By GEORGE DOWNAME Doctour of Divinity, and Bishop of Dery.

GEN. 22.16.18.

By my selfe have I sworne, saith the Lord, that in thy seed all the nations of the earth shalbe blessed.

Imprinted at Dublin by the Society of Stationers, Printers to the Kings most Excellent Maiestie. Anno Dom. 1631.


In this Treatise upon Luke are handled, the

  • Context or coherence, with a briefe Analysis of the hymne of Zachary called benedictus. Cap. 1.
  • Text, wherein we con­sider, the
    • Parties betweene whō this covenant was made, viz.
      • The God of Israel. Cap. 2
      • Abraham our father. Cap. 2
    • Tenour of the oath it selfe. cap. 3 contayning a twofold gift. Cap. 4. viz.
      • Redemption. Cap. 5.
      • The fruit of our redēption, which is our new obediēce. whereof are set downe the
        • Parts viz.
          • Holy­nes. Cap. 6.
          • Righ­teous­nes. Cap. 6.
        • Properties
          • Spirituall security. Cap. 7.8.9.
          • Upright­nes. Cap. 10.11.
          • Perseve­rance. Cap. 12.

CHAPTER. I. The context or coherence of the Text.

The Text. Luk.

The Oath, which he sware to our Father Abra­ham, that he would give us; that we being delive­red from the hand of our enemies, should worship him without feare, in holynes, and righteousnes, before him all the daies of our life.

THESE wordes are the summe and substance of the Covenant of grace,The coherence of the text, and a briefe Analy­sis of the Psal. or hymne of Za­chary. which the Lord made with Abraham the Father of the faithfull, & the very abridgement of the Gospel (for God, when hee made this Covenant with Abraham, Gal. 3. [...]. [...], hee preached before hand [Page 2] the Gospell unto him) and therefore are most worthy both to be handled with much diligence, and to be heard with great attention and reverence. They are part of that heavenly hymne, which Zacharias the fa­ther of Iohn Baptist pronounced at the circumcision of his Sonne, For such was both the goodnes of God towards him, that he did not onely restore unto him his speach and hearing, the use whereof for a time he had lost through his incredulity; but also bestowed upon him the spirit of Prophecy: And such also was his thankefulnes to God, that no sooner had he re­covered his speach, but he imployed it to the glory of God.

Now both these, I meane, the miraculous both losse and recovery of his speach happened By singular dispensation. [...], as Theophylact hath well observed: that it might winne credite to the extraordinary ministerie of Iohn the Baptist, who was to be the fore-runner of [...]. Christ, that he being to beare witnesse of CHRIST, might be worthy of all credit.

In this Psalme Zachary prophecieth, first, of the Sonne of God our Saviour CHRIST, to the end of the 75. verse, and after, of his owne sonne, at the 76. verse to the end of the Psalme.

His prophecie concerning CHRIST, is a propheti­call thanksgiving, wherein he blesseth God for his un­speakable mercy to the Israel of God, in sending his owne, and his onely begotten Sonne to worke our re­demption and salvation. For although our Saviour was not as yet borne, and much lesse had payed the price of our redemption; yet he knew him to be incar­nate, and conceived in the wombe of the blessed Vir­gin; Wherefore knowing, that now the worke of re­demption [Page 3] was already begunne by the incarnation of CHRIST; hee speaketh of our redemption, after the manner of other Prophets, as of a thing already done, and prayseth God therefore.

His prophecie concerning his owne sonne, is a propheticall gratulation, congratulating the great [...]a­vour of God vouchsafed unto him; whom the Lord had ordayned to be the Prophet of the most high, and the [...] or fore-runner of our blessed Saviour, and consequently to bee more then a Prophet, then whom there had not risen a greater among the sonnes of women. Math. 11.11.

But to returne to the former prophecie (which I called a prophetical thanksgiving) out of which my Text is taken: the benefit or blessing for which Za­chary blesseth God, is first propounded in these words vers. 68. Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, who hath vi­sited his people; and afterwards twice expounded. First, more briefely in the end of v. 68. and the two verses following; and then more largely at the 71. v. to the end of my Text. The [...] or more briefe exposi­tion is in these words, hath visited, that is, hath re­deemed his people, by raysing vp a horne of salvation for us, (that is a mighty Saviour, as Psalm. 18.3.) in the house and linage of his servant David (whose sonne according to the flesh the Messias was to be) as he spake by the mouth of his holy Prophets, which have beene of old. For God is said to visit men, when he doth to them, as hee had foretold, whether in the bet­ter part, by way of promise; or in the worse, by way of threatning. And thus, in the better part, Moses teacheth us to expound this phrase Genes. 21.1. The Lord visited Sara, that is, he did to Sara as he had promi­sed. [Page 4] Vpon which words Tremelius and Iunius have this note: hence are wee to take the explication of this usuall phrase; for to visit is to put in execution the good promised or the evill denounced. So Gen. 50.24. God (saith So Ex. 13.19. Ioseph) will surely visit you, that is, will bring you out of this land, unto the land of promise, as hee sware to Abraham, Isaak and Iacob. And according­ly when God did send Moses and Aaron to deliver his people out of Egypt, as hee had promised, hee is said to have visited Exod. them. In like manner, when God sent his owne Sonne to redeeme us, as he had formerly promised: hee is said to have visited, that is, to have redeemed his people, as hee had spoken by his Prophets in former times.

The latter and more large exposition, or [...] beginneth at vers. 71. for the man of God being ravished with the consideration of this unestimable benefit, doth as it were dwell [...] upon it, being not con­tent to have propounded it, & once to have expoun­ded the same, but againe, by way of exultation, hee amplifieth it in other words, after the manner of the godly in their songs of deliverance; as you may see in that song of Moses Exod. 15. which was his [...] or song of victory, which the Israelites had over Pharaoh and the Egyptians; as this is Zacharies [...] or song of victory, which the Israel of God hath over the spi­rituall Pharaoh, and all the enemies of our salvation.

But I come to the words of the exposition. Salva­tion, where wee may out of the wordes going before repeate the verbe [...] or [...], as if hee had said, who I say, hath wrought or raysed salvation, that is, saved us from our enemies, and from the hand, that is, the power of all that hate us. vers. 72. That hee might [Page 5] worke mercy with our forefathers, that is, that he might performe his mercifull promises made to our fathers, and remember, that is, shew himselfe mindefull of his holy Covenant, then vers. 73. The oath, which is either to be read by apposition, if with Theophylact wee read [...], to wit the oath, or to bee referred to the verbe [...] or [...], that hee might performe or re­member the oath which hee sware to our father Abra­ham. In this latter exposition as the words are multi­plied, and the phrases varyed, so the affection of the argument is also changed. For whereas in the former exposition it was said, hee visited, that is, redeemed his people as hee had graciously promised; here it is said, hee visited, that is redeemed or saved us, that he might performe his promise. Where the keeping of his pro­mise is made the end of his sending Christ to redeeme us: to let us understand, that as God was most gra­cious in promising our redemption, so most faithfull and just in the performance. So that the former part of this Psalme, from the beginning thereof to the end of my Text, is but one sentence or Axiome, where­in there is relation of consequence; the summe whereof is this: Because the Lord hath visited, that is, hath redeemed his people, according to his promise, & hath saved us, that hee might keepe his promise, and performe his oath, hee is therefore to bee blessed, that is, magnified and praised.

This Analysis I have the rather propounded, be­cause wee repeating this Psalme daily in our Liturgie, might, as David Psalm. 47. [...]. exhorteth, sing with understanding: as also because my Text, being but a part of the sen­tence, is not complete in it selfe, but must bee perfected by repetition of that which goeth before; after [Page 6] this manner: The Lord God of Israel is therefore to be blessed, because hee hath visited, that is, hath sent his Sonne to redeeme us, as hee had promised; and to save us, that hee might keepe his promise, & performe his oath, which hee sware to Abraham, The tenour whereof was this, that hee would give us, &c. And this is the coherence of my text. Out of which wee may gather these three observations.

First, where it is said, that God did therefore send his Sonne to redeeme us, that hee might keepe his promise, and performe his oath; wee observe the im­mutable truth and fidelitie of God in performing his promises; For in Christ 2. Corint. 1.20. all the promises of God are yea, and amen. If therefore the truth of God be such, that rather then hee would goe backe from his word, hee did send his owne Sonne to suffer death for our re­demption: Yea, if his fidelitie were such, as that there­fore he sent his sonne that hee might performe his promise, then can we not doubt of the performance of any other promise of God; this being the most diffi­cult of all, either for God to graunt, or for us to be­leeve. When the world was to bee made, the Lord did speake the word, and it was created. But when it was to be redeemed; hee gave his Sonne to be a price of ransome for us. And who would euer have thought (but that the Lord hath revealed this his unspeakable mercie in his word▪) that God, being of infinite Ma­jestie and glory, and enjoying all selfe-contented hap­pines, would give his onely begotten Sonne to die for his enemies. If therefore to make good this pro­mise, hee gave his sonne to die for us, how shall hee Rom. 8.32. not with him give us all other good things which hee hath promised? Such is the truth of God, that [Page 7] every faithfull man may say with the Apostle, 2. Tim. 1.12. I know whom I haue beleeved, and I am sure that what he hath promised shall in due time be performed. For as he is omnipotent, and therefore able, so he is the God Psalm. 31.5. of truth, yea truth Deut. 32.4. it selfe, and therefore willing; he is Iehovah, Exod. 6.3. one that giveth being to his word; who though he can doe all things, yet hee cannot lye,Tit. 1. [...]. nor deny 2. Tim. 2.15. himselfe. Wherefore, as the faithfull; who li­ved before the incarnation of CHRIST, did faithful­ly and comfortably waite for the performance of that promise, as being the consolation Luc. [...].25. of Israel, though betweene the making of it, and the perfor­mance, there did intercede foure thousand yeares: So whereas the Lord hath promised his second comming for our full redemption; though it may seeme to bee delayed, wee are with comfort to waite for it, with earnestnes to long for it, and with undoubted cer­tainetie to expect it.

Secondly, whereas Zachary praiseth the Lord for performing his promise concerning our redemption by CHRIST, wee learne, what is our dutie; namely to praise and magnifie the name of the Lord, as for all other his mercies, so especially for the worke of our redemption; according to that. Psalm. 107. [...]. Let them praise the Lord, whom hee hath redeemed, and de­livered from the hand of the enemie. But of this more hereafter.

Thirdly, whereas Zachary giveth thankes to God for a benefit not as yet received; for as yet CHRIST was not borne, and much lesse had he as yet redeemed us; Wee learne, that wee are to give thankes, not one­ly for the benefits already received, but for such also as are promised. For this is a notable fruite of a lively [Page 8] faith, setting forth also most notably the truth of God in his promises; when a man in the assurance of faith, which is Hebr. 11.1. the substance of things hoped for; giveth thankes for th [...]se benefites and blessings, which as yet he hath not, as though he had already received them. It is the commendation of the faithfull, Heb. 11.13. Who having not received the promises, but having seene them a farre off (as Abraham Iohn. 8.56. saw the day of Christ) beleeved them, embraced them, and rejoyced in them. For if he, who prayseth God for benefites recei­ved, Psalm. 5 [...].23. doth glorifie God: then much more doth hee glorifie him, and magnifie his truth, who prayseth him for benefites, which he hath onely promised: be­cause this is a fruite of a greater faith. Thus David shewed himselfe thankefull to God for the favours which hee had promised by Nathan, 2. Sam. 7. and thus ought wee to be thankefull for the promises of a better life. So much of the context.

CHAP. II. The text resolved into his parts, the first whereof are the parties betweene whom this Covenant was made.

The Analysis of the Text. NOw I come to the Text it selfe: the con­tents whereof as you see, is an Oath where­in wee are to consider both the parties be­tweene whom it was made, and also the te­nour of the Oath it selfe. The parties, aswell him that sweareth, viz. the Lord GOD of Israel; as hee, to whom the oath was made, viz. Abraham our Father. Concerning the tenour, wee are to know, that whereas some oathes are assertory, wherein some truth [Page 9] is avouched; others promissory, wherein some promise is made: this is of the latter sort, contayning the pro­mise of a gift. For so hee saith, that he would give us. This gift is twofold: viz. redemption, in those words that wee should be delivered from the hand of our ene­mies; and the fruite and end of our redemption, which is the true worship of God; in those wordes, that we should worship him, &c. which worship of God is set forth, both by the partes and properties thereof. The parts are two, Holynes, and Righteousnes; For by holynes, wee are to vnderstand the duties of the first Table, which we owe unto God▪ & by Righteous­nes, the duties of the second Table, which wee owe unto man. The properties are three; The first, respe­cting our enemies, from whom wee are delivered, in the word [...], without feare of them; the second, respecting God, in the words before him, the third, re­specting the continuance, all the dayes of our life. The first of these is [...], or spirituall security; the second, is uprightnes and sinceritie: the third, is constancie or perseverance. Of these in order.

Concerning the partie which did sweare,The party who did sweare. we are to consider these three things. 1. By whom hee sware. 2. How, or after what manner. 3. To what end. For the first; it is the manner of men in their oathes to sweare by a greater. But the Lord, when he made this Covenant with Abraham, because he could not sweare by a greater, hee sware by himselfe, Heb. 6.13. By my selfe have I sworne, saith the Lord, &c. Genes. 22.16.

Concerning the manner: we may gather by that, which the Lord requireth in our oathes, what hee performed in his owne, Ierem. [...].2. There are three [Page 10] properties required in an Oath, Truth, Iudgement, and Righteousnes. Truth, opposed to falshood or perjury: Iudgement, to rash and common swearing; Righteous­nes, to vnjust and vnlawfull Oathes.

For the first: that the Lord did sweare in truth, it is most certaine; because it is impossible, that the Lord in his promise, and in his oath should lye, Heb. 6.18. and therefore wee may be assured of that, wherewith Micah. 7.20 Micah concludeth his prophecy, that the Lord will undoubtedly performe his mercy, which by oath he promised to Abraham. From whence we may learne this most profitable instruction. That seeing the oath of the Lord, whereby hee promiseth to give to all them that are delivered from the hand of their spiri­tuall enemies (that is to all that are redeemed by CHRIST) grace to worship him in holynes & righ­teousnes, is infallible, wee should therefore bee care­full to bring forth these fruites of our redemption; otherwise, wee can have no assurance, that we are the redeemed of the LORD. Yea, on the contrary, it may bee verified of us; that if wee doe live in sinne, and doe not, at the least, desire and endeavour to serve God in the duties of holynes and righteousnes: it is as certaine as the Oath of God is true, that as yet wee have no part in the redemption wrought by CHRIST. And the reason hereof is evident, for to bee a servant of sinne, and to bee redeemed from the bondage of sinne; are things repugnant, and imply a contradiction. For whom Christ the Sonne of God maketh free they are free indeed. Iohn. 8.3 [...]. But hee, that is a servant of sinne, is not freed indeed. Now every one that committeth sinne, as habituated in sinne, that is, in whom sinne raigneth, [Page 11] hee is the servant both of sinne, Ioh. 8. [...]4. and of Sathan, 1. Iohn. 3.8.

Secondly, in Iudgement, a man is said to sweare in judgement, when hee sweareth advisedly, upon just and necessary occasion. For oathes are then onely good, when they are necessary. This necessity of the Lords oath ariseth from our weakenes and infidelitie, who will not beleeve the Lord without an oath. And therefore the Lord, in great mercy to relieve our infir­mitie, hath confirmed his promise, which in it selfe needeth no confirmation, as being truth it selfe [...] Heb. 6.1 [...]. more abundantly then otherwise needed, by an oath, which as it argueth our great cor­ruption; So it ought to be a remedy for the same. It is great infidelitie, not to beleeve the word and pro­mise of God; but greater, not to beleeve his oath. In not beleeving his promise, thou makest him a lyar. 1. Iohn. [...].10. in denying credit to his Oath, doest thou make him any better then a perjured person? And yet this is the estate and condition of many professing the name of Christ, God hath sworne, and will not repent, that to those, whom he redeemeth, grace shall be given to worshippe him in holynes and righteousnes. These men do not so much as desire, care or endevour to worshippe God in holynes and righ­teousnes; but live in sinne, and goe on in sinne, without repentance: and yet for all this, they will needes perswade themselves, that they are the redee­med of the Lord, contrary to the expresse Oath of God.

Thirdly, in Righteousnes: Men are said to sweare in righteousnes, when that, which they promise by Oath, is lawfull and good. And this goodnes is [Page 12] measured by the reference which it hath to the glorie of God, and good of man. Neither doth the Lord [...] Oath want this propertie. For what could be either more glorious to himselfe, or more profitable unto us; then that which by this Oath is promised? For as touching the glory of God: among all the works, which God ever wrought, there is not any that setteth forth more the glory both of his mercy and of his ju­stice, then the worke of our redemption with the fruits thereof. For hereby appeareth his mercy to be such, as that rather then he would suffer us most mise­rable sinners to perish in our sinnes, he gave his owne, and his onely begotten Sonne to die for us. His ju­stice such, that rather then hee would suffer the sinnes of his owne elect children to goe unpunished, he hath punished them in the death and sufferings of his one­ly begotten Sonne.

And if you consider our profit, it is evident that (as hereafter you shall heare) in the things promised by this Oath, our happines doth consist. Neither doubt I to affirme, that by the things promised in this oath, our estate becommeth better, then that which wee lost in Adam. Adam, though hee were just, stood righteous before God, but in his owne righteous­nes; but we being redeemed by CHRIST, stand righ­teous before God in the righteousnes of CHRIST, which farre surpasseth the righteousnes both of men and Angels. Adam was created good, but changeable, and therefore, being tempted, he fell; but wee, being once redeemed by CHRIST and sanctified by his spi­rit, shall never fall away; but 1. Pet. 1.5. by the power of God through [...]aith wee are kept safe unto salvation. The happines, which Adam enjoyed, was in an earth­ly [Page 13] paradise but the happines, which CHRIST hath purchased for us, is in Heaven. Thus much of the manner.

Now are wee to consider the end for which the Lord did sweare: which is plainly and fully set downe Hebr▪ 6.17.18 that he might more abundantly shew unto the heyres of promise, the stablenes of his coun­sell: that by two immutable things (that is his word, and his Oath) they might have strong consolation. For howsoever they might doubt of their perseverance unto salvation, in regard both of their owne frailtie, and also of the strength of their enemies: yet they know, that the foundation of God abideth sure, 2. Tim. 2.19. and that the word and oath of the Lord is immutable; and that, howsoever heaven and earth shall passe away; yet not one jote, or title of the oath of God shall fall to the ground. And therefore have just cause with David, Psalme 40.2. to professe their confidence, and with Paul Rom. 8.38.39. to rest assu­red, that nothing shalbe able to separate them from Gods love in CHRIST IESVS our Lord. For the Lord hath sworne, and will not repent, that he will give us, being delivered from the hand of our enemies, to worshippe him without feare, in holines, and righteous­nes, before him, all the dayes of our life. If therefore the oath of an honest man be, or ought to bee [...] the end of controversie, Hebr. 6.16. how much more ought the oath of the Lord to be an end [...]nto us of doubting and distrust?

The use, which we are to make of that, which hath beene said, concerning the Lord his taking of an Oath; is that, whereunto wee are so often exhorted in the Scriptures, Be you holy, as I am holy, saith the [Page 14] Lord ▪ that is, in this particular dutie of holynes (for sweating is required in the first Table) wee are to imi­tate the Lord, both in respect of the action it selfe, and also in regard of the object, the manner, and the end.

As touching the action it selfe, where the Lord is said to have sworne, wee are taught, that to sweare, is in a selfe a thing lawfull and good, though the Ana­baptists deny it in all Christians, and the Papists in them, who in their conceipt, are perfect; and yet in the Scriptures we see it by the holy Angels, by the blessed Apostle in divers places of his Epistles, in the penning whereof he was free, as from erring, so also from sinning, and lastly by God himselfe, in this, and many other places. Neither is it onely com­mended as lawfull, and good, as Psalm. 6 [...].11. but al­so commanded as necessary, and as a thing which not onely may be done, but also which must be done, Deut. as being a dutie both of holynes to God, and of righteousnes and charitie to man. For being rightly performed, it serveth greatly to set forth the glory of God, by ascribing unto him omniscience and omnipresence, the knowledge of secrets, justice, the patronage of truth, the punishing of falshood. Of charity and righteousnes to men, as being profitable and necessary for the manifestation of a necessary truth, for appeasing controversies among men, for the discharge of our duety, & sometimes for clearing our owne innocencie. And therefore being a duety so ne­cessary in respect both of God and man; God him­selfe hath sworne it should be practised in the new Te­stament, Es. 45.23. But I shall not neede to prove the lawfulnes of swearing in these times, when there are [Page 15] more that sweare, Eccles. 9. [...]. then that doe feare an Oath. Let us rather consider, how wee are to imitate the Lord in swearing, in respect of the object, the manner, and the end.

First therefore, as the Lord did sweare by the true God onely, that is, himselfe: so wee are to sweare by no other, for what wee sweare by, that wee Deifie; and therefore to sweare by any other, is [...]o forsake God Ierem. 5.7.

And as touching the manner, wee are to sweare in truth, in judgement, and in righteousnes, Ierem. 4.2. for not to sweare in truth is perjury; which is forbid­den, condemned, and punished as a detestable sinne, and as an horrible profanation of the name of God. Lev. 19.12. Ierem. 5.2. Zach. 5.4. wherein besides fals­hood and lying, which destroy the soule, and exclude out of heaven, Apoc. 22.15. and besides deceipt, (and that under the religion of an Oath,) whereof God is the avenger, 1. Thes. 4.6. Ps. 5.7. there do also concurre two other abominations. The one an horrible indig­nity offered to the Majestie of God, whereby as if he were a patron of falshood, they call upon him, as a witnesse, to second their untruth. The other in that they tempt God, and date him, as it were, to his face, to execute his vengeance upon them, if they avouch an untruth; when they themselves know, that they sweare falsly.

Secondly, in judgement: for to sweare rashly and commonly in our ordinary talke, is to make com­mon, that is, to pollute the holy name of GOD; and to turne the Sanctuary of verity, into a common house of vanity. As the Name of GOD is holy and and reverend, so ought it to be used holily, and reve­rendly; [Page 16] And as an Oath is not simply good, but upon necessitie; so ought it not to be used, but when it is necessary. For bonum necessarium extra terminos ne­cessitatis non est bonum. Our Saviour therefore for­biddeth us to sweare at all in our ordinary talke, Mat. [...].34.37. and S. Iames wisheth us above all things to take heed, that wee sweare not, lest wee fall into con­demnation, Iam. 5.12. and wholesome to this pur­pose is the counsell of the Sonne of Syrach, Eccl.

Thirdly, in Righteousnes: for by oath to promise that, which is unlawfull, besides that it argueth a full purpose, and resolution to doe evill, which is to sinne with a high hand: it doth also offer an horrible in­dignitie unto God, when a man calleth upon him to be, as it were his suretie for the doing of that evill, which he promiseth.

There remaineth the end: for so wee are to sweare, that by testifying a necessary truth, which cannot by other meanes be manifested; God may be glorified (ac­cording to that forme of adjuration, Give glory to God, Ios. [...].19.) ou [...] brethren satisfied, controversies ended, our dutie discharged, our owne innocencie cleared. Vaine are the Oathes, which are not referred to these, or such like ends; and by them also the holy name of GOD is taken in vaine. So usually doe they sweare, that sweare usually; having no respect, either to the glory of God, the good of their brethren, or discharge of their dutie; but rap out Oathes, some­times in choler, sometimes in pride and vaine-glorie, sometimes in deceipt, to colour their falshood: some­times in a vaine conceipt to winne credit to their speeches wherein notwithstanding they are miserably [Page 17] deceived, for he that sweareth much, sometimes for-sweareth: and he that maketh no conscience of pol­luting the holy and dreadfull name of GOD by com­mon swearing; will learne to make no conscience of swearing falsly. So much of the partie that did sweare.

Now we are to speake of the partie to whom this Oath was made: who is here described by his name Abraham, and by his relation to us, Our Father. Abraham was so called by GOD himselfe, Genes. 17. because he made him Ab [...]hamon, the father of ma­ny nations, that is to say, of the faithfull in all Na­tions. Now, whereas I shewed before, that the Lord would not have taken an Oath, unlesse it had beene necessary, in respect of our weakenes and increduli­tie, who will not beleeve him without an Oath: It appeareth, that Abraham himselfe needed to have the promises of God confirmed to him by Oath: From whence we learne this profitable lesson, that the faith of the best of us hath its imperfections, and is mingled with unbeliefe. For if Abraham, the Father of the faithfull, the most worthy patterne of a lively and a strong faith, had need to have his in­firmities relieved, as it is plaine that he had: not one­ly (as in this place) by an Oath, but also Genes. 15. by a signe Genes. 17. by the Sacrament of Circum­cision, which was unto him a seale of that righteous­nes which is by faith: and almost in every Chapter of his story, by the often repeating and renewing of the promises unto him:Rom. 4.1 [...]. What are we to thinke of our selves, who are by many degrees inferiour to Abra­ham? Surely we are to beware, both of the proud phantasie of those, who dreame of perfection in this [Page 18] life; & also of the carelesse practise of others, who thin­king they have proceeded farre enough, sitt still, not seeking to goe forward in the way of Christianity; and therefore are not likely to come to the end of their way, which is the salvation of their soules. But we, in the humble acknowledgement of our imperfections, must with the Apostles, Luk. 17.5. pray unto the Lord to encrease our faith, and using all good meanes, to proceed from faith to faith, untill we come to a perfect man in CHRIST, we must with the Apostle, as not having attained, Phil. 3.12.13. forget those things which are behinde, and reach forth to those things which are be­fore, pressing forward towards the marke for the prize of the high calling of God in CHRIST, Phil. 3.14. and if the Apostle, and those who are perfect, that is, adulti, growne men in CHRIST, are to be of this minde, as the Apostle saith in the next verse: much more those, which are not so good proficients, ought to be so min­ded, remembring that religion is compared to a way, wherein we are still to goe on, untill we come to the end of our way, which will not be before the end of our life.

And whereas Zachary calleth Abraham our father, this is not to be understood, either of all the Iewes, or of the Iewes alone, but of all the faithfull, whether they be Iewes or Gentiles. For Abraham is the father of all the faithfull, Rom. 4.11. and all, which are of the faith, are the children of Abraham, Galat. 3.7. In this sense, Zacheus the Publicane receiving our Saviour by faith, became the sonne of Abraham, Luk. 19.9. As for those, who were of Abrahams seed, according to the flesh, and not according to his faith, they are not accompted the seed of Abraham. For as the Apostle [Page 19] saith, Rom. 9.6.7. All they are not Israell, which are of Israell, neither are they all children, because they are the seed of Abraham, but in Isaak shall thy seed be called, that is, saith the Apostle, vers. 8. they, which are the children of the flesh, are not the children of God, but the children of the promise are accompted for the seed. So our Savi­our, Ioh. 8. although he graunt, that the Iewes, to whom he spake, were, according to the flesh, the seed of Abraham vers. 37. Yet he concludeth against them, that they were not Abrahams sons indeed, because they did not the works of Abraham vers. 39.40. This must teach those, who come of faithfull parents, or are no­bly descended from famous and worthy ancestours, not to rely too much upon their parentage, but to shew themselves to be their childrē by imitating their faith, and their godly conversation. For otherwise, though their parents were the children of God, they may not­withstanding be the Children of the Devill, as our Sa­viour telleth the unbelieving Iewes, John. 8.44. And therefore Iohn the Baptist warneth the Iewes, not to stand so much upon this, that they had Abraham to their father; but willeth them to bring forth fruits worthy of repentance, Matth. 3.9. If therefore we would be able, with Zachary, to call Abraham Our father, we must follow the faith of Abraham, Gal. 3.7. and imitate his workes, Ioh. 8.39.

Againe, from hence we observe; that, what is spo­ken in this Oath concerning us that he would give us, that we being delivered, &c. is not to be understood of all men, but of us, who have Abraham to our Father, that is to say, of the faithfull, who onely are the sonnes of Abraham, the heyres of the promise.

CHAP. III. The Tenour of the Oath.

NOw I come to the Tenour of the Oath it selfe, in these words: That he would give us, that we being delivered, &c. But here some man will say, there is no such Oath as this, recorded in the Scriptures of the old Testament, which God did sweare to Abraham.

Whereunto I answere; that it is not alwayes the cu­stome of the holy Ghost, in the New Testament, when he alleageth testimonies out of the old, to recite the ve­ry same words, & syllables; but sometimes, as being the best interpreter of himselfe, in stead of words, he setteth down the true sense, & meaning therof: so in this place. For whereas Moses Gen. 22.16.18. recordeth this oath in these words, by my selfe have I sworne, saith the Lord, that in thy seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed: Zachary Vers. 67. here being filled with the holy Ghost, ex­poundeth what this blessednes is, which was promised in Christ the promised seed, viz. that the Lord, would give us, that we being delivered from the hand of our ene­mies, should worship him without feare, &c. That this is the oath, wch Zachary meaneth, it is most certaine▪ be­cause he giveth thanks to God, for the performanc [...] of his oath, wch he sware to Abraham, cōcerning the redē ­ption of his people the Israel of God, by the Messias or promised seed; wch can be no other then that wc^ I na­med, In thy seed all the natiōs; (that is the faithfull in all nations) shalbe blessed. Peter Act. 3.25. speaketh of the same Covenant, which God made with our fathers, saying to Abraham, and in thy seed, shall all the kinreds of the earth be blessed.

And surely great cause there was, that in the begin­ning [Page 21] of the promulgation of the Gospell, it should be explaned, what this blessednes is, which was promised by the Messias. 1. First, for confutation of the errone­ous & pernicious conceipt of the Iewes, who thinking that the Messias should be a temporall Monarch, expe­cted onely temporall blessings from him: But if our hope in CHRIST were onely in respect of this life, then were we of all men most miserable, 1. Cor. 15.19.

Secōdly, For prevētion of a most dangerous scandal, wch otherwise would have ensued upō that erroneous cōceipt. For it being a received opiniō among the Iewes, from wch the Disciples Mat. 20.21. Act. 1.6. of Christ were not free, that the Messias should be a tēporall Monarch, who should restore the kingdome unto Israel & make his followers happy with externall & temporall blessings: If this opinion had been nourished in them, it could not have beene avoyded, but that they would have taken offence at Christs meane & poore estate, when in stead of ho­nours, riches, greatnes & glory in this world, wch they expected from the Messias, all things should happē con­trary to their expectation. Our Saviour therefore pro­nounceth thē blessed, who are not offēded at him in re­spect of his meane condition, & poore estate, Mat. 11.6

Thirdly, For rectifying our judgement in that most waighty point concerning our happines. For the very foundation of a Christian conversation, is the right be­liefe concerning happines. For all men desire happines, as the supreme end. And such as is the end, or happines which they propound unto themselves; such are the meanes which they use, such are their studies & endea­vours. As for example, if men place their happines in pleasure, their whole course of life is voluptuous; if in riches, covetous; if in honour, ambitions, &c.

[Page 22]For these causes, as I said, it was necessary that it should be declared, what this blessednes is Our Savi­our therefore in the beginning of his gracious Sermon upon the Mount sheweth, that the happines which by him they were to expect, did consist in spirituall grace, and eternall glory. Mat. [...].3. Blessed are the poore or beggars in spirit, for theirs is the kingdome of heaven, and so in the rest, in every whereof two degrees of happines are no­ted: the one, set downe, as the Schoolemen speake, per modum meriti, which I called grace: the other, per mo­dum praemij, which I called glory: the one being beati­tudo viae, or our happines in this life: the other, beati­tudo patriae, or our happines in the life to come. S. Paul likewise Ephes. 1.3. expoundeth the happines, which we have by CHRIST, to be spirituall. Ephes. 1.3. Blessed be God (saith he) who hath blessed us with all spirituall blessings in heavenly things in CHRIST. Thus S. Peter, speaking of this Covenant, which God made with Abraham, & applying it to the Iewes, expoundeth this blessednes to be their turning, & consequently their freedome from sinne. Yee are (saith he) Act. 3.25.26. the children of the Covenant, which God made with our fathers, saying unto Abraham, and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed: unto you first, God having raysed up his Sonne IESVS, sent him to blesse you, in turning away every one of you from your iniquities. In like manner the Apostle Paul, Galat. 3. expoundeth this blessednes of justification by faith, redemption from the curse of the law, and receiving the promise of the spirit Those which are of faith, saith hee, vers. 7.8.9. are the sonnes of Abraham, and the Scripture (that is the holy Ghost who speaketh in the Scripture) foreseeing, that God would justifie the Gentiles through faith, preached the Go­spell [Page 23] before to Abraham, saying: in thee, that is, in thy seed shall all So Gen. 12.2.3 chap. nations be blessed. So then, they which be of faith, are blessed with faithfull Abraham. Againe vers. 13.14. CHRIST hath redeemed us from the curse of the law being made a curse for us, that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through IESVS CHRIST, that wee might receive the promise of the spirit. But most chiefly in this place, where the holy Ghost doth, as it were, ex professo expound, what this blessednes is, viz. that hee would give us, that wee being delivered from the hand of our enemies, should worshippe him without feare in holynes and righteousnes before him all the dayes of our life.

Now, that this is a most true and perfect exposi­tion, I will prove by these two reasons. And first, for the truth of it. For whereas there are two degrees of our happines; the one, begunne in this life, which is called beatitudo viae: the other, compleat in the life to come, which is beatitudo patriae: that is to bee ac­compted our happines in this life, whereby, as by de­grees, wee attayne to eternall happines in the world to come. Now the degrees of salvation, which the sonnes of Abraham, faithfull, and therefore called, obtaine in this life, are justification, & sanctification; justification, by which we are intituled to the kingdome of heaven, and with it concurre redemption, reconciliation, and adoption, being all in substance the same, differing one­ly in some relation or respect. For when God doth forgive our sinnes by imputation of CHRISTS righteousnes, he doth both redeeme and reconcile, and justifie, and adopt us: but with this distinction. First, that when forgiving our sinnes, by which wee are bound over to death and damnation, and held captives [Page 24] of sinne and Sathan, he freeth us from this bondage, he is said to redeeme us, Ephes. 1.7. Col. 1.14. Secondly, when forgiving our sinnes, whereby we are the chil­dren of wrath, and enemies against God, he receiveth us into his love, & favour in CHRIST, he is said to re­concile us, 2. Cor. 5.19. Thirdly, when forgiving our sinnes, which exclude us from heaven, & make us guil­tie of damnation, he doth absolve & acquitte us from the guilt, and doth accept of us in CHRIST as righte­ous, and as heyres of salvation, he is said to justifie us, Rom. Fourthly, when forgiving our sinnes, which made us the children of the Devill, he doth in CHRIST take us to be his children, he is said to adopt us. The second degree is sanctification, by which we are prepared and made fitt for Gods king­dome. Now these two are the two partes of the gift, which God by oath in this place promised to give to the faithfull the sonnes of Abraham; viz. deliverance from the hand of our spirituall enemies, namely the law, sinne, death, and the devill, which is our redemp­tion or justification: and grace to worship God with­out feare in holines and righteousnes before him all the daies of our life, which is our sanctification.

2 And that it is a full & perfect exposition, it is easily proved: because not onely to the whole gift here pro­mised, but to every part and parcell thereof happines is ascribed in the word of God. As first, to redemption; for what is it to be redeemed by CHRIST, but to have remission of sinnes by him? Ephes. 1.7. Col. 1.14. By him we have redemption, even the remission of our sinnes. But to the remission of sinnes the holy Ghost ascri­beth blessednes, Psal. 32. i. 2. Rom. 4.6.7. Blessed is the man whose transgression is forgiven, whose sinne is cove­red. [Page 25] Blessed is the man to whom the Lord imputeth not iniquitie.

2 Secondly to a godly life: which is here termed the worship of God in holines & righteousnes, in which keeping of the law doth consist. For when a woman out of the crowd cryed unto our Saviour, blessed is the wombe that bare thee, and the pappes that gave thee suck, Our Saviour returned this answere, Luk. 11.28. Yea ra­ther blessed are they that heare the word of God and keepe it. The same hath Salomon, Prov. 29.18. & who know­eth not that, which the Apostle teacheth 1. Tim. 4.8. Godlines hath the promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come, and consequently of the happines both of this life, and of the other life.

3 To the parts of Gods worship; as namely to holines. Apoc. 20.6. Blessed and holy is the man, who hath his part in the first resurrection. Which testimony yeeldeth un­to us a double proofe. First, because he useth the termes of Blessed & holy promiscuously; implying, that who­soever is blessed, is holy; and that whosoever is holy, is blessed. Secondly, because he saith, they are blessed, who have their part in the first resurrection, whereby the soules of the faithfull doe rise from the grave of sinne to holynes of life. And not onely to holynes in gene­rall, but to the severall branches thereof is blessednes ascribed; as to saving knowledge. Pro. 3.13. Ioh. 17.3. to faith Luk. 1.45. Ioh. 20.29. to affiance, Psalm. hope Psal. 146.5. Es. 30.18. Ier. 17.7. to obedience Apoc. 22.14. to the feare of God, Psalm. to humilitie Mat. 5.3. Ioh. [...]3.17. to patience, Iam.

4 To righteousnes, Psal. 106.3. Es. 56.1.2. and not onely to righteousnes it selfe, but also to the [Page 26] true desire of it Matth. 5.6. Yea & to the severall bran­ches of it, as to mercifulnes Matth. 5.7. Psalm. 40.1.2. Prov. 14.21. to meekenes Matth. 5.4. to peace-ma­king Matth. 5.9.

And not onely to the partes of Gods worship, but also to the properties. Fiftly therefore to the worship of God [...]ithout feare of our enemies, that is in confi­dence Psal. 146.5. Whither you understand it without cause of feare, because there is no condemnation to them that are in CHRIST IESVS, Rom. 8.1. or with­out servile feare, in expectation of eternall happines, Tit. 2.13. for this indeede is the toppe of our happines in this life, to worship God, as without feare of dam­nation; so in a sownd expectation of eternall life. And this seemeth to be implyed in the Hebrew word Hith­baracu, which being of a reciprocall signification, signi­fieth, that in Abrahams seed all Nations should not onely be blessed, but also should blesse themselves, that is esteeme and accoumpt themselves blessed.

Sixtly, To uprightnes and integritie, or to the wor­shipping of God in holines & righteousnes as before him. Psalm. 119. [...]. Blessed are the upright in the way, that is who walke uprightly; So Psal. 84.11. and not onely the up­right themselves, but their children also after them are pronounced blessed, Prov. 20.7.

Seventhly, To perseverance or worshipping of God all the daies of our life. For he that continueth to the end shall be saved, Matth. 10.22. Mark. 13.13.

If therefore blessednes be ascribed, first of all to re­demption or deliverance from our enemies; secondly, to the true worship of God in generall, thirdly, to ho­lynes, fourthly, to righteousnes, fiftly, to the worship of God without feare, sixtly, to integritie, or to the [Page 27] worshippe of God as before him, seaventhly, to perse­verance, or to the worship of God all the daies of our life: Then seven times happy is that man, who being delivered from the hand of his enimies, hath grace gi­ven unto him to worship God without feare, in holy­nes and righteousnes before him all the dayes of his life.

By this conference of places wee learne, what the happines of a Christian is in this life; not to abound in wealth, not to attaine to great honours, not to wal­low in pleasures, wherein many repose their felicitie, nor in any temporall or worldly thing whatsoever; but in our redemption and the fruite thereof, which is a godly life, or (to expresse the same in other termes) in our justification and sanctification, which must teach us in our judgements to esteeme, in our affecti­ons to desire, in our endevours to labour for these spi­rituall graces above all the things in this world (for what is our happines, that is our chiefe good) estee­ming all worldly things as drosse and dung, yea as losse in comparison thereof, Phil. 3.8.9. For as without these spirituall graces all worldly things are vaine and unprofitable yea, to them that set their hearts on them, hurtfull and pernicious; So having sought and obtay­ned these graces, all temporall blessings shall be added unto us: or if we seeme to want any of them, our see­ming want thereof shall not hinder our happines. And therefore our Saviour pronounceth the faithfull, though living in povertie, hunger, sorrow, and per­secution, happy and blessed, Luk. [...].20.21.22.

CHAP. IIII. Of the gift promised by this Oath in generall, and of the two parts thereof joyntly.

THus much of Zacharies exposition of Gods Oath, now we come to the wordes thereof, that he would give us, &c. This thing then promised in this Oath is a gift: Of this gift we are to speake; first in generall, and then in particu­lar. In generall, we may observe, first, the maine diffe­rence betweene the Covenant of workes, made with all mankind: and the Covenant of Grace, made with Abraham and his seed, the heyres of promise. In the former, the Lord requireth perfect obedience to be performed by our selves to our justification, and salva­tion; and denounceth his fearefull curse against those, that doe not continue in a totall & perfect obedience. In the latter, the Lord, in stead of requiring perfect obedience to be performed of us to our justification & salvation; promiseth to those, which beleeve, redemp­tion and justification without workes; and being re­deemed and justified by faith, he promiseth to give them grace to walke in new obedience, as being an un­separable fruite of our redemption and justification, & as the high-way wherein we are to walke towards our glorification. Of this new Covenant the holy Ghost prophecieth by Ieremy Chap. 31. vers. 31.32.33. Behold the dayes come saith the Lord that I will make a new Co­venant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Iu­da, not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers, when I brought them out of Egypt (which was [Page 29] the covenant of workes:) but this shall be the Covenant that I will make with them, I will put my law in their in­ward parts, and write it in their hearts, &c. Which is the covenant of grace recited by the Apostle, Hebr. 8. v. 8.9.10. of which, being a better covenant, CHRIST is the mediator, v. 6. according to that Ioh. 1.17. The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by IESUS CHRIST. The same Covenant repeated by Ezechiel Chap. 36.26.27. The Gospell therefore or Covenant of Grace is not a new law, nor CHRIST a new law­giver (as the Papists absurdly teach, confounding the law and the Gospel; saving that they teach, that the Gospell requireth more perfect obedience to be perfor­med by our selves, then the law it selfe doth prescribe unto justification) but to them that are redeemed and justified by faith, it promiseth grace to walke in new obedience. How be it this is true, that men deprive themselves of what was promised in the Old Cove­nant by disobedience: So if men doe live in sin with­out faith, and without repentance, not so much as de­siring, caring, and endeavouring to worshippe God in holynes and righteousnes: they can have no assurance that they are within the covenant of grace, made one­ly with those that truly beleeve: God having promi­sed to those, which are redeemed and justified by faith, to give them grace to worshippe him, in holynes and righteousnes.

Secondly we note, that our justification and sancti­fication are both the free gifts of God, for it is he that redeemeth and justifieth, & it is he also that sanctifieth, which point needeth no proofe, seeing God doth sweare they are both his gifts. The use whereof in a word is, that both they, which want these benefits, be­ing [Page 30] neither freed from the guilt of their sinnes, nor pur­ged from their corruptions, may know where to seeke them: and also those that have them may be thanke­full to God the giver of them: which is the thing, whereunto the holy Ghost by Zachary exciteth us in this Psalme.

Now this gift promised by Oath (that I may come to the parts thereof) is twofold; our redemption or justification (for to be redeemed is to have our sins remitted Ephes. 1.7. Col. 1.14. and to have our sinnes remitted is to be justified) and the fruite or end of our redemption, which is our sanctification, consisting in the faithfull, sincere, and constant service of God in holynes and righteousnes.

Of these I am to speake, First, joyntly of both to­gether; and then of either of them severally. In the joynt consideration, we are to observe both the or­der, and conjunction of them. The order is plainely expressed by the Participle [...] that being delivered from the hand of our enemies we should worship him, &c. For the meaning of the holy Ghost is, that God would give us, both that we should be redeemed and delivered from the hand of our enemies; & also that we should worship him; But to note the order, he hath expressed the former part, which is the benefit of redemption, by the Participle, that being delivered from the hand of our enemies we should worship him, &c. which teacheth us, that before we can worship God aright, we must be de­livered from the bondage of our spirituall enemies, & that for two reasons. For first, naturally we are the ser­vants of sinne, and of Sathan. Being servants of sinne, we are in two respects utterly disabled from serving God, untill we be delivered out of this bondage, for [Page 31] first, being servants of sinne, we are free from righteousnes, Rom. 6.20. in respect of that privative corruption, which is in us all derived from our first parents; being a privation of Rom. 7.18.all spirituall goodnes, not onely in re­spect of the act, but also in respect of the habite & po­wer (as blindnes is of sight) being a meere impotencie to that which is spiritually good, in so much that not onely we doe not thinke, nor will, nor doe that which is good; but also we are not able thereunto, Of our selves we cannot so much as thinke a good thought, 2. Co­rinth. 3, 5. The naturall man doth not understand spiri­tuall things, neither can he understand them, 1, Corin. 2.14. Fulgentius, Do incarnat. & gratia. c. 13. saith well, that Adam by his sinne wholly lost the facultie of thinking those things which appertaine to God,Homo per pecca­tum facultatem bonae cogitatio­nis perdidis & bonae voluntatis. & also of willing that wch is good, and much more of doing that which is good; for will may be present when performance is wanting Rom. 7.18. But it is God that worketh in us both to will, and to doe, Phil. 2.13. In somuch that the faithfull them­selves, if they thinke, or will, or doe any thing that is good, may truly say every of them, 1. Cor. 15.10. not I, but the grace of God which is with me. For the carnall minde, or the disposition of our corrupt nature is not subject to the law of God, neither can it be, Rom. 8.7. Augustine truly saith, that man by his fall lost bonum possibilita­tis, and our Saviour professeth, that without him, or not being in him, we can doe nothing, Ioh. 15.5. Doth not the holy Ghost elsewhere [...]each the same, when he affirmeth that we are naturally dead in sinne, Ephes. 2.1.5. and therefore, as a dead man cannot performe the actions of the naturall life; no more can he, that is dead in sinne, performe the actions of the life spiri­tuall, likewise, when he calleth our recovery from sin, [Page 32] sometimes, the first resurrection, whereby the soule, which before was dead, is raysed as it were from the grave of sinne; sometimes, regeneration, whereby we being before dead, are quickened, and begotten a new unto God: Sometimes, new creation, by which we are made new creatures created unto good workes. For as the first creation was a motion from nothing to those things which are; so the new Chrysost. Eph [...] 10. [...]. &c. creation is a motion from our not being of grace, and spirituall goodnes, to a being thereof, which serveth notably to confute the erroneous conceipts of the patrones of freewill, the Pelagians, Papists; Arminians, and our new Anabaptists.

Secondly, being servants of sinne, sinne raigneth in us, as a Tyrant, without resistance, imposing upon us a necessitie of sinning. In respect whereof it may truly be said, that naturally we doe nothing but sinne, neither can we doe otherwise, but sinne. Our free-will by na­ture having (as Augustine saith) Nihil vale [...] ni­si ad peccandum. De spiritu & lit cap. 3. no habilitie but to sinne. For as the same Augustine saith Ad Bonifacium contr. 2. epist. Pe­lag. libr. 3. cap. 8. liberum arbi­trium captivitatum non nisi ad peccandum valet: ad ju­stitiā verò nisi divinitùs liberatū adjutum non valet. The frame of a mans thoughts and imaginations which the Apostle calleth [...], is evill, and one­ly evill, and that continually, Genes. and therefore of the same the Apostle Rom. 8.7. affirmeth, that it is not onely [...], but [...], not an enemie onely, but also enmitie against God. And for the same cause, our Saviour when Peter gave him carnall counsell, called him Sathan; and the reason, why he so called him, was, [...], [...] is minde and affect, the things which are of men Matth. 16.23. And S. Iames affirmeth, that that wisedome which is earthly, and carnall, is also [...] devillish, Iam. 3.15. As therefore it was well [Page 33] saide of Augustine, De natura & gratia contra Pelag. that man by his fall did loose bo­num possibilitatis; so as truly he did deny, that he re­tayneth possibilitatem non peccandi. And this is the e­state of all men in their pure naturalls, which the Phi­losophers doe magnify as good, and the Papists quali­fy as not evill. In regard whereof notwithstanding we may truly be said, besides the guiltines of Adams hainous transgressiō, to have but 2. faults; the one, that there is in us no goodnes spirituall, nor possibility of our selves, but a meere impotency to that which is good. The other, that there is in us naturally an evill disposition, and pronenesse unto all maner of sinne, which doth so domineere in us, that it imposeth a ne­cessity of sinning, so that by nature, as we doe no good, neither can we thinke, or will, or doe that which is good; so doe we nothing but sinne, neither can we doe any thing but sinne. And as we are naturally the ser­vants of sinne; so by sinne we are also the servants of the devill, who is the Prince, Ioh. 12.31. and God of this world, 2 Cor. 4.4. under whose subjection the whole world of the wicked lyeth, 1 Iohn 5.19. who is the powerfull Prince of the aire, working effectually in the children of disobedience, Eph. 2.2. carrying them a­way captive to doe his will. 2. Tim. 2.26.

This servitude to sinne and Sathan, the mystery of our redemption doth presuppose. For if wee were not captives, we needed not to be redeemed. And hee doth therefore redeeme us, that wee might serve him; and therefore before he doth actually redeeme us, we cannot serve him in holynes and righteousnes.

Secondly, we are by nature the children of wrath, Eph. 2.3. and enemies, yea rebells against GOD. [Page 34] And therefore untill we be reconciled unto him by the death of Christ, and justified by faith through the re­demption wrought by Christ; we cannot doe any thing which may be acceptable to God. for they that are in the flesh cannot please God Rom. 8 8. The per­son must be accepted, before his actions can be accep­ted; And without faith it is impossible to please God. Heb. 11.6.

Now if this be so, that we cannot serve God, or doe any thing that shall be accepted of him, unlesse we be first redeemed, justified, and reconciled to him: how doth it behove every one, that hath not yet obtayned these graces, to labour for them above all the things in this world? for untill then, he doth nothing but sinne, and by multiplying sinnes he doth hoard up wrath a­gainst the day of wrath.

The meanes on Gods part, is the preaching of the Gospell, which is therefore called the ministery of re­conciliation, which God hath committed to the Prea­chers thereof, by whō, as his Embassadours in Christs steed, he intreateth you to be reconciled unto God. 2. Cor. 5.18.20.

The meanes on our part, are faith prayer, and repen­tance. For if thou dost truly, and by a lively faith effe­ctually believe, that IESVS CHRIST is the Sonne of God, & Saviour of all that believe in him; thou art bound to believe also (or els thou makest God a lyar) that he is thy Saviour, & so believing thou art justified, & being justified by faith, thou shalt have peace with GOD.

Secondly, if the Lord who is the party offended, & needeth not thy friendshippe, desireth thee to be recon­ciled unto him▪ wilt not thou▪ who [...] the offendour, [Page 35] who also without his favour, shalt perish eternally; wilt not thou (I say) by hearty and earnest prayer desire him to be reconciled unto thee? Now if thou dost by the prayer of faith desire God to be reconciled unto thee; what should hinder thy reconciliatiō, when thou desirest that of God, which God by his Ministers desireth of thee?

3. But unto these two we must add the duety of re­pentance. For if we continue in sinne without repen­tance, and please our selues in displeasing God; how can we perswade our selues, that we desire to be reconciled unto him? and if we doe not desire to be reconciled, then are we the professed enemies of God, for whom remaineth the fearefull Heb. 10.1 [...]expectation of that judgment which shall destroy the adversaries of God. So much of the order.

Now we are to speake of the concurrence of these two graces. For when the Lord sweareth, that to those whom he redeemeth and justifieth, he will giue grace to worshippe him in holines and righteousnes; from hence we doe necessarily collect, that sanctification is an unseparable com­panion of justification; and that no man can have assurance, that he is justified, unlesse he be in some mea­sure sanctified. Let no man therefore deceive Iam. 2.14 himself with a vaine profession of an idle and dead faith, for unlesse thou doest, at the least, desire and endeavour to worship God in holines and righteousnes; it is as cer­taine. as the oath of the Lord is true, that as yet thou art not justified, nor actually made partaker of the re­demption wrought by Christ. It is true, that our Savi­our Christ in the dayes of his flesh, did redeme us meri­ [...]oriously, paying a ransome sufficient for all that [Page 36] should believe in him: but none are actually made partakers of this Redemption, but they to whom it is applyed; and it is applyed onely to those that truly be­lieve; and true faith purifieth Acts 15.9 the heart, and worketh Gal. [...].6 by love, and is to be demonst [...]ated Iam. [...] 18 by good workes. The same is elswhere taught in the Scriptures, 2. Cor. 5.17. Whosoever is in Christ, as all they are, that truly be­lieve in him, is a new creature, Gal. 5.24. Those that are Christs, as all they are that are actually 1 Cor. 15.19.20 redeemed by him, have crucified the flesh, with the passions and lustes thereof. Rom 8.1. They who are in Christ, walke not after the flesh, but after the spirit. The reason hereof is e­vident. For 1. they who are engraffed into CHRIST by faith, as all those are which truly believe in him, in them CHRIST dwelleth by his spirit (for Rom. [...].9 they are not his, who have not his spirit) applying unto them not onely the merit of his death, to their redemption, & the benefit of his resurrection to Rom. 4.25 their justification, but also the vertue Phil. 3.8.9 & efficacie of his death to mortify their sinnes, & of his resurrection to raise them to new­nes of life; so that for whose sinnes CHRIST died, they die to their sinne; and for whose justification he arose, they also rise to newnes of life The Apostle▪ Rom. 6.3.4. affirmeth, that those who haue beene baptized into CHRIST, were baptized into his death, and resurrection; that as CHRIST did die and rise a­gain; so they also die to sinne, & rise to newnes of life.

2. CHRIST was given unto us by his Father, not onely to be our justification and redemption; but also our sanctification, 1. Cor. 1.30. Neither did he come with bloud alone, or with water 1 Iohn 5: [...] alone, but as Saint Iohn in his Gospell carefully observeth, as a thing most remarkeable. Iohn 19.34.35. [Page 37] he came both with water and with bloud; with the bloud of redemption, to expiate the guilt of our sins, and with the water of ablution, or sanctification, to cleanse us from the corruption, 1. Ioh. 5.6. And in re­spect of both, his bloud doth cleanse us from all our sinnes, 1. Ioh. 1.7 from the guilt, perfectly, in our justi­fication, from the corruption, in part, and by degrees in our sanctification. See Hebr. 9.14.

3. Whosoever are the sonnes of God by adoption, as all those are Iohn. 1.12.13. that truly believe; they also are his by regeneration.

4. The same is implyed in the benefit of Redemp­tion, whereby CHRIST our blessed Saviour doth not onely redeeme us from the guilt of sinne, which bin­deth men over to damnation, but also from the bon­dage of sinne, that howsoever sinne doth remaine in the faithfull, yet it shall not reigne Rom. 6.14. in them, nor have dominion over them. For they that practise sinne, are the servants of sinne, Ioh. 8.34. & of Sathan, 1. Ioh. 3.8, in them sinne reigneth; and therefore they are not by CHRIST redeemed from the bondage of sin. For whom the sonne maketh free, they are free indeed, Ioh. 8.36.

5. The same is proved by the nature and properties of a true faith. For faith is a grace of regeneration, which the spirit of God, when he doth regenerate us, ingenerateth in us: whereby, as we are justified alone, because no other grace doth concurre with it to the act of justification: So are we sanctified in part, together with other graces; and therefore is never severed from the grace of regeneration, or from other sanctifying & saving graces, & further it is the property of faith ha­ving iustified us, inwardly to purifie the heart▪ Act. 15.9 & outwardly to worke by love, Galat. 5.6. Therefore, [Page 38] though to the act of justification, neither outward obe­dience, nor inward graces doe concurre with faith, as any cause thereof: Yet in the subject, that is, in the party justified, they must, and doe concurre, as necessa­ry fruites of a true and lively faith, without which it is dead. [...]m. 2.20. And therefore a true, lively justifying faith, is also a sanctifying faith.

Now, both from the order, and coniunction of these graces, we may inferre a singular cons [...]lation to all the true Children of God. For if there be such a conjunction betweene these two graces of justification and sanctification, that whosoever hath the one, hath also the other, and who hath not both hath neither: then it followeth necessarily, that, as he that is justified, is also sanctified; So he that is sanctified, is also justi­fied, and if the order betweene them be such, that a man cannot serve God in the duties of sanctification, untill he be justified, nor cannot worship God aright, untill he be redeemed from his spirituall enemies: then it followeth necessarily, that they who are in any true measure sanctified, are also justified; that they who sin­cerely desire, and endeavour to walke in the obedience of Gods holy will, making conscience of their wayes, are redeemed from the hand of their spirituall enemies. And not onely may we from our sanctification come to the certaine knowledge of our justification: but also we may thereby make our calling & our election sure. For dost thou, professing the true faith, endeavour to keepe a good conscience and to walke uprightly before God; then it is certaine, that thou art justified by a true faith; art thou justified? then it is certaine, that thou art effectually called art thou called according to Gods purpose? then without doubt thou are elected art [Page 39] thou elected? then undoubtedly thou shalt be saved. Seeing then such singular comfort ariseth from the leading of a godly and upright life, as that thereby we may make our calling and election sure, hereby we should all of us be excited to the study of godlines, and practise of piety: for the greatest comfort that we can have in this life, is to be assured of our election and sal­vation. But to the knowledge of our election, we can­not come à priori, by any thing going before, as the cause thereof, but à posteriori by the effects. The series or cha [...]ne of the degrees of salvation, may not unfitly be compared to Iacobs ladder, which reached from the earth to heaven, the lowest steppe whereof in this life is our sanctification, whereon, if we can set our foote, we may from thence arise to our justification, and from thence to our effectuall calling, & from thence to our election. But if we will without ascending by these degrees, take upon us to conclude the certainty of our election, we shall be like him, that being to goe up a ladder, would strive at the first, to set his foote on the highest steppe of the ladder, neglecting the lower de­grees.

CHAP. V. Of the partes of the gift severally, and first of Redemp­tion.

NOw we are to speake of the parts severally; & first, of Redemption, in these words, that we being deliuered out of the hand of our ene­mies, where we are to note 3. things.

  • 1. The parties that are redeemed.
  • 2. The partie, by whō, & after what maner.
  • 3. The parties from whom, our enemies.

[Page 40]1. The parties redeemed are We, who have Abra­ham to our father; that is to say, the faithfull: not all men, but those onely that believe. For so God loved the world, that he gave his onely begotten Sonne, that who­soever believeth in him, should not perish, but have ever­lasting life, Ioh. 3.16. thus he is said to have saved his people from their sinnes, Matth. 1.21. to lay downe his life for his sheepe, Ioh. 10.15. to have given himselfe for his Church, Ephes. 5.25 that he might redeeme us from all iniquitie, and might purifie to himselfe a peculiar people, Tit. [...].14. The Prophet Esay testifieth that Christ by his knowledge (that is by the acknowledgment of him, which is faith) shall justifie many; Esay 53.11, 12 for he shall beare their iniquities; and that he bare the sinne of many, and our Saviour himselfe Matth. 26.18. that his bloud was shed for many for remission of sinnes. It is true, that CHRIST his death is a sufficient price of ransome for the sinnes of the whole world: Yea of more worlds, if there were more then one, for his bloud and his sufferings, whereby he redeemed us, were the bloud Act. 20.28, and sufferings of him that was and is God▪ but yet they are effectuall onely to those that doe believe. For if CHRIST had redeemed all men, then all should be saved. For all that are redeemed are also justified, & all that are justified shall be glorified For, for whom CHRIST died, for them he hath satisfied the justice of his father, so that there is no condemnation to them, whom CHRIST hath redeemed. For whom CHRIST died, them by his death he reconciled to God, now they, who when they were enemies Rom. 5.10. were reconciled to God by the death of his Sonne; much more being reconciled shall be saved by his life: Neither may we thinke, that CHRIST would die for them, for whom [Page 41] he would not pray. But for the world saith he, Iohn 17. [...].that is for the company of the wicked and reprobates I pray not ▪ but for them whom thou hast given me out of the world. But if the Oath of an honest man, ought to be the end of controversie, much more ought the Oath of God in this place end this controversie con­cerning universall redemption. For God hath sworne, that to so many as he redeemeth, he will give them to worship him in holmes and righteousnes. But the grea­ter part of mankind have never the grace to worshippe God in holines and righteousnes, and therefore to them the benefit of redemption doth not belong.

Now, when we doe professe our selves to be the re­deemed of the Lord, we do withall confesse, that in our selves we are bondmen, and servants, whom CHRIST came to redeeme out of this bondage. But howsoever all will challenge to themselves the benefit of Re­demption, yet how few, in comparison, doe acknow­ledge their bondage? But like the unbelieving Iewes, when our Saviour promised them libertie, professe, that they never were in servitude, Ioh. 8.33. and so be­wray themselves not to be redeemed. But this humble conceipt of our selves before our justification is neces­sary for us, if either we would seeke to CHRIST, or have him to respect us. For if by nature we be not in bondage, what need we a redeemer? If not lost, what need we a Saviour? Mat. 9.12. The whole need not the Physitian, but they that are sicke, CHRIST came Mat. 9.13 not to call the righteous but sinners to repentance, to preach Luke 41 81 redemp­tion to the Captives, and to save that which was lost. He was given unto us of his father, to be our wisdome, our ustification, our redemption, our sanctification, our life, our salvation. If therefore we would be made [Page 30] partakers of these benefits, we must acknowledge our selves to be fooles in spirituall things, that in him we may become wise▪ guilty of death, and damnation, that in and by him we may be absolued and justified: defiled and polluted with sinne, that by him we may be sanctified: [...]ead in sinne, that in him we may be quick­ned and revived lost, that in h [...]m we may be saved: c [...]ptives and bondmen, that by him we may be re­deemed.

2. As touching the party by whom we are redeemed; the text saith; he would giue vs that we should be re­deemed: which, in the beginning of this Psalme is more plainly expressed: Blessed be [...]he Lord God of Israell, who hath visited, and redeemed his people, or as the words are hath wrought redemption to his people. how? by raysing an borne of salvation, that is, a mighty saviour for us, who according to the flesh was the Son of David. The father therfore redeemeth us by giving his sonne for us: the sonne redeemeth us, by giving himselfe to be a price of redemption for us. 1. Tim. 2.6. The holy ghost also redeemeth us, when working in us the grace of faith, he applieth unto us the benefit of redemption. The father redeemeth, as the gracious author and Donour; the Son as the meritorious wor­ker, the Holy Ghost, as the effectual applier. The good­will and love of God the Father is the [...] or antecedent moving cause, the death and obedience of Christ is the [...] or meritorious cause; the application of the Holy Ghost is the [...] or effe­ctuall cause, by which we are made actually partakers of redemption, which is the grace wrought by Christ, proceeding from the love of the father,2. Cor. 13.14. applied unto us by the communion or the Holy Ghost.

[Page 43]Now, here are divers things to be observed, 1. The infinite and unspeakeable love of God the father, in gi­ving his onely begotten Sonne, and of God the Sonne in giving himselfe for us; and of God the Holy Ghost the spirit of grace, in communicating unto us the mer­cy and love of God, and the merite and vertue of all that Christ did or suffered for us.

For the first herein is love, saith the beloved Apostle, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Sonne to be the propitiation for our sinnes. 1. Iohn 4.10. So God loved the world, so infinitely, so unspeakably, so beyond all comparison; that he gave his onely begotten Sonne, that whosoever believeth in him, should not perish, but have everlasting life. Iohn 3.16. And againe, Rom. 8.32. that he spared not his owne Sonne, but delivered him vp for us all. But herein especially God commendeth his love towards vs, that whilst we were sinners, and by sinne enemies, Christ died for us. Rom. 5.8.10.

If this love of God Rom. 5.5. be shed abroad in our hearts by his holy spirit, that is, if by the Holy Ghost work­ing in us faith, we are truly perswaded and assured of it, these effects will follow, 1. that we shall love God a­gaine, the beames of his love inflaming our hearts, and reflecting back some heat of love. For therefore do we love God, because he loved us first. 1. Ioh. 4.19. Magnes a­moris amor: Love is the loadstane of love. The woman in the Gospell, who had many sins remitted, did there­fore love much. Luk. 7.47. If it be demaunded, why, and how we should love God, I answere with Bernard, Lib. de dilig. Deum ini [...]. Causa diligendi Deum Deus est Lib. de dilig. Deum ini [...]. modus, sine modo dili­gere. God is good without measure, and without mea­sure he hath loved vs, therefore without measure, if it were possible, we ought to love him with all our heart, [Page 44] with [...]. Mat. 22.37. all our soule, and with all our might. Or if we cannot doe so by reason of the flesh, yet at the least with an vpright soule, and a sincere heart, to the utter­most of our power. And this our love we must expresse Ioh 14.15. E [...]ed. 20.6, by keeping his commandements, and that willingly. For this, saith S. Iohn, is the love of God, [...] Ioh. 5.3 that we kepe his commandements, and his commandements are not grievous.

2. We shall love our neighbour for the Lords sake, it is the use which S. Iohn maketh in the place e­ven now cited, 1. Iohn 4.10.11 Herein is love, not that we loved God but that he loved vs▪ and sent his sonne to be the propitiation for our sinnes. Beloved (saith he) if God so loved us, we ought also to love one another.

3. The persuasion of this love of God affordeth un­to us singular comfort, in divers respects. As first in af­flictions. For therefore doe we glory Rom. 5, 3, 4.5 in afflictions, knowing that tribulation worketh patience, and pati­ence experience, and experience hope, & hope maketh not ashamed, because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the holy Ghost which is given unto us that is, because by faith wrought in us by the holy Ghost, we are perswaded of the love of God in Christ, which love God commendeth towards us, in that, when we were sinners, Christ died for us.

The second comfort. If God did so love us, when we were his enemies; much more when by Christ wee are become his friends. For if when we were enemies Rom. 5.10. we were reconcilea unto God by the death of his Sonne, much more being reconciled we shall be sav [...]d by his life.

The third comfort. If God so loved us, that he spared not his owne Sonne, but delivered him vp for us all, how shallbe not then with him also freely give us all things. [Page 45] Rom. 8.32. all things that be expedient for us.

2. The love also of God the Sonne exceedeth all know­ledg. Eph. 3.19. who so loved the Church, that he gave himselfe for it, Eph. 5.25. who so loved us, that he washed us from our sinnes in his owne bloud. Apoc. 1.5. Greater l [...]ve hath no man then this, that a man lay downe his life for his friends. Ioh. 15.13. But Christ our sweet saviour, being not onely man, but God also; gave himselfe not for his friends, but for his enimies; and that, not to a common and ordinary death, but to the most painfull, most shamefull and most accursed death of the crosse, and not onely to suffer a corporall death, but also in his soule to undergoe the wrath of God in our steed; the feare whereof, when he was in that grievous ago­ny, caused him to sweat great dropps of bloud, Luk. 22.44. and the sence thereof on the crosse, being in his owne sence as a man forsaken of God, made him cry out, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? Mat. 27.6.

The acknowledgment of this wonderfull love of CHRIST, ought first to worke in us a love in some measure answerable to his; that as he gave himselfe for us an offering and sacrifice to God for a sweet smelling savour. Eph. 5.2. so we should present our bodies a li­ving sacrifice, holy and acceptable unto him, which is our reasonable service, Rom. 12.1. And as he gave himselfe for us, so should we be willing and ready, if oc­casion serve, to lay downe our lives for him, the rather because he hath promised, that whosoever shall loose his life for his sake; & the Gospells, shall save it, Marc. 8.35. We owe our selves unto CHRIST in a double or treble respect: first, for that in our creation he gave us to our selves: secondly, because in our redemption, [Page 46] when we were lost, he restored us to our selves: third­ly, when in restoring us, he gave himselfe for us. For our selves given and restored, we may and ought to give and render our selves; but what retribution shall we make him for himselfe? For though we should give and render our selves to him, or for him a thousand times, yet what are we to him? as Bernard Lib. de dilig. Deo. sweetly ar­gueth.

Secondly, we are to imitate our blessed Saviour, as the Apostle exhorteth us in respect of his love, shew­ing it selfe in his wonderfull humiliation and obedi­ence for us. Phil. 2.5. Let the same minde be in you which was in Christ Iesus, who being God coequall with his Father, for our sakes abased himselfe to become man: and being man, humbled himselfe, not onely to all a­ctive obedience, performing all righteousnes, as being made subject to the Law for us; but also to the passive obedience, being obedient to death, even the death of the Crosse; & all this for us men, & for our salvation.

Thus you have heard the love of the Father, in giving his Sonne, and the love of the Sonne, in gi­ving himselfe for us; whereunto we may add the love both of the Father and the Sonne, in sending the holy Spirit, the spirit of love to accomplish our redemption, and also of the Holy Ghost, who furnisheth with his graces, and furnished, sendeth forth the Embassadours and Ministers of God, committing unto them the meanes of our salvation; in and by which, he having united us to CHRIST, and made us partakers of him, he worketh effectually in the hearts of Gods chosen, all those saving and sanctifying graces, whereby they are not onely entituled unto Gods Kingdome, but also fitted and prepared for the same.

[Page 47]But as in the worke of our Redēption we have observed the wonderfull love of God: so in the second place we are to observe his infinite justice manifested in the same. For such is the justice of God, that rather then he would suffer the sinnes of his owne elect children to goe unpunished, he hath punished them in the death of his onely begotten Sonne. The cōsideration whereof ought to strike a terror in them, that doe not believe, nor repent. For if God punished the sinnes of the faith­full in CHRIST, what shall become of them, who have no part in CHRIST? undoubtedly every sinne, as it de­serveth death, so is it punished with death; either with the death of CHRIST in the behalfe of them that be­lieve, or with the death of the parties themselves, who are not in CHRIST. And as it ministreth terror to the wicked; so it affordeth singular comfort to the faith­full, who are in CHRIST. For they may from the con­sideration of this justice of God, safely conclude; that to them, being in CHRIST, there is not onely no con­demnatiō, but not so much as any punishments so pro­perly called, which in order of justice is inflicted by way of vengeance to satisfy the justice of God. For CHRIST having fully satisfied the justice of his Fa­ther in the behalfe of all them that believe; it cannot stand with the justice of God to punish the same sinnes in the party, which he hath already punished in CHRIST. The children of God are indeed subject to manifold afflictions, which are mala poena, but unto them the nature of them is changed, so that they be not punishments to them, but either fatherly chastisements, (for when 1 Cor. 11.32 we are iudged, that is, afflicted for our sinnes, we are chastised of the Lord, that wee should not be con­demned with the world) or els trialls for their good.

[Page 48]Thirdly, we observe how haynous, and how dete­stable our sinnes are in the sight of GOD: the guilt whereof could not be expiated, no [...] the justice of GOD satisfyed, no [...] his wrath for them appeased, by any o­ther meanes, but by the most precious bloud of the e­ternall Sonne of GOD. That both in respect of our sinnes past we should be touched with remorse, when we consider that by our sinnes we nayled our Saviour to the crosse, (to which end we are to pray, that the Lord would poure upon us Zach: 12, 10 the spirit of grace and supplication, that when we locke upon him, whom we have pierced we might lament and mourne, as a father mourneth for his onely sonne:) and also in respect of the time to come, we should not be animated to com­mit any sinne, as being small; seeing there is none so small, but the price of it was the precious bloud of CHRIST: none so light, but that if we be not eased from the burthen of it by the merits of CHRIST, it is of sufficient weight to presse us downe to hell.

The third thing to be considered in the doctrine of redemption, are the enemies from whom we are deli­vered; which are not carnall, as the Iewes imagine, dreaming that their Messias should be a temporal Mo­narch, who having subdued their enemies, which held them in subjection, should restore the Kingdome to Is­raell, but spirituall. And these are the law, sinne, death, & the devill; the law being the strength of sinne, sinne the sting of death, and death the power of the devill, from the hand, that is, from the power of all which our Sa­viour CHRIST hath delivered us.

If it be demaunded, why among the enemies I doe not reckon the world. I answere, if by World, be meant worldly desires, as 1. Ioh. 2.15.16. they are comprehen­ded [Page 49] under the title of sinne: if wicked worldlings, they are but the seed of the serpent, and the instruments of the Devill. And in both sences, not onely our Saviour hath overcome the world for us, Iohn 16.33. but the faithfull also in and by him. 1. Iohn

The law by reason of our transgression is an enemy unto us; whether we consider the yoke of the ceremo­niall law, or the bondage wherein the morall law did hold us. From the yoke of the ceremoniall laws, [...] which neither we nor our fathers were able to beare; our Sa­viour CHRIST delivered us, blotting out or cancel­ling the hand-writing of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, & tooke it out of the way, nay­ling it to his crosse, Col 2.14 and abolishing in his [...] the enmity, even the law of the commandements consisting in ordinances. Eph. 2.15.

And as touching the morall law, our Saviour hath delivered us, first from the curse of the law, and conse­quently from all punishments of sinne whether tem­porall or eternall, himselfe being made a curse for us. Gal. 3.13. and not onely so, but hath also made us par­takers of the blessednes promised in him to Abraham, and to his seed, that is, to all the [...]a [...]hfull, who are the heires of promise.

2. From the rigour and exaction of the law, exa­cting of us perfect righteousnes, inherent in us, & per­fect obedience to be performed by us to our justificatiō, by performing perfect righteousnes in his own portion for us, by which righteousnes being apprehended by faith; wee are justified before GOD, without the workes of the law, that is, without respect of any righteousnes inherent in us, or obedience performed by vs. Rom. 3.28. Now this twofold bon­dage [Page 50] was most miserable; to be subiect to the fearfull curse of God, if we did breake the lawe, when we could doe nothing els but breake it: and to be excluded from justification and salvation, if we did not perfectly fullfill the lawe, which by reason of the flesh is impossible un­to us▪ Rom. 8.3.

3. From the terrour, and coaction of the lawe wor­king servile feare in those, who are under the lawe, for­cing them by feare of punishment, as bondslaves by the wh [...]p; to the outward, though unwilling performance of it. From this spirit of 2 Tim. 1.7. fearfullnes, which is also called the spirit Rom. 8.15. of bondage, CHRIST hath freed us, that as a voluntary people Ps. 110.3. Zelou [...] of good works Tit. 2.14. we may worshipp God [...], as it followeth in my text, without servile feare, with vp­right hearts and willing mindes 1. Chron. 28.9. as not being under the lawe, but under grace.

4. From the irritation of the lawe, in regard whereof especially it is called the strength of sinne. 1. Cor. 15.56. whereunto our owne corruptions did make us subject, as unto Rom 7.15. an husband, begetting foule issue by us tend­ing to death. For such is the corruption of our untam­ed nature, untill we be renewed by the spirit of GOD, that when the lawe, which is holy & good, forbiddeth sinne, and seeketh to bridle our sinfull affections; like an untamed colt it rebelleth so much the more; and that it might appeare exceedingly sinnfull, taketh occasion by the lawe forbidding sinne, to worke in us all manner of concupiscence, Rom. 7.8.13. But when we being adopted in CHRIST are also regenera­ted by the spirit, and so made dead to [...]; we are mortified to the lawe, and the lawe to us, in respect of this irritation accidentally caused [Page 51] by our corruption, alwayes prone to that which is for­bidden: and consequently are delivered from the bon­dage of the lawe,Rom. 7.2. &c. as of a former husband being dead.

Secondly we are by CHRIST freed from death, both frō the first death, as it is a punishment, & from the se­cond. For as of all other afflictions, so of death the na­ture is changed in respect of the faithfull, to whom it is not a punishment or curse, the sting of it (which is sin) being takē away; but rather a blessing; no losse, but ad­vantage, because to them it is the end of sinne, & conse­quently of all misery, the beginning of happines, a pas­sage frō the vale of teares to the kingdome of glory, the end of a mortal life, & the beginning of a life immortall

Likewise from the second death, for he hath delivered us from the wrath that is to come. 1. Thess. 1.10. so that to them that are in Christ, there is no condemnation Rom. 8 1 this being the maine promise of the Gospell, that whosoever believeth in him shall not perish, but have everlasting life. Ioh.

Thirdly from the power of the devill: that howso­ever he may assault us, yet he shall not hurt [...]s. Because he that is in us, being greater then he that is in the world. 1. Ioh. 5.18. hath overcome this strong man. Luk. 11.22. and hath bound him, as being stronger then he. For by his death he hath overthrowne him that had the power of death, that is the devill, delivering them who through feare of death were all their life time subiect to bondage. Heb. 2.14.15. and having spoiled principali­ties and powers (meaning the devill and his angells) he hath made a shew of them openly, and triumphed over them on the crosse. Col. 2.15.

4. But the most pernicious enimy is that which we carry in our owne bosome; and that is sinne, from [Page 52] which if we [...]e freed, we are delivered from all the rest. For if we be delivered from sinne, then are we freed from the curse of the law, from the evill of death ha­ving lost his stinge, from the danger of damnation be­ing abs [...]lved from the guilt of sinne, from the malice of sathan, who, if we be freed from sinne, hath nothing to object against us. For who shall lay any thing to the charge of Gods elect? it is God that doth justify, who shall condemne? CHRIST having dyed and being risen againe sitteth at the right hand of his father ma­king intercession for us. Rom. 8.33.34. Therfore in the scriptures the whole benefit of our redemption is ex­pressed sometimes by deliverance from sinne as Eph. 1.7 Col. 1.14. By Christ we have redemption, viz. remission of sinnes. For therfore Christ gave himselfe for us, that he might redeeme us from all iniquity. Tit. 2.14. 1. Pet. 1.18. Act. 3.25.26. Now, from sinne he doth deli­ver us; first, in respect of the guilt thereof by justi­fying us, and reconciling us unto God, Act. 13.38.39. 2. Cor. 5.19.

Secondly, in respect of the corruptiō of si [...]ne▪ (which he mortifieth in us by degrees,) he freeth us from the bondage and dominion of sinne, that howsoever▪ it re­maineth in the children of God, yet it shall no more raigne in them Rom. 6.14.

The use of this doctrine concerning our redemptiō is.

First, seing CHRIST our saviour hath redeemed us from our enemies, that therfore we should not stand in feare of them, according to that Esay. 43.1. feare not, for I have redeemed thee, but as we are taught in the next words, we should all the dayes of our life worship him without feare & in the end of our daies cōmēd our soules into the hand of God, saying with David Ps 3 [...]. [...] [Page 57] Into thy hands I commend my spirit, for thou hast re­deemed me Lord God of truth.

2. When we have sinned against God, the remem­brāce of our redēptiō should encourage us to returne unto him by unfained repentance, as himselfe exhor­teth. Es. 44.22 These things, saith St. Iohn, I write unto you, that you sinne not but if any man doe sin, we haue an advocate with the father, Iesus Christ the righ­teous, & he is the propitiatiō for our sins. 1. Ioh. 2.1.2.

3. Seing our saviour hath redeemed and bought us with [...]o great a price, therfore we ought to acknowledg him to be our Lord in the right of redē [...]tiō & our selves not to be our owne men, but his servants. For therfore Christ died & rose againe to life, that he might be the Lord both of the quick & of the dead. Rom 14.9. And if we acknowledge him to be our Lord, we must be carefull to doe his will, otherwise in vaine doe we call him so. Why doe you call me Lord, and doe not the things that I cōmand you? Luk. 6.46. Not every one that saith, Lord Lord, shall enter into the kingdome of heaven, but he that doth the will of my father which is in heaven. Mat. 7.22. Againe, being bought with a price, we are not our owne men, but his that bought us: and therfore ought not to seeke our selves, or the satisfying of our owne lusts; but to glorifie God both in our bodies and in our spirit, which are not ours but Gods. 1. Cor. 6.19.20. That body is not thine to spend in sinne, but is to be of­fered unto God, as an holy & acceptable sacrifice▪ That tongue is not thine owne, as the wicked say of theirs. Ps. 12 4. to use or rather abuse at thy pleasure, but to be used to the glory of God. That heart is not thine to be addicted to wordly vanities, but to be givē to God. In a word, Christ died for all, that they which live should [Page 54] not henceforth live to themselves, but unto him which di­ed for them, and rose againe. 2. Cor. 4 15.

4. Seeing CHRIST hath given himselfe for us to free us from our enemies, let us stand fast in that liber­tie which Christ at so deare a price purchased for us; and not suffer our selves to be entangled againe with the yoke of bondage. Gal. 5.1. For what can be, either more dis­honourable to our Redeemer, then that we should re­volt from him to serve sinne and Sathan, or more per­nicious to our selves; for then our latter end should be worse then our beginning. 2. Pet. 2.20. Remember the Israelites, who being redeemed out of Egypt, for desi­ring to returne, perished in the wildernes. Remember Luke 17. [...]. Lots wife, who, being delivered out of Sodome, for looking back was turned into a [...]illar of salt. The which I speake not as though I thought, that a man who is once truly justified, and redeemed, can either totally or finally fall away from saving grace: but to admonish those, who thinke 1 Cor. 10▪12. they stand, to take heed that they doe not fall For if any professing himselfe to be redee­med, shall fall away, his example will not prove, that a man may fall from saving grace: but his falling away will evidently prove, that he was never in the state of grace. 1 Ioh. 2.19.3, 9.

5. For asmuch as Christ our Passeover 1 Cor. 5.8. is sacrificed for us, we should purge out the old leaven, and keepe a perpetuall feast of unleavened bread (signified by the 7 daies of that feast,) not with the leaven of hypocri­sy, [...]or with the old leaven of naughtines, but with the unleavensd graces of sincerity and truth: but especially when we celebrate the memory of our redemption on the Lords day, or in any of our Lords feasts, or at the celebrating of the holy Communion, which is the anti-type [Page 55] to the Passeover.

6 Lastly, we are to be heartily thankefull unto God, for this inestimable benefit, whereby we, being utterly lost by sinne, and therefore in our selves worse then nothing (for better were it not to be, then being lost, not to be redeemed) are restored to a better estate then we lost in Adam. And this our thankfulnes we are to expresse, partly by thanksgiving, whereunto we are ex­cited in this Psame, according to that before cited, Ps. 107.2. Let them give thanks whom the Lord hath redee­m [...]d, and delivered from the hand of the enimy. For therfore hath our Saviour redeemed us, that he might make us Priests, Apoc. 1.5.6. or as S. Peter speaketh; an holy Priesthood, to offer the spirituall sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving to God; and pattly, by seeking to glorify God, who hath beene so gracious to us, by bringing forth the fruite, and performing the end of our [...]edemption, which is the faithfull and sincere wor­ship of God in holines and righteousnes all the dayes of our life. Of which I am now to speake.

CHAP. VI. The fruite and end of our redemption, viz. the true worship of God in holines and righteousnes.

THe second part of the gift promised by oath, is, [...], to worshippe or serve him, &c. which is both the end and fruite of our redemption. The consideration of which end is of great importance. For if we know not to use aright any of the least gifts or creatures of God, unlesse we know the true end thereof (for to the end the right use is referred:) it is more then probable, that he shall ab­use [Page 56] this great benefit of redemption, if we have not re­spect to the end therof; which is our sanctification. For else what can be the cause of such dissolute living, as is every where to be seene among those who professe themselves redeemed by CHRIST, but a foolish opi­nion, that CHRIST having freed them from their sinnes, they may sinne the more freely▪ and that he ha­ving dyed for their sinnes, they need not to die to them, & so abuse the grace Iude 4. of God unto wantōnes. For if our sanctification be the end of our redemption then do we abuse this great benefit of GOD, if we doe not referre it to this end. yea rather, we deceive and a­buse our selves with a vaine opinion of our redemptiō. For if this be the end of our redemption, then those that live in sinne as the servants of sinne, either are not redeemed (for whō Christ the sonne maketh free, they are free indeed) or els they are redeemed in vaine, for that is in vaine which is frustrate of the end.

Now that sanctification is the end of our redemption, it may be proved by the testimonies of holy scripture, and also by sound reasons drawne from thence. Tit. 2.14. Christ hath given himselfe for us, that he might re­deeme us from all iniquity, and that he might purify or sanctify to himselfe a peculiar people, zelous of good wor­kes. Eph. Christ loved his church & gave himselfe for it, that he might sanctify and clense it with the washing of water by the word, that he might present it to himselfe a glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing, but that it should be holy and without blemish. Col. 1.21.22. You that were enimies Christ hath reconciled in the body of his flesh through death to present you holy & unblameable in his sight. 1. Pet. 2. [...]4 Christ himselfe bare our sinnes in his owne body, on the tree, that we, being dead to sinne should live unto righteousnes.

[Page 57]The reason is evident. For that which is the end of all Gods blessings in this life, both spirituall and tem­porall, must needs be the end of our Redemption. But our sanctification is the end of all Gods blessings in this life. 1. Thess. 4.3. This is the will of God even your sanctification; this is that which God willeth, and in­tendeth in bestowing his benefits upon us. He hath e­lected us, that we might be holy. Eph. 1.4. he created us after his owne image, that we might worship him in holines and righteousnes, Eph. 4.24. he hath called us to holines 1. Thess 4.7 and we are called to be Saints, or Saints by calling, Rom. 1.7. 1. Cor. 1.2. he doth rege­nerate us to the same end. For we are the workmanship of God created in Iesus Christ unto good workes, which God hath before ordayned that we should walke in them. Eph. 2.10. To the same end he hath planted us in his Church▪ that we might be called trees of righteousnes, bringing forth fruite to his glory, Es 61.3. and finally to the same end he bestoweth his temporall benefits u­pon us. The Psalmist having in the 105 Psalme recoun­ted the manifold blessings of God bestowed upon the Israelites, in the last verse he concludeth this to be the end of all, that they might observe his statutes and keepe his lawes.

And as it is the end, so also the fruite of our redem­ption; as it is plainly delivered in this text, that he would give us, that we being deliuered from the hand of our ene­mies, should worship him without feare in holines and righteousnes. More plainly, Rom. 6.22. Being made free from sinne, and become servants to God, we have our fruit unto holines, and the end everlasting life. And to these, we may add Heb. 9▪ 13. [...]4. For if the bloud of bulls and goats, and the ashes of an heyfer sprinckling the uncleane, [Page 58] sanctifieth to the purifying of the fl [...]sh: how much more shall the bloud of Christ, who through the eternall spirit of­fered himselfe without spot to God, purge our consciences from dead workes to serve the living God. And Tit. 2.11.12. The saving grace of God hath appeared to all (namely both by deed & by word: [...]n deed by sending CHRIST to redeeme us. 2. Tim. 1.9.10. 1. I [...]hn [...].9 10. by word in publishing this benefit of redemption by the preaching of the Gospell,) the fruit whereof is this, teaching us, that we renouncing all ungodlines, & worldly lusts, should live soberly and justly, and holily in this pre­sent world, expecting the happy hope, that is, the happines hoped for &c.

Seeing then that holines of life is both the end and fruite of our redemption, and of all other the gifts of God, let us labour to attayne to this end, and to bring forth this fruite so shall we shewe our selves thankfull unto God for this and all other his benefits, and shall also make, not onely out justification and redemption, but also our calling and election sure 2. Pet. 1.10.

But on the contrary, if professing our selves redee­med by CHRIST, we live in sinne, as the servants of sinne, then are we most unthankfull unto God, this be­ing the end of our redemption, and the onely fruite, which he expecteth in lieu of this and all other his be­nefits: and most injurious to our selves, not onely de­priving our selves of all assurance of our salvation, but also drawing upon our selves most deserved damnati­on. And let us know, that the foundation of GOD which is sure, hath this seal [...]: let every one that nameth the name of CHRIST, depart from iniquity. 2. Tim. 2.19.

But let us come to the words: whereof there may [Page 59] be some doubt, how they are to be translated; whether that we might, or that we should worship him? Both are included: the words are [...], that he would give us to worship him: including both to can and to will, and also to doe. But we must remember that our new obedience, which is the fruite of our redemption, standeth in the study of piety, that is, in the truth of our desires, uprightnes of our will, and purpose, since­rity of our care and endeavours, rather then in the per­fect performance, the Lord in his children accepting the will for the deed By which desire, will, and endea­vour, though we doe not perfectly fulfill the law, yet we may be truly said to keepe it. And if we have this unfained desire, sincere purpose, and upright en­deavour to please God in the duties of piety and chari­ty; we shall be accepted of God, according to the cove­nant of grace, as true worshippers of God in holines & righteousnes. This caution is carefully to be remem­bred; otherwise, the greatest part of true Christians might seeme to be excluded out of the covenant of grace, and out of the number of them that are redee­med by CHRIST.

CHAP. VI. The worship of God in holines and righteousnes.

NOw this worship of God, which is the fruite and end of our redemption, is here notably described, by the parts and properties there­of. The parts are holines and righteousnes. For by holines, you are to understand the dueties of the first Table, viz. of piety and religion towards God by [Page 60] righteousnes, the duties of the second table, which we owe unto men, And of these we are to speake, first, joyntly, of them both together, and then of either of them severally.

Holines and righteousnes, as they are here joyned to­gether by the holy Ghost, so in practise they may not be severed. Those that are in Christ are new 2 Cor. 5.17 creatures, renewed according to the image of God in Eph. 4.24. true holines and righteousnes. And in this place the Lord hath pro­mised to give to those that are redeemed, to worshippe him, not in holines alone, nor in righteousnes alone but in holines and righteousnes. And therfore those things, which God hath conjoyned, let no man sever. for these two are so conjoyned by God, that whoso­ever hath the one▪ hath the other: and whosoever hath not both, hath neither of them in deed and in truth. He that loveth God, loveth his neighbour also. 1. Ioh. 4.21 neither can a man love God in truth, that loveth not his brother also, as St. Iohn argueth. If any man say I love God, & hateth his brother, he is a lyar, for he that loveth not his brother whom he hath seene, how can he love God, whom he hath not seene? 1. Iohn. 4.20. for true is the old saying, [...], of seeing comes lo­ving.

Neither can a man love his neighbour as he ought, but he will love God much more, For our brother is to be loved in the Lord; and for the Lord. And it was well said of Bernard licet aliquid diligere preter Deū, modo id diligamus propter Deum. Now it is a rule in Philosophy. [...] for what any thing is, that is much more. Therfore if we love our brother for Gods sake, then doe we love God much more.

[Page]Here therefore two sorts of men are to be reproved. The former is of those, who would seme to be forward professors of religion and piety towards God, that are very backward in the dueties of cha [...]ity and righteous­nes to their brethren▪ such were the Phatisies, whom our saviour calleth hypocrites, bidding us to beware of the leaven of the Pharisies, which is hypocrisie for sayeth he unlesse your righteousnes exceed the righteous­nes of the scribes and Pharisies, you shall not enter into the kingdome of heaven. Mat. 5.20.

These men are wont to discover their hypocrisy, part­ly by their words, and partly by their works. By their words, being evill speakers detracters, and depravers of their brethren: who with the same tongue blesse God, & curse man, who is made after the similitude of God Iam. 3.9. But the said St. Iames ch. 1.26. hath given his censure of these men.

For saith he, if any man among you seeme to be religious and bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his owne heart, this mans religion is vaine: By their works: cloaking under the shewe of religion hard dealing and deceipt; having Iacobs voice, and Esau's hands; scandalizing the profession of religion by their hypocrisy. The holy Ghost therfore to discover such hypocrits, when he would sett downe the marks and notes of men truly re­ligious, describeth them commonly by the dueties which they performe to their brethren: making them the touchstone, as it were, of their piety and religion towards GOD. Psalm. 15. and 24. Iam. 1.27.

The other sort is of those, who professing themselves to be christians are but civill honest men, void of piety, and religion towards GOD. I speake not against [Page 62] civill honesty, which is very commendable and neces­sary; in so much as they who want it are worse then some of the hearthen that know not God. For many of the heathen were of a civill and honest conversation, yea some of thē excelled in morall vertues But I would not have a Christian to rest, in a faire outward civill conversation among men, as though no more were re­quired of him. For if a man, pro [...]essing himselfe a Chri­stian, shall have no more in him then the Paganes who knew not GOD: can such a one be esteemed a sownd Christian? Our love of men must proceed from the love of God; the streames of our justice and charity towards men, must be detived from the fountaine of piety towards God. without Heb. 11 6. faith it is impossible to please God. without faith, without piety, without the feare of God, without repentance, the best actions of civill honest men, are but splendida peccata. The chief­est care of a Christian must be to worship God, first in the duties of piety and religion; and secundarily in the duties of righteousnes and charity towards men.

But the meere civill honest man neither worshippeth, God in the dueties of piety, nor yet in the dueties of righteousnes; which he performeth as a meere naturall man, without any respect or relation had unto God▪ and therfore cannot be said in doing those duties to serve God in righteousnes, as not performing them in obedience to God, or for Gods sake.

Now if they which want either of these are not to be deemed sownd Christians, what shall we say of those which have neither; yea that not so much as seeme to have either? profane and wicked men, who professing themselves Christians, that is to say men redeemed by CHRIST, turne Iud. 4. the grace of GOD into wantōnes being [Page 63] in name Christians, in deed Atheists. professing them­selves to know GOD, but Tit. 1.16. in deed denying him, being ab­ominable and disobedient and to every good worke repro­bate.

Now we are to speake of either of them severally; but bri [...]fly, and in a word. For if I should treat of them at large; under the title of holines, I should discourse of all the duties required in the first table of the decalogue; in all which we must think our selves bound to worship God, if we will worship him in holines. And under the name of righteousnes I should treat of all the dueties of the second table, all which we must endevour to per­forme to our neighbour in obedience to God, if we would be thought to worshipp or to serve him in righ­teousnes.

But first, we are to speak of holines; because that is the first and the great commaundement. Mat. 22.38.

That holines is a fruite of our redemption, the holy Ghost doth plainely testify Rom. 6.22. Being freed from sinne and made servants to God, you have your fruite unto holines, and the end everlasting life. And that it is also the end of our redemption, St. Paul wit­nesseth Eph. 5.27. Col. 1.22. And as it is the fruite and end of our redemption and justification in part▪ so is it also a necessary forerunner of glorification. And therfore if we shall truly worship the Lord in holines, we may be assured, that the Lord hath redeemed us▪ and consequently, as we have the fruite of our re­demption in holines; so shall we have the end therof, which is the salvation of our soules. Rom. 6.22. Apoc. 20.6. But contrary wise, if our conversation be unholy and unpure, as we want the fruite of our redemption, so shall we never attaine to the end therof, which is [Page 64] everlasting life. For as the holy Ghost witnesseth Heb. 12.14. without holines no man shall see God.

Righteousnes also, as hath bene said, is in part the fruite and end of our redemption▪ for being freed from sinne we become the servants of righteousnes, Rom. 6.18. and therfore did our saviour in his owne body on the tree beare our sinnes, that we dying [...] sinne might live unto righteousnes. 1. Pet. 2.24.

But here some may object; if righteousnes contayne the duties which we owe to man, whither our brethren or our selves; how is it here f [...]nd, that we are to wor­ship or serve God in righteousnes? Answ. This teach­eth us, that the dueties which we owe to man, are to be performed in obedience to God, and for his sake, seeking and intending his glory therein. And being so done, he esteemeth them as done to himselfe, and ac­cordingly doth he reward them. vis mereri Deū saith one Hugo de 5. victore tom. 3. de sacram. l. [...]. par [...]. 13. c. 11. wouldest thou in thy dueties to man indeere thy service to God, fac quod facis propter Deum. Doe what thou doest for GODS sake. Now if our dueties to man be done in obedience to God, then in performing them we serve God. If we doe them for his sake, then in ser­ving our brethren by love, we serve him much more. If seeking & intending his glory therein as the supreme end, we doe thereby glorify him, and cause him to be glorified by others; If he esteeme them as done to him­selfe, then in the dueties of love whereby we serve one an other (Gal. 5.13) we doe service to God and such a service, as is more acceptable to him, then the outward du [...]t [...]e o [...] his owne worship or service. For when the Prophet Micah was demaunded this question: where­with shall I come before the Lord, and bow my selfe before the high GOD? shall I come before him with br [...]t offe­rings, with calves of a yeare old? will the Lord be pleased [Page 65] rings with calves of a yeare old? will the Lord be pleased with thousands of rammes, or with tenne thousand rivers of oile? shall I give my first-borne for my transgression, the fruite of my body for the sinne of my soule? The Prophet maketh answer, he hath shewed thee O man what is good; and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to doe justly, and to [...] mercy, and to humble thy selfe to walke with thy God? Mic. The fast which God accepteth, is to fast from the sinnes of unrighteousnes and oppression, and to performe the duties of charity and justice. Es. 58.6.7. Their Religion also God doth approve as pure and undefiled, who exercise the workes of mercy and charity to those that are in misery, I am. 1.27. and such will he pronounce blessed at the last day, who have approved their faith and piety by doing the workes of Mat. 25.34.40. mercy and charity to the poore members of CHRIST, which he esteemeth as done to him­selfe. And let me add this for the comfort of true Christians, who walke uprightly in a lawfull calling, though it be never so meane, that by doing the workes of their calling justly in obedience to God, seeking Gods glory in the good of their brethren, they worship God in righteousnes. And let them assure themselves, that their lawfull & honest calling is that station, wher­in the Lord hath placed them to serve him in righte­ousnes. But they must remember withall, that they who so serve him in righteousnes, must also, and that principally, be carefull to worship him in holines. And this is to be understood of civill callings. But as touch­ing the Ministers of Gods word, this may further be added for their comfort, that so many of them as with good conscience take paines in their function, whether in their private studies, or in their publike ministery, [Page 66] seeking to glorifie God in the edificatiō of the Church, or the members thereof: they doe worship God both in holines and in righteousnes.

By this which hath bene said it plainly appeareth, that howsoever we are freed from the curse the rigour, the terror, and irritation of the law; yet we are not freed frō the obedience of the law morall. For freedome from obedience, and righteousnes, is the servitude of sinne. But we are freed frō the bondage of sinne, that we may be enabled with upright hearts and willing minds to worship the Lord in holines and in righteousnes. And therfore, howsoever carnall gospellers and libertines, abuse the liberty which CHRIST hath purchased as an occasion to the flesh, turning the grace of God into wantonnes, to their owne perdition: Yet devillish is the sclander of the Papists, who calumniate the doctrine of the Gospell, as if we taught therby, that Bellarm. de justif. lib. 4. c. 5. men are freed frō obedience to all lawes whatsoever of God, & man, yea from the decalogue it selfe. But this needeth no answere, it being evident to all the world, that we doe urge the obedience of the lawe morall as well as they doe, and by better arguments & reasons, then they doe. For their cheife reasons are taken from the falsly sup­posed benefits of good works, that they satisfy for sin, justify before GOD, and merit eternall life. but by these reasons they teach men to marre good works, and not to doe them. for a good worke done with the the opinion, of satisfaction, justification, or merit, is so farre from being a good worke, that it is odious & abominable in the sight of GOD; as being deroga­tory to the most perfect satisfaction, and all-suffici­ent merit of CHRIST our saviour.

But we among other arguments, take some from [Page 67] this text: Because our new obedience or practice of good works is the fruite and end of our redempti­on. 2. because it is an unseparable companion of our redemption and justification. 3. because God hath sworne, that he will give thē that are redeemed grace to worship him in holines and righteousnes, and ther­fore that works in them that are redeemed or justified, doe follow necessarily by necessity of infallibility. And therfore it is impossible, the oath of the Lord being true (which cānot possibly be untrue) that a man should be actually redeemed or justified, and yet have no care to practise good works, that is to say, to performe the dueties of holines and righteousnes. But in other re­spects also, we doe urge the necessity of good works, which we prove to be necessary also necessitate praecepti, & so by necessity of Duety, which we owe 1. unto God, to shew our selves obedient & thankfull unto him & studious of his glory 2. to our neighbour, & 3. to our selves, likewise necessitate signi, not onely as they are the testimonies & tokēs wherby we are to make our calling & electiō sure: but also, as they are the evidence accor­ding to which our saviour wil judge us at the last day. & lastly necessitate medij: for although we are not justi­fied by thē, nor saved for thē, yet they are the way wherin we are to walke toward our heavenly countrey; as Bernard well said, that they be via regni the way to the kingdome, though not causa regnandi, the cause of ob­taining the kingdome. For as the Apostle saith, Eph. 2.10. we are the workmanship of God created in Christ Iesus unto good works, which God hath before ordayned that we should walke in them, as in the way which leadeth to eter­nall life. This is the way, let us walke in it. Es. 30.21.

CHAP. VIII. The properties of Gods worship, and first of the wor­shipping of God without feare.

THus much of the parts of Gods worship: now follow the properties. For it is not sufficient to doe that which is good, but we must be carefull of the manner also, that it be well done. It is not sufficient to worship God in the parts of his worship; unlesse they be performed in that maner, which God hath prescribed.

Our new obedience hath three properties: for therein we are to worship & serve God

  • without feare.
  • before him.
  • all the daies of our life
  • The first respe­cting our enemies, [...], without feare of them.
  • The second respe­cting God. [...], before him.
  • The third respe­cting the time. all the daies of our life.

The first is [...] or spirituall security, noted in the word [...], without feare. For without doubt this ad­verbe is to be adjoyned in construction to the verbe [...], and not to the participle [...]. For neither was the deliverer without feare, Heb. 5.7. Mark. 14.33. Luk. 22.43.44. nor the delivered. Heb. 2.15.

The second, uprightnes or integrity noted in the words before him.

The third, constancy or perseverance, noted in these words, all the daies of our life.

As touching the 1. we must in the 1. place endevour to explane the true sence & meaning of the words. For at the first sight it may seeme not well to agree with other places of the scripture, wherin feare is highly cōmēded.

For 1. the feare of God is the beginning Ps. 111.10▪ Pro 9.10. Iob. 28.28. or chiefe point of wisedome, that is of true piety; By it, as a bridle, [Page 69] men are restrayned from evill, (for the feare of God is to depart from evill Pro. 8.13.) which bridle being cast off, men runne headlong into sinne; see Gen. 20.11. how then can this be promised as an especiall blessing to wor­ship God without feare?

2. St. Peter. 1. Epist. 1.17.18. saith, We are therfore to passe the time of our pilgrimage in feare, because we know that we are redeemed by the bloud of Christ. Here the Lord promiseth, that he will giue us, that we being redeemed by the bloud of CHRIST shall worship him without feare; so Es. 43.1. Feare not, for I have re­deemed thee.

3. Solomon Pro. 28.14. pronounceth him blessed who feareth alwaies: here Zachary expounding the blessed­nes, which was promised in Abrahams seed, saith, it is to worship God without feare.

4. St. Paul exhorteth us, because we have such promi­ses, that to us being redeemed by Christ, God will be our father &c. to perfect our sanctification in the feare of God 2. Cor. 7.1. and elswhere he admonisheth the re­deemed, whose salvatiō was already begunne, to worke out their salvation with feare and trembling. Phil. 2.12. here the Lord promiseth the redeemed, that they shall worship him without feare.

5. Ps. 2.11. & 5.7. God is to be worshipped with feare.

6. Carnall security, which is the want of feare, is as it were the cradle of the devill, wherin he rocketh men asleepe to their perdition; and it is a brand or marke of the wicked, not to have the feare of God before their eyes. Rom. 3.18. how thē can the want of feare be pro­mised as a blessing?

For answere to this objection, we are to distinguish, both of feare, and of the want of feare or security. [Page 70] Feare is to be distinguished, both in respect of the ob­iect, and of the subiect: The obiect, that is the party or the thing feared: the subiect, that is, the person who feareth.

1. First in respect of the party feared. For there is a feare of God, and there is a feare of our enemies. God hath delivered us from the hand of our enemies. that we should worship him without feare, not of him, but of them. For as he hath redeemed us from the service of our enemies, that we might serve him, so he hath freed us from the feare of them, that we may feare him alone and hereunto p [...]rtayneth that place of Esay. c. 43.1. feare not (to wit thine enemies) for I have redeemed thee.

But this [...] or want of feare in respect of our ene­mies, which is a doubtfull feare, may be vnderstood, either metonymically, without cause of feare, or proper­ly without feare it selfe. And so there are two degrees of this [...] or want of feare; the former, implying the certainty of the obiect: the latter, of the subiect; the for­mer pertaining to all true believers, though but incipi­ents, whose salvation is certaine and sure (which I call the certainty of the object) though they perhaps be not as yet, nor at all times certaine, nor sure of it. The other, belonging to proficients, or growne Christians. Of the former, you may with Theophylact understand the word [...] without feare, as signifying [...] without danger or cause of feare. so are they said to be secure or without feare, who are in safety and out of danger, as all the faithfull are, being kept safe by the power of God through faith unto salvation. [...] 1. Pet. 1.5 Of the latter Beza understandeth the word [...], as signifying [...] in confidence or assurance. [Page 71] Eph. 3.12. or as the Apostle speaketh Tit. 2.13. in as­sured expectation of salvation. which [...] or fear­lesnes, is a consequent of the former, that being the foundation of this, when we know our selves to believe For if we believe that we are out of danger, we will al­so be without feare, and according to the measure of this beliefe, is the measure of this security, or want of feare▪ and this degree seemeth to be implyed in the he­brew verbe hithbaracu, Gen. 12.18. as I noted before.

And this I called the certainty of the subject.

This place therfore is to be understood of the feare of our enimies, that we are to worship God without feare of them; and not of the true feare God. of which all those places, which were objected as commanding feare, did speak of which true feare of God this [...] in not fearing our enemies is a fruite and effect. For he that feareth God truly needeth not to feare any thing els, according to that. Pro. 14.26. in the feare of the Lord is strong confidence

2. In respect of the thing feared, feare is either of the evill of punishment, or of the evill of sinne. But this di­stinction is the same in effect, with that distinction of feare in respect of the subject, whereof I am now to speake.

3. in respect of the sub­ject, that is, the persons fearing. Feare is either of

  • Bondservants who are under the law, which is a servile or slavish feare.
  • Sonnes, who are not under the law, but undergrace, which is a sonne-like or filiall feare.

The former is properly called metus, whose effect is metuere ab aliquo, to be affraid of the object, that is feared. The other is timor (of [...]) whose effect is to feare [Page 72] or to reverence the object feared. The former is a fear­full expectation of some evill from the party feared: the other is an awfull reverence of the party feared, not to offend him by doing evill▪ so that the formall object of the former is malum poenae, the evill of punishment, in regard wherof they are affraid of God: of the other, malum culpae, the evill of sinne, in regard wherof they feare to offend or displease God. The former is rather metus poenae, then timor Dei, feare of punishment, rather then of God. For if there were no punishment, they that have but this feare, would not feare to offend God.

O derunt peccare mali formidine poenae.

The other out of the love of God and of goodnes, though there were no punishment to be feared, feareth to offend.

O derunt peccare boni virtutis amore.

The former being [...] the spirit of bōdage Rō 8.15 & [...] the spirit of fearfulnes. 2. Tim. 1.7. is a fruite & effect of the law forceing & cōpelling those that are under it to yeeld some outward obediēce for feare of punishmēt. The other is a fruit of the Gos­pell, & of faith; when a man being perswaded of Gods mercy & goodnes towards him in Christ, feareth to of­fend so gracious a God, & mercifull father, according to that Ps. 130.4. There is mercy with thee that thou maist be feared.

Of this sonne like feare, there is no question, but that we are to worship God therewith. Ps. Nay, we cannot worship God aright without it. Deut. 6.13. Thou shalt feare the Lord thy God, & serve him: this be­ing one of the cheifest things required in his service, Deut. 10.12. Eccl. 12.13. & is therfore called caput sapi­entia, the very cheife point of wisdome, that is of true [Page 73] piety and godnnes Ps. 111.10. Pro. 9 10. Of the other, there may be a question; whether God hath promised to those that are redeemed, that they shall worship him without all servile feare, seeing that it is profitable, that men should be restrayned frō sin by feare of punishmēt. And to that end, doth the Lord threaten judgments & punishments to terrify & to deterre men from sinne.

To this I answere, as I deliuered before in the doctrine of redemptiō, that our saviour in delivering us frō the terror & coaction of the lawe, doth free us also frō ser­vile feare, But we are to consider quatenus, how farre forth. For such as is our redemption (I speake of it pas­sively, as it is in the redeemed) such is our freedome frō servile feare; to wit, inchoated or begunne in this life, and increasing by degrees; compleat, and per­fect in the life to come, which is called our full re­demption▪ which being not totall in this life, doth not free us totally from this servile feare. Full and per­fect charity in deed casteth out this feare, and he that thus feareth, is not perfected in charity, 1 Iohn. 4.18. But whiles the reliques of sinne, or rather the body of sinne remayneth in us, whiles we are in part flesh, as well as spirit, we have not perfect charity.

And therfore so farre forth, as we are flesh, we are sub­ject to servile feare: yea so farre as we are carnall, we are servants, Rom. 7.14.23. but so farre forth as we are spirit, we are freed from that feare▪ as not being un­der the lawe, but under grace. yet because concupis­cence and the corruptions of the flesh, still abide in us; it was expedient for the subduing and mortify­ing of the flesh, that we should in some part be ob­noxious to this feare. To which end the rest also of our spirituall enimies, though they be overcome, and [Page 74] we delivered out of their power, are still left to encoū ­ter us: that we standing upon our guard, and exercising and maintayning a spirituall warfare against them, may at length triumph over them, and receive the crowne promised to those that overcome.

In the meane time we are freed from this servile feare by degrees from the time of our justification to our glorification, as our faith hope and charity do increase by increase whereof we are more and more enabled to worship God, as without feare, so also with willing & cheerfull minds. And therfore we are to be stirred up to labour for the encrease or these graces in us, that our feare may be diminished and our assurance encreased; wherein our happines in this life doth consist.

Security likewise is two­fold.

  • Carnall.
  • Spirituall.

The carnall security is, when a man being void of grace and of the true feare of God, and destitute of faith hope, & charity, goeth on carelesly in his sinnes with­out repentance, presuming of GODS favour, and his owne salvation.

The spirituall security, as I distinguished before, is either of the object, signifying the spirituall safety of the faithfull, because there is no condemnation to thē that be in CHRIST. In regard whereof they worship GOD securely or without feare, that is [...] or [...] without danger or cause of feare. The spiritu­all security, in respect of the subject is, when a man be­ing justified before God by faith, and assured in some measure of his favour, as knowing himselfe to have re­ceived grace to believe, and having peace of conscience worshippeth God in assured expectation of everlasting life. And of this [...] or spirituall security the holy [Page 75] Ghost speaketh in this place.

The summe of that which hath bene said by the way of exposition, is this: that GOD hath promised to give the faithfull being redeemed by CHRIST, to worship him without feare, not without the true feare of GOD (for that is a chiefe part of his worship) but without feare of their spirituall enimies; and namely without feare of damnation: and that in two degrees, so that they may worship him without feare, that is without cause of feare, securely and safely without danger, be­cause their salvation is certaine and sure, there being no condemnation to them that are in Christ Iesus.

Secondly without feare it selfe, namely of their eni­mies, from whose power they believe themselves to be redeemed, and consequently from the servile feare of God, performing a worship unto him, not of bond­slaves (who are under the dominion of the law) forced and extorted from them by servile feare, but the ser­vice of sonnes yeelding voluntary obedience. Not that we are delivered from servile feare altogether, and at once in this life, but by degrees, according to the measure of our faith, hope, and charity, wherewith we being indued in some good measure, shall worship the Lord securely, or in security, not carnall, but spirituall and consequently not in feare of damnation, but in ex­pectation of everlasting happines.

Now this being the principall point in this whole text, and the chiefe thing wherein the happines pro­mised in CHRIST the promised seed doth consist in this life; viz. to worship the Lord without feare: therfore as I have stood the longer in explaining the words; so I will endevour to sett downe the doctrines and uses, which are to be made of this point.

CHAP. VIII. The first doctrine concerning the certain [...]y of salvation.

THe first doctrine: that there is a twofold cer­tainty of salvation of all those that truly be­lieve in CHRIST. The former is called the certainty of the object, in regard whereof the salvation of all that truly believe is sure & certaine, though they perhapps be not assured thereof. For this is the maine promise of the Gospell, that whosoever doth truly believe in Christ shall not perish, but have life everlasting. Iohn. 3.16. To my sheepe (saith our saviour) that is, to all the faithfull, I will give eternall life, and they shall never pe­rish, neither shall any be able to pluck thē out of my hands. Iohn. 10.28. St. Peter testifieth. 1. Epist. 1.5. that the faithfull are kept safe by the power of God through faith unto salvation. And the Apostle Paul, Rom. 8.1. that there is no condemnation to them that are in Christ Iesus.

And in this place the Lord by oath assureth thē, that they shall worship him without feare, that is, without cause of [...]ea [...]e at the least, all the daies of their life ▪ yea, such is the certainty of their salvation, who truly be­lieve, that the holy Ghost doubteth not to affirme, that they have eternall life. Iohn. 6.47.54. 1. Iohn. 5.11.12. and that they are passed from death to life. Iohn. 5.24. and that whom the Lord hath justified, he hath also glorified. Rom. 8.30.

The latter is the certainty of the subject, when a faith­full man, sowndly applying the promises of the Gospel to himselfe, is persuaded and in some measure assured of his salvation, for he that knoweth himselfe to be­lieve, [Page 77] may apply the promise to himselfe, and by appli­cation be assured of that which is promised.

This certainty of perswasion, or assurance some call speciall faith. speciall I say, first, in respect of the object, which is Christ, and is therfore called sometimes the faith of Iesus Christ. Rom. 3.22.26. Gal. Phil. 3 9. sometimes faith in Christ. Acts. Gal. 3.26. faith in his bloud. Rom. 3.25. For although by that faith, which doth justify, we doe be­lieve all the articles of faith, & the whole word of God and every part and parcell thereof contayning threat­nings as well as promises; yet the object of it, quatenus justificat, is CHRIST. For it justifieth, as it is the instrument to receive CHRIST, who is our righteousnesse. Secondly, and more especially it is called speciall, in regard of the effect, which is, spe­cially to apply CHRIST unto our selves. And this speciall Faith is a degree of that assurance, which the Grecians call [...], in some more, in some lesse, which some Divines, both Protestants & Papists, not curious See Chanier. Paustrat [...]. 3. l. 13. c. 11. n. 4. to speak so distinctly & properly as they might, have called fiduciam, or assensum fiducia­lem: affirming this speciall Faith to be affiance: when in deed fiducia is not Faith, but a necessary and unsepa­rable fruit thereof. So unseparable, that sometimes it seemeth to be implyed in the phrase of believing in Christ. For to believe in Christ impl [...]eth 3 things: first, to believe that Christ is the Saviour of all that believe in him; 2ly, to believe that he is my Saviour, which is the special faith; & frō this followeth the third, as a ne­cessary fruit & effect; that because I believe he is my Sa­viour, therfore I put my trust & affiance in him for my salvatiō. But though it be an unseparable fruit of faith, [Page 78] yet it is not to be confownded with it. For faith is the cause, affiance the effect. For by faith we have affiance Eph. 3.12. upon which place Beza noteth, that they are deceived, who confownd faith and affiance. Faith, is a perswasion or assurance of the mind, though working upon the heart: affiance, is an affection of the heart, though proceeding from the assurance of the minde. The seat therefore of faith is the minde, or intellectuall part; of affiance, the heart, which is the seat of the affe­ctions. And as in subiect they differ, so also in the ob­ject; the object of faith, being verum: of affiance, bo­num ▪ there being litle difference betwixt it and hope in respect of the time to come, which are oft in the Scrip­tures confounded, the same word Batach being transla­ted sometimes to trust, and sometimes to hope. Not­withstanding in the behalfe of some of our Divines it may be said, that when they call this speciall faith fidu­ciam or fiduciall assent▪ they meane nothing else but a certaine perswasion or assurance of that which is belie­ved.

This speciall Faith the Papists abhorre, and scorne; and yet cannot deny, but that true Christians ought to labour for assurance, namely the assurance, not of faith but of hope. They must have a kinde of hope, that their sinnes be remitted, and that they shalbe saved, but they may not believe the remission of their sinnes, or eter­nall life, as belonging to themselves. Howbeit all their assurance is meerely conjecturall and uncertaine: Nei­ther can they have any sownd assurance of hope, unlesse first they had assurance of Faith. for Faith is the foun­dation of hope, and the [...], Hebr. 11.1. the substance of things hoped for. But howsoever the Papists doe scorne the speciall Faith; yet it is a certaine truth, that there is [Page 79] not any grace, either more profitable to the faithfull, or more necessary. For as all other saving graces in the faithfull proceed from Faith, first apprehending, and after applying CHRIST unto themselves, in so much, that without it there is no other saving grace; so ac­cording to the measure of it, such is the measure of all other saving graces.

That speciall Faith, which the Holy Ghost worketh in us, by Rom. 5.5. Faith produ­ceth other gra­ces. shedding abroad the love of God in our hearts, (that is by perswading our soules of the love of GOD towards us in CHRIST) produceth the love of GOD, (for therefore doe we love 1. Iohn. 4.19. God, because we are by Faith perswaded that God loveth us first) and consequently, the love of our brother for Gods sake. Charity, which is the end of the 1 Tim. 1.5: commandement, proceeding from faith unfained. It worketh in us affiance. For when we be­lieve that CHRIST is our Saviour, wee rest upon him for salvation. It worketh in us hope; for when we be­lieve, that the promises belong unto us, we expect the performance. Faith having begotten affiance & hope, and working by love, begetteth zeale, peace of consci­ence, Rom. 5.1. rejoycing in God, and joy in the Holy Ghost, thankfulnes, voluntary & cheerfull obedience, patience,No other sa­ving grace without faith. and comfort in afflictions, &c. And in deed how can a man love his neighbour for Gods sake, who loveth not God much more? how can a man love God as he ought, who is not perswaded of Gods love to­wards him in CHRIST? which perswasion is this spe­ciall Faith. And if he cannot love God without Faith, much lesse can he have the zeale of God: for zeale is the fervency of love. How can a man have affiance in CHRIST, and rest upon him for salvation, who is not by Faith perswaded, and in some measure assured, that [Page 80] he is his Saviour? How can he hope and waite for the performance of the promises, that doth not believe that they belong unto him? Faith being the substance of things hoped for. How can a man have true peace of conscience, who is not perswaded, that God is re­conciled to him? How can a man reioyce in God, who is not assured of Gods favour towards him? How can a man trust in God, that is not perswaded of Gods good­nes towards him? How can a man be thankfull unto God, who is not perswaded of Gods love and bownty towards him? How shall they feare God as sonnes, that is, fearing to offend so mercifull a Father, who are not perswaded that he is their Father in CHRIST? or when they have sinned, how shall they be encouraged to returne unto him, if they be not perswaded of his fatherly respect to them? how shall they performe vo­luntary and chearefull obedience, who are not perswa­ded that their endevours are accepted of him? How shall they pray, who doe not believe they shall be heard? Or as the Apostle speaketh, how shall they call upon him in whom they have not believed? Rom. 10.14. How shall they patiently and comfortably beare afflictions, who are not perswaded they be fatherly chastisements or tryalls proceeding from Gods love, and tending to their good? Finally, with what heart can men wor­ship God, who are not perswaded, that their service is accepted of him?

And as it worketh all other graces [...] us; so accor­ding to the measure of our Faith, such (as I said) is the measure of all other graces.According to the measure of faith, is the measure of all other graces, For the more a man is perswaded of Gods love and favour towards him in CHRIST, (that is, by how much the greater is a mans speciall Faith) so much the more he loveth God, and [Page 81] his neighbour for Gods sake; so much the more is he inflamed with the zeale of God: so much the more confidently doth hee rest upon CHRIST for salva­tion: so much the more he hopeth for, and expecteth the good things promised: so much the more he re­ioyceth, and glorieth in God: so much the more he is thankfull to God for his goodnes: so much the more he trusteth in GOD, so much the more he feareth to offend so gracious a GOD, and so mercifull a Fa­ther: or having offended, he will so much the sooner returne unto GOD: so much the more patiently and comfortably he beareth afflictions, saying with Iob 1 [...].13. Iob: though he kill me, yet will I put my trust in him: so much the more willingly and cheerefully will he obey and serve the Lord.

Wherfore it is evident, that they which renoūce this Faith, as the Papists doe, discover thēselves to be voide of all saving graces, & to have no truth nor power of religiō in them. But whatsoever they thinke or speak of speciall Faith, let us know and acknowledge these three things. First, that it is the duety of every true Chri­stian, that doth truly assent to the doctrine of the Gospell, to apply also by speciall Faith the pro­mises of the Gospell unto himselfe. For this is most profitable, most comfortable, most necessary. Profitable, because from this application of Faith, all other graces doe proceede, as hath beene said. Comfortable, because by this application, we grow to assurance, as shall be shewed. Necessary; first, be­cause that beliefe or assent is not lively and effectuall (as you shall heare) which is not joyned with a desire to apply CHRIST to thy selfe, and with a resoluti­on to acknowledge him to be thy Saviour, and to rest [Page 82] upon him for salvation, For although he, which at the first believeth onely by assent, doth not yet actual­ly apply the promises of the Gospell to himselfe; yet that assent, if it be lively and effectuall, worketh both an earnest desire, and setled resolution of application. 2. he that knoweth himselfe to believe by a true assen [...], and refuseth to apply the promises to himselfe, he maketh GOD a lyar, as shalbe shewed. 3. where this application is not at least in desire, resolution, and endevour, there is no other saving grace, as I have proved.

The second thing, which we are to take notice of, is, that it is the chiefest comfort, and in deed hap­pines of a Christian in this life, by speciall faith to be assured of the eternall love and favour of GOD in CHRIST. For so Zachary in this place expoundeth our blessednes to be this, being redeemed by Christ to worship God without feare. &c.

The third, that seing it is a thing so profitable, so ne­cessary, and so comfortable that our happines is to be reposed therein: it is therfore our duety to doe our best endevour, to attaine unto the assurance of salvation, & to this speciall faith: or as the Apostle Peter exhor­teth in other words to giue diligence to make our calling and election sure. 2. Peter. 1.10. or as the Apostle Paul speaketh, 1. Tim. 6.19. to lay up in store, a good foundation against the time to come, that we may lay hold upon eternall life. For though the Apostle in that place doth by this argument ex­hort them that be rich to works of charity: yet his meaning is not, that those works are the fown­dation; but that we by doeing of them, may gather assurance to our selves of our justifycation [Page 83] and salvation, as by testimonies and evidences of our faith. which assurance of speciall faith is so sure a fowndation against the day of tryall, as they who have built thereon, cannot by any temptation be removed, but like mount Sion stand fast for ever, or like to three­square or triangular bodies, which, howsoeuer they be tossed and turned, keepe alwayes their positure, which is undique sursum.

Now you must not think, that full assurance is ob­tayned at the first, or at once; but we must attayne unto it by divers degrees.The first Step is humility.

And first we are to know, that the ordinary way to exaltation by sound comfort and assurance, is humili­ation ▪ according to that generall rule given by our Sa­viour, after he had reported the notable humiliation of the penitent Publicane (which rule is also de­livered in divers other places of scripture) that, who­soever exalteth himselfe shalbe abased: but he that humbleth himselfe, shalbe exalted Luk. 18.14. Matth 23.12. St. Peter therfore having signified, that the Lord resisteth the prowd, but giveth grace to the humble, inferreth this exhortation: humble your selves therfore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time. 1. Pet 5.5.6.

This worke of humiliation, the Holy Ghost ordi­narily worketh in Gods children by the ministery of the law, wherby he revealeth unto us our mise­rable estate in our selves, in respect both of our sinnes, (for Rom. 3.29. by the law cōmeth the knowledge of sinne) and also of the punishment, denouncing the fearefull plagues of God for sinne, both in this life and in the world to come. Thus when Peter had declared to the Iewes their haynous sinne in crucifying Christ; they [Page 84] were pricked in their hearts, and said to the Apostles, men and brethren what shall we doe? Act. When the Prophet Nathan had by a Parable, which he applied to David the King, aggravated his sinne, say­ing, thou art the man: David both privately testified his humiliation to the Prophet, saying,1. Sam. 12.7.13. I haue sinned a­gainst the Lord; and also publikely professed the same, Psalm. 51. But of humiliation for sinne▪ the Pub­licane is propounded as a notable patterne Luk 18.13. for i­mitation. And as for humiliation wrought by de­nunciation of judgments, consider the example of Iosias, 2. Kings Of the Ninivites, Ion. 3.5.6. In like manner ought wee to bee hum­bled before GOD, when wee consider that our sinnes are so haynous and detestable in the sight of GOD, that nothing could satisfy the justice of GOD, or appease his wrath for them, or expiate the guilt of them, but the death and sufferings of the Eternall and onely begotten Sonne of GOD. Of which death of CHRIST the blame is to be layd upon our sinnes, as the meritorious cause, rather then upon those, who were but the instruments of his death. For by our sinnes we nayled CHRIST upon the Crosse; by our sinnes we pierced the pretious body of IESVS CHRIST: we are the men that crucified our blessed Sa­viour. Let us therefore pray to GOD, that hee would powre upon us the spirit of grace and supplica­tion, Zach. 12.1 [...]. that looking upon him whom wee have pierced, wee may mourne for him (being put to death for our sinnes) as a man mourneth for his onely sonne. And if the de­nunciation of GODS temporall judgments ought [...]o humble us before GOD: how much more ought we to be humbled at the consideration, both of [Page 85] the temporall plagues denounced in this world, and al­so of eternall torments in hell?

But when these ordinary meanes of humiliation, by the ministery of the Law will not prevaile; it plea­seth God sometimes by meanes extraordinary, or at the least, not so ordinary, to draw men unto him, as it were, by a strong hand, adding to the ministery of the word, sometimes afflictions and crosses, and, sometimes terrors and anguish of conscience. By afflictions Io­sephs brethren were brought to acknowledge their sinne. Gen. 42.21. Manasses when he was in affliction, greatly humbled himselfe before God, 2. Chro. 33.12. so did the prodigall sonne, Luke 15.18. according to that, Es. 26.16. Hos. 5.15

By terrors also sometimes men are humbled, as Pe­ter, Luke 5.8.9. being affrighted, when by the miracu­lous draught of fishes he was brought to acknow­ledge the divinity of our Saviour CHRIST: much more the Iaylour, Act. 16.27.29. And most of all S. Paul, Act. 9.6.9.

But here we must beware of an erroneous and dan­gerous conceipt of some, who runne into contrary extreames. For as they imagine none to believe, who have not full assurance; so they thinke none to be humbled as they ought, or effectually called, who are not drawne, either by grievous afflictions, or by the terrors of their conscience to the brinke of despaire, as though there were no hope of sal­vation for them. In deed it is good for a man to be much humbled in himselfe, and as Iob 42.6. Iob speaketh, to abhorre himselfe repenting in dust and ashes, and to acknowledge that in him selfe, or by his owne meanes, there is no hope of salvation. But it is either great [Page 86] ignorance or forgetfulnes of CHRIST, to acknow­ledge no meanes whereby to be saved; or if a man ac­knowledge CHRIST, it is great infidelity to thinke that his sinnes, which are but finite (though many and great,) are more and greater then the mercies of God, and merits of CHRIST, which are infinite. Therefore so to be humbled is a fearefull sinne, and perhaps a grea­ter sinne, then any for which he is humbled. Notwith­standing this may be said for the comfort and profit of those whom God doth draw by a strong hand, that is, by grievous afflictions, either outward, or inward, (which are in deed the most grievous; for a wounded Pro. 19.14. The spirit of a man will su­staine his infir­mity but a wounded spirit who can beare? conscience who shall beare) I say, first, for their com­fort, that the Lord doth somtimes so cast downe those whom he purposeth most of all to exalt; and that they sometimes doe prove the most zealous Professors of Religion, and the worthyest instruments of Gods glo­ry: as you see in the example of Paul.

For their profit: they are to be advised, that when they are afflicted either outwardly, or inwardly, they would first acknowledge the hand of God, by what meanes soever the affliction doth happen unto them, and not to seeke to remove the hand of God afflicting them; if outwardly, by indirect or unlawfull meanes; if inwardly, by worldly and carnall delights; but to la­bour, that the end which God propoundeth in affli­cting thē, may be atchieved. 2. that they would humble themselves under the mightie hand of God, whom they have provoked to anger against them; labouring to call to minde their sinnes, whereby they have offen­ded God; to confesse them particularly, to bewaile them, and to be sory for them, because by them they have displeased God, and pierced our Saviour: earnest­ly [Page 87] and heartily to pray to God for the remission of their sinnes, for CHRIST his sake, to promise, purpose, and vow amendment for the time to come. Thus confessing their sinnes, and forsaking them, they shall be sure to finde mercy; [...], 28.13. and humbling themselves, they shalbe exalted.

But, as I said, ordinarily the Lord worketh humiliati­on by the ministery of the law. Now, that we may be humbled therby, we are not onely to believe the sen­tence of the law, denouncing the terrible curse of God against Gal. [...].10. every one that doth not continue in all the things which are written in the looke of the law to doe them, to be true, but also to apply it to our selves; after this maner; seeing this is most true, as being the un­doubted word of God, that every man in himselfe is subject to the fearefull curse of God both in this life, & in the world to come, who doth not performe the three degrees of obedience contayned in this sentence; that is, to Doe the things commaunded, to doe them all, and to continue in doing all; therefore it cannot be denyed, but that in my selfe I am most accursed; who to the not performing of these three degrees of obedience, have added the three contrary degrees of disobedi­ence. For I have not onely not done the things com­maunded, but also I haued done the things forbidden: I have not onely not kept all Gods commaundements, but also I have broken them all: I have not onely not continued in perpetuall obedience, but I have also con­tinued in a perpetuall course of disobedience. O there­fore wretched man that I am, and in my selfe thrice ac­cursed! O that I were delivered from the feareful curse! O that I were freed from this wofull state of damna­tion!

Thus by applying the sentence of the law of them­selves, [Page 88] men come to see and acknowledge their owne damnable estate in themselves; whereby they are for­ced to seek for salvation out of themselves in CHRIST; especially, if to the application of the sentence of the law, they adioyne a serious consideration of the day of judgment (which the Apostle calleth [...] Cor. 5.10.11. the terror of the Lord ▪) at which time all of us shall appeare before the judgment seat of God, to receive according to those things which we have done in the flesh. But without this application, men not seeing not feeling their owne misery, neglect the promises of the Gospell, not caring to apply them to themselves: but most ungra­ciously suffering the most precious bloud of CHRIST, as much as in them lyeth, to be spilt in vaine; as it is in vaine to them, unto whom it is not applyed. But wh [...]n by the paedagogie of the law, which is a school­master Gal. 3. [...]4 unto CHRIST, men are brought to see and to feele their misery: O then how beautifull are the feet of those who bring glad tidings of salvation▪ how acceptable is the promise of deliverance, to them that are captives, of justification, to them that in themselves are accursed▪ of salvation, to them that are lost! In re­spect of these, the Kingdome of God is said to suffer violence, and these are they which with violence take it to them selves. Mat. 11.12.

Thus then being schooled by the law, by which the Holy Ghost worketh in us legall faith, which is a preparative to the Evangelicall, we become fitt auditours of the Gospell, by which the Holy Spirit worketh in us the grace of justifying faith. And therefore in the next place wee must bee diligent and attentive hearers of the Gospell, by [Page 89] the hearing whereof Being prepa­redly the [...] and other le­g [...]ll meane [...], wee must attend to the Gospe [...]l. commeth faith. In which regard as the Gospell is called the Word of faith: so also the Preachers of it are not only termed ministers, by whom you believe, 1. Cor. 3.5. but also are said to iustify [...]an. 1 [...].9. men, and to 1 Tim. 4.16. 1 Cor. [...].35. By which the Holy Ghost worketh in us faith and that in 2 degrees, the first asse it save them, as being instruments of the Ho­ly Ghost working in us the grace of saith,Ro [...]. 10.8.15. by which we are justified and saved.

By the Ministery of the Gospell, the Holy Ghost worketh in us the grace of faith in two degrees; The former is of assent, the other of application. As touching the former: the Holy Ghost having prepared us by the law, doth in the ministery of the Gospell, first, re­veale unto us the mercies of God in CHRIST, Se­condly he sti [...]reth us up by the ministers of reconcilia­tion 2 Cor. 3 18.20. to embrace Gods mercies, and to be reconciled to him, and thirdly▪ having thus knocked, as it were, at the doore of our hearts, Apoc. 3.20. he himselfe doth open our hearts, as he did the heart Act. 16.14. of Lydia, not onely to at­tend, but as the word [...]. also signifieth to assent unto, or to believe the Gospell. Neither is it to be doubted, but that by that phrase is meant, that the Holy Ghost did worke in her the grace of faith.

And as touching the latter; the Holy Ghost having opened our hearts to receive CHRIST, by a true, willing, and lively assent (which is the condition of the promise:) he teacheth us to apply the promise un­to our selves, as belonging to us.

Here therefore three things are to be done. 1. we are to believe in CHRIST by a lively assent to the pro­mise of the Gospell. 2. so believing in CHRIST, we are to apply the promises of the Gospell to our selves. 3. having by application attayned to some assurance, we must give all diligence that this assurance may [Page 90] more and more be encreased.

As touching the first: we must be very carefull, that our assent to the doctrine of the Gospell, promising salvation to all that believe in CHRIST, be willing, true, lively, and effectuall. otherwise, though we may believe, that IESVS the sonne of the blessed Virgin Ma­ry is the Sonne of GOD, and Saviour of all that shalbe saved (which not onely hypocrites, and wicked men, but the devils themselves also after a sort believe) yet we cannot truly be said to believe in CHRIST. First therefore it must be a willing assent, and therefore ap­proving what we believe; not forced, as that of the de­vils, and of some wicked men; who being convicted with the evidence of the truth, doe, whether they will or no, know and believe the truth of the Gospell, and with horrour Iam. 2.19. Mat. 8 19. acknowledge it. Secondly, it must be true, lively, and effectuall. For as there is a twofold knowledge, the one literall, swimming in the braine, in­forming the judgment, but not reforming the heart, & the conversation, serving onely to purchase the more stripes; Luke 1 [...].47. the other spirituall, not onely informing the judgment, but also reforming the heart, and con­forming our lives to the practise of that which wee know (which in Divinity is accompted the onely true knowledge, 1. Iohn 2.3.4. for the other, though in re­gard of the object it is true, because it is the knowledge of the truth; yet it is not true formally, and in respect of the efficacy, or of the effect:) so faith, which some­times goeth under the name of knowledge or acknow­ledgment, may be distinguished. For there is a counter­feit, idle, and dead faith; which, having neither root, nor fruit, is uneffectuall, either to justification or to sancti­fication: which is the faith of hypocrites, and of all [Page 91] carnall and worldly Professors, which the Papists them selves call fidem informem. And there is a true, lively, & effectuall faith, (which the Schoolmen call formatam, and not amisse, saving that they hold charity, which as I have shewed, is a fruit and effect of faith, 1. Tim. 1.5. to be the forme thereof,) by which we receiuing CHRIST, and being rooted in him, or engraffed Iohn, 15.9. Col. [...]. [...]. Gal. 2.20. into him, doe re­ceive from him spirituall life. For having by faith uni­on with CHRIST, we have also communion with him, both in his merits to our justification, and in the Rom. 6.3.4. &c. Phil 3.9.10. vertue of his death & resurrection, to our sanctifica­tion. Now this assent is effectuall to justification, when by it we receive CHRIST, who is our righteousnes. For when this beliefe is willing, lively, and effectuall, we doe receive CHRIST not onely Chamier, pa [...] ­strat. l. 22. c. 2.1 [...]. s.q 24. Dicimus Paulo banc fuis­se mentem, iusti­ficari peccator [...] simul a [...]que in­tellectu credens in Christh eius­que beneficia cr [...]dulitate arri­piens in [...]undem fertur sincero cor­de, at (que) inte [...] volunta [...]. in our judgments, by this true & lively assent; but also this lively assent wor­king both on the heart and the will, we receive him in our hearts by an earnest desire, that he may be appl [...]ed unto us, and we made partakers of him; (which desire we expresse in hearty prayer) and in our will, by resol­ving to acknowledge him, to be our Saviour, and to rest upon him for our salvation. For can a man truly and effectually believe, that in himselfe, and without CHRIST he is accursed, according to the sentence of the law, and that in CHRIST, if he believe in him, he shall be happy and blessed, according to the doctrine of the Gospell: & not desire both to be freed frō that dam­nable estate, and to be made partaker of happines, in and through CHRIST? can a man truly and effectual­ly believe, that being in himselfe accursed, he shall not­withstanding the curse of the law, notwithstanding the testimony of his owne accusing conscience, not­withstanding the accusations of Sathan, become hap­py [Page 92] and blessed in CHRIST, if he shall believe in him; and not resolve with himselfe, that, whatsoever the law, his owne conscience, or the devill can object to the contrary, he will acknowledge CHRIST to be his Sa­viour, and rest upon him for salvation? For as the un­derstanding, when it conceiveth any thing to bee true, not by evidence of reason, but by the authority of God, speaking in his word, as in matters of faith, hath the concurrence of the will, acted by the Spirit of God, wil­lingly to assent thereunto: so when the understan­ding, enlightned by the Holy Ghost, conceiveth and judgeth any thing to be good, it c [...]mmaundeth the will to embrace it, the will ordinarily following the judgment of the practick understanding.

To sanctification it is effectuall, as it is a grace 1 Ioh. 5 1. of regeneration, Act. 15.9. purifying the heart, and Gal. 5.6. working by love, and transforming a man into a conversation an­swerable to that which he doth believe, and therefore is ever joyned with repentance, which the Holy Ghost regenerating us, with it, and by it worketh in us: and therefore a lively faith is never severed from repen­tance, nor repentance from it; for as we cannot truly repent, unlesse we believe; so we cannot truly know that we believe, unlesse we repent.

This assent being true, willing, lively, and effectuall, as I haue said, is the very condition required in the pro­mise of the Gospell, and the first degree of justifying faith; which if we have obtayned, we may and ought to apply the promise of the Gospell to our selves. This being a matter of excellent comfort, and of singular use, I will prove by plaine testimonies of Scripture, and by evident reasons: the rather, because I know, to some it will seeme a paradox.

[Page 93]1. The testimonies of the Scripture are these. For first, This is the Faith for which our Saviour pro­nounceth Simon Peter blessed. Mat. 16.16.17.Mat. 16.16.17. Thou art Christ the Son of the living God. The like profession is made by the Apostle. Iohn 6.69. and by Martha. Iohn 11.27.

2. Iohn 20.31. These are written, that you might be­lieve, that Iesus is the Christ the Sonne of God, and that be­lieving, you may have life through his Name.

3. Act. 8.37.38. Heere is water, saith the Eunuch, what doth hinder me to be baptized? Philip said, If thou believe with all thine heart, thou maiest. And he an­swered and said, I believe that Iesus Christ is the Sonne of God.

4. Rom. 10.9.10. If thou shalt confesse with thy mouth the Lord Iesus, and shalt believe in thine heart, that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For with the heart man believeth unto righ­teousnes, and with the mouth confession is made to salva­tion.

5. This is the Faith, without which it is impossible to please God. For he that commeth to God, must believe that he is▪ and that he is a rewarder of them that seeke him. Heb. 11.6.

6. 1. Iohn. 5.1. Whosoever believeth that Iesus is the Christ, is borne of God.

7. 1. Iohn. 5.5. Who is he that overcommeth the world, but he that believeth that Iesus is the Sonne of God?

1. The reasons. 1. The justifying and saying Faith many times goeth under the name of [...], ac­knowledgmēt, which is all one with assent, 1. Tim. 2.4 2. Pet. 1.2.3. of knowledge, [...]ph [...]s. 4.13▪ Ti [...] 1.1. 1. Io. 2.3. [...] meaning acknowledgmēt, [Page 94] as Iohn. 17.3. Esay, 53.11. My righteous servant (meaning Christ) agnitione sui, by the acknowledgment of himselfe, that is by faith in him shall justify many.

2. To receive Christ, is to believe in him, Iohn. 1.12. By this lively assent, we receive Christ, as hath bene said, in our mindes, in our hearts, in our willes.

If any man therfore object that justifying faith con­sisteth not in assent, but in application of the promises;

3. I answeare, that there are two degrees of justifying saith. the one, being a lively assent to the promise of the Gospell; the other, a sound application thereof to our selves By the former, as being the condition of the promise, we are justified in foro coelesti, in the court of heaven: by the latter, in the court of our owne con­science By the former, we are justified before God; by the latter▪ we are perswaded in our conscience, and in some measure assured of our justification.

4. By the second degree of faith, which some call spe­ciall faith, the promises of the Gospell are to be apply­ed. But they cannot be applyed to any aright, but one­ly to those, who have the condition of the promise, which is the justifying faith.

For the Gospell doth not promise justification and salvation to all, but to those onely who have a justify­ing faith.

Therfore a man must be indued with justifying faith, before he can or ought to apply the promises of the Gospell to himselfe. For as salvation is promised to thē that believe,Mark 16.16. Iohn 5.16.18. so damnation is denounced to them that believe not.

5. It is a very erroneous opinion to think, that we are justified, or doe obtayne remission of sinnes, by be­ing assured, and much more by being fully assured of [Page 95] the forgivenes of our sinnes: or that we are to believe, that they are forgiven, to the end that they may be for­given. For justification and remission of sinnes is pro­mised onely to those that believe by a justifying faith, (I speak of those who are adulti, and are come to the yeares of discretion, not of infants, who are justified sometimes, before they actually believe) therfore a man must have justifying faith before he hath remission of sinnes, (for by faith we obtayne remission of sinnes Act. 26.18.13 38.39. Rom [...] 28. and by faith we are justified: and therfore have we Gal. 2.16. believed in Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ) A mans sins must be forgiven, before he can be assured that they be forgiven & it is absurd to imagine that the assurance that our sinnes be forgiven goeth before the forgivenes of them.

For if a man must believe or be assured of the forgive­nes of sinnes before they be forgiven, then he is bownd to believe that which is false▪ And lastly a man must as­cend by divers degrees of assurance growing or pro­ceeding from Rom. 1. [...] faith to faith before he can attaine to full assurance. And here I hold it expedient briefly to touch a certaine discourse of the learned Chamiers: Paustrat. c. 3. lib. 1 [...] c. [...] 18. pag. 484, that it may evidently appeare, that they who doe not acknowledge this distinction of justifying faith, must of necessity be forced to it. For whereas Vasques object­eth against us, that we teach, that we ought to believe that our sinnes are remitted, to the end that we may be justified, and may obtayne remission of sinnes; he answeareth, that it is a meere sclander, For sayeth he, quid monstri est, credere sibi remissa peccata ut remit­tantur? sic enim constituitur fides remissionis prior re­apse ipsa remissione: quod omnem absurditatem supe­rat. Enim verò si prius remissa credimus, quam sint re­missa, [Page 96] [...]alsum nos oportet credere Quid plura? Nobi [...] potius est persuasissimum, remissa esse peccata antequ [...] credimus▪ &c. It is a monster, that a man should believe, that his sinnes be forgiven, to the end that they may be for­given, for so the faith that our sinnes be forgiven should goe before the forgivenes it selfe▪ which surpasseth all ab­surdity: Surely if we are to believe that our sinnes be for­given before they be remitted, then must we believe that which is false▪ what should I say more? we rather are fully perswaded, that our sinnes be forgiven before we-doe be­lieve. &c.

But say I, if no other justifying faith be acknow­ledged, but the speciall faith whereby we are assured of the remission of our sinnes: and if this also be true (which the Scripture teacheth) that by faith we are to obtaine remission of sinnes; that absurdity will necessa­rily follow, which he so much disclaimeth. For to hold that the sinnes of those who are adulti, or come to yeares of discretion, be forgiven before they doe be­lieve, is as great an absurdity as the other; because by faith we obtayne remission of sinnes, neither is remissi­on promised to any, who are of yeares, but onely to those that believe.

Of necessity therefore we must hold this distincti­on of faith, viz: that there is one degree of justifying faith, which in order of nature, goeth before remission of sinnes, by which we obtayne forgivenes of sinnes, & by which we are justified before God: and that there is an other degree of justifying faith, which followeth after justification and remission of sinnes: whereby we being perswaded, and in some measure assured of the remission of our sinnes, are justified in the court of our owne conscience. And of this indeed it is true, that our [Page 97] sinnes be forgiven, before we believe or be assured that they be forgiven.

6. For the further clearing of this distinction of Faith, let us distinctly cōsider the differences betweene the two degrees; for 1. by the former, as I have said, we are justified before God in the Court of Heaven, by the latter, we are justified in the Court of our owne conscience: by the former, wee are justified properly; by the latter we are assured of our justification. 2. Of the justification, which wee have by the first degree, (which properly is called justification) there are no degrees; but of that which wee have by the second degree, which properly is not justification before GOD, but the assurance of it in our owne con­sciences, there are degrees according to the measure of our Faith.

3. The first degree goeth before the remission of sinnes, the second followes after.

4. Every man is bound upon paine of damnation to have the first degree of Faith, which is truely, & firmely to believe, that IESVS the Sonne of the blessed Virgin, is the Eternall Sonne of GOD, and Saviour of all that truely believe in him; but no man ought to have the second, who hath not the first▪ for a man must first have justifying Faith, which is the condition of the promise, before hee ought to believe, that the pro­mise of remission of sinnes, or of salvation belongeth to him.

5. The former degree seemeth more properly to be the worke of the spirit regenerating us, 1. Iohn. 5.1. the latter of the same spirit, as it is the spirit of adoption, sealing us after we have believed. Eph. Rom.

[Page 98]6. The former is begotten ordinarily by the mini­stery of the Gospell▪ and not by the ministery of the Sacraments, which notwithstanding were orday­ned of purpose, as I shall shew hereafter, that they who have the first degree, might attayne to the se­cond. For to him that believeth truly, according to the first degree, the Sacrament is a seale of the righte­ousnes which is by Faith, and a pledge to assure him, that so certainly as the signe, so also the thing signified, which is CHRIST with all his merites are communi­cated to him.

7. The former, as hereafter I will make plaine, is fides princip [...]orum; the latter, of conclusions deduced from thence by application, and by necessary conse­quence.

8. Of the former, the foure first notes of happines Mat. 5. are the signes and fruites: of the second, the foure latter. For though the Papists make of them eight beatitudes; yet there is but one beatitude in this life, whereof CHRIST is the foundation, and Faith is the instrument, whereby we receive and ap­ply CHRIST unto our selves; of which those eight are so many notes. For these [...] or pronunci­ations of blessednes, the Lord Iesus directeth to his Disciples,Mat. and in them to all the faithfull, saying: Blessed are you poore, &c. Luk. 6.20. The foure first Beatitudes, as I said, are the Notes of the former de­gree. For those that have the first, are not at the first happy in their owne sense, and apprehension, but rather the contrary; being poore Mat. 5.3. [...]. [...]. beggars in spirit, Mat. 5.3. [...]. [...]. mour­ning for their wants, subdued by the sense thereof unto Mat. 5.3. [...]. [...]. meeknes, Mat. 5.3. [...]. [...]. hungring and thirsting after righteousnes, which they finde themselves to want, and yet our Sa­viour [Page 99] pronounceth them blessed. which proveth, that they are justified before God, though not assured thereof in their owne conscience. The foure latter are markes of the second degree. For when wee are in some measure assured of Gods mercy towards us, we become mercifull Mat. 5. [...]. Eph 4 32. to others for Gods sake, when we have assurance of salvation, we indevour to puri­fy Mat. 5.8. 1. Ioh 3.3. our selves, as he is pure; when being justified by Faith wee have peace with GOD, wee become Mat. 5. [...]. peace-makers among men. When we have obtay­ned the assurance of Faith, to them v. 10. it is given not onely to believe in CHRIST, Phil. 1.2 [...]. but also to suffer for him.

2. Thus much of assent, which being lively and effectuall, is the very condition of the Evangelicall promise. Now I come to application, whereby wee doe attayne to assurance. And that wee may soundly apply the promise to our selves, we must first be assu­red that we have the condition of the promise, which is the first degree of justifying Faith, whereof I have spoken, that is a true, lively, & effectuall assent; which we may know our selves to haue, if our beliefe be effe­ctual, as before I said, both to justification, as it is when by it we receive CHRIST, who is our righteous­nes, not onely in our judgments, but also in our hearts, and in our willes: and also to sanctification, as it is, when it produceth the dueties of repen­tance.

Having therefore the condition of the promise▪ and knowing that thou hast it, thou art bound in con­science, whatsoever the Papist saith to the contrary, to apply the promise to thy selfe▪ as belonging to thee. Doest thou therfore truly believe that CHRIST is the [Page 100] Saviour of all those that truly believe in him; then thou art bound to believe that hee is thy Saviour, that he died for thy sinnes, and rose againe for thy justification, that by him thou hast remission of sinnes, and that by him thou shalt be saved. Other­wise, if thou knowest thy selfe to have the condition of the promise, and wilt not apply it to thy selfe; that is, if knowing thy selfe truly to believe, that CHRIST is the Saviour, thou wilt not believe that he is thy Saviour, thou 1. Ioh▪ [...].10. makest God a lyar, saith Saint Iohn, in not believing the record which God gave of his sonne. v. 11. And this is the record that God hath given to us (that believe in CHRIST) eternall life, and that this life is in his Sonne. v. 12. He that hath the Sonne (as every true believer hath) hath life; and hee that hath not the Sonne, hath not life. These things v. 13. (sayth hee) I have written to you that believe on the name of the Sonne of GOD, that you may know that you have eternall life, and that you may believe on the Name of the Sonne of GOD. The meaning of which last words seemeth to bee this. I have writ­ten to you that believe on the Name of CHRIST. by a true and lively assent, but have not perhappes as yet attayned to any [...]ound assurance; that you ap­plying the promises of the Gospell to your selves, and gathering testimonies to your selves, that they be­long to you by such markes as I in this Epistle have set downe; may attayne to assurance, and so proceede from Faith to Faith. For without ab­surdity, the Words cannot be understood of the same degree of Faith. I have written to you that already believe in CHRIST, that you may believe in him▪ what? no otherwise then already they doe [Page 101] believe? yes no doubt, that they which believed in a lower degree without assurance, might know that they have eternall life; and that so attayning to a higher de­gree of Faith, might thereby be assured of salvation by CHRIST.

Now, this application is made by a practicall syllo­gisme▪ the proposition whereof (which some call [...]) is the undoubted Word of God.

Whosoever truly believeth in Christ, he shalbe saved. The assumption is the testimony of our owne spirit, which is therefore called [...].

But I through Gods mercy doe truly believe in Christ. For the Holy Ghost having opened my heart, Act. 1 [...].14. as he did the heart of Lydia, to assent unto, or to believe the Gospell I doe receive CHRIST, not onely in my judg­ment, by a firme, willing, and unfayned assent, but also in mine heart by an earnest desire to be made partaker of him (which is the desire of application) and in my will by a settled resolution, (whatsoever the law, mine owne conscience, or the devill, can object to the contra­ry) to acknowledge him to be my Saviour, and to rest upon him for salvation, which is the resolved purpose of application.

The conclusion which is called [...], is the ver­dict or testimony of the Holy Spirit, testifying with our spirits in the assumption, according to the word in the proposition.

Therefore I through Gods mercy shalbe saved. which is the voice of speciall Faith.

The consequence of this, and all other former syl­logismes is such, that the conclusion can not bee false, if the premisses bee true. Otherwise a contradiction would be implied, that is, contradictories would be true [Page 102] together, which is impossible: For if this conclusion should be false, then either the Proposition is not true; that whosoever truly believeth in Christ, shall be saved: or the assumption, that I truly believe in Christ.

Of the proposition of this syllogisme, there can bee no doubt, it being the undoubted word of God, and the maine promise of the Gospell.

Against the assumption, two things may be objected: the one, our of the doctrine of our Divines: the other, out of the doctrine of the Papists. For some of our Di­vines, define faith to be a full assurance of the love of God concerning the remission of our sinnes, and eter­nall salvation by CHRIST: or in other words to the like effect. But the faith mentioned in the assumption is no such assurance.

I answere, that our Divines, defining the speciall Faith, are not to be blamed for defining it according to the perfection thereof; for so every vertue and grace ought to be defined; that so we may learne not to con­tent our selves with that imperfect measure whereunto we have already attayned, but may aspire towards per­fection. But if any shall hereupon inferre, that no man doth truly believe, who hath not that full assurance (as some vnadvisedly have done) he shall give occasion to the greatest part of believers, either to despaire, that they have not Faith, because they have not full assurance; or because they would not be thought without Faith to presume that they have a full assurance: which notwith­standing men doe not attayne unto at the first, nor at once, but by divers degrees, after much practice of pie­ty, and long experience of Gods goodnes towards them; and never is so fully obtayned before the end of this life, but that somewhat still may, and ought [Page 103] to be added to it.

The objection of the Papist against the assumpti­on is, that a man doth not know, that he doth believe; and therefore not being assured, that he doth believe, he can have no assurance of salvation. This is in deed the thing which they must stand unto, if they will de­ny, as they doe, the certainty of salvation. For if a man may be assured, that he doth truly believe, he may also be assured that he shalbe saved.

But that the faithfull may know, that they believe, I prove,

1. Because every believer is taught to say, I believe in God the Father, I believe in God the Sonne, I believe in God the Holy Ghost. This profession of Faith eve­ry true Christian is bound to make with confidence; therefore every true Christian is bound to know that he doth believe. The father of the demoniack, though indued but with a weake faith, when our Saviour told him, that the cure of his sonne was possible, if he could believe, returned this present answer, Lord I believe, help thou my unbeliefe. Mark. 9.23.24. The Eunuch, though a new convert, when Philip told him, he might be bap­tized, if he did believe with all his heart, answered, I be­lieve that Iesus Christ is the Sonne of God. Act. 8.37. we believe & know that thou art that Christ the Sonne of the living God. Iohn. 6.69 so Iohn 11.26.27. This is that which Augustine Aug. ep. 112. c. 3. affirmeth. Videt (fidelis) ipsam fidem suam, qua se credere sine cunctatione respondet. The faith­full man seeth his owne faith, whereby that he doth be­lieve, he answereth without delay.

Ob. Yea, but many recite the Creed, saying, I believe &c who notwithstanding doe not believe, and much lesse know it.

[Page 104] Ans. The question is not, what hypocrites and un­ [...]ound Christians doe, or can doe. of whom there is no question, but that seeing they doe not believe, they can­not know themselves to believe. But every faithfull & [...]ound Christian, whom the Scriptures call [...], when he professeth, that he doth believe, doth not one­ly believe in deed, but also knoweth that he doth be­lieve, and he which doth not know that he doth be­lieve, hath just cause to suspect himselfe, that he is not [...], a sound and approved Christian. But for this there is an evident proofe. 2. Cor. 13.5. Examine your selves, whether you be in the faith, [...] try your selves whether you be [...] or not. Know you not your owne selves, how that Iesus Christ is in you, except you be [...], that is, not sound, nor approved Christi­ans.

Those that are commanded to try themselves, whe­ther they be in the Faith, may upon triall know it. Those that may know that CHRIST is in them, may know they doe believe, because CHRIST is in us by Faith. and if they be [...], unsound, who doe not know that CHRIST is in them, then all that are [...], that is, sound, approved Christians do know it. And whereas some Papists take acception, that the Apostle speaketh of the true doctrine, which is called the Ca­tholike faith, I answere, first, that a man cannot know, that he is in the catholick faith, unlesse he also know that he doth believe it. 2. the Apostle speaketh of that faith, whereby Christ dwelleth in us, which is not the doctrine, but the grace of Faith. 3. The Apostle vindi­cateth & proveth his calling by theirs: as we prove the truth of our Church, and of our Ministery against our separatists, who before their separation, seemed [Page 105] very forward Christians. try, whether you have a true Faith, and if you have, acknowledge that to have beene a true Ministery, by which it was wrought. For how can they believe in him, of whom they have not heard, and how can they heare without a Preacher, and how can they preach, unlesse they be sent? Rom. 10.14.

3. These things saith S. Iohn, have I written to you, that believe on the Name of the Sonne of GOD, 1 Iohn 5.13. that you may know that you have eternall life: which they could not know, unlesse they knew themselves to believe.

4. At that day, viz: after the sending of the Holy Ghost, you shall know that I am in the Father, and you in me, and I in you, saith our Saviour. Iohn 14.20.

5. The minde is not ignorant of its owne a­ctions Aug. [...]pl. 112 ad Paulinum. & 2. Mentis intu­it [...] vides, vitā, voluntatē, cogi­tationem, memo­riam cognition [...], intelligentiam, scientiam, fidem tuam. when it understandeth, it knoweth it selfe to understand, when it discourseth, it knoweth it selfe to discourse. so when it assenteth, it know­eth it selfe to assent; when it desireth any thing it knoweth that it doth desire it; when it pur­poseth, or resolveth, it knoweth that it doth purpose, or resolve. much more being holpen by the Spirit of GOD, whom wee have received from GOD, that wee might know the things which are given unto us of GOD. 1. Cor. 2.12.

6. How should any man glory in the testimony of his owne conscience, that he doth believe, or that he doth walke uprightly before GOD (which is the chiefest 2. Cor. 1.12. Esay. 38.3.comfort of all sound Christians) who is not conscious to himselfe, that hee doth believe, and walke uprightly before GOD. Est ergo quidam [Page 106] modus in conscientia gloriandi, ut noveris fidem tuam esse sinceram, noveris esse spem tuam certam, nover is cha­ritatem tuam esse sine simulatione, In Ps. 149. saith Augustine. And againe, suam de Trinit. li. 1 [...]. c 2, s [...]nt 3 dift. 23. b quisque fidem apud seipsum videt. c. 1. fidem videt quisque in corde suo esse, si credit non si­cut corpora. Non sic videtur fides in corde in quo est, ab eo cuius est, sed eam tenet certissima scientia, clamat que con­scientia. And againe, though we see not the things which we doe believe▪ ipsam tamen fidem quando inest in nobis videmus in nobis. Eph. 112. c. 4. Menti nostra fi­des nostra conspicua est.

So much of the assumption.

Vpon these premisses necessarily followeth the con­clusion, which is the [...] or verdict of speciall Faith, concluding the certainty of salvation, by application of the promises to him that hath the first degree of of faith. Which in my poore opinion is a most com­fortable doctrine.

But against speciall Faith so proved, the Papists still object diverts things.

1. That it cannot be truly termed faith, and that for three reasons. For 1. verae fidei falsum subesse non potest, the object of true faith cannot be that which is false. but of this, the object may be false, because a man may be deceived in the application.

I answere: as there is a double knowledge, the one of principles manifest in thēselves, called [...], the other, of conclusion (not manifest in themselves, but manife­sted by discourse) called [...] so there is a twofold Faith, the one of principles contayned in the word of God; the other, of conclusions deduced from thence: which conclusions though they are not absolutely ne­cessary, yet the premisses being true, they cannot be [Page 107] false. But the premisses of this practicall syllogisme made by a faithfull man, are true; therefore the conclu­sion cannot be false. Indeed if the syllogisme be made by an hypocrite, or unsound, or ungrounded Christi­an, the conclusion is not necessary; because the assump­tion is false, or at the least, uncertaine: false, if he doe not believe; uncertaine, if he doe not know himselfe to believe; and then the assumption at the most, is but this; but I doe suppose that I doe believe; and the con­clusion must be answerable, therefore I suppose that I shalbe saved. But the [...], the faithfull and sound Christian, who doth not onely believe, but knoweth himselfe to believe; as he assumeth, I doe know, and I am sure that I doe believe; so he concludeth, therefore I know and am sure that I shalbe saved.

2. True Faith is grounded upon the Word, the spe­ciall Faith that this man or that man shall be saved, is not grounded on the Word. ergo, it is not a true Faith.

Resp. Particulars are included in the generall, & quod omnibus promittitur, singulis promitti­tur; therefore if it be true, that all believers shall be saved, then it is as true, that this or that believer shalbe saved; and this the Apostle teacheth, Rom. 10.9. If though &c.

3. Because Faith mentioned in the Scripture, is the Faith of assent, and not of application.

I answere, that as there are many places which speak properly of assent, some whereof I before cited; so there are many which mention or meane the speciall Faith. As namely all those places, which are very ma­ny, and almost innumerable, wherein the faithfull doe apply, and as it were appropriate those things which are [Page 108] spoken of God Ps [...].1 [...].1.2.46, 19.14▪12 1.1▪ [...].43▪4.5.51 14. &c. Heb. 3.28 Luk. 1.47. Iohn. 20.1 [...]. &c. to themselves. As my God, my Lord, my Saviour, the God of my salvation, &c.

So Gal. 2, 20. Christ liveth in me, and the life which I now liue in the flesh, I live by the Faith of the Sonne of God, who loved me, and gave himselfe for mee.

Likewise in those places where the faithfull pro­fesse their assurance of justification and salvation. as Iob. Psal. 103.3. who forgiveth all thine iniquities, Psalm. 32.5. Rom. 8.35.38. 2. Tim. 1.12.

Secondly, upon the Patrons of speciall Faith, the Papists doe presse divers inconveniences and absurdi­ties.

As 1. If every man be bound to believe in particu­lar his owne salvation, then it would follow, that eve­ry man shalbe saved; because no man is bound to be­lieve an untruth but the consequent is false, therefore the antecedent.

Answ. I have shewed before, that every man is bound upon paine of damnation to have the first de­gree of Faith, which is to give a firme assent to the pro­mise of the Gospell, assuring salvation to all those that believe in CHRIST; but the second degree none ought to have, but they onely who have the first. no man ought to apply the promise of the Gospell to him selfe, who hath not the condition of the promise, un­lesse he will p [...]rniciously deceive himselfe. For Mark. 16.16. as hee that believeth shalbe saved: so he that believeth not, shalbe condemned. If thou dost truly believe that CHRIST is the Saviour, thou art bound to believe, that he is thy Saviour. And so believing in CHRIST, and receiving him both by assent, and application, thou shalt un­doubtedly [Page 109] be saved.

2. Those that have this speciall Faith ought not to aske the forgivenes of sinnes,The second absurdity. which notwithstanding our Saviour teacheth his owne Apostles to aske. For they that have full assurance of the forgivenes of all their sinnes, ought not to aske forgivenes, unlesse they will dally with God, for no thing desireth that which it hath.

I answere. 1. that not all believers have full assu­rance some are incipients, some proficients, some per­fect or growne men in CHRIST. Those that are inci­pients, pray both that their sinnes may bee forgiven, and that they may have some assurance thereof: pro­ficients, and those that bee growne men, pray both that their sinnes may bee remitted, and their assu­rance augmented, for none are so perfect, but that their assurance may be increased.

2. As wee dayly sinne, so wee must dayly aske forgivenes, prayer being the meanes that GOD hath ordayned to that end.

Ob. Yea but saith the Papist; yee forsooth have al­ready full assurance, of the remission of all your sinnes, not onely past, but also to come.

Answ. It is absurd to imagine, that sinnes bee remitted before they be committed, and much more that we be assured they are remitted, before they bee either remitted or committed; that in deed were a doctrine to animate, and to encourage men to sinne.

But howsoever the Pope somtimes forgiveth sinnes to [...]ome, yet God doth not when God justifieth a man, he giveth him remissiō of sins past. Rom. 3.25. As for time to come, we teach, that although Christ hath merited, [Page 110] and God hath promised remission of sinnes of all the faithfull unto the end of the world: Notwithstanding, remission of sinnes is not actually obtayned, and much lesse by speciall faith believed, untill men doe actually believe and repent, and by humble and faithfull prayer renew their faith & repentance. For as God hath pro­mised to the faithfull all good things; but how? [...]at 7.7.8 to them that aske, that seeke, that knocke: so also remission of sinnes. Neither is it to be doubted, but that remissi­on of sinne, though merited by CHRIST, though pro­mised by GOD, though sealed unto us in the Sacra­ment of Baptisme, is obtayned by the effectuall prayer of those that believe and repent, for whom CHRIST hath merited it, and to whom GOD hath promised it in his Word, and sealed it by the Sacrament. even as the obtayning of the raine, which GOD had promi­sed, Kings 1 [...].1. [...]1, and the Prophet Elias had fore-told, is ascribed Iam. 5.16, 18. to the effectuall prayer of Elias.

3. The third absurdity which the Papists put upon the doctrine of speciall Faith, is, that by it men are ani­mated to commit all manner of sinne. As if it were no matter, how many, or how great sinnes a man doth commit, so long as he is assured by speciall Faith, that all his sinnes past, present, and to come, are remitted.

Answ. That which they say of sinne to come, is a ma­licious sclander, as I noted before; but I answere: the practice of sinne (especially of any crime) and going on in the same without repentance, cannot possibly stand with the assurance of Faith. Neither can a man be assured of the forgivenes of any sinne, whereof hee doth not repent: and much lesse can he be assured be­fore hand of the forgivenes of that sinne which pre­sumptuously he doth purpose to commit.

[Page 111]As for the doctrine of speciall Faith, I doe confi­dently professe, that there is scarce any one doctrine in all Divinity, of greater force and efficacy, either to en­courage men to well doing, or to preserve them from evill. For as I have shewed before, the more a man is as­sured of GODS love towards him in CHRIST, in forgiving his sinnes, and giving unto him eternall life; the more will his heart be inflamed with love towards GOD, and towards his neighbour for GODS sake; the more zelous will he be of GODS glory, the more thankfull for his mercies, the more desirous to please, the more fearefull to displease, the more carefull to o­bey him, the more ready when he hath offended to re­turne unto him. &c. and therefore not without cause, chasidim ▪ the favourites of GOD, who have experi­ence and assurance of GODS speciall favour towards them, are every where almost translated [...], that is, godly.

3. Having thus by application of the promises to our selves (as having the condition thereof) attayned to some measure of assurance, we are to be carefull to use all other meanes, which GOD hath ordayned, for the confirming of this assurance.

The first meanes is prayer, both for the spirit of ad­option, and for the encrease of our Faith.

As touching the former: forasmuch as speciall Faith is the worke of the Holy Ghost, shedding abroad the love of GOD in our hearts; we are therefore to entreat the Lord that he would give us his Spirit (which hee hath promised to give to those that aske him Luk. 11.13.) the spirit of adoption, crying▪ that is, by whom we cry in our hearts Abba Father. Gal. 4.6. Rom. 8.15. te­stifying with our spirits that wee are the sonnes of [Page 112] GOD; and if sonnes, then also heyres, heyres of God, and coheyres with Christ. Rom. 8.16.17. by whō we are sealed to thē day of our full redemption, who also is the earnest of our inheritance, 2. Cor. 1.22. Eph.

And as for the other: because full assurance is the highest degree of speciall faith, unto which we doe ne­ver so fully attayne, but that still more and more may and ought to be added; therfore we are to pray conti­nually for the increase thereof, saying with the father of the Daemoniack Mark. 9.24. I believe Lord, but helpe thou my unbeliefe, and with the Apostles, Luk. 17.5. O Lord increase our faith. For as Augustine De [...] [...]n Do. ser [...]. 36. saith, fides fundit orationem, fusa oratio fidei impetrat firmita­tem.

2. Vnto prayer we are to adjoyne repentance, for our sinnes; without which neither is our faith lively nor our prayers effectuall; the rather, because to it, and to the severall duties of it, as proper notes and evidences of a true faith, the promise of forgivenes is made; as namely to confession of our sins, to contrition in being displeased with our selves, and grieved for them, to de­precation in craving pardon for them, to an unfained desire and purpose to forsake them, and to practise the contrary dueties. Yea if a man shall as truly desire to confesse his sinnes, to bewaile them, and to forsake thē, as he doth desire the forgivenes of them; such an one may undoubtedly be assured of the remission of them. For most gracious are the promises of God made unto penitent sinners, as Pro. 28.13. Whosoever confesseth and forsaketh his sinnes shall have mercy. so Ierem. 3.12.13. Levit. 26.40.41. Hos. 2. Chron. 7.14.

[Page 113]More particularly, as I said, to confession. 1. Iohn. 1. 9. Iob. 33.27.28. Psal. 32.5. Luk. 15.21.

To contrition. Mat. 5.4. Ps, Esay [...].2.

To humble deprecation, Zach. 12.10. Luk. 18.1 [...]. Hos. 1.4.2.

To conversion unto God, and forsaking of sinne. Deut. Es. Ierem. 3.1. 22.18.8. Ezech. Ioel. 2. 12. Zach. 1.3. Mal. 3.7.

3. To prayer and repentance we must adde the dili­gent & conscionable hearing of the Word, by which Faith Rom. 10.17., as it is at the first begotten, so it is nourished & encreased. 1. Pet. 2.2.

4. Because Faith begotten by the Word, consisteth at the first in assent, without actuall application, there­fore to the hearing of the word is to bee adjoyned the worthy receiving of the Sacraments, which were or­dayned to this very end, that those who have the first degree of Faith, may proceed to the second, and goe on therin. Dost thou therfore truly believe, that Christ is the Saviour of all those that believe in him? the Sa­crament, which thou receivest, is a pledge unto thee, & an assurance that he is thy Saviour; a pledg I say, cōmu­nicated to the receivers severally, to assure every one that believeth truly according to the first degree of faith, that as certainly as he receiveth the Sacrament; so he is made partaker also of the thing signified, which is the participation of Christ, and all his merites to his justification and salvation.

5. To these we are to adde reading, meditation, con­ference. &c.

6. The practice of piety, or leading of a godly life, [Page 114] making conscience of all our wayes, and walking up­rightly before God. For hereby especially we are to make out calling and our election sure. [...]. Pet. 1.10. for be that doth these things shall never be removed. Ps. 15.5. And this is confirmed by the order and conjunction of justification and sanctification mentioned before [...] [...]7. More specially by brotherly love, 1. Iohn 3.14 [...] and the fruits thereof in giving almes, Mat. 25.35. 1. Tim. 6.28.19. and forgiving the offence of others, Mat 6.14. and therefore our Saviour teacheth us to use this argu­ment in our prayer for the confirmation of our faith, Mat. 6.12. but more plainly, Luke 11.4.

So much of the first doctrine.

CHAP. IX. Two other uses of this property.

NOw followeth the second doctrine. For if we be enabled to worship the Lord without fer­vile feare, as being freed from the terrour & coaction of the law; then it followeth, that we are to worship the Lord with willing mindes, a [...] David exhorteth his sonne Solomon. 1. Chron. 28.9. and promiseth for himselfe, Ps. 119.32. I will runne the way of thy commandements when my heart is set as liberty. For therefore hath the Lord freed us from the servitude of sinne▪ and bondage of the law, that we might serve him with free and willing mindes. The people redeemed by CHRIST, become a voluntary people, Psalm. 110.3. or, as Paul speaketh, his pe­culiar people, zelous, or studious of good workes▪ Tit. 2.14.

Thus the d [...]ies both of piety towardes GOD, [Page 115] and charity to our brethren, are to be performed with willing mindes and cheerfull hearts. In the dueties of piety we are to serve the Lord with gladnes. Ps. 100.2. I rejoyced (saith David. Ps. 122.1) when they said un­to me, let us goe into the house of the Lord. More par­ticularly.

The Word of God is to be preached [...], willingly, 1. Pet. 5.2. that we may say with the Apostle, Rom. 1.15. [...], as much as lyeth in me I am willing to preach the Gospell, for it must be done in love to CHRIST, and zeale to GODS glory, Iohn Act. 20.28. in love and zeale of our brethrens salvation. 2 Cor. 11.2. It is to be heard with willing­nes; after the example of the Beraeans, Act. 17.11. who received the Word [...], with all rea­dines of minde. desiring 1. Pet. 2.2. and longing after it Ps. 119.131. To be conversant therein should be our de­light, Ps. 1 [...]. the Word ought to be sweet unto us even as the hony, and the hony combe. Ps. 19.11 [...] 109.1 [...]3. and we should rejoyce i [...] it, as in all manner of riches. This affection towards Gods Word David expresseth▪ Ps. 129.14 [...]1 [...].1 [...]. [...]7.143.162.

We must give our selves to prayer, as devoted there, unto. Ps. 109. [...]. taking delight to conferre with GOD i [...] prayer; and offering up our prayers and thanksgi­vings, as a willing sacrifice Ps. 119.108.

We must praise God with joyfulnes, & give thank [...] [...] cheerfulnes. Ps▪ 9 [...] ▪95▪1▪2. 63.5. for as [...] which is thanks, cōmeth of [...], to rejoyce; so it must be [...], that is, with [...]oy, Phil. 1.3.4. we must e­steeme it a blessed thing, wherein we resemble the bles­ [...] [...] angels [...] Heaven. Ps. 84. [...].

[Page 114]We must call the sabbath our delight Esay, 58. [...]3. And we must esteeme one day spent in the house of God as better then a thousand. Ps. 84.10. Ps. 2 [...].

The duetyes of charity are also cheerfully to be per­formed Rom. 12.8. he that sheweth mercy let him doe it with cheerfulnes. drawing forth his soule to the hungry and afflicted Esay,Trem. & I [...]. 58.10. id est, ex animo liberaliter hi [...] lariter (que) communicans ejus necessitatibus. For the Lord loveth a cheerfull giver. 2. Cor. 9.7.

Finally in doeing the will of God, we are to imitate the holy Angells, according to our dayly prayer, that we may doe the will of God vpon earth, as it is done in heaven, that is willingly, readily, cheerfully; follow­ing also the example of all examples, our blessed Saviour, whose delight it was Ps. 40.8. and whose mea [...] it was to doe the will of his heavenly father. Ioh. 4.34.

As for that obedience, or service, which is extorted from men by servile feare, because it is forced, it is but [...]omentany, For no violent thing is of continuance, and being momentany, it is but counterfeit. wher­as true piety is constant and permanent, Such is the [...] and repentance of hypo [...]e [...] wh [...] when they are affrighted will GODS judgments, o [...] a [...]icted with his heavy hand pr [...]t [...]nd repentance, and promise amendment: but when the hand of God is removed from them, they [...] to their former courses, and [...] so farre from learning [...] ­ence by that which they have suffered, or feared, that like anviles with often striking they are more & more hardned. according to that Ps. 8. [...]. why should you [...]e strikē any more, you will add [...]velt [...] [...]otable example [Page 117] hereof we have in Pharaoh, who▪ as upon the inflicting of the severall judgments, promised obedience; Exod. so upon the removing of the plagues, he returned to his former obstinacy, Ex Yea in the Israelites them­selves; who, when God slew some of them, they sought him, and they returned, and enquired early after GOD, &c. Neverthelesse they did but flatter, him with their mouth, and with their tongues they lied unto him, for their heart was not right with him, neither were they sted­fast in his covenant, Ps. 78.34 36.37. This therefore ought to teach men not to put off their repentance to the time of sicknes or old age, or to the houre of death; lest the repentance which then they hope to performe, prove counterfeit. Now, that our obedience may bee voluntary and cheerefull, and our service of GOD without servile feare▪ we are to be adorned with the three Theologicall Vertues, Faith, Hope, and Chari­ty: for according to the measure of these three graces, is the measure of our spirituall security and assurance, which is the ground of our cheerefulnes. Faith; for no man can worship the Lord with a willing minde, and cheerfull heart, that is not by Faith perswaded, that his service is accepted of him. The perswa­sion, of GODS love shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Spirit, that is to say, Faith, maketh us to love him againe, and in love to serve him wil­lingly to whom Luk. 7.47. much is forgiven, they love much. That charity whereby the whole Law is fulfilled, pro­ceedeth from Faith unfained 1. Tim. 1.5. and without Faith it is impossible to please GOD Heb. [...]1.6. Hope; for they that have fastened their an­chor of hope in Heaven, performe the duties of piety [Page 118] and righteousnes with a comfortable expectation of e­verlasting happines. The hope whereof maketh them easily to swallow all the difficulties and troubles of this life, for the joy that is set before them, and with cheerefulnes to serve the Lord, & to finish their course with joy▪ Act. 20.24. whiles we hold fast this hope, no­thing shalbe able to discourage, or to with-draw us from the voluntary worshippe of GOD. Not the desires of this world, which to him that hath this hope seeme more vanities in comparison of the happines hoped for. Not the terrours or bugg-beares of this world, which are not worthy [...] of the glory expected. Consider the example of Moses, who, when hee was [...]ome to yeares, refused to be called the sonne of Pharaohs daughter, choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of GOD, then to enioy the pleasures of sinne for a season, esteeming the reproach of CHRIST (in his members) greater riches then the treasures of Egypt. the reason of all which was this, for he [...] had respect to the recompence of reward. Heb. 11.24▪ 25.26.

1. Iohn 4.18. Charity, which expelling fearefulnes, causeth cheer­fulnes. To him that loveth, the commaundements of God, are not grievous, 1. Iohn. 5.3. nor the yoake of CHRIST tedious. No [...]hing is hard to him that lo­veth. Iacobs 7 yeares of hard service for the love of Ra­chel seemed to him but a few dayes. Gen. 29.20.

The third use, is a singular comfort, which from hence ariseth to the Faithfull. For whereas the Lord in other places, when he would comfort his servants, biddeth them not to feare, as Esay 43.1. feare not, for I have redeemed thee. Luk. 12.32. feare not litle flocke, for it is your Fathers pleasure to give you a Kingdome: Here [Page 119] in this covenant of grace, he promiseth, and that by oath, that hee will give us to worship him without feare, or at least without cause of feare. so Esay 54.14. which must needes be a singular consolation unto us, whether we respect our condition by nature, or by grace. For by Nature we are obnoxious to our e­nemies, subject to the terrour of the law, and to the feare Heb. [...].15. of death and damnation; And though we be in the state of grace, yet are we infirme and weake, not able by our owne strength to resist our enemies; The groūd therefore of this our being without feare, is not any confidence of our owne strength: but first of all, the truth of God, Heb. 6. [...].18 who by oath hath promised that wee shall worship him without feare.

2. Secondly, the power of God, whereby he is able to make good his promise. 2. Tim. 1.12 1. Pet. 1.5.

3. Thirdly, his fidelity, in regard whereof he is also willing to performe his oath, 1. Cor. 10.13. 1. Thess. 5.23.24.

4. Fourthly, his Fatherly providence. Es. 54.17. Rom. 8.28. and protection. Ps. 91.

5. Fiftly, CHRISTS protectiō of us as our King, who having vanquished all the enemies of our salvation, & delivered us out of their hand, none shalbe able to hurt us. Es. 54.14.17. and much lesse to plucke us out of his hand Iohn 10.28.

6. Sixtly, his intercession for us, as our Priest, Rom. [...].34. 1. Iohn 2.2.

7. Seventhly, his union with us as our Head, with whom our life is hid in God. Col. 3.3. Now as whiles the head (as they say) is above the water, the members cannot be drowned; so whiles our Head is in glory, sit­ting at the right hand of his Father, none of his mem­bers [Page 120] can perish; but as himselfe hath promised, because I live, you shall live also, Ioh. 14.19. wherefore we are to thinke of our selves, as of the members of CHRIST, whō the Lord hath quickned together with CHRIST, & hath raised us up together, & made us sit together in heavenly places in CHRIST IESVS. Eph. 2.5.6.

8. Eightly, the testimony of the Holy Ghost the Comforter, who shedding Rom. 5.5. abroad the love of God in our hearts, & testifying with Rom. 8.16 our spirits, that we are the sonnes of God, becommeth the earnest 2. Cor. of salvati­on, sealing us Eph. 1.13.14. untill the day of our full redemption. & not onely freeth us from the spirit of bondage & of feare, as being the spirit of adoption, by whom wee cry Gal. 4.6. Rom. 8.15. in our hearts Abba father; but also worketh in us peace of conscience, Rom and joy in the Holy Ghost, which S. Peter calleth unspeakable and glorious. 1. Pet. 1.8.

CHAP. X. Of uprightnes, and of the worshipping of God in holines before him.

THe second property of our new obedience is uprightnes, signified in these words [...] before him. whereby is meant, that we are to serve God in holines and righteousnes, not as before men in eye-services as men-pleasers; but as before God, in sincerity and truth And so the Lord him­selfe seemeth to expound this phrase Gen. 17.1. I am God all-sufficient, walke before me, and be upright. For to walke before God, or to walke with God (both which phrases are used in the Scriptures, sometimes joyntly, as 1. Kings 3.6. sometimes severally with God, as did [...]inoch, Gen▪ 5.22.24▪ and Noah, Gen. 6.9. and as wee [Page 121] are required to doe, Mich. 6.8. before God, Es. 57.2. as did Abraham, Gen. 24.40. and Isaac Gen. 48.15. Da­vid, Ps. 116.9. Iotham, who prepared his wayes before the Lord, 2. Chro. 27.6.) it is to behave our selves as in the sight and presence of God, setting God before our eyes, admitting him to be the beholder, witnes, and judge of our actions; that is, to demeane our selves up­rightly. And this property is required, not onely in the dueties of piety, which wee performe directly to God; but also in the duties of righteousnes, which we owe unto men: for so it is here said, that wee should wor­ship him in holines and righteousnes before him; in which two, being sincere and upright, the image of God renewed in us doth consist, Eph. 4.24. in righte­ousnes and holines of truth, that is in true, sincere, up­right, and unfained righteousnes and holines. But first we are to speake of worshipping GOD in holi­nes before him, or of uprightnes, as it hath relation to GOD. In which sence it is opposed to hypocrisy; and so what is upright, is said to be [...], without hy­pocrisie, or unfayned.

Now what this uprightnes is,what upright­nes is. wee may gather by those divers words and phrases, whereby it is expressed, both in the Old Testament, and in the New.

As first by the word josher Ps. 2 [...].3 [...]., which signifieth up­rightnes, and jashar, which signifieth right or upright, as Ps. 37.37. Iob but more plainly & ful­ly, when it is joyned with some other word, as right in heart, signifying the inward disposition; or right in the way, signifying the conversation. for so the up­right are called recti corde, right or upright in heart, as Psalm. 7. [...] [Page 122] and vprightnes rectitudo cordis. 1. King. 3.6. Ps. 119.7. they are also called recti via Ps. 37.14. vpright of way. Ps. 119.1. or perfecti via; ambulans integer. Ps. 15.2. whose way is vprightnes.Integer vitae, Horat. Es. 26.7. their way being made streight by God. both which doe concurre in the vpright for he is properly integer, who is both outwardly streight, that is rectus via and inwardly sound, that is rectus corde. Both must concurre 2. Chron. 25.2.

2. By the word Zmeth, which signifieth truth, for as there is truth in words, opposed to lying so also in deeds, opposed to dissembling and hypocrisie, which is vprightnes. as Ios. 24.14. Ps. 51.6. Es. 38.3. Ps. 145.18. and as there is a saying, 2 Chron. 11.20 so also a doing of the truth. Iohn, 3.21. 1. Iohn. 1.6. and walking in truth. 2. Iohn. 4. and 3 Iohn, 3. hence to walk vprightly, is to walk be­fore God in truth. 1. King. 2.4. and 1. King. 3.6. in truth and righteousnes and vprightnes of heart. 2. King. 20.3. in truth with a perfect heart. and to worship God vp­rightly, is to worship him in spirit and in truth. Ioh. 4.23.24. or as Samuel exhorteth, in truth with all our hearts. 1. Sam. 12.24.

3. The most vsuall word to signify, either the vpright is Tham, or Thamim, which commonly is translated perfect, as Gen. 17.1. Deut. 18.13. Ps. or vprightnes, is Thom or thamim, which vsual­ly is translated perfection▪ whereby not legall perfecti­on is meant (which is absolute and compleat, not on­ly in respect of the parts, but also of degrees) but evan­gelicall, according to the covenant of grace; which is nothing els (the Lord 2. Cor. 2.1 [...]. Gen 22.16 [...]. Sam. 7. [...]. &c. accepting in his children the will for the deed) but integrity or vprightnes; and is so expounded Ps. 25.21. Ios. 24.14. Iob. 1.1. [...].2.3. Ps. 27. [...]7. For very many in the scriptures have this per­fection [Page 123] attributed to them, who notwithstanding had their imperfections. as Noah, Gen. 6.9. Iob. Iacob, Gen. 25.27. &c. of Asa it is said 2. Chro. 15.17. that his heart was perfect all his dayes: and yet in the next Chapter there are recorded three foule sinnes, which he committed. 2. Chron.

4. By the word Shalem, which in the Greeke is trans­lated, sometimes [...] perfect, sometimes [...]; true, and sometimes [...] full or compleate▪ examples of the first. 1. King. 2. King. 20.3. 1. Chron. 28.9. 2. Chro. 18.17. of the second Es. 38.3.

Of the last 1. Chron. And in this sence, they that are vpright are said to have ful­filled after the Lord. that is fully or entirely to have followed him, Num. Deut. 1.36. Ios. as contrary wise of those who are not vpright, but have a name that they live, and yet are dead; it is said, that their workes are not [...] full or perfect before God. Apoc. 3.2.3. but dimi­diata, worshipping & obeying God by the halfes, not fulfilling after him▪ Num. 32, 11.

5. By the whole heart, being not legally, but evange­lically understood, as when duties are to be performed with the whole heart, or with all the heart, and with all the soule, as Deut 4, 1▪ Sam. 12.14. 2. Kings 23.3. Ps. Ioel 2.12. which being legally understood, import a greater per­fection, then is incident to any man since the fall: but being evangelically understood, according to the co­venant of grace, nothing els is meant thereby, but that they are to bee performed with an entire or upright heart, or as David speaketh, Psalm. 119.7. with up­rightnes [Page 124] of heart.

6. Not with an heart, and an heart (after the maner of hypocrites, who are [...] Iam. Ps. 12.2. 1. Chro. 12.33.38.

7. Without guile, that is hypocrisy. Ps. 17.1▪32.2.

8. As the upright are called recti corde, so also puri cor­de, [...]ure in heart. Ps.

Whereby is not meant, that they are wholly pure or free from sinne: for who can say I have made my heart cleane, I am pure from my sinne? Pro. 20.9. or if any shall say so, in him there is no truth. 1. Iohn, 1.8. But they are pure in heart, who are sincere and upright, purified from the leaven of hypocrisy. Iam. 4.8. in whose heart there is no guile. Ps. 32.2. who being indued with faith vnfained, which purifieth their hearts, Act. [...]5.9. as the instrument apprehending the blood of CHRIST, which doth purge our hearts from sinne, 1. Ioh. 1.7. and purifieth our consciences frō dead workes to serve the living God. Heb 9.14 and being also in­dued with this hope that they shalbe like vnto Christ in glory, will 1. Iohn. 3.3. purify themselves, even as he is pure. but this is puritas inchoa [...], not perfecta.

In the new testament uprightnes is expressed, some times by this phrase [...] before God ▪ as not onely in this, but also in other places; where we a [...] taught, to speake, as before God in Christ 2▪ Cor. 12.1 [...]. to preach, as before God in Christ, 2. Cor. 2.17. commending our selves to every mans conscience in the sight of God. 2. Corinth. 4. [...]. and to take care for the people of God, as in his sight, [...]. Cor. 7.12. to heare as before God ▪ Act [...] 10.53▪ Thus, both those per­sons which be upright, are said to be righteous before God Luk. [...] and those [...], whose heart [...] [...] [Page 125] not right before God, Act. [...] ▪21▪ and those actions and dueties, which are upright, are said to be acceptable, pleasing and vn [...]proveable before God. 1. Tim. Heb. 13.21. 1. Ioh. 3.22. Col. 1.22.

2. Sometimes by the word truth. Iohn. 4.23. [...]4. 1. Cor. 5.8. 1. Iohn, 3.18. Phil. [...].18. Eph. 4.24. hence an upright heart is called [...] a true heart. Heb. 10.22.

3. Sometimes by the word [...] that is sincerity as 1. Cor. 5.8. 2. Cor. 2.17. and 2. Cor. 1. [...]. when it is called the sincerity of God, that is, godly sincerity for that is [...] which is sincere, or without mix­ture as bread without leaven, 1. Cor. 5.8. without the leaven of the Pharisies, which is hypocrisie, Luk. 12.1. o [...] as hony without wa [...] (as the word sincere doth signi­fy) or as [...]esych [...]s expoundeth it, [...], pure, sincere, or without deceipt, & true. This since, [...] the [...]d required of the I [...]nes, by forbidding divers sorts of mixture: as to plant their vineyards, o [...] to sow their fields [...]nhidivers [...] to plowe with an [...] and [...]n [...] together, to weare a garment of divers stu [...]fes, as of woollen & [...] her, Deut▪ [...].9.1 [...]. [...] Levit. 19. [...].

[...] upright ma [...] is signified by the word [...] sound, or an approved Chri­stian; such [...] [...]kers, but do [...]rs also of God [...] wo [...]d; who are no [...] onely in the church visible, but also [...] Iohn, [...].1 [...]. who are sh [...]epe in Ch [...]ists [...] [...]ot go [...]es; wheat in Gods floore, and not [...] Gods field, and [...]ot t [...]es, child [...]n Gods family, and not bondser­vants, Ioh. 8.34.35. [...] contrarywise, those who are [...] Christians are called [...] [Page 126] 1. Cor. 9.27. 2. Cor, 15.6. 2. Tim. 3.8. which doth not signify reprobate, as opposed to the elect; but reprovable, as opposite to [...] that is, ap­proved. 1. Cor. 11.19. there must be heresies, that those who are [...] sound and approved may be knowne. Iam. 1.12. Blessed is the man who indureth temptation▪ for when by triall he shall be found [...], that is, [...] sound and approved Christiā, he shall receive the crowne of life. For temptations and trialls are [...] pro­ [...]ations, by enduring and overcomming whereof the [...]pright or [...] (who have the privilege of perseve­rance) are discerned and knowne. Sometimes the word is vsed with some addition as [...] appro­ved in CHRIST, that is an approved Christian, Rom. 16.10. [...] approved of GOD. 2. Tim. 2.15. for not he who commendeth him selfe is [...], but he whom God commendeth. 2. Cor. 10.12. [...], acceptable o [...] well pleasing to GOD, and approved of men. Rom. [...]4.18.

5. That which is upright and sincere is sometimes sig­nified by the word [...], (for who upright is not to be an hypocri [...]) [...]. 12.9. [...]. Cor. 6.6. [...]. Pet. [...].22. 1. Tim. 1.5. 2. Tim. 1.5. Iam. [...].27. and some [...] by the word [...]. Pet. [...] [...] guile. And they are said to be upright, in whose spirit there is [...] gui [...]e, that is hypocrys [...]. Ps. 32 [...]. [...] Israe­lites, in whom th [...]. Ioh. 1.48. for such fooles [...] hypocrites, [...] [...]et) goe about with [...] pretences to deceive God. Ps. 7 [...].36.

6. As in the old testament, so also in the new, the up­right [...] and the up­ [...] [...]eart is called a [...] [Page 127] 2.22. 1. Pet. 1.22.

7. Lastly, to walk uprightly is [...] to goe with a right foore Gal. 2.14. neither treading awry by dis­simulation, nor halting, as the Israelites did, betwixt God & Baal. 1. King. 1 [...]. [...]or declining to the right [...]nd or to the left. Deut. 2. Chro. 34.2. or as the Apostle speaketh Heb. 12.13. to make streight or right pathes to our feet. according to the ex­hortation of Solomon, Pro. 4.26. as it is rendered by the 72. [...] make right pathes to thy feet, and order right thy wayes, decline v. [...]. not to the right hand nor to the left. and a [...] he exhorteth in the same place v. 25. let thyne eyes looke right on, and let thine eye liddes looke straight before thee. would you know then, what it is to worship God in holines before him? it is to walk with God, or before God without hypocrisie, in sincerity & truth, with per­fect, with pure, with ourwhole harts, that is to say, with enuie or upright hearts, walking in the way of religion & godlines with a right foote, looking right before vs, declining neither to the right hand, nor to the left, nei­ther treading awry by dissimulatiō, not halting down­right, either as neuters in religion betwixt CHRIST & Antichrist, or as worldlings betweene GOD and Mammon; nor worshipping or obaying GOD by halves; but approving our selves to be [...] entire and sound Christians, to him that tryeth and search­eth the heart and the ioynes, s [...]ting God alwayes be­fore our eyes, and behaving our selves as in his sight & presence, doing that which is right in his sight.

Now that we may be moved to labour for this inte­grity and uprightnes of heart,Argument to move vs [...] in­tegrity. I will use the 3 usuall argument of commendation, viz. the excellency, the [Page 128] profit, and the necessity of it, as it were a triple chaine.

The excellency1. The excellency of it is such: that first it goeth vn­der the name of perfection; & those things which are done (though with great weaknes and much imperfe­ction) with an upright heart, that is to say with a sincere desire, vnfained purpose, and upright endevour to please God, are accepted of God as done with a perfect heart.

2. Vprightnes is the inward bewty of Christs spouse, in regard whereof, though she be outwardly despicable in the eyes of the world; yet she is glorious within, Ps. 45.13. like to the Tabernacle, which was a type of the church, which though outwardly covered with Rāmes skinnes and Badgers skinnes Ex. 36.19. which made but a homely shew; was neverthelesse most beautifull and glorious within. Or as the spouse in the Canucles c. 1.5. saith I am blacke, but co [...]ely; black without, at the tent [...] of Kedar, who were sce [...]i [...] having tents of sack­cloth▪ comely within, as the hangings of Solomon within his house, as the li [...]ing thereof.

3. Integrity is of all things most pleasing to God, Ps. 51.6. Behold, thou art delighted with truth in the inward parts. I know also my God; that thou [...] the heart, and hast pleasure in uprightnes. 1. Chron. 29.17. Yea, I may say more, that to be upright, is not onely pleasing to God, but also the pleasing of him, Pt. 11.20. the upright in the way are Gods delight. The Hebrewe word ja [...]er which signifieth right, is translated [...] pleasing, and the verbe which signifieth to be right, signifieth also to please [...], and is oftentimes so translated, as the [...]onne, Exo. 15.26. Deut. 6 18.12. [...] [...] the verbe Iud. 14.3.7 [...] th [...] young woman of Ti [...] ­nah [Page 129] was right in Samsons eyes, that is, she pleased him well. so, 1. King. 9.12. 2. Chro. 30.4. Ier. 18.4. Dan. 4.24. but most plainly Num. 23.27. perhaps it will seeme right in the eyes of God; that is, as we also translate it, peradventure it will please God.

In like manner the phrase of walking with God or before God is every where by the 72 translated by the verbe [...], that is, to please God. As Gen. 5.22 24. where it is said, that Henoch walked with God, they read [...], he pleased God: so Gen. 6.9.17. Ps. 116.9 the sonne of Syrach spea­king of Henoch, observeth the same translation Eccl. 44 16. so doth the author of the booke of Wisdome, ch. 4.10. and so doth the Apostle himselfe, Heb. 11.5. He­noch before his translation had this testimony, [...], that he pleased God.

4. The excellencie of uprightnes is such, as that it is that vertue which God chiefly requireth. Gen. 17.1. Mich. 6.8. 1. Sam. 12.24. which he most highly estee­meth Gen. 5.22.24. which hath alwayes beene the chiefe commendation of the faithfull, as of Enoch, Noah, Iob &c. 1. Kings 3.6. The chiefe thing wherein the faithfull are to rejoyce in time of prosperity. 2. Cor. 1.12. and their chiefest stay and comfort in distresse. Es. 38.3 Act. 23.1.

2. But come we to the profit,The profit. by which most men Ps. 4.6. are drawn. In generall it is said, that God is good to those that are of a clean heart. Ps. 73.1. according to Davids prayer Ps. 125.4. more particularly. Ps. 84.11. the Lord is a sun & shield, the Lord wil give grace & glory, & no good thing will he withhold from thē that walke in uprightnes. He is a sun, that is, the author of all cōfortable blessings, which are signified by light, according to that Ps. 112.4. to the [Page 130] upright there ariseth light in darknes, that is to say, comfort in afflictions; yea, to them that are upright, the conscience of their owne integrity doth minister sin­gular comfort. It was Ezechias his stay and comfort, when he had received the sentence of death. Es 38 3. and this was Paul his rejoycing, the testimony of his conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity he had had his conversation in the world 2. Cor. 1.12. Act. 23.1. For God to him that is good before him, that is upright, giveth joy, Eccles 2.26. yea to them, all true joy, & pray­sing of God with joy & gladnes is appropriated. Ps For light is sowen for the righteous, & gladnes for the upright in heart. Ps. 97.11.

And as the life of the upright is comfortable, his up­right conscience being unto him as a continuall Pro. 1.15. feast; so his end is happy Ps. 37.37. Observe the perfect man, and behold the upright, for the end of that man is peace. so [...]say 57.2. which is further proved; because upright­nes is evermore attended with perseverance to the end, as hereafter shall fully be proved in the Treatise of per­severance. For the integrity of the upright doth guide and preserve them. Pro 11.3. Ps. 25.21. the upright man who is not onely a hearer, but also a doer of Gods word, is like the wise man, which built his house upon the rock, which could not be overthrowne. Mat. 7.24.25. wherefore the upright shall never be moved, but his righteousnes endureth for ever. Ps. 112.3.6.

The Lord is also a shield to them that walke upright­ly Pro. 2.7. For the eyes of the Lord [...]erlustrate the whole earth, to shew himselfe strong in their behalfe, whose heart is perfect or upright towards him. 2. Chro. 16 9. which David applyng to himselfe, saith Ps. 7, 10. God is my shield, who saveth the upright in heart.

[Page 131]He giveth also grace and glory; grace in this life, and glory in the life to come, Grace: for uprightnes being the soundnes of all graces, God hath therefore layd up in store for the upright Tushijah, whatsoever is sound and truly good, as Solomon saith, Pro. 2.7. And such is the concatenation of all saving graces, that where any of them be in truth, (as they are in the upright) there is a concurrence of them all in some measure: some goeing before, as causes producing the rest, others fol­lowing and presupposing the former. As for example, where is faith unfained, there is also hope and charity; and where these are in truth, no other saving grace can be wanting; and therefore God may truly be said to give all manner of graces to the upright, as saving knowledge, and true wisedome, Eccles. 2.26. which Da­vid found by his owne experience. Ps. and so of the rest. And upon this soundnes of grace fol­loweth the increase of grace, peace of conscience, and joy in the Holy Ghost. 2. Cor 1.12. Eccles. 2.26. affi­ance and confidence. Pro. 28.1. when feare surpriseth the hypocrites. Es 33.14. patience, constancy, and perse­verance, Luk. 8.15. by which the upright and sound Christians are knowne, when contrary wise the double minded man (that is the hypocrite) is inconstant in all his wayes Iam. 1.8. and his heart being not right with God, ne [...]ther is he stedfast in his covenant. Ps. 78.37: but is subject to defection, 1. Iohn. 2.19. as having built up­on the sand. Mat. 7.26.

The Lord also giveth glory to the upright; for who­soever walketh uprightly shalbe saved. P [...]o. 28.18. they shall dwell in the presence of God Ps. 140.13. in the mountaine of his holines, Ps. 15.12. Ps 24.3.4. the pure in heart shall see God (in which vision of God, our eternal [Page 132] happines doth consist:) and therefore they are blessed. Mat. 5.8. Ps. 119 1. and not onely them selves are blessed, but their children also after them Pro. 20.7. Ps. 112.2. Of this happines we have a notable example in Henoch; whom, because he walked with God, the Lord translated into the kingdome of glory. Gen. 5.24. Heb. 11.5. to let us understand by this precedent, as being the first mentioned in this kinde, what accompt hee maketh of uprightnes. Now, if the Lord doe graunt them glory in his owne kingdome, it may not be thought, that hee will Ps. 84.11. with-hold any thing from them that is good. Luk. 12.32. any good thing, I say, which they shall aske at his hands. for the prayers of the upright are accepted of God. Pro. 15.8. and he is neere to all that call upon him in truth. Ps. 145.18. insomuch that what­soever they doe aske they doe receive, because they doe those things which are pleasing in his sight. 1. Iohn. 3.22.

The necessity.3. But if neither the golden chaine of excellency will allure, nor the silver chaine of profit draw us; then must the iron chaine of necessity compell us to uprightnes.

The necessity may be shewed by these consideratiōs.

1. As with uprightnes the smallest graces, & the wea­kest measure of obedience are accepted with God: so without it, the best graces which we may seem to have, are but coūterfeit; & the best worship that we performe without it, is but hypocrisy. For the soundnes of all grace, & of all worship stādeth in uprightnes. Our faith therefore must be [...] unfained. 1. Tim. 1.5. 2. Tim. 1.5. or els it is no true faith, our charity also must be unfained, Rom. 12.9. 2. Cor. 6.6. 1. Pet. 1.22. that is we must love indeed & in truth, & not in word onely, & from the teeth outward 1. Iohn. 3.18. Iam. 2.15.16. Our wisdome likewise must be [...]. Iam. 3.17. [Page 133] not that mixta prudentia of our Polititians, which is mingled with disguising and deceipt, for such is earth­ly, carnall and deuillish. Iam. 3.15. Our repentance also must be vnfained, and from the bottome of our hearts Ioel. 2.12.13. not like that of the Israelites, when the hand of God was upon them, who made shew of repē ­tance, but their heart was not upright with God. Ps.

Likewise our obdience must be from the heart Rō. 6.17. Yea it must be performed with our whole heart, Deut. 2. King. 23.3. Ps. 119.34.69. If with Amasiah we doe that which is right before God, but not with a perfect, that is, upright heart; we may fall away frō God, as he did. 2. Chro. 25.2.14. for when mens hearts are not upright with God, neither are they stedfast in his covenant. Ps. 78.37. If therefore with­out uprightnes our faith be dead, our love fained, our wisdome diuelish, our repentance unsound, our obedience counterfeit, and so of all other graces; then is upright­nes as necessary, I say not, as any one grace, but as all of them put together: uprightnes being the truth and soundnes of them all, without which they are not [...] indeed and in truth; for ens et verum convertuntur. and therfore that which is not a true faith is not faith in deed, and so of the rest, And as the graces, which we seeme to have without uprightnes are but counterfeit; so all our worship and service of God, without it is meere hypocrisy. Our worship therefore of God must be in spirit & in truth, Ioh. 4.23.24. we must seeke the Lord with our whole heart, (whereby seeking, we are to understand the whole worship & service of God) Deut. 4.29. Ps. 119.2. Thus David sought the Lord Ps. 119.10. Thus Asa & his subjects did make a covenant to [Page 134] seeke the Lord with all their hearts. 2 Chro. 15.2. Thus Iehosaphat, 2. Chro. 22.9.

It is not our bodily exercise. 1. Tim. 4.8. but our rea­sonable and spirituall service that is acceptable to God, Rom. 12.1. It is the heart that the Lord requireth, Pro. 23.26. and that he respecteth. 1. Sam 16.7. If there­fore we draw neere to God with our mouthes, and ho­nour him with our lippes, but remove our hearts farre from him; Es. 29.13: we must expect the reward of hy­pocrites.

Necessary to Invocation.But let us descend to the parts of Gods worship, and first, to prayer & thanksgiving, which are the two sorts of invocation.To prayer. If we would have our prayer accepted of God, both we our selves must be upright, & our praiers also, we; for the Lord delighteth in the prayer of the up­right, Pro. 15.8. but abhorreth the prayer of the hypo­crites, Pro. 28.9. Es. 29.13. If therfore we regard wicked­nes in our hearts (as hypocrits use to doe) we must make our accompt with David, that the Lord will not heare us; Ps. 66.18. Our prayer must also be upright, when we are to pray, we must prepare our hearts to seeke the Lord; 2. Chro. 30.19. we must pray in spirit. Eph. 6.18. in truth. Ps. 145.18. Our prayer must be the lifting up of our soules to God. Ps. a lifting up of our hearts with our hands unto God in the heavens. Lam. 3.41. a powring forth of our soules before the Lord. 1. [...]am. 1.15. Ps. 62.8. we must pray out of a pure and upright heart, 2, Tim. 2 22. with our whole heart. Ps. 119.145. with lippes unfai­ned. Ps. 17.1. And to this maner of praying is the pro­mise of hearing our prayers restrayned. Ps. 145.18.

But if we pray with fained lipps, if in our prayers we speak with an heart and an heart, Ps. 12.2. if we ask with our mouth that which we doe not desire in our hearts; [Page 135] if in our prayers we pretend that which we doe not in­tend; if we promise that which wee doe not meane to performe; if we draw neare unto GOD with our mouthes, and remove our hearts from him, as hypo­crises use to doe, we shall offer a great abuse to the Ma­jesty of GOD. For fained lips are as the Psalmist calleth thē. Ps. 17.1. lips of deceipt, wherby hypocrites in their prayers lying unto GOD. Hos. 7.13.14. goe about to deceive him.

The like is to be said of praise & thanksgiving;To Thanksgi­ving. which if we would have accepted of GOD, both we our selves must be upright, (for praise is comely for the upright. Ps. 33.1. for they onely can rejoyce in GOD: & therefore they alone can praise him aright. Ps. & our praises also & thanksgiving must be uprightly performed. First therfore we must prepare our hearts, Ps. 57.7.108 1. & stir up our soules to praise God. Ps. Blesse the Lord O my soule, & all that is within me praise his holy Name▪ then must we sing and praise him with grace Col. 3.16 that is, with thankful­nes, and with gladnes in our hearts, with our whole hearts, Ps. that is with up­rightnes of heart. Ps. 119.7. Otherwise we shall make but bad musicke in the eares of the Lord if there be a discord betweene our hearts and our tongues.

Let us come to the ministery of the word,To Preaching. which must uprightly be both preached and heard. The Preacher must not adulterate the Word of God, but as of sinceri­ty, but as of God, in the sight of God he must speake in CHRIST, 2. Cor. not seeking to please men Gal. 1.10. but studying to shew himself approved to God who tryeth our hearts, 1. Thess 2.4. 2. Tim. 2.15. nei­ther seeking his owne praise or profit; but seeking only [Page 136] the glory of God in the salvation of the hearers. And as the word is to be preached with integrity, so is it also to be heard with uprightnes. And to that end, be­fore we come into the house of God, we ought to looke to our feet, that is to our affections, Eccles. 5.1. and to put off the foule shoes Exod. 3.5. Ios 5.15. of our feete, that is, our corrupt affections Iam. 1.21. 1. Pet. 2.1. that we may receive the word into honest & good, that is, upright hearts, Luk 8.15. And when we are come into the assēbly the place of Gods presence, we are to set our selves in the presence of God. that we may say with Cornelius Act. 10.33. we are here present before God, to heare what shalbe de­livered out of his word. And as the minister must preach, as he that delivereth the oracles of God. 1. Pet. 4.11. so we must heare [...] the word preached, not as the word of man, but as it is indeed the word of God 1. Thess. 2.13. with earnest attentiō, hanging as it were upon the mouth of the preacher, Luk. 19 48. & so de­siring to heare God, as we desire to be heard of God. (for without attention, being present in body, we are absent in minde,) with a sincere desire 1 Pet. [...].2: to profit by it, & an unfained purpose to practise it. For if we be hearers, & not doers of the word like Ezechiels hearers. Ezech. 33.31.32. as we shal play the hypocrits to deceive other [...] so we shal prove sophisters to beguile our selvs Iam. 1.22 [...]. To the Sacra­ments.

There remaine the Sacraments. For as in the old Te­stament the Circumcision of the flesh was of no value Rom. [...]18.29., without the circūcision of the heart; so is it to litle pur­pose to have the body washed 1. Pet. 3.21. with outward Bap­tisme, unlesse our hearts be clensed with the bloud of CHRIST apprehēded by faith unfained. For what will it availe us, if without uprightnes of heart we doe with Simon Magus professe our selves to believe, & to be bap­tized? [Page 137] For if our heart be not right before God, we have, for all our baptisme & profession, no part in CHRIST: but doe remaine as he did, in the gall of bit­ternes, and in the bond of iniquitie. Act. 8.21.

And as in celebrating the Passeover, the Iewes were to use unleavened bread▪ so must we receive the Sa­crament of the Lords Supper, (which is the antitype to the Passeover) not with the leaven of hypocrisy, but with the azymes or unleavened graces of sincerity & truth, 1. Cor. 5.8. For what will it availe us, if with Iu­das Iscariot, we shall receive the Sacrament, and carry our selves so smoothly, as he did, that when our Savi­our told his Apostles, that one of them should betray him; all of them were as ready to suspect themselves, as him? for if our hearts be not upright, but false, as his was, well may we receive, as Augustine sayth of him, panem Domini, the sacramentall bread, but we shall not receive panem Dominum, the Lord, who is the bread of GOD which came downe from heaven. Iohn. 6.33.

But if when we are to receive the sacrament, we pre­pare [...]. Chro. 10.19 our hearts to seeke the Lord, and come with up­right hearts voide of hypocrisy; though we have ma­ny imperfections and wants, and though the graces re­quired in a worthy receiver be very small & weake in us; yet if they be in truth, we shall in Christ be accepted, as worthy receivers. But without uprightnes of heart, the most glorious shewe that can be made, either in our preparation, or in the receiving of the sacrament, is but hypocrisie.

2. Secondly the necessity of uprightnes is proved by the authority of God speaking in the scriptures as 1 By the cōmaundemēt of God imposing a necessity of duety [Page 138] Deut. 18.13. Ios. 24.14. who so requireth it as a maine and principall duety Gen. 17.1. 1. Sam 12 24. Mich. 6.8. which in all dueties is, as it were, all in all, and without which all is nothing Act. 24.16. For this cause Israell was called Ieshurun. Deut. Es. 44.2. because this was the thing which the Lord required cheifely in every Israelite, this is the true Israelite, Iohn, 1 47. Rom. 2.29. This is Iacob, Ps. 24.6. or this is the generation of Iacob (who was ish Tam. perfectus or integer Gen. 25.27.) this, the Is­raell of God. Gal. 6.16. 2ly by the testimony of our Saviour Mat. 5.20. except your righteousnes exceed the righteousnes of the scribes and Pharisies (whose righte­ousnes consisted in outward appearance, not in inward truth, they being soured with the leaven of hypocrisy) you shall not enter into the kingdome of heaven. If ther­fore we have a forme [...] of godlines, but deny the power thereof, 2. [...]im. 3.5. if we have lampes without oile Mat. 25.3. grene blades without roote. Luk. 8.13. grene leaves without fruite. Mat. 21.19. we cannot please God▪ And thirdly, by the oath of God in this place inferring a necessity of infallibility, that those, who are the redeemed of the Lord shall worship him in holines, and righteousnes before him.

3. Thirdly if we be not upright, then are we hypo­crites, for not to be upright is to be an hypocrite. But hypocrisy is a sinne most odious vnto God, and most pernicious to the hypocrite. For as the upright are the Lords delight: so they that be of a perverse heart, that is to say the hypocrites, are an abomination to him, Pro. 11.20. And so pernicious it is to him that is infected therewith, that as there is no assurance of his salvati­on, (for what hope hath the hypocrite; when GOD [Page 139] shall take away his soule Iob. 27.8:) so there is great certainty of their damnation, vnlesse they repent: wher­of there is lesse hope in an hypocrite, then in an open sinner. For which cause our Saviour CHRIST telleth the Matt. 11.31 pharisaicall hypocrites, that publicanes and harlots enter into the Kingdome of heaven before them. And such is the certainty of their damnation, that our Saviour Christ, when he would signify, that the wicked servant, of whom he speaketh Mat. 24.48. should certainly be damned: he saith, he should have his portion with hy­pocrites, where shalbe weeping and gnashing of teeth. v. 51.

Seeing therfore uprightnes is a grace so excellent, that it goeth vnder the name of perfection, that it is the in­ward bew [...]y of the spouse of Christ, wherein especially he is delighted, that it is not onely pleasing to GOD, but also th [...] pleasing of him: so profitable, that all good things are promised to the upright, and no good thing kept back from them; so necessary, that in it consisteth the soundnes of all saving graces, and of all religious worship, in so much that without it the best graces are counterfeit, and all our best worship but h [...]pocrisie; so necessary as that without it men can have no assurance that they are redeemed of the Lord, or that they shall be saved: but that as without it they being no better then hypocrites; have no sound hope that they shalbe saved, so there is a certainty and assurance that they shalbe condemned: it behooveth vs by all meanees to labour for this vertue, which is so excellent in it selfe, so pleasing to God, so profitable, and so necessary to vs.

And first,Other mean [...] to uprightnes. for asmuch as it is the gift of God, frō whō every good and perfect gift doth Iam. 1.17. come, for it is he that [Page 140] maketh our way perfect. Ps. 18.32. it is he that sweareth in this place, that he will giue those that are redeemed. to worship him in holines and righteousnes before him we are therfore to begge this grace at the hands of God by hearty and faithfull prayer, after the example of David. Ps. 51.10. Create in me a cleane heart, O God, and renewe a right spirit within me. and Ps. 119 80. let my heart be sownd or tha [...]im upright in thy statutes, that I be not ashamed.

2. To our prayer let us joyne our endevour, to keepe a watch over our heart, and as Solomon ex­horteth Pro. 4. [...]3. aboue all keeping to keepe our hearts, for out of it are the issues of life, that is, as it is the fountaine of life, so of living well or ill, from whence all our saying and doeing doe streame. The good man out of the good treasure of his heart, bring­eth forth good things, and the evill man out of the evill treasure of his heart, bringeth forth evill thinges, for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. Luk. 6.45. and accordingly the hand worketh, wherfore in reforming our lives, our first and cheife care must be of purging the heart; for that is the foundation of a godly life, without which there is no sownd reformati­on.

First (saith our Saviour CHRIST) Mat. 23.26. clense the inside of the cuppe and platter, that the outside may be cleane also, In vaine doe we goe about to cleare the streames, whilst the fountaine is corrupt: In vaine doe we goe about to stop the streames, whiles the well­spring floweth in his full course, In vaine shall we like the sūmer fruit be faire & mellow on the outside if we be rotten at the core: in vaine have men a name that [Page] they live, when they are dead. Apoc. 3.1.

And the rather we are to take care of our hearts, be­cause GOD himselfe doth especially looke unto the heart, 1. Sam. 16, 7. and according to the quality and disposition of the heart, he judgeth of the man. If the heart burne with lust, the man is an adulterer before GOD; if the heart be fraught with covetousnes, the man is a thiefe before God, as Iudas was. Iohn. 12.6. If the heart boyle with hatred and malice, the man is a murtherer before GOD, 1. Ioh. 3, 15. If the heart be removed from GOD, and set upon the world, and the things that are therein, then is the man a spiritu­all adulterer, that is, an idolater before GOD. Iam. 4.4.

And finally, the heart is to be kept above all keepings, because it is deceiptfull above all things, Ier. 17.9.

3. Thirdly, that we may learne to walk with God, & to behave our selves as in his sight, and in his presence, it is necessary, that we should effectually acknowledge, believe and remember, and upon all occasions medi­tate of the omniscience and omnipresence of God, after the example of David, who was in respect of his inte­grity and uprightnes, a man according to Gods owne heart Ps. 139. the first 12. verses. For if we doe power­fully acknowledge, and effectually believe and remem­ber, 1. that the eye of the Lord is in every Pro. 15.3.11. place, be­holding the just and unjust, and that he knoweth all things, even those which are most hidden and secret, and namely that he knoweth the heart, and searcheth the reynes, that he knoweth Ps 1393▪ our thoughts before we thinke them, and that no thoughts Iob 42 2. can be hid­den from him: we shall thereby be moved to behave our selves as in the sight of God, labouring to approve, not [Page 142] only our words & deeds, but also our inward thoughts and affections to God, who not onely knoweth the heart, but especially looketh to the heart. It is the argu­ment, which David vseth to move Solomon to upright­nes. 1. Chron. 28.9. And thou my sonne Solomon (saith he) Know thou the God of thy father, and serve him with an upright heart, and willing minde, for the Lord searcheth all hearts, and vnderstandeth all imagina­tions of the thoughts.

2. And if we would meditate of the omnipresence of God, that God is at all times in all places present with vs, and that we cannot Is. 139.7. possibly avoide out of his pre­sence, that would make vs behave our selves as in the presence of God. Inferiour; when they are in the sight and presence of their superiours, are very carefull of their behaviour. He were an vngratious sonne, or a lewd servant, that would misdemeane him selfe, in the sight and presence of his father, and of his Lord. she were a very lewd and impudent wife, that in the sight & presence of her husband would prostitute her sellfe to an other man. This is our case: God is our father, we are his children he is our Lord, and we are his ser­vants; he is our husband, we are his spouse, and we al­ways are in his sight and presence. If therfore we could truly and effectually believe, and remember this, (which is a most certaine and vndoubted truth, and no lesse certaine then that there is a God, which of all truthes is the most certaine truth) we would abstaine from sinne, neither would we be so shamelesse, as in his sight, and in his presence to sinne against him, see Iob. Ps. 119.168. Pro. 5.21. To this purpose, Seneca Epist, 1 [...]. admonisheth his friend Lucilius, that he would set before him Cato or Lalius, or some other grave and re­verend [Page 143] person, that so he might behave him selfe as in their presence: for magnapars (saith he) peccatorum tol­litur, si peccaturis testis assistet. a great part of sinnes would be preuented, if when we are about to sinne there were some witnesse present with vs. How much more would the presence of almighty God restrayne vs from sinne, if we had the eye of Moyses, the eye of faith, to see him Heb. 11.27. who is invisibly present with vs al­wayes, and in all places.

4. To the meditation of Gods omniscience and omnipresence, let vs joyne the considerati­on of his all-sufficiency. For this is the argument, which not onely the prophet Hanani vsed to Asa, 2. Chro 16.9. the eyes of the Lord perlustrate the whole earth, to shew him selfe strong in their behalfe, whose heart is vpright towards him; but also which God him­selfe vsed to Abraham Gen. 17.1. I am God all-suffici­ent, walk before me, and be vpright. For what is the reason, why men doe play the hypocrites? Is it not be­cause they desire to please men, and to approve them selves to them rather then to God? And why doe they seeke to please men, rather then God? is it not be­cause they feare men, more then God, or trust in men more then in God? But if we did effectually acknow­ledge Gods all sufficiency, we would learne to feare him, and to trust in him above all; knowing that no creature is able, either to doe vs good, vnlesse God vse him as his instrument for our good: or to hurt vs, vn­lesse God use him as his rodde to scourge vs, and ther­fore as we would feare him, and trust in him rather then in his instruments; so would we labour to please him above all.

5. Let vs meditate of Gods bownty towards vs, wher­by [Page 144] he hath shewed him selfe all-sufficient to vs, Deut. [...]3.26. and for our good which argument is vsed both by Samuell 1. Sam. 12.24. and by Iosua c. 24.14. where having re­counted Gods blessings towards them, even from Te­rah Abrahames father, he inferreth this vse, Now ther­fore feare the Lord and serve him in uprightnes and in truth. But cheifly we are to meditate of his spirituall blessings and of the end for which he hath bestowed them. For why did he elect vs? was is not that we should be holy and blamelesse before him? Eph. 1.4. that is to say, upright? why did he he redeeme vs? was it not that we should serve him in holines and righteousnes before him? hath he not reconciled vs vnto God, that we should be holy and blamelesse before him? Col. 1.22. hath he not regenerated vs according to Gods image, that we should worship him in holines and righteous­nes of truth, that is true and upright holines and righ­teousnes. Eph. 4.24. In vaine therfore doe men pro­fesse them selves to be elected in Christ, redeemed by him, reconciled vnto God, regenerated by his spirit, if they be not upright. For the end which God propoun­deth to himselfe cannot be frustrated.

6. Finally, if the consideration of Gods benefits will not move vs, let vs consider the terrour of the Lord, as the Apostle calleth it, 2. Cor. 5.11. Let us set before our eyes our Saviour Christ, sitting in judgment at the last day, at which time he shall judge the secrets of men Rō. 2.16. Eccl. 12.14. that so we may endevour in the meane time to walk uprightly before him, and approve our selves to him, that judgeth secrets; that when he shall appeare, we may have confidence, Ioh. 2.28. and not be ashamed [...] that is, not depart ashamed from him, as hypocrites shall, flying from the face of [Page 145] the lambe, and desiring that the hilles Apoc. 6.16. would fall upon them, and hide them from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the lambe▪ For horrible will thy shame and confusion be, if having professed religion, and made shewe of Christianity before men, thou shalt then before all the world, not onely be discovered and convicted to have bene an e­gregious hypocrit, but also be condemned to have thy portiō with hypocrits, where shalbe weeping & gnash­ing of teeth. But on the other side, if we shall walk up­rightly in GODS Tabernacle, Ps. 16.12. we shall rest in the mountaine of his holines ▪ if we be sownd and upright mēbers of the church militant, we shalbe inheritors of glory in the church triūphant; if we be sheepe in Christe flock and not goates, we shall be sett at his right hand, & receive that blessed sentēce; Come ye blessed of my father, inherite the kingdome prepared for you from the begining of the world. Mat. 25.

Now,The [...] of uprightnes forasmuch as the Lord hath promised to all the sonnes of Abraham, the heyres of promise, that is to say, to all the faithfull, that being redeemed from the hand of our spirituall enimyes, he will give us to wor­ship him in holines before him; it behoveth us seriously to try and examine our selves, whether we be upright Deut. 18.1 [...] with the Lord our God or not. For if we be hypocrites and unsownd Christians, we can have no assurance, that we are the redeemed of the Lord. God having sworne, that to those whom he redeemeth, he will give grace to worship him in holines and righ­teousnes before him. And to the same purpose▪ and with the same labour, we are also to try our selves whether we be hypocrites, or not. For such is the immediate opposition betweene uprightnes and [Page 146] hypocrisy; that if we be not hypocrites, then are we upright, and contrarywise.

But here it will be said, that hypocrisy is in all men, either more or lesse, and that as all men are subject to lying, so also to hypocrisy. This, the Papists whose profession notwithstanding of Christianity (being for the most part a meere formality of religion deny­ing the power thereof) is mere hypocrisy, will hardly graunt; namely, that the sinne of hypocrisy is in all. For they teach, that a man who is justified, as every one of them is, who either in his infancy is baptized, or absolved by a preist, when he is come to yeares, is without sinne; and that there is nothing in him that God hateth, nothing that properly can be called sinne, untill he draw upon him the guilt of some mortall sin. Thus, saying that they have no s [...]nne, they are convin­ced to have no truth [...]. I [...]. 1. [...]. in them, But we confesse, that originall sinne, which is equally in all men by nature, [...] not onely a privation of all spirituall goodnes, but also an evill disposition & pronen [...]s to all manner of sinne [...] as to infidelity, pride, selfe-love, hardnes of heart, ca [...] ­ [...]all security, hatred, uncleannesse, covetousnes, ambiti­on, lying, and hypocrisie, &c. and that these sinnefull corruptions, being so many habituall sinnes, remaine in all men both regenerate and unregenerate; but with this difference, that in the unregenerate they remaine in their full strength, and for the most part with in­crease, as the incrementa of originall sinne, unlesse per­haps abated or restrayned by the contrary sinnes, which contrary vices being from evill dispositions, growne to wicked habits, are said to reigne in carnall men. But in the regenerate, these corruptions remaine onely as the reliqu [...] of originall sinne, in some measure morti­fied [Page 147] in them, some more, some lesse. All which are the infirmities of the [...]aithfull, but especially those which are lesse mortified.

All which, like the scattered forces of rebels vanqui­shed, but not utterly destroyed, still remaine ad ago­nem, to encounter with us upon all advantages. So that in the best of us there remaineth a spice, as of infi­delity, pride, selfe-love, hardnes of heart, carnall secu­rity, hatred, uncleannesse, covetousnes, ambition, ly­ing, so also of hypocrisy. But so long as a man seeth, & detesteth this corruption, and laboureth to mortify it, so long as he is carefull to avoide it, and jelous over himselfe, lest his profession or other his good ende­vours be contaminated or taynted therewith; though there be some matter of hypocrisie remayning in him, yet he is not formally an hypocrite, but is re­puted upright. For as it is said both of the faithfull themselves in generall, though partly spirit, and partly flesh, that they are men spirituall and re­generate, having their denomination from the better part; and also of their actions perform­ed in obedience, though taynted with the flesh, that they are good workes; so is it in this par­ticular, even as a wedge of gold, in which there is much drosse, is notwithstanding a wedge of gold, though not of pure gold; and as an heape of corne, wherein is store of chaffe, is called an heape of corne, though not of pure grayne: so the faithfull, though some drosse of hypocrisie, and as the Prophet calleth it tinne, Is. 1.25. remayne in them, [...] notwithstanding upright.

Therfore though hypocrisie be in all men, yet all [...] not hypocrites; but they in whom this cor­ruption [Page 148] reigneth without resistance. Yea but in bap­tisme originall sinne withall his branches is takē away, I answeare with Augustine: De Nuptiis et Concup. l. 1. [...]. 25. it is taken away, first, in respect of the guilt, non ut peccatum non sit, sed ut in peccatum non imputetur, not that it should not be at all, but that it should not be imputed to them that believe, Secondly in respect of the dominion; for it is taken away, not that it should not remayne at all, but that it should not Rom. 6.14. reygne in the faithfull▪ wherfore as I said, though hypocrisie be in all men, yet none of the faithfull are hypocrites.Who is in hy­poc [...]

For an hypocrite is he, who being inwardly void of grace, and full of wickednes, maketh an outward shewe of Christianity, and piety, dissembling that evill which is in him, and making semblance of that goodnes which he hath not: having as even now with the Apostle I said of the Papists, [...] an out­ward [...] Tim. [...]. [...] formality of religion, but denying the power there­of: Being, as our Saviour saith, like to whited sepulchers which in deed appeare beautifull outward, but are with­in full of dead mens bones, and of all uncleannesse. Mat. 23.27. like to those summer peares, which being faire and mellow without, are rotten at the core.

Now, hypocrites are of two sorts, for as of not­speaking the truth, that is lying, there are two degrees the one is mentiri (which is contra mentem ire ▪ wittingly to lye, and to avouch for a truth that which him selfe knoweth, or at lest thinketh to be an untruth,) the other mendacium [...], to tell an untruth, vnwittingly, supposing it to be a truth: so of not walking in the truth, that is of hypocrisy [Page 149] there are 2 degrees. viz. of such as be hypocrites, either wittingly, or unwittingly. Both are deceivers; the for­mer, knowing himselfe to be an hypocrite, goeth about to deceive others, yea God himselfe with his faire shewes; the other, not knowing him selfe to be an hypocrite, but being deceived by the devill, and his owne deceiptfull Ier. 17.10. heart, deceiveth himselfe, as St. Iames saith. ch. 1.22. Be yee doers of the word, and not hearers onely, deceiuing your owne selves, v. 26. If any among you seeme to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his owne heart, this mans religion is in vaine, and likewise S. Paul Gal. 6.3. If a man think himselfe to be something when he is nothing, he deceiveth himselfe. Both of them are [...], that is unfound, being not inwardly and in truth, that which in profession and outward shewe they would seeme to be, to both of them the description of an hypocrite doth agree, they have [...] formality of religion, but deny the power thereof. 2. Tim. 3.5.

The former, is the grosse and notorious hypocrite, who doth best deserve the name. for [...] an hy­pocrite, in the greeke tongue, signifieth a stage player, whose profession it is to take upon him the person of another man, the other, is the close and the most ordi­nary hypocrite, who being not the man, which he pro­fesseth or taketh himselfe to be, acteth also an other person, as well as the other, though not so grossely, and as it were upon the stage seeming to himselfe, and desirous to be re­puted of others, that which in deed he is not a good Christian, having a name that he liveth, but is d [...]d, Apoc. 3. [...].

[Page 150]The former is a damned hypocrite, damned in his owne conscience, the other is a selfe-pleasing and a selfe-deceiving hypocrite, pleasing himselfe, by reason of his profession, in his pride and self-love, in his vaine presumption and carnall security, in his infidelity and impenitency, professing himselfe to be a true Christi­an, and yet being a meete worldling, a carnall Go­speller, a temporizing and temporary professour. Of which sort, by how much the greater is the num­ber, for the world is full of such; by so much the greater must our desire and care be, that we may be try­ed, and proued, and vpon tryall found to be sound and vpright Christians. Our desire we must expresse in prayer to God, that we may be proved, and vpon tryall approved (for vntill we be tryed we know not our selves) saying with David. Ps. 139.23.24. Ps. 26.8▪ search me O LORD and know my heart, that is, make it knowne vnto me, try me and know my thoughts and see if there be any way of wickednes in me, and lead me in the way everlasting, that is, in the way which leadeth to everlasting life. Now GOD doth try both the vpright and the hypocrite, though in a different manner. The upright he tryeth, both by proving them himselfe, and that for Deut. 8.16. their good, & by suffering them to be temp­ted by others; and that, either to manifest his graces in them, to his owne glory, their com­fort, and good example of others: (thus herryed Abraham Gen. 22.12. Iob. and all the martyres:) or to discover vnto them their owne weaknes, that they may be humbled, and be made the more circūspect for the time to come. And to that end, he doth not only suffer them to be tempted vnto evill, but al­so sometimes (when he leaveth them for a [Page 151] time vnto them selves) to take a foyle. Thus God for a time left Ezechias, to try him, that he might know all that was in his heart, 2. Chro. 32.31. and therfore those who come Eccl [...]. [...]. to serve the Lord, must prepare their soules for temptation, But howsoever the Lord suffereth them to be tempted, yet he doth not lead them into tempta­tion; and though he permitteth them sometimes to fall, yet he doth not suffer them to fall away from him.

The Lord also tryeth the hypocrites, that their hy­pocrisie may be discovered. Therfore our Saviour ad­viseth his disciples Luk. 12.1.2. to beware of the lea­ven of the Pharisies, which is hypocrisy▪ and his reason is, because nothing is covered, which shall not be discove­red. And thus he doth, not onely by suffering them to be tempted, and leaving them to them selves; but al­so sometimes for a punishment of their former wic­kednes and hypocrisie, he leadeth them into temp­tation, giving them over to their owne lusts, and to the temptations of Sathan, not onely to fall into sinne but also to fall away from God; which falling away is an evident signe of hypocrisie. 1. Ioh. 2.19. wherefore as the sonne of Syrach well admonisheth c. Come not to the Lord with a double heart, be not an hypo­crite in the sight of men, and take good heed, what thou speakest. Exalt not thy selfe, lest thou fall, and bring dishonour vpon thy soule, and so God discover thy secrets, and cast thee downe in the midst of the congregation; because thou camest not in truth to the feare of the LORD, but thy heart is full of deceipt.

Our Care we must shew by trying our selves, as the Apostle exhorteth. 2. Cor. 13.5. Examine your selves, [Page 152] whether you be in the faith. [...], that is, prove your selves whether you be [...], sownd and upright.

Heere therefore we are to set downe the notes both of the upright, and also of the hypocrites. The know­ledge whereof, as it will be comfortable to so many as a [...]e true Christians; so it will be profitable to the rest.

These notes are either more

  • generall.
  • speciall.

General notes of [...]pright [...]s.The first generall note is set downe in the place eve [...] now cited, 2. Cor. 13.5. Prove your selves, know ye not your own selves, how that Iesus Christ is in you unlesse you be [...], that is, not sownd or approved Christians, but hypocrites▪ for the word [...] (which cōmon­ly is translated reprobate) doth not signifie a reprobate opposed to elect, but to [...] to him that is approved. see vers. 6.7.

But how shall we know, that CHRIST is in us, s [...] ­ing he is in Heaven▪ and we upon earth? we may kn [...] it by his spirit, 1. Ioh. 3.24. which dwelleth in us. Rom. 8.9.11. and in all his members, which by reaso [...] of the u­nion which is betwixt them and their Head, are said to be in Christ, and Christ in them, for even as in the nat [...] ­rall body, the feete are united to the head by the same soule, which being principally seated in the Head, is al­so in all the members: so in the mysticall body of CHRIST, the lowest members which are upon earth, are united to their Head by the same spirit, which be­ing p [...]incipally in the head, is also in all the members. But how shall we know that the spirit of CHRIST is in us? if we be led Rom. [...]. [...]4. [...]al. 5.18. by the spirit, that is, if we live not af­ter the flesh, but aft [...]r the spirit. And how shall we know [Page 153] that? by the fruits of the spirit, and of the flesh, which the Apostle hath set downe Gal. 5.19.22. The workes of the flesh, saith he, are manifest, which are these, adul­tery, fornication, uncleannesse, lasciviousnesse, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred or emnityes, contentions, emulations, indignations, strife, seditions or divisions, heresies or sects, envyings, murthers, drunkennes, revellings: [...], comes­sationes, expressed elswhere by the word [...] cra­pula, which is translated surfettings, Luk. 21-34. both of them having their name from their effects. for [...] dicitur [...], because it troubleth the head by excesse of eating & drinking. so [...] because it causeth [...], that is, drowsines, or the drowsie evill (or rather ryotings, as it is translated Rom. 13.13. and so ought to be, when it is joyned with drunkennes; the French fitly translate it, gourman­dises, and it signifieth excesse of belly cheere in ryotous feasts and compotations, and such like) of the which I foretell you, as I have foretold you heretofore, that they which doe such things shall not inherite the Kingdome of God. Now as in setting forth the workes of the flesh, the Apostle mentioneth chiefly the offences of the second [...]able, so in setting downe the fruits of the spirit, he rec­koneth up the dueties of the second table opposed to the offences thereof formerly mentioned; and not the vertues of the first table, wherein our piety, which is to be tryed, doth consist. For this cause the Apostle men­tioneth, not [...] her faith in CHRIST or love of GOD, [...] hope of salvation, or affiance in GOD, or the feare of GOD, and such like, which are the principall fruits of the spirit; because these are not the notes of tryall, but the things to be tryed; for [...]e tryall whereof, as namely whether we have true [Page 154] faith, the true love and feare of God, &c. the Holy Ghost commonly propoundeth such notes, as expresse those dueties which we owe to men. as Ps. 15. & 24. Esay 33.14.15.

1. The fruit therfore of the spirit, is charity, saith the Apostle, that is the love of our neighbour, opposed to hatred, with the fruits thereof. 1. Iohn. 3.14.

2. Ioy, opposed to envy and emulation, whereby the carnall man repineth at the welfare of his neighbour, in which the spirituall man rejoyceth.

3. Peace, opposed to contentions, strife, divisions & factions.

4. Long-suffering and patience, opposed to wrath & indignation.

5. Gentlenes or kindnes [...], a fruite of charity, 1 Cor. 13.4. [...]: which the Apostle hath fully expressed, Eph 4.31.32. Col. 3.12.13. Let all bitternes & wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evill speaking be put away from you, with all malice, and be you [...], kinde one to an other, forgiving one an other, even as God for Christs sake hath forgiven you.

6. Goodnes, whereby we are free from desire to hurt any body, and are ready to doe good to all, Gal. 6.10. even to those that deserve ill o [...] us, overcomming ill with goodnes Rom. 12.21. opposed to hatred & mur­ther.

7. Faith, that is, fidelity or faithfulnes [...], a [...] the word elswhere is used, Ti [...]. 2 [...]10. a [...]d is one of the weighty points of the law, Mat. 23.25. A faithfull man is he, who is both true in his words, and firme in his promises, both which are tokens of the upright▪ Ps. 15.2.4.

8. Meeknes, or the spirit of meeknes, so called 1. Cor. [Page 155] 4.23. Gal. 6.1. because in the faithfull it is a fruit of the spirit, called also 1. Pet. 3.4 2 Tim. 2.24.25 Tit. 3. [...]. mildnes and lenity. Which being a morall vertue proceeding from humility, charity, pa­tience or long suffering, with which it is joyned in the Scriptures (with love 1. Cor. with hu­mility Eph. 4.2. Mat. Pro. 16.19. with long suffering and patience, Col. 3.12. 1. Tim. 6.11.) moderateth and restrayneth anger and griefe, with all the fruits thereof, which are called the ira [...]cible [...] passi­ons and perturbations of the soule, such as be impati­ence, desire of revenge, and all insolent, cruell, bitter, fierce, harsh, contentious, clamorous, and turbulent dis­position towards our neighbour: with which vertue whosoever is indued, is by Solomon preferred before the men of might. Pro. 16.32. for howsoever it be de­spised in the world, as a signe of fooles and mecockes; yet it is of especiall accompt with God. 1. Pet. 3.4. as being the most proper, and if I may so speake characte­risticall marke of Christs sheepe. Whereby as they best resemble the Lambe Esay 53.7. of God, who was meeke in spirit, and humble in heart, Mat. 11.29. so are they best dis­cerned from those, who being of an insolent, a fierce, an harsh, a cruell and turbulent behaviour, are to be [...] ac­compted wolves, rather then the sheepe of Christ. And therefore it is reckoned by our Saviour among the 8. notes of Beatitude, Mat. 5.5. Blessed are the meeke, for they shall inherite the land, meaning the celestiall Cana­an, the land of the living, [...] (sc. [...]) [...]. Heb 2.5. as being in Christ the heires Rom. 4.13 of the world. whom the Lord will beautifie with salvation. Ps.

9. The last is temperance, which is also a morall ver­tue moderating the other sort of affections, which are [Page 156] called desires and concupiscences, [...] referred naturally either to the preservation of the individuū, in the nou­rishing and cherishing of the body; or to the propaga­tion of mankinde by generation, and restrayning the abuses and disorders thereof. This vertue, as it respecteth the former, is Sobriety in meat, drink, appa­rell, opposed to drunkennes and bellicheere before mentioned, and vanity in apparell, as it respecteth the latter, it is called Chastity, opposed to adul­tery, fornication, lasciviousnes and all unclean­nes.

And this was the first generall note of difference, that the upright Christian doth know, or may know, that Christ is in him, by the fruite of the spirit: but the hypocrite though he professeth him selfe a Christi­an and consequently a member of Christ; yet neither doth, nor can knowe it, seing that neither he is in CHRIST by faith, nor CHRIST in him by his spirit.

2. The second is this; The upright man walking with God, and before God, is desyrous chiefly to ap­prove himselfe to God 1. Thes [...]. 2.4. who seeth the heart, and therfore is as religious (if not more) alone and in secret, as before others, yea, chooseth rather, accor­ding to the advise of our Saviour, Math to doe pri­vate duetyes in secret, rather then before others. The hypocrite, walking as before mē, who see the out­ward man onely, seeketh chiefly to approve himselfe to men; & therfore is more religious before others, then alone; and those good things, which he perfometh he doth thē to be seene of men, Mat. 23.5. as our Saviour sheweth in the duetyes of almes, prayer & fasting, Mat. And on the other-side, those sinnes [Page 157] which he forbeareth, or feareth to commit before men, he feareth not in private to commit before God. and in a word, if men be not acquainted with his actions; hee neither careth to doe good, nor feareth to doe e­vill.

3. The upright man preferreth the testimony 2 Cor. 1.12. 1. Cor 4.3. Iob. 31.36. of his owne conscience concerning himselfe, before the o­pinions of other men, and therefore laboureth to keepe his Act. 24.1 [...]. conscience cleare towards God and towards men. The hypocrite preferreth the opinion of others concerning himselfe before the testimony of his owne conscience, not regarding the verdict of his owne conscience condemning him, so he may have a good reputation among men commending him; not caring though he be dead, so he may have a name that he Apoc. 3.1. liveth: de­siring to seeme to be good, rather then to be so; and to be evill rather then to seeme so. which is extreame madnes, seeing it is better to be good, then to seeme good; and worse to be evill, then to seeme evill.

The speciall notes respect either good things in­tended by the upright,The speciall notes respe­cting. and pretended by the hypo­crite; or evill things, whether of sinne, or of punish­ment.

Good things, as their

  • Profession of Religion,
  • Worship of God,
  • Obedience,
  • Graces.

The profession of the upright is in truth,Profession. both in re­spect of the

  • purpose and desire of his heart.
  • practise of his life.

The purpose of his heart is sincere, without any sini­ster, sinnefull, or worldly respects▪ or if any worldly respects may seeme to concurre, yet they are not the [Page 158] cheife, or those for which he professeth religion, [...] secundary respects, which he subordinateth to his pro­fession, and to his care of keeping a good conscience, being resolved, Luk. 14.28. [...]. not to forsake his profession for a world, nor willingly and wittingly to violate his con­science, though he might gaine never so much for what would it profit a man to gaine the whole world and to loose his owne soule. Mark 8.36. The hypocrite maketh his profession in pretence, Phi. 1.18. pretending religion to his worldly, and sometimes to his wicked respects, and first, for his worldly respects, whereunto he subor­dinateth his profession, and his seeming care of keep­ing a good conscience, caring indeed for neither, fur­ther then they may stand with the fruitiō of his world­ly desires; halting betwixt God and Mammon, and di­viding himselfe betwene them; but so, as to God he giveth the outward shewe, and to Mammon his heart, of such Mammonists the Apostle speaketh Phil. 3.18.19. There be many (saith he) that walk of whom I have told you often, and now tell you weeping, that they are the enimies of the crosse of Christ, whose end is destru­ction, whose God is their belly, and whose glory is their shame, and who are these of whom all this evill is spo­ken [...] viz. such as walk, that is make profession of christi­an religion; and yet minde and affect principally earth­ly things: These men, when they are brought to this exigent, that either they must make ship wrack of a good conscience, and perhaps forsake their profession, or forgoe their worldly desires; they will readily vio­late their conscience, and renounce their profession, rather then they will be disappointed of that worldly thing, which they principally affect, and which is in deed their God.

[Page 159]Such a profession made Saul 1. Sam. 15. of providing sacrifices, when in his covetousnes he spared all the best of the cattell, which he ought to have destroyed. Iudas, Iohn who for his gayne followed Christ, being a theife, & for all his faire shewes, a Devill. The people that followed our Saviour, that they might be filled. Iohn, 6.26. Ananias and Sapphira, who seemed forward profes­sors, but were worldlings Act. 5. and in a word all such, to whom not godlines 1 Tim. 6.5. [...]. is gaine, but gaine is god­lines These men professing themselves Christians, doe withall professe themselves to be pilgrimes Heb. 11.13. on earth, citizens of heaven, whose [...] Phil. 3.20. and countrey is above, but in deed behave thēselves like earth-wormes, being wholly addicted, and as it were glued to the earth, and worldly desires, not desiring nor expecting a better He [...]. 11.14.16. countrey, but placing their Paradise [...]pon earth.

Sometimes also they pretend religion to their wic­ked designes, as the Scribes and Pharisees, Mat. 23.24. who devou­red widowes houses, and for a pretence make long pray­er; even as the Priests and Iesuits at this day doe prey upon their devout Proselites. Absolom when he intended rebellion, pretended the performance of a vow, 2. Sam. 15.7. Iezabell, when she meant to have Naboth unjustly condemned; appointed a fast to be proclaimed, as a preparative to that judgment. 1. King. 21.9. Herod maketh a shew to the Wisemen, that he would come and worship CHRIST, when he meant to kill him. Mat 2.8. Thus men many times pretend con­science, either to the not doing of their dueties as they will lend no more, because they have vowed the con­trary; or to the committing of sinne, because they thinke they are bound thereto by oath▪ as Herod, rather [Page 160] then he would break his oath, beheaded Iohn Baptist. so they sinne double, first in their promise, but much more in the performance. The high priest Caiphas Mat. 26. [...]5. when he sought most unjustly to condemne our Savi­our unto death, in an hypocriticall [...]eleren [...] his clothes pretending that he had spoken blasphemy. And what zele soever those priests and Pharisies, which most ho [...] ­ly persecuted our Saviour pretended towards God and his law, yet their true intent was, This is the heire, come let us kill him, and let us seize upon his inheritance. Mat. 21.38. In respect of the desire of his heart, the up­right is a forward professour, & in some measure Tit. 1.14. ze­lous of religion, The hypocrite is backward, carelesse and luke-warme Apoc 3.17.

So much of the intent, purpose, & desire of the heart; now followeth the practise.

The upright, being Christians within Rom. 2.1 [...]. and not with­out onely, doe walke in the truth 2. Iohn. 4. 3. Ioh. 3. endevouring to frame their lives according to their profession, and as the truth is in Iesus ▪ Eph. joyning workes Iam. 2.24. with faith, and doing Iam. 1.2. with hearing, and well doing with saying well, sanctificati­on 2. Cor. 6.17. with justification, living not after the flesh, but after the Spirit, which by the Apostle is propounded as the proper signe of those who be in CHRIST. Rom. 8.1.

The hypocrites, being Christians without, Rom. 2.18 and not within, professe the truth, but doe not walk in the truth: not framing, nor desirous to frame their lives ac­cording to their profession, but live after the flesh, and not after the spirit, professing faith Iam 2.14 without workes, justification without sanctification; saying well, but doing ill, being hearers of the word, but not doers; be­ing [Page 161] fruitlesse branches in the vine. Iohn. 15.2.6. figge­ [...]rees in Gods vineyard bearing no figges, Luk. 13.6. having leaves but no fruit; like the figtree, which Christ cursed, Mat. 2 [...]. having lampes, but no oile, like the foolish virgines Mat. 25. Of such our Saviour speak­eth Mat. 7.21.22. Luk. 13.25.26. that notwithstand­ing their profession; they shall at the last day be exclu­ded from the kingdome of heaven.

Now I come to the worship of God;Gods worship. first, in gene­rall: The upright worship the Lord in spirit and in truth. 1. King. 3.6. the hypocrites draw neere the Lord with their mouthes, but remove their hearts farre from him. Es. 29.13. Mat 15.7.8.

In speciall,Prayer. the upright pray in truth Ps. 145.18. with lippes unfained. Ps. 17.1. lifting up their hearts Ps. 25.1. Lam. 3.41. and powring forth their soules 1. [...]am [...].25▪ before the Lord, The hypocrites in their prayer cry, but not with their heart, Hos. 7.14. They lift vp their eyes & their hands, but not their hearts; they powre forth their voice, but not their soules. Their prayer is but a lippe-labour. for both their mouth speaketh what their heart doth not thinke, making a common and perpetuall trade of praying with wandring thoughts, (which I deny not sometime to be incident to the upright) and also asking with their mouth that which they doe not de­sire in their heart, promising (especially Ex. 10. [...] ▪ Ps. 78.34. in time of affliction) what they doe not truly meane to performe, pretending what they doe not intend, making shew of that which they are not (as in the Lords prayer throughout) craving that in praier, which they do not seeke by any indevour of their owne, or by vse of o­ther meanes ordained of God.

The upright praise God with grace, Thanksgiving. Col. 3.16. that is thank­fulnes [Page 162] in their heart, and with humility acknowledg­ing their owne unworthines Gen 32.10 1 Chro. 29.14, and Gods undeserved favour towards thē. The hypocrites give thanks with­out thankfulnes, without humility; praysing thēselves, Luk 18.11 when they should prayse God. or if they doe praise him, they doe it to this end, to praise them selves.

But here it may be demaunded; may not a man praise God for his graces and blessings bestowed upon him, unlesse withall he shall seeme with the Pharisey Luk. 18. to praise him selfe.

Whereunto I answere; first, the Pharisaicall hypo­crite thanketh God for that which he neither hath re­ceived, not yet expecteth from God: which is both falshood and arrogancy. But the upright man thank­eth God for that which he hath received, or assuredly hopeth to receive, (as Zachary in this hymne prayseth God for our redemption by the promised Messias, before CHRIST was borne,) which to doe is not arrogancy, but thankfulnesse; not falshood, but truth.

2. The hypocrite thanketh God to that end and purpose, not so much to praise God, (to whom he is a false 1 Cor. 15.15. witnesse,) as to praise him selfe. The upright man in thanking God seeketh not his owne praise, but the glory of God, stripping him selfe of all praise, that God alone may have all the glory. [...]or hee thanketh God, as I said, in humility, acknowledging his owne unworthines, and the more, he extolleth the undeser­ved bownty and favour of God towards him, the more he depriveth himselfe of praise▪ and on the other side the more he acknowledgeth his owne unworthines, the more he magnifieth Gods goodnes towards him. Thus Iacob Gen. 32.10. O Lord (saith he) I am lesse then [Page 163] the least of thy mercies: & David, 2. Sam. 7.18. Who am I O Lord God, & what is my house that thou hast brought me hitherto? and 1. Chro. 29.14. but who am I, and what is my people? &c.

The upright preacher endevoureth to approve him­selfe to God,Preaching. 2. Tim. 2, 15. 1. Thess. 2.4. seeking sincere­ly the glory of God in the salvatiō of the hearers. The hypocrites preach them selves, and not the Lord Iesus; not seeking Gods glory in the edification of the peo­ple, but their owne praise, or profit; not striving to ap­prove them selves unto God, but to please carnall men, which whosoever doth, he is not the servant of Christ, Gal. 1.10. Herein, they grievously offend, who affe­cting the praise of humane eloquence, feed the people as Heliogabalus did his parasites, with painted dishes; & in steed of drawing faith the two edged sword of the spirit, bring forth an embroidered sheath; professing them selves embassadours from God, but bringing no message from God, which concernes the people to heare, either for the informing of their judgments, or reformation of their lives whose preaching serves for no other use, but to please the itching cares of carnall men, and to worke in them a loathing of the sincere food of Gods word.

The upright preacher is carefull to practise that which he preacheth unto others, & to avoid that in his owne person, which he reproveth in others.

The hypocrites say Mat. 23.3., but doe not, commending that to others which them selves have no desire nor care to practise; & reproving that in others, wherof thēselves are no lesse guilty. Rom. 2.21.22. Ps. 50.16 who ther­fore may expect both frō the hearers this censure, Medi­ [...] cura teipsū; & frō God this sentēce, out of thine [...]uk. 19.2 [...]. own [Page 164] mouth will I condemne thee thou unfaithfull servant.

Hearing▪The upright heare [...]s take heed how they heare. Luk 8.18. hearing the word of God preached, as the 1 Thess [...].13 word of God, (acknowledging Gods ordinance,) as in the sight Act. 10.3 [...] of God, with humility and submission, with reverence and attention, receiving the seed into upright hearts Luk 8.5, as it were into good ground, with desire [...] Pet. 2.1 to profit by it, and care to practise it, being Iam. 1.22 doers of the word, and not hearers onely.

The hypocrites heare, not regarding, so they doe heare, how they heare, not looking to their feet, how they are affected, but come so disposed as to a stage play, desiring that their itching eares may be delighted with vaniloquence, rather then their hearts to be edified with sound & profitable doctrine, not acknowledging Gods ordinance, nor behauing thē selves as before him, hea­ring without submission as to Gods word, hearing not as learners but as censurers, without reverence, without attentiō, being present in body, & absent in soule with­out de [...]re to profit by it, without any purpose or care to practise it, receiving the seed into stony ground, or els among thornes, like to Ezechiels hearers, c. 33.31.32. they come unto thee (saith the Lord) as the people of God doe use to come, & they sit before thee as my people, & they heare thy words, but they will not doe thē, for though with their mouths they make shew of much love & delight, yet their heart goeth after their covetousnes. And loe thou art unto thē as a very pleasing song of one that hath a pleasant voice, & can play well on a [...] instrument for they heare thy words, Sacraments Baptisme. but they doe them not. The upright are carefull in some measure to performe their vow made in Baptisme, & to find the effect & fruit thereof: which is to seale & assure to them that believe & repent, their union and [Page 165] communion with Christ, for they receiving Christ by a true faith are baptized Gal. 3 2 [...]. into Christ, and conse­quently put on Christ.

The hypocrite resteth in the outward baptisme, as if the washing 1. Pet. 3.25. of the flesh did save, taking no care to performe his vowe made in baptisme; who therfore, though baptized, hath no part in Christ, because his heart is not upright in him. Act. 8.21.

The Upright are carefull,The Eucharist not onely to receive the sacrament, but also to receive it worthily; and are ther­fore carefull [...]. Cor 11▪2 [...] [...] to prove and approve them­selves, before they come to the Lords table, preparing their hearts 2. Chro. 30 19. to seeke the Lord and so receiving the sacrament with the unleavened graces of sincerity 1. Cor. 5.8 and truth, doe eat the body of Christ and drinke his blood.

The hypocrites not greatly caring how they receive, so they doe receive, not preparing their hearts to seeke the Lord, nor caring to prove, and much lesse to ap­prove themselves unto him, comming to the Lords table as the guest without the wedding garment, indu­ed neither with saving knowledg, nor true faith, nor unfained repentance, nor sincere love, with which gra­ces every worthy receiver is in some measure qualified: but being sowred with the leaven of hypocrisy doe eat the bread of the Lord, as Iudas did, but not panē dominū that is the Lord who is the bread of life which came downe from heaven.

Thus much of the worship of God,Obedience. now we are to speak of obedience. For 1. the upright yeldeth simple obed [...]ēce to the cōmaundements of God,Heb. 11.8. not consulting with flesh and blood as for the commaundements of men, he observeth thē no further thē in obaying thē he may obay God. Ex. 1.17. Act. Dā.

[Page 166]The hypocrite is more carefull to observe the com­maūdements of men Mat. 15 36., then the commaundements of God; insomuch that for the commaundements of men he maketh the commandements of God of none effect, yea he scarcely obeyeth the commaundements of God any further, then as they are commaunded by men, in so much that he embraceth Religion it selfe, as commanded by the Soveraigne Prince, being ready to change his Religion, as the Prince changeth▪ so that their feare towards God is taught by the precepts of men. Es. 29.13.

To this purpose consider these instances. The Lord commandeth us to receive the holy communion, when it is administred [...] and the upright man maketh consci­ence so oft to receive it, as it is administred, unlesse he be hindred by sufficient occasion. But forasmuch as the law of man in some places doth require the receipt of the Sacraments once a yeare at the least; and namely at Easter, hence it is that many will receive but once a yeare at the most.

The upright man maketh cōscience of his thoughts, because the law of God is spirituall, restrayning the thoughts as well as the hands. the hypocrite taketh no care of his thoughts, which he thinketh to be free, be­cause the law of man doth not reach to them.

The Lord forbiddeth all rayling, and cursed speak­ing, all stealing: and the upright man maketh consci­ence to abstaine from all: but forasmuch as the law of man doth not take hold of all evill speaking, nor of all stealing, therefore the hypocrite feareth not to practise such evill speaking, and such stealing as is not punish­able by the law of men, though perhaps the neighbour be more wronged by that ill speaking, or damni [...]ed [Page 167] by that stealing, then by that rayling against which ly­eth an action of the case, or by that stealing against which an action of felony lyeth.

2. The obe [...]ence of the upright is voluntary, and from the heart, Rom. 6.17. proceeding from his will renewed, which appeareth not onely in his good acti­ons, but also in his sinnes, whether of omission or of commission, for the good which, he doth not, he would doe: and the evill which he doth, he would not doe. Rom. 7.19. But the obedience of the hypocrite is forced from him, because he dareth doe no other. for that good which he doth, he would not doe it; & that evill wh [...]ch he doth not, he would faine doe so that in respect of the inclination of the will, which God chiefly regardeth; the disobedience of the upright is better then the obe­dience of the hypocrite.

3. The obedience of [...]he upright is ordinata, well or­dered, For he preferreth the greater dueties before the lesse, morall dueties before ceremoniall, and the sub­stance before circumstances, Mar. 12.7. 1. Sam. 15.22. But it hath alwayes beene the hypocrites guise, to pre­ferre the lesse dueties before the greater; as to tithe, mint and cumin, and to neglect the weighty points of the law,Mat. 12. [...]. Luk. 15.1 [...]. Mat. 23.23. Luk. 11.42. to straine at a gnat and to swallow a camell, Mat. 23.24. to stumble at a straw, & to leape over a block. to preferre ceremonies before moral dueties, yea sometimes to place the height of their Religion, either in the boisterous urging, or in the strict refusing of ceremonies. Thus the Priests and Phariseyes, who made no conscience of delivering our Saviour through envy unto death, yet at thesame time made conscience to goe into the judgment hall, lest for­sooth they should be defiled. Ioh. 18.28.

[Page 168]They made no conscience to hire Iudas with 30 pie­ces of silver to betray his Lord: but when the pieces were brought them back againe, their cōscience would not serve them, to put the money into the treasury, be­cause it was the price of blood. Mat. 27.6.

4. The obedience of the upright is totall, not in re­spect of the performance, but in regard of the upright desire, unfained purpose, and sincere endevour, accor­ding to the measure of grace received, to walk in the o­bedience of all Gods commaundements; to lye in no knowne sinne, but to make conscience of all his wayes. Not, but that the upright contrary to their desire and purpose doe oftentimes fall; but that the Lord accep­ting of the will for the deed, esteemeth the upright and entire obedience of his servants, (who are freed from the rigour of the law) as totall and perfect. Abraham hath this testimony in the Scripture Gen▪ 26.5., that he obeyed the voice of God, and kept his mishmereth, his whole charge, that is, whatsoever God requireth to be obser­ved, viz. his commaundements, his statutes, & his lawes. Zacharias likewise, & Elizabeth Luk. 1.6. & many o­thers are said to have bene perfect, & to have fulfilled after God, that is, fully to have obeyed him, who had notwithstanding their stips & their falls, as before I no­ted of Asa. In the same chapter, where it is reported of Zacharias, that he walked in all the commaundements of God blameles, we read Luk. 16▪20.62 that for his incredulity in not believing the word of the Angell, he was stricken with dumbnes, & as it may seeme with deafnes also, for the space of ten moneths. In this evangelicall sense the obedience of the upright is totall, in 3 respects; [...] legis. [...] hominis [...] as being the obedience of the whole law, of the whole man, & of the whole life, after our justification and reconciliation [Page 169] with God. obeying the law in respect of their desire and purpose

  • totam,
  • toti,
  • tota vita.

The whole law they obey both in respect of the two tables of the law, and in respect of all the severall com­maundements.

As for the two tables, the upright man joyneth the obedience of them both together, as here the Lord hath promised to all true Christians, that they shall worship him, not in holines alone, nor in righteousnes alone, but both in holines & righteousnes before him. Nei­ther can these two, if they be in truth (as they are in the upright) be severed. For a man cannot truly love 1. Ioh. 4.20▪ God, unlesse he love his neighbour also; neither can a man love his neighbour as he ought, that is, in and for the Lord, unlesse he love the Lord much more, as I have shewed heretofore. And this we see verified in the examples of those, who have bene upright; who have this testimo­ny in the Scriptures, that they were holy and righ­teous, as our Saviour him selfe (whom we are to imi­tate) Act. 3.14. and all his upright servants, as Noah Gen. 6.9. David. 1. King. 3.6. Iohn Baptist. Mark. 6.2. Symeon, Luk. 2.25. Cornelius, Act. 10.22. &c.

But it is the fashion of hypocrites to sever these two, which God hath so unseparably linked together, that whosoever hath the one in truth, hath also the o­ther; and whosoever hath not both, hath neither. For some content them selves altogether with a pro­fession of holines and religion towards God, not caring or desiring to performe the dueties of charity & righ­teousnes towards men, whereby notwithstanding, as [Page 170] it were by a touch stone, God would have the upright­nes of our piety tried. Others wholly content thēselves with a faire civill conversation before men, having nei­ther true faith in Christ, nor repentance towards God nor the feare of the Lord, nor any sanctifying or sa­ving grace, living in ignorance, infidelity, imp [...] ­tency, &c.

Farre be it from me to speake, either against the pro­fession of piety, or the practise of civill honesty; but I speake against the severing of them, and the resting in either of them alone being severed from the other. For so necessary is civill honesty, as those who have it not, are worse then many among the heathen that knowe not God, who were commended for morall vertues: against whom notwithstanding the Holy Ghost denounceth that fearefull curse, powre out thine indignation upon the heathen that doe not know thee, and upon the nations that have not called upon thy name. Ps. 79.6. And so necessary is the profession of piety, as that those who professe not religion and piety towards God, are worse then the Phariseyes themselves; against whom notwithstanding our Saviour denounceth so many woes. Mat. 23. Wherfore those that content themselves with a bare profession of religion, without any desire or care to practise the dueties of charity and righteousnes among men, are no better then the hypo­criticall phariseyes, concerning whose obedience our Saviour hath given us this caveat Mat. 5 20. except your righteousnes exceed the righteousnes of the Scribes and Phar [...]sey [...]s, you shall not enter into the kingdome of God. and on the otherside, those, who professing them­selves Christians, content themselves with the pra­ctise of civill honesty, without any desire or care of re­ligion, [Page 171] being not onely void of all spirituall graces, but also guilty of much outward profanenes, as in ordinary swearing, and profaning the Sabbath, in neglect of hearing the word, and of prayer. &c. are no better then some of the heathen, who were alienated from the life of God, strangers from the covenant of promise. ha­ving no hope, and being without God in this world. Eph.

Be not deceived. true piety towards God is alwayes fruitfull in the duetyes of charity towards men. and on the otherside, the streames of charity and true righ­teousnes are ever derived from the fountaine of piety.

In respect of the severall commaundements; the obedience of the upright is uniuersall, in the evangeli­call sence, that is, in respect of his entire desire, and un­fained purpose (though contrary thereunto he faile, as we doe all Iam. 3.2. in many particulars) having respect to all the precepts of God. Ps. 119.6. and walking in all his commaundements Luk. 1.6. making conscience of all his wayes, both in performing all knowne duetyes, and avoiding all knowne sinne; not willingly retayn­ing any one, but repenting of all, in respect whereof he is said, to fullfill after God. Num. 32.12. that is wholly and universally to follow him.

The hypocrite fullfilleth not after God. Num. 32.11. neither are his workes full. Apoc. 3.2. he obayeth God by the halves, or not so much. he can be content to avoide some sinnes, unto which he is not so much ad­dicted, but his darling sinnes, perhaps his usury, or o­ther gainfull sinnes, perhaps whordome, perhaps drun­kennes &c. he will not leave. Herod reverenced Iohn the Baptist, and observed him, and when he heard him▪ [Page 172] he did many things and heard him [...] with delig [...]ē but for all that he would not leave his Herodias. Mark. 6.20. The ship of a mans soule may be sunke with one leake, if it be not stopped; and one breach in the fort of a mans soule, if it be not made vp is sufficient to let in the enimy to the utter overthrowe thereof. The continuance in any one crime unrepented of is sufficient to drowne the soule in perdition, Here­penteth of no sinne, who is not willing to repent of all; and he that willingly persisteth in the breach of any one commaundement, is guilty [...] of the breach of the whole lawe, for the lawe of God is copulative, and copulatively to be understood, both in respect of the affirmative, and of the negative. for he that is a keeper of the lawe, keepeth, both the first, and the second, and the third cōmaundement. &c. and he transgresseth neither the first, nor the second, nor the third. &c. as therfore in a copulatiue sentence consisting perhaps of 20 parts, if one be false, the whole sentence is false, because the copulation is to be deny­ed; neither is the sentence copulatively true; and as in a chaine consisting of many links coupled toge­ther, if any one linke be broken in the draught, the whole chaine is dissolved; so the transgression of any one commaundement breaketh the whole lawe, and this St. Iames teacheth▪ ch. 2.10.11. for whosoever shall keepe the whole lawe, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all, for he that said, doe not commit adultery, said also doe not kill. Now if thou doe not commit adultery, yet if thou kill, thou art become a transgressour of the law.

2. The upright mans obedience is (in respect of his unfayned d [...]sire and purpose) of the whole man, [Page 173] as well of the inward man, as of the outward, endevou [...]ring to clense Mat, 23.26 the inside as well as the outside: being a Christian within Rom: 2.29. as I said before, & not without one­ly and therefore is no lesse carefull of his heart Ps. 56 18 Ps 119.80, then of his outward conversation. And in the outward man is carefull both of his words and of his workes. he is rectus

  • Corde.
  • Via.

The hypocrite clenseth many times the ou [...]side,Mat. 23.2 [...].1 [...] but neglecteth the inside, not caring what inward vices & corruptions he doth cherish▪ so his outward conversa­tion be plausible before men. he iustifieth him selfe be­fore men, but God knoweth his heart; for that which is highly esteemed among men, is abominable in the sight of God, Luk. 16.15.

These men thinke that thoughts be free, not know­ing that the thoughts of the wicked be an abominotion Pro [...]5.2 [...] unto God▪ and that God hath sufficient cause to con­demne them for their wicked Act. 8.22 thoughts, Gen. 6.5. Neither doe they consider, that God looketh to the heart, and that he judgeth of a man, as I saide be­fore, according to the quality and disposition of the heart; so that he whose heart doth burne with Ma [...]. 5 [...] lust is an adulterer in the sight of God; and he whose heart doth boyle 1 Ioh. 3.1 [...] with malice, he is a murtherer before God.

And as there is great discord betweene the heart of the hypocrite, and his outward appearance: so in the outward man also his workes many times agree not with his wordes, nor his wordes with his workes. His workes, I say, agree not with his wordes, when he faith well, and doth i [...]l, having Iacobs voice, and [Page 174] Esaus handes, Neither doe their wordes agree with their deeds, when seeming to wrong any man by their deeds, make no conscience of speaking evill, think­ing that their wordes are but winde, and lightly to be regarded. But they should remember him who sayeth, that of every idle, and much more of every malicious word, men shall give an accoumpt Mat. 12.3 [...].37 at the day of judg­ment. for by thy wordes, saith he, thou shalt be justified, and by thy wordes thou shalt be condemned. If therefore any among you, saith St. Iames, Iam. 1.26. seeme to be religious, and hath not learned [...] as it were with a bitte or a bridle to refrayne his tongue; that man deceiveth himselfe, and his religion is vaine, that is to say, he is an hypocrite, having a shewe of religion but denying the power therof. for in whom there is any power of reli­gion, they have learned to bridle their tongues.

Yea in their wordes is a discord, not onely betweene them and their hearts, and betweene their wordes and their workes, but also betweene thei [...] words and their wordes. for as they speak with an heart and an heart, that is a double heart, whence they are called [...]; so also with a tongue and a tongue, that is a double tongue; whence they are called [...] 1. Tim. 3.8. and [...] Ecel 28 13. bilingues. Out of the same mouth they breath hot and cold, which the Satyre liked not, out of the same fountaine issueth both bitter and sweete, both salt wa­ter and fresh; Iam. with the same tongue they blesse God and curse men, out of the same mouth proceedeth blessing and cursing. It is strange to see, and lamentable to con­sider, how some men and women, who would seeme religious, are given to ill speaking; being not onely sharpe censurers and depravers of their brethren, but also detracters, backbiters, and sclanderers, and (which [Page 175] is an evident signe of an hypocrite) thinking, that the dispraise of other men tendeth to their praise, and the praise of others to their disgrace.

3. The obedience of the upright is totall in respect of his whole life, after the time of his justification and reconciliation with God, as it is here said, all the dayes of our life. Not, but that sometimes he stumbleth in the way of Christianity, and sometime falleth: but ye [...] notwithstanding in respect of his desire, purpose and endevour, his obedience is constant and perma­nent. For he keepeth a constant course in well doing; as namely, in the practise of piety, wherein by continu­all practise he is habituated. He so giveth himselfe to prayer, as that in the scriptures, he is sayd to pray Act, 10:2 all­wayes; not, that he doth nothing els but praye, but that he prayeth, both ordinarily at set times every day, per­haps thrice a day as Daniell Dan. 5:10▪ did. and also extraordina­rily, as occasion is offered. Likewise he keepeth a con­stant course, in reading, meditating, and hearing Gods word, and in other Christian duetyes, wherein he stedfastly goeth on, with desire to increase in goodnes.

And as his obedience is constant, so also it is perma­nent, for uprightnes is evermore accompanyed with perseverance to the end: as hereafter I shall shewe.

But the obedience of the hypocrite is neither con­stant, but as it were by fitts, for the double minded man is inconstant in all his wayes. Iam. 1.8. neither perma­nent, but momentany, or temporary, like the morning mist or the early dew. Hos. 6.4. like the seed sowne upon the rockie ground, which in time of heat withereth, Luk. 8.13. like the building of the foolish man, which in [Page 176] time of temptation is overthrowne. Mat. 7.26.

GracesNow I come to the graces; every one whereof in the upright is [...], that is unfained, and as Salomon speaketh, Pro. 3.21. [...]ushijah that which truly is; but in the hypocrite, counterfeit. In these, the generall note of uprightnes is desire of increase, and striving forward phil 3.14. towards perfections (for in this life we are in in [...]ur grow­ing age. [...],) and God doth crowne their righteousnes with increase, for to him that hath it shall be given, The hy­pocrites are non-proficients, contenting themselves with that measure of grace which they seeme to have, and have not, and having not, they are so farre from increasing in grace, that that, which they seeme Luk. 8 18. to have,Faith. is taken from them.

And first, the faith of the upright is lively and effe­ctuall, both to justification apprehending and apply­ing Christ, who is our righteousnes; and also to sancti­fication, because i [...] doth purifyAct. 15.9. the heart, and Gal. 5.6: worke by love. Againe the faith of the upright is permanent by it he standeth, Rom. 5.2. and by it he shall live, Heb. 2.4. by the power of God through faith he is preserved 1▪ Pet. 1▪5 unto e­ternall life. and therfore those who are of the defection, are not of faith. and contrarywise. Heb. 10.39.

The seeming faith of the hypocrite is dead, being neither effectuall to justification, as being without roote, Luk. 8.13. nor to sanctification; as being with­out fruite. For as the body without Iam. [...] 26. breath is dead, so is faith without workes.

Neither is the faith of hypocrites permanent, but tē ­porary, which in time of tryall fa [...]leth. Luk. 8.13.

LoveThe love also of the upright is unfained, whether we speak of his love to God, which appeareth by obedi­ence, both active, which is obedientia legis, (for this is [Page 177] the love of God, that he keepe his commandements, 1. Ioh. 5.3. Exod. 20.6.) and passive, which is obedientia crucis, that is to say, patience. fo [...] love suffereth all things. 1. Cor. 13.7. or of his love to man, which ap­peareth in giving and forgiving. But more specially an undoubted signe of uprightnes is to love and respect the godly, though of mean accompt Iam. 2. [...] 4. in the world for their godlines sake; & to disrespect the wic [...]ed, though great in the world, for their wickednes. Ps. 15.4. fol­lowing therin the disposition of God himselfe. 1. Sam. 2.30, and the example of Elisha. 2. King. 3.13.14. for in the eyes of the upright piety maketh men ho­norable, but wickednes maketh them vile and de­spicable, Dan. 11.21. And as the upright are an abo­mination to the wicked, so contrary wise. Pro. 29.27. The world loveth her owne, but those, that be not of the world, the world hateth, it is therfore a good signe that we are not of the world, if we love and effect those whom the world hateth.

The love of hypocrites is not true, neither towards God, For they be haters of God, Ex. 20.5.6. that will not keepe his commaundements; nor towards men, being in word 1. Ioh. 3.18. and tongue onely, or (as we use to speak) from the teeth outward. But especially their hypocrisy is dis­covered, as by ha [...]ing or envying the godly, even for his godlines sake, because they cannot endure that any should be esteemed better then themselves: (Thus 1. Ioh 3, 12. Cain hated Abell, & Saul David, 1. Sam. 18.9. & the Phariseyes Christ,) so by favouring and affecting the wicked. for likeing is a signe of liknes.Hope.

The hope of the upright man conceived of a better life doth in some measure weane him from the world; neither will it suffer him ordinarily, either [Page 178] to be drawne away into sinne, by the desires of the world, which are but vanities in comparison of that heavenly happines, which he Heb. 11▪ [...]4.26 expecteth. nor to bee driven frō goodnes by the terrors of the world, which he con [...]emneth in respect of the joy that is set before him: but causeth him to purify himselfe in some mea­sure, even as Christ is pure. 1. Ioh. 3.3.

The hypocrite, for all his pretended hope, is either so addicted to the desires of this world, as if he did not expect an other world: or is so d [...]unt [...]d with the affli­ction, of this li [...]e, as a man without hope, and as he liveth without the feare of God; so he dyeth without hope. For what hope hath the hypocrite, when God taketh away his soule? Iob 27.8.

Feare.The upright man is indued with a sonne-like feare of God, which is a feare to offend him. for such feare and uprightnes alwayes goe together. Iob. 1.18. Deut. 10.12. 1. Sam. 12.24. The hypocrite either hath no feare of God at all, Ps. 36.1.2. but is overgrowne with car­nall security: or but a servile feare, which is the feare of bondslaves, who are under the law, whereby he doth doth not in deed feare sinne, or the offence of God, but the punishment onely which sinne deserveth.

Humility.The upright man is indued with humility. For he that walketh with God, setting God before his eyes, and therefore behaving him selfe as in the sight and presence of God, cannot but humble him Mich 6▪8. selfe to walke with his God. Abraham when he stood before the Lord, acknowledged him selfe to be but dust and ashes, Gen. 18.27. [...]he holy Prophet Esay, when in a vision he beheld the Majesty of God, cryed out, woe is me, be­cause I am a man of polluted lippes. Es. 6.5. The Apostle Peter, when by the miraculous draught of fishes he [Page 179] perceived CHRIST, then present with him, to be the Sonne of God, fell downe at his feet, and sayd, depart from me, for I am a sinfull man, O Lord. Luk. 5.8. And no doubt, but so many of us, as have that eye of faith, which Moses had,Heb. 11.27 to see him that is invisible present with them, are insome measure affected with his pre­sence, as th [...]se men were. But pride is an evident signe of an hypocrite, who setteth not God before his eyes. Behold (saith the Prophet Habakuk) his soule that is lif­ted up is not upright within him. Hab. 2.4. we see it in the example of the Pharisey, Luk. 18.11. who comming [...]o pray, in steed of humbling him selfe before GOD, extolleth him selfe above other men, and for that thanketh GOD: but to this end, to praise him selfe.

The upright are confident;Confidence. For he that walketh in integrity, walketh confidently, Pro. 10.9. for confidence is a consequent of integrity, or that which Tushija [...]. truly is▪ Pro. 3.21.23 24.25.26. Keepe that which truly is, that is found wisedome and discretion, then shalt thou walke in thy way safely; when thou lyest downe thou shalt not be af­fraid, thou shalt not be affraid of sudden feare, for the Lord shalbe thy confidence. A consequent of true faith. Rom. 5.2. Eph. 3.12. of the spirit of adop­tion, which expelleth the spirit of fearefulnes. Rom. 8 15. Gal 4.6, of the true feare of God. For, in the feare of the Lord there is strong confid [...]nce, Pro. 14.26. of a good and upright conscience▪ which feareth no evill, Ps. 112.7.8. The upright man shall not be affraid of evill tydings, his heart is fixed trusting in the Lord. his heart is established, he shall not be affraid, but is as bold as a lyon. Pro. 28.1. Neither doth he feare the censures or ill reports of men, 1. Cor. 4.3. but as Iob in the inte­grity [Page 180] of his conscience desireth that his cause may be tryed; professing, that if his adversary would write a bill or libell against him, he would be so farre from be­ing daunted therewith, that it should redound to his credit, and he would binde it as a crowne unto him. Iob 31.35.36. Of affiance in Gods all-sufficiency, provi­dence, and protection. For setting God before his eyes, and knowing, that the Lord is at his right hand, he is confident, that he shall not be moved. Ps. 16▪8. for he believeth, that God is his buckler, and his exceeding great reward. Gen. 15.1. a sunne & a shield to them that walk uprightly, Ps. 84.11. Pro. 27. that the eyes of the Lord perlustrate the whole earth to shew him selfe strong in the behalfe of them, whose heart is upright to­wards him, 2. Chro. 16.9. that God by his fatherly pro­vidence causeth all things to worke together for the good of those that love him. Rom. 8.28. therefore with Da­vid he professeth, my defence is of God, who saveth the upright in heart, Ps. 7.10. and therefore resolveth not to feare. Ps. For what should hee feare, that nee­deth not to feare death it selfe, which of all things in this world it most feared. seeing as it freeth him from all other evill, and danger; so it is an entrance unto him, and an introduction into hap­pines.

Thus is the upright confident. but feare surpriseth the hypocrites. Es. 33.14. fearing not onely where is occasion of [...]eare, but also where there is no cause of feare. Ps. They will be affraid at the wag­ging of a leafe. Levit. 26.36. and they will flie where no man pursueth thē. Pro. 28.1. And this feare happeneth unto them for want of true faith▪ Mat. 8.26. for want [Page 181] of the spirit of adoption, in steed whereof they are possessed with the spirit of bondage, and of feare. Rom, 8.15. 2. Tim▪ 1.7. for want of the true feare of God. for they that feare not God, feare all things els. For want of a good conscience, for a bad and guilty consci­ence, conscious to it selfe of evill, feareth evill. for want of affiance in God, with whom they have no peace. The conscience of the wicked is like the troubl [...]d se [...], when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and durt. the [...]e is no peace to the wicked, saith my God. Es. 57.20.21.

The repentance of the upright is entire,Repent [...]nce. being a tur­ning unto God Deut, 4 29 Ezrah 18.21.28 with all his heart from all his sinnes. The repentance of the hypocrite is neither from the heart, but in outward shewes, 1 King 21. [...]. as of hanging downe the head like a bulrush, Es. 58.5. of putting on sack­cloth, and going softly, of rending the clothes, Ioel 2.1 [...] but not the heart. Neither is it from all his sinnes; for he will be sure to retaine some darling sinne, from which he will not be reclaimed. But as he, who t [...]uly repen­teth of any one sinne, repenteth of all, in respect of the desire and purpose of his heart, being not willing to re­taine any; so he that repenteth not of all, repenteth of none at all in deed, and in truth.

He that walketh in uprightnes towards God,Simplicity [...] with­out hypocrisy, walketh also before men in simplicity and singlenes of heart. without guile. both implied in the word: for [...], as Basill saith, or [...], as Chrysostome speaketh, [...]. simplicity of manners, and of speech, is the character of an harmlesse or upright man. But he tha [...] useth dissimulati­on and guile towards men, is an hypocrite, and so is called. Mat. 22.18▪ Mark. 12.15.

[Page 182]So much of the notes that respect good things; now follow those which respect evill. and that either of sin, or of punishment.

Sinne.The upright man hateth sinne as well in him selfe, as in others, or rather more, & more severely censureth it in himself, then in others: not excusing nor extenua­ting, but rather amplifying and aggravating the same. The hypocrite hateth sinne in others, but not in him self, & to that end he is curious to pry into other mens behaviour, and neglecteth his owne. he can see a mote in an other mans eye, but cannot discerne a beame in his owne. Mat. 7.3.4. he is a sharpe censurer of other mens faults, but flattereth and blesseth him selfe in his owne sinnes. Ps. 36.2. Deut. 29.19. examples hereof in Saul, 1. Sam. 14, 44 in Iuda Gen. 35.24. yea in David, whiles he concealed his sinne, 2. Sam. 12.5.

Afflictions▪The evill of punishment are afflictions, which God hath ordayned as tryalls to discerne the sound and up­right, from the unsound and hypocrite: by the patient bearing whereof the faithfull are found to be [...], that is, sound and approved, Iam. 1.12. For tribulation being [...], 1 Pet. 1.7 Iam. 1.3 the tryall of our faith work­eth patience, and patience, [...], Rom. 5.3.4 [...] Probation that is, as Chryso­stome (with whom others agree) expoundeth. [...], it maketh him approved that is try­ed. as we see in Iob, and in the three children. Dan. 3. in the faithfull Iewes Ps. 44.17. and in all the faithfull, but chiefly in all that are martyrs. By afflictions like­wise the hypocrite being tryed is discovered, and as it were unmasked, by the not patient bearing and en­during thereof. For either he doth [...], set light by the affliction, and not take it to heart; or else [...], he fainteth under it, contrary to the [Page 183] counsell of the Holy Ghost, Heb. 12.5. cited out of Pro. 3.11.

He that taketh not to heart an affliction, cannot be said patiently to beare it; for in patiendo est patientia, in suffering is patience, and nor [...], in not suffe­ring. as appeareth in the examples of Iob Iob. 1 20, and Ps 6. [...]38.5 Da­vid. And this is the cause many times, why the hypo­crite doth not profit by afflictiōs, because he is not sen­sible thereof Ier. 5.3. and being unsensible, becommeth incorrigible, Ier. 2.30. And the cause hereof is, because hypocrites not walking with God, doe not acknow­ledge his hand; but ascribe their affliction, either to mis­fortune, or to secundary causes, which are but the in­struments of God. Or if they doe acknowledge the hand of God, yet they are not humbled under it, nei­ther doe they bewayle their sinnes, not crave pardon of them, nor turne Es. 9. [...] to him that smiteth them, nor pro­mise amendment; or if they doe, they meane not, or at least afterwards they doe not performe, nor submit them selves meekely to beare their affliction, nor learne obedience by that which they suffer, neither are they bettered by them, but become worse, Es▪ 1▪5▪ If they take it too much to heart, then either they impatiently beare it, murmuring against God, and fainting in them selves; or they seeke an evasion out of it by some sinne, and so fall away from God; by which their defection their hypocrisie is discovered.

To these tryalls by affliction, we may adde other temptations, as by the doctrine of false teachers, either alluring to idolatry, which the Lord sometimes per­mitteth to prove us, whether we love him intirely, or not, Deut. 13.3. or to heresies, which the Lord also suffe­reth, that those which are approved, may be knowne, [...] Cor. 11.19.

CHAP. XI. Of uprightnes towards men.

NOw we are to speak briefly of integrity, as in hath reference to man. For as we are to serve God in holines before him, that is in uprightnes of heart, without hypocrisy; so also in righteousnes before him, that is in simplicity & singlenes of heart, without guile. For th [...]s simplicity wherof we are now to speak, is not that which is oppo­sed to discretiō, as being want of witt, (for the simplicity of doves must be tempered with the prudence of serpents; we must be without guile as doves without gall▪ but we must not be like Ephraim Hos 7.11. as silly doves with­out heart) but is opposed to dissimulation, disguising, doubling, deceipt & guile. Frō which the redeemed of the Lord are free, according to the testimony of the prophet Zephany c. 3.13. and according to the oath of God in this place. worshipping the Lord in righ­teousnes before him. that is performing the due­tyes which they owe unto men, as in the sight and presence of God.

Now this simplicity is expressed by the same termes which signified uprightnes, being referred to men, and where they are put absolutely, without relation either to God or man, both are, or may be implyed, as always going together. Thus the word Thamim, may be un­derstood in this larger sence. And therfore where Iacob is called Ish thamim Gen. 25.27. it is to be understood as well of his simple and sincere dealing among men, as of his uprightnes towards God, & so the 72 interpret it by the word [...] free frō fayning or dissembling, [Page 185] and Aquila by the word [...] a simple hearted man, free from doubling and deceipt, & so the word is used sometimes to signifie simplicity. Gen. 20.5.6. 2. Sam. 15.11. The like is to be understood of Iob and other ho­ly men to whō that attribute is given in the scriptures; who are also noted to have performed their duetyes to men in uprightnes, or integrity. as David. Ps. 78.72. is said to have fed, that is ruled the people of God accor­ding to the integrity of his heart. The want whereof is objected by Iotham to the men of Shechem. Iud. 9.16 19. that they had not dealt in truth and integrity with Gedeon his father. And therfore even such, as dissemble with men are sometimes called hypocrites, Mat. 22.18. and their disguising is called hypocrisy. Mark. 12.15. or as Luke termeth it [...] c. 20.23. deceiptfulnes. when one by flattering words and faire shewes seeketh to entangle another.

The words jashar and Shalem, which signifie upright and perfect, have also sometimes relation to men, as 2. King, 10.15. 1. Chrō. 12.38. so have the word, which signify sincerity and truth Iud. 9.16.19. 2. Cor. 1.12. The phrase also of doing our duetyes to men from the heart as Eph. 6.6. Col. 3.23. and out of a pure heart. 1. Pet. 1.22. importeth also this simplicity and single­nes of heart.

But the most proper words whereby this grace is sig­nified in the scriptures of the new testament, are [...] and sometimes [...] simplicity, or singlenes of heart, opposed to doubling▪ to dissimulatiō & guile. The m [...]n endued with it, is called sometimes [...] which in latine is simplex (quasi sine plica) and somtimes [...] which signifieth either harmlesse be­ing as it were without hornes▪ or rather sincere, as being [Page 186] without mixture of deceipt or guile. Mat. 10.16. Phil. 2.15. sometimes it is signified by the denyall of the contrary, as 1. [...], without guile, or sincere, 1. Pet. 2. 2. Blessed is the man in whose heart there is no guile. Ps. 32.2. a true Israelite, in whom there is no guile. Ioh. 1.48. 2. Not with an heart and an heart, that is not with a double heart, 1. Chro. 12.33. but as it is v. 38. with a perfect heart. 3. Not fained [...]. as 1. Pet. 1.22. brotherly love unfayned.

To serve God therfore in righteousnes before him, is in the dueties which we performe to men, to behave our selves as in the sight and presence of God; not in dissimulation and guile, not with an heart and an heart that is a double heart, not with fayning or disguising, but in integrity, sincerity & truth, with simplicity and singlenes of heart. which you are to vnderstand, not that simple men are to be fooles, but that wise men are to be simple; or as the Apostle exhorteth. wise to that which is good, and simple concerning evill. Rom. 16.19. or as he speaketh 1. Cor. 14.20. Babes in malice, but in vnderstanding men.

And thus we are to serve God in righteousnes before him. For howsoever wordly policie, which is mixt with dissimulation and guile, be commonly practised and highly extolled among men, and simplicity con­trarywise neglected and contemned, as folly; yet by the testimony of the Holy Ghost, true wisdome which descendeth from above, as all good gifts doe, is not mixed with dissimulation Iam. 3.17. but is tempered with simplicity, as our Saviour teacheth his followers. Mat. 10.16.

Those therfore that will be wise in Gods accompt, must be content to seeme fooles in the estimation of [Page 187] the world. 1. Cor. 3.18. As for that wisdome which is mixed with deceipt, the Holy Ghost doth censure it, as earthly, carnall, and devillish Iam. 3.15. And although that be accoumpted the onely wisdome among world­ly men; yet the wisdome of the world is foolishnes with God. 1. Cor. 3.19. for such men are, as we use to say, peny-wise and pound-foolish, who by their policie to gaine their desires in this world, doe loose their soules; which is not onely folly, but madnesse. I say extreame madnes, for the momentany fruition of worldly de­sires, which are vaine & unprofitable, not onely to de­prive them [...]elves of everlasting happines in heaven, but also plunge themselves into endlesse woe and misery in hell. Verily, it were easy for any man, that is not a foole, to become worldly wise, if he would be so foo­lish, as to cast away his soule by making no conscience of dissembling, and disguising, of lying and deceiving, of faeing and out facing, of swearing and for-swearing which, because no true Christian will doe; therfore as every where in the world true Christians are by the worldlinges accoumpted innocents, meaning fooles; so in the parts of Italy about Rome fooles (as I have heard) are termed Christians.

But that we may be moved to imbrace simplicity and singlenes of heart, and be disswaded from all doubling and guile, let vs consider, what arguments the Holy Ghost affordeth in this behalfe. And first as touch­ing dissimulation or guile, it is twofold, either in word, or in deed. In word, when there is a divorce betweene the tongue and the heart; the heart meaning one thing, and the tongue speaking an other with purpose to de­ceive. This in the scriptures is called speaking with an heart and an heart. Ps. 12.2. with flattering lippes and [Page 188] with an heart and an heart, (that is, a double heart) do they speake. It is also called, a mouth of deceipt. Ps. 109. 2. a deceiptfull tongue. such as should not be found in the remnant of Israell. Zeph. 3.13. a tongue of deceipt, when a man speaketh peaceably to his neighbour, but in his heart he layeth waite for him. Ier. 9.8. Ps. 28.3. ha­ving peace in their mouthes, but mischiefe in their hearts.

This double tongue and double heart, as it is odi­ous to ingenuous men, in so much as some of the hea­then have protested,Achilles apud Ho [...] erum Eliad 9. that they hate it as the very gates of hell; so and much more it is abominable unto God; who is the Patron of truth, and avenger of falshood, Ps. 50:19: thou applyest thy mouth to evill, & thy tongue forgeth deceipt. for these things will I reprove thee, &c. Shall not I visit for these things, and shall not my soule be avenged on such a nation as this? Ier. 9.9. Ps. 12.3. Therefore if we desire to prosper, and to see good, wee must keepe our tongue from evill, and our lippes that they speake no guile Ps. 34.12.13.

Dissimulation or doubling in fact is, when one thing is intended, and an other pretented, with purpose to deceive, which in the Scriptures is forbidden & con­demned. Forbidden, both in expresse termes, Levit. 19. 11. 1. Thess. 4.6. and by types and shadowes, as Le­vit. 19.19. Deut.

Condemned, as a sinne odious to God, (for the Lord abhorreth the deceitfull man, Ps. 5.7. and accor­dingly punisheth them, Ps. 55.23. M [...]n of deceipt shall not live out halfe their dayes. for God is an avenger of deceipt. 1. Thess. 4.6. I [...]r. and as a marke of the wicked and reprobate, who are the se [...]d of the serpent. Ps. 144.8. Rom. 1.29.

[Page 189]On the contrary, simplicity and singlenes of heart is both commaunded and commended in the scrip­tures. Commaunded Rom. 12.8.9. he that exer­ciseth the duety of charity in giving, let him doe it in simplicity. Let love be without dissimulation. For seeing the faithfull have purified their soules by the obedience of the truth (that is by faith. Act. 15.9.) through the spirit, to the unfayned love of the bre­thren, they are therfore, to love one another out of a pure heart fervently. 1. Pet. 1.22. Our Saviour CHRIST, as he commaundeth his followers to be wise as serpents; so also simple, as doves. Mat. 10.16. that they may be blamelesse, and simple o [...] sincere, as the sonnes of GOD without rebuke. Phil. 2.15. for that which in this behalfe is required in the duetyes of servants, is to be observed in all the duetyes of righteousnes, which we are to performe unto men in singlenes of heart, as unto Christ. not with eye-services, as men-pleasers, but as the servants of Christ, doeing the will GOD from the heart. Eph. 6.5.6. or as the same Apostle speaketh to the like effect, Col. 3.22.23. not with eye-services as men-pleasers, but in singlenes of heart fearing GOD. And whatsoever you doe, doe it from the heart. as to the Lord, and not to man.

Commended. 1. as an excellent vertue, as being that, for which the first Christians are highly com­mended. Act. 2.46. that they conversed together in singlenes of heart. as that, wherein we are to take comfort and to rejoyce: namely when our conscience testifie [...]h unto us, that in simplicity, and godly sin­cerity, not with fleshly wisedome, but by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world. 2. Cor. 1.12

[Page 190]2. As most profitable, as having the reward, not one­ly of safety and security (for he that walketh in integrity walketh safely, but he that perverteth his wayes, as dis­semblers doe, shalbe knowne, that is shalbe made an ex­ample of punishment. Pro 10.9.) but also of blessed­nes. Ps 32.2. Blessed is the man in whose heart there is no guile.

3. As necessary, as being the proper marke and cog­nizance of those that shalbe saved For the Lord being consulted by David, who is a true Christian, and an inheritour of the kingdome of heaven: returneth this answere; he that walketh before God uprightly without hypocrisy, and towards men sincerely, and without guile speaking the truth that is in his heart. Ps. 15.2. this is Iacob, or this is the generation of Iacob, that is Israell. Ps. 24.6. who from his integrity or upright­nes is called Ieshurun. Deut. 33.5.26. Es. 44.2. for he is not a Iewe that is one outwardly, but he that is inwardly, whose praise is not of men, but of God. Rom. 2.28.29. And by the testimony of our Saviour he is a true Israe­lite, in whom there is no guile. Ioh. 1.48.

For a true Christian doth in some measure resemble the disposition of Christ, who left us an example, that we shoul follow his stepps, who did no sinne, neither in his mouth was found any guile. 1. Pet. 2.21.22. And ther­fore as he was called a lambe, so his followers must be, as they are called, not foxes, nor wolves, but sheepe. But if our minde being corrupted with dissimulation and guile, doe degenerate from that simplicity which becom­meth those that are in Christ Iesus, 2. Cor. 1 [...].3. or if, as Iob speaketh ch. 31.5. we have walked in vanity and leasing, or if our feet have ha [...]ted to d [...]ceipt, we discover our selves to be no true Israelites, nor sheepe of Christ. [Page 191] For if they be true Christians, in whom there is no guile, what shall we think of them, in whom no simple or plaine dealing is to be found. If true Christians be the sheepe of Christ, imitating the simplicity of the lambe of God, in whom was found no guile what may we think of those foxes and wolves, who resemble the old serpent in guile and deceipt? If those which shall inhabit the mountaine of God, be such as walk up­rightly, both towards God, and towards man; where shall all hypocrites and dissemblers have their portion? see Mat. 24.51. If in the remnant of Israell, that shalbe saved, a deceiptfull tongue shall not be found. Zeph. 3.13. then doe they not belong to the Israell of God, whose hearts are fraught with guile and their tongues are full of deceipt.

To conclude▪ this necessity is proved from this oath of the Lord▪ who hath sworne, that he will give to all true Christians, who are the children of Abraham, that they being delivered from the hand of their enimies shall serve him in righteousnes before him, that is, with simplicity and sing [...]enes of heart, without doubling, dissimulation or guile. They therfore whose conver­sation is in dissimulation or guile, can have no assu­rance, that they are the redeemed of the Lord. But of this argument of integrity and uprightnes, I have now spoken the more briefly in this and some other points, because I have handled the same more largely in my lectures. on Ps. 15.2. Whereunto I referre the Chri­stian reader, as to the first treatise, that ever I saw, of this most profitable and necessary argument.

CHAP. XII. Of the certainty of Perseverance, and the necessity of this doctrine.

THe third property of our new obedience is constancy, or perseverance, noted in these words: All the dayes of our life.

The meaning of the words.§. 1. Of which words the meaning is not, that all those who are in the covenant of grace doe al­wayes worship God in holines and righteousnes, from their first birth, (for who then could assure him selfe that he is within the covenant of grace) but from their new birth, and from the time of their actuall redemp­tion and reconciliation with God. For so God hath promised Luk. to all the heyres of promise, that he will give us, that being deliv [...]red from the hand of our spirituall e­nemies, we should worship him all the dayes of our life. But before we be actually redeemed by the merites of CHRIST, that is, actually made partakers of the bene­fite of redemption, justified by faith, and reconciled un­to God; we cannot worship God aright, as before wee have shewed.

Neither are the words to be understood of every day and every moment; as though the Lord did pro­mise to the faithfull, that they shall continue in a per­petuall course of obedience without any interruption or intermission whatsoever. Indeed every man that is re­deemed is bound with his perseverance to joyne both perpetuity in a continuall practise of piety every day, and also to increase dayly in godlines, and in the graces of the Spirit, being renewed in the innerman from day [Page 193] to day, 2. Cor. 4.16. But yet this is not the thing which by oath the Lord hath promised in the cove­nant of Grace to all that are redeemed; for who then might not thinke himselfe excluded out of the cove­nant of grace, seeing Iam▪ 3. [...]. in many things we offend all? and Eccles 7 [...]. there is not a righteous man upon earth that doth good, and sinneth not: but they are to be understood of our whole life, neither doe they so much import quan­do, when, as quam diu, how long: as being uttered in [...]he accusatiue [...] case. For the children of God, how­soever they fall in many particulars, besides or contra­ry to their generall purpose, yet forsomuch as they al­wayes rise againe, and hold out to the end, having a constant purpose to serve God alwayes, they are truly said to worship God all the dayes of their life. As A­sa's heart 2. Chro▪ 16. [...]was said to have been perfect, that is, upright, all the dayes of his life, though he failed in many 2. Chro. 16. [...] 10 12. par­ticulars.

The faith of the Elect (that is, of all the true children of God, nam qui verê filij sunt praesciti & praedestinati sunt. Aug. de cor­rupt. & gratia c. 9.) which worketh by love, either faileth not at all, or if there be any in whom it faileth, it is repayred before the end of their life: and that iniquity which came be­tweene, being wiped away, it is accompted for perseverance to the end, as Augustine saith Aug. de corrupt & gra­tia c. 7. Horum fides, q [...] per dilectionem operatur, profectó aut omninò non deficit aut si qui sunt qu [...] ­rum deficit▪ reparatur ante­quam vita ist [...] finia [...]ur, et delecta quae inter [...]ut [...]era [...] iniq [...]itatem, usque in fi­nem perseverantia deput [...] ­tur..

The meaning then of the words is, that God by oath doth promise to the faithfull; that he will give them grace to worship him in holines and righteousnes from the time of their actuall redemption and justification, with perseverance to the end of their life.

[Page 194] The certainty of Perseverance grounded u­pon the text.§. 2. Whereupon we doe grownd this most comfor­table doctrine, that the perseverance of the faithfull, I meane of all those that truly believe, and are sound and upright Christians, is certaine ▪ perseverance being the perpetuall and peculiar privilege of the upright. But when I say it is certaine, I speak not of the certainty of the subject, as though the faithfull were al­wayes certainly assured of their perseverance (though they are alwayes to labour for that assurance) but of the certainty of the object, that is, that the perseverance of the faithfull is certaine and sure, whether they be assu­red of it, or not. Even as the foundation of Gods electi­on abideth sure [...] Tim. 2.19.,) though the elect be not alwayes sure of it, but yet are alwayes to give Pet. 1.10. diligence to make it sure.

The necessity of this doctrine.§. 3. Here therefore wee are to refute the Papist, and all others who endevour to bereave the faithfull and sound Christians of this priviledge. And in this cause we are to labour the more seriously, because those that would deprive us of this priviledge, doe al­so endevour to robbe us of all true comfort, and conso­lation. For first, this were no sound comfort (wherein notwithstanding our Saviour CHRIST doth bid the Faithfull especially to rejoyce Luk. 10.20..) that our names are written in heaven; if againe they may be blotted out: that we are the sonnes and heires of God, if that not­withstanding we may become the children of the de­vill: that we are now the elect of God, if hereafter we may become reprobates.

2. Againe, the maine comfort of a Christian in this life; is assurance of salvation after this life is ended. For the life (as it were) of the life mortall, is the assurance of the life immortall. But how can there be assu­rance [Page] of salvation, if there be no certainty of Perseve­rance?

3. Thirdly, those which seeke to undermine the cer­tainty of Perseverance in the children of God, doe also overturne the very ground-worke and foundation of our Faith and hope. For what is Faith (I meane spe­ciall Faith) or hope, but an assurance of salvation, and consequently of perseverance unto salvation by Christ; the one, as an assured persuasion, the other as an assured expectation? The grownd of which assurance is the maine promise of the Gospell, decla­ring the certainty of their salvation, who doe truly be­lieve in Christ. From whence the Christian con­science gathereth assurance in this manner. The salva­tion of all those that truly believe is certaine. This being the maine promise of the Iohn 3.16. Mark. 16.16. Act. 16.31. Rom. Gospell, that whosoever believeth in Christ, shalbe saved. But I (saith the soule of the faithfull man, according to the testi­mony of his conscience seconded by the testimo­ny of the Holy Ghost. Rom. 8.16 bearing witnes with our spirit, that we are the children of God) I doe truly be­lieve in Christ, therefore my salvation is certaine. But the proposition of this syllogisme with the proofe thereof, which is the ground of our Faith, and the foundation of our assurance and consolation, the ad­versaries of perseverance doe deny: not fearing to con­tradict the maine promise of the Gospell. For whereas the promise of the Gospell affirmeth, that all which truly believe in Christ, shalbe saved▪ they are not asha­med to say, that some, which truly believe in Christ, shall not be saved. For they say, that some which truly believe▪ doe not persever, and that those which doe not persevere, shal not be saved.

[Page 196]Lastly, the Faithfull in the greatest temptations of Sa­than & conflicts with despaire, doe use to raise themselves Ps. 77.6. by calling to minde the tokens of Gods speciall favour vouchsafed unto them in former times, & the undoubted fruits of saving grace, which they have formerly brought forth: Knowing that the Lord (who changeth Mal. 3.6. not) whom he loveth once, Ioh. 13.1 loveth to the end: & that the saving gifts Rom. 11.29 & graces of God are without repentance. And hereby as pe­nitent children, are encouraged to seek unto their heaven­ly Father for mercy & pardon: Knowing that howsoever he is justly angry with thē, yet he doth not hate thē: nor utterly cast off thē, whō once he hath received into his love in Christ. But the adversaries of Perseverāce by their do­ctrin discourage men, when they have grievously offended from all exercises of faith & repentance, & teach them to run desperat courses. For if a faithfull man upō a grievous or as they call it, a mortall or deadly sin cōmitted, be trās­lated frō the state of salvatiō into the state of condēnatiō, excluded out of Gods favor, & made an object of his ha­tred, deprived of faith, hope, and charity, and of all saving grace, & withal ceasing to be the child, or (as some say) elect of God, is become a child of the devill: with what heart can he seek unto God, of whō he is now hated? how can he call upon him, in whom he doth not believe? or how can he hope to be heard, that hath no hope? or how shall he seek to please God who hath no faith (without which it is impossible to please [...]od) nor any desire to please him?H [...]b. 11.6.

This doctrine therfore is to be avoided as a downfall of despaire: the [...]ull co [...]futatiō wherof I reserve to a peculiar Treatise purposely written of that subject. Onely here, to make better way therunto, I thought good to adde an Ap­pendix, for the further clearing [...]f the doctrin delivered in the 8 Chapter of this Book, concerning the certainty of salvation.

An Appendix to the Treatise of the certainty of Salvation.

THere came to my hands a treatise of the nature & properties of grace & Faith, written by a lear­ned & godly man, as I am perswaded: wherein many things are delivered, which crosse divers points by me propownded in this booke; & more especi­ally in my discourse concerning the certainty of salvatiō.W.P. whereat no man is to marvel, & much lesse to take offēce. For so long as our knowledge is but in part, it cannot be a­voided, but there wilbe diversity of opinions among the Faithfull, who notwithstanding hold the maine substāce and foundation of Faith and true Religion.

The points of difference are eight.

1. The first▪ The first errour. Vo­cation and s [...]nct [...]ficati­on co [...]foū ­ded. that he confoundeth our vocation & san­ctificatiō, alleaging that in our vocation & first conversion the universall or generall habite of grace, contayning in it all sanctifying graces is infused; whereby all the parts & powers of man, being renewed together & at once, and the image of God in them all renewed by the infusion of the habites of all sanctifying graces together, are sanctifyed throughout. Resp. To omit his acception of the word Grace, even where of purpose he doth at large discourse of Grace, for one su­pernaturall quality inherent in us, or habite of grace in­fused into us, according to the use of the schoolmen (who thereby have overturned the doctrine of justification and salvation by Gods grace, magnifying under the name of grace their own righteousnes inherent, which in the que­stiō of justificatiō is to be esteemed Phil. 3.8 as dung, & not once mētioning that which is out of us in him, which most properly is the grace of God, for it is one of his attributes) & not according to the scripturs, which never speak of grace [Page 198] in that sense, but alwayes use the word, either property for the gracious favour of God in Christ, by which grace we are elected, called, justified, sanctified, and shal­be glorified; or metonymically for the Speciall gifts of Grace: To omit. I say this oversight, I answere, it hath bene the received opinion, and usuall practise of all Or­thodox divines, to hold and set downe in this o [...]her the degrees of salvation, which are wrought in this life, viz. our vocation, justification, sanctification. and that in order of nature vocation, (wherin justifying faith is begotten) goeth before justi­fication; and that justification, wherein we are made just before GOD by imputation of CHRISTS righteousnes, goeth before sanctification: wherein we, being already justified from the guilt of sinne, & re­deemed frō the hand of our spirituall enimies & recon­ciled unto God, receive grace to worship him in holines & righteousnes before him. Howbeit, we deny not, but that in time our justification doth concurre with our effectuall vocation (for as soone as a man doth truly be­lieve, so soone is he justified before God) & that in time the first act of sanctificatiō (which is our regeneratiō) doth concurre both with our justification & effectuall vocation. Now, of our regeneratiō, which is the begin­ning of our sanctificatiō, & of our spirituall life. which we live by faith, there seeme to be two acts; the one, wherein we are begottē unto God of incorruptible 1. Pet. 1.23. [...]m. 1.18. seed by the word of God; the other▪ wherin the image of God being in some measure renewed in us, & our Savi­our Christ formed in us, we are borne anew. The for­mer, is our spirituall conception; the latter, our spirituall or new birth. in the former regeneramur, we are begottē anew, in the latter renascimur, we are borne anew. And [Page 199] as in naturall generation there is a meane time betwene the conceptiō & the birth, in which time that which is begottē is formed in the wombe, acording to the image of the first Adā; so betweene the first act of regeneratiō & the new birth, there intercedeth a time, wherein the image of the second Adam is in all parts by degrees re­newed, untill Christ be formed Gal 4.19. in us, The former, which also is the first act of our conversiō, is the same with our calling or vocatiō, wherin our Saviour Christ is cō ­ceived in our hearts, whē we doe receive him by the true & lively assent of faith; which is the seed, the root, the fountaine of all other sanctifying graces; which whosoevre hath,1 Iohn, 5 [...]. he is begotten of God.

This act the holy spirit worketh ordinarily by the mi­nistery of the word. for faith Rom. 10 17. commeth by the hearing of the word. For how should men believe in him, of whō they haue not heard, & how should they heare without a preach­er, Rō. 10.14. In this regard preachers, being ministers by whom others believe. 1 Cor. 3.5. are the instrumēts of the holy Ghost for our spirituall regeneratiō; & are therfore called fathers in the faith, who beget men un­to God. 1. Cor. 4.15. Philē. 10. 1. Tim. 1.2. Now in our vocatiō the worke of the holy Ghost is partly prepara­tive, & partly operative. The preparation unto faith is 1. the illumination of the mind, partly by the ministery of the law, reuealing unto us our miserable estate in our selves; & partly by the ministery of the gospell, revea­ling unto us the mystery of our salvation by Christ. 2. the mollifying of the heart by the finger of the spirit, humbling us in the consideratiō both of our damnable estate in our selves, and of the undeserved mercies of God offered in Christ. from which being effectuall a­riseth a desire both to be freed from that damnable e­state, [Page 200] and to be made partakers of that happines pro­mised in Christ. 3. The invitation of the hearers, and the stirring of them up, to come out of that wofull e­state, and to accept of Gods mercies in Christ, by the Ministers of the word; who being the Embassadours of God in Christs stead, doe beseech you, as if God himself did intreat you by them, [...] Cor. 5.18.20▪ that you would be reconci­led unto God.

The Holy Ghost having thus knocked at the doore of our hearts, doth himselfe in his good time, open our hearts, as he did the heart of Lydia, to assent to, and to believe the Gospell. by which beliefe being lively and effectuall, we receive Christ, not onely in our judge­ments by assent, but also in our hearts by an earnest de­sire to be made partakers of him, and in our willes by an earnest purpose and settled resolution to acknow­ledge and professe him to be our Lord and Saviour, and to rest upon him for salvation. The Holy Ghost ha­ving wrought this assent, and by it this desire and pur­pose of applying CHRIST unto our selves, and there­by also some beginnings of hope, of the hatred of sinne, of the love of God, and of our neighbour, and of other graces, by which the Image of God beginneth to be renewed, and Christ to be formed in us, being yet as it were Embryones in the wombe, he teacheth every one of us, who have through his blessed operation the con­diton of the promise, to apply the promise to our selves, and to believe not onely that Christ is the Savi­our of all that doe believe, but also that he is my Savi­our, that he died for my sinnes, and rose againe for my justification, so that when the Minister, according to the word, pronounceth this generall proposition, who­soever truly believeth in Christ hath remission of his sins, [Page 201] and shalbe saved, the conscience of every faithfull man may both safely assume, but I through Gods grace doe truly believe in Christ, & also certainly conclude by the testimony of the holy Ghost, bearing witnes with our conscience in the assumption, according to the word in the proposition, therefore I through the grace of God have remission of sinnes & shalbe saved. When the holy Ghost hath thus taught us to apply the promises unto our selves, and hath sealed Eph. 1.13. us after we have believed, and testified together with our spirits,Rom. 8.15.16 that we are the chil­dren of God▪ then it appeareth, that we are already borne of God, & that we are the sonnes of God, Ioh. 1.12 13. not onely by regeneratiō, but also by adoption. And being sonnes, God sēdeth forth the spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying Abba father. Gal. 4.6. By this faith, first apprehending, & then applying Christ unto us, we be­come not onely the sonnes of God, but also members of Christ; & having union with him as out head, we have communiō also with him, both in respect of his merite unto justification▪ first before God, and then in the court of our owne conscience; and in respect of his graces unto sanctification, receiving of his fulnes, Ioh. 1.16. even grace for grace.

As therfore men are first conceived and borne, before and they are borne before they are said to lead a life in this world: so we must first be begotten and borne anewe in our vocation and regeneration, before we can live unto God the spirituall life of sanctification. These two therfore were not to be confounded; sancti­fication being the end, as of our electiō Eph. 1.4. and of our justification,Luk. 1.75. Tit. 2.14. [...]. Pet 2.24. so also of our vocation. 1. Thess. 4.7. By our vocation, we are begotten unto God. by sancti­fication, we, being both begotten and borne anewe, [Page 202] do live unto GOD. In our vocation, the spirit of GOD first draweth Ioh. 6.44. us unto GOD: in our sanctifica­tion, we being already drawne, the Spirit of God doth Rom. 5 14 Gal. 5 18. lead & guide us in the way which leadeth to life. Vo­cation produceth Faiths Faith being begotten, produ­ceth sanctification, both habituall (for the heart Act. 15.9. is pu­rified by Faith) & actuall, for Faith Gal. 5.5. worketh by love, producing good workes as the fruite both of Fai [...]h and charity. I doe not deny, but that Faith is a part of our sanctification, & of our inherent righteousnes: yet this hindereth not, but that both it selfe doth sanctify us, and is also the mother of all other inward graces wherein our habituall sanctification consisteth, and of all the works of grace wherein our actuall signification is occupied. For when the Holy Ghost doth regene­rate us, he doth ingenerate the grace of faith in us, and by it all other graces.

The second er­ror That san­ctification go­eth before ju­stification.The second (which is a consequent of the former) that sanctification goeth before justification. The con­trary whereof I have proved in the discourse. whereun­to I adde. 1. that sanctification is the Col. 1.22. end and fruit Rom. 6.22. of our justification. the cognizance also and evidence whereby it is knowne, & therefore a consequent there­of. 2. As we are made sinners, first by imputation of A­dams sinne, and then being guilty of his transgression, are made partakers of his corruption; so we are made just, first, by imputation of Christs righteousnes, and then being justified, we are in some measure made par­takers of those graces, which he received without mea­sure. Againe, the persons of men being sinners in them selves, must be accepted of GOD as righteous in CHRIST, before either their qualities or their actions, (which when they are at the best are defiled with sinne) [Page 203] can be acceptable unto GOD. Therefore we must be justified, before either our qualities or actions can be holy and righteous before GOD. Neither can there be any sanctification without justification, and reconcili­ation with God goeing before in order of nature: as there is no justification. without sanctification accom­panying and following the same. For by the same faith whereby we are justified, we are also sanctified. Christ being apprehended by Faith to justification, dwelleth in vs by his spirit to worke in vs sanctification, and to whom the merits of Christ apprehended by Faith are imputed to their justification; to them the vertue of his death and resurrection is applyed by the Holy Ghost to the mortifying of sinne, and raising againe to new­nes of life. to which purpose the Apostle sayth Col. 2. 12. by faith we are risen with CHRIST in Baptisme. Againe, faith, by which we are justified, in order of na­ture goeth before repentance, wherein our sanctificati­on consisteth. It is a resolued Case by Calvine, Poeniten­tiam seu resipiscentiam non modò fidem continuò subse­qui, sed ex ea nasci extra controversiam esse debet. See Calvin. instit. l. 3. The title of that chapter in Calvin is fide nos regenerare. c. 3. §. 1.2. and by De inca [...]n. & [...] gratia c. 20. Fulgentius, quòd vita sancta à fide sumit initium. The same is testified by the ancient Fathers, as Clem. Alexandr. strom. l. 2. Faith is [...], the first inclination to sal­vation, after which follow feare, hope, and [...], repentance. Ambros [...] de sacram. l. 1. c. 1. In Christiano pri­ma est fides. Chr. hom. de fide, pe, & char. fidē esse originē iustitia. August. de pradest. SS. c. 7. fides prima datur, ex qua caetera impetrantur. Prosper. ad Dubium, 8. Ginev. fi­des omnium virtutum fundamentum. Greg. Moral. l. 2. c. 33. fidem primam in corde nostro gignit.

If any object that the learned Chamier in his pan­strat. [Page 204] l. 10. treateth of sanctification before justification let him heare his owne apology. c. 1. n. 2. Debueramus sanctificationi justificationem praeponere, si nostri arbitrij methodus esset: ut tum re tum ratione priorem; quod ab ea profiuat altera, sed quia Papistae non distinguunt, cogimur de sanctificatione prius dicere.

The third er­ [...]or, that Iusti­fication goeth before Faith.3. The third, that justification and remission of sinnes goe before faith. which may seeme a strange assertion to be deliuered by him, who holdeth, that sanctification; whereof faith, as he confesseth, is a principall part, goeth before justification. But this absurdity he salveth with a distinction; that he speaketh of justification, not in fo­ro Dei, but in foro conscientiae: & consequently acknow­ledgeth no justifying faith, but that by which we are in our conscience assured of our justification. But when we speak of justification, as of a degree of our salvation, it is evident, that justification is to be con­sidered as an action of GOD (for it is God Rom. 8 30.33 that justi­fieth,) whereby he imputing to a believing sinner the righteousnes of Christ apprehended by faith, absolveth him from his sinnes, and accepteth of him as righteous in Christ. As for that justification, which is in foro con­scientiae, it is not justification properly, but the know­ledge and assurance of it. Neither is that to be accounp­ted justifying faith properly, by which we are not justified before GOD, nor obtayne remission of sinnes. But before and without this Faith by which we are ju­stified in our consciences,The 4. error, that all the elect before their conversi­ [...]n, &c stand actually recon­ciled and justi­fied. that is, assured of our justifi­cation, we are as he truly saith, justified before God.

The fourth, that all the elect before their conver­sion, and before they have Fai [...]h stand actually recon­ciled unto God▪ and justified before him, may also seeme a strange assertion to bee uttered by [Page 205] a godly man. For if this were true, then every one that will perswade himselfe that he is elected (which most men are ready to doe, who will thank God for their e­lection before they are called) may cast of all care of converting unto God, of repēting for his sinnes, of su­ing unto God for the pardon of them, o [...] believing in CHRIST; because without and before either faith or repentance he hath remission of his sinnes, and stan­deth actually iustified before God, and reconciled unto him. And this is the very ground, whereupon carnall Gospellers, who Iud 4. turne the grace of God into wantonnes, doe build all their presumptuous licentiousnes, that CHRIST having died for their sinnes, they need not to die to them, that Christ having freed them from sinne and from damnation, they may sinne freely, and with­out danger; that Christ having reconciled them to GOD, and purchased salvation for them, they neither need to sue for reconciliation or pardon, nor take care of their salvation: that Christ having fully satisfied the justice of God by his obedience and sufferings, they neither are obnoxious to punishment, nor tied to obedience.

But this assertion is most evidently confuted by the scriptures, which doe teach, that the elect are by Eph. 2. [...]. na­ture the children of wrath servants to sinne and sathan, enimyes, and rebells against God, obnoxious in them­selves to the fearfull curse of God, as well as others; un­till they turne unto God, crave pardon of their sins, & lay hold upon Christ by faith, Then in deed, but not till then, they are reconciled unto God, Col. 1. [...]1. Rom. 5.10. who before were enimyes: then, but not untill then, they are actu­ally redeemed, who were before bondslaves; then, but not untill then, they are justified, who before were [Page 206] guilty of sinne and damnation: then, and not untill then, their sinnes are actually pardoned. For actuall par­don is of sinnes past. Orig in Rō. 3 lib. 3. indulgē. t [...]a non futuro [...]um, sed prete­ri orū crimin [...] ̄ d [...]tur. Rom. 3.25. and we may not presume that our sinnes are pardoned, before we repent of them, and much lesse may we dreame, that they are actually remitted, before they be committed. For the better understanding whereof, we are to consider the merits of Christ, and the benefits which we have ther­by, according to his owne intention expressed in the covenant of grace (the condition whereof is faith,) and are not to extend them to those, to whom they were not intended, CHRIST is the Saviour of the world, yet all are not saved, nor to be saved: for many still remaine in the state of damnation. he is the redeemer of man­kind, yet all are not actually redeemed; for many still re­maine in the servitude of sinne & sathan. For they that commit sinne, are the seruants of sinne. Whereas if the sonne had made them free, they should have bene free in­deed. Ioh. 8.34.36. God was in Christ 2. Cor. 5.29. reconciling the world unto himselfe; and yet very many, as they con­tinue in their rebellion against God; so the wrath of God abideth upon them. Ioh. 3.36. Neither ought this to seeme strange, seing the covenant of grace pro­miseth and assureth, neither salvation, nor remission of sinnes, nor other benefits of Christ to all, but onely to those that believe. So God loved the world that he gave his onely begotten sonne, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish but have life everlasting. Iohn 3.16. Mark. 16.16. he that believeth and is baptized shalbe sa­ved, but he that believeth not shall be condemned. To this purpose consider the diversifying of the phrase used by the Apostle, in the comparison betwixt the first and the second Adam. Rom. 5.19. As by the disobedience of [Page 207] one man [...] the many (that is the multitude of thē which shalbe damned) were made sinners: so by the obedi­ence of one [...] (that is the multitude of them that shalbe saved he doth not say, were made, but) shalbe made righteous. The reason of which diversity is this; because the Apostle had respect to all those elect, who as yet have not believed, either because as yet they were not, or as yet are not, or because as yet they were not, or yet are not called. For it is necessary that all men should cō ­fesse and acknowledge themselves to be sinners in A­dam ab origine, from their first being. For by generation the sinne of Adam is actually communicated to all his posterity; and no sooner are they partakers of the hu­mane nature, then they doe participate in his sinne. But we may not say, that the righteousnes or obedience of Christ is communicated to all from their beginning, but onely (I speake after the maner of the scriptures, of those which are adulti) to those that believe. Neither are they in their generation, or before, made partakers of Christs righteousnes, but in their regeneration. That no man therfore should neglect the benefit of justifica­tion, as though he had already obtayned it, before his conversion or effectuall calling, or regeneratiō in which faith is ingenerated by the Holy Ghost in the soules of the elect; he speaketh in the future tense; that men should understand, that they are not borne just or justi­fied; but that they shalbe justified, so soone as they tur­ning unto God, shall believe in Christ, and that they are just, non nati, sed renati, not borne, but borne anew, Wherfore before we ought to presume that we are jus­tified, we must be called, converted, regenerated. For whom GOD hath elected, them hath he called, accor­ding to his purpose; and whom he hath so called, them, [Page 208] and no other hath he justified. Rom. 8.30.

Thus then we are to conceive of Christs merits, and the benifits which we have thereby: that howsoever our Saviour CHRIST did in the dayes of his flesh me­ritoriously redeeme and save men, paying a price of ransome sufficient for all, and fully satisfying the jus­tice of GOD in the behalfe of all that shalbe saved: yet notwithstanding none are actually redeemed, or recon­ciled, or justified, but they onely to whom the merits of Christ are applyed; and they are applyed onely to those that believe (I speak of those which are adulti, for to elect infants, dying in their infancy, they are applyed by the Holy Ghost) Neither can any be assured that they truely believe, but such as repent of their sinnes, and make conscience of their wayes.

This learned man therfore should have distinguished betweene the merit of redemption, and actuall redēp­tion: even as well as betweene the merit of salvation, and the actuall profession thereof: Christ merited our redemption, and salvation long since; yea his merit ther­of hat ever bene in force since the beginning Apos 13.8. of the world: but yet none are actually made partakers of re­demption, but such as to whom it is applyed, that is to those that truly believe. for they onely receive it, and to them onely, according to the covenant of grace it was intended. Otherwise, he might say, that all the e­lect are naturally saved, for whom Christ purchased e­ternal life; who notwithstanding are not saved, so much as in hope, untill they doe truly believe. And if all the elect be actually justified before God, because Christ did merit their justificatiō, why doth he not say in like manner, that all the elect are actually sanctified: seeing Christ was made unto us of God, not onely righte­ousnes, [Page 209] 1. Cor. [...].308 and redemption, but also sanctification; and hath as well merited our sanctification for us, as our ju­stification. Againe, what benefits we obtaine by Christ we receive them by Faith: and therefore in the Scrip­tures, the same benefits which receive from Christ, are ascribed to Faith; by which Christ and his merits are ours; by which also Christ dwelleth [...] Eph. 3.17. we live by Christ we live by Faith, Gal. 2 20. by Christ we have remission of sinnes; by Faith we ob­tayne remission, Act. we are justified by Christ, we are justified by Faith. Rom. 3.28. By Christ we are made the sonnes of God; by Faith we are made the sonnes of God. Ioh. 1.12. and so in the rest, & therefore to imagine that we are justified before God without Faith, is a dreame.

Moreover this assertion cannot stand with the per­petuall doctrine of the Apostle Paul, who teacheth that we are justified before God by Faith, therefore not before, nor without Faith. By Faith, sayth he, without workes, that is, by the righteousnes of Christ apprehended by Faith, and not by inherent righteous­nes. Neither doth he in those places speake of justifica­tion in the court of conscience, whereby we are assured of our justification; for as before men we are justified Iam 5. [...]., that is, declared and knowne to be just by good work [...]; so much more by our good workes (by which we are to make our election, [...]. Pet. [...] ▪ 1 [...]. our calling, our justification sure) we are just [...]fied in our owne conscience, that is, assured of our justification. And to conclude, this as­sertion is such a paradox, as neither Protestant nor Papist did ever hold, that a man who is come to yeares, is actually justified before God, before and without Faith.

[Page 210] The fifth error. [...] not the mother-grace.5. The fifth. that faith is not the roote nor the mo­ther of other graces, and that the soule is not dispo [...]ed to believe, sooner then to love God, or our neighbour, or to produce the act of any other grace. But this I have sufficiētly disproved in the discourse shewing evident­ly that as without faith, there can be no other grace; so not [...]ely from it all other graces do spring, but also according to the measure and degree of it, is the measure and degree of all other graces. We are not disposed to love GOD as we ought, untill we be by faith perswaded of Gods love to­wards us; we cannot hope for the performance of Gods promises to us, unlesse by faith we are perswaded that they belong unto us: we cannot trust in God, nor re­joyce in him, unlesse by faith we are perswaded of his goodnes and bounty towards us, and so in the rest▪ and what is more plaine, then that love, which is the full­filling of the whole law proceedeth from 1. Tim. 1. [...]. faith un­fained, as being the fruite thereof. Chrysostome and Theophylact call faith [...]. seil. [...]. the mother and fountaine of all graces, and Calvin, [...]. l. [...]. c. [...]. § 41. sola est fides, quae in nobis charitatem primùm generat, it is faith onely which first ingendereth charity in us, it begetteth also hope and newnes of life, as he §. 41. [...] 3 [...]. [...]. saith.

But to omitte other testimonyes, St. Peter seemeth to acknowledge this truth. 2. Pet 1.2.3 where he prayeth for them to whom he writeth, that grace and peace be multiplied unto them, by the knowledge of God and Ie­sus our Lord, according as his divine power hath given unto us all things that pertayne to life and godlines, [...] by the acknowledgment of him that hath called us &c. that is by faith.

[Page 211]6. The sixt. that faith is affiance,The sixt [...]. that Faith [...] affiance. and so to be defined; and that trusting to the promise is the proper act of faith as it justifieth. &c. But I have proved, that faith is not affiance, nor affiance faith. But a fruite of faith as well as hope, and that by faith we have affiance. Eph. 3. [...]2. whereunto I adde▪ that the trust in GODS pro­mises to be in particular performed to us, is not faith, but hope. Yea but promises, sayeth he, are both true and good, therefore our assent to them is with adherence, affiance, and trust. Answ. the promises are true, the things promised are good, we believe the promise, we hope for the thing promised. As contrariwise Gods threatnings are also true, and the things threatned evill As therfore he that believeth the threatning to be true feareth (if it be applyable to himselfe) the thing threat­ned, & yet this feare is not of the nature of faith, but a fruite & cōsequent therof: so he that believeth a promise to be true, & can apply it to himselfe, trusteth & hopeth for the thing promised, which trust in respect of the promise, is no more of the nature of faith, then feare in respect of the threatning.

But that affiance is of the essence of justifying faith, he will make good by diuers reasons; first, from the phrases of believing,Ioh 1 [...]. Rō, 10.14. [...], Rom. 4. [...]. Act 1 [...].3 [...]. [...], or Eph. 1.18. [...], that is, in or vpon which imply affiance.

Answ. that as I said in the discourse, affiance is such an unseperable fruite of faith, that sometimes it is im­plyed in the phrase of believing in Christ. For that phrase may and sometimes doth imply three acts; the first of assent; that he is the Saviour of all that believe in him: which assent, if it be lively and effectuall is the proper act of that faith wherby we are justified before God and in this sense the phrase, of believing in him, is [Page 212] ordinarily used in the Scriptures, yea sometimes it is attributed to those, who have assented onely by a bare historicall, and temporary Faith, which is the Faith of hypocrites, and all worldlings, as Iohn 2.23. W [...] believe on him and on his name is all one, Ioh 3.18. & 12.42. compared with Iohn 5.44. Iohn 4 39 Many of the Samaritans believed [...] in Christ, upon the re­port of the woman; who, being confirmed in their faith by hearing him selfe; say to the woman. 42. we be­lieve no more because of thy report; for we ou [...]selves have heard him. Now what was her report? that he had told her all things that ever she did, & therfore that he was the Christ. this is all that they believed, when they were said to have believed in CHRIST. And what was their Faith, which was confirmed by hearing him selfe? that this is indeed the Christ the Saviour of the world. And this, as I said, is the ordinary signification of the phrase in the New Testament. see Iohn 7.31. 11.26.27. Act. 8.37. so the Hebrew, is joyned with beliefe, not onely in God, but in his Pro­phets also; not that we are to put affiance in them, but to give credit to them as to the messengers of God, Ex. 14 31. 2. Chro. 20.20▪ The second act is of applicatiō, when believing truly that he is the Saviour of all that believe, I therfore believe that he is my Saviour: which is the act of that special faith, by which we are justified in our cōsciēce in wch sence the phrase seems to be used 1. Ioh. 5.13. in the later clause, but in the first part of that verse in the former sense. so Ioh. 20:28.29. Gal. 2.20.

The third act is of affiance, that because I doe believe not onely that he is the Saviour of the world, but also my Savior▪ therfore I rest upon him for salvatiō, & thus Ioh. 14.1. But this is not the act of faith, as it justifieth us before God, nor yet the proper act of the speciall faith, which doth justifie us in our conscience, but [Page 213] a fruite and consequent thereof. For if I truly believe that Christ is the Saviour of all that believe, then must I consequently believe that he is my Saviour, (for the generall alwayes includes the particulars) and if I doe truely believe that he is my Saviour, then shall I conse­quētly put my trust in him for salvatiō. Or more plain­ly, to use his owne termes; he saith, that the proper act of faith, as it justifieth, consisteth in trust, or relyance vpon the promise for our owne particular, when the soule depen­deth wholly, or trusteth perfectly in the promise, for remis­sion of sinnes, and for salvation. But say I, a man cannot at all, and much lesse wholly and perfectly trust in the promise to be performed to himselfe, unlesse he be first perswaded, and in some measure assured, that the pro­mise doth belong unto him selfe, which perswasion is the act of speciall Faith. A man cannot be assured at all, that the promise belongeth to himselfe, unlesse he have the condition of the promise, which is a true justifying faith. for the promise is not made to all, but to those that truly believe. Therefore I must have a justifying Faith, which is the condition of the promise before I can be assured that the promise belōgeth to me. I must be perswaded that it belongeth to me; before I can con­fidently trust that it shalbe performed to me.

But let us consider his testimonies, for [...] he alleageth Ioh. 1.12. where to believe in CHRIST is the expositi­on of receiving Christ. Now we receive Christ, first, by assent, and then by application, wherof affiance is a consequent.

2. Rom. 10.14. How shall they call upon him in whom they have not believed? where the phrase is used as V. 11. whosoever believeth on him, shall not be a­shamed, and that as the proofe of V. 9.10. If thou [Page 214] shalt with thy mouth confesse the Lord Iesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For with the heart man believeth unto righteousnes &c. for the Scripture saith, whosoever believeth on him, &c. For [...], hee citeth, 1. Rom. 4.5. he that believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly (as Abraham did) his Faith is counted righteousnes v. 5.. Now of Abraham it is said, that he believed God v. 3. [...], and it was counted to him for righteousnes. 2. Act. 16.31, Believe on the Lord Ie­sus, sayth Paul to the Iaylour, which he performed v. 34. [...] believing God. for [...], he quo­teth Eph. 1.12. where the word is [...], who have before hoped in Christ ▪ he might more truly have quoted, Mark. 1.15. though against him selfe, [...], believe the Gospell: and the like he might have alleaged for [...] Luk. 24.25. slow of heart to believe [...] all that the Prophets have spoken.

His second argument is taken from the opposition of Faith to distrust, or doubting; where as he con­foundeth Faith and affiance, so he confoundeth also doubting (which is opposite to Faith) and distrust which is opposed to affiance; betweene which there it a great difference; for doubting is not contrary to affiance, but to assent; for to doubt is to withhold the assent. the places which he quoteth, doe both concerne doubting. Rom. 4.20. Iam. 1.6. in which sense the word [...] is often Mat. 21.21. Mark. 12.23. Act. 10. [...]0.11.12. Rom. 14.23. used in the Scriptures, but never in the signification of distrust.

I deny not, but that distrust, & distrustful feare are Boeth. in Top Cicer Repugnantia dicuntur contrariorum consequentia ad [...]lterum-contrarium relata vigilare & dormire contraria sunt, ste [...]ere autem & vigila [...]e sunt re­ [...]u [...]antia. re­pugnant [Page 215] to faith: but that proveth not faith to be affi­ance, but because affiance is a necessary consequent of Faith, hence it is, that distrustfull feare, which is want of affiance, proceedeth from doubting, Mat. 14.30. [...] which is want of Faith, Mat. 8.26. why are ye fearefull O ye of little Faith. Mark. 5.36. feare not, onely believe.

His third argument from 2. Tim. 1.12. I know whom I have believed, &c. is to little purpose; for although in the words following the Apostle saith, I am perswa­ded, that is, I believe, that he is able to keepe [...], my depositum, or that which I have commit­ted to his trust; yet this proveth not, that the verbe [...], I haue believed, implieth trust, unlesse he un­derstand the words, as if the Apostle had said, [...], I know to whom I have entrusted or con­credited my selfe. But that is an other use of the word, much differing from that which is in question, signify­ing as much as concrediting, or committing to ones trust, & is as well attributed to God, as to man. Iohn 2.23.24. Many believed in Christ, to whom he would not [...], entrust himselfe. And in this sence the word is sometimes used, both in the active voice with the dative of the person, & Ioh. [...] 24▪ accusative of the thing, as Luk. 16.11. & also in the passive, and that also with the accusative of the thing. Rom. 3.2. 1. Cor. 9.17. Gal. 2.7. 1 Tim. 1.11. Tit. 1.3.

7. The seventh,The seventh error, that there is no o­ther justifying faith, but that by which we are justified in our conscience. which I take to be the originall of some other of his unsound opinions, that he holdeth no other justifying faith, but that whereby we are ju­stified in the court of our conscience. for before God all the elect, as he teacheth, stand actually justified be­fore, & without faith. so in deed they doe before this faith, and so it is also true, that sanctification goeth be­fore [Page 216] this justification; & remission of sinnes before this faith. for how can a man be assured of that wch is not?

The proper act of this faith by which we are justi­fied in our conscience (that is, as I understand it, assu­red in some measure of our justification, is, as he teach­eth, to trust wholly & perfectly to the promise of forgive­nes of sinne & eternall life, for remission and salvation. For by this faith, as he teacheth, the Lord giveth us assu­rance of our justification by Christs righteousnes; where­upon followeth peace of conscience, and that kinde of fidu­cia, which we call (saith he) assurance or full perswasion of the pardon of our sinnes. this is a fruite of the other fiduciae or trusting to the promise it selfe, wherein standeth the pro­per act of justifying faith. And it followes not alwayes pre­sently but after sometime, haply a long time. which he speaketh for the comfort of those, who doubt they have not faith, because they not that full assurance.

Here divers things are to be misliked. 1. that he ma­keth affiance the proper act of justifying faith, which I have already disproved.

2. That he holdeth, that there may be a full affiance, whereby a man may wholly and perfectly trust to the promise, without the like assurance. But this is a mani­fest error borowed from the Papists; who hope well of the remission of sinnes, but dare not believe it. For this full affiance in trusting wholly and perfectly to the promise for the performance of it to a mans selfe, is that which the Apostle calleth [...] the assurance of hope▪ which ever presupposeth [...] the assurance of faith. where, by the way. you may take notice of a threefold [...] mentio­ned in the scriptures: the first is [...]ol. 2. [...]. [...] [Page 217] [...], the assurance of full per­swasion of understanding to the acknowledgment of the mystery of God, and the Father, and of Christ. this is the plerophory of assent, when a man understanding the mystery of the Gospell, giveth full assent thereto, that it is true, and that Iesus the Sonne of the blessed Virgin, is the eternall Sonne of God, and the Saviour of all that truly believe in him. The second Hebr. 10.22. is [...], the assurance of faith, when thou apply­ing the promise to thy selfe, doest assuredly believe, not onely that Christ is the Saviour of all that believe, but also that he is thy Saviour. The third is Heb. 6.1 [...]. [...], the assurance of hope; when thou heing fully perswaded, that Christ is not onely the Saviour of the faithfull, but that he is also thy Saviour; doest assured­ly trust and hope to be saved by him. Every one of these plerophories or assurances are infallible in their kinde, nec falsum iis subesse potest: but this is absolutely to be understood of the first, the object whereof is the word of God, which is principium fidei [...], the second is not absolutely true, as a principle like the former, but as a conclusion is necessarily and infallibly true, concessis praemissis. For if this proposition be true, that Christ is the Saviour of all that truly believe (which is the undoubted word of God: & if this assumption be true also, but I through Gods mercy doe truly believe, (which is certainly true in all the faithfull:) then this conclusion cannot be false; therefore Christ is my Sa­viour; whereupon followeth the plerophory of hope; that seeing he is my Saviour, therefore I doe assuredly hope for salvation by him.

3. That he maketh the assurance of Faith to be a [Page 218] consequent of that assurance of trust, which is nothing els but [...] the assurance of hope▪ the cō ­trary whereof is true, for as hope is a consequent and fruite of faith; so from the assurance of faith proceedeth the assurāce of affiance & hope; & according to the measure & degree of that, is the measure & degree of this. Neither is it possible, that a man should have a full af­fiance wholly and perfectly to trust to the promise to be perfo [...]med to himselfe, who is not first fully assured, that the promise doth belong to himselfe. And ther­fore it is but a cold comfort, to be given to a man dis­tressed in conscience, to tell him, that if he have af­fiance to trust wholly and perfectly to the promise for remission of sinne, he hath faith, though he have not full assurance. But miserable comforters are they, who reach (as this man doth not) that where is not full assu­rance, there is no faith. But if we desire to minister true comfort to the distressed conscience perplexed with doubtings concerning faith; we must unteach these doctrines, either that justifying faith is an assurance of remission, and much lesse a full assurance; or that it is affiance, much lesse a full affiance, trusting wholly to the promise for the performance of it to a mans selfe; which cannot be had, unlesse thou hast the like assu­rance that the promise doth belong to thee. For inded that faith, by which we are justified before God, is nei­ther assurance properly, nor affiance, for assurance is the second degree of faith, by which we are not justified before God, but in the court of our owne conscience; and affiance is a fruite and consequent of both. Aske then the party distressed this question. Doest thou be­lieve, that the promise of the Gospell concerning remis­sion and salvation doth belong to thee? If thou dost, [Page 219] then thou hast assurance, that CHRIST is thy Saviour, and that by him thou hast remission, and that by him thou shalt be saved I [...] he cannot affirme, that he be­lieveth the promise to belong unto him, never goe a­bout to perswade him, that he trusteth to the perfor­mance of the promise unto himselfe. But aske him a­gaine, dost thou truly believe, that Iesus the sonne of the blessed Virgine is the eternall sonne of God and Saviour of all that truly believe in him? If he say he doth so, tell him then thou hast the condition of the promise, therfore thou maist, and thou must undoub­tedly conclude, that he is thy Saviour, and that thou shalt be saved by him. If he say, he doubteth, whether he doth truly believe, that CHRIST is the Saviour, be­cause many say they believe, who do not truly believe. Aske him againe, dost thou believe that in thy selfe and by nature thou art no better then a firebrand of hell, a vassall of sinne and Sathan, subject to eternall death and damnation? To this no doubt he will say, Yes. say then it seemeth you believe the sentence of the law concluding you under the curse, but doe you not also believe the Gospell, that notwithstanding the guilt of your owne conscience accusing, and the sentence of the law condemning you, you shalbe blessed, if you believe in Christ? this also, if he have any grace, he will con­fesse, as being the expresse doctrine of the Gospell, Aske him then, is there any other meanes, whereby you may hope to be saved, but by Christ? he will say, he renoun­ceth all other meanes, well then, you acknowledg (you may say) that in your selfe you are a wretched sinner, but yet notwithstanding by Christ you shall be happy, if you shall believe in him, tell me then, have not you earnestly desired to come out of that damnable estate, [Page 220] wherein you were by nature, and to be partaker of that happines purchased by Christ for all that believe in him? he will say he hath, and that he hath often ex­pressed this his desire by hearty prayer. But you belie­ving (may you say) and desiring those things, have you not also resolued to acknowledge and professe CHRIST to be the onely Saviour, and to rest upon him alone for salvation, renouncing all other meanes, and to acknowledge him to be your Lord, & therefore to obey him, and serve him, making conscience of all your wayes? All this have I done (will he say) and yet I have not assurance, But say I, if thou hast done all this, then thou hast a true justifying faith, For to be­lieve in Christ is to receive him and thou hast received him not onely in thy judgment by a firme and lively assent, but also in thy heart and will, by an earnest de­sire and settled purpose of application, by which thou hast received him to be thy Saviour. Herevpo I inferre, that thou hast the condition of the promise, and therfore that the promise doth belong unto thee, and that thou believing truly, that Iesus is the Saviour of all that believe in him, he is thy Saviour, and therfore needest not, yea thou oughtest not to doubt of thy sal­vation for by refusing to apply the promise to thy selfe, when thou hast the condition thereof, thou ma­kest God a lyar. 1. Ioh. 5.10. If thou wilt not believe me, yet believe the Apostle Paul Rom. 10.9.10. If thou shalt confesse with thy mouth the Lord Iesus, and shalt believe in thine heart, that GOD ray­sed him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For with the heart, man believeth unto righteousnes, and with the mouth, confession is made to salvation. Believe St. Iohn, whose first epistle was written to this very purpose, [Page 221] that those who truly believe that Iesus Christ is the Saviour, might have assurance that he is their Saviour. 1. Ioh 5.13. for so he writeth in the same Chapter. v. 1 Whosoever believeth that Iesus is the Christ, is borne of God, and v. 5. whatsoever is borne of GOD over­commeth the world, and this is the victory that over­commeth the world, even our faith, who is he that overcommeth the world, but he that believeth that IESVS is the sonne of GOD? Believe our Saviour him­selfe; For, if being asked with the Apostles, what you thinke he is, thou shalt answere with St. Peter, thou art the Christ the sonne of the living God, he will pro­nounce thee blessed. Mat. 16.16. If for all this thou canst not gather assurance, know then, that the premisses being graunted, thou canst not but have assurance; unlesse thou wilt deny the con­clusion, which cannot possibly be false, the premisses being true.

But for thy better assurance, tell me, what you are to thinke of a man believing truly that Iesus is the Christ yet in respect of his spirituall estate is so poore, that he is as it were a meere beggar, who having nothing of his owne, whereby he might hope to be saved, depen­deth wholly upon the mercies of God, and merits of Christ? even as beggats, who having nothing of their owne, depend upon the almes of well disposed people, what thinke you of him, who believing that Christ is the Saviour, is not yet assured, that he is freed frō that damnab [...]e estat wherein he is by nature▪ but mourneth in the sence and acknowledgment of his wofull condi­tion, desiring to befreed from it? what thinke you of him, who truly believing that Iesus is the CHRIST but not yet assured of his justification doth [Page 220] [...] [Page 221] [...] [Page 222] therefore hunger and thirst after righteousnes? what­soever you thinke of them, or whatsoeuer they be in their owne sinnes, they are justified before God. And that I prove thus. Whosoever are blessed, are justified, and contrarywise; but all believers though they be beg­gars in spirit, though they mourne, though they do but hunger and thrist after righteousnes, are blessed by the testimony of our Saviour himself, Mat. where directing his speech to them that believe v. 1 2. compared with Luk, he saith, Blessed are [...], the beggars in spirit, blessed are they that mourne, blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousnes.

4. This assertion cannot stand with the orthodoxe doctrine of justification by faith. For that teacheth the justification of a sinner, or as the word signifyeth of an Rom. 4.5. ungodly person before God, this justification is nei­ther of an ungodly person, but of a man already justi­fied before God, and also sanctified; neither is it be­fore God, but in the court of conscience. that justifica­tion is an action of God, acquitting the sinner, and ac­cepting of him as righteous by imputation of Christs righteousnes: in this there is no such matter, in that we are taught, that by faith a sinner doth receive remission of sinnes, and that he is to believe to that end, that he may obtaine pardon, and to the same end is both to repent of his sinne, and to sue for pardon. by this do­ctrine are taught, that a man hath his sinnes actually forgiven, not onely before he believe or repent, or sue for pardon, but also before he commit them; there we are taught, that a man is justified hefore God by faith; here that a man is justified before and without faith; There we are taught, that faith doth justify, not as it is an habite or quality inherent, or as a part of inherent [Page 223] righteousnes; but onely as the hand receiving Christ; who is our righteousnes, and is therefore said to justify, because the object which it receiveth, doth justifie. But according to the new doctrine, faith doth neither ju­stifie, as the hand to receive Christ unto justification, nor in respect of the object, but as a part of the generall habite of grace infufed, not justifying a sinner before God by apprehension of Christs righteousnes, but assu­ring the party already sanctified and justified of his ju­stification and salvation: in that we are taught, that we are justified by faith alone; but in this, we are justified, that is, assured of justification, not only by faith, but by good workes, and all other meanes, by which we are to make our calling and election sure.

8. The eighth. that faith,The eighth er­ror, that assent is not the act of justifying faith. as it is an assent, doth not justifie; the contrary whereof (speaking of a true, lively and effectuall assent) I have fully, and (as I hope) suffi­ciently proued. But let us examine his proofes▪ the first is this. The Act of justifying faith is supernaturall, Eph. 2.8. Iohn 6.44.45. this assent to the truth of the Go­spell, concerning salvation by Christ, is not supernaturall. ergo. I deny the assumption, and affirme, that the true, lively, and effectuall assent is supernaturall, & can­not be had without the helpe of the holy Ghost, as being a proper work of the holy Ghost, when he doth regenerate any of us. No man can say, that Iesus is the Lord, 1. Cor 32. [...] but by the holy Ghost. And who knowes not, that it is the proper work of the holy Ghost in the mi­nistery of the Gospell, to open the hearts of the elect, as he did the heart of Lydia Act. 16., to assent unto the word? To use arguments to perswade the hearers to embrace the Gospell, and to receive Christ, may be the worke of the Minister; but to perswade the hearer thereunto, is [Page 222] the worke of the holy Ghost. Againe, that whereby we become the sonnes of God, is not a worke of na­ture, but of the regenerating spirit, by this lively assent we become the sonnes of God. for, By this effectuall assent, as I have shewed, we receive CHRIST, But as many as received him, to them he gave this power to become the sonnes of God, Ioh 1 12.13. even to them that believe on his name, which are begotten or borne not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of GOD. would you therfore know who is borne of GOD? Whosoever Ioh. 5.1. believeth that Iesus is the Christ, is borne of God.

But the assumption he proveth thus: Whatsoever the understanding by the onely light of nature judgeth to be honest and good, that the will can desire or will by the [...]nely strength of Nature, But by the onely light of nature the understanding [...]udgeth that it is an honest thing to believe Gods authority reuealing any thing unto us.

Therfore the will by the onely strength of nature may desire this act of believing; and so consequently there is no need of grace to move the will to command the un­derstanding.

If any man imagine, that this conclusion doth con­tradict mine assertion, affirming such an assent, as I have spoken of▪ to be saith▪ he must understand, that I speake not of a bare assent to whatsoever God revea­leth unto us; but the assēt must be thus qualified. First it must be a willing, or voluntary assent. For the under­standing whereof, we must know, that whatsoever the understanding conceiveth and judgeth to be true and good, that the will doth receive as true and good; for for the will is intellec [...]us extensus, And such is the natu­rall harmony betweene the understanding and the will [Page 225] that as the will followeth the judgment and resoluti­on of the practicke understanding; so the will having received for true and good, that which the understan­ding hath so conceived, the minde or the reasonable soule doth both assent to it as true, and approve it as good. so that the assent and approbation of the minde is an act both of the understanding and of the will. But how the will, which naturally followeth the [...]irection of the understanding, should (as he speaketh) command the understanding to assent or approve, I doe not con­ceive. But on the contrary, I suppose, that the minde many times doth assent, not onely without the com­maund, but also without the consent of the will: as namely, when the understanding of a man or devill, doth know a thing to be true, but doth not conceive it to be good, but hurtfull and pernicious to him­selfe. That there is a God who is the Iudge of the world, that this God is just, that he hath prepared hell for the wicked: the devills, and wicked men doe conceive and know to be true, and because they cannot d [...]ny it, they doe acknowledge, and after a sort assent unto it: but yet this truth they doe abhorre, and with horrour they doe believe it, Iam. 2.19. The legion of devils did know our Saviour CHRIST, and confesse bim to be the Sonne of God, but with hor­rour, fearing lest he came to torment them before their time, Mark 8.29. so that the wicked, both men and An­gels doe many times believe that, which they doe not willingly assent unto, but abhorre, and wish it were o­therwise. But the faith of Gods children is a willing assent.

Secondly, it is a true, lively and effectuall assent. For in Divinity we are said to believe, and by Faith [Page 226] to know no more then we believe effectually, & know by a lively faith. Now where there is a true, lively, and effectuall faith, it worketh a disposition in us answer­rable to that which we believe and know. The wicked doe believe after a sort, that there is a God, that he is just, and good, that he is infinite in essence, power and wisdome, &c. that IESVS the Sonne of the blessed Vir­gine, is the Saviour of the world, &c. yet none of all this doe they truely and effectually believe. For if they did believe in deed, that there is a GOD, they would not deny him in their deeds, behaving them­selves as if there were no God. If they did truly believe that he is good, yea goodnes it selfe, they would love him; if just, they would feare him; if omnipresent, they would walke before him; if omnipotent or all­sufficient, they would either trust in him, or feare him, if omniscient, they would not play the hypocrites be­fore him. If they did truly believe, that IESVS is the Saviour, they would desire to be made partakers of his merits, they would be carefull to apply them to them­selves, they would rest upon him for salvation, they would obey and serve him as their Lord. But he that saith he knoweth him, that is, believeth in him, and hath no desire nor care to keepe his commandements, Iohn 2.4. he is a lyar (saith S. Iohn) & there is no truth in him, That faith therefore, which is not lively and effectuall, but a dead faith, as S. Iames Iam. [...]. [...]0 calleth it, is no more to be accompted a true faith, then the carcase or counter­feit of a man is a true man.

3. The formall object of this assent, as it justifieth, is not every truth revealed of God (though it believeth whatsoever God hath revealed in his word) but that onely which [...] is called the trueth of God Ioh. 1 Tim 2. [...]. [Page 227] that is, the Gospell, which is the truth of GOD in CHRIST, or his truth cōcerning salvatiō by CHRIST. Now to give a willing, lively, and effectuall assent to his truth, farre exceedeth the strength of corrupted na­ture. Iohn 6.44. Mat. 16.16, 17.

These things thus premised, I come to his argumen­tation, and first to the proposition, which if it were uni­versally true, as it is propounded (whatsoever the under­standing by the onely light of Nature judgeth to be ho­nest; that the will can desire by the onely strength of Na­ture) then might I as lawfully assume, and conclude thus, to the great comfort of the Pelagians and Ar­minians, (whom in divers other points he doth wor­thily oppose.) But by the onely light of nature the un­derstanding judge [...]h it to be an honest & a good thing to believe in God and to obey him, to believe in him, I say, no [...] onely as true in his word, but also as faithfull in his promises; and consequently to trust in him, for the performance thereof, likewise to obey God com­maunding us any duety, as namely to turne unto him by unfained repentance, and to lay holde upon CHRIST by a true faith; therefore by the one­ly strength of nature, the will may desire or will any of these acts, namely to turne unto God by unfained re­pentance, to lay hold upon CHRIST by a true faith to trust unto God for the performance of his promises to us, which in his conceipt, is the very act of Faith, as it justifieth.

I come to the assumption: where, I confesse, in a confused generality, the understanding, by the onely light of nature, judgeth it an honest and good thing to believe what God revealeth indefinitely, but when you come to the particular object of justifying Faith, viz. [Page 230] that IESVS CHRIST is the Sonne of GOD, and Saviour of all that believe in him; this ei­ther they will deny to be revealed by GOD; as to the Iewes the preaching of 1 Cor. 1.23.of CHRIST cru­cified was a stumbling blocke, and to the Greekes foo­lishnes: or if they doe give a kinde of assent unto it, yet they neither doe nor can believe it by a lively and effe­ctuall assent.

His second reason. That is no ast of justifying faith which is found in devils, heretickes, hypocrites and repro­bates:

But this assent to divine revelations; because of Gods authority, is to be found in devils, hereticks, hypocrites, and reprobates.

Therefore this assent is no act of justifying faith.

Answ. The proposition is not universally true: for so much of faith as is found in the wicked, either men or Angels, is common to them with the faithfull and elect, and without it there can be no faith. if there­fore justifying Faith doe assent to divine revela­tions, because of GODS authority, and there can be no justifying faith without this assent; then it followeth, that to assent is an act of justifying faith.

But I answere to the assumption, that this assent (meaning a willing, lively, and effectuall assent to the truth of God in Christ) is not to be found in devils, whose assent is not so much as willing, but with hor­rour, even to that which they abhorre, as himselfe con­fesseth; not in hereticks, who as they are hereticks, dis­sent from the truth. For though that assertion of the Papist, that any one act of infidelity bereaveth a man of faith, be wicked and desperate; yet this is true, [Page 229] that howsoever the proper object of faith, as it justifi­eth, is Christ: notwithstanding by the same faith by the which we are justified, we believe, not onely all o­ther articles of the Christian faith, but also Heb. 11.3. &cwhatsoe­ver God hath revealed in his word: and whosoever doth refuse to believe whatsoever God hath revealed in his word, he hath not a true faith. Not in hypocrites and reprobates, whose seeming faith is neither lively, not true, but dead and counterfeit, not formata, but in­fermis, In deed this distinction of faith, that it is forma­ta or infermis, according to the meaning of the school­men and Papists is to be rejected, and that in two re­spects, [...] because they propound it as a destinction of a true justifying faith, when as it is not possible, that that faith which wanteth his forme, & which is dead, and therefore hath not his true being, should ju­stify: neither is it possible, that that faith should be [...], that is, effectuall, by an active efficacy, as namely to justify, which is called actus secundus, which hath not the formall [...], which is called actus pri­mus. Secondly, because the Papists in this distinction imply, that charity is the forme of faith, and as it were the soule thereof, which they seeme to ground on Iames 2.26. for how can one habite be the forme of an other, especially such an habite, as is the fruit and con­sequent of the other? for charity which is the end of the 1. Tim 4. [...]. law, proceedeth from faith unfayned. For when wee are by faith perswaded of GODS love towards us in CHRIST, then are we moved to love GOD, and our neighbour for GODS sake, and the more we are assured of GODS love, the more is our heart inflamed with fervent love towards GGD, as I have shewed. And if the habit of charity cannot be [Page 230] the forme of faith, then much lesse can good works which are the outward fruits both of faith and chari­ty; or as the Apostle speaketh of faith quae operat [...]r per charitatem which worketh by love. G [...] 5.6.

Neither doth the Apostle S. Iames compare workes to the soule, but to the breath, as the word [...] (which is derived from [...] signifying to breath) doth properly signifie, and so is used in many places, where it is called the spirit of the mouth▪ and the spi­rit of the nostrilles, so that the meaning of St. Iames is, as the body without breath is dead▪ even so faith with­out good works (which are as it were the breathing of a lively faith) is dead. Not that ever it lived, but be­cause it is without life, as many things are said to be blinde which never sawe, and dumbe which ne­ver spake.

But howsoever this distinction in the popish sence is to be rejected: yet it cannot be denyed, but that as knowledge is either literal, which is an idle knowledge swimming in the braine, but not working on the heart and conscience; or spirituall, which is a power­full and operative knowledge so faith, is either a true lively and effectuall, or els a counterfeit and a dead faith, which some call a bare historicall faith, answea­rable to the literall knowledge. The former is called by the Apostle [...] in divers places, and Gal. 5.6 it is said to be [...], effectuall (as that prayer which availeth much, is called [...] Iam. 5.16) or effectually working, or active, having in it duplicem [...] a double act, beth the first and the second, the first, which is as it were the for [...], whereby it truly i [...] and in respect whereof it may be called [...]or­mata, which as Solomon speaketh of other graces, Pro. 3 21. is [Page 231] tushijah, the very essence and entity, the soundnes and integrity of it, in respect whereof it is called [...], and this is the inward [...] whereby it liveth, and is effectuall, having efficacy in it selfe. The other. which is astus secundus, whereby it is lively, active, and effe­ctuall, in bringing forth the acts and operations or the fruits and effects of faith. In respect of the former, it is said to have roote; whereby I understand that appre­hensive and attractive power of faith in apprehending and receiving Christ; in respect of the latter, it is saide to be fruitfull and working by love; the latter, which is not unfained, is counterfeit, having nei [...]her roote, Luke 8.13. nor fruite, and therefore is, as S. Iames saith, Iam. 2. [...]0 26. dead. Now as the counterfeit of a man is not truely a man, though called by his name; so this counterfeit & dead faith, which is the faith of hypocrites (though it have the name of faith) is not faith [...], indeed and truly, but aequivocè; and being not a true faith, is not faith, for ens & verum convertuntur, and in this sence it may well be called informis.

That faith therefore which is common to devils, to heretickes, to hypocrites, and reprobates is not true, but counterfeit; not lively, but dead; nor formata, but infor­mis.

And thus have I defended that necessary, and as I am perswaded most comfortable truth, which I deli­vered in the Discourse concerning the certainty of Sal­vation.


A TREATISE OF THE CERTAINTY OF PERSEVERANCE: MAINTAINING THE TRVETH OF THE 38th ARTICLE OF THE Nationall Synode holden at Dublin in the yeare 1615. That a true, lively, justifying faith, and the sanctifying spi­rit of God, is not extinguished, nor vanisheth away in the regenerate, either finally or totally.

IOHN 11.26.

Whosoever liveth and believesh in me, shall never die. Beleevest thou this?

DVBLIN, Printed by the Society of Stationers. An. Dom. 1631.


The Methode of this Treatise. Of whom this question is to be understood. Two sorts of men in the Church: The testimony of Antiquity.

§ 1. THat we may the more orderly proceede in the handling of the question of the certainty of Perseverance:The Methode observed in this Treatise. we will first set downe plainly and fully the state of this controversy: and secondly we will prove the certainty of Perseverance by evident arguments; thirdly and lastly, we will answere the objections of the adversaries, and namely of Bellarmine the Goliah of the Papistes.

§ 2. The question concerning the certainty of Perse­verance is not to be understood of those that be regenerate of those that believe,The question vnderstood of those which truly believe. of those that are justi­fied and sanctified, of those that be the children of God [Page 236] in shew and appearance, in opinion and profession, or [...] the judgment of charity onely; but of such as are truly regenerate, of such as truly believe, of such as are truely justified and sanctified, of such as truly are the children of God.

De eccles mi­nist. l. 3. c 7. The distinction of truth exa­mined.And whereas Bellarmine coyneth a distinction of that which is true, that there is verum essentiae, & verum permanentia, true in respect of essence, and true in respect of continuance, unto which some adde a third, viz. of firme solidity. R. Th c. [...]. Voss hist pelag l. 6. the [...]. 13. Whe [...]by they would signifie, that a man may have the first, add yet not the second, nor third: I answere, 1. that the nature of truth is simple, as being one and the same; and that is it, which they call verum [...], or verum essentiae, unto which is opposed, false, counterfeit, or seeming onely: For true is that saying of Philosophers, ens & verum cr [...]vertuntur; & therefore what is not truly, is not indeed: and that of S. Augustine, [...]. l. 1. c. 5. verum est id quod est; falsum, quod non ita est, ut videtur. so that in this question he is a true Christian, wbo is sound and upright.

Secondly, that the branches of this distinction are con­incident: For that which is true veritate essentiae, is also true veritate permanentiae; and that which is true veri­tate essentiae & permanentiae, doth also in time become true in respect of firme solidity; such as they call faith & charity rooted, and grace confirmed. Now the second is not a distinct sort of truth, but a consequent, a signe and note of that which is true [...] indeed, or secun­dùm essentiam. A consequent, I say, for therfore is faith or any other grace permanent, because it is true, and sound. A note, or signe, for as all true graces are per­manent; so whatsoever is not permanent, is not true. Wherefore this distinction being applyed to the pre­sent [Page 237] question maketh wholly for us. For what saving grace soever is true, in respect of the essence and being, is also permanent, and the not being permanent, is an e­vident signe of the not being true. If you abide in my word, saith our Saviour Christ,Iohn [...].31 ye are (he doth not say you shalbe, but ye are) truly my disciples. Your future perseverance will be a plaine evidence of your present soundnes and integrity▪ as contrarywise defection, or falling away is a plaine evidence of unsoundnes and hypocrisie going before. To which purpose S. Iohn saith, 1 Iohn. [...].1 [...] they went out from us, but they were not (he doth not say, they are not, but they were not) of us; no, not when they lived among us, and made the same pro­fession with us. For if they had beene of us in deed and in truth, if they had beene sownd and upright Christi­ans, they would surely have remayned with us. For as Tertullian saith,De praescrip. c 3. Nemo Christianus nisi qui ad finem usque perseveraver [...]t: No man is a true or sound chri­stian, but such as persevereth to the end. And Au­gustine De corropt, & gratia c [...]., Si perseverantiam non habent (quos appellamus & electos Christi discipules, & Dei filios) t [...]in eo quod cae­perunt esse non manent, non verè appellantur, qui appellan­tur quod non sunt. If those whom we call the elect disciples of Christ, and sonnes of GOD have not perseverance, that is, continue not in that which they have begunne to be; namely, in their owne profession and opinion of others, they are not called truly, who are called that which they are not. Therefore every true or sound Christian persevereth to the end▪ and therefore also what saving grace soever is true veritate essentiae; is also true veritate permanentiae.

Now they who adde the third, which they call the truth of firme solidity, doe confesse, that those graces [Page 238] which are true in that sence or degree, are permanent: and that he, who so believeth, believeth alwayes; and he that is justified by such a Faith, doth never loose his justification. But though there be degrees of all saving graces, as namely of Faith, that it is sometimes weaker, and sometimes stronger, sometimes lesse, sometimes greater; and of Charity, that sometimes it is more fervent, sometimes more remisse, &c. yet all saving grace which is true veritate essentiae, not onely is true veritate permanentiae, but also in time Aug de verb. Apost [...]orm. 13. [...].10 increaseth and groweth to firme solidity. All true Faith is rooted like the seed sowne in good ground Luk. 8.13.15.Non modo quoritur quāta sit charitas, u. tium magna aut par [...]a, an mediocris: u num vel su quaero. Si nata est, latendo erescit, eresceo­do perficīetur, perfect [...] per­manebit. which bringeth forth fruite with patience: and that which wanteth roote, is counterfeit. Every sound & upright Christian is like the Wise man Mat. 7.24.25. which built his house upon the rocke, whose building cannot be overthrowne. And therefore that is true, which they cite out of Augustines Tract. 106: [...] Iona:, and maketh for us; that vere credere, est inconcusse, f [...]rmiter, stabiliter, fortiter cre­dere: to believe truly, is to believe firmely & unmove­ably. and that faith which may be lost, was never a true justifying faith. For whosoever truly believeth, he shalbe saved, and consequently shall persevere to salva­tion; and whosoever is truly justified, he shall also be glorified. Neither is it true which they affirme, that all the commendations and prerogatives of Faith doe belong to this degree. For to every degree of faith, so it be true and unfained, the promises of blessednes & sal­vation doe belong▪ Neither are we to imagine with these men, that the permanency of faith dependeth u­pon the strength thereof in it selfe, (for he that hath the strongest faith, if he be left to himselfe, and to the temptation of Sathan, may fall grievously; & as they [Page 239] teach, may loose his faith and justification, to which purpose they urge the example of David) but rather upon the truth and sincerity thereof (perseverance be­ing alwayes the consequent of integrity. Neither is the perseverance of the true faith to be ascribed to the strength and worthines of it selfe, but to Gods eternall purpose of grace 2 Tim. 1.29 g [...]ven unto us in CHRIST before all times; according to which, we being elected and cal­led, are also justified and glorified, as likewise to the immutability, truth, fidelity, and power of God, and to the intercession of CHRIST our Saviour, as hereafter I will shew. But, as I said, this Question is to be underr­stood onely of the first branch. For as in respect of the third, themselves make no question; so in regard of the second, it were a very idle question to dispute, an quod verum est, veritate permanentiae permaneat, whe­ther that which is true by the truth of permanency, be permanent.

The Question then is of those which truly believe, or are indued with a true faith, &c. that is to say, of found and upright Christian; whether there be cer­tainty of their perseverance, or not, we hold the affir­mative, the Papists and their adherents maintaine the negative.

§ 3. Now for the better clearing of that which we hold,Two sott of men in the Church. we are to take notice, that there are two sorts of men in the Church of God; some, which are in the Church visible, but not of the Church invisible, that is to say [...], hypocrites, and unsound Christians; others that are not o [...]ely in the Church visible, but of the Church invisible, that is to say [...], sound and upright Christians. The former sort are subject to de­fection and falling away; and the Lord doth suffer [Page 240] them many times to fall away, that their former hypo­crisy may be discovered. The latter have the privilege of perseverance, both which S. Iohn doth plainly testi­fy 1. Iohn 2.1 [...]. They went out from us, but they were not of us, for if they had beene of us, they had surely remained with us: but this is come to passe, that it might appeare they were not of us.

This therefore we doe constantly hold, and firmely believe; that howsoever the hypocrite and unsound christian, who have not a true and a lively, but a coun­terfeit and dead faith, be subject to d [...]fection▪ yet it is the privilege of the upright to be constant, and to per­severe; perseverance 1. Iohn 2.19. being the perpetuall companion of uprightnes. Howsoever those which be hearers and not doers of the word, that is to say, hypocrites, be like the foolish man, Mar. which buildeth upō the sand, whose building is easily overthrowne: yet he that is not one­ly an heater, but a doer of the word, that is to say, a sound and upright christian, is like to the Wise man that buildeth upon the rocke, whose building cannot with any tempest of temptations be overthrowne.

Howsoever the hypocrites be like the dogge grasse on the house toppes Ps. 129.6 imi­ [...]antes spicam [...]erbae ante messem flave [...] ­eunt Quintil, which resembling corne, withe­reth before hervest, or like the rush Iob. 8.11, 1 [...], that wanteth moi­sture: yet the upright are like the tree; Ps. 1.3, Pet. 17.7, planted by the ri­vers of water, which never withereth for want of moi­sture. Though counterfeit piety be like the m [...]rning [...]ist, H [...]s. 6.4: or early dew, which vanisheth away: yet true piety knoweth no end, Bucer in Luc: 1:75: N [...]que enim pietas est quae finem [...]o­vit: and the righteousnes of the up­right endureth for ever Ps: [...] ▪ 2: 5: Howsoever they, which re­ceive the seed, Luk: [...]: 1 [...]: [...]: as it were upon a r [...]ck superficially covered with would, that is, hypocrites doe in heat of temptation fade away: yet they which receive the seed into upright [Page 241] hearts, as it were into good groūd, bring forth fruit with patience [...], or permanency. Howsoever those that be servants in Gods family, and not sonnes, Ioh: 8.35. are not to continue alwayes in the house; yet those that be sonnes a­bide for ever. Though the double minded man Iam. 1.8. that is to say, the hypocrite, who speaketh with an heart and an heart Ps. 12.2 [...] be inconstant in all his wayes; yet the sound & upright shall shall never be removed Ps. 112.5.6. but his righteous­nes endureth for ever Pro: 10:13▪.

And as we doe hold, that all sound Christians doe certainly persevere; so we doubt not to averre, that those which doe not persevere, were never sound. If you shall abide in my words ▪ saith our Saviour, you are (he doth not say you shalbe,Ioh: [...], [...]1. but you are) truly my disci­ples. and contrarywise if you shall not abide in my words, not onely you shall not be, but you are not tru­ly my disciples. Those therefore that truly are the dis­ciples of Christ, doe abide in his word: those that abide not in his word, were never truly his disciples.

§. 4. And to this assertion collected out of the Scrip­tures,Testimonies of fathers, [...]ccordeth the judgment of an [...]iquity.

Tertullian saith,De prescript [...] Capt [...]: Neque fidelesne (que) prudentes, ne (que) [...]s [...] ­tatos estimandos, quos hares [...] potne [...]nt de rutare. that they were never true believers, norsound Christians, who can be perverted by heresie.

That no man is to be acco [...]mpted a true Christian, Nemo christianns, nisi qui ad finem vs (que) perseveraverit. but he that persevereth to the end.

That the Lord hath his fanne in his hand, Ve [...]ilab [...]m (al [...] palam) in mann portat ad purgandū are­am s [...]ā: acolent quantum v [...] ­lent pakae levis fidei quo [...] que af [...]atu [...]entationū, [...]o [...] ­rior ma [...]sa frumenti in [...] Domini [...] op [...]netur, to purge his floore; that although the [...]aff of light faith fly away with every blast of tētation, yet the heap of corne shalbe layd up more pure into the granaries of the Lord; [Page 256] and to this purpose he alledgeth, 1 Ioh. 2.19.

De [...]itate eclesse 256. Ne [...]o [...]istimet bonos de ec­clesia posse decidere triticum [...] [...]ap [...]t ventus, nec arl orem [...] [...]ef [...]n latam p [...]ocella [...]ver [...]t. In [...]es pal [...]e te [...] ­ [...]state jactantur Inv [...]id ae ar­ [...] [...]turbinis incursione ever­ [...] Hos execratur & er [...] [...] Apostolus, dicens; ex [...], sed non [...]e [...]nt ex nobis: si enim suissent ex nobis, man [...]ssent ut [...] (que) no­bis [...]um.4. Cyprian in like manner. Let no man thinke that good men can depart from the Church, the winde carieth not away the wheat, nor the storme subverteth the tree, that is founded on a sound route. the empty chaffe is tossed with the winde, weake trees are over-turned with a tempest. Those men Saint Iohn doth detest, and sinite, saying, they went out from us, but they we [...]e not of us, for if they had beene of us, they would surely have continued with us.

Epist 53 five lib 1 ep 3, Ecclesiam, quae in Christian [...], & quae semel id quod [...] it, [...]unquam [...] mind if [...]dere, & co [...] [...] siam qui in do no Dei [...] plantationem verò [...] Deo patre non es­ [...] [...] non f [...]u [...]enti [...], fed [...]quā palea [...] [...]pan [...]s inimici spiritu [...]ent [...]ari. de quibus & Ioannes in pistola sun die [...]e [...] ex Iobis exi [...]tunt &c.5. And againe. When Peter said, Lord whether shall we goe; he sheweth, that the Church which believeth in Christ, and which holdeth that which it hath knowne, doth never depart from him at all; and that those are the Church which abide in the house of God, and that they are plants not planted of GOD the Fa­ther, whom we see not established with the stability of the wheate, but as chaffe to be blowne away with the winde of the enemy scattering them; of whom S. Iohn in his Epistle, they went out from us, but they were not of us, &c.

Aug. in Ps. 140 [...] quod dis [...]edis. & volas, paleam­te esse indicas; qui triticum suut serunt trituram.6 Augustine likewise. In that thou doest depart and fly away, thou shewest thy selfe to be b [...]t chaffe, for they that are wheat endure the threshing.

De corrept. & gratia c. 9. Non ait, ex nobis ex [...]enent, sed quia non manserunt nobiscum, jam non sunt ex nobis: verum ait, ex nobis; [...]xi [...]um, sed non [...] ex nobis, ho [...] est, & quia­do vide bantur in nobis, [...] [...] ­rant ex nobis. & tarquam [...] dicetur, unde [...]id o [...]tend. [...] suiscent, inquit, ex nobi, [...] man [...]ssent ut [...] (que) non [...] lio [...]un Dei [...]ox est. Cum ergo fi [...] Dei dicunt, ex nobis e [...]e­tunt, sed non erant ex nobi, quid aliud di [...]nt, nisi non [...] ­tant fil [...] etiam quando eran [...] in professione & nomine filios ruin▪7. Who also speaking of those words, 1. Ioh. 2.19. saith. He doth not say, they [Page 243] went out from us, but because they did not abide with us, they are not now of us; but he saith, they went out from us, but they were not of us, that is, even when they seemed to be among us, they were not of us. And as though it had beene said unto him, how shew you that? for, saith he, if they had beene of us, they had surely remained with us. This is the saying of the sonnes of God, when as therefore the sonnes of GOD say, they went out from us, but were not of us; what els doe they say, but that they were not sonnes, even when they were in the profession and name of soones?

8. Againe.Ibid: [...], si [...]ut non vere discipuli Christ era [...]t [...] si manieritis, in­quit, in quit, in [...]er [...]i [...] meo ve [...]d sei [...]u [...] est, ita ne [...]vere [...] de fueru [...], etiam quando esse [...]. deba [...]t [...]r▪ & [...]ta [...]. Those who went back (Ioh. 6.) as they were not truly the disciples of Christ (for if you shall abide in my words, (saith he) you are truly my dis­ciples) so neither were they truely the sonnes of God, when they seemed to be, and were so called.

9. And else where he teacheth,De cate [...] iudib c. [...] Nullum ex ecclesia periturum, qu [...]a [...]uiperierit, ex illa non e­rat. fir [...]m enim fundamen­tum Dei stat. that no man who is of the Church shall pe­rish. For whosoever perisheth, [...]e was not of it; for the foundation of God standeth sure.

10. An other saith,Auctor operis in praef. in Mat. 2. hom [...] qui cum Christo relicto peccaversunt, non agunt poenitent [...]am, nunquam sue­runt Christi. that those who whē they have sinned forsaking Christ, doe not repent, were never Christs.

11. Gregory likewise,Moral. lib. 2. cap 20. sanctorū bona, quae [...]era sunt permanēt; Moralt lib: 34: c: 8: de poenum dict: 21 c: 44: Citius. Aurum quod pravis Diaboli Diaboli persuasionibus [...] si­out [...]itum p [...]tueri [...], au [...]n̄ ante oculos Dei munquam suit Et qui seduci quando (que) non [...] quasi habi ā sane. [...] a [...]e oculos hominum vindentur amittere, sed eam ante oculos Dei nunquā habuerunt, quod valdè justo judicro agitut (se vt quia occul [...]è peccatis in­volutus [...] aliquā, quam hab revilus est, amititat) ut et perdat ante homine [...]; vnd▪ ho­minibus placuit, qui hoe vnde. Deo displicuit [...] noluir. hypoc [...]tarū vero bona quiaetalsa sunt, non perseverant. Elsewhere, [Page 244] that Gold (saith he) which by the wie­ked perswasions of the Devil may be trod under- [...]oot like clay, it was never gold before Gods eyes. And whosoever may be seduced never to returne, they seeme to loose that sanct [...]ty, which, as it were, they had before the eyes of men, but be­fore the eyes of God they never had it, which commeth to passe by very just judgment, (that a man secretly wrapped in sinnes, should lose some virtue, which he seemed to have) that even before men he may lose that wherby he pleased men, who would not amend that, whereby he displeased God.

When as therefore it is objected out of the Scrip­tures or Fathers; that the faithfull▪ or the children of God doe sometimes fall away, we are taught by the Scriptures and Fathers to answere, that those which doe fall away, were never true Christians, never truly the sonnes of God, of whom only this question is un­derstood.


The controversie propounded in 6. questions: the two first, coucerning the children of God, and the elect.

The Controversy propen­ded in s [...]x seve­rall questions.§. 1 NOw forasmuch as the sound and upright Christian, of whom this question is un­derstood, is diversly described & termed in the scriptures, as that he is the child of God elected in Christ, received into the favor & grace of God, indued with the graces of his spirit, ingrafted into the body of Christ, and united unto him as a true and found member, renewed and sanctified by the spirit of grace and sanctification: hence it is that this question [Page 215] is diversly propounded. As 1. whether he that is the childe of God may become the child of the devill. 2. whe­ther he that is once elected in Christ, may become a re­probate. 3. whether he who is once received into the grace and favour of God in Christ, and endued with saving graces, may ever fall away from the grace of God. 4. whether a man being once indued with the spirit of sanctification, may utterly be deprived there­of. 5. whether a member of Christ may be cut off, and utterly separated from all union and communion with Christ. 6. whether those that are regenerate by the spirit of God, may sinne unto death, or become such as the Scripture calleth sinners, who are the ser­vants of sinne, and in whom sinne reigneth.

By that which I shall answere to these 6. questions severally, the truth of that which we hold in this con­troversie shalbe cleared and proved, as it were by so many arguments.

§ 2. As touching the first question, concerning the children of God; we are to know▪ that the sonnes of God are so called, either in a more large, or in a more proper sence. In a large sence, all that are sonnes of the visible Church, upon whom the Name of God, or of Christ is called, are called the sonnes of God, Gen. 4.26.2. who termeth himselfe the husband Es. 54.5 of his Church, and her sons Ezech. 16.20 22 his children. And yet not all the children of the Church Kom. 9.8 are truly the sons of God; but they on­ly who Iohn 1.12.1 [...] truly believe. &c therfore not of the former, but of the later is this questiō understood. To the 1 questiō therfore I answer; that whosoever is truly the son of God, he doth neuer become the child of the devil. for they who are the sons of God abide Iohn 8.35 in their fathers house for eve [...]. Now the faithful are Gods children, both by adoptiō, [Page 246] and by regeneration. In that they be the son [...]es of God by adoption (unto which they were predestina­ted Eph. 1.5. in Christ.) they are also beyres Rom. 8.17, heyres of God, & coheyres with Christ. And of this inheritance they have received the earnest Eph: 1: t; [...]14▪ 4:30 of the spirit, by whom they are sealed unto the day of redemption. Of this S. Am­brose saith, De Iacob: & vita ba [...]te lib: 2 [...] c: [...] Donum adoptionis Deus non rescindit. In that they are the sonnes of God by regeneration, they are begotten by an incorruptible seed [...]es: 1:23▪, which never dyeth, but alwayes [...] Ioh [...] [...]:9 abideth in them, by which a spiri­tuall life is begunne in them, which never shall have end, being begotten unto a living 1 [...]et: 1:3: [...]:5: hope, to an heritance everlasting, reserved in the heaven for the faithfull. who are by the power of God through faith kept safe [...]. unto salvation. For as Origen saith, it is not possible In Ierem: hom: 1: Im­possibile est, quod semel v [...]xificavit De­us, ab eo ipsi [...] [...] ab alio oc eidi: that what God hath once quickened, should either by himselfe, or any other be destroyed.

§. 3. The second question is of the Elect. wherein the most learned among the Papists agree with us, deny­ing that any of the elect can perish. Notwithstanding by some others (who in this point are worse then Pa­pists) gain saying both the Scriptures and all antiqui [...]y, [...]: Quest: whe­the Elect may become tepro bates. the doctrine of election hath beene of late diversly cor­rupted, to serve their fancies, and to avoide the truth, which we with all antiquity doe holde in this contro­versie concerning the elect.Divers oqini­ons concerning election con­ [...]uted. For 1. some deny that there is any decree of election or reprobation, but that which is expressed in the Gospell, Whosoever believeth in Christ shalbe faved, whosoever believeth not shalbe condemned, And consequently, that so long as a man believeth, he is elect: so long as he doth not believe, he is a repro­bate, (the word elect and reprobate being adjectives in [Page 239] their conceipt; and not participles) and that the same man vicibus alternis may be sometimes elect, & some­times a reprobate.

2. Others hold an universall election, but conditio­nal, that God would have all to be saved, if they would believe and persever: who might as well hold an uni­versall reprobation of all, that either shall not believe, or not persevere. Both these so [...]ts doe hold that the elect may perish.

3. Others hold election according to faith and per­severance fore-seene, namely that God doth elect those whom he fore-seeth will believe and persevere; and re­probation of those, whom he foreseeth will not believe and persevere. These hold in deed that the elect, accor­ding to their sence, cannot perish; I say according to their sence, who therefore call men elect, because fore-seene to persevere▪ but they making the saving graces which are proper to the elect, to be common to them that perish, doe teach, that those who are elected accor­ding to the senee and use of the Scriptures, as namely those who are justifyed and sanctified, may perish.

But the Scriptures teach, whereunto antiquity con­senteth, and the most learned of the Papistes doe sub­scribe, that Election is an action of God, from all eter­nity electing or predestinating certaine men in Christ, both to salvation, and to the meanes and degrees ther­of, of his free grace, according to the good pleasure of his will. who are therefore called elect, because they were before all times elected of God. And that this de­cree of God is neither mutable, but abideth firme 1. Tim. 2.10. and unchangeable: neither universall, for that is no electi­on which is of all: But election is a choosing or calling of some ex massa perdita humani generis, out of all man­kinde [Page 248] being lost [...]n Adam. For though vocation be not of all, but of those onely who are called out of the [...]est of mankinde, the company or society of whom is called [...], that is, a company called out: yet farr greater is the number of the called, then of the elect; for Mat: 10:16:21:14: many are called, but few chosen.

Neirher is it conditionall, or suspended upon mans freewill, but absolute and free, of his meere grace ap­pointing certai [...]e men both to salvation, and to the meanes and degrees of salvation, as namely to faith and repentance, to justification, and sanctifica­tion.

Neither is it upon fore-sight of beliefe and perseve­rance: for these are effects, not causes of our election & therefore God doth fore-see these graces in his chosen, because in his counsell of election, he had decreed to bestow the same upon them.

Neither is there any cause of election, but the [...], the good will and pleasure of God; nor any thing els, which made the difference betweene the elect & the reprobate. For as the Potter out of the same lumpe of clay, being of it selfe a base matter, maketh some vessels to honour, according to his owne will and pleasure o­thers to dishonour, according to the basenes of the stuff; no other reason (under God) to be given of the difference of these vessels, but the will & pleasure of the Potter, the matter of all being alike base, in respect whereof it were very absurd to ascribe the difference, that is betweene the vessels, to the vessels themselves: so the Lord out of the same lumpe of mankinde, being all equally lost in Adam, chose some in Christ to be ves­sels of honour, according to his owne good wil & plea­sure; others he appointed to be vessels of dishonour, ac­cording [Page 249] to that state of perdition, whereinto in Adam they were falne: of his owne good will and pleasure as­signing to the former indebitam gratiam, undeserved grace; and to the other debitam poenam, doserved pu­nishment. And very absurd it were to ascribe the diffe­rence betweene the elect and the reprobate to the vessels thēselvs. whē it is manifest, that it was God, as the Pot­ter, who discerned 1 Cor: 4:7 That the elect cannot become reprobatet. or put a difference betweene them▪

§ 4. These things thus premised, I answere to the question: that it cannot bee that those who are elected should become reprobates. For although such as are cast-awayes, doe fall away from the true doctrine of faith & the profession thereof; yet it cannot be that the Mat: 24 [...]24 elect should be totally or finally seduced. For the foundation of the 2 Tim: 2:19: Lord (whereby is meant his immutable decree) remaineth sure, as the Apostle saith, and the purpose of God, Rom: 9:11: which is according to election, abideth firme. For whom God hath elected unto life, those also he hath predestinated unto the meanes of salvation, whereby as it were by certaine degrees he bringeth them at the length to eternal life. For whom Rom: 8:30: he hath elected, them, & no other, he hath called: viz; according to his pur­pose; & whom he hath so called, them, & none other, hath he justified; & whom he hath justified, them, & no other, he hath glorified. which place of Scripture, if there were no other, were sufficient to prove the cer­taintie of salvation, and consequently of perseve­rance to saluation, in all that are either elected, or effe­ctually called or justified.

But against this allegation some doe object; that the purpose of the Apostle in that place is onely to shew, by what degrees the elect doe come to salvation: not that every o [...]e that is called or justified, is also elected, [Page] or to be glorified. But it is evident that the Apostles propositions are generall, that whomsoever God cal­leth, viz. according to his purpose, (for of such he speaketh v. 28) them also he justifieth: and whomsoe­ver he justifieth, them also he glorifieth. Neither can any of the linkes of this chaine be dissolved. For, as whosoever is elected, is also in due time called; & who­soever is called according to Gods purpose, is also justi­fied; and whosoever is justified, is also glorified: so, none, but whom he electeth he calleth effectually, or according to his purpose, none, but such as he hath e­lected and called according to his purpose, are justified; and none but such as have beene elected, effectually called and justified, are glorified. So Augustine under­standeth that place.

De praedest. fanctorum. ca. 17 Non ergo alios, sed quos praedestinavit, ipsos & vo­cavit, illâs [...] vocatione secundùm propositum: nec alios, sed quos ita vocavit▪ ipsos & justificavit: nec alios, sed quos praedestinavit, vocavit, justificavit, ipsos & glori­ficavit.

De corrept & gratia c. 7. Cùm audimus, quos praedesti unvit, [...]os & vocavit secundúm ptopositum vocatos debemus agnoscere; quoniam inde ce­pit dicens, omnia cooperantur in bonum ijs qui secundûm propositum vocati sunt, ac de­inde subjunx [...]t, quos autem praedestinavit, illos & vocavit. And againe when we heare, whom he hath predestinated, them also he hath cal­led; we must understand this of those, who are called according to his purpose, because thence he began, saying; that all things worke together for their good, who are called according to his purpose; and then he subjoyneth, whom he hath praedestinated, them also he called, &c.

Ibid. qui perseveraturi non sunt, proculdubio nec illo tem­pore quo benè, piê (que) vivunt in isto numero computandi sun [...], fed in ijs vocatis de quibus di­ctum est, n [...]u ti vocati, & uon in ijs de quibus dictum est, pauci electi. And in the same place he denyeth those who doe not persevere, to have bin called acco [...]ding to Gods purpose, but to have bin of those, of whō it is said, many [Page 251] are called; not of those, of whom it is said, few are chosen.

And elsewhere. De hono perseverantiae c. 14. Donum perseverantiae daturum Deum voca [...]is suis istá vocatio­ne, de qua dictum est, sine poe­nitentia sunt dona Dei & vo­catio, omni Christiano confi­rendum est. That God will give the gift of perseverance to those whom he hath called with that calling, whereof it is said, the gifts and calling of God are without repentance, every Christian ought to confesse▪

Hence also it appeareth, that never a­ny reprobate is called effectually, or ac­cording to Gods purpose, nor brought to repentance w [...]ich is to life. (Of those reprobate, saith Augustine contr. Iulian. Pelag. l 5. c 3▪ Istorum (rep oborum) neminē adducit Deus ad poenitentiam sal [...]brenin & spiritualem, God bring­eth none to healthfull or spiritual repen­tance.) Nor justified. For Christ Epist. 50. non iustificat Chri­stus nisi corpus suum, quod est ecclesia. justifieth none but his body, which is the Church. Neither is that de doctrina christiana lib. 3. cap 32. non est revera corpus Christi quod non, erit cum illo in aeternum. truly his body which shall not be with him for ever. For as the Apo­stle in this place saith, Rom 8: 30: whosoever are ju­stified, shalbe glorified: but no reprobat shal be glorified, therefore no reprobate is ju­stified It is true say some, in significatione extensa, as the words called and justified doe signifie actum continuum. But it is evident, that the Apostle speaketh of the eternall and immutable counsell and purpose of God, according to which, as he hath elected certaine men, so he hath also called, justi­fied, and glorified▪ them, according to that, 2. Tim. 3.9. that God hath saved us and called us with an ho­ly calling, not according to our workes, but according to his owne purpose and grace given unto us in Christ before all secular times. [...] And it were absurd to imagine, that the grace given before all times, should in time be reversed, [Page] Neither is it to be omitted, that the Apostle spe [...]king in the tense signifying the time past, preventeth this ca­vill▪ for as God according to his purpose hath elected some; so according to the same eternall purpose he hath called, justified, and glorified them, and therefore these are acts, not continui onely, but aeterni.

To this evidence of holy Scrip [...]ure, I will adde the te­stimony of Antiquity: Whom God is said to call, saith Ambrose, In Ephes. 1. Quos Deus voca­re dicetur (se: secundùm pro­positum) perseverant in fide: hi sunt quos elegit ante mun­dum in Christo. they persevere in the faith▪ these are they whom he elected in Christ before the world began.

Augustine, De catech: rudib: c: 11: Nul­lum execclesia esse periturum; firmum cuim fundamentum Dei stat. that none who is of the Church shall perish: for the foundation of God standeth sure.

And againe. De corrept: & gratia c: 7: Quicū (que) ab illa originali dam­natione ista divinae gratiae lar­gitate discreti sunt, non est du­b [...]m, quod & procura ut eis audiendum evangelium; & cúm audiunt, credunt & in fide quae per dilectionem operatur us (que) in finem perseverant; & si quando exorbitant correpti e­mendantar. Whosoever are by the largesse of the divine grace severed from that originall damnation, without doubt they persevere in that faith which worketh by love unto the end &c.

And in the same chapter, Hor [...]m si quisque perit, falli­tur Deus; sed nemo eorum pe­perit, quia non fallitur Deus. Horum si quisque perit ritio humano vinc [...]tur Deus: sed ne­mo corum perit, quia nullá revincitu [...] Deus. Of these (saith he) [...] elected & called accor­ding to Gods purpose, if any perisheth, God is deceived: but none of them doth perish, because God is not deceived▪ of these, if any perish, by mans sinne God is overcome; but none of them doe perish, because God is not overcome with any thing.

And againe, Qui persevera [...]uri non fun [...], non sunt à massa illá perditio­nis praescientia. Dei & prae de­stinatione discreti; & deo non secundum proposit [...]m vocati, ac per hoc nec electi. those that shall not perse­vere, are not called according to Gods pur­pose, and therefore not elected. And yet, Et tamen quis negateos ele­ctos cúm credunt & baptizan­tur▪ & secundum Deu n [...]vivunt. Plane dicuntur electi, a nose c [...] ­tib us quid futuri fint &c. who would deny them to be elected, seeing they believe, and are baptized, and live ac­cording to God▪ surely they are called elect [Page 253] of thē which know not what they shalbe &c.

And in an other place. De corrept: & gratia c. 12. Primo homini datū est adjuto­riū perseverantiae, non quo fie­ret vt perseveraret, sed fine quo liberum arbitrium perseverare non posset▪ Nunc vero sanctis in regnum Dei per Dei g [...]atiaim praedestinatis, non tantum tale adjutoriū perseverantiae datur sed rale vt eis perseverantiae ip­su donetur, ibid * liberatia pec­cato servifācti sunt justitiae, in qua stabunt vs (que) in finem do­nante sibi illo perseve [...]antiam, qui eos pres [...]ivit. To the first man such an helpe of perseverance was gi­ven, not whereby he should be made to perse­vere, but without which freewill could not persevere. But now to the Saints who by the grace of God are praedestinated to Gods Kingdome, not onely such an helpe of perse­verance is granted, but such as perseverance it selfe is given to them. Again, Being freed from sinne, they are made the servants of righteousnes, in which they shal stand to the end, he giving them perseverance who did fore-know them ▪ And againe ibid. Ipse eos facit perse [...]era­re in bono, qui facit bonos, qui autō cadunt et pereunt in pre­distinatorum numero non fue­runt.. Those that fall and perish were not in the number of the pradestinate.

Gregory in Enech. hom. 3. et de per nit. dist. 1. c 9. Retro post aratrum aspicit, qui post exordia boni o­peris ad mala revertitur, quae reliquit. quod quia electis. Dei minime contingit▪ recti nunc per prophetam dicitur, non & vertebantur cum incedebant.. He looketh back after the plough who after the beginning of well-doing, re­turneth to the evill which he had left, which because it happeneth not to the elect of God, it is now well said by the Prophet, they did not returne when they went.

And in an other place▪ Mar [...]l 25: c 7 Charitas in cordibus electorum inextinguibilis maner, nunquā de altari ignis iste deficit. Charity in the heart of the elect abideth unquenchable, this fire never ceaseth from the altar.

Serm. triplice coherant vi [...]cul clav. & glutin. Scimus, quia qui natus est ex Deo non peccat, quia genera­tio coelestis servat cum, Genera­tio coelestis est aeterna predesti­natio: Ex his nullus peccat, i, in peccato perseverat, quia no­vit qui sunt ejus, & propositū Dei manet immobile. Bernard. We know that he who is borne of God sinneth not, but the heavenly gene­ration preserveth him, the heavenly gene­ration is eternall praedestination. None of these doe sinne that is, persevereth not in sinne, because God knoweth who are his, and the purpose of God remaineth vnmove­able.

[Page 254]We will conclude this point with the confession of Bellarmine. De Rom. Pont. l. 4. c, 3. Per­ [...]everantia in gratia est d [...]num commune omnium elector [...]m; quo [...]eni [...] praedestinavit, hos & v [...]cavit▪ & quos vocavit; &c▪ Perse­verance ingrace is the cōmon gift of all the elect▪ for whom he praedestinated, them hee called and whom he call [...]d &c.


Whether a man may fall from grace.

§ 1. THe third question is, whether a man may fall from grace:Qu. 3. whether a man may fall from grace. where we are to consider in what sence the word grace is taken in this place. Not as by a m [...]tonymie it signifieth the doctrine of grace, (that is, as it is called, Acts 20.24. the Gospell of Gods grace; and v. 32. the word of his grace) as the word grace is used, 1 Pet 5.12. testifying that this is the true grace wherin you stand, as Lori [...]us In 1 Pet 5.12. veram gratiam orthodoxam & cathol [...]cam fi­dem Christi. veram & salu­ [...]a [...]em doctri­nam &c. himselfe expoundeth it, Eph. 3.2. the di­spensation of Gods grace committed to the Apostle, and in other places where Grace is opposed unto the lawe. as Rom. 6.14.15. Not under the law, but under grace: in which sense the Apostle telleth the Galatians, Gal. 5.4. that so many of them as sought justification by the law, were falne from grace. Nor as it signifie [...]h those commō graces which the schoolmen call gratias gratis datas, as the word is used, 1. Pet 4.10. Eph. 4.7. (for these may come & goe without impeachment of perseverance) but of the saving grace of God, either as it is in God, which is his gracious love and favour in Christ, or [...]he gifts of saving grace,Whether [...]rom the gracious favo [...]t of God▪ which are in us.

§ 2. As touching the gracious love of God in Christ, [Page 255] out of which love he hath elected, Rom. 3.2 [...]30 called, justified, and glorified all those whom he fore-knew according to the grace 2. Tim▪ [...].9. given unto us in Christ, before all wo [...]ldly times, in which Eph. 1.6. [...] he graciously accepted us in his belo­ved; it is certaine, whom the Lord hath once embra­ced with a fatherly love in Christ, that they never fall from this grace and favour of God. For the Lord em­braceth his children, not with a temporary, but an Ier. 31.3. 2 Tim. 1.9. e­ternall love, from everlasting to everl [...]sting; so that whom he thus loveth once Ioh [...]. 13.1., he loveth alwayes, nei­ther shall anything be able Rō. 8.35.39 to separate them from the love of God in Christ▪ which is not the love, whereby wee love God, but the love of God, qua eos diligit, quos inseparabiles facit Pro [...]ter de voca [...], gent. l. 1. c. 24:, i. usque in finem perseverantes, as Prosper saith. In deed it cannot be denyed, but that God is offended with the sinnes of his children, 2. Sam. 11.2 [...]. [...] King. 11.9. according to that of Esay, Es. 64.5. behold when we sinne thou art angry▪ neither ought the childe of God to be afraid of any thing so much, as the offence and displeasure of his heavenly Father. Notwithstanding this anger doth and may well stand with the grace and free love of God. For though the Lord be sometimes angry with his children, yet he never hateth them whom he hath once loved in Christ. see Ps. 89.31.32-33. If [...]is chil­dren forsake my law, I will visite their transgression with the rod, Aug. in Es. 88.30 filij hujus David, filij sunt sponsi; omnes ergo Christiani filij eius dicun­tur. but my loving kindnes I will not take from him, &c. Neither is God properly said to be angry with his children, but onely in regard of some effects of anger; and those not eternall (such as he exerciseth against the reprobates, the vessalls of wrath Rom. 9.22, upon whom the anger Ioh. 3.36 of God abideth) but temporary: and those, not by way of vengeance, or in ordine justitiae, to satisfy his justice, which properly are called punishments, (such as [Page 256] he in [...]licteth upon the wicked and reprobates; for Christ having sustayned all the punishments due to the sinnes of the faithfull, it cannot stand with the ju­stice of God, to punish the same sinnes twice: so that as there is no condemnation,Rom: 8: 1 so no punishment pro­perly so called to them that are in Christ,) but by way of correction, which properly are called chastisements. It is true in deed, neither may it be denyed, but that the faithfull, when they sinne grievously, are worthy of grievous punishments, and deserve to be cast out of Gods love and favour; and in that they are not puni­shed, nor cast off, it is not to be ascribed to their merits, but to the mercy Lam: 1: 32 of God, and to the merites 1 Iohn 2: 1: 8: Rom: 8: 33: 34: and in­tercession of Christ. But whatsoever they deserve, the Lord onely infl [...]cteth upon them temporall judgments. And those judgments are not punishments (as I said before) but chastisements. For the faithfull 1 Cor: 11: [...] when they are judged, that is afflicted for their sinnes, they are (not punished, but) chastised of the Lord, that they should not be condemned with the world. These chastisements, though to the sence of them, who are under the crosse, are sharpe and bitter, as seeming to proceed from the fierce wrath and indignation of God; in so much that many times, the deare children of God have thought themselves to be forsaken of him Ps: 12: 1:: notwithstanding, if you looke, ei [...]her to the fountaine whence they pro­ [...]eed, or to the measure, or to the end of them; you will easily acknowledge them to be effects of the fatherly love of God. The fountain is love; for Heb: 12: 6: Apoc▪ 3: 19 whom the Lord loveth he chastiseth. And as touching the measure, he doth so moderate the afflictions of his children, that as they are alwayes under their demerit; so they are ne­ver above, either their strength, o [...] their necessity. Our [Page 257] afflictions are ever lesse Ezra 19: 13 then we have deserved: so that in our greatest afflictions we have just cause to say with the Psalmist,Ps: 103: 10 The Lord hath not dealt with us after our sinnes, nor rewarded us according to our iniqui­ties: and with the remnant of Iuda Lam: 3: 22, it is the mercies of the Lord that we are not consumed. Neither are they a­bove our strength, as the Apostle testifieth 1 Cor: 10, 13. For the Lord knoweth whereof we are made, Ps, 103: 14 Ps: 78: 39 he remembreth that we are but dust. Neither are they more then the Lord in his fatherly wisdome knoweth to be needfull. For he is not delighted with our afflictions, Laan, 3: 01 neither doth he ef­flict willingly, and as it were from his heart; but onely inflicteth such a measure as he knoweth to be neces­sary for the atchieving of those good ends, which he propoundeth to him selfe in correcting his children. The end is the singular good Heb: 12: 1 [...] Ps, 94: 12: 119: 7 [...]: of those that are affli­cted, viz. that they should not be condemned with the world, but that they should be humbled under his hand, that they should be reclaimed from sinne and brought to repentance, that they might be wayned from the world, refined and purged from their cor­ruptions, that they might be made partakers of his righteousnes, and might be prepared for a better life. In all these judgments therefore, whereby the Lord doth correct the faults of his children, he doth al­wayes remember mercy. Luk: 3: [...] Heb: 3: [...] And although sometimes he shew him selfe much offended with his children, when he doth chastise them; yet (which earthly parents also are wont to doe) under an angry coun­tenance hee beareth a fatherly minde. Neither is this anger of GOD carryed against the per­son of his childe offending, but against his sinne. For by these chastisements, as the destruction of the [Page 258] sinne, so the salvation of the party is sought and intended. Even as the Physician or Chirurgion, when he useth cauterizing or incision, putteth his patient to great paine; but thereby seeketh not the destruction of his patient, but of the disease, that he might be cured: so the Lord, as the spirituall Physician, when he afflicteth his children, seeketh not the destruction of them, but of their spirituall malady [...] that it being mor­tified, themselves might be saved, this therefore ought to be put out of a [...]l cōtroversy, that those who once are elected, justified and renewed by the spirit of God, howsoever sometimes they are so grievously afflicted and tempted, that in their owne sence they seeme to be forsaken of GOD, and as it were cast out of his love and favour: yet notwithstanding they doe never, no not for the least moment of time, fall from the grace of election, justification or regenerati­on; but still remaine in the state of grace and sal­vation.

Whether from the graces of God?§ 3. But what are we to say of the grace of God mea­ning thereby the gifts of grace? This question is to be understood, first, of saving graces, which are peculiar to the elect, not of those gifts which are common, as I briefly noted before, and shall hereafter more fully de­clare. 2ly. of true, and vnfayned, and not of counterfeit graces, such as the scriptures call faith 1. Tim. 1. [...], 2. Tim. 1.5. vnfained, cha­rity Rom. 1.9. 2. Cor. 6.6. 1. Pet. [...] [...]. vnfained, repentance vnfained &c. For that faith which is not vnfained, is not a lively, but a dead faith, and as it were the carcase of faith. That charity, which is not vnfayned, is but from the teeth outward, and is vaine Iam. [...].15.16. and vnprofitable. That repentauce which is not unfained, is not that repentance which is Act. 1.28. unto life: [Page 259] Neither can that faith, that charity, that repentance, which is not unfained, be called truly faith, charity or repentance, but aequivocè as the carcase or rather counterfeit of a man is a called that man, of whom it is the carcase or counterfeit. It is a true saying, ens & ve­rum convertuntur, and therefore that which is not a true justifying faith, is not a justifying faith; that which is not true charity nor true repentance is not charity nor repentance indeed. That therefore was a strange paradox, delivered by some, that the seeming graces, which sometimes are feare in those that perish that is to say in reprobates; which are indeed but the counterfeits of true graces, are ejusdē speciei of the same speciall kinde with those saving graces which are found in the elect, differing onely in degree or continu­ance, and not in essence, when that which is not true grace hath not the essence of that grace, nor is that grace [...] and indeed, whereof it beareth the name. As if the faith of Simon Peter and Simon Magus, the chari­ty of St. Iohn and of Iudas Iscariot, the repentance of David and of Ahab, were of the same kind. And if that were true, thē were it all one to seeme, and to be, all one for a man truly to believe, & say Iam. [...].14. he doth believe, whē indeed & in truth he doth not; to be indued with true charity, 1. Ioh 3.18. & to professe charity, when he is void of it; to repent unfainedly, and to make shew of repentance, when indeed he doth not repent. Neyther can it ever be proved, that any one, who perisheth in his sinnes, was ever indued with a true lively justifying faith, or with true christian charity proceeding out of a pure heart, a good conscie [...]ce, and faith unfained; or with true hear [...]y and unfained repentance, which as all other saving graces are proper fruites & consequents of election.

[Page 260] Objections.§ 4, But here diverse things are objected. 1. that the same functions proceed from the same habites, as belie­ving from Faith; loving from charity, amendment of life from rep [...]entance. But some of those that perish, doe believe, love, and amend their lives, as well as the elect: & therfore have the same habits. I answere, that they may seeme to believe, love, and repent, but truly they doe not, and therefore such, when they are said to loose their Faith, their charity, their repentance, they loose onely what they seemed to have. For when they which have not, are said to loose that which they have not, as Mat. 13.12. Mark. 4.25. it must needs be under­stood, as S. Luke expoundeth it c. 8.18. of that which they seemed to have. For to have, and have not, imply a con­tradiction; but many times men doe seeme to have that which they have not.

Ob. 2. Yea but say some, videri is a note of assevera­tion. Ans In some cases it is, as in the oathes of the an­cient Romans but yet the old saying is true, multa sunt quae non videntur, et multa vidētur quae non sunt. & that of Augustin, Soliloq. l. 2. [...] 5 [...] verū est id, qd est; falsū, qd non est, ut videtur.

Ob. 3. As for that exception that Marcion, Saturninus and Ari [...], did use the like distinction that we doe, I let passe, as both absurd and impious, as though because Christ truly was that, which he is said to have beene, and truly did and suffered those thing [...], which he is said to have done or suffered; therefore there is no fai­ning or dissembling among men. Or, as if it may be said, that men sometimes doe but seeme to be or to doe, that which they are said to be, or to doe, then the like might be said of Christ.

Ob. 4. Yea, but it may not be said, that all temporary professors doe faine. I answere, that as some of them [Page 261] play the hypocrites, to deceive others; So the rest of them play the Sophisters to deceive thēselves, So Iam. 1.22. be doers of the word and not hearers only [...] deceiving your selves, and againe V. 27. If any among you seeme to be religious, and doe not refraine his tongue, that man deceiveth his owne heart, and his re­ligion is vaine, that is, though he seeme to be religious, yet indeed he is not. And this is the case of those pro­fessors of religion, who neverthelesse are meere world­lings who as they are but tēporizers, professing religiō for temporall respects; so are they also but tēporary pro­fessers, who, as they have subordinated their profession of religiō, & their care to keepe a good cōscience to their worldly respects: so whē time of tryal cōmeth, that they cannot enjoy their worldly desires (which cheifly they affect) with profession of religiō, & keeping of a good cōscience, religion & conscience must give place to their wordly respects. They love nor God truly, who do not love him above all things. And therfore they that love the world, or the things that are therein more thē God though they may perswade themselves, & so seeme to others, that they love God; yet they cānot truly be said to be lovers of God. If any man love the world sayeth St. Iohn1: Ioh 2:15: the love of the father is not in him; yea, he that is a lover of the world is an enimy of God Iam: 4:4:. Now worldlings are of 3 sorts; voluptuous, covetous, and ambitious ac­cording to the 3 I. Ioh: [...] things which are desire [...] in the world pleasure, profit, and honour; which 3 are said to be the worldly mans trinity; in which regard all worldlings are called adulterers Iam: [...]:4: Eph 5:5: Col, 2:5,, that is Idolaters. These three though they may seeme to themselves and to others, that they love GOD; yet the voluptuous, are as the Apostle speaketh▪ 2: [...]im 3:5: [...]. lovers of [Page 262] pleasures more then of God; the covetous [...], lovers of money more then of God; the ambitious, and vain-glorious [...], lovers of honour and glory in this world more then of God. Of this last sort some are said Iohn 12.42. Iohn 12.42. to have believed after a sort in Christ, yet because they loved the praise V. 43 of men more then of God, by the censure of our Saviour himselfe, they are denyed to be­lieve. Ioh. 5.44 How can yee believe, saith he, which receive honour one from another, and seeke not the honour that commeth from God alone.

Ob. 5. But why should we deny them to believe, to love, to repent, whom we see to professe the faith, and to lead an honest life?

Answ. We are in charity bound to thinke the best of Ph [...]l. 1.7. those, who professing the true faith, doe seeme to lead a godly life. But yet this is but the judgmēt of charity, & not of certainty, we can judge onely according to the outward appearance, but God onely knoweth the heart. And many times it happeneth, that Luk. 16.15 what is highly esteemed among men, is abomination in the sight of God. Neither doth it follow, if any of those whom we in charity doe thinke to be faithfull and righteous men, doe fall away, that therefore the faithfull and just doe fall away; unlesse this also were certainly true, that all those who seeme to us to be faithfull and just, were so in deed and in truth.

The saving graces of God without repen­tance.§. 5. The question then is to be understood of true saving graces, as true faith, hope, and charity, and the like. Concerning which I answere with the Apostle. Rom. 11. [...]9 that the gifts and graces of God, (meaning his saving graces) & his calling (which is according to his pur­pose) are [...], without repentance, that is, God [Page 263] doth never so behave him selfe, as though it repented him that he had bestowed them; that is, that he never taketh, or suffereth them to be taken away, but that good Phil. 1.6. worke of salvation whith he hath at any time begunne in any of his children, he will bring to perfe­ction. And so Augustine De praedest. sanct. c. 16. expoundeth the word [...] without repentance. hoc est, sine mutatione sta­biliter fixa; that is, firmely fixed without change for as elswhere he saith. ad artic fal [...] sibi imposit [...]s. art. 1 [...]. Nec qua illuminavit, obcoecat; nec quae aedificavit, destruit; nec quae plantavit, avellit. Nei­ther doth he blinde what he hath enlightned; neither doth he destroy what he hath builded: nor plucke up what he hath planted.

§ 6. But here the chiefe controve [...]sie,Whether faith may be lost. is concerning faith. For some thinke they can prove out of the Scrip­tures, that true justifying faith may be utterly lost, and that the faithfull may utterly depart from it. But the answere to those places of Scripture is easie to them, who have learned to distinguish the divers acceptions of the word Faith in the Scriptures.The divers ac­ceptions of the word faith. For faith is either Ethick and morall; or Theologicall. The Ethick is that which is called faithfulnes or fidelity, which is the pro­per signification of the Latine word fides. For faithful­nes is called fides, Cic. 1, de off [...]. quia fiat quod dictum est, because that is done or performed, which is said or promised; and in this sence the word [...] faith, and [...] faithfull is sometimes used; as Rom. 3.3. Mat. 23.23. 1 Tim. 5. 12. Tit. 2.10. Heb 3.2. Mat. 24, 45. 1. Cor. 10.13. 2, Thess. 3.3. But not of this faith in this question un­derstood. The Theologicall faith signifieth either me­tonymically the object, that is, the doctrine of faith, which we believe, or more properly the habite or gift of faith, whereby we doe believe. This distinction is [Page 264] acknowledged by Augustine De Trinit. 1 13: c: 2:, who saith, that faith is either quae creditur, which is believed, or qua creditur, by which men doe believe, and by the master of the sentences Sent: 3: di [...]t:, who saith, fides id quod creditur, Faith is that which is believed, or id quo creditur, that by which we doe believe. The former significaton, though not proper, but Metonymicall, is notwithstanding very u­suall both in the Scriptures, and also in Ecclesiasticall Writers. [...] as Act. 6.7. They obeyed the faith. Act. 14.27. the doore of faith. Rom. 12 6. the analogy of faith. Gal. 1.22: he now preacheth the faith, which earst he perse­cuted, Gal. 3.2. the hearing of faith. Eph 4.5. one faith. 1 [...] Tim. 3.9. the mysterie of faith, 1 Tim. 4.6. nourished up in the words of faith, and of good doctrine. Tit. 1.13 and 2.2. that they may be sound in the faith. Iud. v.3. the faith once delivered. Apoc. 2.13. thou hast not deny­ed my faith. so 1. Tim. 1.19. they made shipwrack as con­cerning the faith; that is are become heretickes: and 1 Tim. 4.1. divers shall depart from the faith: how? at­tending to erroneous spirits, and doctrines of devils. And thus in Athanasius his Creed, and elsewhere, the Ca­tholicke doctrine of Faith is called the Catholick faith. Neare to this signification of Faith used for the do­ctrine of Faith, is the acception of the word Faith for the profession of Faith. Act. 14.22. Rom 1.8. Iam. 2. 14.24. In both these sences, men may and often doe depart from the Faith, that is, from the doctrine and profession of Faith, unto the errours of Antichrist, or other heresies and profane religions, who never had a justifying Faith. As for example, when vaine and proud men, carnall gospellers, male-contents, doe re­volt from the profession of the Gospell, unto Popery, or Anabaptisme, or any other heresie; they may be [Page 265] said to have departed from the Faith: but they cannot be said to have lost a true justifying Faith, which they never had.

The latter signification of the word faith, as it sig­nifieth the habite of Faith, or an habituall perswasion wrought in us by the Holy Ghost, whereby we give credit unto God, Heb. 11. is the proper signification of the Greeke word [...], which is derived from a ve [...]be which signifieth to be perswaded [...].. For we are said to believe that, whereof we are perswaded.

But yet this controversie is not to be understood of every Faith, which is a perswasion. For first, there is an extraordinary Faith upon immediate and particular revelation, which is not given to all the Faithfull, nei­ther is it to be found in the Church at all times; as that which is called the Faith of working miracles: & there is an ordinary Faith, which ordinarily is given to the members of the visible Church. Of the former the ho­ly Ghost speaketh, Mat. 17.20. and Mark. 11.22. If you have Faith as ae graine of mustard seed, you shall say to this mountaine, remove hence to yonder place, and it shall remove. and likewise 1. Cor. 13.2. If I had [...], all the faith, namely of wor­king miracles (wherof he had spoken chap. 12.9. [...]. Chrys. Theop, Gorū in 1. Cor. 12.9. [...]. Theodo. apud Gerum. in 1. Cor. 12.9. Hic fides prodigia faciendi, quae montes transferat. Hiero­nym. in 1 Cor. 12.9. [...]. pe quo loquitur Chri­stus Mat. 17.20. Luc. 17.6. Ge­rard apud Gorum. in 1 Cor. 1 [...].2) so that I could remove mountaines, &c. Of this Faith the question is under­stood. For neither is this justifying Faith, neither i [...] proper to the Elect. For neither all the Elect have it, nor they alone; nor all they that are justified have the Faith, not all they that have it, are justified. For Iudas the traitour, though a sonne of perdition (Iohn 17.12.) yet he had the faith of working miracles. Mat. 10.1. & the [Page 266] like may be said of th [...]se, to whom when they shall al­leage for themselves, at the last day, that they haue cast out devills and done many great workes in the name of Christ, the Lord shall answeare Mat. 7.8 [...]. [...]3. depart from me yee workers of iniquity.

Neither is the question vnderstood of all ordinary faith; which is to be distinguished, both in respect of the efficacy or effect, and of the object. First I say in re­spect of the efficacy, or effect. For as knowledge is dis­tinguished into a literall and spirituall knowledge, the literall being onely a meere speculative knowledge, swimming in the braine, and not working upon the heart, informing onely the understanding, but not re­forming the heart, or the conversation, the spirituall, being an operative or powerfull knowledge, not onely informing the judgment, but also reforming the heart, and conforming the whole man to that which he knoweth, which in divinity is alone accoumpted the true knowledge, for he that sayeth he knoweth God [...]. and keepeth not his commandements is a lyar and the truth is not in him. For although his knowledge may be true, in respect of the object, because it is the knowledge of the truth, yet it is not true in respect of the efficacy or effect. so saith, which in the scripture sometimes goeth under the name of knowledge or acknowledgement (which is all one with assent) as Es. 53.11. My righ­teous servant by his knowledge agnitione sui shall justifie many, 1. Tim. 1.5. 2. Tim. 1.5. 1. Tim. 2.4. God would haue all men to be saved, & to come [...] to the acknowledgment of the truth. and likewise. 2. Pet. 1.2.3. So I say, faith is distingui­shed into a true, and lively; or a counterfeit and dead Iam. 2.10.26 This distinctiō [...]not be de­nyed of the pa­p [...] who dis­ [...]guish faith in f [...]rma [...] [...]t [...]. faith. which [...]a [...]ter, though it may be true in respect of the object, as being an assent to the truth; yet it is not [Page 267] true in respect of the e [...]ficacy and the effect. Can they be said truly to believe, either that there is a God, who behave themselves as if they were none, and so by their deeds deny Tit 1, 16. him, or that God is just, who feare not to offend him, or that he is good & gracious, who doe not love him; or that he is all-sufficient, who doe not trust in him; or omniscient, knowing the very secreets of mens hearts, who play the hypocrites before him, de­meaning themselves as if he did not see them; or om­nipresent, who doe not walke with GOD, and behave themselves as in his presence, and so of the rest.

In respect of the object, faith is either generall or spe­ciall the generall, whereby we give assent to the whole word of God, and to every part thereof, as being inspi­red of God, which of some is called the dogmaticall faith. The speciall, whose object is speciall, and is ei­ther legall, whereby we believe the threatning of the law, or evangelicall, whereby we believe the promises of the Gospell.

And to the branches of this distinction is the for­mer distinction to be applyed; For the generall or dog­maticall faith is either a lively and effectuall faith, which is a saving acknowledgmēt of the truth, imply­ing after a sort the justifying faith, (so farre forth as it is a lively assent) and is proper to the elect, or els it is but a dead faith and uneffectuall, which is called a bare historicall faith: and is, common not onely to wicked men, but also to the devills.Iam. 2.19. So the legall faith, is ey­ther lively and effectuall, when as a man not onely as­senting to the truth of the legall threatnings,The legal faith but also applying them to himselfe, is thereby humbled. For where the law sayeth,Gal. 3.10▪ Cursed is every one that continu­eth not in all the things which are written in the law to do [Page 268] them; he assumeth, but I have not continued in all the things which are written in the booke of the law to doe them, therefore (in my selfe) I am accursed. Such was the faith, not onely of Iosias 2. King. 22.18.13, when he had heard the law read unto him: but also of the king of Ninive Ion. 3.6.7. Or els it is but dead and uneffectuall, when as men as­senting after a sort to the threatnings of the law, are not humbled by them; but notwithstanding the curse of the law, which they believe to be the word of God, blesse themselves in their heart as the Prophet spea­keth, Deut. 29.18. as if all should goe well with them, though they goe on in their sinnes; as though the curse were true in the generall, but not in their particualr. And such is the f [...]ith of those who are overgrowne with car­nall and presumptuous security, which seemeth to be that roote of bitternes spoken against in that place. Deut. 29.19.

The evangeli­call faith.§. 7. In like manner the evangelicall faith is eyther a lively and effectuall assent, whereby we truly receive Christ, or a dead and counterfeit faith, wanting the proper acts and operations of a true justifying faith, which are requisite to salvation, to justification, to san­ctification, and to perseverance.

To salvation: for as with the heart Rom: 10.1 [...]., that is the soule we believe to justification; so with the mouth we pro­fesse vnto salvation. That therefore is no true faith, when men assenting to the doctrine of the gospell, re­fuse to professe it for worldly respects; And such was the faith of some I say some of them, who did absolut­ly and altogether preferre the glory of men before the glory of GOD, for other some, no doubt, who both believed in CHRIST and loved him, were through humane frailty or fearfulnes and too much [Page 269] love of the world (which are co [...]ruptiōs incident to the best) hindered for a time from professing of Christ. & such were Nicodemus, & Ioseph of Arimathea the rulers among the Iewes, who are said to have believed in CHRIST, but would not professe him, and therefore because they loved the praise of men more then of GOD, they did not in truth nor in deed believe. Compare Ioh. 5.44. with Iohn. 4.42.43. But all the Faithfull may truely say with the Apostle 2. Cor. 4.13. because we have the same spirit of faith, according as it is written, I have believed therefore have I spoken; even so we also believe ther­fore we speake. As for those, who deny Luk. 12 9. Mat. 12.32: 2. Tim. 2.12. CHRIST before men, they are such, as if they doe not repent, he will deny them befote the Angells of GOD.

The act of faith requisite to justification, is to ap­prehend or receive Christ, who is our righteousnes; which is done, first, by a lively assent to the promises of the Gospell and then by speciall application of them to a mans selfe, for where this lively assent is, that Iesus the sonne of the blessed virgin Mary is the eternall sonne of GOD, and Saviour of all those that believe in him; there Christ is received, not one­ly in the judgment, by that lively assent but also in the heart and affections by an earnest desire to be made partaker of him, and of his merits and righteousnes, and in the will by an vnfained reso­lution to acknowledge him to be our Saviour, and to rest vpon him for salvation. Now, whosoever hath this lively assent thus working vpon the heart and the will [...], he is bound (seeing he hath the condition of the promise) to apply the promise [Page 270] to him selfe. This apprehension of Christ, first by as­sent, and then by application, is the very roote of faith, whereby we receive from Christ spirituall life to our justification, and salvation; and where this roote is wanting, as Luk. 8.13. there is no true justifying faith, or communion with Christ. For although the Role of Christs righteousnes be that wedding garment which cove [...]eth our nakednes, and maketh us accepted before God; yet it will not cover us unlesse we put it on; and it is put on by faith, whereby we apprehend & apply Christ to ourselves. Though the merites and sufferings of Christ be a soveraigne salve to cure our spirituall maladies; yet they will not heale us, unlesse they be applyed: they are applyed by this apprehensive faith, though the body of Christ be meat in deed, and and his bloud drinke in deed, to nourish us unto ever­lasting life; yet they will not nourish us, unlesse we eat his body and drinke his blood: his body is eaten, and his blood drunke by this apprehensive and special faith. They therefore who professe themselves to believe in Christ, and yet doe not by faith apprehend, that is, re­ceive him, and apply him to themselves, they have not a justifying faith. for faith doth justifie, not in respect of it owne worth, or as it is a grace inherent in us: but as it apprehendeth and receiveth, or at least is appre­hensive of Christ, who is our righteousnes. And such is the faith of all hypocrites, who professe them selves to believe, and yet neither apprehend, nor so much as de­sire to apprehend and apply Cheist & his merites unto them selves; but suffer, as much as in them lyeth, the precious blood of Christ to be spilt in vaine; as it is in vaine to them to whom it is not applyed. And such hypocrites are all Papists, who professing them selves [Page 271] to believe, doe not onely not apply Christ unto them selves, but renounce and scorne the speciall faith, by which he is received and applyed.

The act of faith requisite to sanctification, is in­wardly to purifie the heart. Act. 15.9 and outwardly to worke Gal. 5.6 by love. For faith being a grace of the sanctifying spirit, which no man hath who is not regenerated by the holy Ghost. (for the holy Spirit, when he doth re­generate us, doth ingenerate the grace of faith in us, and by ingenerating the grace of faith, he doth regene­rate us,) it cannot therefore be severed from sanctifica­tion, nor from the inward graces, nor outward fruites of sanctification. and ther [...]fore that faith, which is a­loue, not accompanied with other graces, as hope, cha­rity, repentance, and the feare of God, &c. nor demon­strable by good workes, is not a lively justifying faith; but a dead fai [...]h. as S. Iames proveth, chap. 2.14. &c. for as the body Iam 2 26 without breath is judged to be dead: so that faith which is without good workes, (which are as it were the breathing of a lively faith, which worketh by love) is also judged to be dead. And such is the faith of all car­nall gospellers, who say they have faith, and have not workes; for though it be most true which S. Paul affir­meth, that faith alone justifieth; yet it is as true, which S. Iames teacheth, that that faith which is alone, seve­red from other graces, and destitute of good workes, doth justifie neither alone, not at all; because it is not a true and a lively, but a dead and a counterfeit faith. And such is the faith of hypocrites, whose heart is un­sound, as of those. Iohn whō though they be said to have believed in Christ, yet he would not be­lieve them, because he knew what was in them; and of Si­mon Magus, who though he professed him selfe to be­lieve [Page 272] and was baptized, yet he remained in the gall of bitternes, and bond of iniquity, because his heart was not right in him, that is, because he was an hypocrite. Act. 8.21.23.

The act of faith requisite to perseverance is, as of the instrument of the holy Ghost, to stablish the believer, for if we believe 2 Chro. 20.10 we shalbe stablished, if we believe not Es. 7.9. we shall not be stablished, And as we liue Heb. 2 4., yea shall live by faith; so by faith we Rom. 5.2. 2. Cor. 1.24. stand being by the power of God through faith 1. Pet. 1.5. preserved or kept safe vnto salvati­on. Faith is our victory 1. Ioh. 5.4▪5. whereby we overcome the world subdue Gal. 3.24. the flesh, quench Eph, 6.16. the fiery dartes of the devill glory Rom. 5.2.3. in afflictions, and bring forth Luk. 8.15. with patience. And so contrary it is to defection or falling away as that those which be of the defection [...] are not of faith, Heb. 10.39. and those which be of faith are not of defection. The faith therefore of those, who are but temporary pro­fessors, is not a true faith; such as is the faith of vn­sound and superficiall christians, that is to say hypo­crites; who having superficially covered their stony Luk. 8.13. ground with the mould of externall profession, do not onely bring fo [...]th no fruite, but have not so much as roote or moisture and therefore in time of temptation doe fall away. And such also is the faith of worldlings, who receive the seed among thornes Luk. 8.14., who being o­vercome of the world, are thereby discovered to be void of true 1. Ioh, 5, 4▪5, [...] faith, and being the servants of Mam­mon Mat, 6, 24. cannot be the servants of God; or if they seeme for a time to be Gods servants; yet when time of try­all commeth, they will hold to Mammon, and forsake GOD, such was the faith of Iudas Mat, 26, 14, to whom gaine was godlines; and such, as it seemeth, was the faith of De­ [...]as, who forsooke the Apostle for the love of the [Page 273] world. 2. Tim. 4.10. They therefore who are subject to defection, are not indued with a true faith, for it is the evill heart of infidelity Heb. [...] [...]2, that causeth men to fall away [...] from God.

Seeing then this question is not to be understood of faith, as it signifieth the doctrine of faith, nor of fi­delity, nor of the faith of miracles, nor of the hysto­ricall, nor of the legali faith, nor of that evangeli­call faith which is dead or counterfeit: it remayneth therefore that this controversie is to be understood of the true, lively, evangelicall, and justifying faith one­ly: which being a faith not of all men 2. Thess. [...]5., that is, not common to the reprobate, but proper to the elect, and is for that cause called the faith of the elect Tit. 1.2 [...]. (For all others, if they seeme truly to believe, they do but seeme so to do, as Gregory Moral. l. 25. c. 11 - specie te­nus credare▪ quantos cer­tum est electo­rum numerum summamque transir [...]. well saith, they believe onely in shew so many as are not elected) it never therefore before the end of this life doth utterly faile. Now I call that a lively justifying faith; which produceth those acts of a true faith, requisite to salvation, justification, sanctification, and perseverance, whereof even now I spake.

§. 8. Moreover concerning faith,Degrees of faith and other graces. and other sa­ving graces, we are to hold a twofold distinction. The former is respect of the degrees thereof. For Faith sometimes is more lively and strong, and sometimes more dull and weake; charity sometimes is more hot and fervent, & sometimes more coole & slack▪ We acknowledg therfore, that even these saving graces may in respect of the degrees be deminished, and decayed, which to a faithful man ought to seem a very grievous [Page 274] and lamentable thing) but we utterly deny, that ever in this life they are wholly and utterly extinguished, & lost. For that the faith of any of the faithfull doth at any time faint, it is to be ascribed to their owne negli­gence, and to the malice of their spirituall enemies; but that it doth not utterly faile, it is to be ascribed to the grace of God, and to the intercession of Christ. For whereas they object the example of the Angell of the Church of Ephesus, who Apoc. 2.4. is reproved, for that he had lost his first love; the Text it selfe doth clearely evince, that Christ doth not there speake of the grace of charity wholly; but of that degree and measure thereof, wherewith he had beene formerly ad­orned. For first he doth commend him for certaine no­table fruits of Faith and love, which he did still [...]a­ercise, v. 2. and 3. as namely patience and constan­cy. Secondly, whereas he speaketh of his first love, that cannot be understood otherwise, then of a degree and measure of love, which before he had▪ and ther­fore his meaning is not, that the Angels love was was wholly quenched, but somwhat c [...]oled. And last­ly the word [...] doth not signifie or insinuate▪ that he did altogether amittere, that is, loose his love; but somewhat remittere, that is, rem [...]t or abate of the fer­vency thereof: for even the elect sometimes doe re­mit somewhat of the fervencie of their love, in whose hearts notwithstanding, as Mo [...]al: l. 25. c. 7 Gregory saith, chaerity re­maineth unextinguible.

The habite & act of faith di­stinguished.§ 9. Againe, we are to distinguish betwixt the act and the habite of faith, and other graces, even as wee distinguish betwixt the facultie of sight, and act of seeing: For the act of seeing may be interrupted as in [Page 275] sleepe, and in the darke: when notwithstanding the habite or power of sight remayneth entire. so in the time of temptation▪ some acts of Faith and other graces may be interrupted, when as the graces them­selves are not abolished. they may be layde as it were asleepe, but they cannot be wholly extinguished. It is a naturall act of fruitfull trees, to bring forth leaves and fruit [...] and yet in winter time they have neither fruite nor leaves, and if a man should judge of them according to the externall shew, he would scarcely say they lived: which notwithstanding doe live, and are nourished, and when spring and summer shall come againe, they will bring forth leaves and fruit. The like thing happeneth sometime to faith. For whilest the winter stormes of temptations doe lye upon it, you shall perceive both fruit and leaves to be shaken off, and if you should judge according to outward ap­pearance, you would imagine it to be dead: the which notwithstanding liveth at the roote. and when these stormes and tempests are over-blowne, and by the power of GODS Spirit overcome, it will bring forth both leaves and fruite to the glory of GOD, and to the good example of others. Like­wise, it is an act of fire, not onely to heate, but also to give light. But if it chance to bee covered with ashes [...] it will not onely send foorth no light, but not so much as heate, and yet no man can tru­ly saye, that it is extinguished, though [...] be hidde-so it fareth sometimes with the gift of faith, and other graces, which like to col [...] in the darke, are so taken away, non ut ne sint, sed ut ne videantur, not that they are not at all, but that they are not seene and discerned, and lye hidde as fire under the ashes. [Page 276] For as Gregory moral l. 8. c. [...]0 saith, saepè tentatio in corde electorum lumen justitiae abscondit, sed non interimit. But if wee being rowsed by the spirit of God, shall endeavour, as the Apostle exhorteth [...] 1. Tim. 1.16 that is, as the word importeth, as it were with bellowes to blow the coales, and to quicken the fire covered with ashes; we shall be like unto a good fire, burning within our selves, and shining to others. These and the like distinctions, as they are by some applyed to Saint [...] when hee fell, so they may be extended to any of the faith­full in the like case. that in his full gratiam fidei re­misit, actum intermisit, habitum non amisit; motum fuit in eo spirituals. vitae robur, non Amotum, concus­sam, non excussuum. he remitted the grace of Faith, intermitted the act, but lost not the habite. The strength of the life spirituall was moved in him, but not removed: shaken, but not shaken off. he fell grie­vously, but he did not fall away.


The three last questions [...] the members of [...] of sinne.

Whether a man indued with the spirit of God, may be utterly depri­ved thereof.§▪ 1. THE fourth Question, which is concerning the Spirit of GOD, is like to the for­mer. For by the Spirit wee are to understand according to the Scriptures, the gifts and graces of the Spirit, which are distinguished into two sortes: For some are common to the elect with the reprobate, and [Page 277] some are proper onely to the faithfull and elect, of which our Saviour speaketh Iohn 14.Iohn 14.17 that of the spi­rit of truth which abideth in the elect, the world is not capable. For although they be all the gifts of the same same spirit, 1 Cor. 12.11 which doth sanctify, yet they are not all the gifts of the sanctifying Spirit, quatenus sanctificat, as he doth sanctify; but onely those, which are called the graces of sanctification. In respect of the com­mon gifts, such as be the spirit of politicke wise­dome, and fortitude, the gifts of prophecy, of tongues, of working miracles, of arts, &c.Iohn 15.35 which are given not onely to sonnes, who abide in the family for ever; but also to servants, who are not to abide in the house for ever: we deny not, but the spirit may be lost; as the examples of Saul, Sampson, and Iudas doe prove. But as touching the saving graces of GOD, and gifts of sanctification, such as be unfayned faith, hope, charity, repentance, the feare of GOD, and such like; howsoever we grant, that the spirit may in regard of them be said to be grieved and dulled; yet we deny, that he is utterly extinguished, or exturbed▪ though moved and shaken, yet not removed or sha­ken off. And this was the judgement of Gregory. In Ezech. hom. 5. In sancto­rum quippe cordibus ju [...] quasdam virtutes semper per­manet, juxta quasdam verò re­cessu [...]us venit, & venturus rece­dit. In fide enim spe & charita­ [...]e, & in bonis al [...]js, sine quibus ad coelestem patriam non po­test veni [...]j, perfectorum corda non deserit In prophetiae vero vittute, doctrina facundiae, mi­raculorum exhibitione, electis [...]uis aliquando adest, aliquando [...]e subtrahit. In the hearts of the godly, the spirit according to some virtues is permanent, but according to some he comes & goes. for in faith, hope, & charity, and in other things, without which we cānot come to our heavenly countrey, he forsaketh not the harts of the upright, but in the virtue of prophecy, in the eloquēce of teaching, in the working of miracles, he is some­times present with his elect, & somtimes he withdraweth himselfe. [Page 278] And to the like purpose in an other place Moral: in Iob? lib. 2 [...] c: [...]2 In his igitur donis sine quib: ad vitam pervenire nō possunt, spiritus sanctus, in praedicato­ribus suis, five electis omnibus semper manet: in al [...]is autem quibus per ostensionem illius non nostra vita servatur, sed a lio [...]ū quaeritur. neq▪ aquā semper in praedicatoribus p [...]rmanet.. In those gifts, without which men can­not come unto life, the holy Ghost in his Preachers, or in all the elect, ever abideth. But in those, whereby through the shew­ing of him (that is, the spirit) not our life is saved, but the life of others sought, be doth not alwayes abide in them. The spi­rit whom the world cannot receive Ioh: 14: 16: 17, and therefore is not common to the reprobates, by the promise of Christ abideth with the Faithfull for ever, he is the earnest of our inheritance Eph▪ [...]: [...]4, by whom we are sealed un­till the day of our redemption Eph: 4: 30. This anointing there­fore abideth in the Faithfull; & as it teacheth them 1 I [...]h: 2, 27, so shall they abide in him. And hereunto let us adde that excellent place, Iohn 4: 14 Whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him, shall never thirst; that is, whosoever is made partaker of the graces of the sanctifying spirit, shall never be utterly destitute of them: but the water that I shall give him (wherby is meant the spiritIohn 7: 38.39) shalbe in him a well of water springing up unto everlasting life.

Qu: 5: whether a member of Christ may be cut off,§ 2. The fift question is, whether any one that is a member of Christ, may be cut off and perish: where­unto I answere, that a member of Christ is either a true member, or in appearance onely. And that I call a member in appearance, which is a member onely in his owne profession, and opinion of others, judging according to charity. For not only the invisible church (which is the company of all those, & onely those that are elected) is in the scriptures called the body 1 Cor: 12: 12: [...]7: of Christ; but also the visible church, which is the company of [Page 279] those that are at the least outwardly called, and doe professe the name of Christ. And in this large sence, not onely the members of the invisible church, but of the visible also are called members of Christ, which not­withstāding, howsoever they live in the visible church, yet are not all of the invisible church. and consequent­ly are not true members of Christ, but in shew onely, in title and profession. for the true Catholicke church (which we doe believe) is the cōpany of the first borne Heb. 22.23 written in the Heavens, the body Eph. 1.23 of Christ, and his fulnes. Electi omnes saith Bernard, In Cantic. serm. 78. ipsi ecclesia sunt: all the elect they are the church. and Augustine In bonis est ecclesia, in his qui aedificant super petram, non in his qui aedificant super arenam, de unit. eccl. c. 181. The Church is in the good, in them that build u­pon the rocke, not in them that build upon the sand. Gregory saith In cant▪ c. 3. v. 9. secundûm praescientiae suae gratiam Chri­stus suam eccle [...]iam de in aeter: num permansutis sanctis con­struxit., Christ according to the grace of his p [...]aescience, hath built his Church of holy men who shall endure for e­ver. And againe Moral. in Iob Intra ecclesiae mensuras sunt omnes electi; ex­tra has omnes reprobi, etiams [...] intra limitē fidei ess [...] videantur;. Within the bounds of the Church are all the elect, without these boūds are all reprobates, though they may seeme to be within the limits of faith. And Augu­stine Ep. 50. Non justificat autem Christu [...] nisi corpus suum. againe in other places saith, that Christ justifieth none but his body; and that none liveth In Ioan tract. 26: de spiritu Christi non vivit, nisi corpus Christi. by the spirit of Christ, but the body of Christ. And De doct. Christi, l 3. c 32. non est re vera domini corpus, quod cum illo non erit in aeternum. speaking of the se­cond rule of Ticonius de corpore Christi bi­partito. that is not the body of Christ which shall not be with him for ever: & therefore saith, that the rule should be de corpore Domini vero & simulato, quia non solùm in aeternū, verū etiam nunc hypocritae non cum illo esse dicendi sunt, quāvis in ejus esse videantur ecclesia.

Notwithstanding the holy Spirit, that he might teach us to judge, and to speak charitably of our neigh­bours, [Page 280] himselfe speaketh according to the judgment of charity: whiles he termeth those the sonnes of God just, redeemed, sanctified, ingraffed into Christ; yea, and (as it may be collected out of some places) written in the booke of life; who are onely the sonnes of the visible church, just in respect of some externall workes of righteousnes, redeemed and justified in their owne profession and opinion of others judging according to charity: sanctified and ingrafted into CHRIST sacramentally, written also in the booke of life, be­cause they are reckoned in the catalogue of the church, and numbred among the elect. This kind of men which live in the Church but are not of it, is ever subject to defection: and them the LORD suffereth to fall away, that their hypocrisy might be discovered, and that it may be manifested that they were never of the Church, Even as Saint Iohn sayeth of certayne teachers in his time, who were falne into such grosse heresies concer­ning CHRIST, that he doubteth not to call them Antichrists. 1. Ioh. 2.19. They went out from us (saith he) but they were not of us; For if they had beene of us; they would surely haue remained with us: but they are departed from us, that it might appeare they are not all of us.

The question vnderstood of [...]ue members.§ 3. A true member is either a sownd member (ex­cepting some infirmities, whereunto all are subject) or a diseased or wounded member, for even a true mem­ber of the naturall body of man, may be so woun­ded or diseased; that for a time it doth receive from the head neither motion nor sence, as those which are stricken with a dead palsey. For the nerves be­ing [Page 281] stopped, the animall spirits, which cary from the head sence and motion to all the parts, are intercepted. Now such a member although, in re­gard of Communion, doth scarcely seeme to be a true member in respect of the head, with which it doth not now communicate, that is, in respect of sence and motion, which other members en­joye; notwithstanding in respect of union it is a true member, and in regard of life, being still animated by the same soule, whereby the other parts are quickened. Even so a true member of CHRIST may either be so wounded by the temptations of Sathan, or so fallen into some grievous sinne, as it were a spirituall palsey, th [...] for a time he receiveth not from CHRIST h [...] head by the sensible operation of his spirit, s [...] ­rituall sence and motion. But though he be wou [...]ded, yet he is not cut off; and though he be a sicke mem­ber, yet he is not dead. And albeit in respect of Com­munion, whiles he sinneth, or remaineth in his sinne, he may scarcely seeme a true member of Christ, with whom he doth not communicate, as other sound members doe: yet in respect of union, he doth not cease to be a member of Christ. For Christ our head hath by his spirit begunne in all the faith­full and regenerate, which are his members, a spi­rituall, and that an everlasting life, by which he liveth in them for ever.

Hence it is, that the faithfull are said to be already translated from death to life, Ioh. 5.24. and to have already eternall life, Ioh. 6.47.54. and that they which are justified, are said also Rom. 8, 30. to be glorified. And this truth is most evi­dently confirmed by that testimony of Saint Iohn [Page 282] in the place before cited 1. Ioh 2.19., for if they had beene of vs (sayeth he) they would surely have remained with vs. From whence this generall rule may be gathered, that those who are of the Church (as all sound christians are) shall never fall away from the communion of the church, but shall most certainly abide therein. But yet this by the way is to be added, that to the faithfull, be­ing the members of Christ, it ought to seeme a very grievous and fearefull thing, and worthy to be lamen­ted with abundance of teares, if they shall defile them­selves with any fowle sinne, for by this means they doe (as much as in them lyeth) drawe our Saviour Christ the holy one of Israell, whose members they are into the fellowship of their sinne. And this is that, which the Apostle vrgeth 1▪ Cor, 6.15. 1. Cor. 6. Know you not that your bodies are members of Christ? shall I then take the member of Christ and make it the member of an harlot? GOD forbid. Quest 6, Of sin whether it doth at any time reigne in the regenerate Bellarm. de iustif, lib 4. c. 13. in fine Qui na­tus est ea Deo non peccat, nec potest peccare, quia ex Deo natus est, vt habetur 1 Ioan. 3. quia non peccat non prevarica [...]u, fed impletlegem qui en, legem non implet, hoc ipso prevaticatur & peccat. Igitur omnis qui veri justificatus est implet legē, nec potest fie [...]i, vt justificatus man [...]at▪ & legem non imple [...]t.

§. 4. There remaineth the last question, whether those that are regenerate doe sinne, or not. Whereunto I answeare, that they doe often, and sometimes very grievously. For we doe not hold the heresy of Iovini­an which notwithstanding Bellarmine maliciously im­puteth unto us [...], but may more truly be retorted vpon the Papists; who hold that a regenerate man [...]ay perfectly fullfill the whole law of God. But we confesse with St. Iames, Iam 3 2. that in many thinges we offend all with Solomon 1, King, 8, 36,, that there is no man that sinneth not, and that there is not a just man Eccles, 7.20, vpon earth that doth good, and sinneth not. And with St. Iohn. 1, Ioh, [...], 8 Pro. 20.9. that if we should say we have no sinne, we should deceive our selues, and there were no truth in us. And [Page 283] therfore with David we pray Ps. 143▪ [...] enter not into judgment with thy servants O Lord for no man living should be jus­tified in thy sight, if thou shouldest enter into judgment with him. But howsoever the faithfull are sinners, yet not in that sence as the wicked in the scriptures are ter­med sinners; as when it said, the Lord heareth not sinners Ioh. 9:31: Ps. 50:16: that is impenitent sinners, such as make a trade of sinning, and are therefore called Mat, 7, 23. Luk 13, 27 workers of iniquity. Though they sinne, yet not in that sence, according to which St. Iohn denyeth 1. Ioh: 3, 9: them to sinne, which he ex­presseth by the phrase of working sinne. viz. as workers of iniquity, as servants of sinne in whom sinne reigneth August: expos in Gal: [...]: aliud est non peccare aliud nō. habe­re pecca [...]um; nā in quo pec­catum nō reg­nat, non peccat▪ who commit sinne of malice, & ex imperio vitiosi ha­bitus, who commit sinne with greedines and with the full swirge and consent of will, for so both St. Iohn un­derstandeth that phrase 1: Ioh: 3: 8: of committing or working sinne, he that commmitteth sinne (saith he) is of the devill, and also our Saviour Iohn. 8. he that committeth sinne is the servant of sinne. They fall, but they are not vtter­ly cast downe, Ps: 37.24: for the Lord vpholdeth them with his hand They fall often, but they never fall away; sinne remai­neth in them, but it never Rom: reigneth in them, they sinne but not vnto 1. Ioh, 5, 18. death. And this is proved by St. Iohns vndenyable testimony, and invincible reason; whoso­ever is borne of God, saith he, [...], he commit­teth not sinne, namely in that sence, wherein he had vsed the same words in the verse V, 8, preceeding, neither can he sinne, namely after that manner. Then which, what could be spoken more plainely?

The reason which St. Iohn useth is unanswerable▪ be­cause saith he the seed of God (meaning thereby the spi­rit of regeneration) remaineth in him, and againe, be­cause he is borne of God. For every regenerate man [Page] whilest he is cloathed with this mortall body, is partly flesh and partly spirit, through all his powers, faculties and affections, in which there is a continuall conflict, the flesh that is the unregenerate part lusting against the spirit, Gal 5.17 and the spirit that is the regenerate part lusting against the flesh, so that ye cannot doe the things that ye would. No man therefore, whose w [...]ll is regenerate, can whiles he is in the [...]lesh, will any thing, whether good or bad, with his full will. For that evill, which he willeth; as he is flesh, the same he willeth as he is spi­rit; the good which he willeth as he is spirit, he wil­leth, as he is flesh. And therefore a regenerate man can­not sinne with full consent of his will; because he is partly spirit, and partly flesh. And for the same cause the sinnes of faithfull and regenerate persons are com­mittted all of them through infirmity, the flesh pre­vayling against the spirit, in some more, in some lesse. For he whose will is regenerate, hath an earnest desire, and an unfained will and purpose to abstaine from all sinne, when as therefore contrary to his desire, will and purpose, he is by force of temptation trans­ported to the commmitting of sinne, that I call a sinne of infirmity. Every regenerate person therefore may truely say with the Apostle, when hee hath of­fended, eyther by omission or commission, the good Rom. 7, 19.20. thing which I would, I doe not, but the evill which I would not, that I doe. Now if I doe that I would not, it is no more I that doe it, but the sinne that dwelleth in me. If therefore all the sinnes of the faithfull bee committed of infirmity, and with some reluctation of the spirit, and so against their will and unfayned purpose, as they are regene­rate; then it is certaine, that the sinnes of the faith­full, [Page 285] howsoever they provoke GODS temporall judgments against them, especially when they doe not 1, Cor. 11, 31 judge themselves, yet they doe not exclude them out of the love and favour of GOD; neither are they imputed unto them unto condemnation For Cor. 11.32: when we are judged, we are chastised of the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world. And hereunto availeth the intercession of CHRIST, that the re­deemed of CHRIST may, notwithstanding their sinnes, which they commit through humane frailty, be continued in the favoar of God, as hereafter I shall shewe.

But if any man, who professeth himselfe to be re­generate, shall give himselfe over to the practise of sinne, and shall commit sinne with full consent of will, or so liveth in sinne, that sinne may truly be said to reigne in him, his example doth not prove, that a regenerate man may so sinne, but doth manifestly convince himselfe not to be as yet renewed by the spirit of GOD.Mo al l. 34. c. 8. but as Saint Gregory sayeth of such, quaesi habitam sanctitatem ante oculos homi­num videntur amittere. sed eam ante oculos Dei nun­quam habuerunt. For whosoever committeth sinne 1. Ioh. 3 8.9, he is of the devill, saith St. Iohn but he that is borne of God doth not commit sinne, for his seed remai­neth in him, neither can he sinne because he is borne of GOD.

§. 5. There are two things more to be added as touch­ing sinne, the one, concerning sinnes of infirmity, the other concerning the dominion of sinne.

[Page 286]For as touching the former; some cannot endure, that the sinnes of the faithfull and regenerate should be so extenuated, as to be accoumpted sinnes of infirmity: which in their opinion should rather be aggravated, and esteemed more haynous, then the like sinnes per­petuated by ignorant and carnall men; as being com­mitted by men indued with greater knowledge, a [...]d more obliged unto God in all duetyes of obedience and thankfullnes. And in very truth so they are in these respects, and so to be acknowledged and detested of the children of GOD; when either they have offen­ded, or are moved to the practice thereof. But yet, if you respect, either the disposition and condition of the partyes, or Gods estimation of them; esteeming the one, as his sonne regenerated by his spirit, adopted and reconciled unto him in Christ, the other, as his enimy, upon whom the wrath of God abideth; you must ac­knowledge, that the same sinne, which to the carnall man is mortall, as being the transgression of a wicked man, who is under the law; becommeth to the faithfull man veniall, as being the offence of a righteous man, who is not under the law but under grace; Yea that a carnall mans forbearance of a sinne, which he would faine commit, if he durst, is worse in the sight of GOD (who looketh especially to the heart) then the faith­full mans falling into a sinne, which he wo [...]ld not cō ­mit. For to doe that good which he would not, or not to doe the evill which he would, are signes of a car­nall man, whose will is not regenerate; and contrary­wise, Rom 7.19. not to do the good which he would, or to do the evill, which he would not, are signes, (though sins) of a faithfull man whose will is regenerate. The sinne of a [...]rnall man is committed with full consent of will, he [Page 287] being wholly flesh; the sinne of the regenerate (who sinneth carne non spiritu) is committed against his will as he is spirit. Now Rom 7.20▪ (sayeth the Apostle) if I doe that I would not, it is no more I that doe it, but sinne that dwelleth in me.

The carnall man is, as I said, under the law, and therefore his sinne maketh him obnoxius to the curse of the law, and eternall damnation. The faithfull man is not under the law, but under grace, and therfore free­ed by Christ from the curse of the law. For as every sinne is mortall in it selfe and deserveth death, so every sinne is punished with death; either with the death of Christ imputed unto the believer; or with the death of the sinner himselfe, who hath no part in Christ. Hence it is, that the believers sinne, for which christ shed his blood, is to him veniall, and the unbelievers sinne, to whom CHRISTS merits are not imputed, is to him mortall.

The unregenerate man whose carnall disposition is enmity Rom. 8.6. against God▪ and whose frame of imaginati­ons is evill and onely Gen. 6.5. evill continually, hath no will nor disposition in him to that which is spiritually good, and therefore with his whole will he willeth that which is evill. But the faithfull, whose will is re­generate, as he hath in him a disposition to sinne, as he is flesh, which is the remainder of originall sinne; so on the other side, as he is spirit, he hath an unfained desire and a sincere will, purpose and resolution to abstaine from all evill, and to doe good. If he therefore contra­ry to his desire and purpose, as he is spirit, be by the vi­olence of his passions and perturbations, which are e­gritudines animae the infirmities of our soules, and by force of temptation transported to the committing of [Page 288] sinne, that sinne by him committed, is neither of ignorance meerely, nor of malice, but of infirmity. I say not meerely of ignorance; for it is not ex ignorantia ju­ris, sed facti. In the generall, or in thesi he knoweth that kinde of sinne to be unlawfull, as for example, adultery, or denyall of Christ, and he hath resolved Ps. 119.106. Mat. 26.35. and vow­ed to abstaine from them, and all other sinnes: [...]ut his mind being troubled with perturbations and passions, his judgment dazeled and blinded with temptations, and the will for want of strength overcome by them both; he doth not in hypothesi or in the particular see, or not consider the unlawfullnes of the fact, and therefore through weaknes, the spirit being foiled by the flesh, yeeldeth, contrary to his generall purpose, to the acting of it. Neither is it of malice or of set purpose, be­cause the will and purpose of a regenerate man is to the contrary.

§. 6. The question concerning the dominion of sinne may be understood, either of originall sinne in generall, or particular habituall corruptions or vices.

Originall sinne in generall, ruleth and reigneth in all the unregenerate, as a tyrant without resistance. In the regenerate though it doe not reigne, yet it remaineth as a rebellious subject, or discomfited enimy, who not­withstanding is ready, upon all occasions, to assaile us, and able sometimes to prevaile against us and to foile us, which must teach us to labour by all means to mor­tifie our corruptions, and with Paul to 1. Cor. 9.27. buffet and beate downe the body of sinne, and to bring into servi­tude our flesh.

But principally the Question is understood of parti­cular habituall corruptions, which in the regenerate [Page 289] remaine as the reliques and remainders of originall sinne mortified in some measure and diminished; but in the wicked they doe reigne, not all, but some of them as vitious habits.

By originall sinne there is in every man an evill dis­position & pronenesse, to all maner of sinne; & of every one a spice remaineth, as of pride & selfe-love &c, in the regenerate; of [...], more (which are their infirmityes) of some, lesse [...] in the wicked the habituall corrupti­ons either reigne, as the increments of originall sinne, or at the least remaine unabated, unlesse perhaps by the contrary vice. I say then, habituall corruptions doe reigne in men, when from dispositions and inclinati­ons they grow to be confirmed habits. For when by practise of any particular sinne, whereunto a man inu­reth himselfe, the euill dispositions are growne to viti­ous habits, then those sinnes doe reigne in that man, imposing upon him a kinde of necessity to cōmit that sinne. And whosoever in regard of that necessity (cus­tome being as it were another nature) he may seeme unable Ie [...]. 3. [...]3▪ to doe otherwise, yet it is certaine, that as a wicked habite is gotten by multiplying and reiterating voluntary sinfull actions, in any kinde; so the habit it selfe is voluntary, and every sinfull action committed by the commaund of a vitious habite, is a sinne of ma­lice and not of infirmity; and the man so sinning is the servant of sinne. That therefore is but a simple or ra­ther sinnefull excuse, which some use, when they are reproved for sinne, as drunkennes, or swearing, &c. I pray you beare with me, I have got a custome, I cannot leave it. for that is to confesse themselves ser­vants of sinne.


The assertions of the aduersaries.

The assertions of the adversa­ries set downe in 3 degrees.§. 1 AND thus you have heard our as­sertiō, concerning the certainty of perseverance, not onely plainely ex­pounded in 6 severall questions, but also proved by so many arguments. Now we are briefly to propound the contrary asserti­ons of the adversaries of this truth, whereof there seeme to be 3 degrees.

The 1 degree.The first of those, who imagine that a faithfull and regenerate man, by committing any crime or grievous sinne, doth for a sinne loose his faith & justificatiō. And of this first assertiō there seeme also to be 2 degrees. For when they say, that a faithfull man by committing a grievous sinne doth loose his faith; they meane either the act of faith onely, or the habi [...]e also. If the act one­ly, which is to believe remission of sinne, & namely of that crime, which he hath cōmitt [...]d, & whereof he hath not as yet repented; we acknowledge, that that act of faith when a man is falne into a great sinne, is interrup­ted, untill he rise againe by repentance. But here is their errour in that they thinke, because the act of faith is interrupted, that therefore there is an inter­cession of justification and reconciliation with GOD, and a falling from the state of grace and salvati­on, into the fearefull state of damnation. Vnlesse for the qualifying of their opinion, they shall say, that they speake not of justification in foro caelesti, in the court of heaven, but in foro conscientiae; and of falling for a time from the [Page 291] assurance of salvatiō into the guilt of damnatiō ▪ which if they shall avouch, there shall not need to be any con­troversy betwixt us. For we doe confesse, that a man cannot be assured o [...] the remission of any crime, whilst he continueth in it without repentance: & that howsoever there is no condemnation to them that are in Christ Iesus; yet a faithfull man by committing any crime incurreth the anger of GOD, and provo­keth his judgments and not onely deserveth dam­nation, and is in himselfe guilty, or contrac­teth the guilt of death; but many times also by the terrour and trouble of his owne conscience, ag­gravated partly by afflictions, partly by spirituall de­sertions, and partly by the temptation of Sathan, is, in his owne opinion, in the state of damnation. But if we will speake properly, justification is to be considered a [...] an act of GOD, for it is GOD Rom: 8, 33: that justifieth, and such an act as dependeth upon his eternall counsell, and proceedeth from his [...]: Tim: 1:5 grace given unto us in CHRIST before all secular times. For whom he electeth, them he calleth, and whom he calleth according to his purpose, them and no other he justifieth, and whom he justifieth, them and all them he glorifieth. This act of GOD, which from our effectuall vocation is continued to our glorification, is not interrupted, though the act of faith, which is the apprehension of it, be in­terrupted. yea but, say they, by that act of faith assuring us of our justification and salvation we are justified, & therefore when that act ceaseth, our justificatiō ceaseth I answear, [...]. God is said to justifie, when he imputeth the righteousnes of Christ to them [...]hat believe, that is to them that haue the grace of faith, for as Agus­tine [Page 292] Epist 23 ad Bonifac. saith, nihil aliud est credere quam fidem habere, and so the Apostle Rom. 4. to him that worketh not,Rom 4.5. but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousnes. not that faith doth justifie, as it is an habite, or as part of inherent righteousnes▪ for then we should be justified by righteousnes inhe­rent, or as it is an act, for then we should be justified by workes; but in respect of the object, which onely as the matter doth justify, which faith onely as the instrument doth apprehend or receive, and because it doth receive that which is our righteous­nes, it [...]s said to justify, or to be imputed for righ­teousnes, not that ipsum credere doth justify, sed id quod creditur. But howsoever faith doth justify as the hand, or instrument apprehending or recei­ving CHRIST, who is our righteousnes; yet it is not the act of apprehending or receiving which doth jus­tify, as the instrument, but that which apprehendeth or receiveth, that is the habite or grace of faith. Other­wise our justification, which is a constant and conti­nued act of GOD; should be as transcient and flir­ting, as our act of apprehending: and we should be no longer justified, then we doe actually apprehend the righteousnes of Christ (which we doe not, either when we are asleepe, or being awake, are otherwise im­ployed) and therefore to imagine, that our justification is interrupted, so oft as the act of faith is interrupted is a dreame.

2ly. We are not justified before God by that act of faith assuring us of our justification for we are justifi­ed before God, before we are, or can be assured of it, & we must believe, before we can be justified. we must therefore distinguish of [...]ustification [...] it is either [Page 293] before God in foro coelesti, which properly is justificati­on; or els in the court of our owne conscience. Before God we are justified, when we give a lively assent to the promise of the Gospell, by which, working upon the heart and the will, we receive Christ, not onely in our judgment by assent, but also in our hearts by an earnest desire to be made partakers of Christ, and in our willes by a resolution to acknowledge him to be our Saviour, and to rest upon him alone for salvation. In our consciences we are justified, when upon tha [...] lively assent (which is the condition of the promise) we, applying the promise to our selves, are perswaded and in some measure assured of our justification. And such as is the measure of our assurance, [...]hat we doe in deed believe by a true and lively assent, that IESVS the Soone of the blessed Virgin, is the eternall Sonne of GOD, and Saviour of all those that truely believe in him, such is, and ought to be the as­surance of our justification, and salvation. For the Gospel teacheth us this truth of GOD in CHRIST, that whosoever truly believeth that IESVS CHRIST is the Sonne of GOD, and Saviour of all that truly believe in him shalbe saved. If therefore the conscience of a man be able truly and certainely to as­sume, but I doe truly believe that IESVS CHRIST is the Sonne of GOD, &c. then he may as certainly conclude, therefore I shalbe saved. But howsoever this act of faith assuring us of our salvation (which they call the certainty of the subject) may for a time be interrupted; yet so long as a man doth truely assent to the Gospell, and by it receiveth CHRIST, so long the certainty of the object is not im­peached and therefore the party so believing, standeth [Page 294] justified before God, though he be not alwayes assured of it. Of those therefore that hold the intercession of justification by the act of faith interrupted, this shall suffice to have spoken.

But I understand the first degree of them, with whom we have this controversy, to be of those, which hold, that the habite of faith and justification may be lost without a totall defection or falling away.

The 2 degree.The second degree is of those, who hold that a man elected in Christ, justified by faith, and sanctified by the holy Ghost, may fall into a totall, but not a finall Apostasy.The 3. degree. The third of those, who stoutly maintaine, that a man justified and sanctified, may fall away from God, and from his grace, not onely totally for a time, but also finally and for ever. And this is the assertion of the Papists and some others.

Of these 3 de­g [...]ees the se­cond, is a con­sequent of the of the first, and the third, of the second.§. 2. But howsoever the authors of these assertions would seeme to differ one from another, for the first would not be thought to agree with the second, nor the second with the third: yet I doe not see, how any man can maintaine the first, unlesse he will grant the second; nor how any man can defend the second; unlesse he will grant the 3d. For faith and justification cannot be lost without a totall defection, and whosoever doth make a totall apostasy, doth also fall away finally. For as touching the first, he that looseth his justifica­tion looseth also his adoption, and reconciliation, and therewithall the grace and favour of GOD, and from the state of salvation is falne into the state of condemnation. And whosoever looseth his faith, looseth withall the fruits of [...]aith, as hope, chari­ty, affiance, the feare of God, and all other graces of [Page 295] sanctification, which cannot be where faith is not. If therefore the falling away from the grace, that is, the favour of God, and also from his graces, that is the gifts of grace to a totall defection (as I suppose no man can truly deny) then must it be confessed, that if a faith­full man should loose his justification and his faith, he should fall into a totall apostasy. Now those that make a totall defection, doe also finally perish; as the prophet Ezech: 12:24: witnesseth, for it is impossible, as the Holy Ghost saith Heb: 6:4:5:6 and c: 10:2 [...]: that they, who fall away should be renewed againe by repentance. but their latter end 2: Pet: 2:20: as St. Peter saith is worse then their beginning, where­fore St. Iohn by that one defection of those heretickes, whom he doubteth not to call Antichristes, conclu­deth, 1: Ioh: 2:19: that they were never of the Church, More­over, if any man should loose his regeneration totally (as no man doth, because he is borne of immortall seed 1. Pet. 1.23. & because the seed 1: Ioh. 3.9: of God remaineth in him) then must he be borne againe, or els he cannot be saved, being by his relapse falne into the state of nature. But it is certaine ut semel nascimur, ita semel renascimur. as we are borne but once, so we are borne anew but once. For as Augustine tract: 11: in loan saith, there are two birthes, the one, carnall; the other, spiritual; sed ipsae duae singulae sunt, nec illa potest repeti, nec illa, but those two are either of them bu [...] one, neither can the one be repeted, nor the other. And this also is to be obserued, that all these adversaries of the certainty of perseve­rance, howsoever they would seeme to hold divers opinions: yet they all use the same arguments, and a­buse the same testimonyes of scripture, and by the same arguments and testimonyes, for the most part are refuted. Wherefore a severall refutation of them [Page 296] shall not need. But it shall be sufficient, as my purpose was in the beginning, to deale directly against the Papists.


The certainty of Perseverance proved from the causes and grounds thereof.

The certainty of perseverence proved.§. 1 AND first I will prove and demon­strate the certainty of Perseverance of all the faith [...]ll by evident argu­mēts grounded upon the holy scrip­tures: & secondly I will defend and maintaine the same against the ex­ceptions, and objections of Bellarmine.

My proofes I will reduce unto two heads for therefore is the perseverance of the faithfull certaine, first because the causes and grounds; whereon our perseverance is founded, are sure & invincible. Secondly, because the causes, which should cause the defectiō of the faithfull, if ever they should fall away, are to weake for that pur­pose.

The certainty of perseverance proved f [...]om the causes thereof.For as touching the first: The certainty of Perseve­rance is grounded, not upon our owne strength, or up­on the constancy of our owne willes, (for perseverance, as Prosper de vocat. ge [...] 1. c. 24. proveth by many testimonies, is the gift of God; and as Agustine de bon perseverantiae ex Ps. [...]0.17, saith, est manus Dei non nostra quod non recedimus ab eo. it is Gods hand and not ours, that we depart not from him. and lib: d [...] correp [...] [...] grat. c: 1 [...]: ipse eos facit perse­verare in bono, qui facit bones.) but it is grounded upon the nature of the Deity ▪ and the persons of the Trinity, confirming us, and the gifts of saving grace in us, and preserving us unto eternall life.

[Page 297]§. 2. And first I say the certainty of perseverance is grounded upon the nature of God;From the nature of God, [...] first from hi [...] immutability as namely upon his immutabil [...]ty, truth, faithfullnes, and power, upon the immutability, both of his will, and also of his grace, Of his will or decree, which is immutable. for,

None of the Elect shall ever fall away▪

All the faithfull are elect.

Therefore none of the faithfull shall ever fall away.

The proposition I proved before at large,Chap: 3: § 4 in answeare to the second Question.

The assumption is proved thus. 1. All saving grace, (whether you understand the degrees of GODS graci­ous favour in Christ, or the gifts of saving grace) is pro­per to the elect, unde non communicat alienus, as Augus­tine Cotur. Cresc: gram: l: 2. c: 15: De unit: eccles: c: 19: & in Ps 103: conc: 1: saith, that is, as he expoundeth himselfe, non pos­sessu [...]us regnum Dei. whereof none is partaker who is an aliant, that is, who shall not possesse the kingdome of GOD. 2. Iustifying faith, is not of all men, 2. Thess. 3.2. that is, not common to the re­probate, but proper to the elect, and is therefore called the faith of the elect. Tit. 1.1. it being a proper fruite of election. for therefore doe men beleive because they are elected Act. 13.48. euery one that my father giveth me, namely by election, commeth unto me, namely by faith. Ioh. 6.37. And contrarywise, those which are not elected, doe not believe, Ioh. the election, saith the Apostle, Rom: 11:7: hath obtained, (viz. the faith of the Gospell,) the rest were hardened. or if they seeme to believe, it is as we heard before out of Gregory, specie tenus, in shew onely. For all that truly be­lieve shalbe saved; none of the reprobate shalbe saved, ther­fore none of the reprobate doe truly believe.

[Page 298]3. All that shalbe saved, are elected: all that truly be­lieve shall be saved: therefore all that truly believe, are e­lected ▪ the assumption is the maine promise Ioh. [...].16 Mark. 16.16 of the Go­spell.

4. Moreover, all the faithfull are justified, and all that are justified have beene effectually called, and all that are effectually called, are elected, and consequently all that truly believe, are elected. For as Angustine De praedest. sanct. c. 17. Non ergo alios, sed quos praedestina­vit, ipsos & vocávit, illâ sc. vo­catione secundùm propositum; nec alios, sed quos ita vocavit, ipsos & justificavit: nec alios, sed quos praedestinavit, voca­vit, justificavit, ipsos & glorifi­cavit. saith. None other, but such as he hath predestinated, he hath called with that calling which is according to his purpose▪ nor other, but such as he hath so called, he hath justified: nor other, but such as he hath predestinated, called, justified, he hath glorified.

On the immu­tability of his grace.§. 3. Vpon the immutability of his grace, that is, both of his gracious love and favour in Christ, and al­so of his gifts of saving grace. From the unchange­ablenes of his love and favour in Christ. we may argue thus. Those whom God doth alwayes love, they doe never fall away; for such as fall away, God loveth not, Heb. 10.38. But God loveth the faithfull with an everlasting love. Ier, 31.3. Iohn 13.1. So Chrysostome [...]n Rom. 5. hom 9. [...]. he said well, in which we stand, for such is the grace of God, it hath no end, it knoweth no li­mits. Prosper citing Rom. 8.35.Devocat. gent. l 1. c 24. where the Apostle speaketh de Charitate Christi, quâ (saith he) eos quos di­ligit, inseparabiles facit, & usque in finem perseverantes. whom Christ doth love, he maketh them unseparable, that is, persevering to the end. It is everlasting, not one­ly in it selfe, but also to us; as it is eternall withont be­ginning [Page 299] 2. Tim. 1.9. Eph. 14.6, so it is perpetuall without Psal. 136 ending; it begin­neth in Gods eternall foreknowledge, which hath no beginning, and endeth in our glorificatiō, which hath no ending▪ The gifts also of saving grace, are as the A­postle saith, [...], Rom. 11.29 without repen­tance in the giving and continuing whereof the Lord doth shew himself unchangeable. such as are faith, hope, charity. Faith is invincible, as hath beene shewed be­fore. Resp ad q. 3. pag. 34▪ c. 4. §. 7. so that not unworthily was it said by Chryso­stome 1. Tim. 1. hom. 1., that it is the property of Faith never to faile. and Hom. 18. in Cor. 6, faith a rock stedfast and unmoveable; and, Hom. 9: in Heb. 6. [...], faith is the foundation, the rest is the building, and it is Serm. in BB Iob. & Abiah. inexpugnabile scutum. Hope is an anchor of the soule both sure and stedfast, Heb. 6.19. and never maketh ashamed, Rom. 5.5.

Charity cannot be quenched, Cant. 8.7. but as Gre­gory saith, in electorum cordibus inextinguibilis manet, neither doth it ever fall away, but it beareth all things, and endureth all things. 1. Cor. 13.7.8. and in the last verse; now, that is, in this life, remaine faith, hope, and charity, these three, none of which endeth before the end of this life, and then, the end of those, which have an end, is not their consumption, but their cons [...]m­mation; faith ending in vision, and hope in fruition, but charity is the greaetest, for it never hath an end, nei­ther in this world, nor yet in the world to come. It was therefore truely said of Ambrose De poeni [...]. dist. 2. q. 3. cha­ritos:, that charity once had is never after lost: and of Augustine De poenit. dist. 2. c. 2. apud August [...]. 4. lib. de salutar doc. c 7. charitas quae deseri potest, nunquam vera fuit., charity which may be lost, was never true. And of the same Augu­stine, as he is cited by the master Lib: 3: dist: 31: of the sentences, and by Gratian. De poenit: dist: 2. c: 8: Vnctio i [...]visibilis charitas est, quae in quocunque fuerit, tanquam radix illi erit, quae ardente fole ares [...]erenon potest: nutritur calore solis, non 21 escit. the unction invisible is charity, the which in [Page 300] whomsoever it shalbe, it wilbe unto him a roote▪ which when the Sunne scorcheth, cannot be dried up, or wither, it is nourished by the heate of the Sunne, it is not dried. or as the wordes are now reade in Au­gustines Hom. 9 In epist. Ioan. tract. 8. Vnctio invisibilis charitas illa est, quae in quocunque fu­erit, tanquam radix illi erit, quamvis a [...]dente sole arescere non potest, omne quod radica tum est, nutritur calore solis non exarescit. Workes. The invisible unction is that charity, which in whomsoever it shalbe, it shalbe unto him as it were a roote, though the Sunne doe burne, he cannot be dryed up or wither, all that is rooted (that is, that hath this roote) is nourished with the heate of the Sunne not dryed up. And of Prosper. De vita contemplat. [...]ap 13. Charitas est recta voluntas jun­cta Deo inseparabiliter, corruptionis nescia, nu [...]i vitio mu­tabilitatis obnoxia, in omnibus semper invicta. Charity is a right will joyned to God unsepara­bly, not subject to corruption, obnoxi­ous to no vice of mutability, in all things alwayes invincible. Gratians De poenit▪ dist. 2. c. 11 Ex praemissis itaque apparet, quod charitas semel habita ul teriùs non amitritur. conclusion in Ambrose his wordes is. It appeareth therefore by the premisses, that charity once had is never lost. Againe, whosoever hath true charity, he shalbe saved, and consequently shall perse­vere to salvation: yea as S. Iohn Iohn 3:14 saith, we know that we are translated from death unto life, because we love the bre­thren. Charity is a grace proper and peculiar to the e­lect. For as Augustine De unit: eccles: cap: 19 Ipsa quae domui Dei data su [...], no [...]nullà ex ijs habent alieni, (id est non possessuri regnum Christi) hoc est donum spiritus sancti proprium sanctorum, [...] de nemo communicat alienus. saith. Even of those gifts, which are given to the house of God, some of them aliants have, that is, such as shall not possesse the kingdome of God, but this (meaning charity) is a gift the holy Ghost, proper to the Saints, whereof no aliant is partaker. And againe to the same effect. Aug: in Psal: 10 [...]: cor: 1: Charitas est fons proprius & singularis bonorum, cui non communicat a­lienus.

[Page 301]§. 4. But the certainty of perseverance is grounded also upon the truth of God in his word,From the truth of God testify­ing th [...]s truth. partly testify­ing, partly promising, partly by oath avouching it. A­mong the testimonies of the word, some are plaine and direct, as Ps. 15 5. he that walketh uprightly &c. shall ne­ver be moved. Ps. 112.6. and 9.Psal. 112.6.9. the upright shall never be removed, his righteousnes endureth for ever. Ps. 125.1.Ps. 125 1. Those who put their trust in the Lord (as all the faith­full doe) are like to mount Zion, which is not removed, but standeth fast for ever. Iohn 6.56.Ioh. 6.56. he that eateth my flesh (as every believer doth) he abideth in me (saith our Saviour CHRIST) and I in him. 1. Iohn. 2.19.1 Ioh. 2.19 If they had beene of us, they would surely have continued with us▪ Psal. 37.37. The end of the upright man is peace. therefore hee persevereth to the end. hee that is a servant (of sinne) abideth not in the house for ever,Ioh. 8.35. he that is a sonne abideth for ever. Iohn 8.34.35.

Others conclude the certainty of perseverance by consequence▪ for whosoever shalbe saved, they doe un­doubtedly persevere Mat. 24.1 [...] unto salvation. for if any doe fall a­way, they perish in their sinnes. Ezech. 18.24. 2. Pet. 1.20 But all that truly believe in Christ shalbe saved. Ioh. 2.16. Mark. 16.16. all that eate the flesh of Christ (as all true believers doe) shall live for ever. Iohn 6.51. yea they have eternall life Ioh. 54. 1. Iohn. 5.23. and they are passed from death unto life. Iohn 5.24. All that truely believe in Christ, they are the sonnes of GOD. Iohn 1.12. and being sonnes they are also heyres, heyres of GOD, and coheyres with CHRIST. Rom. 8.17 Againe, All that are elected, shalbe saved, and consequently persevere unto salvation, as before hath beene shewed. All that are called effectually, [Page 302] or according to Gods purpose, doe persevere unto sal­vation. For this calling of God is without repentance, or irrevocable, Rom. 11.29, and to them so called, all things whatsoever worke together for their good, and therefore nothing causeth them to fall away. Rom. 8.28. for as the Apostle there reasoneth, v. 29.30. whom God did fore-know, he also did predestinate; &c. and whom he did predestinate, them also he called, (viz according to his purpose) and whom he so called, them he also justified, and whom he justified, them he also glorified. Therefore saith Augustine De praedest. sanct. c. 17 Non ergo alios, sed quos praedesti­navit, ipsos & vocavit, illâ scil. vocatione secundùm proposi­tum nec alios, sed quos ita vo­cavit, Ipsos & justificavit; nec alios, sed quos praedestinavit, vocavit, justificavit, ipsos & glorificavit., whom he hath prede­stinated, them, and no other he hath cal­led, to wit, with that calling accurding to his purpose, and whom he hath so cal­led, them, and no other he hath justified; and whom he hath predestinated, called, and justified; them, and no other he hath g [...]orified. And againe, Manifestum est, non justifi­catos, n [...]si vocatos; quanquam non omnes vocatos, sed eos qui secundùm propositum voca [...]i sunt, sicut superius dixit Apostolus. it is manifest (saith he) that none are justified, but such as are called, though not all that are called, but those who are called according to his purpose, as the Apostle before had said. Ambrose In Eph. 1. Quos Deus voca [...]e dicitur, perseverant in fide, hi sunt quos elegit ante mundi constitutionem.. whom God is said to call, they persevere in the faith▪ th [...]se are they whom he elected before the creation of the world. And likewise Beda In Rom. 8.28. Hi (qui secundum propositum vocati sunt) in eo quod diligunt Deum p [...]manent usque infinem: & qui ad tempus inde deviant, rever­tuntur, ut usque in finem per­dutant, quod in bono esse coe­perunt.. These (who are called according to his pur­pose) persevere in the love of God unto the end, and they who for a time doe goe astray from it, (as all men doe when they sinne) they returne that they may conti­nue to the end, what they began to be [...] goodnes. But most plainely Augu­stine [Page 303] De bono persevet c. 14. Nam donum perseverantiae da­turum Deum vocatis suis istá vocatione, de qua dictum est, sine poenitentia sunt Dei dona & vocatio, omni Christiano confitendum est.: For that God will give the gift of perseverance to them that are called with that calling, whereof it is said, the gifts of God, and calling are without repen­tance, it must be confessed of every Chri­stian.

Againe, all that are justified are also glorified, Rom. 8.30. for if Rom. 5.9 when we were sinners Christ died for us, much more being justified by his blood, we shalbe saved from wrath by him. Now I assume, all that truely believe, are elected, as I proved before, all that truly believe, are ef­fectually called: all that truly believe are justified, there­fore all that truly believe shalbe saved, and consequent­ly persevere unto salvation. The like may be said of ad­option and reconciliation. All the faithfull are the ad­opted children of God, whom he hath predestinated Ephes. 1.5.6. unto the adoption of sounes by IESVS CHRIST to him selfe, according to the good pleasure of his will, to the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved. Vndoubtedly therefore the faithfull shall persevere unto salvation. Neither shall they who are reconciled to GOD, as all the faithfull are, perish. For if when we were enemies we were reconciled unto God by the death of his sonnes; much more being reconciled. we shalbe saved by his life. And as Chrysostom argueth. In Rom. 5: hom: 9: [...]. if when we were ob­noxious to such great matters, we were freed from all by Christ, much more shall we be able by him to abide in that which we are.

Finally, this is the summe of the Gospell; whosoe­ver truly believeth in Christ shalbe saved. which our ad­versaries in this cause doe plainly contradict, saying; [Page 304] that many of them, which believe truly in CHRIST, shall not be saved. and so plainely over-turne the foundation of our faith, which is the promise of the Gospell.

[...]om the truth [...]f God in his promises.§ 5. For the certainty of perseverance is also groū ­ded on the promises of God, promising perseverance to them that believe. And herein is great difference be­tweene the covenant of workes, and the covenant of Grace: that in the former the Lord requireth perseve­rance to be performed by us, (for which cause the com­mandements are propounded in the future sence,) but in the latter, and namely in this place, Luk. 1.73.75. he promiseth to give it us. I (saith the Lord, speaking to every faithfull man) will espouse thee for ever unto me by faith. Hos. 2.19.20. I will make saith the Lord, an e­verlasting covenant with them, that I will never tu [...]ne a­way from them to doe them good. (there is the certainty of perseverance, ex parte Dei, on Gods part) will put my feare in their hearts, that they shall not depart from me, that is, saith Augustine De bono per­ser. lib. [...]. c. 2. Talis ac tantus est [...]imor erit quem dabo in cordibus illo­rum, ut mihi perseverantes adh [...]seant.. such and so great shall my feare be, which I shall put into their hearts, that they shall with perseverance adhere unto me. There is the cer­tainty of perseverance ex parte credentis, on the belie­vers part. Ioh. 6.37. whatsoever my Father giveth me, (namely by election) commeth to me, saith CHRIST, namely by faith, and whosoever commeth unto me, that is, believeth in me, I will never cast him off. There againe is the certainty on Christs part. But he will not onely not cast them off himself, but also he will not suffer thē to be taken from him by any others whatsoever. For I, saith he, Iohn 10.28. doe give eternall life to my sheep, (that is, to all the faithfull) and they shal never perish, [Page 305] neither shall any pluck them out of my handes, in confi­dence whereof, I am assured, saith the Apostle, Rom 8.38.3 [...] that nei­ther death nor life, nor angells, nor principalities nor pow­ers, nor things present nor things to come, nor height nor depth, nor any other creature shalbe able to seperate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Iesus our Lord.

So that the perseverance of the faithfull is certaine on Gods part, on their owne part, and in respect of all crea­tures whatsoever.Ioh. 4.14. But to returne to the promises. Ioh. 4.14. Whosoever shall drinke of the water which I will give him, saith CHRIST, meaning by wa­ter the saving graces of the Holy Ghost, as [...] is expounded Chap. 7. he shall never thirst againe, Ioh. 7 39. and much lesse shall the fountaine of grace be wholly dried up nay the water which I will give him, saith he, shalbe in him a well-spring of water springing up into eternall life. unto which we may adde Rom. 9.33. Whosoever believeth in Christ shall not be con­founded, and therefore whosoever believeth in Christ, shall never fall away. for all that fall away shalbe con­founded. see Ioh. 6.44.

But if any be so incredulous,From the truth of God in his oath. as not to give credit to the promisses of God: yet at the least let them beleive his oath, for the Lord hath sworne in this place, Luk. 1.73.74 75. August. in Ps. 88. si securum me facis quod dixisti, qùanto securiorem qui­a jurasti [...] that he will give to all those whom he redeemeth and justi­fieth by CHRIST, that is to all the faithfull, that they shall worship him [...], without feare, that is at the least without cause of feare, that is, [...] safely and without danger in holines and righteousnes before him, not for some short time, and then to fall away, but all the dayes of their life.

[Page 306] From the fi­delity of God.§. 6. To the truth of God in his word, promise and oath, in which it is impossible that the Lord should lye Heb. 6.18. we will adde the fidelity of God in respect, whereof he is most willing and ready to performe his oath & pro­mises. For from the faithfulnes of God the Apostle thus argueth 1. Cor. 1.8.9. God is faithfull, by whom yee are called unto the fellowship of his Sonne IE­SVS CHRIST our LORD, therefore he will confirme you unto the end, that yee may be blamelesse in the day of our Lord Iesus Christ. 2. Thess. 3.3. The Lord is faithfull, who will stablish you, & keepe you from evill, 1. Thess. 5.23.24. faithfull is he who hath called you, who also will ef­fect it, namely that your whole spirit, soule and body, may be kept blamelesse unto the comming of our Lord IESVS CHRIST. 1. Cor. 10.13. God is faithfull, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that you are able.

Frō the pow­er of God▪§. 7. Vnto the faithfullnes of God, let us adjoyne his power, For if the Lord who hath promised, that the faithfull shall persevere, be both faithfull, and therefore willing; & also omnipotent, and therefore able to per­forme, what he hath promised, then out of question the perseverāce of the faithfull is most certaine. For though we be weake, & of ourselves not able to stand; yet God is strong, and in our weaknes 2, Cor, 12.9. his strength is made per­fect. By his power through faith we are preserved or kept safe unto salvation. 1. Pet. 1.5. and from hence the certainty of Perseverance is proved, not onely by the Apostle, Rom. 14.4. the servant of God shalbe established for God is able to make him stand (upon which place Au­gustine Decorrept & gratia c. 12. Ipse ita (que) dat perseverantiā qui statuere po­t [...]sis est e [...]s qu [...] sta [...], ut perse­verantissimè stent, vel resti­tuere qui ce [...]i­derunt. inferreth. he therefore giveth perseverance, who is able to establish those who stand, that they may stand [Page 307] with very strong perseverāce, or restore those who shall fall.) but also by our Saviour Christ. Ioh. 10.28.29. I give unto my sheepe eternall life, and they shall never perish, nei­ther shall any plucke them out of my hand. My father which gave them me is greater then all, and none is able to take them out of my fathers hand. I and my father are one. Every faithfull man therefore may and ought to resolve with the Apostle, 2, Tim, 1, 12: I know whom I have believed, and I am assured that he is able to keepe even unto that day that which I have committed unto him, meaning himselfe (for unto the Lord the faithfull doe commit & commend themselves 1 Pet, 4, 19: Ps, 31, 5. as to a faithfull creator & redeemer) & with David. Ps. 16.8. I have set the Lord alwayes before me, because he is at my right hand I shall not be moved.

Seeing therefore that the perseverance of the faithfull is grounded upon the immutability of God in his de­cree, in his love, and in his saving gifts; upon the truth of God in his word testifying, in his promises, & oath, assuring, and confirming the same; upon the faithfull­nes of GOD, whereby most readily he will, and upon his omnipotency whereby most powerfully he can stablish the faithfull: we may not doubt of the con­stant perseverance of all the saints; unlesse also we will doubt of the immutability, truth, faithfullnes, and power of almighty GOD.

§. 8. But the perseverance of the faithfull is grounded not onely upon the nature of the Deity,Perserverance grounded on the persons of the Trinity. as a most sure foundation, but also upon all and singular the persons of the holy Trinity to wit, the Father, the Sonne, and the holy Ghost.

And first it is the will of the Father, The Father: Ioh: 6, 39:, saith Christ our [Page 308] Saviour, that of all that he hath given me, that is, of all the faithfull and elect, I should loose none, but should raise it up at the last day. and that we may be sure, that CHRIST will performe his Fathers will, and will loose none of them for whom he gave him selfe; he addeth in the next verse, Iohn c: 40. and this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which seeth the Sonne, that is, be­lieveth in him, should have everlasting life, and I will raise him up at the last day. And for further assurance hereof, adde to the will of the Father, which is ever effected, and can never be resisted, his omnipotency. Iohn 10. [...]9 My Father who gave me my sheepe is greater then all, neither shall any be able to plucke them out of his hands.

The Sonne.§. 9. But come we to the Sonne. For the certainty of our perseverance relyeth also upon the redemption & intercession of Christ, as of our Priest: upon his pro­tection, as our King; upon our union with him, as our Head. Christ by his merites had pu [...]chased for us all eternall redemption. Heb. 9.12. he hath thereby procu­red for us eternall righteousnes. Dan. 9.24 & by one ob­lation he ha [...]h made perfect all those who are sanctified by him for ever Heb. 10 14. Therefore those that have re­demption by Christ, & remission of sinnes, as all the faithfull have, they have it for ever▪ those that are justi­fied by him, are justified forever; those that are sancti­fied by him, are made perfect forever. Christ in the dayes of his flesh, made intercession, (and his interces­sion is alwayes heard: Ioh: [...]1: 42: as for Peter, that his faith should not faile Luk: 23: 32, no not for a moment, (for so much is signified in that phrase of speech, [...], that is, that it should not suffer at any time a totall eclipse) so also for the perseverance, as Bellar­mine [Page 309] confesseth, De Rom▪ Ponti [...]: lib: ra c: [...]: § alte Oravit Domnus Ioan, 17▪ p [...]o perseve [...]ntia omn [...]um e­lectorum: of all the elect; he might as truely have said, of all the faithfull, not onely for his Apostles and disciples, whom the Father had given him; but al­so Ioh, 17, 1 [...], 15, 20, 21, for all them which should believe in him through their word, that they might be one with him for ever. Of which prayer Athanasius saith Ora [...], q [...]e ont Ar an▪, this is the mea­ning, that the grace of the spirit in the disciples might be [...], unmoveable & irrevoca­ble. And still he maketh intercession for us, sitting at the right hand of his Father, not onely that our imper­fect obedience and services might be accepted, his holi­nes Ex: 28, 36, 38 being imputed unto them, & they being perfumed with the odours Apoc. 8, 4▪ of his sacrifice: but also that wee should, notwithstanding our sins, wherunto all of us do fall through humane infirmity, be kept & continued in the grace & favour of God. For that is it which S. Iohn saith, 1, Ioh, 2, 1, [...], These things I write unto you, that ye sin not: but if any man sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Ie­sus Christ the righteous, & he is the propi [...]iation for our sins. who Heb, 7, 25, is therefore able perfectly to save those that come to God by him, because he ever liveth to make inter­cession for them ▪ And to the same purpose, Rom. 8. Rō ▪ 8, 33, 34: [...]: who shall condemne the elect of God? seeing it is God that justifieth, & Christ which died, or rather which is risen againe, who is also at the right hand of God, ma­king intercession for us. who shall separaee us from the loue of CHRIST? to conclude this point with Augustine: De corrept & gratia c. 2. seeing CHRIST maketh interces­sion for those who are called according to his pur­pose, that their faith doe not faile: without doubt it shall not faile unto the end; and for that cause shall persever to the end, neither shall the end of this life finde it not remayning. Now whom CHRIST [Page 310] hath redeemed, and for whom he maketh intercession as a Priest, them also he protecteth as a King, Ps. 110.1. sitting at the right hand of his Father, subdu [...]ng his and our enemies, and defending us against them. Iohn 10. I give saith he Iohn 10.18. eternall life to my sheepe, and they shall ne­ver perish, neither shall any plucke them [...] of my hand. Nor in deed can it come to passe, that tho [...] who are by Christ redeemed out of the hand of their spirituall e­nemies, should by them be recovered [...]ut of his hands; unlesse we can imagine, that the enemies of our salvation, whom Christ hath already o [...]ercome for us are stronger, and of more might then God the Father, and Christ our Saviour. Moreover, those who are redeemed by Christ, and justified by faith in him, as all the faithfull are, are also engrafted into Christ, and united unto him as members to our Head. Now the body is safe, while the head is well, and therefore he saith Iohn 14.19. because I live, you shall live also. Our life is hid Col. 3.3., or safely laid up in God with Christ in hea­ven. For by reason of this union, we are not onely quic­kened and raised together with Christ, but in him also God Eph. 2.6. [...] hath made us sit together in heaven­ly places, and in him hath given unto us eternall life 1. Ioh. for this is the record of God, that he hath given to us eternall life, and this life is in his sonne, he that hath the Sonne hath life, these things have I written unto you that believe on the Name of the Sonne of God, that you may know that you have eternall life. And as we have uni­on with him as our Head, so also as our Husband, who having espoused all the faithfull unto him for ever by faith, Hos. 2.19.20. hath joyned us unto himselfe by the indissoluble bond of wedlocke. Ephes. [...].23.29.32.

[Page 311]§. 10.The holy Ghost Lastly by the spirit of God, Ps. 11 [...]2. the faithfull are stablished. For the spirit by his testimony, as he is the spirit of adoption witnesseth; and by his efficacy, as he is the spirit of regeneration, worketh the perseverance of the faithfull. For this spirit which is the spirit of truth, teacheth them that they shall abide in Christ, and as it taught you. saith S. Iohn 1. Ioh. 1 27. ye shall abide in him. This spirit beareth witnesse with our spirit Rom. 9.16, that we are the sonnes & heires of God, & coheyres with Christ. and of this inheritāce Eph. 1.15. [...]4. he is the earnest, by whom Eph. 4.30. also we are sealed unto the day of redemption, he hath begot­ten us not of curruptible, but of incorruptible seed, 1. Pet. 1.23. which is called incorruptible, because it is so in us, and ever abideth in us. 1. Iohn. 3.9. by which he hath begunne in all, whom he hath regenerated, a spi­rituall life, which never shall have end.


The certainty of perseverance proved from the supposed causes of defection, nothing being able to separate the faithfull from the love of God in Christ.

§. 1. SEeing therefore the perseverance of the faithfull is founded both upon the nature of the Deity,From the sup­posed caùses of defection. as also up­on the persons of the Trinity, as we have shewed; what, or who shalbe able (that I may come to the supposed causes of defectiō) to separat Rom. 8.35 us from the love of Christ? For by this interrogation the Apostle doth more em­phatically deny, that any thing whatsoever shalbe able to separate us from Christ, then if in plaine termes he had said, as after he doth. Nothing whatsoever is able to separate us from the love of God in Christ. Shall affl [...]ct [...] ­on, [Page 312] or the cause thereof which is sinne shall heresy, or any temptation? shall the world, or the god of the world the devill, or in a word shall any creature what­soever? I am assured, Rom. 8.38.39. saith the Apostle, that neither death nor life, nor Angells, nor principalities nor powers, nor thinges present nor thinges to come, nor [...]eight [...]nor depth, nor any other creature, shalbe able to s [...]perate us (meaning by us any of the faithfull or elect) from the love of God which is in Christ Iesus our Lord.

Not affliction. for all the afflictions of the godly are either chastisements or trialls, which are layd upon thē for their Heb. 12.10. good, not to hurt them, but to purge them; not to drive them from God, but to drawe them neerer to him; not to destroy them, but to pr [...]v [...]nt destruction. For when we 1. Cor. 11.31. (that is to say the faithfull, who are not of the world) are judged, that is afflicted for our sinnes, we are chastised of the Lord, that we should not be con­demned with the world. To the faithfull it is given, Phil 1 29. not onely to believe, but also to suffer. For howsoever those, which receive the seed upon stony ground, doe fade & fall away, when temptation or tribulation ariseth Luk. 8.13.15. yet those who have received the seed into a good and ho­nest heart doe retaine the same, and bring forth fruite with patience or perseverance. Yea, so farre are afflictions from overthrowing the faith & hope of the saints, that they become, through the efficacy of the spirit, notable meanes to exercise & confirme th [...]m. For which cause, as Peter and Iames exhorte the faithfull to rejoyce in afflictions, 1. Pet 4.13. Iam. 1: 2: 3: because afflictions are trialls wherby the sound and upright are discerned: (whereupon it followeth, that none that are [...], that is sound and upright, are caused by afflictions to fall away) so St. Paul doth testifie, that the faithful doe rejoyce [Page 313] therein. By faith saith he we stand, and rejoyce under the hope of the glory of God. Rom. 5.2: 3: 4: 5: and not that onely, but also we rejoyce in afflictions, knowing that affliction bringeth forth patience, and patience probation, and probation hope, and hope maketh not ashamed, because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the holy Ghost, which is given unto us, or as he speaketh elsewhere, because 2, Cor, 1, 5, as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation a­boundeth through Christ. Neither doe they only rejoyce in afflictions, but also triumph over them. In all these things, saith the Apostle Rom: 8: 3 [...], [...] we are more then conquerours, through him that hath loved us.

§. 2. Not sinne. for neither originall,Not sinne: nor actuall. Not originall, which is called the flesh; for howsoever it re­maineth in the children of God, yet it doth not reigne in them; and whiles it doth not reigne in them, it can­not make them fall away. Now that it doth not reigne in thē, is thus proved. 1. Because those who are actually made partakers of the redemption wrought by Christ (as all the faithfull are) are freed as well from the bon­dage, or dominion, Rom, 8, 2, as from the guilt of sinne. 2ly. be­cause in the act of regeneratiō sinne is mortified in some measure, & hath received a deadly wound, so that it can no more reigne in the regenerate. For they that are bap­tized into Christ are baptized into his death, and their old man is crucified with him, that the body of sinne might be destroyed, as the Apostle testifieth Rom. 6.3.6. & Gal. 5 24. Those that are Christs have crucified the flesh, with the passion & lusts thereof. Now they that are dea [...] to sin, how should they live to it? for as Christ being once raised frō death dieth no more, neither hath death any more [Page 314] dominion over him; so we being raised once from the death of sinne, sinne can no more raigne over us, as the Apostle argueth. Rom. 6.9. Rom. 6.14. and in the 14 verse, to the singular comfort of all the faithfull, he assureth them; that sinne shall not have dominion over them, be­cause they are not under the law, but under grace.

Not the will of the flesh.§. 3. And if not the flesh, then not the will of the flesh; for in our regeneration our will especially is renewed and changed. For howsoever some doe teach, that a regenerate man may will his falling away, and that he may fall away, if he will, there being no such perseve­rance granted to men, but that of their owne accord they may fall away: unto which error of the semipela­gians some of late have added a strange conceipt: that in the regenerate man there is the spirit and the flesh, and the will set betweene both, which sometimes follow­eth the spirit, and sometimes the flesh, and this will be­ing mutable, our estate in grace is mutable, and there­fore howsoever GOD doth not forsake the faith­full, yet they may of their owne accord fall from GOD.

But hereunto I answeare, 1. that the will of a regene­rate man is also regenerated; and is therefore partly spi­rit and partly flesh, willing that which is good, as it is spirit, and nilling it as it is flesh: willing that which is evill, as it is flesh, and nilling it as it is spirit; and that be­tweene these two there is such a conflict Gal 5 17. that a rege­nerate man cannot will with his full will, either that which is evill, or that which is good, And therefore as his good actions are stained with the flesh; so his sinnefull actions are sinnes of infirmity, as being done against his will and purpose, as he is a man regenerate.

[Page 315]2. That our perseverance doth not depend upon our owne will, though regenerate, being left to it selfe, and much lesse upon the will of our flesh, or upon our owne strength; but upon the eternall love of God, from which no creature, and therefore not our owne will shalbe able to seperate us, and upon the immutable will and infinite power of GOD, who is both able and willing to stablish us, as hath beene said. I have before obserued out of St. Augustine De bono per­sev. c. 7, ex Ps 80 1 [...]: .9. that it is the hand of GOD upon us, and not our owne, that we doe not depart from him, and as he saith in the same place, Non nisi ad gratiam suam Deum pertinere voluisse, ut homo accedat ad eum: neque nisi ad gratiam suam pertinere voluisse, ut homo non recedat ab eo that he would have it belong to his grace alone, both that men doe come to him, and also that they doe not depart from him. and againe, voluntate suae cadit, De bono perse ver. l. 2. c. 8. qui cadit: & voluntate Dei stat, qui stat.

3. That to them, who are regenerate a constant will to persevere is partly given by the spirit in their regene­ration, and continued by the assisting grace of the spirit in performance of the particular acts of sanctification; and partly procured by our Saviours intercession. For as touching the former, in our regeneration our will is renewed, seriously and constantly to will our salvation and perseverance thereunto & in the continued course of our sanctification we are assisted by the spirit to will and to doe good, and to resist evill, For as St. Augustine testifieth De corrept & gratia c. 12. God to his saints doth give, not onely such an helpe as he gave to the first man, without which they can­not persevere, if they will; but also he worketh in them to will; that because they shall not persevere, unlesse they both can and will, the power and will to persevere should be [Page 316] given them by the largesse of Gods grace. For so greatly is their will inflamed by the holy Ghost, that therefore they can, because they so will, therefore they so will, because God worketh that they will. For in so great infirmity of this life, in which infirmity notwithstanding for the repressing of pride, virtue was to be perfected; if their will were left to them selves, that in the helpe of GOD, without which they cannot persevere, they might abide if they would, & GOD should not worke in them, that they would: a­mong so many & so great temptations, the will it selfe by its infirmity would faile; & therefore they could not persevere, because failing through infirmity, they would not so much as will, or would not so will, by reason of the weaknes of the will, as that they could. Sub ventum est ergo infirmit [...]ti voluntaris human [...], ut divinà gratiâ indecl nab [...]l [...]ter, & inse­parabiliter ageretu [...], & ideo quamvis infirma non deficeter, neque adversitate aliqua vin­ [...]eretur. Ther­fore helpe was given to the infirmity of mans will, that by the grace of GOD it should be acted unavoydably, & unseparably; & therefore though weake, should not faile nor be overcome by any adversity.

And as for the latter, it is evident, that as our Savi­our prayed for Peter, that his faith might not faile, Luk. 22.32. so he prayed also for the rest of the Apo­stles, and for all the faithfull, that they might perse­vere Ioh. 17, 15.20 21., and consequently that they might have a firme and constant will to persevere. For as Augustine saith, De corrept. & gratia c. 8. Quando rogavit Christus ne fi­des Petri deficeret, quid aliud rogavit, nisi ut haberet in fide l [...]berrimam, fort [...]ssimam, invi­ctissimam, perseverantissimam voluntatem When Christ prayed that Peters faith should not faile, what els did he aske, but that he might have a most free, strong, in­vincible, & persevering will in the faith. And a little before An aud ebis decere, etiam ro­gante Christo ne deficeret fides Petri, d [...]fecturum fuisse, si eam Petrus deficere voluiss [...]t; quasi aliud Pet us ullo modo vellet, quam quod Christus rogasser, ut vellet.. will you dare to say, that although Christ prayed, that Peters faith should not faile, it would have failed, if Peter would have it faile? as though Peter [Page 317] would or could by any meanes will an other thing then what Christ had asked for him, that he would will.

And to the like purpose Athanasius saith Orat. 4. cont. Arian., that when our Saviour prayed for the faithfull, that they may be one, as he (saith he) are one, his meaning was, that the grace of the spirit bestowed upon them, might be un­moveable & irrevocable. [...]. that what was granted to the sonne by nature, to be in the father that should be given unto us irrevocably by the spirit, which the Apostle know­ing, saith, [...]. who shall s [...]parate us from the love of Christ? for irre [...]ocable are the gifts of God, and the grace of his calling.

§. 4. Neither doe actuall sinnes cause the faithfull to fall away.Not actuall sinnes. For 1. God doth keepe the feete of his Saints. 1. Sam▪ 2▪ 9. And the steps of a man (meaning a good man, with whose way God is delighted, Ps. 37.23.24. are establi­shed by the Lord Ps. 37.23.24.. Though he fall, he shall not utterly be cast downe, for the Lord upholdeth him with his hand. 2. If the sinnes of the faithfull should deprive them of grace; then either sinnes of ignorance, or of infir­mity, or of malice. But not sinnes of ignorance, or of infirmity: for such sinnes may and doe, even in the best, stand or consist with grace. David complay­neth of the greatnes and multitude of his sinnes, in many of his Psalmes; wherein notwithstanding he professeth his faith and affiance in God. As Ps. 25.1. [...]um & 15.40.12. & 17.51.14. Nor sins of malice cōmitted with full cōsent of will: for such are not incidēt unto the faithful, & regenerat; who are partly spirit, & partly flesh: because they are borne of God, & the seed of God remaineth in thē, & therefore [Page 318] cannot so sinne, as I have shewed heretofore in answer to the sixt question, out of the 1. Ioh. 3.9. who also chap. 5, 18. noteth this to have beene a received truth in his time; we know (saith he) that whosoever is borne of God sinneth not (namely to death) but he that is begot­ten of God keepeth himselfe, (or as the vulgar edition hath) generatio Dei conservat eum) & that wicked one toucheth him not. 3. Howsoever the sins of the faith­full many times deserve to exclude them out of Gods favour, yet notwithstanding such is the gracious dis­pensation of Gods fatherly providence towards them, that he causeth all things both good and bad,Rom. 8.28, [...]d all e­vill not onely of punishment, but also of sinne, to coo­perate or worke together for their good, Rom. 8.28. the same is acknowledged by S. Augustine De corrept: & gratia Talibus Deus deligentibus eum omnia coeperatur in bonum, usque adeo pro [...]sus omnia, ut [...]tiam si qui corum deviant & exorbitant, etiam hoc ipsum eis faciat proficere in bonum, quia humiliores tedeunt, & doctio­res:. God to such lovers of him worketh all things for their good; and so farre forth all things all together, that if any of them goe astray, or be exorbitant, this also he maketh availe­able for their good: because they returne more humble and more learned. And by S. Basil. Ascat qu. 81. [...]. The offences of the godly many times and according to the disp [...]nsation (of Gods providence) turne to their pr [...]fit ▪ Now if they worke for the good of Gods chil­dren, then doe they not worke them out of the favour of God.

Not heresie.Not any heresie fundamentall or razing the foun­dation; for it is not possible Mat. 2 [...] 24, that the elect aft [...]e their effectuall calling, should be so seduced, But being onee of the Church 1. Iohn 2.19, they doe ever abide in the communi­on thereof. For though sometimes, even these which have beene teachers of others, doe fall away; neverthe­lesse [Page 319] the foundation of God 2. Tim. 2.19. standeth sure. And the faith­full have received 1. Ioh. 2. [...]0.27. an [...]uction from the holy one, which abideth in them, and even as it hath taught them, so shall they abide in him. Againe, there must be heresies 1 Cor 1 [...]. [...]9., as the Apostle saith, that [...], they that are sound Christians may be knowne, to wit, by not e [...]bracing them.De p [...]aescript. advers. haeres. c: 3: therefore those that are seduced by heresies were not sound. as Tertullian also saith (as hath beene be­fore cited) Neque fideles, neque prudentes, neque usitatos aestimandos, quos haereses potuerint demutare. Nemo chri­stianus, nisi qui ad fidem usque perseveraverit.

§. 5. Not any temptation; for as we heard before,Not tempta­tion. the Lord is faithfull, 1 Cor: 10:13, neither will he suffer any of his chil­dren to be tempted above their strength. And our Savi­our testifieth, that those, who are sound Christians Luk: [...]:48, have built upon the rock; and therefore cannot by any violence of temptations be overthrowne. Augustine quest: 4 [...]: ad Oros: therefore compareth the faithfull to such things as are square, which howsoever they be tossed or turned, doe stand alike so the godly,In quibuslibet tentationibus stabiles perma­nent. saith he, in all temptations remaine stedfast. Now it is certaine, that no man falleth away unlesse he be withdrawne by temptation. For as Prosper Devocat: gent: l: 1: c: [...]4: saith, quid aliud est perseverare, quam tentati­one non vinci? what is it to persevere, but not to be over­come by temptation? But CHRIST hath promised, that against the Church or any found member there­of the gates, that is, the power of hell shall not pre­vaile. And true is the saying of Gregory Saepè tenta­tio in corde e­lectorum lu­men justitiae abscondit, sed non interimit: Moral: l: 8: c: 6 Not the wo [...]ld. Temptation doth oftentimes hide the light of righteousnes, in the heart of the elect, but not destroy it. Not the world, for none but worldlings, who love the world, and the things therein more then God, are overcome by the world: [Page 320] now they that are lovers of the world, 1. Ioh 2.15 16 the love of God is not in them, but all that is borne of God overcommeth the world, 1. Ioh. 5.4. and this is the victory that overcommeth the world, even our faith, by which the victory of CHRIST Ioh. 16.33. who overcame the world for us, is communica­ted unto us.

Not the devill.Not the devill: for that wicked one 1. Ioh. 5.18. shall not be able to touch them that are borne of God, namely to hurt them, or to cause them to sinne unto death. For he 1. Ioh. 4.4. that is in us, is greater then he that is in the world ▪ who having not onely bound the strong man Luk, 11.22. as being stronger then he, but having also spoiled Col. 2:15: principali­ties and powers, hath made a shewe of them openly, and triumphed over them; and all this for our sake, that he might tread sathan Rom, 16, 20, under our feete. And further we know, that the devill himselfe is not able to annoy any of us, either in our persons,Iob, 1 & 2: Mat, 8, 31, or those things which belong unto us, further then it pleaseth GOD, to give him leave or commission. yea the Lord is so farre from suffering him to hurt us, that he causeth all his temptations and machinations against us to turne to our good.

No creature, Rom, 8, 38 3 9,§. 6. And not onely principalities and powers, but no creature whatsoever shalbe able to seperate us from the love of God in Christ.

And heere we are to observe, that divers of those things already spoken of, as afflictions, heresyes, tempta­tions of any of our spirituall enimies, as they are orde­red of GOD, are trialls to discerne the sound from the unsound. therefore those that are sound are not o­vercome by them, they are as it were the fanne where­with Christ doth purge his floure; and wherewith not [Page 321] the sound corne, but the chaffe is scattered, as we heard before out of Tertullian de prescript, c. 3. and Cyprian. de vuit. eccl. & epist. 55.

Finally all things whatsoever, not onely good but also evill, & evill not only of punishmēt as afflictiōs, but also of sin, are turned unto the good of Gods children. We know saith the ApostleRom. 8.28. that all things work together for good, unto thē that love God. to thē that are called according to his purpose. Now if all things whatsoever by the gra­cious dispensatiō of Gods providence are turned unto their good, thē it is certaine, that nothing can happen to conclude them totally or finally out of Gods favour: un [...]sse any wilbe so absurd as to say, that it is good for men to be separated from the love of God in Christ.

Seeing therefore perseverance is the priviledge of eve­ry upright & sound christiā, let us by walking uprightly before God in holines and righteousnes, endevour to make our calling & electiō, & cōsequētly our perseverāce sure unto us▪ for if we doe 2. Pet. 1.10. Ps. 15. [...] these things we shall never be removed.


Bellarmines exceptions refuted.

§. 1.NOW let vs see what Bellarmine is able,Bellarmines ex­c [...]ptions a­gainst 5 testi­mon [...]es of scripture. either to answeare to our argumente, or to object against our assertion. Out of that multitude of infallible testimonies, and unanswearable arguments, which are produced for the proofe of our assertion, he culleth our de iustified. [...]. c. 15. 5 testi­monies onely, which as he confesseth, doe in shewe not a litle favour our opinion. The first is that in the Canticles. Cant. 8.7. Chap. 8. V. 7. much water cannot quench love, neither can the floods drowne it, if a man should give all the substance of his house for love, they [Page 322] would greatly contemne it, that is, it would utterly be contemned. In which words the love of the Church, & of every faithfull soule towards Christ is testified to be such, that neither tribulations, signified by waters, though they be many and mighty, should be able to quench it, not all the desires of the world should be a▪ able to with-draw it from Christ her husband.

His exception against this place is partly false, and partly ridiculous. False, when as he saith, this testimony doth not prove, that charity cannot be lost, if men be wil­ling to cast it off, as many willingly doe, embracing the lusts & desires of the world; to whom it is said, Apo [...]. I have a few things against thee, because thou hast left thy first love, remember whence thou art fal [...]e. In which an­swer Bellarmine signifieth, that although true charity cannot be taken from a man; yet he may willingly put it off, which is false. For he that hath true charity, pro­ceeding from a pure heart, from a good conscience, and faith unfained, hath a right or good wil Chatitas est voluntas recta & bona ad De­um. towards God, his will & affections being regenerate in such sort, that he cannot so will the loosing or putting off the love of Christ, as that he should loose it, or if he should, it would be in respect of some other worldly desire, which he should more affect. But the holy Ghost here testifi­eth, that as love cannot be taken frō him; that is indued therewith; so himselfe will not forgoe it for all the pro­fits & pleasures of the world. To the place of the Apo­calypse,Apoc. 2. I answered before,Chap. 40 §. 1. that it speaketh onely of the measure & degree, for true love cannot in respect of any kindes it hath, be distinguished into the first and the second, but in respect of the measure & degree. And in that sence the Angell of Ephesus is said to have left & to be falne frō that measure & degree of love which [Page 323] in former times he had. The very like exception is by others taken against such allegatiōs of Scripture, as doe testify,Ioh. 6. [...] that neither the Lord will cast off the fait [...]full, neither will he suffer any other to plucke thē out of his hand. It is true, say they, but yet the faithfull may vo­luntarily, & of their owne accord fall away. But I an­swere, that they, whose will is once regenerate, cannot througely or wholely will their defection or falling a­way, as hath bene already Chap. 8. § 3: proved. 2ly. both to Bellar­mine & thē I answeare, that the certainty of our perse­verance, and constancy of Gods graces in us, is not grounded upon our owne will, or strength in our selves, but upon the will of God which is immutable, & upon his power, which is omnipotent. Thirdly, that by the Scriptures perseverance is proved to be certaine, not onely on Gods part, but also on the believers, being stablished & cōfirmed by the Lord. Ier. 32.40. I will put my feare in their hearts, that they shall not depart frō me, 1. Ioh. 2.19. if they had beene of us, they would surely have remained with us, 1. Ioh. 3.9. he that is borne of God doth not commit sinne, for his seed remaineth in him, neither can he sinne, because he is bo [...]ne of God. 1. Ioh. 5. 18. he that is borne of God sinneth not (unto death.) but he that is begotten of God keepeth himselfe, and that wic­ked one toucheth him not.

The other part of Bellarmines answere is ridiculous, when he saith. that this place of the Canticles, doth not prove, that charity may not be lost, but that whilst charity remaineth, there is no tribulation which may not easily be borne, for the Apostle teacheth, that charity suffereth and indureth all things. 1. Cor. 13. Ans. the Questiō is, whe­ther charity may be lost; we prove it cannot, because charity cānot be extinguished, It is true, saith Bellarmine, [Page 324] it cannot be extinguished so long as a man hath it; for charity endureth all things. As if he should have said, that a man cannot loose his charity, whilst he hath it. And such is the answer that some make to those places of Scripture, which testifie, that the sheep of CHRIST shall not be plucked out of his hands, that the just shall never be removed, that [...]he faithful & elect shall not fall away, that they shall never perish, Ioh. 10.28. It is true indeed, say they, in sensu composito, that is, whilst they cō ­tinue sheep, whiles they remaine just, faithfull & elect; But if at any time they doe not retaine the nature of sheepe, if they cease to be just, faithfull, & elect, then may they fall a­way, Why, but this is the question betwixt us, whe­ther those that be the sheep of CHRIST shal ever conti­nue to be his sheep, & whether those that be just, faith­full, & elect, shall so remaine; we prove they shal, by evi­dent testimonies of Scripture, which they so expoūd, as if the holy Ghost had said, whiles men did not cease to be the sheep of CHRIST, to be just, to be faithfull and elect, they should so continue & persevere. But if they did cease to be CHRISTS sheep, to be just, faithfull and elect, then surely they should be no longer the sheep of Christ, no lōger just, faithful or elect, wch is ridiculous. And not unlike is the exceptiō, which some take against those manifest places of scripture, testifying the certainty of salvatiō, & consequētly of perseverāce unto salvatiō, as, whosoever believeth in Christ; Ioh. 3.16. Mark. 16.26 shalbe saved▪ Whosoever eateth Ioh. 6 [...]4. the flesh of Christ, or drinketh his blood, hath eternal life; whosoever shal drink of the water Iohn 4, 14. that Christ shal give him, shal never thirst againe; that these words believing, eating, drinking, doe signify cōtinued, or at least final acts. Not that every one that once believeth, eateth or drink­eth should be saved: but he that believes, eates, drinks to the end. Whereas it is certain, that Christs meaning is, [Page 325] that whosoever truly believeth in him, shall believe to the end. For if every one that believeth shalbe saved, thē it followeth, that he shall persevere unto salvation, that he which eateth of his flesh, and drinketh of his blood, shall thereby be nourished unto eternall life: that he which once drinketh of the water, which CHRIST shall give him, shall never thirst againe. Christ is the bread of life, or the living bread which giveth life eternall to those that eat his body, & drinke his blood, that is, to those that believe in him. For I am Ioh. 6. [...]. saith he, the bread of life, he that commeth to me, that is, that once eateth of my body, shall never hunger, and he that believeth in me, that is that once drinketh of my blood, shall never thirst. Not as your fathers did eat Manna V. [...] and are dead: he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever. And not onely so, but he that believeth in me, saith Christ, hath everlasting life, he doth not say shall have, but so soone as he truly believeth, he hath everlasting life. And (as he had said in the Chapter Ioh. 5. [...]4. going before) is passed from death unto life. Neither doth he onely say, if any man shall eat of this bread, he shall live for ever, which were sufficient to prove the perseverance of him, that once eateth the body of Christ, unto eternall life: but he saith Ioh. 14. who so eateth my flesh & drinketh my blood, hath eternall life. which it were foolish to understand onely of the end of a mans life, and as it were of the last gaspe. But his meaning is, that a man doth no sooner believe truly in Christ, or eat his body or drinke his blood, but he hath eternall life, in respect of the certainty of salvatiō, & consequently of perseverance to salvatiō, therefore he that truly believeth, believeth to the end. And so our saviour Christ saith in the same Chap. he that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood [...] V. 16. [Page 326] abideth in me, and I in him. Neither doth our Saviour Christ onely say, that whosoever shall drinke the water, that I shall give him, shall never thirst again, which were sufficient to prove the certainty of perseveran [...]e, but he addeth, Ioh. 4:14. the water which I will give him, it shall become in him (that once drinketh thereof) a well spring or fountaine of water springing up unto life everlasting.

Testimony. Ioh. 4.14.§. 2. The second testimony is that place now menti­oned of S▪ Iohn 4.14. whosoever shall drinke of the wa­ter that I shall give him, shall never any more be a thirst; but the water that I shall give him, shall be in him a well of water springing up unto everlasting life; where, by wa­ter, our Saviour meaneth the spirit of grace (as Ioh. 7. [...]9. Es. 44.3.) wherewith whosoever is once endued, he shall never after be destitute of the spirit, or of grace; but the spirit shalbe in him a living fountaine, which shall never be dried up, but ever springing in him, untill he hath attayned to the end of his faith, eternall life.

Bellarmines [...]. This testimony saith Bellarmine, is of the same force with the former. which in deed is true, for there, charity was compared to a fire, that can never be quenched: and here the grace of God to a fountaine, that can never be dried. But perhaps his meaning is, that his answer to this shalbe such as was to the former. For, saith he, in whom the grace of God, or charity remayneth, he shall never thirst, because he hath a living fountaine in him. Notwith­standing this fountaine may be dried & stopped up, whil [...]s we are in this place of temptations. And if it happen to be dryed, that is, if we fall from grace, according to that, Gal. 5. you are falne from grace, what marvaile is it, if a­gaine we beginne (our concupiscence urging us) to thirst after vaine delights. Of which speech the former part [Page 327] is ridiculous like the former answere: for whereas the question is, whether a man may fall from grace, and he proving by this most pregnant testimony▪ that he, who once is indued with the spirit of grace which is in him as an everliving foūtain, shal never be athirst again, that is, shall never be dry, or utterly destitute of grace, (for that is Christs meaning, as appeareth by compa­ring this verse with the 13th) he answereth, in deed whiles grace remayneth in him, whiles the fountaine is not dryed, (which Christ saith, never shalbe dried) he shall not thirst, that is, whiles he hath store, he shall not want. But the latter part of Bellarmines answer plainly contradicteth the assertion of our Saviour Christ. For whereas our Saviour saith, that he which drinketh of that water which he shal give him, shal never be athirst, because it shalbe in him a fountaine of water, springing to eternall life, Bellarmine saith, that this fountaine may be dryed up, in this place of temptations, neither shall it be a fountaine springing to eternall life, & that it being dryed up, the party shalbe athirst. To his allegation out of the Gal. 5. I have already answered, & shall againe, when I come to his arguments. viz. to his 6. tes [...]imony.Chap. [...] §. 1. §. 3. The third testimony is Rom. 8.35. who shall separat us from the love of Christ? Testimony. Rom [...]:35. & after v. 38.39. Certus sum, I am assured that neither death nor life, &c. shalbe able to separate us from the love of God. Where, by us he mean­eth all the faithfull and elect; & by the love of God, not our love towards God, but Gods love towards us, as appeareth plainly by the last words, which Bellarmine, because he was minded to expoūd otherwise thē the A­postle meant, hath omitted; nothing shalbe abl [...], saith the Apostle, Rom. 8 [...]39 to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Iesus our Lord, that is, frō that love wherewith he loveeh us in Christ.

[Page 328]To this testimony Bellarmine shapeth two answeares. the former, that the sence of this place is according to the exposition of Augustine [...] that no terror, nor tribulation can make a man, in whō charity is fervēt, to offend his God. But Augustine doth not onely speak of terrors & tribula­tions, but of alluremēts also, & promises. And he doth not say as Bellarmine maketh him, that nothing can make a man to offend his God (which is more then is true) but as the Apostle teacheth him, that nothing can seperate him from the love of God. Notwithstanding (saith he) Augustine in the same place, admonisheth, that charity in this life may be lost, & therefore that so great a good is most diligently to be kept. If Augustine had said so, we must have believed the Apostle,1. Cor. 13. [...]. rather then him▪ but indeed he saith not so, but rather the contrary. For if nothing saith he, doth seperate us from the love of God (which the Apostle testifieth, & Augustine taketh for grāted) what can be not onely better, but more certaine thē this good. Onely he adviseth, that men should take heed, that by the love of the world they be not with-drawne from the love of God. which doth not argue, that true love may be lost, (for presētly Augustine inferreth, ther­fore not the other creature, meaning thereby the world, doth seperate us) but that there are many which professe themselves to love God, who had need to be admoni­shed to labour for such a love of God, as will not give place to the love of the world. For to the same purpose St. Iohn Ioh 2 15. exhorteth, Love not the world, nor the things that are in the world. his reasō is, if any man love the world the love of the father is not in him. He therefore that is a lover of the world, more thē of God, doth not loose his love of God, but bewrayeth himselfe never to have had it. For those who are lovers of the world, b are haters of God as St. Iames saith.

[Page 329]His second answeare, not onely agreeth with the truth but also confirmeth that assertiō of ours, for which this testimony is alleadged, viz. that the Apostle here speaketh in the persō of the elect, de justi [...], l 3 c 9 respons ad testimo. 7. as before he said, referring us to the 9. Chap. where he expoundeth this testimony, whereof as he saith, this is the sence, Certū esse omnes predestinatos perseveraturos in charitate Dei. it is certaine that all that are predestinated unto life, shall persevere in the love of God. For the same Apostle had said a litle before, we know that all things worke for the good of those that love God, who are cal­led according to his purpose. For whom he hath foreknowne, he hath predestinated &c. And this (saith he) is Augustines De corrept, & g [...]a. c. 7. judgment of this place. And this, say I, is as much as we desire, seeing all that are called according to Gods pur­pose, all that are justified, (as all are that truly believe) are also predestinated or elected) as I have manifestly proved before.chap 7. §. [...]. But here is to be noted, that some, who joyne with the Papists in their erroneous assertiō, that a reprobate may be justified, are worse then the Papists, in saying, that the predestinate or elect, may vtterly fall a­way from the grace of God and become reprobates & so perish eternally, which according to the scriptures, & the auncient fathers is impossible.

§. 4. The 4th testimony.Testimony 4. 1. Cor. 1. Cor. 13.8. Charity doth neuer fall away. whereunto Bellarmine frameth two answears. first, that charity is said never to fall away, because it is ne­ver brokē with laboures, but endureth all things. If the A­postle had said no more but so, even that would have proved, that chariey never wholly saileth. but the A­postle saith more. For when he had said before, that Charity suffereth all things and endureth all things (which Bellarmine absurdly maketh the exposition of that which followeth) he addeth, that [Page 330] it never falleth away. In the second place therefore he answeareth, that charity indeed doth not fall of it selfe, but we may fall from it, which is a most frivolous cavill, for if any man should fall from charity, would not his charity faile and fall away? But the Apostle saith, that c [...]arity never falleth away, yea but the Apostle putteth a difference betwixt charity and the other two graces saith and hope in respect of the life to come: for charity remai­neth in the life to come, but faith and hope end with this life: and in this respect he saith, that charity never falleth away, therefore (saith he) the Apostle doth not signify, that no man looseth charity, but he sheweth, that it is not repug­nant to charity, that it should alwayes remaine, as it is re­pugnant to faith and hope. I answeare, if charity never fall away, then not in this life, in respect whereof the Apostle acknowledgeth these 3 graces to agree in the property of continuance, though there be difference in respect of the life to come. Now, 1. Cor. 13.13. saith he, that is, in this life, abideth faith, hope and charity, these 3. but the grea­test of these is charity, which doth not onely abide in this life, as the 2 other graces doe, but also in the life to come. And wheras he saith, the Apostle sheweth that it is not repugnant to charity to remaine alwayes, but do [...]h not signify that no man looseth his charity, marke how Sophistically he dealeth. The Apostle setteth it downe as one of the propertyes of charity that it never falleth away he expoundeth the Apostle, as if he had said, it may so fall out, that charity never faileth away, for it is not repugnant to the nature of it to remaine forever. And whereas the Apostle attributeth those propertyes to charity in respect of the [...]ruits and effects which it worketh in them, who are truely indued therewith, he would have them vnderstood of charity considered in [Page 331] it selfe. But who knoweth not, that charity is said not to seeke her owne things not to envy, not to fall away. but to suffer, to believe, to hope, to endure all things, because it causeth him, in whom it is thus to be disposed.

§. 5. The fift and last testimony is. 1. Ioh. 3.9.Testimony 5. Who­soever is borne of God committeth not sinne, because his seed remaineth in him, neither can he sinne because he is borne of God. Bellarmine in steed of one good answeare telleth us, there be five seuerall expositions of this place which he confesseth to be of all others the most difficult The first of Ambrose; who referreth this place to the state of future glory. the second of Bernard, who under­standeth this place of the elect, who are said not to sinne not that they never sinne, but because their sinnes shall not be imputed to them unto condemnation. The third of those, who understand these words neither can he sinne, as if St. Iohn had said, neither ought he to sinne. The 4th. of Augustine, who understandeth this place of veniall sinnes; and saith, that the childe of GOD, cannot so sinne, as he is the childe of GOD, but onely as in respect of his flesh, he is the childe of this world The 5t. and last, which onely Bellarmine ap­proveth is St. Augustines also, and St. Hieromes, who understand this place of mortall sinnes. This therefore (saith Bellarmine) is the Apostles meaning, that he which is the son of God, doth not, nor cannot sin mortally, whiles he is the sonne of God, because his seed which is charity, a­bideth in him. But as all the former expositions were very impertinent, so also this; Impertinent I say, first to the text it selfe. For the holy Ghost in this place, as Bellarmine himselfe teacheeh, setteth downe certaine [Page 332] markes, whereby the children of God in this life may be discerned from the children of the devill. But this is not a marke of the child of God, that he never com­mitteth a deadly sinne, nor this of the child of the devill that sometimes he doth, for many of Gods deere chil­dren have falne, and many doe fall into grievous sinnes; but he that committeth sinne in that sence, as the phrase is used. 1. Ioh. 3.8. Ioh. 8.34. with ful [...] swinge and consent of his will, as a servant of sinne, in whom sinne raigneth, who is a worker of iniquity, given over to the practise of sinne, making as it were a trade of it, and sinning ex imperio vitiosi habitus; he is of the devill. But he that is borne of God, doth not commit sinne, as a servant of sinne, neither can he so sinne, for the reasons before mentioned. 2. Impertinent, or rather re­pugnant to his owne purpose, for if the child of GOD cannot fall into a mortall sinne, then much lesse can he fall away from God. Wherefore Bellarmine retur­neth againe to his former absurdity. For he understan­deth St. Iohn, as if he had said, that the child of God doth not sinne mortally, (and thereby, according to Bellar­mines conceipt, ceaseth not to be the child of GOD) whiles he continueth the child of God, and whiles his seed, that is, charity remaineth in him; whereas St. Iohn plainly saith, that the child of God doth not, nor can­not commit sinne, because he is borne of GOD, that is, because he is the child of God, and because the seed of God, which is the spirit or grace of regenera­tion abideth in him. neither can he, that is borne of God, be unborne againe.


Bellarmines allegation of 11 testimonyes out of the holy scriptures answeared.

§ 1. WEE have heard Bellarmines cavillati­ons against some few of our allegations;Bellarmines ar­guments. de justifili 3. c▪ 14. now let vs examine his objections. For that faith and iustification once had may be lost, not onely totally for a time, but also finally for ever, he laboureth to prove, by testimonyes and examples of scripture, by the difinition and tradition of the Church, and lastly by reason.

As touching the testimonyes of the scripture,Testimonies of scripture. there be so many and so evident places proving the certainty of perseverance, which before I produced; as that he, which heareth or readeth them, had need to be very obstinate, if he shall not yeeld to this truth, so clearely testified in the scriptures. Notwithstanding Bellarmine, as his manner is, se [...]teth a good face on the matter, and saith: there be so many and so plaine testimonyes of scripture, to prove his conceipt; that it is a wonder to him, that such an error (as our assertion is) should ever come in­to the mindes of men.

Out of the old testament,Bellarmines 1. testimon. Ezech 18.26. he citeth onely the testimo­ny of Ezechiel, Chap. 18.26. whē a righteous man turnes away from his righteousnes & committeth iniquity, he shal even die for the same. What can be more cleare saith Bellar­mine? how is he, I pray you, turned away from his righte­ousnes, if he be justified by faith onely, & faith, being once conceiued, cannot be extinguished? His reason is thus to be framed. If a righteous man may be turned from his righteousnes, then faith once [Page 334] had may be lost. But a righteous man may be turned from his righteousnes. Therefore faith once had may be lost.

Answeare to the testimony out of Ezech. 1826. and [...] to his proposition§. 2. I answeare by distinction. if by a righteous man in this text, be understood such a one, as is righteous onely in appearance, or before men, then the conse­quence of the proposition is to be denyed: but if he be meant that is truly righteous before God, then the as­sumption is false. The connexion or consequence of the proposition he would prove by another assertion of ours, that we are justified by faith alone, hoping to make us deny either the one or the other.

But Bellarmine deceiveth himselfe, whiles he seeketh to deceive others. For when we say that faith alone doth justify, our meaning is that we are not justified by any righteousnes inherent in our [...]elves, but by the righteousnes of Christ alone, which is apprehend by faith onely, and not by any other grace But Bellarmine would faine make the world believe, that we acknowledge or care for, no other righteous­nes inherent, but faith onely; and in that sence doe say, that faith alone doth justify. Howbeit we acknowledg faith to be but a part of that inherent righteousnes, wherein our sanctification consisteth▪ and we are so farre from saying that faith alone doth justify, in that sence, that we affirme it doth not justify at all, as it is a part of our inherent righteousnes, but as it is an instru­ment to apprehend the righteousnes of Christ, which is out of us in him, and therefore doth not justifie in respect of its owne merite or dignity, but in respect of the object, which it doth apprehend, and in this sence it is said to justify alone, because to apprehend the [Page 335] righteousnes of CHRIST is the proper office of faith a­lone, and not belonging to any other grace, as to looke upon the brazen serpent, was the office of the eye, and not of any other member.

Our assertion therefore of justification by faith alone doth not prove Bellarmines proposition. For their is a double righteousnes, the one inherent, or at least adhe­rent, which is called our owne righteousnes: the other imputed, which is not our owne, Rō. 3.21. [...].103 Phil. 3.9. but is the righteous­nes of God, that is of Christ who is God, apprehended by faith. Of the former the prophet speaketh, calling it the parties owne righteousnes. (for so he saith) his righ­teousnes, and Chap. 33.13. his owne righteousnes) in respect where of a man may be reputed just before men, who is not just before God by that righteousnes which is through faith; without which no man is truly righte­ous; for asmuch as every man in himselfe, is a s [...]one [...] or transgressour of the law. A man therefore, who in his owne opinion and estimation of others, is reputed righteous by reason of some workes of righteousnes which he performeth in his outward conversation, as the Phariseyes Mat 23 2 [...]. Luk. 16.1 [...].18.11. were; may turne himselfe from his righteousnes, and commit all the abominations of the wicked, and perish therein, and yet cannot be said to loose his justification, or his faith, which he never had. If any object, that the prophet would not call such a one a just man. I answeare, that the holy Ghost in the scriptures, Phil. 1.7: that he might teach us to speake and thinke charitably of our neighbours, doth many times speake according to the judgment of charity, terming those just, redeemed, sanctified, the sonnes of God, who are such onely in their owne profession, and opinion of others. As in this particular. Our Saviour saith. Mat 9.13. I [Page 336] came not to save the righteous, but to call sinners to repen­tance; meaning, by righteous, such as be righteous in their owne conceipt, and trust in their owne righteous­nes. And of such a one the prophet▪ when he presuppo­seth his possibility of falling away, seemeth to speake, as appeareth by conferring this place with Chapt. 33.13. where the same commination is repeated, If the righte­ous (upon such promises as God hath made to them that are truly righteous) shall trust to his ewne righteous­nes, and commit iniquity &c. Seeing therefore the holy Ghost speaketh (as it seemeth) of him that is not truly just before God, nor justified by that righteousnes which is by faith, the consequence of the proposition is to be denyed.

Answ. to his Assumption.§. 3. But if the Prophet should speak of him that is tru­ly righteous before God, I would answeare, that the assumption is false: which as it is plainly contradicted by other places of scripture, so can it not be proved out of this text. The assumption, which Bellarmine fasly groundeth on this text, affirmeth, which the text doth nor affirme, that a man truly just may be turned away from his righteousnes, meaning thereby a totall and fi­nall apostasy. for of such a defection the Prophet speaketh. Of a totall. V. 24. If the righteous turne away from his righteousnes and commit iniquity, and doe accor­ding to all the abominations of the wicked, he shall not live, but die therein. Of a finall v. 26. when a righteous man turneth away from his righteousnes, and commiteth iniquity, and dyeth in them (without repentance) for his iniquity, that he hath done, he shall dye. his finall impeni­tency shalbe punished with eternall death. Now this assertion, as I said, is plainly contradicted by other testi­monies [Page 337] of scripture, as namely, Ps. where it is said, that the righteous shall never be remo­ved, & that his righteousnes remaineth for ever, & that it shalbe had in everlasting remembrance; & by al those evident places, which I produced before. And therefore Bellarmines exposition of this place, is not agreeable to the analogy of faith. Neither can this assumption be grounded on this text. For if the Prophet do speake of him that is truly just, then is the proposition indeed cō ­tained in the text, if a righteous man doe turne away frō his righteousnes he shal not only loose his justifica­tion, but also finally perish. But the assumption is of Bel­lar. own coyning. For the Prophet doth not say in a simple or categorical proposition, the righteous man do that any time turne away from his righteousnes; but in a connexive or conditional proposition: if the righte­ous turne himself frō his righteousnes, &c. or whē the righ­teous shal turne himself frō his righteousnes. for a sentence wherin is relation of time, is all one with a connexive or conditional propositiō, & the vulgar translatiō reads both waies, v. 24. si avetterit se justus, if the righteous shal turne away. v. 26. quū averterit se justus, when the righte­ous shal turne away. Now in a connexive or conditional speech the antecedent is not absolutely or simply affir­med & therfore from it, in a connexive syllogisme, we do somtimes conclude the contradictory of the ante­cedent by denying the cōsequent, as wel as by assuming the antecedent, we conclude the consequent. Neither have we in judging of the truth of a connexive proposi­tiō, respect to the truth of the parts therof, but to the ne­cessity of the connexion; wch may be true & necessary where both the parts be false. As for exāple. If an elect man doe fall away utterly frō grace, he shal perish in his sins, the cōnexiō is necessary, & yet both parts are false in [Page 338] Bellarmines owne judgment. So when the Prophet saith, if a man truly just turne from his righteousnes, he shall die or perish in his sinnes; he doth not affirme, either that he who is truly righteous, doth turne away from his righteousnes, or that he shall dye in his sins. But this he saith by way of supposition, if the righte­ous, or when the righteous shall turne away, then he shall dye in his sinnes. But from this proposition we may, or rather must inferre more agreeably to the Scri­ptures, the very contrary conclusion. For if a man will argue from a con [...]exive proposition, whereof the seve­rall parts be false, he may not conclude by assuming the antecedent, but by denying the consequent: the de­ny all whereof will conclude the antecedent to be false. Thus, if any of the elect should utterly fall away frō grace, he should perish in his sins; but none of the elect doth at any time perish in his sinnes; therfore none of the elect doth at any time utterly fall away from grace. In like maner, If a man truly righteous (as no man is, that is not elect) shal turne frō his righteousnes, & cōmit iniquity, according to all the abominations of the wicked: then his righte­ousnes shall not be remembred; but he shall dye in his sins; but the righteousnes of thē which be truly righte­ous, endureth for ever, and shalbe had in everlasting re­membrance, and he that is truly righteous, shall never be removed; therefore the man that is truly righteous doth never turne him self wholly frō his righteousnes.

These words therfore of the Prophet are not a simple or absolute assertion, that the man who is truly righte­ous, shall or may fall away, but an wholsome & profi­table admonition to all that are, or seeme to be righte­ous, that they do not fall away for if they do, the Lord threatneth that their former righteousnes (which by their defection is proved to have been counterfeit) shal [Page 339] not be remēbred, but that they shall perish in their sins. It is true in deed, if a man truly righteous, yea if a man elected or predestinated shall utterly, that is, wholly & finally turne away him self frō his righteousnes, & doe according to all the abominations of the wicked, that he shall perish in his sins. But that he should not fall a­way, the Lord doth sustaine & establish him, & by such admonitions & comminations, he stirreth him up to vigilancy; that he which seemeth to stand, may take heed that he do not fall. Wherfore the defection of the righteous is no more proved out of this place, thē out of other threatnings & admonitiōs in the word, which (as I shal shew hereafter in answer to Bellarmines 4t rea­son, & that by his own confession) are not arguments of their defection, but so many adiumēts & helps that they may not fall. For as the Lord hath decreed & promi­sed, that those which be truly just shall persevere (as I have shewne before) so he hath preordayned meanes, (such as be admonitiōs & comminations) to that end for by them he worketh in the faithfull his feare, Ier. 32.41. which he putteth into their hearts, that they should not depart from him.

§. 4. Out of the New Testament he citeth 10. testi­monies,Bellarmines se­cond testimony Luk, 8.13. his 2d allegation therfore is out of Luke 8.13. For that on the stones, are they which whē they have heard receive the word with ioy, but they have no roots, which for a while believe, but in the time of temptatiō go away. These saith Bellarmine, receive the seed of the word with ioy, nei­ther doe they want faith, but perseverance in faith. His reason thus standeth. The temporary believers spoken of Luke 8.13. doe loose their faith, those temporary believers doe truly believe, therfore some which doe truly believe doe loose their [...] ▪ the proposition is proved by this testi­mony, [Page 340] that in the time of tēptation they goe away. the assūption out of those words, they receive the word with ioy, & believe. therefore saith he, not saith is wanting unto them, but perseverance in faith. I answere, that both the proposition, & the assumption, if they be understood of true justifying faith, are false: if otherwise, then this al­legation is impertinent. For the question is, whether they which truly believe, & are justified by faith, may altogether loose that faith whereby they are justified. First therfore I deny the assūption; for the faith of those temporary persons is not the true faith of the elect, but the coūterfeit faith of hypocrits. And this may be pro­ved out of the Text it selfe. For 1. Christ doth not say, that they do truly believe, but that they believe for a time & in time of tēptatiō fall away. which is an evident signe not of true faith, but of infidelity. for it is an evill heart of infidelity which falleth away frō God, Heb. 3.12. wheras they that truly believe in the Lord, Ps. 125.1. are like to mount Zion, that shall never be removed. they are built upon the rock, Mat. 16.18. against which the gates of hell shall not prevaile. wherfore the Apostle maketh such an opposition be­twixt faith & falling away, as that they are not coinci­dent to the same person Heb. 10.39.. [...], saith he, [...], we are not of defection, but of faith. therfore he which utterly falleth away, never truly believed for those that truly believe are justified, & none are justified but such as are elected, & shalbe glorified & as their de­fection argueth their want of faith, so also of the true love of God,Ioh. 2.15. which is not in thē that love the world, & much lesse in thē who for love of the world forsake God

2ly, because it is said, they have no root; & that wch hath no root is no lively saith, they have leaves onely of an outward profession, wherin tēporary faith testeth, but they have no roote, which all have that truly believe, [Page 341] and are indued with a justifying faith. For by faith Col. 1.7. we are rooted in Christ, & by it, we apprehending Christ and his righteousnes, draw from him spirituall sappe & nourishmēt, wch in the scriptures is called the eating of his body and drinking of his blood. And fitly also, in an other respect, is the speciall apprehension of faith com­pared to a roote, because frō the persuasiō of Gods love towards us in Christ, doth all our new obedience, & all other sanctifying graces spring as it were from a roote, as I haue shewed heretofore.

Thirdly, because the last sort of hearers onely are said to receive the seed into a good & honest, that is, an upright heart; whereas this is not good, but is compared to a rock superficially covered with a litle mould, therefore these superficiall christians are not those, of whom our Questiō is, but these sound christians who retayning the seed of Gods word, doe not fall away in time of temp­tation, but bring forth fruite with perseverance.

Object. Why, but they are said to beleive, and to re­ceive the word with joy. Answ. they are said to believe, not because they doe by a true justifying faith appre­hend the merits of Christ, or apply the promises of the Gospell to themselves: but because they professe the doctrine of faith, assenting to it as true, and ap­proving it as good, and after a sort rejoycing there­in; all which may happen to the reprobates, who many times professe the Gospell, and in the acknow­ledgment, and approbation thereof, for certaine tempo­rall respects, doe rejoyce, but without any true faith in Christ, or repentance towards God. as Herod is said to have heard Mark. 6.20. Iohn the Baptist with delight. And therefore when question ariseth (as it doth in time of temptatiō) whether they must forsake their profession, or tēporall [Page 342] respects, they usually fall away, and with Demas em­brace this present world. And in this sence the word be­lieve is used else-where, as hath beene shewed out of Iohn 2.23.24. Iohn 12.42. compared with Iohn 5.44 And in this sence Simon Magus is said to have believed, Act. 8. and divers followers of our Saviour Christ, a­mong who [...] was Iu [...]as, who though they professed the faith and were reckoned among the believers, yet did not Ioh. 6.64. believe in deed. These temporary believers therefore have not a true saith, and hereby the propo­sition is also proved to be false. For if they never had true faith, they could not loose it, but an opinion or shadow of it. neither doe they cast off the true faith, but the profession of it, & by that meines their former hy­pocrisy is detected. For of them is that verified, 1. Ioh. 2.19. They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had beene of us, they would surely have cōtinued with us; but they wēt out, that they might appeare not to be of us,

Bellarmines third testimony Iohn 15.2.§. 5 His third testimony is Iohn 15.2. every branch that beareth not fruit in me, he taketh away. But it cannot be a branch, saith Bellarmine, which hath not sometimes lived in the vine, for branches are not engrafted from els­where, but they spring out of the vine, and they spring not dead, but living. so therefore the faithfull are borne againe in Christ, & when they are borne againe, they are not dead but living, and yet, if after they be borne againe, they refuse to bring forth the fruit of good workes, they dry away, they are cut off, and perish.

His reason is thus: to be framed. some branches in Christ, the true vine, may wither; be cut off, and perish

All the branches in Christ are, or at least have beene faithfull, and regenerate men, and true members of Christ, by a true and a lively faith.

[Page 343] Therefore some that are or have beene faithfull, and re­generate men, and true members of Christ, may wither, be cut off, and perish.

The proposition he proveth by the testimony of Christ, who saith, every branch that beareth not fruit in me, my Father the husbandman shall take away, and it be­ing cut off, it shalbe gathered, V. 6. and cast into the fire.

The assumption he proveth thus. Those who were once alive in Christ, they were faithfull & regenerate men.

All the branches in Christ the Vine, were once alive in Christ. And that he proveth by a similitude. As the branches of the vine are not engrafted from others, but spring out of the vine, and they spring not dead, but li­vinge, so the faithfull are borne againe in Christ, and when they are borne againe, they are noe dead, but alive.

Therefore all the branches in Christ, are or have beene faithfull and regenerate men.

Answ. Christ in this place compareth his body, which is his church, to a vine, as elswhere Rom. 11.17.18. to an olive tree, & the mēbers of his church, & so of his body, to the bran­ches of the vine. Now the members of his church, and branches of this vine, are all such as being once ingraf­ted into the body of the church (as it were into a vine or olive tree) by the Sacrament of Baptisme, and living therein, doe make profession of the faith. But of these branches there be two kindes. For some are by the in­ward & spirituall, baptisme, engrafted into the invisible church of Christ, as his true & lively members, and are united unto Christ their Head by the spirit, & by faith, & consequently receiving spirituall life & nourishment from Christ, as it were from the route they bring forth fruit. Others are by the outward Baptisme of water on­ly, engrafted into the visible church of Christ, & by rea­son [Page 344] of their profession of the faith, & external commu­nion with the members of the Church, are reckoned a­mong the mēbers of Christ; who yet notwithstanding are not united unto Christ by his spirit & by faith. and therfore having no spirituall communion with Christ, they are unfruitful. These, though they be not the mē ­bers of Christ in truth, but only in title & shew, living in the visible church, but not being of the church invi­sible notwithstanding they are called the branches and members of Christ, in a large & general, or rather equi­vocall sence, because they professe the faith of Christ, & are numbred among the members of the church & of such do Cyrill In Ioan. l 10. c. 14. and Theophylact Theoph. in Io [...]n. 15. understand this place.

This distinction of branches is propounded by Christ himself, that some are fruitfull, as namely those which being engrafted into Christ by faith, receive the grace of his spirit, as it were sap & nourishmēt frō him others are unfruitfull, as those who being not united unto Christ, by his spirit & by faith, doe rest in the outward cōmunion of the church & in the externall professiō of the faith. wch distinctiō being all one in effect with this that some are [...], sound & upright Christians, of whom only this question is understood; others [...] unsound & hypocrites: of the former, our Savior saith, that his Father doth not [...] but [...] Ioh. 15 2., not take them away, but purge them, that they may bring forth more fruit; so far are they from being ever cut off. And therfore this text doth manifestly prove; that those of whom the question is understood, viz. sound Christiās, who are lively mēbers of Christ, & fruitful branches of the vine, are so far from being cut off, as that the Lord doth prune & dresse them, that they may be more and more fruitfull & in the 16. v. our Savior saith, Ioh. 15.16. that he [Page 345] hath ordained thē, that they go & bring forth fruit. & that their fruit shall remaine. In which words saith Augustine De corrept. & gratia c. 12. Quibus ver [...] is eis non solum ju­stitia n. verum etiam in illa per­severan [...]iam se dedisse mon­stravit: Chissto n. sie eos po­nente ut cant, & fructum [...]ffe­rant, & fructus corum manear, qui [...] aud [...]at dicere, forfitan non manebit, &c., Christ declared, that he gave them not onely righteousnes, but also perseverance therein; for seeing Christ so disposeth of them, that they go & bring forth fruit, and that their fruit remaine, who may dare to say, perhaps it shall not remaine. for the gift & calling of God are without repētāce, I mean the calling of those who are called according to his purpose. for seeing Christ maketh intercession for thē, that their faith should not faile, without doubt it shall not faile unto the end, &c.

As touching the others, who being not engrafted in­to Christ by faith & by his spirit, do rest in an outward profession, not caring to bring forth fruit these, because they are but hypocrites shalbe cut off, that is, their hy­pocrisie being by their defection discovered, they shall be convinced, Ioh 2.12. never to have been of the church; and in the end shall have their portion with hyyocrites. Of these our question is not understood, and therfore this allegation is impertinent.

These things thus premised, I dony Bellarmines as­sumption.

For, not all that are accoumpted and termed bran­ches of the vine, are true or lively members of Christ; for as I have said, thore be many in the church, which be not of it many by reason of their professiō are estee­med mēbers of the church, which is the body of Christ, who yet notwithstāding are not engrafted into Christ, many by an external calling joined to the visible church who are not by the effectuall calling of the holy Ghost adioined to the invisible, which is the elect. for as our Savior saith Mat [...]0.16. [...]3 [...]4, many are called, but few are chosē. but saith [Page 346] Bellarmine, none are branches, but such as are, or have bene faithfull, for branches are not engrafted, but spring out of the vine. &c.

But here Bellarmine streacheth the similitude further then Christ meant. For we are not borne branches and members of Christ, but engrafted into him; and those that are truly engrafted into him by faith, are also re­newed and borne againe, by his spirit, by which spirit 1. Cor. 12.13. we are all baptized into one body. Now those which are borne againe, their will also is regenerated, that they be willing to bring forth fruit [...]. And therefore those who refuse altogether to bring forth fruite, they doe not wither away after their regeneration, but doe manifest­ly bewray themselves never to have bene renewed by the spirit of God, nor engrafted into Christ, but onely sacramentally. and therefore not to have bene true members of Christ, but in title and shewe onely, even as a graft sometimes orcyon; which being engrafted, and as it were incorporated into the stock, doth not­withstanding receive no juice or sappe from the stocke, but withereth, and is broken of, as having never bene truly vnited to the stock, per unitatem forma, but onely in shewe and appearance.

Bellarmines 4▪ testimony Mat 24.12.13.§. 6. His 4th^ testimony is Mat. 24.12.13. And be­cause iniquity shall abound, the chari [...]y of many shall wax cold, but he that endureth to the end shalbe saved. Out of this place, saith Bellarmine, we understand, that not all just men doe persevere, and therefore that not all just men shal­be saved. for that cooilng of charity, signifieth the extincti­on of it, othe [...]wise it should not have bene opposed to perse­verance unto the end. As if he had said. They, whose cha­rity shall wax cold, and be extinguished, shall not persevere, [Page 347] neither shall they be saved.

The charity of many just men shall wax cold, and be extinguished.

Therefore there are many just men which shall not persevere, nor be saved.

Answ. If the conclusion be understood of such as are not truly just, but in shewe onely and before men, I grant all, as being nothing to our present purpose. But if the argumentation be understood of those that are truly just, I deny the assumption; neither doth the testi­mony of Christ prove it. For neither is the charity, whereof he speaketh, that true charity 1. Tim. 1.5. which proceedeth from a pure heart, and good conscience, and faith vnfained nor the many, of whom he speaketh, just or upright men. For as touching the former, Augustine saith, that was never true charity, which can be lost; and Ambrose, charity once had, is never lost. Solomon saith, it cannot be quenched with many waters; and Paul testifieth, that it never falleth away, as before we have shewed, and as for those many, they were such as our Saviour had spoken of in the two verses going before. v. 10. Then (when per­secutions shall arise against the professors of the Go­spell) many shalbe offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another, v. 11. Many false prophets shall arise and deceive many. those many therefore, whose love to religion in the afflictions going before the desolations of Ierusalem, waxed cold (as th [...] man­ner of hypocrites is, when they come to be tryed) were of those many that were called, but not of those fewe, that are chosen.

§. 7. His 5t. testimony is. 1. Cor. 9.27.Bellarmines 5. [...]estimony 1. Cor. 9.27. I chastise my bo­dy, and bring it into servitude least perhapps when I have [Page 348] preached vnto others, I my selfe become reprobate. But the Calvinistes worthily, saith he, doe not chastise their body and have bidden farewell to all workes of penance, because they are certaine by the certainty of faith, that they by no meanes can become reprobates.

His argument, if it be applied to the proofe of the pre­sent question, is to this effect:

Paul might haue bene a reprobate.

Paul was a faithfull and righteous man,

Therefore some faithfull or righteous man may be­come a reprobate.

He might have as well concluded, that some elect man might become a reprobate, as namely Paul.

The proposition (which is most false) he would prove because by this testimony it appeareth, that Paul fe [...]red least he might become a reprobate.

I answeare, that the word [...] doth not signifie reprobate, as the word reprobate is opposed to elect, (for Paul was elect, and knewe himselfe so to be, and therefore could not by Bellarmines owne doctrine, be­come a reprobate) but reproved, for it is opposed to the word [...], which signifieth approved; and therefore is not so much to be referred to the person of Paul, as to his ministery. namely, that he used this, carefullnes, in buffeting or beating downe the body of sinne; least perhaps, if his life should not be suitable to his doctrine, his ministery should be rejected and him­selfe worthy to be reproved: or as Hiorome ad Furiam. speaketh, ne. quodalijs praecipit, ipse non servet. For the auditors commonly doo heare with some disdaine the minister teaching others that, which he doth not care to practise himselfe; and in their minds returne upon him, that which is said in the proverb, Phisitian cure thy selfe. [Page 349] Paules meaning therefore in this place is, that (as he speaketh in other places,2 Tim. 2▪15. 2. Cor 4.2, 5 11) he gave diligence, & care­fully laboured in this, that he might shew himself approved, [...]. not only to God, but also to the conscience of his hearers. But suppose, that the word [...] in this place (as I suppose it never doth) did signify a reprobate, yet how will Bellarmine prove, that Paul might have bene such an one? forsooth, because he feared least he might be­come a reprobate. I answere, though he had feared so much, yet it followeth not, that therefore he might be a reprobate, for the perseverance and salvation of the elect is alwayes certaine certitudine objecti, in respect of the immutable decree of God, & in respect of the event wherein the decree of God shall most certainly be ac­complished. Yet it is not alwayes certaine to them in respect of their owne knowledge and persuasion, which is called the certainty of the subject, wherefore though the child of God, doe sometimes doubt of his salvation and feare least he shalbe condemned, yet is his salvation certaine, and his life layd up with Christ in God Col. 3.3. But indeed Pauls carefulines and feare is so farre from proving, that he might be a reprobate, as that it was an effectuall preservative to keepe him from falling away. for as the Lord hath decreed & promised the perseverāce & salvation of the elect; so he hath fore appointed, and promised the meanes. And therfore the assurāce, which the faithfull have of their salvation, & perseverance, is not joyned with a carelesse presumption, that they shal attayne thereto without using the meanes; but with a reverent feare, and eare to vse such meanes, and to walke in such wayes, as GOD hath appoin­ted them, and indeed this reverent seare, wherein the Apostle, willeth us, to work out our salvation, is one of [Page 350] the principal meanes to preserve us from falling away. The feare of the Lord Pro. 14.27., is a well spring of life, to avoid the snares of death. And blessed is the man Pro. 1 [...].14. that feareth al­wayes. Therefore the Lord as he hath promised the faithfull, that they shall persevere, so he hath promised to give them this mean, namely of reverent feare. Ier. 32.40. Ier. 32.40. I will make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will never turne away from them to doe them good but I will put my feare in their hearts, that they shall not depart from me. From hence therefore we might better conclude, that Paul could not be a repro­bate; because the Lord, as he had made him a vessel Act. 9.15. of election: so also he had given him this godly care, and reverent feare, as a notable preservatiue to keepe him from falling away from God. You see then, how litle force there is in this allegation to prove the present question. Notwithstanding Bellarmine doth so greatly please himselfe therein, that in confidence thereof, he taketh occasion after his pharisaicall manner, to scorne us. But the Calvinists saith he worthily. &c. insinuating that there is a great dissimilitude between the Apostle & us. For he, fearing least he should become a reprobate, did chastise his body; but we, because we be assured for­sooth by the certainty of faith, that we can never be­come reprobates, have bid farewell to all workes of penance.

Bellarmines pharisaicall se off answered.§. 8. To the protasis or former part of this dissimu­litude, I answeare, first, that Paul was certaine by the certainty of faith, 2 Tim. 1.12. Rom. 8.38. both of his perseverance, and of his salvation.

Secondly, that this [...] this, nor chastising, but buffetting (if you read [...]) or beating downe [Page 351] (if you read [...]) of his body, after the manner of champions, which fight in combate. (For that meta­phore begunne v. 26. [...] so I fight after the manner of champions, the Apostle here continueth.) is not the popish whipping, or macerating of the body; but the mortifying of the body of sinne, the subduing of the flesh, the crucifying of the old man. For the Apostle in the former verse, speaking of his spirituall combate, wherein he was to fight against his corruptions: I so fight (saith he) not as though I did beat the aire, but I buf­fet or beat downe, I subdue or bring into servitude my bo­dy, meaning by body, the enimy with whom he did fight, which is not this body of flesh and bone (which by the sixt commaundement, & by the law of nature Eph. 5.29▪ every one is bound to preserve and cherish) but that which is elsewhere called the body of sinne; Rom. 6.6. the flesh, Gal. 5.17.19. the old man, Eph 4.2. the body of death. Rom. 7, 24.

This Philosophicall conceipt of opposing the body, as an enimy to the soule, as if the body were that spiri­tuall enimy, which we are to fight against; and as if the soule were not carnall and corrupt as well as the body; is the ground, both of all their pharisaicall observati­ons tending to that, which the Apostle calleth [...] the not sparing, or afflicting of the body Col. 2.22.23. (the chiefe note of those who are addicted to superstition and will worship after the commaundements and doctrines of men) and also of their hypocriticall practise of pu­nishing the body, in steed of mortifying the flesh, which is the body of sinne.

As for the antapodosis, or latter part of his similitude I answeare, that although we teach that we are to la­bour for the fullnes of persuasion, and for that great measure of assurance, which Paul had attained to; yet [Page 352] we doe confesse, that scarce any of us have attained to such full assurance but that we still have need, after the advise of St. Peter, 2. Pet. 1.10. to give diligence to make our calling and election more and more sure unto us; and after the ex­ample of Paul, so to mortify the body of sinne, and to subdue the flesh, that we may not be refuze christians, or worthy to be reproved, but such as are approved be­fore God and man. For we acknowledge there can be no sound assurance of salvation, as of the end, where is not a carefull using of the meanes, and an upright wal­king in the wayes, which God hath appointed to the end we also acknowledge, that so many as are justified by faith are Eph. 2.10. the workmanship of God created in Christ Iesus unto good workes which God hath prepared that we should walk in them: and that from our election, vocati­on and justification, we are to passe through sanctifica­tion, as the way unto salvation. which sanctification consisteth, partly in renouncing Tit. 2.11. all impiety and worldly lustes (which is the mortifying and subduing of the body of sinne, whereof the Apostle here speaketh) and partly in living soberly, justly and holily in this present world; which dueties we are to performe, not as the Papists would have us, in feare of damnation, contra­ry to the expresse oath of God in this Luk. 1.74. place; but in ex­pectation Tit. 2.12.13. of the happy hope, that is the happines hoped for, as the Apostle teacheth. As for the Popish whip­ping and lashing of their bodies, in imitation of the old priests of Baal, 1. King. 18. and all other hypocriticall workes of penance, which they in their popish superstition have deuised, to be done, either to satisfy GODS justice, or to merit his mercy; we doe not onely, detide them as vaine (for who required those things at your hands,) and as the practises of men, either madde or drunke, [Page 353] (for els who ever hated his owne flesh) Eph. 5.20. I say of men intoxicated, and made drunke with the cuppe of the whore of Babylons fornications; but also we detest them, as meerely Antichristian, as being derogatory from the alone satisfactory and meritorious obedience and sufferings of Christ. And this is all that Bellarmine hath gayned, either by his pharisaicall scoffe, or by his impertinent allegation which how impertinent it is, hath beene shewed in these particulars.

  • 1. by [...], whereby is onely meant reprobate or reproved, as it is opposed to [...], which signifieth approved: he understandeth a reprobate, as opposed to elect.
  • 2. He alleageth the example of S. Paul, who was cer­taine and sure of his election, and salvation, as fearing lest he might become a reprobate.
  • 3. By the body, whereby is meant the body of sinne, and of death, which Paul laboured to mortifie and sub­due, he understandeth this mortall body, which in the faithfull is a member of Christ
    1 Cor. 6.15
    , and is not the enemy, but instrument of the soule.
  • 4. By buffetting or beating downe the body, where­by is meant the subduing and mortifying of the flesh, that is, the corruption of our nature, which is specially seated in the soule; he understandeth the chastising of the body, which consisteth of flesh and bone, as if that were, after the devill and the world, the third enemy of our salvation, called in Scripture the flesh, against which we are to maintaine a spirituall warre; not by chasti­sing it, but by fighting against, & seeking to destroy it.

§. 9. His 6t testimony is Gal. 5.4. evacuati estis, Bellarm 6. [...] ­stim. Gal. 5.4▪ that is, (as our Rhemists translate (ye are evacuated frō Christ, [Page 354] yee that are justified in the law, yee are fal [...]e from grace, how could they, saith Bellarmine, be evacuated from Christ and fall from grace, if they were never truly in Christ, nor in grace.

His argument standeth thus: The Galatians did fast away. The Galatians had beene in Christ, and in grace. Therefore some which have beene in Christ, and in grace, fall away.

Answ. An argumentation consisting wholly of particulars as this doth, concludeth nothing. For nei­ther is the proposition generall, that all the Galatians did [...]all away; nor the Assumption, that all the Galati­ans had beene in Christ, and in grace. But some did fall away, and these were never truly in Christ, or in the state of grace. and some were in Christ, and in the state of grace, and these did not fall away. Neither doth the Apostle direct his speech to every particular Galatian, as though his meaning were, that all and every of the Galatians had either falne away, or had beene in Christ, and in grace: but unto the churches Gal. 1.2. of Gala­tia: wherein, as the [...]e were many unsound christians, who were apt to fall away, and perhaps the greater part, who neither were truly engrafted into Christ, nor had beene in the state of grace; so no doubt there were also some [...] or sound christians among them, who did not fall away. For those that were sound, did not fall away, contrary to the proposition; and those Galatians which did fall away, had not beene truly in Christ, nor in the state of grace, contrary to the assum­ption. The like objection might have beene made a­gainst the church of England in Queene Maryes dayes, which made the like revolt from Christ, and from grace, seeking to be justified, even as the Galati­ans [Page 355] did, by the workes of the Law, that is by their own righteousnes and obedience, which is prescribed in the Law. And yet those which were sound did not fall away, but as many of them did seale the truth which they had professed with their bloud; so no doubt wold the rest, either have forsaken their countrey, rather then their religion, (as many did) or have undergone the fiery tryall, if God in mercy had not shortned those dayes. visible churches may be said in respect of the greater part over swaying the better, to fall away, when not one sound christian in them doth fall away.

Yea, but Bellarmine proveth the assumption. that those Galatians which did fall away, had beene in Christ, & in grace, how could they, saith he, be evacuated from Christ, & fall from grace if they were never truly in Christ, and in grace? His reason is thus to be framed.

Those that are evacuated from Christ, & falne from grace, have beene truly in Christ, and in grace.

The Galatians that sought justification by the works of the Law, were evacuated from Christ, and falne from grace.

Therefore those Galatians had beene truly in Christ, and in grace.

The assumption we grant, that so many of the Ga­latians as sought to be justified by the Law, that is, by their owne obedience prescribed in the Law; (were to use their Inke-horne terme) evacuated from Christ, and falne from grace. For the same argument we use against our Papists, who seeke for justification by their owne righteousnes. But hereof it doth not follow, that either those Galatians, or these Papistes were ever truly in Christ or in grace. And therefore we deny the propositiō. For, as touching the former branch [Page 356] thereof, they are evacuated from Christ, to whom Christ is made voide, and of none effect; or as the A­postle speaketh, v. 2. whom Christ profiteth nothing ▪ for seeing Christ came to this end, that he might satisfie the law for us, both by performing the obedience ther­in commanded, and by suffering the curse therein threatned; hereof it followeth, that if we still remaine under the curse, unlesse we fulfill the law in our owne persons, neither can be justified, unlesse we performe full and perfect obedience to the law, CHRIST then is made voide unto us, and the promise Rom. 4.14. of none effect. And as touching the latter, they are said, in the Apo­stles meaning, to befalne from grace, that is, from the doctrine of grace, as I shewed in my answere to the third question, chap. 4. §, 1. who seeking to be justi­fied by their owne righteousnes, doe revolt from the Gospell, which is the covenant of grace, to the law, which is the covenant of workes, and exclude them selves from the justification, Rom. 10.4. which is by grace; for they that wilbe justified by workes Rom. 11.6., cannot be ju­stified by grace. Both which things may be verified of all justitiaries whatsoever, whether among the Iewes, Galatiās, or Papists, who yet never were truly in Christ, nor in the state of grace, & therfore cānot be said to have lost that wch they never had. whereby it appeareth this allegation to be impertinent, for they are evacuated from Christ, whom Christ doth not profit; and they are falne from grace, who are falne from the covenant of grace, to the covenant of workes.

Bellarmines 7, 8, 9, testimo­nies▪§. 10. The 7th, 8th, and 9th testimonies, Bellarmine joyneth together.

1. Tim. 1.19. Some have made shipwrack cōcerning faith▪

1. Tim. 4.1. In the last dayes some shall depart frō the faith▪

[Page 351]1. Tim. 6.10. Which certaine desiring, have erred frō the faith. What can here be said, saith he, had not they true faith, who departed from the faith? and how did they make ship-wrack, which never were in the ship?

Answ. In all these 3 places Faith doth signify not the gift of faith, whereby we doe believe, but the doctrine of faith, which we doe believe, as I have shewed before in my answere to the third question.Chap. 4. §. 6. And the [...]efore he did well to [...]oyne these places together, seeing this one answere will serve them all. For as touching the do­ctrine of faith, men may make shipwrack, or depart or erre from it, who neither had the grace of justifying faith, But let vs weigh them severally. In the first place the Apostle saith, that some having (he doth not say expelled, but) repelled or put from them a good conscience; that is, not caring to keepe a good cō ­science, had made ship-wrack as concerning the faith that is, had become heretickes. Of whom, saith he, is Hymenaus and Alexander, for in the same sens [...] it is said of the same Hymenaeus and of Phyletus, that they had er­red 2. Tim. 2.1 [...]. as cōcerning the truth, Paul therefore signifieth, that faith, that is the truth of the Gospell, or purity of do­ctrine is preserued by a good conscience. But contrary­wise, that an evill conscience is the mother of all here­syes. For when as men embrace the doctrine of the go­spell, not with a true and a lively, but with a dead and counterfeit faith; their hearts are not purified by faith, neither are they regenerated unto newnes of life, but remaine in their former vices and corruptions, wh [...]n as therefore they see their corrupt maners, and conditions (which they will not leave) to be discovered and reproved by the truth, and themselves to be condē ­ned by that doctrine which they professe, they either [Page 358] labour to falsifie it, and to conforme it to their owne conditions and conceipts, or goe about to perswade them selves, that it is false, or wish it altogether extin­guished. For he that doth ill, hateth the light. And so the Greeke Scholiast expoundeth this place [...]. Graec. schol in 1. Tim. 1.. Faith, concerning doctrines; con­science, respecting the conversation and a godly life. for saith he, when a man liveeh re­provably, he also maketh shipwracke as con­cerning the faith. For that they may not be tormented with the feare of things to come, they endevour to perswade their owne soule, that all those things are false, which a­mong us are believed concerning the resur­rection and the judgment. I answere there­fore, that they which have repelled a good conscience (such as were Hymena [...]s & Alexander) may fall away from the sincere doctrin of the faith which they have professed, but they cannot be truly said to have justifying faith, wch they never had.

But if the place be understood of the habite of faith; one of their own writers shall answer Bel­larmin thus: Espe [...]teut in▪ Tim. 1.19. Repulsa contempta (que) puritatis conscientiam fidem quoque quam habere magis videban­tur, quam haberent, perdide­runt; juxta Domini aenigma, ei qui non habet etiam quod ha­bet, vel potius habere videtur, autse habere pu [...]at auferetur. Having repelled, saith he, & despised a pure conscience, they did loose also faith, which they rather seemed to have, then had; according to that aenigmaticall speech Mat. Mar. 4.2 [...]. Luk. 8.18. of our Lord; from him that hath not, shall be taken away even that which hee hath, or seemeth to have, or thinketh that he hath.

1 Tim. 41:Now in the fourth chapter of the same Epistle, v. 1. what it is to depart from the faith, meaning the do­ctrine of faith, Paul him selfe teacheth, and the Pa­pists [Page 359] (of whom that prophecy is to be understood) de­clare. Diver [...], saith he, shal depart from the faith; how? attending to erroneous spirits, and doctrines of Devills, speaking lyes in hypocrisy, and having their consciences seared, forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstaine from meates, &c.

And the like is to be said of the next allegation, 1 Tim. 6, 10, where erring from the faith, signifieth nothing els, but erring from the doctrine of faith, or as he speaketh to the same effect. 2 Tim. 2.18. from the truth. For such worldly men, who accoumpt gaine to be godlines, are not onely voide of justifying faith, which 1. Ioh. 5, 4, overcom­meth the world, but are also as the Apostle saith v. 7. de­stitute of the truth. And in this sence all those who doe hold erroneous doctrines, or as our Saviour speaketh of the Sadduces, Mat. 12.2 [...]. doe erre not knowing the Scriptures, may truely be saide to erre from the faith. who not­withstanding cannot be said to have lost the justifying faith, which they never had, Or if the word Faith did here signifie the gift of Faith, this erring from the Faith, might better be expounded to be a missing of it, when they had entred into the way of getting it, then to be the loosing of it, after they had gotten it. for covetous worldlings of whom the Apostle speaketh, are many times content to use the meanes of obtay­ning faith, as namely to heare the word preached, who neverthelesse receive the seed among thornes (which choake the seed of the word) and pierce them selves through with many sorrowes.1 Tim▪ 6.1 [...],

§. 11. His 10th testimony,Bellarmin [...] tenth testimo­ny, Heb. 6.4. Heb. 6.4▪ It is impossible that they which were once enlightned, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the holy [Page 360] Ghost, and have tasted of the good word of God, and of the powers of the world to come, if they fall away, should be renewed againe by repent [...]ce. Were they not truely ju­stified (saith he) who being enlightned, had tasted the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost? and yet they are fallen away. His reason is thus framed.

Some that have beene enlightned, and have tasted the heavenly gift. and have beene partakers of the holy Ghost, doe notwithstanding fall away.

All that have beene enlightned, and have ta­sted of the heavenly gift▪ and have beene made partakers of the Holy Ghost, have beene truly justi­fied.

Therefore some that have beene truly justified, doe fall away.

The proposition he proveth by this testimony of the Apostle. But the Apostle doth not say, as Bellarmine doth, in a simple proposition, that some of those which have beene enlightned &c. doe fall away, but in a con­nexive or conditionall sentence; if any such doe fall a­way, it is impossible they should be reclaymed; because if any should so fall, they should sinne against the holy Ghost, crucifying againe to them selves the Sonne of GOD, and making a mocke of him. From which testimony is refuted the erroneous conceipt of Bellar­mine and others, who imagine that a faithfull man may fall away by a totall Apostasie, and commit the sinne against the holy Ghost, and yet be renewed again by repentance. For where the Apostle saith, it is im­possible they should be renewed, Bellarmine saith, it is not impossible, but a very hard and rare thing. And to the same purpose the same Apostle chap. 10.26. saith, [Page 365] if any sinne wilfully after they have received the know­ledge of the truth, treading underfoote the sonne of God, and accoumpting the blood of the testament wherewith they were sanctified (sacramentally) an unholy thing, and despiting the spirit of grace, that there remaineth for such no more sacrifice for sinnes, (who have renoun­ced their part in the sacrifice of CHRIST) but a feare­full expectation of judgment, and violent fire, which shall devoure the adversaries. We doe therefore confesse, that if any of the faithfull and elect should thus fall away by a totall apostasie, and by sinning against the Holy Ghost, that they should never be renewed, but should perish in their sinnes. But seeing it is most certaine, that none of the faithfull or elect shall finally perish, as I have evidently proved before, and as the Apostle here doth insinuate, v. 9. (but beloved, we are perswaded better things of you, and things that accompany salvation, though we thus speake.) therefore it is certaine that they shall never thus fall away by a totall apostasie. And con­sequently the proposition, if it be understood of such gifts and graces as are peculiar to those that are justifi­ed, is untrue. Otherwise the assumption is meerely false. For not all are justified, that have beene any wayes enlightned, that is, that either have received any knowledge of the truth, or have beene baptized, (for so the Syriacke Heb: 6, 4. Interpreter, and some of the Greeke Fathers Dionys Ar [...] ­op. eccl. hier. c▪ 2.3. Iustin, mar­tyr. Apolog. 2. sub finem understand that phrase, calling baptisme, [...], those that are baptized [...], the day appointed for baptisme [...]) nor all that have in any sort tasted of the heavenly gift (for as Gre­gory saith, it is one thing to drink or eate, & an other to taste, Aliud est bibere vel mandu­care atque aliud degustare, vn­de in Evangelio de Christo legitur. Mat. 27. d. & cum gustasse, noluit bibere. Bibit e [...] go squam vivam. & manduc [...]t Panem, qui de caelo descendit, qui in charitate radicem figit, degustat qui e [...] aliquatenu [...] cō ­municat, a qua postea delinquē do recedit, de quibus Apostolus dicit M. b. 6. a impossibile est e­os &c. De Paenit dist. 7. [...].44. ci­tius ex Greg Moral. l 34 c 8. for we reade in the Gospell, that Christ when he had tasted, would [Page 362] not drink, Mat. 27.34. he therefore drink­eth the water of life, and eateth the bread which came downe from heauen, who is rooted in charity; he tasteth, who in some sort com­municateth therewith, and afterwards by sinning departeth from it, of whom the A­postle speaketh, Heb. 6.4. it is impossible that they. &c.) nor all that have bene made partakers of any gift of the holy Ghost. For not every one that is en­lightned, hath a justifying faith; nor every one that hath knowledge, hath saving knowledge, nor every one that hath had a smack and tast of the heauenly gift, doth eat the bread which came downe from hea­ven, (for men may tast that, which they spit out a­gaine) nor every one that hath gifts of the holy Ghost, have the gifts of sanctification, which are proper to them that are justified, as may appeare by the examples of Balaam, and of Iudas; of whom as much might be affirmed, as here is spoken of such, as are supposed may fall away.

Bellarm. 11. testim. 2. Pet. 2.21.22.§. 12. His last allegation is, 2. Pet. 2.21.22. For it had bene better for them, not to have knowne the way of righ­teousnes, then after they have knowne it, to turne from the holy commaundement given unto them. But it is come to them, according to the true proverbe, the dog is returned to his owne vomit, and the sow that was washed, to her wallowing in the mire.

Could a true falling away (saith Bellarmine) be more cleer­ly set forth? For he which returneth to his vomit, had surely vomited, and by vomiting had emptied his gorge. And the sowe that is washed, could not be said to returne to her wallowing in the mire, vnlesse she had before [Page 363] come out of it, and had bene truly washed.

Answ. The Apostle here speaketh of some, who having bene by the preaching of the Gospell conver­ted from Gentilisme, or any other false and idolatrous religion, doe suffer themselves to be seduced by false teachers, and returne to their former errours and enor­mities, as the dog to his vomit, or the sowe to her mire. But this doth not prove, that the faithfull or e­lect, (who in the scriptures are not compared to dogges or hogges) may fall away; or that true justifying faith may be lost. For as they were turned from their false re­ligion to the acknowledgment onely and profession of the truth: so they returne from the doctrine of the Gospell (which Peter here calleth the holy commaun­dement which was delivered unto them) to their for­mer errors and superstitions. Suppose a man reclaimed from Popery, to be seduced againe by Popish Priests, and Iesuits (of whom especially, this prophecy is to be understood) of him it may be said▪ 2. Pet. 2: 18▪ that he which had beene truly [...]., or as some editions read, for a while escaped from them who live in errour, [...]. Compl [...]t. that is to say from Papists, and had also escaped from the filthynesse of the world, whereby especially is meant Idolatry, and from all o­ther the enormities of the church of Rome (which is the mother of all the abominations and spirituall for­nications in the christian world) and consequently, that he, who was purged and washed from the filthy­nes of Idolatry, is like a dogge, that had vomited, re­turned to his vomit, and like the swine that was washed to his wallowing in the mire.

But our Saviour Christ hath taught, that the elect shall not vtterly be seduced Mat. [...]4.24. by Antichrist, and his ad­herents; and Paul, that Antichrist prevaileth onely in [Page 364] them that perish,2. Thess whose names are not written Apoc. 17.8. in the booke of life, because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved. Whereas those that truly beleive and have received the love of the truth, are by the power of God through 1. Pet. 1.5. faith preserved unto e­verlasting life, as the Apostle also sheweth in the next words that the Lord hath from the beginning chosen the faithfull to salvation through sanctification of the spirit, 2. Thess. 2.13.14. and beliefe of the truth, whereunto he hath called them by the Gospell to the obtaining of the glory of the Lord Iesus Christ. The examples therefore of such a one as having bene reclaimed from Antichristianisme, or gentilisme, is afterward seduced by false teachers, and maketh a re­lapse into his former errours and corruptions, doth not prove that a man endued with a true justifying faith may fall away from grace: but his revolt doth prove, that he was never a sound Christian, never indued with a true justifying faith.

And these were his testimonies of holy scripture.


The examples alleaged by Bellar­mine answeared.Example [...] of defection alleged by Bellarmine. De justif. l. 3▪ c. 14.

§ 1. NOw let us examine his exāples. for though he produce eight examples, yet he is not able out of any of them to conclude the present Question. For five of thē agree not with the antecedent of the Question; & the other three agree not with the consequent. For those five which indeed did fall away, were not men justifyed by faith; and therefore those five examples of the repro­bate Angels, of Adam, Saul, Simon Magus, and Iu­das [Page 365] are impertinent; and those three, which were justifi­ed by faith, as David. Peter, and Solomon, did never wholly fall away.

His two first examples are the fall of the wicked Angels and of our first parents. The fall of the angels & of our first Parents. Concerning both which ex­amples, I acknowledge, that they having bene created, according to the image of God, and placed in an hap­py estate, did fall into sinne and misery. But our questi­on is not of reprobate Angels, but of men justified by faith, and regenerated by the spirit of God, and there­fore not of our first parents before their fall, who then were neither regenerated by the spirit, nor justified by faith.

For they are said to be regenerated, who were before dead in sinne, & they are said to be justified, who are ab­solved from their sinnes, & accepted of God as righte­ous in Christ.

If any shall object, that frō these exāples we may argue as frō the greater, if divers Angels, and also our two first parents, who were created in a perfect & happy estate did fall away; how much more may any of vs, who are sub­ject to so many imperfectiōs & sinnes. I answere, if our perseverāce depended on the cōstancy of our owne free­will, as theirs did; and we should be left to our selves as they were, we should be more prone and apt to fail thē they. But our perseverāce as I have shewed before, is not grounded upon our owne strength, or constancy of our owne willes; but upon the promises of God, who is al­mighty, immutable, most true & faithfull, & upon the mediation and intercession of Christ our Saviour, &c. which promises of God, and intercession of Christ, did not appertaine to them.

If it be demaunded, why we may not fall away, [Page 366] as well as they, seeing we fall into sinne, as well as they, I answeare, first, that Christ having satisfied for the sinnes of all the faithfull, doth now also sit at the right hand of his father, making intercession for us; that he having redeemed us, and fully satisfied for all our of­fences, we may notwithstanding all our sinnes, where­into through humane frailty we doe fall, be still preser­ved and continued in the favour of God. 1. Iohn 2.1.2 which benefits of redemption and intercession did not belong to the wicked Angells at all, not to our first pa­rents, when they fell, nor after their fall, untill they be­lieved in the promised seed.

Secondly, though the faithfull fall, as they did, yet they doe not fall away fall from God, as they did, for the reasons before alleadged.

If againe it be objected concerning our first parents, that they had a stronger faith, more perfect righteous­nes, more constant will then we have. I answere, that they had faith; but not the evangelicall justifying faith. For as yet the promise of salvation by Christ was not made, neither did they before they fell, need a redeemer. And as touching righteousnes; we are justified by 2 more perfect righteousnes then they were For they stood just before God by their owne righteousnes; but we, by the righteousnes of Christ. And for the constan­cy of their will heare what St. Augustine De Corrept. & gratīa c. 11. Non solū posse quod volumu [...] verum etiam velle quod pos­sumus. acceperat posse si vellet, sed nō ha [...]uit velle quod posset, nam si ha b [...]is­set persev [...]aisset saith.

There is in us saith he by this grace of God in receiving that which is good, and keeping the same with perseverance not onely that we can doe what we will, but also, that we will, what we can, which was not in the first man, for one of these was in him, but the other was not, that is as after he speaketh, he had received to can if he would, but he had not to will what he could. for if he had, he had persevered.

[Page 367]To which purpose you may see more in the Chapter De co [...]ept. & gratīa c. 12. following.

§. 2. As touching all other examples,The rest of the examples by Bellarm [...]ne produced. which may be produced, we are to hold that certaine rule of St. Iohn If they had beene of us, they would surely have remained in us. And therefore it is certaine, that those, which were faithfull indeed, did not fall away; and contrarywise, they that did fall away, were never indued with a true faith: such were Saul, Simon Magus, and Iudas, whose examples notwithstanding Bellarmine doth alleage.

As touching Saul, Saul. Bellarmine citeth 1. Sam. 9.2. Saul was elect, and good, and there was not a better man then he among the sonnes of Israel. For from the shoulder vpward he was taller then all the people. Hereupon Bellarmine in­ferreth, if Saul were not truly just, then there was not a just man in Israel, for there was none better then he. But there were some just men in Israell, for Samuel was then living, and many prophets with him, and the sonnes of the Prophets. Therefore Saul at the first was a just man and a good and yet notwithstanding he did not onely fall into sinne, but is also thought to be a reprobate and damned per­son.

Answ. This text is misinterpreted to prove Saul to have beene a good man, who when he was at the best, was but an hypocrite, or as Nazianzene speaketh Apolog. ad Pat rem. [...], of him, because he was not turned vprightly and sincerely in­to another man, therefore he came to a tragicall and fearful end. For first the word Bachor which he transla­teth elect, (from whence he might as well have conclu­ded against himselfe, that he was elected, as from the other word that he was good) doth ordinarily in the [Page 368] scriptures signify a young man, because such are fittest [...] to be chosen for warre or any bodily service as Ps. 148.12. Ier. 31.13. Ezech. 9.6. Ioel 2.28. and in ma­ny other places Deut 32. [...]5. 1. Sam. 6.1. Such a man of choice was Saul.

2 Chron 25.5. Es, 23.4. Ecel. 1 [...].1.Secondly, the word, which he translateth good, often­times signifieth goodly, or beautifull, not simply good, but good in forme, or good to behold. And in this sence Saul is said to have bene elect and good, that is a young man and goodly or beautifull. And there was not a better, that is a more goodly young man then he. Thus the word is used Ex. 2.2. When the mother of Moses saw that he was good, meaning as St. Luke translateth it,Act. 7.20, Act. 7. [...] a goodly child, she hid him &c▪ so Gen. 6.2. When the sonnes of GOD saw the daughters of men, that they were good, meaning goodly or beauti­full. For it had bene no fault to have maried them for their goodnes. So Bathsheba 2. Sam. 11.2. was good to looke upon, so was Rebecca, Gen. 24.16. and Esther, c. 27. here therefore the like commendation is given to Saul. as afterwards to Absalom 2. Sam 14.25. and to Adonijah, 1 Kin. 1: 6. that he was of a goodly personage, which is confirmed by that wh [...]ch followeth, from the shoulders upward he was higher then any of the people. And in respect hereof, I meane of his goodlines, and not of his godlines, he is preferred before all the rest of the Israelites. This may also appeare by conferrence of this text with the 23 and 24 verses of the next Chapter.1. Sam. 10.23.14. And thus Iosephus understandeth this place, relating the story of Saul, who was as he saith a young man, Antiq. l. 6, c. 5 [...]. of an excellent forme, and of a great stature. Procopius Gazeus, expounding this text, saith, that the scripture attributeth to Saul, not vertue of mind, but beauty and greatnes, for it reporteth him to [Page 369] have been of a beautifull and excellent body. Vatablus, florens ae [...]ate, & formosus, & non erat pulcrior illo. Or as Serarius Diciturelectus et bonus, bonita­te, non morū, ut putat Abulen­sis, et quodammedo S. Gregori­us, l. 4.24. sed forma, ut [...]roec­pius ait, ae Chaldeus, qui juve­nem pulerum vertit, et patetex comparatione, himselfe writing on this place he is called elect and good, in goodnes not of maners as Abulēsis supposeth, & in some sort St Gregory: but of forme, as Procopius saith, & the Chaldee paraphrast, who trāslateth elect & good, a goodly yong man & this is evident by the cōparison. This therfore being the sence of these words, that Saul was a young man goodly, and tall: Bellarmine cānot cōclude any thing from this place, unlesse he would be too ridiculous. If he would have concluded any thing frō the example of Saul, he should rather have alleaged, first, that the spirit of God came upon him, that God gave him another heart, and after­wardes that the spirit of God departed from him.

For this cōmendation which Bellarmine alleageth, was given unto him, before the spirit of God had come upō him, or before the Lord had given him another heart. But Bellarmine did, or might perceive, that it was not the spirit of sanctification that came upon Saul, & went frō him, but the spirit of politicke wisedome, fortitude, and governement, & that he was indued, not with saving & sanctifying graces, needfull to salvatio [...]; but with giftes royall, or heroicall, fit for a King.

§. 3. No more pertinent is the example of Simon Magus who though he was baptized,Simon Magus. yet was not truly conver­ted, and though he beleived after a sort, yet was he not justified. For being ov [...]rcome by the majesty of Gods word, & his cōscience being cōvicted, partly by the evi­dence of truth & partly by the great signes & wonders, whereat he was affonyed: he gave assēt to the doctrine of [Page 370] the Gospell, that it is true, and was content to professe [...]t, & to be baptized. But for all his professiō he was but an hypocrite. For although when he was baptized, he professed himself to repent & believe in Christ, yet nei­ther did he repent, nor truly believe in Christ, by a live­ly faith, which is evermore a grace of regeneration. for he believed, as the devils are said to believe, without grace, without apprehending the merits of Christ, or re­sting upon him as his Saviour. And he repented with­out amendment of life, remaining still in the gall of bit­ternes, & in the bond of iniquity; neither was his heart up­right with him, as Peter telleth him, Act. 8.21-23. And here I may not let passe Bellarmines impudent belying of Calvin, whō he reporteth to have said, that Simon did not believe indeed, but fained himself to believe, which if he had said, he had avouched no more, thē Ireneus lib. 1. c. 20. be­fore him had plainly affirmed. Simon fidem simulavit. But we (saith Bellarmine) doe rather give credit to S. Luke, who saith he did believe Calvins Calv. in Act. 8 13:words upon this place are these. But I doe not assent to many, who thinke that Simon onely fayned himselfe to believe, when indeed he did not believe. for Luke plainly testifieth, that he did believe, & the reason is added, because he was touched with admiration. And in his Institutions. Simon Magus is said to have believed; lib. 3. c. [...] § 10 who notwithstanding a little after bewrayeth his infidelity, whereas faith is attributed to him, we doe not understand with some, that in wordes he fained himselfe to believe, when in heart he did not believe at all; but rather we think, that he being ouercom by the majesty of the Gospell, did believe after a sort. &c. Such cōscience Bel­larmine maketh of dealing fairely with his adversaries. Notwithstanding Calvine saith, that all this while Simō was an hypocrite. and therefore his faith could not be [Page 371] [...]. true & unfayned, but such as is the faith of hypocrites; which Peter testifieth whē he saith, his heart was not right before God, that is to say he was an hypo­crite. And yet Bellarmine can find never a word, wherein his dissimulation is noted.

§. 4. But the example of Iudas the traitour, Iuda [...]. saith Bel­larmine, were sufficient if there were no more, to stoppe all our mouthes. For that Iudas had beene just, Hierome proveth out of those words of Christ, Iohn 17.12. Father I have kept them whom thou gavest me, and none of them is lost, but the sonne of perdition. For if the Father gave him to the Sonne, assuredly he was good; and if he perished out of the stocke, then before he perished, he was numbred in the flocke of Christ. Now it is evident that Iudas is a reprobate, and damned, not onely out of this place, where he is called the sonne of perdition, but also out of Mat. 26. where the Lord saith of Iudas, it had beene better for that man if he had not beene borne. Thus therefore he argueth.

Iudas became a reprobate and damned person.

Iudas once was a just and good man.

Therefore some men that have beene just and good, may become a reprobate and damned person.

Answ. The assumption is false, Iudas was never a just or good man. For first, he never truly believed, as appea­reth by the testimony of our Saviour Christ, Ioh. 6.64 There are some of you (saith he to his disciples) that be­lieve not. For Iesus knewe from the beginning wch they were that believed not and (among them) who should betray him. Secondly because from the beginning he was a servant of Mammon, and followed our Saviour for his owne gaine, for he was a thiefe saith Iohn 12.6. St. Iohn.

3. When divers of the disciples, who did not truly be­lieve had forsaken Christ; our Saviour asketh the 12 A­postles, [Page 372] if they also would forsake him: and when Pe­ter had answered in the name of the rest, that they would not depart from him, for they did know and be­lieve, that he was the Christ the Sonne of the living God. Iohn 6: 69. Our Saviour replyeth, have I not chosen you twelve, and, one of you is a devill? Now he spake it of Iudas Iscariot, &c.

4. In the place cited by Bellarmine, he is called the sonne of perdition, In Ioan tract. 107. because, as Augustine truly saith, he was predestinated unto destruction. Wherefore Iudas did not then beginne to be a wicked man and a reprobate, when he betrayed CHRIST, but then his wicked­nes and hypocrisy was plainly discovered. For before that time he had never truly believed or repented, but was an hypocrite, a thiefe, and a devill, and by the decree of GOD appointed unto destruction. Yea but saith Bellarmine, he was given to CHRIST of GOD the Father, therefore he was good. Answ. he might as well have concluded, therefore he was elected, & con­sequently that he was saved. For every one, saith Christ, Iohn 6.37. that my Fathre giveth me (namely by ele­ction) commeth unto me, namely by faith, & he that cō ­meth unto ma [...]ill I in no wise cast off & verse 39. this is the Fathers will, that of all which he bath given me, I should loose nothing, but should raise it up againe at the last day. And this is my will, saith the Son, Iohn. 17.24. that they whom thou hast given me, be with me, &c. These, saith Augustine De correp & gratia. H [...] intelliguntur Christo dati, qui, ordinati sunt advitam aeteanā, ipsi sunt illiptaedestinati, & fe­eundùm propositum voc [...]i, quorum nullus perit., are understood to be given to Christ, who are ordained to life eternall, these are they that are praedestinated & called ac­cording to Gods purpose, of whō none perish­eth. But I answere, that Iudas was given to be a disciple and an Apostle, not as one elected unto life. For as [Page 373] there is a double vocation, so there is a two fold electiō, either to some office or worke in this life, or to salvaci­on in the life to come. Iudas was chosen to the office of an Apostle, but he was not chosen unto life; for he was a childe of perdition, not onely in Gods decree, but up­on record. Ps. 109. And this evidently appeareth by conference of these two places, viz. Iohn 6.70. & Iohn 13.18. In the former our Saviour saith, Ioh. 6.70. have not I chosen you twelve (namely to be my Apostles) and one of you is a devill? In the latter place speaking to the same twelve he saith, Ioh 13▪18. I speak not of you all, I know whom I have chosen, but that the scripture might be fulfilled, he that eateth bread with me, hath lift up his heele against me; thereby plainly signifying, that Iudas, who was chosen to the Apostleship, was not chosen to salvation. Those are properly called elect) saith Augustine, de corrept, & gra [...]a c 7. who are chosen to reigne with Christ, not as Iudas was elected to the worke, for which he was fit.

Yea but, saith Bellarmine, if he perished out of the flock, he was before he perished, numbred in the flock.

Answ. He was numbred indeed among the sheep & elect of Christ,Ecce inter san­ctos est Iudas. ecce fur est Iu­das, et ne con­temnas fur sa­crilegus. Aug. in Ioan. 12. trac. 50. as Peter saith, Act. 1.17. but he was a goate, yea a wolfe, rather then a sheepe. he went out frō them, but he was not of them. he was numbred among the elect. but he was a reprobate from the beginning; though he were not discovered to be such a one, untill he fell Act. 1.25. by transgression, that he might goe to his owne place. Aug. in Io. 2. tract 50 Iudas iste non tune perversus factus est, quando [...] Iudeis corruptus Dominum tradidit, non tune p [...]rijt, iam fur erat & Domi nū perditus sequebatur, quia non corde sed corpore Dominum se quebatur. And whereas Hierome is alleaged to prove, t [...]at Iudas was a good man, when he was chosē to be an Apostle. I answer, that the same Hierome [...] Mat. [...]. saith that Iudas even after he had betrayed Christ, was not of an evill nature,when as Christ, even before he had betrayed him, saith, he was a Devill.

[Page 374]But Iudas (say some) was one of those 12, to whom our Saviour Christ promised, that they shall sit upon 12. seates▪ and judge the 12 Tribes of Israel.

Answ. By that reason they should conclude that Iu­das is saved▪ whom our Saviour calleth the sonne of perdition; and faith, that it had beene better for him that he had never beene borne. and Peter, that after he fell, he went unto his owne place. But though our Sa­viour speaketh of 12 seates, answerable to the 12. tribes, yet he speaketh not expresly of 12 that should fit in those 12 seates, (for in the same seat of judgment many may sit) nor particularly of the twelve, but indefinitely of those that were his followers. And if he did speake of 12 who followed him, we may well understand him to have spokē of Matthias, as the 12th. for he▪ even from the Baptisme of Iohn, untill CHRISTS ascension, was one of the followers of CHRIST. Act. 1.21.22.

§ 5. Hetherto we have spoken of those 5. examples which were impertinent. now remaine the other three.

David.And first, as touching David, we freely confesse, both that he was truly just, and also that he fell very grievously, which is all that Bellarmine proveth. But when he should prove, that he fell away wholly from grace, hee beggeth the Question. asking, who can deny, that he truly felt from grace; from righteousnes, from faith? when he cannot be ignorant, that all those who are his ad­versaries in this cause, doe utterly deny that he fell wholly from grace; whether by grace you understand the gracious favour of God, or the habites and gifts of saving grace, he incurred the anger 2. Sam. 11.27. of God, but not his hatred. God still loved him, and therefore sent the Prophet Nathan to him, the habites also of grace, and [Page 375] the seed of GOD remained in him, though some acts of grace, and fruites of the spirit were for a time inter­rupted.

But you will say, David prayeth, Ps. 51.10▪ Create in me a cleane heart O God, and renew a right spirit within me, and therefore had lost his former regeneration, and was deprived of the spirit. I answere. 1. that he who is once borne the childe of GOD, as David was, cannot be unborne againe, that the seed of GOD remayneth in him 1. Iohn 3.9.: and that he ceaseth not to be the sonne of GOD, because he is borne of GOD.

2. That David when he made this prayer, had re­newed his repentance, and was indued with faith, as appeareth v. 14 and with the Spirit of GOD, & there­fore prayeth in the next words, Ps. 51.11. that the Lord would not take his spirit from him, which proveth that he had not utterly lost it. And therefore the meaning of his prayer is, not that the Lord would againe regenerate him, for that is never done, but that the worke of re­generation, and sanctification which he had for­merly begunne in him, and which by his sinne was impayred, he would repayre, accomplish, and per­fect.

Notwithstanding thus much is to be confessed concerning David, and so of all the children of GOD, when they have committed any grievous sinne; that he highly offended GOD. 2. Sam. 11.27. incurred his anger, and provoked his judgments. 2. Sam. contracted in his own conscience the guilt of dam­nation, deserved to be utterly cast off; that the act of his faith whereby he was justified in the court of his con­science, was interrupted, & his justification in tha [...] re­spect suspended (for untill he repented of that his sinne, [Page 376] he could have no assurance of the forgivenes of it,) that whiles he did lye in his sinne, his faith, & hope, & other graces were much dulled and daunted in him, the clearnes and peace of his conscience disturbed▪ the in­ward joy & comfort of the holy Ghost for a time inter­rupted and therfore he desired Ps. 51, 8▪12. that they might be resto­red unto him againe.

Other objecti­ons concerning David answea­red,§ 6. If further it be objected concerning David, that by his owne verdict 2. Sam. 12.5. he was vir mortis, a man of death, I confesse he was reus mortis, guilty in himselfe of death, or worthy to die, but the effect of Gods speech unto him by the prophet 2. Sam. 12.13. seemeth to have bene like that of Solomon to Abiathar 1. Kin. 2.26. thou art vir mortis, thou art indeed worthy to die, but yet I will not put thee to death. And therefore though in himselfe, and in his owne conscience, he were very guilty of death, and worthy of damnati­on: yet GOD did not take Ps. 89.2 [...].33.35. his mercy from him, nor cast him out of his favour, with whom he had made an everlasting covenant Es, 55.3. even the sure mercies of David. So that although he deserved damnation, and consequently contracted the guilt of death; yet he did not fall into the state of damnation, neither did he loose his right and title to the kingdome of heaven, but still remained the child of GOD. For although the children of GOD, by their sinnes de­serve to be cast off, and sometimes doe seeme unto themselves to be forsaken of GOD: yet whom once he hath adopted to be his sonnes, and heyres in CHRIST, and coheyres with Christ, them he doth never disinhe­rit. It is true, tha [...] for adulterers and murtherers there is no inheritance in the kingdome of heaven, but this is [Page 377] understood, if they doe not repent, wherefore if David should have dyed in those sinnes without repentance, he should have beene condemned. But as it is not possi­ble, in respect of GODS eternall decree, which is im­mutable, that any of the elect should perish; so no more possible it is in the same respect, that they should sive and dye in sinne without repentance, or if any doe live and die in sinne without repentance, their finall impenitency is a plaine evidence, that they were never elect, never the true children of GOD. Let this be the summe, that David by his sinne contracted the guilt of death and damnation: but this guiltines did not alter or change his state, viz. from the state of salvation, to the state of damnation. For neither was he condemned, nor to be condemned, if he did repent; which necessa­rily (I speake of the necessity of infallibility) he was to doe. For as the Lord had predestinated him to salvatiō; so he had preordained his repētance unto life.

Yea but David by committing adultery, made his body the member of an harlot [...]. Cor. 6.15. I cannot deny, but that a great indignity is offered unto our Savi­our Christ, when a man professing him selfe to be a member of Christ, shall make himselfe one flesh with an harlot, or commit any other crime.

But yet, as the members in their sinnes do not communicate with their head, from whom in the act of their sinne, they receive not spirituall sen [...]e and motion: so doth not he communicate with them, who notwithstanding in respect of union, cease not to be his members, though diseased members, yea but David was also a murtherer. Now the scrip­tures testify, that whosoever loveth not his brother [Page 378] abideth in death, 1. Ioh. 3.14.15. and that whosoever hateth his brother is a murtherer. And yee know that no murtherer hath eternall life abiding in him, therefore David lost his justification, and with it his title unto the kingdome of heaven, and fell into the state of damnation. Answ. it followeth not, for in the same sense that it may be affirmed of him, that he did abide in death, it may also be denyed, that eternall life did abide in him. For as by death is meant the guilt of death and damnation, so by eternall life, the assurance of it. For we are in this life, saved in hope, we confesse therefore, that as David by his sinne contracted the guilt of death; so whiles he remained in his sinne, he could have no sound assu­rance of eternall life. Yea but David continued in his sinne many moneths, without repentance. Answ. that he continued impenitent many monethes, is more then I know, or am bound to believe. But this in cha­rity I judge of him; that he having bene by the violent temptation of sathan & his own flesh transported to the committing of adultery, he was very desirous to con­ceale it, because he knew, that the divulging of it would besides his owne shame, tend to the great dishonour of God, and disgrace of religion, as causing the holy name of God and his religion to be blasphemed. In which his desire to conceale his sinne from the eyes of men, he so farre exceeded, that the Lord thought it needfull, though he had privatly repēted, to bring him upon the stage, that both his sinne might be published, and his repentance also made publicke; and that not so much for his owne sake, as for the example of others. That both his fall, and repentance, remaining upon publicke record; his fall, might be aspectacle of humane frailty, that those who are inferiour to David in grace (as wh [...] [Page] is not) might be affraide to sinne, and not to presume of their owne strength, (for as Augustine saith, in Ps. 50. sit ca­sus majorum tremor minorum) his repentance, that it might be a good precedent to others, who having falne according to his example, might by his example, be mo­ved to repentance. This example therefore as the said Augustine admonisheth, audiant, qui non ceciderunt, ne cadant audiant, ibid. qui ceciderunt, vt surgant.

§ 7. Now let us come to the example of Peter. St. Peter, which Bellarmine alleaging to prove the title of his Chapter, [...]o justif. 1.3. c. 14. that faith and justice once had may be lost, doth noto­riously contradict himselfe. For where he maintaineth De Rom. Pō ­tif. l. 4. c. 3 against us that Antichristian assertion, that the Pope cannot erre, he taketh for his ground Christs prayer for Peter Luk 22.32. that his faith should not faile. For if Christ prayed for Peter, that his faith should not faile; then vn­doubtedly his faith could not be lost, no not for a mo­ment, for as he saith in the same place Dominus hoc privilegium pro Petro impetravi [...] ut ipse non posset vnquam veram fidem amittere, quantumvis tentare­tur a-Diabolo. Our Lord obtained this privilege for Peter, that he could never loose his true faith, though he were never so much tempted of the Devill.

And to the same purpose in the 8th De Rom Pont. l. 4, c, 8. chap­ter of the same booke, he useth Gregoryes Christum a Pe [...]ro negatum fuisse, ore, non corde. proinde perdidisse Petrum confessionē fid [...], non ipsam fidem. distinction, that Peter denyed Christ with his mouth, not with his heart. and therefore that Peter lost the confession of faith, and not faith it selfe. And this is confirmed. 1 by the prayer of Christ for him. For Christ having fore­told, both that Sathan would tempt him, seeking to sift him as it were wheat, and also that being tempted he should deny him, he telleth him, that he had prayed for [Page 380] him, that notwithstanding his fall, his faith should not be eclipsed, meaning by a totall eclipse, for so he saith, [...]. 2. By testimonies of the fathers. Tertullian. de [...]ug in per­secut. ego rogavi pro te ne deficeret fides tua, i. ne tantum Diabolo permitteretur, Cathemerin. hymn. ad Galli­cantum. ut fides periclitare­tur. Prudentiuse.

Flevit negator deni (que).
Ex ore prolapsum nefas.
Cum mens maneret innocens,
Animusque servaret fidem.
Nec tale quicquam postea
Lingua locutus lubrica est
Cantus (que) Galli cognito
Peccare justus deslitit.

Augustine. De corr [...]pt. & gratia c. [...]. Nisi ut haberet in fide liberti­tuam, fortissimam, invictissi­mam, perseverantissimam vo­luntatem. When Christ prayed that Peters faith should not faile, what els did he aske, but that he should have in the faith a will most free, most strong, most invincible, most persevering.

Leo De passione Domini serm. 9. Adsuit dextra Domini Christi, quae labantem te pr usquam dejice [...]eris, exciperet, & firmi­tatem standi in ipso cadendi periculo recepisti.. The hand of the Lord was present with Peter to hold him up when he was fal­ling, that he should not be cast downe, and, that he received strength to stand in the ve­ry danger of falling.

Gregory Moral. l 25. c 16. Deum quem corde tenuit, voce dene­gavit Confessio quidem defecit in ore, sed fides non defecit in corde.. That Peter when he denyed Christ with his mouth, retayned him in his heart. And againe, confession failed him in the mouth, but faith did not faile him in the heart.

Theophylact In Luke 22.32. [...].. I have prayed, saith CHRIST, that thy faith should not faile. for although for a little while; thou shalt be shaken, yet thou hast the seeds of faith layde [...]p in thee & although the blast of the temp­ter shall shake off thy leaves, yet the roote li­veth, & thy faith shal not faile. Where saith Bellarmine De Rom Pontif hb, 4 c 3., by an elegant similitude he [Page 381] doth declare that Peter by denying Christ▪ lost the confessi­on of saith which is made with the mouth, (for the leaves signifie words) but lost not faith whereby men believe unto righteousnes.

But though Peter lost not his faith, yet saith Bellar­mine Ibid. § altera. Non dixit Do­minus, rogavi ut non defice­rut charitas tua, sed fides tua; & teipsa seimus defecisse Petti charita­tem, & grati­am, quandone­ [...]avit Dominū. fidem autem unquā defecisse non scimus., he lost his charity, and grace by denying Christ.

Answ. Our Saviour speaketh of that faith whereby Peter was justified, and for which he had before pro­nounced him blessed,Mat, 16.17. which cannot be severed from charity or saving grace, and therefore whiles his faith remained, which did justifie him, he could neither loose his justification, nor his charity, for as notwith­standing his denyall in word, he believed in his heart so notwithstanding the same denyall, he loved Christ in his heart. The Lord, saith Leo De pass. Domini serm. 9. in fire. Videt in te Dominus non fidem fictam, non dilectionem aversam, sed constantiam suisse turbatam, abundavit fletus, ubi non defecit affectus, & sons chatitatis lavit verba formidi­nis., did see in Peter saith not fained, his love not averted, but his constan­cy troubled; and that weeping abounded, where affection failed not, and the fountaine of charity (sending forth teares) washed the words of feare.

Yea but Peter fell grievously, that is all which Bellarmine proveth, and that all no man deny­eth; though not so grievously as some imagine, who▪ when Peter is said to have cursed & sworne, understand him not to have cursed himself (as men in their oathes use to doe) but to have cursed our Saviour, whereof there is no probability But thogh he did fall, yet he did not fall away, neither was his fall a sin of malice, wi [...]ful­ly committed, but a sin of infirmity, whereunto he did fall, being tempted by Sathan, and transported with ex­treame feare and consternation of minde, into the which the Lord permitted him to fall, leaving him for a time to him selfe, and to the temptation of Sathan [Page 382] that so he might correct him for his former confidence in himselfe, and might make him the more humble and circumspect for the time to come. And that his fall was a sinne of infirmity, Leo De passi. Dni serm. 9. testifieth, Petrus ancilla sa­cerdotis calumniante perterritus ex infirmitate periculum negationis incurrit And likewise Gregory Moral. l. 25. c. 16. who having propounded that received distinction of sinne, that it is committed either ex ignorantia, or ex infirmitate, or ex studio, that is, out of ignorance, or of infirmity, or malice, he saith, Petrus infirmitate peccavit, quando om­ne robur fides quod Domino perhibuit, una vox puellae con­cussit [...]et Deum, quem corde tennit, voce denegavit.

Solomon.§ 8. There remaineth the example of Solomon; con­cerning whom there are divers opinions, some, think­ing that he was never truly just, some, that after he was justified he never fell away, some, that he fell totally for a time, but after was reclaimed: some that he fell both totally and finally. In this diversity of opinions we are to hold that vndoubted rule of St. Iohn, 1. Ioh. 2.19. If they had bene of us, they would surely have remained with us. This therefore is certaine, if Solomon did vtterly fall away, he was never truly just; and if he were truly just, he did ne­ver vtterly fall away. Notwithstanding their opinion seemeth to be most probable. I am sure, most charitable who hold that Solomon was a just man; and that how­soever he fell very grievously, yet he did not perish in his sinne, but was recovered by repentance: and in testi­mony thereof did write the booke of the preacher. And this is the judgmēt of many writers [...]e Caleb Da Ischampius his vindiciae Solo­monis. both old, Hebrew Greek, and Latine, and new, both Protestants and Pa­pists. And that Solomon was truly just it may be proved by these reasons. 1. Because he was beloved of God, and [Page 383] also himselfe did love God. That God loued him, it is testified 2. Sam. 12.24.25. and to that end the Lord sent by Nathan, & appointed that his name should be Iedid­jah, that is beloved of the Lord.

That he loved God, the holy Ghost beareth him wit­nesse, 1. King. 3.3. And Solomon loved the Lord, walking in the statutes of David his father.

2. Because he was the child of God, according to Gods owne promise 2. Sam. 7.14. and 1. Chron. 22.10. I wilbe his father & he shall be my sonne.

Thirdly, because he was a type of Christ. Ps. 72. and for his sake, whose type he was, beloved of God, for he was called Iedidjah, beloved of God, for the Lords sake. 1. Sam. 12.25.

4. Because he was the pen-man of the holy Ghost, in penning a good part of the canonicall scriptures, and consequently an holy man of GOD, 2. Pet. 1.20.21.

And that Solomon repented after his fall, it appeareth; first, by the booke of the preacher, which he wrote to testify his repentance. 2ly by the testimony of the holy Ghost, 2. Chron. 11.17. where it is reported, that the preists and Levits, and so many as feared God, separated themselves from Ieroboam, and his Idolatrous church, and joyned themselves to Rehoboam &c. for they walked in the way of David and Solomon 3 yeares. whereby it appeareth, that Solomon after his fall, restored the wor­ship of God; although he could not wholly abolish the idolatry, which through his owne default, and (if I may so speak) uxoriousnes, was brought into the church. 3ly if Solomon had not repented, he had dyed, & so perished in his sinne. But this is altogether improba­ble, for the sonnes of God, are also heyres, and whom [Page 384] he loveth in Christ he loveth to the end. 4ly. because the Lord promised, both to him in particular, that if he did sinne (as the Lord did foresee he would) he would chastise him as his child, but he would not take his mercy from him. 2. Sam. 7.14. and also indefinitely to the faithfull seed of David Ps. 89.29. &c. Ps. 89. in which Solomon is included.

Now if Solomon did not finally perish in his sinne, but was recovered by repentance; then also it followeth, that he did not wholly fall away from God; for if he had, it had bene impossible, Heb. 6. that he should have bene renewed by repentance, as the Apostle testifieth, But though he fell grievously, yet he did not wholy fal frō God: neither did he sinne of malice, or with full con­sent of will. He fell not wholly from God, for he abo­lished not Gods worship, but retained it; although out of too much love to his wiues he permitted, and, as it seemeth, allowed the practise of their severall religions: and that which was permitted or authorized by him, though not practised in his owne person, is by the LORD accoumpted his act, and he for it censured as an Idolatour.

Which may serve for a caveat to all Kings and Prin­ces, not to tolerate, and much lesse to allowe or autho­rize the profession of any false or idolatrous religion within their dominions, for what is done with their leave, and by their authority, is judged their act. Neither did he sinne of malice or with full consent of will, but of infirmity, and with some reluctation of the spirit, e­ven as Aaron for feare of the people, yeelded with an un­willing mind to make the golden calfe, so Solomon, for feare to displease his idolatrous wines, upon whom he too much doted, & in too much desire to gratify them, [Page 385] yeelded to give way to their idolatries, which he could not but mislike. Therefore he is censured, not that hee had utterly forsaken God, but that [...] King. 11.6. he went not fully af­ter the Lord, as David his father did; but halting alter a sort beteweene GOD and his idolatrous wives, he was desirous to serve, and to please both. And howsoe­ver the Lord was very angry with him for his sinne, yet did he not hate him, nor utterly take his mercy from him, (which is a plaine evidence, that he did not whol­ly fall away from God) but as a father chastiseth his child; so the Lord corrected him, not so much as threat­ning [...] Sam. 7. [...] any other judgments against him, but such as he calleth chastisements.


Bellarmines proofe from the Tradition of the Church, disproved.

§, 1. ANd these were the testimonies and examples,Tradition of the Church. which Bellarmine produ­ceth out of the Scriptures.

In the next place he addeth the Tradition of the church. for first, he saith, the Church long since con­demned this errour in Iovinian.

Answ. Iovinian, as Bellarmine himselfe reporteth, held this errour, that the just after their baptisme cannot sinne. but we are further from this erroneous con­ceipt, then the Papists themselves, as I have shew­ed before in the answere to the sixth or last que­stion.

To this publicke testimony of antiquity, as he calleth it; he adjoyneth the private opinions of some of the [Page 386] [...] [Page 387] [...] [Page 384] [...] [Page 385] [...] [Page 386] Fathers. and for want of better store, he citeth onely two, Augustine and Gregory, who in all their writings give pregnant & constant testimony to the truth which we hold in this Question, as hath already been shewne by many fold allegations produced out of them.

His allegation out of Augustine is this. De eorrept. & gratia [...] 13. It is to be be­lieved, that some of the sonnes of perdition, having not re­ceived the gift of persevering to the end, doe begin to live in the faith, which worketh by love, & for a time doe live faithfully and justly, and afterwards fall, nor are taken out of this life, before that happen unto them.

Answ. Augustine speaketh of the judgement of cha­rity, whereby we are to judge and believe some men to live in faith working by love, & for a time to live faith­fully and justly; who, seeming such to us, doe notwith­standing fall away. For as whiles they seeme to live faithfully and justly, we Phil 1.7. are in charity to judge them to be just and faithfull men, so also we are to esteeme them elect; untill by their falling away, they discover thēselves to be hypocrites, & reprobates. & yet saith he, in the same De c [...]rrept. & gratia c. 7. Et tamen quis ne [...]at nos ele­ctos, c [...]m credunt & bapt [...]z [...]n [...]ut & secundùm Deum virun [...] Planè dicuntur electi à [...]efcien­bus quid futuri sin [...]. booke, c 7. who would deny thē to be elect, when they believe & are bap­tized, & live according to God. surely they are called elect, by them who know not what they shall be. Even so plainly they are called faithfull, & the children of God, by them who know not what they are or shalbe, for none are truly faithfull, none truly the sonnes of God, but such as are elect nei­ther are any truly faithful, which abide not in the word of Christ; nor [...]ly the sonnes of God, who doe not persevere For this is the voice of the childrē of God, as Au­gustine saith againe in the sa [...]e booke De corrept. & gratia, c. 9.. they went out frō [...]s, but they were not of [...] for of they h [...]d beene of us, they [Page 387] would surely have remained with us, when as therefore the sonnes of God say, they went out from us, but they were not of us, what els doe they say, but that they were not sonnes, when they were in the profession & name of sonnes. And a­gaine. those disciples, saith he, who went back, Iohn 6. [...] they were not truly the disciples of Christ (for if you shall a­bide in my word, saith Christ, ye are truly my disciples,) so neither were they truly the sonnes of God, even then when they seemed to be such, & were so called. Notwithstanding as he saith, propter utilitatem hujus secreti, for the profit of this secret, that we should not securely presume of our owne strength, when we see others who have see­med to live faithfully & justly to fall away, but should feare lest the same thing should befall us; we are to be­lieve that they live in faith, which worketh by love, &c. Againe, those that truly believe, are the sonnes of God, both by adoption & regeneration, Ioh. 1.12.13. Rom. 8.15. and therefore shall abide Iohn 8.35. Rom. [...].16:17. in the house for ever, as the heires of God, [...] coheires with Christ. And as they are adopted, & regenerated, so also justified, & to be glo­rified. And as justified, so also effectually called, for as Augustine toucheth, they & none but they are justified, who are called according to his purpose, and are to be glorified. Now saith the same Augustine De bono persever. c. 14. Donum perseverantiae daturum Deum vocatis suis ista vocatio­ne de qua dictum est, sine poe­nitentia sunt dona Dei & vo­tio, omni Christiano confiten­dum est▪, that God will give the gift of perseverance to his that [...]e called wth that calling, of which it is said, the gifts & calling of God are without repentance, it is to be confessed of every chri­stian. And the like answer is to be givē to that testimo­ny of Augustine, which someone out of the same book. De corr [...]pt & gratia, c. 8. Mirandum quod filiis suis De [...] quibusdam, quos regeneravit in Christo, quibus fidē, spē, dilecti­onē dedit, non dat perseve [...] It is to be marveled, that God to sonne of his sons, whom he hath regenerated in Christ, to whom he hath given faith, hope, and love, he [Page 388] giveth not perseverance. For neither are those truly the sonnes of God, for as he saith c. 9., qui vere fili [...] sunt, prae­s [...]iti & praedestinati sunt, those that are truly sonnes, are fore-knowne and pred [...]stinated. Neither were they truly regenerated, but onely sacramentally; neither were they indued with true faith, hope, and charity, but onely in the opinion of men, judging according to charity, in which [...]ence he saith Epist. 23.. Nobis sacramentum fidei fides est. Neither let it move us, saith he, Nec nos moveat quod filiis suis queb [...]sdam. Deus non dat istam perseveran­tiam; absit enim ut ita esset, [...] dei [...]lis praedestinat [...] [...]ent, [...] secundum propo [...] voca [...]il, qui verè sunt filii promissionis. Nam isti, cùm p [...]e vi [...]nt, di­cuntur filii Dei, sed quoniam victuri sunt impie, & in eadem impietate motit [...]ri, non eos di­cit filios Dei, p [...]s [...]a [...]ia Dei. De corrept & gratia c. [...] [...]. that God to sonne of his children doth not give this perseverance; for God forbid that it should be [...]o, if they were of those who are pr [...]edesti­nated & called according to his purpose; who truly are the sonnes of the promise for these (others) when they live godlily, are called the sonnes of God, but because they will live im­piously, & shall die in that impiety, them the fo [...]-knowledge of God doth not call the sons of God. If any other places be alleaged out of Augustine, as divers may to this purpose, that many of the chil­dren of God who have beene regenerated, justified, in­dued with faith, which worketh by love, who have be­gun to live justly and holily &c. have not withstanding falne away from grace, & perished in their [...]nes; one answer may serve for all that forasmuch as he doth constantly hold, that all the el [...] doe pers [...]ere, and that those which fall away are reprobates, and that none are truly the sonnes of GOD, but such as are elected, and called according to his purpose, therefore in Au­gustines judgement, they that fall away, were never truly the sonnes of GOD, never truly regenerated by the spirit, never truly justified or sanctified, never truly indued with the faith of the elect, nor with [Page 389] true charity, (which he constantly holdeth to be proper to the elect,) nor true repentance; but were such onely in their owne conceipt, or profession, and in the opini­on of others, judging of them according to the judge­ment of charity vid supr. c. 2. & 3.

The testimony cited out of Gregory Moral. l. 30. c. 32. is not in the place quoted by Bellarmine, neither is it to the purpose, unlesse he can prove, that religion is hereditary; and that every one which descendeth of Catholick parents, is also a good christian. Who can understand (saith Gre­gory) that one man who was borne of a mother which is a Catholick or orthodox christian, is neere to the end of his life swallowed up of errour, and another, who was borne in infidelity, and sucked the poyson of errour with his mothers milke, endeth his life in the Catholicke reli­gion.


Bellarmines two first reasons, the first, because he that hath faith may commit an act of infidelity. 2. because many that are baptized fall away.

§. 1. NOW we are to examine Bellarmines reasons,Bellarmi [...]es 5. reasons. 1, be­cause he that hath faith, may commit an act of infidelity. which onely remaine to be discussed. And they are five. The first: Whosoever committeth an act of infidelity, looseth the habit of faith, and becommeth simply unfaithfull, and an enimy of God, and guilty of eternall death.

But he that hath the habit of faith may commit an act of infidelity.

Therefore he that hath the habit of faith, may loose [Page 390] it, and become meerely unfaithfull, and an enimy of God, and guilty of eternall death.

The proposition he proveth by 2 arguments first, be­cause it is agreeable to the scriptures. Secondly, because by the doctrine of his adversaryes, justifying faith is shaken of by every sinne, and the holy Ghost ejected out of the heart of the offendour.

But I answere, that the proposition is false, & absurd, for an habit is not lost by one act, but by a privation, or a contrary habit. It were strange, if by every act of ig­norance, a man should loose all his knowledg; by every act of forgetfulnes, he should be utterly deprived of his memory, or by every act of folly be wholly bereft of wisdome &c. It was an act of infidelity which Moses & Aaron cōmitted Num. 20.11.12. when they smote the rock twice, of Zacharias Luk 1.18.20. in not believing the Angel, of Peter, who being called by Christ to come to him upon the water, was ready to sinke, Mat. 14.30.31. But that especially was a foule act of infidelity, whē he denyed his master; and yet as Bellarmine himselfe holdeth he lost not his faith.

2. That it is not agreable to the scriptures which teach no such desperate doctrine, as this proposition contai­neth where in Bellarmine hath set up a ra [...]e, as it were, for mens consciences, teaching, that by euery act of infidelity a man is wholly de [...]i [...]ed of his faith, and by every act of sinne bereaved of all grace.

3. Bellarmine dealeth absurdly to alleage against us, thei [...] opinion, which hold, as he saith, that by every sin faith is lost, and the spirit shaken off, as the doctrine of his adversaryes, when as those, whom he termeth his adversaryes, are adversaryes to us in this cause, as well [Page 391] as the Papists, although not in so high a degree. For though they hold the totall defection of the faithfull, yet they deny the finall, neither are they so absurd as to affirme, that faith and the holy Ghost are lost by eve­ry sinne, but by great & grievous sinnes, wilfully com­mitted, and such as doe wast and make havock of the conscience, and much lesse ought he to imagine us to be so absurd, as to defend the certainty of perseve­rance, and yet to hold, that justifying faith is shaken off, and the Holy Ghost ejected by every sinne.

4. I answeare; that although the nature of faith in it selfe, as it is an habit inherent in us, were such, as that by some act of infidelity it might be lost, and though we in ourselves considered, be such, as that we might fal away from grace; yet neverthelesse the perseverance of all the faithfull is certaine and sure, for it dependeth not upon the worthynes of our faith, nor yet upon our owne strength, or constancy of our owne will, but upon the immutability of the will, and counsell of God, and upon his power assisting and establishing us according to his gracious promises, and upon the meditation and intercession of Christ.

But here Bellarmine cavilleth, perhaps they will say, saith he, that it is not of the nature of faith, that it re­maineth unmoveable, but that it is to be ascribed to the assistance and prouidence of God, who doth not suffer men once truly justified to fall into sinne. But if it were so, why should they say, that all the workes of the righteous are mortall sinnes? and where is this promise of GOD, that he will not suffer the just to fall into sinne? Answ. If we should hold that the righteous never fall into sinne, and yet that the [Page 392] workes of the righteous are mortall sinnes, (as Bellar­mine in his blinded malice chargeth us) we should shew our selves very absurd, in holding two assertions so re­pugnant the one to the other. But indeed we hold nei­ther of both. Not the former; for we acknowledge a great difference betweene falling into sinne, and falling away from God. The righteous may, and often doe fall into sin, but they never fall away from God they never sin with full consent of will, they never become servāts of sin reigning in them, they sin not unto death, as the Apostles Paul and Iohn doe plainly testify, Rom. 6.14. 1. Iohn Neither do we say, that all the works of the righteous, as prayer, and almes &c. are mortall sinnes. That which any of us hath said in derogatiō of good workes, hath beene in the question of justificatiō, when the Papists obtrude them as causes of our justifi­cation, in which case, we are not onely to acknowledge them defective and imperfect, not able to stand in judg­ment before God, as being stained with the flesh, but al­so we are to abhorre them as menstruous clouts [...]. 64.6., yea as doung Phil. 3.7.8., yea as losse. But in the question of sanctifi­cation, whereunto good workes are required, as fruites of our faith, & consequents of justification: we acknow­ledge them to be good, & commendable: not according to the rigour of the law (from which Christ hath freed us) but according to the doctrine of the Gospell; which teacheth us, that our good workes, the imperfections of them being covered with the perfect obedience of Christ, are in him not onely accepted as good, but also graciously rewarded.

§. 2. His second reason is this: [...]ause ma­ [...] that have bee [...] bapti­ [...]. Many that are bapti­zed, doe fall away and perish.

All that are baptized, are truly justified.

[Page 393]Therefore some that are truly justified, doe fall away, and perish.

I deny the assumption, & avouch the contrary: Not all that are batized are truly justified. for as Augustine saith Sacramenta i [...] sol s electis hoc verè effici­unt, quod figu­rant. Augustin. apud magistr. Sentent. l b. 4. dist 4. A; sacraments in the elect doe truly worke that which is figured by them. but all they that are baptized, are not e­lect. Againe, whom God truly justifieth, their sinnes he doth remit, but saith Augustine Qui non omnium (sicut iste ait) sed eorum quos praeseivit & praedestinavit, delicta de­mittit. Contra. advers. leg. & proph: l: 2: c: 11:, God doth not forgive the sinnes of all, but of them on­ly whom he hath fore-knowne & predestina­ted: and indeed it is absurd to imagin, that grace is otherwise given, then according to the eternall purpose of grace.

Moreover, all that are truly justified, Rom: 8, 30 shalbe glorified.

Not all that are baptized, shalbe glorified.

Therfore not all that are baptized are truly justified.

For the better clearing of this point,Distinction 1, of Baptisme. we are to use divers distinctions; 1. in respect of Baptisme. For there is an outward baptisme, which is the washing 1 Pet: 3, 21, of the flesh with water by the Minister, and an inward baptisme, which is the washing of the soule with the blood of Christ by the holy Ghost. The former, is also the en­grafting of the party baptized, into the body of the vi­sible Church, which is the society of those who pro­fesse the Name of Christ. the other, is the insition of him into the society of the invisible Church, which is the mysticall Body of Christ, and company of the E­lect. the former insition is wrought by the Minister; the latter, by the holy Ghost, by whom 1 Cor: 12, 1 [...] we are baptized into one body. But not every one that hath the out­ward baptisme, hath the inward; no more then e­very one that had the externall circumcision of the flesh, Rom: 2, 18, had the inward circumcision of the heart. [Page 394] The visible baptisme, saith Augustine Visib [...]lem baptiserum habent & alien [...]. i. [...]uireg [...]m B [...] pos­sessuri non sunt. Donum tamen spiritus sancti proprium est eo­rum tantum, qui cum Christo regnabunt in aetetn [...]m. hoc de est omnibus malignis, etiam [...]i Christi baptismo baptize [...]tur, sicut Simon fucrat baptizatus. De unit eccl. c. 19. Aug in Ps. 7. Omnibus bap­tizatis communé est lavacrum regenerationis, s [...]d ipsa gratia non communis est omnibus., they also have who are strangers, that is, such as shall not possesse the Kingdome of God. but the gift of the holy Ghost is proper to them alone, which shall for ever reigne with Christ, this is wanting to all the wic­ked, though they be baptized with the bap­tisme of Christ, even as Simon Magus had beene baptized. And againe. the laver of regeneration is common to all that are bap­tized, but the grace of regeneration is not. For as Chrysostome Idem contr. literas Petil. Chrysost oper. imperf. hom. 5. in Mat. [...]isunt qui cùm tenta­ti fuerint superantur, & pere­unt videntur quidem filij Dei facti propter aquam baptisma­tis, revera autem non sunt filij Dei, quia non sunt in spiritu baptizati. They seeme to have beene made the sonnes of God by reason of the water of Baptisme, but indeed are not, because they are not baptised in the spirlt. also saith. Many are baptized with water, which are not baptized with the holy Ghost. Neither is every one that is a member of the visible church, a true member of Christ, or of the church invisible Many being in the visible church which are not of the church invisible, who are among the faithfull and elect, as tares among the corne, or chaffe among the wheat.Ang. contr. literas Petiliani, lib 2. c. 105. Non ideò putan­di suot esse in Christi corpore, quod est ecclesia, quia sacra­mentorum ejus corporalites participes fiunt. If it be said, that the visible church is the body of Christ; I answere, that it hath the denomination from the better part; as an heape, wherein is more chaffe then wheat, is called an heape of wheat; and a field wherein are more tares and other weeds, then corne, is also called a corne field. But if we will speake proper­ly, Non est tevera corpus Chri­sti quod non erit cum illo in ae­ternum, De do [...] Christi l. 3. c. 32. that is not in deed the body of Christ which shall not be with him for ever, as Au­gustine saith.

For if it were so, that every one that hath the outward baptisme, hath also the [Page 395] inward, and that every one that is made a member of the church, is also made a true member of Christ; then it would also follow, that every one that is bapti­zed should be saved. For salvation is as well promised to the baptized, as either regeneration, or justification. Mar. 16.16. 1. Pet. 3.21. Neither are any regenerated, but such as are elected: nor any justified, but such as shalbe saved. If therefore it be true, that not all, which have the outward baptisme, have the inward; then it is as certaine, that not all that are baptized, are justifi­ed▪ as, that not all that are baptized, shalbe saved.

Yea, but they that are baptized, have put on Christ,

Answ. Those that have beene baptized into Christ, as the Apostle speaketh, Gal. 3.27. that is, by baptisme engrafted into him, have put on Christ. but not all simply that have beene baptized, have put on Christ, unlesse you meane sacramentally. for as Augustine saith De baptismo cont Donatist. lib. 5. c. 24. Induunt Christum homines aliquando usque ad sacramenti perceptio [...]em, ali­quando & usque ad vitae san­ct [...]ficationem, atque illud pri­mum & bon [...]s & malis potest esse commune: hoc autem alte­rum proprium est bonorum & piorum▪. Men put on Christ sometimes unto the receiving of the Sacrament, sometimes unto sanctification of life; the former is cō ­mon to all, but the latter is proper to the god­ly.

§. 3. Secondly,a distinction of the parties baptized. we are to distinguish the parties bap­tized, that they are either adulti, such as come to yeares of discretion (of whom properly this controversie is undertood) or infants wanting the use of reason. As for those that are baptized after they are come to yeares of discretion, it is certaine, that no more are justified, then doe believe, by a true justifying faith. For Sacra­ments are as seales annexed to the letters patents of Gods evangelicall promises, which assure or conveigh nothing, but what is contained in the promise, and u­pon [Page 396] the same conditions. And it is absurd to extend the benefit of the sacrament beyond the covenant. Now the promise of the Gospell doth not assure justification or salvation to all, but onely to those that believe. So GOD loved the world Ioh, 3, 16, that he gave his onely begotten Sonne that whosoever believeth in him, should not perish but have life everlasting: when our Saviour therefore sent his Apostles and ministers into the world, com­mitting unto them, the ministery of the word and sa­craments, saying; Goe teach all nations, and baptize them. &c. he addeth as the sanction of their mi­nistery Mar. 16, 6, He that believeth and is baptized that is, he that believeth the doctrine by you preached, and believing receiveth the sacrament by you administred shalbe saved: but he that believeth not (whether he be baptized, or not) shalbe condemned. Againe, the covenant of grace is onely made with the heyres of the promise, as I have shewed before, Luk, 1, 7 3, of which covenant baptisme is a seale.

Here therefore is confuted that most pernicious do­ctrine of the Papists, that the sacraments of the Gospell which they call the new law, doe conferre grace, & that ex opere operato, to them, in whom not onely there is no grace (for then it were opus operantis) but not so much as any inward disposition or motion of grace before hand. By which doctrine they have turned Christian religion to a meere outward for­mality, consisting in outward rites and observations. without any truth, or power of religion in them; according to that prophecy of them. 2. Tim. 3.5. For all the degrees of salvation, which the Lord worketh in the elect in this life, viz. our vocation, justi­fication, sanctification, are all ascribed to the sacraments [Page 397] and that ex opere operat [...] ▪ So that, among the Papists, he that is baptized, he is called, without either illuminati­on of the mind, or conversion of the heart, he is justified and sanctifyed without either forth goeing before, (for by the sacrament they faine the habite of faith to be infused) or amēdemēt of life following after. As touch­ing infants, I say in the first place, that this controver­fie is not understood of them, who neither are indu­ed with habit of grace, neither are able to produce the acts thereof, as not having as yet the vse of reason. And therefore being neither justified by faith, nor sanctifyed by the habits of grace, cannot be said to fall from them. Secondly it is not necessary that every one that is baptized should presently be regenerated or justified. But the sacrament of Bap­tisme is a seale unto him of the righteousnes of faith, which is the righteousnes of CHRIST, either to be applyed by the Holy Ghost, to the elect dying in their infancy, or to be apprehended also by faith in them, who living to yeares of discretion have grace to believe.

§. 4. Thirdly we are to distinguish of the effects of baptisme,The 3 distincti­on. and of the time thereof. For it is not the effect of baptisme to beginne, or to worke faith, which in those of yeares, must goe before baptisme, [...]ther can infants though baptized, whiles they want the vse of reasō, actually believe, but to seale to the baptized the righteousnes of faith, and so to justify sacramentally, which effect is not to be restrained to the time when baptisme is administred, but to be [...] to the whole course of a mans life, whēsoever he shal believe & repēt; As for the elect, which die before the use of reason; the [Page 398] sacrament of baptisme is the seale and meanes of Christ [...] righteousnes to be applyed to the [...]e by the holy Ghost. For as some have bene sanctified from the wombe, yea and some in the wombe, so it is not to be doubted, but that those infants whom God in their infancy inten­deth to glorify, he doth bestowe upon them his spirit, which is the spirit of faith, 2 Cor. [...].13. and the spirit of regeneration, whereby he doth illuminate their minds, and sanctify their hearts and every way prepare and fit them for his owne kingdome.

[...]stinction.Fourthly weare to distinguish between the judgment of charity, & the judgment of certainty. For although in the generall we knowe, that not every one that is baptised is justified or shalbe saved, yet when we come to speake of particulars, we are to judge of them that are baptized, that they are regenerated and justified, and that they shalbe saved; untill they shall discover them­selves not to be such. And so our booke of Common-Prayer speaketh of them, as the scriptures also teach us to speak of them that are baptized, that they are rege­nerated and engrafted into the body of Christ, though perhaps they be regenerated sacramento tenus, and en­grafted onely into the body of his visible church: But this judgement of charity, is no matter of certainty, or of faith but may be deceived.

The like judgment of charity our church conceiveth concerning all those that d [...] in the bosome of the church, and depart this life in the professiō of the faith▪ so that not all are justifyed before GOD, or sanctified by saving grace, who to us, judging according to cha­rity, seeme to be such.

The Papists confession.§. 5. Lastly the Papists themselves doe teach, that the [Page 399] sacraments doe not conferre grace, to him that com­meth to the sacrament, in the guilt of mortall sinne, or, as they speake, po [...]enti obicem mortalis peccati. But all that come to be baptized, are guilty (if not justified be­fore) of mortall sinne, not onely adulti, who are of yeares, and have to their originall sinne added their owne personall transgression; but infants also, who be­sides their originall corruption, in respect whereof they are all naturally dead in sinne, doe also stand guilty of Adams most haynous transgression, which without doubt was a mortall sinne.

You will say then, to what use doth baptisme serve? I answeare, that the blood of CHRIST 1. Ioh. 1.7. doth purge us from all our sinnes, as well mortall, as those which the Papists call veniall; that this washing of the soule by the blood of Christ is res sacramenti, the thing signified by baptisme, whereof the outward baptisme is a sacra­ment, that is, a signe to signifie it, a seale to assure it to them that believe, an instrument of the holy Ghost to apply it to the elect, and heyres of promise. For there is no saving grace given, but according to Gods pur­pose of grace given unto us in Christ before all times, and according to the covenant of grace made with the heyres of promise.

§. 6. But Bellarmine proveth his assumption by the confession of his adversaryes.His proofe of the assumption For first, as the church of Rome holdeth, that all infants are by baptisme truly justified, so the Lutheranes (as he calleth them) do hold, (as he reporteth) that all infants doe by baptisme re­ceive faith.

Answ. The opinion of those, who are adversaryes to us, in this cause, as well as the Papists, ought not to be [Page 400] prejudiciall to us. For if they hold, that all infants, when they are baptized, doe receive faith and remission of sinnes: and withall maintaine, that they who are once indued with faith and have obtained remision of sinne, shall not fall away finally, though they may total­ly for a time, because they shalbe renewed by repentance let them consider, whether upon their opinion it will not follow,Mat 16.16. that all that are baptized shalbe saved. For not onely grace but salvation also is promised to all that believe, and are baptized.

Secondly he alleageth the judgment of Calvine, Mar­tyr, and B [...]cer, who teach that before, and without Bap­tisme, the children of the faithfull are borne holy.

Answ. They teach nothing in this point, but that which the holy Ghost in the scriptures hath taught, & is therefore most true, if it be rightly understood. For whereas all the nations of the world are the Lords, and he is the God of them all,Rom 3 29. by creation, governement & preservation; the visible church, after a peculiar manner Exod. 19.5.6. Deut 10.14.15. Deut Deut, is the people of God, chosen, set a part and sanctified to be an holy and peculiar people unto himselfe: and he is their God, by a speciall covenant, and they his people. By vertue of this covenant, the children of this people Rom. 11, 16. are an holy seed, though but one of the paic [...]s be [...] believe [...] or professour of the faith, asth [...] Apostle teacheth 1 Cor. 7.14. & as the Lord himselfe professeth, they are borne unto him. Ezech.

But although the whole visible church be an holy & elect people, and their seed be called holy ▪ and borne to God: yet were it great absurdity, from hence to inferre, as Bellarmine doth, that therefore every particular, either man or child in the church, is elected unto life, and san­ctified by the spirit of God. For there is a double elcti­on, [Page 401] & a twofold sanctity. There is an electiō of a people to be the visible church, or Gods peculiar people, as Isra­el was; and there is an election of particular men unto eternall life. There is a generall or common sanctity, whereby the visible church, and the members thereof are called holy, and so to be esteemed of us; and there is a speciall sanctity, whereby the faithfull are truly ho­ly in the sight of God, whereas therefore the children of the faithfull are holy as the Apostle saith, because they are within the covenant, therefore the sacrament of the covenant is not to be denyed to them,Iust. l. 4. c. 16. as Calvin prov­eth, whom, notwithstanding this generall holines, he acknowledgeth to be defiled with originall sinne, & to stand guilty of death and damnation, untill they be re­generated Ioh. 3.5. by water and the spirit.


Three other reasons of Bellarmine.

§. 1 HIS third reason,Because there are many he­retickes. If faith cannot be lost, whence then are so many heretickes in the world? for this is the difference betwixt Pagans & heretickes, that Pa­gans never had faith, but heretickes have had and lost it. His reason is thus framed.

All heretickes have lost faith.

All heretickes have bene indued with a true justi­fying faith.

Therefore some which have bene endued with a true justifying faith have lost it.

First I deny the assumption, that heretickes have had a justifying faith, & cōsequētly the propositiō for if they [Page 402] never had the justifying faith, they could not loose it. The falsity of the assumption is proved thus There must be heresies saith the Apostle 1. Cor. 11 19 that [...] those that are sound and approved Christians, who are indued with a true lively justifying faith, may be knowne, name­ly by withstanding them, and by standing stedfast in the truth, and on the otherside, that [...] those that are unsound and not indued with saith unfayned, may be discovered, by falling into such heresies as sa [...]h [...] ̄ broacheth, therfore those, who are perverted with dam­nable heresies, were never sound, never indued with faith unfained, as I have shewed heretofore out of Tertulliā De prescript. advers. haeres. cl 3. whereby the propositiō is also proved to befalse, for he­retickes cannot be truly said to have lost that wch they never had. But Bellarmine after his manner proveth both. for, saith he, this is the difference betwixt Pagans and heretickes: that Pagans never had faith, but hereticks have had it, and lost it.

Answ. The faith which Bellarmine speaketh of, is the doctrine and profession of the Christian faith, which faith the Pagans never had, but heretickes having had it, that is, having professed them selves Christians, doe erre from the faith, or (as the Apostle Tim, 2.17.18. in the place al­leaged by Bellarmine, speaketh) from the truth, that is, from the doctrine and profession of faith, stiffly main­taining erroneous doctrines contrary to the Catholick faith; which happeneth unto them, because they were never [...], sound and upright Christians, nor in­dued with a true justifying faith. For if they had beene of us (that is,1 Ioh. 2▪ 19 sound & upright Christians) they would sure­ly have remained with us ▪ but they are departed from us, not onely because they were not of us, but also that it might appeare that they were never of us.

[Page 403]And whereas Bellarmine thinketh, that none can be hereticks but such as loose the faith which once they had: let him consider, that him selfe, and many other heretickes, never had any other faith, then that which now they have. For in Popery, which is the sinke and common sewre of many heresies, many are bredde and borne, and therein live and dye; who, though they be as grosse heretickes as ever professed christianity; yet they never had any other, but their Antichristian faith.

§. 2. His fourth reason.From admo­nitions and ex­hortations. If the just cannot sinne, to what end, are so many admonitions and exhortations of the A­postles and Prophets, and of all the teachers of the Church, s [...] all ages, made to the people of God, that they should feare, [...]hat they should take heed, and be carefull. To what end hath the Lord commanded the Apostles and all the Church to pray, forgive us our sinnes, lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evill. To what end is penance, absoluti­on, and reconciliation of those that have offended, defen­ded against the Novatians, if the just cannot sinne?

Here Bellarmine fighteth with his owne shadow. For we confesse more freely then he or any of the Papistes, (who dream of perfection in this life, and of the perfect fulfilling of the law, yea of doing more then the law re­quireth) that the just may, & doe often sinne. But such is his malice and desire to make us, and the holy truth which we professe, odious unto his hearers; lest they should be converted and live, that against his owne knowledge he chargeth us with such things, as we are further from then the Papists them selves.

Indeed if he had objected (as truly he might) that there are admonitions in the scriptures, that Heb. [...].1 [...] we should take heed lest at any time there be in any of us an evil heart [Page 404] and unfaithfull to depart away from the living God: that he, who thinketh him 1. Cor. 10.12. selfe to stand, take heed lest he fall; that we should not quench the spirit, 1. Thes. 5.19. that we should worke out our salvation Phil. 2.12 Dicit Aposto­lus spiritum nol [...]te extin­gue [...]e, non quia illie extingui pote [...]t &c Aug. de Bapt pa [...]va­lo. ad Bonisac. ep. 19. with feare and trembling, & such like, his objection would have had some shew of rea­son, and yet but a shew. For first, the holy Ghost in these and such like places, speaketh to the whole body of the church, in which are many unsound Christians, who though they thinke them selves to stand, yet are in danger not to fall onely, but also to fall away And therefore such admonitions are necessary in the church of God, that men may beware of the leaven of the Pha­risyes,Luk 12.1. which is hypocrisie; that men should take heede that they build not upon the sand, lest they be but hy­pocrites and temporary professors: but that they should build upon the rock, and labour to approve them selves upright and sound professours, whose faith shall never faile. Secondly, such admonitions are very profitable for the faithfull and elect. For as the Lord hath decreed, & promised; that they shall persever, so he hath appointed meanes, wherby they should be kept & preserved from falling away; among which meanes, these and the like exhortations, admonitions & comminations are not the least. For they discover unto us our weaknes in our selves, that we may not glory in our own strength and worthines; but may be taught to rely upon the power and promises of God, and upon the mediation of our Saviour Christ. And whereas godly feare & vigilancy are notable meanes to keepe us in order, and to preserve us from falling away; these admonitions serve to work in us this feare, & to stir us up to vigilācy, & to make us shake off all carnall security, & spirituall drowsines. that we may accomplish our sanctification 2 Cor. 7.1. in the feare of God[Page 405] So that hereby the Lord performeth his promise made by the Prophet Ieremy Ier 32 40. that he will put his feare into our hearts that we should not depart from him. These ad­monitions therefore are not arguments to prove, that the faithfull or elect may fall away; but so many ad­juments, that they shall not fall away. Neither doth the necessity of using meanes, which God hath appoin­ted for the obtaining of any end, prove the possibility of missing the end, for as he hath decreed the end, so hath he preordained the meanes, God had promised Paul Act. [...].24. that he and all that were with him in the shippe should come safe to land, but when Paul perceived, that the mariners, who are the ordinary meanes appointed to that end, were about to make an escape, he told the cap­taine, unlesse these men stay, we cannot come safe to land. So the Lord hath promised the faithfull, that they shall persevere: but unlesse they walke in the feare of GOD, they cannot continue. wherefore as the Lord hath promised perseverance as the end, so he hath promised to give us his feare, as the meanes and that we may be indued with godly feare, he appoin­teth such wholsome admonitions to be used. where­fore such admonitions, though they argue, that in re­spect of our owne weaknes, if we should be left to our selves, we might fall away; yet seeing our perseverance is not grounded upon our selves, but on the immutability power and truth of God, and on the mediation and in­tercession of Christ, they doe not prove, that we, whose perseverance is grounded upon such foundati­ons, can fall away. And to this purpose consider with me these examples. Our saviour Christ,Mat, 24.4▪ biddeth the faithfull and elect to take heed, that no false prophets or false Christs deceive thē, & yet in the same chap. V. [...]4.25. he [Page 406] noteth it to be a thing impossible, that the elect should be so deceived. Notwithstanding if they should not take heed, they might be deceived. Likewise S. Iohn 1. Iohn 2 27.28. exhorteth the faithfull to abide in Christ▪ may it there­fore happen, that they shall not abide in him? nothing lesse, for in the very next wordes going before, he assu­reth the faithfull, that as the anointing (meaning there­by the holy Ghost) which is true, had taught them; so they should abide in Christ. Againe Ioh. 15. our Savi­our Christ,De corrept. & gratia c 13. who, as Augustine also observeth, knew certainely that his disciples should abide in him, yea he himselfe assureth them, that they shall abide; for, saith he,Ioh. 15.16. I