THE DEFENCE OF TRADE. In a Letter To Sir THOMAS SMITH Knight, Gouernour of the EAST-INDIA Companie, &c. From one of that Societie.

—Vexat censura Columbas.

LONDON, Printed by William Stansby for Iohn Barnes, and are to be sold at his shop ouer against Saint Sepulchres Church without Newgate. 1615.


Right worthy Sir,

WHen I first heard of an Inuectiue publisht by some vnknowne busie Person, against the East-Indian Trade: I must confesse, I held it, In eorum genere quae vi­lescunt spreta, worthy only of that Companies contempt, whose blest indeuour, with good seruice to the State, hath surely freed them from the poyson. Why should they then regard the hissing of those lurking Serpents, that when the Itching humour takes them, will be doing breuibus & carcere dignum, euen with the State it selfe?

But hauing since pervsed the Pamphlet, I finde vn­der the pleasing title of Increase of Trade, and gilded ouer with that Commendable Proposition of the Her­ring-fishing, a sort of Pills are put to swallowing, that perhaps may worke weake stomacks to distaste our [Page 2] Course of Traffick by societies in London, especially that now of greatest hope and profit to the East-In­dies. And though the Author handle the particulars with such confused Contradictions, as assure mee hee conceiued not what he writ: Yet sure, some Ape hath put the Cats foot in the fire, some cunning and mali­tious persons, for priuate ends, or lewder purposes in­fused the Quicksiluer that set that running head a work. Remembring therefore that a wiseman should not onely keep himselfe from hurt of the Brute Beast, but feed and clothe, that is as Plutarch notes, make profita­ble vse of enemies: out of my loue to you that spend so much of your Time, for the good of the worthie Marchants liberall Aduentures, to aduance the reputati­on and reuenue of the Common-wealth, I wish some one of our Committies best experienced in that bu­sinesse, would take this oportunitie to shew how wrongfully they are traduced, whose voluntarie ha­zards in such long and costly voyages, for such euen by their enemies confession, dangerous and slow returnes were rather thankefully to be commended.

Good men, well-minded Marchants, while the idle Drone and greedie Catterpillers prey vpon the sub­stance of the Subiect here at home, with eating vsurie and harmefull arts, while such a Spider in a corner spends his fruitlesse dayes perhaps in weauing weake obiections against them, from furthest parts abroad, they fetch and bring the hony to the Hiue, laborious Bees, they clothe and feede the poore, and giue the willing man imployment to gaine with them, and with the Common wealth, the honour, and the ri­ches that Venice first enioyed by their Trade ouer land, [Page 3] along the Mediterran, and then the Portingals (poore Portingals till then) procured by their more aduanta­gious farre Sea-trafficke with those Easterne Countries.

This was the first intention, this is still the endea­uour of that famous fellowship, best knowne to you that were their first, and are by well deseruing, still their Gouernour; and if it please Almightie God to continue his wonderfull blessing, and our good King his gracious countenancing of their industrie, I make no doubt, but by discouery of some neerer passage, or if the worst fall, through the Aduantage of our multi­tude of able bodies, and most commodious Sea-situa­tion, euen the way wee haue that rich Trade may re­ceiue yet our turne more, and in few yeares a Staple of Commerce for all the World be setled in these Nor­therne parts with as much life and quickning to the na­uigation and affaires of this whole Iland, as London and all sorts of Marchants in it found by one returne from thence last sommer, Quae nobis placet experientia veri.

But Sir, this honourable enterprise, like Hercules yet in the Cradle, in the infancie hath beene assailed by Serpents slie aspersions, whichNatiua generi humano pestis quae vepres nun­quam desinit in alienis agris licet purgatissimi sint quaeritare. Pet. Mart. Enuie long since whispered in the eares of ignorance, of killing Mar­riners and carrying out the treasure of the land, in an­swere whereunto had the East India Marchant then but told a truth like Martials, Bella, Diues, Puella, Fabulla, hee might haue beene (it may bee iudged) neyther faire nor rich, nor chast, but only forward to commend himselfe: but now when as the poore Snake Enuie growes to be a Monster, Malice, when the pratler late a creeping Worme is waxt a winged Goose, a setter forth in print of slanders. Now (me thinkes) you are, [Page 4] if not inforst, at least inuited happily to shew the world the well deseruing of that worthie Companie, whose innocence will shine more gloriously euen to the eye obscur'd of him that dwels farthest from Lon­don, by passing through those vapours of an idle or corrupted braine these forst or forged imputations.

A worke for truths sake worthie of a feruent spirits carefull handling: but were it recommended to my weaknesse; though I dislike as much as any man, to see one, by transcribing only in effect, an honest Gentle­mans goodQuae non vult sic laudari-Nec tali auxilio nec defensoribus istis—Eget, &c. Fishing-Proiect, steale occasion to censure all our Trades, and giue intelligence what Shippes of ours, how manned, and at what seasons yearely passe from place to place, with such particulars of our Sea-states decay, as must be eyther true, and so the se­crets, or false, and so the slanders of our Countrie.

Though I condemne his folly, that proclaimes such weakenesse and such want of Marriners and Shipping in our Ports from fond reports of idle fel­lowes, Informations certainly as false in these particu­lars, as we know they are in our East-India matters, es­pecially at this time, when cleane contrarie, the power and greatnesse of our Royall Mr. and the reputation of his strength by Sea and Land, is for the good of Christendome, composing of those stormes which Armies both in Italy, and Germanie doe threaten.

Though I detest the hollow-hearted cunning, that doth looke on Holland, but yet roues for other Coun­tries, girding still and glancing at our Neighbours of the vnited Prouinces, those in reason of state, and through band of Religion, best assured friends, with [Page 5] ouer sedulous insinuating into euery eare, their ea­ting vp of our prosperitie, their supplanting of vs in our Trades, and such like seedes of Disaffection, preiu­diciall to vs both. Whereas an honest subiect, well dis­posed in Religion, well affected to the State, would ra­ther rest content with this assurance, that our King hath power enough, when it shall please his wisdome to curbe insolence. Our State may when it will, meet with vnthankfulnesse, and they that made theTheir word was, Si collidi­mur frangimur. Em­bleme, for their owne good, must be carefull to keepe the Pots from knocking one vpon another.

Though more particularly, out of many Touches, I obserue such inclination, such a secret variation in the Compasse of that Pamphletors discourse, as makes me very iealous, for all his faire conclusion that hee fra­med his Almanacke for the Meridian of Toledo rather then our Ilands good fortune: witnesse his willingnes to haue vs Trade into those Countries, where wee must bee euer vnder the Lee, in awe and subiect to much inconuenience, rather then make double the profit to our selues and to the Common-wealth by fetching frō the wel-head, from the Indies, rather then weaken them, their wealth and shipping, that in all their Moderne Treaties with all Nations shew, how much account they make of that sweet Trafficke.

Though last of all that Pamphletors malignant ra­king vp all sorts of rayling arguments, and spleenefull vrging euery thing against the East-India Marchant, might very well prouoke from one of that Societie, the lashes which his often fond excursions fit him for; yet surely I should leaue him to the Riuall-free fruition of those errors, and apply my penne to satisfie an ho­nest [Page 6] minde, rather then make him smart or carelesse Readers smile. And as a ground-worke of Integri­tie, first I would set downe what hee sayes euen in his owne Apparell, Scarfe, and Feather too, As thus.

Now followeth the consideration of the East Indie Trade,East Indies. into whose Seas, not onely the Riuer of Volga, as before you heard, disemboqueth it selfe, but euen the bot­tome of the Straights is emptied to fill vp those gulfes, and not to onely, but besides that many of our best Marchants haue transported their Staples thither; it hath also begot out of all Callings, Professions, and Trades, many more new Marchants. Then where there is increase of Mar­chants, there is increase of Trade; where Trade increa­seth, there is increase of Shipping; where increase of Shipping, there increase of Mariners likewise: so then rich and large East Indies. The report that went of the pleasing notes of the Swannes in Meander floud, farre surpassing the records of any other Birdes in any other places whatsoeuer, drew thither all sorts of people in great confluence, and with great expectation to heare, and enioy their sweet singing. When they came thither, they found in stead of faire white Swannes, greedie Rauens, and deuouring Crowes; and heard instead of melodious harmonie, vntuneable and loathsome croaking. In in­dignation that they were so receiued and deceiued, in stead of applauding, they hissed; and of staying, fled away. You are now braue East Indies Meander floud, your Trade is the singing of Swannes, which so many iourney so farre to enioy. God forbid you should bee found so discoloured, and wee so ill satisfied. And howsoeuer that I may bee sure to auoide any detraction, whereby my nature might haue any imputation, or by calling vp more Spirits into the circle then I can put downe againe, I might incurre some danger, and be taxed likewise of indiscretion, for that we onely hitherto haue cōplained of the want of shipping; we desire now but herein to suruey the store, and sée how [Page 7] you helpe the increase. You haue built more Shippes in your time, and greater farre then any other Marchants Ships; besides what you haue bought out of other trades, and all those wholly belonging to you; there hath béene entertained by you since you first aduentured, one and twentie Ships, besides the now intended Uoyage of one new Ship of seuen hundred Tunne, and happily some two more of increase. The least of all your Shipping is of fourescore Tunne: all the rest are goodly Ships, of such burthen as neuer were formerly vsed in Marchandize; the least and meanest of these last is of some hundred and twen­tie Tunne, and so goe vpward euen to eleuen hundred Tunne. You haue set forth some thirteene Uoyages, in which time you haue built of these, eight new Ships, and almost as good as built the most of the residue, as the Dra­gon, the Hector, &c. So that at the first appearance you haue added both strength and glorie to the Kingdome by this your accession to the Nauie. But where I pray you are all these Ships? foure of these are call away, of the which one was of three hundred Tunne, another of foure hundred, the third of thrée hundred, and the fourth of ele­uen hundred; two more are docked vp there as Pinaces to Trade vp and downe: the rest are either employed in the Trade in the Indies, or at home out of reparations; which if true, if the Kingdome should haue néede of them on any occasion, it shall surely want their seruice; and so then there is not onely no supply to the Nauie this way, but hurt euen to the whole Kingdome, the Woods being cut downe, and the Ships eyther lost, on not seruiceable. Surely Stories can shew vs, which we may reade in the courses of Com­mon-weales, how tolerable, nay how laudable it is in all States, to enlarge Commerce. Marchants, whome wée should respect, can tell vs of the casualties which not one­ly the Shippes, but their Estates are subiect to by aduen­tures. Mariners, whom we must pittie, can teach vs of the ordinary dangers not onely that Shippes and goods, but their liues are subiect to by Sea. I must not then expro­brate [Page 8] that to them which is to be imputed to the Sea; nor are they to bee blamed out of reason for that which deser­ueth in humanitie, commiseration; nor is England boun­ded by our Horizon, to goe no further then wée sée. Wee haue learned long since, that Mercatura si tenuis sordida, si magna, splendida; the Stranger the Countrie, the greater the aduenture; the more famous our Nation, the more worthie the Marchant. Before wee were, euen Horace Writ, Currit Mercator ad Indos. Loath then am I to borr­ow that saying of Demosthenes on his courting of Lais, to pay it to the Indian Trade, by alleaging, that Non tanti E­mam poenitentiam, only hauing now in common that Ro­man Prouiso, Ne quid detrimenti Respub. capiat. Let vs ex­amine that which may mooue patience, that our Woods are cut downe, and the Ships either lost or not seruiceable: Our Woods I saie, cut downe in extraordinarie manner, neither doe the Ships die the ordinarie death of Shippes. Our Woods, extraordinarily cut downe, in regard of the greatnesse of the Shipping, which doth as it were deuoure our Timber. I am able out of sufficient testimonie to af­firme, that since the Indian Trade, and méerely through their building of their Ships of so great burthen, and their repairing, (the building notwithstanding beganne but fiue yeares since) that Timber is raised in the Land fiue shil­lings, and more, in the load, nay, almost not to bee had for monie, which the Companie (no question) being sensible of, very wisely séeke to helpe themselues in, by building of Ships in Ireland for their seruice: yet it seemeth their in­couragement that way, is but necessitous, in regard by their owne saying, besides the hazard, the charges are lit­tle lesse; and which is worse, that kind of Timber is but vntoward for that vse, being so extreame heauie, that a Ship of a small burden draweth much Water. In fiue yeares space their building, together with their repairing of Ships almost equall to building, beget such a scarcitie, what will a little continuance bring forth? Bring forth I cannot say ought, but a priuation will follow euen of all [Page 6] our Timber Wood. The Kings Nauie must be maintai­ned, other Merchants of lower ranke must haue shipping, and the Sea trade may increase, and then eyther we must Trade without shipping, or make Shippes, without Tim­ber.

When the Norman Conqueror hauing subdued the most part of the Kingdome, passed from Essex into Kent, which then made head against him, the Kents, hauing by the ad­uice of their politike Bishoppe and their stout Abbot, cut downe great boughes, and with them in their armes mar­ched towards the Conqueror; whereby, besides the nouel­tie of the sight, the Armie appeared double as bigge: Wil­liam himselfe so conceiuing it, as also amazed to sée Woods walke; more feared and discontented with that sight, then otherwise assured with his former successe, condescended to what demands soeuer were made by those people, to haue such weapons laid downe, and to gaine such ingenious Subiects; whereby, to their eternall benefit, and credit, their persons were neuer in bondage, no their Lawes al­tered. In this their Land-Stratageme, I sée our Sea-Arts, in that and these Woods being the fatall instrument of our fortunes, Boughes of Trees kept the Kentish-men out of seruitude, when they held them in their hands, and but for shew; their bodies will kéepe vs in libertie when they containe vs, and are for seruice, and by their mouing on the water they will amaze both French and Spanish, and whomsoeuer, and kéep them, and all others, from comming néere vs: Out of which prouident fore-sight, our most wor­thy Princes formerly raigning, haue made diuers Lawes in fauour of Timber Trees:35. Hen. 8. 17. 13 Elizabeth. 25. and our most noble King hath prouided thereto with new accessions for the preser­uing and increasing of them; but that a parricide of Woods should thus be committed by building of Shippes,Forbidding by proclamation the building with Timber it was neuer thought on by any of our Royall Solons, and there­fore there was no prouiso for it: Nay, this inconuenience was to little suspected, that our said famous Princes haue prouided cleane contrarie, with great bountie and indul­gence [Page 10] haue encouraged by reward out of their owne pur­ses the builders of great Ships; as bestowing on the buil­ders fiue shillings on the Tunne for euery Tunne that is builded aboue one hundred Tunne in a Ship; so necessary did the Prince thinke his maintenance of shipping, the ac­cession thereof consisting much in their greatnesse, to the honour and safetie of the Kingdome; and such vse he made account he should haue of them. Whereas now this waie he contributeth, to the spoile of his Woods, to the losse of the Shippes, and to the hurt of the Kingdome. I heard a Shippe-wright say on the losse of the Trades Increase, that if you ride fortie miles from about London, you could not find sufficient Timber to build such another. It was a Ship of eleuen hundred Tunne: for beautie, bur­then, strength, and sufficiencie, surpassing all Marchants Ships whatsoeuer. But alas! shée was but shewne, out of a cruell destinie shée was ouertaken with an vntimely death in her youth and strength, being deuoured by those Iron Wormes of that Countrie, that pierced her heart, and brake many a mans withal memorable in her misfor­tune, onely redounding to the Common-wealthes losse. For as for the Marchants, though I pittie their aduen­tures with all my heart, yet in this their part of losse was least; for all their goods were on shore; and shée had brought aboundance out of the Mecha Fléete, which shée did both tithe and toll: And thanks be to God, they are more then serues by what is returned from her, and more then that often, by the grace of God, will come from her to the Mar­chants gaine.

The like vntimely fall had the other thrée of great bur­then, gallant Ships, neuer hauing had the fortune to see their nature soile againe, or the honour to doe their Coun­trie any seruice, in respect of all other ships that wander ordinarily to other Countries, therefore I may iustly say that they die not the ordinary death of shippes, who com­monly haue some rest, and after long seruice die full of yeares, and at home, much of their timber seruing againe [Page 11] to the same vse, besides their Iron-worke, and the rest o­therwise seruiceable, and not in this bloudie and vnseaso­nable fashion, rather indéed as coffins full of liue bodies, then otherwise as comfortable ships. For the rest that liue,Our Ships are fain to take in the natiues of the Indian Countries to supply the wants of our dead Sea-men to bring home their Ship. they come home so crazed and broken, so maimed and vn­manned, that whereas they went out strong, they re­turne most feeble: and whereas they were carried forth with Christians, they are brought home with Heathen. What the profits are to the Marchants, for so great an ad­uenture, I know not. I am sure amends can not easily be made for so great losse, euen in this point which is our spe­ciall subiect, for wast of Woods, and spoile of shipping.

The last cōsistance of shipping propounded, was that of the East Indies: which though yongest, was found in shew and state to haue ouer-topped all the rest; as a Bird that maketh her selfe gay with the feathers of all other Foules; hauing borrowed, nay, hauing bought the best ships out of other Trades to honour their Uoyage, and plumed euen Constantinople her self, of her shipping: therefore that men are entertained extraordinarily in this Uoyage, it is apparant out of the greatnesse of the shipping; the enter­tainment of them increasing, if should be a consequent that Sea-men increase this way: But that we may not by am­bages triumph in their losse, or our calamities, we sée this way that our shippes perish, and therefore our men they shrinke, Nay, though ships come home, yet then leaue the men behind: so in this Uoyage, there is a two-fold way towards our want of Marmers.

In that Ships, nay great ships, are extraordinarily sub­iect to be cast away, and then there must be lest likewise of men; In that though they come home emptied of their men.

By the losse of foure ships, we haue lost at the least foure hundred and fiftie men: and in the aduenture of some thrée thousand that haue beene imployed since that Uoyage be­ganne, wée haue lost many aboue two thousand.

Dauid refused to drinke of the Well of Bethelem, [Page 12] which the strong men had fetched, when hee thirsted and longed, because it was the price of bloud. This Trade, their commodities are at a farre dearer rate, being bought with so many mens liues.

But happily some will say, that the greatest losse of these men was at the beginning, when as all thinges are difficult: but since our men framed to a better com­position of themselues, to the varietie of this Climate, and heartned to the tediousnesse of this Uoyage, haue better endured and ouercome those difficulties, and returned more comfortably. Heerein the latest Uoyages will informe vs best, and wée will instance in the thrée last that haue made returnes.

The first was vnder Sir Henrie Middleton, The Trades Increase. whose for­mer gouernment in that kind of Uoyage, had approoued his wisdome and moderation. His ship was that famous and infortunate Uessell of eleuen hundred Tun; his com­pany in that ship some two hundred and twentie men. Af­ter foure yeares errors vp and downe the Sea, wherein he vnder-went many constructions at home, and ouercame strange difficulties abroad; hauing, to his eternall reputa­tion of policie and courage, out-gone the perfidious Turke, and reuenged their barbarous wrongs,Captaine Pe­merton that es­caping impri­sonment at Moha, iourney­ing in that vn­known Coun­trie 15. miles by night, got to the Sea-side and finding a small Canow, made a saile of his shirt, and a mast of a stick, and so recoue­red the Ships. to the Marchants gaine, and the Kingdomes repute: After He, and his, had, I say, béene accompanied with many sorrowes; with labor, hunger, heate, sicknesse, and perill; That worthie Com­mander, with many a sufficient Marmer, with the whole number (ten excepted) of his li [...]e Cargazon, perished in that Acheldama, in that bloudy field of Bantam.

Nicholas Dounton, the Uice-admirall of that Fléete re­turned, and of seuentie be carried forth, brought home some twentie; the rest, their labors and liues were sacrifi­ced to that implacable East Indian Neptune: the Darling of that Uoyage is yet there, nor neuer will the master, and approoued sea-man, returne, with diuers others.

The second was that of Captaine Saris, and Captaine Towerson, men formerly exercised in those iournies, and [Page 13] therefore thought méet to command. Whether they were short of the opinion conceiued of them or no, I know not; it they were, I should attribute part of the losse of their men to their insufficiencie, but that the destinie of that Countrie challengeth all to it selfe. Captaine Towerson, who first re­turned hauing left behind him of some hundred and twen­tie carried forth, fourescore and fiue; and Captaine Saris of 90. & odde not hauing brought home aboue two or thrée and twentie: the Thomas of that voyage, which went forth with some 60. men, was brought home by way of a wreck, you know the destruction of men that name importeth.

The third, that of Captaine Thomas Best, By staying an Armenian ship, wherin at least were some 400 men bound to the Indies, and commanding the Port, hee drew from ther plaine dealing and made ho­norable condi­tions for the Marchants. He encountered foure gallions, wherein might be some two thousand men▪ Admirall of the Fléet, a man, whose former behauiour in sea-affaires drew into that iourny with great expectation, and which is very seldome and hard, his carriage in this employment went beyond that great expectation of a reposed demeanor indulgent to his men, vigilant in his charge, his courage like on his carriage, and his fortune aboue all, hee checked the Indians, he mated the Portugals: those honor our King, these feare his forces, he setled a trade in Cambaya, reduced things in order in Bantam, brought riches home for the Marchants, and kept reputation for himselfe; yet for all this had he, Nemesin in do [...]se, the Indian vengeance haun­ted his ship euen to our Coasts; of some hundred and eigh­tie men vnder him when he went forth, depriuing him of one hundred and odde men for euer. Some foure or fiue and twentie of the remainder are left, on the desperate ac­count of men, for the Countries Facteridge, onely thirtie are returned. In two great Sea-fights with the Portugals and their Gallions, which continued foure whole dayes, he lost not foure men. It was not then the fortune of war; neyther out of want of ought that victuals and good go­uernment could affoord; imputations to some other Uoy­ages: Nor had the length of time any fault, part of others bane; he hauing made the voyage in shorter space then any other ordinarily▪ the dogged Starre of those Climates, the [...]ench of those Countries were his fatalitie.

[Page 14] As one swallow maketh no summer, so it is not much to be maruailed, that in al these Uoyages some one ship hath but béene scarred, and not else much hurt in this iournie: Shée indéed but euen séeing those Coasts, and presently on so great a glut of our men and ships, with the which it sée­meth the sea and Land was then busied and full: when as Captaine Newport returned with little losse and in short time.

Now then as wée haue said before, that the Indian ships die not the ordinary death of ships: and that wee haue shewen likewise before, that men doe die extraordinarily in this Uoyage, which is almost incredible: they are distres­sed likewise after their death, and that is very apparant by the meane account made to their heires of what they had in possession in their life time, by what should other­wise be due to them in their purchase, by the calamities of their wiues, children, and friends, after their death. Fa­bulous and phantasticall Legends haue béene made of the restlesse death of many concealed Extortioners, and Mur­derers, whose Ghosts haue béen said so walke in paine and penance. On the contrary, how many liue bodies in­déed the true Images of the deceased, complaine of the death, call for the due of their friends? Fathers, Husbands, Children, Kinsfolks, & Creditors: Poore Ratlife, Limehouse Blacke-wall, Shadwell, Wapping, and other sea-townes abroad can sensibly tell. The Marchant hée is at home, and therefore hée cannot embezell the goods abroad: and it is likely that what is directly proued due is paid here to theirs. Then is the calamitie of that iournie more feare­full, because out of his owne ill Planet if maketh so many miserable. How this is recompenced it is neyther my purpose, nor my part to examine: For certaine there is want of Trade: the Hollander would grow greater, if hée had all this Trade in his owne hands. The Kings Cu­stomes are now aduanced: this way Shipwrights are set on worke, which must be maintained; and other Mecha­nicall Trades liue hereby, with a number of poore busied. [Page 15] And surely hee that would not haue the poore to liue, I would hee might begge: And hee that would not aduance the Kings profit in all liberall manner; and Marchandize is a faire means, I would hée might die: and hee that re­gardeth not his Countries good, it is pittie hee was euer borne. I desire not, like a second Phaeton, to make a com­bustion. All that I would enforce at this time is, that in this trade our men are consumed, and thereby more want of Mariners. Let the Straights-men, and the Lisborne-Marchants complain of their hinderance this way, and say their Trafficke before was more beneficiall by much, and more certaine to the Custome-house then the Indies bee now. Let others report that the foundation of this Trade was laid in the ruine of a Carick that Sir Iames Lancaster tooke in the first Uoyage, and that the maine of this after-iollitie procéeded of the forced Trade driuen with the Me­cha Fléet by Sir Henry Middleton, Wherein hee was his owne Trade-caruer out of tenne hundred thou­sand pounds worth of goods. whereby diuers durst not goe presently after to the Straights, as the Angell, and other ships, out of rumor of reuenge for violence offered by our Indian men to the Turkes in the Red sea. Let the common people say that their commodities are vnneces­sarie: aske the Tradesmen, nay all men, what they haue cheaper: looke into the price of victuals how it riseth out of their great prouisions. Let the whole Land murmure at the transport of treasure, and bring in Charles the fifth his opinion, speaking to the Portugals of their Trade to the East Indies, Hall Chron. An. 15 Hen. 8. who said that they were the enemies to Chri­stendome, for they carried away the treasure of Europe to enrich the Heathen. Let goe the spéech of the small reliefe thereby to the poore, and they whom it doth concerne may suggest the Indian home state and particular profit. Once I am sure, that as Vespasian the Emperor sayd, Hee had rather saue one Cittizen, then kill one thousand Enemies; so his Royall Maiestie had rather haue his subiects, then Custome for them: and you see plainly, that his Maiesties subiects, our Countrie-men, fall this way, and this way is want of Mariners.

[Page 16] Now Sir, imagine that you were the Reader to bee satisfied, and you shall see, how while the froth of his Meander floud and such like following fuming stuffe e­uaporates it selfe, out of the residence, Drosse as it is, I will extract all his Obiections, which now like folded sheepe, or as raw Souldiers in a rout, stand faces euerie way, but I will put them in aray, in order Sir, and yet defeat them, fairely as I goe.

First, comes a very forlorne Hope, two light, flight charges, were they true, of the Riuer Volgas dis­imboquing, and the Straights emptying, but I wil take the former rather from the fifth page of his Booke where he speakes English.

The marchant formerly trading Russia,The first Ob­iection. hath for warmth and profit seated himselfe in the East Indies, and trans­ported thither much of the Muscouie Staple, &c. To which I answere.

IF here,Answere. as some imagine, hee haue look't asquint vpon Sir Thomas Smith, an Honourable Gentleman, whose constant and continuall readinesse to spend both time and monie in any action that may good the Common-wealth, doth merit as much praise as modestie may giue a liuing man: How much is hee to blame, to wrong a worthie member of this Citie of the Kingdome, that (besides many other publike busi­nesses) hath beene long, and is still Gouernour of the Muscouia Companie, and with them continually as great a Venturer as any? If he intend if by the Com­panie, how ignorantly doth hee taxe that bodie, the With the ex­pence of 120000. poūds in discoueries onely. Discouerers of the Northerne World, that all the [Page 17] last age honoured our whole Nation with their fa­mous Nauigation, that farre from letting full their Trade, after so many yeares of losse by reason of the troubles of that Land, doe yet make good a stocke, not onely toWith twice as many ships, as they need send for fi­shing. defendAt their charge it was first discoue­red, and by their great charge Visce­niers sent for, and our Natiō taught to kill the Whales. their fishing of the Whale in Greeneland, against all other Nations, but at this pre­sent able to beare the charge of sixe or seuen thousand pounds extraordinarie, to defray a Muscouite Ambas­sador al the last Winter here, and Sir Iohn Merrick, one of ours now there, in hope to settle once more Priui­leges for our Nation, and in time to bring ouer the Caspian Sea along that Riuer Volga, whose name (it seemes) he onely knowes, a Trade for Indico and Silke so rich, that the East India Marchant may perhaps bee glad for so much to ioyne purse with them.

His second ObiectionThe second of the Streights emptying, &c. or from his sixth Page. ‘The Trade into the bottome of the Streights is lessened by the Circumuention of the East Indie Nauigation, which fetcheth the Spices from the Well-head, &c.’ but marke,

IF this he sayes were true,The Answere. so long as by the change the Kingdome gaine, and onely Turkes doe lose, of what faith is hee that complaines? The Turkie Marchant is too honest and too wise, he knowes that when the great Imbargo and the warre that followed with Spaine, had forc't vs from the Marchant-stran­gers hand, to take our Spices (which were fetched from Lisbone formerly)As when lowest Pepper eight shillings a pound, &c. at extreme rates, His wittie Predecessor plotted, by his Factors, with the Carauan, to bring those Spices to Aleppo ouer Land, and so a­while did helpe to serue the subiect here at lower pri­ces, [Page 18] vntill the Hollander, by the Cape Buena Esperanza found the meanes to bring such store of those Com­modities, that theThough not vnder foure shillings the pound for Pepper, &c. low price beat the Streights-Mar­chants from thatWhich when it w [...]s at best, imploied not passe 200. Tun of shipping yearely. Marchandize: And then our Mar­chants, (that what euer ill men say, do scorne to weare the shooes of other Nations) resolu'd vpon an India Voyage for themselues, with foure good Ships, & some of them that wanted now imployment to the Streights: by the returne whereof, and by continuance of that Trafficke, our Spices are not onely cheaper to vsAs Pepper 2. shillings the pound when dearest, &c. halfe in halfe, but the Straights Marchant, long before this Pamphlet was put forth, out of our ouer­plus hath serued the Turkes with Spice, andOf that which came home 1613. alreadie 2628. bagges of Pepper, 5549. of cloues 22 [...]0. of Nut­megs, &c. which imploi'd outward at least 600. Tun of shipping & will fraight at least twice as much home. carried in one yeare much more into the Streights then euer was imported thence: The proceed whereof, as Turkie Marchants know, besides the increase of shipping to export it, will returne Wares, to imploy at least twice as much shipping more: so much hath God Almigh­tie blest vs, if we can bee thankefull. So opposite to truth is all he sayes of the East India Trades decaying of the Streights.

Besides, if the East India Marchant (that would he looke at priuate profit onely, can imploy his stock for swifter, and for surer, and perhaps more gaine) should, through discouragement of such malignant tongues, now giue that Trafficke ouer, liues there any (in the Citie among Sea men) else so simple, as to thinke, that while the Dutchmen hold their Trade, there will bee any more Spice brought from Turky? Certainely that course is now for euer ouerthrowne, and so I thinke, are these two forlorne accusations.

Next then, to ouerpasse his Fireworkes of triumph [Page 19] only, before Victorie, after some crackling noise, and no hurt, his Vantgard comes vp vpon our East-India Nauie, and like one of the wise Captaines of old time, he would cosen his Souldiers with false enumeration of their strength; I will therefore disproue him with a truer Catalogue of their ships.

Per Tonne & Tonnage.
The Dragon—1060.An old worne ship bought by the Companie, but by their cost made so strong, that shee is now gone her fifth voyage to the Indies.
The Hector—800.An old ship bought too, and made new and warlike, and now gone her 5. voiage too.
The Suzan—400.A very rotten ship, when shee was bought, and likely to haue beene broke vp for firewood, yet she made one voyage, and in her second, foundred in the Sea, as wee thinke.
The Ascension—400.An old ship bought, Ordi­nance, Tackle, Furniture, and all for fiue hundred pound, shee yet made two voyages, and in her third was wilfully runne aground vpon the sholes of Cambaya
[Page 20] The Consent—150.A bought ship, she brought home Cloues, &c. but be­ing found too litle, was sold away.
The Vnion—400.An old Hulke, bought from carrying Masts and Dele, yet made a warlike ship, and lost in Brittanie.
The Expedition—320.Gone out her third voy­age.
The Trades Increase1293New built, and ouerswaid as she was careening at Ban­tam, &c.
The Peppercorne—342.New built, and now gone her second voyage.
The Darling—150.New built, and now Tra­ding and discouering in the Indies.
The Globe—527.Bought and Rebuilt for Trade and Discouerie in Bengala, whence shee is not yet returned.
[Page 21] The Cloue—527.She was at Iapan with Cap­taine Saris, a new strong ship, and going againe her second Voyage.
The Thomas—342.New built and gone her se­cond Voyage.
The Iames—600.New built, but not yet re­turned from the Indies.
The Oceander—213.New built, and not yet re­turned.
The Salomon—400.And now gone her second Voyage.
The Concord—213.)(Gone out lately.
The new yeares gift—867.)(New built of Irish Timber.
The Hope—533.)(New built in Ireland.
The Samaritan—543.)(
The Thamazin—133.)(New built.
The Aduise—160.)(New built.
The Lyon—386.)(
[Page 22] The Great Defence—400.Readie to goe out with the Cloue.

And two more now building at Depford, one of 1100. Tunne, the other of 900. Tunne, &c.

Out of these ships, the Companie haue set forth alreadie 17. voyages. Neither may he excuse his men­tioning only 13. with pretence of his bookes being written long before his friend (no doubt) put it forth, since in the booke hee speakes of Captaine * Saris re­turne, &c.Pag. 29. But let that passe. What saies he to these ships?

Foure of these ships are lost,The third ob­iection. and that not by the ordinarie death of ships. The Trades Increase, that gallant shippe, was ouertaken by vntimely death in her youth and strength, being deuoured by those iron-hearted worms of that Countrey, &c. The like vntimely fall had the other thrée gallant ships, neuer hauing had the fortune to sée their natiue soile, nor the honour to doe their coun­trey any seruice, &c.

And is foure of so many ships, so long at Sea,Answere. so great a losse, especially in foureteene yeares of our yet infant and discouering trade, while in the farthest and vnknowne parts of the world

—Ignari hominum (que) locorum (que)
Erramus, vento vastis & fluctibus acti,
Incerti quo fata ferant, vbi sistere detur,

while we seeke for trafficke with strange Nations? Surely wee esteeme it Gods great blessing, that wee lost no more, and wee are thankfull for it. He hath not dealt [Page 23] so with some other Nations. Looke on theWhat worke would hee make, if wee should lose so much wealth, and so many men, in so la­mentable a manner as the S. Iohn or S. Be­noit, Carrickes of Portingal were cast away Portin­gall or Dutch beginnings. Nay now they are so well experienc't, the first lost in a manner all their China Fleet and riches very lately, in returne to Goa; and the other, the very last yeare, out of foure ships richly laden, the returne of many more set forth, saw the ru­ine, ships, goods, men and all, of two; and one of them euen at their doores inAt the Tes­sel. Holland. And if this Vulture that thus followes wreckes and dead mens bodies, should but reckon other Marchants losses in that time, which I had rather pitie, he would, it may be, in his so approued New-castle coasting course, finde as great losse of Mariners and shipping.

And for the extraordinarie death, I know not well what he intends: but sure the Companie, euen in the losse of most of them, for some things, Found Gods extraordinarie blessing. Witnesse a true narration.

First, for the Trades Increase, when that thrice-wor­thie Generall Sir Henry Middleton (that neither ti­thed nor tolled the Mecha Fleet, as malice would haue men beleeue, but like true Iustice, with the Sword and Ballance in his hand, made the beginning, laid the true foundation of our long desired Cambaya-Trade) had made the false Turks pay for his most bar­barous imprisonment at Moha, he conceiued, a twelue moneths stay, by that misfortune, longer forth, might peraduenture bring his shippe in danger, and there­fore more for prouidence then need, hee purposed to careen her at Bantam, our then greatest Factorie, where he was no stranger. But such was Gods good pleasure, as it hath done here, and may doe any where, a mor­tall and infectious sicknesse raged then among the na­tiues [Page 24] of that land, and fell on him and many of his people vnto death, so as the shippe (that by the brea­king of a Cable ouer-swaied) was left halfe ruind a­boue water,Yet the goods were safe. for want of skilfull hands to helpe her.

The Ascension, though an old Shippe bought, made for the Companie two voiages to India; but in her third, by the wilfulnesse of a lewd Master, that would not suffer-a Pilot to be entertained, shee was runne aground vpon the sholes of Cambaya, where yet all the men, with the best marchandize, were sa­ued.

The Vnion, bought from carrying Masts and Dele, was by their cost made warlike, and so strong, that notwithstanding her vnhappie losse of the Captaine, and eleuen more of her principall men, through foo­lish breach of their * commision,In going on land at Gongo­mora in the Island of S. Laurence, con­trarie to ex­presse instru­ctions. yet shee had come richly laden home, if first a mutinie had not fallen among those new vnfit Commanders, and then four­teene of her a blest men had not forsaken her distrest, to goe for Rochell with a shippe of Alborough. And yet, good shippe, almost at home vpon the Coast of Brittanie, where shee droue in with her weake men, the lewd Inhabitants first drew her on the Rockes, then boared her full of holes, and with more difficul­tie farre then would haue saued her, made a wrecke, as since vpon their execution for it, some of the actors haue confest in France.

The fourth and last, was the old rotten shippe, the Susan, ready to haue been broken vp for fire-wood, when the East-India Marchant bought her for their voyage, which shee yet performed, though in retur­ning home vpon her second voyage, shee foundred in [Page 25] the Sea, as men suppose: so that (as Neptune in the Poet said)

Vnus erit amissum tantum quem in gurgite quaerent,
Vnum pro multis, &c.

This only one shippe properly was lost. Now let him then but reade what hee hath written of these ships, and if he can forbeare to blush.

‘I but the rest of their ships are either out in the Uoyage,The fourth obiection or here at home out of reparations, returning so crazed and broken, &c. that if the Kingdome should haue néed on any occasion, it shall surely want their seruice, &c.’ And this in truth is an obiection worthie of an an­swere.

ALthough before this Trade grew quicke, the Companie had leisure,Answered. and were forced to new-build, and bestow great cost vpon their old bought ships; yet now for diuers yeares, since they built new, there is no shadow of a truth in that hee saies: for that their ships, some after two yeares and a halfe, some after three, and longer voyages, come home so strong and seruiceable, that without cost of Planke or Timber (except only sheathing, due to euery Mar­chants good shippe, and performed easily in thirtie daies) they haue beene found fit to send out againe vnto the Indies. And thus without new building

[Page 26]The

  • Dragon
  • Hector
  • Expedition
  • Cloue
  • Salomon
  • Peppercorne
  • This ship hee saies came home by way of a wreck, is it not likely?

was only dock't and sheath'd for the new Voyage.

And that this point of sheathing may bee fully vn­derstood, The Cloue one of the greatest, that had been at Iapan longest and farthest our, was for a triall shea­thed and fitted perfectly in fourteene dayes: who then can doubt of their abilitie to serue the State at home vpon our Coasts, or at the most, little aboue a Sum­mers Voyage out?

I but they are not héere, &c.The fifth Ob­iect▪

YEs commonly six Moneths,Answere. and when our Nauie is compleat, and our Trade setled, by Gods grace we shall haue many ships returning euery Summer, as well as those preparing in the Winter to goe forth: and see this mans ill luck, euen this last mustering yeare, be­fore the putting out of that same Pamphlet, besides those seuen aboue set-ships. The Samaritan, the Lion, and the great Defence lay many moneths within the Riuer, readie, if neede had beene, to doe the seruice which his Maiestie in his Princely wisedomeHow much is the whole Kingdome bound vnto him for his care, not onely with infinite charge to keep his royal nauy in better state then euer, but to worke out wisely such ad­dition of strength in shipping euen from his Mar­chants? pro­uides for, in his letters Patents of the Companies In­corporation.

Tenne goodly shippes and such as (not to meddle with our Marchants ships, our friends at home) being [Page 27] all together, well prouided of munition and men, would not much feare the Royall Nauie of some Kings in Christendome. A Squadron that within our narrow Seas, hauing the Land and Ports to friend, might stop the furie of another selfe conceited inuin­cible Armado: what meanes this poore man then to write hee knowes not, and it seemes, hee cares not what?

I thinke our Kentish boughes that got vs Gauel-kind of the Conqueror, like Bees in his brains haue made him wood: In a wood I am sure he is now, & like to lose himselfe, for his next forces, like Benzo his naked In­dians come to fight Ligneis Telis, with woodden Argu­ments. But any Wood will serue his rancor for Ar­rowes to shoot at the East-India Companie: and would hee flie into the Irish bogges, as hee doth into their Woods, I must now pursue him. Hee sayes,

Our Woods are extraordinarily cut downe,
The sixth Ob­iection.
in regard of the greatnesse of their shipping, which doth, as it were, deuoure our Timber, &c. King Henry the eight, and Quéene Elizabeth, by Lawes, and our King by Procla­mation, sought to preserue and increase our Woods, but that a parricide of Woods should thus bee commit­ted, by building of Ships, &c. and so on, but

THinkes he,Answere. these royall Princes cared to keep their Woods for any nobler vse, then to build gallant ships, and those not to lie still and rot his ordinarie death, but such as round about the World disperse the honour of the Crowne they serue, and then returne with wealth for King and Kingdome, and for those that set them foorth, in stead of Wood?

[Page 28] Wee must with thankefulnesse acknowledge, though hee coldly set it downe, that our most gracious Soueraigne hath not by Proclamation onely helpt the Kingdome in that point, but with a prouidence be­yond his Predecessors, besides his recommending bils in Parliament, and speaking eloquently for them, He hath vrged good husbandrie of Planting to vs all, the onely meanes to breede vp shipping Timber, since tall and goodly Trees doe neuer proue of Tillers, se­cond springers out of olde decayed stockes, how well soeuer kept by statute husbandrie in Woods.

But was this Care (thinkes he) for Trees to looke vpon? The prouidence that bids vs go and plant, com­mands vs too to vse our wel-growne Timber ere it rot, as that would soonest that is fittest for great ship­ping. His Maiestie was loth to haue our Timber spent on Beggers nests (that growing scurfe vpon this Citie) new tenemēts, whose rotten rents make many Gentle­men before their time, or that our Woods should bee consumed in fire & Furnaces for glasses & such bables when God hath blest vs with a Fuell in the bowels of the earth, the wast whereof can doe no hurt: but as for building ships, his wisedome likes that well, and out of royall bountie, for incouragement giues them the most that build the greatest, A policie of his Princely Predecessors. If then these Eagles could foresee no inconuenience, what is he? that professeth himselfe

[Page 29]Able out of sufficient testimonie (questionlesse) to affirme,The seuenth Obiection. that since the East India Trade, and méerely through their building and repayring of their Ships (their buil­ding though begunne but fiue yeares since) Timber is raysed in the Land fiue shillings in a load, nay almost not to bee had for monie. This makes the Companie flie into Ireland, And hee heard a skilfull Shipwright (doubtlesse) say, that all the Timber within fortie miles of London would not build such another shippe, as the Trades Increase, &c.

I Know what men in Kent esteeme of him,Answere. that said (because they agreed in time) that the building of Tenderden Steeple was the cause of Goodwin sands in­creasing: but if there be a man so neere of kind vnto a blocke, that hee thinkes cutting downe of Timber, Parricide: His tender conscience shall haue some more satisfaction.

It is no newes to heare the price of Timber rise, with most things else (perhaps through monies fal­ling,) It did so, long before the East India Companie beganne, It doth so now within the Land, where neyther they nor any can build shippes: but to con­found that poore Conceite, that they haue caused dearth, the East India Marchants Bookes will shew, that to this daie they haue in all of English Timber spent but fiue thousand, sixe hundred, twentie three loades, and one thousand, eight hundred, fortie two of plancks. Whereas I know of my particular acquain­tances within his Shippewrights limits, the Companie are offered at this present more then that, at as cheape rates as when they built the Trades Increase: [Page 30] And they that best can iudge the East-India Ship­wrights,I know where in one Corner of a Countrie 2000. Tunne of Timber must be spent vpon one Marsh-worke, yet no man dreames of dearth. sent to bargaine for the Companie, auerre vpon their credits, that they know within that fortie miles, Timber enough to build not onely many a Trades-Increase, but to vse their wordes, Ten times as many ships as the East-India Marchants haue.

Yet they foreseeing store can be no sore, especially neere home, and hearing how the stranger daily fet­ched away our Timber out of Ireland; out of an ho­nest good affection to their Countrie, put their foot in there, and now prouide the most part of their shipping and materialsThey haue a stock of Tim­ber, Trees and Planke cut downe, and seasoning there, and as the old is fet­ched away, still new is prouided. thence, in which they finde noI am sure it is a great deale too ser­uiceable for the stranger. fault at all, saue (as he only truly saies) the charge and ha­zard: and if it shall seeme good vnto his Maiestie to keepe our Irish Timber from the stranger, for to build Busses and fishing Vessells for our selues; This ready Companie, to doe him seruice, and to good their Countrie, may perhaps finde meanes, to saue home­store, by trying a conclusion in Virginia, which this worthy Author thinkes, men know not what to doe withall. Since therefore their prouision out of Ire­land, neither is for neede, nor to saue charges: What is he that requites that industrie of theirs, and hazard, with ill wordes?

Now Sir, wee are vpon his next Invectiues, his maine battaile, nothing now but death of men, only a certaine loose Wing, a stragling Obiection about shipping comes first in the way, and saies that

The East India Marchants haue bought the best ships out of other Trades,The eight Obiection. and plum'd euen Constantinople her selfe, of her best shipping, like a Bird that makes her selfe gay, &c.

[Page 31] BVt if theHorace, lib. 1. Epist. 3. Poet were aliue (from whom hee bor­rowes that conceit) to reade first a Gentlemans Fishing-Proiect,Answere▪ and then this Trades increase, assu­redly, His Quae moue at Cornicula risum, Furtiuis nudata coloribus, in the proper sence, should not neede to force it selfe vpon the East-India ships: but to the matter of the Obiection; if he had his will, that the East-India Marchants might neither build nor buy: what had become of those old ships they bought, as the Hector, the Ascension, and the Suzan, of Turkie Marchants, and some others of other men? had they not lyen and rot for want of worke, or beene broke vp for fire­wood, as well as others since? Or would he rather that they had beene alienated into Spaine with the Alceder, a ship of foure hundred Tunne, the Beuis of Southamp­ton, a ship of three hundred Tunne? or into Italie with the Royall-Marchant, of foure hundred. The May flower, of three hundred. The Prosperous, of two hundred and threescore. The Suzan-Parnell, of two hundred and fiftie. The Gold Noble, of two hundred and fortie. The Consent, of two hundred and fourescore. The Concord, of two hundred and fiftie Tunne. Surely, an honest man would rather haue said somewhat of this sale, if hee must needes complaine, then quarrell that, which was but change with gaine vnto the Kingdome. Where then, good friend, in the Epistle is that Candor animi, in all Parti­culars? In all particulars it shewes it selfe alike, and e­uen as charitably in his following clamor, about losse of men: a subiect worthy of a little meditation.

It is a precious thing the life of man, and would to God our single Combatants, for idle wordes, would [Page 32] wey it well, at least those ioyes, that are expressed by the terme of Life to Come: Yet the true sweet there­of is not in length, but vse; a moneth of health more worth then yeares of sicknesse; an idle weeke not worth one houre well spent. And if wee looke vpon it, for it selfe or for our selues, to stay from Sea for feare of death, and starue at home, or pine away in pouerty, were foolish superstitious cowardize: But as wee are the Bodies of our King, and of our Countrie (though in truth their greatest treasure, witnesse aA poore naked King of Pohatan, or aThe good­liest Countrie in the world, were it well inhabited. Virginia, without them yet.) This necessarie Relatiue of Soueraigntie. Liuing bodies, vnimploi'd, are nothing. And if vnhealthinesse or danger of mor­talitie, should keepe vs from a course, wherein we may inrich vs, or our Masters, or serue the King, or good the Common-wealth: Who then shall liue in Rum­nie-Marsh, or Holland, or our Cinque Ports, or Ci­ties visited with sicknesse, or goe vnto the Warres? There is an Author that can make all these the price of bloud, with phrases: But perfect wisedome in all Common-wealths, hath honors, pay and priuiledges, to invite the priuate man into such dangers, for the publique good; And God hath giuen men wit and vnderstanding to finde out preseruatiues, as armor a­gainst euery perill, which In-bred courage, or obedi­ence to Commanders, or care of those we must pro­uide for, makes vs vnder-goe. Besides, the common-wealth esteemes not of the life of any but good men, such as doe good, the rest are Tacitus his Purgamenta Vrbium, their death to her is nothing but an ease. Nay Mariners themselues admitting them to bee so scarce, were better die in the East-Indies, then here at home at [Page 33] Tybourne, or at Wapping, for want of meanes to liue; or else be forced to turne Sea-robbers, and (besides their other hurts) giue this mans34. page. pen occasion to cast such shamefull and vnnaturall aspersions on our whole Nation. But I will spinne out this no farther: the paradoxe is needlesse; for the ground our Au­thor tooke to fight this battaile on, will faile him. Vnskilfull Serieant-Maior, he is mistaken in his num­bers. He saies,

That by the losse of foure ships,The ninth obiection. we haue lost at least foure hundred and fiftie men: and in the Aduenture, of some thrée thousand, since that voyage began, wee haue lost many aboue two thousand.

BVt how many soeuer haue beene imploied since that Voyage began,Answere. vpon a true examination of our bookes,Whereas hee speakes of Heathen mens bringing home our ships, it is a meere toy, for that they come as well to see our Country, and not neere so many as wee leaue for thē. The Cloue brought home the most, from Lapan, yet not the fift part of the ships com­panie. it doth appeare, that in all our ships that haue returned or beene lost, vnto this day, there were at first set forth but three and twentie hundred, thir­tie and three men of all conditions, Captaines, Prea­chers, Chirurgians, Marchants, Nouices and all: so that, vnlesse multiplication helpe him, when those are reckoned that are out in very many Factories a­broad, and those that did come home in 19. ships that haue returned safe, there will not rest much likeli­hood of many aboue two thousand cast away. As for his at least foure hundred and fiftie, lost in the foure ships,


  • Trades Increase
  • Vnion
  • Ascension
  • Suzan

had but

  • 211
  • 70
  • 70
  • 84

In al foure hun­dred thirtie and fiue, when they set forth.

[Page 34] And three of these, the Trades Increase, the Vnion, and the Ascension, although the body of the ships were lost, as you haue heard, lost not thereby one man. But hee perhaps will mend this grosse account in the particulars. He saies,

That Sir Henry Middleton carried out two hundred and twentie in the Trades Increase,The tenth obiection. all which liue Cargazon, ten only excepted, perished in that bloudy field Bantam, &c.

BVt Sir Henry Middleton had but two hundred and eleuen at first;Answere. and notwithstanding the losse of his Monson, by his imprisonment, for all his afflicti­ons, and the accidentall infection you heard of, besides foure that should haue beene executed for malefa­ctors, that therefore ran away vnto the Portingals, and fiue that were drowned, and many that were slaine, when hee was so barbarously captiued by the Turkes at Moha, and sixteene that were left abroad in Factorie, there returned with Captaine Best thirteene more then the ten he speakes of. But he saies further,

That Captaine Dounton, of seuentie which hee carried forth,The eleuenth obiection. brought home but twentie: the rest, their liues were sacrificed to that implacable East-India Neptune, &c.

BVt Captaine Dounton, Answere. for all his dangers with Sir Henry Middleton, besides diuers left in Factorie, brought home twentie and seuen. But hee saies fur­ther,

[Page 35]That Captaine Saris and Captaine Towerson,The twelfth obiection. whether through insufficiencie or no, he knowes not, but Cap­taine Towerson of 120. carried forth, lost 85. and Cap­taine Saris of ninetie and odde, brought home but two or thrée and twentie. And the Thomas was brought home by way of a wrecke, &c.

FOr the sufficiencie of men aliue,Captaine Sa­ris would haue M. Pamphleter know, that he is not to learn the dutie of a Sea-comman­der from any of the wise Masters his Informers. He saies his voy­age was the longest, and hardest, and costliest, and yet wealthiest of any retur­ned hitherto, and that hee brought home aboue 40. men besides 15. Ia­poneses for those left at Iapan, where he obtained certainly am­ple and ho­nourable pri­uileges for our Nation. able to answere for themselues, I will say nothing, let their actions speake. But for the reckoning, Captaine Towerson carried out but one hundred and twelue, of which he left diuers abroad in Factories, and brought home 35. And the Generall of that Voyage, Captaine Sa­ris, that carried out but 87. English, and 4. Indians, did leaue at Bantam eight in Factorie, and fifteene in Ia­pan, and yet brought home many more English then he speakes of, besides three Indians for the foure that went out. Neither may one without a name, name the Thomas a wrecke, whose men brought shippe and goods into safe Port in Ireland, which if she had done sooner, as she might, and not striuen in the cold stor­mie winter, to come about for London, two moneths together, she had not lost so many men. But he saies further,

That by reason of the dogged starre of those Climates, of one hundred and eightie men carried forth by Captaine Best, there returned only thirtie, ouer and aboue foure or fiue and twentie left on the desperate account of the Countries Factoridge, &c.

BVt first,The 13. obie­ction. to satisfie this desperate account of Fa­ctors, you may know, that their returnes in euery shippe of ours, likely, many men, (ten at a time, and [Page 36] sometimes more) sent out in other Voyages, which I doe neuer reckon, but onely giue a true account of those that did proceed in the same shippe. And so be­sides those which Captaine Best did leaue abroad in Factorie, he put eight into the Darling, (the Pinnace that attended on Sir Henry Middleton, and is now dis­couering in the Indies) and foure hee lost by his acci­dentall fight with the Portingall, and yet brought home sixtie and fiue. Who then can thinke this man had any minde to publish truth, that would not once conferre with Captaine Best, well knowne vnto him, as it seemeth by his friendly commendation, and one that could haue told him both the truth of our mens dying, and that the true cause (sauingThis place is vnhealthie to our people, as time hath taught vs. So is Scandarone in the months of Iune, Iulie, and August, to those that goe into the Straights. We therefore change our Factorie from Bantam, where though some (as Captaine Saris 6. yeares) liue well, yet more haue di­ed then in all our other Fa­ctories, if wee reckon not them that die of the &c. wo­men. Bantam) is their owne disorder? Therefore

Certainly neither the dogged starre of those Cli­mates, nor that implacable East-India Neptune, nor that bloudie field Bantam, is so fatall, so mer­cilesse, so murderous, as the malice of this man, that to slander the East-India Voyage, hath kild many that came home in safetie, and some that were neuer there. But I resolued to giue you sa­tisfaction, and not laugh at him. Know therefore,

It is the Marchants griefe (and hee that knowes what hazard they doe runne, that haue their goods in Heathen Countries, in the hands of dying men, that must expect rich ships to come from places so re­mote, so weakly mand, thorow Seas of dangers, be­sides Pirates, will beleeue it is their griefe) vnspeaka­ble, that hitherto they cannot absolutely cleare themselues from this (to them indeede great) mis­chiefe. For though they put their wealth into the [Page 37] hands of such as come by sute and friends into their seruice, though they giue them entertainment, and imprest for their prouisions, beyond all other Mar­chants; though they prouide what ere it cost, all that the wit of man, helpt by continuall experience, can inuent, for victuals, clothing, physicke, surgerie, to keepe them in good health, besides good Preachers, and the best Commanders, al that may be to preserue them: yet if (as for the most part through their owne abusing of themselues, with the hot drinkes and most infectious women of those Countries) they come vn­to vntimely death, the Marchants, that by that meanes lose much of their goods, and hazard all, when they haue paid the friends or creditors not only all their due, but oft times giuen more out of charitie to such as want, shall yet haue such a man as this raise ghosts, rather then they shall not be haunted.

But by the blessing of Almightie God, now that we are acquainted better with that Voyage, and so taught to settle Factories in healthier places; now that our Factors are more staid, and better knowne vnto vs, then many of those young men were that first aduentured on that then discouering Trade; now that our common Mariners, in effect the food of that mortalitie, (as may appeare by the often Voya­ges of our Captaines, Masters, Mates, and men of go­uernment) shall neither be so long at Sea, nor stay longer on Land, then to vnlade and lade, and so return in fifteene or sixteene moneths, as in Straights Voya­ges; wee are in good hope that our ships will come as safe from losse of men, as the Consent did first, and Captaine Newport since, whose happie Voyages [Page 30] taught vs the experience. And so, Sir, our Pamphlet­ter is now come ad Triarios, to his Reregard, his last Refuge, his owne Regiment, and that a ragged one.

Friends,The foure­teenth ob­iection. Fathers, Widowes, Children, Kinsfolkes, and Creditors, out of poore Ratcleefe, Limehouse, Blackwall, Shadwel, Wapping, and other Sea-Townes, clamoring for the due of the dead, &c.

I Would some other poore,Answere. yet honest businesse, could as well shake off this clamour, as the East-In­dia purse doth, that giues such extraordinarie wages, and still paies so readily, that men for many moneths out in this Voyage, in continuall pay, although in their returne they chance to die, and leaue perhaps to the suruiuors their extraordinarie gaine by priuate Trade, yet the good money due soone dries the eies of friends and creditors, as it might doe widowes, but that the Marchants carefull chusing by their good willes none but single men, doth for the most part saue that labour. For my part, I that often visitSir Thomas Smiths house, where the Companie en­tertaine and pay their men. Phil­pot Lane, professe, I meet few sorrowfull East India Clients, but such as are refused to goe the Voyage.

And though I would not wish the East-India Mar­chants to answere this imaginarie clamour with set­ting truly downe how many Hoggesheads of good Beefe and Porke, how many thousand weight of Bis­cuit they haue giuen to the poore, euen in the parish­es and places which hee names; nor yet with telling what proportion weekely in pottage, beefe, and bread they send to the Fleet, Ludgate, Newgate, the two Counters, Bedlem, the Marshalsea, Kings Bench, White Lion, and Counter in Southwarke, besides good summes [Page 39] of money yearely to releeue poore painfull Preachers of the Gospell, whose meanes are small, and charges great. For which and other workes of charitie, God hath so wonderfully blest their labours. Yet if they should awhile forbeare their almes, and let the poore soules want it, because this man thus raild vpon them, thinke then but what an armie of complaints and cur­ses would fall on him and all his fained rabble, which he brought to fight like Satans seeming souldiers in the aire.

Poore man, his case was desperate, and like the Cap­taine of the Fort that Monluc speakes of: he did but set vp old clothes stuft with straw, to winne a little time to runne away: for harke, hee is alreadie in his violent retrait, with

For certaine there is want of Trade. The Hollander would grow greater, if he had all this trade in his own hands: the Kings Customes are aduanced: this way Shipwrights are set a worke, &c.

And so forth with a Misericordia, till he leaue vs to examine the Baggage—Arguments remai­ning.

Inprimis, Complaint of the Straights Marchant, &c. Dead alreadie.

Item,The fifteenth obiection. The foundation of this trade was laid in the ruine of a Carricke taken by Sir Iames Lancaster, &c.

Sore wounded,Answere. and not worth the knocking in the head.—Yet for full satisfaction, it was founded by Queene Elizabeth of famous memorie, before Sir [Page 40] Iames Lancaster went to Sea: and that I may set downe her reasons in the Patent, for the honour of her Realme of England, for the increase of her Nauigati­on, for the aduancement of trade of marchandize, and for other important causes and reasons, &c. But alas, she wanted this mans wisdome to assist her Counsell, &c. What haue we next?

The iollitie of this trade procéeded from Sir Henry Mid­dleton his trade comming out of the Mecha Fléet,The sixteenth obiection. wher­by diuers Ships, as the Angell, durst not goe after into the Straights, &c.

FIrst then,Answere. for iollitie of trade, the seuenth, the eighth, and the ninth Voyages at least, were gone to Sea before we heard one good word from the sixt, which was Sir Henry Middletons: and before returne of any goods, the tenth, the eleuenth, the twelfth were likewise gone, if not the thirteenth, with a re­solution of the settled great Ioint stocke. The iollitie I thinke he enuies. Nor finde we fault with Captaine Middleton, although his Voyage proue one of our worst. But sure the Heathen man that said, ‘Tibi innocens sit, quisquis est pro te nocens,’ will much condemne this man, that blemisheth, as much as in him lies, Sir Henry Middletons good seruice for our Country, to take the part of Heathen men, that haue more conscience, that complaine not, for they know the wrongs which they had done our Na­tion, and that Captaine, for whose valiant iustice sake they vse our people better euer since. As for the feare [Page 41] of some one ship, if it were true, wee wey it not, sith the whole bodie of the Turkie Companie, on good de­liberation, were secure, as men that knew, Our Lid­gier at Constantinople now shall find a readier eare to all Complaints since that example taught them, that our Nation can (as farre as 'tis) stoppe vp the mouth that giues them sweetest sustinance.

But, their commodities are vnnecessary, &c.The seuen­teenth Obie­ction.

HE meanes not this,Answere. I hope, by Indico and health­full drugges, though Callicoes, and Silkes, and per­aduenture Spice be censured. The truth is, in strict tearmes of need, our Land that flowes with foode and rayment may Bee, without all other Nations, but to Bee Well, to flourish and grow rich, wee must find vent for our abundance, and seeke to adorne vs out of others superfluities. So other Marchants bring in Wines, and Sugars, Currons, Raisons, Oyles and such like, that while we eat them, doe eat on vs, and so of manu­factures wearing: But I shall shew you now a Mystery of the East India Marchants merit of the Common-wealth, euen out of their vnnecessary Wares.

In any of their Voyages, The Common-wealth payes nothing for the victuals nor the wages of the men, nor for the worke of Shippewrights, Smiths, Coopers, Ropemakers, Porters, Lighter-men, &c. and such like infinite number of Labourers which they haue continually in pay; but hath the imployment of all these, and the keeping of many Factors abroad, for the materials, out of which they rayse their ship­ping and prouisions, so that there rests to reckon vnto [Page 42] her, onely the stocke of Marchandize and monie sent to barter.This stock in the greatest yeare, was but 36000. and The kingdome saues yearely in the price of Pepper, Cloues, Mace and Nut­megs-70000. pounds besides al other wares.

This stocke in two yeares doth not rise vnto the summe of that which yearely since the East India Trade (as I shall shew you by and by) the Kingdome saues, in the price onely, of the Spice it spends, so that the Common-wealth hath more then two for one, euen in the first returne for her Aduenture. Now then marke further, ouer and aboue that which was left to serue the Land, from Michaelmasse 1613. vnto Christ­masse 1614. There was exported of East India goods, out of the Kingdome.

As much In

  • Pepper, as at two shillings the pound amounted to—2096231—14.s—d
  • Cloues, as at foure shillings the pound amounted to—4338—16—0
  • Nutmegs, as at two shillings eight pence the pound amoun­ted to—740—16—0
  • Mace, as at six shil­lings the pound a­mounted to—3613—4—0
  • In all 218316—10—0

So that by the East India Marchants happie charge [Page 43] and industrie, besides the Custome paid for it to the Crowne, and the imployment of many Shippes and Marriners, in sending it abroad, into Germanie, and the Netherlands, France, Spaine, Italy, Turkie, and other places, there was alreadie in fifteene moneths, out of foure sorts of Spice onely (not to speake of the Indico, Callicoes, China Silkes, Beniamin, Aloes-socotrina, &c. then exported) aboue two hundred thousand pounds sterling, added to the stocke of the Common-wealth, to proceede for the inriching of the Kingdome in the nature of Cloth, Lead, Tinne, or any of our owne Staple Marchandize. Which I hope was no vnneces­sary commoditie.

But you that read may iudge by this what great Increase the Common-wealth will haue, now the Ioint stocke is setled, and are long, returnes by Gods grace, to be look't for yearly of many ships with many hundred thousand pounds worth of Spice, Indico, Cal­licoes, China and Persia Silkes both raw and wrought, and other Marchandize, to serue our selues, and most partes of the World as wee beginne alreadie, and should more easily, if such busie men as this Pam­phletor would let the Martchant doe it without noise. But

What haue wée the cheaper?

ILe shew you Sir, and since I so began, in Spices one­ly,The eighteēth Obiection. which before our India Trade,Answere were often acci­dentally sold dearer much, but constantly, the lowest price.

[Page 44]Of

  • Pepper, was foure shillings the pound, at which rate, fifteene hundred bagges, containing foure hundred & fiftie thousand poūds, (the smallest quantitie, that the Kingdome yearely is esteemed to spend) amounted to ninetie thou­sand pounds sterling. But since our trade, the highest price is but two shillings the pound, so that the Kingdome saues in Pepper yeare­ly halfe, that is 45000l. 00s. 0d.
  • Cloues, was eight shillings the pound, at which rate, two hun­dred Hogsheads, cōtaining fiftie thousand pounds spent in the land) amounted to twentie thou­sand pounds—But till the Dutch­men interrupted that part of our Trade, our greatest price was but foure shillings, so as the kingdome saued in Cloues 10000l.00s.0d.
  • Mace, was ten shillings the pound, at which rate one hundred Hogs­heads, cōtaining fifteene thousand pounds, the Kingdomes spending came to seuen thousand and fiue hundred pounds—But we haue al­readie brought the price to sixe shillings the pound, and so the Land, in Mace saues yearely 3000l.00s.0d.
  • [Page 45] Nutmegs, was fiue shillings the pound, at which rate, foure hun­dred Barrels, containing one hun­dred thousand pounds, our yeare­ly spending amount to twentie & fiue thousand pounds, but by our price of two shillings and eight pence for a pound, the Kingdome saues. 11666l.13s.4d.
  • So that this Trade in onely Spice, doth yearely saue the Land—69666l.13s.4d.

And if (as some perhaps for their particular aduan­tage of returning Spices out of Holland, would haue vs) we should trust vnto the Dutch, and leaue this Tra­ding for our selues, how soone the price would rise, you shall perceiue by this particular Example.

About some two yeares since, our Marchants brought in a good quantitie of Cloues, which to ship out againe, they sold wet-dryed for two shillings and eight pence the pound, and the dryed for foure shil­lings: But by our next ships failing, we were forced to fetch from Amsterdam, where sodainely the Dutch­men tooke the aduantage, so that wee could not get (as all men know) the very wet-dryed sold by vs so lately for two shillings and eight pence, vnder seuen shillings sterling for a pound. Iudge then by this, how deare strangers would quickly make vs pay for all things, if we should giue this Traffique ouer. But,

Looke into the price of Uictualls, how that riseth through their great prouisions, &c.The nine­teenth Obie­ction.

[Page 46] TO which I answere,Answere. that no sober man can doubt, but that the mouths the East-India Merchant sends to Sea, would eate at home: but further, hee that is acquainted with the finding and the feeding men at Sea, knowes well it would bee riches infinite vnto this Land, and vnto euery priuate Master of a Familie, if men would wast no more in victualls here at home, then Sea-men doe abroade, yet since hee sayes this is the poores complaint, in truth a poore one, it shall haue some further satisfaction.

The greatest fleet that euer yet the Companie set forth, was this last yeare 1614. the charge whereof amounted to one hundred thousand pounds.


  • Shipping and their Furniture. 34000l.0s.0d.
  • Victuals, imprest mony and o­ther ordinarie and extraor­dinarie charges. 30000l.0s.0d.
  • Natiue and forraine Marchan­dize, and readie mony, sent to Trade. 36000l.0s.0d.

More particularly this Cargazon of thirtie and sixe thousand pounds, was:


  • Bayes, Kersies, and most broad clothes dyed and drest to the Kingdomes best aduantage. 14000l.0s.0d.
  • Lead, Iron, and forraine mar­chandize. 10000l.0s.0d.
  • Readie mony, in all the ships, but 12000l.0s.0d.

[Page 47] And it is worth the noting that this twelue thou­sand pounds, was scant one third part of that, which the Companie paid that yeare for the Kings custome, impost, and other duties, and not one third part of that which they paid Marriners for wages: but for the victuall, that is thus prouided.

The Bread of corne sent for of purpose out of France.

The Drinke, all in a manner Spanish Wines and Si­der, little or no Beere.

The Flesh is Beefe and Porke, proportion'd into ship-messes, and that onely but for three dayes of se­uen in the weeke, and but for twentie moneths of thirtie, the other ten moneths, which proues often more, is prouided in India, or parts abroad.

Now then, if our Obiector bee none of those, that rise vp early to follow drunkennesse, and continue vn­till night, till the Wine doe inflame them, &c. if he be free from Seneca his Foedissimum patrimoniorū exitium culnia: if he be no Fucus, & Piger, & Vorax, no vnprofi­table burdē, that cōsumes the good fruits of the earth, but labors not at all: yet in his best sobrietie and tem­perance, let him but consider his owne mouth, and he shall finde it iustlier to be blam'd for making victualls deare, then the prouision of the East-India voyage, and yet this mouth will not be stopt, but how. How now?

What Monsieur Transportation of Treasure in the Reare,The twentieth Obiection. among the baggage? with the Victualler of the Campe? You that heretofore haue serued so resolutely, before the King, before the Parlia­ment, at the Councell Table; nay, almost euery Table, now dying in a Ditch?

[Page 48] ALas Sir,Answere. his deare brother in Armes Death of men, is runne away wounded to death by Captaine Newport: what would you haue him doe? When hee saw, that the East-India Companie, by the Bookes of Entrie with his Maiesties Officers, by their own books of Accompts, besides a sodaine and secret searching of their ships, had manifested that they neuer in any yeare (no not when they went to discouer what of our Commodities would vent in those parts) carryed nere so much, as his Maiesties gracious Letters Pat­tents doth permit. When he found that some parti­cular Marchants of that Companie, did at one time bring into the Kingdome more siluer, then the whole Companie together did at any time carrie out. When hee perceiued, notwithstanding, that the East-India Marchant, to auoid all colour of scandall, did prouide, That forraineIt was euer the money of forraine Na­tions, which they exported, and that which Marchants brought in not our owne coyne. coine, beyond the Seas, with much hazard (as lately at Sandwich) by bringing of it ouer in small Pinkes, and paying dearer for it, then others, yea, strangers here at home doe buy it to steale ouer for want of their licence. When hee beheld, to his great grief, such daily increase of broad clothes dyed and dreft, with other marchandize, and such decrease of readie money, in the Cargazon of stock they sent to Traffique. When last of all, he heard for certaine of a Factorie setled at Iapan, and of such store of siluer there, as is not onely like to serue the Trade in all those parts, but to returne perhaps some good part hither, what would you haue him doe, but hide his head? And yet you heare, he holds his manly words, he talkes of murmuring andOut of Halls Chronicle. Charles the Fifth.

But sure, men will not murmure, when they know [Page 49] the truth, and would these hastie Writers fill their braines a little better, ere they presse them, by reading the Records of Spaine and Portugall, and better Stories then Hals Chronicle for India matters, they might finde reasons, to make more reckoning of the East-In­dia Traffique then th'Obiector doth; The sole frui­tion whereof hath yeelded many Millions yearely to those Nations, and as they say themselues was worth more to that Crowne, then the West-Indies. I am sure the sweet thereof was such euen in the Infancie, that By an agree­ment made at Zaragosa 22. of Aprill, 1529 Iohn the Third of Portugall, gaue to that Charles the Fifth he mentions, before his going into Italie, three hundred and fiftie thousand Duckats, onely not to in­terrupt his Peoples then beginning Trade with the Moluccaes: Which summe of mony, a few Subiects in Castile, did offer to repay (on strange easie conditions) rather then their Emperour should sell the hope they had of wealth, from those rich countries.

But I haue done, and now it may be mine Author, that in his first Page, cald himselfe, a Fresh-water Souldier, if he should chance to see the Martiall or­der his Obiections haue appeared in, might beleeue himselfe to bee some great Commander, whereas the Truth is hee was but a Trumpet of Defiance to the East-India Marchant, according therefore to his dutie, I would send him back to take a view of all his False­hoods, scattered in the field, which I perswade my selfe, will shew him his ouerthrow was shamefull.

At least, Sir Thomas Smith, iudge what it may bee, if some able Marchant vnder-take the Argument, when so much hath beene said (and more that comes [Page 50] too neare matter of State, secret of Marchandize, hath beene omitted) by your faithfull Friend and Kinsman, that wisheth well to Trade and Marchants.

Dudly Digges.

Post-script to the Reader.

SInce hee that may dispose of mee, will haue these rough lines printed for your satis­faction, I that am neither ashamed of my loue to the East-India Trade, nor the truth I haue written, must (if but for fashion sake) say some­what vnto you () Reader. It may please you then to know, that the substance of this which you haue read, was taken out of Custome-bookes, out of the East-India Companies bookes, out of Grocers, Warehouse-keepers, Mar­chants bookes, and conference with men of best experience. As for errors of pen or presse, you will either not marke them, or can mend them; all I aske for my [Page] paines. And so I leaue you, to commend (if you list) piperi & scombris, that Trades Increase to packe vp fish, and this Defence of Trade to wrappe vp spice: a couple of Inke-wasting toies in­deed, that if my heartie wishes could haue wrought it, should haue seene no o­ther light then the fire. So farre from the ambition of your acquain­tance was

D. D.

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.