THAT THE POPE IS THAT ANTICHRIST: AND An answer to the Obiecti­ons of Sectaries, which condemne this Church of England. Two notably learned and profitable Treati­ses or Sermons vpon the 19. verse of the 19. chap­ter of the Reuelation: the first whereof was preached at Paules Crosse in Easter Terme last, the other purposed also to haue bene there preached. By LAWRENCE DEIOS Bachelor in Diuinitie, and Minister of Gods holy word.

REVEL. c. 19. v. 19.

And I sawe the Beast, and the Kings of the earth, and their armies gathered together, to make battell against him that sate on the horse, and against his armie.

¶ Imprinted at London by George Bishop and Ralph Newberie. An. Dom. 1590.

TO THE RIGHT HONOVRABLE AND MOST REVEREND FA­ther in Christ, my Lorde the Archbishop of Canturbury his Grace, Primate of all England, and Metropolitane, one of her Maiesties most honourable priuie Counsell.

THE impugnations which the enemie of the whole Church so strangely & di­uersly maketh against this Church of England, are not so much to be marueiled at, as of euery true Christian heart to be lamented. They of the Church of Rome condemne vs, for falling away so farre from them: such as are sprong vp amongest our selues, and are gone out from vs, because wee approch so neere vnto them. The first hold vs as An­tichristian, for shaking off the Popes go­uernment, whome they make Christes vi­car: the others, for that wee retaine (they say) his gouernment still, & are in bondage to it. The first say, we are out of the true [Page]Church: the others say no lesse, and that we haue not Gods Church amongst vs. The first affirme, that we haue no Ministers, no sa­craments, no lawful seruice of God amongst vs: the others, that we haue no Ministers rightly called, no sacraments duely admini­stred, no worship of God, and that we wor­ship a false Christ. The first holde, that the seruice of God in our Churches is so wicked, as it is not to bee frequented: the others, that it is idolatrous, and to be auoided. The first are of opinion, that the Soueraigne Christian Magistrate ought not to haue gouernment in causes Ecclesiastical, other­wise then to defend the Church, and to see the lawes therof executed, because making of Church lawes and gouernment Ecclesia­sticall, is soly in the Pope, and in his Clergy: the others holde the like position against the Princes Ecclesiasticall supremacie, for that this gouernment belongeth to Elderships and Synodes of Ministers and Elders, (for else Christ doth not gouerne in his Church) as they teach. Thus both sortes push at the peace of this Church, with the hornes of the beast, and albeit vpon diuerse groundes, [Page]yet to one and the selfe same end, which is, the vtter ouerthrowe of the Church, if their courses be not carefully and speedily preuented. Which (me thinketh) may best be effected by doctrine and by discipline. The first by instructing the simple seduced, and by confuting mightily the froward and insolent: the second, by sharper corrosiues against the wilfull and obstinate sect-ma­sters on both sides, being [...], men condemned euen of their owne con­sciences. This teaching and confutation in sundrie weightie pointes is (in mine opini­on) very soundly and iudiciously (though in briefe sorte as best fitting sermons) here performed, both against the Romanistes and Catharites. The copie whereof happe­ly falling into my handes, I haue made so bolde with the Authour as to prefixe a title thereunto (implying not all, but the most principall matters treated of) and thus to publish it, for common instruction and com­fort: Dedicating the same to your Grace, as to him to whom the Author hath dedica­ted himselfe in all duetiful seruice, and who [Page]daily seeketh by the said two meanes (mix­ed with mildnes and grauitie) to reforme the fancie-full, nay sinnefull conceipts of both the factions, and to settle this Church in the vnitie of the spirite, and bonde of peace. Which that your L. and others in au­thoritie may effectually bring to passe, vn­der the long and blessed gouernment of our dread Soueraigne, to Gods glorie, the propa­gation of the Gospell, (exceedingly impea­ched by them) and to the comfort of all god­lie and peaceably affected English, The Lorde of Lordes in mercie graunt for Christes sake. Amen.

17. Nouemb. 1590. Anno 33. D. Elizabethae Re­ginae.

The first Sermon vpon Apoc. cap. 19. verse 19.

TWO things especially are sette foorth in this whole booke of the Reuelation. First, the persecutions and the rewardes of those that with true faith cleaue one­ly to Christ: secondly, the assaults and wic­ked attempts of the enemies of the trueth a­gainst the Church, together with their pu­nishments and ouerthrowe. Because it is a prophesie of thinges to come, therfore is the booke hard to be vnderstood: for prophesies sooner are fulfilled in the worlde, then the world can perceaue the true exposition and interpretation of them. This verse doeth mi­nister occasion to speake both of the wicked, which do persecute, and of the godly which are persecuted; and it hath some thinges in it easie, and some harde to bee vnderstoode. Who the beast is, and who be these kings, and what be their armies, and what is the maner of their fight, we knowe: and who it is that rideth on the horse, and what is his armie, wee may with smal searching easily finde out, for time hath reueiled these things. But the time [Page 2]wherein this last fight of the beast shall bee, and the maner how he shal be ouerthrowen, hath some doubt. I wil speake of these things in order, as they lie in the text.

The beast here spoken of, is the Pope of Rome: the Kings of the earth meant in this place, are the princes that submit themselues to the obedience of him: their armies are both the captaines and warlike souldiers, and also the manifolde and sundry sortes of Ec­clefiasticall and spirituall persons, as they call them, which either by force of armes, or by witte and eloquence, by strength or pollicie fight for him. Hee that rideth on the horse is Christ: his armie are they that beleeue in him onely for saluation, and obey his Gospell. In speaking of Antichrist and his armies, and their fighting, I must striue to bee the more briefe, not onely because the matter of it selfe is large, and such as whereof a man can finde no end, if he would go about to speake all that may be said, but also because (I feare) it would be somewhat tedious vnto you, to heare me speake of that whereof you haue heard others speake very oft, and largely al­ready. Of the other part, that is, of Christ, and his armie, it is comfortable and profitable for vs to heare, because wee doe account our selues which doe professe the Gospell in this [Page 3]land, to be as it were a wing, or an olde trai­ned band of that armie. I thought it necessary to speake of these two pointes at this time. First, because Antichrist either now renew­eth or continueth still his warre against vs, or at least is suspected, and of some reported so to doe. Secondly, because among our selues, there are that blaspheme the hoste of the li­uing God, and say that wee are not the armie of Christ. And albeit that it were out of que­stion that we are Christes armie, yet we see in all places, that there is a mutinie in this armie, and it is necessarie if we will obtaine the vi­ctorie, that we must be an vnited armie. Thus I haue set before you, the matter that I must speake of, and the causes that mooued me to it. Nowe therefore I will first intreate of the beast.

The beast in this place is set for one of the greatest enemies of Iesus Christ vpon earth, which is the generall and chiefe captaine o­uer kings and their armies in the fielde a­gainst Christ. The deuill is doubtlesse the chiefe leader of all that fight against our Sa­uiour. But he in the Reuelation is not called the beast, but by other names: for he is na­med the Dragon, the olde serpent, and satan. The deuill is not the beast, but giueth his pow­er to the beast: the beast is not the dragon, but [Page 4] speaketh like the dragon. The beast is a visible earthly power raised vp by the diuell, that hath authoritie ouer kings. To know him is al­most to ouercome him: for fewe are hurt by him, but such as knowe him not. This beast (as I said) is the Pope of Rome. The Papistes, as they resist other positions that we holde a­gainst them, so aboue all others, they must needes stand against this. They will not haue the Pope to be the beast, for they knowe that this beast is Antichrist. And what is Anti­christ, but the capitall enemie to Iesus Christ? Wherefore they see, that if the Pope be the beast, then all reuerence and obedience to him, must of necessitie be forsaken. Nowe therefore I will shewe, that all things which are spoken in Scripture of this beast & Anti­christ, agree most fitly to the popedome, and not to any other earthly power.

This Beast that is spoken of heere, is the same that is mentioned, Apoc. 13.11. which was the second beast that Iohn sawe, which came vp out of the earth, and had two hornes like the Lambe, but spake like the Dragon: & it is the same beast, which whosoeuer worship­peth, or his image, or receiueth his marke, hee must drinke of the wine of the wrath of God, A­poc. 14.9. and it is that beast which sendeth out of his mouth, three vncleane spirites like [Page 5]frogs, to gather the kings to the battell here spo­ken of, Apoc. 16.13. It is that scarlet colou­red beast full of names of blasphemie, which hath seuen heads and ten hornes. Apoc. 17.3. of the same beast mentioned so before, it is said here: I sawe the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies, gathered together to fight against him that sate vpon the horse, and against his armie. This beast both in the Reue­lation, and in other partes of Scripture hath diuers other names: for it is named the great whore that sitteth vpon many waters, A­poc. 17.1. The woman araied in purple and scar­let, and gilded with gold and precious stones and pearles, Apoc. 17.4. and it is called Babylon the great citie, Apoc. 18.2. That which Paul speaketh of the Apostasie, and of the man of sinne, and the sonne of perdition, whom he cal­leth an aduersarie, 2. Thes. 2.3. is vnderstood of this beast. But the most vsuall and familiar name, that all ecclesiasticall writers do giue to this most famous enemie of Christ and his Church, is that which Iohn vseth when hee saieth: Babes, it is the last time, and as ye haue heard that Antichrist shall come, euen now are there many Antichrists: whereby wee knowe that it is the last tyme, 1. Iohn 2.18. And a­gaine, Euery spirite which confesseth not, that Iesus Christ is come in the flesh, is not of God: [Page 6]but this is the spirite of Antichrist, of whom yee haue heard how that hee should come, and now alreadie hee is in the world. This principall e­nemie of Christ that maketh warre here a­gainst him, named an aduersarie, the man of sinne, the sonne of perdition, called Babylon, the great whore Antichrist, and the second beast, is the Pope of Rome with his popish gouerne­ment.

The deuill as hee laboured that Christ should not bee knowen when he was in the world, and wrought mans saluation by his death: so likewise he doeth what he may to hide Antichrist, that he may worke destructi­on of soules, and yet not be suspected to doe it. That the Papacie may not bee called the kingdome of Antichrist, the papists obtrude to the world a certaine imagined Antichrist, such a beast as neuer was, nor euer shall bee: for they say Antichrist must be one particular man, borne of the tribe of Dan, which shall haue his seate in Ierusalem, in the temple there, and shall subdue three kings first, namely, of Egypt, Ethiopia, and Libya, and then other se­uen, and shall raigne three yeeres & a halfe, neither more nor lesse, and shall be honoured of the Iewes as their Christ and Messias, and shall be circumcised, and shall abolish bap­tisme and the Masse, and shall set vp his own [Page 7]image in the temple, and cause the world to worship it, and he will deny Iesus to be Christ, and cause himself to be honoured as God, and so be called, and that hee shall giue a marke and set it on mens foreheads, or on their right hands, the print of it shal be his name, and the letters of his name shall make the number of 666. And that hee may mooue men to wor­ship him the rather, he shall doe many myra­cles, and especially shall faine himselfe to die and rise againe from the dead, and cause fire to come downe from heauen in the sight of men: that Enoch and Elias shal come in their owne persons and prophesie against him, that Christ at the ende of three yeeres and a halfe, shall ouercome him & put him downe, and that at the end of fourtie dayes after shal be the generall iudgement. And before this Antichrist can come, they say that the gospel must be receiued publikely of all kingdomes and people in the world: & that the empire of Rome which now the Germanes hold, must cleane both in name and substance be aboli­shed, for that is a great let vnto him: for while that standeth, he cannot come at Ierusalem.

This is the papists worshipfull Antichrist, a perilous beast that shall raigne but three yeeres and a halfe. By this notion of Anti­christ deepely printed in their heads, their [Page 8]minds are turned away from seeing the Pope to bee the very beastly Antichrist as hee is. They nourish the beast in their owne bosom, and let him sucke of their breasts, or rather sucke themselues poison out of that Whores breasts, while they imagine that hee shall come, they know not when, to Ierusalem in another shape.

What should make them thinke that An­tichrist is one singular person? The first beast, they and all men confesse, is the state and suc­cession of the empire of Rome, as it was hea­then, & persecuted the Gospell openly: that was not one person, but many persons, one after another, holding vp the same estate. The second beast reuiueth the image of the first, in the same citie: therefore the second is not one person, but a succession of many, which renew, as it were, the olde honour and state of Rome. This doth the order of Popes suc­ceeding one another. And although (as Bel­larmine answereth) one beast in Daniel is set for one man, as the Leopard for Alexander magnus, yet there also the Lion representeth the Assyrians, and the Beare the Persians em­pire: so heere in the Apocalypse, as the first beast is set for the heathen empire, so the se­cond beast is set for the Antichristian papacie of Rome. Augustine thinketh that this beast [Page 9]must not be vnderstood for one man, but for one city. Quae sit porro ista bestia, &c. What this beast is, it is not repugnant to right faith, that the very wicked citie be vnderstood, as the people of vnbeleeuers, contrarie to the beleeuing people and citie of God. The beast then, by Augu­stines opinion, is a citie, a multitude, not one singular person. If we shall marke that which Paul saith concerning the beginning and end of Antichrist, the mysterie of iniquitie alreadie worketh, and that the Lord shall abolish him with the brightnesse of his comming: and that which Iohn saith, Ye haue heard that Antichrist should come, and now alreadie he is in the world, wee shall see that the Antichrist can not be one man, the foundation of whose kingdome was laid so long before, and the end whereof shall not come till the end of all: for is it not ab­surd, that there should be so ancient a prepa­ration for so late and so short a reigne of one man? This also is most euident, that those things which must be done of Antichrist, can not be performed of one man, no not in his whole life, much lesse in three yeeres and a halfe. He must restore the glorie of the Ro­mane empire, he must doe all that the other beast did before him, he must worke many signes and miracles, he must cause the former beast to be worshipped, he must send foorth [Page 10]lying spirits to seduce them that dwell on the earth, he must kill them that worship not the image of the beast, and receiue not his marke: nay those things that they grant An­tichrist shall do, can not be done in that space. He must winne Ierusalem, and build the Tem­ple, and ouercome all the world, & propound himselfe to be worshipped thorow the world, and take away baptisme in all the world, and doe many other things. Can these things be done in three yeeres and a halfe? or while he doth these things, shall he not be their Anti­christ? But they say Paul calleth him the man of sinne, and Iohn, the Antichrist, adding the Greeke article. That is done for difference, and not for singularitie of person. No maruell if a common name of the man of the Anti­christ signifie many, seeing a proper name shall signifie a multitude. Israel first a proper name of Iacob, and yet signifieth all Gods people: Sion the proper name of a hill, and yet signifieth all the church of God. The beast is the man of sinne, and the Antichrist, because of all Antichrists (for there are many, euen so many as there are heresies against Christ) he is the greatest, and cruellest, and mightiest Antichrist, and the man of sinne, because of all sinfull men he is cause, by his power & lawes, of greatest & most sinne committed in Gods [Page 11]church. Last of all (they say) that as Christ is one person, so Antichrist, his chiefe enemie, must be one person: as he that sitteth on the horse, that is Christ, is one person, so the beast, that is captaine of those against him, must be one person. The comparison holdeth not: first, because Christ abideth for euer, therefore on that side there is one person captaine: but on the other side, to fight against him, for the short continuance of the persons, & the long continuance of the fight, there must be many persons, in succession, captaines. Secondly, because the fight is not against Christ in his person, but in his doctrine, and in his mem­bers, both which are continued by succession, and so are the captaines and the warre against them. I need not fight so long with a sha­dow, to destroy this opinion of theirs, that the beast and the Antichrist spoken of in scrip­ture, is not one singular person, but a line and succession of many that holde and mainteine a gouernement that destroyeth the faith and benefites of Iesus Christ. Thus we see how vaine one especiall ground of their fained Antichrist is, namely, that he must be one sin­gular person.

Another ground of their error is, that this beast and Antichrist must be an open enemie of Christ, both in deede and word, in trueth [Page 12]and in shewe. for they say he must deny Iesus to be Christ in plaine termes, and in like ma­ner deny that he is come: that he must take away the sacraments of Christ, and substitute others himselfe: that he must make himselfe Christ, and so be receaued of the Iewes, and that he must by all meanes be without the Church. The Pope (they say) is not such a one. He acknowledgeth Christ to be come, and himselfe his substitute and seruant, and by our owne confession is after a sort in the Church. But we holde, and the trueth is, that this beast and Antichrist, is a secrete enemie cloked with the name of a friend: an asse that hath put on a Lions skinne, and that in this e­nemie especially; Satan changeth himselfe into an Angell of light. If Antichrist should come like an open professed enemie, all Christians would easily detest him, the elect should neuer be in daunger by him: but hee shall come so cunningly, that hee shall se­duce, if it were possible, euen the elect. And the name of a mysterie, Reuel. 17. declareth that his working is secrete. and the same hath Paul, the mysterie of iniquitie already worketh. Wherefore if the kingdome and rule of the beast and Antichrist be a mysterie, then is hee a secret and not an open professed enemie. And whether doe these names of seducing, of com­ming [Page 13]with all deceiueablenesse of vnrighteous­nesse, and of strong delusion to beleeue lies, (all which are spoken of Antichrist) agree rather to a counterfet or an open enemie? The ene­mie that Christ would haue his people take heed of in the last time, is especially the coun­terfet friend. They shall say, Loe, here is Christ, or there is Christ, there shall arise false Christs and false prophets. And to the Iewes he saith, If another shall come in my name, him will yee re­ceiue. Vpon these words they ground that o­pinion of theirs, that the Iewes shall receiue Antichrist when he commeth, which shall denie the first and true Christ, and set himselfe to be their Christ. But that saying of our Sa­uiour was fulfilled after his ascension, in di­uers that came vnto thē as deliuerers, whom they followed to their destruction. But as for the Iewes towards the end of the world, whē the Papists say their Antichrist shall bee, the Iewes before that shall be conuerted vnto Ie­sus Christ, as Paul sheweth Rom. 11. and the popish imagined Antichrist, of all others, can neuer be receiued of the Iewes: for they looke for a Christ to come of the tribe of Iuda and not of the tribe of Dan: and they so de­test an image, that they can neuer acknow­ledge him their Christ, that contrary to their law shall set vp an image to be worshipped. [Page 14]But as I sayd, Antichrist shall put vpon him the vizard and face of a friend, and shall haue the heart and works of an enemy: for as he is and hath ioined to him as his assistant the false prophet, so likewise he will tread in the path of false prophets. Beware of false prophets (saith our Sauiour) for they come in sheepes clothing, but inwardly they are rauening wolues. If that be true that some do say, that in Ezechiel and Reuel. 20. Gog is set for Antichrist and Ma­gog for the Turke, which both should succeed and deuide the Romane empire, then not on­ly this is manifest, that Antichrist is a secret enemie, but that hee should haue the West part of the Empire, and the Turke the East: and that wee neede not feare the Turke in these quarters of the world, nor fauour the Spaniards (as some doe seeme to wish in that behalfe) because they thinke they be a wall betweene the Turke and Christendome. But God hath set the bounds. To the Turke, that is, to Magog and Mesek, which is Arabia, where Mahomets tombe is, the East is alot­ted. To Gog, that is, the Pope, and Tubal with him, which some say is Italie, and others say is Spaine, to this Gog the West part of the em­pire, which hath hitherto reteined the name of Christian religion, is assigned. All the world deserued to be in bondage vnder enemies of [Page 15]the trueth: but the East is vnder the bodily bondage of the Turke, and the West vnder the spirituall seruitude of the Pope. Now Magog which is set for the Turke, signifieth vncouered, open, and manifest: but Gog set for the Pope, signifieth couered, secret, and hidden: wherefore as the one is an open ene­mie, so the other is secret, and therfore more dangerous. If by Gog and Magog be meant these two, then the names do shew the diffe­rence: but I know some take those names o­therwise: and some confesse they know not what they meane. But if that Gog do not de­clare Antichrist to be a secret enemie, yet by this it shall most easily appeare, for that Paul saith of him, he shal sit in the Temple of God, that is to say, he shall rule and gouerne in the church of God, as he himselfe will call it, and as it hath commonly beene reputed: where­fore if he shall gouerne in the church of Christ, he must shew himselfe to be a friend to Christ and to the church, or els he can by no meanes deceiue the church of Christ. To the woman, Reuel. 17. there is giuen a cup of golde, which is vnderstood to be the shew of religion, and yet it is full of abominations. But what need we moe proofes to shew that this beast is a fained and a counterfet friend? Iohn saith, The beast hath two hornes like the lambe, and yet [Page 16]speaketh like the dragon: he shall make a shew of Christian religion, shall haue spirituall and temporall gouernment, and shall faine him­selfe to be like Christ, but his lawes and do­ctrine shalbe the doctrine of deuils. All these things prooue that Antichrist, which is this beast, is a secret enemy, making shew & coun­tenance of a friend.

If I shoulde say no more, by this that I haue spoken it may sufficiently be gathered, that this beast, this Antichrist, is the Pope of Rome. For who is there in the Church of Christ, of long continuance and great autho­ritie, that seemeth more a friend to Christ, and is in trueth so sore an enemie to all that truely beleeue in Christ, as is the Pope? But if wee search further, we shall see that whatsoeuer the Scripture speaketh of this Enemy, agreeth fitly to the Pope, and to none other, neither to him, who they imagine shall come of the tribe of Dan, nor to the Turke, which is by all meanes out of the church. This title of eter­nall ignominie and shame, falleth vpon no e­state in the world, but only on the popedome. All things agree to it.

The forerunner of Antichrist was the fall of the Romane empire, and destruction of Rome in the West: that is it (in the opinion of many ancient fathers) which Paul meaneth, [Page 17]when he sayth, Ye know what withholdeth that he might be reueiled in his time. And againe, Onely he which now withholdeth, shall let till he be taken out of the way. The seat of the empire a­biding at Rome, withheld the Pope from his reigne & dominion there. But how was that remooued, that the Pope might come into it emptie? First by Constantinus magnus depar­ting thence, & making the seat of his empire at Constantinople. Secōdly, because it was not yet empty enough, Alaricus king of Goths ta­keth it anno 414. Gensericus Vandalus takes it & spoiles it againe an. 459. And last of all, To­tilas taketh it thrise, ouerthroweth the walles, and setteth Rome on fire, and letteth it burne 40 dayes, an. 549. Thus was [...] made [...]: Rome was made emptie of the emperour, that the Pope might step into it. This is the head that S. Iohn saw wounded to death. Here the heathen Romans that had killed wt the sword, were killed by the sword. Although this be so, yet the Papists contend, that this is not yet fulfilled. The Romane empire (say they) is not yet displaced. These be notable cūning men: that which was done 1000 yeres since, is not yet done with them. By this we may iudge of their religion. For as the Romane empire re­maineth yet, so the true Christian religion re­maineth wt thē vnto this time, & no otherwise: [Page 18]but that empire remaineth onely in name and not in truth: so doth the religion. For is that the emperour of Rome, whom the Pope by a law hath bound not to dwell in Rome, nor in all Italie, at any time? Is he emperour of Rome that hath no tribute, no homage, nor lands of the empire, and vnlesse he haue somewhat to liue by of his owne, shall be nothing inriched by the empire? But (saith Bellarmine) he is emperour of Rome, although he haue not Rome. How can he be emperour of it, that hath it neither in possession, nor by right of title? if he haue right to it, then the Pope is an vsurper, that keepes him from it: for there is no officer in Rome, but the Popes deputy by his appointment. Wherefore the first note of Antichrist agreeth to the Pope, which is, that Rome should be made a ruine before he shuld come to build vpon it: for that was fulfilled fiue hundred and fiftie yeeres after Christ, and sixe hundred yeeres were expired before the papacie did shew it selfe in his antichristian colours.

The second note of the beast agreeth also to the Pope: for Iohn saith: He commeth out of the earth, & hath two hornes like the lambe, and speaketh like the dragon. Antichrist should in shew make himselfe like Christ, and performe the works of the deuill. He will write him­selfe [Page 19] Seruus seruorum: and in some sence, so he is: for he serueth the lust of those that are seruants and slaues, to inrich them and bring them to honour. He hath not the hornes of the lambe, but like them: for he challengeth to himselfe power in temporall and in spiri­tuall matters: he maketh himselfe not onely a priest, but a king also: he will rule in hea­uen and in earth. If these be not the two hornes of the lambe, what are they? howso­euer it is, he will be like the lambe, especially in the hornes. He would resemble Christ in his power, but not in his holinesse. And to expresse his power, he delighteth much with the number of two, for he hath on his head a miter which hath two toppes, two sharpe points, one before, and another behinde: two keyes also hee hath set a crosse. And in the yeere 1300, Boniface the eight, in the first Iu­bile, the first day went in his bishops robes, the second day in the habite of the emperour, hauing two swords borne before him, & this being proclamed, Ecce duo gladij hîc. How can he declare more plainely, that he beareth two hornes like the lambe? whose title in the world commeth so neere the title of Christ? for he will be called Christs vicar. Of the two hornes, he had the spirituall iurisdiction first, and then the temporall: for first he ruled ouer [Page 20]bishops and ministers only, and in processe of time he ruled ouer kings and emperours: but although he haue hornes like the lambe, yet his speech is like the dragons. The crying of the dra­gon is fierce and terrible: and the spirituall dragon, the deuill, speaketh contrary to God. For the religion of the Pope, is in name Christs religion, but in truth contrary to it. Christ saith to the people, Search the Scriptures: the Pope saith they shall not reade them. Christ saith, Thou shalt serue God onely: the Pope saith, Thou shalt serue saints. Christ saith, Thou shalt not make nor worship images: the Pope saith, thou shalt do both: and in many points besides (Hesshusius reckoneth vp sixe hun­dred) the Pope speaketh contrarie to Christ, and altogether like the dragon. The Papists say this note can not agree to the Pope. Why? not because he hath not two hornes like the lambe, nor because he speaketh not like the dragon: but because it is said here of the beast, that he cōmeth out of the earth: for they thinke their Pope hath not a base, but a noble be­ginning. In deede their first bishops were from heauen, and went to heauen: but they that tooke the hornes like the lambe, and pre­sumed to challenge spirituall & temporall iu­risdiction ouer all the church, were from the earth: for this was an earthly deuise: & what [Page 21]persons in the world come to so high autho­ritie from so base beginnings, as the Popes of later times? bastards, and friers, & magicians: are not these base? are not these from the earth? To this description of Iohn, agreeth that of Paul: for as Iohn saith, he should speake like the dragon, so Paul saith, he shall be an aduersarie: and as here it is said, he should haue two hornes like the lambe, so there it is said, that he should sit in the Temple of God as God, shewing himselfe that he is God: for he taketh the office & name of God vpon him.

The third marke is proper also to the Pope. For thus Iohn speaketh of him. He did all that the first beast could doe before him, and caused the earth, and them that dwell therein, to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed. The first beast was olde Rome, and the state of the empire: therefore when this second beast had gotten hornes like the lambe, that is spirituall and temporall iurisdiction, hee pusheth so long with these hornes, that hee maketh the Romane name to flourish, as much or more then it did before: which was a thing much to be woondered at tho­row the world. Who knoweth not that Rome hath bene these later hundred yeeres in more estimation then any citie in the world besides, or then it selfe had beene in former [Page 22]times? and how came it to that wealth & ho­nor, but onely by the two horned beast? No­thing els had it to commend it now in com­parison, but the false title of the seat of Christs vicar. And heerein standeth all the indeuour of Antichrist, not that Christ may be wor­shipped, but that the first beast may be had in honour. For the name, and religion, and cre­dit of Rome he fighteth. The Pope is as it were, the first beast: for in him the ancient state seemeth to be restored.

The fourth note of the second beast is as fit as any of the rest for the pope. For Iohn sayth: He did great woonders, so that he made fire to come downe from heauen on the earth in the sight of men: and deceiued them that dwell on the earth, by the signes which were permitted to him to doe in the sight of the beast. To this a­greeth that which Paul saith of Antichrist, whose comming is by the working of Satan, with all power and signes, and lying woonders. And our Sauiour saith, There shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signes and woonders, so that if it were possible, they should de­ceiue the very elect. Signes and miracles are so common with the papistes, as they haue not beene among any since the Apostles times. They haue miracles to commend euery thing to the world, miracles to confirme purgatory, [Page 23]and praying for the dead, and the masse, and the force of reliques, and whatsoeuer supersti­tion there is besides in poperie. But their mi­racles are lying signes & miracles, both because many of them are but done in shew and not in trueth, and many are fained, and all tend to confirme and establish lies. The trueth nee­deth no new miracles, it persuadeth & con­firmeth it selfe in the heart of him that hath it. Iohn nameth one especiall miracle, The cal­ling of fire downe from heauen in the sight of men. Some imagine that as Elias did it to consume the fifties that came to take him, so the Pope at some time or other should do: or as he did to commend his sacrifice against the sacrifice of the priests of Baal, so the pope should cause the like for the confirmation of his masse and other idolatrie. It is time for him now to doe it, if euer he will doe it, for he is neere taking, and his masse almost euery where is out of credit. There be that refer it to Pope Hilde­brand, which by the art of Magike danced in fire, raised vp round about him, without hurt, thereby to winne the more authority to him­selfe. Others rather take this of the fire to be spoken allegorically: for what is excommu­nication, but as it were an heauenly fire, by which he hath reuenged himselfe on many emperours and kings, and whereby he goeth [Page 24]about still to consume his enemies? This fire he flingeth about him like a madde man. He hath cast it against our most gracious Queene, and this whole land: but it is quenched in the sea. I hope it will not set any on fire here, as it hath done. Fox taketh this fire fetcht from heauen, to be the Scriptures interpre­ted in a wrong sence. Christ sayth he came to cast fire on the earth, and that his desire was it should be kindled: speaking of his word. This fire the Pope fetcheth out of heauen: for he wringeth and wresteth it out of his na­turall place, and applieth it to prooue his authoritie and all superstition which he hath brought into the world: This is my body, and Thou art Peter, and vpon this rocke will I build my church: and many such bright shining starres hee hath pluckt from heauen downe to the earth. The Pope therefore is that new kinde of Alchymist that is sayd to fetch fire from heauen.

The fift marke poynteth out the Pope al­so. For partly by his two hornes, and partly by fire from heauen, and by the meanes of his ly­ing signes and miracles, he is growne to such credit and power, that at his commande­ment they that dwell on the earth are con­tent to make the image of the beast, which had the wound of a sword and did liue, and also he [Page 25]did giue a spirit to the image of the beast, so that the image of the beast did speake. This making of an image, and the causing of it to speake, hath diuerse interpretations. The Papists ex­pound the head wounded and reuiued to be, Antichrist himselfe, fayning himselfe to die and to rise againe: and that of the image speaking, they vnderstand of an image which Antichrist shoulde make to represent him­selfe, which shoulde giue answeres to those that sought vnto it. These are vaine deuises and shifts to put it from the Pope. But the head wounded and healed, is the state of the empire fallen and raysed againe in the Pope: for Rome was wounded with a sword, and reui­ued in the Papacie. The image made by the people, and caused to speake by the Pope, some haue thought to bee the emperour, which in deede is but the Popes creature, whome he hath put downe and set vp, com­manded to speake or holde his peace at his pleasure. But it seemeth rather to be the au­thoritie of his Legates and Cardinalles, and their Courtes and Consistories in all king­domes: for all people were persuaded to en­tertaine them, and the Pope did, as it were, breathe life into them, and they spake by the spirite of his Canon lawe or absolute pleasure.

The sixt marke is agreeable in like ma­ner. He caused that as many as would not wor­ship the image of the beast, should be killed. The reiecting of the Popish Legates, and courts, and lawes, the refusing of the Spanish inqui­sition, is death. For hence proceede all the warres and rebellions among all people that professe the name of Christ. It perteineth also to their bloodshedding and cruelty, that he saith: None could be suffred to buy or sell, except he receiued the beasts marke. For there was no place nor being for any, except he did sweare subiection. And when the patience of Gods people is cōmended for induring such things as they lay vpon them, it is a token of their bloody cruelty. Here is the patience of saints: here are they that keepe the commandements of God, & the faith of Iesus. And in the iustifying of their punishment, which daily now falleth vpon them, the cause is giuen: for they shed the blood of the saints and prophets, and therefore hast thou giuen them blood to drinke, for they are wor­thie. Her attire and ornaments also doe wit­nesse this thirst and shedding of blood that hath bene, & is in them. I saw a woman sit vp­on a scarlet coloured beast: and the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet. What colour so fit for a bloody beast? and what kinde of peo­ple either vsed or esteemed it so much as they? [Page 27]To these things agreeth that which our Saui­our saieth, hauing relation to the latter times. The time will come when they that kill you shall thinke they doe God good seruice. But to re­mooue this note from themselues, the Pa­pists say, that the killing which they haue exercised, is not answerable to those spea­ches: for they say the latter beast must kill mo of Gods scruants then the first beast, and with more crueltie. I finde not yet where it is so sayd, but that is true in them although they denie it. For who can reckon vp the number, that iudicially for the cause of poperie haue bin put to death in England, Scotland France, Spaine, and all the countries of Christendome within these two or three hundred yeres? And as for inuēting of torments, if burning by fire be not cruell inough, yet they haue deuised more exquisite torments in their Spanish In­quisition, & vsed much more crueltie thē euer the Heathen did. And one thing they haue committed whereby they haue shed infinite mens blood, which ye heathen did not against the Christians. They make warre vpon vs on­ly for religion, & in those wars in France and Germanie & the low countries, & in all places where by inuasion or rebellion they can pre­vaile, haue made infinit slaughters. Wherfore numbers slaine by them exceed the number [Page 28]slayne by Paganes. But there is not so pre­cisely any thing spoken of the number. They kill all, and would doe, that will not be sub­iect to them. This they haue practised, and this they doe practise: this is the drift of their warres and Counsels, and indeuours, and this is the marke of the beast. I sawe the wo­man (sayth Iohn) druncken with the blood of Saintes, and with the blood of the Martyrs of Iesus. Although we kill many in these warres, yet the whole is to be imputed vnto them: for they are the cause of the slaughter, not onely of others, but also of themselues.

The seuenth note is, that the beast made all both small and great, rich and poore, free and bond, to receaue a marke in their right hand, or in their foreheads, and that no man might buy or sell, but he that had the marke, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. Here is wisedome: let him that hath wit, count the num­ber of the beast: for it is the number of a man, and his number is 666. There is no Religion that euer was, that hath so many markes and cha­racters, and so gloryeth in them, as the Po­pish Religion. And all that are vnder them, are signed with some token or other, as their sheepe. Their little infants, with their oyle, and creame, and other matters. Their Empe­rors and kings, and all men that take degrees [Page 29]in schooles, with their corporal othe, for their fidelitie to that See. Their Byshops & whole Cleargie, with their shauen crownes, & oyle, and othes. All the people by open profes­sing of thēselues to be of the Latine and Ro­mish Church, for to this end tend al their cha­racters. This they would haue all come vnto, and they obteined it, that they should pro­fesse themselues to be of the Latine & Romish Religion. Therefore Maister Foxe taketh this name to bee Romanus. Which both in the Greeke, and also in the Hebrewe letters ma­keth 666. He trieth it in both tongues: be­cause he thinketh the Reuelation was made to Iohn in the Hebrewe, as being his mother tongue, and therefore in the Hebrewe name the number should be answerable: and be­cause he wrote it in Greeke, it should agree in that tongue also, which it doth in Romanus. For both the letters in Hebrewe, and the let­ters in Greeke make that number. Irenaens coniectured [...] to be the name: and many learned men do rest in that, and it fitly agre­eth. For all things with thē were in Latine: the scripture, their publike seruice, their pri­uate prayers, their lawes, all were Latine. But this deuise of the letters in a name to make vp the number, seemeth to be Magical, and Ca­balistical, & not vsed in the scriptures (as some [Page 30]learned mens opinion is,) and therefore they thinke the number should shew the time when he should bee brought foorth into the world. And about that time they account that the Pope obtained his title of vniuersall bishop by a Councell: hee had it giuen him by the emperour Phocas about 60. yeeres before. So that which way soeuer it bee taken, it falleth out right, and agreeth still to them. And here­in standeth the note of Gods people to with­stand and reiect this marke and character, and by no meanes to be counted of that religion, for they are threatened that do receiue it: If any man worship the beast and his image, and re­ceiue his marke in his forehead or in his hand, the same shall drinke of the wine of the wrath of God, yea of the pure wine which is powred into the cup of his wrath, and he shall be tormented in fire and brimstone before the holy Angels, and before the Lambe, and the smoke of their torment shall ascend euermore, and they shall haue no rest day nor night, which worship the beast and his image, and whosoeuer receiueth the print of his name. But if any withstand it and get the victorie, they are highly commended. Thus Iohn speaketh of them: And I sawe as it were a glassie sea, mingled with fire, and them that had gotten victorie of the beast and of his i­mage, and of his marke, standing at the glassie [Page 31]sea, hauing the harpes of God, and they did sing the song of Moses the seruaunt of God, and the song of the Lambe. Afterward hee sheweth how there fell a noysome and grieuous sore vpon the men which had the marke of the beast, and vpon them which worshipped his image. This sore of many is thought to bee the French disease, which began among them in the warre at Naples betweene the French and Spaniard, in the yeere 1494. it came by the companie of harlots in the campe, and from thence was spred to most countreys. Other writers expound it of the plague, which in the time of poperie flouri­shing, was more fierce and more generall in all these quarters then almost at any time be­fore or since: all chronicles are full of exam­ples. Thus much of the receiuing the chara­cter and marke of the beast, which is the se­uenth note.

It were long to describe the other notes of this beast, for there are yet many things whereby it may bee knowen. The seuen­teenth chapter hath a full description of it. That chapter hath much that pertaineth to Rome vnder the Emperours, and much also belonging to it, as it is gouerned by the Pope. Nay, both are as it were knit toge­ther, for that they are so like: for this that is [Page 32]nowe, is but the olde reuiued, and therefore he that knoweth one, knoweth both. The first and especiall marke is their whorish and idolatrous Religion. For hee calleth her the whore that sitteth vpon many waters: the go­uernement ouer many people that maintai­neth idolatrie, which is spirituall fornication in the sight of God. Then he sayth: With her haue committed fornication the kings of the earth, and the inhabitants of the earth are drunc­ken with the wine of her fornication. For what Idole did the Romans set vp, which kings and people did not by and by embrace? And they receaued them so gladly, and maintained all their will worship, their Saintes, their Images, their Reliques, their Masses, their ceremonies in such sorte, as if they were druncke with the loue of them. Yet touching their Religi­on, he saith, that this woman was full of names of blasphemie. Blasphemie is that which hurts the name of God. They were full then of blasphemies, that hurt the name of God, and the name of his people. Himselfe to be cal­led the vicar of Christ vpon earth, the head of the Church, the vniuersall bishop, is a blas­phemie against Christ, and against all other Bishops and Pastours.

To saye that Saintes are intercessors and mediators for vs, is blasphemie against the [Page 33]Saintes, and Christ. To affirme that Christ by his death put away originall sinne onely, and satisfied for the fault of other sinnes, and not for the punishment, is blasphemie a­gainst Christes passion. So is that which they affirme of the Masse, that it is a sacri­fice for the quicke and the dead. These and infinite thinges more in that Religion, are vile and horrible blasphemies. Iohn is not yet satisfied with speaking thus much onely of their idolatrie: but hee saith afterwarde, that she had a cup of gould in her hand, full of abominations and filthines of her fornicati­ons. Shee had a goulden cup, not onely for her riches and wealth, but also for a shewe of Christian religion and holynes. But this golden cup was full of poyson, ful of abomi­nation and filthie fornication. For what num­ber, or measure, or end was there of their Idoles? not onely euery citie as in Iuda, but euery house, euery corner, euery man had his Idole. Neither that alone, but there was for euery action, for euery occupati­on, for euery disease, a seuerall Idole. Last of all, for the fertilitie of her idola­trie, Saint Iohn calleth her the mother of whoredomes and abominations of the earth. For where was the shoppe where these Idoles were deuised? Whence were [Page 34]they authorized but onely from Rome? These things that Iohn writeth of the idolatrie of the beast, will not agree to the Antichrist that the Papists imagine: for they say he shall abolish all other images, and make his owne image onely be worshipped: for the beast is the mother of all abominations and fornica­tions of the earth: neither will it so well a­gree to auncient Rome, for that receiued ra­ther Idoles from other people, and worship­ped the gods of all other nations which they conquered. But this beast sendeth out her Idoles and Saintes and pettie gods, and com­mendeth them to the worshippers, promising great things if they doe it.

Another marke followeth, that she hath in her forehead a name written: A mysterie. This verie name in letters was written on the Popes Myter, which hee did weare vpon his head, and so they vsed it for a season. Their Myters were branded with this marke, Mysterium. But they after tooke it out, and now they vse not to beare that name in their foreheads. But in the forehead of the whore, that is, of their whorish Religion, it is written still: but none saue Gods elect can reade it. For the poyson and infection of their Religion is secrete: It hath a goodly shewe, it beguileth many. For they keepe the [Page 35]names of Scripture, and Christian religion, but they haue turned them into another meaning, yea they commend the basest and vilest ceremonie that they vse, as a great my­sterie. Wherefore albeit the name mysterium be taken out of the Popes miter, yet it remai­neth still in the forehead of his religion.

Iohn commeth yet neerer, and pointeth out the very place vnto vs: for he calleth it great Babylon. for as Babylon had the Monarchie, and oppressed and caried captiue Gods peo­ple: so likewise did both the olde and the newe Rome: the first and the latter beast, and so he calleth it, when he speaketh of the fall thereof. It is fallen, it is fallen, Babylon the great citie. And in many other thinges was Rome like to Babylon, as in the building, but especi­ally in the Monarchie and oppression of the Saintes. All this the Papistes will graunt of olde Rome, but not of newe Rome. But if the first beast be olde Rome, and the latter reui­ueth the first, then the first being Rome, the second must needes also be Rome: and there­fore while he pointeth out one, he pointeth out both.

Some Papistes haue imagined that Anti­christ should make his seate at Babylon in the East, or there be borne, and so the name to be taken here in his proper signification. But [Page 36]why then doeth he call it a mysterie? There is in her forehead a name written, a mysterie, great Babylon. It is Babylon in a mysterie, and not in the proper signification of the name. To point out Rome by the dominion which it had by the Empire, and should haue by the popedome, he sayeth further: The waters which thou sawest where the whore sitteth, are people, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues: and afterwarde more plainely, The woman which thou sawest, is the great citie, which reig­neth ouer the kings of the earth. Two or three notes yet he addeth to describe the citie, and gouernment, and authoritie thereof. One when he sayth: The beast that thou hast seene, was, and is not. And againe: The beast that was, and is not, and yet is. The Monarchie was there vnder Augustus, Tiberius, and some that followed, most flourishing, but now in Iohns time is not, and yet is. for vnder Domitian it did not flourish, and therefore was not in comparison of that it had bene, and yet was then: for it had great power. But after this, it should ascende out of the bottomlesse pit, euen out of hell, by the subtiltie of the deuill, after it was quite ouerthrowne by the Goths. for it was reuiued and quickned in the Pope, and Rome had as much authoritie by the pa­pacie, and as much riches as euer it had by [Page 37]the Monarchie.

The other note is, when he saith: I will shew thee the mysterie of the woman, and of the beast that beareth her, which hath seuen heades, and ten hornes. But of the ten hornes, because they are set for ten kings, I will speake afterward, when I shall speake of the kings that ioyne with the beast, in the fight against him that rideth on the horse. Therefore of the seuen heades thus he saith. Here is the minde that hath wisedome. The seuen heades are seuen mountaines, whereon the woman sitteth, they are also seuen Kings. First of the mountaines, then of the Kings. The woman sitteth vp­on seuen hils, and the woman is a citie. Rome then on seuen hils, and the latter beast reuiueth the first. No matter if this Rome stande not vpon all seuen, nay if it stande vpon none of them, so that it stande for that Rome that stoode vpon them, hath that name and dignitie, and answereth to it in i­dolatrous religion, and cruell persecution of the Saints. Then was Rome well know­en to stande on seuen hils. No other citie did so: no other citie bearing rule ouer Kinges doeth so. It was called Septicollis, of the seuen chiefe hils, whereon it stoode. Virgil hath relation to them, when hee sayeth: Septem quae vna sibi muro circumde­dit [Page 38]arces: Meaning by towres the hilles on which that stoode. And Propertius sayeth: Septem vrbs alta nigis toto quae praesidet orbi. Romulus sette it on foure hilles, which were called Palatinus, Capitolinus, Auentinus, and Exquilinus. Afterward Seruius Tullus added three, which were Caelius, Viminalis, and Qui­rinalis. From this time was it called Septicol­lis, although when it was further inlarged, it comprehēded mo hils. And the second beast with his kingdome and dominion, is most fitly described by the citie: for they chal­lenge all their priuiledges by the citie. Be­cause Peter (they say) was Bishoppe there, thence, euen from the place, they deriue all their authoritie. There they delight to dwell, although other cities are more pleasant and commodious. There the Cardinals must meete, when they choose the Pope: there all the counsels and conspiracies are made a­gainst Gods Church. Bellarmine maketh so great account of the citie, that if the Pope should be driuen thence, or it be destroied, yet wheresoeuer he were, he should still haue the honour and dignitie and title of the Pope of Rome. Thus here by the seuen hils, the ve­ry place is noted. As in this Chapter Rome is most expresly described: so of learned men, in the sixteenth it is thought almost to be na­med. [Page 39]They gather themselues together in a place called in Hebrewe Armageddon. Foxe and others, take it to be an allusion to Me­giddo, and Har megiddo the riuer and hill so called, where Sisera with his armie was o­uerthrowne, which should signifie the like e­uent to the battels of the beast. But for as much as it may be read, & so in some bookes was in two wordes, each of two syllables, ar­ma geddon, and Sigonius saith, he sawe it writ­ten Geddon harma: and the letter N. is not in the name of the place where Sisera was o­uercome, therefore it is thought that some o­ther thing then the allusion to Megiddo, must be found in the letters, & the signification of the word. If Iohn had meant the place Me­giddo, he neede not haue said it is named so in Hebrewe, for the name only would haue re­ferred vs to that place, although he had left out the mention of the language.

The signification of Geddon harma agree­eth well to the Rome that nowe is: for it sig­nifieth excidium excelsae, the ruine of the high citie, & it alludeth to that of Sibylla, [...], Rome a ruine. This should be the place and shop of all conspiracies against Christ, and his Gospell. Harma signifieth the high citie that hath dominion ouer the rest, and diffe­reth in sounde very little from Haroma, and [Page 40]short in Hebrew it might so be written, Har­ma. In the place where this ancient great ci­tie was cut downe by the Goths, there the o­ther was erected or hard by, in steede of it, and thence come all mischiefes to Christes Church. There are the battels conspired and made. What could be said plainer to describe the citie, then that of the seuen hils, or this of Harma, so neere in sounde to Rome, and in sence the high and mightie citie?

Nowe as concerning the kings, there are two orders of them pertaining to the citie: first seuen, and then ten. Seuen heads are also se­uen kings, and ten hornes be ten kings. But the ten kings are kings assisting, and with power helping the beast at the first, and after as wil­ling and ready to pul downe the beast as they were to set him vp. But of those assisting kings afterward. The 7. kings are the states of Rome in it selfe, succeeding one another from the beginning to the end, in ye gouern­ment of it, which is manifest, because he saith thus. The 7. hils are also 7. kings, fiue are fallen, and one is, and another is not yet come, and when he commeth, he must continue a short space, and the beast that was, and is not, is euen the eight, and is one of the seuen, and shall goe into destru­ction. They that expound this of Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, and Titus, fiue past, & Do­mitian [Page 41]present, & Cocceius Nerua the seuēth, & the eight Traian a Spaniard, say nothing to the purpose. For besides that Iohns prophesie could not be shut vp in so short a compasse, & not onely 5. but moe Emperors were past, no man can tell howe Traian should be the eight, and yet one of the seuen that were be­fore. And to vnderstande it of the seuen Ele­ctors of the Empire, is much further from the matter, for none of them were then, much lesse fiue past alreadie. The seuen kings there­fore, are the seuen states of gouernment in Rome, from the building of it, whereof fiue were past before S. Iohns time: for first they were gouerned by Kings, secondly by Con­suls, thirdly by Decemuiros, fourthly by Tri­umuiros, and fifthly by Dictators: all which were past, and in effect were kings, although not in name. The sixt were the Emperors that reigned in Iohns tyme, and after, till Rome was destroyed. The seuenth is thought to bee the popedome, which hath succee­ded the Emperours: and he is also the eight, for hee sustaineth two gouernments, one temporall, another spirituall, and his spiritu­all gouernment is one of the seuen, for it is also externall, and in pompe like that of the Emperours. Wherefore they would make him the seuenth, and the eight too, and [Page 42]his spirituall dominion which is the eight, is also temporall, and so one of the seuen, be­cause it is exercised after a temporall maner. But this diuiding and applying of the pope­dome vnto two or three states, is not agree­able, especially when the seuenth which they make his temporall gouernment, should last but a short time, and yet it hath lasted longer then any of the other gouernments. There­fore we may say that the gouernment of the Gothes, or rather the Exarchi of Rauenna, (for they helde Rome a season) was the seuenth, and that lasted but a short time, & then came the popedome which is like one of the seuen, for he is a priestly king or emperour. To make Pontifex Maximus in Rome one of the seuen, that is not so fit, because the Pontifex as Pon­tifex neuer had entire and soueraigne go­uernment of all: and he succeeded not the other gouernments, but was a companion to them all. Neither did Tribuni rule as chiefe Magistrats, but were intercessors for the peo­ple, with the chiefe Magistrate. Thus hath Iohn euidently described Rome vnto vs, with the double persecuting state thereof. There is no citie can be shewed to haue altered the kind of gouernment so oft: and if others may be found to haue done it, yet the other marks together with this, agree to none but this.

Besides these thinges in the Reuelation, there remaineth somwhat in Paul, pertaining to the description of this beast, which shew­eth his intollerable pride. Paul saith of Anti­christ, he exalteth himselfe against all that is cal­led God, or that is worshipped, so that he doeth sit as God in the Temple of God, shewing himselfe that he is God. This the Papistes deny to agree to the Pope: and therefore thinke he is not that proud beast, for (say they) he calleth him selfe seruum seruorum Dei, & acknowledgeth himself the vicar of Christ, so farre is he from making himselfe Christ and God in the tem­ple of God, and he praieth to God & Christ, and kneeleth at his altars humbly. But he must be measured, not by his hypocriticall actions, nor by his wordes in his hypocrisie, but by the nature and kinde of his gouern­ment. Fox saith, that he exalteth himselfe a­boue all that is called God, or is augustum in earth, when he lifteth himselfe aboue Empe­rors and kings, for they are not gods, but are called gods, and they are Augusti, they are [...] in earth, they of all men should haue honour and worship giuen to them. But the Emperors and kings he hath so debased, that he hath made them thinke it some honor for them to kisse his foote. The Pope hath caused the Emperour to holde his stirope: hee hath [Page 44]put his feete in the Emperours necke, he hath fed a Prince like a dogge vnder his table, and he hath turned the imperiall crowne from the heade with his foote: hee hath made the Emperour attend at his gate bare footed. In this behalfe they haue done that also which pertaineth onely to God, for they will giue and take away kingdomes at their pleasure. Thus in one sence they haue exalted them­selues aboue all that is called God, or that is worshipped, and shewed themselues as God. And they haue shewed themselues as God many other waies, in respect of the consci­ence, either in holding it gilty, or in acquiting it, for that pertaineth onely to God. But they would bind it by their lawes, & interpretatiō of scriptures, & thundring of excommunica­tions against the innocent, & loose it by for­giuing sinnes, & granting pardons & dispen­sations in all kind of things. Thus haue they shewed themselues as God in the Temple of God in respect of mens consciences. And in respect of heauē, & hel, & purgatory, he hath pretēded to rule as God in al these places: for he will make saints in heauen, whome he wil, and hold in purgatorie, or let out whome he list: and for this last, it is no marueile, for it is of his owne making. Last of all in his lawes, and by his flatterers hee hath beene called [Page 45]God in plaine termes, and he hath suffered it. There it is written, Dominus Deus noster Papa: our Lord God the Pope: and againe, Tues omnia, & super omnia, Thou art all, and aboue all. Howe can any creature shewe him selfe as God in Gods temple more presump­tuously then by these meanes, or more direct­ly? for otherwise in flat termes to proclaime himselfe as God to be honoured with diuine honour, it is too grosse, and it is not such a craftie mysterie, as should deceaue a meane man, much lesse bring into danger Gods e­lect. To these things agree the words of Da­niel, which many take as spoken of purpose of Antichrist, or at least they are applied to him by the Fathers. The king shal do what him list, he shal exalt himselfe, and magnifie himself against all that is called God, and shall speake marueilous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the wrath be accomplished: for the determination is made, neither shall he regarde the God of his Fathers, nor care for any God, for he shall magnifie himselfe aboue all. Peter and Iude speake of their pride in lifting them­selues aboue Magistrates, saying, that they should despise gouernment, and speake euill of them that are in authoritie.

These are the markes of this beast: other might be added out of Daniel, Paul, & Peter, [Page 46]as that they shal worship God with gold and siluer, for all their religion stoode in outward worldly ostentation: that they should forbid mariage and meates, as they make great holi­nes in single life, & accoūt mariage vncleane, and the eating of flesh at certaine times, they vtterly condemne as vnholie. That likewise they should be rich and mighty, and should make merchandise of all things, yea of mens soules: for they as in way of religion solde wood, stones, incense, oile, and all things, if they had dedicated them once to some holie vse, they were costly merchandise, although otherwise the vilest things that might be. All these markes agree most fitly to the Romish Antichrist, & to none other. The Pope there­fore is the beast, which being aided by the kings of ye earth, fighteth against Iesus Christ.

As for the marks which the Papistes make of Antichrist, they touch him not, they come not neere him. They imagine he should be of the tribe of Dan, because that tribe is not rec­koned among the tribes, of which many are marked to be saued. A weake foundation: the tribe is there omitted, therfore Antichrist shal come of that tribe. Thus they ground their re­ligion of that which the Scripture hath not said. And as for Enoch and Elias to come and preach against him in their owne persons, [Page 47]which they say they haue not done against the Pope, and therefore he is not that beast, that is a thing imagined as the other: for no Scripture hath saide, that they two shoulde come, but they ground it on this that Christ sayth: Elias should come, and restore all things, which was fulfilled at his first comming, and that two witnesses are promised to be sent a­gainst Antichrist, which are vnderstood by many to be Iohn Husse, and Hierom of Prage, both burned at the Councel of Constance, or as others expound it of a sufficient number, to cōuince the errors of Antichrist: for the scrip­ture maketh 2. witnesses a sufficient trial. And this age hath sent out many witnesses against him. That also which they say is not yet ful­filled, & yet must be before the comming of Antichrist, is false: which is, that the gospell must first be publikely preached, & receaued in all kingdomes of the world: but it is not a­ny where saide, that this should be before the comming of Antichrist. Christ sayth, that the Gospell should be preached through the worlde, before the ende should come. And it is one thing for the Gospell to be preached, and another thing to bee receaued. It hath bene preached, that is, by some meanes made knowne to all nations, but it hath not bene publikely receaued of al nations by common [Page 48]cōsent. Another thing that cōmeth neere this, is that which S. Paul saith, that there must be an apostasie first. A falling away frō the faith, & not frō the Empire of Rome is meant by it. For Paul saith, vsing that word to Timothie, [...], some shal fal from the faith, & the word is not vsed otherwise in scripture. And the Apostle seemeth so to expounde it afterward himselfe, when he saieth, because men receaued not the loue of the truth, that they might be saued: for if they receaued not the loue of the truth, it seemed they had the truth, but loued it not, & therefore were thus puni­shed. Wherefore there must be a falling away from the faith, & from the loue of the trueth, and strong delusion to beleeue lies, where Anti­christ is. These thinges came to passe in pope­rie. So much therfore as is said concerning the gospel to be receaued or forsakē, before or in the kingdom of Antichrist, is fulfilled in thē.

Yet they say the Pope is free from one es­pecial & notable marke of the beast. What is that? Iohn saith, he that denieth that Iesus is Christ, the same is Antichrist. And againe, e­uery spirit which confesseth not that Iesus is come in the flesh, is not of God, but this is the spirite of Antichrist. And Peter agreeably saith, they shal deny the Lorde that bought them. And Iude in like maner: they deny God the only Lord, & our [Page 49]Lord Iesus Christ. And somwhat like it by way of affirmation, is that of Daniel, he shall honour the God whom his fathers knew not. This marke (they say) of denying Christ, the Popes haue not. If they haue not this marke also, thē they haue none of the rest. Large bookes are writ­tē of this, to shew how they deny Christ. They deny him to be the king ouer his Church, for the Pope maketh himselfe the king. But saith Bellarmine, he acknowledgeth himself Chri­stes deputie. But it is certaine, that Christ ne­uer cōmanded any such deputie, nor vicar: & if he wil be Christs deputie against the plea­sure & wil of Christ, or if he were deputed, yet rule otherwise then Christ would haue him, & only according to his own affection & hu­mor, doth he not thrust Christ out of his king­dome? As though one might not cal himselfe a deputie, & yet draw all to himselfe, so doth the Pope, howbeit, Christ neuer ordained such a deputie. Therefore while he will be as Christ, and for Christ, he is made against him, and is Antichrist. Furthermore, he doeth not suffer Christ to be the onely and sufficient Prophet to his Church, which hath reuealed fully the will of the father to it: for partly he shutteth vp his Testament, and will not haue the people reade it, and partly hee orday­neth other lawes, as necessarie to saluation, [Page 50]as the lawes of Christ by his decrees, & part­ly he interpreteth the wordes of Christ, not according to Christs meaning, but according to his owne fancie, to establish his owne earthly kingdome. Last of all, hee denieth to Christ also his priesthood: for neyther doth he admitte the sacrifice of Christ by himselfe, in his owne person vpon the Crosse, as suffici­ent for saluation, but he ordaineth another sacrifice of the Masse, and satisfactorie works of penance, & mens merites to redeeme their owne sinnes. Neither doeth he permit Christ to be the only intercessor & maker of request to the father for his people, but hee ioyneth with him, or substituteth vnder him the Vir­gine Marie, and a great number of saintes of his owne creation. Thus he denieth Iesus to be Christ, & sheweth himself to be an enemie vnto him, & the very Antichrist. Wherfore al the notes & markes of the beast fal vpon him. This is the beast that Iohn speaketh of, which doeth associate to himselfe the kings of the earth, & their armies, & maketh warre against Christ & his army. This is now our enemie, he & his kings fight against vs. It is good for vs to thinke of him as he is, and as he is called in Scripture. Let vs not thinke of him, as of an holie Father, Christes Vicar, a sacred per­son, the pillar of Christes religion, the highest [Page 51]Byshop, a god in earth, as the Papistes and his owne seruants and flatterers (so manie as haue not receiued the loue of the trueth, such, whose names are not written in the booke of life) doe esteeme him. But let vs thinke of him as of the great whore, the mother of all fornication in the earth, for his idolatrie: as of Babylon for his persecuting Empire: as of an Apostata for his falling from the true faith: as of Antichrist and the enemie of Christ, for denying the sufficiencie of Christs Sacrifice and intercession, for expelling Christ out of his throne of gouernement, and stepping into it himselfe: for displacing Christs word and corrupting it, and putting his owne word in the roome thereof. Let vs account him as the beast, that hath not one shape, but the properties of manie beastes, and therefore a monstrous beast. Proude lyke the Lyon, cruell lyke the Beare, filthie like the Swine, full of poyson through his blasphemies like the Dragon, and yet in shewe of hornes like the Lambe. This is the leader and captaine of all our enemies, if we yeelde to them, wee yeelde to the beast, and the beast will make vs beastes like himselfe. Wee must beare the beastes marke. God de­fend vs from him, and represse his furie, and confounde his enterprises, and ouerthrowe [Page 52]his kingdome. Thus much of the beast.

The beast fighteth not alone against Christ and his people: for thē he were not much to be feared: but he hath first kings, and then his owne & their armies to assist him. First wil I speake of ye kings, & thē of their armies. Kings were prophesied to be subiect to him. The An­gel saith to Iohn. The ten horns which thou saw­est, are tenkings, which yet haue not receaued a kingdome, but shall receaue power as kings at one houre with the beast. These haue one minde, and shal giue their power and authoritie to the beast. These shal fight with the Lambe, and the Lambe shal ouercome thē. For he is Lord of Lords, & king of kings: & they that are on his side, called, & cho­sen, & faithful. Againe he saith: The ten hornes which thou sawest vpon the beast, are they that shal hate the whore, & shal make her desolate & na­ked, & shall eate her flesh, and burne her with fire. For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his wil, & to doe with one consent, for to giue their kingdom vnto the beast, vntill the words of God be fufilled. Thus kings shal subiect thēselues to the beast, shal giue their authoritie to him, shal fight for him so long as God hath appointed. The loue of these kings to Rome, & their obedience is expressed, which they shewed to it in time of the prosperitie thereof in this maner: With her haue cōmitted fornication the kings of the earth. [Page 53]And in the time of the decay of it in this sort. The kings of the earth shall bewaile her, and la­ment for her, which haue cōmitted fornication, & liued in pleasure with her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning. What other state hath there bin, or is in the world, vnto which kings haue willingly subiected themselues, and yet remaine kings, but this? If any be vnder the great Turke, the name of kings, and authori­tie ceaseth by and by: He onely will be king. But in Poperie, the kings submit thēselues, & become seruants, & tributarie, & yet remaine kings, & take pleasure in this subiection, and striue against al others that will not be slaues & bondmen as wel as thēselues. These kings had the same occasion & time of beginning their kingdomes that ye beast had. For the dis­sipation of ye West Empire, gaue ye first occasi­on at one time to both. For after ye great fight betweene the Hunni vnder Attila, on ye one side being 500000 men, & al the power that ye other natiōs, Romans, Goths, Frenchmen, Bri­tons, & Germans could make on ye other side, after this battel fought in campis Catalaunicis in France, ye countries were gouerned not by one Emperor ouer all, but by their owne se­ueral gouernors. Then the French began in France, the Hunni in Hungarie, the Saxons in England, the Goths in Spaine, and so in euery [Page 40] [...] [Page 41] [...] [Page 42] [...] [Page 43] [...] [Page 44] [...] [Page 45] [...] [Page 46] [...] [Page 47] [...] [Page 50] [...] [Page 51] [...] [Page 52] [...] [Page 53] [...] [Page 54]countrie, either strangers, or the olde inha­bitantes tooke the gouernement to them­selues. To finde that they were iust ten, and neither more nor lesse, it is hard: but ten may be set for a perfect and full number, rising of all the Vnities. The occasion of the rising of the Popedome, & of these kingdomes, was one and the same, and at once began: albe­it the Popedome shewed not it selfe in his great pride and high name of Oecumenicall Byshop, till Phocas the Emperor of Constan­tinople, in the yeare sixe hundreth and sixe. Then Rome was great with childe of this beast, yea, and brought him forth, and gaue him the name. But hee did growe vp after­ward in great haste, till he became the migh­tiest in the West partes of the worlde. But his growing was by the suppressing of the Empire, and by sucking of strength from the Emperor, and from these kings. The first milke that hee did sucke, was that title gotten of Phocas, that hee might be called and taken to bee the Oecumenicall and gene­rall high Byshop of all the world. Before that time, the other Patriarkes were equall with him: but by this title, hee was set o­uer them and all other Byshops. Then hee obtained more milke of the Emperour, al­though hee had much a doe to get it, name­ly, [Page 55]that the Emperour should not confirme him: but his election should bee ratified by the Romanes, and not by the Emperor. When hee had this, then hee was able to goe alone. After this, he obtaineth yet more plentifull nourishment, and beginneth to swallowe downe stronge meate. Hee obtaineth by much striuing, the inuestiture and placing of all Byshops in Italie, and the Emperors do­minions, and at length in all the West be­sides. By this, the beast was growen so strong, that he would nowe take vpon him to feede or famish his father and feeder. For he would make the Emperour, or else hee should be no Emperour: hee would excommunicate him, and depose him at his pleasure. And hauing wrastled and ouercome him, it was an easie matter for him to ouercome the o­ther kings. Nay the Emperors and kings did willingly giue the beast those thinges, which made him strong, and themselues weake. For they sware obedience to him, and that they would not diminish his digni­tie, nor commodities, or dominions. Edelwul­phus king of the West Saxons here in England, was the first that made his land tributarie to the Pope, in the yeare eight hundred fortie and sixe. And as this land receaued the yoke first, so first it cast it off vnder king Henrie [Page 56]the eight. By occasion that the Emperours in the East destroied images, and for want of might could not holde vp the state of Rome against the Longobards in Italy, the Pope ex­communicated the Emperours of the East one after another, and called Carolus magnus the king of Fraunce into Italy for his aide, and there made the people proclaime him Em­perour, and he himselfe anointed him, in the yeere 801. Thus Charles being an Emperour of the Popes owne making, conferred vpon the Pope a great part of Italy, and to requite him, made him riche. After that part of Eng­land, other kingdomes by sundrie occasions came vnder the Pope. The Sclauonians would vse their owne tongue in their publike seruice of God, but they were content to doe it by the Popes permission, and so declared them­selues subiect to him, an. 861. When Miesko king of Poland embraced the faith of Christ, & appointed bishops in his kingdome, Ioan­nes 13. sendeth one Giles the Tusculan bishop & Cardinal, to consecrate his bishops after the maner of Rome, & so maketh Poland sub­iect to himselfe, as soone as it was christened, in the yeere 965. To Benedictus the 8. Stepha­nus king of Hungarie sendeth ambassadours for his crowne, and confirmation of the king­dome of Hungarie, & the Churches builded [Page 57]by him. He then brought his kingdom to the obedience of the Pope: & Stephen himselfe at euery time the Pope was mentioned, bow­ing his heade, did bende his knee, that by his example he might perswade also his people to the obseruance of the Pope. Robert duke of Apulia & Calabria in Italy, bindeth himselfe by oth & his hand writing to Pope Nicholas the 2. to send him aid whensoeuer he should neede, because the Pope absolued him, for deposing his brothers sonne, the right heire from the dukedom. A litle before Stephen the 9. brought the bishop of Millaine, which be­fore that time had alwaies bene free, to the o­bedience of the See of Rome. These increases came to the popedom about the yeere 1057 A little after this, Hildebrand called Gregorie the 7. (that is reported to haue poisoned sixe Popes one after another, to make a way for himselfe to the popedom, and was a most in­famous coniurer & Magitian) excōmunica­teth & spoileth of his empire Henry 4. & set­teth vp first Rodulphus his seruant, and after­ward Henrie 5. his owne sonne against him. He sent a crowne to Rodulph, with this posie, Petra dedit Petro, Petrus diadema Rodolpho. But Rodulph hauing lost his right hand, & dy­ing, cursed them that perswaded him to this. The crime layed to the Emperour, was si­monie, [Page 54]as the Pope called the bestowing of Byshoprickes and other ecclesiasticall liuings by the Emperour. These thinges fell out a­bout the yeare one thousand threescore and ten.

Henrie the fift stroue so long with Ge­lasius the second, and Calixtus the second, for the bestowing of Byshoprickes, till at length hee was constrained by the thunder-bolt of excommunication, and by feare of depriuation through treasons and conspira­cies, by his letters to graunt it to the Pope for euer: and the letters of the graunt in to­ken of the Emperour being ouercome, were hanged vp in the Laterane Church at Rome, for a monument of the victorie. Through this victorie, Calixtus the second, (as see­meth) waxed bould: for thus hee decreed. A Romana Ecclesia non licere dissentire, quia vt filius venit facere voluntatē Patris, ita opor­tet Christianos facere volūtatem Matris Roma­nae Ecclesiae. It should not be lawfull to dissent from the Church of Rome, because as the sonne came to doe the will of the father: so must all Christians doe the will of their mo­ther the Church of Rome. Sicilie was a long time tributarie to the Pope, and none almost should hold it but at his pleasure. In the yeare 1130. Innocentius the second maketh warre [Page 59]against Rogerius duke of Sicily for it, but it was like to haue cost the pope well, for he him­selfe was taken in the warre: yet the pope got by the helpe of Lotharius, the dukedome of Calabria from him, and gaue it for a reward to Rainold captaine of Lotharius armie, that helped him againe to his popedome. Nor­weigh in the time of Eugenius receiued the faith of Christ, and then became subiect to the pope in the yeere 1148. Liuonia had no soo­ner receiued the Christian faith about the yeere 1158: but pope Alexander seizeth vp­on it, and by asking a bishop of him, they are brought in bondage to him. It were long to tell how Frederike the first was handled of pope Adrian the fourth, and Alexander the third. The quarell at first of Adrian against him, was because he required homage of his bishops, and excluded his legate out of Ger­manie, if he came when he was not sent for. Adrian for these things cursed him, and sub­orned one to faine himselfe a iester, and find­ing oportunitie to kill him: but the emperour escaped, by leaping out at a window. Then he procured one to poison him by an infected ring, and that he escaped also. Alexander the third pursued him, for that he fauored Victor chosen against him: therefore he cursed him, made his chiefe captaine forsake him in fight [Page 60]traiterously, and so was the emperour made to flee secretly away. And at length, when at Venice the emperours sonne fighting rashly against his fathers commandement, before his comming, was taken of the pope, by the helpe of the Venetians: hee, to redeeme his sonne, was constreined to come to Ʋenice to submit himselfe to the pope. At the staires in S. Marks church in Venice, the emperour ly­ing on the ground, the pope putteth his foot on his necke, vttring this verse of the psalme, Vpon the aspe & cockatrice shalt thou walke, thou shalt tread vpon the lion and dragon. This was the insolency of that beast. Peter king of Ar­ragon in Spaine, maketh his kingdome and all that belonged to him, tributary to the pope, in the yere 1202, vt sic salutem animae merere­tur, (saith Vincentius) that he might thus merit the saluation of his soule. King Iohn of England, hauing deteined six yeres the reuenues of the church, at length is compelled to flee to the mercy of the pope Innocentius the third, and maketh England and Ireland tributary to the church of Rome, & granteth the Peter pence, & promiseth to pay yerely an hundred marks of gold for both Ilands. Innocentius the fourth sent certaine monks, legats to the Tartarian emperour, with his letters, exhorting them to the faith of Christ, and his obedience. He [Page 61]thought that vpon the sight of his holinesse letters the Tartarian empire would yeeld it selfe vnto him. Maudauus king of Lituania, being turned to Christian religion, falleth in­to the popes net in the yere 1255. The empe­rours had too much experience, & great feare of the euill that this beast might do vnto thē. Henry the first would not receiue his crowne of the pope, nor go into Italie for it. He said it was sufficient for him, that he was left empe­rour by his ancestors, & so saluted by his no­bles. When Frederike the first was going to Rome with his army, the Romans sent messen­gers to him, that they would not receiue him, except he came in maner of triumph. Thus they mocked the emperour, meaning, if he came so, to waste him by his expences. But he perceiuing it, answered, that he came to get mony out of Italie, and not to leaue his owne there. Rodolph ye emperor put off the fetching of his crowne frō Rome, saying that the empe­rors entring into Italy was pleasant & stately, but his going out was alwayes miserable and dolefull. Boniface the eight that ordeined the first Iubile, & kept it an. 1330, had great con­tention with Philip king of France. In the pre­sumption of his heart, and to declare that he is this beast and Antichrist exalting himselfe, he writ vnto the king as foloweth. Se esse dominū [Page 62]omnium tam temporalium quàm spiritualium per orbem terrarum, &c. That he is lord of all, as well temporall as spirituall thinges through out the world, & that consequently the king­dome of France ought to be receiued of him, which because he had not done, he had deser­ued to be depriued: but the king despised his legates, and burnt his letters in an open fire, and stopt the wayes of his kingdome, that none might passe to Rome. But the pope pre­uailed against him: for he excommunicated him, gaue his kingdome to Albert the empe­rour, caused him to be taken by his owne housholde seruants, and layd all his treasures open to the spoile. Iohn the two & twentieth excommunicated Ludowike the emperour, because he tooke vpon him the name of the emperour without his consent. Benedictus the twelft confirmed that excommunication against the emperour, and vsed the empire as his owne, placing officers in it himselfe. Cle­mens the sixt absolued those that did fauour Lewes, but vpon these conditions, that they should sweare fidelitie to the pope, and ac­knowledge none to be emperour, but such as was confirmed by him. Sigismund the empe­rour, when three popes did striue together, shewed himselfe so much a seruant to that seat, that he trauelled into France, and sailed [Page 63]into England, and passed into Italie, and came to the councell of Constance, and sung the Gospell, like a deacon, in great humilitie be­fore the pope: the Gospell which he did sing, was Exijt edictum à Caesare Augusto. All this he did, trauelling from one king to ano­ther, to make these beasts agreed: so glad he was to please. And the greatest care of Fre­derike the third was, that neutrality being re­mooued out of Germanie, he might submit himselfe & his people to the bishop of Rome, in the yeere 1440. In this age wherein we liue, Cosmus Medices was made by the pope great duke of Ferraria, that he might trouble the world, in the yeere 1570.

Thus kings haue willingly serued him in times past, and some haue bene brought vnto it whether they would or no, & yet at length all content to doe it. In this age he hath yet some that fauour him, and labour to holde him vp, & fight for him with all their power: the king of Spaine, and those that depend vp­on him, the duke of Sauoy, the duke of Parma, and the states of Italie: and some fauourers he hath in France. The beast is now much wea­ker then he was, and it is maruell that there are any found in this land, or els where, that make so great account of his fauour.

I haue shewed vnto you, how this beast [Page 64]hath had kings his assistants, and as it were, his seruants: which neuer came to passe in any gouernment in the world, that kings not sub­dued by armes, but scarsely threatened by words, so many, and so willingly, should sub­mit themselues to one, & be content to holde their crownes of him, and in all things to be at his commandement. They receiued his decrees, they forsooke their kingdomes, they waged warre against one another, they re­signed a great part of their subiects, they suf­fered their land to be tributarie, they would attempt to winne the Holy land, as they cal­led it, with hazzard of their liues, and intole­rable paines, and exceeding great expences, and all at his commandement. When was there any power in the world that coulde worke this, & bring them thus to obedience? The emperors of Rome had kings vnder them, which remained kings: but they were ouer­come by battell, few voluntarily did yeelde thēselues. They fought oft for Spaine, for A­frike, for Greece, for Egypt, for France, for Bri­taine, & for euery part of Italie it selfe, before they could obteine it: but the pope had all the West part subiect to him, and scarse euer fought for any: by the sword he subdued al­most none of them vnto him: nay he neuer fought for any, except it were for some small [Page 65]dukedome or citie of Italie, which he counted Peters patrimonie. Is not this plainely that which the Angel saith to Iohn: These haue one minde, & shall giue their power to the beast? And againe, God hath put in their hearts, to fulfill his will, and to doe with one consent, for to giue their kingdome to the beast, vntill the words of God be fulfilled. They shall giue it, they shall not be conquered & constreined by his power vnto it. Thus much of the kings that assist the beast.

After the kings assisting the beast, there are placed also armies vnder him. Not one army, but many armies are leuied for his defence. They boast much of multitude and number. And the Holy ghost giueth vnto them the greatest number, as a sure marke of the beast. This cause standeth not by number, but by weight of voices. If number should carie the matter of religion, the Turks should haue the truth of it on their side. There is more dirt thē golde, moe stones then pearles, more chaffe then good corne, and so moe that holde on su­perstition then on trueth. Our Sauiour saith: Many are called, but few are chosen: and narrow is the way that leadeth to life, & few there be that find it: but broad is the way that leadeth to destru­ction, & many there be that folow it. Let thē ther­fore boast of the greater number, yea & nūber not naked, but armed, furnished & instructed [Page 66]to fight. We grant it them. It was theirs much more then it is, and yet is theirs more then (I hope) it will be heereafter. The holy ghost hath giuen them the multitude for a time. A great number was signified to adhaere to the beast, when it is said, He caused the earth and them that dwell therein, to worship the first beast. And againe, He deceiued them that dwell on the earth. And yet more, He caused that as ma­nie as woulde not worship the image of the beast, should be killed. And further, He made all, both small and great, rich and poore, free and bond, to receiue a marke in their right hand, or in their forehead, and that no man might buy nor sell, but he that had the marke, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. Thus in the thir­teenth chapter, the greater number is shewed to appertaine vnto the beast. In the seuen­teenth chapter it is called the great whore, the great citie: and it is said moreouer, The waters which thou sawest where the whore sitteth, are peo­ple and multitudes, and nations and tongues. And to omit many other places, heere at last, it is said, I saw the beast and the kings of the earth, and their armies gathered together to fight. Should we then doubt, whether their side be the side of Antichrist, because their fauourers are many? Nay, thereby we are made the more certaine of it.

Another note they haue, by which they thinke to further their part, which is vni­tie. It is a good token of Christes disciples, if they loue one another: but to consent, and to conspire together, is not proper to the good, but agreeth to the wicked also. The heathen agreed all in their generall supersti­tion, and no falling out greatly among them for it. The Turks haue but two parts or sects, and ech sect agreeth and holdeth strait toge­ther. All the Israelites agreed to make the Golden calfe: the tenne tribes consented to the setting vp of the calues in Dan and Be­thel. And what maruell then, if all the West parts of the world haue consented together to worship and maintaine the Romish beast? Iohn saith, the tenne kings haue one minde, and shall giue their power and authoritie to the beast. And heere it is said: Their armies were gathe­red together to fight. They were not dispersed, and scattered, but gathered together in one purpose, and in one meaning, to fight against Christ and his armie.

The common sort of Papistes seeme to care for no point else in religion, but one­lie this. The Spanish, and Italian, and French, and the ignorant English papists seeke scarse any further into the cause, but onely stand vpon that head and branch, that the Holy [Page 68]ghost hath set downe, that is to fight a­gainst Christ and his armie. As for all other pointes of religion, it is their greatest reli­gion not to search into religion. Thus the Holy ghost in two wordes setteth downe much of that whereupon they stand, and which in our dayes we see fulfilled. These are the generall notes of their armies gathered out of these words.

In that there are armies named, we may well gather that they are of moe kindes then one. They themselues diuide their whole multitude into the Spiritualtie and Laitie. So by their owne diuision they haue two kindes of armies, one of great learned men, law­yers, diuines, and other professours of lear­ning: and another of captaines and souldi­ers, and armed men, and generallie the rest of the people. Such an armie as the first is, especially of priestes, Lib. 4. epist. 38. Gregorius Magnus as­signeth vnto Antichrist. Rex superbiae propè est, & quod dici quoque nefas est, sacerdotum ei praeparatur exercitus. The king of pride is neere at hand, and that which is an heinous thing to speake, an armie of priests is prepa­red for him. And this he spake agreeable to this reuelation. For Iohn sayth, I saw three vn­cleane spirites like frogges come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, [Page 69]and out of the mouth of the false prophet. For they are spirites of deuils, working miracles, to goe vnto the kinges of the earth, and of the whole world, to gather them to the bat­tell of that great day of God almightie. Yea, and their indeuour was not in vaine, for they did gather them together.

In this chapter it is sayd: The beast was taken, and with him the false Prophet that wrought miracles before him, whereby hee de­ceiued them that receiued the beastes marke. These spirits, this false prophet, are set downe to note their first and most dangerous kinde of armie. They call themselues the spiritu­altie, and this scripture calleth them spirits: How could it come neerer? The other name of false prophets, is taken from the state of the Olde Testament: for as then false prophets alwayes opposed themselues against the true prophets, so now their priests and monkes, and the rest of their religious rabble, against the true preachers of the Gospell. But why doeth hee terme them the false prophet, and not false prophets, when it is euident that they are many? Is it for their consent in this matter of gainesaying? or is it not ra­ther for that in euery age, and for ech pro­fession of lawe and diuinitie, they haue one especially, vpon whose wit and learning [Page 70]they all depend: for their law, Gratian: for their diuinitie, Lumbard: after him in one age, Aquinas, and against Luther, Eckius: in this time, Bellarmine: for so in ech age they seeme to sucke their learning, and all their arguments, and quiddities from the breast, of some one aboue all the rest. But for what cause soeuer it is termed in the singular num­ber, false prophets pertaine to the state ec­clesiasticall, and they are the greatest doers in these warres.

Nowe consider all the states in the world besides, and see where there is authoritie, yea, or almost any dealing for warre matters, put in the hands of them to whome the mat­ters of religion directlie are committed. A­mong all those that professe the Gospell in all kingdomes of Christendome, there is scarse any one in a kingdome admitted to coun­cell about those thinges, much lesse doe they contriue warres, and stirre them vp, or al­most intermeddle in them. Amongst the Turkes they haue not to deale in it: their re­ligious persons are not the procurers of their warres, by running from one prince to ano­ther. They shake a speare, and vse some wordes in their owne temple, to stirre vp the people to fight against Christians: but other­wise they contriue not the warres. In the [Page 71] Tartarian gouernment, the affaires of the warres are not in such mens hands. So that in this poynt the Papists onely are fully an­swerable to this prophesie, and the Turkes come next vnto them, but yet they are but babes to them in this exercise. Let the name of the false prophet be common to Maho­met and his priestes, with the Popish clergie, but the three vncleane spirites like frogges, that came out of the mouth of the beast, can be no other but the Popish spiritualtie: for the fa­ther, and the number, and the qualitie, and the comparison, and the worke, and effect a­greeth to none other.

The beast is said to be their father: for the pope did beget and nourish all that spiritual­tie as it standeth, and is Popish: for by his commandement they had their beginning, and still haue their being, and therefore it is sayd, that these spirites come out of his mouth. There was no order among them, of cardi­nalles, bishops, priests, of monks, and friers, but they were all in number and forme by his appoyntment and confirmation. They vsed no ceremonie but it was ordeined by him. Their priuileges and exemptions from the secular power were all granted by him. Their liuing and maintenance was all held of him: and to him in token thereof the payed [Page 72]the first fruites of their liuinges. Hee inue­sted the bishops, and by his authoritie the bishop made all the rest: so they came out of the mouth of the beast.

It were long; in particular, to prooue all these thinges. The qualitie of vncleannesse and filthinesse is praedominant in them: for they are vncleane in their soules, as not be­ing washed in the blood of Christ, nor with the pure water of Gods word. And they are vncleane in their bodyes; for the most part of their monkes and friers tooke a pride in their slouenlinesse. And they are vncleane in their actions, as being defiled with adul­teries and Sodomiticall sinne, because they condemned marriage. They are aptly also reduced to the number of three: for their bishops and priestes, and such as haue the actions of all their religious matters, make one order: and their friers and monkes, and scholasticall students, which are sequestred from action, and placed as it were in con­templation, make another order: and their canonists and lawyers, with their other offi­cers, make their third order.

All these together make the beasts spiri­tuall armie. And these are fitly compared vn­to frogges: for as frogges lie in the mudde, so these tumble in worldly things and humane [Page 73]speculations, and can not lift vp their mindes to that which is heauenly. And as frogges haue but one tune, so they sing onely obe­dience to the pope: and as frogges cry most fiercelie about the time of raine and tem­pest, so these when they come crying ouer the sea vnto vs, alwayes giue a most sure to­ken that there is a tempest comming. These frogs delight not by any meanes with calme­nesse and quietnesse, their delight is to haue the world & all kingdomes troubled. There­fore their worke is this, to runne from one prince to another, from one noble man to an­other, from this gentleman to that gentle­man, to persuade them to warre. Thus is their spirituall armie described.

To set forth how they fight with scriptures and fathers wrested from their true meaning, with decrees of councels of their owne ma­king, with promises of great successe and vi­ctorie, with lyes and slanders against prin­ces and preachers, and all professours of the Gospell, with conspiracies and treasons, and murthers, and poysoning of great persons, with contributions of money, & all that they can make to the maintenance of these warres, with indulgences and pardons from all sinnes past & to come, with incantations, coniurati­ons & inchantments, for they are the spirits of [Page 74]deuils: with promise of heauen it selfe to all that take sword in hand for them, it were in­finite. Our experience in this age teacheth vs enough, & too much (if it so pleased God) that we cannot be ignorant of their most de­uillish and desperate maner of fighting. Thus much of their spirituall armie, and of their fight.

They haue also other armies of warlike souldiers and captaines. The pope neuer yet attempted any matter so wicked against any prince, or for his owne estate, but he had kings and dukes, and noble men that woulde al­wayes be readie at his commandement to fight in his quarell: and if other things failed, yet Peters patrimonie in Italie is so great, and the summes that haue and do come in by first fruits, & other infinite taxes, both of his cler­gie and laitie, that it was easie for him to raise an armie at any time in this later age. One while Charles the French emperor fought for him, another while Henry the third emperour of Germanie. Sometime he hath them of Ita­lie at his commandement, as in times past the dukes of Hetruria, of Florence, and almost any other. The king of Sicilie was euer as his seruant. France hath fought for him against the emperour, and against England, & against the Italians, and against one pope for another [Page 75]Pope. England hath not wanted in this kinde of seruice for him. Our kings he hath set a­gainst France, and France against vs, and our nobles against our owne princes, both of old time, and of late. And this thing still he doth attempt. God confound his enterprises in this behalfe, as hee hath done hitherto in her Maiesties reigne. Now he hath but fewe in comparison, that wil take armes at his deuo­tion. The Spaniard, not in any regard of his Religion, but in hope of a Monarchie vnder his title, hath stepped forth as his champion in this age, to fight his warres for him. By him the armies are renewed and supplied in the Lowe countries: by him the warres are holden vp in France: through his meanes, Ge­neua hath bin besieged: and he hath sent his inuincible nauie to subdue vs: but God bee thanked, that hath drowned it in the seas. We may not thinke, that either the beast or his champion will so giue ouer. For it is against the nature of the enemies of Gods people to desist, although they see Gods hand neuer so manifestly against them. Not ten plagues will keepe Pharao from pursuing the Israelits. Not the Angel destroying an hundred and fourescore thousand in one night, will feare the Babylonians, but they will come against Ierusalem. It is fatall to the beast to bid battell [Page 87]so long, till he procure his owne ruine, and the fall of thē that would hold him vp. They will fight againe: The frogs, these vncleane spi­rits, that come ouer to vs, are a most sure to­ken that we must looke for a tempest. It will come most certainely: but when it will fall we are not certaine. God turne it vpon their owne heads when so euer it commeth, as he did that which is past.

I haue spoken longer then I thought I should, of the first part touching the beast and his kings, and their armies. We can not speake too much against thē, that neuer thinke they do ynough against vs. It is good for vs to haue our mindes armed against them, and to be per­swaded, that they are not only enemies to vs, but vnto God, and Iesus Christ, and his gos­pel, and the saluation of his people. God graunt to our Queenes maiestie, and all our nobilitie, and the whole people, his spirit, and grace, against the poyson of their doctrine, and his mightie defence against all their ma­nifest terrors and secret conspiracies. This the God of all might and comfort, graunt vnto vs through Iesus Christ our Lord and Sa­uiour: To whome with the Father, and the holy ghost, three persons and one God, be all honour, and glory, world without ende Amen.

The second Sermon vpon Apoc. cap. 19. verse 19.

I Deuided this verse into two parts. The one is of those that doe op­pugne: the other of those that doe defend. I haue spoken alreadie of them that giue the onset. They were the beast, the kings of the earth, and their armies. I shew­ed that the beast is the Pope of Rome: the kings of the earth are they that yeelde obedience to him: their armies are first the spiritual and learned sorte, that striue to maintaine the popedome by witte & learning: and second­ly, the warriers and other people, that by sword and force do fight for him. Now it re­maineth, to speake of the parties ye are oppug­ned, and doe defend themselues. They fight a­gainst him that sitteth on the horse, & against his armie. For armie, some translations reade soul­diers: But it doth not so well aunswere to the Greeke. The word signifieth an armie pressed forth, and set in order to battel. He that rideth on the horse, is vnderstoode to bee Christ. His armie are they that beleeue his gospel & obey it. These are assalted & oppugned by the beast & his armies. Two thinges must bee obserued in this onset made against Christ and his peo­ple [Page 78]by the enemies. First, that Christ and his people haue the right and lawfull possession of the Church and the trueth, of heauen, of earth, and of all things, and that they would thrust both Christ and his, out of this posses­sion. Christ sayeth of himselfe: All power is gi­uen vnto me in heauen and in earth, and his people are made the heires of the world: for to thē it is said, all things are yours: and againe: He that ouer commeth shall inherite all. The beast then, and his armies, labour to thrust Christ & his armie out of all: Which they could not doe, if Christ and his people had not the right and possession of all. And Christ hath suffered them to besiege him, and his people, and to thrust them into verie great straites for a season. For they haue bene constrained to flie into the wildernes and there to ly hid. But now Christ will vp on the white horse and raise the siege, and bee shut vp so straite no longer. That is, the first thing that followeth of this, that the beast is he that maketh the assault.

The second thing that followeth thereof is this: that the enemies euer seeke their owne destruction, or els it would not come vpon them. It should seeme reason, that Christ and his people should set vpon the beast & his ar­mies. For is it meete that they, holding that which belongeth vnto Christ frō him, should [Page 79]not be suffered to liue and to enioye it? But Christ dealeth not so: he suffereth thē quietly to withdrawe thēselues from him, and letteth their fury increase, till they go about to roote him and his people from among them. He gi­ueth them scope to shewe their malice. Now when Gods people seeme strangeliest assaul­ted, and are in danger of greatest bondage, then is their deliuerance neere at hand. A pro­uerbe was made of ye dealing of Pharao with the Israelities, Quando duplicantur lateres, tum venit Moses: When the brickes are dubled, thē Moses commeth. When the enemies ar­mies are greatest and best furnished, then are they most neere their ouerthrow. It is a thing worthie to be marked, how Antichrist still gi­ueth the onset, and all his attempts for the most part, haue turned to his losse. This much of the beast & his assaulting, and of Christ and his being assaulted, and defending thēselues.

It followeth to shew what it meaneth, that Christ is described here by riding vpon a horse. The horse that he sitteth vpon, is said to be a white horse. And that it is Christ yt rideth vpon him, there can be no doubt. For the discriptiō that goeth before can agree to none other. Thus Iohn saith of him: I sawe heauē open, and behold, a white horse, and he that sate vpon him was called faithful and true: and he iudgeth and [Page 80]fighteth righteously, & his eyes were as a flame of fire, & on his head were many crownes, & he had a name written that no man knew but himselfe, & he was clothed in a garment dipt in blood, and his name is called the word of God, and out of his mouth went asharpe sword, that with it he should smite the heathen. For he shal rule them with a rod of yron: for he it is that treadeth the wine­presse of the fiercenes & wrath of almightie God. All these thinges agree to Christ alone. He is faithfull and true in his promises, hee iudgeth & fighteth righteously, in punishing the wic­ked, & defending his people, while they con­tinue in obedience to him: his eyes are as fire, he seeth & searcheth all things, yea the hearts of men. He reigneth ouer all, and hath obtei­ned many crownes by many victories, and kings and princes subdued vnto him: his gar­ment was dipt in blood to redeeme vs, and he hath dipt it againe, & doth now dayly in the slaughter of his enemies: his name & essence is such as none knoweth but God, that is, himselfe. And hee is the word of God which was in the beginning: which is, God by whome all thinges were made. Out of his mouth com­meth the sharpe sword of Gods iust decree, which cōdēneth the enemies: & last of all he executeth gods vengeance vpon thē, and as it were presseth them in the winepresse of his [Page 81]wrath. Christ therefore is vnderstood by him that sitteth on the horse.

But why is Christ said to sit vpon a horse, & that a white horse? What meaneth this horse? It is well knowen to all men, that the horse is a warlike beast, & as it were made for warre. He is strōg to carry, & bold to come vpō the face of the enemie: he is swift to make speede, & fit to be turned this way & that way. So he was apointed to warre. But for priestly acti­ons, and persons, he was not thought meete: Therefore the priests of Egypt might not ride vpon a horse. It was thought among them a thing prophane. Neither might some of the heathen Romane Flamines so much as touch a horse. And euen now, it is thought an vn­seemely thing for the Pope to bee seene to ride vpon a horse within the citie of Rome, except onely vpon one solemne day in the yeare, when he rideth to the Laterane, and all his prelates with him vpon white horses. For otherwise in Rome he is caryed vpon mens shoulders for the most part. Once a yeere he would like Christ, ride vpon a white horse: yet hee neuer rideth on the horse whereon Christ rideth, he can not abide yt white horse.

What then is this white horse? Some are of opinion, that the white horse is set as a to­ken of the last iudgement, and that Christ [Page 82]is here described to come vpon a white horse to iudge the world. In such a sense a white cloude is giuen to him wherein he shall come. But it may seeme rather, that this de­scription pertaineth not to the last iudgemēt: First, because in iudgement hee is said com­monly to sit vpon a throne, as in the next chap­ter, and in Daniel. And Paul saith: We shal all appeare before the iudgement seate of Christ. Now a throne, or a seate, and a horse, haue a cō ­trary signification: For the one pertaineth to quietnes, the other to motion. This descriptiō setteth forth Christ, as mouing & going for­ward, and not as resting and ending all. Se­condly, the space of time, that is betweene this viage wherein Christ thus rideth, and the iudgement, will not suffer this to be vnder­stoode of the last iudgement. For as some thinke, there shalbe after this battel & ouer­throwe of the Beast here mentioned, a thou­sand yeres, or a great long space before the iudgemēt, or the end of al. Because after this, Iohn reporteth that he did see Satan bound a thousand yeres, and then let loose for a season. I speake not of the Chiliasts, which imagined a thousand yeeres of happie life here on earth, after the resurrection. But Morelius thin­keth there may be a thousand yeeres, or a long time before the last iudgemēt after this [Page 83]ouerthrowe of Antichrist, for this should not be his finall ouerthrowe, but that he should renewe his strength somewhat againe, and fight yet against the saintes of God, which Iohn seemeth to meane, when he saith in the next Chapter, that Gog and Magog, whose number was as the sande of the sea, were gathe­red and compassed the beloued citie, & fire came downe from heauen to consume them. These and other things, which I will nowe recite, make many thinke, that the white horse here spoken of, pertaineth not to the last iudgement.

What then may this white horse be? It is the Gospell, that being published and made knowne to the world, carieth Christ abroad: according to it hee ouercommeth the beast. This runneth swiftly, this carieth him from place to place, vpon this he rideth as vpon the winges of the winde. For he is described here by those thinges which yet pertaine to the publishing of his name among men, to the furtherance of his knowledge, and vanqui­shing of his enemies, and enlarging of his Church vpon earth. To this it appertaineth that he is said to be faithfull and true in his pro­mises to his elect; that hee iudgeth and fighteth righteously for his people, in a righteous cause, and while they embrace righteousnes, that he hath many crownes vpon his head, kings [Page 84]yeelding their crownes to him, which before they submitted to the Pope: that he is called the word of God, as yet reuealing his secrete counsell: that his garment is dipt in blood, making daily great slaughters of his enemies, and that a sharpe sword commeth out of his mouth, euen his iust decree against the wic­ked. In the sixt Chapter, the white horse hath receaued the like interpretation of the most Interpreters. Thus Iohn sayeth: I behelde, and loe there was a white horse, and he that sate on him had a bowe, and a crowne was giuen vnto him, and hee went foorth conquering, that hee might ouercome. There by the white horse is meant the Gospell: with the bowe hee shot the arrowes of his worde, his threatnings and grieuous iudgements, and wounded his ene­mies. He went in the first age after his ascen­sion, conquering and conuerting the world to himselfe, and still had more and more to conquer, because hee neuer wanted enemies. And nowe towards the ende hee mounteth on the white horse, and againe rideth gloriou­sly in the sight of his people.

This horse (that is, his Gospell) is saide to be white. First, because without all vaile or couer it sheweth foorth the full purpose of Gods good will vnto men, for by it wee see God as in a glasse, and are made to knowe his [Page 85]fauour most clearely. Secondly, because it teacheth and bringeth to vs iustification and forgiuenes of sinnes, which being laid holde on by faith, maketh vs white in the sight of God. Thirdly, because it doth commend vn­to vs an innocent & a pure life, all the staines and blacknes of sinne being washed foorth. And last of all, because Christ by it sheweth himselfe victorious & triumphant: for a white horse was vsed in triumph. Thus is Christ de­scribed, by riding vpon a white horse.

The beast and his kings, and their armies, fight against him while he is thus sitting on the white horse. They cannot fight against him as he is in heauen, they cannot reach to his person there. Neither shall they haue a­ny minde to fight against him, as he sitteth or commeth to iudgement, but their fierce­nes being then banished, they shall tremble at his presence. But as he sitteth on the white horse, as hee is made knowen to the world in his Gospell, by which hee maketh vs white, forgiuing our sinnes, and chaun­ging our liues, so the beast fighteth a­gainst him. It will bee too late to fight, when he commeth in iudgement: Then the beast himselfe shall haue no courage to fight. But nowe the meanest souldier, the basest Seminarye that is vnder the beaste, [Page 86]euery busie schismatike will encounter him and his whole armie, while hee sitteth on the white horse. Therefore in these daies they are so sawcie with him and his horse, and all his armie.

Of this, that Christ onely is captaine and generall on the one side, it followeth that they which will be saued, must cleaue to him alone for their saluation. Euery thing that is against him, or seemeth to steppe into his place, must be remooued. The Popes supre­macie, the sacrifice of the Masse, adoration of images, inuocation of saintes, confidence in workes, all these must be reiected, and wee must cleaue onely to Christ for saluation. His people are known by hauing him to be their leader, and not by a Pope, or a city, or any one earthly power ruling ouer them. Againe it is to be concluded, that seeing Christ commeth no way to his Church, but sitting vpon the white horse, and that horse is his Gospell, therefore all men that will receaue him and his benefites, must submit themselues to be taught by his word, and seeke to knowe his Gospell: he that receaueth not his word, can not receaue him.

Now would it seeme meete to shew (see­ing the Gospel is this white horse that Christ doeth sit on) whether hee commeth vnto vs [Page 87]vpon it being read, or being preached? and whether the learned and preaching ministers onely bee this white horse, or also the vn­learned and readers may be accounted such as beare forth Christ vnto his people? I thinke Christ commeth by the one and by the other, and each of them doeth beare him foorth, al­beit he doeth ride more gloriously & swiftly in the sound of learned preaching. But of this point I shall speake somewhat in the next part. Thus much shall suffice to haue spoken of him which sitteth on the horse, which is Iesus Christ our king and onely captaine.

The next and last generall head to be spo­ken of, is the armie of Christ. The beast and his armies fight against Christ and his armie. The Church of Christ is called by many names, but here in the matter and time of warre, it is called an armie. Likewise Salomon sayth of it, that it is terrible as an armie with banners. Paul vsing the same Metaphore, will haue vs put on the armour of light, and saieth, that the weapons of our warfare are not carnall, but mightie through God to cast downe holdes, and willeth vs to put vpon vs the whole armour of God, that we may be able to stand against the assaults of the deuill: and of himselfe he witnes­seth, that he had fought a good fight, and finished his course. So that there is a warre, and ar­mour, [Page 88]and weapons, and fighting, that belon­geth to gods people, and they altogether make an armie.

The Church of England is an excellent and noble band of this armie. Wee are Christs souldiers, we beare his colours, he rideth be­fore vs, and among vs vpon the white horse, he is our captaine, and we are his armie. Two kinds of enemies we haue that labour to per­swade thēselues, & the world, that we are not Christs armie, the Papists, and the Barrowists.

Against the Papists we haue maintained, that the sound teaching of the word of God, and the lawfull administration of his Sacra­ments, are the most sure ensignes, whereby his armie is knowen: and that we haue these among vs, and they are effectuall in vs. When we allege that which Christ saith: My sheepe heare my voyce, and a strangers voyce they will not heare: That which Esaie hath: To the lawe, and to the testimonie, if they answere not accor­ding to this, it is because there is no light in thē. When we allege these, and the like places: we obtaine, that the true and sound setting forth of the worde of God, is a most certaine signe and note of the Church. That which Paul hath: If any man preach another gospel, let him be accursed. That which Iohn saith: He that a­bideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath not God: [Page 89]and if any man bring not the doctrine of Christ, receaue him not: declareth, that a false doc­trine of the gospel and Christ, destroyeth the Church: especially, if ye errour be in the foun­dation, which is our iustification by faith in Christ, and all those things which doe neces­sarily depend vpon it. Therefore the Apostle saith: Other foundation can no man lay, then that which is layed, euen Iesus Christ: And againe, Ye are built vpon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Iesus Christ himselfe being the chiefe corner stone. For this cause, Paul doth so carefully and oft, stand vpon the clearing of this article of our iustification by faith in Christ, in so manie of his Epistles. The true doctrine of the Gospel, is thus founde to be the note, yea, and seede of the Church. That the right and lawfull administration of the Sacraments pertaineth to the description, and declaration of the Church, we may easi­sily confirme.

Our Sauiour ioyneth the Sacraments to the worde: Goe teach all nations, baptizing them. The Apostle doeth the like, when hee sayeth: Christ hath clensed his Church, by the washing of water through the worde. And of the other Sacrament, it is sayde: Doe this in remembraunce of mee. And, drinke yee all of this. And the first Church [Page 90]gathered together after Christes ascension, is thus described: They that gladly receaued his worde, were baptized, and the same day there were added to the Church about three thousand soules, and they continued in the Apostles do­ctrine and fellowship, and breaking of bread and praiers. These things by the benefite of God we haue, the trueth of the Gospell, and the whole new and olde Testament in all points of substance of doctrine truly taught, and set footh in this lande: the sacraments also are rightly administred. Wherefore we haue the true notes of the Church.

These are the true notes of the Church, such notes as are also causes of it: for the word and sacraments doe beget and nourish faith, by which we are vnited to Christ as to the heade. Many other things agree to the Church, as good workes, mutuall loue, true repentance, shunning of idolatrie, a right in­uocation of the name of God, and the like. But these are partes and effects and orna­ments of the former, and concurre together with them: for the word taught must be vn­derstood to be fruitfull, and so the sacraments to worke in mens soules, and both to be of power, or els they are no longer tokens to vs that wee are of the Church of God. These things thus vnderstood, are the true and suffi­cient [Page 91]markes, whereby he that hath spirituall eyes, may see the Church of God. These, by the speciall working of Iesus Christ, we yet retaine in such sorte, as they bring foorth fruite in mens hearts and liues. God grant they may continue with vs, and be more ef­fectuall to worke amendment in all. As for those marks, wherby the Papists would haue the Church to be discerned, they are deceit­full, they can not point it out. Antiquitie hath erred, Vniuersalitie hath bin corrupted, Vnitie may be in falshood, Succession in place may be without succession in trueth: their o­ther marks are of like nature. The worde and Sacraments rightly set forth and receaued, and bringing forth fruite, can neuer deceaue vs, but bring vs directly to the true Church of Iesus Christ. But what shal we say to them that make discipline a necessarie marke of the Church: because our Sauiour saith: Baptize them, teaching thē to obserue whatsoeuer I haue commaunded you? The obseruation that our Sauiour speaketh of, is not of some certaine forme of outward gouernement, but general­ly of obedience to faith, to loue, and to the whole lawe and Gospell. As for that disci­pline by Elders in euery parish, it will not be found in those wordes of Christ. The Church can not well stand without all ecclesiasticall [Page 92]gouernement. Yet it seemeth it did so stand in the captiuitie of Babylon: but without that forme it may very well stand and florish, and so hath done in this and former ages in ma­ny places. Wherefore the worde and sacra­ments remaine as the markes in generall, whereby the Church may be discerned.

But the Barrowists, and such of whome they haue learned their principles, descend into a more speciall and neere description of the Church. The worde and Sacramentes are not such notes with them, as can point out a Church. What then is the Church of Christ in their account? diuerse of them haue gone about to describe it, but one especially would seeme to doe it most fully: therefore he describeth it in these wordes at large. The true planted, and rightly established Church of Christ, is a companie of faithful people, separated from the heathen of the land, gathered in the name of Christ, whome they truely worship, and readily obey, as their onely king, priest, and prophet, ioyned together as members of one bodie, ordered and gouerned by such officers and lawes, as Christ in his last will and testament hath thereunto ordained, all, and each of them, standing in and for their Christian libertie, to practise whatsoeuer God hath commanded, and is reuealed to them in his holy worde, executing [Page 93]the Lordes iudgementes against all transgression and disobedience, which ariseth amongst them, and cutting it off accordingly, by the power which their Lord and king Christ Iesus hath commit­ted vnto them. This is the Church, this is the armie of Christ in their account: and such they will not acknowledge vs to be.

Our parishes which they call perishes, they examine by all ye parts of this description, and wil not allowe to any parish, any one of these thinges. Ten partes are found in it: Let vs see how they examine our Churches by them.

First they say, the Church consisteth of a faithfull people. None are accounted of thē to bee of the Church, but such as are regenerate, & haue the spirit, and are indued with know­ledge, and haue receaued the gift of a sauing faith. But it is certaine, that many are in the visible church, that haue not these things. For first the kingdome of God is like a net that gathe­reth together good & bad: the bad are not re­generate, neither haue these things by thē na­med. And as many followed Christ, when he walked vpō earth & were his disciples, which followed not for regeneration, but for that he fed their bodies: so is it in ye Church now. And what shal we say of the tares ye Christ cōman­deth to be suffered til the haruest, least the wheate be plucked vp with thē? They are not only hy­pocrites [Page 94]which are like the good, for ye tares are not like ye wheate, but ye open wicked & migh­tie: which, if the Church would goe about to roote out from among them, they would in­danger the whole, as by experience hath oft bin feene. When Paul saieth: All men haue not faith: he speaketh not onely of them that are without, but euen of them that are with­in the Church. And to the Corinthians hee sayth: Some haue not the knowledge of God, I speake this to your shame. Wherefore, euen in the Church of Corinth, (the people whereof are called faithfull and Saintes) there were some that had no knowledge of God. And why may not that befall the Churches of Christ, which befell the Israelites? Vnto vs was the Gospell preached, as vnto them: but the worde that they heard, profited not them, because it was not mixed with faith in those that heard it. As wee are like them in hearing, so why may not some among vs be like them in not beleeuing? And yet as they were, so may we be reckoned of the out­warde Church. They see that the Church in the time of the Prophets, had many, which were neither regenerate, nor faithfull, such as had neither the spirrte nor knowledge. But they would make vs differ from them, in a straiter couenant of separation. For they say, [Page 95]the carnal propagation from Abraham, and outward circumcision, was inough to keepe them in the Church: but nothing keepeth vs in it that is outward, not baptisme, nor any outwarde thing, but onely grace, and faith, and the spirite: If any man haue not these, and be not so esteemed, hee is not to bee ac­counted so much as of the visible Church. And this they grounde of the practise of the Iewes, which as they saye, separated none from their Synagogues for sinne. But this is false. Them that confessed Christ, they put out of their Synagogues, althogh vniustly: & for diuers kindes of sinnes, they had diuerse sacrifices, which must bee offered by them, before there coulde bee any attonement for them. So the Iewes separated some for sinnes, and yet wicked persons were stil of their out­ward Church. As for the places that they alleage, to proue that all in the Church must be faithfull, and haue the spirite, petaine ey­ther to the elect onely, and such as are called according to purpose, as when it is saide, to so many as receaued him, he gaue power to bee made the sonnes of God: And againe: I will write my lawes in their hearts: or else declare what euery one ought to be, and not what e­uery one is, or shalbe: as when Paul sayeth: In Christ, neither circūcision auaileth any thing, [Page 96]nor vncircumcision, but a newe creature: or else speake of outward profession & shewe of faith: as whē the Corinthians are called faith­full, and such as S. Iames speaketh of in his se­cond chapter: or last of all, because some haue these in trueth, they are ascribed to ye rest, be­cause they make one outward body with thē, & are denominated of the best, as when Paul saith: Such were some of you, but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified. As Augustine sayeth, that a heape wherein lyeth more chaffe thē wheate, is yet called a heape of wheate, and not of chaffe, be­cause it is a heape for the wheates sake: So al­though there be wicked & vnfaithfull men in the Church, yet ye Church is called faithful, be­cause it is a Church for the faithful & godly, & not for the wicked. Wherefore it is not ne­cessarie, that the visible Church should con­sist onelie of a faithfull and a regenerate peo­ple, such as haue the knowledge and the spi­rite of God: the outward profession of these thinges, and the Sacraments, and the shadow as it were of the good, keepeth thē in the vi­sible Church, although such men are in it on­ly for their further damnation, except they repent. Thus much of that they say, the Church must be a cōpanie of faithful people.

The second note which they make, is a separation frō the heathen of the land. These [Page 97]heathens they tearme by many other names, calling them vngodly, prophane, and athe­ists: and the other common sort of them take all such as come to Church with vs, to bee no better: the other (that will seeme to speake with more iudgement,) make such to be pro­phane, which are without the Church, or re­turne to their former filthines, or haue done any thing that may shewe them to bee with­out the couenant of Gods grace and free pro­mise. Euery man that hath not knowledge to render a distinct account of his faith, in all necessary branches, they esteeme prophane: thus they minse it: but their writings and do­ings shewe, that all are prophane with them, that are not of their owne societie. Now the separation frō prophane persons is so great a matter with thē, that if but one such man re­maine & be kept in the Church, either he ma­keth it as they thinke, no Church, or at least, maketh all exercises of prayers, and of Sacra­mēts, to be of no vertue nor value, but offēsiue to God, & hurtful to the Church. Therefore they accoūt our churches no churches, our sa­cramēts no sacramēts, our praiers no praiers, (if there were no other fault but this among vs) because we retaine ye prophane & vngodly in our Churches. That the Church ought to be separated frō all such, or els that it can be [Page 98]no Church, and that the couenant otherwise is broken, Leuit. 20.24. thus they labour to proue: First, because the Lord sayeth in Moses: I am the Lord your God, which haue separated you from other people. I answere: the Israelites were separated from other nations by blood, and by outward ceremonies: we likewise by pro­fession and Sacraments. And as for the ig­norant, and vnbeleeuers, and vngodly, the Churches of the Israelites and Iewes, could not be separated from them, neither can the Church of Christ bee in this life freed from such. Secondly, they would proue this se­paration by the wordes of Paul: 1. Cor. 5.6, 11. A little lea­uen leaueneth the whole lumpe. And againe: If any that is called a brother be a fornicator, or co­uetous, or an idolater, or a rayler, or a drunckard, or an extortioner, with such a one eate not. And to these, 2. Thes. 3.6. that is ioyned as being of like nature: We charge you, that you withdrawe your selues from euery brother that walketh inordinately. Of these places they conclude, that there is an infection to the Church by the wicked retai­ned: and that the Church can not bee the Church, except this lawe of separation bee practised. I answere, first, that the leauening and infection, was not in a wicked mans be­ing in the Church, but in the reioycing at his wickednes. For so Paul sayeth: your reioy­sing [Page 99]is not good: knowe ye not that a little leauen leaueneth the whole lumpe? Moreouer, a wic­ked man may infect and leauen others by his example: the rest he doth not infect. And last of all wee saye, our Church retaineth none such, as that incestuous person was, if they be knowen. Where Paul sayeth: If any that is called a brother, be a fornicator, eate not with such: and againe: Withdrawe your selues from euery brother that walketh inordinately: First, I answere, he must be accused and conuicted to be such, and admonished: and if he amend not, he must be auoyded. Secondly, he must be shunned as touching familiaritie, with ly­king, and fellowship, not to be companied with, as those with whome wee eate famili­arlie. For so much importeth that he sayeth: Eate not with such, and withdrawe your selues from such. To shunne their companie in all thinges it is not meant: For in buying and selling, in submitting our selues to their go­uernement, if they be our Magistrates, or in any other necessarie duetie, they should not be auoyded. Last of all, their presence defi­leth not the Sacraments, nor maketh prayers vnprofitable ts vs, but to themselues. He that eateth and drincketh vnworthely, eateth and drincketh his owne damnation. But they saye, wee are vnworthie, by admitting vnworthie [Page 100]ones. I answere, it is not in euery one to ad­mit or to refuse, and therefore euery one can­not be guiltie. And Iudas defiled not the Pas­cal lambe nor the Lords Supper, nor yet the rest that were present, but himselfe he defi­led. Againe they say, if we may not eate commune breade with them, much lesse may we eate the Lordes bread with them in the Sacrament. I answere, for our com­mon meat we are oft at choise in what com­pany to take it: but the Sacrament wee must receiue with the Church, the wicked hath a commaundement to absteine from it: and the worthy hath a commaundement to come vnto it: his presuming to come that ought not, must not exclude me that ought to come. This I speake of persons suspected to be reiected, & in deede wicked in them­selues, but yet not conuicted openly before the Church. Of them yt are conuicted, I may say as Theodoret doth vpon this place. Si non oportet eos communis esse cibi participes, nec my­sticiquidem certè & diuini. If they must not be partakers of the cōmon bread, then certaine­ly neither of the mysticall and diuine bread. and as Ambrose saith, Cum fratre in quo vitia haec reperiuntur, non solum Sacramenta non edenda sed nec communem escam docet, vt eru­bescat cum vitatur & corrigat. He teacheth [Page 101]that we must not onely not eate the Sacra­ments, but not so much as common meate with a brother in whom these sinnes shall be found. Photius readeth these words other­wise. If any brother be named a fornicator, Talem fornicatorem, auarum, maledicum, ebrio­sum, hoc est, illum qui in propatulo talis est ita vt sic ab omnibus & dignoscatur & nominetur, and as he sayde before, ita vt communem illam appellationem in seipsum amplexus, ex hac poti­us quàm ex peculiari & proprio nomine, & cog­noscatur & vocetur, hunc inquam, & fugi impe­rat & vitari, & cum eo nec cibum sumere, nec miscere sermones, nec simul vitam ducere, non autem illum quem quidam carpunt esse ma­ledicum. Such a fornicator or rayler as is such a one openly, so that he is after that sort of all men knowen and named, so that he hath receiued this common name to himselfe, and is rather knowen and called by it then by his proper name, he commaundeth such a one to be auoyded and shunned, and that we shoulde neyther take meate, nor vse fa­miliar talke, nor leade our life with him, but hee commaundeth not that man so to bee shunned whome some carpe, as though hee were a backebiter. Thus they vnderstand it of a man notoriously knowen and conuicted, and then of priuate [Page 102]and familiar companie, and last of all, of so­cietie in the Sacraments. Them that are no­torious, the gouernement and lawes of our Church commaunde to be excluded, and it is put in practise: Wherefore our Church is not to be condemned for this. That which they obiect in the second to the Corinthians: Be not vnequally yoked with the infidels: 2. Cor. 6. For what fellowship hath righteousnesse with vnrigh­teousnesse? is spoken first of such, as acknow­ledge not Christ to be the redeemer, but were heathenish idolaters: we haue none such a­mong vs. Secondly, if it be vnderstood also of the wicked liuers, it forbiddeth familiar conuersation with them: for with such as we liue familiarlie, wee may be sayde to bee yo­ked. Thirdly, he will not haue vs bee parta­kers with them, in that they are vnrighteous, and idolaters, neither by practise nor con­sent: but otherwise, to be in their companie vpon necessarie occasions, he doth not con­demne. As for that which Paul practised in the Acts: Acts 19.9. When certaine were hardened and disobeyed, speaking euil of the way of God, he de­parted from them, and separated the disciples: perswadeth a separation from the open, and professed enemies of Christ. To such dogs, the holy thinges of God are not to bee giuen. And of such speaketh Saint Iohn: 2. Iohn. 11. If there come [Page 103]anie vnto you, and bring not this doctrine, bid him not God speede: for hee that biddeth him God speede, is partaker of his euil deedes. If he be a blasphemer of the name of Christ, an o­pen despiser of his Gospel, one that refuseth him, and acknowledgeth him not as Redee­mer and God, hee is to be accounted an infi­del, and by all meanes to be reiected. None such are admitted of vs, or mingled with vs, being once knowen. Moreouer, Isa. 65.11. they thinke that Esay condemneth vs, for admitting a whole parish to the holy Communion, when he saith: Yee are they that haue forsaken the Lorde, and forgotten my holy mountaine, and haue prepared a table for the multitude, and fur­nish the drincke offering for the number. Esay speaketh not of receauing a number into so­cietie, to offer to the Lorde: but rather of sa­crificing to a multitude of Idols, in steade of the true God. For hee opposeth the onely true God to a multitude whome they serued: yea, some thinke that the names that are translated a number, and multitude, doe sig­nifie Mars, and Mercurie. Wherefore, this pertaineth not to the admitting of manie to the Communion. It was a commendation for the people and seruice of God, when they did all eate the passeouer, and offer sacrifices together, as at their comming out of Egypt, [Page 104]and in the wildernes: and vnder Iosias and o­therwise. It is much more to be misliked with vs, that some refraine from the communion, then that so many come vnto it. They ob­iect many other things against the retay­ning of wicked men in the societie of the Church: but these are the chiefe. To an­swere all, woulde require a seuerall trea­tise.

Their thirde note of a visible Church is, that it must be gathered in the name of Christ. Esai 11.14. Esay did so prophecie. In that day the roote of Ishai shall stand vp for a signe vnto the people, the nations shall seeke vnto it. Whole nations and many nations shoulde come to Christ in steede of one nation. Could this be but many wicked and vngodly should be mixed? and howe should the nations seeke to him? some in shewe, some in trueth: some by outward profession, and some by inward feeling. Ioh. 12.32. When our Sauiour sayth, If I were lift vp from the earth, I woulde drawe all men vnto me, hee meaneth that such as come in trueth, shall come by his power: but hee meaneth not, that there should none come in outward fashion onely, & in word, and yet in heart be farre from him, & in their deedes denie him. And as he sayeth againe, Mat. 18.20 where two or three are gathered together in [Page 105]my name, there am I in the middest of them: so are our assemblies in the name of Christ, if to come vpon his commaundement, to call vpon him, to heare his worde, and to receaue his Sacramentes, bee to be gathered in his name: and the wicked comming with vs, hindereth not this our purpose, nor disap­pointeth our worke.

That which Peter saieth: To whome yee come as vnto a liuing stone, disalowed of men, but chosen of God, and precious, and yee as li­uely stones, bee made a spiritual house, an holie Priesthoode, to offer vp spirituall Sacrifices ac­ceptable to God by Iesus Christ. This I say, is spoken of them which are called of God ac­cording to his eternall purpose. But none are thus ioyned to Christ, but onely such: yet for their sakes, the rest are so accoun­ted, and take the name of that which is the chiefe: and so farre are they from making vs to bee separated from God, when we con­sent not to their sinnes, that they are tolera­ted and receaued into some outwarde honor of the Church for vs.

These places sufficiently proue, that the Church of Christ must be ioyned vnto Christ the head. But what exception can bee ta­ken against our Churche? howe can it [Page 106]be sayde, that wee are not gathered together in the name of Christ? They saye, our Chur­ches are gathered together, not in the name of Christ, but in the name of Antichrist. This is a most vile slaunder against the Church. All that is proper to Antichrist we withstand, and therefore Antichrist seeing himselfe cast off, and vs not gathered in his name, striueth by force and policie, to gather vs to himselfe again. The name of Antichrist included espe­ciallie his supremacie, his humane traditions against the written worde of God, his idola­trie, his adoration of Saintes, his pilgrima­ges and reliques, his prayers for the dead and purgatorie, his iustification by workes, his satisfactions for sinnes, his doctrine of free­will, his vowes of pouertie, of single life, his workes of supererogation, his pardons and the like. To come together in these opini­ons, and in the practise of those thinges, is to bee gathered in the name of Antichrist. But thus wee doe not. Contrariewise, wee come to worship God in the name of Christ alone, to bee iustified by him, to heare his trueth: therefore wee are gathered in the name of Christ. The fourth note of a visible Church they make this, that it must worship Iesus Christ truelie. It is out of question, that the true Church of God worshippeth Christ [Page 107]aright. But what can they alledge against vs and the worship that we performe to Christ? First the commandement, Thou shalt make no grauen image. They account vs idolaters. Then that to the Corinths, 1. Cor. 10. If anie man say vnto thee, that is sacrificed vnto idoles, eate it not be­cause of him that shewed it. Our seruice they say was once offered to idoles, and therefore now must not be vsed. To these they ioine that of Esay, Esai 66.17. They that sanctifie thēselues & pu­rifie themselues in the gardens behind a tree in the middest eating swines flesh, and such abomi­nation, euen the mouse shalbe consumed together saith the Lord. In their account our prayers & the forme of our publike seruice is swines flesh, or as a mouse, which things were vncleane, and might not be offered to God by the law. And to this end they heape vp many places of like nature, as that of Deuteronomy, Deut. 17.1. & such other: Thou shalt offer to the Lorde thy God no bullocke nor sheepe wherein is blemish, or any e­uill fauoured thing, for that is an abomination to the Lorde thy God. Such a sacrifice they iudge the seruice that we offer to God by the booke of common prayer to be. Therefore they giue names of reproche and disdaine vnto the booke, calling it the Statute booke, and stinted seruice, and staruers booke, and such like. Against this booke they fight [Page 108]as against a most pregnant idole. We wor­shippe not God aright, because we worship him by this booke. The worshippe of God is large: faith, hearing of his worde, reading of the Scriptures, and euerie good worke pertaineth to his worshippe. All the seruice and duetie we doe to God, are not done by the reading and vsing of that booke. Nay all our prayers in the Church are not out of it. The preachers vse the libertie of their mind, and motion of Gods spirite. So that all our worship, and all our prayers are not done by that booke.

But they say, that booke and the worship done by it is idolatrous. First they con­demne it in generall, and then in parti­cular. In generall they mislike for fiue things.

First, because the prayers are read. The reading of prayers, they say, can not bee with sighes and grones, nor come of faith, nor proceede from the motion of the spi­rite, nor haue any feeling ioyned with it, and hath no warrant by commaundement or practise from Christ and his Apostles. Prayers read (they say) are onely for medi­tation, and not for inuocation. This is their accusation against the prayers that are read out of a booke. When our Sauiour sayeth: [Page 109] The true worshippers must worshippe the father in spirite and trueth: and Paul, the spirite hel­peth our infirmtties, then they suppose that prayers read are excluded, as though they proceeded not of the spirite. Prayers are not so much vsed of the people, nor of any of vs as they ought to be. It is the chiefe meanes to obtaine Gods fauour, to keepe our selues in his feare, and to worke all goodnes in vs. If prayers by the booke were no praiers, we should be much more barren in this exercise then we are. This were a good meanes for the deuill to bannish pray­er from a great number altogether. I would know in respect of the hearer, what great difference it is, if the prayer be read to him or pronounced out of thy heart? Neyther way doth it come out of his heart as the fountaine. It commeth thus to passe also with many that vtter conceiued prayers, that for the most part they vse the same fourme of words, & the same matter in most points of their praiers. Againe what would this liberty of euery mans praying publike at his owne motion, hauing that office, bring vpon the Churches? Infinite & intollerable babling in some, & dānable & most heretical petitions in a great number. But they say praiers read are not of the spirite, nor with sighes, [Page 110]nor feeling. The very reading is not praying but the motion and desire to God in rea­ding is praying. This motion is not hinde­red, but furthered by reading: because it bringeth to the vnderstanding that which the heart longeth after. As one candle recei­ueth light of another, so euen in prayer the heart receiueth light and heate by meanes of the words read and heard. Christ set down a fourme of words and sayd, when you pray, pray thus. Nowe he that vseth the wordes, and matter, and affection, prayeth thus, rather then he that vseth the matter and affection onely. And the words of some petitions we vse of necessitie, as forgiue vs our sinnes or tres­passes, and therefore may well vse all. Christ himselfe in the garden prayed thrise, saying the same words. Dauid made diuers Psalmes to be sung in Gods seruice, and intitleth them to the parties that should be leaders in them. The hundred thirtie and sixt psalme was cōmonly sung in time of thanksgiuing, for great and extraordinarie victories: first Dauid himselfe vsed it, then Iehosaphat, and after that Iudas Maccabeus. Ioel in the pub­like fast telleth what the priestes should say, and biddeth them pronounce these words: Spare thy people, Ioel 2.17. O Lorde, and giue not thine heritage into reproche, that the heathen shoulde [Page 111]rule ouer them: wherefore should they say among the people, where is their God? Hose 14.2. Hoseah biddeth the people take vnto them words, and say to the Lord: Take away all iniquitie, and re­ceiue vs graciously, so will we render the calues of our lippes, Asshur shall not saue vs, ney­ther will wee ride vpon horses, neyther will wee say any more to the worke of our hands, yee are our Gods: for in thee the father­lesse findeth mercie. God prescribed a fourme of blessing to Aaron and his sonne, Num. 56.23. wherewith they shoulde blesse the people: commaunding them to say, The Lorde blesse thee and keepe thee, and so soorth. Moses vsed a fourme of wordes as a prayer at the going forwarde and re­sting of the Arke: Numb. 10.35, 36. and Dauid in his prayer hath the same. Seeing these things are so, Psal. 68.2. prayers read may be vsed, & a man by them may perfourme vnto God spirituall and ac­ceptable seruice.

The second thing for which they mislike the booke is, because it is prescribed and im­posed, and vsed continually. This cutteth off the libertie of the Church (they say) and bringeth it into bondage: this is tedious to men, and Penrie is not ashamed to say, it is lothsome to God to be serued so oft as it were with one dish. The libertie that these [Page 112]men chalenge is such, as that they will be bound to nothing, especially in religion. & in things indifferent, neither by prince nor by a­ny law of man be it neuer so good & godly, the thing is misliked, because it is prescribed and imposed vpon vs. Doth the very impo­sing and bond by law make it vnholy? Then acknowledge not the Trinitie, nor receiue the canonicall Scripture, nor seeke to knowe Gods commandements nor Christian faith: For these things by law are imposed vpō vs. But this diminisheth not our liberty, nor ta­keth away our willing seruing of God, in these things imposed, but rather maketh vs more willing. And as for tediousnesse to the Lord, because these prayers are old and vsuall, it is not to be feared. For in his seruice he requireth not newe words, but a newe heart. The worshippe and prayer is newe to God, so oft as our heart is renewed with zeale and true repentance, and good affecti­on to it. For the prayer to God is not the outward word, but the inward desire and affection.

The third thing in generall for which they condemne the booke is, for that it is mans inuention. Whatsoeuer man deuiseth, that they count vncleane and not to be vsed in prayer. When mens traditions and inuen­tions [Page 113]are reprooued in Gods seruice by scrip­ture, hitherto by all godly writers, those things haue bene vnderstood which are con­trary to Gods word. Things agreeable are not so accounted mens inuentions, that they should be condemned. For if simply to come from the wit and braine of man be naught, thē were preaching to be banished, and then euen conceiued prayers must be excluded, and so much more, because they be new in­uentions euery day: and this, if it be any, it is but one. It is not a deuise of man, therefore to be reiected, which is agreea­ble to the word of God, as those things in this booke are, whereby we worship God.

The fourth generall cause of reiecting the booke is, for that it is in many points ta­ken out of the Popes portesse. Therefore Barrowe calleth it a great colloppe, or a pigge of that mezeled hogge. In this be­halfe another of them sayeth, wee beare the image of the beast, for that we vse some part of his forme of liturgie. It is certaine that a great part of the publike prayer in that booke which the Romanes vse, was practised in the Church before the beast came in that chaire. And often times Gods people haue eyther taken or [Page 114]resumed those things to Gods worshippe, which haue bene abused by idolaters. The spoiles of Egypt & of Iericho, the vessels of the tēple abused by the Babylonians were againe applied to Gods seruice. If we vsed any thing wherein the Pope sheweth himselfe to bee the beast, as his worshipping of dead Saints, and images, and the Masse, and such like, then we might be sayde to beare his image or his marke: But in the prayers that wee haue, there is no part, no limme, no clawe of that beast. The people of God must not fashion themselues like the Cananites, nor the heathen about them, in any thing wherein they are idolatrous and impious: but in that they haue as men, Gods people may be like them. As they are Papists, we will not be like the Romanes: but as they are Chri­stians, we may be like them. In taking good things from them wee take not any thing that was theirs, but we take to our selues that which was our owne. We must not vse the Bible, nor the name of God or Christ, nor Baptisme, if we will haue nothing that they had.

The fift and last thing for which in gene­rall they cast away the booke is, for that it mainteineth a reading ministery. A booke of common prayer is no cause of a reading [Page 115]Minister. The chiefest cause is, that preachers will not be had, nor can be made in this slen­der maintenance of sundry Churches: the next cause is, the couetousnes and wicked dealing of many godlesse patrones: and a third cause is this, contention and strife that is raised in the Church. This hath cast out manie that were in, and hath driuen backe manie that were comming on: this hath caused di­uerse to forsake the studie of Diuinitie and learning altogether. But the booke of Com­mon prayer is no cause of it: for the preachers with vs vse it, and where all are preachers, there is a set forme obserued, and is necessa­rie to bee had of all well ordered Churches. These are the thinges, for which they con­demne the booke in generall.

Now in particular, they trifle about many things: As first about the holy dayes, where­of some they call double Idoles, and double feastes, Hallowmas, Christmas, Candlemas, Easter, Whitsonday, Trinitie sonday: Then there are the Ladies dayes, Saints dayes with the Eues fast, and feastes, and deuised wor­ship vnto them. Last of all, they reckon the celebrating of dayes to Angels, as Michael, and the naming of manie Archangels. This cauil will easily be answered. For first wee make not the Calender anie parte of Gods [Page 116]worship: Wherefore it is vaine to accuse vs of a false worship by that, when wee put no parte of his worshippe in it. That distin­guisheth the times, and directeth vs to the Psalmes and Scriptures: but is no parte of Gods seruice, no more then a marke by the waye to direct them which goe by, is a parte of the way. The names maye bee some­what offensiue where Masse is added: but in the olde tongue from whence our language came (long before the corruptions of the Masse were crept in) the worde signified no­thing but Tide, or some solemn time: and the common people haue vsed to speake so, and the name Missa, from whence that is supposed to come, is read in ancient fa­thers, in a good and a godly meaning: yea, and in most Calenders those names are re­formed. The Saintes wee worship not, nor Angels, neither with prayers, fastes, nor a­ny such thing: But God wee worship, and take occasion at such times, when wee call to minde them by whome the worship of God hath bin spred throughout the world. The people of God haue vsed and appointed moe dayes to publike prayer, and Gods seruice then the Sabbath, Hester. Euang. Ioan. without controlement: as the feast of Purim and of Dedication. Last of all, those dayes, except the natiuitie of our [Page 117]Sauiour, and those that fall vsually on the Lordes day, are in most places growne to be equall with the rest: Our people are readie ynough, to make no difference of dayes in that behalfe.

The next thing that commeth vnder their censure, are the fastes, Lent, imber dayes, Ashwednesday, Maundie, Holy thursday, Goodfridaye, and the rest. Two thinges are regarded of the Churche, in distingui­shing these times from others. First a time to bee obserued of all, for the vse of fishe, and refraining from flesh, that nauigati­on might bee maintained, and that seeing wee may haue prouision of all kinde of foode, wee doe not continuallie vse one­lie one, to which wee are most giuen, to the decaie thereof, and hinderance of the other.

Secondly, that there maie bee vsed also a moderate abstinence, not to the honour of Saintes, nor as though there were anie worshippe of God in it of it selfe, but that our bodies maye bee kept vnder, and the minde might bee made the fitter to serue the Lorde. If all those dayes and others, were vsed in a whole or halfe abstinence, it were better for mens bodies and soules, and for the commonwealth, then it is. [Page 118]The superstition and merite in such thinges is condemned: but either a ciuile or holie vse, to the better ordering of our bodies and affections, of none that are wise can be mis­lyked.

A third matter of reprehension is (as they call it) a blasphemous abuse of scriptures, shredding, and rending them from their natu­ral sense and true vse, to bend and apply them to the Idole feastes. This accusation is both foolish and impudent. If they thinke (as it seemes they doe) that it is not lawfull to print or reade by it selfe, some portion of the scrip­ture, seuered frō the rest of ye whole body, it is foolish: for what offence can there be, in ma­king choise of some parte for instruction, see­ing the bodie is left whole notwithstanding? And to say they are turned from their true sense, it is impudent: for in the same words & meaning are they set downe in the Com­munion booke, as they are in the bodie of the scripture: neither doe we apply them to the feastes, but to our selues, to be instructed by them.

The fourth crime they set downe in these wordes: Abominable Collectes ouer, for, and to the dead. What can bee spoken more spitefull and shamelesse? We praye neither for the dead, nor to the dead: wee praye for [Page 119]our selues, at the buriall of the dead.

In the fist place, about Baptisme and that which pertaineth to it, they finde many faults. They saye it is corrupted with the signe of the crosse, with godfathers, and godmothers, with the Fonte, with vnlawfull and vnpossi­ble vowes of gossips: to these they ioyne purification or churching of women, with their offerings, hastie baptisme by Midwiues, bishopping and second baptisme: by these thinges, they iudge that baptisme is corrup­ted. But why should the signe of the crosse corrupt it? Is it so odious to expresse the fi­gure of that whereon Christ dyed, without opinion of adding grace, without giuing any worship to it, but onely for remembrance? there is none impietie it it. And what impos­sible vowe doe the godfathers and godmo­thers make? They say not (as they alleage.) that the childe shall beleeue, but that it doth, in way of Sacrament and outwarde profes­sion, in as much as it is offered to baptisme, which is Sacramentum fidei, and is borne of parents that are professors of Christian faith. And as for the procuring of these thinges in action in the childe, there is none that vnder­standeth I thinke anie furder, then as it maye lye in them conueniently, and as neede shall require. But what can there be in the Font [Page 120]to corrupt baptisme, more thē in the Church wals to corrupt prayers, and scriptures, and and preaching, and all? Women are not pu­rified, as though they were otherwise vn­cleane: but they giue thankes for their deli­uerance, and for the increase of mankinde and the Church: In giuing thankes for Gods be­nefites, there is not anie fault. Confirmation is retained as a meanes to procure the instruc­ting of the children, or as a tryall of it, not as a newe baptisme, nor as anie Sacrament, nor as that which shoulde conferre grace, otherwise then by prayer to God for it. Baptisme by women is not warranted by the booke, nor allowed to bee put in prac­tise.

About the Lordes supper they haue ma­nie cauils, as that it is soulde for two pence a head: that the institution is broken and changed in the deliuerie: that there is a stage-like dialogue betweene priest, clarke, and people: that there are newe Apocry­phall lawes and iniunctions added, the Priest to stand at the Northside of the ta­ble, the people to kneele, verse, and Col­lect: that there is popish and idolatrous houseling of the sicke: that there is po­pish visiting and pardoning of the sicke, with this Sacrament: These are hainous [Page 121]thinges.

The Sacrament (they say) is sould for two pence: who selleth it, who buieth it so? He is to giue that, whether he receaue or no: It is no price of the Sacrament, but a poore alow­ance to the Minister: The institution is not broken in the deliuerie. The wordes of insti­tution are then vsed, when the bread and wine are set apart for the vse of the Sacra­ment, and so much set apart for it, as is vsed in it. The wordes in the deliuerie, are to ap­plie them to the persons, to stirre vp their faith: the institution was past before. For the speeches vttered by the Minister, and clearke, and people, there is no fault in the matter, but they condemne the forme. They thinke the Minister must vtter all that is spoken: the people must onely say, Amen. That they are commanded to saye, and they are not forbidden to saye more. How can that sound of the multitude bee made in the praysing of God, compared to the sound of many waters, and of mightie thunders, if the people saye nothing in Gods seruice? Their owne speach maketh them more atten­tiue, and stirreth vp their mindes the rather. The finding fault with standing, kneeling, and such necessarie and seemelie gestures, proceedeth of infinite curiositie, and most [Page 122]froward peeuishnes. We can not be together but we must haue some place, some gesture, and these are the fittest. Last of all, as pray­ers and the worde of comfort, so likewise the Sacrament may be giuen to the sicke. There is no pardon otherwise giuen to him by it, then to other men, at other times. If hee be­leeue and repent, he hath forgiuenes by faith in Christ, and it is sealed and confirmed to him by the Sacrament. Thus much of the par­ticular faultes which they are most offended with.

Moreouer besides these, they carpe at comminations, which are nothing but sen­tences of scripture: and how bitter soeuer the curses are, yet they are the curses of God, a­gainst such as offend. They finde fault with a seuenfold repetition of the Lordes prayer at one meeting: some of them are oft omitted: with tossing of Psalmes and sentences to and fro like tennis balles: which is a prophane speach: and the thing is not commanded: and it may well be practised, so they reade, and speake in such sorte, that all men may heare and vnderstand.

These are the chiefe thinges, with which they finde fault in the booke. The most of them are circumstances, and as it were the shels: the kirnel is the confession of our sinnes, [Page 123]the asking of thinges necessarie to soule and bodie, for the common state and our selues, the praysing of God for his benefites, the set­ting forth of Gods will, his worde and testa­ment. These are the substance of the booke, and of Gods worship. They make a buzzing about mens eares, with trifles and vanities for the most parte: and for these, they will turne all vpside downe: which are such things in deede many of them, as it would not come into our mindes once to speake of them, if their exclamations and outcries did not stirre vs of necessitie to it.

Yet there is one thing pertaining to Gods worship among vs, which they can not sub­mit themselues vnto. An othe is a parte of the honor we giue to God, when vpon iust cause in the trueth, wee call his name to wit­nes: this we do, by laying the hand vpon the booke of holy scripture. The othe is taken in the name of God, that gaue his worde to his Church, by the promises and threatnings that he in it hath made vnto vs: the booke is kis­sed and touched in signe thereof: otherwise, by the dead paper, or ynke, or couer, wee are not willed, neither ought we to sweare: and this hath neither impietie nor idolatrie in it, no more then if a man did lift vp his eyes, or his hands to heauen, when he doth it in more [Page 124]vehement expressing of his sincere and ear­nest meaning in it. Thus much of the fourth note of their Church, Gods true worship: for corruption whereof, they accuse vs falsely.

The fift note of the visible Church, they make to bee the obeying of Iesus Christ as their king, priest, and prophet: Thus should Christ be receaued, or else he is not receaued at all to anie benefite. First then they goe about to shewe, that wee acknowledge not Christ to bee our king: wee receaue him not as king (they saye) because wee reiect his go­uernment, and stand vnder the Antichristian yoke of popish gouernement. There be ma­ny things which pertaine to Christs gouerne­ment and reigne as hee is king, which wee haue, yea, all thinges that are necessarie and substantiall partes of that his office. First the spiritual gouernement in the soule, by which hee reigneth in vs, to the peace of conscience, and the vanquishing of Satan, and the bea­ting downe of sinne and ignorance is founde among vs, and wee specially reioyce in it. Of this, it is sayde: the kingdome of God is with­in you: and that, the kingdome of God is not meate and drinke: but peace and righteous­nesse, and ioy in the holy ghost: and that, wee are translated from the kingdome of darkenes, to the kingdome of light.

Secondly, his worde read and preached, reprouing sinne, and teaching righteousnes, is among vs. Of this it is saide, the scepter of thy kingdome is a right scepter: and for this partelie, the Gospell is called the Gospell of the kingdome. These are the principall thinges pertaining to Christes kingdome heere in earth: and these, by his grace and goodnes, wee haue among vs. Nowe they haue a third branch of a kingly reigne, which is a forme of outwarde gouernement, the ende and scope whereof is, that order should bee kept, sinne shoulde bee punished, and cor­rected among Gods people, by ecclesiasti­call punishments, and censures. This (they saye) wee want, and therefore doe not ac­knowledge Christ our king. They imagine that Christ hath set a forme externall, by which euery congregation shoulde bee fra­med in this behalfe, as that there must bee (besides the teachers) in euerie congrega­tion, a certaine number of Elders, which must electe, depose, ordeine, make orders and decrees, reprooue, suspende and ex­communicate, when they see good. This is the kingdome which they striue for: if this bee not in euery parish, Christ (they saye) can not bee our king, we haue cast him off. Christ is our king, not onelie by his [...] [Page 128]necessarie to saluation, & directlie commaun­ded, as the Priestes did in the dayes of Mala­chie. If wee reiected gouernement, and re­fused all correction and punishmēt for sinne, we reiected an expresse commaundement of Christ our king. But in reiecting the censures of ten, or sixe, or any such number in euerie congregation, wee doe not repugne anie open or knowen commaundement of Christ our king.

Wherefore, notwithstanding the gouerne­ment which wee haue, and the excluding of that gouernement which they would ob­trude, wee haue Christ to bee our king, and hee acknowledgeth vs his people, subiectes, and armie.

Nowe wee must see, what it is that ma­keth them to thinke that we denie the priest­hoode of our Sauiour Iesus Christ: and so make that he is no priest to vs. If hee be no priest for vs, then hath hee not sacrificed, and satisfied for our sinnes: then hath hee not, neither doth make intercession for vs. Hee that denieth the priesthoode of Iesus Christ, loseth these his benefites: He is a priest for euer, after the order of Melchisedech: and all must come vnto God by him. Now then, wherein doe wee deny his priesthoode? Be­cause (saye they) we sacrilegiously prophane [Page 129]his name with our idolatrie, and because we prostitute his blood, and make him a priest and sacrifice to infidels, and most wicked of­fenders. His priesthoode were denyed, if we trusted in anie but in his sacrifice for the forgiuenes of our sinnes, or if wee made pray­ers to God in anie mediators name but his. But (they saye) wee denie his priesthoode, because wee make prayer vnto him out of a booke: for this they call idolatrie. But by that booke wee praye to God the fa­ther, in his name, for thinges agreeable to his will, with faith, and from the heart. Therefore there is no idolatrie in that, nor any thing that derogateth from his priest­hoode.

The second thing, wherein wee denie his priesthoode, is (they saye) because wee prostitute the blood of Christ, and make him a priest and sacrifice to infidels, and the most wicked offenders. In baptisme (they say) it is prostituted, because wee giue the Sacrament to the whole nation: in the Supper, because wicked impenitent persons are receaued of vs to it: and gene­rally in both, because at the first by procla­mation of the prince, and vpon the sudaine, from idolatrie and poperie, streight after the reigne of Queene Marie, all were receaued [Page 130]to the Sacrament: and that people is yet re­tained.

But for the infantes to bee baptised, al­though the parentes were wicked, there is good warrant. First, for that their auncetors were receaued into the couenant, and the sinne of the father shall bee vpon himselfe, and is personall, and necessarily the punish­ment passeth not, God himselfe sayeth: the sonne shall not beare the iniquitie of the father. Another reason is, because there is hope of the childe, that hee shall bee brought vp to knowe God, and beleeue in Iesus Christ: and last of all, for that there is none baptized, but some doe vndertake for him, that it shall be performed: they marueile that a whole nation shoulde bee baptised: and yet Christ hath saide: Go teach all nations, baptising them. And as touching the whole multitude recea­ued after the ende of the reigne of Queene Marie: First it can not bee saide, but they had teaching in the dayes of the most wor­thie king Edwarde, although they fell from it. Secondly, they came not as meere stran­gers to Christian Religion, but as men from an aberration in Christian Religion, which they might easilie correct, if they were not wilfull: And what shoulde that preiudice the Church nowe? If they had [Page 131]not bene taught then, yet nowe they haue bene taught aboue these thirtie yeres. Last of all, in such maner Gods people haue bene reduced to Gods worshippe againe from idolatrie vnder Iosias and Ezechias Kings of Iudah. Nowe concerning the Sacrament of the Supper, we doe not prostitute it to in­fidels. We cannot count any in this land infidels, whome we know and receiue to the Sacrament of the Supper. All make profes­sion of faith, all acknowledge Christ God and redeemer, and hope for saluation in him: if they haue not this, we may and ought re­iect them. If any neglect his duety, it is no preiudice nor cause to condemne the rest. So likewise, knowen wicked offenders, (if they be impenitent) are remooued: and if it were so that some such as are not to be made par­takers, doe communicate, is that a denying of his sacrifice and priesthoode to the rest? It is euill applyed to such: but it is not thereby plucked from the rest. It is applyed to him that hath no benefite: but he is not depriued, to whom the benefite belongeth. The places of Scripture by which they woulde prooue, that we denie Christs priesthoode for giuing the Sacrament to such as we receiue, are these: Ezec. 44.7. first the complaint of God in Eze­chiel: Yee haue brought into my Sanctuarie [Page 132]strangers, vncircūcised in heart & vncircūcised in flesh, to be in my Sāctuary & to pollute my house when ye offer my bread. God reproueth thē for making such priests as were vncircūcised in flesh, & strangers, euen heathens, & idolaters: for to be in ye sāctuary, & there to minister, was to be a priest. Such we make not. & this per­taineth nothing to ye receiuing of any among vs to the sacramēt. To this they ioine another complaint of Ieremie, Lam. 1.10. The enemie hath stret­ched out his hand vpon all her pleasant things: for she hath seene the heathen enter into her sanctu­arie, whom thou diddest cōmand that they should not enter into thy Church. This is spoken of the enemies, which should possesse al they had, & be Lords ouer them, & spoile their Sanctu­arie by violence. These were heathen idola­ters, the Babylonians. Such should not enter into the Church. We receiue none such as professe themselues to be idolaters, as be­leeue not in Christ, and are open persecuters of his people. Thus it is apparant, we do not prostitute the blood of Christ to such as they name: & if any mā do, the Church & gouern­ment doth not allow it: & againe, that this is not a denying of Christs priesthood & sacri­fice, & the putting of another thing in stead thereof as ye papists did, but rather a misse ap­plying of it where it should not be applied. [Page 133]Wherefore, wee doe not deny his priest­hood.

As concerning the propheticall office of Christ, that by vs is not obscured and dimi­nished, but magnified and highly aduanced. His word onely hath soueraigne authoritie, it is published, and it is receiued in our Chur­ches. Let them shewe wherein we derogate from his prophecie.

The first accusation is a slander; as that we adde to the word, that we vse humane traditions, we obtrude things contrary to the word, and that we oppugne and re­iect the manifest trueth. These things must be answered in the particulars. We adde nothing as necessarie to saluation, we teach nothing contrary, and we imbrace all the knowne and euident trueth. But that is not an addition, or a knowen trueth, or a thing contrary to the word which they imagine to be so. But (as I sayd) these things are an­swered in the particulars.

The next accusation is, that we giue not obedience to the word of Christ, but vse it as a mantel to couer our sinne, rather then as a rule to direct our life. We cannot say, that all doe obey the Gospell in heart: and some in hypocrisie vse it, as a cloake for sinne. This frustrateth his prophecie with [Page 134]those persons, so that they haue no benefite by it. But his prophecie hardeneth and not onely softeneth, and there be in the Church, such as waxe worse and worse, as well as those which waxe better and better. And Christ is a Prophet vnto both. Neither the lawes nor the publike teaching doe mind or propound this, that the word of God should be disobeied, or that any should make it a co­uer for sinne. The fault of some persons may not be imputed to the whole Church, nor to the lawes and gouernment.

Another thing whereby we weaken or quite frustrate (they say) the prophecie of Christ amongst vs, is because we seeke not a true ministerie, but mainteine a false, of which sort (they say) the whole ministerie of the land is, which are permitted to teach in the publike places, to whom eare is giuen. Such are their words. This accusation is very large and grieuous. No true ministers in the whole land? All false ministers? Why do they so ac­count vs? Is it because we teach false doc­trine, or haue corrupted the faith, or do teach heresies? No such thing. They obiect none of these against vs. Then I hope we may an­swere them the easier, and be heard the more willingly purging our selues. They cannot obiect vnto vs heresie, nor false doctrine, nor [Page 135]teaching of any thing that destroyeth the grounds of saluation. What be the things then which they say make vs a false ministe­rie? I will recite vnto you all which they lay against vs, I will dissemble nothing: the crimes then are these.

First they say, we haue not the names of Ministers of the gospel, but are called Priests, Parsons, Vicars, and Curates. It is not in our power what other men will call vs. Some of these names are giuen of the maintenaunce whereby we liue, and pertaine not to our callings: we delight to be counted the Mi­nisters of the Gospell. But this about the names, is a vaine cauill.

Secondly they condemne our preparation to the ministerie, which is by studie and bringing vp in the Vniuersities. Schooles and Vniuersities they cannot whollie condēne. The Church of the Iewes had the schooles of the Prophets: and euer among Christians they haue bene esteemed as the best nurses of the ministerie. They condemne them for the study of humaine learning, and for cer­taine vices among some persons. If for the faults of some of the persons that professe any kind of life, the trade it self be to be con­demned, then no course of life must be taken in the world. The studie of Logike, Rhetorike, [Page 136]Philosophie, and the Mathematicals is so ne­cessarie, that without them we should be barbarous, and but by the helpe of them, ne­uer can any perfection (by ordinary meanes) be attained in Phisike, Lawe, or Diuinitie. There are none but madde men, which can condemne Vniuersities.

Thirdly they mislike our entrance into the ministerie: none of vs is chosen by a whole congregation, nor ordayned by laying on of the hands of the Eldershippe, nor iust tryall made of giftes and conuersation. But we are ordained by one man the Byshoppe, and are thrust vpon the places where we take charge whether the people will or no. The ordaining of a minister by one or fewe is not against the word of God. Paul and Barnabas appointed Elders by the lay­ing on of hands at Antioch. And Titus was left in Creta, to ordaine Elders in euery ci­tie. Wherefore it wanteth not the word of God, that Pastours are ordayned by one that hath skill, yet that one with vs doth it not a­lone. Cyprian and other ancient fathers ac­knowledge themselues to haue aucthoritie to doe the like. If they be not examined and tryed as they ought, the fault is in the Byshoppe. That they are preferred by one to their charge, that is not against the word, [Page 137]seeing there is nothing in the word that com­mandeth or cōmendeth the election by the multitude, or inioineth it to be perpetuall.

The fourth accusation is, against the vn­learned & vnpreaching ministers, which is a crime that they make to touch al. for so much as they are no ministers at all that cannot preach, therefore they thēselues to be condē ­ned: then all the rest eyther by silence, or by consent, or by preaching in their charges, or by defending them to be ministers, are al­so guilty. And the whole people are wrapped (they say) by them in the same sentence of dānation, for either keeping vnder thē or suf­fering thē. And hereupō they make that they are no sacraments, no praiers, no word of promise and saluation, that is vttered by them, but that all their actions are voyd and frustrate. This being so great a matter, would be examined by it selfe at large. But in a word to touch it. The reader bringeth the word of reconciliation and forgiuenesse of sinnes in Christ, sheweth the way of repentaunce and amendement of life, mini­nistreth the Sacramentes and prayers in a publike function layde vpon him by the Church; therefore he is a minister, and a man may safely heare him, and receiue the sacra­ment at his hand. Hee nourisheth fayth [Page 138]by reading, therefore he may beget it: for wherewith it is nourished, therewith it is be­gotten. By the same meanes wherewith our best preachers haue bin both at the planting of the Gospell after the darkenes of Poperie in this land, and are made now dayly, and continued in their sufficiencie; by the same meanes may the people come to faith, and be continued in it. And who seeth not, that reading both begetteth, and chiefly confir­meth and nourisheth many preachers? And seeing it is the spirit that giueth grace, and breatheth where it listeth, why not vpon the good heart when the word is read? In the time of persecution vnder Queene Ma­rie, the reading of some fewe bookes, brought many to the light, and did preserue them in it. Euery faithfull man hath expe­rience how his owne reading edifieth, why should not then the publike reading edifie? The want of skill to preach maketh not a nullitie in him, as in a child or a beast: for he giueth consent to that he taketh in hand, and nature it selfe excludeth such from the office. Faith in deed commeth by hearing, and hea­ring by the word of God, and they cannot heare without a preacher. But reading is a certaine kind of preaching: for if the shewing of Christ himselfe without words when Christ [Page 139]descended into hell, was and is of many lear­ned men called preaching, and so they could vnderstād the preaching that Peter speaketh of: then why might not the reading of the word of God be called a preaching of it? Act. 15.20. And Iames calleth the reading preaching. Moses, he saith of old time hath in euery citie them that preach him, seeing he is read in the Synagogues euery Sabbath day. This importeth that rea­ding is a kind of preaching. There were mini­sters that only read in the Synagogues of the Iewes. When they were so ready to desire a stranger to speake, it seemed it was not ordi­nary to haue an expounder in euery Syna­gogue. They were not alwaies preachers that did baptize. Christs disciples baptized, Iohn 4. when as (in the iudgment of many that are learned) Christ had not sent forth any yet to preach. I speake not this to make reading & preaching in the Church equal, or that reading should banish preaching, or preaching exclude reading. The expounding of scripture and applying of it to the present state, by the working of Gods spirit in the mouth of a man called for yt purpose, is most excellent & necessary for al Churches, & our Lawes and gouernment do require it. Other­wise, as some conclude, let all be readers, ba­nish preachers quite, heare only the reader, if [Page 140]there be no excellency nor necessitie of the preacher aboue ye reader. Therfore let ye prea­cher by voice & by inuention frō ye spirit and his own heart, haue the first place, and (as the case standeth with vs) the reader must not haue no place at all. They may be weake mi­nisters, or ministers of necessitie, or assisting ministers, although they be not the chiefe nor most perfect and sufficient. Thus much of that matter.

The fift defect they find in the ministery, is in the dueties which are put vpon them or taken from them. Burying of the dead, ioy­ning of man wife in marriage, making of fu­nerall sermons, going about the bounds of parishes: all these (in their opinions) are no works of the Minister of the Gospell. And againe, whereas they ought to gouerne in their congregations together with others, all gouernmēt is taken from vs. besides, wheras no Minister should be aboue a Pastor, Byshop. are aboue vs, therefore (say they) are we no Pastours nor Ministers of the Gospel. Pub­like prayer doth aptly agree and is a duety of our calling. This is not wickedly ioyne with buriall and marriage, considering our owne frailtie which are alwaies neere death and the difficulties in mariage which God onely helpeth. God himselfe ioyned the fi [...] [Page 141]mariage, & why may not his Ministers now doe it in his name, seeing yet they which are married are ioyned together by God? The word may be preached in season and out of season, and no time amisse, when the people come together and are fit to be taught. What time better to comfort them that mourne, or to rebuke the sinner, or to put vs in mind of our frailtie, then at the buriall of the dead? The going about the bounds and limits of parishes pertaineth to his own maintenance and the common quiet: therefore the doing of these things hath nothing contrary to his duty, seeing they hinder not yt which is prin­cipal, but rather further it. And as for the go­uernmēt it is not mete for al: so much neither as they do chalēge, was neuer in ye church per­mitted to euery particular pastor. To admo­nish, to suspēd, to rebuke is granted to vs, and more is not necessary: the labor of preaching is inough. Pastours haue had superiours ouer them in the churches: First Apostles, then By­shops, and so is it at this day. Neyther is there any disorder in it. In a moderate subiection the minister may better performe his duty, & more safely. His pouerty and meanes cannot sustaine the burthen of publike gouernment any further thē for teaching, exhorting, rebu­king, & suspēding or withholding ye vnwor­thie [Page 142]from the Sacraments.

In the sixt place they will perswade that we are no ministers, because many remaine ignorāt vnder vs, & the sinnes of men are not cut off but aboūd, notwithstanding al we do. This should argue Gods curse vpon vs, and vpon our ministerie. If none did profite by vs, we might mistrust our selues: but of many we may say, Yee are our Epistle, yee beare witnesse of the fruite which we bring. Yea this continuall peace all this time is espe­cially vnder God and our most gracious Queene, to be ascribed to the preaching of the word of God among vs. That sects and poperie spread not ouer all, it is to be imputed much vnto publike preaching. There is no place in this land but the word of God worketh in the hearts of some, to their conuersion.

The seuenth crime is against our mainte­nance. We liue by set stipends, & by tenths, and we depend vpon noble men, and such as are able to pleasure vs, we preach for gaine, we hunt after liuings, and ioyne diuerse to­gether. An vnlawfull maintenance, if this were granted so to be, maketh not an vnlaw­ful ministerie. If for gaine we should peruert the truth, then we should degenerate from our office. why should set stipēds hurt our mi­nistery? [Page 143]Is an vncertaine liuing meeter then a certaine? Tenths do not reuiue the ceremonial law, we take not them in that sence. The Em­perours had them, & afterward bestowed thē vpon the Churches. We chalenge them not by the law of Moses, but by the gift of the prince. And the Barrowists thēselues confesse, that as they were giuen by princes, so they may be taken away by them. To adhere to them that are great, so that we helpe them in truth, & do not for thē peruert the truth, hath no dispraise but cōmēdation. In a good Chri­stian gouernment, if we be linked one to a­nother by many dueties, it is the safer: and if the liuings be of the prince and lawes, then may the prince & lawes vnite or seuer them in some moderate sort, so that the dueties to the people be perfourmed.

These are the chiefe crimes which they lay against vs. In all this there is nothing of false doctrine in any matter of saluation, in any ar­ticle of our faith, but all is of things that are cleane without vs, and our ministerie: our names, our cōming in, our maintenance, our depending vpon great men, and the perfour­ming of more in labor, & taking lesse in ho­nor then pertaineth (as they thinke) vnto vs. Yet this is one of their maine grounds, for which they depart & forsake our Churches, [Page 144]euen our false and Antichristian ministery as they call it. But these things either are no crimes, or be not such as therfore can make vs no ministers. These things being so, I may cō ­clude that our ministery is not a denying of ye prophetical office of Iesus Christ, but rather it doth bring the fruit & benefit therof vnto vs. So then we deny neither his kingdome, nor priesthood, nor prophecy, but in a true maner & great measure haue thē & their fruit among vs. God grant that they may cōtinue with vs, and that the benefite may be much more large and plentifull to all the people.

The sixt note which they set vpon the vi­sible church is, that the people of one church must be knit together as members of one body. So they gather first out of Paul, when he saith, 1. Cor. 12.12. As the bodie is one & hath many mem­bers, & al the members of the body which is one, though they be many yet are one body, so is Christ. They grow into one body, & are most neere­ly knit together, which pertaine to Gods ele­ction, and are spiritually vnited vnto Christ. The rest are ioyned in an outward professi­on, and so are (after a sort & to our account) of the bodie. And thus are we one bo­dy in this land. Secondly they gather it out of Peter when he writeth: 1. Pet. 2.4. To whome ye come as to a liuing stone, and yee as liuely stones [Page 145]be made a spirituall house. The godlie are in deed liuing stones, and are made a spirituall house: the rest, because they are among them, for the outward profession are so accounted. Nowe let vs see what vnitie necessarie to Gods Church we want. They say that we are not knit together as members, into one con­gregation, but that men runne and goe, as­semble and depart, at their pleasure, when they will, whither they will, as they will themselues. What? would they haue vs euery one to keepe in one place still? Or would they haue vs to assemble to godly exercises, with none but the same persons continu­ally, such as are wel knowne to vs to be bre­thren? This they seeme to meane: for they condemne the assemblies at Pauls Crosse, and at the common Churches in the Vniuer­sities, and of such solemne places. But this imagination is absurd, and the places of scripture conclude no such thing. In some respect it is meete that euery man should keepe him to his owne congregation. But if desire of instruction, or other occasion ca­ry him to any other place of exercise, there he is not as it were out of ioynt, as though he could no where doe good nor receiue good, but in his owne congregation. A hea­rer may be a profitable hearer any where, & a [Page 146]preacher may preach with fruit in any con­gregation. God hath not tied any man so to one particular congregation, but at another time he may haue the same or another place in another assēbly of Christians, for Christians are of the same body whersoeuer they assēble: for it is the word, & faith, & the spirit, which do make vs one body, & these are the same in euery place amōg Gods people. Wherfore it is an absurd collection & nothing to ye mind of Paul or Peter, yt a man should be so tied to one congregation, that he cannot fruitfully be in another. The cōming to spiritual exer­cises sometimes in this place & sometimes in that, breaketh not the vnitie of the bodie of Christ. Another thing against the vnitie of the Church is as they suppose, that we liue in continuall discord, and vnpeaceable debate among our selues. They accuse vs of debate, which are the cause of al the discord that is a­mong vs. For about these things which they wold bring in, & about their misliking of the present state, is al the discord. If discord de­stroy the church, where became their church, when Browne and Harison their two leaders fel out? The Apostles dissented, the church of Corinth had diuers sects: if we keepe vnity in the foūdation, dissention in ye inferiour points, will not be so dangerous, but yet we must [Page 147]striue to agree in all things, albeit we cannot hope to obtaine it. For that was neuer roūd in anie Church long together: And the voice of Paul is knowen: there must be heresies. These Barrowists in diuerse thinges slip and fall in­to poperie, when they would seeme to bee farthest from it. Vnitie and consent they make a note of their Church, euen as the pa­pistes doe.

In their seuenth note, they ouerrunne and ouerturne all the officers of our Church at a breath. They saye, the true Churches must bee gouerned by such officers as Christ hath appointed to his Church. The officers that they thinke euerie Church shoulde haue by Christs appointment, are fiue: Pastors, Tea­chers, Elders, Deacons, and Releeuers. These they make to be necessarie in euerie congre­gation, or else that there can bee no establi­shed Church without them. Two officers they appoint in euerie congregation for the teaching of the worde: Pastors for exhorta­tion, Teachers for doctrine, and matters of controuersie. It were to bee wished, that e­uerie Church had one well learned and furni­shed for both these partes: for maners and life, to note and correct swearers, idle persons, drunckardes, and all offenders, and to order euerie thing in the Church, with the Pastor [Page 148]and teacher: they appoint Eders in no cer­taine number. The rebuke and correction of anie sinne, we account necessarie, & is done among vs by sundrie kindes of officers: the pastors by worde, the Ecclesiastical iudges by censures, the other officers by punishments inflicted. The thing it selfe we haue, as we haue the worde taught and set forth among vs. The third thing in gouernement that they count necessarie, is the Deaconshippe, whose office shoulde bee to make collection, and to distribute to the poore and needie. This in euerie parish is done, although by officers of other names. Last of all, they adde Releeuers, which shoulde attend vpon the lame and sicke, and such as can not helpe themselues. There is not in euerie parish continuall neede of such a standing officer. When it needeth, some that are charitable and pitifull, doe take some order for it. Now therefore the things, as being necessarie, for the being or for the ornament of a Christian people, we haue among vs: yet all the strife in the land, is especially to bring in this gouern­ment. we must haue a change of all, that these Elders and Deacons may be brought into e­uerie parish. This is their Helena that they fight for. The places that are vrged for the Eldershippe in the olde Testament, are these: [Page 149]First out of Leuiticus: Leuit. 10.10. The Lord spake to Aa­ron and his sonnes saying, yee shall not drinke wine nor strongdrinke, that ye may put difference betweene the holie and vnholie, and betweene the cleane and vncleane. This helpeth not an Eldershippe, but rather establisheth an Arch­bishop: Deut. 17.8. An Eldership of laie men it can not set vp: For Aaron and his sonnes were Priestes. The next is out of Deuteronomie: If there be a­nie matter of plea, thou shalt come vnto the priests of the Leuites, and vnto the iudge that shal be in those dayes. And againe: that man that will not hearken to the Priest, or the Iudge, that man shal die. This likewise doth ouerthrowe the laie presbyterie, and by proportion and like equi­tie, establisheth the Archbishop, and the prero­gatiue of the Prince. And last of all, 2. Chro. 19 2. that in the Chronicles maye warrant an hie commission for the whole land, but not a presbyterie for euerie parish. Thus it sayeth: Moreouer in Ierusalem did Iehoshaphat set of the Leuites, and of the Priestes, and of the chiefe of the fa­milies of Israel for the iudgement and cause of the Lorde, and they returned to Ierusalem. This was generall for the whole kingdome, and will not helpe to erect a presbyterie in euerie parish. The places of the newe Testa­ment are these: The first out of Matthew: Matth. 18.17. If he wil not heare them, tell the Church. If Christ, when he spake this, had relation to the state of [Page 150]the Iewes: hee might meane the generall Sy­nedrion at Ierusalem: for particular they had not. If the state of the Church to come be vnderstoode: then either the gouernors in what forme soeuer it shall bee, or else the whole bodie of the Church, may be meant: but an Eldership of laie persons, can not anie waye bee inferred of wordes so generall. Another place is in the Epistle to ye Corinthi­ans: 1. Cor. 5.4. when yee are gathered together: by which wordes, the whole Church is meant, and not anie laie Elders. For hee speaketh to them that were puffed vp, and shoulde haue sorrow­ed: and those were not Elders onely, if there were anie in the Church of Corinth: and it is manifest that he writeth to ye whole Church. And out of the Epistle to Timothie, they would fetch an vnteaching Eldership, when hee sayeth, 1. Tim. 4.14. despise not the gift which is giuen thee by prophesie, with the laying on of the hands of Eldership. This presbyterie, or Eldership, Caluine sayeth, maye be meant of the office which hee receaued to bee an Elder, that is, a Minister of the worde, and not of anie com­panie, by whome he receaued it. And how shoulde wee thinke, that the laying on of handes to make a Minister, shoulde pertaine to them that are no Ministers? After these particular places for their Eldership, they [Page 151]haue some also which seeme to inferre these, and all their other officers: but the chiefe are two. The first is to the Romanes: Rom. 12.6. Seeing then that we haue giftes that are diuerse, according to the grace that is giuen vnto vs, whether we haue prophesie, let vs prophecy according to the propor­tion of faith: or an office, let vs waite on the office: or he that teacheth on teaching: or he that exhor­teth on exhortation: he that distributeth, let him do it with simplicitie: he that ruleth, with diligēce: he that sheweth mercie, with cherefulnes: hence they will seeme to fetch all their officers. But this, none of the ancient fathers, none of the learned writers of our time did see, till of late. This seemeth not exactlie to agree to their plot: for first here are three names for doctrine: Prophesie, Teaching, and Exhor­tation: and all maye bee performed by one man. Then to Rule, and to haue an Office are so generall, that they can not bee restrained to the forme and name of such Elders as they appoint. To distribute, and to shewe mercie, either pertaine to all: or else, if there must be such officers, it is not necessarie vnder their names of Deacons, and Releeuers, nor at all times: but as time & occasions require. Their other place is to the Corinthians: 1. Cor. 12.28. God hath or­dained some in the Church, as first Apostles, se­condly Prophets, thirdly Teachers, then them [Page 152]that doe miracles, after that the giftes of healing, helpers, gouerners, diuersitie of tongues. Here are more then fiue: and by no direct waye can these precisely bee hence fetched. Apostles, Prophets, Teachers, diuersitie of tongues per­taine all especiallie to doctrine. The gift of working miracles, and of healing, were but for those times: Helpers, and gouerners are too large names, to bring in onely Deacons, and Relieuers, and Elders, into euerie con­gregation, in such sort and order as they pre­scribe. Gouernors wee haue, and helpers, al­though wee haue not their Elders nor their Deacons. These are ye chiefe places, whereon their discipline is builded. Other they haue in the Actes, and to the Ephesians, and Timothie, and Titus: but none of them make the whole number, nor the particulars in their forme, and especially (which is the chiefe) they helpe not their Eldershippe of vnteaching persons. Now then, wee may haue Christs gouerne­ment, and seeke his kingdome, although wee haue not these officers, in these names, and this order.

Their newe officers are not necessarie to the building of the Churche: but peraduen­ture they whome we haue, doe pull downe the Church. That is their opinion: for thus they speake of our estate: In steade of these, [Page 153]they remaine most seruilely subiect to the An­tichristian gouernement of the popish Archbi­shops, Byshops, Chauncelors, Archdeacons, Deanes, Commissaries, Doctors, Proctors, Ad­uocates, Notaries, Registers, Purseuants, Cur­setors, Summoners: and from the Apostati­call seate of the Byshops, they receaue as Anti­christian and false a Ministerie, as their Par­sons, Vicars, Curates, Hirelings, Lecturers, Mercenarie preachers: All which together, with this people, stand bounde and subiect to the By­shops Romish courtes of hie commission, of facul­ties, of arches, of prerogatiues, of delegates, of their Commissaries, and the rest.

Because wee haue some officers of like name, though not all, nor of like quali­tie, as they childishlie imagine: They saye, neither gouerners nor subiectes, neither pa­stors nor people, can bee the Churche of Christ. Foure orders they make here of thinges and persons to bee condemned and remoued. First, all those that haue Ec­clesiasticall gouernement committed vnto them, the Byshops and all that doe assist them. Secondlie, all sortes of Ministers, preachers and not preachers. Thirdly, Ec­clesiasticall courts and iudgements. Last of all, the whole people for being and conti­nuing subiect vnto those. If we aske a reason [Page 154]of this their peremptorie sentence, wee can perceaue none here, but because they are po­pish and Antichristian. If I shoulde confesse this, and saye the gouernement is such, and defende our Church, by the example of the Church in Babylon, as one doeth: I shoulde iustifie them, and condemne our selues: I shoulde lye against the trueth, and against mine owne soule. But thus I saye: If these thinges be popish, as they doe stand among vs, let them bee excluded: naye let vs bee excluded out of the Church altogether. Nowe then, how shall we knowe, whether a thing be popish and Antichristian, or no? By the names? that can not be: Names of their nature be indifferent: the thinges con­tained in the names, as they are vsed of vs, must be examined. And how shall we finde, whether they bee popish and Antichristi­an? If they serue to promote poperie, then are they popish, then are they Antichristian: But if they further Christs glorie, & his king­dome: then may they bee retained in the Church of Christ: and we hauing them, bee his Church. Therefore, if none of these offi­ces, nor courtes, nor Ministers helpe to main­taine idolatrie, or the Popes supremacie, or mens traditions against the written worde: or free wil against the grace of Christ: or mens [Page 155]merites against iustification by faith, or the Idole and sacrifice of the Masse, or pilgri­mages, or purgatorie, or prayer for the dead, or auricular confession, or satisfactions for sinnes by penance, or indulgences, or the kee­ping of the worde of God from the people in an vnknowen tongue, or such like: if they doe not maintaine vice, nor iniustice, nor he­resie among vs, but are directed to roote out poperie, to keepe vs in ye true faith, to aduance the worde of God, to establish our iustifica­tion by faith, to further repentance and good workes, to punish sinne, to define that which is equall and right, to keepe the common peace of the Churche: then are they not po­pish, seeing they are bent and exercised to the ruine of poperie: but they are Christian and holie, and appertaining to the Church of Christ, for as much as they further the kingdome and glorie of Christ our Sauiour. All that are zealous, striue for two thinges, wherein all men are to put to their helpe by counsel, by credite, by authoritie, by power, and by all lawfull meanes that bee in them. One, that the worde of God maye bee more diligently, and commonly taught: the other, that sinne may bee more seuerely and gene­rally punished. If these two may by this go­uernement bee more set forwarde, much of [Page 156]these troubles and contentions will be easier stopped. There is no fault in ye names, or in ye offices, but they may helpe forward these or any good things. Wherfore they be not sim­plie popish, or Antichristian: but in the abuse they were, in the right vse they are now holie & Christianlike. Now let vs see what scrip­ture doth condemne these names and offices. Two places are brought out against thē: One out of the Psalme: The kings of the earth band themselues, and the princes are assembled together against the Lord, and against his Christ: let vs breake their bands, and cast their cords from vs. But do our gouerners & all the people in this estate, band themselues against the Lord, and against his Christ? doe they not band them­selues for the glorie of the Lorde and of Iesus Christ? It might be done I knowe more plen­tifullie, yet this gouernement setteth forth Christ onely to vs, with his benefits to saluati­on. Christs deitie, Christs gospel, Christs sacri­fice, Christs iustice, Christs kingdome by this is aduanced. Wherefore they band not them­selues against Christ, neither do they say, let vs breake their bands, & cast their cordes frō vs, but rather they willinglie receaue the bands, yea the chaines of Christ if neede be. We are contēt that his lawe binde our feete, & hands, & eyes, and hearts also: but we cast off their [Page 157]bands, because we cast away their gouerne­ment by Elders. They are not the bandes of Christ, they are but small threeds, that wil ea­sily bee broken. Luke 19.14. The other place which they alleage against those titles & offices is in Luke Now his citizens hated him, and sent an embas­sage after him, saying, we wil not haue this man to reigne ouer vs. These places that were spo­ken of the obstinate Iewes, that hated ye name & faith of Christ, of the heathen idolaters, that worshipped false Gods, and would not ac­knowledge Christ to be God, of ye Mahometi­call sect that reiect Christs gospel, & denie his redēption, of the Antichristian & popish ra­ble, which keepe his name, and denie his effi­cacie & sufficiencie in redeeming vs; those (I saye) they bring against them that acknow­ledge all which they thēselues doe for suffici­encie of saluatiō, for infalliblenes of his truth, and for all his benefites, onelie because wee yeeld not to thē, for a certaine forme of out­ward gouernment. But they must proue more euidentlie, that those thinges are euill, or else we will not be terrified by those places, but that we may safelie say, that yt true Church of Iesus Christ is with vs euen in this gouernmēt.

To returne againe to their other notes which remaine, whereby they will describe a visible church of Christ, they say, that Christs [Page 158]Church must be gouerned by his own lawes, takē out of the olde & newe Testament, and no other. They thinke, as it seemeth, that no lawes neede more to be made for any thing, but that the lawes of Moses shoulde stand, & be sufficient to determine all matters: Or if for ciuil matters they will admit more, yet for punishments in matters Ecclesiasticall, it is certaine they will acknowledge no more, nor anie other. Their groundes for this opi­nion are these scriptures. First out of Saint Matthewe: Mat. 17.5. This is my beloued sonne, heare him. It extendeth to matters of doctrine and saluation, and all that hee hath taught: but not to matters of gouernement Ciuill, or Ecclesiasticall in particular: For hee hath not made such lawes. The next is out of the Epistle to the Hebrewes: Heb. 3.6. Hee is Lorde of the house: 1. Cor. 2.16. therefore hee is to bee obeyed, in so much as hee hath set downe. Particular ordi­nāces he hath not prescribed for gouernmēt, but left it free. Thē they bring this out of the Epistle to the Corinthians: We haue the minde of Christ: hee meaneth for matters of sal­uation, and the worship of God: but not for particular actions that must be considered in gouernement. After this, commeth that to the Galathians: Gal. 3.15. A mans testament, when it is confirmed, no man doth abrogate, or addeth to [Page 159]it. Paul speaketh of iustification by faith, whereto, works as a cause of iustification must not be added: nothing there of outward go­uernement. Now as for their other places, 1. Tim. 6.13. they inferre not, that in the worde are suffici­ent lawes set downe for all thinges: but that such as are commanded, should be obserued: as that to Timothie: I charge thee that thou keep the commandement without spot, and vnrebukea­ble, vntil the appearing of our Lord Iesus Christ. That which Paul hath set downe as a com­mandement to be kept, or hath so declared, that must be kept for euer. But who can saye, that Paul hath set downe lawes for all things in that Epistle? Ephe. 4.11. And that to the Ephesians doth not conclude their purpose: Hee hath giuen Apostles for the worke of the Ministerie, and ga­thering together of the Saintes, til we all meete to a perfect man. This place speaketh onelie of doctrine, and not of lawes for gouernement either in the Church, or common-wealth, ex­cept they thinke their Pastors and Doctors must make lawes for al things. And as for that to the Corinthians, 1. Cor. 14.37. cutteth not off al lawes for ye Church made by men: If any man thinke him­selfe to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him acknow­ledge that the things which I write vnto you, are the commandements of the Lorde. He writeth there, of not vsing strange languages, where [Page 160]they are not vnderstood, and and of women, that they should not preach in the Church. But there are other thinges which by lawes must be ordered, which Paul, nor the scrip­ture anie where hath determined in speciall. Last of all, they applie to this purpose, all those places of scripture, which teach that nothing must bee added nor taken from the worde of God. The making of lawes a­bout orders in gouernement, is no addition to Gods worde: For the thing is not there forbidden. Thus they will seeme to proue, that in the worde are sufficient lawes to or­der mens actions: vpon this grounde, they will haue the penall lawes of Moses reuiued: then they must bring vs againe to the land of Canaan: they must establish to vs againe that kingdome: For those penall lawes like as the ceremoniall, were proper onely to that people. Now the Priesthoode being chan­ged, the lawe is changed. As they saye, the worde hath sufficient lawes to determine all thinges: so likewise, they will not admitte that princes shoulde make lawes, thereby to helpe forwarde the kingdome of Christ. For they saye the kingdome of Christ com­meth not by the lawes of men, but by the worde and spirite. For this purpose they a­buse these scriptures. First, that of Saint [Page 161] Luke: Luke. 17.20. The kingdome of God commeth not with obseruation: They meane with obseruing princes lawes: but Christ meaneth that his kingdome commeth not, neither is discer­ned by outwarde pompe and worldlie glo­rie, which the Pharises looked for: but is properlie a thing inwarde in the heart. That place nothing pertaineth to outward lawes. Also they misapplie that of Za­charie: Neither by an armie nor strength, Zach. 4.6. but by my spirite, saieth the Lorde of hostes. This is spoken by comparison, that God in the preseruing of his Churche vseth principal­lie the working of his spirite, and not an armie, nor strength of men: Yet that hee vseth armies, and strength for their de­fence, the Churche in all ages hath had ex­perience. But the principall is his spirite: outwarde strength and lawes in compari­son of it, and without it are nothing. When Esaie sayeth: Beholde, Esaie 40.10. the Lorde God will come with power, and his arme shall rule for him: his arme ruleth, euen by the good and wholesome lawes of men. Iere. 17.5. And that curse in Ieremie pertaineth not to vs, because we are ruled by lawes of princes. Thus sayeth the Lorde, Cursed bee the man that trusteth in man, and maketh fleshe his arme, and withdraweth his heart from the Lorde: For we [Page 162]trust not in the lawes of princes, nor in them, when we vse thē vnder God for our quiet go­uernement: we knowe that Kings are nursing fathers, and Queenes are nursing mothers. Da­uid, Salomon, and Iosaphat, and Ezechias, and Iosias, and all godlie princes made lawes for the Churche of God, and were approued: yea, the lawes & decrees of Nebuchadnezzar, of Cyrus, and Darius, were for the behoofe & benefite of it. Manie thinges are left vndeter­mined in speciall, wherein princes make good and profitable decrees for the Churche. If their position were true, the Prophets, and our Sauiour shoulde not haue condemned either the princes, or the lawiers for making vniust lawes, but for making anie lawes at all. Princes especially serue Christ, euen in making lawes for Christ. Wherefore it ap­peareth not, that sufficient lawes in speciall, are set downe in the worde for the Churche: nor that it is wicked for the Church, to vse the lawes of princes, and to bee subiect to them, if otherwise they bee not vngodly. Nowe marke what they saye of our lawes: Wee (they saye) are not gouerned by the worde of God, but by Canons, Iniunctions, and De­crees, of these Antichristian and Popish courts. Let them name one Canon, or Decree and Iniunction, that maintaineth anie thing that [Page 163]is popish or against Christ, and surely it ought to be abolished. But there be lawes which they had, which came not from them, but either from the word of God, or the light of nature, or former holy constitutions. Why should their detaining of them in vnrigh­teousnes, hinder vs from the conuerting of them to the furtherance of the Gospell? They are not popish so long as they are not directed to maintaine poperie, but are apply­ed to godlinesse and peace, in obedience of the trueth.

The ninth marke of their Church is, that al and ech one of them must stand in and for their Christian libertie, to practise whatsoe­uer God hath commanded, and is reuealed vnto them in his holy word. This their liber­ty is one of the chiefe points wherein they stand. Here neither Prince, nor Counsellour, nor Byshop, nor Law must restraine them, from refusing or casting off whatsoeuer they mislike, or from taking vpon them and put­ting in practise any thing that they haue de­termined and concluded to be done. Seeing according to their conceit, they haue found out that Byshops and all other officers in our Church are popish, and that the ministery beareth (as they suppose) popish names and markes, and the lawes are popish, they will [Page 164]neither sue to Prince nor Counsell for the remouing of any of these things, but with all speede cast the yoke from their owne necks. And seeing they haue found in their fansies, that an eldershippe and no other lawes but the written word is to be heard, therefore they will erect these things among them­selues. For God (say they) hath left power in euery man and euery assembly of his peo­ple, to cast off al that may hinder, & to trans­port thēselues to any thing that may further their saluation. In matters necessary to salua­tion we graunt there is by Gods gracious working such freedome giuen to Gods people, that all the deuils in hell can­not hinder them from hauing that where­by it should be brought to passe. But such are not the things, which they striue for. Saluation may be had in this state without them. But their opinion of vs in respect of Christian libertie is this. They say, that all wee remaine in bondage to the E­gyptian and Babylonish yokes, yeelding obedi­ence to these Courts and their Cannons. Now let vs heare their scripture, by which they will maintaine their so absolute libertie, and condemne vs as men in Egyptian bon­dage. The places are these: first that to the Galathians, Gal. 4.9. But now seeing ye know God, yea ra­ther [Page 165]are knowen of God, howe turne ye againe to impotent and beggerlie rudiments, whereunto as from the beginning, you will be in bondage a­gaine? Paul there speaketh of the obseruation of dayes and ceremonies of the lawe with o­pinion of necessitie to saluation & iustificati­on: we repose neither saluation nor iustificati­on in any ceremony or outward thing which we vse: not in the gouernment, not in appa­rel, this or that. In the vse of them our minds are free. The like meaning hath that to the Collossians: Collos. 2.20. If yee bee dead with Christ from the ordinances of the worlde, why as though yee liued in the world, are yee burthened with traditions? There is no tradition in our Church that can be a burthen to a mans conscience, being rightly taken, seeing there is no idolatrous tradition among vs, nor a­ny ioyned with opinion of necessitie, or worship of God, or merite to saluation. But in those things the soule is left free to de­pend wholly vpon Iesus Christ. The like meaning hath that to the Corinthians: 1. Cor. 7.23 Yee are bought with a price, bee not the seruauntes of men. Paul condemneth not obedience in things lawfull, but in volun­tarie worshippe. And as for vs, we place no necessary part of Gods worship in the tradi­tions of any mē. The booke of cōmon praier [Page 166]is not reckoned so necessary, as if God were not otherwise rightly worshipped; neither yet absolutely as meere traditions of men, for as much as it is either scripture, or agreea­ble vnto scripture. Outward ceremonies are retained for order, but no part of Gods wor­ship placed either in crosse or garment. To these places of scripture as of like nature may be ioyned that of the Actes, Acts 4.19. Wee ought rather to obey God then men, that is, whē they cōmand things contrary. But in the gouern­mēt, or in the ministery, or in Gods worship, or in the admission of men to the sacraments, the lawes of this land doe not commaund things contrary to God, for any thing that we haue yet found. Last of all for our bon­dage, Apoc. 14.19. they produce first the Reuelation where it sayeth: If any man worshippe the beast or his i­mage. The gouernment by Byshops, they take to be the image of the beast. They were (we confesse,) so to be accounted, while they maintained the Pope and his lawes: but now they are not so, when they are set to further the Gospell and truth of Christ. These are the places by which they would conuince vs to be in bondage. But the Scriptures by which they chalenge their large and infinite liberty are these: Ioh. 8.33. first that of Iohn, Ye shall knowe the trueth, and the trueth shall make you free. Christ [Page 167]speaketh of freedome, not from lawes and Magistrates and Ecclesiasticall gouernment, but from sinne and Satan: for he sayth, He that committeth sinne is the seruaunt of sinne. The next that is pretended to speake for their liberty, is Paul to the Galathians. Gal. 4.6. Ieru­salem which is aboue is free, which is the mo­ther of vs all. Paul disputeth of our freedome from the curse of the lawe, and from circum­cision and other ceremonies, so that the curse is not to be feared of vs that are made free by Christ, nor iustification to be sought by the ceremonies of the lawe, nor any part of Gods worshippe to be reposed any longer in them. And the same is his purpose in the fift Chapter, when he sayth, Stand fast in the libertie wherewith Christ hath made vs free. This is the freedome of conscience, the liber­tie from the curse pronounced by the lawe, and from the ceremonies thereof, with opi­nion of worshippe or merite of saluation. Thus are we free. We are vnder a gouerne­ment, and haue some fewe ceremonies: but we neither count them parts of Gods wor­ship, nor any cause of our iustification or sal­uation. Thus our minds are free, although our bodies be bound in an outward obedi­ence. They may therefore become subiect with vs to this gouernment, and yet inioy [Page 168]due Christian libertie.

The tenth and last note of their Church is this, that it must haue the power that Christ hath giuen to his Church to the worlds end, and all the powers in earth and hell cannot take from them: namely to bind and loose, and to reforme things that are amisse. Which power they say we haue not. For our assemblies as they iudge, cast out Satan by the power of Satan: namely (say they) by these impes of Antichrist, the Byshops, Commissaries, and Priests. These be their words. Then if they say true in deed, in this Church gouernement we haue no binding sinners, and loosing them that doe repent, but by the deuill. Let vs see what binding or loosing the church of God should haue, and how farre that which we haue is wanting and disagreeing from the trueth. The power giuen to the Church in this re­spect they affirme to becōtained in these pla­ces which follow. Psal. 149. First in the Psalme when it is said, To bind their Kings in chaines, & their nobles in fetters of yron. This place seemeth properly to be vnderstood not of Ecclesi­astical censures, but of outward victory got­ten by the sword against Gods enemies by his people after their oppression. This God giueth oftentimes to his Church, and hath (his name be praysed) giuen already vnto [Page 169]vs: God graunt when need shall require, we may obtaine it hereafter. The next place by which they chalenge this power, is in Mat­thewe: If hee will not heare them, Mat. 18.17 tell it to the Church, and if hee refuse to heare the Church also, let him be vnto thee as an heathen man and as a publicane. By the Church might here be vnderstood ye gouernors to whō this authori­ty should be committed of the church, or els the whole assembly speaking by the voice of one or fewe, for the declaration of the ob­stinacie and damnable state of such an one: but as for a presbyterie in euerie con­gregation it cannot serue, seeing if it be spo­ken by relation to the practise of the Iewes, they had no such thing: but in Ierusalem, in one citie, one assemblie, one consistorie of such iudgement for all. After this they seeke somewhat for their excommunicating pres­bytery in Luke. Luk. 10.19 Behold I giue vnto you power to treade on serpents and scorpions, and ouer all the power of the enemie, and nothing shall hurt you. This was a miraculous gift confer­red vpon the Apostles both for their pre­seruation and the glorie of Iesus Christ, as Paul by the viper hanging on his hand receyued no hurt. The thinges going be­fore are referred to the power of the word beating down Satan from the soules of [Page 170]men. As for excommunication or punishing the wicked by censures, this pertaineth not to that. That to the Corinths maketh the most shewe for their purpose, When ye are gathered together and my spirite by the power of our Lord Iesus Christ, 1. Cor. 5.4. let such a one be deliue­red vnto Satan. But this maketh against that which they seeke, & seemeth to fauour that order which we haue. For Paul being one man alone, did decree this sentence: The Church was to declare it. But whether it be done by one or many, this needeth much heed and care and conscience, that this sword bee drawne against none, but those that doe de­serue it. Last of all, that of the 2. Corinths, doth not helpe the presbyterie. Thus he sayeth. The weapons of our warfare are not carnall, but mightie through God to cast downe holdes, ca­sting downe imaginations and euery hie thing that is exalted against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captiuitie euery thought to the obedience of Christ, hauing readie venge­ance against all disobedience. A great part of this is vnderstoode of the word preached, which worketh these effects. The venge­ance against disobedience was a thing in Paules owne hand as minister of it, not in the power of the multitude or any presbyte­rie there mentioned. So that if it pertaine to [Page 171]the censure of the Church, it might be execu­ted by one man. But it is thought rather to be meant of bodilie punishment, which by the mightie power of Christ, the Apostles in the beginning did inflict vpon the disobedi­ent: So Peter killed Ananias and Saphyra, and Paul stroke Elymas blind. These are their authorities, whereby they chalenge to their Eldership, power and might to binde and loose, and would inferre, that in the Church of England there is no casting out of the di­uell, but by the power of the diuel, because their presbyterie is not called to coniure him out. Some reformed Churches vse no excom­munication at all, and yet are the Churches of Christ. They haue other punishments for the offenders: The trueth is, that excommu­nication cutteth no man from the Church, whome his owne sinne and vnbeliefe hath not cut off before: Neither can it loose anie, whome faith and gods spirite doth not loose. Thus much of the tenth and last note of their Churche. Thus I haue briefelie set before you a short viewe of the difference betwixt the Sectaries and vs. They that fauour these opinions, these innouations, are in diuers de­grees: some saye they are imperfections, and wantes, and maimes in our Church, the most of those thinges which they mislike, but yet [Page 172]to be tolerated. It must be confessed there is no Church, but hath imperfections. We may not maintaine all thinges, as blameles in our Church. No man is founde faultles: euery Church is wanting in their duetie, both in re­spect of mens lawes, and of the persons. We can not iustifie our selues in all thinges: but that euerie thing is such a deformitie, and maime, or anie so grosse as they seeme to make them, if the particulars be examined, it will not be founde. These mislikers and to­lerators haue begotten the last and extre­mest degree of reuolters, of forsakers, of re­fusers, and plaine contemners, whose case is much to bee pitied: especiallie of those mis­slikers, because thorowe them, they are come into this downefal. The controuersies where­in wee differ, haue small weight in the mat­ters, and lesse in the proofes, yet beholde the conclusion.

Thus they speake. Therefore the parishes of England are not, and for all these reasons seuerall and ioyned, cannot bee helde in anie Christians iudgement, the true Churches of Christ. This is their sentence vpon all the pa­rishes and people in this land, that come to the Churches, that heare the worde at our mouthes, that receaue the Sacraments at our handes: they shut vp all in one state of not [Page 173]being the people of God, nor the Churche of Christ. As for our selues, notwithstan­ding their rash iudgement, wee knowe vpon what grounde wee stand. There can no other foundation bee layde, then that which is layde, euen Iesus Christ is the head corner stone, he is the rocke: Euerie parish in this land is taught, either plentifullie, or sparinglie: yet all are taught this, that Christ onely is our head, our sacrifice, our righteousnes, that hee is to bee laide holde on onelie by faith ioy­ned with repentaunce, and a good consci­ence. Where this is taught, and receaued, there is the Churche of God. All the pari­shes in this land bee taught it, and by pub­like confession doe witnesse that outward­lie, at least, they doe receaue it. The Lorde graunt that it maye bee made more cleare, and that it maye bee whetted more sharpe­lie vpon all, and that all maye receaue it fruitefullie, to comfort and saluation. 2. Cor. 13. Paul sayeth: Proue your selues, whether you are in the faith, examine your selues, knowe yee not your selues, how that Iesus Christ is in you, except ye be reprobates?

We neede not be cast in doubt of our selues, for a supposed appendant trueth of an out­ward forme of gouernement, as though if we haue not that, and yet haue the truth of faith, [Page 174]the spirite of Christ, the worde of God, the sacraments of the Gospell, repentaunce and newenes of life: hauing these (I say) that are most necessarie and substantiall branches of Christian religion; it were madnes to thinke wee haue nothing, because they imagine wee haue some as bad, or worse then infi­dels and heathen men among vs, and because we haue not such an outwarde gouernement as pleaseth them, because we worship God by the booke of Common prayer, and be­cause our Ministers some are not preachers, and all are made by the Byshops, and all to­lerate or allowe the booke of Common pray­er, and the outwarde gouernement. These are the chiefe heades of the difference be­tweene them & vs. While men seeke to per­fect Churches, they will bring to passe, that there will bee among vs no Church at all. Now with vs, there is leaue for all men to be good, if they will by Gods grace indeuour. They would haue it so as they fancie, that no man should be euill: but this is impossible. If we can bring to passe, that the Gospell be taught in all places, and that sinnes bee most seuerelie punished, and all be brought to the learning of the worde of God: then shall we see a more perfect and beautifull forme of the Church among vs. Thus many of these [Page 175]controuersies will be appeased, then shal we most clearelie appeare to bee the armie of Christ, and hee will shewe himselfe to be our captaine, and Lorde, and God. Thus much to them that denie that we are Christs armie, and that our Churches as they now stand, are not the true Churches of Christ.

This matter being thus runne ouer, it is time to returne to that which wee haue in hand. The beast, and the kings of the earth and their armies, fight against him that sitteth on the horse, and against his armie. A parte of this armie, the Churche of England as it standeth nowe is, by the singular goodnes of God. All Gods people make but one armie, and that an vnited armie. How much more then is it necessary, that we which be but one band as it were, of this mightie armie, should agree together in one? Let all lay aside en­uie, pride, and aemulation. Let vs especially now in the time of so dangerous threatnings, and attempts of the enemies, put away strife about these matters. Many doubtlesse stirre vp, and set a fire the parties on both sides, and yet beare no loue to eyther. It were the best meanes of the enemies victorie, to increase strife. Cyprian ascribeth the violent persecu­tion that came vpon the Church in his time vnder Decius, to dissension, which fell among [Page 176]them, especially, by meanes of the Nouatians, euen such a sect as this is, that vnder pretence of a greater puritie, would make a Church by thēselues. Thus he describeth his times. Patri­monio & lucro studētes, amulationi & dissentioni vacantes, simplicitatis & fidei negligentes, seculo verbis solis & non factis renunciantes, vnusquis­que sibi placentes & omnibus displicentes: Vapu­lamus ita (que) vt meremur. While wee studie for gaine & riches: while we followe pride: while we are earnest about aemulation & dissentiō, negligēt about faith: while we renounce the world in words onelie, & not in deeds: while we please euerie man himselfe, & displease all men else: while wee giue our selues to these things, we are beaten as we deserue. Eusebius maketh dissention ye cause of ye most grieuous persecution that Dioclesian brought vpon the Church, which lasted 13. yeeres: In which the Churches were throwen downe, & made euen with the ground: the Bibles were taken & burnt in the open markets: the pastours & Byshops were put to death, or were faine to lye Lid in caues. Thus hee sayeth: Postquam res nostrae, &c. After our estate by too much li­bertie, Hist. l. 8. c. 1. degenerated into nicenes and sluggishnes, and one hated and reuiled another, and where­soeuer it happened, wee among our selues, and by our selues, did set vpon one another with armour [Page 177]and weapons of wordes, and rulers fell out with ru­lers, and pastors with pastors, and people moued sedition against people, and after this vnspeake­able hypocrisie and mocking, did growe to the top of malice and naughtines: Gods iudgement (af­ter his accustomed maner) came vpon the Chur­ches. This was the estate in the time of Euse­bius, before the persecution came. Ours is not much vnlike. God graunt dissentiō cease, that there follow not the like euent. The seueritie of some men in maintaining vnity is misliked: but there is nothing but seueritie can helpe vs. Abbas Vrspergensis by reason of ye schisme in Germanie about ye election of the Emperor, some leaning to Philip, some to Berthold, some to Otto, saith: that there was not one parish which agreed with another, & that by occasion of this, & such strifes, the Pope did grow so great. Iocūdare super adiutrice tua discordia, quia erupit de puteo infernalis abissi, vt accumulētur tibi multa pecu­niarū praemia. Habes quod semper sitisti, decanta cāticū, quia per maliciā hominū non per tuā reli­gionē orbē vicisti. Thus he speaketh to Rome: reioyce for thy helper discord, because she is brokē out of the infernall pit that much money may bee brought to thee: thou hast that which thou hast al­wayes thirsted. Sing this song, that thou hast ouer­come the world, by meanes of the malice of men, & not by thy religiō. It was ye discord of men that [Page 178]made the Pope great, and brought his ty­rannie vppon them. That also was the cause of Gods iudgementes vpon the East Chur­ches: the dissention about the Trinitie made a way for Mahomet. If any thing will bring the Antichristian yoke vpon this lande a­gaine (which God turne far from vs) it will be dissention. Therefore all bitternes, and libelling, and slaundering must bee layde away.

If it might come to passe that wee were an vnited armie, then we might easilie hope to stand, we might preuaile against our enemies, although they came neuer so manie, or so oft against vs. To bring vs to vnitie, and to helpe vs to get the victorie against the common e­nemie, wee haue neede of manie meanes. These causes that are in controuersie must be opened by preaching, by writing, by confe­rence. So Augustine stopped the mouthes of the Donatistes, that are most like to those with whome wee haue to deale. After this maner, he oft ouercame the Maniches, and the Palagians, Zwinglius by disputing, wri­ting, and preaching, draue the Anabaptistes cleane out of Zurich, although there they be­gan. If sectaries write, and no man answere: if they priuelie sowe the seede of their secte, and no man publikely roote it out: they will [Page 179]ouergrowe all. While Doctor Fulke liued, his aunswering and confuting of euerie po­pish Treatise, which came forth in English, did much good in keeping away from vs the infection and poyson of Poperie. Able men shoulde bee chosen (if they offer not them­selues,) which should continue that course, that nothing might appeare against Religi­on, or gouernement, which shoulde not be aunswered. If they can not be aunswered, let the faultes be amended, let them not be re­tained. This is one meanes to helpe to re­couer vnitie.

Another helpe must be in the ciuill Magi­strates, which by authoritie and punishment, must restraine the libertie of rayling, of libel­ling, and of contemning the gouernours in place. Vile pamphlets of reproch and slaun­der, should not be suffered to goe forth: no, not against an enemie. While we suffer one parte to rayle, wee prouoke the other, and peraduenture a third commeth in, and pain­teth both in the foulest colours. These should be meanes to vnite vs at home.

Against our common enemies, wee had neede first to be armed with innocencie and righteousnes: we must beare the colours of our captaine Iesus Christ: Hee rideth vpon a white horse; and the warriours which were in [Page 180]heauen, by hope and conuersation followed him vpon white horses clothed with fine linnen, white & pure. And before in this Chapter it is sayde, that the white linnen is the righteousnes of Saintes.

If wee be knowen by these colours, our captaine and generall will not suffer vs to be ouerrunne. Nineue repented, and after threatning was saued. God hath generallie promised to anie nation repenting, that hee will turne away the euill which hee hath deuised against it. Wee can not but see the land full of sinne: Contention and strife in the Ministers, and a great parte of the people: Theftes, robberies, murders neuer so ma­nie, nor with such multitudes and boldnes attempted: Whoredome, excesse, pride, and drunkennesse ouerflowe all. These fil­thie ragges must bee cast away, and wee must put vpon vs the fine white linnen of righ­teousnes.

Let vs not thinke that the righteous­nes of ten will saue our land, as it would haue saued Sodome. God hath not made such a generall condition with all people: and there is no comparison betweene fiue little cities in a valley, and all this lande. When the captiuitie was brought vpon Ie­rusalem, there were diuers that feared God [Page 181]among them. The righteous man shall escape himsefe in the time of Gods iudge­ment: Hee shall not saue anie other: God will prouide for those that are his, liuing, or dying. If Noah, Iob, and Daniel were a­mong this people, As I liue sayeth the Lorde, they should saue neither sonne nor daughter: they should saue but their owne soules. Euerie man labour to bee righteous himselfe, and hee shall bee safe. Remember that Christ iud­geth and fighteth righteously.

To this righteousnes of life, wee must also ioyne faith, or rather righteousnesse must bee ioyned to faith. This is our vic­torie that ouercommeth the worlde, euen our faith. By faith Dauid, Gedeon, and the rest subdued kingdomes, and wrought deliuerance to Gods people. Although wee haue sinne, yet let vs repent and trust in Gods mercie and power, and commit the euent to him. Faith preuaileth with God by prayer. By prayer, Moses fought against Amalek: Eli­as by prayer obteyned fire to consume the fiftie that came to take him. Prayer deliue­red Ierusalem and Ezechias, when Senache­rib was readie to deuoure them. These must be our spirituall armour. These must we put on as Christians: and as men, we must arme [Page 182]our selues if neede require otherwise. It is needefull that we should alwayes be readie. The beast will not change his nature: His fa­uourer is mightie and impatient of a foyle. Let vs not bee secure, because God hath fought for vs, and giuen vs one victorie. Cae­sar at his first comming into this land, had the repulse. The Danes were at the first beaten backe. The Gothes at their first comming into Italie with three hundred thousand were ouerthrowne: but within fiue yeares after they came againe, and destroyed all the West Empire. The Sarasens at the first, were dis­persed and drowned with tempest comming into Spayne: but at length they tooke it, and inhabited it certaine hundred yeeres. Con­stantinople was not wonne at the first expedi­tion against it. It is not in vaine, that God bringeth enemies against a people, and deli­uereth them once or twise. It is not to make them proude nor secure, nor more licentious: but (if they amend not) to bring a more se­uere and horrible reuenge vpon them. Let vs not therefore trust to this, that God hath done it once, as though he would doe it al­wayes, though wee become negligent, and waxe worse and worse.

Thus if we arme our selues, wee shall see [Page 183]such an ende of the battel, when the enemie shall come against vs, as God hath here fore­shewed. The beast and the false prophet shall be taken, and cast into the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone: The rest shall be slaine in such number, that their bodies shall not bee buryed, but the rauens shall feede vpon their carcasses. Hitherto, God hath giuen victorie vpon victorie against the beast, and I trust he will doe it still, till that enemie be consumed. This age hath seene manie victories against him, and it is verelie to bee thought, it shall see more. The triumphant songs set downe so oft in this Chapter, after the discouerie of Antichrist, and the beginning of his ouer­throwe, make me greatlie to hope for it. First the multitudes sing: Halleluiah: Salua­tion, and glorie, and honor, and power be to the Lorde our God. For hee hath condemned the whore, and reuenged the blood of his seruantes. And they sayde againe: Halleluiah: and her smoake rose vp for euermore. Then the pastours, and all the creatures sayde Amen, Halleluiah. And the fourth time, a voyce came out of the throne saying: Prayse our God all yee his ser­uants, and yee that feare him, both small and great. And last of all: Iohn saith: I heard lyke a voyce of a great multitude, and as the voyce of manie waters, and as the voice of strong thun­drings, [Page 184]saying, Halleluiah: for our Lorde God almightie hath reigned. Let vs be glad and re­ioyce, and giue glory to him, for the mariage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made her selfe readie. Thus about the time of the fall of this enemie, the ioye of the Church shall be vnspeakeable: victorie followeth vpon victorie, triumph vpon triumph. God graunt that we may bee prepared against these ene­mies, that (if they come against vs) we may yet haue experience of these victories, that wee may sing these thankefull and ioyfull songs of deliuerance, and that wee may bee prepared to the mariage of the Lambe, and founde clothed with the wed­ding garment when hee commeth, Amen.

Imprinted at London by George Bishop and Ralph Newberie. 1590.

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. Searching, reading, printing, or downloading EEBO-TCP texts is reserved for the authorized users of these project partner institutions. Permission must be granted for subsequent distribution, in print or electronically, of this EEBO-TCP Phase II text, in whole or in part.