[Page] [Page] ORTHOEPIA ANGLICANA: OR, THE FIRST PRINCIPALL PART OF THE ENGLISH GRAMMAR: TEACHING The Art of right speaking and pronouncing English, With certaine exact rules of Orthography, and rules of spelling or combining of Syllables, and directions for keeping of stops or points between sentence and sentence.

A work in it selfe absolute, and never knowne to be ac­complished by any before: No lesse profitable then necessary for all sorts, as well Natives as Forreigners, that desire to attaine the perfection of our English Tongue.

Methodically composed by the industry and observation of SIMON DAINES Schoolemaster of HINTLESHAM in Suffs.

Perficit omnia tempus.

LONDON, Printed by Robert Young and Richard Badger for the Company of Stationers, Anno Do­mini 1640.


[Page] reduce this confused manner of practice to some regular form; whereby the Teacher might be exonerated a great part of his burden, the Learner encouraged with more faci­lity and expedition to proceed, we, in generall, induced to repose more confidence and delight in our owne Tongue, and the stranger allured to the knowledge of it.

Now therefore, since the perfection of all Arts (whereto the knowledge of Tongues ought to be reduced) consists as well in the Theory, as the Practice: (the one whereof makes a knowing man, the other a ready) and this Theory in the resolutive mood, or knowledge of Universals; wee are, as well in this, as all other Tongues or Languages, to have recourse to Grammar, as the generall fountain. This the Greeks call [...], or the knowledg of Letters. But according to the acception of the term, it is usually (a­mong the Latins especially) divided into foure parts, viz. Orthoepie & Orthography (w ch only differ in this, that the one hath respect to right speaking, the other to right wri­ting) Etymology (which teacheth the knowledg of the parts of speech, and how to order and propose them truly) Syntax (which treateth of the construction of the parts) and Pro­sody (which chiefly belongs to Poets) that expostulateth the accent, rythme, quantity, and measure of feet in every word or verse. The two former integrall Parts, to wit, Or­thoepie and Etymologie (as most necessary and only abso­lutely requisite in our English Tongue) I have for our pur­pose sufficiently discussed, and reduced into a classicall [Page] method: The latter two I remit to Practice in reading such Oratours and Poets as our Tongue affords, where­with every Stationers shop is amply replete.

But for the present I have only set forth the first part, (as he that would not spend all his shot at once, or the mari­ner that first rigs out his Pinnace to certifie whatseas) espe­cially since it is more chiefly conducing to all sorts, it being indeed dressed to sympathize with every palate. The Ety­mologicall part being onely intended for such as are to pro­ceed in higher Classes, shall (God willing) speedily follow, accompanying the Latin Introduction, the better to demon­strate the difference between both Tongues. The benefit that may hereby redound to the Learner, I will not here stand to expostulate, after the custome of every idle Pam­phleter, that is enforced to be the blazer of his own praise to make his book sell the better. Let those that shall make triall speak for me what they find: only this I dare presume, that this little Treatise, rightly taught, will be enough to inform any ordinary capacity the knowledg of our English Tongue, so far as concerns Orthoepie and Orthography: whereby he that is to proceed further, shall not need to waste so much time in English, and yet be sufficiently instructed.

The manner of teaching it I refer to the judgement of the Teacher, accounting it too much to set up a light, and hold the candlesticke too. The variety of Impressions, (or Prints as we call them) will serve as an instance to my [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] purpose. For the child in A. B. C. (as it is termed) that I may begin with the babe, I have caused a new Alphabet, or order of Letters, to be imprinted in the three severall sorts of Characters most usuall in our English, & most Tongues of Europe. When he is perfect in them, and able to distin­guish the Vowels and Consonants asunder, then let him en­ter this, going presently to the Dipthongs, to be informed by his Master their number and use: thence immediately to the Syllables mixt. The rest at the discretion of the Tutor (for I presume no Teacher is so ignorant as shall need in­structions for the ordring of his Pupils.) Et siquid novit rectius, candidus impertiat; if not, make use of this with me, that desire to assume no further to my selfe, then what may stand with the glory of God, and the generall good of my endeared Countrey.

This (as I said) I propose as a servant to all: for not­withstanding my whole scope herein be onely to assist the stranger and ignorant, and not to bring in captivity them whose more happy Intellects may of themselves produce more cleare conception; yet if any scholler of our own shall vouchsafe the reading of so poor a Pamphlet, he perhaps in somewhat may find the Proverb true, that saies, No tree is so barren but may yeeld some fruit, be it never so little. At least I desire his censure of this Opusculum, but newly hatched, may be but as milde, as my intentions reall for the more certain and speedy advancement of lear­ning; lest the blossome be blasted ere it comes to perfection.

[Page] Thus courteous Reader (of what ranke soever) ac­cept of these small labours, as thou shalt find them bene­ficiall. Many (I confesse) as well friends as strangers, have much animated and desired me to publish them for the common good. But when they shall come to the open view of the world, I know not how after the Presse they will escape the Rack and Strappado; for bookes and bondage are subject to the most heavie censures: Sed age Liber, vade liber, & vale.

S. D.

Upon the English Orthoepie, To the Author.

I Tell thee, Sim, th'ast done us double wrong
To live concealed to thy selfe thus long;
Seeing the want of some Directour, when
England has had so many Tongues as men,
And every one his way of speaking. And
Thus many spake, that could not understand.
But thou'lt informe their judgements. Let it be.
Set up thy Light, that whoso will may see
The readie way to Athens. This alone
Gives clearer light, then heretofore ere shone
From any English Lamp, in illustration
Of our owne Tongue. (A glory to thy Nation!)
Goe then, & let no feare of censure fright
Or wrong thee: Thou shalt teach them to speake right.

Upon his friend the Author and his Work.

I Am none of the Muses sacred quire,
My braine's too coole for Helicon t'inspire.
But this Ile say in plaine termes, Thou hast done
What I but wisht to live to see begun:
Which who ere reades, may easily discerne
The Proverb true, We all may live and learne.
I. H.

In amicum, & eius Orthoëpiam Angli­canam, simul ac Etymologiam Anglo-latinum.

PLurima perspexi symptomata, plurimatandem
Et gravia amovi, trutinas aggressus eorum
Causas. (Morbus agit, morbum porrò ista sequuntur.)
Cuncta sed haec inter gravius stipata [...]
Difficilem inveni, Stygio quifortè palude,
Germanove prius nostras resilivit adoras.
Noster enim morbus Linguae communis inhaeret.
Proprium at est cujusque suum. Sic Plica Polonis:
Jampridem bene nota lues sic Gallica Gallis;
Quam simul Italiae tribuunt; Hispanaque fertur.
Aspicis ut neglecta diu jacet Anglo-Britanna
Lingua relicta suis, multis lacer at a catervis!
Tuque adeo Medicus potior, medicamine solo,
Atque labore uno, qui jam curator adesses
Tot simul, & semel. Haec tua laus, tua fama perennis.
Instruis errantes, tua nos dum Recti-loquelam
Orthoëpia docet. Sed quid cum ver a docebis?
Perge, age, fac. Steterisque diu mihi magnus Apollo.
R. WOLVERTON Phil. & Medicus.

To his friend the Author, upon his elaborate and deserving worke, the two principle parts of the English Grammar.

WHere can one walke along the streets, but hee
May Schollers, Courtiers, and good Linguists see?
But all for Forreigne Tongues. Poore English now
Is onely left for him that drives the plough.
How many have I heard chat French as fast
As Parrats! that being put to write in hast
An English Letter would perhaps incline
To make a [...]ct to pardon for each line
A solecisme! And this chiefly is,
Because for practice they instructions misse.
I've often heard an English Grammars name,
That Forreign Countries might no more defame
Our Tongue for being irregular; but till now
Could never come to see one part: which thou
Hast happily perform'd. Ben Johnson rail'd
On Vulcans fury that had his entail'd:
But thine, in spight of Vulcan, shall ensue
To after Ages. 'Tis both Right and True.
T. B. Esquire.

In Authorem.

NEscio cur tu, Nescio, ais, dulcedine quavis
Ductus? dum Dux es, ducis & ipse tuos.
En nativus Amor (namque illum [...] amorem,
Cum dedit Esse, dedit) cogit, & instimulat!
[Page] Hic Homini communis inest: Qui sentit, habetur
[...] qui non, non benedictus Homo.
Te vero sentire probat, memor esse tuorum
Conatu hoc. Ergo, Tu benedictus Homo.
I. S. Artium Magister.

Upon the Author and his Work.

WHat shall I say? shall I the worke alone
Applaud? or thee by whom the worke is done?
In thee I find the Cause, in it th'effect;
Let that then have th'applause, thou the respect:
Onely this difference is, thy selfe must die;
But this shall live free from mortality.
T. T. Phil. Cand.

The English Alphabet, Expressing the number, order, denomination, and figure, or Charactericall forme of the Letters, as well Capitall as Small, according to their use in the English Tongue: In the three most usuall impressions appertaining to most Tongues in Europe.
There be in the English Tongue foure and twenty Letters, as here followeth.

The old English print.Their names, or denominations.The Latin and Italica prints now chiefly in use.
Hh* achGgGg
Qqqu, or kuhPpPp
Rrrer, or arQqQq
Vv uuTtTt
Ww* double uVv uVv u
Xx* ex, or ixWwWw
Yy* wiXxXx
Zz* ezard, or better edsard.YyYy

Whereof these six, a, e, i, o, u, and y, be Vowels, all the rest be Consonants.

Which of these be invariable, or have alwayes the force of Vowels, and which sometime degenerate into Consonants, and when, see further in our Treatise of Vowels in particu­lar. This we have onely set downe for children, à primo ingressu or their first entrance.

The Asteriskes denote those Letters, so marked, have somewhat peculiar, and are parti­cularly treated of more then the other Consonants.


SEtting aside all inquisitive curiosity concerning the difference between the two vulgar terms of Tongue and Lan­guage, or whether it be in respect of primitive and derivative; nor under­taking positively to determine which be Tongues, and which Languages, or how many divisions of speech were implanted among men at the dissolution of the Tower of Babel (for so ma­ny, I conjecture, may most properly be called Langua­ges according to the strict sense) as truly too curious and little conducing to our present purpose; we will imme­diately come to treat of Letters, as the first Elements or Principles of speech in every Tongue or Language what­soever.

Of Letters in genere.

A Letter (according to Sealiger) is an individuall part of a word, or the least part whereinto any word can be resolved. But in respect of certain Monograms, or words of one Letter, Master Danes in his Paralipomena hath defined it, An individuall articulate voice, or sound: by articulate, meaning that which is proper to men, to di­stinguish it from that of beasts.

What concernes the derivation of the word, the La­tines call it Litera (whence our term Letter came) quasi li­tura, saith Calepine: So that, according to the Etymologie, or strict sense of the terme, Letters are but certaine Cha­racters, or notes, whereby any word is expressed in wri­ting: and for this cause were they by the antient Latinists distinguished into Letters, as they be Charactericall notes; and Elements, as the first grounds or Principles of fpeech. But this nicety is confounded in the generall acception, which promiscuously termes them Letters; and this we shall follow.

In these therefore are wee to consider their force and figure. As for their name and order, so farre as concernes our English Tongue, wee referre you to the Alphabet.

The force or power of a Letter (saith Scaliger) is the sound whereby it is produced in pronunciation, &c. To whom we remit, for further satisfaction, the Teacher and learned Reader.

Their figure is divers, according to their severall Cha­racters, and that likewise varying in the diversity of im­pressions, wherein they be either imprinted or written, in respect of their severall use, and the relation they have to severall Tongues or Languages.

[Page 3] Their number (as I said) in our English Tongue be 24. But the Latin, nor few Languages or Tongues whatsoever, at least Scholasticall, admit so many.

These Characters or Letters, in difference of quanti­ty, be either capitall or small, as appeares by the formes expressed in our Alphabet.

The Capitall or great Letters (though in some diver­sitie of figure) were chiefly in use with our Predecessors the Saxons, and the most antient Latines.

Of these, some be called Numerals; to wit, when they be used to expresse some certain Arithmeticall number; as I, for one; V, for five; X, for ten; L, for fiftie;C, for an hun­dred, D, or D, for five hundred; M, or M, for a thousand; ↁ, five thousand; ↂ, ten thousand; &c. Where note, that when a lesser number precedes a greater, it takes from the greater number so much as the lesser in it selfe contains; as IV, stands but for foure; IX, for nine; XL, for forty; XC, ninety; CD, for foure hundred; &c.

Sometime Abbreviatives, viz. when either alone, or with some abbreviated Character, they stand for some Proper name, or other peculiar word beginning with the same letter; as F. for Francis, M. for Martha, Ri. for Richard, Tho. for Thomas, &c. which is usuall with us in Prenomens (which we call Christian names) especially where the Surname is expressed at large, and oftentimes where both name & Surname is specified by two capitall letters, as R. S. for Richard Shore. In some certain appel­lative words likewise, as Matie, Majestie; Hoble, Honou­rable; Hd, Honoured; Lop, Lordship; Rd, Reverend; Sr, Sir; Worpll, Worshipfull; Kt. Knight; Esqr, Es­quire, &c. as in practice every where occurres. For o­ther Abbreviations we remit to rules of Orthography. Their peculiar force of Pronunciation shalbe exemplified [Page 4] in their further particulars. In the meane time let this suffice for Letters in generall.

Of Letters in specie, and first of the Vowels.

LEtters in genere be divided into Vowels and Con­sonants.

A Vowel is a Letter, which of it selfe yeelds a perfect sound, or hath power to produce a syllable. Cale­pine hath it, Vocalisest, quae per seipsam, vel suaipsius potesta­te pronunciari queat. Our terme Vowell springs to us from the Latine diction Vocalis, which they derive from the Verb Voco, or rather Voce the Ablative case of Vox: Quia sine vocali non datur vox articulata a perfecta: Because no syllable, or articulate sound, can bee proposed with­out the help of some Vowell.

The number of the Vowels with us be six, viz. A, E, I, O, U, Y.

Whereof A, E, and O, are alwayes proper and invariable, the other three doe many times degene­rate into Consonants, to wit, when in the beginning of a word or syllable they be joyned before themselves, or any other Vowel or Dipthong: Onely Y never precedes it selfe.

Some have introduced W for a seaventh, in regard we sometime improperly use it in stead of V. But by reason it is in it selfe a Consonant properly, and onely by custome abusively prevailing in the nature of a Vowel, I thought it not so fit to bee inserted in the number of Vowels, for these reasons:

First, because it is a combination compact of two Let­ters, and therefore had it the force of a vowel, it would be [Page 5] rather a Dipthong then a Vowel.

Secondly, because without another Vowel it is not apt to be pronounced, or make a syllable; therefore no Vowel.

Thirdly, by reason it exacts more then one Ele­ment or syllable in its pronunciation, which a Vowel doth not.

Fourthly, in regard of its generall use, which hath it onely a Consonant, except sometime after one of these three Vowels, A, E, and O; and that chiefly in Monosyl­lables, and the ends of words, for the fuller sound sake, when it may be said to make a Tripthong for the former reasons; but this Tradition hath imposed and made in­deed onely peculiar to us.

Let this therefore suffice for the number of Vowels, and now proceed we to their severall pronunciations in our English Tongue.

The pronunciation of the Vowels severally.

A, in it selfe ought to be sounded moderately full, and broad; but, joyned with other Letters, wee ought to respect the severall natures of the Consonants whereto it adheres, or the syllable wherein it is included, and so sound it more or lesse full according to the generall custome of the Pronunciation of such syllables, which we shall more amply demonstrate in our Treatise of syllables. But ha­ving relation to its originall propriety and generall use in all countries, it is farre more tolerable to incline rather to too full a sound after the manner of a Forreigne Calfe, then with some that nicely mince it, to make it resemble the bleat of an English Lamb; especially since it often beares the same force with Au Dipthong.

[Page 6] E we usually pronounce not much unlike the Greek γ, or Eta, whence, I conceive, we derive the use and pro­nunciation of Ee double, whose faculty we notwithstan­ding for the most part usurp in the pronunciation of the single E, sounding it almost after the manner of the La­tin I, (as it is truely uttered by the Italians, French, Spa­niards, and most nations of Europe) but not altogether with the tongue so much restrained. And what they call E, we write with Ea, as in Bread, Sea, and the like.

I, according to our moderne and most commendable Orthoepiists, somewhat imitates the sound of the Latin Ei dipthong (though not altogether so full) as it is usually pronounced; or rather, indeed, the Greek Iota, whose force it truly retains with us, though much differing in it among our selves: for many of our Northerns especially abuse it with too broad a sound both single and joyned with other letters, like the Dipthong Ai, making no difference in pronunciation betweene fire and faire. Others againe on the contrary side, with an affected imitation of the Be­yond-sea pronunciation, striving to Latinize it, would make a traveller, if not a Forreigner, of it. But I for my part, as I esteeme that manner of pronunciation most to be practised, which best suits the nature of the Tongue or Language whatsoever, as most proper to it, and which hath beene most generally received among the learned; so hold I it the greatest property and praise of a Linguist to attribute to each severall Tongue its native faculty: So that I most approve in the English Tongue the Eng­lish tone, accepted and delivered by such of our Ance­stors as were able to judge, no lesse detesting barbarisms, then novelty and affectation. This I conceive a medium betweene the other two extremes, wherein we differ from the Latin, and most Tongues of Europe, as much as they [Page 7] from the antient Greeks; as every Language hath some­what peculiar.

O for the most part differs little from that of Latium, whence we tooke it: Onely sometimes in proper names especially we abusivè sound it U, as in Edmond and Ed­mund, Paighton, Paitun, short, &c.

U in like sort makes little other difference betweene us and the Latines, but onely in point of state; as when it concludes any word as a single vowell, it exacts with us, by way of Orthographie, to be alwaies, or for the most part, attended with E; as in due, true, ensue, &c. where (as in many places else) E serves but as an unnecessary Servi­tour, as shall hereafter be shewed.

Y, which as a single Letter we call Wi, hath in a man­ner the same force with the Vowell I, and in the end of a word may indifferently be written in lieu of I, or rather Ie, (for indeed we with the Dutch have learned to make a shadow of the substance of many Letters) as in merry, or merrie; mercie, or mercy, and the like: and is most gene­rally used in Monosyllables, or words of one syllable, where it sounds I long, as in my, thy, by, why, which are alwayes written with Y; the rest be indifferent, as ty, or tie, &c.

But in the beginning or middle of a word it is seldome, and that lesse properly, inserted as a Vowell, unlesse in some few words derived from the Greeke, expressed by ypsilon; or proper names, which in all Tongues be irre­gular.

For the derivation of it, the word Symptome can testifie sufficiently from whence we had it. Notwithstanding, I know there are who would deduce it from II double, whose sound (they say) it beares contractivè, as, Yet, quasi II et, &c. But this I referre to the judgment of the Reader. [Page 8] As a Consonant it hath a peculiar power; which expect in its proper place. In the meane time let this suffice for Vowels in particular.

Of Dipthongs, or the combinations of two Vow­els in one syllable.

WHen two Vowels be comprehended together in one syllable, they be called Dipthongs: wherefore a Dipthong may be defined, The combination, or (as some have it) the comprehension of two Vowels together in one syllable, either of them retaining a force in pronunci­ation. Or briefly thus, A Dipthong is the contraction of two Vowels: which better suits our English Tongue, by reason we have some Dipthongs where one Vowell loseth its faculty in the pronunciation of the other.

The word Dipthong, which the Latines call Dipthon­gus, is derived (according to Calepine, and Johannes de Janua) à [...], vel [...], & [...] sonus, vel qui proprie Vocalis est sonus. Et est (saith one) conglutinatio duarum vocalium vim suam servantium, &c.

The number of Dipthongs, and their man­ner of pronunciation.
THere belong to our English Tongue eighteene Dip­thongs: viz.

1aaas inBaal, Isaac.
2aias inFaire, Despaire.
3auas inLaud, Applaud.
4eaas inFeare, Speake.
5eeas inFeed, Bleed.
6eias inReceive, Weight.
7eoas inJeopardy, Geometry, George.
8euas inRheume, Eustace.
9ieas inField, Friend.
10oaas inBoat, Goale.
11oeas inToe, Shoe, Phoenix, Foelicity.
12oias inVoid, Joine.
13ooas inGood, Food.
14ouas inBloud, Gourd.
15uaas inGuard, Quake.
16ueas inGuerdon.
17uias inQuire, Build.
18uoas inQuoth.

Ae we never have in English, but onely in such words as be meerely Latin, though drest in an English garb; as in Praeheminent, praevalent, &c. Praeamble, & similia: and is most usually written in this figure [ę]

The first, to wit Aa, we onely use in Proper names, and words derived from the Hebrew.

[Page 10] Ai, we pronounce according to the Latin, as in faire, &c. excepting haire, which we sound as if it were writ­ten hare, but a little brisker, or rather like heare; and the verb say▪ which we for brevity sake call sa; and saist, as sest; saith, as sath; said, as sed the Latin Conjunction, &c. though irregularly.

Au, the Dipthong we usually sound after the manner of the Latine au, except in baume the herb, where it sounds A (as the French pronounce it) full.

Ea we sound like the Latin E, and it is alwaies proper, or invariable; onely in Phleagme (which we borrow of the Greeke [...]) it is for the most part sounded with E short, and G omitted, as in Phleme.

Ee, is alwaies the same in pronunciation with the Greek γ and the Latin I, as I said in the Vowels.

Ei, we generally pronounce like the Latin Ai, with lit­tle difference of sound; as in receive, streight, &c. And what force the Latines give to their Ei Dipthong▪ wee attribute the same in effect to our single I, as in the Vow­els is said: where note, wee abusively sound the word Heire, or Inh ritour, like Aire, unaspirate and full, as if there were no difference of Letters. But where Gh suc­ceeds, the Dipthong is sounded shorter, and Gh loseth all its faculty, as weight, quasi wait, &c. Some pronounce Ei like Ea in many words, and for the same purpose write it so too, but altogether against rule or authority; as re­ceave, for receive; conceave, for conceive, &c. especially where it precedeth V.

Eo, we pronounce in jeopardy and Leopard with the om [...]ssion of O, in Geometry with the losse of E, and G different from it selfe in power when it goes before O, calling it jometry short. Only in Geography this Dipthong is proper, and in it selfe complete: but we make little use [Page 11] of it, other then in the foure words here recited.

Eu, beares the same force with the Latin Eu, in words from thence derived, or proper names, as in Eustace; but in words originally English, we for the most part sound it like u single, without the E, as in Rheume, quasi Rume, &c.

Ie, differs little in sound from the Latin I, and our Ee Dipthong, as in field chiefe, Shrieve (which is truly written Sheriffe) siege, &c. where we pronounce E long without any I at all, and friend where E short, &c. But you must observe by the way, that this Dipthong never happens in the beginning of a word or syllable, for then is J alwaies a Consonant, and never a Vowell, whereby it cannot compose a Dipthong, which is the combination of two Vowels.

Oa, sounds generally after the Greeke Omega, with the losse of A; as in boat, coale, &c. Goale, or prison, is thus truely written, but pronounced like Jaile.

Oe, in the end of a word (as for the most part it seldome happens else in words meerely English, though usuall in the Latine, and such as wee immediately derive from thence) is the same in pronunciation with O single, as in Toe, &c. except shoe, which sounds shoo, as some pronounce the Greeke Dipthong Ov; and Phoenix, foelicity, &c. where it followes the Latine, bearing chiefly the force of E.

Oi, is originally derived from the Greek, whose facul­ty in pronunciation it truely retaines with us, as in void, destroid, joine, &c. But in many words which wee take from the French it imitates more their pronunciation, which a little differs, and but a little, as in purloine, &c. where it inclines more to our I, though with somewhat a flatter or more dull sound.

Ou, differs much in pronunciation. In bound, boule, (as to trundle a boule) croud (or throng) &c. it is properly in its [Page 12] native sound, deduced from the Greckes, as it is by their best Linguists truely pronounced. But with Gh succee­ding, it sounds farre more aspirate, as in bought, which we pronounce bowt, after the manner of the substantive bow, (or that which men use to shoot with) Gh having no other force in themselves. And thus it is in all Participles of the Preter tense ending in ought as bought, sought, thought, and the Adjective nought; except fought the Preter­participle of fight, which sounds fou't, after the manner of stout, bout, proper. In like sort bough (or arme of a tree,) plough, through; except tough, which sounds with a brisk aspiration, and enough, which many of us call enuff, (sed perperam.) U going before R in the end or last syllable of certaine words, loseth its force, as in honour, neighbour; except our, your, and all Monosyllables: Where note, that what words we borrow of the Latin, ending in or, we write with our; as in labor the Latin word, and labour the English: and some we take from the French, as Pa­ramour. In the word bloud it is sounded without o, u short; in gourd, without u, o long. In would, could, should, it is usually pronounced like Oo double.

Oo in Poore imitates in sound the Greek Omega, but in other words we usually pronounce almost as the French and Waloones doe their Ο in Tilmont, Paramont, &c. and as some would have the Greeke ο, though falsely. It varies little in pronunciation; as in these words appeares, soone, boone, loome, moone, crooke, tooth, sooth (which some call suth) good, food; except wood, and stood, the Preter­perfect tense of the Verb stand, which we pronounce as they were wud, and stud, and wool, quasi wul.

Ua is alwaies proper when it followes q, as in quake; but after g, u is of little force: where you may take notice, that all these Dipthongs which begin with u, sel­dome [Page 13] or never follow any other Consonant but g, and q, whereof the two last can onely follow q, except ui in build and juice; the other two indifferent. But when q precedes any of them, u retaines its sound, which after g it loseth; as in guard, &c. except Language, as is instanced in the Table of Dipthongs.

These three, Au, Ei, Ou, be many times sounded with a kind of aspiration, by reason of Gh often inserted in the same syllable succeeding, and serving there to no other use but to aspirate the Dipthong, as I said before in Ei and Ou. Ei in the word Forreigner hath G, in the na­ture of the Greek γ, but short, and in a manner altogether vanishing away.

Au with Gh in the middle of a word sounds like Af for the most part, as in these substantives, daughter, laugh­ter, which most of us pronounce dafter, lafter; except slaughter, which is slater, with A broad and full, after the manner of the French tone. The rest goe according to the tenure of the precedent rules, as caught, taught, &c. And thus terminates very many of our Participles in the Preter tense.

There are (and those diligent Inquisitours in the Eng­lish tongue) who would inhance our number of Dip­thongs to one and thirty, by the severall connexions of W and Y with the other Vowels, as if they were alwayes Vowels. But I have rejected them for these reasons: First, Y before any other Vowel alwayes degenerates into a Con­sonant (as will by provingit plainly appeare;) and com­bined in the same syllable after any other Vowell, it hath the same force in pronunciation with I, or in the end of a word with Ie, which is all one in effect, and therefore frivolous to put them as different Dipthongs.

W hath by custome so farre prevailed, as to claime the [Page 14] title of a Vowell in perswade, because it is to us trans­ferred from the Latin Verb Persuadeo, and so written with a W for difference sake; but in Proper names, and most other words taken from the Latin, we usually keep U in its owne place, as in Suetonius, which we write Sue­ton; Suevia, Sueveland, &c. In words originally Eng­lish, W, preceding any other Vowell, is improperly said to make a Dipthong, having there onely the force of a Consonant, and not a Vowell; as in wary, wet, with, work, weary, sweare, swagger, sweet, &c. but may be combined after any of these three Vowels, A, E, or O. But then is it more properly termed a Tripthong then Dipthong, (as its Character and denomination implies:) whereupon I thought good to insert it among the Tripthongs, where you may further see the difference between U single, and U double. Notwithstanding, I acknowledge it altoge­ther irregular, and peculiar onely to us and our Competi­tours, and thereupon hard to be reduced to any certaine rule. Wherefore concerning this, being a thing not much materiall, let every man take his owne opinion, if he can induce better motives.

Of the Tripthongs.

A Tripthong is when three single Vowels are together comprehended under one accent, or in the same syl­lable combined, as a Dipthong is when two are so com­prehended or combined.

[Page 15] These Tripthongs be in number ten, viz.

1eauas inBeauty, Beaumont.These two Tripthongs we have immediately from the French, and therefore ought not to alter their pro­nunciation, notwithstan­ding we usually sound the former with omission of a, as it were onely eu; the o­ther we generally pronounce like u single, as lu, &c.
2ieuas inLieu, adieu, and one ending in w, that is, view.
3uaias inQuaile, quaint, ac­quaint.These foure alwaies follow Q, and have their pronun­ciation entire and proper to themselves. Notwithstan­ding, I remember no other words in our English Tongue wherein we make use of them, more then those recited and their com­pounds.
4ueeas inQueen.
5ueaas inQueane, queasie, squeake.
6uieas inSquieze.
7uoias inQuoit, quoife.This Tripthong followes the rules of the foure prece­dent, onely the pronunciation alters in this, that qu sounds no more but K, or C, after the manner of the Latin word Quod; as quoit, quasi coit, &c.
8awas inLaw, bawd daw.These three differ in this from the Dipthongs au, [...], ou, partly in respect of their use, partly of their pronun­ciation: Their pronunciation, in that aw hath a more full and broad sound then au▪ which followes the Latin, from whence we tooke it: neither hath it exactly the sound of either Dipthong or Tripthong, as it were losing w, and retaining a full and broad, as the French pronounce it.
9ewas inDew, new, stewes.
10owas inNow, know, how.

Ew▪ in these foure words, dew▪ few, sewer, and Ewe (or female sheep) retains the pronunciation of the Latin Dip­thong Eu. In all other words it beares onely the force of U single, as new, quasi nu. &c.

Ow, in these words, now, how, adverbs; bow the Verb, Cow, Sow, substantives, and these, browne, towne, clowne, [Page 16] downe, gowne, renowne, vowell, towell, trowell, hath the same pronunciation with Ou the Dipthong. In all other words it alters in a more quick and aspirate sound, as in know, low, trow, Bow the substantive; bestow, flow, grow, Verbs, &c. What concernes their use, you may here take notice, that when any word is to terminate or end in Au, Eu, or Ou, we write it with U double: in the two first al­wayes, in the last generally, except in these two words, thou, you, Pronounes; and such as have Gh after; as plough, through, tough, bough, rough, and cough, which sounds quasi coffe, &c. and youth, quasi yuth. The rest you have enough in the Dipthongs.

This therefore shall suffice for the Vowels single and combined. Now proceed we to Consonants.

Of the Consonants.

A Consonant is a letter of it selfe not apt to be pro­nounced without the helpe of some Vowell; or, which hath not power in its own nature or being to make a syllable, or any articulate sound; as the Etymologie of the word it selfe implies: as, Consonans quasi simul so­nans. Calepine hath it thus, Consonantes sunt dictae, quia cum Vocalibus sonent, non autem per se.

And these be specifically divided into Mutes and Semi­vowels; names, who rightly understands, shall need no further definition of them. For a Mute is that which the Latins call Muta, quasi Liter a muta; and is as significant in our English Tongue, that is, mute or dumb; because in it selfe it hath no faculty of pronunciation at all, without some pittance of a Vowell.

Of these there be in number eight▪ to wit, B, C, D, G, K, P, Q, T, which in their pronunciation, beginning in [Page 17] themselves, are forced to borrow of the Vowell E to help them out; as Be, Ce, &c. excepting onely K, which ends in A, and Q in U.

A Semi-vowell taketh its denomination, as having in it selfe halfe the power or vigour of a Vowell: and these be likewise eight, viz. F, L, M, N, R, S, X, Z; all which begin their sound with E, and end in themselves; (not­withstanding so many Infantuli produce R, quasi Ar) where you may observe the difference betweene a Mute and a Semi-vowell, in that the former begins its pronun­ciation (à quo) in it selfe, and terminates in a Vowell (ad quem;) the latter begins with a Vowell, and ends in it selfe, and thereupon is said to be endued in its nature or essence with a further faculty. Though F (I know) is strongly among the Latin Grammarians disputed, and by Priscian convinced for a Mute; yet neither his autho­rity, nor the reasons quoted by his diligent Inquisitour Master Deanes, be of efficacy sufficient (at least since they hold not good in our English Tongue) to lett us from ran­king him in the forefront of our Semi-vowels, and by that meanes to adde one to the number of the Latin: where­in let Scaliger speake, and end the controversie.

The discission of them into Liquids, &c. is too nice a distinction for us to deale with. For if from the coasts of Italy any seed thereof was transplanted into our English Tongue, it was onely to grow in some Ladies mouth.

H and W are irregular, and have their particular pow­ers; which shall be further exemplified in their places. The force of these Consonants will appeare in the Sylla­bles mixt: Their denominations you have in the Alpha­bet; onely here we have thought good to introduce a word or two concerning these foure, viz. H, W, X, Z.

H (which Scaliger, Alvarus, and most Latin Gram­marians [Page 18] call Ha) we for the most part, as well in what concernes our owne Tongue, as the Latin, pronounce it as a single letter, like Ach, or Hach, taken after the Spa­nish pronunciation; who indeed come neerest us of any Nation in Europe, concerning the use and pronunciation of this Letter: but to the French it is very difficult to produce, especially as we doe. The Latins onely give it the Character, but not the force of a Letter, and from the Greekes (who onely make it a note of aspiration, exclu­ding it their Alphabet) produce sufficient reasons for it. But we cannot doe so; for without it our Tongue is alto­gether imperfect: Whereupon with us it hath the prero­gative of being ranked and esteemed as a Letter.

For the use, it is often proposed for difference sake (as hath beene well observed in the Latin) for instance these two, All, and Hall, &c.

It may precede or be set before any of the Vowels, but no Consonant, except N in John (which is meerely a con­traction of the Latin word Johannes) or where it is in­serted in the middle betweene two Consonants, as in Christ, &c. But is apt to succeed in the same syllable any of these six Consonants, C, P, T, R, S, G, as in Charity, Phi­lip, Theorie, Rhetorique, Shame, Ghost. The placing it after the first three we learned of the Greeks, notwithstanding (especially after T) wee use it in many words meerely English. After R, of the Hebrewes and Arabians, as in Gomorrha, Rhasis. After S and G we have chiefly pecu­liar to our selves.

W and Z differ from the other Consonants, in that they require more then one element or syllable in their deno­minations, or pronunciation as single letters. The one we derive from the Greeke Letter Zeta, whose force it retaines: the other few Nations besides our owne are [Page 19] acquainted with, especially to make the use we doe of it.

Further, X and Z are said to be a combination of two Consonants, and therefore are not termed single, but double Consonants, as implying the force of two: For example, we call X quasi Ecs, or (as some would have it) Ics; and Z (which the Latins call Eds) we term Ezard, or Edsard, and beares the force of Ds▪ as may be demon­strated in the Comicall oath Zounds, which they call D sounds, &c.

To these we may well adde our Consonant W, as com­posed of two V Consonants contract.

And this shall suffice for Consonants in specie. Where­fore we will immediately proceed to treat of Letters as they be parts of a word, or produce syllables; where the particular force of the Consonants will further appeare.

Of Syllables.

FRom the conjunction or combination of Letters are generally deduced Syllables, to wit, when one or more Consonants stand united with a Vowell, or Vow­els, under one accent, which we call Syllables mixt, that is, composed of Vowell and Consonant.

Scaliger therefore hath defined a Syllable, An Ele­ment under one accent; that is, what can be pronounced at once. Priscian hath it more plainely, Comprehensio li­terarum, &c. A comprehension of Letters, falling under one accent, and produced by one motion of breathing. But this was rejected among some Grammarians, as im­perfect, in respect of some Syllables consisting but of one Letter, which are here excluded. Whereupon Master Deanes hath framed this definition of it, A Syllable is a literall or articulate voice of an individuall sound: For [Page 20] every Syllable must fall under one and the same accent. So that Master Coot was not well advised to make able, acre, and the like, to be but one Syllable, as shall be fur­ther demonstrated in its proper place. For what apper­taines to the derivation of the word Syllable, the Latins call it Syllaba, from the Greeke word [...], [...], quod est, Comprehendo: So that Syllaba, in respect of the generality or latitude of the terme, may be taken for any comprehension or connexion in generall; but according to the strict acception, as it is here taken by Grammari­ans, you have sufficiently heard the description of it.

The division of Syllables.

SYllables therefore are generally divided into Monop­thongs, Dipthongs, and Tripthongs; the two latter whereof we have already for our purpose sufficiently dis­cussed.

A Monopthong is, when a syllable is composed of one Vowell, whether alone by it self, as in Monograms, or joy­ned with one or more Consonants, and that either ma­king a whole word, or standing but for a part.

Where you may note this difference between the Latin and English Tongues: for the Latin hath alwaies so many Syllables as Vowels or Dipthongs; which holds not so ge­nerally in the English, as shall hereafter be further exem­plified. Wherefore our next step shall be to treat of Syl­lables mixt, as they be integrall parts of a word.

Of Syllables mixt.

BY Syllables mixt, I understand such as be promiscu­ously composed of Vowell and Consonant; to wit, when the whole Syllable is principally guided by the [Page 21] force of one Vowell, whether joyned with one or more Consonants. Whereby I would distinguish them from Dipthongs, Tripthongs, and Monograms, one of the In­dividuals of a Monopthong, and not exclude E finall, and E in Es plurall, &c. which hath its use, though little force, as will anon appeare.

These, confusedly taken in their large sense, be in a man­ner infinite, by reason of the great variety of words in­cident to every Tongue or Language: but methodically resolved in a stricter measure, certaine Principles or gene­rall heads (as we vulgarly term them) will occurre out of these Syllables, whereon all words, consisting of per­fect Syllables, immediately depend, as all Syllables have their immediate dependance on the Letters.

These therefore are they, which by due examen of the Letters, we have endevoured to reduce to some certaine method, and put ob oculos; together with their severall rules or illustrations upon them, no lesse conducing to Or­thography then Orthoepie.

From the connexion of Vowels and Consonants, pro­ceed these syllables which here follow, with their illustrations.

Crab, web, rib, rob, rub. ab, eb, ib, ob, ub

Babe, glebr, bribe globe.

Here observe as a generall rule, that E in the end of a abe, ebe, ibe, obe. word or syllable, thus following a single Consonant, after a Vowell in the same syllable, is never pronounced, but only serves to make the precedent Vowell long; as in Babe, glebe, bribe, robe.

These be chiefly used in Synaeresis, or contractions, as, abd, ebd, ibd, obd, ubd. crab'd for crabbed; and in Participles of the preter tense, as stab'd, snib'd, rob'd, rub'd.

[Page 22] Bs, thus may follow all the Vowels, and is usually abs, ebs, &c. written with bbes, as in crabs, or crabbes; ribs, ribbes, &c. But I approve the succinctest way, especially where it beares the same force.

B before t is seldome sounded, as debt, doubt, quasi abt, ebt. det, dout.

C, is the same with K, and indeed useth in writing to ac, ec, ic, oc, uc. goe alwaies attended with K, or Ke; as crac we write cracke; brec, brecke; roc, rocke; &c. whether for em­phasis, or what reasons I know not, but I wish custome were so confined to Classicall rule, as we might leave this apostemating our Tongue with unnecessary tumours.

A Long, E not pronounced, according to the first rule. ace, &c. C in sacrifice sounds Z.

Ch, thus combined in the end of a syllable, in all He­brew ach. and Greeke words sounds K, as in Mastich, Eu­nuch, &c. but in words meerely English, or what we bor­row from the Spaniards, we retain their pronunciation, as in much, &c. Drachme, quasi dram, and oft so written.

Ck (as I said before) is no more but c or k single; as ac, ack, &c. ak, or ack in pronunciation are but all one. Notwithstan­ding we may produce this difference, that in the end of a word, the Vowell being short, ck is written for k.

This combination is often used in Participles of the act, &c. preter tense, and among Poets many times serves as an ab­breviation of ked, especially with the interposition of k; as backt, quasi backed slackt, slack'd, or slacked, &c. but then ought it to be marked with a semi-circle decressant; where note, that in these three, verdict, victuals, horse­licter, ct sounds but t.

Had, red hid, rod, mud ad, &c. adde.

The same in pronunciation with ad: For a Vowell be­fore any Consonant doubled (as in this example) is alwaies [Page 23] s;hort, and the pronunciation endeth at the first Consonant. But I remember no word wherein d is exacted double in the same syllable, but adde the Verb, comming of addo, to distinguish it from the Latin Preposition ad.

And for E in this nature, take here an addition to the first generall rule, That E in the end of any English word is never, or very rarely, pronounced, except in Monosyl­lables where there is no other Vowell; as in the the Ar­ticle, me, be, where it is sometime single, sometime dou­ble; and thee Pronoune, wee, shee, see, where it is al­waies double: or in proper names or words derived of some other Language, as in fesse, conge, which we have from the French; Penelope, Epitome, &c. which imme­diately from the Greeke.

Lade, mede, or mead, bride, rode the Verb, rude. ade. ades.

A long, E not sounded. Here likewise take another generall rule; for E in Es, in all Substantives plurall, is ne­ver sounded, except where one of these Consonants pre­cedes, to wit, c, s, x, z, or g, (like the Consonant j;) or one of these combinations, ch, or sh: nor in the third person singular of Verbs of the Present tense in the Indicative mood, as in moves, knowes, saies, &c. which we pro­nounce for the most part quasi sez.

Pads, beds, rids the Verb, gods, studs. ads. adst.

This combination is chiefly used in contractions of Verbs, and that especially among Poets; as had'st, or haddest; bid'st, or biddest.

F, in the end of a word, especially where the Vowell go­ing af, &c. before is short, we usuall double in writing, and put E last of all, though needlesse either of both; as scof, wee write scoffe, &c.

A long, e not sounded, as before in safe, wife; the rest afe. with Dipthongs, as briefe, loafe. Staffe is written with f [Page 24] double, but pronounced single, quasi stafe.

Here take notice, that such Substantives as in the singu­lar afes. number end in f, with any of the Vowels aforegoing, in the plurall number they change this t into v; as life, lives; wife, wives; loafe, loaves; &c.

The Vowell is alwaies short afore ft. aft.

Bag, beg, big, bog, bug. ag.

E after g, in the same Syllable, at the end of any word, age. makes g to be sounded like j Consonant: Wherefore it is against Orthography to write e in the end of a word after g, where g is to retaine its proper sound.

G before h in the end of a syllable is not sounded; but agh. this combination we seldome use but in the word sighes, where i precedes, and is pronounced quasi sithes, with an aspiration, i long.

This is seldome used after any Vowell but i, as in sight, aght. night, might, right, and where g is not at all pronounced.

This some have put as a true combination of a Syllable, agn. by reason of these words, benigne, condigne, oppugne, &c. but the same reasons I bring against M. Coot in l and r, shall hold in this. And first, none of these syllables are or ought to be written without e, for then are they defe­ctive, and against Orthography. Secondly, any of these Consonants combined with l, n, or r, may begin a Syllable but not end it; for no Liquid can follow another Conso­nant in the end of a Syllable; for then should it be no lon­ger a Liquid, when all the force is drowned in another. Thirdly, e never is or ought to be inserted but for some use: Now because e finall in our Tongue is of so little ef­fect or estimation, any of these Liquids being in the high­est nature of a Semi-vowell, may justly claime as much faculty in the producing of a Syllable, whereby (the one not giving to the other, but as equall competitours) they [Page 25] make the Syllable imperfect, by reason neither the one nor the other have the full force, and therefore not properly said to be a perfect Vowell: whereupon I grant these kind of Syllables imperfect (as indeed imperfections incident to our Tongue among some other which onely time and industry can amend) but yet distinct; which I prove in that they thus combined, exact more then one motion of respi­ration or breathing, which is proper to a Syllable, as ap­peares by the severall essentiall definitions thereof. And for the manner of dividing them in spelling, by the same authority the Latin Grammarians command scripsi to be spelled scri-psi, by the same will I admonish the spelling of any those words occurring in that nature; for example sake, condigne thus, con-di-gne, so notable▪ no-ta-ble; mau-gre, &c. Also the like for plurals of Substantives oc­curring in this kind, as fi-dles, a-cres, which sounds like akers; and very many the like, specially produced by l & r

These we never use but as Interjections when we mark ah, oh. them with an exclamation point, and that onely after these two Vowels; as ah! oh!.

H (as I said in the single Consonants) never precedes a ahn. Consonant but in Iohn, where it hath no force of a letter.

A long, e not sounded, make, leake, strike, broke, Luke. ake.

These I discussed sufficiently in C, whither I refer you, ac, ack, ack'd, ack't al, &c. not loving reduplications.

A short and proper, as in allude; but when d or t fol­low, it sounds like our Tripthong aw, or the French a, as in Alderman, malt, &c. any of the other Vowels prece­ding are alwaies proper and invariable.

Male, veale, stile, stole, mule: O, in the Verb stole, ale. short, in the Substantive stole, of stola, long.

A before ll, in the word all, ought to be pronounced all. full and broad, after the manner of the French pronuncia­tion of their a, or our aw Tripthong. As likewise in all the [Page 26] derivatives, or words compounded of all; as also, alto­gether, already, &c. and wheresoever all is finall. Where note, that when l is to terminate any word, we usually write it double for the fuller sound sake. O before ll in roll, sounds ou dipthong, quasi roule, aspirate.

Scald, feld, fild, fold, guld. A before ld sounds al­waies ald. as in all; and o like ow, as in old. And i long in divers Monosyllables, &c. vide post, alth.

This alwaies followes the Spanish pronunciation, as in alch. belch, and is seldome used with any other Vowell but e, or i, as Welch, filch.

This combination we seldome use in words meerly our alge. owne, unlesse in divulge, and that we derive from the La­tin Verb divulgo, &c. G sounds j Consonant.

Half, pelf, self, wulf, which some write wolfe, indiffe­rent alf. with e or without. This combination is seldome used with o, but in proper names and borrowed words; and then what seemes to be f, is generally written ph, as in Butolph, &c. Half and calf some pronounce with omissi­on of l, as they were haufe, caufe, (pronounced like the word fault) which I approve not, unlesse in the latter to make distinction betweene tibia the calfe of a mans leg, and Bovilla a calfe or a veale.

Walke, welkin, milke, folke, bulke. alk.

Calme, whelme, film, Colmes (a proper name) culme a word obsolete, or out of use. alm.

Fal'n, stol'n. aln.

Scalp, whelp, culp, a word obsolete. alp.

False, else, pulse. alse.

This is little used in any of the Vowels. alsh.

Exalt, belt, milt, bolt, insult. alt.

Balthazar, stealth, filth. Th a sharp and brisk aire.

alth. Here note that al before d, (as I said before) k, l, m, n, p s, and t, sounds as in all; and in alf, alk, alm, alp, the l, in [Page 27] pronunciation, often omitted, as in calf, walk, calm, scalp, and after au in fault: Which yet is more materiall in their Or­thography then Orthoepie; which is in a manner indifferent, & equall in the ballance of custome. The Vowels, wherewith these combinations be chiefly used, I have expressed in exem­plary words: In all other whereto they be combined, these Syllables are alwaies proper; onely o in olt sounds ow, as in colt quasi cowlt; and in olm l is omitted, as Colmes, quasi Comes, and so Colman, as Coman.

Al'n and ol'm be chiefly used among Poets, and that per Apocopen, and therefore ought to be signed in writing with the badge of an abbreviation, as in fall'n quasi fallen, contract: stol'n, the Preterperfect Participle of the Verb steal, and swol'n or swell'd, which is all one. But this combination I re­member not used with any Vowel but a or o, as by the words inserted appeares.

I in ild in many Monosyllables is long, as in mild, child, wild, pil'd, til'd, fil'd, stil'd, whil'd, exil'd, beguil'd, recon­cil'd, &c. where note that in all contractions in this sort the Vowell aforegoing is usually long.

Salve, helve, shelve, delve, silver, involve. E in the end alve. of a word after u, makes v a Consonant, it selfe not sounded: and this is likewise to be observed in many words plurall, as I said before, as also in some Verbs, &c. as salves, selves, involves. Salve some call save, a full and broad.

A in the Verb am is short, in Cambrick, Cambridge, am. long. Cham, Sem, swim, from, crum.

A long as before, blame, dreame, crime, tome, fume. O ame. in some pronounced like u, quasi sum; came and come the Verbs, quasi cam, cum, &c.

This is all one with am single, though many times unneces­sarily amme. written with m double, as stam, or stamme, hem, or hemme; him alwayes is single, the rest commendable so too.

B after m in the same Syllable is never sounded, as lamb, amb. [Page 28] quasi lam; kemb (which some call kome) quasi keme; combe quasi co [...]e, or measure of corne; climb quasi clime, i long; thumb, quasi thum, u short, so dumb, &c.

This we seldome use in one Syllable, unlesse in Hymne amn. and its compounds, Greeke words, where n is omitted, and sounds quasi Hym.

Lamp, tempt, glimpse, pomp, thump. All Verbs end­ing amp. in mp have their Preter-participle in t, as damp, dampt, exempt (which we take immediately from the Supine of the Latine Verb, not having it in English) &c. S after emp in Tempse is z, p not sounded.

Can, hen, pin, son, (or sonne, which we pronounce quasi an. sun) tun, &c.

A before n in ancient, anger, ant, and all words where g after n sounds j Consonant, is pronounced full and broad, as in danger, change, strange, &c. in the rest short.

This is needlesse double with any of the Vowels in any anne. word except the word Anne (which the Latines call Anna) the proper name of a woman, notwithstanding it be usually doubled in sonne and beginne.

Bane, beane, seene, shrine, tone, tune. ane.

A before n in this combination is alwaies long and full in ance. Monosyllables and Dissyllables, as France, chance, glance, inhance, &c. But in Trissyllables short, as in countenance, utterance, &c. In all the other Vowels this combination is short, as in hence, since, sconce, dunce.

Lanch, bench, pinch, bunch: ch proper, except in stinch, anch▪ which sounds quasi stink.

Seldom in any English word thus combined in one syllable anth.

Drank, drink, drunk: seldome used with e or o. auk.

Hand, lend, wind, pond tunn'd, the Participle of the Verb and. tun, for tun'd of tune hath u long. I in ind finall is long in all or most words, except in the Preter-participles of Verbs ending in in, contracted per Apocopen; as pinn'd (which is [Page 29] written with n double to distinguish it from pin'd, of the Verb pine) which comes of pin; skin'd of the Verb skin &c. and in these words, hinder, cinder, and tinder, or rather tunder.

Hang, wing, long, sung, g proper. ang.

Range, revenge, singe (or burne) sponge, which we pro­nounce ange. spunge: G is in effect j Consonant by reason of e which is not sounded.

This combination we seldom use but in length & strength angth.

Canst, ken'st, (a terme known to Mariners) this is seldome anst. used in other words then the two recited, whose Vowels be short, unlesse in the second person singular present Indicative of Verbs ending in n, and that by way of Apocope, as thou be­giun'st, for beginnest, &c. But in lieu hereof we have many Preter-participles ending in d, which beare the same force in pronunciation, as chanc'd, fenc'd, minc'd, &c.

Trap, skep, whip, stop, up, sup. ap.

Escape, weepe, tripe, trope, scoope, for scupe. ape.

The same that ap, therefore needlesse doubled. appe.

Trappes, whippes, &c. which would doe better single, appes. but only to please our phantasie in dreaming upon a word.

The same that af in pronunciation. For ph look in pha▪ aph.

Snapt, swept, skipt, under-propt, supt. This is used in apt▪ Preter-participles, which somtimepromiscuously interchange d and t, as sup'd, or supt.

This we use onely with i, and that in certain words derived ique. from the Latin, which should properly be only such as end in quus, as oblique, of obliquus, and not such as terminate in cus; wherefore they doe ill that write Catholick, Rhetorick; Ca­tholique, Rhetorique, &c. notwithstanding I know it is usu­all among many Schollers. But this will be better proved in our▪ Etymologicall part.

Far, Lucifer, sir, for, spur. ar.

A long, except in are the Verb, as they are, &c. which are. sounds only ar short: spare, feare, fire, dore, lure.

[Page 30] Starre, deterre, firre, abhorre, curre. Here R beares an arre. Emphasis, and therefore we write it double.

Scarce, fierce, force, nurce. C sounds s by reason of e: arce. a in scarce long.

March, search, birch, lurch, ch as in much, these excep­ted, arch. Monarch, Tetrarch, Patriarch, Arch-angell, &c. being such as we derive from the Greeke and Hebrew.

Hard, heard, err'd, bird, afford, surr'd. A in ward hath a ard. full sound. Er is the same in pronunciation with ir, as appears. All Preter-participles of Verbs ending in ire, contracted, have i long, as fir'd, mir'd, of the Verbs fire, mire, &c. as also Par­ticipials terminating in ired, as admir'd for admired. O long except where r is doubled: wherefore we must write abhorr'd with r double, because abhorre, the Verb, hath it so; and stor'd with r single, because it is so in store, &c. In like man­ner u where r is doubled hath a flat or dull sound and short, where the pronunciation of the Syllable sticks chiefly in r, as in demurr'd, which, together with the Verb from whence it is derived, ought to be written with r double, to distinguish it from the adjective demure, where u is long, and hath its pro­per sound: which likewise generally holds in all Participles and Participialls ending in ut'd contract, where r is single.

This is only used in these, garb, hearb, disturb. arb.

Skarfe, skurfe: a is full and broad, as in wharf, dwarf, arfe. u short.

This we use little but in such words as we take from the arg. Saxons, as the names of certaine Townes or Villages, which end in ergh, or urgh, as Whinbergh, Orburgh, now writ­ten Whinborrough, Orborrough. The like use we make in some derived from the Dutch, as in Hamburgh, &c.

Large, searge, forge, urge: G sounds j Consonant, because arge. of e succeeding. Which, for this reason, we ought not in wri­ting to omit, where it serves for a difference in pronunciation. A in this combination is short, o long.

[Page 31] Darke, yerke, forke, Turk, lurk. E finall here makes arke. no difference, and therefore indifferently inserted.

Snarle, Earle, girle, Sporle, the name of a Village; arle. curle, or crispe. A hath a full sound, o long.

Harme, terme, firme, storme, murmur: a in warme, arm. swarme, full and broad, o in worme sounds n.

Warne, herne, hirne, (or corner) which is rather hurne, arn. horne, burne. A in warne full, in the rest more acute, as in barne. All the other Vowels short.

Sharp, chirp, Thorp. A like aw in warp, the rest as in carp arp.

Sparse (of sparsum the supin, to sprinkle) insperse, hearse, arse. worse, indorse, purse. S proper in all: the Vowels short: o in worse quasi u, u in purse full.

Barres, erres, stirres, abhorres, burres. Here r ought arres. to be doubled for the same reason as in arre, e not sounded for reasons prescribed. The Vowels short; a sharp in all but warres, where it is somewhat broader.

Marsh, or marish (of the Latin word mare) indeed moorish, arsh. as it may truly be called: a sharp. In any other we little use it.

Smart, pert, or saucy, dirt, fort, hurt. A in quart, wart, swart, thwart, sounds aw; in the rest as in the word art: art. e in pert like ea, or the Latin e; o in fort, sport, long; in the rest short: u flat as in ur.

Startch. But in this and all the rest, if there be any, t is artch. needlesse, since rch is as much in pronunciation as artch, ex­cept the exceptions mentioned before.

Wrath, wreath, tith, broath, both, Ruth, sitteth. Th in ath. hath, wrath, lath, bath, swath, substantives, hath a brisk and its proper sound, in the rest after a flat & more dull, as in seath, swath, tath, bath, Verbs, &c. where a is long. After e it is alwaies proper, and most usually happens in third persons sin­gular of the Indicative mood, as in moveth, biteth, &c. after ea ▪in death, breath, the substantive, bleath, heath, proper: in wreath, sheath, bequeath, breath the Verb, flat: after i in [Page 32] with, stith, smith, proper; in tith, blith, sith, dull and flat, i long: after o and u for the most part proper, and hath ever u long, and o onely in both. In a word, h after t in generall produceth a kind of lisping sound as we call it.

Narth, earth, mirth, forth, worth, which we sound quasi arth. wurth. Forth the proper name we call Ford, o long: in the other forth, indifferent.

Swarve, serve, nerve, which we sound nirbe: i, o, and arve. u, in this combination I remember not. A full.

This we make no use of in our Tongue, but in lieu thereof arx. ks, as in larks, &c.

Was, is, us▪ S when it is single, after a and i, sounds z, as as. in these Monosyllables, as, was, is, his, and in Osee, Elisa­beth, gosting (to distinguish it from Gosting the proper name) husband, these, those, in ise or ose final, or wheresoever s con­cludes as the last syllable of any word; & in these verbs, muse, use, refuse. Wherefore in words wherein it claims its proper pronunciation we write it with ss, somtime with e, sometime without; as in pass, or passe, which is most usuall in printing.

Purchase, please, advertise, expose, vse: s, as before, by rea­son ase. ce after any of the Vowels usurps the sound that properly belongs to s. Wherefore we must write face, and not fase; dis­grace, and not disgrase; peace, and not pease, which is a kind of corne; vice, not vise; and advice when a substantive, advise when a verb; truce, not truse, &c. only cease holds its own, the better to distinguish it from the verb seize, which signi­fies to set upon. Muse and use substantives have s proper, to distinguish them from their verbs. As also chase the verb, to drive away: the substantive Chace, or Forrest, is written with c.

Chas'd, eas'd, advis'd, repos'd, confus'd: these be all Pre­ter-participles as [...]d. contracted per Apocopen: the s as before.

Passe presse, pisse, mosse, trusse. S is proper, and hath an as [...]e. acute sound. The pronunciation ceaseth in the first s, but ought to be written double, as you see for the reason exhibited in as.

[Page 33] Trash, flesh, fish, bush. H after S in the end of a syl­lable, ash. participates a Sibilus (as the Latines call it) or a kinde of hissing sound: A in wash full, in the rest all the vowels usually short. O in this combination is seldome used, unlesse in proper names.

Mask, desk, frisk (or skip) busk, mosch, which ask. we call musk. E finall makes here no difference, the vowels short, S acute, K proper.

Though we use this combination in spasme, which asme. comes of the Greeke word [...], Dunesme, Ba­ptisme, Chrysme; to wit Greek words, and proper names, yet is it improperly taken as a single syllable. The reasons you have heard already in agn. Where­fore they may be said to do well, who, making but two syllables of Baptisme, pronounce it with omission of s, quasi Baptim. And thereupon (I believe it came) that some call Chrisme, Cream. Their division in spelling ought not to be betweene s, and m, but i, and s: as, Bap-ti-sme, Chry-sme, Spa-sme; and not Baptis-me; where e hath the full force of a vowell. For then should there be in Baptisme, three perfect syllables distinct, which is not. For, (as I partly said before) when e finall followes any of the Liquids after another Consonant in the same syllable, the syllable thus combined is imperfect in its pronunciation, by reason it consists not of a perfect vowell.

Clasp, hesp, crisp, s proper, the vowels short. asp. Hast, beast, best, whist boast, Ghost, must: O ast. long; a indifferent; the rest short; s proper: onely in Christ, i is long.

Cat, net, knit, knot, gut. The vowels short. at.

Delicate, seate, write, wrote, sute, or depen­dance ate. in Law; for suit, or garment, is written suite, [Page 34] the like difference is betweene Brute, and bruit, or beast. The vowels long, because of E finall.

Mates, meetes, mites, motes, mutes. E in es ates, not sounded: the precedent vowels long. This is chiefly in Substantives plurall, and third Persons sin­gular of Verbs, as I have often insisted upon.

Match, stretch pitch, botch, butcher; Custome atch, hath prevailed in our Tongue, to insert T in many words before ch, though the sound be in a manner all one; but if there be any reason, it is for a kinde of Em­phasis, or to put a little force to the syllable. But which (the pronoune) rich, stich (or paine of the side,) all proper names ending in ich, much, such, &c. be never written with T, most of the other are ch proper, the vowels short.

Sprats, frets, pits, pots, puts. The vowels ats, short, the rest proper, used in Verbs singular, Substan­tives plurall.

Wave, leave, wive, (the Verb) grove, u there is ave, none, A alwayes long. Ea in lieu of E, I in give, live, sive (or teme) and all praeterperfect tenses of Verbs ending in ive, as rive of rive, strive or strove of strive, is ever short; in the rest long, as in thrive. O in Love, move, and glove, sounds V. Where note, that E after V in the same syllable alwayes makes V a consonant. And therefore concerning Or­thography in writing, it must not at any rate be left out, where it ought to be inserted, that is, where V degene­rates into a Consonant. For otherwise U, standing still in the nature of a Vowell, makes a Dipthong, where there should be none, and so alters both sense and pro­nunciation.

Saves, gives, groves, gloves. E not sounded. aves, [Page 35] V a Consonont, the precedent vowels long, except the exceptions in ave.

Wax, sex, six, box. V in this combination none. ax. Here ought the writer to be very carefull, in that he writes not ax for acks, &c. and è contra. Wherefore he may know by the way, that we in our English Tongue make little use of this combination, unlesse in these words, flax, tax, wax (both verb and substantive) re­lax of relaxo; sex, context, annext, index; six, mix, fix, pix, Rix, Hix; box, intoxicate, Pox, which are always writ­ten with X; and perhaps some few more, which I re­member not now: besides borrowed words, and pro­per names, which no man can reduce to rule.

Amaze, gaze, blaze; frieze, snieze; size, assi­zes; aze. gloze (which is better with S) toze, (a Verb a­mong some vulgars) buz, buzard. A long, E none single, but in Dipthong. I long, O long, V short. This is seldome used at the end of a syllable in any other words of our owne. And thus much of syllables, where Vowels precede: Now will we examine what principall syllables occurre, where Consonants go be­fore (à parte assumentis) and Vowels follow (à parte as­sumpti.)

Of the Combination of Syllables (where Consonants precede) and what Consonants such combi­nations may assume.

B BEfore A may assume almost any of the other ba. Consonants, as appeares by these words recited, viz. bab, back, bad, baf [...]e, bag, bake, ball, Bam­bridge, bane, Baptist, bar, bastard, bat.

With E these, beck, bed, beg, bell, been, Am-ber, be. best, better.

[Page 36] With I, bib, bid, big, bill, Cherubim, or bin, bi. bird, bit.

With O, bob, bod-kin, bog, booke, boll, bone, bor­row, bo. boast, bottle, box.

With u, as in bubble, buck, bud, buffe, buggery, bu. bull, bump, bun, burre, bustard, but, buzard.

This some would have a Combination in Cam­bden, bda. but however b is not sounded: neither truly can it stand for a Combination in the English Tongue, though in Latine and Greek it is usuall.

Blabber, black, bladder, blame, blast. bla.

Bled, blcake, blemish, blend, blesse. For ble finall ble. expect further in rules of Orthographie, and Or­thoepie.

Oblige, blinde, oblique, blisse. bli.

Block, blossome, blot. blo.

Blubber, bloud, bluffe, blunt, blurt, bluster, blutter blu.

Brabble, brad, brag, brake, brackish, brall, Brame, bra. bramble, brawne, brat, brawle.

Breck, bred, bread, brest, brew. bre.

Bribe, brick, bride, bridge, Brill, brim, brinke. bri.

Brock, broad, broke, brooke, broome, brow. bro.

Bruckle (a word the Peasant Shepheards know bru. well) bruise.

Ca sounds like ka, as in Cag, cake, call, came, can, ca. cap, car, cast, cat.

C before e, or i, sounds alwaies s, as in faced, cell, ce. center, certaine, in-cest.

Like Si, as in homicide, cinder, cisterne, citterne. ci.

C before a, o, or u, sounds alwaies k, as in Cob, cod, co. coffin, cog, cockle, cole, colt, come, conny, cop, cord, costiue, cotten.

As in cub, cud, cuffe, cull, cummin, cunning, cup, cu. curre, custome, cut.

[Page 37] Ch in Cha, and Chra, in all Hebrew words (except Cha. Rachael, and Cherubin, which custome hath exempted) Chra. &c and in such words as we take immediately from the Greeke, sounds as it were k, sc. Cha, quasi ka, Chra qua­si kra, or cra, as in these words, Alchymie, Anchorite, Alchymist, Chaos, Character, Catechisme, Chy­liact, Chymera, choler, Chyle, chyromancy, cicho­ry, Eccho, Enchiridion, mechanicall, machination, melancholy, Nicholas, Cham, Sepulcher. In other words not taken from hence, ch is pronounced after the Spaniards, or our much, as in Chad, chaffe, chalk, chant, chap, charge, chast, chat, chaw, chalder.

Check, chequer, cherry, chest, eschew.

Chicken, chid, child, chill, chip, chit.

Choake, chop.

Chub, chuffe, chun, churne.

Chr must of necessity hold its pronunciation of k, because h beares no force in it. Nor doe we make any use of it, but in words taken from the Greeke or Hebrew, and that onely with i, o, or y, as in Chrismatory, Chrisme, Christ, Christian, Chri­stopher, Chronicle, Chronography, Chronology, Chryso­cola, Chrysostome.

Hath crab, crack, Craddock, crafty, craggy, Cra. crake, crall, or craule, cram, crane, craze.

Massa-cred, crept crest, crew. cre.

Crime, crip-ple, Nypo-crite. cri.

Croake, crome, crone, croope, crow. cro.

Crud, crust, and whatsoever are contracted before cru. d, as accru'd, quasi crude.

Clab, clad, clam, clanke, clap, clasp, claw. Cla

[Page 38] All the participles of the pretertense derived of sub­stantives ending in icle, as manicled, but look further in Rules of Orthoepie for cle finall, &c.

Cleft, clew. cle.

Clicket, clift, climb, in-cline, clip, clyster, Para­clite, cli. or Paraclete.

Clock, clodder, cloake, close, clow. clo.

Club, cluster, clutter. clu.

Amina-dab, daggle, dally, dam, damne, Dan, Da. dapple, dart, dastard, date.

Debt, cit-ta-del, den, deep, desk, dew. de.

Did, die, dig, dill, dim, din, dip, distich. di.

Dock, dog, con-dole, con-done (of condono) dop, do. dost, dote, dow. Doile, or Doily.

Double, dub, duck, Dudley, dug, dull, dumb, du. dun, durt, dust, conduit.

Drab, draft, drag, drake, dram, draw. Dra.

Dread, Mildred, dregs, chil-dren, dresse, drew. dre.

Drib, drift, drill, drink, drip. dri.

Drop, drosse, drowsie. dro.

Drugs, drum, drunk. dru.

Dwarfe, dwell. Dwa.

Factour, fade, fag-got, fall, Fambridge, fan, Fa. far, fast, fat, faith.

Fed, fell, fen, Luci-fer, fes-tee, fetter, few. fe.

Fiction, fiddle, fife, fig, fill, fim-ble, fin, fire, fist, fi. fit, five.

Fod-der, fog-gy, folke, foame, fond, fop, for, fo­ster, fo. foot, fox.

Fud-dle, fumble, full, fun-dament, furre, fu­sty, fu. fuy.

Flaër, flag, flake, flaile, flam; flannell, flap, flash, Fla. flat, flaw, flax.

[Page 39] Fleece, fled, fleg, fleck, flesh, flet, flew, for fle in fle. rifle, and where it ends any word, look in E finall.

Flick, (or flitch of Bacon) flig, flight, flit, flix. fli.

Flock float, flow, floud. flo.

Flute fluster, flux. flu.

Fraile, frame, fray. Fra.

Freckle, Frederick, freake, friend, fret, freeze, fre. French.

Fri, fry'd, frig, frise, fritter. fri.

Frock, frog, from, front, frost, frow, froze. fro.

Fruc-tifie, fruit, frump, frowne. fru.

Gad, gaf, gag; gall, gam, gan, gap, gar, gast, Ga. gat.

Gob, God, gof, goll, gom, gone, gor, gos, got, go. gowne.

Gug-gle, gull, gum, gun, Au-gur, gust, gut. gu. G in ga, go, gu, is alwaies proper, as in the pronunciati­on of the words instanced appeares. But in ge, and gi, many times degenerates to j consonant, as in gentle, ginger: A perfect distinction whereof will be hard to reduce to any classicall method, but some instances, or slight instructions, you shall have after the examen of their coherence with the other consonants.

Han-ged, estran-ged, gelly, geld, gem, gentry, ge. sin-ger, dan-ger, ran-gest, sin-gest, get, gew-gaw, George.

Whereby you may see Ge before these foure conso­nants, d, l, r, s, hath a different or various sound. Be­fore m, n, and the dipthong Eo, it alwayes sounds j con­sonant: before t and w, g alwayes proper: Before s likewise, where it produces a distinct syllable, g in ge, sounds j consonant in all words, except the second per­sons of such verbs as terminate in g proper, as ring, [Page 40] ringest: wherefore the two words guesse, and Ghest, or guest, ought truly to be written with ue dipthong, like guerdon, which is expressed in the Table of Dipthongs. Before d also the difference may in the like nature be resolved, being most participles of the praeter-tense; for those that are derived of such Verbs, as have their termination in g proper, retaine in ged the force of g. But such as be derived from those Verbs, that must have e finall after g, seeming to terminate in j conso­nant, do in their participles exact the same pronuncia­tion, as may be seen in these words, range, ranged, string, stringed. Before L, I remember it onely in the two words recited, whereof gelly sounds, quasi jelly, and is usually written so; and geld retaines the force of g proper, from hence be many derivatives which keepe the same pronunciation.

Before R, in Anger, begger, bugger, conger, finger, lin­ger, hunger, meager, ager, monger, stagger, swagger; and in substantives derived of Verbs terminating in g pro­per, as ringer of ring, &c. g retaines its owne force in pronunciation. In all the rest it sounds j consonant, and in danger, manger, &c.

Giblet, Gibson (a proper name;) giddy, Gifford gi. (a proper name variously sounded, or rather two names written alike; whereof one sounds quasi Jif­ford, the other g proper;) gig, gill (of a fish;) gill of wine, quasi jill; gim, gimblet, ginny, ginger, gip­lie, girdle, give, gives of give the Verb, were g is proper: but gives, or Pendants, sound quasi jives.

G in gi, where it precedes d, g, r, and v consonant in give, and such words as be from thence derived, is alwayes proper; as also in Gibson, Gifford (one of the two names so written) Gilford, gill of a fish, Gilman, [Page 41] and severall proper names of this sort; gimblet, begin, beginning, altogither, Ginny (as it hath relation to the countrey) gild, gilt, or laid with gold, hath its pronun­ciation proper. Participles of the present tense ending in ging, have the same rule to distinguish their pronun­ciation, that they of the preter tense have (which you heard already) as in begging, of beg, and ranging, of range, may easily be seen. In the rest Gi sounds quasi ji; But take this animadversion by way of Orthogra­phie, that when you are to set downe in writing any word (whereat you may chance to doubt) for which on the sudden, you can produce neither Rule, nor Or­thodoxe example; it is farre more commendable to attribute to each letter its peculiar and native faculty or force, than any wise to innovate; or to be either the beginner or seconder of a bad custome: as some igno­rant persons, that only respect the denominations of the letters, and not their severall force: whereupon diverse of them write g before all the vowels for j consonant; which is altogether absurd, and this comes for want ei­ther of due instruction, or of care. Wherefore it is necessary for all that desire to be Orthographists, or a­ble to write English right (which likewise holds good in any tongue or language whatsoever) to know per­fectly and readily the particular force of every letter, or what every letter severally or joyntly implies.

This we seldome use in the beginning of a syllable, but in the word Ghost, and certaine proper names, as Gha. Ingheenram, &c. But when they happen together, they ghe. are to be taken as a combination, for which reason I gho. inserted them. Through all the vowels (if used in all) Gh thus beginning a syllable sounds g proper, a little aspirated by reason of the h. Some would have Ghest [Page 42] and Ghess thus written; but (as I said before) they be farre better guest, and guess.

Glad, Glam-field, glan-der, glare, glasse, Gla. glaze.

Glib, glid, glie, glim, glister, glitter. gli.

Mingled, glee, gleeke, gleame, gleane. For gle. this combination when it is finall, you have more in L and R in the end of a word, in their peculiar rules.

G before L in glory, is produced quasi DL.

Globe, glor, glose, glow, glu, glusk, glum, glo. gluc.

Gnat, gnaw, gne, A-gnes, gnit, gno, gnu. G in Gna. this combination inclines to the force of N.

Grace, de-grade, graft, graine, grap-ple, grasse, Gra. grase, gray.

Gre, Greece, griefe, Greeke, mon-grell, di-grest, gre. grey-hound, grew, maugre, &c.

Ambergrice, or Greece rather, gridyron, grig, gri. grim, grin, gripe, grist, grit.

Grog-gerin, grope, grosse, groat, grow. gro.

Grub, grunt, grup. gru.

Gualter, guard, guerdon, guest, &c. These you Gua. have in the Dipthongs.

Hab-berdasher, hacney, or hackney, had, haft, Ha. hag, hah (an aspiration of ha, which is used when one is spoken to by another familiar friend) hake, hall, ham, Hanna, hap, hare, hart, hast, hat, have, haw-thorne, hay.

Shed, theft, hell, hem, hen, her, Hester (quasi he. Ester, E long) Hesset, hew.

Hi, hide, hill, him, hin-der, hip, hire, his, hisse, hi. hit, hive, Hix.

[Page 43] Hobble, Hofmā, hog, hold, hop, hord, host, hot, how. ho.

Hub, huckle, hud-dle, hue, huf, hug, hukster, Hull, hu. humble, hundred, hurry, Hus.

J is a Consonant: and here you may againe take no­tice Ia. that J in the beginning of a syllable preceding an­othervowell, alwayes degenerates into a Consonant.

Iackson, Iacket, iade, iag, iakes, iam, ianisary, Iaques, iar, iay.

Ieffry, ielly, iest, iet, Iew, Ii, jill, Iermin, Iin­ny, Ie. Iinkerson.

Iob, iocky, iod (the Hebrew letter) iog, ioll of a Io. Sammon; iostle, Iordan, iot, ioy, Iohn.

Iubs, iuice, Iud, iudge, iug, iusk, ium, iust. And Iu. generally whensoever you have the denomination of g before a, n, or u, what seemes to be written with g, must be expressed by j Consonant, and never by G, which hath another force, as I have instanced before. Before E, or I, I remember no more but those I have here inserted, that be written with j Consonant, the rest with G, as I said before in G.

Katherine, Kalender, we use K before A in no o­ther Ka. words (unlesse perchance in some proper name) but C alwayes: In these two alwaies K.

Keble, wicked, keg, kek, kell, kemb (or comb, as ke. we call it) ken, kept, wicker, mil-kest, Ket, Kew, key.

Kibe, kick, kid, skif, kill, kim, kin, skip, kisse, kit. ki. We note, alwaies write K for C when it is to go before E, or I, and not otherwise: for then C loseth its owne force, and sounds like S, &c.

These two we make no use to begin a syllable, but onely when it is joyned with C, that C ended the last ko. syllable, as in cuckold, cuckow, &c. But we never be­gin ku. a word with either of them.

[Page 44] Knap, knave. Kna.

Kne, knell, knew. kne.

Knife, knic, knip, knit. kni.

Kno, knock, knob, knod, knog, knol, knop, knot, kno. know, Knox.

Knub, knuckle. Pronounce kn, as the Latines doe knu. their Cn, a little in the nose, or upper palat.

Slab, lack, lad, lag, lake, Lale, lamb, land, lap, La. lard, lasse, lat-ter, lave (or wash) law, lay, lax, lazie.

Led, left, leg, leke, lem-mon, lend, leape, lesse, le. let.

Glib, lick, lid, life, lige, like, lilly, limb, Lin, lip, li. oblique, lire, list, litter, live.

Lobster, lock, loafe, log, lol, London, lop, lord, lo. lost, lot, love, low, loy.

Lubber, luck, Luck, lug, luke, lull, lump, Lun, lu. lurk, lust.

Mab (in Spencer) mackrell, mad, mag-nifie, make, Ma. male, malt, malmesey (which we call mamsie) man, map, mar, mast, mat, maw, may, maze.

Meed (a word out of use) ar-med, meek, melt, me. men, met, mew.

Mickle (a word likewise obsolete) midriffe, mill, mi. might, mine, mire, misse, mice, mise, mite, mix.

Mock, mood, moll, moone, mope (a vulgar word) mo. mor-tifie, most, mow.

Muck, mud, mue, muffe, mug-well, mummy, mu. mundifie, murder, must, mute.

This is no true combination in our Tongue; though Mna. I have condescended to follow their example, that un­necessarily have inserted it, in respect of Mnemosyne, which we some use, as she were our owne. And per­haps some one or two more, which we had immedi­ately [Page 45] from the Greekes, as chiefe Lords of the Fine.

Nag, nam (an usuall termination of the names of Na. many townes which we had of the Saxons) nap, nard, nasty, nat, nay.

Neb, neck, ned, nell, nep, nest, net, new, neigh. ne.

Nib Nicholas, nig, nigh, nill, nip, nit, nive. ni.

Nock, nod, nog, nol, none, nor, nose, not, now, no. annoy.

Nul-lifie, nun numb, nurce, nut, newes. nu.

Pack, pad, pag, pale, pommont, pan, pap, part, Pa. past (where note, that past signifying a time gone, hath A, short, past the substantive for dow, A, long) pat, paw, pave, pay.

Peck, ped, pelfe, peake, Pembroke, pen, ium­per, pe. pesse, pet, peeve.

Pib-ble, pick, pi'd (i long) pig, pike, pill, pimp, pi. pin, pip, pirt, pisse, pit, Pix.

Pod, poke, poll, pond, pop porke, posterne, pot, po. pox.

Pud-dle, puffe, pug, puke, pull, pum-mell, pup­py, pu. pus, put.

Ph is the same with the Greek φ, which we borrow­ed Pha. of them, and now make our owne; but only in such words as came to us along with it. It sounds alwayes like our F, as in Phalange, Philip, Phillis, philter, Phleagme, Phlegeton, Phlegmatick, Phantasie, Philosophie, phantasma, phrenetick, Phrenzy, Phae▪ton, Phares, blasphe­mie, Polyphemus, Pheasant, Elephant, Orphan, Dolphin, trophie, Prophet, prophesie, triumph, Epitaph, &c. Which be all Greek words, and written as you see.

Phrases (a proper name) and phrases (or senten­ces) Phra. Metaphrastes, Phrygia. Ph sounded as be­fore.

[Page 46] Place, plague, plane, plaine, plaster, or plaister, Pla. platter, plaw, play.

Plea, plead, plenish, please, complete. ple.

Ply'd (y or i long) re-ply, plight. pli.

Im-plore, plot, plow, plower, im-ploy. plo.

Plug, plum, plump, plush. plu.

Prague (a city in Poland) prall, prank, prat, prave, Pra. pray.

Distem-p'red (which is rather distemper'd, and pre. therefore not well put in) prey, presse, pretty.

Price, pride, prick, lam-prill, Prur-rose, prise, pri. deprive.

Prog, prone, prop, prore, prostitute, prove, pro. prow.

Spruce, prune (both Verb and Substantive, for a kinde of fruit.) pru.

This we have of the Greeke Psa, and use it as a com­bination Psa. onely in words derived from the Greeke, as in Psalme, Psalter. In the beginning of a word, as in Pseudo Prophet, P hath little sound before S, but in the middle is pronounced full, as if they parted: For as the Latines say scri-psi, so we say dro-psy, of Hydrops; gipsy, rapsody, &c.

Squabble, squad, quaffe, quag-mire, quake, Qua. qualme (quasi quawme) quaile, quan, Quarles, quash.

Quest, quell, questor.

Qui, quibble, quick, Quid-nam (the name of a vil­lage) que. quoth, quotient. qui.

Quod-nam (the name of another village) quoth, quotient. quo.

Q before uo sounds k, u not pronounced, as quoth, quasi koth, &c. as is said before in the Dipthongs. The rest proper.

[Page 47] Rab-ble, rack, rad, rafter, rag, rake, rall, Ra. ram, ran, rap, rase (quasi raze) race, rat, raw, ray.

Reck-lesse, red, be-reft, reek, rell, rem-nant, ren­der, re. Reps (a proper name) rest, ret, rew.

Rib, rice, rid, riffe, rig, Richard, rill, rim, ri. rinse, rip, rist, Rix, rise, Rigsy, Ridge-by, Ridge-ly.

Rob, rock, rod, rogue, roake, roile, roll, ro. rom, rost, rose, rot, row, Rox-borrough, roy-all.

Rub, ruck, rud-der, rue, ruff, rug, rul-ly, rum­ble, ru. run, rup-ture, rusty, rut.

Rhasis, Gomor-rha, Rhetorick, Rhotorician. Rha. This (as I said before in the single consonants) we lear­ned to combine from the Hebrewes, Syrians, and A­rabians. H is of no force in pronunciation. The Latine Grammarians admit not this combination, notwithstanding they have Rhetor, Rhasis, &c. as well as we.

Sacke, sad, safe, sage, sake, saie, sale, sally, Sa. same, Sampson, sand, sap, sart, sate, saw, say, Sax.

Sedge (or a kinde of reed) siege, seeke, sell, send, se. set, sewer, sex.

Sid, sick, Sidney, sift, Priscilla, Sim: sin, si. sip, Sir, sister, sit, sive (i short) six, size.

Se, and Si we seldome read in the beginning of words, other than those recited, and some few more. But in lieu thereof we take Ce and Ci, as in Cell (or private roome) Cisterne &c. S in Se finall sounds z, so doth it in sie, sy, sey, at the end of a word, as in Tansey, Quinsey, Kersey, which sound all [Page 48] but zi, &c. except it followes one of these three Con­sonants, P, S, or T, as in dropsie, massie, Chatsey, as al­so L in Chelsey, &c.

Sob, socke, sod, soft, sog, soke, solemne, some so. (the Pronoune) Sonne (which we pronounce Sun) sop, sorry, sosse, sot, sow, south.

Sub-till (where B sounds T) suck, sud, sue, Suf­folke, su. sully, sum (the Substantive for a quantity of money, &c.)

Scab, scaffold, scaine (which some write skeine) Sca. scald, Scammony, scan, scape, scarce, scay (of lit­tle use.

Scepter, transcend, and whatsoever we derive sce. from the Latine Verb scando, as ascend, descend, &c.

Priscilla, Priscian, &c. what shall occurre from sci. that (whence we take this combination) or any other tongue. Sce, and Sci, sound alwaies quasi Se, and Si, or Ce Ci: but sca, sco, scu, quasi ska, sko, sku; Which are altogether in lieu thereof.

Scoffe, Scog-gin, scope, score, scot, scould, sco. scold, scoure.

Scud, scuffle, scull, scum, scup-pit, scoope. scu.

This combination before A, O, and V, is unnecessa­rily Ska. inserted, by reason we make very little use thereof, sko. as I said in Sca, notwithstanding I grant they may be u­sed, sku. aswell as sca, sco, scu, because they imply the same force. But the best of our Orthographists in that kinde use onely C, I presume for this reason, in respect the Latin admits no K, in it selfe, and it is our glory to come as nigh the Latin as we can. But before E, and I, in that nature, Sk is alwayes used, and Sc, which be­fore either of those vowels, imply no more but S (as I said before) after the manner of the Latin.

[Page 49] Masked, Shelton, skeure, musket. ske.

Skip, skiffe, skill, skim, skin, skip, skit, skirt. ski.

This combination we had from the Greeks; though scha. now it be our owne, we make little use of it. In A, O, or V, Ch sounds K, as in Schole (the name of a village) Schoole or place of learning. But in E and I, C is o­mitted in pronunciation, as appeares in schedule; schisme, which onely quasi sisme, as we generally pro­nounce it.

Scrabble, scrag, scramble, scrall, the Verbe, scra. scrap, scratch, scrawle, or bill in writing.

Screake, screek, screw. Descrie, scribbe, scrip, scre. scro, scrot; scrue, scrub, Scroop. scri.

Shackle, shade, shad-dow, shaft, shag, shake, sha. shall, shamway, shame, shape, share, shave.

Shed, shee, shell, shew, Shelfanger, the name she. of a towne.

Shib-ley, shift, shill, shim, shine, ship, Shirley, shi. shit, Shipdham, the name of a towne.

Shock, shod (for shoo'd) shooke, shole, shone (the sho. preterperfect tense of shine) shop, short, shot, show, shovell.

Shublie, shucke, shud, shug, shuffle, shun, shut. shu. S in the beginning of any word is alwayes proper.

Shre, shrew, shri, shrift, shrib (a word of no use) shra. shro, Shropham (the name of a village) shrowd, shrow, which is better written shrew: shru, shrub, shrump.

This combination is proper, though not much used (as you see) by reason of the abundance of consonants, which the Latines especially abhorre.

Slab, slacke, slad, slake, slam, slander, slap, sla. slat.

[Page 50] Misled (or mizled, of misle, or mizle) for that sle. which comes of the compound Verb mis-lead, is mis­led. Sleeke, slender, sleep, slept, slew.

Slick, slid, slift, slig, (a word out of use) slime, sli. slip, slit, slive.

Slod, slop, slow. slo.

Slub-ber, slug-gard, slut. slu.

Smack, small, smart. Sma.

Smell, smelt. sme.

Smile, smit, smite. smi.

Smock, smote, smot. smo.

Smug, Smutter. Sme in the end of a word hath its peculiar pronunciation, which you shall see smu. hereafter, when we treat of the Liquids severally.

Snack, snaffle, snake, snaile, Snape, snap, Sna. snarle, snast.

Sneake, snellin, snew, the preterperfect tense of sne. the Verb snow.

Snib, snick, snip, snirle (which some write snurle) sni. snieze.

Snorle, snore, snot, snow, snort. sno.

Snuck, snuffe. snu.

Spake, spall, span, spare, spar, spat, spaw. spa.

Speck, sped, spell, spend, spert. spe.

Spice, spig-got, spike, spill, spindle, spit. spi.

Spoke (or spake, the preterperfect tense of the Verb speake) O short: and spoke of a Cart-wheele, spo. where O is long: spot, sport, sporle, O long: spouse.

Spud, spue, the Verb, to vomit: spun, spurne. spu.

Squabble, squad, squall, squat, squeake. squa.

Squib, squit-ter. This combination is made lit­tle squi. use of, but in words more barbarous. S proper, q sounds k, u, w.

[Page 51] Stab, stack, staffe (quasi stafe, A long) stag, stake, sta. stall, stam, stand, starre, start, stave the Verb.

Steady, Sebbin, wor-sted, Stegwell, stealth, ste. stem of systema, and steame or vapour, stip, Stephen, stew the Verb, stew'd, stewes.

Stick, stiffe, stile, stiut, stip, stir, Styx for Hell sti. among the Poets.

Stock, Stoke, stole, stolne, stop, stow. sto.

Stub, stuck, stud, stuffe, Stuke, stunt, sturdy, stu. stutter, stug (a vulgar word.)

Strake, Strand, straw, stray. stra.

Ministred, streake, Strelly, stretch, strew, the stre. preterperfect tense of strow.

Strick, strike, strife, strive, strip. stri.

Strock, stroke, strooke, strop, strove of strive, stro. strow, de-stroy.

Struck, struggle, stumpet, strut. stru.

Swab, swack (an obsolete word) swaddle, per­swade, swa. swagger, swallow, swam of swim, swamp, swan, swap, swart, sware, swasher, sweat, sweat (quasi swet, the preterperfect tense of sweat) swarve, sway.

Swell, swept, an-swer. swe.

Swib-ble (a barbarous word) switch, swill, swim, swi. swine, swipe, swilke, Switzer, which we call Swisser.

Swore (for sware) of the Verbe sweare, sword, swo. swound. In swound W is scarcely pronounced at all, and but moderately in sword, and swore.

Swulke, swut, which is better both written and swu. pronounced Soot.

Tabby (the name of a stuffe) tackling, taffeta, Ta. tag, take, tall, tale, tame, tammy, tan, tap, tarre, tar-tar, tast, tatter, tax.

[Page 52] Hoisted, teeke, tell, tele (a kind of wild-fowle) temz or temse, tend, minister, tetter, teat, tew. te.

Tib, tickle, tide, tie, tiffle, tig, tike, till, tile, time, timorous, tin, tine of a forke, tip, an-tique, ti. tire, en-tice, adver-tise, 'tis (per Aphaeresin, for it is, contraction inter Poetas usitatissima) which hee that reads Poets must needs be acquainted with, I short, in 'tis, S quasi Z.

Phthisick of Phthisis, a disease which the Greeks call [...], the Latines Phthisis, or affactus marasmodes, and marasmus, we by the generall terme of Consumption, as indeed it is Consumptio totius, &c.

Ptisand, or Ptizon: I set these words here as they occurre, having no fitter place, in regard of the ge­nerall pronunciation of them. They be both Greeke words; neither indeed have we any such combination as either of them, in our owne tongue, for Ptolomie is a proper name and Greeke word too. The first we vulgarly pronounce quasi Tisick, the second Tisand, the third Tolomie, for to P before T we scarcely give any sound at all, when it happens thus, as you see very rare­ly; which made, I might not altogether omit them. But now to returne to Ti, from whence we are digressed.

Artist, abortive, ty or tie, the Verb.

To, the word being a signe of the Dative case, &c. to. toe of a mans foot, the one alwayes written with E, the other alwayes without, the sound all one: tow, such as women spin: Tod, a proper name, Toad a vene­mous creature; tog, toll, or ring, quasi towle, Toll a proper name, ô short, L accented, or acute; and so Millars toll, toll-booth, &c. tome, tone, top, tore, tosse, totter, stove, or hot bath, toy, tose quasi toze.

Tub, tuck, stud, tuft, tug, tuke, tull, tumbrell, tun, tu. [Page 53] turkie, tussock, tut, improperly used in pronunciati­on, for to' t a contraction of to it, where o ought to sound in a manner like oo dipthong.

Thack, a vulgar word, Thames, which we call Tames, thank, that, thaw, or dissolve. Thaxton, a Tha. proper name.

The, the article is alwaies written with E single, as, the house, &c. but thee in the oblique cases of the Pro­noune the. thou, is alwaies written with ee dipthong. There ought like to be a distinction of sound, though we sel­dome give it, between them. Thed, the termination of some Participles, whose Verbs end in th, as bequeathed, bequeath, and others whereby it is more properly ex­pressed. Theft, them, then, there, the Adverbe, and their the Pronoune (thus alwayes in writing distingui­shed, though in sound they seem all one.) Thetford, theise, or these, theeve (the Verb) which some write thieve, because thiefe is usually written so. They whch sounds quasi thay, gather, altogether, &c.

Thick, thigh of a mans body, (gh not sounded) thi. thimble, thin, thine (in one Th hath a briske sound, in the latter a flat) thir-ty, this, thite (a word only used among the vulgars) thy.

Thoke (used onely of countrey people, and old wo­men) tho. those, thou, though.

Thumb, thurle (a word obsolete) thus, Thuxton. thu. Th hath originally a brisk ayre, or an aspirate and nim­ble faculty in pronunciation, after the manner of the Greek Θ or Theta (whose force it ought to retaine) whence I suppose the Saxons fetch'd it, for from them we had it. Notwithstanding that tyrannicall usurper Custome (brought in at first by carelesnesse) hath in many of our words wrested it from its proper [Page 54] and native force, to a duller, more heavy, and flat sound, as in these, that, the, both Article and Pronoune, them, then, there, and their, these, they, thou, thine, thy, this, those, though, thus, thence: fatham (which some pro­nounce fadam) brothell, further, thither, father, Nor­therne, worthy, heathen; and generally in words ending in ther, thed, theth, theft, and their participles of the present tense ending in thing, as brother, breathed, breath­eth (which is better onely breathes) and therefore we shall seldome use theth, as in our Etymologicall part will further appeare: bequeathest, bequeathing. And in words ending in therne, as Southerne. Whereto add burthen, farthing, murther, and the words we recited of this sort for th finall in ath. The rest be all proper, as in thank, theft, third, &c. In burthen and murther, many pronounce Th, like d: which promiscuous use of D and Th, descended hereditarily to us from the Saxons.

Thrace, thrall, thrumb, thrust, thruttle (which is obsolete.) Thra.

Thred, threaten (where Ea sounds but E short) threw of throw. thre.

Thrive, Thrilkin, thrip, thrice, thrive, i short, the preterperfect tense of thrive. thri.

Throb, through, throp (the termination of some few proper names) throw the Verbs, throwes, or thro. paines, belonging to a woman.

Thrust, &c. Th before R alwaies proper. thru.

Thwart, thwack, thwilke (a word obsolete.) Thwa.

This combination I remember not any where pro­perly used but in thwart, nor do I commend the use, more than for necessity, of such as are thus tedious and difficult to produce. Our best Masters that Latium e­ver knew, rejected them, and let us strive to come as nigh them as we can.

[Page 55] Trab, tract, trade or handicraft, trade the preter­perfect Tra. tense of tread, in lieu of trode: trammell, traine, trap, trattle, straw, tray.

Tread, tred, the termination of diverse words; tre. trell likewise a termination, tremble, Trent, Trepan, distresse, treat, trey, an instrument Dairy-maids are well acquainted with.

Tribe, trice, tri'd (a participle of trie) trig, trick, trim, Trincalo, trip, trite, or worne out of use like tri. the word.

Trode of tread, trough, troll, trot, trow, Troy, tro. trowle, trouble, which we call truble.

Truck, true, trug, trull, trundle, trust. In this tru. combination nothing is difficult.

Twaites, twaine, twelve, twine, twist. The first is a proper name, the second growne out of fashi­on, Twa. the third and last necessary and proper, the fourth usefull enough. More I remember not: their pronun­ciation is not hard.

Evade, Vafer, valley, vamp, vant, vant-guard, Va. T not sounded, varlet, vast, Vaux commonly called Vosse.

View, ved, an usuall termination of many Partici­ples, ve. vent, Verte, or light green, a terme in Heraldry, vest, inveigh.

Vice, provide, vie, village, vinyard, vertue, or virtue, ad-vise, revive. vi.

Vogue (or agitation, a French word) volley of shot, vote, vow. vo.

V in the beginning of a syllable before any other vowell, is alwaies a consonant, as like before E finall, vu. as we already said. But in English it never precedes it selfe in the same combination; in Latin often, as in [Page 56] vultus, and what comes of volo, &c. except in the word vulgar, and the derivatives thereof, which we have im­mediately from the Latin word vulgus.

Wade, wafe, a word little used; wag, weigh, quasi wai, wake, wall, wamble, wan, of win the Verbe; Wa. wane, or decrease of the Moone, ware, warre, was, wash, wave, way, waite, Walter, which we call quasi Water.

Web, Wecker, wed, we, wef, weeke, well, wen, wept, were, wert, west, wet, weave. we.

Wicked, wide, widdow, wife, Wigmore, wild (i long) wimble, wildernesse, i short; wine, win­dow, wi. wipe, wire, wish, wit, wive the Verb; Wix.

Wood (quasi wud) woe the substantive, o long, for wo. misery; woo, or sue, which some write woe, but fals­ly; wooke, or awoke, awaked, of the Verbe wake; wool, quasi wul; womb (O long, B not sounded) wone or wan, of win the Verb. Wort, worse (where note that O after W, before R, sounds alwayes U, as wort, quasi wurt, &c. wot, worsted, worrey, which we call vulgarly wurrow.

W never precedes u in any word that I remmember, but alwaies assumes o in lieu thereof.

Where note, that W in the beginning of any word or syllable, is alwayes a Consonant: and never used as a vowell, but in the ends of words, or sometimes for difference sake, being put after a Vowell in the nature of a Tripthong, &c. except onely that Custome hath so prevailed to write it in some few words in lieu of u, as perswade, sweare, sword, &c. where it hath the same force with u.

Whale, wharle, whart, what, whay. Wha.

When, where, whet, wheat, whence, whether. whe.

[Page 57] Whine, whim, whip, whirle-wind, whist, white, whi. why.

Who, the pronoune, whose, whom, (in these o who. sounds oo dipthong) whole, whore, o long, w not pro­nounced.

Wrack, wrangle, wrap, wrastle, be-wray. Wra.

Wrest, wret, wren, Wretham, E short. wre.

Wright, as mill-wright, &c. write, the Verbe, to write with a pen, where you may note their difference wri. in Orthographie. Wring, writ of write, and Writ or Prorsus in Law. Wrie, or wry, awry, &c.

Wrong, wrote, of write; Wroxham, a townes wro. name.

Wrung, the preterperfect tense of wring; Wrun­gey. wru.

Example (wch the vulgar sort call Sample) exempt. Xa.

Exemplifie, Xenophon a Grecian Philosopher. xe.

Exil'd or exiled. Exotique, exustion, which in­deed xi. is ex-ustion of exuro.

This we have from the Greeks, and (as you see) rarely used in any English word but example, and the derivatives thereof. The rest where X precedes are chiefly Greek.

Yaune, or rather yawne, for to gape; yag, a vul­gar Ya. word.

Yap, or little curre; yard, yall.

Yell, yes, yet, yield, yesterday. ye.

You, youth, yonder, young, yonker (a barbarous word) yolke of an egge, which they commonly call yo. yelke. Y before a vowell alwayes consonant.

Zanche (a Scottish name) zealous, row-zed. This Za. we have like from the Greeks. For zeale comes from Zelotes, the Greek word, &c. And thus much of syl­lables ze. mixt.

Of the foure Liquids, L, M, N, R, when they happen in the end of a word.

NOtwithstanding in the division of Consonants, I merrily said, Liquids were onely made to suit a Ladies mouth: yet in respect experience finds the ne­cessity, that enforceth the generall acceptance of them in our Tongue; I have thought good to propose this little Treatise of them in peculiar: the rather, in re­gard I have, in the syllables mixt, as occasion was of­fered, so often had relation hereto.

Liquids therefore (which the Latines call Liquidae) take their denomination from their clearnesse of sound; as, of all the consonants, comming nighest the perfe­ction of a vowell; which we above the Latines or any other Language, by Triall in some cases approve. And this may serve for a description of them, to wit, such semivowels as can partly of themselves produce an imperfect syllable. Their number foure, viz. L, M, N, R, common both to the Latines and us. Their use in some cases more with us than them, in some lesse. For in the beginning or middle of a word, we need not their distinction; unlesse it be, because L and R be most incident to combinations, under any other consonant, wherein there is an aptitude of combining. But in the end of many words their fault is such, that whereas the Latines call them but semivowels, or halfe vowels, they deserve of us to be entituled three-quarter vow­els at least, in that the chiefe force of the syllable relies upon them. For example, when any Liquid after ano­ther Consonant in the same syllable terminates a word, as onely joyned with E finall, or Es plurall, where E is [Page 59] the same. The pronunciation of that syllable consists chiefly by vertue of the Liquid, as in ble, bles; cre, cres; sme, smes; gne, gnes, &c. which we will more particu­larly instance, in words exemplar. Where note L, and R, are the two Principle, as of most use in this kinde, and combined with most consonants: The other two lesse usefull, and more rarely happening.

L therefore may be thus combined under b, c, d, f, g, k, p, s, t, x, z. as in fable, uncle, fidle, trifle, struggle, sickle, apple, misle, castle, axle, drizle, which some write drisle, nor do I disallow it. These taken in the plurall number of such as be substantives, produce these words, fables, uncles, fidles, trifles, sickles, apples, castles, axles; and in the third person singular of such as be Verbs, come Struggles, misles, drizles, &c. and diverse other of the same nature, proceeding from these con­sonants. Their pronunciation we will specifie under one generall head of them altogether; when we have examined the rest.

R generally may be combined under b, c, d, f, g, p, t, w. But taken in the sense, is seldome put after any but c, g, and w. In many words with the two former it remaines invariable in this kinde, as in acre, maugre, &c. Combined with w, in this imperfect manner, may, and often is altered by interposing the E between W and R, and so made a perfect syllable, as in towre, or tower, both which be according to Orthography. Notwithstand­ing I most commend the latter altogether, as a substan­tive; the former as a verb for distinction sake.

M in our English Tongue is onely combined under S, as appeares by the table of syllables mixt.

N onely under G at the end of a word, and that for the most part in such words as we take immediately [Page 60] from the Latine, as condigne, of condignus; oppugne, of oppugno the Verb; benigne, of benignus; &c. M we find thus combined, chiefly in words either mediately or immediately comming from the Greeke; as will ap­peare by comparing this place with our treatise of asme, in the syllables mixt.

The manner of pronouncing them is thus as fol­lowes. Frame your voice as if you would sound all the letters, and withall the E; but so soone as you have pronounced the two consonants, there stop, and omit the E. As for example.

ble,infable,Pronounce as they were onelybl,quasifabl.
cle,inuncle,Pronounce as they were onelycl,quasiuncl.
dle,infidle,Pronounce as they were onelydl,quasifidl.
fle,intrifle,Pronounce as they were onelyfl,quasitrifl.
gle,inangle,Pronounce as they were onelygl,quasiangl.
ple,ingraple,Pronounce as they were onelypl,quasigrappl.
tle,inmantle,Pronounce as they were onelytl,quasimantl.
cre,inacre,Pronounce as they were onelycr,quasiacr.
gre,inaegre,Pronounce as they were onelygr,quasiaegr.
sme,inbaptisme,Pronounce as they were onelysm,quasibaptism.
gne,inbenigne,Pronounce as they were onelygn,quasibenign.

And so in the rest, whensoever they shall happen thus combined in the end of a word. As likewise when these combinations befall with es finall, being either the plurals to these substantives of the singular number, or the third person singular in the present tense of the in­dicatie mood of such as be Verbes, you shall pro­nounce them altogether with the omission of E, as more plainely appeares in this ensuing Table.

[Page 61]

bles,Being finall, as infables,You shall as they werebls,As if the words recited were writtenfabls.
cles,Being finall, as inuncles,You shall as they werecls,As if the words recited were writtenuncls.
dles,Being finall, as insadles,You shall as they weredls,As if the words recited were writtensaddls.
fles,Being finall, as instifles,You shall as they werefls,As if the words recited were writtenstifls.
gles,Being finall, as instraggles,You shall as they weregls,As if the words recited were writtenstraggls.
ples,Being finall, as inapples,You shall as they werepls,As if the words recited were writtenappls.
tles,Being finall, as inmantles,You shall as they weretls,As if the words recited were writtenmantls.
cres,Being finall, as inacres,You shall as they werecrs,As if the words recited were writtenacrs.
gres,Being finall, as intigres,You shall as they weregrs,As if the words recited were writtentigrs.
smes,Being finall, as inbaptismes,You shall as they weresms,As if the words recited were writtenbaptisms.
gnes,Being finall, as inoppugnes,You shall as they weregns,As if the words recited were writtenoppugns.

Where though we have in these tables plainely de­monstrated their pronunciation by way of Orthoepie; yet in what concernes Orthography or right writing, E, in these or the like words appertaining to either of the tables, ought not at any rate to be omitted. Since it would argue a greater imperfection in our Tongue to propose a syllable without the Character, than the force of a vowell, in that we attribute a further faculty to the Liquids, than to the E, taken in this manner: Which serves as a Cypher in Arithmetick, to fill up, or supply a roome, but onely to add the greater vigour to the precedent Letters. And whereas some would have acres, Tygres, and diverse others of this kinde, to be written akers, tigers, &c. would custome so permit, I for my part should never refuse the accepting a perfect syllable, for an imperfect: by imperfect meaning, such as be produced without the perfect force of a vowell. For further satisfaction in any thing hereto concerning, I remit you to my former treatises; not loving Tauto­logies, more than for necessity.

Certaine briefe Rules of spelling reduced to a method.

BY spelling I understand the due ordring of syllables in a just proportion, as they are to be together com­prehended under their severall accents: or a certain way of attributing to every syllable its true quantity or mea­sure in the number of letters therto belonging; whether as an integrall part of a word, or constituting the whole.

To this is requisite first to know the number of syl­lables in every word, then their division.

For the number, we will produce a generall in­stance, though not without its exceptions.

The Latines have it as an infallible and certaine rule in this kind: That so many vowels or dipthongs, as are in a word, so many syllables. But we must frame it in the English Tongue with more circumstance, which shall be thus.

So many vowels, as occurre in any word, to be produced under diverse accents, or with severall motions of breath­ing, so many syllables.

I put this distinction as a restraint to the generality of the rule, by reason of these exceptions.

First of the dipthongs, where two vowels comming together, are joyntly comprehended under one accent.

Secondly, of the Tripthongs, where three vowels are together combined in one syllable.

Thirdly, of E finall; which (as I said before) serves either to make the precedent vowelllong, that goes be­fore it in the same syllable, as in Alchy [...]mie, where A is short, and ale, where A is made long by E succeeding L: or for a difference in the pronunciation of G, as in rang, of ring; and range or stray, &c. Or to add some [Page 63] life and vigour to a Liquid in the producing a syllable, as you lately heard in the liquids.

Lastly, of E in es finall, by me already so often men­tioned, to wit, when S in the plurall number is added to such words as exact E finall in the Orthography of the singular: for in this case, E in es hath in it selfe no force; unlesse the consonant preceding in the singular number, be either C, G, or S; and then E in the plu­rall number before S finall, maketh a distinct syllable, as in ace, aces; age, ages; nose, noses: as likewise after either of these combinations ch, or sh; as in Church, Churches; ash, ashes, &c. The same rule for es plurall in Substantives, holds in all respects effectuall in es fi­nall in the third person singular of the present tense of the Indicative mood. Wherefore I shall not need to instance any further particulars, concerning that; un­lesse I would be unnecessarily tedious, which is farre besides my meaning. As for certaine adverbs and pre­positions which might hitherto be reduced, I referre them to the Readers observation; least in striving to be so exact, I might produce a mountaine of a mole­hill.

These foure exceptions therefore duly pondered, and had respect unto, the number of syllables will ea­sily occurre, being otherwise equall with the number of the vowels. And thus much for the number; now for the division of syllables, as they ought to be distin­guished truly one from another.

This then we will endeavour to illustrate in these few ensuing rules.

First therefore when two vowels come together in the middle of a word, not combined, that is, not being a dipthong, but severally to be pronounced, then for [Page 64] the division of the syllables, you shall take the former vowell, as proper to the former syllable; the latter to the ensuing. Likewise when two consonants come so together, put the one consonant to the former syllable, the other to the latter, as in tri-vi-all, lar-ger. Except the two consonants occurring in the middle of the word be one of the combinations instanced in the ta­ble of syllables mixt, which be these, bl, br, ch, cl, cr, dr, dw, fl, fr, gl, gr, gh, kn, pl, pr, ph, sc, sk, sh, sl, sm, sn, sp, sq, st, sw, th, tr, tw, wh, wr; for all those combinati­ons that are apt to begin a word, are likewise apt to be­gin a syllable, and therefore ought not to be divided in the spelling. But whensoever they happen otherwise together, either severall consonant doubled, they be alwaies distinguished in the division of the syllables; unlesse when it happens in the end of a word, that two consonants be unnecessarily doubled, as in be-ginne, which is no more but begin.

Secondly, when any single consonant thus occurres in the middle of a word of diverse syllables, you shall end the precedent syllable at the vowell, and let the consonant fall to that succeeds; for no syllable in the middle of a word can end in a consonant, unlesse the syllable following hath another to begin withall, ex­cept it be in words derivative, or compounded, where every syllable exacts the letters appropriate to the sim­ple word, as shall anon be further instanced.

Thirdly, when three consonants so happen together, you shall divide them in this manner: If the first be a single consonant, and the two latter a combination, take up the single consonant in the former syllable, and let the other two fall to the latter: and so è contra; for it's requisite that two of them be a combination, and be [Page 65] thus divided, unlesse perchance it may so happen, that H interposeth the two extreme consonants (which ve­ry rarely is seen but in the beginning of a word) and so make a semi-double combination; for then all con­sonants fall to the latter syllable, as in be-shrew. These kinde of combinations be onely in some pe­culiar words, and not much usuall, especially Chr, Phr, Scr, Sch, Shr, Str, Thr, more frequently oc­curre.

4 If foure Consonants come together (as more can­not) and make a double combination, they must be e­qually divided. But if the first be a single consonant, and the other combined, take up the single consonant, and let the other three fall, as in con-straine, en-thrall: so è contra.

5 If three vowels come together, not being a Trip­thong, or combined in one syllable. If the former be a dipthong, and the other a single vowell, as in bayard, take up the dipthong in the first syllable, and let the vowell fall to the latter: and so on the contrary part.

6 If X, as it often doth occurre in the middle of a word, you shall alwaies take it up in the former sylla­ble, though there be no other consonant follow where­with to begin the latter: because it implies the force of cs, which is no combination that can begin a syllable (in the English or Latin, but usuall in the Greeke) end it may, and frequently doth.

Lastly, when two complete words are compoun­ded, or together united in one, you shall in the spel­ling have respect unto them, as they were both simple; as in save-guard, which hath but two syl­lables. The like is to bee had in Derivatives, [Page 66] or words derived, which have alwayes relation to their primitives, though somtimes by way of mediation, as in strength-en of strength; strength-en-ing of strengthen, &c. where E in the middle syllable is often cut off by Syncope, and made strength'ning.

For a conclusion of this treatise, we will onely add a word or two concerning Ti in the middle of a word.

Ti, before a vowell that is to begin another syllable in the same word, is alwayes ci or si in pronunciation, except it followes X, or S; or that the syllable follow­ing be but an addition to a complete word ending in ti, happening usually in adjectives of the comparative and superlative degrees of comparison; and participles, whose verbs had their termination in ti, or ty, as in lof­ty, loftier, loftiest; mighty, mightier, mightiest. Pitty, pittying, pittied, &c. which be the usuall terminations of such words. Or lastly, where it precedes es finall, as in citties, unties, where it is all but one syllable &c. For in these cases ti remaines allwaies proper, other­wise not. And so let this suffice our present purpose concerning this subject.

Onely here for the further practice of little ones, that These hard words menti­oned are wit­tingly omit­ted, perceiving the volume to arise to too big a bulk be­yond the Au­thour his in­tention or ex­pectation. their parents may need to buy them no other book for the reading English, we have here annexed some hard words confusedly composed, though in an Alphabeticall order; and after them the first Chapter of S. Mat­thew, to inure them a little to those Hebrew names.

Abbreviation, Acknowledgment, Addiction, &c.

The first Chapter of S. Matthew.

The booke of the generation of Iesus Christ, the sonne of David, the sonne of Abraham.

2 Abraham begat Isaac, and Isaac begat Ia­cob, and Iacob begat Iudas and his brethren.

3 And Iudas begat Pharez, and Zara of Thamar, and Pharez begat Esrom, and Esrom begat Aram.

4 And Aram begat Aminadab, and Aminadab begat Naasson, and Naasson begat Salmon.

5 And Salmon begat Boos of Rachab, and Booz begat Obed of Ruth, and Obed begat Iesse.

6 And Iesse begat David the king, and David the king begat Solomon of her that had been the wife of Vrias.

7 And Solomon begat Roboam, and Roboam begat Abia, and Abia begat Asa.

8 And Asa begat Iosophat, and Iosaphat be­gat Ioram, and Ioram begat Ozias.

9 And Ozias begat Ioatham, and Ioatham begat Achaz, and Achaz begat Ezekias.

10 And Ezekias begat Manasses, and Ma­nasses begat Amon, and Amon begat Iosias.

11 And Iosias begat Iechonias and his bre­thren, about the time they were carried away to Babylon.

12 And after they were brought to Babylon, Iechonias begat Salathiel, and Salathiel begat Zorobabel.

13 And Zorobabel begat Abiud, and Abiud be­gat Eliakim, and Eliakim begat Azor.

14 And Azor begat Sadoc, and Sadoc begat [Page 68] Achim, and Achim begat Eliud.

15 And Eliud begat Eleazar, and Eleazar be­gat Matthan, and Matthan begat Iacob.

16 And Iacob begat Ioseph the husband of Mary, of whom was borne Iesus, who is called Christ.

17 So all the generations from Abraham to David, are fourteene generations: And from David untill the carrying away into Babylon, are fourteen generations: And from the carrying a­way into Babylon unto Christ, are fourteen gene­rations.

18 Now the birth of Iesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Ioseph (before they came together) she was found with childe of the Holy Ghost.

19 Then Ioseph her husband being a iust man, and not willing to make her a publike example, was minded to put her away privily.

20 But while he thought on these things, be­hold, the Angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dreame, saying, Ioseph thou sonne of David, feare not to take unto thee Mary thy wife; for that which is conceived in her, is of the Holy Ghost.

21 And she shall bring forth a Sonne, and thou shalt call his Name Iesus: for he shall save his people from their sinnes.

22 (Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the Prophet, saying,

23 Behold a Virgin shall be with childe, and shall bring forth a Sonne, and they shall call his [Page 69] Name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.)

24 Then Ioseph being raised from sleep, did as the Angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him his wife:

25 And knew her not till she had brought forth her first borne Sonne, and he called his Name Iesus.

But now it is time that we leave our childish di­gressions, and persist with what more directly intends to our Scope. Supposing therefore the premises in­structions enough, for the spelling, and finding out any English word; or in what may concerne the letters either severall or combined; it onely remaines, that we say somwhat of the stops, or pauses, between sen­tence and sentence, for the more renable (as we call it) and distinct reading. Which notwithstanding it pro­perly belongs to Orthography: yet by reason Ortho­graphie and Orthoepie be necessarily so concomitant (as being impossible to be perfect in the one without the other) and we have so promiscuously used them, to shew their difference as occasion served; we have thought fit to insert this briefe peculiar treatise hereof, as a Conclusion to our English Orthoepie; especially since we have made that the chiefe title to this little booke (as chiefly undertaking what thereto apper­taines) and that the knowledge of these stops or points is no lesse conducible, and hypothetically necessary to distinct and ready reading (the perfection of Orthoe­pie) than to Orthographie, or right writing: though I will not further inferre, knowing it so requisite to both.

[Page 70] These stops therefore are by the Latines termed Comma; Comma-colon; colon; periodus; Interrogatio; Parenthesis; Exclamatio; Apostrophe, sive contractionis nota, vel signum.

Their number (you see eight) their figure and use ensues.

The Comma hath its place at the foot of the line, and is marked with a semi-circular forme like an halfe Moone decrescent thus (,) The use onely in long sen­tences, in the most convenient places to make a small pause for the necessity of breathing; or in Rhetoricall speeches (where many words are used to one effect) to make a kinde of Emphasis and deliberation for the greater majesty or state of the Elocution.

The Comma-colon, as you see by the name, partici­pates of both the Comma and the Colon; The one re­taining his proper place, the other above the figure thus (;) This to the Ancients was not knowne; but now in no lesse use than estimation, especially among Rhetori­cians. Who in their long winded sentences, and redu­plications, have it as a constant pack-horse, to make some short deliberation as it were of little sentences, as the Comma doth of words; the time of pause about double that of the Comma generally, which yet is very small.

The Colon (which we vulgarly call two prickes or points) is deciphered in the forme of two periods, the one at the foot, the other at the upper part of the body of the line, thus (:) It is chiefly used in the division of sentences, and exacts halfe the pause of a Period; and halfe as much againe as a Comma-Colon.

The Period is onely a single point, set at the lower part of the body of the line thus (.) This is altogether [Page 71] used at the end of every speech or sentence, as the name it selfe implies (being derived from the Greek) and signifies conclusion. The pause or distance of speak­ing hereto appropriate is sometime more, sometime lesse: for (setting aside the Epilogicall distinction, as it terminates whole treatises) when in the middle of a line it cuts off any integrall part of a complete Tra­ctate, which goes not on with the same, but begins a new line, it requireth double the time of pause, that it doth when the Treatise persists in the same line: be­ing then foure times as long as a Colon, which in the same line is but twice.

I remember my singing-Master taught me to keep time, by telling from 1, to 4, according to the nature of the time which I was to keep, and I found the pra­ctice thereof much ease and certainty to me, till I was perfect in it. The same course I have used to my pupils in their reading, to inure them to the distinction of their pauses, and found it no lesse successefull.

But here you must take notice, that many times this point or period marke is many times set after great or Capitall Letters single; not for any pause or distance of time, but onely as a note of abbreviation of some propername, or other word beginning with the same letter. Which you shall thus distinguish. For if the point succeeds such a capitall letter, it argues onely an abbreviation, and no time of pause: but if the great letter succeeds the point, it argues onely a period pause, and no abbreviation. For as in Orthography such ab­breviations ought to be marked with such a point; so every Period ought to have a Capitall Letter immedi­ately succeeding.

[Page 72] The Interrogation point is figured thus (?) taking both name and use ab interrogando. Being onely used when any question is asked. The pause it requires, is more or lesse according to the matter and seriousnesse of the question, but generally the same with the com­mon Period, as it ordinarily fals in the middle of any treatise.

The Parenthesis hath the figure of two semi-circles or halfe Moones crescent, and decrescent, either incli­ning to other, thus (). For pause it requires as little as may be; exacting rather a distinction of tone, than distance of time. By reason the use of it only is, when any thing is introduced in a sentence, which might be left out, and yet the other sentence remaine entire.

The Exclamation point is most subject to interjecti­ons or conversions of the voice. It takes the name ab exclamando, the use from signes of exclamation and wonder. The marke it beares is this (!) The pause that belongs to it, is likewise to be reduced to that of the Period.

The Apostrophe or mark of contraction is variously subject (according to the place it possesses) to the three figures, Apharesis, Syncope, and Apocope: that is, according as the contraction be in the beginning, middle, or end of a word: as in 'twill, Apostrophe est Aphaeresis nota, for it will: in strength'ning, Syncopes: in th'intent, A­pocopes, &c. The marke, as you see, the same with the Comma, onely the difference is of place, in that this stands over the upper part of the line where the contra­ction is; almost in the same manner that the Greeks set their note of aspiration, where they intend to aspirate any vowell. For pause of time, it hath none belong­ing to it, and therefore not so properly inserted among [Page 73] the points, or stops. But onely as I thought it conveni­ent, by reason of the Character; which is necessary to be knowne and distinguished.

Taken in the two first kindes, that is, by way of Aphaeresis and Syncope, it chiefly appertaines to Poets, who use it very frequently. By way of Apocope, it is incident likewise to Lawyers, as chiefly prone to cut off entailes, where, in their writings, two words occurre, whereof the former ends, and the latter beginnes with a vowell, they usually com­bine these two words in one, by contracting the last vowell of the former, and including it in the o­ther (as it often happens in such, as to augment their owne liberties have infringed other mens) especially E single, as in th'intent, th'Archangell, &c. for the intent, the Archangell, &c. where after the common course of the world, the weakest goe by the walls, or rather the worst, and the great word ingrosseth in the les­ser, like usurers and fishes. And thus much for Apo­strophe.

This ensuing piece of non-sense I have onely of pur­pose framed and hereto annexed to exemplifie further the use of the precedent Points in their severall kinds, per Erotema.

Are there any certaine histories (I pray you, if I may not too much interrupt you) that might induce a man of judgement to believe, that there are in nature such creatures, as be call'd Anthropophagi, or man­eaters?

Oh Heavens! that ever any Scholler should argue himselfe of so much ignorance, as to propose such a question! Hath not Plinie? Hath not Isi­dore? Hath not Columbus? Hath not Albertus? [Page 74] have not the best of naturall Historians and Geogra­phers sufficiently depicted them? But whether they did it of their owne knowledge, as having seen them; or that they had it meerly from the relation of others, that I cannot tell. But they all agree in this: India (say they) hath certaine Islands wherein such creatures be: America many; and some in Africa. Thus India is call'd their harbour; America their nurse; Africa their home. Travellers, Merchants, Historiogra­phers, report, assure, relate, partly what themselves have seen; partly what approved in their wofull com­panions, left to be entombed in the bellies of those monsters: while they themselves with much adoe es­caped, onely to be the dolefull narratours of so sad a story. But whereas some Philosophers and Physiti­ans stand to oppose, it cannot be in nature, neither that mans flesh can nourish, or yeeld any nutriment: And whereas, on the other side, some produce argu­ments from experience, of savage beasts, that will eat, devoure, and (had they sufficient thereof) would live onely by such; which argues they are nourished by it; and thereupon conclude, if it affords nutriment to such savage beasts; why not to those creatures, almost as savage as the wildest bruit (notwithstanding as men they be potentially endued with reason; but that so re­strained by the organs, and limited to sense, as they may truly in a kinde be termed Rationis expertes) 'tis not here my purpose to dispute, having already said more of them than at first I intended.

Now therefore come we to make good our promise concerning some peculiar rules belonging to Ortho­graphie. Wherein we shall endeavour to be as succinct as may be, (least our little volume rises to too big a [Page 75] bulk) especially since we have so fully satisfi'd occasi­on (perhaps above the Readers expectation) in our Treatise of syllables mixt, where you may finde many particulars might hitherto be reduced.

Certaine peculiar Rules of Orthography.

ORthography is the Art of right writing; as the Ety­mologie of the name in the Greeke Tongue im­plies, and the common acception among Grammarians approves. The difference between it and Orthoepie, who so understands their termes in Greek, may easily comprehend: the one appertaining to right speaking, the other to right writing. Orthography (according to the present use) is chiefly versed in the Letters, in re­spect of their Quantity; to wit, as they be decyphered in Capitall or lesser Characters, and the knowledge how to dispose of these in writing: viz. when to use great letters, when small. And on the relation hereto shall our ensuing discourse be chiefly grounded. For to inferre here a generall treatise of Orthography, accor­ding to the latitude of the terme, how it hath reference to the Letters, both single and combined, and that as parts of a word; and so proceeding methodo compositi­vâ; to treat of these words, as part of a sentence; and sentences, as the integrall parts of a complete treatise; and how distinguished by the points: were in a circu­lar gyre to bring about a needlesse repetition of what we have already bent the aime of all precedent dis­course; and for our owne purpose sufficiently dis­cussed; and (I thinke) enough to satisfie any reaso­nable capacity: If not, since it is facile inventis addere, let any one enlarge the foundation which we (so farre [Page 76] forth as our knowledge extends) have first laid in our English Tongue. But now to returne. Concerning the use of the Capitall Letters, therefore take these a­long with you.

1 Every Treatise, or written speech whatsoever, is to begin with a great letter, that is, to have the first letter of the first word of the Treatise, written or printed, with a Capitall, or great Character, in what hand or impression soever the discourse is to be de­livered.

2 The same is to be observed in the beginning of e­very distinct sentence, or clause. For (as I said before) after every period point must ensue a great letter.

3 The pronoune, or word (I) must alwayes be written with a great letter; so must every proper name, or peculiar denomination of every individuall: as all the Attributes of God Almighty, the names of Angels, Saints, and evill spirits; the titles given by the Heathens to their faigned Gods ard Goddesses; the names of men and women of all sorts whatsoever; the names of moneths, winds, rivers, Cities, townes, Islands and Kingdoms: the particular name of any pe­culiar dog, horse, or beast of any kind soever: The first word of every verse, at least Heroique: any letter set for a number, as you had in the beginning of our Orthoepie: Any letter standing for any such, or the abbreviation as we there mentioned.

Lastly, all names or Titles of Magistrates, Arts, Offices, and Dignities, in what respect soever taken. In these, I say, altogether consists the use of Capitall Letters, in all other we use onely the smaller.

Where you may take notice, That in the abbrevi­ations [Page 77] I spake of to be written with great letters, I included not any such Charactericall abbreviation of a word, as & for and, ye for the, yt for that; and a thousand more commonly occurring, besides what every man hath peculiar to himselfe, which onely ex­perience and practice must make familiar to you: but those which are thus to bee distinguished; to wit, when you would abbreviate any word, whe­ther proper name, or other word usuall in such ab­breviations, which is to bee expressed by the first letter of the word, then are ye to use a great Letter in all those Abbreviations, otherwise not. For ex­amples, I referre you to our treatise of Letters in ge­nere, in the first part of the Orthoepie here specified, in this little book.

The next caution after the great Letters is for E finall, or when it fals in the end of a word, that you never omit it, where it ought to be inserted: whether for distinction sake, as in win, the verbe, and wine, the substantive: or onely to make the precedent vow­ell long, as in shrine: or after v, to make it a conso­nant, which otherwise seeming to be combined with the former vowell in the nature of a dipthong, might so alter the pronunciation, as in love, which without the E would be sounded like lou, in loud, so move, live, and a great many more of the like kinde: or for diffe­rence of diverse words ending in G, aswell substan­tives as verbs, as in rang, and range, &c. which I instan­ced before.

Or lastly, when in es, terminating either verbe or substantive, it ought of right to bee put for any of the uses above rehearsed. Because many times as it makes a difference in pronunciation, so [Page 78] it much varies the sense: as in these words, made, mad, Cage for a bird, Cag of beare, rid, ride, safe, saffron. Dame, or matron of a family, dam of a mill, and damne the Verb, to condemne. Sack, sake (where note as a generall rule, that when any vowell before k sounds short, we alwayes write c before k; as in stick, or rack; but when the vowell is to be pronounced long, we al­wayes write it with k single, and add E finall to it, as in rake, &c.) man, mane of an horse: gap, or breach, gape: Ware, warre; tune of a song, tun of wine: hid, hide; mile, mill, where the vowell before L is short, we usually double L in writing. Pin, pine, &c. diverse of this sort. And here likewise take notice of what we in­stanced in Orthoepie, That when any word seems to end in S proper, the vowell being long, we alwayes write it with Ce, as in race, slice, mace, mice, &c. for (as I said) S in this case sounds alwayes Z, except where it is written as a difference betweene the Substantive and Verb, where both sound alike, as in rase, or demolish, the verb; and race, that such an one ran; or race of gin­ger; race of wine, &c. where their sound is all one. But otherwise the Rule holds generall without ex­ception.

Furthermore, diligent observation ought to be had in writing of such words; where diverse words of severall Characters, and that of divers meanings, are alike pro­nounced: for example, Raine that fals from the clouds, ought to be written thus as you see: the Raigne of a Prince thus: the reine of a bridle (which we usually and better sound quasi rean) so as is here demonstrated. Their, the pronoune; and there the adverbe, or in that place. Wait the verbe, and weight the substantive, or quantity. Write, when a verb, to play the Scribe (as we [Page 79] call it) and wright when a Substantive, as in Ship­wright, and the like. Prophet of the old Law; profit or gaine. Read, proper in the present tense: but in the preterperfect tense both of verb and participle sounds E short, quasi red, yet ought to be thus in writing di­stinguished from red the adjective, or fiery-colour'd. Heard the verb, hard the adjective. Here in this place, I heare. Deigne, or vouchsafe, sodeine. Some men, sum of money. Neigh of an horse, and nay a note of deniall.

Also all adjectives derived of the Latines, ending in us, we write ous, as in glorious, frivolous, victorious. But all monosyllables hold proper, as thus, not thous; us, not ous, &c. And substantives derived of the La­tine, which they terminate in or, we write our; as in labour, honour, vigour, &c. Except our monosyllables, and verbs, as or, ought not to be written our, which is another word. For, nor, abhorre, of abhorreo; reper­cusse, of repercutio, &c. Trusse, discusse.

Lastly, the Article A, (wherof herafter God willing, we will further inform you in our Etymologicall part) and the pronouns My, and Thy, being to precede a word beginning with a vowell, usually assumes in writing N, in the first single; in the two last with E finall, as an, thine, mine; to avoid in reading the great hiatus, or kinde of gaping in pronunciation, which otherwise it would produce; as an Asse, not a Asse: thine eare, ra­ther than thy eare: mine injury, rather than my injury; but the two latter be more indifferent, than the former. So on the other side must we not say or write, an lamb; thine bullock; mine sheep: but a lamb, thy bullock, my sheep. And not like the vulgar sort, who annex this N [Page 80] to the ensuing word, as a nox, a nasse, my nuncle, thy naunt; for an oxe, mine uncle, thine aunt, &c. You must therefore be very cautious to shun in writing the barbarous custome of the vulgars in their pronuncia­tion, as shoen, for shoes, an ordinary fault in some countreyes, to put N, for S, and E, for I; as mell, for mill; delited, for delighted, &c. setting aside the absur­dities used among the vulgar in Sommerset-shire, and o­ther remote places, as not worth the nominating, so much as by way of reprehension: but follow the cu­stome of the learned, and observe their use among Schollers. The rest I referre to our precedent rules, and your owne practice, and diligent observation in reading Classicall Authours.

For a Conclusion therefore of this our first part of the English Grammar, whereas Quintilian adviseth in the Latin Tongue, that Orthography should be but as the Custos, or Depositour of Orthoepie, as a carefull steward: and so by consequence, that one should main­taine the other: when he wils them by way of institu­tion to speak, as they write; and write as they speake, for their further ease in avoiding multiplicity of rules: I could wish the same in our English Tongue; but must have patience to expect, till time and further industry have reduced it to a further method and perfection, by refining and purging away those grosse corruptions which so tumifie it with unnecessary sur­feits: Which for my part I should be glad to see; that there might be no just allegation, why we should not have all the liberall Sciences in our own Tongue, aswell as France, Spaine, and other Countreyes. It would, no question, be a great furtherance to reall [Page 81] knowledge. But in that kinde I shall not be the first to innovate, though I lay this stone for others to work upon, to build a larger prospect for the pleasure of my Countrey-men, and benefit of strangers.

Thus courteous Reader, Lege, perlege, elige, dilige;
Qui te diligit, in CHRISTO JESU. S. D.

Certaine briefe Notes, or Directions, for writing of Letters, or familiar Epistles.

ASwell in regard of my promise in the prescri­ption or Title page; as to satisfie the request of some peculiar friends, finding perhaps the gene­rall defect (aswell in themselves as others) of some il­lustrations in this kinde: I have annexed these few di­rections in generall, for the inditing and writing Letters (as we terme them) or familiar Epistles, intended one­ly for the benefit of children, women, and persons ei­ther altogether ignorant in this respect, or discontinued. As for Secretaries, and those who can better help them­selves, I leave them to their owne practice, and obser­vations. For to undertake to reduce this confused qua­lity, faculty, or art, (or whatsoever terme you will at­tribute unto it) to any certaine method, or classicall precept; or to seek out a radix, consisting of such prin­ciples, whereon every particular must ex hypothesi de­pend (would I, or any Secretary more commendably versed in those wayes, attempt it) as we should find it a work no lesse tedious than difficult, and almost impos­sible (unlesse it were possible to know every private mans occasion) so might we to little purpose and effect frustra oleum & operam dare, since Quot homines, tot sen­tentiae; and it is connaturall for every one, that is able [Page 83] to apprehend, to like his owne imagination best. Nei­ther would ever any of the Latines (who knew too well severall men have their severall occasions) take such a burden upon them, in a tongue more incompa­rably pure; and times farre more addicted to industry and knowledge, in what concerned both speculation and practice. Macropoedius (I know) shewed a will to do somwhat herein, and prescribed certaine generall rules; but such as would better suit an Oration, than a familiar Epistle, which delights in brevity and plaine­nesse. The Paradigma's or examples there, be well and commendable; but not consorting the streame of En­glish Secretaries, more taken with Seneca's succincter stile. But for examples, I referre you to others, since there are every where enough to be had, intending one­ly to deale by way of Instruction.

In the framing of Letters, we are to have respect to our selves, and the quality of the Person to whom we write. For, as it behoves us not to use alwayes, and to all persons a like phrase, or manner of writing, so ought we to be cautious in the performance of it respectivè, that is, without prejudice to our selves, or derogating from the party to whom it is written. If therefore to our Superiour, or one of rank above us; then are we to frame our stile in a lowly and humble manner, yet (habito scriptori respectu) according to the distance of degree; the worth of both the objects; and the sub­ject of our Letter. For, it befits not a Gentleman to use those submissive and incroaching termes to one of higher state, and fortunes; which may well become a Peasant to one of farre meaner rank. Neither would we indeavour to insinuate our selves so farre in any o­ther respect, as when we have some suit to preferre, or [Page 84] some request to make. And in generall, it is more to­lerable to be argued of too plaine a stile, (so as I said, it be done with due respect) than by any Rheto­ricall flashes of elocution, to incurre the censure of a Sycophant, as it is incident and usuall to such as use many words to little purpose, to be either rejected as idle and impertinent; or els suspected of some farther plot, than perhaps the party himselfe is guilty of. Let therefore your Letters of what na­ture soever, be as succinct as possible may be, with­out circumlocutions, which be tedious to Persons of quality, and such as have much businesse. And if it be so, as they be replete with matters of con­sequence; come presently to the businesse of most importance, conveniently introduced: then persist in order: for otherwise, if your Letter be copious, and carries not (as the Proverbe sayes) meat in the mouth, or matter at the entrance, it may hazzard (if not well sollicited) to be cast by, without so much as once reading over, as I have knowne some my selfe among men of worth, who have been much imployed.

This I speake not though, utterly to debarre the use of civill Complement, which is both requisite, and no wayes inconvenient, so it be used with discretion, and not (as they say) to make a paine of pastime. Complement therefore is most seasonable, when it ac­companies either present or visit, I meane aswell in pa­per as in person. And that alwayes better introduced in the close of a Letter, than at the beginning; un­lesse the whole subject be onely by way of comple­ment, and nothing concerning any serious businesse. A thing ordinary, and many times expected betweene [Page 85] friend and friend, upon occasions of writing offered. And then is afforded liberty of using wit, and readi­nesse of Genius, to such as be indued with pregnant phantasies; having still a care not to be over-shot by selfe-opinion; least a flash of windy matter produce such bubbles, as carry no other substance, but onely to vapour into ayre; or perhaps turne worse than no­thing.

If it be to be written to one inferiour or some de­grees beneath you; be plausible and courteous to win respect and love: but not too familiar: since too much familiarity breeds contempt, especially among people of the meanest sort, most apt in such cases to forget themselves.

If to a stranger of equall rank, shew courtesie in a full proportion, yet cloathed with a petty kinde of state; aswell to avoid all suspition of intrusion, as to shew a kinde of nicenesse in intimating too sodaine fa­miliarity. For wise men will consider, things easiliest wun, are most easily lost; and he that comes fastest on, goes quickliest off. Give mee the friendship comes slowly by degrees, for that is most likely to at­taine perfection, and longest to continue, as having the surer ground for a foundation of it.

If to a servant, let love and mildnesse so proceed, as may not loose its distance; for, too much ri­gour looseth the servant, and too much love the Master; who may easily discerne love from a ser­vant tempered with a little awe, is alwayes most available to the Master; as acts voluntary go beyond enforcements.

If to a Maister, let the stile be such as may de­monstrate all obsequy and duty. This I speake [Page 86] in respect of servants (as servants) in generall: not, but that I know, as there are differences and diverse degrees of Masters, so ought there severall respects to be had to servants, according to their place, and manner of service. For it were absurd to think, that Gentlemen in those places that may befit their rank and fortune, though subject to their masters call, should be tied to the obsequious termes of every pedantique Groome. As first, he that waits voluntary, and at his owne ex­pence; then Secretaries in their severall ranks; then such as serve in the places of Gentlemen, as Ushers, and the like. Then Clarks to men eminent, and of qua­lity; and Clarks appertaining to Offices, Factors, and Apprentices (especially about London) men perhaps (as is usuall in that kind) better derived than their Masters. In this respect, I say, ought the servant to consider the relation, or respect to be had, according to his Masters rank, his own person, and the nature of his service. yet generally speaking, all servants (as servants) of what nature or calling soever, ought aswell in writing as otherwise, to shew a kinde of respect extraordinary. Though (as I said) some be tied to termes more incom­parably strict than others.

If we write to a Parent, our stile and manner of wri­ting must be such, as may shew all dutifull respect and obedience, exacted from a Child to a Parent, by the Lawes of God and Nature.

If to a father or mother in law, that is by marriage, we will tender our selves in such termes, as may pro­fesse service and obedience; but not duty: At least, not equall to the former: though I grant, we ought to think our selves tied in a firme obligation of civill, and more than common respect.

[Page 87] If to a child, love and care: But the passionate ex­pressions of tender affection, better fit a mother, than a father: for men ought to governe their affections by the rule of reason, least otherwise they chance to set a bad example of letting loose the reines of passion, of it self too apt to run out of one errour to another.

In a word, if to a friend, friendly. If to an adversa­ry, harsh, as you think good, according to the nature of the offence, and quality of the person offending. But not railing, or too invective; which will argue more passion, than judgement or discretion, and be a meanes to make other men suppose a want in you of somwhat might make you rightly capable of an injury.

But if it be to a familiar and intimate friend, you shall be restrained to no other rule, but onely your own ima­gination, and the best liking of your friend, according as you shall observe his conceits most addicted, or incli­ned this way or that. Onely take it as a generall and infallible rule, let the body of your letter be succinct and pithy, such as may expresse much matter in few words: and let that be your greatest study by way of inditing: And by the way of writing to have respect to Orthography, according to those rules we have be­fore prescribed. But to come with a bundle of Cir­cumquaques, after the manner of the vulgar sort: whose common custome is to begin their Letters thus (Lo­ving friend, The occasion of my writing unto you, at this present time is, to let you understand, that I should be very glad to heare you are in good health, as I am at the writing hereof, God be blessed therefore, &c.) on in a whole bede­roule of ribble-rabble is most ridiculous and absurd, in the sight of one which knowes the manner of indi­ting. For to be glad to heare of their welfare, is im­plicit [Page 88] in the title of friend: and to send word of your health, it suffices to tell if it be not so: if not, the other is easily imagined. And so many prayers and thanksgi­vings as some put in, were better spent in their closet, where no ayre might circumvent them, than inserted in ordinary letters (excepting such as passe betweene man and wife; parent and child) which passing through so many hands, may chance to get infection; or at least exposed to the wind and open ayre, may chance coole their fervour of devotion. But here we likewise exempt Apostolicall benedictions, sent from Ministers (befitting their function and calling, and answerable to the Word of God) who in that rightly imitate the worthy President S. Paul in his Epistles.

Having therfore marked or creased (as we call it) out the paper (which ought to be in folio, or in quarto, that is an whole sheet, or an halfe sheet doubled) and having in the top, after the usuall custome (especially writing to persons of worth and quality) left a sufficient space for a vacuum, and as ample a margent (but that is to be ordered more or lesse, according to the quantity of your paper, and the subject, whereon you are to write) then in the first place are you to order the superscripti­on, or the title to be attributed as an entrance. For your assistance wherein, you shall (as I said before) have re­spect to the quality of the person to whom it is writ­ten, and your selfe; and that whether as an acquain­tance, or stranger; intimate, or lesse familiar; having relation or dependance either of other, or not; friend, or adversary, &c. and then order your title in this manner.

If therefore it be a Lord (for higher I will not as­cend, presuming any, to whom these be directed, to [Page 89] have little intercourse with Emperours, Monarchs, Kings, Princes, Dukes, Marquestes, Earles, &c. or if they have, let them seeke other assistance, or send to us, and we shall do our indeavour to supply their want) if it be so, as he holds his title onely by some place, or dignity, by way of Office or Magistracy, we seldome superscribe any other title than, My Lord, and by the way, still in the body of your Letter, put him in minde of his Lordship, and now and then his honour, &c. If he be a Count, or Baron, by descent of noble pedigree, our title is chiefly, Right Honourable: Right Honourable, and my very good Lord (this from a retainer, or one that hath dependance on his honour) Most noble and illustri­ous Sir, Right Honourable and renowned Sir, and diverse others to this effect. And from a Gentleman only, My Lord, will suffice. But still we ought in addressing our speech to him, to do it with the attribute of His Honour, and now and then for change we may say, Your Lord­ship, or, Your good Lordship, from one of meaner rank. To a Baronet, Honoured Sir, as the most usuall and be­fitting title to such a degree: which is likewise often attributed to other Knights, and somtime to Esquires, and other Gentlemen, by way of Complement. Gen­tlemen writing to Knights and Baronets, often give onely the title of Sir, and noble Sir; worthy, or most wor­thy Sir; sometime Most Noble, and the like. But I like the plainest best, especially when one hath much busi­nesse, and little leisure to complement. The usuall su­perscription from one inferiour, or of meaner rank is, Right worshipfull, &c. sometime Right renowned, or right worthy Sir, and this comes sometimes as a Rarity from a punie Scholler, as tumbling from his thumping pen. And under the degree of a Gentleman, or a Gen­tlemans [Page 90] mate, it behoves in writing to have his or your Worship, by the end along, so often as his speech hath relation to the Baronets or Knights person. From a peasant, your good Worship will not do amisse. But from a Gentleman, ridiculous; as arguing little breeding. One Gentleman or Esquire writing to another, usually attribute onely the title of Sir, especially if strangers, or lesse intimate: if better acquainted, many times some other addition, of Noble, Worthy, Courteous, Gene­rous, Kinde, and the like, according to their intimacie, affection, and difference of eminency and fortunes. Somtime, if very intimate, more familiar termes, which they ordinarily use in discourse. But from one of a meaner sort, or not a Gentleman, would be thought a sawcinesse, or arrogancy at least, to do so; unlesse from such make-sports, as Gentlemen make use of onely to foole with. From a Tradesman therefore (of the ordi­nary sort I meane) writing to an Esquire, the title of Worshipfull Sir, or Worthy Sir, or the like, and now and then to pull your Worship out of his pocket (especially if to one any wayes eminent or of quality) is no more than beseeming and requisite. To lesse eminent, or of meane fortunes, or younger houses, Sir, will suffice. The like ought to be observed in farmers, and coun­trey-people, of meaner rank. Gentlemen of quality, whether Knights, Esquires, or other Gentlemen of worth and fortune, writing to Yeomen of the more substantiall sort, such as go under jurisdiction of the common attribute Mr, and whom such men please to make their companions in table and discourse, if they be any thing intimate, usually begin their title, Honest Thom. Kinde Ieffrey, Good Will such an one, &c. if lesse acquainted, or when they are to be beholding to them [Page 91] for any courtesie, then it will not be amisse to hang on their noses, as spectacles, at first entrance, Mr such, or such an one, &c. writing to any kinde of Scoggin, or hanger on, or the like, then nothing but Dick, Thom. &c. I prethee do such a thing, &c. To an ordinary yeoman or tradesman, Goodman, &c. is a good begin­ning. But alwayes let Schollers and younger Brothers give the highest of his attributes to any wealthy man, for 'tis the money, and not the man they are to respect and court. But in personating a Letter from one to ano­ther under the degree, or at least the title of a Gentle­man, he will be accounted more woodcock than wise, that shall study any other complement, than to begin with the ordinary title appropriate to them, and so per­sist. The same kinde of common title appropriate to the Person, is to be used in civility, when we write to one we hold as an adversary, as to a Knight of what sort soever, Sir such an one, &c. To an Esquire, if much above our rank, it is decent to say Sir, if not the same that to a Gentleman. If to a Gentleman of what rank or nature soever, Mr such an one, putting in his surname. If under, then Goodman thus or thus; or from a Gentleman to one much inferiour, Iohn, Thomas, Ri­chard, So and So, &c. And thus much for titles or su­perscriptions. This is usually placed in the first cor­ner in the margent space, above the body of your Let­ter. But I had like to have forgot the Ecclesiasticall ti­tle of Reverend Sir, or Most Reverend, &c. according to their worth and dignity. Having therefore thus in­stanced the severall sorts of Superscriptions, we will now come to the Subscriptions, (for the body of a Let­ter can be reduced to no precise or particular rule, without too much needlesse labour and innovation) [Page 92] and in generall, we have already said what we deter­mine.

The same generall rule therefore, that ties you, in the superscription and body of the Letter to have re­spect to the party to whom you write, and your owne individuall person, ties you to the same con­ditions in the subscription, and indorsement, or outward superscription, which wee bee still to treat of.

To a Baron therefore, or to a Lord, wee u­sually subscribe thus. Your honours most humble ser­vant, My Lord, Your eternally devoted Honourer, and thrice humble servant. Your Lordships most faithfull and most humble servant. Your Lordships till death, Your Lordships to command, Your Honours most obli­ged, &c. diverse of this sort. Subscriptions indeed as common as Hackney horses on Dunstable rode, to meaner persons than Barons, or Knights either, onely leaving out Honour and Lordship. But Your thrice humble servant, and the like, I have often heard from such as (I presume) understood not the word.

From Gentleman to Gentleman, if equall, and acquainted, then Your assured friend to serve you, Your truly respective friend, or the like. But if lesse acquainted, or different in degree, There is so much service professed, as they forget all friendship. Nothing then but Your servant, Your humble servant, Sir, at your command, and the like innumerable, which I leave to observation and practice. Onely take this by the way, that one of inferiour ranke writing to a person eminent in degree above him, by the Lawes of our best Secretaries, shall commonly write his name [Page 93] at the foot of all the Letter, or paper, be it never so large, and the contents never so small, to shew his acknowledgement of distance. The other subscri­ption about middle distance, betweene the body of the Letter, and the name. And that either double or single, as occasion is offered of your expression, and the quantity of space, or void paper. Sometime they make it in a treble space, by interposing My Lord, or Sir, or noble, or worthy Sir, and the like, according to their degree. From an inferiour per­son to a Baronet or Knight, Your Worships most hum­ble servant, Your Worships to command in all due re­spect, and the like. The same is to bee observed in one of meane ranke, to an Esquire, especially if of worth, or any wise eminent. To or between men of ordinary quality, whether under the title of Gentlemen, Citizens and tradesmen, or the like, the usuall subscription of Your loving friend, Your very loving friend, Your assured, Your faithfull, Your true, (and sometime, Your respective friend, for change, or where the party written to hath the odds in estimation) is most commendable. In briefe notes, no more but Yours, N. N. To a Gentleman of ordinary quality from an inferiour person, Your ser­vant, Yours to command, &c.

To an adversary, Yours as you use me. Yours to use, but not abuse. Yours if you please; if not, mine owne. Yours as I see cause. Yours when not mine owne, and the like, as your judgement, and the occasion offered shall suggest.

To a servant under hire, from a Gentleman of ranke, onely his name. To such as are tyed to lesse servile conditions, or from Masters which are of [Page 94] meaner degree, Your loving Master, Your very loving Master, Your assured &c. To a retainer only, or volunta­ry waiter, Your loving friend, N. N. &c. To a parent, Your dutifull, Your most dutifull, or, Most dutifull and re­spective, Dutifull and most obedient, till death, &c. whe­ther sonne or daughter. To a child, Your loving father, Your affectionate mother: Affectionate is likewise much used between friend and friend, especially Lovers. Your truly carefull, &c. diverse in this kinde, which we leave to observation. And thus much for subscriptions.

Having thus written or subscribed your Letter, date it from such or such a place, and set down the day of the moneth, and (if much distance interposeth the writer and the party written to) the yeare, after the usuall man­ner of dating. The place allotted for the date is in the margent space, just under the superscription, or title, a little beneath the body of the Letter. This done, fold up your Letter after a decent order, and seale it. To a person of quality we usually propose it in a large fold, kept very faire. To others at your owne discretion, es­pecially of equals. Now therefore onely resteth, that we say somwhat of indorsements, or outward super­scriptions, and so commit them to the Post.

Your title on the indorsement to a Lord shall be, To the right Honourable, Thomas (or whatsoever other Christian name) Lord such or such an one, adding the highest of his titles, at such a place, these present. To the right honourable and his very good Lord, of or from one of any dependance. To the right honourable and most noble, Most renowned, Right illustrious, &c. multitudes of Epithetes in this kinde. To a Baronet from a Gen­tleman, To his most honoured friend, Sir N. N. and Much honoured and most noble friend, Most worthy, Very noble, [Page 95] Renowned, &c. as you [...] think fit. The same we com­monly use to any other Knight: but especially to a Ba­ronet is appropriate the title of Honoured. From a per­son of meaner quality, To the right worshipfull, Sir N. N. at such a place, &c. If in any familiarity, To the right worshipfull and his most honoured friend, &c. From an inferiour person, To the right worshipfull and most wor­thy Sir N. N. or the like, leaving out friend. From one Esquire or Gentleman to another, various, in respect of intimacy, degree, affection, or courtesie: To his no­ble friend: To his worthy, approved, much respected, much esteemed, much honoured; and to meaner, Very loving, &c. From an inferiour person to an Esquire or Gen­tleman of worth, To the worshipfull: The rest he may take out of the precedent Epithetes. From a Gen­tleman to such an one, To his loving friend, &c. To a parent, To my most endeared &c. Father, Or Mother: To a child, To my loving sonne or daughter; To my deare, or tenderly respected, or beloved, may do well enough from a mothers affection. From one inferiour person to an­other, To my loving, To my very loving, To my approved friend, and the like of this sort best befits. To an ad­versary, For Sir such an one at such a place, For Mr, or Goodman so or so: For Tho. For Richard, &c. accor­ding to the quality of the writer, and the person writ­ten to. Onely setting his name with his common attri­bute, the place whither it is directed, with For, instead of To his, or my &c. And now I think it will be time to conclude, for the Carrier is in hast.

This therefore shall suffice to satisfie our present purpose concerning this subject. Onely take this by way of peroration.

1 Let your Letter be kept faire, without blots, or [Page 96] soiling, especially to one of superiour rank.

2 Be cautious, by way of Orthography, to write true English.

3 And lastly, (what I have often instanced) let your Letters be succinct and pithie; A quality incommen­dable estimation and practice among our moderne Se­cretaries; and no lesse pursued among the ancient La­tines. For who in his familiar Epistles more succinct than Cicero? In Orations, and otherwise, who more profuse? The rest I leave to observation, easily enough to be acquired, since many of our Secretaries have a singular faculty in that kinde. This I have written for such as want instructions; for those that be better able to help themselves, I shall be glad and thankfull to be instructed by them. Non omnia possumus. I confesse it incident to humane imperfection, and to my selfe most peculiar. But Nihil est pudoris vel discere, vel melius ad­discere. At least alwayes so reputed by me.

S. D.
Laus Deo.

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