PROFITABLE Instructions;

Describing what speciall Obseruations are to be taken by Trauellers in all Nations, States and Countries; Pleasant and Pro­fitable.

By the three much admired, ROBERT, late Earle o [...] Essex. Sir PHILIP SIDNEY, And, Secretary DAVISON.

LONDON: Printed for Beniamin Fisher, at the Signe of the Talbot, without Aldersgate. 1633.

To the Reader.

IT hath bin lately main­tained in an Academicall Di­spute, That the best travailing is in [Page] maps and good Au­thours: because thereby a man may take a view of the state and manners of the whole world, and neuer mix with the corruptions of it. A pleasing opini­on for solitary pri­soners, who may [Page] thus travell ouer the world, though confined to a dun­geon. And, indeed, it is a good way to keepe a man inno­cent; but withall as Ignorant. Our se­dentary Traueller may passe for a wise man, as long as hee [Page] converseth either with dead men by reading; or by wri­ting, with men ab­sent. But let him once enter on the stage of publike im­ployment, and hee will soone find, if he can bee but sensible of contempt, that he [Page] is vnfit for Action. For ability to treat with men of seueral humours, factions, and Countries; duly to comply with thē, or stand off, as oc­casion shall require, is not gotten onely byreading of books, but rather by stu­dying [Page] of men. Yet this euer holdstrue; The best scholler is fittest for a Tra­ueller, as being able to make the most vseful obseruation: Experience added to learning, makes a perfect Man.

It must, therfore, [Page] be confessed, That to fit men for Ne­gotiation, the visi­ting of forraine Countries is most necessary: This kingdom iustly glo­ries in many noble Instruments, whose Abilities haue been perfitted by that [Page] meanes. But with­all it cannot bee de­nied, that many men while they ayme at this fitnesse make themselus vnfit for any thing▪ Some goe ouer full of good qualitie, and better hopes; who, hauing as it were emptied [Page] themselues in other places, return laden with nothing but the vices, if not the diseases of the Coun­tries which they haue seene. And, which is most to bee pittied, they are commonly the best wits, and purest re­ceptacles [Page] of sound knowledge, that are thus corrupted. Whether it be, that they are more ea­gerly assaulted with vice then others; or whether they doe more easily admit any obuiousimpres­sion: howeuer it be; [Page] fit it is, That all young Trauellers should receine an Antidot against the infectious Ayre of o­ther Countries.

For this purpose, diuers learned men haue prescribed rules and precepts: which haue done [Page] much good, howeuer in many things de­fectiue. For as hee that read a Lecture to Hannibal of the Art of war, shewed that himself was no souldier, and there­fore vnfit to teach a great Commander: so He, that neuer [Page] trauelled but in his Books, can hardly shew his learning, without manifesta­tion of his want of experience.

It hath therefore been much desired, that some men who had themselues bin Trauellers, & had [Page] made lest vse of their trauels, would giue some vnfailing directions to others. Such are here pre­sented to thee; & in such a volume, as they may be an help­ful, though vnchar­geable cōpanion of thy trauell. Pitty it [Page] is that such monu­ments of wisedome shold haue perished for the Authours sakes: men famous in their times for learning, experiēce nobility, & great­nesse of place; but the losse would haue beene thine, which [Page] maist now reap the benefit. Thy fauo­rable acceptance may occasion others to publish larger peeces of this kind, to the increase of their own honor, be­cause for the good of the noble youth of this florishing king­dome.

B. F.


FOr your better in­formation in the state of any Prince, or Country, it shall bee necessary for you to ob­serue,

  • [Page 2]1 The Countrey.
  • 2 The People.
  • 3 The policy and gouern­ment.

In the Country you are to consider,

  • I. The scituation & nature therof; As whether it be
    • 1 Island, or continent; neere, or far frō thesea.
    • 2 Plaine, or hilly; full or scarce of Riuers.
  • [Page 3] II Quan­tity,
    • 1 length,
    • 2 bredth,
    • 3 circuit,
    • also the
      • 1 Forme.
      • 2 climat,
    • III. How it confineth with o­ther Countries; and▪
      • 1 What these Countrie are,
      • 2 What their strength and riches are.
      • 3 Wherein they consist.
      • 4 Whether friends or ene­mies.
    • IIII. The fertility thereof, and [Page 4] what commodities it doth ei­ther,
      • 1 Yeeld and bring forth, and what part thereof hath bin
        • or is
          • 1. Consumed at home.
          • 2. Vented abroad
      • 2 Want; and how, and from whence it is supplyed.
      1. Nature.
    • V. Of what strength it is and how defended against the attempts of bordering neighbors, either by [Page 5]
      • 1 Sea, where may be obser­ued what
      • I Ports & hauens it hath, & of what
      • 2 Other de­fence vpon the Coast.
      • 1 Accesse
      • 2 Capa­city.
      • 3 Traffik
      • 4 Ship­ping.
      • 2 Land, what
        • 1 Mountaines,
        • 2 Riuers,
        • 3 Marishes,
        • 4 Woods.
      [Page 6]2 Art:

      As what Cities, Townes, Castles, &c. it hath either within the Land, or vpon the Frontiers: And how they are

      • 1 Fortified.
      • 2 Peopled.
    • VI. What Vniuersities or pla­ces of learning it hath, and of what
      • 1 Foundation,
      • 2 Reuenue,
      • 3 Profession.
    • VII. What Countries and [Page 7] Prouinces are subiect there­unto; And what
      • 1 The same con­taine in
        • 1 quantity
        • 2 quality.
      • 2 People are for
        • 1 Number,
        • 2 Affection
      • 3 The form of gouernment, and by whom admini­stred.

Secondly is to be considered the People.

  • I. Theire number; As whe­ther [Page 8] they be,
    • 1 Many,
    • 2 Few.
  • II. Quality: As,

    Their trade and kind of life whereunto they giue them­selues, and whereby they liue; As whether by

    • 1 Exercise of
      • 1 Mechanicall arts and mer­chandizes.
      • 2 Husbandry
      • 3 Armes.
    • 2 Their rents and reuenues.
  • III. Kinds and degrees. [Page 9]
    • 1 Natiues
      • 1 Noble,
      • 2 Not noble.
    • 2 Strangers
      • 1 Denizens.
      • 2 no denizēs

1 Noble.

Generally as their

  • 1 Number,
  • 2 Qualitie and degree of Nobility,
  • 3 Residance and place of a­boade,
  • 4 Religion,
  • 5 Gifts of bodie and mind, [Page 10]
    • where also their
      • 1 Vertues,
      • 2 Vices,
      • 3 Studies,
      • 4 Exercises.
  • 6 Profession of life,
    • 1 Ciuill,
    • 2 Materiall,
  • 7 Meanes wherein are
    • 1 Their reuenues and commings in.
    • 2 Their issuings and goings out.
  • 8 Offices and Authority they beare in the State.
  • [Page 11] 9 Credit and fauour, or di [...] ­fauour with the
    • 1 Prince,
    • 2 People. And vpon what cause.
  • 10 Factions and partialities, if any be, with the grounds causes; and proceedings thereof, 2 Particularly, As their
    • 1 Original, Antiquity, Arms.
    • 2 Names & titles of dignities
    • 3 Alliances, Off-springs, Ge­nealogies.

Thirdly the Policy and Go­uernment.

In the Policy and gouern­ment falleth to be considered,

  • 1. The Lawes whereby it is gouerned.
  • 2 Persons that gouerne.

In the Lawes you haue to note,

  • I. Their kindes; As,
    • 1 Ciuill.
    • 2 Canon or municipal.
  • II. Their conformity with the nature of the people.

[Page 13] The persons that gouerne are the magistrates,

  • 1 Soueraigne.
  • 2 Subalternall.

The Soueraigne is either

  • 1 One, as a monarch.
  • 2 More, as
    • 1 Optimates or mag­magnates.
    • 2 Popular.

In the former may be com­prehended

  • I. The meanes whereby hee attaineth the same, whe­ther [Page 14] by soueraignty, As,
    • 1 Succession.
    • 2 Election.
    • 3 Vsurpation.
  • II. How he doth carry him selfe in administration therof, where may be ob­serued,
    • 1 His Court.
    • 2 His wisdome.
    • 3 His inclination to
      • 1 Peace.
      • 2. Warre.
    • 4 How hee is beloued [Page 15] or feared of his
      • 1 People.
      • 2 Neighbours.
    • 5 His designements, enter­prizes, &c.
    • 6 His disposition, studies, and exercises of
      • 1. Body.
      • 2. Mind.
    • 7 His Fauourites.
    • 8 The confidence or di­strust he hath in his peo­ple.

In the things that concerne [Page 16] his estate fal chiefly to be con­fidered,

  • I His Reuenues,
    • 1 Ordinary,
    • 2 Extraordinary, abroad and at home.
  • 3 In his friends and Con­sederacies you are to consider how and vpon what respects they are leagued with him; what help, succour, and com­modity he, hath had, or expe­cteth from them, and vpon what ground.
  • [Page 17] 4 His power and strength for offence and defence are to be measured by the
    • 1 Strength of his Country.
    • 2 Number and quality of his forces, for
      • 1 Nature.
      • 2 Art.
    • 1 Commanders.
    • 2 Souldiers.
      • 1 Horse.
      • 2 Foot.
    • 3 Magazin & prouisions for his wars, either by [Page 18]
      • 1 Sea.
      • 2 Land.
    • 4 Warres he hath made in times past are to bee conside­red the
      • 1 Time,
      • 2 Cause,
      • 3 Precedency,
      • 4 Successe.

The subalterne Magistrate is either,

  • 1 Ecclesiasticall,
  • 2 Ciuill.

Vnder the titles of the Eccle­siasticall [Page 19] Magistrate, you may note,

  • 1 The Religion publikely profest, the forme and go­uernment of the Church.
  • 2 The persons imployed therein, as,
    • 1 Archbishops.
    • 2 Bishops.
    • 3 Deanes, with the
    • 4 Abbots
      • 1 Number.
      • 2 Degree.
      • 3 Offices.
      • [Page 20] 4 Authority.
      • 5 Qualities.
      • 6 Reuenues.

The Ciuill Magistrates sub­alternall, are those which vnder the Soueraigne haue Ad­ministration of

  • 1 The State▪
  • 2 Iustice.

Among the Magistrates that haue the managing of the state follow chiefly to be conside­red,

  • I. The Counsell of Estate, [Page 21]
    • 1 Ordinary, attending on the Princes person. As the
      • 1 Great Counsell.
      • 2 Priuy Counsell.
      • 3 Cabinet Counsell.
    • 2 Extraordinary, as the Estates of Parliament.
      • 1 Their number.
      • 2 Their quality; as,
        • 1 Place and authoritie in Counsell.
        • 2 Their wisdome.
        • 3 Fidelity.
        • 4 Credit and fauour, [Page 22]
          • with
            • 1 Prince.
            • 2 People.
    • II. What Counsels of
      • 1 Finances
      • 2 Warres
      • 3 Prouincials
        • He hath, & by whō ad­ministred.
    • III. Lieutenants and Depu­puties of Prouinces, imploy­ed either
      • 1 At home.
      • 2 Abroad.
    • IIII. Officers, &c.
      • 1 Admiralty.
      • 2 Ordinance.
    • [Page 23] V. Ambassadours, publike Ministers, and Intelligemors, imployed with
      • 1 Princes.
      • 2 Common-wealths.

In the administration of Iustice, you haue to consider,

  • I. The order and forme ob­serued in Causes
    • 1 Ciuill.
    • 2 Criminall.
  • II. The persons of the
    • 1 Presidents.
    • [Page 24]2 Confederates.
    • 3 Aduocates.

Besides these three, occure many other things to bee ob­serued; as the Mint, valuati­on of Coines, Exchanges, with infinite other particularities, which for breuities sake Io­mit; and which your selfe by diligent reading, obseruation, and conference may easily supply.



One written by the late Earle of ESSEX, the other by Sir Philip SIDNEY.

LONDON; Printed for Beniamin Fisher, at the Signe of the Talbot, without Aldersgate. 1633.

The Late E. of E. his aduice to the E. of R. in his trauels.

My Lord,

I Hold it for a principle in the course of Intelli­gence of State, not to [Page 28] discourage men of meane capacity from writing vnto mee; though I had at that same time very able aduertisements: for either they sent mee matter which the o­ther omitted, or made it clearer by descri­bing the circumstan­ces, or, if added no­thing, yet they confir­med that which com­ming [Page 29] single I might haue doubted. This rule I haue, therefore, prescribed to others, and now giue it to my selfe. Your Lord­ship hath many friēds who haue more lei­sure to thinke, and more sufficiencie to counsel than my selfe; yet doth my loue di­rect these few lines to the study of you. If [Page 30] you find out nothing but that which you haue from others; yet, perhaps, by the opi­nion of others, I con­firme the opinion of wiser than my selfe Your Lordships pur­pose is to trauell; and your study must bee what vse to make thereof. The questi­on is ordinary, and there is to it an ordi­nary [Page 31] answer; that is, your Lordship shall see the beauty of ma­ny Cities, know the manners of the peo­ple of many Coun­tries, and learne the language of many Nations. Some of these may serue for ornaments, al of them for delight: But your Lordship must looke further than these [Page 32] things; for the grea­test ornament is the beauty of the minde, and when you haue as great delight as the world can afford you, you will confesse that the greatest delight is Sentire teindies fieri me­liorum. Therfore your Lordships end and scope should be, that which is morall Phi­losophy, we call Cul­tum [Page 33] Animi, the gifts and excellencies of the mind. And they are the same as those are of the body, Beau­ty, Health, & strength. The beauty of the minde is shewed in gratefull and accepta­ble forms and sweet­nesse of behauiour; and they that haue that gift, cause those to whom they deny [Page 34] any thing, to goe bet­ter contented away, than men of contra­ry disposition doe those to whom they grant. Health of mind consisteth in an vn­moueable constancy and freedome from passions, which are indeed the sicknesse of the mind; strength of mind is that actiue power which maketh [Page 35] vs perform good and great things, as well as health, and euen temper of mind kee­peth vs from euil and base things. First, these three are to bee sought for, although the greatest part of men haue none of them. Some haue one and lacke the other two; some few at­taine to haue two of [Page 36] them, and lacke the third; and almost none of them haue all.

The first way to at­taine to experience of formes or behauiour, is to make the minde it selfe expert; for be­hauiour is but a gar­ment, and it is easie to make a comely gar­ment for a body that is well proportioned; [Page 37] whereas a deformed body can neuer bee helped by Taylors art, but the Counter­fetting will appeare. And in the forme of the minde it is a true rule, that a man may mend his faults with as little labor as couer them.

The second way is by imitation; and to that end, good [Page 38] choyce is to be made with whom we con­uerse. Therefore your Lordship should af­fect their companie whom you finde to be worthiest, and not partially thinke them most worthy whom you affect.

To attaine to the health of the minde, we must vse the same meanes which wee [Page 39] doe for the health of our bodies; that is, to make obseruāce what diseases we are aptest to fal into, and to pro­uide against them: for Physicke hath not more remedy against the difease of the bo­dy, than Reason hath preseruatiues against the Passions of the mind.

To set downe [Page 40] meanes how a man may attaine to the a­ctiue power mentio­ned in this place, (I meane strength of mind,) is much har­der then to giue rules in the other two: For behauiour and good forme may be gotten by education; and health, and euen tem­per of the minde, by good obseruation; [Page 41] but if there bee not in nature some partner in this actiue strēgth, it can neuer be attai­ned by any industry; for the vertues that are proper vnto it, are Li­berality, Magnanimi­ty, Fortitude & Mag­nificence: And some are by nature so coue­tous, and cowardly, as it is as much in vaine to inflame or inlarge [Page 42] their minds, as to goe about to plough the Rockes. But where these actiue vertues are but budding, they must bee repaired by ripenesse of iudge­ment, and custome of wel-doing. Clear­nesse of iudgement makes men liberall, for it teacheth them to esteeme of the goods of Fortune, [Page 43] not for themselues (for so they are but Iaylors to them) but for their vse, for so they are Lords ouer them. And it maketh vs know, that it is Beatius dare, quam ac­cipere; the one being abadge of Soueraign­ty, the other of subie­ction. Also it leadeth vs to Fortitude; for it teacheth, that wee [Page 44] should not too much prize life, which we cannot keepe; nor feare death, which wee cannot shunne; That as he which di­eth Nobly, doth liue for euer; so hee that doth liue in feare, doth die continually. I shall not need to proue these two things; for we see by experience, they hold [Page 45] true in all things which I haue hither­to set downe. What I desire or wish, I would haue your Lordship to take in minde, what it is to make your selfe an expert man, and what are the generall helps which all men must vse which haue the same desire. I will now moue your [Page 46] Lordship to consider what helps your tra­uell will gaine you.

First, when you see infinite variety of be­hauior and manners of men, you must choose and imitate the best; when you see new delights that you neuer knew, and haue passions stirred in you which you ne­uer felt, you shall [Page 47] know what disease your minde is aptest to fall into, and what the things are that bred that disease: When you come in­to Armies, or places where you shall see any thing of the wars, you shall conforme your natural courage to be fit for true For­titude; which is not giuen vnto man by [Page 48] nature, but must grow out of the discourse of reason: And last­ly, in your trauell you shall haue great help to attaine to know­ledge, which is not onely the excellentest thing in man, but the very excellency of man.

In Manners, your Lordship must not be caught with no­uelties, [Page 49] which are pleasing to young men; nor infected with Custome, which maketh vs keepe our owne all graces, and participate of those wee see euery day; nor giuen to affectati­on, which is a gene­rall fault amongst English Trauellers; which is both dis­pleasing & ridiculous.

[Page 50] In discouering your passions, and meeting with them, giue no way, or dispense with your selfe, resol­uing to conquer your selfe in all; for the streame that may be stop'd with a mans hand at the Spring­head, may drowne whole Armies when it hath run long.

In your being in [Page 51] warres, thinke it bet­ter at the first to doe a great deale too much than any thing too little; for a young man, especially a strangers first actions are looked vpon, and Reputation once gotten, is easily kept; but an euill impressi­on conceiued at the first, is not easily re­moued.

[Page 52] The last thing I am to speake, is but the first you are to seeke; It is Knowledge. To praise knowledge, or to perswade your Lordship to seeke it, I shall not need to vse many words; I will onely say, Where it is wanting, that man is voyd of any good.

Without it there can be no Fortitude, [Page 53] for all dangers come of fury, and fury is passion, and passions euer turne to the con­traries; and therfore the most furious men, when their first blast is spent, be com­monly the most fear­full.

Without it, there can be no Liberalitie; for giuing is but want of audacitie to deny, [Page 54] or else discretion to poyse.

Without it, there can be no Iustice; for giuing to a man that which is his owne, is but chance, or want of a corrupter or se­ducer.

Without it there can be no Constancy or Patience; for suf­fering is but dulnesse or senselesnesse.

[Page 55] Without it there can be no temperāce; for we shall restraine our selues from good as well as from euill. For hee that cannot discerne, cannot elect or choose. Nay, with­out it, there can bee no true Religion; all other devotion being but a blinde zeale, which is as strong in Heresie as in Truth.

[Page 56] To reckon vp all the parts of know­ledge, and to shew the way to attaine to euery part, is a worke too great for mee to vndertake at any time, and too long to discourse at this time; therefore I will onely speake of such a knowledge as your Lordship shold haue desire to seeke, and [Page 57] shall haue meanes to compasse: I forbeare also to speake of Di­uine knowledge, which must direct our Faith; both be­cause I find my owne insufficiency, and be­cause I hope your Lordship doth nou­rish the seeds of Reli­gion, which during your education at Cambridge were sown [Page 58] in you: I will onely say this; That as the irresolute man can neuer performe any action well; so hee that is not resolued in Religion, can bee re­solued in nothing else. But that Ciuill knowledge which will make you doe wel by your selfe, and good vnto others, must bee sought by [Page 59] Study, by Conference, and obseruation.

In the course of your Study, & choice of your booke, you must looke to haue the grounds of lear­ning, which are the Liberal Arts; and then vse study of delight but sometimes for re­creation, and neither drowne your selfe in them, nor omit those [Page 60] studies whereof you are to haue continual vse. Aboue all other bookes, bee conuer­sant in Histories, for they will best instruct you in matters Mo­rall, Politike, and Mi­litary, by which, and in which you must settle your Iudgment.

I make Conference the second helpe to Knowledge in order, [Page 61] though I finde it the first and greatest in profiting; and I haue so placed them, be­cause hee that is not studied, knoweth not what to doubt, nor what to aske. To pro­fit much by Confe­rence, you must chuse to conferre with ex­pert men; for men will be of contrary o­pinions, and euery [Page 62] one will make his owne probable. In Conference bee nei­ther suspitious, nor beleeuing all you know, what opinion soeuer you haue of the man that deliue­reth it, nor too desi­rous to contradict. I doe conclude this point of Conference with this aduice, That your Lordship should [Page 63] rather go an hundred miles to speake with one wise man, than fiue miles to see a fair Towne.

The third way to attaine to Knowledge is Obseruation, and not long life, nor see­ing much; because as he that rides a way often, and takes no care of notes or marks to direct him if hee [Page 64] come the same way againe to make him know where hee is if he come vnto it, he shall neuer proue good guide; So hee that liueth long, and seeth much, and ob­serueth nothing, shall neuer proue any wise man.

The vse of Obser­uation is in noting the coherence of cau­ses, [Page 65] effects, counsels, and succcesses, with the proportion and likenesse betweene Nature and Nature, Fortune and Fortune, Action and Action, State and State, Time past and Time pre­sent. Your Lordship now seeth, that the end of Study, Confe­rence, and Obserua­tion is Knowledge; [Page 66] you must know also that the true end of knowledge is cleare­nesse and strength of Iudgement, and not ostentation, or abili­ty to discourse; which I doe the rather put your Lordship in mind of, because the most part of Noble­men and Gentlemen of our time haue no other vse nor end of [Page 67] their learning but their Table-talke. But God knoweth they haue gotten little that haue onely this dis­coursing gift; for though like empty vessels they sound loud when a man knockes vpon their out sides; yet if you peere into them, you shall finde that they are full of nothing [Page 68] but winde.

This rule holdeth not onely in know­ledge, or in the vertue of knowledge, or in the vertue of Pru­dence, but in all o­ther vertues.

I will here breake off, for I finde that I have both exceeded the cōuenient length of a Letter, and come short of such dis­course [Page 69] as this subiect doth deserue.

Your Lordship, perhaps, may finde many things in this paper superfluous; and most of them, lame. I will, as well as I can, supply that defect vpon the se­cond aduertisement, if you call mee to an account. What con­fusion soeuer you [Page 70] finde in my order or method, is not onely my fault (whose wits are confounded with too much businesse) but the fault of this season, being written in Christmas, which confusion and disor­der hath by tradition not only beene win­ked at, but warranted. If there bee but any one thing which [Page 71] your Lordship may make vse of, I thinke my pains wel bestow­ed in all. And how weake soeuer my counsels bee, my wi­shes shall be as strong as any mans for your Lordships happines.

Your Lordships affecti­onate Cousen, E.
[Page 72]

IF any curious schol­ler happening to see this discourse shall quarrell with my di­uision of the gifts of the minde, because he findeth it not perhaps in his booke, and faith that health and euen temper of mind is a kind of strength, [Page 73] and so I haue erred a­gainst the rule, that Membra diuidenda non debent confundi; I an­swer him, The qua­lities of health and strength, as I haue set them downe, are not only vnlike, but meer contraries, for the one bindeth the mind & restraineth it, the o­ther raiseth and inlar­geth it.

A Letter to the same purpose.

MY good Bro­ther; you haue thought vn­kindnesse in me, that I haue not written oftner vnto you, and haue desired I should [Page 75] write vnto you some­thing of my opinion touching your tra­uell; you being per­swaded my experi­ence therin to be som­thing, which I must needs confesse; but not as you take it. For you thinke my expe­rience growes from the good things which I haue learned: but I know the only [Page 76] experience which I haue gotten, is, to find how much I might haue learned, & how much indeed I haue missed, for want of directing my course to the right end, and by the right meanes. I thinke you haue read Aristotles Ethiques; If you haue, you know it is the beginning & foundation of all his [Page 77] worke, the end to which euery man doth and ought to bend his greatest and smallest Actions, I am sure you haue im­printed in your mind the scope and marke you meane, by your paines, to shoot at. For if you should tra­uell but to trauell, or to say you had trauel­led, certainely you [Page 78] should proue a pil­grim, no more. But I presume so well of you (that though a great number of vs never thought in our selves why we went, but a certain tickling humour to doe as o­ther men had done,) you prupose, being a Gentleman borne, to furnish your selfe with the knowledge [Page 79] of such things as may bee serviceable for your Country & cal­ling. Which certainly stands not in the change of Ayre, (for the warmest Sunne makes not a wise mā) no, nor in learning Languages (although they be of serviceable vse) for words are but words in what Lan­guage soever they be; [Page 80] and much lesse in that all of vs come home full of disguisements not onely of apparel, but of our counte nances, as though the credit of a Traueller stood all vpon his outside: but in the right informing your minde with those things which are most notable in those pla­ces which you come [Page 81] vnto. Of which as the one kinde is so vaine, as I thinke, ere it bee long, like the Moun­tebanks in Italy, wee Travellers shall bee made sport of in Co­medies; so may I instly say, who rightly trauels with the eye of Vlysses, doth take one of the most ex­cellent ways of world­ly wisdome. For hard [Page 82] sure it is to know Eng­land, without you know it by compa­ring it with some o­ther Countrey; no more than a man can know the swiftnesse of his horse without seeing him well mat­ched. For you that are a Logician know, that as greatnesse of it selfe is a quantity, so yet the iudgement of [Page 83] it, as of mighty riches & all other strengths stands in the predica­ment of Relation: so that you cannot tell what the Queene of England is able to do defensively or offen­sively, but by through knowing what they are able to doe with whom shee is to bee matched.

This therefore is one [Page 84] notable vse of Tra­vellers; which stands in the mixed & cor­relatiue knowledge of things, in which kinde comes in the knowledge of all legues betwixt Prince and Prince; the To­pographicall descrip­tion of each Country, how the one lyes by scituation to hurt or helpe the other, how [Page 85] they are to Sea, well harbored or not, how stored with shippes, how with Reuenue, how with fortificati­on & Garrisons, how the people, warlike trained or kept vnder, with many other such warlike conside­rations; which as they confusedly come in­to my mind, so I, for want of leisure, hasti­ly [Page 86] set them downe: But these things, as I haue said, are of the first kinde which stands in the ballan­cing one thing with the other.

The other kinde of knowledge is of thē which stand in the things which are in themselus either sim­ply good or simply e­vill, and so serve for a [Page 87] right instruction, or a shunning example. Of these Homer meant in this verse, Qui mul­tos hominum mores cog­nouit et vrbes. For he doth not meane by Mores, how to looke, or put off ones Cap with a new found grace, although true behavior is not to be despised: marry my Heresie is, that the [Page 88] English behaviour is best in England, and the Italians in Italie. But mores hee takes for that from whence Morall Philosophy is so called; the certain­nesse of true discer­ning of mens mindes both in vertue, passi­on, and vices. And when he saith, Cogno­uit vrbes, hee meanes not (if I be not decei­ued) [Page 89] to have seene Townes, and marke their buildings; for surely houses are but houses in every place, they doe but differ se­cundum magis et minus; but hee intends to their Religion, Poli­cies, [...]awes, bringing vp of children, disci­pline both for warre and peace, and such like. These I take to [Page 90] be of the second kind which are euer wor­thy to be knowne for their owne sakes. As surely in the great Turke, though wee have nothing to doe with them, yet his Discipline in warre matters is, propter se, worthy to be learned. Nay, even in the kingdome of China, which is almost as far [Page 91] as the Antippodes from vs, their good Lawes and Customes are to be learned: but to know their riches and power is of little purpose for Vs; since that can neither ad­vance vs, nor hinder vs. But in our neigh­bour Countries, both these things are to be marked, as well the latter, which containe [Page 92] things for themselues as the former which seeke to know both those, and how their riches and power may be to vs auaileable, or otherwise. The Countries fittest for both these, are those you are going into. France a­bove all other most needfull for vs to marke, especially in the former kind. Next [Page 93] is Spaine & the Low-Countries, then Ger­many; which in my opinion excels all o­thers as much in the latter Consideration, as the other doth in former, yet nei­ther are voyd of nei­ther▪ For as Germany me [...]inks doth excell in good lawes and well administring of Iustice; so are wee [Page 94] likewise to consider in it the many Princes with whom we may have league; the pla­ces of Frade, and meanes to draw both Souldiers and furni­ture there in time of need. So on the other side, as in France and Spaine we are princi­pally to marke how they stand towards vs both in power and [Page 95] inclination; so are they, not without good and fitting vse, even in the generality of wisdome to bee knowne; As in France the Courts of Parlia­ment, their subulter Iurisdiction, and the it continual keeping of payed Souldiers: In Spaine, their good & grave proceedings, their keeping so ma­ny [Page 96] Prouinces vnder them, and by what manner; with the true points of honor. Wherein since they haue the most open conceit wherein they seeme ouer curious, it is an easie matter to cut off when a man sees the bottom Flan­ders likewise, besides the neighbour-hood with vs, and the an­nexed [Page 97] considerations therunto, hath diuers things to be learn'd, especially their go­uerning their Mer­chants & other trades. Also for Italy, wee know not what wee haue, or can haue to doe with them, but to buy their Silkes and Wines: And as for the other point, except Venice, whose good [Page 98] Lawes and customes wee can hardly pro­portion to our selues, because they are quite of a contrary gouern­ment; there is little there but tyrannous oppression, and seruil yeelding to them that haue little or no right ouer them. And for the men you shall haue there, although indeed some be excel­lently [Page 99] learned, yet are they all giuen to counterfeit learning: as a man shall learne among them more false grounds of things then in any place else I know. For from a Tapster vp­wards, they are all discoursers in certain matters and qualities; as Horsmanship, wea­pons, [Page 100] wayting; and such are better there then in other Coun­tries: But for other matters, as well (if not better) you shall haue them in nearer places.

Now resteth in my memory but this point, which indeed is the chiefe to you of all others; which is, [Page 101] the chiefe of what men you are to direct your selfe to, for it is certaine no vessell can leave a worse taste in the liquor it contains than a wrong teacher infects an vnskilfull hearer with that which hardly will euer out: I will not tel you some absurdities I haue heard some [Page 102] Trauellers tell; taste him well before you drinke much of his Doctrine And when you haue heard it, try well what you haue heard before you hold it for a princi­pall; for one error is the mother of a thou­sand. But you may say, how shall I get excellent men to take [Page 103] paines to speake with me? Truly in few words; either much expence or much humblenesse.


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