Lords. Rev. 1.20. Ex. 2 [...].1. These things I say,Gen. 14.18. and sundrie other of like nature,Eccl. 1.1. although demonstratiuely prouing the Dignity of the Ministry, Heb. 6.29. yet of purpose I passe by as ob­vious and vulgarly vrged.Rev. 19.16. Onely at this time these three [Page 3] points as the choicest among the rest would I command vnto your serious consideration. First the excellency of the science we professe; secondly, the efficacy and powerfull operation of our Ministry; thirdly, the authority and iuris­diction annexed therevnto. For if the Science we professe be architectonicall, if the execution of our Ministry bee most energeticall, if our authority and iurisdiction bee the amplest and greatest: then is our Calling of all other the most noble and worthy. Let vs therefore enquire if these things be so: and first the excellencie of the science we pro­fesse.

As the wise man saith of a vertuous woman,Pro: 31 29. Many daughters haue done worthily, but thou surmountest them all: so say I, all Arts and Disciplines in their kinde are good, as issuing from God, the fountaine of all goodnesse: but Divinity is transcendent, and as Gregory calleth it ars artium, the science of sciences. For whereas the preemi­nence of one science before another standeth in two things, either that it is more worthie in it selfe, in regard of the matter it teacheth, or more certaine and infallible in regard of the manner of knowing: this Divine science farre excelleth in both. For as touching the matter, the very gleaning of Ephraim is better then the vintage of Abi­ezer: Iud. 8▪ 2. the meanest part of this heauenly knowledge is greater and nobler then all whatsoeuer is comprehended within the whole circle of humane Sciences. For these, taken at the highest, aspire not aboue Nature, contempla­ting only such Verities, and directing vnto such goods as are connaturall vnto vs, and being naturall are also finite, and so cannot satisfie the vast and infinite desire either of the mind or will. But the obiect of this Diuine science is meerely supernaturall: the speculatiue part whereof con­templateth [Page 8] the first and highest verity even God himselfe, [...]e infinite beautie and glory of his nature, the incompre­hensible Trinitie of Persons, his wonderfull workes and operations, creating all things of nothing, sustaining all he created by his mighty word, ordering and gouerning all by his most wise prouidence, but specially redeeming mankinde from Sinne, death, and hell, into the glorious li­berty of sonnes by the incarnation and passion of the Sonne of God. 1 Cor 2.14. A mystery so profound that not only the naturall man knowes it not,1 Pet. 1 12. but euen the blessed Angells longed to be acquainted therewith, and knowing stand amazed and rauished with admiration thereof. Neither is the Practi­call part any way inferior vnto the speculatiue: for that al­so directeth vnto the first and highest Good, euen Good, in vision and fruition of whom standeth our eternall bles­sednesse, shewing also what the way is which leadeth vnto this soueraigne End, namely Repentance from dead works, Iustification by Faith in Christ, Regeneration by water and the Holy Ghost, vnfaigned study and practise of new obedi­ence, in Pietie towards God, Iustice towards all men, and temperance towards our owne selues. Thus the subiect & matter of our science so farre surpasseth that of other Dis­ciplines, as supernaturall excelleth naturall; heauen, earth; eternitie, time; the boundlesse wisdome of God, the nar­row compasse of mans reason: and they are vnto it but as Hagar vnto Sarah, hand-maides vnto their Lady and Mi­stresse.

As is the matter, so is the manner of knowing also: that of highest price and value, this most certaine and infalli­ble. Vnto the truths of other sciences wee yeeld assent, ei­ther induced by authority of humane testimonie, or incli­ned by probability and likelihood of reason, or convinced [Page 5] by the light and evidence of demonstration. The two former breed but a morall or coniecturall certitude, both obscure, nor excluding all doubt, nor securing vs of the truth. The third though it haue greater evidence & clear­nes, yet hath it no more thē the naturall light of humane reason can afford: which what a glow-worme it is, and how subiect to mistaking who sees not? Aristotle, whose eyes were as sharpe sighted and peircing into these mat­ters as ever any mans, yet confesseth, we are but owly-eyed in them: and the Pyrrhonian Philosophers saw so much vncertainty in most things, that they grew to maintaine an impossibility of knowing any thing.Rom. 1.21.2 [...]. So vaine is man in his imaginations, and so full of darkenesse is his foolish heart, that when they professe themselues to be most wise, they become the starkest fooles. But the truths of this divine science being supernaturall haue their certainty from a supernaturall light, even the revelation of Gods spirit, which can neither deceiue nor bee deceiued: ac­cording to that of our Sauiour,Mat: 16.17. Flesh and blood hath not revealed this vnto thee, but my Father which is in Heauen. This is the light shining in the darke vntill the day dawne, 2 Pet: 1.19. the day-starre rising in our hearts, the Certitude of Faith which is simply and absolutely so, because no falsehood can possibly be vnder it,De fide Ann [...]. and being as Chry­sostome saith, more firme then all Demonstration, as stand­ing not in the enticeing speech of mans wisdome, 1 Cor: 2.4. but in plaine evidence of the spirit and of Power. True it is that this our Science sometime receiueth from humane wis­dome, yet not because shee needs it, but because wee neede it: nor for any defect or vncertainty in it, but for the weaknesse of our vnderstanding, which, by those things that are knowne, to naturall reason is more easily [Page 6] brought to vnderstand those things which are aboue reason. For otherwise she is so farre from receiuing her Principles from any other Science, that shee either al­lowes or controls all their rules and maxims, as being their soveraigne Queene and Mistresse. And thus much of the excellency of the Science of Divinity: now of the Efficacy of the Ministry.

Iud. 8 21. As is the man, so is his strength saith the Proverbe: in like manner, as is our science, so is our Ministry, that the most noble, & therefore this the most powerfull. That is most powerfull which worketh most effectually to atchieue 'its end: and the more difficult the end is to bee attained, the greater is the power that attaineth it. Now what is the end of the Ministry? It is as Saint Paul saith to build vp the body of Christ, Eph. 4.12. to open mens eyes, and to turne them from darkenesse to light, Act. 26.18. and from the power of Satan vnto God, that they may receiue forgiuenesse of sins, and inheritance among them, which are sanctified by faith in Christ: that is in a word, to make men partakers both of the state of grace in this life, and of eternall glory in the life to come. An employment as of highest conse­quence, so of greatest difficulty, that Saint Paul won­dreth, who might be sufficient for it, 2. Cor. 2.16. & Chrysostome saith, that the Angels themselues would tremble to vndergoe the burthen. Yet hath it pleased the wisdome of God in earthly vessels to convey vnto vs these heavenly trea­sures:2 Cor. 4.7. and to make the Ministry of weake mortall men mighty in operation, Heb. 4.12. able to pull downe strong holds, 2. Cor. 10.4.5. and to cast downe imaginations, and every high thing that ex­alteth it selfe against the knowledge of God, and to captiue every thought to the obedience of Christ. Hence is it that Esay calleth the word of God, Esa 53.1. the arme of the Lord: and [Page 7] Saint Paul the preaching of the Gospell,Rom 1.16. the power of God vnto salvation. Esa. 55 11. [...].2 Hence that God himselfe affirmeth, that his word shall never returne vnto him void, but shall ac­complish that which he will, Id. 11.47.8.9 and prosper in the thing where­to he sends it. Is it is not strange that the wolfe should dwell with the lambe, and the leopard with the kid, and calfe and the lion and the fat beast lye together, and a little child lead them? That the cow and the beare should feede toge­ther, and their young ones lye downe together, and the Ly­on eate straw like the Oxe? That the sucking child should play on the hole of the aspe, and the weaned child put his hand on the Cockatrices den, and all without either hurt or danger? Yet all this is done through the knowledge of the Lord, and by the power of our Ministry. This is it that filleth vp every vally, Luc. 3.5.6. and levelleth every mountaine and hill: that maketh the crooked straight, and the rough waies smooth, that all flesh may see the salvation of God. The meaning of which allegoricall speech I cannot bet­ter expresse then in the words of Lactantius, Inst l. 3. c. 26. giue mee the man that is cholericke, a railer, vnruly, and with a few words of God, I will make him as meeke as a lambe. Giue mee him that is greedy, covetous, gripple, and I will make him liberall and giue bountifully with his owne hands: giue me him that is fearefull of paine and death, eft­soones shall he contemne his gibbets, fires, and Phalaris bull: Giue me the lecher, the adulterer, the taverne haun­ter, and by and by shalt thou see him sober, chast and conti­nent. Giue me the cruell and bloud thirsty man, and his fury shall soone be turned into clemency. Finally, giue me the vniust man, the foole, the sinner, and forthwith hee shall be iust, and wise, and innocent. Such and so great is the power of this divine wisdome, that it quickly changeth [Page 8] a man, and transformes him into another shape, so as ye can hardly know him to be the same. Neither let any man thinke that these are but words: no they haue ordi­narily beene and are daily done.Ion. 3.6 7. Did not Ionas with one sermon humble the pride of the King of Niniveh and all that mighty citty into sackcloth and ashes?Act. 2 37.41. Did not Pe­ter, at his first preaching to the Iewes, pricke them to the heart, and at once adde about three thousand soules vnto the Church?Ib. 24.25. Did not Paul, discoursing of iustice and tem­perance, and iudgement to come, make Felix the gover­nour although a heathen yet to tremble? But what speake I of particulars which are infinite? Never did Alexander or Cesar with their huge hosts of armed men, win so great victories, or erect such troopes of honour to them­selues, as did the holy Apostles vnto the name of Christ. They were in number but twelue, for the most part poore fishermen, and vnlettered, and despised in the eye of the world: and yet within a few yeares, armed only with the sword of the mouth, and the power of this Mi­nistry, they conquered the whole world, and subdued it to the obedience of Christ. And whom they subdued they so setled in the Faith, that rather then they would renounce it, they were content to endure most exqui­site torments, and to loose a thousand liues. In like man­ner hath the Ministry hitherto prevailed, and shall succes­siuely vnto the worlds end. How many families of Phi­losophers haue heretofore failed without successor?Senec. cou [...]. How many sects of Hereticks are vanished and melted away as dew before the sunne? But the Church of Christ, and his religion shall never faile. The heavens shall sooner loose their influence, and the starres their light, then the [Page 9] Ministry of the Church be without its strength and ver­tue. Neither the open violence of tyrants, nor the secret vnderminings of Antichrist, nor hell it selfe, shall ever be able to let or hinder it. And thus much of the Efficacy and Operatiue power of the Ministry.

The authority and jurisdiction annexed therevnto is exceeding great and ample. I stand astonished at the con­sideration thereof: for among the sonnes of men there is none comparable to it. Among the sonnes of men, say I: Nay among the Angells of God,De Sacerd. l. 3. c. 5. saith Chrysostome. For neither to them, nor to Kings or Princes, but only to the Ministers of the Gospell, are the keyes of the kingdome of heaven giuen. These only haue power to open the king­dome of heauen to all that beleeue, and to shut the gates a­gainst those that continue in incredulity. These haue au­thority to binde and loose, to remit and retaine sinnes, to enter men by baptisme into the visible Church, to admit them or withold them from the holy communion, to cut off notorious sinners from the body of the Church by ex­communication, to deliuer them over to Satan, and if they proue incorrigible, by anathema maranatha to separate them from the Church vntill the Lord come. Adde here­vnto that whatsoever they doe here on earth by vertue of the keyes, the same is eftsoones ratified by God in heauen: according to that of our Saviour, Ioh. 20. [...]3. whose sins soeuer yee re­mit, they are remitted, and whose sinnes soeuer yee retaine, they are retained:Mat. 18.18. and againe, whatsoeuer yee shall binde on earth, shall be bound in heauen, and whatsoeuer yee shall loose in earth, shall be loosed in heauen. Now as the Iurisdiction of the Ministrie is wondrous great: so is the extent there­of exceeding large. For it stretcheth it selfe without ex­ception of condition or degree vnto all men. If I should [Page 10] say Angels also, perhaps I should not say much amisse. Else what meaneth that of the Apostle, Eph 3.10. vnto Principalities and Powers in heauenly places is made knowne by the Church the manifold wisdome of God. For seeing the Church maketh nothing knowne but by the Ministrie, and the Angels come to the knowledge of the manifold wisdome of God by the Church: it seemeth that they also are in some things informed by the Ministrie. And thus at length to summe vp all that hath beene said, you haue clearely demonstra­ted, not only that the Science we professe is of all other the most transcendent, and operation of our Ministrie, the most effectuall: but also that the authority and jurisdiction therevnto annexed is of all other the greatest and largest. Out of all which I hope I may be bold to inferre the con­clusion principally intended, that our calling is therefore of all other the most worthy.

And is it so indeed, that the Ministry is of all callings the most noble and honourable? Then belike they that are advanced therevnto are accordingly to be esteemed. Without question they are. Reason telleth vs it ought to be so: & God commandeth that it be so. The more strange it seemes that whereas all other sorts of men are regar­ded answerably vnto their places, Ministers only are vi­lipended and least set by. For that so it hath ever beene, the monuments of former ages sufficiently testifie.Gen. 19.9.14. Num. 16 3. Noah was mocked of the old world,2 Sam. 6.16.20 Lot of the Sodomites, Aa­ron of Korah, 1 King. 22.8.24. Dathan, and Abiron, David of Michol, Mi­caiah of Ahab and his false Prophets, Elizeus of the chil­dren and Iehus captaines,2 King. 2.23. & 9.11. and generally all the Messengers and Prophets of the Lord by the Iewes. 2 Chron: 36.16. In the new Testa­ment Christ himselfe was set at naught, Luc. 23.11. Act. 2.13. the Apostles when they were filled with the extraordinary gifts of the holy [Page 11] Ghost were flouted at as full of new wine, St. Paul when he discoursed most profoundlie before the Athenians of the mysteries of Christian religion, was counted of them but a vaine Babler, Act. 17.18. and vniversallie all the Apostles eve­ry where were no better reckoned of then [...],1 Cor. 4 13. the offals & off scourings, of the world, & doe not we Ministers now a dayes drinke of the same cup? or are we not baptized with the same baptisme, wherewith Christ and his Apostles were? yes verily. Contempt pursues vs also, and perhaps the more the more inferior we are vnto them. Giue me leaue to shew it in particular, if for no o­ther cause, yet to confound the hypocrisie of these times, wherein men loue not to be, but to seeme to be, and to take religion on them rather then into them: howbeit briefly, for what pleasure can either you take in hearing, or I in discoursing of so sad a theme?

The Honour due vnto the Ministrie is double; Internal, External. Internal in the Minde, in the Affection. In the Minde honourable estimation: in the Affection, Loue. Ex­ternal in Word, in Gesture, in Deed. In Word, honourable mention, in Gesture, reverent behaviour, in deed, liberal and bountifull maintenance. All these Honours doe we iust­lie claime as due vnto vs, yet are they all most shamefully denied vs. For as touching the first, it is as cleare as the sun at noone-day by what hath beene already said, that the Calling of the Ministry is in it selfe & aboue all other the most honourable. Expresse testimonie of Scripture, & vnanswerable arguments deduced from it, haue suffici­ently manifested the same. Now wee know that reason would that every thing be valued according to the worth thereof: and very simple doe wee count him that sets no better price vpon silver then lead, vpon gold then cop­per, [Page 12] vpon emerauds and diamonds then pibble stones. Which being so, it followeth that the Ministry of the Gospell being indeed so pretious a jewell, as in the iudge­ment of all accordingly to be esteemed: and very foolish or froward must hee needs be, that disesteemeth or vn­dervalueth so invaluable a treasure. And yet how many are there in these daies who despise this sacred function, and set it at nought? some happily through ignorance, not knowing the worth thereof: but others out of pro­fanenesse, preferring a messe of pottage before a birth­right. An evident signe and token whereof this may bee among others, that those of the better ranke either for wealth or gentility count themselues too good for the Ministry, and hold it a foule disparagement to bestow their children that way. No, that is an employment fit for poore mens children only. Or if at any time they vouchsafe to designe their sonnes therevnto, they are but of the yonger sort, ard such as they finde altogether vn­apt for any other calling: for otherwise, the law, or mar­chandise, or some trade of more advantage, swaies them, and carries them cleane away. Nay even those that are of good parentage, and equall vnto others, if once they enter into the Ministry, they hold them abased thereby: and the very name of a Priest shall bee cast into their teeth, as a notable blemish and staine vnto their blood. So that that which God accounteth the greatest honour, is accounted by man a great impeachment of honour, and seldome findeth in the minde due estimation.

As little loue findeth it also in the affection. Saint Paul earnestly chargeth all men to loue those men that are set over them in the Lord, 1 Thes. 5.12.13. that is, their Ministers, yea to bestow vpon them, not some small measure, but abun­dance [Page 13] of loue. And why? for their workes sake, saith he: as if he had said more fully, because by the paines they take for you they deserue much loue: so that if you will not amorem impendere, freely vouchsafe them your loue, yet are you bound amorem rependere, to requite their labours with loue. Alexander the Great was wont to say hee was more beholding to his Master Aristotle then his Father Philip, for that he had his being only from the one, and his well-being from the other. And surely if wee owe loue vnto our naturall parents as authors of our tempo­rall life: how much more is due vnto our spirituall pa­rents, who haue begotten vs by the immortall seed of the word vnto a blessed and eternall life? Deut. 33.8 Moses blessing Levi, calleth him the man of Gods mercies:Cod. l. 1. tit. 3. de episcop. & cler. 43.44. and anciently the Ministers of the Gospell were stiled the beloued of God. Doth God set his mercies, and his loue vpon them, and dares man deny his vnto them? What dares not sinfull man doe? He denied it. There is one Micaiah, saith Ahab, the sonne of Imlah, 1. King 22.8. by whom wee may enquire of the Lord: but I hate him, for he doth not prophecie good concerning me, but evill. Our Sauiour Christ in the charge hee giueth his twelue Apostles, Mat. 10.22. foretelleth them that they shall be ha­ted of all men for his names sake. What he foretold them, they by experience found true, being euery where perse­cuted euen to the death. The reason, because they were the light of the world, Mat. 5.14. and the whole world lieth in evill, & every one that doth evill hateth the light, 1. Ioh. 5.19. Ioh. 3.20▪ because it disco­vereth and reproueth his deeds.Cic. de ami [...]. Verit as odium, truth be­gets hatred,Gal. 4.16. according to that of St Paul, Am I therefore become your enimie because I tell you the truth? Vnlesse we soe pillowes vnder mens elbowes wee cannot please them: if we please them not, neither can wee haue their [Page 14] loue. Et hinc illae lachrymae, hence the bitter cold that nips vs every where. But how little wee are either estee­med or loued, will yet more appeare by the outward fruits. For as is the internall honour of the minde and affe­ction: so is the externall also, in Word, in Gesture, in Deed.

Honour in Word is honourable mention, whereby wee speake nothing but honour of a man. And this also wee iustly chalenge to our selues: for it is written, Thou shalt not speake evill of the Ruler of thy people. Exod. 22.27. True it is, Mini­sters are not Angels, Act 23.5. but being made of the same mouldes with other men, are subiect to the same infirmities. Ne­verthelesse he playes but Chams part,Gen. 9.22, 23. that laughs at his fa­thers nakednesse: Shem and Iaphet will not see it, but goe backward and couer it. The exorbitancies of a Minister, saith Constantine the great, ought not to be knowne vnto the people: hee for his part would rather couer them with his purple robe. For as the Councell of Chalcedon saith, Deli­cta Sacerdotum communis est turpitudo, the sinnes of the Priests are the common shame of the Church. True Cha­rity would couer a multitude of them: but to blaze and divulge them is to spread abroad the infamie of our Mo­ther. And yet this is the ordinary practise of these daies: the Ministrie is the common butt against which they shoot the venomous arrowes of their tongues. In all mee­tings, at all tables, the Minister vsually is the subiect of their talke: and it is cou [...]ted among many a speciall mark of true religion & zeale with open mouth to publish the faults, shall I say of inferiour Ministers? Nay of the cheefest fathers of the Church. Wherein also like but­chers flies they lightly passe ouer the whole and sound places, and seize only vpon gals and sores: that is, if they meete with an infirmitie, that they are alwaies buzzing a­bout, [Page 15] as for their graces and vertues, they are wrapped vp in deep silence. Physitians if they doe but one good cure, grow famous thereby though they kill twentie be­sides: we how many good things soeuer be in vs, yet one leane Cow swallowes vp the seauen fat, and the least weaknesse is sufficient to disgrace all. Weaknesse say I? Nay that which is counted weaknesse in others, is tradu­ced as wickednesse in vs: our frailties are furies, and every mole-hill is made a mountaine. So ready are they to speake the worst of vs, and so loath to say any thing that may credit our Calling.

If they will scarce vouchsafe vs a good word, is it like­ly they will afford vs any Reverence in Gesture? 1. King. 18.7. Act. 10.25. Yet Oba­diah the gouernour of king Ahabs house, meeting with the Prophet Eliah fell on his face before him. Cornelius the Centurion vpon S. Peters comming to him fell downe at his feet.1. Sam 28.14. Euen king Saul before him whom he concea­ved to be Samuel, stooped with his face to the ground & bowed himselfe. And Alexander the great when hee saw Iaddua the high Priest,Ioseph. antiq. l. 11. c. 8. alighted from his horse, and hum­bled himselfe with much reuerence vnto him. But Con­stantine a greater then he when he entred into the Synode of Nice, bowed himselfe very low vnto the Bishops there assembled, and sate not downe vntill they desired him. Yea the very Gentiles themselues stood in such awe of their Priests, that they durst not vtter an obscene word, much lesse misbehaue thēselues in their presence. What thinke you? Shall not these one day rise vp in iudgement against vs Christians to condemne vs? For now adaies every petty Gentleman lookes for much duty from vs, and takes it indignely if we stand not bare before him, & worship him with cap and knee. If wee expect the like a­gaine, [Page 16] forsooth wee are growne too proud: it is honour enough for vs, if they doe but looke vpon vs. Preceden­cie is any mans rather then the Ministers: euery Mam­monist, euery younger brother, euery vpstart of the first head must haue the place from vs. To the gay cloathing euery one saith, Sit here in the best roome: but vnto vs, Stand thou there, Iam. 2.3. or,Esa 3 5. sit here vnder my footstoole. Thus children behaue themselues proudly against the ancient, and the base against the honourable.

The last honour we claime, is bountifull and liberall maintenance. Mat 10.10. For the labourer is worthy of his hire: and the mouth of the Oxe, 1. Cor. 9.7.9. that treadeth out the corne, must not bee muzled. No man warreth at his owne charges: and hee that feedeth a flocke,Gen. 47.22. liueth by it. Even the Egyptians and other Gentiles prouided for their Priests. God himselfe appointed Triths vnto Levi (the morality of which I dis­pute not at this time) besides Citties with their territories and sundry other things of great value. The Ministrie of the Gospell is more excellent then that of the Law: lesse therefore cannot be allowed vs. Tithe is too little, saith S. Augustin: else how doe wee exceed the Pharisees who tithed all▪ If we minister spirituall things, reason will,Gal. 6.6. that we receaue of your temporalls. The law of the Gospell requireth him that is taught to impart to him that teacheth of all his good.Philem. 19. And reason, For as S. Paul saith to Philemon, you owe your selues vnto vs. And vnlesse you vnder value too much the eternall saluatiō of your soules, yee can never sufficiently recompence the benefit yee re­ceaue of vs. It is manifest then that an honourable salarie is due vnto vs. But how I beseech you are wee paid our due? Poorely God wot: witnesse the multitude of im­propriations, the selling of benefices, the detention of [Page 17] tithes, or the false and repining paiment of them, with the like.1 Sam 9.7. It was once said,Psal. 83.12. What shall wee giue the man of God:Ex. 36 5.6. but now every one saith, Come let vs take the houses of God in possession. When Moses built the tabernacle, he was faine to stay the people from giuing, they were so forward: but now would God, wee could stay their hands from robbing the tabernacle. Many there are who call for a learned Ministry in every parish: yet keepe to them­selues that which should maintaine the Minister. A strange perversenesse, to desire no benefice may be with­out a cure, and yet to require a cure without a benefice. Yea but they are content to allow a Competencie. True. But if they may be our [...]arvers, I presume it will bee af­ter the rate of Cratis in his Ephemeris, La [...]ret. vit. crat. Theb. ten pound to the Cooke, a groat to the Physitian, ten talents to the Parasite, one to the Curtizan, and to the Philosopher three halfe­pence. For every little is too much for vs: & but enough is superfluity.Mat. 26.8. Et quorsum perditio haec, what need all this wasts. The poverty of the Apostles they often remem­ber: but the bounty of Christians then they vtterly forget. If they will haue vs follow the one, why refuse they to imitate the other?Act. 4, 3 [...] 35. Let them sell all they haue, and lay downe the prizes at our feet, and then haue with them whensoeuer they please.

But I presse these points of Honor no farther: for me thinkes I heare some say, these words would haue soun­ded better in some advocates mouth, in ours they may seeme to proceede of ambition or covetousnesse. Where­vnto I answere, first [...], if wee speake not for our selues, who will? and if wee doe, alas what are wee? All other sorts of men are allowed to defend themselues: and must wee alone suffer wrong [Page 18] and say nought? Secondly, so to censure is a spice of the contempt wee speake of: for indeede wee seeke herein not so much our owne honour and advantage, as Gods glory and benefit. Gods glory, whose ordinance, nay who himselfe by contemning vs is contemn [...]d.1 Sam. 8.7. They haue not reiected thee but mee, Mal. 3.8. saith God to Samuell. Yee haue robbed me in tithes and offerings, saith hee by Malachie. He that despiseth you, Luc. 10.16. despiseth me, saith Christ. And lastly, He that despiseth, 1 Thes. 4.8. despiseth not man but God. Your bene­fit. For to deny submission to those who rule over you and watch for your soules, Heb 13.17. is vnprofitable for you, saith the A­postle. For first as Barnard saith,Ser [...]. in die Pasch. Cuius vita despicitur, restat vt praedicatio contemnatur: if once our persons grow despicable, little will our preaching availe. If our preaching availe not, neither can you beleeue, nor be saued. Secondly, to contemne a Minister is a fearfull sinne: otherwise Hoseas would never haue vsed this ag­gravation,Hos. 4.4. the people were as they that contended with the Priest. 2 Chro. 36 16 Lastly, God punisheth it accordingly: with tem­porall punishment, as vpon the Iewe, with seaventy years captiuity:Esa 6.9. with spirituall, that hearing they shall heare, & seeing see, Act. 28.26. yet neither perceiue nor vnderstand: and vnlesse they repent, with eternall also both in body and soule. But of the contempt of the Ministry enough: let vs now inquire the redresse thereof.

See that no man despise thee, saith my text. A strange speech. For doe we steere at the helme of other mens af­fections? Or haue we the command of their actions? Why then doth he charge vs to looke to it that we be not despised? Surely because wee our selues are mostly the causes thereof, and for that it lies much in our owne hands both to prevent and redresse it. To make this ap­peare, [Page 19] obserue with me the words immediatly going be­fore my text, These things speake, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority: see that no man despise thee. Obserue with me againe what Saint Paul saith to Timothie, 1 Tim. 4.11.12. These things command and teach: let no man despise thy youth, but be an example vnto beleeuers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity. Which two places being duly pondered and considered, it is manifest that the Apostles meaning here is no other then this, if we will not be contemned, wee must not carry our selues contemptibly, and that to avoide this contempt, two things are necessary, first that we be Good ministers, se­condly that we be Good men: for if wee faile in eyther, it cannot possibly bee avoided but wee must bee despi­sed.

To avoide Contempt then, first wee must be Good Mi­nisters: and to this end two things are requisite, first a ta­lent, secondly due employment of the talent. By talent I vnderstand fitnesse and ability. And that this is necessa­ry, appeareth first by the act of God: for hee never design­eth any to a calling but hee furnisheth him before hand with sufficient gifts. If Moses must be the chiefe gover­nour and lawgiuer of Israell, he shall be learned, yea e­ven in all the wisdome of the Aegyptians, Act. 7.22. aend mighty both in words and deeds. Exod. 31.2.3.4.5.6. If Bezaleel and Aholiab must build the Tabernacle, hee will fill them with his spirit in wis­dome, in vnderstanding, in knowledge, in all manner of workemanship, in gold, silver, brasse, stone, timber, and what ever else was needfull.Esa. 9 67.8. Esay being to doe an errand for the Lord, hath his lipps first touched with a cole frō the altar. Iesus the sonne of Mary being ordained to bee the Messias of the world,Ps. 45.7. is annointed with the oile of glad­nesse [Page 20] aboue all his fellowes, Act. 3.4. and receiueth the spirit with­out measure. Finally the twelue Apostles being to carry the name of Christ through the world,Ioh. 3.34. were first bapti­zed with fiery tongues and replenished with the holy Ghost at Ierusalem. The same appeareth also by the or­dinance of God in his Church. Mal. 2.7. For the Priests lips (saith Malachie) should preserve knowledge, and they should seeke the law at his mouth, for he is the messenger of the Lord of Hosts. 1 Tim. 3.2. Saint Paul also saith, that a Bishop must bee [...] apt to teach: Tit. 1 9. and able by sound doctrine both to exhort, and convince gainesaiers. And seeing no worke can well goe forward without fit instruments, and the end of the Mi­nistry is to publish the Gospell, and to build vp the body of Christ: reason it selfe telleth vs, a Minister must haue his aptnesse and fitnesse therevnto. Aptnesse and fitnesse I say, though not exact and in the highest measure, for then might wee crie out with Saint Paul, [...], who is sufficient for these things?2 Cor. 2.16. Yet at least compe­tent and in some tolerable measure, that they exceede the ordinary sort of men, as the Sicle of the sanctuarie doth the common Sicle in value.

This fitnesse if a Minister altogether want, how can he escape contempt? God himselfe in contempt calls them Idol sheapherds, Esa. 56 10. dumbe dogs, blind watchmen, brute beasts. Ier. 10 21. And indeede what are they but clouds without water, heads without braine, bels without clapper, nurses with­out milke. Iustly may they say with the prophet, Ah, ah, Domine non possum loqui quia puer sum, Ier. 1.6. ah Lord I cannot speake for I am a child. If a man that cannot reade, should take vpon him to be professor in Greeke or Hebrew, specta­tum admissi risum teneatis, could you abstaine from laughter? Farre more ridiculous is hee who being igno­rant [Page 21] of all humanity, takes vpon him to bee a teacher in divinity. Yet among these ignorants there are too many [...],Rev. 3.17. proud beggers: Laodiceans who count them­selues rich and of good wealth, 1 Tim. 1.7. yet are wretched, and mi­serable, and poore. Who faine would be esteemed Doctors of the law, yet vnderstand neither what they say nor whereof they affirme. Oratores novi, stulti, adolescentuli, vpstart, foolish, boy preachers: of whom a man may truly say as he said of the nightingale, vox sunt praeterea nihil they are nothing else but voice, right like vnto Cameleons, all lungs and no heart. Thus while some of them haue mouthes yet cannot speake, others speake but nothing to the purpose: both make themselues ridiculous to the world, and draw contempt vpon their owne heads. Hee that will be honoured must haue his talent.

So must he also duly employ it. For the end of the ta­lent is employment: and he that hath an office is bound to act and execute the duties thereof. When the Lord of the family,Mat. 25.14. as it is in the parable, dispensed his talents a­mong his servants, to one fiue to another two, to a third one: his intent was to receiue his onwe againe with advan­tage. And S. Paul knowing that God had bestowed a great gift vpon Timothy, 1 Tim. 4.14. 2 Tim. 1.6. chargeth him that hee neglect it not: yea that he doe [...], quicken vp the gift of God which is in him. 2. Tim. 4.5. If Timothie be an Evangelist, he must doe the worke of an Evangelist, Rom. 12.6.7. and fulfill his Ministry. For the gift is giuen to enable a man in his function: that eve­ry one may minister according to the grace giuen him. And this he must not doe sleightly or profunctorily, but faithfully, painefully, grauely. In preaching the word he must be instant in season, 2 Tim. 4.2. out of season, reprouing rebuke­ing, exhorting with all long suffering and doctrine. So shall [Page 22] he proue himselfe a good Minister of Iesus Christ,1 Tim. 4 6. 2 Tim 2.15. and a workeman that needeth not to bee ashamed. Honour shall crowne his head: and a good name shall hee purchase a­mong the Saints. But shame and contempt shall surely pursue all those, Who hauing receiued their talent, aut ni­hil agunt, aut non satis agunt, aut satagunt, either doe no­thing, or not enough, or ever doe the taske. First those that doe nothing: for the servant that digged his talent in the earth, and employed it not, was censured by his Ma­ster for wicked and slothfull, Mat. 25 26.28 30. had his talent taken from him. and for his vnprofitablenesse was commanded into vtter darkenesse. 1 Tim. 5.17. It is the Elder that rules well, and labours in the word and doctrine that is worthy of double honour: the idler deserues none at all, no not so much as single. He that will not labour must not eate: and hee that will not worke in the vine-yeard must not looke for his peny. Yea but they are so much employed other waies that they haue no leasure. What? No leasure to be Ministers? why are they Ministers then? To feede vpon the flocke and not to feede it, is little better then sacriledge: and ar­gues a base, sordid, and contemptible minde. Secondly that doe something, but not enough: such as once per­haps in a quarter shower downe some short collati­on vpon their people, and then suffer them, a long time after to liue like shell-fish suo [...]ibi succo, vpon their owne liquor. Such also as are more frequent, but negligent withall: not caring what they say, so they hold out their houre. If Fericles was carefull not to speake an idle word before the people, and Demosthenes wished his words before he vttered them might bee not only [...] written, but [...] graven: how much more ought a Minister to be advised, before hee open his [Page 23] mouth in the congregation? What thou doest, doe with all thy might, Eccles. 5 1. saith the wise man: and cursed is hee that doth the worke of the Lord negligently, saith the Prophet. If every one must looke to his feete when hee goeth to the house of God: much more must a Preacher to his tongue before he enter into the pulpit. Otherwise hee shall but offer vp the sacrifice of fooles, and get contempt for his la­bour. Lastly, those who over doe, or doe more then e­nough: such I meane as affect nothing else but quaint and curious phrases, or are vnmeasurable in their allegations out of all authors both Ecclesiasticall & profane, or sone aloft in vnnecessary speculations farre aboue the capacity of their auditors. These over doe, & magno conat [...] mag­nas nugas, take great paines, and eviscerate themselues, as it were, to weaue a webbe, which when it is ended, is fit for no other vse, but only as an vnprofitable thing to be swept away.

But here some happily will say, what? Are you an e­nimy to eloquent and learned preaching? Or doe you thinke it vnlawfull in Sermons to alleadge the sayings of ancient Fathers and other writers? God forbid. For as touching eloquence, although truth may be taught with­out it, yet as Lactantius saith, magis treditur [...]r [...]t [...] veri­tati, the more decently it is trimmed, the more readily is it embraced. Neither can I well speake against it, but I must withall deny vnto Moses, David, Solomon, Esay, Paul, and the rest of that holy order, apt elocution, and the tongue of the learned. As for allegations, Saint P [...]l himselfe vouched the testimonies of Aratus, Menander, Epimenides. All truths are Gods whosoeuer vtter them, saith Ambrose. If Philosophers haue delivered things that are true, wee may challenge them from them as from vniust [Page 24] possessors? Saith Augustine. The captiue womans head be­ing shaven, and nailes pared, wee may take her to wife, saith Hierome. Tyrians may helpe to build the Temple: and David may behead Golias with his owne sword. And as for humane learning, it is not only lawfull, but in some cases necessary. For as Logick teacheth [...], no man can demonstrate passing from one kind vnto another: but looke to what science the tearmes of the question belong, from thence only are proofes to be drawne. Which being so, how can I handle the que­stion of Freedome of will without naturall Philosophy, whereunto that tearme belongeth? And how can I bet­ter demonstrate that the law Morall is written naturally in the heart, then by the testimony of those men who were never by grace elevated aboue nature? Wherefore if there be any who condemne the vse of humane learning in Sermons: it is saith Gregory Nazianzene, because them selues are ignorant, and would not haue their ignorance espied. If this be your mind, will some yet say, what is it then your dislike? First I dislike that that should be cal­led eloquence which is not so, as being neither appro­ved by the precepts of those who haue written of Orato­ry, nor exampled by the practise of those who haue bin esteemed the most famous Orators. When holy Spiridi­on heard Triphyllius call that [...] which our Saviour called [...], though both words signified the same thing, yet be sharpely rebuked him saying, doest thou think thou canst speak better then Christ himselfe? What would he haue said, thinke you, if hee had heard Coton the French Iesuite preach of the Escalados of vertue, and the Barricados of greedy desire, and call Iesus Christ the Dolphin of heauen? Surely it is the language not of Baby­lon [Page 25] but of Canaan which the holy Ghost hath sanctified for the preaching of the Gospell. Secondly I mislike that frothie conceits,, and wittie vanities should be coun­ted learning. For true learning is substantiall and reall, bettering the vnderstanding, and making the heart wise: but these toyes stand only in seeming, tickling the eare, & making the head giddy, but neuer feeding the soule. Lear­ning you may call it if you please,1. Tim. 6.20. howbeit, as Saint Paul saith, it is but [...], science falsely so called, which he would haue his Timothie carefully to avoid. Thirdly and lastly, it displeaseth me, that herein they propound to themselues, not Gods glory, or the edification of the Church, but their owne praise & applause. To what end else this vaine ostentation, of wit, eloquence, reading, and all variety of learning? Wherein first they prevaricate with Christ, pretending to woo the soules of men vnto Christ, but indeed intending to win reputation to them­selues. Secondly they fayle the hope and expectation of their brethren, who repairing to them for instruction, re­ceaue no more benefit by their Sermons, then Caligulas guests did by his golden banquet, which onely delighted the eye, but neither pleased the palate, nor satisfied the stomacke. Wise and wholsome is the counsell of S. Hie­rome, when thou teachest in the Church, non clamor populi sed gemitus suscitetur, stirre you vp not the applause but the grones of the people, lachrymae auditorum laudes tuae sint, let the teares of the auditory be thy praises. If thou canst with Peter pricke the people at the heart, Act. 2.37. Act. 24.25. and make them say, Men and brethren what shall we doe? If by dis­coursing of righteousnesse, temperance, and iudgement to come, thou canst make Felix tremble, thou shalt both glo­rifie God, and procure honour vnto thy selfe. But if neg­lecting [Page 26] the glory of God, thou ayme at nothing but thine owne praise and commendation: God will surely poure downe contempt vpon thee. For his mouth hath spoken it,13. Sam. 2.0. Them that honour me will I honour, and they that despise me shall be lightly esteemed. Thus to avoid contempt, it is necessary we be good Ministers.

It is necessary also that we be Good men. Although in­truth I see not how a man can be a Good Minister, vnlesse withall he be a Good man. For if he defined rightly who said that an Orator is vir bonus dicendi peritus, a good man skilfull in pleading: what should let but I may as truly say, a Good Minister is vir bonus docendi peritus, a good man well able to teach. And if the Goodnesse of a man be principally discerned in the honest discharge of the duties of his Calling: hardly can that Minister bee a Good man, who doth not faithfully execute the office of his Ministrie. Neuerthelesse to speake distinctly of them, it is necessary, as wee haue said, for the avoiding of Con­tempt, not only to be Good Ministers, but also Good Men, practising in our selues what wee teach vnto others, and framing our liues answerable to our doctrine. This was typed by Aarons Vrim and Thummim which hee was to carry in the brest-plate vpon his heart:Exod. 28.30. for the one beto­kened light and verity of doctrine, the other vprightnesse and integrity of life. The same was also signified by the golden bells and pomegranates hanging round about vp­on the hemme of his priestly vestment?b. Ib. 33.34. for the bells are no other then the sound of wholsome preaching, and the pomegranats, then the fruits of good liuing. As it was ty­ped in the old Testament, so is it expresly commanded in the new. St Paul instructing Timothie and Titus how a Bishop should be qualified, requireth of him that bee bee [Page 27] not only [...], apt to teach, but also [...], blamelesse and faultlesse. 2. Tim. 3 2.3. Neither so only,Tit 1.7.8. but that in all things he shew himselfe also a patterne of good workes. Id. 2.7. And with him agreeth St Peter, who chargeth those that are Elders that they be [...],1. Pet. 5.3. Samplers vnto their Flock. And whensoeuer in Scripture a Minister is com­manded to teach or feed the people of God, it is intended, if we may beleeue ancient Fathers, that they doe it by all meanes: and therefore not only by preaching sound do­ctrine, but also by leading an exemplarie life. If all the faithfull must shine with good workes as lights in the world:Phil. 2.15. Mat. 5.14. how much more they who by office are the very lights of the world? He was a wise naturall man who said Longum iter per praecepta, breue & efficax per exempla: the course by precept is long and tedious, but short and effe­ctuall by example. And he was no foole that said, he had rather see one Calanus willingly put himselfe into the fire, then heare a Philosopher read a hundred Lectures of patience. For indeed, as St Bernard saith, validior est vox operis quam oris, workes perswade more powerfully then words.Tetrastich. And therefore with Gregory Nazianzen doe I say to thee, ô Minister, whatsoeuer thou be, [...], Either teach me not at all, or let thy holy life teach me: why drawest thou me thus with one hand, and puttest me off with the other? They iested anciently at those who were Philosophers [...], in their sayings, but not in their doings. And the Poet could say, Odi homines ignauâ operâ & philosophâ senten­tiâ, I detest those men whose mouthes are full of the rules of Morality, yet practise none of them. But in a Mi­nister of the Gospell it is yet a fouler incongruity if their words and workes disagree. When Demades saw king [Page 28] Philip dancing, I wonder ô Philip, quoth he, seeing thou bearest the person of a King, that thou dost the workes of Thersites. Much more rightly may I say of these, I mar­vell that hauing taken vpon them the office of Phinees, with what face they can act the part of Zimri. Impudent beyond measure must they needs be, who being guiltie (none more) of drunkennesse, adultery, blasphemy, and the like, yet lift vp their voices like trumpets, and presume in open pulpit bitterly to inveigh against the same sinnes in others. Every one will say to such a one, Medice cura teipsum, Physitian heale thy selfe: [...], you take vpon you to cure others being your selues full of boyles and vlcers. It is altogether preposterous for a strumpet to take vpon her the reformation of the stewes. Manus quae sordes abluit munda esse debet, saith Gregory: the hand had need to bee cleane that cleanseth other things. The Spartans when an evill man gaue them good counsell, caused an honest man to say the same, & then imbraced it.Ps. 50.16.17. What speake I of Spartans? God can­not abide that a wicked mā hating to be reformed, should once take his covenant in his mouth. A more dangerous pestilence then a lewd Minister there cannot be: the con­tagion of his life quickly infecteth, euery one thinketh it not only lawfull, but safe also to follow his guide. And thus I feare doe they many times reason, the Preacher in­deed earnestly disswades from sinne, and perswades vnto sanctitie of life, threatning hell vnto the one, and promi­sing heauen vnto the other: but if he beleeued verily that there is a heauen or a hell, doe you thinke hee would liue such a deboisht and dissolute life as he doth? He knowes well enough what he doth, none better: let vs doe as hee doth, eat and drinke and be merry, for to morrow wee [Page 29] shall die. And thus Hophni & Phinees behauing them­selues like the sonnes of Belial, are the very causes of Atheisme and prophanenesse in the world, and by this meanes draw contempt not only on themselues, but also vpon the sacrifices and religion of God. But contrarily, whosoever, saith our Saviour Christ,Mat. 5.19. shall doe the com­mandements of God himselfe, and teach others to doe them too, shall be called great in the Kingdome of Heaven: Of such a one it will bee reported that God is in him of a truth. 2 Cor. 14.25. The Saints will receiue him as an Angell of God, Gal. 4.14.15. even as Christ Iesus, and be ready to plucke out their eyes to giue them to him. As for others, he cannot but finde ap­prouement in their consciences: for as the wise heathen said,Sen. Adeò gratiosa est virtus, vt insitum etiam malis sit, probare meliora, so gratious a thing is vertue, that even wicked men by the instinct of nature allow and com­mend that which is good. And thus much of the third and last part, the redresse of our contempt. Now it re­maines before I dismisse you, briefly to make some par­ticular application.

And here, though I well might, yet will I not extend my exhortation farther then our Apostle doth his: hee re­straineth his to Titus, that is to the Minister, so will I mine. First therefore, if according to our hopes and de­sires wee might now haue enioyed the presence of the re­verend Father of this Diocesse, I would humbly haue in­treated him to See that Titus be not despised. That to this end he would haue speciall care whom hee admits into this holy order: for Non ex quolibet ligno fit Mercurius, every man is not fit to make a Minister. Farre be it from so reverend a Bishop, 1 King. 12 31. either with Ieroboam to make Priests of the basest of the people,Sue [...]. Calig. c. 55. or with Caligula to destinate [Page 30] his horse Incitatus to the Consulship. That also hee would be pleased to beare an eye vpon those that are already ad­mitted, to countenance those that walke worthy of their places, and severely to censure such as either by their idlenesse or misliuing scandalize their profession. But I represse my selfe, and from him that is absent turne my speech vnto you that are present and haue delegate pow­er and authority from him. You, and those that depend vpon you; doe I earnestly beseech, to see to it also, that Titus be not despised. Good reason haue I thus to beseech you: for your exorbitations and abuses redound to the dishonour of your Lord, though he neither act them nor approue them, and from him descend to the skirts of his clothing, vs his inferiour Ministers. Shall I tell you a story?Erasm. de rat. concionan­di l. 1. David sonne to Philip the good Duke of Burgun­dy, being Bishop of Vtrecht, would needs one day, not by his Poser but by himselfe, make triall of those that offe­red themselues to holy orders: and finding them vnsuffi­cient reiected all but three. His officers therewith offen­ded said, it would be a foule shame to the Church, if of three hundred three only should be admitted. To whom the Bishop, it would bee a fouler shame, if insteed of men asses might be admitted. Yea but, say they, this age breeds not Pauls and Hieroms, you must take such as it affords. I require not such quoth the Bishop, but asses will I not admit. Then must you increase our wages, say they, for by such asses doe wee liue. Thus you see that inferiour officers sometime commit errors which the su­periors know not of, wherewith notwithstanding hee is charged: and that they seeke more their owne advantage, then the dignity either of the Church or the Churches Mi­nistry. Ser. 7 [...]. It was the complaint of Saint Bernard in his time [Page 31] that Church officers studied more how to empty mens purses, then to reforme their vices. I feare these times are little better, and that our mony is rather visited then our manners: so the fees come in roundly, no matter how irregularly men liue. O that your principall aime were to redresse abuses, & to remoue scandalls out of the Church ▪ how pretious would your name bee among the Saints? and what honour might you gaine both to Church and Churchmen? What shall I farther say? No more but this. Your Courts are called Christian: God grant your carri­age may be so Christian in them, that they may ever tru­ly be as they are called.

My last addresse shall be to you my brethren and fel­lowes in the Ministry, whom I adiure in the name of Ie­sus Christ, Act. 20.2 [...]. carefully to see that no man despise you. And to this end, Hoc agite, Take heede both to your selues, and the flocke over which the holy Ghost hath made you overseers. To your selues, that you may proue Good men; to your flocks,Mat. 19.6. that you may approue your selues Good Mini­sters. Either by it selfe will not serue the turne: what God hath joyned together, may not be put asunder: Liue you never so vprightly, yet if either you want a talent, or hauing one you employ it not, it profiteth you nothing. Againe haue you never so rich a talent, and employ it ne­ver so diligently, yet if your life answere not your do­ctrine, it availeth you nothing. Either through your ina­bility, or idlenes, or wickednes, you murther the soules of men:Mat. 13.1 [...]. and God will require their bloud at your hands. What he hath giuen you he will surely take from you: and when it is gone you cannot but grow worse & worse; vntill you rise to the height to impiety, and plunge your selues into the bottomlesse pit of everlasting perdition. [Page 32] It is a fearfull speech of Saint Chrysostome, Quis vnquam Clericum lapsum paenitentem vidit? Who ever saw a Mi­nister recover himselfe after his fall by repentance? And indeede it is but seldome seene. For the sins that are sin­gle in others being double in him, and an idle word in an others mouth being as it were blasphemy 'in his:Barn. God punisheth him more rigorously then hee doth others. When once he giueth over the conscience of his calling, the spirit of God departeth from him as hee did from Saul:1 Sam. 16.14. and then looke what degree of excellency hee held before, into the same degree of basenesse he degenerates afterwards. The strongest wine turneth into the sharpest vineger: and the noblest Angells sinning became the vgli­est Divells.Mat. 5.13. In like manner is it with vs. And if wee who are the Salt of the earth, once loose our savour, where­withall shall we be seasoned?Luc 14.35. Wee are thenceforth good for nothing, neither for the land nor the dunghill, but only to be cast out, and troden vnder foot of men. Take wee heede therefore that wee dishonour not God, least he dishonour vs:Exod. 20.5. for our God is a jealous God, and his ho­nour is as deare vnto him as the apple of his eye. If wee beare both Vrim and Thummim in our breastplates, and carry our selues in his sight both as Good Ministers, and Good men: neither shall wee any way dishonour him, nei­ther shall wee be causes of contempt vpon our selues, but shall exactly and perfectly obserue this Apostolicall charge, See that no man despise thee. Yea but will some say, when yee haue done all yee can doe, and haue per­formed the will of God on earth, as the Angells doe in heauen, yet can you not escape contempt from all, but some will still despise you. Grant it. Yet for all this Ne pudeat Evangelij, Rom. 1 16. let vs not be ashamed of the Gospell of [Page 33] Christ. for it is the power of God vnto salvation. If it pro­ceede of Ignorance, because they know not the worth of the Ministry: let vs say with our Saviour Christ. Fa­ther forgiue them for they know not what they doe. Luk. 23.34. If pa­rents beare much with froward children, and Physitians with their franticke patients: why should not wee par­don much more vnto those, whose soules wee hope by the grace of God to saue? If it be of wilfulnesse, then let vs put on the greater minde, and with the Emperour Se­verus, While wee are carefull of doing our duties, little care what others say of vs. Let them spit against Heaven as long as they list, it will surely fall downe in their owne faces againe. Their perverse judgements are to bee neg­lected, & ad honesta vadenti contemnendus est hic con­temptus, Sen. of all them that aime at a Crowne of Glory this contempt must be contemned. If wicked and sinfull men should honour vs, wee had reason to suspect our selues, least all were not well with vs: but if they despise vs, wee haue cause to thinke the more honourably of our selues. God ceaseth not to be good though it seeme not so vnto some: Neither is the Sunne darke because blind eyes see not the light thereof. Let ignorant & lewd wretches thinke as they please, yet maugre them all, our calling is of all other the most honourable: and wee our selues if wee be both Good Ministers and Good Men deserue of all double honour. Which if wee cannot ob­taine of some,Mat. 11.19. yet shall wisdome still bee iustified of her owne children. Our owne consciences, the Saints of God, his blessed Angells shall honour vs: yea, as the Prophet speaketh,Esa. 49.5. wee shall be glorious in the eyes of the Lord, and our God shall be our strength, v. 4. with him is our reward. Hee will make vs rulers over many things heere, Mat. 25.2 [...]. and in the [Page 34] next world enter vs into eternall Ioy. For as Daniel saith, with whose comfortable words I conclude this exercise, They that be wise shall shine as the brightnesse of the firma­ment, and they that turne many to righteousnesse, Dan. 12.3. as the stars for ever and ever.

FINIS.
THE DOVE-LIKE SERPEN …

THE DOVE-LIKE SERPENT.

OXFORD ▪ Printed by I. L. for E. F. 1633.

MAT. 10.16.‘Be yee therefore wise as Serpents and innocent as Doues.’

FOR the better guiding and ordering of our actions in regard of those offices which we are to performe each vnto other, our Savi­our in the Gospell hath giuen this exact & perfect rule, Doe as you would be done vnto. Which rule the Emperour Alexander Severus though a Heathen so approued and admired, that he caused it to be engraven in his Palaces and all publike buildings, and in publike executions, also the Crier was commanded to proclaime, Quod tibi fieri non vis alteri ne feceris: doe not to another what yee would not haue done to your selues. Breefly, so much was this sentence applauded and estee­med, that at length it was related as a maxim or princi­ple into the Ciuill law. But here happily some will say, that it would not be amisse to practise this rule towards all, if a man might finde the like measure of charity from others againe: but if others offer wrongs, and indignities vnto me, may not I returne like for like? For the better direction of our affections in such cases, our Saviour here [Page 2] prescribeth another most excellent and absolute rule, Bee yee wise as Serpents and innocent as Doues: a sentence wor­thy to be engrauen not only in Princes Palaces and pla­ces of publike iudgement, but euen in the hearts and con­sciences of all true Christians. For it is as if he should say in regard of the evils yee may otherwise suffer. Be yee wise as Serpents, but in regard of your owne practise, bee yee innocent as Doues. And of this Text at this time, it beeing as I suppose both seasonable and profitable: yet breefly considering the many and important businesses to suc­ceed.

All I haue to say touching these words may bee redu­ced to two heads, first Christs counsell, secondly the limi­tation of the practise of it. Christs counsell is, Be wise: the limitation, Be innocent: both expressed by way of al­legory or Similitude, the Counsell, be wise as serpents, the li­mitation, Be innocent as Doues. The meaning of all yee shall the better conceaue, if yee giue me leaue in the per­son of Christ thus to paraphrase it, I doe indeed aduise you for avoiding of danger and securing of your selues to bee as wise and wari [...] as serpents: but least yee should mistake mee, knowe that I permit not vnto you an vnlimited wisdome to compasse your designes by what meanes soeuer. No, I would haue you so to be serpents as yee cease not to be Doues, so to be wise as yee remaine also innocent. Bee you Serpent-like Doues and Doue-like Serpents, wisely innocent, and inno­cently-wise. Now of the parts in order, if first by your pa­tience I premise a word or twaine of the ground of this Oracle, occasioned therevnto by the illatiue practise Therefore, Be yee therefore wise as Serpents.

This illatiue argues the sentence to be a conclusion in­ferred vpon some premises. That which Christ hath [Page 3] premised is this, I send you as sheep among wolues. What is that? It is interpreted in the next verse following my Text, Beware of men. Before they were [...], Wolues, now [...] Men, which if yee ioyne together it maketh [...], Men-wolues, that is men of a wolvish nature & disposition. For although no man would wish vnto him­selfe the body of a beast: yet too too many are contented to assume vnto themselues the qualities of beasts, and in the shape of men to carry about with them wolvish na­tures, in ravin, sauagenesse, cruelty & preying vpon poore innocent sheepe. Seeing therefore yee are to liue among such Wolues, Be wise as serpents.

True it is that in the golden age, as Poets faine, or ra­ther in the state of innocency and integritie without all fiction the old proverb was true, Homo homini Deus, one man was a God vnto another. For before man ambiti­ously affected to be a God, he was like vnto God, and as the coine of God bare his image and superscription. And therefore as God being essentially good, according to the nature of good communicated of his goodnesse vnto all creatures, and specially vnto man so man partaking of Gods goodnesse was not envious of it, but freely impar­ted it vnto others. [...], neit­ther doth the fountaine say drinke not, not the autumne gather not: and man being made a fountaine as it were & autumne of Gods blessing denied not the vse and benefit of them vnto others. But that gold soone degenerated into hard yron, and man assoone ceased to be as God. For the Serpent stung him to the heart, and transfused into every veine of his soule a most deadly venome and poison whereby his spirituall life was vtterly killed: and then insteed of the old prouerb Homo homini Deus, one man is [Page 4] a God vnto another, began a new prouerb, one man is a wolfe vnto another, Homo hominilupus, as appeares by that woluish fact of Cain euen in the infancie of the world murthering his owne brother. And although about the time of the floud the world were yet in its minority▪ yet as the scripture affirmeth men were waxen Giants in cru­elty and inhumanity. Neither may we thinke that as the world grew elder it waxed better, for experience hath found it too true, Aetas parentum pejor avis cu [...]it Nos ne­quiores mox daturos Progeniem viti [...]siorem, the time of our parents is worse then that of our grandfathers, we are worse then our parents, and we shall leaue behind vs a po­sterity worse then our selues.

The Prophet indeed saith that in the latter daies, The Wolfe shall dwell with the Lambe, and the Leopard shall lye with the Kid, Es. 11.6.7.8. and the Lion with the Calfe, and the Beare with the Cow, &c. as if men then should put off their wol­vish natures and become innocent Lambs or Doues: But this is not to be vnderstood vniversally of all, but only of those Wolues and rauenous beasts which are tamed by the spirit of God, and dwell in the mountaine of his holi­nesse, among whom is the vnity of the spirit in the bond of peace▪ Eph. 4.3. although euen in these also, as the Poet speaketh, Pauca quidē superant pristae vestigia fraudis, some relicks of the old leuen still remaine. For being but in part rege­nerate, no marvell if from the principle of flesh inhabiting in them some inordinate & inconsiderate actions at times proceed. Otherwise wee finde the prophecie of the holy Apostle duly fulfilled, who foretold, that in the last daies men should be without naturall affection, truce breakers, false accusers, in temperate, fierce, despisers of them that are good, 2. Tim. 3.3.4. traitors, heady, high-minded. And doth not this ful­nesse [Page 5] of iayles, this abundance of law-quarrels, these ty­rannies and oppressions of the poore plainely argue, that although wolues are long agoe banished out of this Iland, yet of Men-wolues there still remaines too great store & plenty.

Now yet happier were it for the poore sheepe if these Wolues did shew themselues onely in their owne cases: but so it is many times they put on the sheepes fell. And therefore if it be true which one saith, Perierat innocentia si prudens esset nequitia, innocence had perished long agoe if wickednesse had beene cunning, the greater danger to poore innocents. A hard thing is it to escape Ioabs stab when his salutation shall be, how dost thou my Brother, or Iudas treason when it is smoothed ouer with a kisse and an all haile, or Herods butchery when he pretends to wor­ship the Infant. So that is most true which Salomon saith that Daily we walke in the midst of snares, and that as our Sauiour saith, Wee are sent abroad as so many sheepe among wolues. Now then in regard of these manifold and great dangers what course are we to take? Must wee be simple as asses to beare all wrongs? Or make our selues as butts for every one to shoot the arrowes of his injuries against vs? Not so: for so doeing wee should but invite men to lay more load vpon vs then in the end we should bee able to beare. and if theeues, as the Poet speaketh, rise vp at midnight to rob and kill men, vt teipsum serves non ex­pergisceris? should not wee speedily shift vs of our beds to saue and preserue our selues? The best rule then that we can follow is this of our Saniours, Bee yee therefore wise as Serpents: for now I come to the first part which is the counsell.

And here it were easy for me to play the Physiologer [Page 6] in discoursing at large of the nature of a Serpent, and the Morall Philosopher in reading vnto you a lecture of Pru­dence. But so doeing I should much forget the place where I stand, namely the chaire of Divinity, transgres­sing that maxim and principle that Parables and Allegories are no farther to be vrged then the author himselfe inten­ded to extend them. And therefore although it be no dif­ficult matter to finde out many witty resemblances be­twixt the nature of a Serpent and a wise Christian, yet I leaue them all to such as loue such witty impertinences, & will keepe my selfe to the plaine meaning of Christ. In e­very similitude, are contained either expresly or inclu­siuely two propositions, which Artificers call [...] & [...] Proposition and Reddition. In this similitude the Proposition is this, As serpents are wise, the Reddition, so ought yee also to be wise. So that first I am to speake of the one, and then in the second place of the other.

That Serpents are naturally wise and subtill, Moses witnesseth saying that the Serpent was the subtilest beast of the field:Gen. 3.1. and the act of the Divell also argues as much in that he made speciall choice of the Serpent, as the fit­test instrument to beguile the Woman. Wherevpon in some languages they vse to say by way of proverbe, He is wiser then a Serpent. Now the wisedome of the Serpent is double either Offensiue or Defensiue. Offensiue where­by he is cunning to hurt man. For there being a naturall Antipathy betwixt the Serpent and Man, and the Serpent knowing well that Man beares him a deadly hatred, hee seeketh all opportunities, and lyeth in ambush as it were to take his advantage to sting him by the heele. This ap­peareth by the sentence of God passed vpon them both, Hee shall breake thy head and thou shalt bruise his heele: Gen. 3.15. as [Page 7] also by that of old Iacob. Gen. 49.17. Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder by the path, biting the horse heeles, so that the ri­der shall fall backward:Eccl. 10.11. and finally that of Salomon, If the serpent bite when he is not charmed no better is a babler. His Defensiue wisdome is whereby he is cunning to defend & preserue himselfe. For first, if hee sees a Man whom hee knoweth to be his enimy, forthwith hee hastneth away into his hole to safegard himselfe. Secondly, if he cannot so escape, he foldeth all his traine about his head, to pre­serue it as wherein his life principally consisteth. Lastly, if enchanters goe about to charme him, hee layeth one of his eares close to the ground, and stoppeth the other with his taile, to the end he may not heare their charmes and callings, in regard whereof saith David, they are like the deafe adder that stoppeth his eare, which heareth not the voice of the inchanter though hee be most expert in charm­ing. These and other such things shew his Defensiue wis­dome: so that the Serpent both offensiuely and defensiuely is very wise which is the Protasis or Proposition.

The Reddition is, Be yee also as wise. What Offensiuely as wise? I know many that are of vindictiue & revenge­full spirits would be glad to bee warranted in their hu­mor by Christs counsell. But such wisdome cannot bee here meant, inasmuch as it cannot stand with that which our Saviour presently adds Be innocent as Doues. What is it then? Saint Augustine elegantly thus expresseth it, E­sto [...]e astuti non studio nocendi fed noc [...]n [...]s cavend [...] ▪ be yee wise not to doe hurt, but to avoide those that would doe hurt. So that the maine doctrine and rule is this, That it is lawfull, yea expedient and requisite in dangers and trou­bles prudently and warily to decline and avoide them.

Need I to spend time in prouing of this? doth not the [Page 8] very instinct of nature command it vnto all creatures? We see how the hound flies before the hound, and vseth many naturall sleights and stratagems to escape the dan­ger: so doth the Partridge also to avoide the talons of the Falcon. Yea even in sencelesse creatures may wee ob­serue the same: The fire fleeth from the aire vpward to preserue it selfe in its element, and heavy things fall downeward as knowing they are not well till they are in their proper place. But in man it is much more seene: for even in suddaine perils when a man hath no leasure to thinke of avoiding them, if a blow bee reached at him, the hand naturally and of it selfe, will put it selfe forth or lift it selfe vp to guard him. And indeede to this end hath nature instilled into man a loue towards his owne selfe: for as the Philosopher saith [...], every man naturally is a friend to himselfe. Wherevpon the schoolemen say Charitas incipit a seipso, chari­ty ever begins at a mans owne selfe: and where this selfe-loue is, it must needs breed a naturall desire to preserue himselfe. Besides this loue nature hath put into him feare also, feare of whatsoeuer evill would either hurt or de­stroy him. Now feare as the same Philosopher teacheth is [...] a preseruer: wherevpon the woman because she is ordained to keepe & preserue things at home, is made more fearfull then the man. And for this cause also hath God put his feare into the heart of all his Saints to pre­serue them from that horrible and dangerous sin of Apo­stasie and falling away from him, as the Prophet saith. So that Feare is as it were the sentinell of the heart, because danger maketh it vigilant, and the nature thereof is con­trary to security. Lastly besides this loue and feare, there is in man an vnderstanding also and a memory, out of [Page 9] which is bred Experience, and from experience pro­ceeds the morall habit of Prudence, by which man is ena­bled against dangers both to foresee them and to prevent them. For Prudence, as Cicero saith, is ars vivendi vt me­dicina valetudinis, the art of liuing as physick is of health. And what doth all this argue but that it is mans duty to preserue himselfe? For as men haue beene most provi­dent and circumspect this way, so haue they ever beene counted and esteemed most Prudent.

Vnto this instinct of nature, may we adde the warrant of the Gospell. For Grace takes not away nature, but sub­ordinates nature unto it selfe: and according to the rule of Logicians, subordinata non pugnant, things subordinate one vnto another, doe not destroy one the other. Now that the Gospell of grace allowes it as well as the law of nature is manifest: for doth not Christ himselfe allow it nere when he saith be wise as serpents? Doth hee not say when they persecute you in one citty fly into another? vers. 23. Doth not Saint Paul also giue vs this caveat, beware of dogs, be­ware of concision? And advize vs elsewhere to walke wise­ly, to walke warily, to walke circumspectly: and againe, A­lexander the Coppersmith hath done me much evill, 2 Tim. 4.14.15 of whom also doe thou beware. Many counsells to this effect haue were in the Proverbs of Salomon, among the rest let this one serue for all,Prov. 17.1 [...]. A prudent man seeth the plague and hideth himselfe, but the foolish man goeth on still and is pu­nished. Conformable vnto these rules, hath the practise of the Saints of God ever beene. Noah to avoide the dan­ger of the flood builds an arke and puts himselfe into it. Ioseph in Egypt laies vp store of corne against the deare yeares to avoide famishing. Ioseph and Mary with their young babe, retire into Egypt to avoid the fury of Herod. [Page 10] David wisely provideth for himselfe to escape all the snares and plots of Saul. Christ himselfe carefully seek­eth to deliuer himselfe from the treacherous designes of his malitious enemies. And memorable is the pollicy of Saint Paul, who by professing himselfe to bee a Pharisee, set the Pharisees and Saducees by the eares that himselfe the while might escape them both who both else would haue set against him.

But some man perhaps will say, what need so many words to proue so cleare a case? giue vs rather some di­rection how wee may keepe our selues [...] without gunshot. Hic labor, hoc opus est, this indeede is the point of difficulty, and if I should attempt it in this wise audi­tory, happily some one or other would taxe me to be as wise as Phormio, who presumed to discourse of military service in the presence of Hannibal the expertest captaine of that time. Neither dare I therefore nor will I adven­ture vpon this argument farther then my text leads me, and that briefly, pointing only with my finger to the fountaines. Be wise, saith our Saviour Christ as Serpents. How is that? First the Serpent by naturall instinct knowes man to be his mortall enimy, & that principally he aimes at the breaking of his head, and therefore carefully pro­vides for it. So should wee wisely seeke out who are ill affected towards vs, and which way they purpose to as­sault vs: that wee may bee the more able to prevent them. Sagitta praevisa facilius evitatur, the arrow foreseene is easily declined, and it is easy to countermine when wee know which way the mine is carried. Watchfulnesse then and observation is here required. Againe, the Serpent, as wee haue shewed, stops his eares because hee will not heare the enchanters charme. So should wee also turne [Page 11] the deafe eare vnto the crafty insinuations of false & trea­cherous Sinons. Blessed is hee that feareth alwaies saith Sa­lomon: for distrust is the sinewes of wisdome saith the Poet, & bonum est timere omnia vt nihil timeamus, it is good to feare all things that we may feare nothing. Cre­dulity is the bane of honest hearts, but it is wisdome ti­mere Danaos & dona ferentes, to feare an enimy speake he never so faire. Charity you will say is not suspitious: true, without a cause. But when there is cause, wisdome requireth vs to be Diffident and Distrustfull. Lastly the Serpent being assaulted vseth the best shift hee can either by couering his head, or by flight to saue himselfe. So should wee also in all dangers vse such lawfull meanes as are offered vs to free our selues. It is not sufficient to say Dij prohibebunt haec, God will helpe all: nunquam propter te de coelo descendent, tibi dent mentem oportet vt prohibe­as, if thou sit idle hee will never come downe from hea­ven to helpe thee, thou must haue a minde to helpe thy selfe. To pray vnto God for averting dangers without vsing the meanes is to tempt God, and to enwrap our selues farther into danger. But I will proceede no farther in this point, nor read a lecture of wisdome vnto those that are farre wiser then my selfe: and it may be some are liker to goe too farre then to come too short in these mat­ters. I will therefore passe from hence vnto the second part, which is the Limitation, if first I may by your pa­tience briefly apply this.

This doctrine condemnes the great foolishnesse of those who care not to vse caution in any thing, nor toward off any thrust whatsoever is aimed at them. Such was the error of Tertullian in ancient times, who held it vnlawfull to fly in time of persecution: and such is the [Page 12] peevishnesse of Anabaptists in these daies, who thinke it vnchristian to defend themselues from wrongs and iniu­ries, making themselues outlawes both to God and man, and refusing the benefit of any law. But starke franticke and mad are they who like Caecias loue to draw clouds and tempests on their owne heads: right Ishmaels whose hands being against all men, draw all mens hands against themselues, provoking and exasperating oftentimes those that are too mighty for them vntill they bee crusht for their labour. More wisdome certainly were it to follow the wise counsell of our Saviour Christ to be wise as Ser­pents, and to make friends even of the wicked Mammon, if for no other cause yet for a Ne noceat that they doe vs no hurt.

And as this wisdome is to bee practised in regard of temporall dangers and such as concerne the body, so much more in regard of spirituall dangers and such as concerne the soule. Nam pretium pars haec corpore maius habet, the soule is of greater value then the body: for if the body dye, yet doth the soule liue, and the body shall be revnited to it, happily to liue with it eternally: but if the soule perish, the body cannot liue but must dye with it for evermore. Oh then, my brethren, seeing our poore soules are every houre in danger, the flesh see [...]ing to be­tray vs, the world to entrap vs, the Divell to devoure vs, seeing so many wolvish Iesuits and Seminaries walke a­bout in ship-skins vsing all art and cunning to deceiue vs, and to draw vs from the faith of Christ, vnto the service of Antichrist: let vs that are the children of light labour to be as wise in our generation as they are in theirs, and as they are astuti Serpentes studio nocendi, c [...]afty serpents to hurt, so let vs be prudentes sicut Serpentes studio nocen­tes [Page 13] cavendi, wise as serpents in keeping our selues from being hurt by them. Let vs not be in alijs rebus cauti in maximis negligentes, wary in petty matters, and retchles in the greatest, least wee be found too much to prize this present life, & quae vera vita sit ignorare, and to be igno­rant of the true life.

But specially ought this wisdome to bee practised by publike persons, and such as haue the managing of state businesses, because publike evills are ever more dange­rous then private.In his mode­rat Ans. & Mitig. Father Parsons, a deepe polititian for­sooth, in the judgement of Papists, would not haue states­men goe about to prevent insuing dangers because they are only Contingent and nothing else but a May, to the end I thinke that their trecheries, and intended treasons might not be looked into nor discouered. But whatsoe­ver this cheating Mountebanke affirme, it behooueth all publike persons carefully to prevent future mischiefes, and to take heede that the commonwealth incurre no danger. The neglect of this wisdome is a certaine fore­runner of destruction.Vell Pater [...]. Cuiuscun (que) fortunam mutare consti­tuit Deus consilia corrumpit: whose state God meaneth to change, their wisdome he first taketh away. God grant therefore vnto his Maiesty, and to his councell, and all that are in publike place vnder him to bee wise as serpents for the prevention of all such evills as threaten our state. The late divelish powdertreason assures vs that the end­lesse malice of Hell & Rome will ever be working against vs: and that therefore we ought with all providence to stop and countermine them. And so much for the first part which is Christs counsell. Be wise as Serpents.

The next is the limitation of this wisdome for it is not boundlesse and infinite, but as vnto the sea, so vnto it also [Page 14] terms are set which it may not passe. Pone modum Pru­dentiae, set a measure to thy wisdome,Prov. 23.4. saith Salomon. [...], be not wise aboue that thou ought­est to be wise, saith Saint Paul. And the Philosopher makes it an extreame of Wisdome [...], to be wise aboue measure. What then is the measure, what is the limit of wisdome? Be Serpents, saith our Saviour, yet Doues, be wise yet innocent: Be yee wise as Serpents and innocent as Doues. Bee innocent, [...], a word derived from the privatiue particle ae, and the verbe [...], and sig­nifying simple without mixture: or from the same [...], and [...] a horne signifying Harmelesse or Hurtlesse. The Syri­an translation turnes it [...] perfect, entire, vpright, Tota innocentia, saith Augustine, ad vnum verbum Iusti­tiae redigitur, innocence is nothing else but justice: and elsewhere. Innocentia est quae nemini nocet nec nocere ve­lit, innocence is that which neither doth nor will hurt any. Be innocent then, and innocent as doues. Not as ser­pents in the winter time, which though they sting nor then being benumb'd with cold, yet are full of venome but as Doves which are vtterly void of malice, and haue no desire to hurt. For the nature of the Doue is described in this one Distich, Est sine felle, gemit, rostro non laedit, & vngues Possidet innocuos, pura (que) grana legit, shee is without gall, mourneth, hurteth not with her bill, hath harmelesse clawes, and feeds on pure graine. So that all these things considered, Doue-like innocencie consisteth in these three things, first to doe no hurt, secondly to doe all good, thirdly to doe both with all sincerity. To doe no hurt that we be not vitious, to doe all good or else we are not vertuous, and to season all with sincerity or else it is counterfeit vertue and so double iniquity. And these [Page 15] duties are to be performed not only to those that are of the house-hold of faith by reason of that mysticall vnion that is betwixt vs and them in Christ, but generally also vnto all men being made of the same moulds, and vnited into the brotherhood of the same bloud. So then Innocen­cy is vnto Wisdome as Hercules pillars beyond which it may not passe, and our Saviour alloweth men to be wise with Innocence and for Innocence but not against it.

But what if by Innocence I cannot escape the danger, must I still persist in mine Innocence? If Iobs wife may be judge she will say, Doest thou still continue in thine vp­rightnesse? Blaspheame God and dye. Iob. 2.9. But Iob telleth her in so saying shee is but a foolish woman. vers. 10. For the law of God is eternall, immutable, inflexible, and the breach thereof is sinne, and the least sinne is greater then the greatest of other evills, as being most repugnant vnto the nature of God, and therefore most odious vnto him. In regard whereof the true Saints of God would not for a million of liues forgoe their Innocencie. David though he had both opportunity and power, yet would he not to secure himselfe lay hands on Saul: 1 Sam. 24.14. according to the ancient pro­verbe, saith he, let wickednesse proceede from the wicked, but my hand shall not be vpon him. Though he kill me, yet will I trust in him, saith Iob. If I perish I perish saith Hester, when shee was to doe a necessary but dangerous duty. Wee are not carefull to answere thee in this matter, neither will wee worship thy Idolls, say the three children though threatned otherwise to be cast into a fiery furnace. And the prince of Conde being commanded of three things to chuse one, either perpetuall imprisonment, or death, or to goe to Masse, Masse quoth he, I never will, the other two I leaue to the Princes pleasure. But what speake I of [Page 16] Saints? Even heathen men acknowledge that Innocencie is to be held notwithstanding all outward evills. It is bet­ter saith Socrates, to suffer then to doe wrong. There are some things, saith Aristotle, to which a good man must ne­ver suffer himselfe to be constrained, but rather endure all extremities, yea death it selfe. Wherevpon Socrates, I would rather dye a thousand times then forsake my station. And another, the veriest coward in the world am I to doe e­vill: and yet another, it is not the part of a vertuous man to say, this I will not suffer, but this I will not doe. And Fa­britius obtained that honourable testimony of his enimy Pyrrhus, that the Sunne would sooner goe out of his course, then hee stray out of the way of honesty. So that by the te­stimony both of nature and grace, the law of innocencie is no Lesbian rule, flexible to all occasions: but according to the old saying Fiat justitia & ruant caeli, justice must be done though vpon doing the same heaven and earth come together.

If this be so, will some men say, how then can wee be both wise and innocent at once? Very well, for as Am­brose saith, individuum justitiae & prudentiae contuberni­um, wisdome and innocence are inseparable compani­ons. For first a man cannot be truly innocent except hee be wise. For in all vertuous actions Prudence of necessity must be the director, seeing it is the eye of the soule, without which nothing can be done cum electione & mo­do vpon choice and in measure. Wherevpon saith Ari­stotle, [...], it is impossible to bee good without wisdome. Secondly, neither can a man bee wise without innocence. For although there be a wisdome equivocally so called by reason of the resemblance it hath with the true wisdome, being able both to finde out [Page 17] and to menage convenient meanes vnto worldly and e­vill ends: yet this Saint Paul calleth the wisdome of the flesh, and Saint Iames, an earthly, sensuall, and divelish wisdome. But the true wisdome is from aboue, & therefore pure, peaceable, easy to be intreated, full of mercy, and good fruits, without judging, and without hypocrisie, that is in one word innocent. Hence is it that the Scripture tearm­eth Sinners Fooles because they are not innocent: and the feare of the Lord [...] the top of wisdome because it is In­nocent. Hence also it is that Moses telleth the Israelites their wisdome consisted in obseruing the commande­ments of God: and that David saith, by them hee became wiser then his teachers, wiser then the ancients. And the same David hauing advised Princes and Iudges to bee wise and learned, addeth presently kisse the sonne, inti­mating thereby that wisdome cannot be without religious innocence. So that as innocence cannot bee without wis­dome, so neither can a man bee wise without innocence. And here in the very light of nature accordeth also with scripture. [...], saith Aristotle, it is impossible for a man to be wise and not good, and Cice­ro saith that vnhonest men may be callidi & ve [...] suti sub­tle and crafty, but Prudentes wise they can never bee. The reason is evident, because whatsoever is not just is not profitable, nay nothing is more vnprofitable then to be hurtfully wise: insomuch as Socrates seems to haue iust cause when he cursed him who first distinguished be­tweene profitable and honest. Now to bee wise without innocence is very hurtfull vnto publike states, for it over­throwes the society of man, if one man may aduantage himselfe by the harme of another. For as in the fable of Menenius Agrippa the whole body soone perished when [Page 18] the rest of the members to ease themselues wronged the belly: so the whole common-wealth will quickly be dis­solued if men may be wise for themselues only and hurt­full vnto others. Neither is such wisdome hurtfull only to the publike, but also to a mans owne selfe. For sinne be­ing the only evill that can hurt a man, hee hurts himselfe most who to decline a little evill of paine, or losse, or dis­grace, commits an evill against his owne soule. Where­by first hee looseth the peace of his conscience, which is the happinesse of a man, yea his heauen vpon earth. For the iust man is as bold as a lyon, and a good conscience is a continuall feast, saith Salomon. Nay Epicurus himselfe who placeth the chiefest blessednesse of a man in plea­sure, confesseth that a man cannot liue comfortably vn­les he liue innocently. For as oyle preserueth the light of the lampe, so doth innocence maintaine peace and ioy in the conscience. Againe, as by sinne the peace of consci­ence is lost, so it worketh confusion of face in the day of judgement, when men shall bee judged not by their worldly wisdome, but according to their innocence. Oh how many will there at that day cry out with Cicero, O me nunquam sapientem, & aliquando id quod non eram falso existimatum, aye me that indeede was never wise, but falsely thought to be what I was not? And with those in the booke of Wisdome, C. 5. v. 4.5. We fooles thought his life mad­nesse, and his end without honor: How is hee counted among the children of God, and his portion is among the Saints? But the innocent heart shall then lift vp a chearfull coun­tenance, as knowing that though here it were despised, yet there it shall be iustified and rewarded with a crowne of glory.

O innocence, innocence, had I the tongue both of men [Page 19] and Angells yet were I not able sufficiently to extoll thee. The man that possesseth thee nothing can hurt, he is every where secure. If he be tempted, it maketh for his advantage, if he bee humbled it is for his advancement, if he fight he conquereth, if he be slaine hee is crowned. In bondage hee is free, in danger safe, in tribulation ioy­full: the righteous loue him, the vnrighteous in their conscience cannot but approue him, and God himselfe highly esteemeth of him. Alas, alas that among men in­nocence should so little be regarded. Every man desireth to haue all other things good, a good house, good land, a good wife, good apparell, a good horse, every thing good: but a good and an innocent soule who desireth to haue? I cannot but wonder wherein man hath so highly offended his owne selfe, that he should thus wish all the things about him to be good, and himselfe only to be e­vill Perhaps thou wilt say, if I may be wise for my selfe no farther then innocence will giue me leaue, I shall bee a right innocent indeede, liuing but a poore life, and nothing set by of any. Nought set by of any? What not of God, not of his holy angells, not of his blessed Saints and chil­dren? For as for wicked men their honouring doth but avile and abase vs. And what talkest thou of a poore life? Is not innocencie it selfe great riches? If thy chest bee full of treasure thou countest thy selfe rich: and canst thou be poore if thy heart be full of innocence? Haue theeues, and robbers, and evill men store of wealth, and hath hee no riches in store for thee? Yes he hath already bestowed vpon thee the treasures of sanctifying graces, and reseru­eth for thee immortality and glory, and eternall life. O the blessednesse of that man who is both wise and in­nocent!

[Page 20]But where shall a man finde such a Serpent-Doue, such a wise innocent? If a man should light a candle with Di­ogenes, and narrowly search every corner of the World for him, I thinke he should hardly finde any: but must be faine to cry out with the Prophet David, Helpe Lord for there is not a good man left. Of wise and deepe Machiavil­lians. I suppose he may readily finde more then a good many, such as subordinate religion vnto policy, holding that rule in Seneca, Pietas, honestas, pudor privata bona sunt Reges quâ licet eant, piety, honesty, modesty are the vertues of private men, Princes may doe what they list: vbi tantum honesta dominantilicent Precario regnatur, hee is not an absolute King but raigneth at anothers pleasure who may doe nothing but what is honest: and that of Lewis the 11. Qui nescit dissimulare nescit regnane, hee hath not the feat of gouerning that cannot discemble. These how wise soever they seeme in their own conceits, are the veriest fooles in the world: they say that all state-policy is built vpon pretence of religion, and yet saying it is but a pretence they confesse they build but on a san­dy foundation. The scripture brandeth them for very fooles Dixit insipiens, &c. hee is but a foole that saith in his heart there is no good. O miseros homines saith Saint Augustine, qui cum voluntesse mali, nolnut esse veritatem quâ damnantur mali! Wretched men who resoluing to be evill, would not there should bee a truth to condemne the evill. Among these great pollititians, who hauing no re­ligion in them yet carefully take it on them, our superpo­liticke Iesuits may beare the bell. Who more pious in shew? Who more mischievous in practise? Even in their doctrine vnder the title of Catholike faith they teach Treasons, and murthers, and lying, and periuring equi­vocations: [Page 21] making way to the fulfilling of Christs pro­phecie that in the latter time nor faith nor truth should be found on earth. Vnto these wise hypocrites, and all others who care more for semblance then substance in religion, giue me leaue to say with S [...] Chrysostome, O hypocrite, if it be good to be good, why wilt thou seeme to bee that which thou wilt not be? If it be evill to be evill, why wilt thou bee that which thou wilt not seeme to be? If it bee good to seeme to be good it is better to be so: if it be evill to seeme to be evill it is worse to be so: wherefore either seeme as thou art, or be as thou seemest to be. But let vs come home to our selues and apply this doctrine a little more closely and particu­larly.

That you, my Lords, are wise as Serpents all the world knowes: that yee are also innocent as Doues we hope wel. If yee should be wise and not innocent, in what danger were wee poore sheepe whose liues and liuelodes after a sort are in your hands? Respect of persons, & the weight of gifts would make our right to be too much sleighted, and we should be but as a prey vnto Wolues. Oh there­fore let that holy Doue which sometime descended vpon that Innocent Christ Iesus, inspire you also with Doue-like innocency, that yee may haue both pure hearts and pure hands. In the scripture yee are called Gods: be yee then as Gods and resemble him. And as he neither taketh bribes, nor accepteth the persons of men, so neither doe you: and seeing be hath not chosen the noble or mighty of this world, let them not sway you against the righteous cause of the poore. Bee you wise as Serpents to discerne where the right lieth, and innocent as Doues in doing euery man right.

Yee Lawyers and aduocates, that are so learned in the [Page 22] Law, even as wise as Serpents, are yee innocent as Doues also? I cannot speake vpon knowledge hauing euer liued a monasticall, as it were, and retired life: but the generall voice of the world is, No cause so good that you will en­tertaine without a fee, no cause so bad but for your fee you will entertaine, selling your tongues to defend vniu­stice, labouring with your best skill to deceaue the Iudge by niceties and tricks, to oppresse the iust cause, and to o­vercome truth for falsehood. How many are there who after they haue spent most of their thrift, and that in iust sutes, complaine as the Comicall Poet did My Comedie was the better, but my adversaries had the better Actors? And thus yee wax in wealth though yee wane in consci­ence, not caring how much yee loose within, so yee may abound in riches. For as the world iudgeth, your end is not to discharge a good conscience by helping your bro­ther to his right, but how you may prevaile in your cause be it right or wrong for the filling of your purses. So that Serpents yee may be, but Doues yee are not, and hardly shall a man finde among you one that is both wise and in­nocent.

Yee Nobles and Gentles of the land that looke vpon your poore brethren like Anakims as if they were but Grashoppers in comparison of you, are you both Wise & Innocent or neither? It may be some are both, perhaps so many as the gates of Thebes, or the mouthes of Nilus. But as Samuel said vnto Saul standing vpon his innocencie, What meaneth then the bleating of the sheep in mine eares, and the lowing of the Oxen? So may I say vnto you, what meaneth the exclamation of the country vpon cruell op­pressions, intolerable fines, racking of rents, and the like? How wise you are I knowe not, but sure I am these are [Page] not the fruits of innocencie, and so you are not both wise innocent. But how many among you are neither, nor wise, nor innocent? Learning and knowledge yee disdaine to haue your selues, and yee despise them that haue it [...] swaggering, swearing, smoking of Tobacco, carowsing, hunting, hawking, are almost become essentiall to a Gen­tleman: so that perhaps he defined not much amisse who said, A Gentleman was a beast riding vpon a beast with a beast on his fist, hauing beasts following him and himselfe following beasts. And yet forsooth this Gentleman that is nil nisi Cecropides, nothing but descended of Trojan blood, otherwise hauing not one commendable quality in him, will not sticke to outbraue the best, and beare him selfe as farre better then other men. So did a horse some time, I am better then thou, for I come of a better fire, I feed on better provander, I haue richer furniture then thou: but quoth another horse vnto him, if thou hee bet­ter then I, come and run with me: in like manner say I, if yee boast your selues to be the better men, let it appeare in the vertues of a man Wisdome and Innocencie.

Sed lingua quo vadis, whither strayest thou ô my tongue? I will say no more least I transgresse against the first part of my Text not being so wise as a serpent: and yet haue I beene bold to say thus much because I would practise the second part and discharging my duty bee as innocent as a Doue? To conclude therefore all in a word, I could wish that what Christ hath ioined together, no man would put asunder: and that as Righteousnesse and Truth, so Wisdome and Innocency may kisse each other, to the end that being Wise as Serpents our Innocence may bee safe, and being Innocent as Doues our Wisdome may bee sauing. Neuerthelesse of the two it is better to be Innocent [Page 24] without Wisdome, then to be Wise without Innocency: lesse Wise so that more honest. For as Tertullian saith, Praestat minus sapere quàm peius, errare quàm fallere, better is it to be lesse wise then sinfully wise, and to stray our selues then to lead others out of the way. The holy Ghost in Scripture is resembled to a Doue & appeared in the shape thereof, the divell is compared to a serpent and vsed it for his instrument. Illa à primordio divinae pacis praeco, the Doue in the beginning brought an Oliue branch in her mouth and preached peace vnto the world: ille à primor­dio divinae imaginis praedo, the serpent in the beginning plaid the theefe and robbed mankinde of the image of God. The Serpent is accursed of God to creepe vpon his belly, and to licke the dust of the earth, all his portion is in this life: but the Doue hath wings giuen vnto her, euen the wings of innocence, couered with silver, and whose fea­thers are like vnto the yellow gold, whereby as David saith she may fly away from hence and bee at rest. For when shee hath travelled over the world, & by reason of the deluge of vanities wherewith it is ouerwhelmed can finde no re­sting place here below, then may shee betake her to her wings, and mount vp aloft into heauen, where our Nöe euen Iesus Christ our blessed Saviour and redeemer will be ready to stretch forth his hand and to receaue her into the arke of eternall glory and blessednesse. Vnto which the Lord bring vs for his Christs sake.

FINIS.
SVBIECTION To the HI …

SVBIECTION To the HIGHER POWERS.

OXFORD Printed by I.L. for E. F. 1633.

ROM. 13.5.‘Yee must needs be subject not only for Wrath, but also for conscience.’

ALthough I doubt not but a graue and lear­ned Divine may without presumption take vpon him to informe and advise and ciuill Magistrate in the duties of his calling, the science he professeth being architectonical and all other sciences, euen that of gouernment being sub­ordinate therevnto: yet is it not my meaning at this time to aduenture so high. I knowe mine owne insufficiencie, and you my Lords are as Angels of God. My purpose rather is to addresse my speech vnto those of inferiour place, and to aduise them vnto that which to mee seemes more necessary, Subiection and Obedience. More necessa­ry I say for notwithstanding the negligence and corrup­tion of Magistrates, common wealths haue a long time subsisted and continued: but without Subjection and Obe­dience they cannot. And wisely was it answered by a cer­taine Lacedemonian vnto Theopompus, imputing the long continuance and flourishing of the Spartan state vnto the skilfull gouernment of the Magistrates, that it was rather [Page 2] to be ascribed vnto the ready and willing Obedience of the people. Howsoeuer, it is euident I am sure in experience that it is most necessary, and my Text in expresse tearmes avoucheth it, Yee must needs be subiect not only for Wrath, but also for Conscience.

For the better husbanding of the time, and that I bee not prevented thereby, I will not spend any part thereof in depending my Text vpon the former words of this Chapter, but will consider it as a perfect and entire sen­tence in it selfe. Therein may it please you to obserue with me two parts, A dutie, & the Necessitie of the same. The Dutie is Subiection▪ yee must be subiect. Which being a word of Relation, I must needs consider with it both the correlatiues, that is to say, 1o. the Obiect or to whom Subjection is to be yeelded. 2o. The Subiect, or by whom it is to be yeelded. 3o. the Relation or Dutie it selfe, sub­iection. As for the Necessity, it is expresly affirmed, Yee must needs be subiect: and that for two causes, first because of Wrath, secondly because of Conscience. And these are the limits within which I meane to bound my selfe at this time, not enlarging my speech in any part as easily I might, but only in regard of the weighty businesses suc­ceeding summa sequens fastigia rerum. First therefore of the Dutie, and therein also first of the Obiect to whom subiection is to be yeelded.

Who that is our Apostle plainely resolueth in the first verse of this Chapter, Let every soule bee subiect to the higher powers: as also in his Epistle to Titus, Put them in minde to be subiect to principalities and powers, and to obey Magistrates. Tit. 3.1. yee must then be subiect to the higher pow­ers, yee must be subiect to Magistrates. What Powers? What Magistrates? the Ecclesiasticall or Civill, or both? [Page 3] Surely vnto the Ecclesiasticall Magistrate subiection is due, for as S. Paul saith,1. Tim. 5.17. the Elders that rule well are worthie of double honour, specially they that labour in the word and do­ctrine. And againe,Heb▪ 3.17. Obey them that haue rule over you, and submit your selues for they watch for your soules. Howbeit in this place not he,V. 4. but the Civill magistrate onely is vn­derstood: for he only beareth the sword, forcing to obedi­ence, executeth vengeance on him that doth evill, V. 6. & recea­veth tribute and custome, as it is in the fourth and sixt ver­ses, which are things no way belonging vnto the spirituall power. Peter must not strike with this sword, Peter must pay this tribute mony. Yee must needs then be subiect to the Civill Magistrate.

But what Civill Magistrate? For he is either supreme, or subordinate. The supreame (to say nothing of other states and polities) in a Monarchie is the King, in whom the Maiestie and soueraigne authority primarily and ori­ginally resides, euen as the light is radically in the sunne: being, as Tertullian speaketh, Homo solo Deo minor, onely inferiour vnto God, à Deo secundus, post eum primus, ante omnes, & super omnes, second vnto God, after him the first, before all and aboue all, independant vpon any o­ther, subiect to the controle of no superiour power. Sub­ordinate Magistrates are they who deriue their authoritie from the soueraigne, as starres doe their light from the sun. For it being too heauy a burden for one man by him selfe alone to gouerne so great a multitude: soueraignes haue beene forced to devolue some part of their charge vpon others, and to honour them with some part of their authority for the discharge thereof:Exod. 18.13. &c. Moses the soueraign iudge of the Israelites sitting alone from morning to eue­ning to iudge the people. Iethro his father in law told him [Page 4] plainely, the thing thou doest is not well, advising him to authorize vnder him certaine men that were of courage, feared God, loued true dealing and hated couetousnesse, to be rulers ouer the people. This counsell Moses follow­ed, and God approued, and vpon the same ground in all nations ever hath beene practized. Now then if question be demanded, to whether Magistrate, Subiection is to bee yeelded, the Soveraigne or the Subordinate? I an­swere, to both.Ver. 1. Let every soule, saith Saint Paul, be subiect to the higher powers: he speaketh indefinitely without ex­ception of any. But Saint Peter expresly speaketh of both and for both,1 Pet. 2.13.14. Submit your selues to every ordinance of man for the Lords sake, whither to the King as supreame, or vn­to governors as vnto them that are sent by him. Yet here is it to be obserued, that although Subiection bee due to both, yet not alike to both: but to the Soveraigne first & in the highest degree, because the fulnesse of power ori­ginally rests in him, and vnto the Subordinate next and in inferiour degree, because they haue it but in part and at the second hand. And these againe because they are not all stars of the same magnitude, but one differeth from ano­ther in glory, and Moses hath appointed some to bee ru­lers of thousands, some of hundreds, some of fifties, some of tens: to every one subiection is due, not in the same measure, but according to their seuerall places, and the power which they haue receiued. And so much for the Obiect.

The Subiect by whom Subiection is to bee yeelded, is whosoeuer relatiuely is opposed to the Higher Powers. Now to the Supreme and highest power every man with­out exception is opposed, even Subordinate Magistrates themselues. For as in Logicke that Genus which they call [Page 5] Subalterne, though it be a Genus in respect of those Spe­cies that are vnder it, yet in regard of the Genus aboue it is but a Species: even so Subordinate Magistrates what place soeuer they hold in relation to their inferiour, in re­spect to the Soveraigne or King they are but meere sub­jects and owe subiection as far forth as any other. And as when the sun appeareth all other starres are eclipsed and loose their light, & riuers when they fall into the sea for­goe their names: so in the presence of the Prince all infe­rior power and authority is swallowed vp and vanisheth into nothing. But both vnto the Prince, and to his Substi­tutes all private men to whom the Soveraigne hath com­mitted no part of his power are so opposed, & therefore must be subiect vnto them. There is no exemptiō of any: Let every soule, saith the Apostle, be subiect, speaking vni­versally. Neither meaneth he by [...] every soule, Psychicos only, that is animal and lay-men, as some Pa­pists expound it: but all men indifferently, Apostles, Evan­gelists, Prophets, Monks, as Chrysostome, Theodoret, Theo­phylact, and Oecumenius affirme. Nay the Pope himselfe is not exempted from this generality, saith Bernard. And. God hath made Kings rulers not only over Souldiers, but over Priests also, saith Pope Gregory. In the old Testament Aaron was subiect vnto Moses, and Priests and Levites to the Prince: in the new Testament Christ himselfe sub­mitted himselfe vnto the secular power, and St Paul ap­pealed vnto Caesar, at whose iudgement seat, hee saith, hee ought to be iudged. In a word, the law of nature requireth Subiection of all, the law of Moses requireth the same, so doth the Gospell too, and therefore let every soule be sub­iect vnto the higher powers. And so much also of the Sub­iect.

[Page 6]As touching the Relation or Duty, that, from the high­er Powers to the inferior is Rule & Government, of which neither was it my purpose, neither doth my Text occasi­on me now to speake: but from the inferiour to the supe­riour it is [...] Subiection. Yee must bee subiect. This Subiection is not a point, but hath latitude, and includeth within it sundry duties, all which notwithstanding (as I conceaue) may be reduced vnto three, answerable vnto those three eminencies and excellencies that are in the Magis [...]rate. For there is in the Magistrate, first the emi­nencie of person and degree, then the excellency of pow­er and authority, and lastly, the dignity of his worke and operation: and every one of these deserueth accordingly to be requited with a seuerall dutie.

First then there is in the superior powers an eminencie aboue others in regard of their persons, as being the vice­gerent and lieutenants of the King of heauen and earth, & not as other men, but after a peculiar manner in maiestie and dominion bearing the image of God; the God of hea­ven, as Daniel saith,Dan. 2. hauing giuen vnto them a Kingdome, power, strength, and glory. In which respect they are stiled in Scripture Principalities and Powers, Dominations and Dignities, the Lords annointed, yea Gods, Dixi, Dij estis, I haue said yee are Gods. This eminency and excellency in the Magistrate is to be answered with Honour and Reve­rence from vs.Prov. 24.21. My sonne, feare the Lord and the King, saith Solomon. 1 Pet. 2.17. Feare God, honour the King, saith Peter. Honour thy Father and thy Mother, saith the fift commandement; not those naturall parents onely which haue begotten vs, but Patres patriae, the fathers of the country also. This Honour and Reverence (as I vnderstand) includeth within it a triple act, first of the minde in a due estimation and va­luing [Page 7] of their place and dignity, secondly of the will in an humble inclination thereof vnto them because of their excellency, thirdly of the body in outward behaviour & carriage towards them, as rising vp in their presence, baring the head, bowing the knee, reverent speaking vnto them, and such like, according to the manner of the country where wee liue. Neverthelesse of these three the second is the principall and most proper act of Honour: for a man may know the worth of a thing, and yet bee no whit affected towards it,Rom. 1. as the Gentiles knew God, yet glorified him not as God: and outward demeanure & com­porement what shew of reverence soever it haue, yet may proceede of scorne and derision, as was that of the Iewes towards Christ. But if vpon apprehension of the Magi­strates worth and excellency, the heart be inclined and duly affected therewith, all externall acts of reverence will surely follow of themselues. Such a one will ever set the best construction on all their actions, interpreting nothing sinisterly, he will conceale their errours and in­firmities and with Sem and Iaphet going backward co­ver them, hee will not suffer them either in their persons or actions to bee traduced or dishonoured, but will care­fully defend or excuse them. In a word, hee will not so­much as entertaine an evill thought against them, so farre is he from saying or doing ought that may detract from them. And so much of the first duty Honour and Re­verence.

The second eminencie in the magistrate is the excel­lency of Power and Authority: whereby he enacteth and ordaineth lawes for the well government of the com­mon-wealth, commanding that which is good, forbid­ding that which is evill, advanceing the well deseruing, [Page 8] and punishing those that either transgresse or neglect his commandements: briefly hauing the greatest power that can be on earth, ius vitae at (que) necis, power of life & death. Now vnto authority who seeth not that Obedience is due? Put them in minde, Tit. 3.1. saith Saint Paul, to obey Magistrates: and indeede to what end is authority and power to com­mand, if every man notwithstanding might refuse to o­bey and doe what he list? But here wee are to be adverti­zed, that as the Magistrates authority is not infinite, so there are bounds set vnto our Obedience. Princes though they be soveraignes in regard of their subiects, yet are they viceroyes in regard of God. Regum timendorum in proprios greges, Reges in ipsos imperium est Iovis: Kings command their people, and God them. Omne sub Regno graviore Regnum est: every Kingdome is vnder a greater Kingdome. If then they command vnder God wee must obey, if against God, wee must say with the Apostle, it is better to obey God then man. Hand over head to yeeld a Monkish and blind obedience vnto them, is to advance man into the throne of God, and to giue vnto another the glory only due to him, & withall to incur [...]e the fear­full curse threatned vnto Israel for obseruing the wicked statutes of Ahab and Omri. Mic. 6.16. True it is wee must giue vnto Cesar the things that are Cesars, and so must wee giue vn­to God the things that are Gods. If any aske quis prohibet, who forbids in such cases to obey? Say maior potestas a greater power. If they threaten, answere with Saint Au­gustine, Da veniam, tu carcerem, ille gehennam minatur, thou threatnest the body with imprisonment, hee both body and soule with hell fire. Only take heede, first that thou be not lead by fancies and imaginations, but be sure that they command against God, secondly that denying [Page 9] obedience thou doe it in all humility without scandall or contempt, lastly that yet thou be content to obey passiue­ly, and whatsoever they shall command within the sphere of their activity, and not against God, that thou bee ready also to obey actiuely. And so much of the second duty, Obedience.

The third and last eminency in the magistrate is the dignity and excellency of his worke, which is exceeding great.Ver 4.6. For he is the Minister of God for our wealth, saith Sai [...]t Paul and thereunto he applyeth himselfe. Hee is cu­stos vtrivs (que) tabulae, the guardian and keeper of both the tables of the law,1 Tim. 2.2. that vnder him wee may lead a godly and a peaceable life in all godlinesse and honesty. Were it not for him every one would doe what seemed good in his owne eyes, and men like wolues would pray one vp­on another: but now by him every man enioyes his own, violence is repressed, justice is executed, religion is main­tained, and humane society preserued. To procure these things, and to attend the publike good, as it is a worthy, so it is also a difficult worke.Hom. [...], hee may not sleepe all night that hath taken charge of a common­wealth: and they that haue worne it, haue both felt and confessed that a Diadem is no small burthen: so that it is not without cause that in the holy tongue the same word signifieth both an honour and a burden. For this worthy worke so difficult vnto the Magistrate, so profitable vn­to vs, what duty are wee to returne? Even hearty thank­fulnesse, and all possible requitall. Verball thankes are due, yet are they alone too sleight a reward for so great a worke, wee are farther to requite him in our liuelodes with tribute and custome, as the Apostle chargeth, and that not niggardly, and only to supply his necessities, but [Page 10] bountifully and proportionably vnto his state and digni­ty. Nay because otherwise wee can never make him full satisfaction, and were owe even our very selues vnto him, even our selues must wee bestow vpon him, and bee rea­dy to doe him service with the expence not only of liue­lode, but of life also. Dignus est operarius mercede sua, the labourer is worthy of his hire. But aboue all wee must ever remember to make our addresses and prayers vnto God for our Kings, 1 Tim. 2.2. & all that are in authority vnder them, that God would giue them (to vse the words of Tertul­lian) vitam prolixam, Apol. c. 30. imperium securum, domum tutam, exercitus fortes, senatum fidelem, populum probum, orbem quietum: a long life, a secure raigne, safety at home, vali­ant armies abroad, faithfull counsellors, good subiects, and a peaceable World. And thus haue I finished the first part of my text, which is the Duty, Subiection.

The next part followeth which is the necessity there­of: for it is not an arbitrary duty, nor left indifferent vn­to our choice whether wee will be subiect yea or no, but necessity is laid vpon vs, yee must needs be subiect, saith our Apostle, or as it is in the originall, [...] of necessity yee must be subiect. But what? May not a man re­fuse to be subiect if he list? Doubtlesse he may. How then is it necessary as you say, not arbitrary? For clearing of this point it may please you to remember that there is a double Necessity, the one Absolute, and Simple, the o­ther Hypotheticall and Conditionall. Simple Necessity is that which cannot otherwise be, being infallibly and immutably determined vnto one: and such necessity of subiection is not here meant, for it is manifest by experi­ence, and the more is the pitty, that too many too often refuse to be subiect. Conditionall necessity is that which [Page 11] Simply considered may bee otherwise, but such or such things being supposed cannot be otherwise▪ and this Ne­cessity is here vnderstood as appeareth by the very text, yee must needs be subiect not only for wrath but also for con­science, as if he should say, if either yee will avoide wrath, or else will keepe a good conscience, of necessity yee must be subiect. So that wee are bound to Subiection by a dou­ble tie, the first is Humane, the second is Divine; the Hu­mane is the Wrath of the Magistrate, yee must needs bee subiect because of wrath, the Divine is Conscience towards God, yee must be subiect also because of conscience. And of these two briefly.

Wrath is a passion seated in the Invading part of the soule of man, whereby hee desireth to keepe off, or to re­moue whatsoeuer is nociue & hurtfull vnto him, & that by way of invading and assaulting him who either would doe, or hath done vs hurt. For as man naturally desireth to preserue and keepe that good whereof hee is possessed, and to obtaine that farther good, which he seeth to bee convenient for him: so if any goe about to bereaue him of the one or to barre him from the other, presently the bloud begins to boyle about the heart, and anger so in­flames him, that he cannot let him alone, but must needs resist him and set against him with all his might. Hence is it that the philosopher calls anger cotem fortitudinis, the whe [...]stone of courage, and divers define it to be ap­petitum vindictae, desire of revenge. How truly and phi­losophically I despute not, sure I am revenge vsual­ly waites vpon wrath, and our Apostle ioynes them both together,Ver. 4. a revenger, saith he, to execute wrath. Now the Magistrates duty is to procure the publike good, & videre nequid respub. detrimenti capiat, to provide that [Page 12] the common suffer no detriment or harme. If therefore any shall hinder the publike good, or shall worke any disadvantage or dammage vnto the state, the wrath of the Magistrate ought to burne against such a man. And as God when his lawes are broken, or himselfe any way dishonoured waxeth angry with man: so these Gods on earth, these vicegods, when men by contemning their au­thority, and denying them due subiection goe about to disturbe and set combustion in the state, haue iust cause to be angry and to seeke revenge vpon them.

But Wrath and desire of revenge in him that wanteth power is vaine and foolish according to that of the Poet Quid stulti proprium? Auson. non posse & velle nocere, it is the pro­perty of a foole wanting ability to desire to doe hurt: but in him who hath not only will, but strength and power also to be revenged, it is dangerous and terrible. Fulmen est vbi cum potestate habitat iracundia, it is no lesse then thunder and lightning when anger and power meete toge­ther. And such is the wrath of the Magistrate,Prou. 16. the wrath of a Prince is as the roaring of a lyon, and the anger of a King is as messengers of death, Pro [...]. 18. saith Salomon. For lawes haue ever beene backed with severe penalties, as mults, imprisonment, banishment, dismembring, torments, death, yea cruell kindes of death, as appeareth by the lawes of all other nations, and those of Moses also where­of God was author. The reason is because men are wild beasts, and would desperately breake through all lawes, were they not so curbed & restrained. & bona est ars ter­rere ne pecces, it is great wisdome to terrify to the end that men sinne not. But what are lawes vnlesse they bee duly executed? Surely but scarcrows and bugbeares: & therefore vnto the Magistrate is the due execution of [Page 13] them committed, and into his hand is the sword of Iu­stice put, not to let it ly rusting in the sheath, but to draw it forth against offendors, and that first for the satisfacti­on of iustice that the party delinquent may receiue con­digne punishment, and then for the example of others, that Israell may see and feare. Deut 13.1. For although paena ad vnum, the penalty light but on one, yet metus ad omnes, it is in­tended for the terror of all, not to walke in those waies which leade vnto so fearfull ends. And indeede to what end hath God put into the heart of man this passion of feare, but to decline and avoid all such euills as would destroy him or afflict him? Take away feare, and men will [...] despise all danger, and run headlong into all mischiefe: but feare is [...], of a preseruing na­ture, as saith the philosopher, inclining and perswading man carefully to keepe himselfe from dangers. If then to come to an issue, yee will not worke mischiefe vnnatural­ly vnto your owne selues, if yee will avoide the Magi­strates fury, if yee will not incurre the rigour of the law, nor fall vpon the edge of the sword of justice, yee must needs be subiect.

But what need, will some man say, so much to feare the Wrath of the Magistrate? May not a man hide his counsells so deepe, and carry his actions so cunningly that nor witnesse nor Iudge shall know them? If they come to light and bee discouered, doth not greatnesse breake through lawes as wasps doe through cobwebs? May not judges, jury, witnesses, by friends, fauour, bribes be corrupted? Are pardons impossible to bee ob­tained from Princes? Nay suppose the worst, that the penalty of the law can by no meanes be escaped, what care they for fines and amercements who are content to [Page 14] beggar themselues to enioy their pleasures? What for shame and ignominy, who are growne impudent in all wickednesse? What for death, who count it worse then death not to liue as they list, and to bee barred from their desires? For there haue beene who haue said moriar mo­do regnet, let mee dye so he may be King, and, aut Caesar aut nihil, an Emperour or nothing. To all this I answere briefly, first trust not vnto secrecy, but remember what wise Solomon saith,Eccl. 10.20. Curse not the King no not in thy thought, neither the great one in thy bedchamber, for the foule of the Heaven will carry the voyce, and that which hath wings shall declare the matter. Secondly, hope not for impunity: many as great, as gratious, as wealthy as thou haue failed thereof: and how knowest thou but one time or other thou maist meete with one who will accept nor thy person, nor thy fee, but will say vnto thee with Saint Peter, thy mony perish with thee. Lastly, if any haue so farre put off naturall affection as not to feare Wrath, chusing rather to fall into the hands of justice then to be restrained from his wickednesse: let such a one know, that what Wrath cannot, yet Conscience should worke in him. For here it must freely bee confes­sed that Wrath of it selfe is not sufficient: it striketh at the branches, not the roote, and endeavoureth to reforme outward actions, but reacheth not vnto the cause which is inward corruption. Which remaining in vs, Wrath happily may make vs more wary in offending, but can­not worke in vs a loue of goodnesse, and a desire not to offend at all. Wherefore God in his deepe wisdome hath thought it good to binde vs vnto subiection not by a sin­gle but double tie▪ and vnto Wrath to adde Conscience, Yee must needs be subiect not only for wrath but also for conscience.

[Page 15] Conscience is that facultie or power of the Practicall vnderstanding in man, whereby he is priuy to all his acti­ons whether they be immanent and conceaued within, as thoughts, or emanant and issuing forth, as his words and workes. This Conscience is then said to be bound, when by him who hath power and authority ouer it, it is char­ged to performe its dutie, that is to beare witnesse of all our actions vnto God, and according to the qualitie of them to excuse or accuse vs: for that these are the duties of conscience plainely appeareth by that of S. Paul, Rom. 2.15. their conscience bearing witnesse, and their thoughts accusing or excusing. This charge is then laid vpon the Conscience, after that by the same authority man himselfe is bound: for man being free, Conscience also is free, but man being bound by a law, Conscience stands bound also. But who is the binder of the conscience? God without question. He is the Law-giuer, Iam. 4.12. saith S. Iames, that can both saue and destroy: and he, as S. Iohn saith, is greater then the consci­ence. But can the Magistrate also by his lawes binde the conscience? Papists attribute vnto vs the Negatiue, that they cannot: themselues hold the Affirmatiue, that they can, and warrant it by this my Text, Yee must bee subiect for conscience. Vpon this plaine song sundry of them de­scant very pleasantly, but none plaies the wanton more then Doctor Kellison, who inferres that we despoile Prin­ces of authority and superiority, and giue subjects good leaue to rebell and revolt, that we bring Iudges, and Tri­bunall seats, and all lawes into contempt, that no Prince can rely on his subjects, no subjects on their Prince or fellow subjects, in a word, that wee take away all society and ciuill conversation. To all which I answere breefly. First suppose the maine ground were true, yet neither can [Page 16] they proue it out of my Text, nor doe such absurdities follow therevpon. Out of my Text they cannot proue it, for that only affirmes that the Conscience is bound, but determines not that mans lawes bindeth it. Neither doe such absurdities follow, for alb [...]it wee should deny man to be the binder, yet doe wee freely professe that the Con­science is bound, which is enough.

But we answer farther that they much abuse vs: for we deny not rem, that they binde, onely wee differ from them in modo, maintaining that they binde not in such manner as they teach. They hold that mens lawes binde non minùs guàm lex divina, Bellarm. equally with Gods lawes, so that were there not any law of God binding to Subiection yet mans law of it selfe and of its owne power would binde. This we deny, teaching contrarily that humane lawes binde the Conscience not immediatly but mediatly, not primarily but secundarily, not in themselues & of their owne power, but in the force and vertue of Divine law: Di­vine law, I say, whether that which is imprinted in the heart by nature, or that which is revealed vnto vs by Scripture, both which command Subiection. This truth in f [...]w words thus I demonstrate. First, if mans law imme­diatly binde the Conscience, then is euery transgression thereof without farther respect vnto Gods law a mortall sinne. But so it is not, for according to St Iohns definition [...], sin is a transgression of the law, meaning not mans but Gods law only: in regard whereof St Augustine saith more expresly, Sin is dictum, factum, concupitum, a­ny saying, doing, or coueting against Gods law. Besides if man of himselfe without respect vnto Gods law can binde the conscience, then either is he Lord of the consci­ence, and may himselfe conuent it, examine it, take its te­stimonie, [Page 17] and accordingly proceed to sentence either of life or death both vpon body and soule: or he hath pow­er to command God to sit in judgement vpon the Consci­ence, and to be the executioner of his lawes: or finally hee bindes the Conscience in vaine and to no purpose. To say that man is in such sort Lord of the Conscience is vnreaso­nable because his knowledge and power reach no farther then the outward man. To say that man may command God, is sacrilegious, aduancing man aboue God. Lastly, to say that he bindeth in vaine and to no purpose, is with­all to say that their opinion is vaine, and that man hath no such power at all. To shut vp all in a word, vnlesse a man may with as much security obey man as God, man who is subject to error and injustice, as God who is free from both; vnlesse we be all as deeply bound to study the laws of men and to knowe them, as we are Gods, and to sub­ject our selues as absolutely vnto them, it is altogether vnconceauable how humane lawes can bind the Consci­ence equally with diuine.

This point being thus cleared it is euident that by con­science in this place wee are with St Peter to vnderstand Conscientiam Dei, 1. Pet. 2.29. conscience towards God; and to inter­pret this of St Paul, Veri 13. yee must bee subiect for conscience, by that of the same St Peter, Submit your selues vnto every ordinance of man for the Lords sake, as if he should say, be­cause God hath bound you to be subiect. For God hath laid this obligation vpon man, appeares by the very insti­tution of Magistracie. For although St Peter call it [...] a humane creature, yet his meaning is not that it is not from man, but for man and his benefit: otherwise S. Paul expresly affirmeth that it is the ordinance of God, and Solomon that by him kings raigne. Ver. 2. The reason mouing [Page 18] God to institute the same was, partly his soueraigne Lord­ship ouer man by right of creation, by which he may or­der and dispose of him at pleasure, partly the great loue he beareth vnto humane society, which his infinite wis­dome saw could not so well be maintained, if euery man should be left to himselfe, and orderly gouernment were not setled among them. Herevpon hee ordained some to be in authority, some to liue in subiection: commanding the one to rule according to justice and equitie, the other to submit themselues with all lowlinesse and humility, as (I meane touching subiection) hath in the first part (which is the Dutie) beene sufficiently declared.

Now man being thus by the commandement and or­dinance of God bound, Conscience cannot bee free: but as man shall either subject or not subject himselfe, so is Conscience bound to testifie for or against him, and to excuse or to accuse him. If then yee breake the comman­dement of God, and refuse to be subject, there is one who will surely accuse you and will not spare, a witnesse whose testimony is omni exceptio ne majus better then a thousand witnesses that will testifie against you, even your Con­science. But to whom will it accuse? Vnto that great and dreadfull Iudge of the whole world, whose wisdome can not be deceaued, whose justice cannot be corrupted, and the execution of whose sentence cannot be avoided. And what will the sentence be? Perpetuall imprisonment in the bottomelesse dungeon of hell, & therein eternall tor­ments both of body and soule: which although it be not presently executed vpon you, yet the worme of conscience instantly will begin to gnaw vpon your soules, & fill you so full of vnspeakable horror and anguish that your life shall be but a death, and this world a hell vnto you. But if [Page 19] on the contrary side yee shall for the Lords sake, and in o­bedience to his ordinance yeeld subjectiō vnto the high­er powers, and vnder them liue dutifully in all godlinesse and honestie: then shall your consciences testifie nothing but good of you, and excuse you vnto God, he shall justi­fie and acquit you, your soule shall bee replenished with vnspeakable peace and comfort, so as yee shal haue a hea­ven vpon earth, and in heauen it selfe in due time such ioyes as nor eye hath seene, nor eare heard, nor ever entred into the thought of man. To conclude and summe vp all, if either we will keepe a good conscience, that we may both here and ever be blessed, or will avoid the sting of an euill conscience, and the miseries that attend vpon it, wee must of necessity be subject. Yee must needs be subject not only for wrath, but also for conscience. And thus haue I finished the second part also, which is the Necesstie of the dutie. It on­ly remaineth now to adde a word or two by way of vse and application.

There is a generation of whom both St Peter and St Iude speake,2. Pet. 2.10. that despiseth all gouernment, Iud. 8. and speaketh evill of Dignities, cleane contrary vnto the doctrine of my Text, which commandeth all to be subject, and to ho­nour and obey the Magistrate. But these are not all of the same kinde: for some despise it out of an erronious judg­ment, others out of an euill habit and custome. They that despise it vpon errour, are either Anabaptists or Papists. The Anabaptists a fanatical & fantastical sect, vtterly mis­like all gouernment and subjection among Christians. It is not without cause that S. Iude calleth such kind of peo­ple Dreamers, Ver. 8. for so indeed they are, and their dreame is this, that Sin is the cause of Subjection: and although it were ordained and allowed to the Iewes because they [Page 20] were but infants, yet fits it not vs Christians that are in the state of perfection. Shall I dispute against this dotage and shew that even among those blessed spirits that are free frō sinne & still persist in the truth there are Thrones, Dominations, Powers, Principalities, Angels, and Arch-an­gels? That if man had continued in his integritie, yet go­vernment should haue beene▪ inasmuch as man naturally is sociable and disciplinable, the morall law commands to honour father and mother, the end of gouernment is Peace with Pietie and Honestie, and one man euen then should haue stood in need of another? That finally there is now as great a necessity thereof as was among the Iews, and that the new Testament would neuer haue comman­ded Subjection, or to pray for Magistrates if it were a sin for a Christian to be a Magistrate? But I will not vouch­safe them the honour to dispute with them: let it suffice in this honourable auditory barely to affirme, first that a Christian safely may be a Magistrate: secondly, that none is fitter then he, because no man better knowes the dutie of a Magistrate then he: Lastly that no man can so com­pleatly and perfectly performe the office of a Magistrate but hee, because no man vnderstands the true religion which he is to maintaine, and by which he is to gouerne, but he.

As for Papists, although they doe not thus reject all government, yet doe they many waies both in doctrine and practise avile and abase it. For first they giue vnto the Pope a supremacie ouer Princes, euen vnto Deposition, and depresse them so farre, as to hold the bason and ewer to him, to serue in the first dish at his table, to hold his stirrop, to lead his horse, yea to bee his horses too and to carry him on their shoulders. All this I marvell by what [Page 21] right. Aaron aduanced not himselfe aboue Moses, Christ denied his kingdome to be of this world, Peter claimed no such power, ancient Popes acknowledged Kings and Em­perours to be their good Lords and Masters. The first that vsurped it was a mushrom of the last night, that brand of hell Hildebrand, whom therefore Baronius makes the patterne of a perfect Pope, as Machiavel doth that monster Caesar Borgia of a perfect Prince. Secondly, as they subject all Monarchs to the Bishop of Rome, so he exempteth all Clerkes from their jurisdiction, etiam vn­ctos culinae, their cookes and skullions too, erecting to himselfe a Monarchie in euery state, possessing a third part in them, affirming that Kings may not punish his Clarkes because they are not their subjects, threatning thē with a thunderbolt from the Vatican if they shall presume so to doe. This also I maruell by what law. Divine? we haue demonstrated the contrary. Humane? Princes can­not grant such priuileges as derogate from their soue­raignty. But since the Church of Rome is turned into a Court, no maruell if Christian liberty also bee changed into temporall franchises and immunities. Finally they teach that if a Prince become a tyrant, or be an hereticke, or excommunicate, it is lawfull then to arme against him, to set vpon him with dags, kniues, poisons, yea if need be to vndermine and blow vp whole Parliaments with gun­pouder: and if any of them for such practises be conven­ted before the Magistrate, they may elude their exami­nations with equivocations and mentall reservations, as they tearme it in their canting language, but in true and plaine speech hellish lying and perjury. Certainely for these traiterous and more then heathenish doctrines, yee may be sure in scripture they haue neither precept nor [Page 22] example: out of the Scripture the only presidents they can haue, are the ancient Pharisees whom Iosephus reporteth to haue beene great enimies vnto kings, and Mahumetan Assasins, whose profession it was to murther Christian Princes: and for cogging and cheating the Priscillian he­reticks, whose rule was Iura, perjura, secretum prodere noli, sweare, forsweare, and bewray not in any case the myste­ries of our sect and profession.

But besides Anabaptists, and Papists, there are others whose doctrines are sound and good, yet out of an evill habit and custome yeeld not vnto Magistrates their due honour. And are there not among vs too many of this kinde? What muttering, what whispering, what censu­ring, what sinister construction set vpon euery action, what discouering, what blazing of infirmities, what so high but we will reach at, what so deep but wee will bee sounding the bottome of? Is this the honour, is this the obedience, is this the thankfulnes wherewith we requite our gouernours? You will say they are vnjust, tyrants, oppressors, bribers, God forbid: yet suppose it were so. What if parents wrong their children, and husbands bee froward to their wiues: shall children therefore disho­nour their parents, and wiues their husbands? As we de­light in faire weather, so must wee also patiently endure stormes and tempests when they come. Hard Rehoboam must haue subjection as well as David: and servants must be subject not only to good and courteous, 1. Pet. 2. but also to froward Masters. Happily our sins haue deserued such chastise­ment, and then in wrath God sendeth evill Magistrates. A certaine holy man, they say, expostulated on a time, with God why he had permitted Phocas, being so cruell a man to bee Emperour: to whom a voice answered, that if a [Page 23] worse man could haue beene found he should haue beene set over them, the wickednesse of the world requiring it. In these cases the only weapons of Christians are pre­ces & lachrymae, fasting and prayer: and whatsoeuer Ma­gistrates be, st [...]l wee must needs be subiect. Wee must be subiect for feare of wrath, for there is no mocking with princes. Durum est scribere contra cos qui possunt proscribere, it is dangerous to contest with them that can outlaw vs and turne vs out of all wee haue, and to jest with those that can gladio [...], returne the iest backe againe with the sword. But to be subiect for Wrath only is no pleasing sacrifice vnto God: nimis angusta est innocentia ad legem tantùm bonum esse, it is but a poore in­nocence that is forced by law. No wee must bee subiect for Conscience, for the Lords sake. If the heathen man be­ing damned, what he had learned by the study of Philo­sophy, could answere to doe that willingly which others doe by compulsion: should not a Christian bee ashamed not to learne so much by Christian religion? The first lesson that Christian religion teacheth is humility: if this be once learned, Conscionable subiection will soone fol­low. For where pride raignes Omnes dominari, nemo ser­vire vult, every one will be a King, none will be subiect: but Humility is a vertue that fits vs Obedience and to doe the commandements of others.

As for you, my Lords, to whom according to your place subiection is due, giue mee leaue to addresse my speech vnto you in the words of the Apostle to Titus, See that no man despise you. Neither let the speech seeme strange vnto you, for if you be despised, it proceeds most­ly from your owne default, either you are not such men or such Magistrates as you should be. It is a great incon­gruity [Page 24] to looke for honour while your actions are disho­nourable, and to bee called and counted Lords being ser­vants vnto base lusts and affections. First then if you will haue others to be subiect vnto you, bee you subiect vnto God, kisse the sonne, honour and obey him and God will honour you. While man liued in subiection vnto God all the rest of the creatures stood in awe of him: but when once he rebelled against God by eating of the forbidden fruit, they rebelled against him also. In like manner will it be with you: if yee honour him, men shall honour you, if otherwise, he knoweth how to poure contempt vpon princes also. Next, it behooueth you to carry yourselues in your places as becometh you, that is, as Iudges not as marchants: not as marchants to buy and sell mens rights, but as just Iudges to giue vnto every man his right. And to this end it may please you to remember that the Scrip­ture calleth you Gods, and therefore that yee should bee like vnto God, not accepting the persons of any, nor suffer­ing your selues to bee corrupted by any meanes, but in e­very thing to giue righteous iudgement. Remember I be­seech you also that God standeth in the congregation of Gods, Psal. 82.1 and although in places of judicature an empty throne be not now set for him as it was among the Ethi­opians, yet be assured that he is alwaies present with you, and will certainly iudge you as he sees you iudge others. Remember farther that they are men whose causes yee iudge, made of the same stuffe, bearing the same image of God, redeemed by the same pretious bloud of Christ, quickned by the same spirit, heires of the same Kingdome with you. Oh then tender them as your owne bowels, & let their bloud and right be deare and pretious in your eyes. Remember lastly, that though yee be Gods, yet yee [Page 25] are men also, and shall dye as men. In Nabucadnezars image the head was gold, the breast and arme siluer, the belly and thighs brasse, the leggs iron, but all [...]od on feete of clay. Oh then when you are in your [...]unalls thinke sometime of these feete, that when they [...]all faile you, conscience of doing justice may support you. Iudge yee therefore now, as your selues would be iudged in the last day, weigh every cause in even ballance, let nothing but right sway you. Draw forth the sword of your authori­ty, and strike at wickednesse couragiously. Never more need: the sins of this land are crying and spreading: a­mong the rest the pestilence of Drunkennesse infecteth e­very where. There was a street in Rome called Vicus so­brius, the sober streete: but is there a village in England that may be called Villa sobria, the sober village? Every house almost is now become an ale-house, and they are the very schooles of all rogery and villany, yet by our country Magistrates are too much winked at and favou­red. Against these and the like enormities, my Lords, there is neede of your greatest severity. Qui non vetat peccare cum potest iubet: hee bids men sinne who [...]? power forbids them not. Let not your remissenesse eith [...] harden the wicked or dishearten the good: but rise vp [...] with David, Ps. 101. to destroy all the wicked of the land. Iustice requireth it at your hands, wisdome requireth it: justice, that offendors may be cut off, wisdome that others may be preserued from contagion, and the state from Gods vengeance, which otherwise will light vpon it if yee purge it not from such pollutions. But your honours are wise, and vnto the wise one word had beene sufficient.

Yet before I conclude, I cannot but intreat my bre­thren of the cleargy also (seeing them here so frequent) [Page 27] to haue care that Magistracy be not despised. As wee are desirous to be assisted by thē, so let vs in our places assist them. Let the sword of God & Gedeon, the sword of the mouth & the mouth of the sword goe together: & while they labour [...] make men subiect for wrath, let vs endea­vour to make them subiect for Conscience. Wrath belongs vnto the Magistrate, but Conscience is the taske of the Mi­nister. Oh thē let vs apply our selues diligently vnto this taske, and speake home vnto the conscience, first by our holy life and conversation, and then by our powerfull and effectuall preaching. Let our end and aime bee in all our Sermons not so much to please as to profit, nor to tickle the eare with quaint phrases as to establish the heart with grace: that the mind being enlightned, the spirit fortified, and flesh repressed, vice may bee loathed and detested, and the way of vertue facilitated and sweet­ned. So shall wee make good subiects indeede, such as if there were no wrath to terrify them, yet meerely for con­science would submit themselues. Yea so shall wee pre­pare both them and our selues also to bee meete subiects for that glorious Kingdome, whose King is Trinity, whose law Charity, whose reward perfect blessednesse, whose measure Eternity.

FINIS.
A DEFENCE OF THE LAV …

A DEFENCE OF THE LAVVFVL­NESSE OF LOTS IN GAMING AGAINST THE Arguments of N. N.

OXFORD Printed by I.L. for E. F. 1633.

A DEFENCE OF THE LAWFVLNESSE OF LOTS IN GAMING.

NOT that I hope to purchase any great re­putation to my selfe by confuting so slight a Pamphlet, nor yet that I desire to afford the least countenance to those irregular Gamesters, who loue not to keepe due com­passe in their play: but for sundry other important and weighty reasons, haue I vndertaken this Defence of Lot­games. Among the rest, first to cleare the truth, & right­ly to informe the vnderstanding, that what wee doe, or leaue vndone in this case bee not sinne vnto vs. For pra­ctice without knowledge is little better then Presumpti­on: and abstinence vpon errour is little lesse then Supersti­tion. Secondly to arme and settle weake and tender Con­sciences, least happily some honest and religiously affect­ed hearts, who haue at times without scruple vsed these Games, receiue some wound from these Arguments, and be brought into a needlesse labyrinth and perplexity, vn­lesse [Page 2] they be provided of some buckler against them, or threed to disintangle them. Thirdly & lastly to reforme the affection, and to worke those that are contrary min­ded to a little more Charity: that seeing vpon how slen­der and sandy a ground they haue wronged the people of God in their Christian liberty, tying them farre shorter and straiter then God himselfe doth, they may be moued hereafter, not to censure their brethren with so much su­perciliousnesse, & to hold a better correspondence with them. These are the cheefest ends I aime at, & for which I haue chosen rather to adventure my selfe into these lists, then out of I know not what imaginary feare of en­couraging, idle and immoderate Gamesters, to forbeare. True it is, debausht and lewd companions are not to bee humoured in their vanities: howbeit it is a very prepo­sterous course because of the abuse to condemne the lawfull vse, and to labour the redressing of a misdemea­nure in life, either by breeding or fomenting an errour in judgement. An errour in judgement will you say? That is not yet demonstrated: neither will it bee accounted so, vntill the contrary Arguments bee sufficiently answered. Let vs therefore in Gods name trie & examine the force and strength of them.

N. N.

Meere Lots vnlawfull in light matters, as at play with Cards and Dice, and the like exercises.

DEFENCE.

A Lot is nothing else but a casualty or casuall event pur­posely applied to the determination of some doubtfull thing. Of Lots some are Meere, some are Mixt. Meere Lots [Page 3] are those wherein there is nothing else but a Lot, or, wherein there is nothing applied to determine the doubt but only meere casualty. Mixt Lots are those wherein something else besides casualtie is applied to determine the doubt, as namely wit, skill, industrie, & the like. These termes being thus cleared, I answer, first that by the tenor of your words you seeme to allow Mixt Lots in Gaming, and only disallow Meere Lots. Whereas notwithstanding you dispute anon against the vse of all Lots in light mat­ters. So that you haue not exprest your selfe distinctly enough, and thereby giue iust occasion to suspect that you apprehend of this matter but confusedly. Secondly, I deny this Proposition, affirming the Lots both Mixt and Meer are lawfull even in the lightest matters: and conse­quently that cards and dice, and tables, and all other Games of the like nature, are lawfull, and may be vsed for recreation.

N. N.

I propose two things to be decided, first, whether it bee a Meer lot to game or play at Cards or Dice. Secondly, whe­ther Lots may be vsed in such light matters or not.

DEFENCE.

Both these Questions you resolue, the former affirma­tiuely, the latter negatiuely: and out of both you would inferre the vnlawfulnesse of Cards and Dice and the like exercises, on this manner. To vse meere Lots in light mat­ters is vnlawfull: But to play at cards or dice or the like is to vse meer lots in light matters: Ergo, to play at cards or dice or the like is vnlawfull. Of this Syllogisme I deny both the Propositions: the Major absolutely, as in the [Page 4] former Section, and the Minor in part. In part I say: for first, I confesse that there is a Lot in all these Games. Se­condly I grant that in dice, and some Games vpon the cards and tables there is a meer Lot. But thirdly, I deny all Games at cards and tables to be meer Lots, forasmuch as in many of them besides the chance there is wit & skill, and both of them concurre to the determining of the vi­ctory. Neuerthelesse you will proue both major and mi­nor, and hysteron proteron, the minor first by a double te­stimonie, one of Men, the other of God▪ the major next by seuen, as you suppose, irrefragable demonstrations. Al which we will by Gods helpe encounter in the same or­der as you haue marshald them.

N. N.

And first that this is a Meer Lot, Mr Perkins in his Ca­ses of Conscience testifieth it.

DEFENCE.

To proue cards and dice and the like Games to be meer Lots, you vouch the authority of Mr Perkins & Mr Yates. Which Argument drawne from Humane testimonie, how infirme and weake it is you cannot bee ignorant: for in the closing vp of it your selfe confesse that mens testimo­nies may erre. And certainely as long as that saying of Scripture standeth vncanceld, All men are lyers, the wit­nesse of man will neuer proue Demonstratiue and infalli­ble. Yet this I say not any way to empeach the credit ei­ther of these or any other reuerend authors, but onely to discover the weaknesse of your Argument. Let vs there­fore examine both the testimonies, and first that of Ma­ster Perkins.

[Page 5]Mr Perkins, say you, testifieth in his Cases of conscience, that dice and cards are meer Lots. Who? Mr Perkins? & that in his Cases of conscience? Pardon me, good sir, I can hardly beleeue it. For in that very place intended by you, dividing Games into three sorts, Games of wit, or indu­stry, Games of hazard, and a mixture of both: howsoe [...]er he affirme dicing, and some Games at cards and tables to be meer hazard, and therefore in his opinion vnlawfull, yet he holdeth withall that some Games at cards & tables are mixt, standing partly of hazard, and partly of wit, ha­zard beginning the Game, and skill getting the victory. And these as he commendeth not, so neither doth hee condemne: and so farre is he from affirming them to bee meer Lots, that because of the art and skill vsed in them he vtterly denies them to be Lots. Wherein although for good reasons, as shall appeare hereafter, I cannot yeeld vnto him: yet can I not but wonder at the boldnesse of your forehead, in fathering that vpon so reverend a man, which himselfe so publikely before all the world dis­claimes. But perhaps you see farther into Mr Perkins his meaning then I doe: or at vnawares he hath let slip some words which may make for your advantage. Let vs therefore see what you alleage out of him.

N. N.

Who saith that a Lot is a casuall act applied to the deter­mination of some particular evens, wherein we confesse God to be the only determiner. Now such is the Lot of Cards & Dice. It is casuall, or else it is couzning. For such as can cogge or shift in shufling are base and vile in the eyes of all men. It is applied to a particular event, namely who shall haue these Cards or that Monie. Againe in this act we must [Page 6] confesse God to be the only determiner or disposer.

DEFENCE.

Here is much adoe to make M. Perkins contradict himselfe: but in vaine, and to little purpose. Dice I con­fesse, and some Games both at cards & tables he acknow­ledgeth to be meer Lots: but that all Games at cards and tables are so also in his judgement. I marvell much out of what words you can shew it. Is it because there is in them a casualtie? So in there is many things besides, which yet are not Lots. For as for that you say, it is casuall, or else it is couzning, it is idle, and shall bee answered in the next Section. Is it because in them the chance is applied to the determining of some thing in doubt? This indeed argu­eth them to be Lots, but not to be meer Lots. What then? Is it because in them we confesse God to be the onely de­terminer? Nor so neither: for in M. Perkins no such words are to be found. He saith indeed that in a Lot God is confessed to be a soueraigne judge to end and determine things that can no other way be determined. But withall he denies many of these Games to be Lots, and therefore denies it, because in mixed games the determination of the vncertaine victory is not from the chance, but from the wit and skill, at least from the will of the players. Wherevpon it followeth necessarily, that in such Games he holdeth not God to be the only determiner. Yea but whatsoeuer Master Perkins holds or not holds, in this act we must confesse God to be the only determiner and disposer. Must? Vpon what necessitie I pray? you will tell vs: for thus you reason.

N. N.
[Page 7]

For it is God, or wee, or Fortune that disposeth it. Now to say it were Fortune, it were so heathenish that I hope none will dare say it. To say it is we that dispose of it, is flat couz­ning if it be true, & would lose all credit with Gamesters. It is God therefore that disposeth of it.

DEFENCE.

It is God, or We, or Fortune? And why not rather God, and We, and Fortune? For in these mixed games all three concurre together. What Fortune? Fie, that were hea­thenish, and who dares say so? Verily no sound Christi­an, if by Fortune you vnderstand that blinde Idol which the Gentiles worshipped as a Goddesse, and to whose in­constant wheele they ascribed that which was due to di­vine Providence. But if therby nothing be meant but on­ly chance or the casuall event of things: I see not why it should bee counted heathenish to say Fortune or chance hath a hand in the disposing of such things. S. Augustine indeed in his Retractions repenteth him that in other of his writings he had so often vsed the word Fortune:Lib. 1. c. 1. not that he denies the chanceablenesse of things, but because the word had beene so ordinarily abused. For otherwise he plainely affirmeth that no religion forbiddeth to say, Fortè, forsan, forsitan, fortuitò, that is, perhaps, perchance, peraduenture. Why should it, seeing the holy Ghost him selfe is not afraid to vse it?Eccl. 9.11. Time and chance, saith the wise man,Luc. 10.31. happeneth vnto all. And our Saviour Christ, By chance there came downe a certaine Priest that way, 1. Cor. 14.10.15 37.16.6. And the A­postle Paul three times in the same Epistle vseth a word so neere a kin to [...], Fortune, that it is both deriued from [Page 8] the same root, and vsually opposed to Fore-cast and Pro­vidence. For want whereof in man seeing there is vnto man a Fortune or chance: I hope it is not heathenish to say that in regard of vs, Fortune or chance hath a finger in some things. In regard of vs I say, for vnto God who foreseeth and ordereth all things, nothing can bee casuall.

If Fortune, why not We much more? For in these mixt games betwixt the hazard and the victory, comes our skil and industrie directing the hazard vnto victory. And al­though it be true that God by his Providence disposeth therein, yet it is as true that man also by his counsell dis­poseth vnder God. This notwithstanding you tell vs plainly, that to say it is we that dispose it is flat couzning if it be true, and will loose all credit with gamesters. I see you are a merry Gentleman, and would faine be reputed igno­rant in the course of these games. Otherwise you would not but knowe, that to cast the die or to shuffle the Cards is one thing, and to order them after they bee so cast or shufled is another. To vse cunning in the former is in­deed couzning and foule play: but after the Lot is cast to order the same cunningly for our best aduantage was ne­ver esteemed a matter of discredit amongst gamesters. The summe of all is, seeing that from these mixt games neither We nor Fortune are excluded: it followeth that both We and Fortune are determiners vnder God, and so God is not the sole determiner.

N. N.

I conclude therefore that the vse of Cards and Dice as it is vsed by Gamesters is meer Lottery.

DEFENCE.
[Page 9]

And I conclude the contrary, that forasmuch as Ma­ster Perkins in expresse tearmes denieth mixt games to be Lots, and it cannot any way be inferred out of his words that they are meere Lots: therefore in M. Perkins iudge­ment they are not meere Lots. What mystery there may lye in that Parenthesis, as it is vsed by gamesters, neither knowe I nor care I, seeing it nothing belongs vnto the question. And so leauing it vnkith vnkist, I passe vnto the second testimonie.

N. N.

Againe M. Yates in his Modell of Divinity pag. 165. doth thus define a Lot, It is a Divine testimonie giuen by God in the resolution of some doubt.

DEFENCE.

This booke of M. Yates neither haue I lying by mee, neither is it much materiall what hee holds in this point. For certainely if this bee his Definition it is a very vn­sound one. For according to the rules of Logicke, every good Definition must be reciprocall with the Definite: as in this for example, Every man is a reasonable creature, &, Every reasonable creature is a man. But in this it is not so: for although euery Lot may be such a Divine testimonie, yet euery such testimonie is not by and by a Lot. Were it so, then Vrim and Thummim, and Prophecies, and Mira­cles, and Scripture, and such like should all bee Lots: for they are Divine testimonies, and giuen to resolue doubts.

Howbeit I grant that Lots are Divine testimonies, though not all after the same sort. To cleare which I thus [Page 10] distinguish. Lots are either Ordinary, or Extraordinary. Extraordinary are those wherein God by his immediate and speciall Providence inevitably conducteth the Lot to that end wherevnto it was intended. Ordinarie are those wherein God by his generall influence and prouidence supporting the naturall abilities of the Creature, suffereth it to worke according to that power wherewith it is ena­bled. Of these Lots, the former are testimonies of what God himselfe doth and approueth being done: the latter not so, but only of what he permitteth or suffereth to bee done. The reason, because in those God himselfe extra­ordinarily worketh vnto the end: but in these giueth the Creature leaue to worke at pleasure. This point being thus cleared, let vs see how you argue from hence.

N. N.

Such a thing is practised by gamesters. First it is a Di­vine testimonie: for it is all one for God to speake from hea­ven, and to dispose of it who shall haue these Cards or that Monie, as it is for him by his immediate hand of Providence to turne the Dice thus, or dispose the Cards so. For every one will confesse that this is his hand, as well as hee would confesse that that were his tongue. And what difference is there betweene the tongue speaking and the hand writing in regard of testimonie? Sauing that the hand is the more bet­ter and the more excellent, at least amongst men. Vox audi­ta perit, littera scripta manet.

DEFENCE.

Thus you argue, Where there is a divine testimonie to re­solue doubts there is a meere Lottery: But in Cards & Dice there is a divine testimonie to resolue a doubt, namely who [Page 11] shall haue these cards or that mony: Ergo in Cards and Dice there is a meere Lottery. The Maior or former Proposition of this Syllogisme is not true: for as is shewed in the for­mer section, every Divine testimony resoluing a doubt is not by and by a lot, much lesse a meere lot. Witnesse your own example of Gods immediat speaking from Heauen, which yet I presume you will not say is a lot. I denie it therefore putting you to proue it: which as here you en­deavour not to doe, leauing it naked to the mercy of the world, so you will not in hast effect.

The Minor or second Proposition I grant: for as in all Ordinary lots, so in Cards and Dice, when the Chance hath disposed, it is a plaine testimony that God so per­mitted. Neither needed you to spend words in proofe of that which is not denied, or you should haue brought stronger proofe. For whereas you reason thus, God by his immediate hand of Providence turnes the Dice thus & dis­poseth the Cards so: Ergo it is a Divine testimony: though the consequence be good, yet the Antecedent is manifestly false. For although in Extraordinary lots God worke by his immediate and speciall Providence: yet in Ordinary lots, and consequently in Cards & Dice it is not so, God in them not restraining the power of the creature, but giuing it leaue to worke at liberty. And verily if in eve­ry lot there were, as here you seeme to hold, an immedi­ate hand of Providence, then is it in mans power to set God a working and that immediatly when hee listeth, which is absurd to imagine. Then also may all trialls of right, of fact, of fitnesse to an office, and what not, be re­ferred to a lot, as which cannot erre, if Gods immediate hand which cannot doe vniustly direct it. Whereas not­withstanding nothing is more vncertaine then a lot, and [Page 12] wise men refuse to commit matters of such consequence vnto the hazard thereof.

As for that you adde, What difference betweene the toungue speaking and the hand writing in regard of testimo­ny, saving that hand-writing is the better and more excel­lent? I con you hearty thankes for it. For if Divine te­stimony be the ground and reason of Faith, and the word written be Divine testimony as well, nay better, as you say, and more excellent then the word spoken by mouth: it followeth that the word written may beget Faith and convert a soule as well as the word by mouth preached. Whether you would willingly be of this opinion or no I cannot say: sure I am you must of force, if you will hold to your owne Premisses. This by the way.

N. N.

If it were in doubt or a thing in controversie, who should haue the mony that I possesse, If I should heare a voice in the aire commanding me to dispose of it to such a person, I should still doubt, and iustly might, whose voyce it were, whether Gods or Sathans. But if it were once put to a Lot, and disposed of to such a person, I could never doubt after­wards but that it was done by Gods immediat appointment.

DEFENCE.

No could? Why I pray you? For may not Satan as well haue a hand in a Lot, as in a voice in the aire? What? is not sorcery or divination by Lots a Satanicall inventi­on? and may not Satan be a worker in his owne art? If he may, how am I certaine that the Casuall event is ra­ther of Gods appointment, then of Satans ▪ The maine error is, a conceit you haue, that in all Casualties God [Page 13] worketh by his immediate & speciall Providence, which is vtterly vntrue, as wee haue already shewed. And I am strongly perswaded, that this very opinion was the prin­cipall roote out of which sorcery & sundry other heath­nish soothsayings first grew: and by which among simple and superstitious Christians they are yet still maintained and continued.

But to put you from this conceit, let mee intreat you seriously to consider the Lot that Haman cast from day to day,Hest. 3 7. & 9.24 and from month to month, to know what month or day were fittest for the generall massacring of the Iewes. The Lot must needs fall on one day or other, & it fell as it seemes on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month which is Adar. Ca. 3.13. What? Must wee now needs say that the hand of God, yea the immediat hand of God had appointed that day to that end I trow no: for the very same day Haman his whole family with many thousands of the enimies of God were destroyed by the Iewes, Ca. 9.1 &c. & the Iewes themselues were deliuered. Doth not Solomon also speake of theeues who share their pillages,Prov. 1.14. and robbers a­mongst themselues by Lot? And did not the Romane soul­diers agree to cast Lots who should haue our Saviours seamlesse coat?Mat. 27, 33. Yet by your opinion when the Lot hath disposed to every one his portion: neither the theeues nor the souldiers needed afterwards to doubt but that God by his immediat hand assigned it vnto them, and te­stified by his speciall Providence that hee would haue it so. A strange and fearfull assertion, directly reversing that law of justice which requireth restitution of whatso­ever is wrongfully gotten. But to what end all this? For­sooth to perswade that a Lot declares will of God as well, if not better then his owne voice from heaven. [Page 14] Wherevnto I answere no more, and I can answere no lesse,Iud. v. 9. then the Angell did vnto Satan, Increpet te Domi­nus, the Lord rebuke thee, for what you say is no lesse then flat blasphemy.

N. N.

Againe it is for the resolution of a doubt, namely who shall haue these Cards or that Mony. Hence I conclude a­gaine that the vse of Cards and Dice, as it is now vsed by our Gamesters is a meere Lottery.

DEFENCE.

That in Cards and Dice there is intended the resoluti­on of a doubt is already granted, neither is it denied that they are Lots, but that they are all Meere Lots. [...], to driue out one naile with another, I conclude a­gainst your Conclusion, that you haue not yet, not ne­ver will be able to proue, that all Games at Cards and Tables and the like are Meere Lottery.

N. N.

But I leaue mens testimony which may erre, and will try it by Scriptures that never erre. Prov. 16.33. The lot is cast into lap, but the whole disposition thereof is of the Lord. Prov. 10.18. The Lot causeth contentions to cease. Such a thing is practized by Gamesters. There is a Lot cast: what else meaneth the shufling of the Cards, and the shakeing of the Dice, which I heare Gamesters call for so earnestly? The whole disposition therefore is of God. If I packe the Cards, or cogge the Dice, & not shufle the Cards or shake the Dice like honest dishonest Gamesters, thou wouldst refuse my company at play.

DEFENCE.
[Page 15]

To let passe that both vnsavoury and vncharitable jest of honest dishonest gamesters, yet doing you to wit, that there are diverse in this land of farre greater learning then your selfe, and of singular both piety and gravity, who refuse not at times to recreate themselues at Cards after their more serious studies: to let passe I say this pure vn­pure iest, thus I thinke out of these two passages you would conclude. That Lot the whole disposition whereof is of God is a meere Lot: But Cards and Dice are such Lots the whole disposition whereof is of God: Ergo Cards & Dice are meere Lots. The Maior you take for granted, for you goe not about to proue it. The Minor you confirme by two sentences of Solomon, and the former part that cards and dice are Lots by the latter, because they stint controversies: the latter that the whole disposition of them is of God, by the former because in euery Lot the whole disposition is of the Lord. This as I take it is or should be the right frame of your argument. Which I now come to answere.

The knot of all lies in the right vnderstanding of the former passage: wherein some are of opinion that Extra­ordinary Lots only, or to vse their owne words Singular, Miraculous, Divine, not Civill Lots are meant. And then the Assumption is false: for all Lots, and among the rest cards and dice are not such Lots. Others stand precisely vpon these words in the Originall [...] But every iudgement of it is of Cod:Prov. 2 31. & 29.26. and comparing it with the like places, affirme that it importeth no more but this, that in all things, yea even the most vnlikely, such as are Casuall Euents and Lots, there is a Divine Provi­dence, [Page 16] and hand of God. Which exposition no way con­firmeth your Maior: For every Lot wherein God hath a hand, is not presently a Meere lot. But to answere yet more plainely and fully, it is to be obserued that the wise man saith not, God disposeth all immediatly, but only thus, All the disposition is of God, by which words the vse of meanes is no way excluded. For whether it please God to worke by meanes or without meanes, his Providence ever ordereth and disposeth all.Cen. 45.5. & 50.20. The selling of Ioseph, the spoiling of Iob, Iob. 1.21. the rayling of Semei, the incest of Abso­lon, the crucifying of Christ, 2 Sam. 16.12. and the like sins, though they were committed by men,Ib. 12.11.12. and through the temptati­on of Satan:Act. 4.27.28. yet God chalengeth the doing of all to him­selfe. Not that he wrought all by an immediate hand of Providence, for this were to make him the author, yea the only author of Sinne, then which there cannot bee a greater blasphemy: but because of the concourse of his Providence with the meanes, permitting, directing, and determining all. So that to come to an issue, although it be granted that in all lots the whole disposition is of God: yet it followeth not but in some lots, as namely some Games at Cards and Tables, wit, skill, industry, may be vsed vnder God for obtaining the victory. Whence also it followeth necessarily that all lots so disposed of by God are not therefore meere lots. But you will not let this passe so.

N. N.

Its of Gods disposing, or of thine, or of Fortunes dispo­sing: chuse which thou wilt I care not. If it be of Gods dis­posing, 'tis that I would haue, its that the Scripture will haue. If it be of thy disposing, I know thy dishonesty. If it be [Page 17] of Fortunes disposing, then there were fortune: Which if thou wilt doubt of, I leaue God to confute thee.

DEFENCE.

These are now the second seething of these cole-worts, and you doe not well to cloy our stomakes so soone a­gaine with them. To avoide tautologie therefore I referre you for answere to what is already said: where I haue shewed that in sundry Games both at Cards and Tables, not only God, but man also disposeth, and that without Dishonesty, yea and Fortune too, if you will not quarrell with the word, but vnderstand thereby a Casuall accident or Chance not ordered by mans forecast or providence.

Where you say you will leaue them, who doubt if there be fortune, to Gods confu [...]ing, it may please you to remem­ber that God ordinarily reformes mens errours, not by his owne immediat Magistry, but by the Ministry which he hath ordained. And therefore you much for­get your selfe to neglect the performance of your Mini­steriall duty, and to leaue vs poore soules vnto Gods ex­traordinary instruction.

N. N.

It doth cause contentions to cease, for it disposeth the thing in controversy whether it be mony or victory whose it shall bee. Let no profane Iester vent his wit here or blas­pheame the word of God by saying that there Gaming doth rather cause contentions, such as are braulings, oaths, cur­ses, blasphemies, and the like, and therefore doth not cease contentions, but cause contentions: it is not the Lot, but their vnlawful, vnholy vse of it that causeth this.

DEFENCE.
[Page 18]

That a Lot stinteth contentions or controversies, is not denied: for the applying of a casuall event, for the determi­ning of a doubt is the very forme of a lot. Neverthelesse, in diverse Games, as is already said, both at Cards & Tables, it is not the Lot only, but it and art also that disposeth whose the mony or the victory shall be.

As for the obiection, if it bee not a Chimera of your owne braine, some merry Gentleman I thinke made it, to dally with you, and to sport himselfe withall. Where­vnto your answere is no lesse pleasant, that not the lot, but the vnlawfull vnholy vse causeth Contention, meaning thereby as I conceaue it, the vsing of it in Games, which is a meere begging of the thing in question, that it is vn­lawfull to vse lots in gaming. Besides, you are to know the lots in gaming are not in themselues causes either of Peace or of Contention. Not of Peace, for this proceedeth from a farther compact made betweene those who re­ferre themselues to a lot. Otherwise, howsoever the lots fall, if such mutuall obligation be wanting the quarrell is not stinted. Not of contention, for those outrages you speake of rise only from the corruption of them that play as either their ambition that they cannot endure to bee beaten, or their covetousnesse that vexeth them when they loose their wealth or the like. Take these corrupti­ons away, and let moderate and temperate men only play, and you shall haue neither Braulings, nor Oths, nor Curses, nor Blasphemies, nor the like furious behaviour a­mongst them. And thus much in answere to those reasons whereby you would proue Cards and Dice to bee meere lots.

N. N.
[Page 19]

I come now to proue that it is vnlawfull to vse Lots in Gaming, or light matters. My reasons for it are these. First Gods servants haue neuer vsed it but it vrgent, great, and weighty matters. As for example in the choice of Kings & Priests. 1. Sam. 10. in the division of lands. Iosh. 14. To knowe who was in fault that Israel fell before their eni­mies Ios. 17. to knowe whether Ioses or Mathias were to suc­ceed Iudas. Act, 1.

DEFENCE.

Vnto this assertion I oppose the contrary, affirming that it is lawfull to vse Lots in gaming or light matters: nay farther that the most serious businesses are lest fit for lots, & the lightest most fit. For what thing is there in the world more vncertaine then a meer Chance? What that lesse re­gardeth right or wrong, true or false, good or bad, fit or vnfit? What matter soeuer be to be decided, the Lot is in­different to either side, and cares not which way it fall. And hence it is that by lot neither doth the Church trye the fitnesse of her Ministers, nor the Lawyer the right of his Clients cause, nor the Physitian the state of his patient. Neither is it the manner of wise men to referre any thing vnto a lot, vntill by their wisdome and providence they haue so disposed of all things as it is not much materiall which way the lot fall. Were the question referred to a lot of any great consequence, of great consequence also must the fall of the lot be, and if it fall amisse great incon­veniences must needs ensue thereof. But if wise men so order and cast their businesses as it is indifferent vnto thē howsoeuer the lot fall, that cannot bee of any great mo­ment [Page 20] which they referre vnto a lot. But I forget that I stand rather in the place of an Answerer then Replier, and therefore I come directly to your Arguments.

Your Argument standeth thus. That which the Ser­vants of God never vsed but in vrgent great and weightie matters is not to bee vsed in gaming or light matters: But the Seruants of God neuer vsed Lots but in vrgent great & weighty matters: Ergo Lots are not to be vsed in gaming or light matters. The Major it seemes you take for gran­ted: for you goe not about to proue it. The Minor you endeauour to confirme by certaine examples out of holy writ, which we will by and by examine. In the meane season I answer by distinguishing of that tearme, the Ser­vants of God. For by it you may vnderstand either all those holy men of God who haue beene since the creati­on downe vnto this present instant, or onely those few Saints of God whom the Scripture maketh mention of. If you take it in the former sense, the Assumption is manifestly false, that none of the Servants of God vsed lots in gaming at any time, but only in weightie matters. For I thinke there is no man so vncharitable as to say that all those who haue or doe sometime play at Cards & Tables are vnregenerate and no seruants of God. If you take it in the latter sense, then is the Major false, that what those few mentioned in scripture never did, we may not doe. For as their actions without a precept binde vs not to imitati­on: so their omissions without a prohibition lay not vp­on vs an obligation of forbearance. If they did, then might we not play at Chesse, or the Philosophers game, or bowles, or the like, because those Servants of God for ought we knowe neuer vsed any of them. But let vs see how you proue that Gods Seruants neuer vsed lots but in serious matters.

[Page 21]Thus you proue it, They vsed lots in serious matters, Ergo, they vsed them only in serious matters. A sillie Con­sequence, and neere a kin to that protrite Enthymeme, The sunne shines in heauen, Ergo, the staffe stands in the bench corner. But to satisfie the reader more fully I answere three things. First, where to proue your Antecedent you affirme among other things, that Priests were chosen by lot, you are fouly mistaken. For Aaron and his posterity without intervention of a lot by the immediate voice of God, were perpetually appointed to the Priesthood. Se­condly, these lots here mentioned were all of them Ex­traordinary: whence if your reason be good it would fol­low that none but Extraordinary lots may be vsed, or ra­ther that now adaies no lots at all may be vsed, conside­ring that God hauing not promised the like Extraordina­ry assistance, it would be but tempting of God to expect an Extraordinary working from him in a lot. Thirdly & lastly it followeth not, Wee read not in scripture that the Saints vsed lots in light matters, Ergo, they vsed them only in weightie. For it is a meere Fallacie, to dispute from au­thority negatiuely in a case of Fact. In a question of Faith the sequele is good, We read it not in scripture, Ergo, it is not a matter of Faith: the reason, because scripture con­taineth all matters of Faith. But in questions of Fact it is not so, because it was not the purpose of the holy Ghost to register downe in the Scripture all whatsoeuer his Ser­vants had done, much lesse their sports and recreations. Had it beene his purpose so to doe, hee would neuer haue said so often in the booke of Kings, The rest of the acts of such or such a King, are they not written in the booke of the Chronicles of the Kings of Iudah? For to vnderstand these words of those two bookes of Chronicles written, as it is [Page 22] thought,1. King. 11.41. so long time after by Ezra, were in the iudge­ment of learned Iunius very ridiculous.

N. N.

But it may be obiected, some matters of small moment haue beene determined by Lots, as for example who should be dore keepers of the Temple of Ierusalem. I answere that was no light matter. First it was Gods command expresly in his word which is neuer light or meane to Gods seruāts. Secondly, Dauid belike had a reverend respect of this office when he said that hee had rather bee a dore-keeper in the house of God then to dwell in the tents of wickednesse. And is it nothing to be one of the King of Englands Por­ters? Many a man if it should be tried had rather haue that office then twenty pounds by the yeare, and that is a matter if it were of much lesse weight in which we may lawfully vse a Lot. Now much more might the dore-keepers of Gods house be warranted from reason (suppose they had no speci­all command) to cast Lots, or to haue Lots cast vpon them to determine who should supply that worthy office.

DEFENCE.

As a pound compared to a scruple is weightie, but light compared to a talent: so the Porters office in regard of the Nethinims hewers of wood and drawers of water, might be of some reckning, but very meane in respect of the Priesthood. So that a man may safely say the Porters office was but a low place, and the lots were vsed in no very high matter. But whether high or low it is not greatly materiall, seeing the sinewes of your Argument are cut already. Yet let vs heare what you say. First, it was Gods command, and his command is neuer light. True, [Page 23] yet this letteth not but God may giue command touch­ing light things: as he did when he tooke order for every petty and small matter that the hearing and determining of them should bee referred vnto the inferiour officers.Exod. 18.26. And if his Providence reach euen to the smallest matters, what impeachment can it be to his honour to giue com­mandment touching them also? The Pins of the Taber­nacle, and the beesoms of the Temple were no great mat­ters, yet God disdained not to giue order for them. And as in a building, [...]. the great stones can never bee well laid without the lesse: so also in the gouernment of the world for the better ordering of the greatest things, God takes care of the smallest also.

Secondly, say you, David so honoured the Office that he had rather be a dore-keeper in the house of God then to dwel in the tents of wickednesse. But what if David in that place spake not of Dore-keepers? What then is become of your argument? The words in the Original are [...] I could wish rather to threshold it. Iunius translates it li­men frequent are, often to passe ouer the threshold of Gods house and to be conversant in the Church: which may be­long vnto any other of the people of God aswell as the Porters. But be it that he meane them, inasmuch as the Psalme is inscribed to the Korhites who were Dore-kee­pers, yet doth it not argue such dignitie in the office. If a man should say, I had rather be a Sexten or Dog-whipper in the poorest parish in England, then the great Caliph of Egypt, or Pope of Rome: would any therevpon say hee spake reverendly of a Sextens or Dog-whippers place? Nay verily, but that he doth the more abase the Caliphat or Popedome. Even so Dauid preferring a Porters place [Page 24] vnto the tents of wickednesse, doth not so much intend to honour that as to avile these. And hence is it that the Septuagint renders it by [...], to be laid as an abiect at the threshold: and the vulgar translation, Elegi abjectus esse in domo deimei. I haue chosen to bee an abject in the house of my God: and Calvin, Ad locum communem & ignobilem reijci, to be rejected vnto a common and base place.

Lastly, say you, it is something to bee the King of Eng­lands Porter, for the place may be worth better then twenty pounds by the yeare: much more to bee a Porter in Gods house. Well then now I see that twenty pounds by the yeare is something: and I neuer thought till now that a Portership yearely worth so much had been such a wor­shipfull preferment. But is it weightie enough for a lot? Yea marry is it, and so is a matter of much lesse weight too. If so, then games and recreations are not vnfit for it nei­ther: for there are many Gentlemen of good fashion who value their play in a farre greater summe then that comes vnto. Howbeit I must doe you to wit, that it was not de­termined by lots who should be Porters, as you say, but on­ly who should attend at what gate, Eastward, Westward, Northward, or Southward, which could bee no great matter.

N. N.

Secondly, there is no necessity of Lots in light matters: Which being so, it may also be otherwise determined. And me thinks it is too much boldnesse to presume to trouble the King with every vaine businesse when there be so many pet­ty Courts and Officers to censure in matters of lesse mo­ment.

DEFENCE.
[Page 25]

A doughtie Argument. That whereof there is no neces­sity may not be vsed: But there is no necessity of Lots in light matters: Ergo, in light matters Lots may not be vsed. The Minor which you knew no man would deny you proue, because such matters may otherwise be determined: but the Maior which is palpably false you proue not at all, and I marvell with what forhead a man of vnderstan­ding can affirme it. What? Nothing to be done but that is necessary? What then shall become of things indiffe­rent? May not they be vsed neither? For necessary I am sure they are not. Why then doe you eat flesh? For you may be otherwise fed. Why weare you linnen, seeing you may bee otherwise clothed? And why play you at Chesse, at the Philosophers game, at Bowles, seeing you haue Ouranomachie, Metromachie, & the long Bow where with to recreate you?

Yea but it is Presumption to trouble the King with eve­ry vaine businesse. What of that? Forsooth it is more so to trouble the King of Kings. But how doe wee trouble him? By solliciting his Providence. What Providence? That which is Immediate and Extraordinary? Indeed so to doe would be too presumptious. But wee doe not so, for we consult not with God, nor looke we for any Ex­traordinary worke from him. Our businesse is not such as needs so speciall a presence and assistance of God: a ca­sual event is sufficient to determine it. Wee inquire not what it is that God would haue to be done or not to bee done: that without speciall command or instinct were Sorcerie or Divination by Lots. But wee doe that which God vnder himselfe hath enabled vs to doe, expecting [Page 26] no issue from him saue only by Ordinary meanes: which as in other our actions so in this I hope we may doe with out troubling the king, as you imagine. In a word, the maine errour is, you fancie in all lots an immediate & ex­traordinary providence, which is euer denied, and neither is nor even can be proued by you.

N. N.

Thirdly there is no warrant from Gods word to meddle with Lots in sleight matters, neither from expresse commād nor from any approued example, nor from any reasonable cō ­sequence from any part of Gods word. And whatsoeuer is done not by vertue of one of these warrants is sinne. Rom. 14.23.

DEFENCE.

This argument is thus to be formed. That which is not warranted from Gods word may not be medled withall: Lots in sleight matters are not so warranted: Ergo, Lots in sleight matters are not to be medled withall. The Maior you confirme by that of S. Paul, Whatsoeuer is not of faith is sinne: The Minor, for that it is not warranted, nor by expresse command, nor approued example, nor reasonable consequence. To all which I answer, and first to the maior, by denying it, and withall affirming that S. Pauls words proue it not. For by Faith he meanes nothing but Plero­phorie, or certaine assurednesse that what we goe about is lawfull to be done. Now this Assurance in many things may be gotten not only by the supernaturall light of re­velation contained in the Scriptures, but also by the natu­rall light of reason imprinted in our hearts. For the Mo­ral law is naturall vnto vs, and was by the finger of God [Page 27] written in our minds, before it was grauen in tables of stone. And the rule of this law is a sufficient warrant of our actions, as for example, of honouring our parents, and doing the workes of iustice by giuing vnto every one his due, although wee never knew the Scriptures. Nei­ther need wee to seeke any farther proofe hereof then from our owne Consciences, which naturally checke and controle vs, whensoever wee swarue and decline from it, and also cleare vs when wee yeeld obedience therevnto.

The Minor also I deny, for lots in sleight matters, and consequently in Gaming are warranted not only by the law of Nature, but also by Scripture. How so, will you say? By expresse commandement? Not so, for then they should be necessary: and if nothing should bee lawfull but that which is so commanded, neither should any thing be indifferent and left vnto vs free and arbitrary. By any approved example then? Nor so, for the Scriptures were not written to record the games and playes of men, but to a more serious end. How then? By iust consequence, thus. That which in Scripture is neither commanded nor for­bidden is indifferent, and consequently lawfull. But lots in light matters as namely in games are neither comman­ded nor forbidden. Ergo they are indifferent and conse­quently lawfull.

N. N.

Fourthly, wee haue no example that ever any good man vsed the Lot about any thing in which it was not lawfull to pray God to direct and dispose of it. Now no man will say or thinke that it is lawfull or convenient to pray to God so or so to direct or dispose of the Cards or Dice that such a man may haue such a Card, or such a one throw such a cast at [Page 28] Dice, it being a matter at the best hand but of Recreation. For albeit there be warrant to recreate our selues, yet wee haue neither command nor warrant to pray God to direct vs in the determination of any thing about our Recreations by Lot.

DEFENCE.

Your fourth Argument standeth thus, That lot wherein it is not lawfull nor convenient to pray God to direct it is vnlawfull: but in light matters, as Cards and Dice it is vnlawfull and inconvenient to pray God to direct the Lot: Ergo a lot in such matters is vnlawfull. The Maior you proue because we read not of any good man that vsed the lot in any thing wherein hee might not pray for di­rection of it: the Minor, because at the best hand Games are but matters of Recreation. I answere, and first to the Maior negatiuely. For although in Extraordinary lots wherein there is an expectation of Gods immediat provi­dence for direction, it is fit by prayer to craue the same of God: yet in those Ordinary lots wherein it is not materi­all which way they fall, and no notable inconvenience can ensue thereof, it is not necessary so to doe. The confir­mation which you bring for your Maior, is authority ne­gatiuely in point of Fact, which is a meere Sophisticall E­lench, & of no validity. Wherein also you take for gran­ted that which cannot bee yeelded without much folly, nor demanded without much impudence, namely that whatsoever the Saints did, is recorded in Scripture, which wee haue shewed to be farre otherwise.

Vnto the Minor, and the proofe thereof I say no more but this, that as all other our actions, so our Gaming also is sanctified vnto vs by Prayer. Not that at the com­mencement [Page 29] of every act a man is bound to put himselfe on his knees, and to make his particular addresses vnto God: for the morning sacrifice through the acceptation of God is sufficient to that end, and stretcheth it sel [...]e to all the daies actions. Although I deny not, but as at our meales, so also in the beginning and closing vp of our play, wee may with short eiaculations both craue a bles­sing vpon our recreation, and praise him for the same. But as touching the fall of the lot in our games, because it is like hearb Iohn in a pot of broth doing neither good nor harme, I hold it as inconvenient to pray for it as it is to pray for good successe at a match of bowles. For as for those who adventure at play more then they can well spare without disabling themselues, they passe beyond their bounds, and offend against the rule of moderation in play. Yet if such a one finding his rashnesse, and sincerely resoluing not to commit such an errour againe, shall in his heart entreat God to free him from the present dan­ger, I thinke such prayer should not be vnlawfull to him.

N. N.

Fiftly, a Lot is a thing that belongs to the art of Divi­nity, and can be defined no where but there, nor handled by any other way. Wee may as I thinke sport our selues with a­ny thing that belongs to any other art, or recreate our selues in iest by any rules of any other art. But thus wee must not doe with any thing or rule that belongs to Divinity, we may not meddle with Divine things in light matters, the Ma­jesty of God and them requires more respect at the hands of Creatures. The King nor any of his Lawes may not bee dal­lied with by the Subiect: how much more is the Creature being but sinfull dust and ashes bound to his Creator being [Page 30] a consuming fire: which wicked men make light of, yea make sport with oathes, vowes, prayer, the Sabbath, the Sacraments, and the Word of God. For they will sweare, vow, pray, without serious consideration; they will for their pleasures sake breake the holy day of the Sabbath, they vse the Sacraments as a matter of custome and fashion, not of Conscience, else the Dog would not so soone turne againe to his vomit. And as for the Word of God, he is commen­ded for the best wit that can breake the most savory iests in the repeting of some phrase of Scripture. We say it is no iest­ing with edgtooles, and all say, non est bonum ludere cum Sanctis: yet what is wicked mens practise else with a­ny Divine thing? To follow whose example is farre vnbe­seeming the humility and gravity of Gods professed ser­vants.

DEFENCE.

Your reason is to be reduced into this forme or syllo­gisme, That which belongs to the art of Divinity, and can no otherwhere bee defined or handled, may not bee sported withall, or medled with in light matters: But a lot belongs to the art of Divinity, and can no otherwhere bee handled or defined: Ergo, it may not be sported withall, or medled with in light matters. In the proofe of the Maior you en­large your selfe very much, discoursing of the Maiesty of God, and divine things, and what respect is due to them from the creatures. Then with many words you inveigh against all those wicked ones who make a Game of Oaths, Vowes, Prayer, Sacraments, Sabbath, Scripture, and what not? In all which I readily joyne with you, and had you prest it, much farther and with more vehemence you could never haue offended mee. The only thing that I [Page 31] dislike is, that you bestow so much paines in maintaining that which no man denies, and spare it there where it greatly needed, I meane vpon the confirmation of your Minor. What? Did you thinke you should be taken for a­nother Pythagoras? Or that your owne bare [...] would be of sufficient authority? Verily, either it was great dimnesse of sight if you foresaw not the Assumpti­on would be denied: or if you foresaw it, extreame neg­ligence or weaknesse that you endeavoured not to proue it.

Your Assumption therefore I deny, That a Lot belongs to the art of Divinity and is there to be defined & handled. If you aske a reason of the deniall, you may know I am not bound to render it: your place is not to aske questions, but to proue what you affirme. Neverthelesse the reason is this, because the termes of the definition belong not vnto Divinity. Not the Genus which is a Chance or Casu­all event, for that belongs vnto the Metaphysicks, as also doth Necessity. Not the Forme, which is the applying of the chance to resolue a doubt, for that belongs vnto Pollicie or Morality. If you foist any other thing into the Defi­nition, whatsoever it be it is superfluous and impertinent. But why should any man thinke that it pertaines to a Di­vine to define a lot? Is it because there is in them a Di­vine providence? So is there also in Chesse, & Bowles and all other things whether serious or lusory: yet are they not therefore Theologicall. Is it because there is in them an immediat providence? So indeede you dreame, but wee haue already clearly demonstrated the contrary. Is it then because they haue beene vsed in holy and religi­ous businesses? So is bread, and wine, and water also v­sed: yet I hope you will not say that the Definition of [Page 32] these things is proper to Divinity, or that wee may not play with them, and vse them in light matters. Every ap­plying of a creature vnto a holy end, is not by and by an appropriating thereof vnto that end: neither doth God by his Extraordinary vsing of a thing, barre vs ever after from the Ordinary and naturall vse thereof. And thus you see, that as good reason may be rendred to the con­trary, so iust reason for it you can render none, why the defining of a lot should be so confined to Divinity.

Yet one word more with you ere I leaue this point. For I must entreat leaue to plucke you by the eare, and to admonish you of Contradictions, which seeme to haue slipt from you at vnawares. Tell me I beseech you how these sayings hang together, Wee may sport our selues with things that belong to any art but Divinity, & The King & his lawes may not be dallied withall? For if Kings & lawes belong vnto Policy and not Divinity, then may they bee plaid withall: but if they may not be plaid with, then is your rule false, and wee may not sport our selues with all those things that belong to other arts.

N. N.

Wicked men are bold to cast Lots with wicked or vaine minds, in wicked things, to wicked ends, without respect of Gods disposition at all. For if they did but thinke that God were so powerfull as from heauen to dispose, and so to shew his speciall presence in a Lot, or so wise as to vnderstand what they goe about, with what intents, for what ends, and after what manner, they durst not be so bold, as the wicked souldi­ers were to cast Lots vpon Christs coat Mat. 27.5. nor as the Iewes were in as vnconsiderate dealing. Ioel. 3.3. Obad. 11. nor as our foolish and filthy Gamesters who must [Page 33] haue Games with Lots to make themselues sport and recre­ation. For mine owne part I had rather heare of downeright blasphemy, then to heare wise wicked men justify lusorious Lots.

DEFENCE.

To what end all this Deolamation against wicked men, with wicked mindes, in wicked things, to wicked ends ferueth, I see not. Nor yet whether you esteeme all those that vse and allow these Lotgames to be foolish and filthy Gamesters, and wise wicked men: for certainly your words seeme to incline that way, and I feare when you wrote this, you gaue too much way to your passion. Bee it knowne vnto you that as learned, and reverend, and re­ligious Divines as this Church yeeldeth, and this Church yeeldeth as many as any Church in Christendome besides, both vse and approue these Games ▪ whom therefore to censure as foolish and wicked men, argueth no lesse then extremity of arrogance and fury. But where are those wicked men who doubt whether God can dispose from heaven, and shew his speciall presence in a Lo [...] ▪ For that God can doe so, not Scripture only, but the light of rea­son also teacheth, and few I thinke are growne to that height of impudence to deny it. It may be you are angry with some, who will not beleeue vpon your bare word that God worketh immediatly in every lot, and there­fore you lay such imputation vpon them. But it is one thing what God doth, another thing what God can doe: and mee thinkes you should bee ashamed with so much confidence to maintaine a