TRVE and Christian Friendshippe. With all the braunches, mem­bers, parts, and circumstances thereof, Godly and lear­nedly described. Written first in Latine by that excellent and learned man, Lambertus Danaeus, and now turned into English.

Together also with a right excel­lent Inuectiue of the same Au­thor, against the wicked ex­ercise of Diceplay, and other prophane Gaming.

¶ Imprinted at London for Abra­ham Veale, dwelling in Paules Church-yard at the signe of the Lambe. 1586.

¶To the Worshipfull, my very good friendes, Maister VVil­liam Bromley, and Maister Reginald Skreuen, Secretaries to the right Honorable, the Lord Chaunce­lor of England.

DANAEVS mine Author, chose for ye Patrone of this his Treatise in La­tine, a Gentlemā, Secretarie to the King of Fraunce. I, for my trāslatiō thereof into En­glish, haue made choyse of you twaine, Gentlemen, as well as the other, and Secretaries, though not to a King, yet to a Personage of Honor next to a King: and in vertue, wisedome, zeale, grauitie, authoritie and knowledge so rarely furnished, as I would yt all Kings were. Your friendly curtesies towards me, deserue this and a farre more thankful re­mēbraunce, [Page] and the very title of this Pam­phlet emboldened me, to woe you for pardon, in thus farre presuming and aduen­turing vpon your patience. I haue chosen, not the one, but both twaine of you, be­cause firme, stedfast and perfect friendship cannot bee betweene either moe or lesse then twaine: and because also I am not ig­norant, in what a sweete league of mutuall loue, and Christian sympathie, you twaine be linked together. Fare ye hartily well.

Your vnfayned well wil­ler, Thomas Newton.
¶ A Discourse of true and Christian Friendship: with all circumstances thereof, godly and learnedly discussed.

[Page]¶ A Discourse of true and Christian Friendship: with all circumstances thereof, godly and learnedly discussed.

The first Chapter. Of the ground and foundation of true & Chri­stian friendship.

THe ground and foundation of true & Christian Friend­shippe, is the admiration of vertue, or of some speciall gift of God that is in an o­ther: the praise & vse where­of, respecteth either God himself, or els man.1. Sam. 18. verse 1. and 27. &. 30. This mooued Ionathan to knit himselfe in most firme friendship with Dauid: whom for his valiaunt heart and noble courage in van­quisshing proud Goliath, he highly estéemed, honoured and entierly loued. Such persons therefore as either for some singular gift of true Godlinesse, or for some speciall praise of some morall vertue (as namely, Iustice, for­titude, [Page] liberalitie, &c.) doe excell others, and are worthily therefore inuested with the title of deserued commendation, we doe throughly loue, entierly reuerence, and hartily fauour. And this later is the neerest & the next cause, that wee commonly vse to respect, and to haue regarde vnto. But the former of the twaine is that, which is occasioned, bredde and brought forth by a secrete instinct of the Spirite from God: to wit, the mutuall knitting together of myndes, and a like inclination and conformi­tie of willes. For al true and holy Friendship hath his ground from GOD, in whome it is firmely established, and by whom only it con­tinueth sure, stedfast and permanent.

The second Chapter. Who be fit to lincke together in fast friendship, and betweene what persons it may be.

ALthough many sortes and kindes of Familiaritie be tearmed by the name of Friendship, yet of them all, is there but one onely kinde, that of right may chalenge the name of true Friendshippe. And this can be among none others, sauing onely those, which be faithfull and true hearted Christians: such (I say) as [Page] are ledde by the Spirite of God, and haue his feare before their eyes.

For when Infidelles and vnbeleeuers doe ioyne together in consent about any matter among themselues, they doe it either for re­ward, hyre and gayne sake: or els for their pri­uate pleasures: or finally, for their aduaunce­ment and honours sake: all which endes are most farre from true Friendshippe. There­fore (I say) it can be among none others, thē onely such, as be godly and faithful, and feare the Lord effectually. For there can be neither fellowship nor agreement of mynds betwene a beleeuer and an Infidell: yea,2. Cor. 6.14. the Apostle Paule warneth vs not to cōpanie with such: but to come out from them, and to separate our selues from their familiaritie. Now, al­though wee bee in some sorte allowed, and not altogether flatly forbidden a certaine kinde of common conuersation with Infidelles and vnbeleeuers, so farre forth as the societie and necessitie of this our humaine life for mutuall entercourse of cōmodities and curtesies one with an other requireth: yet may we not linck our selues in that neere familiaritie, or vse that ordinary companie, and friendly conuer­sation with them,1. Cor. 5.1.2. 2. Thes. 3.14. wherby any inward heartie friendship or good liking one of an other may [Page] growe and be engendred. In this godly sorte was the fast friendship betweene Dauid and Ionathan made and confirmed, which were both of them godly persons, and fearing the Lord. For like with like (according to the old Prouerbe) doe best agree, and are easiliest brought to keepe companie together.

The third Chapter. What true and Christian friendship is.

WE must therefore plainely de­clare, what true Friendship is. Wherein we must first note the distinction and difference that is made betweene fauourable goodwill called Beneuolentia: and perfect Friendship tearmed Amicitia. For a fauou­rable goodwill is that, when men being ab­sent one from an other, yea, which neuer sawe one an other, doe yet heartily loue one an o­ther, drawne thereunto by a kinde of admira­tion of vertue, or some notable and singular gift of God, which ye one doth perceiue, espye and knowe to bee resiaunt in the other. So, when as Paule had as yet neither seene Pe­ter,Gala. 1.18.19. Iames, nor Iohn, yet did he loue thē: and this kind of loue, was this fauourable good [Page] will, and this Beneuolentia, which wee speake of, beeing knitte and combined together be­tweene persons absent.

But Friendship requireth both the com­panie, the sight, and the familiar conuersation of friends together amōg themselues. Ther­fore it is onely among them, which are either daiely conuersaunt one with an other: or els such as haue aforetyme liued long tyms toge­ther. For, familiar conuersation, and frequent companie keeping, encreaseth (as the Pro­uerbe saith) this friendship, and sowdreth men together in this indissoluble agreement of myndes. Now, Friendship is such a kinde of loue and inwarde affection, as that there can not possiblie be any greater, and vnto which, there cannot any thing be either added or put vnto more. It requireth therefore a mutuall frequentation and familiar conuersation, be­cause thereby our goodwill, liking and affec­tion is vsually encreased, strengthened, and made greater. In this sorte was that friend­ship betweene Dauid and Ionathan, not on­ly at the first occasioned and begun, namely, by that their domesticall and familiar conuer­sation at home in Saules house: but was also thereby much encreased and furthered.1. Sam. 18. &. 20.5. For this same dailey being in companie together [Page] (which I speake of) or at least,Psal. 41.9. this often mee­ting and conference together, doth feede (as it were) this newe kindled fier or flame of ar­dent affectiō, which burneth alike in the brea­stes of either partie.

Neither yet doth friendship ceasse or vtter­ly perish, through absence, growing vpon iust and reasonable causes: as we may see in Da­uid and Ionathan, whose friendship cōtinued and lasted still, the one (notwithstanding) be­ing absent from the other: for such deepe roo­ted goodwill, and such ardent affection can not be easely quenched. Therefore, Friend­ship being first well and surely grounded be­tweene persons present,1. Sam. 23.16. continueth still euen betweene them being absent: and the further they be asunder, the greater commonly is the longing desire of either partie to other: and the more vehemently doth their enflamed myndes encrease. But if this absence and dis­continuaunce be long deferred, protracted or delayed: or if this Friendship were not at the beginning well and throughly settled and grounded, then truely (such is the fickle con­dition and inconstancie of the worlde now a­daies) it is wont commonly either to slyde quite away and take his leaue, or at least to waxe cold, and not to haue such great heates [Page] and desires as before. For Aristotle saith, and that very truely, Silence and absence dissol­ueth many friendships.

What is therefore this true and Christian Friendship whereof wee now speake? Many men doe bring many reasons, whereby they goe about (if not altogether and plainly to ex­plicate and at large to displaye, yet at least wise) to depaynt and somewhat to shadow out the force and nature thereof. Some therfore define it with too large circumstaunces, and some againe, hemme it in within too narrowe a compasse. For they which say, that Friend­ship is a consent of mindes in all causes and all matters whatsoeuer, doe not well aduise themselues, what they say: for that, they doe stretch the force of Friendshippe further then they ought to doe. For, there may bee many things, wherein two men or moe doe not al­waies agree together in one, but be of diuers and sundrie opinions. As namely, they may at some tymes agree together to doe some good thing, and oftentymes againe, they may consult together to do some things naughtie and wicked: So that in such a case, this con­sent of mindes in them ought rather to be ter­med a secrete compact, a whispering assem­blie, or a close conference, rather then true [Page] and stedfast Friendship. For they that so de­fine Friendship, that they make it to be a con­sent of goodmē among themselues, touching their priuate affayres and dealings onely, doe make of Friendshippe as it were a kinde of Merchandize.

But wee doe thinke that Friendship may very well be thus defined, if wee say, that it is a Pact or Couenaunt made betweene two persons, (God himselfe beeing called to wit­nesse) wherein they faithfully promise, th'one to th'other, mutually to loue, cherish, and en­tierly to conserue, protect, maintaine and de­fend one the others person, estate, and goods, so farre foorth as it may lawfully bee done, without breach of God his lawe, or dishonour to his worde. Which definition being parti­cularly examined, shal the better appeare, and be found to carie in it the more certaintie and trueth. Hierome in his 5. Epistle doth thus define it: Friendshippe is a mutuall loue en­graffed in the mynde, and a strong linking of the harts together, chast, sincere, and without emulation.

And first it is called a Pact or Couenant, because in Friendshippe this seemeth to be a thing thereunto singularlie and peculiarlie appropriate, that there is alwaies betweene [Page] faithfull vowed Louers, a certaine bargaine or agreement solemnely made. So did Iona­than and Dauid agree and consent betwene themselues, making a Couenaunt betweene them, and that not only once, but many times renewed and repeated. For,1. Sam. 18.3. &. 20.8. &. 17. & 23 18. 1. Cor. 1.10. as loue and cha­ritie doth generally commaūd and will euery one of vs to bee knit together in a most firme consent of myndes and agreement of iudge­ments: so specially & namely in true Friend­ship, it is among Friends most chiefly requi­red, that their faithfull hearts and true affec­tions may not bee smoothered in secrecie, or kept vnknowne, but be apparaunted, made o­pen and manifested.

For, such is the force and efficacie of this loue and affection which knitteth and linketh them together, that it will not in any wise bee hidd, but will breake foorth into open shewe. Wherby it commeth to passe, that the one vt­tereth and testifieth to the other, what affec­tion raigneth in him, and what desire he hath to bee loued againe of the other, whom he so ardently fauoureth. Among other kindes of men, the mutuall goodwill that one beareth to an other may many tymes be kept secrete and vnuttered: But betweene Friends it can not in any case so be. Therefore they doe vse [Page] this testification of their mutual affection and will, as it were, the liuely voyce of both their hearts, and the firmer bond and strōger But­tresse for perpetuitie and continuaunce.

Now, the name of God is vsed, and in this case called to witnesse, because he is the true Author and very Fountaine of al firme, faith­full and stedfast Friendship, without whom no maner of Friendship can be good, godlie, or commēdable. For a higher, greater, migh­tier or surer witnesse, pledge, or token, of their inward minde and will, then God himself is, can they haue none: and therefore doe they reuerently in this behalf, and for this purpose call him as Witnesse to their Cōscience and protestatiō. And what better witnesse of their professed promise can they bring then God himselfe? Whose name or authoritie can they vse, that can and wil more seuerely and sharp­ly punish their breach and contempt, then he? For, their desire and wishe is, that the coue­nant, pact, league, promise, vowe, protestation agreeement and consent so betweene them mutually made, and enterchaungeablie re­ceiued and taken, should not be for a tyme but for euer: not momentanie, but perpetuall: not fleeting and fading, but permanent and sta­ble. For this intent therefore (I say) doe they [Page] vse and enterpose the name of God, building their matters vpon him, who is the strongest and surest foundation. And thus doe we reade that Ionathan and Dauid knit their Friend­ship & made their couenaunt before the Lord.1. Sam. 23.18.

It is further also written of the same Iona­than, that he gaue vnto Dauid, as a pledge, bonde or pawne of their newe begon Friend­shippe, not onely the solemne cyting of the name of God, but also other visible giftes and outward testifications, to wit, his Robe,1. Sa. 18.3. Gir­dle, Sword, Bowe, and such other garments and furniture, as at that tyme he had: for such heartie curtesies maketh men, not onely the mindfuller, but also more religious keepers and obseruers of their promise and couenant.

It is said in the definition to be betweene two: because neuer or very seldome is firme and fast Friendship among moe then twaine. And therefore for the preseruing of it stable, stedfast and vnuiolated, there must not a third be taken into this knot of true Friendshippe. Now, whereas it is written of Dionysius King of Sicile, that he earnestly requested to be taken into the perfect bond of sincere ami­tie together with Damon & Pythias, it ma­keth nothing against this our saying. For, there was no such nere coniunction of mynds [Page] with him, as was betweene them two them selues, the one with the other: but it was ra­ther an admiration of that most rare Friend­ship and surpassing goodwill of men among themselues: which vnto a most mightie King seemed admirable, happie and entierly to bee wished for, and which also seemed farre safer and blessedder then that his royall estate and condition. So were Ionathan and Dauid friendes together, being but onely two. For, Friendship betweene moe then two, groweth out of estimation, looseth of his dignitie and price, is contemned and lesse accoumpted of, and in trueth forfaiteth his wonted force and proper vertue.

It followeth in the definition: Of mutual­ly louing, defending, cherishing, & main­teyning one an other. For these be the very chiefest and principallest effects of Friend­ship, that such as bee true friendes in deede, must mutually loue one the other, and that not faynedlie and clokedlie, but euen truely and sincerely: and because of such their mutu­all sinceritie and true loue, they doe also mu­tually defend, cherish, maintaine and protect one an other.

Last of all, there is added in the definition: so farte foorth as may lawfully bee done [Page] without offence to GOD, or dishonor to his most glorious Maiestie. Wherein be set downe the endes whereunto, and the bounds how farre Friendship may stretch: beyond which bounds it is not in any wise lawfull to passe. So that hereby we see three especiall poyntes most necessarie and behoouefull for the better explication and further opening of the force, vertue, efficacie & nature of Frend­shippe, namely, to bee heere opened, handled and discussed, viz.

  • 1 The scope and marke whereat Frends doe ayme.
  • 2 The very effects of Friendship.
  • 3 The Endes and bounds that must bee layed out: and of Frindes in their Friendship to be kept and obserued.

Which three poynts I purpose here parti­cularly to prosecute, after that I haue first laied downe myne opinion and iudgement of this question: Whether an holie, firme and neere friendship, lincked and vowed betwene certaine godly and faithfull persons, bee any way repugnaunt to that charge and Com­maundement of our heauenly Father, tou­ching the louing of all men in generall.

The fourth Chapter. Contayning a question: Whether the lawe of Friendship doe any whit oppugne the gene­rall Commaundement of God, touching loue and charitie to all men.

FIrst, such men as holde opinion that there is herein a repugnācie, doe alledge two reasons: The one is, The generall Commaunde­ment of God,Rom. 13.8 wherby we are charged to loue one an other. Now, if it bee lawfull for some particular persons to contract within them selues a kinde of more streict and nere amitie then with others, then thinke they, that this generall Rule of louing all men indifferent­ly, is transgressed and broken.

Their second reason is this: Our dueties, (commaunded and enioyned vnto vs in that generall Commaundement of Loue) ought to bee so great towards all men, yea towards our very Enemies, that greater, better, or faithfuller can there not, ne possiblie ought there to be shewed vnto those, whom wee call and tearme Friendes. What force or effect then (say they) is there in this singular and speciall goodwill, mutuall agreement and in­ward Friendshippe onely betwene some two,Mat. 5.44. [Page] and no moe? By these two Arguments they thinke this same neere bond, infringible con­sent, firme loue and singular force of speciall Friendship is encountred and taken away: because it maketh vs (say they) the more re­misse, negligent and slacke to loue, ayde, as­sist and relieue others, which are not so fastlie ioyned in heart vnto vs: & because thereupon wee haue more minde to please and benefite those whom we haue specially chosen for our deare and neere Friends: letting all others (in a maner) to passe by, without any helpe at our handes at all.

For answere whereunto, we say,Answere. that there be other, and the same most strong and inuin­cible Arguments to confirme, approue, esta­blish and warrant this speciall kinde of entier Amitie among men: prouing the same to bee to the godlie not onely lawful and allowable, but also honest, lawdable and necessarie.

First, the authoritie of the Sacred Scrip­tures, which teacheth vs that wee ought to loue such as wee admit and receiue into our inward Friendship. And therfore the Spirite of GOD, thundreth out threates,Psal. 41.9. Psal. 55.21 Isaiah. 3.5. Mic. 7.5.6. Eccl. 22.25 commina­tions and punishments against violaters and breakers of this inward amitie and profession of speciall Loue.

[Page]Secondly, the example of godly men, who both publiquely and priuately haue sundrie tymes solēnely entred into, & religiously with mutuall consent professed this neere & strict bond of Amitie. Which deede and purpose of theirs, God himself both praiseth and also set­teth the same forth vnto vs, as a patterne to i­mitate.1. Sam. 18.3. &. 19.1. In this sorte were Dauid and Iona­than lincked together in a most firme bonde of perfect Friendship. And those couenants which among Kinges and Princes and high Estates are called Leagues, are among pri­uate persons tearmed Amitie. But Leagues are allowable and warrantable by the lawe of God:1. Kin. 4.5. And therfore Amitie and Friendship also.

Thirdly, Nature her self: together with the common speach and settled opinion of al Na­tions: for there is no people but highly extol­leth the vertue of Frendship, and hath deuised notable sentences of praise in condemnation thereof: as namely this: Wee haue no lesse neede for the vse of this life of Friendship, then we haue of water and fier. Notablie and excellently is the same discoursed vpon, and cōmēded vnto vs in their learned works, both by Aristotle and Cicero. And it is the common receiued opinion and vsuall tearme [Page] of Nature, & of all people of the world gene­rallie: against the which, whosoeuer resisteth and againe saieth, speaketh euen against his owne Conscience.

Finally, these former Arguments of the againsayers, are vnsufficient and prooue no­thing: because they may both of them be easi­ly answered and quickly confuted. As first, I say and answere that (by entring into a cer­taine hearty and inward friendship with some one particuler person) the generall Com­maundement and Precept of almightie God is neither hindred nor taken away. For, God himself who teacheth vs to loue all men, hath (notwithstanding) by his Lawe appoynted certaine degrees of Loue, for vs to followe, whereby wee are to loue some more tenderly and dearely then other some. For, he willeth vs not to yeeld alike and equall loue vnto all men indifferently and without respect:Gen. 2.24. Mat. 19.5. Ephe. 5.25. Col. 3.20. Gal. 6.10. see­ing that, wee are commaunded to loue our wife more then our parents: our Children a­boue Straungers: and them which bee of the houshold of Faith, more then Infidels. See­ing therefore in respect of consanguinitie, kindred and proximitie of bloud, it is lawfull for vs to make a difference, by louing our nee­rest friendes more ardently and with greater [Page] affection then others: and to discerne betwene the inwarde heartie loue which wee beare to them, and the common generall loue which vniuersallie we beare to all others: why may wee not also bee allowed the same, in respect of our vowed promise, sworne couenant and professed Amitie? And our Sauiour Iesus Christ,Ioh. 21.20. &. cha. 13.23. being the patterne of all true Loue, is saied to haue loued Iohn aboue all the rest of his Disciples.

Their second Argument is vaine, and fri­uolous. They demaund this question: what is there left for any speciall Friendship, when as all men in generall (yea our very Ene­mies) ought of vs to be vnfaynedly loued? To whom let this briefly suffice for answere: that albeit we loue all, and shewe our selues ready and willing to helpe, relieue and defend all: yet be some more specially commended vnto our care then other some. Therfore the good­liest and fayrest fruite of Loue, is this noble vertue Friendship.

The fifth Chapter. To what scope and drift true friendshippe ten­deth.

THE common & vulgar sorte of men ioyne together in friendship, one with an other [Page] for many considerations and for sundry endes & purposes. For either they knit themselues in league together in respect of some priuate gayne, commoditie and profite that the one hopeth to reape by the other: or els for some respect of pleasure: or finally because they seeke thereby to attaine some preferment ho­nour, dignitie, praise or countenaunce. The true Christian friend of whom we here speake is farre from any of these endes: neither re­specteth he any of all these aforesayd purpo­ses: but his chiefe and principall drift is, that in this his Friendship, God specially may be truely honored, and his Neighbour vnfained­ly loued. For, this onely thing doe al the god­lie specially care for, and this marke doe they in the whole course of their loue chiefly ayme and shoote at.

But as there may be assigned many endes and scopes wherefore Friendship is sought for and concluded among men: so is there one speciall, and (as it were) a proper, chiefe and peculiar ende thereof. And that is this: looke whome GOD hath adorned and blessed with some speciall giftes aboue others, and ther­by mooued vs to haue the same partie for his rare qualities in admiration, vnto such an one doe we willingly adioyne our selues, and [Page] with him desire wee most gladly to enter into entier familiaritie.

The first meanes therefore, that firmely knitteth this moste friendly agreement of mindes together, is the will of God, which mooueth and draweth our hearts so to doe. And next is the admiration of the rare ver­tues and singular giftes, which we see in an other: in so much that we earnestly desire (be­cause of the same) to bee in his companie, to haue his vnfained loue, and to stand assuredly in his fauour. And because we commonly ad­mire and most especially loue those vertues, wherein wee chiefly take most delight, and whereunto we feele in our selues by God his good gift, some sparkes and inclinations: it commeth therfore to passe thereby, that there is seene in those that enter into this fast bond of friendship, a similitude and likenesse of ma­ners and affections, the one with the other: and that being thus linked together, they doe (by a certaine inwarde testimonie and secrete iudgement) retaine one and the same consent in all things, and still iumpe together in one opinion.

This third cause therefore for the procu­ring and piecing of firme and true Friend­ship, is of most excellent force, and beareth [Page] most effectuall sway, I meane, the similitude of maners, and like delight in studies and af­fections. For, to will and iust alike, (that is to say, what the one willeth, the other to will the same: and what the other nilleth, the o­ther to be alike affected,) is firme and stedfast Friendship. Friendes therefore commonly take delight in thinges alike, and chiefly for the most parte frame themselues by natures conduction and inclination, vnto the loue and studie of one and the selfe same vertue.

The first foundation therefore of Friend­ship, is grounded vpon likenes of studies and similitude of maners. For, in that we hope to be defended, maintained and protected by our friendes: in that, we our selues desire to be a­miable and admirable to the good and godly: in that, finally we seeke a faithfull companiō and helper, vnto whome to impart our whole deuises and counsailes, all these are rather effects of true Friendship, then ends thereof. Certes, in that firme and fast agreement of mynds betweene Dauid and Ionathan, there was none other scope or ende respected, then this which we here mention.

As touching that sentence of our Sauiour Christ, Make you friendes of the vnrighte­ous Mammon, 1. Sa. 18.3. Luc. 16.9. it is not to bee otherwise vn­derstood, [Page] then that we must learne to bestowe our wealth and money better, then the com­mon sorte of men doe: namely vpon the poore and needie, which may commēd vs vnto God by their prayers: and not vpon the rich and wealthie, whom we commonly (notwithstan­ding) are more readie to pleasure and bene­fite. To conclude therefore with Cicero: Where is this holy Amitie & godly Friend­ship, if the partie whom wee professe to loue and choose to our friende, bee not truely, sin­cerely, vnfainedly, and onely for himselfe and by himselfe, ardently, affectionatly, and har­tily loued?Lib. 1. de [...]ragib.

The sixt Chapter. Of the effects of true Friendship.

THere bee three especiall effects of true Friendship: to witte, mutuall loue in God: an holie consent of myndes: and an interchaungeable or reciprocall defence, maintenaunce, assistaunce and protection one of an other to the vttermost of abilitie and power.

First, as touching Loue: It is an affection of the heart, by the which wee especially loue some one, more thē others: wishing vnto him [Page] all welfare and prosperous successe. And this Loue is called Dilectio, as who should say, Delectio, which signifieth a choyse or an elec­tiō & culling out: & the word Diligere to loue, is so named of an other like worde Deligere, which signifieth to pick or choose out: because that party whō we tenderly loue, we specially pick and choose out frō among all others, and haue a speciall care and desire for his well do­ing and prosperitie more then for all others besides. Therefore we loue all men in a gene­ralitie, but we tenderly and affectionatly em­brace but fewe, or but some one onely, or par­aduenture none at all. For there is a greater vehemencie, and a more effectuall significa­tion in this word Diligere, then there is in the word Amare, although to loue be the signifi­cation both of the one and the other: which difference is wel noted by that most eloquent Marcus Cicero in one of his familiar Epi­stles, written to Paetus.

Whereby wee may see, that force and vio­lēce is not the way to procure and knit firme Friendship betweene parties: nor yet feare: but rather a free choyse of the mynde, and an hartie good liking toward some peculiar per­son, vpon whom (God so disposing our heart) wee franklie and in full measure bestowe the [Page] whole zeale of our entier fauour. For, a man that enrolleth himselfe once in the Register of a perfect and sincere friend, doth so effectu­ously and dearely loue his friend, that he euen accoumpteth and acknowledgeth him, as an other himselfe: and wisheth no better in any respect to himselfe, then he doth vnto that his newe chosen Friend. For, if there should bee allowed neuer so little difference herein, the name of Frendshippe were vtterly gone and quight quayled, and might no longer enioye that title:Lib. 1. de tragib. as the same Cicero no lesse elo­quently then truely hath set downe.

For, such is the force of Friendship, that whensoeuer a man wisheth any better happe to himself, then he doth to his friend, it by & by ceasseth and dyeth. And such effect doth this Loue worke in the mynds of faithful frendes, that the one reioyceth at ye prosperous estate and welfare of the other: and contrariwise, so­roweth and is greatly greeued at his mishap and aduersitie: euen as wee see, came to passe in Ionathan, 1. Sam. 20. vers 34. &. 41. who greatly sorowed at the ca­lamitie and affliction of Dauid. Yea, so migh­tie is the force of this Loue and coniunction of myndes, that they weepe together, and re­ioyce together.

Finally, when a man is faithfully professed [Page] in this league of sincere and true Friendship, he preferreth and more esteemeth his friende then he doth any other whomsoeuer: and bea­reth vnto him a farre greater affection and zeale then to all other men, (for so seemed Io­nathan to preferre his deare friende Dauid before his owne naturall father) so farre forth as Gods glorie is not thereby eclipsed, nor his holy will and commaundement wilfully transgressed. For, he be wrayed and opened his fathers secrete counsell vnto Dauid, and tried out by deuises, what his fathers purpose sayinges and meaninges were toward him: yea,1. Sam. 20.4. &. 9. this Ionathan feared not a whit to disco­uer and opē vnto him such practises as great­ly sounded to the shame and reproach of his owne father King Saule.

This so vehement mutuall Loue, breedeth likewise among friendes a mutuall consent and an holy agreement of mynds in al things yea, it ingendreth also betweene thē a sweete pleasure and lōging desire of the one toward the other. And the further that they bee asun­der by distaunce of place, the more ardently do they desire and long the one for the other: as it were, one entier Soule, being separated and vehemently desiring the other halfe of it selfe being absent. Finally, the neerer they be [Page] together, the more is ye flame of their inward mutuall affection inkindled, and through dai­ly conuersing together, is still made sweeter, and pleasaunter.

This kinde of vehement Affection is not lightly seene among any other persons: for it commonly falleth out, that this daily conuer­sation and frequent familiaritie together, breedeth and soweth among them either flat hatred, or at least apparant contempt. But betweene Frendes it is the meanes that bin­deth and tyeth them the surer and the faster together. For, their naturall dispositions so rightly agree together, that what the one thinketh good, the other thinketh not amisse: and in all things they commonly retaine one and the selfe same iudgement, striuing within themselues, whether of them may surmount and ouercome the other in curtesies and be­nefites.

They drawe moreouer in one equall yoke, they haue one will, one minde, one purpose and meaning, whereby their mutuall consent in all respects is not onely inuiolably conser­ued, but also much the more encreased. Ther­fore there is no iarring, no dissension, no brawling, no chyding, no contention, no fro­ward ouerthwarting betweene them that be [Page] friendes in deede: but the one beareth with the other: the one yeeldeth to the other: in gi­uing of honour the one goeth before the o­ther: the one not so wedded to his opinion, but that he suffreth himself to be easily persuaded or dissuaded by the other, so farre as the honor of God is not thereby any way empayred or emblemished.

The third and last effect of true Friend­ship, is the interchangeable curtesie, defence, protection, assistaunce, ayde, maintenance and conseruation to the very vttermost of abilitie and power, of one Friend for an other: with no lesse care for his preseruation, safetie, pre­ferment, commoditie, and all other benefites whatsoeuer, both touching himselfe, and also all them that depend vpon him.

For, if by that societie & loue which ought to bee betweene all the godlie among them selues, we accoumpt those that by nature are ioyned and lincked vnto vs as our owne, and doe studie which way wee may doe them any good, either in mainteyning them with ne­cessaries, or defending them frō extremities: how much more ought one Frend to be care­full for the good estate and welfare of an o­ther, and to accoumpt him as his owne, yea as himselfe: specially hauing vowed and pro­mised [Page] (and that with an oth) so to doe? Ther­fore he will bee readie in trueth to say and to promise the same that Dauid spake and vo­wed to Abiathar: [...]. Som. 22.23. He that seeketh thy life, shall seeke my life also. Their Guestes, their familiars, their friendes, and their enemies shal be common betweene them, and no more to the one then to the other. And to conclude: All things among friendes (according to the olde Prouerbe) are common.

Chiefly, principally and afore all thinges, the one ought to haue an especiall care for the saluation and soule health of the other: next, for the safetie and welfare of the bodie: and thirdly, for their other goodes ioyntly apper­tayning vnto them, either in common, in the right of faithfull Friendship: (of which sorte be worldly goodes, Cattaile, money, wealth, and the francke vse thereof at either of their pleasures) or els priuately and singularly be­longing vnto the one of them: as for example, his wife. Therfore, if the one shall vnderstand of any conspiracie or practise deuised, imagi­ned, or intended to the hurte and hinderaunce of the other, he will discouer and reueale it. For so dealt Ionathan toward Dauid. 1. Sam. 19.2. &. 20. vers. 2.12.

They will also hazard themselues the one for the other, and put themselues in present [Page] daunger for their defence and rescue, aswell in their absence as in their presence.1. Sa. 1.20.30. Ioh. 15.13. For so did Ionathan put himselfe into most appa­rant perill for his faithfull friend Dauid. In al respects, and at all assaies they are helpfull and assistaunt, the one to the other.

To conclude, by their most friendly and syncere admonitions, aduises, assistaunce and ayde (so farre as by the warrant of the Word of God and of a good Conscience is lawfull) they vnfaynedly relieue, succour, helpe, che­rish, comfort, encourage, maintaine, nourish, cheere vp and sustaine the one the other. For, Friendes doe mutually helpe the one the o­ther, either with their wealth and goodes: or els with their aduise and counsell: or finally with their trauaile, and labour.

In their giuing of counsaile, and aduise, or in their admonitions and frendly directions, one Friend doth not flatter an other: neither doth he cōceale and hide from him, if he espye and knowe in him any faultes worthie of re­prehension. For, Christian Friendship ten­deth vnto, and respecteth the aduauncement of Gods glorie, and not the fostring and nou­rishing of men in their errors. He that is a godly friend, remembreth and vseth this no­table sentence of Phocion the Athenian: [Page] Thou canst not haue mee to bee both a Flatterer, and a Friend to thee also.

For a Flatterer and a Friend doe not one­ly differ in deed and in name: but sure and cer­taine it is, that Flatterie is the rankest poy­son & the most daungerous plague to Frend­shippe that possiblie can bee. The which, al­though it carie an outward shewe of great af­fection and syncere goodwill, yet (doubtlesse) doth it vtterly vndoe the bond of Friendship, vtterly weaken and enfeeble his strength, and vtterly each way destroye and marre the na­ture thereof. For, the Flatterer resembleth and counterfaiteth the wordes of an vnfained Friend, but not his honest mynde, neither his syncere loue, nor his true hearted Affection.

Moreouer, all these three poyntes aboue specified, ought among Freendes to bee com­mon. For, Friendes not onely straine them selues mutually to requite curtesies, but also in these their curtesies, couet the one to sur­mount & passe, yea, & to preuēt (as much as in them is) the one the other. And therfore these perfourmances of mutuall Loue, of mutuall Consent, & of mutuall Defence, Protection and Assistaunce, bee actions enterchaungea­ble, and reciprocall. But yet not so, as that a Friend should purposelie bestowe a curtesie [Page] vpon his Friend, in hope of as good a turne or as large a benefite at his handes againe: (for no other godly honest man extendeth his loue and charitie toward his neighbour, mercena­rywise, or as it were, letting and fearming it out for hyre and gaine) but because the force and nature of Friendship is such, that it will not haue these things otherwise, then mutu­ally and reciprocally returnable.

All curtesies therefore are betweene them giuen, taken, restored, and requited mutually: howbeit (and let this bee well noted) not al­waies alike, not alwaies equally, nor in sem­blable proportion. For many tymes the one receiueth at the handes of the other, more cur­tesie and greater benefite, then he is able a­gaine in the like measure to requite and re­pay: either by reason of the great oddes of the estate and condition of friendes, or els for the difference of their wealth and abilitie. As for example: the one peraduenture is very rich, the other poore: the one fortunate, the other miserable: the one exiled and banished, the o­ther liuing at home in his natiue Countrey. But (all these notwithstanding) he that hath lesse stoare and smaller pittaunce of abilitie, although (perchaunce) he requite not so am­plie and beneficially as hee receiued, yet re­quiteth [Page] hee and returneth as much as he is a­ble. Wherevpon I say, that curtesies and be­nefites among Friendes, are alwaies mutu­all and enterchangeable, but yet not alwaies alike and equall, as appeareth in Ionathan and Dauid. 1. Sam. 20.41.

Yea, Friends doe not onely mutually pro­tect, defend and maintaine one an others per­son, credite, state, wealth and possessions, but also (as much as they are able) procure the same to bee bettered and augmented. And therefore there is no maner of rancorous en­uie or spightful disdaine betweene them. For there is not a greater nor a certainer plague, nor a more fretting Canker vnto syncere and true Frendship (next to Adulation and Flat­terie) then is Spight and Enuie.

The seuenth Chapter. The right Ends of true and Christian Frend­shippe.

IN discussing the Boundes and Endes of true and Christian Friendship, there bee two espe­ciall poynts to bee decided, that are commōly brought into que­stion. The first is, of the Tyme: how long it [Page] ought to remaine and bee continued. The se­cond, of the maner and way how it ought to be obserued, retayned and kept: that is to say, what, how farre and how much one friend is to perfourme and to doe for an other.

Cōcerning the first, which is of the Tyme: let this stand for a definitiue and resolute an­swere, that (if the syncere vowe and vnfained goodwill of them that godly enter into this Christian league of Friendship be aduisedly considered) it ought to be endlesse, and to con­tinue betweene them perpetually, euen so long as they both shall liue in this world.

And yet many tymes without any fault of theirs, by some casuall error and mishappe, it may so fall out, that there may be good cause, either vtterly to renounce and breake of, or at least to withdrawe and relent Friendshippe. For, what if the one of the Friendes should renye his faith, and of a faithfull beleeuer, be­come a faithlesse Infidell? and of a Christian become a Turke or a Pagan? Certes, in this case all Friendship is vtterly to be forsaken, and all Amitie (if after sundrie exhortations and admonitions hee still persist in his obsti­nate miscreancie) must be quight renounced. Howbeit, such a greeuous Apostacie and such an horrible backsliding, breedeth in the mynd [Page] of a Friend, no small heauinesse and sorowe, yea, and many tymes also causeth him for a tyme to suspende his determination, and to linger some while in hope of amendment and repentance. For, euen so likewise, at the death of our Friend, (although wee verily beleeue and rest assured that his soule is receiued into euerlasting blisse) yet doe wee sorowe and la­ment,1. Sa. 1.26. and that sometyme very much, as wee may see in Dauid. But yet must wee obeye the lawes of God and of our frailtie: Least o­therwise, wee should (like the olde Gyaunts) goe about to make warre against God, or ir­religiously to preferre our owne affections before the feare of the Lord our maker.

Therfore, there may oftentymes be giuen most iust occasion to breake and renounce Friendship: but yet the vowe and purpose at the first, ought so syncerely to be made and in­tended, as that it should last, continue, and be retayned for euer. And therefore that tearme and sentence which by some is vsed, is most beastly and reprooueable: Loue, as though thou shouldest one day hate. Which sen­tence and aduise, if it should preuaile and bee allowed, then farewell all fast Friendship: for then is all the force, pith and strength thereof vanished: then bee all the synewes of it loosed [Page] and weakened: and all that firme trust and as­sured opinion yt ought to be among Frendes, (safely, boldly and willingly to impart and cōmunicate together their myndes one with an other, and one to reueale and open his se­cretes vnto an other) is vtterly dashed and put to flight. For why? neither will they, neither dare they aduenture so to doe, for feare of af­terclappes.

Finally, to the ende they may thankfully, pleasantly, trustily and boldly liue together, this silthie Deuilish tearme of diffidence and distrust (Loue, as though thou shouldest one day hate) must bee quight banished and vtterly remoued out of their mynds: although (as I said afore) it may sometyme so fall out, that we may and ought to hate those whom a­foretyme wee haue right dearely loued: but this thing happeneth contrary to the hope, desire and wish of Friendes. Therefore let this sentēce of trust and good opinion rather take place & be heard, Loue, as though thou shouldest neuer hate.

So long therefore, as those two Friendes doe liue together, they ought in heart & vowe to cōserue, keepe and maintaine their Frend­shippe with all maner of behoouefull curte­sies: and not to conceiue so much, as any sus­pition, [Page] either of breaking, or vtter dissoluing thereof. For this course doe they still take, that are true and faithfull Friendes within themselues.

But there is an other question here moued: When the one of the Friendes is dead, what ought the other Frend being aliue, to do with the deceased parties Children? and how is he in respect of the Friendshippe which hee bare to their father, to deale with them? and whe­ther, the same Friendshippe ought to be con­tinued towarde the Children of him beeing dead or no?

Truely, it very well standeth with the rule of Equitie and Reason, that as Children bee heyres of their fathers Landes and Goodes, so also to enherite their fathers Friendship: accordingly as Isocrates writing to Demo­nicus hath most excellently set downe. Be­cause among the fathers Goodes, his Frend­ship is also reckened, and is many times farre better and profitabler, then al the enheritance that the Father leaueth or can bequeath vnto his Children. And to such effect commonly, is Friendship embraced and entred into, with an heartie desire and affectionate vowe of the Parents: that the fruite thereof may redound and bee continued euen vnto their posteritie [Page] and Children.

Thus did the Friendship betweene Io­nathan and Dauid reach and extend vnto the Children of Ionathan. 2. Sam. 9. vers. 1. &. 7 1. Sam. 20. vers. 15. & 42. Which although it may seeme to bee done by Pact and Coue­naunt, at the first agreed vpon betwene them: yet (doubtlesse) is this euer included in the wish and desire of all Friendes, that the fruict of their mutuall Friendshippe and loue, should also after a sorte appertaine and be en­tailed vnto their children: for that, euery god­ly and faithfull person hath speciall respect to prouide, not onely for himselfe, but also for his Children & those that depend on him. There­fore are both the Wife and Children of the deceassed Friend to be tenderly loued, and all other thinges besides, that appertained vnto him: yea, the very Dogges and the Cattaile that belonged vnto him: and all this, through an inward affection of hearty goodwil borne vnto the late owner, and by the law and due­tie of perfect Friendshippe: Howbeit not in such measure and proportion as the partie Friend himselfe being deceassed: but the ex­ceeding great loue & vehement zeale of their late firme Amitie and stedfast coniunction li­ueth still in the breast of him that remayneth aliue, and sendeth foorth many sparkes of his [Page] vnfayned loue, wheresoeuer he beholdeth and is brought into godly remembraunce of his deceassed Frend, by his true and liuely Ima­ges, which be his Children left behinde.

Hereupon there groweth yet an other que­stion, about that gift of Goodes, which Da­uid bestowed on Ziba the seruant of Mephi­bosheth: which (gift notwithstanding that he was afterward better enfourmed of ye trueth of the matter, and of Ziba his treacherous in­fidelitie towarde his Maister): yet did he not wholly and entierly reuoke. For, the Goodes which in right belōged vnto Mephibosheth (who was the Sonne of Ionathan,) he gaue vnto Ziba: whereas he had afore, in remem­braunce of his Friend Ionathan appoynted the same vnto this his Sonne, and had giuen commaundement that the same should be as­signed and assured vnto him: thereby to shewe himselfe thankfull and myndfull of the firme Friendshippe betweene himselfe, and Iona­than, 2. Sam. 9. vers. 7. father of the sayd Mephibosheth. Yet Dauid being afterwards suttly beguiled and craftily deceiued by Ziba, reuoked his former gift made to Mephibosheth, and tooke away from him,2. Sam. 16. vers. 4. all that he had afore bestowed vpon him.

Now, the question is this, whether this last [Page] fact of Dauid may bee defended: or how can hee any wayes bee excused, but that he dealt herein, directly and flatly against the lawes and endes of true Friendship?

First and formost, when as the same Dauid might easilie haue espyed the falshood of Zi­ba, and how cunningly he had bene deceiued and circumuented by his treacherie and false tales: yet shewed hee not so much fauour and compassion vnto his deare Friendes Sonne, as either seuerely to punish and sharpelie re­uenge so notable a villanie and fraudulent cosenage, wrought against him by his owne seruaunt:2. Sam. 19. vers. 29. nor yet to restore vnto him all his Goodes againe.

Certes, in this case, (as I thinke) Dauid cannot at any hand bee excused, but that hee greatly offended and sinned, and that moe waies then one: to wit, first in respect of be­ing a King: and secondly as being the profes­sed and sworne Friende of Ionathan the fa­ther of this Mephibosheth.

In that, he was a King, his office and due­tie had beene to haue punished and reuenged the open treacherie and manifest falshood of the Seruaunt against his Lord and Maister. And in that he was a Friend: his duetie had bene to haue relieued & protected the Sonne [Page] of his deceassed Friend, being shamefully a­bused and lewdly deceiued through the fraude of his owne Seruaunt, and pitifully despoy­led of all his Goodes by him that was his Vassall. His office and duetie (I saye) had bene, in remembraunce of the great Friend­shippe betweene him and Ionathan, to haue defended and supported his Sonne being op­pressed and afflicted: and being well able, to haue restored him to his fathers inheritance.

But in that, Dauid neglected and omitted so to doe, surely therein he is worthy of great reprehension, and to be deemed and accoump­ted as one vtterly vnmyndfull of his office and duetie. Furthermore to haue transgressed the Boundes, and to haue sinned against the lawes of true Friendship, yea and quight to haue forgotten both his promise and the bene­fites which he had afore receiued. Therefore this fact of Dauid is not by any that are pro­fessed Friendes to be imitated and followed, neither to be drawne into example.

If any man to excuse Dauid, will say: that because he had bound himself by an Oath, and had now alreadie giuen the same Goodes vn­to Ziba, that therefore he could not lawfully call backe his promise: the answere hereunto is easilie shaped. For Dauid had afore giuen [Page] the very same Goodes vnto Mephibosheth: and therefore in that partition of them which hee graunted to bee equally made betweene them both, hee cleared not himselfe from the Conscience of his Oath before God. For, he sware also vnto Ziba, that he would giue vn­to him all the whole Goodes of Mephibo­sheth, and not a moytie or portion of them onely. And yet he assigned vnto him but one­ly a part, and tooke an other part away from him. And therefore, euen in this same parti­tion, Dauid brake his Oath, and therein is he manifestly culpable afore God, for taking his Diuine name in vaine.

To be short, there can no excuse bee preten­ded, nor any reason (as I thinke) alledged, whereby Dauid in this case can bee cleared either frō the foule fault of breach of Friend­ship, or of his solemne Oath lōg afore sworne vnto Ionathan.

The second thing, that in the discussing of the Endes of Friendshippe, is brought into question, is of the Maner and Way, how and in what sorte, and how farre, by the lawes of Friendshippe, Friendes must doe one for an other. Sūmarily, such Maner, such Bounds, such Endes, such Limites and Markes must to the same bee appoynted, and so farre must [Page] mutuall curtesies among Friendes be enter­chaungeably perfourmed, as that at no hand the Maiestie, Will, and glorie of God be any way hindered or in anywise dishonoured. For further then so, neither ought they to goe, nei­ther is it in anywise lawfull for a Christian man further to presume.

For, although among vs men, that Friend is highly and dearely to be loued, vnto whom by Vowe and Oath wee haue most strictly bound our selues: yet is God more to bee lo­ued, vnto whom we owe both our selues, and our Friends, and all things els that we haue: and in whose name and authoritie al the force, substaunce and effect of Friendship is foun­ded and established.Gal. 2.14. So did Paule loue Peter, but yet he loued the glorie of God more. So did Aristotle loue Plato, but yet (as he him selfe saieth) he loued the trueth more. And the very Heathen and Paynim people, being de­maunded concerning the boundes of Friend­ship, and how farre one Friend were to deale and to doe for an other, could eloquently and pithily answer, euen as did Pericles, that they would both speak, doe, & goe for their Frend, but yet no further then to the Aultar, that is, no further then Religion and Conscience should warrant them. Their opinion there­fore [Page] & their doctrine was this, that a man law­fully may doe for his Friend all the pleasure he possiblie can, sauing and forprising his con­science and obedience to the word of God: but no further. And herein truely saied they well. As also Aulus Gellius hath likewise noted.

For,Noct Attic. lib. 1. cap. 3. although we bee to hazard the losse of our owne state and wealth, yea and of our life also, for our Friendes sake (neither ought this losse and daunger to be refused,Ioh. 15.13. if we will bee true Friends in deede) yet the glorie of God, and ye eternall saluation of our Soule, ought more to bee esteemed and regarded then any cause of our Friend whatsoeuer it bee. And we neither may, neither ought to bee thought herein to faile, or to come shorte in the office and duetie of a faithfull Friend, if we denye, at our Friends request (be it neuer so earnest) to doe any thing that is vnlawfull and vniust, or against the law of God and Godlines: yea wee must rather doe the parte of a godly and Christian Friend, in shewing our selues rea­die rather to obey God then Man: and also to haue more care of our Friends saluation and Soule health, then of any worldly wealth or transitorie commoditie.

And let him (whosoeuer he bee that reque­steth vs to doe for him any vnlawfull act) [Page] blame and accuse himselfe for asking: rather then vs for denying and for not obeying and feeding his humour. For, he it is which trans­gresseth and breaketh the true bounds of per­fect and faithfull Friendshid, and not we.

Wee must not sticke many times to suffer our name & fame to bee vniustly reported and spoken of, among the vulgar sorte of People: but neuer must wee either for Friend or any man els, commit that which is filthie, vngod­lie, fraudulent, vnhonest or wicked. Whereby it euidently appeareth, that that sentence of Marcus Tullius Cicero in his Booke of Friendship, and other Philosophers also, is erroneous, false, and vtterly to bee reiected: for they say: If the case so stande, or if the matter so fall out, that our Friends willes in vniust causes must bee furthered & hol­pen, whereon either dependeth their life and death, or their fame and credite: Wee may in such a case for their sakes digresse, swerue and wander somewhat out of the path of honestie, so that it be not in a matter extreemely villanous, or wherein vtter shame and reproach may grow. For there bee certaine boundes: how farre to wade in our Friends behalfe, and wherin a man in respect of Friendship is pardonable.

[Page]Wee both may, and also ought (I say) to gratifie and pleasure our Friend: but by com­mitting sinne, or offending the Commaunde­ments of God, to cast away both our Friend and our selues, we may not, nor ought not in any wise. Therefore maye wee not for our Friends cause, or at his request, either waste, spoyle, consume and set on fier Churches, Pa­laces and houses, neither ought we to warre and beare Armes against our Countrey, nei­ther violently to assault or contemptuously abuse the Magistrate, neither any way iniu­riously to hurt any priuate person. For Loue (saieth the Apostle) reioyceth not in ini­quitie. 1 Cor. 13.6.

Neither is it lawfull to lye for our friends sake, therby to helpe his cause, or to bring him out of any extremitie: albeit at some tyme, and in some cases, it is not forbidden vs in our Friendes cause to dissemble a matter, or to make semblaunce & countenaunce as though some things were true, which in deed are not so: such things I meane, as whereby neither God is dishonored, nor our Neighbour dam­nisted. An example whereof we haue in Iona­than, as appeareth 1. Sam. 20. vers. 29. 1. Sam. 20.29.

So that, wee neither allowe the example and fact of Hushai the Archite, neither in a­ny [Page] wise thinke it meete and lawfull to be imi­tated: who for that duetifull seruice that hee would seeme to doe vnto Dauid, and for that entier and loyall Friendship that he bore vn­to him, circumuented and entrapped an o­ther,2. Sam. 16. vers. 16.17 18.19. (to wit, Absolon) by craft and subtiltie. For, he lyed, and dissembled with Absolon, and therein hee greatly sinned, although hee was not onely aduised and admonished, but also requested and earnestly entreated by Da­uid so to deale and so to doe.2. Sam. 15.34.

But in all these things we must diligent­ly marke, and carefully respect not onely what our Friend requesteth at our handes to be done for him: but much rather to consider what beseemeth vs or any Christian man in duetie and Conscience to perfourme.

And thus much of Friendship, and of the Endes, Bounds and Circumstaunces there­of, briefly and summarily haue wee hitherto discoursed, vpon aduised consideration and di­ligent meditation of that faithfull Friend­shippe that was betweene Dauid and Iona­than.

Laus Deo.

Tho: Newtonus, Cestreshyrins.
‘Ad adyta, virtuti aditus.’
¶ A Discourse of Gaming, and specially of Dyceplay.

A TREATISE, touching Dyce­play and prophane Gaming. Wherein, as Godly recreations and moderate disportes bee Chri­stianly allowed and learnedly de­fended: so, all vaine, ydle, vnlaw­full, offensiue and prophane Exercises, bee sharply reproued and flatly condemned.

Written in Latine by Lambertus Danaeus: Englished by Tho: Newton.

Filia auaritiae, Nutrix est alea surti,
Pestis amicitiae, triste furoris o­pus.

Imprinted at London for Abra­ham Veale. 1586.

To the right Worshipfull his very good Frend: Maister William Higham Esquier, one of her Maiesties Iustices of the Peace in the Coun­tie of Essex.

VNkind is he, that hauing receiued curtesie at an o­ther mans hands, denieth it: vnkinde (againe) is he, that dissembleth and will not seeme to know it: vn­kinde likewise is hee, that studieth not one way or other to requite it: but of all others, the most vnkind and vnthankefull is he, that quite forgetteth it.

Much to blame therfore were I (good Mai­ster Higham) if for the manifolde benefites re­ceiued from you, I should either denye, conceale, misregard or forget, how deeply I stād in your debt Booke: or what a number of Arrerages I am behinde withall in your Iournall, in respect of that great heape of curtesies, which I frank­ly and willingly confesse in full measure to haue flowed from you towards mee.

Neither may I (without blushing) preter­mit, how deepely I rest beholding to your Wor­shipfull father in law, my especiall good Friend [Page] Maister Richard Stonley: neither yet can J in honestie conceale the great curtesie that I daylie to my comfort receiue, by and frō your good Cosen my deare Friend and louing neigh­bour Maister W. Waldgraue. I wil not here speake of your learned brother in lawe, Mai­ster D. Dunne, to whom also I owe greater things, euen my self. No way am I able (J con­fesse) to requite any of you, but you remember (I doubt not) what one saith: Mola salsa litāt, qui thura non habent.

Jn part of payment, & for some discharge of duetie, loe here (good Sir) I boldly present vnto you (and in you also to them) this my simple trauaile of three daies, in translating this godly and profitable worke of Danaeus. What effect it shall worke in others I know not: but (surely) if they like no worse of it in reading, then I my selfe haue done both in reading, aduising and translating of it, their labour shall not bee lost, nor their diligence wastfully bestowed. Com­mending therefore both it and my poore selfe vnto you J end: wishing you and your good wife, no worse to fare, then your vertue requireth, the fauour of men wisheth, and your owne dexte­ritie promiseth.

Your bounden Tho­mas Newton.

❧ The Authours Preface.

THE dissolute & licentious disorder of maners and Christian behauiour now adayes in this our cor­rupt Age being growne so great, that among other mischieues swarming amōg vs, the odious and detestable exercise of Dyceplay hath hitherto bene either negligētly vnespied, or not (as it ought to be) cōdignely puni­shed, hath presently occasioned me some­what to write cōcerning this Argument: and to testifie to the world (for that Chri­stian affection that I beare to all good and godly mē, desiring reformation of things amisse) what wickednesse and daunger re­steth in this vile and Deuilish play. Albeit I am not ignorant, that there will start vp some busie bodies and wilfull fellowes, which will not sticke to deride this my la­bour, and frumpe me for my paines here­in taken: neither regarding what shall be [Page] sayd by me, nor yet caring for any amend­ment in themselues. Though (I say) I know there will bee some such disordered Per­sons, yet doubt I not on the other side, but there bee sundrie good and zealous men, fearing God, who vnderstāding the lewd­nesse and loosenesse of this damnable Ex­ercise, will gladly and willingly suffer them selues to bee reclaymed from the same, whereunto (perhappes) aforetyme they were giuen and addicted: and will receiue some profite by this my discourse. Giue admonition to the wise (saieth Salomon) Pro. 9.9. and he will be the wiser, teach a righteous man and he will encrease in learning.


[Page]¶ A Discourse of Gaming, and specially of Dyceplay.

The first Chapter. Whether it bee lawfull at all, for a Christian man or woman to play and vse recreation of their minde.

FOr the better ripping vp & plai­ner opening of all such poyntes as are necessarily required in this Argument to be spoken of: let vs first lay downe our opiniō (by way of answere) vnto a certaine question demaunded and moued by some, yea and the same, very graue & wise Personages: Whe­ther it be in any wise, lawfull, allowable, or tollerable for a godly Christiā to recreate himselfe with any maner of game or pa­stime. Neither doth this their question and motiue, altogether want some colour of rea­son to leane vnto.

For, first they alledge, That we must yeeld an accoumptes vnto God, not onely of this [Page] our whole life, but also of euery singular actiō therof, and how we haue bestowed euery smal moment of tyme in this present world. And what good accoumpts (say they) can he yeeld of his Idlenesse, that hath spent his tyme in playing?

Furthermore, seeing we are commaunded to refraine from euery ydle worde,Mat. 12.36 as Christ himselfe teacheth vs: for that all our triefling toyes and fond vanities doe greatly displease and offend God, although in them we neither sweare, neither blaspheme his holy name: How shall we bee accoumpted guiltlesse and blamelesse before the same our heauenly Father, if wee ydlie, vainely, vnthriftily and vnfruitfully misspende our tyme (which is a thing most precious) in play and disporting? For, whatsoeuer we doe, we must so doe it, as that it may tend to the glorie of God and ad­uauncement of his honor, as that blessed Apo­stle S.1. Cor. 10.31. Paule most diuinely teacheth vs.

Now, if wee spende our tyme in vanities▪ and consume our life in Play, may it bee well sayde (I praye you) that wee therein respect Gods glorie, or haue regard to his honor?

Ephe. 5.16.The same Apostle also diligently and ear­nestly in an other place admonisheth vs, to redeeme the tyme. For wee haue bestowed [Page] the same aforetyme in vaine studies and phan­tasticall deuises, all the while that wee were drowned in the dregges of Idolatrie, and soy­led with the suddes of Superstition.

Beeing now therefore through the inesti­mable benefite and goodnes of God become Christians, and enlightened with the bright beames of the glorious Gospell of Christ, shall we, or is it meete we should bestowe the residue of our tyme in playing, trifeling, toying, and idle loytering?1. Pet. 4.3. It is sufficient for vs (saieth the Apostle Peter) that wee haue spent the tyme past of the life after the luste of the Gentiles, walking in wanton­nesse, lustes, drunkennesse, gluttonie, drin­kinges and abhominable Idolatries: that hencefoorth we should not liue (as much tyme as remayneth) in the flesh, nor after the lustes of mē, but after the will of God.

And truely there be so many vertuous due­ties of Christian life, which God requireth at our handes: and so many occasions euery ho­wer ministred vnto vs, whereby we may pre­mote and aduaunce the glory of God, and also procure the benefite and commoditie of our Neighbour: that euery hower and minute of an hower still bringeth with it some one new occasion or other, to such end and purpose.

[Page]Therfore, to omit those so many and so ho­lie exercises both of minde and bodie: and in steede thereof, ydlie, vainely, securely and Dronelike, to embusie our selues with spor­ting, pastime, playe and daliaunce, is a thing, that many thinke not to bee allowed of, in vs that bee Christians. And if wee will knowe what those many good exercises bee, we will here note some certaine of them for example sake: to wit, diligent reading and hearing of the holie and blessed Worde of God: confer­ring and perusing of the auncient Fathers and Catholique writers: knowledge of Hi­stories, which are most profitable for the or­derly direction of our life: visiting of the Sicke: comforting of them that are in Pri­son: and finally the diligent exercise and me­ditation of that Arte, Trade and Function which euery man particularlie professeth.Math. 25.35.36. All which the Lord in his Worde commaun­deth.

Now, that we should either altogether, or for the most part omit these things, and be (in lieu thereof) addicted to bestowe our selues and our tyme in vanities: this is a thing (I say) that some men and the same both vertu­ous and godlie, cannot well allowe of: but do thinke it to carie matter of great inconue­nience [Page] that any Christian should so vainely bestowe any part of his life in Playe and idle­nesse.

And for ye better confirmation of this their opinion, they bring the sentence & iudgement of that reuerend Father Ambrose, in his first Booke of Offices. Chap. 23. and also in his exposition of the 118. Psalme: where that ho­lie man and graue Father seemeth flatly and absolutely to condemne all kindes of Playe, generally. And so also an other auncient Fa­ther, S. Chrisostome, in his 6. Homilie vpon Mathewes Gospell, disalloweth in a gene­ralitie all maner of sportes and playes. And these be the reasons which thei briefly alledge and bring for confirmation of their assertion.

Notwithstanding, we doe not altogether so thinke, but are rather of an other opinion, and say, that some conuenient recreation may very reasonably be allowed, and pardoned vn­to humaine imbecillitie: and herein haue wee on our side, ioyning in iudgement with vs, the authoritie of other auncient Fathers, no lesse reuerend and accoumpted of, then they: namely Augustine in his seconde Booke de Musica: whose minde and opinion we rather following, doe denye, that it is vtterly forbid­den a Christian man, to play at all, or not to [Page] vse any recreation. Yea, we say, that it is eue­ry wise mans parte to recreate and refresh his minde and bodie, being ouerwearied with stu­dies, accumbred with cares, and cloyed with labours, by laying aside (for a while) his ear­nest and serious businesse, and to betake him selfe to some comely and decent recreation: whereby he may (as it were) breathe a while from his burthen, to the intent afterwarde with the fresher courage and liuelier minde to renewe his former toyle, and giue the lu­stier onset vpon his intermitted businesse.

Their reasons therefore afore, may easilie and with one word be answered: to witte, by distinguishing betweene such thinges as bee allowed vnto a Christian man, and be merely indifferent. For, some things be of such kind and nature, that to bee still occupied therein, is not at any hand allowable: of which sorte is Playe: which for some short time onely and some very small while, may be well allowed and borne withall in a Christian man. But to spend much tyme therein, or to make a conti­nuall practise thereof, is (vndoubtedly) vn­lawfull, vntollerable, and vttetly discommen­dable.

Therefore as that worthie Warriour said of Philosophie, that he delighted to reason of [Page] Philosophie, but yet in fewe words & briefly: so the same and in better right may wee saye of Playe, viz. that to Playe now and then is lawfull, but yet for a small while, not for any long space.

For, vtterly to abandon, banish, and take a­way Playe from this life of ours, is a thing more rigorous, seuere and cruell, then the na­ture of man can easilie beare. Neither may a Christian mā cloyed with long trauailes and much labours bee any whit lesse denyed and debarred Play, for the refreshing of his mind and reuiuing his wittes, then being wearie, to bee allowed to sleepe: beeing thirstie, to drinke: being hungrie to eate, &c.

Yea, the Scriptures of God (which be left and deliuered vnto vs as ye best rule to knowe what things wee are bounden to doe, & what to eschewe and forbeare) make mention here­of, as of a thing lawfull and allowable, and setteth it downe as a great benefite and bles­sing of God. Zech. 8.5. Zech. 8.5. And in that sentence which is aduouched and brought out of the Epistle of Paule to the Corinthians:1. Cor. 10.1. Whe­ther ye eate or drinke, or whatsoeuer ye doo, doe all to the glorie of God, it cannot be denyed but that Playes and Sportes are inclusiuely comprehended in these wordes, or [Page] whatsoeuer other things ye doe: conside­ring that intermission of labour and honest recreation of mynde is no lesse profitable, and oftentymes also no lesse necessarie, for the re­couerie and comforte of the weake Powers and exhausted strength of our seelie bodies, then is Rest, Sleepe and Meate, wherewith wee are nourished. And our Lord and Saui­our Iesus Christ most excellently teaching vs that man was made for the glorie of God,Mat. 2.27. saieth, that the Sabbath was made for man and not man for the Sabbath.

The which selfe same thing is also to bee thought of Play and disport. For it was de­uised for man, to refresh his decayed strength and to reuiue his wearied sprightes, and also by this kind of rest and recreation to preserue his bodie in health and soundnes, the better, therelier and freelier afterward to serue God and applye his vacation.

Certes, in the number of such thinges as are tearmed Indifferent, and are allowed by God vnto a Christian man, ought Play to be reckened: and yet may not the same bee abu­sed, as also no other of those things ought to bee, that are called Meane, Indifferent, and Adiaphorall.

For doubtlesse, those men are too straite [Page] laced, and are too precisely wedded vnto an ouerharde censure and opinion, which flatly and absolutely denye and debarre a Godlie faithfull man (beeing oppressed and almost forespent with infinite cares of the mynd, and otherwise wearied with bodily labour) al ma­ner of recreation and disport, which might be (as it were) a profitable & wholesome reme­die for his disease and inconuenience.

Neither may that man bee sayd not to re­gard and respect Gods glorie, who refresheth and recreateth himselfe with an intent, and to the ende hee may afterwarde with perfecter strength, lustier cheere, and greater courage both of bodie and mynd, returne to his former charge, and afresh betake himselfe vnto that calling, wherunto he is by God assigned: and may also the readier serue his Countrie, be­nefite the Common wealth, and prouide for his houshold and familie, for that his health is strong, perfect and sound.

For, the wit and nature of man may very well and aptly be likened vnto a Bow, accor­ding to yt excellēt verse & saying of the Poet.

The bodie and wit of man may well bee
Resembled and fitly comparde to a Bow:
Which still standing bent, and at no tyme free,
Must needes (and that shortly) grow weake, soft and slow.

[Page]Therefore, as a Bowe if it be not some­tyme vnbent, becōmeth soft, sluggish, weake and vnprofitable: so fareth it with the quick­nesse and finenesse of the wit: if sometyme it haue not his conuenient rest and relaxation, it soone shrinketh vnder his burthen, and in short while becommeth both dull, blunt and loggish. We doe not therfore generally con­demne all Playe, neither doe wee denye the same to a Christian man, but that he may in some honest sort recreate and refresh himself. For, honest Sportes and comely Playes we doe well allowe euen vnto Godly and faith­full men: howbeit wee will and wish that a measure and moderation bee therein also or­derly kept and Christianliie obserued.

The second Chapter. Whether it be lawfull for a man to play for mo­ney: and the same beeing wonne, to keepe to his owne vse.

THis must first and formost bee set downe for a rule, that in no maner of Playe (for of Playes some bee honest, decent, and Gentlemanlie: some (againe) vnhonest, vnlawful, & vnseme­lie, as hereafter we shall further shew) a Chri­stian [Page] may not playe for money, with an intent to make it his owne, to keepe it to his priuate vse: or (as we say) to put it vp in his own purse for his owne priuate gaine and commoditie.

The reasons moouing vs hereunto be ma­ny, and the same also very manifest: of the which, some we will at this tyme and in this place alledge and declare.

First, Play was not at the beginning de­uised among men for any Commerce, bar­ter, buying or selling, chopping or changing, traffique or entercourse, whereby to procure and catch vnto our selues any thing that be­longed to any other: but onely to bee a kinde of meanes & way for recreation of the mynd, and a refreshing or exercising of the bodie: in so much that whosoeuer vseth Play to any o­ther ende or purpose, doth not rightly vse, but filthilie and disorderly abuse it, exchaunging that which serueth for an honest recreation of Man, into a most vile and filthy kind of gaine and couetousnesse,Eph. 5.3. Collo. 3.5. which (as the Apostle tea­cheth) we ought chiefly to eschue.

Neither by any lawe either diuine or hu­maine, hath Playe euer beene reckened and accoumpted among those sortes and kindes of Contracts, whereby we lawfully may bar­ter or alienate our goodes. If there bee any [Page] humaine Lawes, which recken vp all the ho­nest kindes of contracts, and maners of bar­gayninges, they bee those, that are at this day called the Ciuill Lawes of the Romaines. But they onely recken vp Buying, selling, letting out, hiering and ferming, making and taking of Leases with Couenaunts, and infi­nite other contracts beside: by the which wee maye by Lawe both conueigh that which is ours to others, and also assure that which is other mens, to vs.

As for Play, it is not once named among them. For why? Play is none of those kindes of things and actions, if we throughly consi­der and truely looke into either the nature or the ende of Play. Whosoeuer therefore de­tayneth and keepeth to his owne vse an other mans money or goodes, onely because he hath by Playe gayned and wonne the same: that man truely doth uniustly and wrongfully de­taine it: & with no better right or conscience, then a Theefe keepeth & possesseth the thing that he falslely hath stolne.

For, if it might be lawfull for vs (after this sorte, that is to say, by Play) to catch and get other mens goodes or money: what other thing (I pray you) should wee bring in, then in steede of Play, to set vp a kinde of vnsacia­ble [Page] and greedie couetousnesse: and therby vt­terly peruert the very right nature of things, while of a matter of sporte and pastime wee make, not onely a matter of serious earnest, but also of raking gayne and filthie lucre?

By Play therefore to gayne other folkes money, is all one with stealing. And lawfull is it not any way: no, although the maners, or priuate custome of any particular Citie or Countrey did permit and allowe it. For that permission and allowance (if any such should be) is encountred, met with all, oppugned and repealed by the Lawe of Nature her selfe: which being of farre greater force and equitie then any priuate or municipall Lawe, ought much more to be obeyed.

Albeit, I doe not remember that I haue e­uer read, that it hath bene enacted, constituted and allowed by the Law written of any Citie or Countrey, that such kind of money as was gotten by Play, might either be kept and de­tained: or (if it were not payed) might by law from the debter bee recouered. For, there lay no action for any such debt, neither was there euer any iudiciall Plea by the lawes allowed to bee commenced and recorded, whereupon the Iudge proceeded to any sentence: vnlesse (perhappes) it were the Tenise play, (which [Page] hath found so much fauour, to be specially pri­uiledged in some Cities & places, by the pri­uate lawes of their Countrey) that if a man doe winne thereat some little portion or smal pittaunce of money, (as namely a groate or sixe pence, or thereaboutes) he may indicially demaund and recouer the same. Which Play seemeth hereupon to haue found this speciall fauour, for that there is in it (as Galene affir­meth) an excellent good and wholesome ex­ercise of the Bodie, and no lesse industrie of the mynde.

But as for other sortes of Play & Games, or of any gaine or money thereupon promi­sed, there lyeth neither Action nor Iudgmēt. Yea which is more: if the money staked and layed downe bee kept backe, detayned or pur­sed by the winner after the victorie or game ended, the looser shall haue his remedie by lawe, and may lawfully sue the winner as an vniust withholder and wrongfull detayner of that which is none of his. And this our asser­tion is plainely and euidently confirmed by Franciscus Hottomanus one of the lear­neddest and notablest Lawyers of our Age,Lib. 2 ca. 2 de Vs [...]s. and right godly and Christian writer. For, hee plainely there affirmeth, that all that is gayned by Play, is by the Ciuill Lawe con­demned, [Page] and also forbidden to bee claymed or asked.

Augustine also commaundeth and willeth all that is gained this way to bee taken from the Winner, and to be bestowed on the poore.Epist. 54. ad Macedon. But to him that hath once lost it, he will not that it should in any wise bee restored: that by this meanes both the Winner may be defea­ted from that which he lewdly wanne, and so disappoynted of his purpose and hope: and that also the rash, hardie and foolish Looser, may thereby beare a kinde of punishment.

Whose sentence and opinion as I willing­lie embrace and like: so also would I further thinke it very conuenient, that both the one and the other, should bee deepely payned and amerced by the Iudge in some round summe of money, to be certainly cōuerted and leuied to the vse of the Common Treasurie, or the Princes Exchequier.

For what maner of dealing and beastly fa­shion of life is this among Christians? what madnesse (I pray you) is it? first, that a thing inuented and deuised onely for recreation of the mynde, should for the satisfying of mens greedie couetousnesse, bee conuerted into a practise of most filthie gaine?

Againe, that so many of the poore mem­bers [Page] of Christ being daylie and howerly euen in the middest of the Church, and for lacke of reliefe, readie to statue through want of ne­cessarie sustentation, being both men as wee are, and Christians, and our brethren also, yea our owne flesh, as the Prophet Isaiah calleth them:Isay. 58.7. yet we beholding and seeing this their greeuous case and pitifull penurie, and pas­sing by them without relieuing and succou­ring them, can finde in our hearts to saue our money this way, and to spende and consume the same vpon Playe and other trifling Gue­gawes?

Woe vnto this vnmercifulnesse, sensuali­tie and vaine pleasure, which we shall hereaf­ter (without earnest and speedie repentance) most greeuously & smartingly pay for. Woe vnto this wilfull loosing of money: which, not onely God himself, but those poore Crea­tures also (whom wee in their miserie and ne­cessitie contemned and regarded not, because wee would satisfie our owne wicked lustes in Playing) shall before all the blessed Angels, cast in our teeth and lay to our charge, as it is euidently written and plainly set forth in the Gospell.Mat 25.44

What shame is it for those whom GOD hath blessed with store of worldly wealth, and [Page] are called Christians, not onely daintilie to wallowe in all pleasures and delightes, but also for fulfilling of their sensuall lustes and affections ryotously and disorderly by Playe to spende and consume aboundant riches, and wilfully in vanitie to cast away huge Sūmes of Money: dealing therein not vnlike vnto that miserable rich Glutton, Luc. 16.1 [...] whereof Saint Luke speaketh. Whereas in the meane while poore afflicted and diseased Lazarus, our bro­ther, lying at their gate begging reliefe and making pitifull mone for foode, is nothing at all regarded but rather vtterly contemned and despitefully rahated, and suffered misera­bly to sterue for hunger. Vpon whom, the ve­ry Dogges by licking his woundes, shewed a kind of humaine affection, and bestowed on him that almes, that belonged to their nature any way to yeeld.

Shall wee that bee men and Christians, shewe no maner of compassion, no succour, no relief to our Christian brother, distressed with want, and afflicted with pouertie as Lazarus was? What a shame is it that we should haue money to waste and consume vpon Play: & to haue none charitablie to bestow vpon the see­lie poore members of Christ, to relieue them in their neede and extremitie?

[Page]Let vs therefore (brethren) followe that counsell or rather commaundement of our Sauiour Christ: that is, of the vnrighteous Mammon to make vs friendes: Luc. 16.9 not those which winne our money & so catch our Mam­mon from vs by Play: (for, such kind of per­sons are neuer a whit the more our friendes, neither doe they thinke themselues any thing the more bounden to thanke vs therefore) but the poore Creatures of God, the members of Christ, and our brethren: for which bountie to them shewed, God himselfe will become our Paymaister,Matth. 19. and restore vnto vs an hundreth folde.

And certainly very excellent is that sen­tence of Lactantius. lib. 6. ca. 17 It skilleth much (saith be) what maner of persons they bee that helpe thee to spende thy thrift: whether Makeshifts, Dycers and Bawdes do catch it from thee, or whether thou doe bestow the same vppon godly vses and for Gods sake: and whether thou prodigally spend it in gluttonie and cramming thy belly, or els laye it vp for store in the Treasurie of Righteousnesse. Therefore as it is a vice, wastfully for ill purposes to spende and con­sume our wealth: so is it a vertue, to bestowe the same to good vses.

[Page] Augustine forbiddeth vs to bestowe any money for the seeing of Stage Playes and Enterludes: or to giue any thing vnto the Players therein, and yet these kinde of per­sons doe after a sorte let out their labour vn­to vs, and their industrie many times is lau­dable. What shall we say then to our selues, if we lash out the same vpō these iolly Game­sters and frolick companions, whose humour we feede and delight, aswell as they do ours: and from whom wee receiue none other ma­ner of thing, but losse of tyme, and wasting of our life?

All these things being most true, wee may boldly thus conclude, that all this kinde of gaine and aduauntage, gotten by Playe, is no whit better then plaine Theft: and that whatsoeuer we detayne and keepe to our sel­ues beeing thus gotten, is (in trueth) none of ours, neither can it bee iustly, and with good conscience by vs possessed.

The third Chapter. Of Games, Playes and publique Exercises: and of the Rewardes thereunto assigned by the Common wealth.

BVT least hereby any man (mistaking our meaning) should thinke wee went about [Page] to binde, clogge and ensnare the conscience: we wil here in this case set downe two excep­tions.

The first whereof is this: That those pub­like Exercises & Games which are appoyn­ted by authoritie of the Magistrate (although they bee tearmed and knowne by the name of Playes) yet are not comprehended within the compasse of that generall Rule, before by vs set downe & deliuered: neither that the gaines and rewardes publiquely appoynted and as­signed by authoritie of the Magistrate for be­nefite of the Common wealth, to bee thereby condemned. For, such Games and Exercises are lawfull for vs, not onely to followe and frequent, and for the same to striue and doe our vttermost deuoyre: but also, if wee can in the same winne the victorie, we may honestlie carie the prize away, and detaine and reserue it to our selues, and lawfully keepe it as our owne well and truely gotten goodes.

Neither needeth any doubt thereof to bee made, but that it is both lawful, and may also be done with a good and safe conscience. For, such maner of Prizes and rewardes are pro­posed and appoynted by the Magistrate, and not by priuate persons. And if they were (as many times they bee) assigned and set out by [Page] priuate persons, yet are they warranted by publique authoritie. Againe, these Exercises of minde and bodie are profitablie meant and appoynted, for the whetting, sharpening and encreasing of mens industrie: whereby both the priuate person is solaced and recreated, and also a publique benefite to the Countrey and Common wealth procured and prouided.

For, these publique Exercises and euen Shewes, Games, Sportes and Prizes, bee (as it were) certaine preludes, preparatiues, assaies and traynings of Warfare: and may stande in great steede for sundrie occasions: that when the Commonwealth shall haue a­ny neede of our helpe, wee may be the readier to serue, and the riper in our charges: & there­fore the trayning vp of the people therein, (to helpe when neede is, their Countrey) is a thing not onely tolerable, but also very neces­sarie and commendable.

To this ende, and for this purpose is it at this day in most Countries vsed, to traine and exercise their seruiceable persons in hādling their Pieces, their Caliuer, their Muskee or the Harquebuse, to prime, charge or shoote in great Ordnaunce, to traile and tosse the Pike, to shoote in the long Bowe or Crosse­bowe: because these bee the things that haue [Page] many times stoode the Countrey in notable steede, when it hath by forraine inuasion or in­ward garboyles bene endaungered.

And to the end, the people should the more willingly frame themselues to the same exer­cises, there are Prizes & rewards by publike authoritie proposed and set out: yet not of any great summe, but rather of some small valew, and to bee as it were, a certaine cheering or honest allurement vnto them for their indu­strie: or as a token of an open praise and com­mendation giuen vnto them for their well do­ing: which is a thing greatly profitable for the Common wealth. For, honor, preferment, reward and dignitie nourisheth Arts, and en­creaseth knowledge: & Glorie is the Spurre that pricketh all men forward to wel doings. And therefore in all Ages such kinde of pub­lique Exercises and Wagers haue bene ap­poynted, allowed and practised.

And albeit those which were in the old time exercised, were farre differing from such as we now adaies haue in vse: yet were they or­deyned, and had a respect vnto the maner of Warfare and Martiall seruice then among them vsed. For although they then had deui­ses and Engines to throwe Darts and Iaue­lins to annoye their Enemies a farre of, yet [Page] had they no Gunnes, but fought it out, man to man, with downe right blowes, ioyning foote to foote and hand to hand: And among them also, they had sundrie sortes of publique Exercises and Games for wagers, but yet e­specially these fiue: Wrestling, hurling a Coyte who could hurle it farthest or highest, of length or height: Running or leaping: Cō ­bating with leatheren bagges hauing plum­mets hanging at the endes thereof: Barriers and Torneaments on Horsebacke,Lib. 8. O­diss. Aeneid. 5. all which are mentioned aswell by Homer as also by Virgill and Pausanias.

Vnto these, did the Romaines afterwards adde an other, which was, fighting with Ships on the water: exhibited and solemnely kept, specially in the Raigne of Augustus Caesar, to conserue in fresh memorie his noble victorie at Actium: and the shew thereof was on the Riuer of Tyber.

Afterward there was also added an other kinde of warlike exercise on Horsback, which in the old time was tearmed Troye, and was accustomed to be openly shewed in the vsuall Fielde of Exercise called Campus Martius: It was also called Pyr­rhica. Vide Tranquill. & Polyd. Virg. lib. 2. cap. 13. de inuentor. rerum. but the name of this kinde of Exercise was afterwarde called Torneyments: which for that there grew many times much harme and [Page] daunger thereof, and also was found to be an occasion to drawe aspiring mindes vnto am­bicious desiers, it was afterwards by publick authoritie of the Lawes worthilie put downe and discontinued.

But to returne again to our purpose: those Rewards, Wagers, Prizes and offers which were publickly set out & proposed for such mē as should put forwarde themselues in these kinds of exercises to play & striue for ye same, were cōmonly and for the most part of small value: so yt they might seeme to bee rather as a token of victorie and a praise to the partie that wanne the same,Lib. 5. Sym­posiac. quaest. 3. & lib. 8. cap. 4 then any great gaine. For our forefathers (as Plutarch writeth) vsed for Rewardes (and thought the same very large and bountifull) at publique Shewes and o­pen Games, none other things then these fo­wer: viz, an Oliue, a Pyne tree, Parselie and Apples. Which small giftes & trifeling Pri­zes were for very long space accoumpted for a great rewarde of praise: as the same Plu­tarch in the life of Cato Vticensis witnesseth in these wordes: The rewardes that were publiquely giuen at Games in the olde tyme, and deemed as right bountifull and large amōg the Greekes were, Beete, Let­tice, Radish and Peares: among the Ro­maines, [Page] flagons of Wine, Porke, Figges, Cucumbers, Faggots and bundelles of Woode. But these haue in processe of time through Ambition and Couetousnesse beene chaunged and altered. For, in place of them there are now other things grow [...] [...] [...]se, and customablie giuen to the winners.

The fourth Chapter. Of them, that bestowe their winnings gayned by play, vpon a Banquet, or good cheare for the whole Companie.

THE other exception from our former Rule is this: That no man should thinke vs so hardly to meane, as that we flatly con­demned or misliked ye custome, of hauing some small summe of money gay­ned by Play (not with any intent of the win­ner to kéepe it to his owne vse) to be freely be­stowed vpon common cheare betwene them. For, such winning may not be construed to be meere gaine and priuate profite, seeing it is forthwith lated out and bestowed vpon a con­tinuation of friendlines, & maintaynaunce of neighbourhood: and wherby also after a sort, the looser hath some kinde of benefite. For, [Page] although he be the looser, yet hath he his part and share of the gaine it self, because he eateth and drinketh his portion. And all that is this way gotten, is and may well bee called Ex­pence, and not the gaine of the Winner: be­cause hee courteously and friendly therewith entertaineth the whole companie: and for the more confirmation of friendship and mutuall good will among themselues, francklie besto­weth the cheare vpon them.

Which curtesie and custome among Chri­stians may (doubtlesse) without any scruple of Conscience bee lawfully done: forseene, that there be no lauish expence or wilful wast: but onely some small summe of money that is played for, and the same to be conuerted to these vses. But, if either the Summe of it self be bigge: or in respect of the estate of the Pla­yers and Gamesters, excessiue and too much: in such case, both the winner and the looser ought by the Magistrate to bee punished: and in such persons, both such cost as I haue spo­ken of, and such Playe also, is by vs in this place flatly forbidden and vtterly (as vnlaw­full) condemned.

The fifth Chapter. What kinde of Games and Playes bee lawfull, and what be forbidden and vnlawfull.

BVT now let vs came to speake of such Games & Playes as are law­ful and permitted, or vnlawful and prohibited: least (otherwise) all this our discourse and treatise might seeme vain­lie enterprised and to small purpose taken in hande. The question (surely) is hard and dif­ficult, and diuersly by diuers persons main­tained and decided. Whereunto when any question is mooued vnto mee for my opinion therein to bee had, my custome and order is this to answere. If wee first set downe and shewe what kindes thereof bee forbidden, it shall be an easie matter to pronounce of al the rest: to wit, that all others hee lawfull and di­rectly permitted to a Christian.

Of Games and Playes therefore which are vnlawfull, the sortes bee sundrie and di­uers. For, first, whatsoeuer Games or Playes are prohibited and forbidden by the lawes and customes of that Countrey or Citie wherein we liue, are generally to bee accoumpted vn­lawfull: although otherwise, in respect of their action, they bee not dishonest: yet for so [Page] long time as we shall dwel or seiourne in that Countrey and place, wee must and ought of refraine them. For, such is the condition to Christian libertie, concerning things of them selues meerely indifferent, that according to the diuers circumstances of matters, places, times and persons, it may be restrayned.

Neither ought wee to violate and breake such lawes, as particular Countreyes, Sei­gniories and Cities haue established, enacted and made concerning the same: specially if therein we may keepe a good and cleare con­science, without stooping or yeelding to any Superstition. We must be sure therfore that such Decrees, Lawes, Statutes, Permissiōs or prohibitions be grounded vpon some good reasons and iust cause: and applyed for the bet­ter gouernement of the state of that place and Countrey.

If therefore we transgresse those Lawes, we commit a very great fault, and by our euil example, giuing cause of offence to others, doe procure and drawe them into the like con­temptuous dealing.

Secondly, I call all those Games and Playes vnhonest, vnseemely and vnlawfull, wherein there is any euill, vnhonest, filthie, vnchast or vnseemely actiō, practise or pranke, [Page] as namely, lasciuious talke & wanton words, vnchast groapings and ribald handlings, vn­shamefast gestures and fancieful behauiours: because Christians ought not only to abstaine from euery thing whatsoeuer, that is by na­ture euill, but also from all that, which hath a­ny maner of shew or appearaunce of loosenes and dishonestie, as the Apostle warneth vs.1. Thes. 5.22.

All such Playes, Games and Sportes therefore, wherein there is any maner repre­sentation, counterfayting, imitation, or pro­nunciation of filthinesse and vnchastitie, are, as lewd and lasciuious, to be vtterly condem­ned, and worthily to be banished. For they bee the flaming fierbrandes of all beastly lustes, and the shamelesse occasions of many outra­gious disorders.

Thirdly, all such Games and Playes as merely consist vpon blind hazard and doubt­full chaunce, are flatly by vs (as vnlawful) re­iected and condemned. And such are all those, that stand vpon haphazard, and wherein the victorie hangeth, as chaunce falleth out and allotteth. Vnder this kind, are contained and comprehended almost an infinite number and sorte of Playes and Games, specially and namely Cardes and Dyce: which therefore all good and godly persons, whether they bee [Page] rich or poore, learned or ignoraunt, Gouer­nours or Artificers: publiquely or priuately: at home or abroade: in tyme of Warre or in tyme of Peace, ought to forbeare and eschew. For, this kind of Play and Gaming, thus de­pending vpon hazard, is most manifastly re­proued and cōdemned, not onely by the lawes deuised by man: but also by most strong and ineuitable reasons out of the sacred worde of God.

The Frenchmē vnder the names of Cards and Dyce comprehende all maner of Playe consisting vpon hazard: and that there are and were in the old time moe sorts of this wicked and vnlawfull Play,Lib. 8. No­menc. cap. vlt. Iulius Pollux plainely witnesseth.

The sixt Chapter. What the meaning of this worde Alea properly is: and what Games and Playes are con­tayned and comprehended vnder the name thereof.

BVt in these Games, Pastymes, Sportes and Playes at Cards and Dyce, there is a certaine di­stinction to bee vsed. For, some of them, are after such a sorte [Page] played and passed ouer, that to the winning and obteyning of the victorie, honest industrie of the minde helpeth more, then any blind ca­sualtie or chaunceable hazard: in so much that the acward lucke which falleth out contrarie to desire, is supplied, amended and refourmed by Arte and cunning. These kindes of Playe may not properly be tearmed Alea or Hazar­drie, neither are they absolutely to be forbid­den: onely let measurable meane therein bee vsed.

Others there be that hang and depend (as it were) vpon mere chaunce & casting: where­in a mans industrie (if there bee no packing, falsehoode and cogging deceipt vsed) can no­thing auaile. This kinde of Play is properly called Alea: and this is it, that wee say is vt­terly disallowable, and to be banished and cast out of the Banquettes, Feastes, Meetinges, Assemblies, Families and handes of all Chri­stians: for that, whatsoeuer lucke giueth and blind chaunce herein allotteth, the Players and Gamesters take vp and deteyne: and the losse or chaunce hereby sustained cannot by a­ny Art that is lawfull and honest, bee recoue­red or amended.

For, if there bee any cogging Panion or shifting mate, that by sleight and paltry goeth [Page] about to help the chaunce, or strike the Dyce, (as many foysting Coseners and deceiptfull Packers in playing both can doe and vse to doe) such an one is accoumpted for a lewd fe­lowe and a cogging Verlet: and being once knowne or taken with the maner, hee is wor­thilie expelled and abandoned of all men, out of all honest companies.

These cogging trickes and subtile shiftes in Playe whosoeuer vseth, is euer the causer of much brabbling, wrāgling, skoulding and fighting: which to bee true, appeareth by the example of one Temenus, of whom Pausa­nias writeth in his Booke, entituled Messa­niaca.

And therefore all such kindes of Playes and Games, we must confesse to be properly and truely tearmed Alea: for that, al the hope of victorie and winning thereby, consisteth in the doubtfull hazard, euent, and casting, whe­ther it be at Cardes or Dyce: and not in any laudable, commendable or lawfull industrie of man. And the auncient Writers are of the same opinion with vs: for they like wise af­firme this word Alea, to signifie all that what soeuer, wherein casuall lucke, vncertaine e­uent and doubtfull hazard beareth sway.

For, where the winners themselues cannot [Page] tell how they shall speede, nor what good suc­cesse they shall haue, till they see it plainely so come to passe, there must lucke, chaunce and hazard needes altogether take place & beare sway: and therefore is this maner of Play cal­led Alea. And this is that naughtie and vile Play, which wee in this place and in all this our present Treatise haue pronounced and protested to bee vnlawfull and disallowable: and doe heartilie wish it to be farre of from al Christian mens practise: & if it haue through too much licentious ouersight beene at any time heretofore frequented and vsed, that it be now from hencefoorth renounced, forsaken, loathed and detested.

Now, that we may the sooner bee ashamed of this so vglie and so beastlie an Exercise, let vs shewe forth and set downe the wickednesse and the harmes that growe thereof. And first, let vs heare what opinion and iudgement, e­uen prophane and Heathē men, which lacked the cleare light of the word of God, had ther­of: who yet (notwithstanding) will teach vs, what to deeme and think of such a filthie and vile practise.

Against Dyceplay The vij. Chapter. Dycing and Carding reproued and condemned euen by the Heathen and Infidelles that knewe not God.

Philipp. 2. CIcero obiected vnto Marcus Antonius the Consull, sitting in the Counsel Chāber among all the noble Senatours, and laied it to his charge as ye grea­test reproach that could be, that he was a Dy­cer and a Gamester, and that hee fostered and countenaunced such kinde of persons about him. Suetonius Tranquillus in the life of Augustus. Cap. 71. writeth, that this kinde of Play was noted and reputed in that mightie Monarch (being otherwise a most excellent Prince) for a great disgrace and dishonorable blemish: in so much that his delight in this fil­thie exercise greatly eclipsed and dimmed the rest of his notable vertues.

Claudius Caesar gaue no way more occa­sion to the world to accoumpt and iudge him for a Blockhead and Dolt, then by his great delight that he tooke in Dyceplay.

Gobilo the Lacedaemonian being sent in the behalfe of his Countrey, as Ambassadour to the Corinthians to ioyne friendship and [Page] league with them: and finding the Princes and People there, playing at Dyce, made no longer tariance, but presently returned home without either declaring his message or con­cluding any League: saying that hee would not so distaine and dishonor his noble Coun­treymen of Lacedaemonia with such an infa­mie, to be said that they had concluded friend­ship and made League with Gamesters and ydle Dyceplayers.

The King of Persia sent (in mockage and derision) vnto Demetrius the King of Asia, for his lightnes in playing, a payre of golden Dyce.

Asconius Paedianus writeth that such as were knowne in Rome to bee common Dy­cers,Ascon. Pae­dian. in se­cund diui­nat Cicero­nis. in those daies were amerced and cōdem­ned to pay foure fould the valew of the money that they had lost by play: to the intent others by their example & penaltie should take war­ning and be terrified.

By the law Roscia, al such as either plaied or lost at Dyceplaye more then their abilitie might well beare, were banished the Coun­trey.

And Plato saieth in his Treatise entituled Conuiuium: that those men which at their Feastes must haue Stageplayers, and Ac­tours [Page] of Enterludes, shewed thēselues there­in to be men ignorant of al good knowledge: who hauing (thēselues) no furniture of mat­ter nor store of wordes, were glad (as it were) to begge and borowe, or rather to hyre plea­sure at the handes of a sorte of sottish & loose­minded fellowes.

The same doome may wee likewise very aptly and well giue vpon Dycers: to witte, that they addict themselues to these trifeling exercises, for that they haue no better nor ho­nester recreation of the minde to betake them selues vnto. And therefore are glad to seeke pleasure, euen in these vainetromperies and idle deuises.

But what neede we hereupon to stand any longer,11. Pau­dect. tit. 5. sithence that one onely law of the Ro­maines euidently sheweth how odious the same was accoumpted? the wordes be these: If any one shall bee found to haue beaten or otherwise to haue hurt him that shalbe sayd to keepe a Dycing house: or if during that tyme, any thing fortune to bee taken or stolne out of his house, I will giue no iudgement on his behalfe. And him, that shall offer any outrage or shew violence to any man about Dyceplay: I wil according as I finde the matter, seuerely punish.

[Page]These be the wordes of the Law, whereby it appeareth, that all that gayne which gro­weth by this kinde of Play, cannot lawfully in any wise bee demaunded or recouered, nei­ther in place of Iudgement nor elswhere. So harmefull, and so directly against all good maners was it deemed, euen among the pro­phane and heathen people.

Iuuenal also a graue and excellent Poet accoumpteth Dyceplaye am [...] [...]ose [...] that easiliest corrupt & [...] a whole household.

If that th' old Syre d [...]e take delight
To play at wicked Dyce:
Juue [...] Satyr. 1 [...]
His dapper Sonne will quicklie learne
To vse the selfe same vice.

But now let vs see what the Emperours themselues in the Lawes haue enacted and set downe touching this beastly, shameful and idle Play. And that very plainely appeareth,Cod. lib. 3. tit. 43. and is to be seene in these wordes: We tende­ring and carying a speciall care for the be­nefite and weale of our Subiects, do enact, and by this present Lawe decree, that no maner of person shal either play himselfe, or bee a looker on, of others that playe at Dyce, neither publiquely abroad, nor pri­uately [Page] in their owne houses. If any thing haue bene attempted to the contrarie, let not the loosers be damnified and cōdem­ned: but let the money so lost be restored to them againe: and for want of due pay­ment, let it bee recouered by competent actions and formall pleas by the loosers, that it may reuert to thē or to their heires after them. And a little after in the same place: Let the Bishoppes of those places where this shall be tryed, bee helpfull and assistant vnto them for the better accom­plishment hereof, and the Presidents, Pro­uostes and Gouernours likewise.

Bishoppes therefore and Ecclesiasticall Pastors if they will effectually execute their dueties and maintaine Religion in hir puri­tie and soundnesse, must haue a diligent care hereunto, that this wicked exercise and pal­trie Plaie may bee banished out of all mens companies within their charge and iurisdic­tion:Interdici. Authen. De sacrosanc. Episcopis. as here (for example) they see it plainely enioyned vnto them by the Edicts and Com­maundements of the Emperours.

Whereunto they were specially mooued: for that they perceiued in this kinde of Playe such an heape of mischeeues and inconueni­ences alwaies attending thereon: ouer and [Page] beside the horrible blaspheming of Gods ho­lie name, and other most detestable and vnsuf­ferable outrages, vsually practised in these so filthie and vnchristian exercises.

But what? doth the Canon Lawe, (as it is called) which was gathered and packed to­gether by Papistes, any whit more fauoure them, then doth the Ciuill Law? although the Bishoppes of Rome would gladly be coump­ted milde, and seeke for the title and praise of clemencie and gentlenesse, yea and then also, when as maners were most corrupt & al good orders in the Church out of square? I say, no. For, euen the Canon Lawe doth most seuere­lie condemne them,Canon. E­piscop. di­stinct. 35. in Decreto. Decretal. lib. 3. tit. 1. c. Clerici. and vtterly detest them as the most hurtfull and pestilent people that can bee.

So that al men in generall with one com­mon assent, and (as it were) with the mouth of Nature her selfe, haue flatly euer condem­ned this Dyceplay, and banished it out from among all godly Christian mens companie: for that it hath bene the vtter ouerthrow not only of many a priuate person, but also the ve­ry subuersion of sundrie whole Kingdomes, and namelie, the Kings of Asia and all their royall estate.

Against Dyceplay The viij. Chapter. That the auncient fathers of the Church haue euer misliked and written against Dyceplay.

AS this vile kinde of Deuilish exercise and idle Playe is dete­sted, condemned and spoken a­gainst by heathen persons, pro­phane Magistrates, and lawes both Ciuill and Canon: so also and no lesse, is it abhorred, reprooued and written against, by diuers auncient Fathers and reuerende Pillers of Christian Religiō. Yea, they haue with much more vehemencie thundred and inueighed against it, as a pastime in no wise among them that feare God, allowable or suf­ferable.

Cyprian.That good Father Cyprian, (then whom in his tyme there was none either more lear­ned or holy) saieth plainly that the Deuil him selfe was the first author and inuenter of this pestilent and pernicious Play. And therefore his aduise and warning is, that it ought with all diligence, care and endeuour of the heart and minde to be detested & abhorred: because we are strictly commaunded, not to haue any fellowship or dealing with the Deuill, or any of his wicked practises.

[Page] Barnard also writing to certaine Soldi­ours, touching those godly Christians which were in Hierusalem, saieth thus: They defie, Barnard ad Milites. reiect and abhorre Dyce and Dycers, Mū ­mers, Enterlude and Stageplayers, Sorce­rers, Wyzardes, Fablers, Taletellers, and singers of Ribald ditties, as the breeders of many Vanities, or rather of much phrā ­ticke madnesse.

The Canons also that are fathered vpō the Apostles, & which (as some doe say) are of ve­ry great antiquitie,Canon. 41. & 42. doe must plainly likewise forbid this maner of play. So that, there hath bene no. Age of the Church, no faithfull men at any tyme, that wee can reade of, but haue flatly, directly and plainly prostigated, repro­ued, and condemned this kinde of Deuelish Game.

But let vs heare some of the reasons of these graue and godly Fathers, which caused them so sharplie and so worthilie to inueigh a­gainst this odious Play: that the stiffest, wil­fullest & obstinatest defenders of ye same, may thereby at length learne to holde their peace, and to be ashamed of themselues. And least a­ny man should thinke vs to bee in this poynt more precise and Stoicall then needes: or to speake so much against it, as we doe, without [Page] iust cause or reason, there is a little Booke of Nicolas de Lyra (a man accoūpted the lear­nedest in his tyme) touching the same, entitu­led Praeceptorium: wherin he alledgeth nine speciall reasons, gathered and collected out of diuers Wryters, why this Dyceplay a­mong Christians ought not in any wise to be suffered. Out of whom, and also out of other Writers besides, wee here haue culled and se­lected the chiefest and most special: which may fully suffice to perswade al those that be god­lie minded, and not wilfully wedded to their owne foolish opinions, how entierly and ef­fectually wee ought to abhorre this kinde of lewde and Deuelish exercise.

The ix. Chapter. That Dyceplay is directly condemned and re­prooued by manifest textes of the sacred Scriptures.

FIrst, there be some that thinke, (and very well truely) that this maner of Playe is directly a­gainst the Law of God, contai­ned in the third Commaunde­ment of the Decalogue.First reason against Dyceplay. Wherein wee are preciselie commaunded not to take the name [Page] of the Lord God in vaine. And thereupon they gather, that in Lotte casting (in which kinde (doubtlesse) Dyceplaye is contained,) wee ought not in any wise for maintenaunce of our peeuish pleasures, to vse vaine and ydle matters, in steede of graue and godlie exerci­ses: for that therein we doe after a sorte make a mock of Gods prouidence,Pro. 16.33. and rashly abuse the greatest testimonies and effects thereof, such as Lotterie is. By this meanes there­fore, they holde opinion that the power and Maiestie of God, is prophaned and taken in vaine.

For, thus are we taught both by the exam­ples of holy men, and by the very Commaun­dements of God himselfe, that we should not vse these Lottes (wherein there resteth a sin­gular argument and token of Gods diuine prouidence, as before was sayde) in vaine, trifeling or phantasticall matter: but rather then and at such tyme onely, when as there falleth out some matter of great moment and waightie importaunce: wherein God himself (as an extraordinarie moderatour, Ruler and Vmpier) must interpose his doome, strike the stroake and decide the case: least otherwise, if wee rashlie and lightlie cast out Lottes, wee seeme not onely to goe about to tempt God, [Page] but also wickedly to offer some notable iniu­rie and villanous dishonour vnto his extraor­narie power and prouidence.

In deede, for the electing of Magistrates, diuiding of Goodes, partition of Landes a­mong Coheires, or in making a choyse of Pastors in the Church, there maye bee cause sometyme to vse Lottes: because in these, of­tentymes the voyce and consent of GOD is more necessarie, thē of men: and also, for that, there appeareth many tymes therein an, ex­traordinarie meanes of Gods will and plea­sure: & is a good way also to ende al quarrels and to auoyde all corruption of voyces. But in sporting toyes and friuolous causes (as though we would make God, seruaunt to our vanities and pastimes) to vse Lots, they hold it vtterly vnlawfull.

Now, there is no man will denye, but that Dyce is one of ye chiefe kinds of Lot casting. And therfore therby if not in plaine tearmes, yet necessarilie and inclusiuelie by waye of manifest circumstaunce, the name and Maie­stie of God, is by Dyceplaye expressely pro­phaned and blasphemouslie dishonored.

Second rea­son.Secondly, they say, this kinde of Play is reproueable, for that it is vsed and instituted contrarie to the true nature and end of Pa­tyme. [Page] For, seeing that the ende and scope of Play is or should be, either to exercise the in­dustrie of the mynde, or els to cherish and re­uiue the strength and powers of the bodie: truely Dyceplay is most farre from either of them both. For therein wee neither exercise the Bodie, as wee doe in Wrestling or Run­ning, yea wee many tymes therein doe not so much as stirre or mooue our Bodie, nor any part of the same, excepting our hands and fin­gers: but rather sit still gaping and staying for the chaunce of the Dyce, sitting in the meane while like idle Drones playing al the day, and giuing our selues to no maner of ac­tiuitie in the worlde: in so much that many tymes for a iust reward of this our loytering occupation, we are paied home with the grie­uous payne of the Gowtes and other Ioynt diseases.

And as for industrie of the mynde, who can say, that Dyceplayers doe vse or increase any at all? seeing that in this play there is no ma­ner of exercise for the witte at all: but all the hope of victory and winning, dependeth vpon Chaunce: in so much, that the Winner many tymes is driuen to wonder how hee wanne, and for the winning of any hande or stake af­terward, cannot (in certaintie) any thing at al [Page] assure himselfe. And thus also it commeth to passe, that he which goeth away a looser, doth not so much meruaile, as chafe and fret that he hath lost: seeing that he could not perceiue (in that conquest and victorie made on him) a­ny maner of industrie or ouerreaching wit in the Winner. And therfore they sit the longer and playe thereat the eigerlier, for that they cannot see any probable reason, nor yeeld any sufficient cause either of their winning, or of their loosing. Whereupon they cannot mo­derate and satisfie themselues herein, but the more they play, and the longer they continue thereat, the greedier they are, and the willin­ger to hold out: for that, in this wretched and slouthfull idlenes, they perceiue neither their bodies wearied, nor their mindes exercised and occupied.

Third rea­son.Thirdly, they alledge the Lawes of the Magistrate, which forbiddeth these Playes, as offensiue and wicked. A lawe therefore be­ing once enacted and made against it, this Play cannot bee vsed, nor defended without offence. And notable is that saying of the A­postle, and for this present purpose very fit to be applyed:1. Cor. 8.13. If meate (saieth he) be a cause to offēd my brother, I will eate no flesh while the world standeth, that I may not offend [Page] my Brother. Now, seeing it is a great de [...]le easier for vs to refraine these trifeling toyes, then to abstaine from flesh, which is a thing so commodious and necessarie for the sustenta­tion of our bodies in this life, who needeth to doubt, but that these paltring vanities are much more to be renounced and forborne, for feare of offending our Brethren? For there is no kinde of pleasure, which we ought so much to esteeme, as therby and for the same to giue offence vnto our Brother. Furthermore, al­though wee altogether forbeare and for euer abstaine from this kinde of Play, yet be there other meanes enough, whereby wee may ho­nestly and decently recreate both our Bodies and also our Mindes.

Fourthly, we are charged and commaun­ded by the Apostle, to redeeme the tyme, Fourth rea­son. Ephe. 5.16. Colo. 4.5. and to bestowe it in honest matters and Chri­stian exercises. For, when God graunteth vs tyme, and giueth vs leisure either to reade his holie worde, to visite the sicke, to comfort our friends, or to doe other charitable deedes, wee ought not to omit this fit occasion, which (according to the Prouerbe) is balde behind, but to doe the same quicklie and out of hand: because (being forslowed) one let or other may happen, and drawe our myndes from those [Page] godly actions. Yea, many causes may fal out, and so carie away our meanings, that we shal not afterward so much as once thinke of these our dueties, our fluggishnesse and dulnesse this way is so great. And therefore this our idle tyme and cōuenient leisure, which ought to be so precious vnto vs, may not so wastful­lie and vnthriftilie be spent in Dyceplay.

Fifth rea­son.Fifthlie, the very nature of this Playe is such, that aboue all other Games it hath this filthie propertie, peculiarlie entailed vnto it, to wit, that it maketh men of all others most idle, most sluggish, most couetous, and most desirous of other mens goodes, and finallie most loath and vnwilling to leaue it. For, with much ado can we be drawen therefrom, after we haue once settled our delight there­in, partlie for that through lazinesse of sitting still, it bringeth with it no maner of wearines or labour to the bodie: and partly for that, through the vncertaine hazard and chaunce of the Dyce (whereupon onely dependeth the whole hope of victorie) it bringeth no maner of sound pleasure to the mynd, nor perfect cō ­tentment to the Conscience. Therefore the loosers, stil hoping for better luck, & chaunge of fortune (which he seeth easilie to come to passe and often to happen) continue play still, [Page] trusting to recouer their losses, and feeding themselues with a greedie expectation of al­terable chaunce. Likewise, the Winners, are still in hope and thinke their good lucke will continue and neuer chaunge. Whereby it commeth to passe, that neither partie is willing to desist and leaue, but perseuer and laye on loade most eigerlie and earnestlie. Whereas, in all other exercises either of the Bodie or of ye Mynde, there is at length some ende made, and the issue thereof soone espied: either by reason of the wearinesse of the limmes, or for the oddes of their wittes: wher­by the one plainlie perceiuing the other to be stronger and himselfe the weaker, curteously yeeldeth himself, and willingly leaueth work. Dyceplay therefore hauing no ho, admitteth neither end nor measure.

Sixtlie,The sixth reason. it is to bee abhorred and detested for the filthie couetousnesse and griping de­sire of gaine, which therin is more notoriously vsuall, then in any other game. Where is there more insaciable or miserable seeking to winne one an others money? Where is there such gaping, which way one may defeate and wipe an other of all that he hath? Where is there moe practises how they maye deceiue, yea vndoe the one the other? What hard hold [Page] is there to seeke the vtter spoyle and decaye one of an other? Wherein bee there moe cog­ging tricks & cosening shifts vsed thē in this vile, deuelish & vngracious play? In so much that the Apostle Paule in his Epistle to the Ephesians vseth this word [...] and Alea for deceipt,Ephe. 4.14. craftinesse and shifting deuises. Certes, there is no Game in the world, wher­in more ryotous wast of money is made then in this. None, wherein is more apparaunt proofe of wilfull and witlesse loytering. For we haue heard of some, read of others, yea and knowen not a few, that by this wicked game haue played a way their Lordshippes, Duke­domes, Seigniories, Mannors, Houses and Landes: ouer and besides their Horses, Appa­rell, Gold, Siluer, Iewelles, houshold stuffe, and all that they had beside or could borowe. Yea, we reade of some, that haue set their own Bodies at the Stake, and throwen for the propertie of their owne selues at a cast at Dyce, in steede of money, when they haue lacked it: and loosing the chaunce, and there­by themselues, haue afterwarde lead the re­maunder of their daies, as Slaues, in mise­rable seruitude, at the discretion of the win­ners. So that this kinde of Play endeth at length (as Iustinian saieth) in the lamentable [Page] ouerthrowes of many noble and renowmed houses, and bringeth many an honest familie to weeping cheere, when all their wealth and substaunce is thus rufullie and pitifullie ran­sacked.

Finally, there is no kinde of Vsurie more wicked, more detestable, or any way compa­rable to this kind of Gaine, that is, thus dam­nablie gotten by Dyceplay. For, here with­out any lending and without any labour on our part, wee get an excessiue gayne and vn­measurable encrease: yea, asmuch and perad­uenture much more then our principall stock that we beganne withall: and that also not in any long tract and processe of tyme, but euen quicklie, presentlie, and as it were in a mo­ment. All which, doe plainly prooue an intol­lerable kinde of Couetousnesse to raigne spe­ciallie in this Playe: and that a great deale worse, then the taking of Vsury vpon Vsury: which in all Ages hath bene alwaies accoūp­ted and reputed for one of the vilest and deue­lishest practises that could be.

Last of all:The seuēth reason. the seuenth reason why this wicked Game is to bee vtterly condemned and banished out of the ranke and number of all honest and Christian disportes is: because the same is vsuallie accompaignied with hor­rible [Page] blaspheming of Gods most holy name, terrible banning and cursing, spightfull cha­fing and rayling, cursed inuocation and na­ming of the Deuill, dreadfull and abhomina­ble denyings and defyings of God himselfe, & rechlesse misregarding of his seuere iudge­ments: al which horrible outragious enormi­ties are so incident to this most hellish Dyce­play, that they are seldome or neuer asunder from it. Which thing the Emperour Iusti­nian by an authentical law thereupon made, doth manifestly and plainly giue vs to vnder­stande. Whereupon, Dyceplay grewe so o­dious in the iudgements of all good & godlie persons, that order was taken and by lawe confirmed, that the places and houses where it was vsed, were commaunded and adiudged first to bee consisked and forfeited, and after­warde to bee vtterly ruinated and throwen downe: and commaundement giuen that ne­uer afterward any man should dwell therein: because ye heauie wrath of God was thought to be still ouer that place.

To conclude, I might here bring a great many of other hurtes and mischieues occasio­ned hereby: but what neede we moe? seeing those that we haue alreadie alledged, be suffi­cient (as we hope) to perswade all honest and [Page] well giuen mindes, that both can and haue learned to be ruled by reason, and to listen to Christian instruction.

As for the stubborne crewe of wilfull per­sons borne rather to pursue beastly pleasures and sauage sensualitie, then to embrace hu­maine societie and honest orders, there can no­thing suffice at all. To perswade therefore such monstruous people wee will not goe a­bout, for we knowe therein we shall but loose our labour. Wee rather thinke such Ding­thriftes and Makeshiftes worthie to be grie­uouslie punished by the Magistrate with sun­drie and many penalties both pecuniarie and corporal, and by seueritie of Lawes to be ter­rified and restrayned from this Play. Other reasons a great sort, to confirme so much as we haue here sayed, are alledged and cited by that reuerend man Peter Martyr in his lear­ned Commentaries vpon the Booke of Iud­ges. Cap. 14. But we haue here brought such onely, as we had of our owne stoare, and deui­sed by our owne industrie.

The x. Chapter. An answer to their obiections, that stoutly and stiffely maintaine this kinde of Play.

BVT least these fellowes should complaine, as their maner and fashion is, that they are hardlie dealt withal in this case, at our handes: and that they are con­demned by vs before their cause bee heard, or at least throughly waighed and sufficiently discussed, let vs heare what reasons they are able to bring for themselues.

First and formost, they exclame against vs and say that we are too seuere, too precise and almost too supersticious, vnder a pretence of being too righteous. Of which thing we are warned to beware and take heede of, by the Preacher. Eccle. 7.17 Cap. 7. vers. 17. Wee (truely) doe confesse that saying, written by the Preacher, to be most true and godlie. But yet wee an­swere, that wee ought to abstaine, not onely from that which is euill of it selfe and by his owne nature: but also from all shewe, sem­blaunce and appearaunce of euill, as the bles­sed Apostle S.1. Thess. 5.22. Paule expressely teacheth vs. And we haue shewed afore, that Dyceplay is not onely harmefull, pernicious and damna­ble [Page] to them that play thereat, but also that it is of it selfe filthie and wicked, and of it owne nature shamefull and detestable. What seue­ritie therefore, or too much precisenesse may this seeme to be, if this Dyceplay & Carding be reproued by vs, & wished not to be vsed by those that are godly Christians? Is this Su­perstition, or a taking away of Christian li­bertie from Christiās (for so they also obiect) when as we both allowe honest disportes and seemelie Games? not onely tolerating, but commending also moderate exercises aswell for the mynd as for the bodie, whereby the po­wers both of the one and of the other maye conueniently bee conserued?Chrysost. Hom. 1. Chrysostome the learnedest and eloquentest of all the Fa­thers of the Greeke Church in his Homilie of the loosenesse and corrupt maners of his Tyme, answering vnto such like certaine ob­iections of wilfull mynded persons in those daies, saieth, That when wee restraine from the godlie their superfluities and excesses of life, we may not therein be thought to bee se­uere, or to deale any thing more hardlie then we ought to doe.

And as cōcerning that Christian Libertie, which they so much pretend and make shewe of, we say yt euen in these indifferent things [Page] it ought so to be moderated and construed, as that it neither at any tyme tende to the con­tempt of good and politique Lawes of the Countrey profitablie enacted, neither to the offence of our Neighbour: much lesse ought we to vse the same licentiouslie in any things that of their owne nature be hurtfull, incon­uenient, vnhonest, forbidden or vnlawfull.

Secondly they obiect vnto vs: That they see no harme to growe by this Playe, so that there hee no swearing, no blaspheming, no chasing nor couetousnesse therein vsed. A ve­ry proper and fine exception (I promise you) and wittilie by them alledged. As though the playing for money, can possibly bee without some spyce of couetousnesse, or desire of gay­uing that which is an other mans? Nay, wee flatly say, that it is not at any hande lawfull, (whether the Games bee honest or vnhonest) to play for money.

And whereas they say, they see no cause, why Dyceplay should worthilie be reproued and condenmed: therein are they very greatly deceiued. For, ouer and besides their vsing of Dyceplaye, which is a most plaine kinde of Lotte casting, and which in vaine and friuo­lous matters they are expressely forbidden to practise: There is also an other reason that [Page] maketh against them: which is, that this same Dyceplay hath euer bene prooued and found pernicious and miserable to the very Dycers and Gamesters them selues. Also it hath scarcely (yea lightly not at al) bene seene, that it hath euer bene vsed without swearing and blaspheming of the name of God: so that as the Wise man saieth, the ende of this shorte pleasure leadeth vnto al wickednesse, and the issue of such mirth (besides the consuming of a mans wealth) bringeth alwaies with it,Pro. 14.1 [...].13. hea­uinesse of the mynd and sorowfulnes of heart. And although beeing blinded in their owne follie, they thinke not of this geare presently, yet shall they hereafter (if they speedilie re­pent not, and turne ouer the lease into a newe lesson) feele by experience the smart of their desertes, and shall finde this our admonition and saying to be most true and certaine.

Thirdly, they say and aduouch, that Dyce­play is not simply, and of it selfe, harmefull or reprooueable: but only yt the immoderate & excessiue vse thereof is to be condemned and disallowed, and such Dycing houses and Ta­bling houses as purposelie serue for this idle and loytering trade. But I would gladlie learne of thē, what this worde Alea in Latine doth truely signifie? Is not the Game aswell [Page] as the place condemned, and expressely in the Law forbidden? And whence proceedeth this ordinarie and immoderate custome of Play, but from these small beginninges at the first, which must therefore bee cut away and auoy­ded.

And whereas they further say, that there is a Vertue (called in Greek Eutrapelia, and in English Curtesie) which consisteth in mens sporting and recreating themselues together: I affirme likewise that there is such a vertue in deed: but that it alloweth any man to play at any lewde and vnlawfull Games (such as Dyceplaye is) I vtterly denye: for it respec­teth onely such, as are warrantable by the right rule of Honestie. And moreouer, it is such a Vertue, as moderateth and gouerneth those good Games and honest disportes also whereof I euen now speake, that we giue not our selues to them beyond measure, nor keepe our selues therein occupied, longer then be­commeth.

Finally, they aske this question: Where in all the whole Scripture is there specially a­ny such odious mention made of Dyceplay­ing, as we would seeme to vrge? Wherein (verily) they vnawares bewraye their great ignoraunce. For, there be two most manifest [Page] places in the Scriptures, expressely making mention thereof, and that with as great hor­ror and detestation as possibly can be. The first is in the Psalmes: Psal. 22 19 The other in the Go­spell after S. Iohn: where it is sayd,Ioh. 19.24. that they played for our Sauiour Christes Coate, and that they cast lottes (which was Dyce) who should haue it. And truely this Game is a wide windowe, and almost the first gappe vn­to all loosenes and dissolutenesse of maners, which Sathan to disturbe the vnitie of the Church, is wont commonly to set wide open.

Briefly, and to make an ende, let vs con­clude this our present Treatise, with that place of that auncient Father Cyprian, in his Booke de Alea, wherein he plainlie she­weth that Sathan the Deuill was the first deuiser of this Play. For, when as Sathan the Enemie of Mankinde went about deepe­lie to roote & imprint Idolatrie in the hearts of men: and to make it an ordinarie Ghest al­so at Banquets, Disportes and Meriments, to the ende that hee might thereby the more freely raigne and carie rule among them, and bring them to his lure by a kinde of pleasure, (or as it were a sweete poyson) he deuised and hatched this detestable and wicked kinde of Game.

[Page]And therefore the Kinges, Queenes and Verlettes which are now with vs the Coate­cardes, were in olde tyme and at the begin­ning, the Images of Idolles, and were cal­led by the very names of the Idolles and false Gods themselues. Which now since, because men be Christiās, they haue (for stark shame) skowred, burnished, and newe furbished the names thereof onely, but as for the plausible memoriall and very monument it selfe of I­dolatrie, is still retayned. For, because they would not be thought to imitate the Heathe­nish Idolatrie of the other, and yet neuerthe­lesse maintaine the playe it selfe, they haue chaunged those olde Idolatrous names and Images, and call them now by the names of Charlemaine, Launcelot, Hector, or some other valiaunt Captaines, Dukes or Kings: but (as I aforesayd) the thing it selfe, and the vse of this Deuelish deuise they kepe still, and doe disguise the horrible inconuenience gro­wen thereby, vnder the cloake of such gaye tearmes, to the no smal daunger of Idolatrie among Christians euen at this day.

The name therefore is onely chaunged, that is to say, the colour, phisnamie, purtra­ture and countenaunce, but the thing it selfe, together with the lewdnesse and beastlinesse [Page] hereof, remaineth the selfe same, and is al one and alike among all such Christians, as ad­dict themselues to Dyceplay.

Seeing therefore that it hath here beene prooued and sufficientlie shewed, that Dyce­play is directly and flatly repugnaunt to the written word of God, vtterly harmefull and pernicious to the Players and Gamesters themselues: accompanied & fraughted with such a sorte of discommodities and offences: contrary to all good Lawes: sweruing from all wholesome established orders: offering de­fiaunce to all reformation: bidding battaile to all honestie: and finally beeing nothing els, then (as it were) the most filthie excrements and hellish inuention of Sathan the Deuill, there is no Christian mā needeth to doubt, but that he ought with all endeuour to abandon, forsake, renounce, defye, and vtterly to ab­staine from it.

Thomas Newtonus, Cestreshyrius.
Ludens taxillis, bene respice quid sit in illis:
Mors tua, sors tua, res tua, spes tua pendet in illis.
Aleator quanto in arte est melior, tanto est nequior.

❧ A Table, shewing the Contents of euery Chapter in this Treatise of Dyceplay and Gaming.

  • WHether it be lawful at al, for a Chri­stian man or woman to play and vse recreation of their mynd. Chap. 1.
  • Whether it be lawful for a man to play for money, and the same being wonne to keepe to his owne vse. Chap. 2.
  • Of Games, Playes, and publique Exer­cises: and of the Rewardes thereunto as­signed by the Magistrate and Common wealth. Chap. 3.
  • Of those that bestowe their winninges gayned by Play, vpon a Banquet or cheere for the whole Companie. Chap. 4.
  • What kindes of Games and Playes be lawfull, and which bee forbidden and vn­lawfull. Chap. 5.
  • The true meaning and signification of this word Alea, and what Games & Plaies be comprehended vnder the name there­of. Chap. 6.
  • [Page]Dycing and Carding reproued & con­demned euen by the Heathen and Infi­delles that knew not God. Chap. 7.
  • That the aūcient Fathers of the Church haue euer misliked and written against Dyceplay. Chap. 8.
  • That Dyceplay is directly condemned and flatly reprooued by manifest textes of the sacred Scriptures. Chap. 9.
  • An aunswere to their obiections, that stoutly defend and stiffely maintaine this kinde of Play. Chap. 10.

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