Faults Escaped.

In Epist. Didic. Line the 1. for the Word Read the World. Page 4 Line 11 for blould­nesses r. boldnesses. p: 5 l. 20. for Vsull r. Vsuall p. 6 l. 28. for to same [...] to the s [...]me p 7. l [...] 2. for Athenian r. Athenians. p 8. l. 8 for outward r. Outwardly l. 24. for Wa [...]es r warres. l. 37 for these word r. the sword. p. 9. [...], 9. for as r. is. l. 22. for inhabit r. in­able. l.: 3. for so r, of. l. 38. for nor least. r nor of least p 13. l. 2. for putrified r. purified p. 15. l. vlt. for but time. r. but in time. p. 16 l [...]. for perhaps. r. perhaps. l. 9 for g [...]eauen r geauen. l. 26. for Cod r. God p. 18. l. vlt. for to the rest r. to rest p. 20 l. 1. for Eternall r. Externall. l. 30. for a little r. so litle. p. [...]1. l. 21. in ma [...]g for [...] ennies r. Penries. p. 26. l 12. for cereful [...] r. carefull. l. 14 for continue. r. conuince. p. 27. l. 5. for were r. we are. l. 31 for with r which p. 50 l. 7. for only r. one. l 24 for receiue. r. reuiue. l. 25. for dwiseome r. wisedome p. 51. l. 3 for centention r. contention. p. 52. l. 6. for Propanenes r. Prophanenes. l 9. for Redemp [...]ion r. repetition. p. 53. l. 11 for fruction r, function l. 13. for their. r her. p 56. l. 18. for them r t [...]en. p 59. l. 2. for her r. their. p 61. l. 17. for continued, r. contemned. p. 62. l 27. for of r and p. 67 [...].27▪ for vs can r. vs l cā. p. 82. l. 28. for Grayer r. Gray. p. 83. l. 15. for they that r. that they p. 85 l. 37. for giuen r. giuing. p. 124. l. 5. for mediation r. meditation. p. 125. l. 11 for dis [...]ict. r. distinct. p. 126 l. 19. for w [...]en r. when p. 127 l. 29. for exart r. exhort. p. 129. l. 34 for were r. we are. p. 134. l. 34. for both. r loth p. 137. l. 34 re [...]e. p. 143. l. 22. for person r. persons. l. 26. for being r bring [...]e other. r either, the other. l. 33. for occasion r occasion. p. 146. l. 34. for thought r. though. p. l. 147. [...].9. for reuerent. r. [...] r either p. 162. l 2. for Pulralities r Plural; p. 164. l. 26. for. [...] p. 165. l. 19. in marg. for cōmumis r. communis l 29. in [...]. p 185 l 13. for Codly r Godly, l. 17▪ for disented r [...]urches r. Churches, p. 186. l. 27. for Vgre r. vrge. p, 187. l. 2 [...] [...]. Communis p. 190 l. 7. for Mamerces r. Mamercus, p. 191. the fifth. p. 192, l, 33. in marg. for Disperandi r. desiderandi. [...], r, abused. p, 196, l. 1 [...], for patience r. patience. l, 15, for [...] 197. l, 14. for chieffly r, chiefly.

A BRIEFE AN­SVVER VNTO CER­taine Reasons by way of an Apologie deliuered to the Right Reuerend Father in God, the L. Bishop of Lincolne, by Mr. IOHN BVRGES: wherin he laboureth to prooue, that hauing hereto­fore subscribed foure times, and now re­fusing (as a thing vnlawfull) that he hath notwithstanding done lawfully in both.

Written by VVilliam Couell, Doc­tor in Diuinitie.

Aduersus Ecclesiam, pugnatum est a filiis matris suae, & hostili animo, & damno vtili.


AT LONDON, Printed by G. S. for Clement Knight, and are to be sold at his shop in Paules Churchyard at the Signe of the Holy Lambe. 1606.

The Contents of this Booke.

Sect. 1 A Preface to the Kings Maiestie.
Pag. 1.
The preface of the Apologie.
pag. 29
Of the intention of the Church of England in requiring sub­scription.
pap. 43
2 Generall exceptions to the communion Booke in the intention.
pag. 52
3 Of the Lyturgie in generall.
pag. 66
4 Of omission of the Canon.
pag. 73
5 Supposed exceptions against some Apocrypha.
pag. 82
6 Against false Translations.
pag. 92
7 Exceptions about Baptisme.
pag. 96
8 Exceptions concerning Interrogatiues in Baptisme.
pag. 105
9 Of the Crosse in Baptisme.
pag. 108
10 Of kneeling at the Communion.
pag. 142
11 Of Buriall.
pag. 147
12 Of complaints and coniectures.
pag. 150

To the Right Reuerend Father in God WILLIAM, by the Diuine proui­dence, L. Bishop of Lincolne.

THE singuler care (Right Reuerend) which your Lordship hath had in your owne Diocesse,1. Tim. 3.1. confirmeth the sentence of Saint Paul. That it is a true saying, if any man desire the office of a Bishop, he desireth a worthie worke; For the Church as Saint Bernard saith, hath beene troubled with three conflictes; from Tyrants, Heretickes, and Hipocrites. The first was incountered by the patience of Martyrs, which victoriously conquered the crueltie of those times.Mallei haereti­carum. The second, with the vnanswerable lear­ning of the ancient Fathers, many of them beeing (as they are called) the hammers of Heretickes. The last with the synceritie and diligence of Bishops, for what other re­medie remaineth for the hypocrisie of these daies (if that may be tearmed hypocrisie which cannot lurke, by reason [Page] of the aboundance, nor desireth not by reason of his boldnes) but the singuler integritie, and courage executing the disci­pline of the Church in your Lordship & others of your place,Esto subiectus pōtifici, & quasi parentem ani­mae suspice▪ Herom. Sermo aedisi­catio, vita lu­st [...]ia, presentia grata, & me­moria in Be­nedictione. Be [...]. to whom Saint Ierom (although sower in many things) wish­eth vs to be subiect, and giue reuerence as to the parents of our soules. For in a true Bishop in deed, his words are edifi­cations, his life righteousnes; his presence delightfull, and his memorie blessed. Thus shall your Lordship bring to passe, that those who are not, may be made wise; that those who are, may not be deceiued, that such as haue beene decei­ued may be wise againe: that vnbeleeuers may be conuer­ted vnto the faith, that such as were conuerted, may not be turned from it, that those who are, may returne vnto it, that men peruerted may be directed aright, that men sub­uerted may be called vnto the truth, and that the subuerters themselues, may be conuinced with strong reasons, eyther to amend if it be possible, or if not, to loose their authoritie, that they hurt not others. Of these I may say as Saint Ber­nard doth, (but I will speake to their owne vnderstanding) they are Canes ad scissionem, vulpes ad fraudem; and by your Lordships care, and the rest of the Bishops: aut cor­rigendi, ne pereant, aut ne perimant coercendi. Now particulerly vnder your Honours fauour, I will expresse in few words, why the answere of this Apologie is directed vn­to your Lordship, as to one to whom in many respects I am especially bound. First, it was thought fit, that seeing the reasons were giuen vnto your Lordship as an account of that obedience, which a Minister vnder your owne charge did owe vnto you, the answere (how meane soeuer) should be admitted to plead in the hearing of the same Iudge, which being finished long since, was by authoritie deferred, in hope that silence and time, would haue giuen satisfaction to all, who were not fully resolued in this cause. Heereunto I [Page] add my owne particuler Motiues (I hope without offence) which are and shall be iust reasons to make me humbly ob­serue your honour;Christ Col­ledge, and Queens Col­ledge in Cans. the nearenesse of the same soyle which gaue the first ayre vnto vs both, then the same two Colled­ges which gaue furtherance to both our studies: and lastly, the entrance into my Ministerie, which with many fauours I receiued by the imposition of your Lordships hands, these all as they are, hopefull assurances of your pardon for this boldnes, so they are and shall be strong reasons to make me re­maine in all dutie at your Honours seruice. Lambeth. Ianuarie 22. 1605.

Your Lordships to be com­maunded. WILLIAM COVELL.

A Preface to the Reader.

THERE are few resolutions that are filled with more hazard, then those which are vnderta­ken to giue satisfaction to dis­tempered humors; wherein whilest euerie man would seeme eyther not to erre at all, or to haue some colourable excuse for that which they had rather call freedom of conscience and Christian libertie then tearme errour, the state of the Church hangeth ballanced with some oppo­site contrarieties, as if it were the most profitable wis­dome to stand in consultation, and not to aduenture to hold any thing. Doubtlesse no cause hath gained lesse to the defendants then this of the Church gouerne­ment; for first being in it selfe barren, it hath little wherein there can be vse of the ancient Fathers: for whilest men out of their owne fancie will frame dis­likes, wee can but in the generall alleage the constant moderation of our forefathers, and without war­rant for particulers, satisfie them so farre as Religion and reason will giue leaue: Secondly, all men are ca­ried with a pittie naturally toward such whom they suppose to suffer for the testimonie of a good consci­ence, whilest others are suspected to flatter the present state; as if nothing could be reputed honest, which were not a bold opposition (vnder colour of con­sciene) [Page] to a setled gouernment, vnto these may be ad­ded that which is not the least euill, that whilest impa­tience & zeale openeth the mouthes of our enemies for any fault in our answering committed by vs; en­uy doth open the mouthes of our supposed friends, for that which may be thought to be done well. So that though the recōpence hath nothing in it to be desired, this only remaineth as the comfort against all trobles, that it is a right vse of our small talent dispensed with Humility and dutie for the benefit and peace of the Church of Christ; where, first in the daies of our late dread soueraigne of blessed memory some fearing su­perstition might returne (like a troublesome guest, nei­ther long nor farr absent) sundry of the most learned & most sincere, not called to the honor & the burden of a Bishopprick were consulted with all, to giue satisfacti­on to such who seemed rather to follow the example of forraine Churches, then to haue iust reasons to mis­like their owne.

To this end letters were sent from the reuerend fathers of the Church, to desire the resolution concerning the apparell of ministers, Ceremonies, and other indifferent things to M. Bullinger, F. Martyr, Gualter, Bu­cer, & others, men without comparison for integrity & learning equall to the best in those times, & not much exceeded by any, to my knowledge that haue liued since; their answers to these questions for the content­ment of our brethren (if they loue peace) we thought to haue published in the end of this treatise.By Master Cartwright Martin. &c After these times, by the suggestion of some both from Geneua & Scotland, the Church had not long rest, but that di­uers admonitions, were written to the Parliament, de­siring a new discipline, sundry Inuectiues against the [Page] Bishops & diuers vnhallowed pāphlets from the brood of Cham, who gloried in the discouery of the supposed nakednes of their owne fathers; a little more then or­dinary rigor (for their malypart boldnes had awaked the accustomed clemēcy of a most gracious prince) by the execution of some few, stopped in a manner for a time the mouthes, & the Pennes of all; letting the ages that come after vnderstand thus much, that writings how learned soeuer (as what could be more excellent for modesty & iudgement,D. Whitgift. then the pains of that most worthy Archbishop) are able to do litle good for the quiet of the Church, if the magistrates be wanting to giue aid: & that they who at first make holines & reformation the scope of whatsoeuer they say or write, pre­tending to aime at nothing but to make men better; in the end, by degrees fall to a vanity prophanely to libel to make others laugh, & in my weak opiniō few things euer hapned in this kingdom more auailable to breed Atheisme then that was. But the scope being for a Presbyteriall discipline it found with the most of that faction this fauour to be reprooued no more sharpely then the sin of the sons of Hely: hitherto all stroue for a Presbitery, wherof at the first comming of our most gracious soueraigne to this kingdom many were filled with a vain hope, doubtle [...] deceiued by such men, who either vnderstood not the state of this cōmonwealth or had little care of the happy prosperity of this Church.

But in the end, when authority was more blessed, & assisted from aboue, then to be deluded with such mists or to giue any hope to couetous affections gree­dily longing for the fall of Bishops (which one Act of preseruing their state and honour) amongst many thousand arguments of fauour shewed towards them shall stirre vp the praiers of all that now liue for [Page] the continuance of his state, and make his memorie blessed amongst all posterities to the worlds end; then I say many began to make a rent in the Church, and to breake from vs (chusing rather (with what consci­ence they know) to forsake their function and calling, then to yeeld their conformitie to the cerimonies of this Church; which hitherto by themselues were euer [...]eputed as things indifferent; and doubtlesse neither so many nor so dangerous, but in this time of light and knowledge they may be admitted without supersti­tion at all: forseeing (as Peter Martyr saith) we be so free as we haue but a few Ceremonies, and those easie and gentle, it would be an intollerable thing, and wor­thie to be condemned,P Martyr. 20 C. Coun. part. 4. cap 11. sect. 9 if we should not performe them without corruption. I wish those to consider well, who are desirous to make these things simply vn­lawfull, both how they differ from themselues and others at other times, and what bondage (vnder the name of libertie) they impose vpon the Church by de­nying her authoritie to ordaine ceremonies; in which if little or nothing be left vnto her, neither shall she need much the directiō of Gods spirit to guid her con­sultations, nor challenge any great obedience in her owne name, if all things that are, be simply either good or euill: to which errour if Zeale or opinion shall tran­port any, he must eyther make the worship of God to be without Ceremonies, or those Ceremonies simply necessarie, without which there is no wor­shippe; none that I know would haue religion to want all Ceremonies, sauing onely those who would haue all men to want Religion: some there are which wish that these ceremonies were simple, chast, and few, that is not significant at all: It were doubtlesse a [Page] great folly (if not an idlenes in God seruice) eyther to admit or retaine those ceremonies, which they pur­posed should signifie nothing; but moderate minds do think otherwise, that neither ceremonies nor their sig­nification, are to be misliked as vnlawfull, whilest no­thing is signified, but that which thēselues wil account lawfull. So then, neither depriuing the Church of the vse of ceremonies in diuine worship, nor making these of that vnchangeable nature as simply eyther her good or euill, but onely as things of themselues indifferent, (for better place and respect they neuer retained in our Church) we will briefely set downe for the satisfying of some men; that indifferent things by Ciuill or Ec­clesiasticall constitution do change their nature, and by vertue of commaundement become necessarie; so that eyther they must be not indifferent, but simply vnlawfull; or being indifferent, such as by command­dement are made necessarie. To denie that there are things indifferent, is to take Christian libertie from men: and to denie the ceremonies in their owne nature to be such, is to take al liberty from the Church for without these what is there wherein the Church is not expresly and necessarily directed by the word of God? we are taught that all things which happē vnder the compasse of human action are of three sorts; eyther good, or euill, or indifferent: of the first and the se­cond kinde are all things commaunded or forbidden in the law of God, (except the ceremonie of the Sab­bath) commaunded to the Iewes but not to vs: Indiffe­rent things are of that nature, that by themselues, and properly they are neither good nor euill, but in respect of some other thing, [...]. as to drinke Wine, Ale, or Wa­ter, to vse these or those garments which of themselues [Page] haue no holines in thē, & by which a man is not made better: & of these only, & such like, the Apostle speaketh, all things are lawful forme:1. Cor. 6.12. 1. Cor. 9.22. wherin whilst he professed his freedome, yet he acknowledgeth that he became boūd, & to the Iew a Iew, to those that were vnder the law, as vnder the law, to those that were without the law, as without the law, to the weak he became weake, to cōclude, he became al to al, that he migh win some: thus he made a vow at Cenchrea, circumcised Timothy which he did not to Titus, by reason of false brethren crept in to spy their liberty: so that all things were lawful, not only which cōcerned cōmon life, but also in ce­remonies & the outward worship of God, in which (as one wel noteth) the spiritual worship is shadowed, but not contained. But when experience had taught, that such liberty became dangerous to the Church & the cōmonwelth, being turned oftētimes into a lice [...]tious impiety or superstition, vnlesse it were bounded with some limits, the one sort aduenturing to do all things that seemed pleasing, and thereby reiecting the cere­monies as too great a burthē, being things not as plea­sing to God, who will be worshipped in truth: the o­ther strictly obseruing all ceremonies, as if the greatest holines & principall parts of Gods worship consisted in them: thus the one led to prophanenes, & the other to superstition, the two dangerous extreames o [...] true religion. For which mischiefe necessitie hath onely found out this remedy, to moderate this liberty that it neither erre on the right hand nor the left, that it ney­come short nor go beyond a meane; therfore the Apo­stle saith all things are lawful for me, but al things pro­fit not, all things are lawful, but al things are not expe­diēt, wherin he toucheth the extemities at both hands. Now then the means to keep our liberty, that it neither [Page] be too much, nor too little are of two sorts: general, & speciall: the general is charity the principal direction of mans life. For whatsoeuer we desire to do or omit (being in it selfe indifferēt) charity must consider how farre to proceed without offence: for why should our liberty (saith S. Paul) be condēned of another mans conscience? & therfore in this case we are rather to depart from that liberty we haue, then to be offensiue to those who are more weak, & so giue occasion for thē to speak euil of vs, & of that which was left free: for charity wil­leth vs in these things to respect others more then our selues, & rather to omit that which is lawful for vs, thē to do that which is hurtfull for them: the other rule to limit indifferēt things is speciall: which is not so distin­guisht from the other, as if it were without charity, but that charity which ought to be in all, is here directed in a speciall maner: for howsoeuer charity so extendeth it selfe that it may serue to all parts of our life, as though we need not to be directed by any other law, yet be­cause al men are not so wel sighted perfectly to discern what is expedient at all times, & for that the offices of charity are somtimes changed, (for times & occasions may fal out, that things iust & to be done, may be clean contrary) therfore there is required an experienced and mature iudgment to determine what is fit, least whilst we labour to profit we iniury the Church & the com­monwealth, in which are contained the charities of all. God therefore respecting mans weaknes hath ap­pointed magistrates & Gouernours in both, to serue as [...]ies to guide & direct what is fit to be done, & to this end to make lawes concerning indifferent things, that so the whole body may be gouerned with comelines, order, and edification. This no man can denie, but such as desire to be exempted [...]rom all lawes; For executi­on wherof God hath appoynted Magistrates to be his [Page] Ministers to whom we must be subiect, not for feare but for conscience; obeying also our spirituall rulers, for they watch ouer vs to giue account vnto God for our soules.Rom. 13 Heb. 13 And therefore no man can denie, but that in things of this nature, all men are to be gouerned by their lawes; which whilest they are in force, comman­ding or forbidding binde the conscience as the De­calogue doth. Herein if any would seeme to see more then those that doe make lawes (a thing not likely se­ing the most, and the wisest, and the best experienced are assembled to that end) we cannot think it warran­table to be so presumptuous, nor expedient to dispute (but in place of counsell) of the equitie of lawes when they are once established: this moderati­on if all men had obserued, doubtlesse long since this Church had beene blessed with a happie peace. But if any man be perswaded that the ceremonies inioy­ned are not of this nature, it is but an opinion lately sprung vp, whereunto the necessitie of obedience in indifferent things hath compelled them to flie, and it satisfieth vs (though it cannot then) that with all an­tiquitie, and the Church we do thinke otherwise: God grant vs all in due time truly to thinke and to speake the same things. Farewell.

TO THE KINGS MOST EXCELLENT Maiestie, Iames by the grace of God King of Great Britaine, Fraunce and Ireland, defender of the Faith, and in all causes, and ouer all persons supreame Gouernour.


MOST dread and gratious Soue­raigne,Gen 44.16. when IOSEPHS cup was found in BENIAMINS sacke, IV­DAH (assured of the fact, ignorant of the meanes) fals to confession of a falt vnexcusable, and yet there was no fault. To subscribe, and to deny to subscribe to the same articles, ap­peares so manifest a fault, either of inconstancie, or vnho­nesty, as were I not priuie to a iust reason of both, I should say with IVDAH, What shall I say vnto my Lord? What can I speake? How can I iustifie my selfe? God hath found out the wickednesse of thy Seruant.


TO euery reasonable Spirit, the fountaine of all goodnesse, hath giuen a twofold power, Reason and Affection. The one, whereby wee discerne, the other, where­with wee loue: the one lea­ding man vnto Truth, the o­ther vnto Vertue. From the one, are deriued right Counsels; from the other, vp­right affections. Mans [...]elicity in his creation being this, that both had abilitie constantly to worke the ow­ners happinesse, if the owner had beene willing to haue kept his affections, humbly obedient to the com­maundements of his owne reason. But suffering him­selfe to fall from this gouernment, hee hath found his affection a false Counsellour; dissentions and opposi­tions cunningly suggested, being the continuall con­flict euen betwixt those two nearest, whose first loue was Vnion, and the bond Peace: since which time, man, whilst he erreth (pursuing with eagrenesse, what af­fections desire, rather then Reason doth approue) hee laboureth euen by contradicting himselfe, because he doth not loue what he ought in reason: to finde out reason for himselfe, for that which hee doth loue. And seeing, where the Intentions are right, our weaknesse doth not euer performe what it ought: by reason, In­firmity doth accompany al the faculties of mans soule, wee neither vnderstand rightly what is truth, nor (ha­uing beene deceiued through the strength of some [Page 3] weake affections) are easily perswaded to confesse our errour▪ for Trueth and Vertue, by creation, being mans scope, that which hee wanteth abilitie to attaine, yet therein hee is not easily perswaded to acknowledge that hee doth faile. For, that which was at first his du­ty, cannot but bee his desire still; shame driuing him to make excuses, which may cause him in the opinions of some men (though not to be) yet to seeme righteous. From hence haue proceeded defences, and Apolo­gies, both tending to this end, to shewe that wee de­sire approbation in all wee doe; or that our error (wher­in wee faile) might bee thought lesse. This account, as wee striue to render vnto all that either see faults, or surmise folly in the actions committed by vs, so espe­cially to those, to whome wee owe most duety, both because such (discerning our follies) must prize vs at a lower rate; and their examples are vsually the Rules of all others iudgements. The ground of this second corruption worse then the first, is only an Inordinate se [...]e Loue; a sin, as euer neere in affinity to mans nature, so especially foretold to be (in a manner) peculiar to these last times:2. Tim. 3.1.2 3. [...].5. VVherein men shall be louers of their owne selues, couetous, boasters, proud, cursed speakers, disobed [...]t to Parents, vnthankful, vnholy, many other falts do acc [...] ̄pany these, but the Apostles conclusion is, that they haue a showe of godlines, but haue denyed the power therof; of whom he giueth this caueat, turn away from such. But S. Austin, a man far beyond al that euer were before him, or s [...]al (in al l [...]kelihood) follow after him, both for humane & diuine learning (those being excepted that were inspi­red) gained more honor vnto himselfe, & gaue a better example vnto the Church, in that small worke of his [Page 4] Recantations, then in all the rest of those admirable monuments that hee left behinde him.Nihil est facilius quam non solum se dicere, sc [...] eti­am opinari verū inuen [...]sse de vtil. credendi. Cap. 1. Animaduertibā plus in resellēdis aliis disert [...]s & copios [...]s esse quā in suis probandis sirmos et certos manere. Hee knewe well there was nothing more easie then not onely to say, but to thinke that they haue founde the truth. The strongest externall motion which caused him to for­sake the Manichies, was that he perceiued them to be more cunning and eloquent to confute others, then sound or certaine to defend their owne. If this moderation could in humilitie haue possessed some (otherwise profitable Instruments in this Church) then should neither their second excuses haue beene worse then their first faults, nor our labour in answering haue beene required at this time. To subscribe vnto the orders of the Church of England, and not long after to refuse (as a thing vn­lawfull) to subscribe vnto the same orders, must im­ply (vnlesse it bee well excused) vnhonesty, Incon­stancie, or both; seeing it is not like the cuppe in the sack of BENIAMIN, which IVDAH confesseth a fault; their difference being this; that, in the one, the fact was not done by him that was thought guiltie, and con­fessed by him that was not: and in the other, certainly done by him that cannot but confesse the fact, and yet excused to bee no fault; so that the summe of this whole defence, is; Whether a man subscribing to the or­ders and constitutions of the Church of England foure times, may afterward haue reasons to deny a subscription or obedience vnto them. In all reason, it must require some sufficient disiunction, that contradictories should both bee, and both bee warranted to bee lawfull. Let vs then heare him speake for himselfe.


BVt if it may appeare that the compasse of our Churches Intention (to which my former subscription made refe­rence) be eyther varied by some degrees toward the An­tartique, or newly discouered to be other then I conceiued it, I may be censured for former blindnesse, in not seeing, but not of falshoode, then, o [...] now.


IF it may appeare, the Intention of the Church euer since the beginning of our late Maiesties Raigne, of most blessed and happie memory, euen vntill this pre­sent, to haue beene both for the Doctrine and cere­monies all one, and in both as neere as was possible proportioned to the state of both, in the daies of King Edward the sixt: it must needes bee in all reason some vncharitable collection, to pretend a difference, where there is none; or some sodaine alteration eyther in iudgement or affection, to doe and to denie the same things, where there is no difference: nay, it must needs be an vnexcusable indiscretion to lay the fault of our owne lightnes vpon the variation or declina­tion of our doctrine, and ceremonies, from that they were; as if we ment eyther to conceale vnthankfully the greatest benefit from God bestowed vpon this land (namely the zealous continuance vnder a new Prince of the olde auncient, and true Religion a­mongst vs) or to lay an Imputation of some declining vpon his gouernement, whose princely care zealously [Page 6] indeuoured, that there might be none. Nay, who (wee may truly say, neyther can wee conceale it with­out great ingratitude) hath laboured more to recti­fye the Church from the supposed blemishes, where­with she was thought stayned, and to giue a more full satisfaction by conference to the most zealous, and the best learned of the aduerse part, then anie Prince in any Kingdome or age euer did before him; and therefore recall that errour which is the founda­tion of your defence following, and say not, that the intention of the Church is eyther varied by some de­grees towardes the Antartique, Or newly discouered to bee other then you conceiued it, vnlesse you con­fesse your conceite to haue beene farre otherwise then was fitte for one of your calling or iudgement: feare not ingeniously to confesse, that the intention of the Church in vrging these Ceremonies is, and hath beene euer the same: And that your selfe haue appro­ued that which now you are afraid vpon some reasons, which to you in particular might seeme good: It must be a great fault rather to make the whole Church vn­constant, then one man.


MY most humble suite vnto your gratious Maiestie, is, euen in the bowels of IESVS CHRIST, that you would vouchsafe to read a rude and long (but plaine and vpright) narration of my proceedings past, and present, and motiues to both, which hauing too sodainly prepared to giue vp with my ministerie and liuing into the handes [Page 7] of my ordinarie, and not hauing time to cast into a­nother moulde or fayrer hand, I make bolde vpon my knees to present (as my account) vnto your sacred Ma­iestie.


THat Princely Maiestie which gouerneth these kingdomes, hath most comfortably to vs that now liue, and most incredibly to those that shal liue hereafter, accepted, perused, and (if there were cause) allowed the seuerall petitions of those that a­ny way desired releefe from him: and I doubt not, but hee hath perused this defence, which his Gra­cious clemencie would haue in his accustomed manner both excused and pardoned for the length, rudenesse, or the not being cast into a fayrer mould (as you tearme it) had not both the fountaine (from whence it came) beene thought to be worse troubled then the hand that wrote it, and the vnquiet exam­ple, daungerous now in the setling of the Chur­ches euerlasting peace. It must needes bee a fault (as Saint Austin saith) To regard whom you serue, Maior enim cau­sa criminis est videre cui serui­as & contemnere cui deheds serui­tutem. Aust. de Alt. reat. Eccl. & Sinag. and to contemne him to whom your seruice is due. Peraduen­ture in the one you respect some lesser circum­stances, which time may informe you are not of that nature as you thinke: but in the other you apparantly decline euen from that obedience which is due, the first being no vertue, and the latter an intollerable sinne. But I would willingly excuse all with as much charity as the cause will suffer, seeing as Saint Austin speaketh:Si mihi per alios ve stro [...] [...]oncederetur seismaticos voili­be [...]li [...]s quam hi­vetic [...]s dicerem. cout. Cres. lib. 2. cap. 7. If your fellowes [Page 8] would giue me leaue, I would more willingly call you Scismatikes then Heretikes. So doubtlesse, if the indi­rect proceedings of a number in this cause, had not manifestly discouered some other sinister endes, then are pretended by you, it might be thought a weake Conscience, and strong Zeale in some one, which now doubtlesse will be iudged an intollerable, ambitious, disobedient,Haecomnia sicut leguntur, praedi­cta, ita cern [...] ̄tur, impleta, Aust. Epist. 3. voles. and vnsufferable fellow of a great num­ber: and surely all these things as Saint Austin spea­keth in another case, as they are read, foretold, so now, they are seene, fulfilled.


IF suspition grow that I haue studied better defences of the Booke to iustifie my former subscription, then I saw be­fore hand: I can cleare that by many witnesses; If on the contrarie, that I now seeke quarrels against it (causelesly). I call God to witnesse that I meane it not, my reasons follow­ing, that I doe it not: and to say truth, vpon what reason could I doe it? Is it a pleasure to be in the disgrace of the time, especially of your Maiestie, whose fauours I doe esteeme as your person next vnto God?


IN the proportionable proceedings that reason ma­keth, it were fit first to studie what we do defend, and after, if need be, better to studie to make our defences better; that you haue not followed this course, neede not to be cleared by many witnesses, seeing it appea­reth that you could not haue wanted better defences, [Page 9] if you had beene willing;Seneat. Sapientia est semper idem velle. N [...]n potest idem placere nisi rectū. and being not willing, you haue taken exceptions vnto that which you should defend. But the morall wiseman telleth vs, that true wisedome is euer to will the same: for doubtlesse nothing can euer please but that which is right. But experi­ence proueth that when a feruency (as they call it) of zeale hath throwne man headlong into dangerous op­positions against the Church, they are vsually more obstinate in that errour (oftentimes vpon no other ground, but onely to seeme constant) whereas imbra­sing a truth, and subscribing vnto it eyther vpon discon­tentment, vanitie, inconstancie, or the ordinarie vse and custome of mans life,Variatur quoti­di [...] iudicium, & in contrarium vertitur, ac ple­risque agitur vi­ta per vsum. de­neca. Bonus Circuitus est, si Iustit [...] quaerit, prudentia in­uenit, fortitudo veridicat, tempe­rantia possidit, vt sit iusticia in as­fectu, prudētia in intellectu: forti­tudo in effectu, Temperantia in vsu. Ber. de conside. No man can do euill with a good consci­ence. Hooker. sodainly they slide and fall from the opinions which they held before: mortall iudge­ments euen in the best varying daily, and mans life for the most part being ruled by custome. But Saint Ber­nard giueth a good direction, In this case the path is straight, if Iustice seeke it, wisedome finde it, courage main­tain it, and Temperance possesse it: that so there may be vp­rightnesse in the affection, wisedome in the vnderstanding, fortitude in effect, Temperance in vse. For although as the same father saith, a good intention cannot excuse an euill fact, yet an euill intention is sufficient to con­demne a fact otherwise good. Neither will it be much auaileable to search out with what intention things are done, which manifestly appeare to be euill, in that they are done: And doubtlesse voluntarily to seeke quarrels against that which before vnder our handes we haue approued, is not so much an instabilitie of minde (the common infirmitie of mankinde) as a ma­litious follie bringing little aduantage vnto those that doe it, but I will not suspect so vncharitably of [Page 10] you, whose wisedome and conscience I hope to bee much better, then, that without great reason you would incurre the disgrace of so happie a time, or procure the displeasure of so good a Prince; which being considered, doubtlesse the reasons are great, that haue made you aduenture for to hazard both. And I am fully perswaded that few men (not altoge­ther carelesse of the Churches peace) would so ea­sily debarre themselues from the manifolde happi­nesse of these times, or so vsually runne into the Iust deserued displeasure of the best King, and most religious that euer this Ilande had, if verie great, verie waightie, verie apparant, and vnanswe­rable reasons did not mooue them to it.


IS it nothing to loose all my liuing? to behold the daily miserie of a wife and tenne deare children, besides the fee­ling of my owne? If this were nothing, it will be something to loose the life of my life, the vse of my poore mini­sterie, and to see the stockes (at least for a time) eyther without shepheardes, or vnder such as cannot sodain­ly know how to handle the sheepe: would God your Ma­iestie would beleeue of vs, that the onely feare of Gods displeasure hazard vs vpon your Maiesties, whom if wee did not feare lesse then God, neyther should wee long feare so much as we ought.


IT seemeth you haue well considered the mani­folde daungers which are like to follow, but not so carefully indeuoured that you may auoide them, the miseries of a wife and tenne children (which doubtlesse in you is intollerable crueltie not to pit­tie) are amongest the greatest calamities, and the heauiest of this life, and not to prouide for them when wee can,1. Tim. 5.8. is to denie the faith, and to be worse then Infidels. What is it then to pull this mise­rie vpon them? Heere [...]nto adde that which is (as you call it) the life of your life, the vse of your poore ministerie to the hazard of your [...]cke: must it not bee some grieuous transgression, a sinne like the sinne of wi [...]chcraft that shall make you to aduen­ture all this? let me tell you (which peraduenture in particular your owne experience hath not found) a number haue little esteemed eyther of the losse of liuing, of the miserie of wise and children, of their separation from their [...]lockes: First, because an opinion of persecution for their zeale to refor­mation of the superstitions of the Church, hath found such liberall contributions from the handes of ma­ny, that they haue made often aduantage of this losse, and returned richer from imprisonments, then when they were at libertie, nay, some haue af­fected with all diligence their owne persecution (as they call it) in this kinde, as the shortest and ea­siest way to purchase, and to become rich; as for their flockes if their zeale had beene such as [Page 12] they pretend to the saluation of their soules, to how many thinges (not vnreconcylably euill) would they haue yeilded, rather then haue brought them to so great a daunger? yet giue me leaue without of­fence to tell you that the happinesse of your flockes depend not euer vpon such teachers, neyther will the losse altogether bee so great as they peraduenture imagin, but howsoeuer, vndoubtedly the Church hath little reason to value their labours at any great price, who haue not yet learned to bee obedient to her voyce. But as the sore of disobedience groweth to an vlcer out of the swelling of pride, as HVGO no­teth, so there are three means (sayth he) onely, left for the cure of it, playster, oyntment, launcing: the first hee calleth example, the second exhortation, the third, correction. When the two first fayle, then the last must bee vsed. It may bee thought (per­happes) seueritie to practise so sharpe censures vpon the ministers of the Church, who doe all that they doe vpon a good grounde, but vvhat if no other meanes will serue to cure the great swelling of this Church? haue not playsters, oyntmentes, milder medicines beene practised? And yet are not the swellinges as great still? The knife onely remaynes to launce them. I exhort not to crueltie, but defend those who are more grieued to punish with depriua­tion, and such like, then those that suffer it: and I am heartily sorie that some (otherwise) men vertuous, and profitable to the Church, shoulde fall into these opinions with so strong an opposition, as if God and the King did commaund two contrarie things, I confesse my selfe the vnablest of many thousandes [Page 13] in this Church to vndertake the defence of the pro­ceedings of so vertuous and wise a prince, of so graue and so learned a Clergie (none of all which I protest, would I flatter in a knowne error, to gaine the greatest reputation vpon Earth:) yet when I see that in these conflictes they make God and the King contrarie; as if the feare of Gods displeasure did hazard them vpon his Maiesties: I cannot but tell them, that their [...]eale doth want knowledge; and that obedience is better then the sa­crifice of fooles.


IT may be, we are misled in opinion: (thanked be God, it is not heresie) but, hee that once will goe against the vn­knowne error of his Conscience, will at last haue no consci­ence to goe against knowne error. The Conscience foyled, is like a distemperate Locke, that no Key will open.


IF you had opinion that you were misled, though it were in opinion and not heresie; yet wisdome and Religion ought both to moue you to hasten to that truth, from whence, whilst you differ, although your doctrine be all one with the Church of England, yet neither can you liue with that ioy in your owne soule, whilst you are at variance (though for Ceremonies) with those that doe rule ouer you; neither can the Church inioy so good vse of your labours, whilst you are not carefull to preserue the vnitie of the Spirit in the bond of peace. Ephe. 4.3. False opinions concerning the gouern­ment [Page 14] of the Church, doubtlesse are not equall, yea, dangerous to those Heresies that are against the Faith; yet seeing the least errour cannot bee main­tained, but by broaching newe, wisdome will counsell vs to hasten in humility to rest and re­pose our selues in the iudgement of the Church. But where the conscience either thinketh it vn­lawfull (out of her owne knowledge so supposed) or feareth it not to bee lawfull, out of the time­rous care arising from her owne weaknesse) there wee can easily bee content to expect them with much patience, if their humility will giue them leaue to learne; and rather to doe what they ought not, vntill they bee resolued, then to doe what they should, being not resolued. Because (as you say) He that once will goe against the vnknowne error of his Conscience, will at last haue no Conscience to goe against knowne error. But, seing al men vnderstand not aright what that is which they alledge for themselues,In the modest examination. Cap. 7 pag. 84. when they say, the [...]r Con­science: wee are willing to set downe what we haue else­where noted, that the simplest may not bee deceiued with pretence of Conscience.

There is naturally ingraffed in the heart of man that light of Nature, which can neuer bee put out, that telleth him, that no euill is to bee done. Now, Reason, according to the knowledge that it hath (which in some is more, and in some lesse) deliuereth his Iudgement of particulers,Censcientiae est applicatio notitiae nostrae ad actum particularem A­quinus 22. dist. [...]4. Art. 4. that they are good or euill; from whence the conclusion followeth, they are to bee done being good, and not to bee done beeing euill, and this is our Conscience, which is no­thing els, but an application of our knowledge to a particuler [Page 15] Act. This application is made in a threefold maner, as,

  • 1 First, to consider whether such a thing bee done or not done, and surely in this, our Con­sciences can best tell the actions and intention of those thinges,
    Eccl. 7.23 24.
    which are done by vs. Giue not thy heart (saith SALOMON) to all the wordes that men speake, least thou doe heare thy seruant cursing thee, for oftentimes thy heart knoweth that thou likewise hast cursed others.
  • 2 The second Application is, when wee Iudge of the fact which is done, whether it bee well or euill, the measure of our knowledge in this, making vs mistake, as euill for good: so that, sometimes to be euill, which indeede is good.
  • 3 The third is, that this or that is to bee done, or to bee left vndoone.
    • 1. Testis.
    • 2. A [...]ulator.
    • 3. Vinctulum.

In this first, it is a witnesse which will not lye: In the second, it may accuse, but not absolutely ex­cuse: In the last, it may binde (though it want strength) in this respect onely, that wee are weake. For those newe cordes (and such are newe opini­ons) which were not able to holde SAMPSON,Iud. 16.9. may easily holde him fast, that is by many degrees weaker then SAMPSON was. The first of these re­specteth the time past; the second, the time pre­sent; the third, for the well or euill doing, the ha­uing or suffering, the ioy or torment that is to come. As, if hee that had made time the preciousest cir­cumstance of all our actions, had set our Consci­ence, as the seuere and diligent watchman of all our times.

Now, hauing set down the vse of conscience, the next [Page 16] consideration is of the errors of it. These are two, a false Assumption, and a false application. In the first, wee take those things to bee good and true, which in­deede, directly are euill and false, (an error peraduen­ture, which may appeare hereafter to haue misled you in this point:) so those that put the Apostles to death, did thinke in that action, that they pleased God: for the time was come that our Sauiour foretold; Whosoe­uer killeth you, Iob. 16.2. will thinke that hee doth God seruice. In the second, a false application arising out of a true ground: because hee heareth that God is to bee loued aboue all things, therefore he thinketh it vnlawfull to loue any thing but God: these erre not alike, but the error of Conscience doth infect both. Neither ought a Con­science that thus erreth, to bynd, seeing the force and strength of Conscience is not built vpon himselfe, but vpon some Precept, (seeming so to it selfe) bring no good reason, but either because it is commaunded, or else for­bidden. Against which, contrarily either to doe or to maintaine, is to foyle (as you say) the Conscience, and to make it like a distempered lock, that no key will o­pen. But, let vs heare your selfe lay downe the gree­uance, whereat your Conscience doth either truely re­pine, or in weakenesse stumble.


IF the matters be looked on which be imposed (I now speake of the Ceremonies) they seeme light, but if their deriua­tion from Antichrist, they are hatefull; if the simple vse of them be considered, they are shadowes, but if the late abuse, which is hardly seuered from the things, they are Gyants. [Page 17] If their nature bee weighed, they are indifferent, but if their vse, not so; while the Papists insult, the zealous mourne, and both stumble at them, and both they that like, and they that like them not, cast vs (that haue not vsed them) out of their Consciences, as men ready to say Masse, rather then to loose our liuings, and the very boyes & girles laugh at our most graue and reuerend Ministers, whome before they loo­ked on with feare.


THat which troubleth your Conscience, seemeth to be the Ceremonies of this Church;Secundae intenti­ones. in show, light, but such as haue their originall from Antichrist; sha­dowes, but Gyants; in nature indifferent, but in vse not so. We account Ceremonies in religion, if they be harm­lesse, and tend to edification (such as are the Ceremo­nies of our Church) the second Intentions of the Law, Intermediate meanes, not to be dispised of a better and more religious seruice: for as to thinke that Ceremo­nies (without true & inward holinesse) could cleanse from sinnes, were to erre; and to bee lewish and su­perstitious, so to account them of no vse, were to bee meerely prophane. For both the Iudiciall and the Ce­remoniall Lawe, being in a sort Morall (as the schole­men speake) the one in an order to our neighbours, the other, in an order to God; these haue no other allow­ance in Gods worship, but as they are vertuous furthe­rances of his honour. In the Ceremonies of the olde Lawe, there were three things to be obserued. First, that they were all ordained for the expressing of the in­ward [Page 18] and morall worshippe, to serue to true holinesse, Faith, Hope ▪ and Charity, without which, all the rest were reiected (euen as a burden) by him that commā ­ded them; saying, I will haue mercy, but not sacrifice. Se­condly, if Ceremonies bee contrary to true holinesse,1. Sam. 15.22. they were to bee omitted (for their end was to further deuotion and not to hinder it). In this respect they were dispensable, when either by the place or time, two violent circumstances of all our actions or for som Impediment they could not wel be vsed, this made, that euen Circumcision was omitted for those who were born in the desart;Ios. 5. as being vnfit to moue Immediatly after that wound, and beeing vncertaine to rest, seeing they must follow the fire & the cloud when they mo­ued. Thus in persecution wee are content rather to ex­ercise Religion without Ceremonies, then to want it; which in peace to neglect or contemne, must needes bee a great offence. Those times beeing fittest to serue GOD with greater reue­rence and more holy solemnities which are com­passed about with greater rest, and more happie blessings. Lastly, when Ceremonies are requi­site to testifie our faith (as doubtlesse they are then when they are either vpon malice or through misvn­derstanding oppugned) wee may not in conscience re­mit any part of them: for the refusing of such can be no small sinne, where the vsing is blessed with the crowne of Martyrdome.1. Machab. 6.7, Now, if you can showe that those which for long time haue beene retained in our Church (for wee haue not inuented new, but reserued the old, vsed in the Church before ROME was Idola­trous) are heauie burdens, deriued from Antichrist, Hate­full [Page 19] Gyants, not Indifferent, but vnlawfull in vse, Scandals, and such like (which wee are sure neither you, nor the leardnedst in that cause, are able to proue) then wee shall thinke you haue much reason to refuse them, in regard of Conscience. All the actions of man are of three sorts; good, euill, and indifferent. If our Consci­ence say, that is to bee done which is naturally good, it is no errour:Eadem ratione prohibentur ma­la, qua precipiun­tur bona. If it deny that to bee done which is e­uill, it is no errour: For by the same reason euill is for­bidden, which commaundeth good; but on the contrary, if it say that to bee done which is naturally euill, or not to be done, which is good, it is doubtlesse a cōscience which doth err in both, likewise in indifferēt things (such as you say these are, if their nature bee waighed, but they are necessarie if the lawfull cōman­dement be added) to make, I say, such absolutely neces­sarie, where authority hath not determined, is doubtles a Conscience that doth much erre. For euery will that disagreeth from reason, Rom. 14. either true or false, directly sinneth: for, whatsoeuer is not of Faith is sinne; and yet euery thing which is done by the will giuing assent to reason is not voide of Sin; because that Ignorance, which is a fault, cannot possiblye make the action to be without fault.

Now, in thinges which naturally are indifferent (as these are) the Precept of the superiour doth binde more then the Conscience of the inferiour can;Aquinus in disp. de ver. quest. 17. Art. 5. for the subiect hath the Commaundement of his lawfull superiour, whether King or Bishoppe for his warrant; and in things of this nature, his duetie is not to examine, but onely to performe what hee seeth commaunded. Wherein wee doubt not, but the Consideration is and will be greate of those, [Page 20] who are in authoritie, what they doe commaund. The conscience that doth erre (though it bynd vntill it be reformed) ought notwithstanding to be reformed, because either Ignorance, necligence, pryde, Inordinat affec­tion, fayntnes, perplexitie, or self loue are the corrupt and originall causes of the errors of it; so that, if none of these haue ouerruled you (as I dare not condemne ano­ther mans seruant): but that knowledge with due consideration, hath directed you in that ye did, there is great reason to hearken to your excuse, and to re­gard you and others with much attention, whilst with reuerence and humility, you alledge your Consci­ence. In the meane time, for remedy against these er­rours, let them not disdaine the Counsell which wise­men haue found to be most safe. If it bee of ignorance, to say with IEHOSOPHAT; Wee knowe not what to doe, but our eyes are toward thee. 2. Chro. 20▪12. If of negligence, to come without partiality or preiudice, as NICHODEMVS to CHRIST,Ioh. 3. to those that for knowledge are fit to teach vs. If of Pride, to submit our selues one to another, and especially to those that haue more learning, and doe rule ouer vs. [...]. Chr. 10.18. For hee that praiseth himselfe, is not allowed, but hee whome the Lord praiseth. A sin­gularity in this kinde hath beene the originall of most heresies in all ages, and not the least occasion of the troubles of these times: if from Inordinate affection, making that lawfull which wee haue a minde to doe, wee must hearken to Iudgement, and refuse our affec­tions in this [...]ase:Perit omne Iu­dicium, cum res transit in affec­tum. Senec. for iudgement turned into affecti­on, doth all perish: If from faintnesse then onely to bee scrupulous and fearefull, when wee haue cause, least wee thinke it lawfull, because wee [Page 21] straine a g [...]at to swallow a Camell. If of perplexitie, when a man is closed as it were betwixt two sinnes, where he is not able (though willing) to auoid both, that which will not make eyther to be lawfull will make one of them directly a lesse sinne; If of humili­tie (an errour sure of least danger), wee wish them onely to take heed of too much feare, for those exter­nal lets (as that men cast vs out of their conscience for vsing these things, supposing we are as ready whē time serueth to say Masse) we esteeme not the vanity of such mens coniectures, whose proper guiltines is the stron­gest motiue to thinke and to speake euill. Neyther do wee desire a place in their conscience, who cannot make a difference betwixt vsing of these, and saying of Masse, which things though eyther they cannot or list not to distinguish, yet we do, last of all, that boyes and girles laugh at those for the vsing of these things whom before they looked on with feare: It ought no more to be any motiue to a religious and graue man, then when Michol saw Dauid daunsing before the Arke,2. Sam. 6.16. vers. 20. and dispi­sed him in her heart, saying in derision, O how glorious was the King of Israell this day, Or vaine man. which was vncouered to day in the eyes of the maydens of his seruants, as a foole vncoue­reth himselfe. But rather confidently let vs answer to Atheists, prophane and irreligious persons, children and ignorant people as he did. It was before the Lord which chose me rather then thy father and all his house, and commaunded me to be ruler ouer the people of the Lord, euen ouer Israell, and therefore will I play before the Lord: and will yet be more vile then thus, and will bee low in my owne sight, and of the verie same mayd seruants which thou hast spoken off shall I bee had in honour: So I [Page 22] doubt not but euen those who by reason of the discon­tinued vse of these things, eyther sport themselues at vs, or thinke vs ready to intertaine popery in the high­est measure, shall learne by these ornaments to be more religious, and in short time (euen of them) the ministers shall be had in farre greater honour.


LEt the Kings Maiestie please to remember how pardo­nably good men [...]ffer in lighter things, and that our opi­nion is neither new nor vncountenanced from as learned men as this age hath knowne, nor so concluded vp in the mini­sters breasts as that the quenching of them, and the cause will prooue one worke. And i [...] your Maiestie measure our desires and spirits by the scantling which you tooke of some in Scotland, God and time will surely cleare vs, and it will appeare that we affect not any popularity or parity in the Church of God, nor stand vpon factions and partakings, and that a little of Abrahams indulgence to his inferiour would haue drawne a peace more speedie & safe then can be inforced. Your excellent Maiestie is perswaded first to draw all into conformitie, and then set vpon popery with a com­pleat armie.


IF the long and eager contentions of this Church had all proceeded from a pardonable difference in lighter things, the church of England might easelye haue hoped for a peace, but had little cause to haue cōmended their Zeale, who were willing so vehemētly [Page 23] to dissent vpon small occasions, there is litle hope that wee should possesse any great portion of inheritance in Gods church who haue not learned in patience to possesse our owne soules.In Math. 5. Saint Chrisostome maketh cer­tain steps of this vertue (a vertue that none want which possesse charitye) for charitye is patient, it suffereth long, it is not puffed vp, it suffereth all things, It bele­ueth all things,1. Cor. 13.4. it hopeth all things, it indureth all things, the first steppe is not to offer wrong, the se­cond, not to reuenge it vpon our equals; the third, not to returne the like, but to bee quiet: the fourth, to ascribe the desert of what we suffer to our selues: the fift, to yeeld our selues to him that doth euill: the sixt, not to hate him: the seauenth to loue him: the eight, to doe good to him: the last, to pray for him. Thus whatsoeuer wee suffer, shall bee a medicine, not a pu­nishment. But haue you delt thus? nay haue you not complained of persecution, whilst men in authoritie haue, with griefe of heart, but executed those lawes which were made for the Churches peace? haue you not sought boastingly to countenance your opinions, by as learned men (in your iudgement) as this age hath knowne?Medicina no [...] poena. Aust. Let it not be a blemish to the Honorable me­mory of M. Caluin, M. Beza, Pet. Martyr or any other of that time & place, that they fauored the discipline that you hold, who doubtles, if they had liued in this King­dom, & in these times, would haue thought otherwise. For the ind [...]lgence of Abraham to his inferiour, which you desire, it is no example that superiours must euer yeeld: yet surely, if the gouernors of our Church, saue in these, the moderatiō of Lot, they wold say with al meeknes & loue, which they haue said often, but with smal [Page 24] Let there be no strife betweene you and vs, neither between your heardmen and our heardmen, Gen. 13.8. for we are brethren.

And for the difference which you desire should be made betwixt you and some of Scotland, I doubt not but his excellent Maiestie, who in this (as an Angell of God) is able to discerne the beginnings, the procee­dings, and the end of these fancies, which though they be not alike violent in all, yet they euer serue to this end that vniformitie and order may cease, and priuate singularities (dangerous in Gods seruice) may take place, and all to this end fondly to please them, whose intentions are vnhallowed, and their desires endlesse; for if an ouerflowing mercy (which were nothing else but a mercilesse crueltie) would frame it selfe to yeild vnto all things that you all desire, would you not after this yet desire more? Doubtlesse the incon­stancy of these men (so often varying both in Doctrine and Discipline, allowing what immediatly they mis­like, subscribing to what they disprooue) hath laide from the mouth of our aduersaries those blemishes vpon this Church, as if vncertaintie and error were the onely supporters of our truth, whereas if seueri­tie of lawes had wrought a generall vniformitie in this Church, might wee not with ioynt handes haue encountered our aduersaries with a compleat armie: who in the meane time looking with pleasure vpon the violence of some amongest vs, are readie to afford coales and breath vnto that fire, wherein without care­full prouidence our Church of necessitie must needs perish.


IT is a probable course, but if it be suggested to your Ma­iestie out of any mans heart but your owne, let me beseech you to consider if it may not be at least in sequell like the ad­uise of Hushay to Absolon, which first ouerthrowing the good counsell of Achitophell did afterward ouerthrow the verie intentions which it seemed to support.


IT seemeth things suggested to Princes from others, though the same be not the same, as when they come from themselues, the vsual euill custome of these times is for all men to sit in counsaile vpon the actions of Princes: thus doe we direct their handes, their eares, their tongues, and what we cannot out of our weaknesse comprehend, that we interpret boldly and falsely according to our owne fancies: if first all means be vsed to procure a peace by a generall conformitie amongst those, whom neither lawes nor religion haue made different, and after that to proceed against those which more earnestly and dangerously dissent from vs, can it beare any interpretation of such euill? And if euill, how can it be compared to the counsell of Hushay which doubtlesse was from God to ouerthrow the dangerous and irreligious counsell that Achitophel gaue?2 Sam 17, there cannot be in my opinion a greater com­mendation to this aduise, then that it should be like the counsaile of Hushay, whome God stirred vp to re­leiue Dauid, let others affect vnto themselues the [Page 26] Commendation and end that Achitophell had, but God grant vnto the King now & euer, both for the Church and Commonweale,2, Sam. 17.14. such as Hushay was. For dowbtlesse the Counsell of Hushay the Archite, is better then the Coun­sell of Achitophell.


GIue me leaue once to sweare vnto your Maiesty by the God of Gods, that neuer any thing in my memory more greeued the subiects, then the present course against the Mi­nisters: nothing (in my opinion) would gratifie them more then the contrary, which (if God please) I could wish deriued immediatly from your noble brest, that your highnesse might receiue this sole honour and thankes for such a fauour and re­fresh the affections of your most louing and loyall subiectes.


I doe easily thinke that it may be farre otherwise then you sweare, if you mean by Subiectes, either the most, or the wisest, or the most Religious in this Land. Who vn­doubtedly haue receiued farre greater griefe at the death of our late Soueraigne, when mercy looking v­pon the misery of this Land preuented our gratious King with the blessings of goodnesse, and set a crown of pure golde vpon his head,Psa. 21.3. so that the Nations that are round about vs, may say, as Hyram when hee heard the words of Salomon; Blessed be the Lord this day, which hath giuen vnto DAVID a wise Son ouer this mighty people;1. King. 5.7. vnto Queene ELIZABETH an heire of her owne house and linage full of religion, wisdome and vnderstanding. As [Page 27] also their iust sorrow for that mourning and desolation through all our Kingdome, when the most part was stroken with a plague, like the tenth plague of Aegypt, when there were few houses, wherein there were not some dead. When the mutuall comfort of friends was denyed, the hearing of Gods word was as much as the hazard of mans life, these surelye were greater griefs in your memorye then that for which you swear: but besides, I see not how it can come within the com­passe of your knowledge, that neuer any thing more gree­ued the Subiectes, then the present course against the Mi­nisters. The releefe whereof, would bee so farre from gratifying any that were wise, vertuous, or experien­ced in the troubles of these times (vnlesse some sewe ingaged in the same tempest) as that it would threaten danger to the Prince, prophanesse to the Land, Bar­barisme to learning, confusion to all stares, and (with­out an infinite mercie) vtter ruine and desolation both to the Church and the commonwealth. We take not vpon vs to aduise his excellent Maiestie, but power out our prayers, that al blessings, by his loue to the Church may in his daies bee powred vpon his childrens chil­dren, and that peace may be vpon Israell.


WHat can I say more? the Lord God, the God that hath made your Maiestie so great a King, inspire your heart with his owne Counsell in these things, and giue vs grace and wisdome to obey and suffer, as we ought.


TO this with the plentifull addition of all graces, the whole Church of great Brittain lying prostrate at his Maiesties feet doth say, Amen. Amen.


ANd for my selfe if your Maiesty wil pardon this boldnes, and grant me to liue yet vnder your protection, though in a priuate life, and free me in your thoughts from the blot of dishonestie, I shall promise in the word of a Christian by all meanes to studie the peace of the Church, and to poure out my soule in daily prayers for your excellent Maiestie, and all your blessed posteritie, that God may continue these king­domes vnder your Highnesse, and yours till Christ shall come and end all in one.

Your Maiesties Loyall and humble vassall, Iohn Burges.


IF this resolution continue, you need not doubt but to finde mercy, but wisedom would consult whether it be lawfull first to disobey, and then to forsake your calling, and liue a priuate life: it were lamentable that the state of our Church were such, as that men to a­uoid the seuerity of her superstitious laws had no other safetie for their conscience, but to forsake their functi­ons, we know better of her, and we will hope better things of you, then you should thinke or write thus.

CERTAINE REA­SONS, BY VVAY OF AN Apology, deliuered to the Right Reuerend Father in God, the Lord Bi­shoppe of LINCOLNE, by IOHN BVRGES. Wherein hee laboureth to proue, that ha­uing heretofore subscribed foure tymes, and now refusing to subscribe (as a thing vnlaw­full) that he hath (notwithstan­ding) done lawfully in both.

¶ The Preface of the APOLOGY.

RIGHT Reuerend Father in God, according to my promise made vnto your Lordshippe, at our conuention, before you on the third of October, and since by Letters, I now present vnto you my determinate answere, and therein my refusall of such sub­scription, as your Lordshippe and the late Canons doe require. And because it will seeme strange [Page 31] that I should now stick at subscription; who haue already foure times subscribed, I craue leaue to performe vnto your Lordshipe a true and sincere report of what I haue yeelded vnto, as of what I now refuse, and the reasons of both. And because there goe many rumors and some copies, and both (perhaps) false of my late subscriptions.The now most reuerend L. Archbishopp his grace of Canterberrie. I pray leaue to set downe those very words, which acquired (as from the King) I sent by maister Deane of the Ch [...]ppell vnto his excellent Maiestie; and the report of that which I afterward perfor­med before my Lord of London.


THere is little hope in the sequell of this Apology to find that sub­mission and humility, which were requisite in the Ministers of Christ, when one of inferiour place dare aduenture to make a determinate answere of refusal to subscribe, hauing notwithstan­ding before subscribed, and yet maintaineth that he is lawfully warranted to do both; doubtlesse if it had but beene the obedience to a priuate bishoppe in his own Dyoces, ought we not rather to haue yeelded thē either to haue incurred the suspicion of cōtempt, or to haue hazarded by suspension, the vse of our ministery? But when by your confession it was that Subscription which his Lordship and the Canons did both require you giue a singuler testimonie of his Lordshippes E­piscopall vigelancie, and withall, runne into suspition of singuler contempt, vnlesse, your reasons being exa­mined, [Page 32] do prooue good: for except the inferiour Cler­gy be obedient to the Bishoppe, and the Bishoppes to the Metropolitane, Tot essent scisma. ta quot sacerdo­tes. Hiero. contr. Lucif. there would bee (saith S. Hierome) as many Scismes as Priests.

And one of the most modest and most learned that seemeth to fauour the cause of discipline maketh it a principall poynt of the ecclesiasticall gouerment; that the Inferior clergye in things honest be obedient to the Bishop, Vt peculiarem promitterent o­bedientiam, in rebus honestis suo Episcopa et Epis­copi Metrapolita­no. Zach. de Relig. Cap. 25. Sect. 38. Canon. 140. and the Bishoppe to the metropolitan, so that you not onlye refusing obedience in this vnto the Bishopp but viola­ting those canons wherevnto in ther intendiment you gaue consent, & which doubtles being so lawfully au­thorised was the whole church of England by repre­sentation, you had need to afford good reasons of this refusall or else to account this refusal a great sin, which the rather I doubt not but your wisdome will be care­full to avoyde as being not onlye to render an account of your owne obedience but to do it being required by so humble, so learned, so vertuous a King, who in the midst of the greatest affaires of his realme vouchsafeth in his vsuall and extraordinarye loue to his cleargie, to respect you and to require your answere by their mes­sage who if they had spoken in their own names, deser­ued verye much to haue bene reuerenced by yow.


MY Answere to his Maiesties demaunds, touching the discipline, Ceremonies, and Subscription. I doe thinke and beleeue, touching the gouernment of the Church by Bi­shops, as with vs in Englād, or by ruling Elders, as in other Churches of God, that neither of them was prescribed by the [Page 32] Apostles of Christ; neither of them is repugnant to the word of God, but may well and profitably bee vsed, if more fault bee not in the persons, then in the callings themselues.

2 Secondly, I doe hold and am perswaded of the Crosse and Surplesse,I prayed the Deane to In­terpret my self for one of those vnto his Maie­stie. that as our Church vseth them, they bee not vnlawfull, though in some men and places, so inexpedient, as that (I thinke) no mans ministery likely to do so much good, as some mens sodaine vse of them might doe hurt.

3 Thirdly, for the subscription to the Articles of 62. as the Lawe requireth it, and to his Maiesties Supremacie, I approue it without any exception or qualification. And tou­ching the third Article, about the booke of Common Prayer, and booke of Ordination, doe holde, that howsoeuer they haue some things in them, which cannot simply bee allowed, as false translations, &c. Yet, considered in the purpose, and intention of the Church of England, and reduced to the pro­positions it publickly professeth, they containe nothing con­trarie to the word of God, and in witnesse that this is my vnfained Iudgement in the premises, I haue set to my name this second of Iuly 1604. and will be alwaies ready to pro­fesse at his Maiesties command.


I doubt not, but you haue well examined what you haue here set downe, and wise men in cases of this moment, deale not like vnwise builders, but cast their account before hand. Wee heare your opinion, which it pleaseth you to call your vnfained Iudgment,my vnfeyned Iudgment. con­cerning Discipline, Ceremonies; and Subscription, matters oftentimes handled before, as be also the most things set downe by you, wherein we must craue par­don, [Page 33] if we alledge our owne words, euen in that which we haue been occasioned to answere in another Trea­tise;Post malam sege­tem serendum est, soepe quicquid perierat Infoelicis solisterelitate, vnius anni resti­tuit vbertas. Senec. for wisdome telleth vs that it is necessarie to sowe againe after an euill haruest, seeing oftentimes that which perisheth by the barrennes of some badground, is abundantly restored in the fertility of some one year that followeth. In your first, concerning the gouern­ment of the Church (which you call discipline) nei­ther is it vndetermined what was prescribed by the A­postles of Christ, nor what succession of Bishops was continued in all Churches, euen from their time, so that it must needes seeme strange, that the gouern­ment by Elders or by Bishoppes should in your opi­nion, be a thing so indifferent, as that neither beeing prescribed by the Apostles of Christ, neither of them repug­nant to the word of God, may wel & profitably be both vsed. It seemeth strāge to my vnderstanding, that after so ma­ny sharpe conflictes for the discipline of the Churh, after such bitter inuectiues against the authority of Bi­shops; After so confident commendation of the go­uernment by Elders maintained, as onely warrantable and inioyned out of Gods word; fancies wherwith ye haue filled the Church for this fifty yeares, that you should now confesse neither to be cōmaunded, neither to bee repugnant to Gods word. What meant the de­monstration of discipline, and others, to indeauour to proue the gouernment by Elders not to bee the inuen­tion of wise men, and not against the word of God, but to be the expresse commaundement (in euery particu­ler) of GOD himselfe, accounting those to haue no Church (this being as essential as either the Word or Sacraments) where this is wanting: What meant the [Page 34] vehement commendations of this discipline, in a booke called the Humble Motion, Pag. that if this were esta­blished, God would blesse our victuals and satisfie our poore with bread, that he would cloath our Priests with health, and his Saints should shout for ioy, that it is best and surest for our state; that it would cut off contentions and suites of Law; that it would norish learning; that then there would bee vnity in the Church, that it would bee strength and victorie and many other benefits like these. Why haue they stri­uen so earnestly for it, if it were not absolutely com­maunded in Gods word,Quod de scriptu­ris sacris autho­ritatem non ha­bet eadem facili­tate contemnitur qua probatur. Hier. in Mat. 26. which seing you now denye, giue me leaue to tell you, we will henceforth be bolde with Saint Hierom (seing it wanteth this warrant) to reiect it with the same facility that it is alledged. And wee hope (seeing it is not commaunded in the Scripture) that they will for euer now cease to poyson the Church with such opinions, or to couer the policy of their first teachers, with the vnhallowed contentions of all after-times. But though you haue dealt so liberally with vs for the gouernment of Elders, yet we dare not doe so with you in the gouernment of Bishops. For, if Clement saide true (whome Polidore alledgeth to that end) that Peter in euery Prouince appointed one Archbishoppe, whome all other Bishops in the same Prouince should obey, if the name of Archbishoppe and Bishoppe were not so vnusuall, that Volusianus was not afraid to say,Volustanus wrot. Anno. 855. that Dynosius Areopagita was by S. Paule made Archbishoppe of Athens; or Erasmus to call Titus Archbishop of Creete, or Eusebius to giue the authority to Iohn the Euāgelist,Euseb lib. 5. cap. 23. who suruiuing the rest, brought this benefit vnto the Church, that for cōsecra­ting [Page 35] of Bishops, & other vses, he was the Archbishop or Metropolitan to the whole Church; for the Bishops (as Epiphanius reasoneth) begot fathers in the Church,Haeres. 75. but the Presbiters (only) begot sons.Bilson. If this was the per­petual gouernment of the Church (as that thrise lear­ned & most reuerend Bishop hath proued) euen from the Apostles time, we dare not say as you do, that it hath but a tollerable alowance equall to Elders, and that neither being repugnant, the Church may lawfully imbrace either.

2 Concerning the second point, touching Ceremo­nies (you name only the Crosse and the Surp [...]ice) these you hold lawfull; for so (I thinke) you meane, when you say (they be not vnlawfull) being vsed as our Church doth, but yet notwithstanding in some men & places so inexpedient, as that you thinke no mans Ministery likely to do so much good as some mens sodaine vse of them might doe hurt. Consider (I pray you) the sub­stance of these word [...], the things are lawfull as our Church vseth them. 1. Cor. 12. 1. Cor. 10.23. What then? inexpedient, that is in respect of some circumstances not conuenient to be vsed ▪ a discre­tion attending vpon things indifferent by the Apostles aduice (all things are lawfull, but all things are not ex­pedient) euen then restraining the vse, when it is like that the vsage will doe much hurt. This hurt you set downe to be, that no mans Ministery is likely to do so much good, as some mens sodaine vse of them might do hurt. Is this your determinate iudgement of these things deliuered vnder your hand vnto the king? It is like (nay, doubtles it is more then like) for it is sure (otherwise most lamen­table were the cōdicion of this land) that the Ministery of some men shal be able to saue soules (for that Gos­pel which we preach,Rom. 1. is the power of god vnto saluatiō) [Page 36] now, what hurt can you thinke of, equall to this good, peraduenture the destruction of soules, and doe you thinke in earnest,Ioh. 10.29. that this scandall will be the de­struction of mens soules?2. Cor. 2.16. Well, what are they? are they elect? then I am sure you will say they cannot fall; for Christ saith,In quantum pos­sumus proximorū scandalum vita­ve debemus. Si de veritate scādalum oritur, satius est vt illi­us scandal um nascitur, quam veritas relinqua­tur. Hiero. in Math. No man shall take them out of his hands, are they otherwise giuen ouer to a reprobate sence? to such euen the Gospel it self is the sauor of death vnto death. I confesse, wee are to auoid scandall in what we may, but better it is, that that should arise, then betray the truth, and (peraduenture) by conformity and obedi­ence, your Ministery would receiue those blessings which now it wanteth.

But howsoeuer, seeing the number can neither bee many, the most part of our Land being better instru­cted vnder the long gouernment of the most vertuous Prince that euer England had, before it had her, nor the danger great, being but the Scandall of such, who are not willing to seeme weake, and therfore I suppose, wee neede not bee afraid to say contrarie to that which you affirme: that many mens Ministerie is likely to doe more good then yours, or any mans sodaine vse of the Ce­remonies can doe hurt.

3 The third thing, whereunto you answered, was Subscription, and in this, to some things without limi­tation, as to the Kings Supremacie,Anno 13. &c. to others with, and in both, as the lawe requireth. It hath beene the vsual euasion of a great number, to pretend an obedience to the lawe, in subscribing, whilest (notwithstanding) they were not willing to subscribe, as the Lawe requi­red. Surely there can be little hope of peace in the outward gouernmēt of that Church, where the leaders [Page 37] of others are not willing or think it not lawfull, to be obedient, neither can there be any one act in the obser­uation of all wise men more avayleable, and in reason more likelye to procure this then Subscription, which tyeth the tongue & hands from any way resisting those lawfull ordinances, that preserue peace, all other crea­tures obserue that law which their maker appointed for them,Psal. 148.6. for he hath giuen them a law which shall not be broken: This being the reproofe of man (saith Saint Ambrose) but most of all of vs of the Cleargie,In Hexamer. who be­ing the children of the Church, nay, fathers in Christ to beget others, are notwithstanding disobedient vnto those lawes which in great wisedome for her owne safety the Church hath made. It is dangerous when we say: Surely we will walke after our owne imaginations, and doe euery man after the stubbernnes of his wicked heart. Ier. 28.1. But wee finde in you a better show of comformity then in many others, who professing to subscribe to his Maiesties Supremacy without exception or qualification, cannot in reason but yeild obedience vn­to the lawes which are all of them authorized from his mouth, & for the censure of the communiō Booke, notwithstanding you thinke something to bee faul­tie in it, yet (wee desire you to remember it) conside­red in the intention of the Church of England, and redu­ced to the propositions which it publikely professeth, Subscription being a kind of oath, I doubt whether priuate men haue pow­er to make their own limitation. it contay­neth nothing contrarie to the word of God. This then be­ing your approbation vnder your hand, doe you not think it lawful to alow by subscription what you think lawfull? The truth of those things whereunto you haue beene required to subscribe, hath forced a con­fession of their lawfulnesse, euen from the mouthes [Page 38] of her greatest aduersaries, and yet for all this, because they would be to others examples of disobedience, they haue refused to subscribe, to thrust others of lesse learning & greater moderation into the like contempt. This being (as one noteth) the principal vnhappines of those men,Authoritatem habent senum, [...]. tia pueroru [...]. S [...]nec. Ep. 4. that they had the authoritie of the aged, and the faults of youth. Who being in this (as they thought) to publish their vertue were supposed not without cause to affect glory.


A Weeke after I was called before the Bishop of London, the Deane of the Chappell being with him, and (after many sharpe rebukes for my Sermon preached before his Ma­iestie) vrged to subscribe to the three articles; we stood a time in clearing some exceptions then taken: at last, I prayed leaue to write downe the same limitation which I had written to his Maiestie, and then read before them. Which being denyed as idle and needlesse to be exprest, because it was alwaies im­plied and vnderstood, I (taking them both and God to witnes that I did subscribe in the same sence, and with the same li­mitations that I had expressed in that sent vnto his Maiesty) did then subscribe. This done, I pretested vnto them that I had in the some manner, and with the same protestation sub­scribed twise before, yet wished that my present subscription might not be diuulged, but as I my selfe should open it, least I should be thoght to haue done that at this time out of feare, & for desire of inlargment (which God knew, I had done accor­ding to my iudgement) & so become lesse profitable in my cal­ling, & lesse able to satisfie other men. The bishop replied that the King must know it, otherwise for his part it should be con­cealed, [Page 39] which the Deane also promised as well as he, I answe­red that I knew well his Maiestie must know it, and ca­red not who knew it but in the former respect, and that my selfe would make it knowne, (which thing I did the same houre and neuer yet denyed) beseeching them to informe his Maiestie that I had done no more now then before, least his Maiesty should thinke me caried by feare as a man of an euill conscience, which they both promised to doe: his Lord­ship and Master Deane then exhorted me to conformitie in practise, I answered, that for my iudgement of the ceremo­nies, they knew it (as did also many of the ministers) amongest whom I had at sundry conferences discouered and maintay­ned my opinion of their lawfulnes: but for practise, I should yeilde to haue them vsed in my cure, but in my owne per­son who had neuer vsed them, and once lost my place for not vsing them, I durst not promise it (at least) vntill I had done what I could to preuent offence. Two daies after this, I was called againe before the Bishop to be discharged of mine imprisonment by order from his Maiesties Counsell. At what time the Bishop exhorted me to conforme my selfe, and perswade other men, for conformitie I besought his Lord­ship not to expect it at my hands, nor to say, I doubled with him, if I performed it not so long as the feare of scandall should restraine me, adding that his Lordship might gaine much honour to himselfe, and peace to the Church by shewing compassion vpon the ministers in a few lighter things, when their hearts were so inclinde to peace, his Lordship replied that I should haue time to teach and satisfie my people, I an­swered that I did not so much feare the offence of those, with whom I now liue, as of other places where I had liued. And as touching the satisfying of other men I tolde him, I might not vndertake to perswade, but [Page 40] would be readie vpon any occasion to professe freely what I thought, as I had done alreadie at sundrie conferences, and that I had that day receiued some obiections of a friend in writing, to which I had promised Answer. His Lordship wished to see the arguments, but I craued pardon, bycause they were committed to me from a friend, and vpon trust, he then required to see mine answer before I should send it to my friend, which I yeilded vnto, and haue not yet bro­ken, for I neuer sent answer to it, nor euer shall. And this my Lord to my best remembrance is the whole summe of that which I haue done, and the world speaketh of so much, and diuersly out of all which this summe ariseth: First, that I haue foure times subscribed to the Booke of common prayer with limitation and reference of all things therein contay­ned, vnto the purpose and doctrine of this Church of Eng­land, and limitation I eyther wrote down or protested before witnesse: Secondly, that I neuer promised present confor­mitie in practise, howsoeuer I confessed the ceremonies not simply vnlawfull, as I did since also before your Lordship.


IT is the desire of all men who are willing to conti­nue the reputation without wrong, to be able to giue account of what they doe, and to render a rea­son of what they speake. The narration of your beha­uiour and trouble, as also your opinion concerning conformitie with this Church, as we haue receiued it vnder your owne hand, so wee desire leaue without of­fence to obserue some few things materiall to this end, and although your reducing the summe of the whole storie to those two heads: first, that you haue foure [Page 41] times subscribed to the booke of common praier with limitation and reference of all things therein contay­ned vnto the purpose and doctrine of this Church of England. Secondly, that you neuer promised confor­mitie in practise, howsoeuer you confessed the ceremo­nies not simply vnlawfull; be the principall things contayned in it; yet, because some other things are pertinent to this cause, wee will rather examine then answer what you haue alleadged.

1 You haue yeilded to subscribe with limitatiō, which limitation is the purpose and intention of the Church of England, a caueat (doubtlesse) not needful to be ex­pressed, seeing it is the same Church that requireth subscription, who would not haue any within her own bosom require an allowance to the fancies & opinions that others hould. And peraduenture wise men will thinke that the distinctions found out, are but euasions do what they would not seeme, whilst in the meane time they might lurke vnder some equiuocall cloud as the Iesuits doe.

2 Further, you desire that your present subscription might not bee diuulged, but as your selfe might open it, a thing you see both yeilded vnto, and performed by those, in whose power it was but doubt­full what intention you had, in concealing of it; I can easily afford you so much charity as to thinke it was, least some sinister and false collections might be deri­ued from it, whilest some others (peraduenture) more probably think, that you meant to beare your brethren in hand, that you yeilded not so farre as in truth ye did. Consider if the concealement of this subscrip­tion haue not some proportion with the hypocricy of [Page 42] Saul, 1. Sam. 15, 30. but honour me I pray thee before the elders of my people: and that which you feare would be taken to be an euil conscience, could not (but in the iudgement of so wise a Prince) be thought an obedient and an humble mind.

3 The third thing is, that notwithstanding your al­lowance of these ceremonies, yet you could not con­forme your selfe, but would willingly allow the prac­tise of them by some other, euen in your owne cure, this in my apprehension doth seeme strange, for seeing your flocke haue that good opinion of you as is fit for sheepe to haue of their pastor, and that you feare not any scandal amongst them (as your selfe afterward con­fessed) your example might haue remooued both from them & others neare vnto you all offence (if there were any) who peraduenture might haue stumbled at the same things being vsed by others, and scandal being so, dangerous is not fit to be offered by a Curate.

4 Fourthly, you intreat compassion towards the ministers in a few lighter things. Let me tell you that mildnesse in some other cases may be a vertue, but in this a vice: and surely he fayleth in his episcopall cou­rage, who through remisnesse or pitie suffereth the lawes of the Church (by being wilfully broken) to be vnhallowed disturbers of the Churches peace, and surely if the vrging of subscription which the law re­quired, haue beene the cause of the seuerall dissentions in our Church, a worse effect could not haue procee­ded from so good a cause, then that that which was a vertuous inuention to make peace, by the vnquiet dis­position of some few should become the originall fountaine of so much warr. Besides, experience telleth vs that the mildnes which that Reuerend Archbishop [Page 43] Grindall vsed in those times little auailed with those men for to make them better, and the last Archbishop of famous memory found it to be most true that such as were spared eyther from his owne compassion,Whitgif [...]. the im­portunity of others, or a hope to win thē by this means, the fauour shewed them in that kind they esteemed but desert, & his mildnes & patiēce to be their own merit: besides, the things are not to be esteemed few or light which are manifold disobediēces to those peaceable or­ders & lawful cōstitutions which the Church maketh.

5 Fiftly, you feare not so much the offence of those with whom you do now liue, as of other places where you haue liued.In Norwick. This can be no good pretence for diso­bediēce in this case, seeing they by your example were most fit to be resolued of the true lawfulnesse of those things,An alteration in the intent and purpose of the Church of England, in re­quiring sub­scription. of whose suspected vnlawfulnes they first grew iealous by your doctrine, who since I hope haue been better taught.


NOw because it may seeme a part of dishonesty or leuity,SECT. 1. now to refuse the conditions so often accepted, I beseech your Lordship to wey this mine answer that for so much as the purpose (if not doctrine) of our Church to which I referred my subscription appeareth vnto me by the late Canons, Booke of conference, and some speeches of your Lordship and some o­thers to be varied somewhat from that which I before (not without reason) tooke it to be, I hold my selfe to be where I wa [...], but the state of subscription to be changed from it selfe, partly in the end of requiring subscriptiō partly in the things subscribed vnto, I euer- [...]ook our subscription to import an ad­mission of things so farre tollerable taken in the Churches in­tention, that men not otherwise preiudiced might lawfully [Page 44] vse them being imposed: this conceit the words of the subscrip­tion in which we acknowledge the booke, such as may lawful­ly be vsed, did breed in me and the Ordinary, speeches of your Lordship and other Bishops strengthen as that the ceremo­nies were trifles, rags, beggerly rudiments, that in the booke were multae tollerabiles ineptiae, which if it pleased the King to remoue, they would be glad, which all are pleas rather for tolleration then approbation of them. Neither did I mis­take (if mistake) that point alone, for there be many, some of geeat place that vrging subscription and conformity, neuer sticke to say that authority ought to remoue some things, and sinneth, in not doing it, thereby shewing that they thinke not Subscription to approue the voluntary imposition, but the compelled obseruation of some things in the booke. Yet he doth not tell vs what he doth per­ceiue. Cano. 36. But now I perceiue by the close of the third Article of Subscription, wherin ex animo, we must professe to subscribe to all things contained in any of the three articles, and by the sixt Canon where the approbation of the rites and ceremonies is prouided for, as well as the vse, and by the whole tenour of the Canons which apparently condemne and preiudge all clayme made, or to be made for any alteration: now my Lord, if this be the intention of our Church in requiring Subscription, I can­not yeild thereto, some things a man must aequitate impro­bare (as Austin speaketh) and many things may be well ob­serued that are not so well commanded saith Beza, Li. 2. cont. parme: [...]pist. 12. be it that a man might doe well rather to vse the ceremonies then loose his calling, shall I acknowledge your Lordship to doe well in the ordaining of them? hath God in vaine commaunded dis­similitude with idolaters? were the fathers vnwise that called so instantly from conformity with the heathen, or the sects of Iewes or heretikes in matters indifferent, such a garland or habit, or keeping of Easter day, or thrise dipping? &c.


THere is little hope of sufficient strength in the se­quell of this Apology, whose foundation is laide vpon so false a ground; nature hauing taught all men this truth, that where the beginnings of things faile, the deductions which are (as it were) an issue procee­ding from the same originall, must needes bee worse, both because all vertue, which is cōmunicated (except imediately from the author of all vertue) must by par­ticipation bee weakned, and all admission of concur­rence in other causes, cannot but make something which is weake,Insimulari quiuis innocens a quo­uis nebulone po­test, Apuleius. cleaue vnto that vertue: besides, no­thing is so easie (if there were either as much honesty or safety in it) as for men euill disposed, to wrong those that are innocent, whome if wee cleare from all fault, (as they deserue) we shall either bee thought to flatter, or else burden their modestie with their deserued prai­ses. A change in you, not in opinion, but in obedience can no way be iustified, but by an accusation of our whole state, as if that now vpon the sodaine, wee va­ried and declyned, not from the doctrine, but from the intention and purpose, that the Church had. Wee ac­cept very willingly, that which you haue graunted, & which no aduersaries to this Church, shal be euer able to disproue, that as the foundation of our doctrine is the vnchangeable word of truth, so it is & hath beene like the author thereof, God himselfe, euer constant and the same: neither can the vsuall imputations of difference laid by our aduersaries, bee any blemish to vs, seeing those things wherein wee dissent are rather [Page 46] the opinions of some few, then the setled consent of the whole Church. It seemeth you haue hitherto mis­taken what subscription was, supposing it to import an Admonition of things so farre tollerable, that men not other­wise priudiced, might lawfully vse them beeing imposed. Where priuate fancies aduēture to interpret the limi­tations of their own obedience, the wisdome of those that make lawes, shall haue little vse, & men disposed not to obey wil find colorable excuses (vnder pretence of being preiudiced) for that which they do refuse: could any man think Subscription to be a Tolleration, onely of things not to be approued, and not rather an allow­ance of things to be tollerated, the intention (doubtles) of the Church in this, was not to require a tolleration or approbation frō you, or any inferior, of such things as were thought fit for the Church to commād, but to tye the tongues and the hands of all men, from distur­bing the Churches quiet, & frō any way resisting those lawful ordinations that preserue peace.Rom. 13. It cannot bee the duety of inferiours to examine with what reason lawes are made (seing other places & times wherein they are interessed, are appointed to that end) but only by obedience, to giue an allowance, & by subscribing an approbation to what the lawes command; which either by way of tolleration to indure without appro­bation, or in show to approue without an harty allow­ance, were subtilly (by conformity) to procure their owne peace, and dangerously, when occasion should serue,Cano. 36. to disturbe the Church. Would any man do that vnder his hand, which he is loath to be commanded to doe ex animo ▪ surely, it cannot be seuerity in that lawe, which requireth the heart to consent to what the hand [Page 47] doth, seing reason telleth vs, that in reasonable actions, the hands and the tongue should expresse the heart, & whosoeuer desireth to seuere these, either intendeth to dally with God, or to delude man. But many things (say you) are in the Communion booke, which may be tollerated, but not approued:Tollerabiles in­eptiae. Discourse of the troubles a [...] Franckford. pag 35. for therin are multae tolle­rabiles ineptiae. Indeed, it pleased M. Caluin (writing his censure of that booke from Geneua, to Knox and Whit­tingam at Frankford) to say as you doe, that in it were many tollerable follies. But we see not how either (if they be follies) they can be tollerable in a Church Ly­turgy, or how any dispraises of ours haue inuented a Lyturgy of their owne, more absolute and perfect then ours is: but least the commendation of this should be thought but the opinion▪ of such as were willing to flatter the state, at that time the graue approbation of that holy Martyr Doctor Taylor, is fit to be alledged in this place, a censure giuen in Englād, within two daies of that which before M. Caluin gaue. There was (saith he) set forth by the most innocent king Edward for whom God be praised euerlastingly) the whole Church serui [...]e, with great deliberation, In his confe­rence betwixt him and Bish. Gardiner. Ian. 22.1555. Act. and [...]on. fol. 1521. & the aduice of the best learned mē of the realm, & authorised by the whole Parliament, & receiued & pub­lished gladly by the whole Realme, which book was neuer re­formed but once (note that seldom alteratiōs are their vertues that were before vs) & yet by that one reformation, it was so fully perfected, according to the rules of our Christian religion in euery behalf, that no Christian cōsciēce (I pray you mark it) can be offēded with any thing therin contained, I mean of the book reformed. Si ner [...]mnia [...]re­ [...]tionem sancto­rum verba dis­curra [...] quantum existimo nihil. And shal we now frō the cōceipt of so [...]e few, make light accoūt of so honorable a testimony, & not rather say of this booke, as S. Austin doth in [Page 48] another case. If thou runnest through all the wordes of the holy prayers; Inuenies quod nō ista dominica cō ­tineat & conclu­dat oratio. Aust. Epist. 12. ad probā viduam. I suppose, thou shalt finde nothing which the Lords Prayer doth not containe and comprehend, therefore wee may in other words speake the same things in our Pray­ers, but wee may not speake contrary thinges. Those of great place, who thinke some things fit to be remo­ued, may peraduenture be wronged by you: for if their wisdome bee answerable to their places, they knowe, and must confesse, both alterations with cause to bee dangerous, and without (cause such as this were) to be needlesse. No man would blame you to obserue the moderation,Lib. 2. contr. par. cap. 2. which you mention, out of Saint Austin: for, quisquis, vel quod potest arguendo corrigit, vel quod corrigere non potest, saluo pacis vinculo excludit, vel quod saluo pacis vinculo excludere non potest aequitate improbat, firmitate supportat, hic pacificus est. In all which, if most of the refusers to subscribe, haue failed, wee must needes say with the Prophet DAVID; The way of peace haue they not knowne. Et quia hoc cre­dunt cum Impu­denter dicunt Christiani sumus audent di [...]ere nos soli sumus. Aust. contr. parmenia­num lib. 1. Cap. 3. Ipsa quippe mu­tatio consuetu­dinis, etiam quae adiuuat vtilita­te, nouitate per­turbat. Aust. And because they beleeue, when impu­dently they say, wee are holy, they dare say, wee alone are holy: but if these things may bee well obserued, the faults in commaunding (doubtlesse) wil not bee requi­red at your hands, and surely, the wisdome in our Go­uernours was great, who sawe that in alterations of custome, that which may helpe (peraduenture) with the profit of it (doubtlesse) with the nouelty of change will doe more hurt, and yet in reason, you cannot but acknowledge that their LL. haue done wel in cōman­ding these Ceremonies, beeing both ancient and ser­uing for order, and to edefication, vnlesse you can shew that they are vnlawfull.

But say you, hath God in vaine commaunded dissi­similitude [Page 50] with Idolators? Were the Fathers vnwise that called so instantly from conformity with the hea­then, or the sects of Iewes or hereticks in matters indiff­erent, such as a garland or habit, or keeping of Easter daye or thryse dippings? &c.

In the weaknes of my vnderstanding these can be no warrents for your manifest dissenting from the orders of this church; are the rulers Idolatours? are the things commaunded idolatrye? you yourself haue cleared thē from that fault.Magnum Ecclesiae lumen nisi caduca stella fuiss [...]t. Lisp. Tertullian a great light (surely of the Church (if he had not beene a falling starre) reporteth of one (at whome peraduenture you aime in mentio­ning the garland) who chose rather to dye, then with the rest of the souldiers to be crowned with lawrel, on­ly in this respect, that the Christians had a ceremony not to doe it. For to cast away (in time of persecution) the badge and signes of their warfare, was to discouer vnto the world, that they were cowardly soldiers, and (vndoubtedly) in the Church, there would haue beene no difference about thrise dipping, if the Arrians had not abused it, to establish their heresie of the three na­tures of the three persons,Lege Gregor. lib. 1. Epist. 41. a [...] Leandra. Concil. Tol. 4. Cap. 5. which made Gregory to cō ­maund, that through all Spaine, there should bee but once dipping, and this after was confirmed by the Counsell of Toledo: but speak seriously without affecti­on, is there any thing remaining in our Church of this nature? Is there any thing exacted of this dan­ger? Doubtlesse, if there were most of these Reuerēd Fathers, who now are earnest exacters of obedience & subscription in these things, would be humblysuters to his Maiesty, that the burden therof might be remoued from the shoulders of their brethren, & that the beauty of the Gospel might not be blemisht with these stains.


Pag. 125.ARe the Iudgements of the most learned of this age, which thinke them fittest to be remoued (euen the garmentes) because (as Martyr saith) they carry to the lo [...]kers on, pestife­rae missae expressam Imaginem, and that wee might de­monstrat [...] (as Bucer saith) our renuntiation of that Roman Antichrist of no moment? Is the generall practise of the si­ster Churches in abol [...]shing these things, and drawing them­selues rather into conformity with the Apostolicall simplici­ty, a it were the patterne shewed in the Mount, of no respect. Is not that reason that P. Martyr giues, in saying, if we did hate Idolatry heartily,Loc. com. pa. 1124 we would bee carefull to roote out the very steppings of it, consonant to S. Iude, to Esay, and o­ther Scriptures, which incite our zeale against (not Idols on­ly) but their very names and all their implements.Vers. 23. Es Deut. 12.3. Is the ex­perience of aboue fifty yeares contention about them insuffi­cient, to shewe vs the great hurt (which without any fruite) we take by them? Or should not the experience of incommo­dities alter these things, which sence or rather hope of com­modity brought in,Aust. ad Marcel. E [...]ist. 5. Ma [...]tyr. L [...]c. com Class. 2. ca [...]. 2. as S. Austin and others teach. Doth not the obseruation of forty fiue yeares together, shewing that we gaine no Papists, but loose Protestants by them, and that Pa­pists are fewest, where the vse of the Ceremonies hath beene least in this Land, teach vs, that as the reuerend fathers did well to retaine them at the first, in hope of winning the Pa­pistes, so wee shall doe better in remouing them now, when we finde the Papists confirmed in their superstitions, insolent in hope of more to come, many godly men offended, the Mini­sters deuided, the people distracted, & the Church vpon this quarrell, like to loose many of her worthy lights, and all for supposed ornaments, taken immediatly out of the wardrope [Page 47] of Antichrist miserably, in times past superstitious, in them­selues needlesse; in vse, not vnprofitable onely, but scanda­lous, and by their long disuse, euen in the grauest and godliest persons, now scorned as much (almost) as was the Masse after one and twenty yeares exile at Argentine, when the young men laughed (saith Sleydan) & could hardly be restrained, as in our parts we finde.


IF the iudgements of men had as much power to dis­cerne, as their opinions haue strength to apply, false causes would bee no imputation to truth: neither should innocency suffer as an euill doer: but where hurts are sensibly perceiued, and yet the groundes of those euils directly mistaken, Iustice must suffer as a transgressor, and mindes vertuous must be punished for the faults which are none of theirs. Wee cannot better esteeme Good, then by that goodnesse which it bringeth vnto vs, and in those things which are not easily discerned what they are, that we may not be car­ried with a preposterous loue, wee reuerēce the iudge­ments of the learned: We dissent not easily from the practise of the sister Churches: Wee are vnwilling to treade euen in the least steppes of Idolatry. Wee es­chewe the contentions of former times: Wee cast the accoūt of what benefits we haue receiued by their means, and then wee dare deliuer our opinion in this case: That the Ceremonies commanded in the church of England (howsoeuer vncharitably traduced, as su­perstitious & Antichristian) are neither dissēting from the opinion of the best, and most of the most learned in this age (both Vniuersities hauing giuen their al­lowance [Page 52] of them) nor disagreable to the practise of the sister Churches (vnlesse you meane Geneua, whom ne­cessitie droue to entertaine that discipline, not as best, but as then safest and fittest for her) nor so ioynd with Idolatry, but that all men can make a difference, nor the cause of contention, had not men rather loued that, then to bee obedient, nor lately a hinderance to the Gospell in this fortie fiue yeares, wherein infinite numbers haue beene reformed, and many more would haue beene, but for the contentions of these men, and therefore,Bonus doctor est qui in humilitate seruat disciplinā, et per disciplinā non incurrit in superbiam. Isiodor. lib. 3. de summo bono. cap. 40. vntill we come to the particuler examinati­on of the exceptions, that are made against them, wee answere these interrogatiues with negatiues, and al­lowe him to be a good teacher, who in humility obser­ueth discipline, and by discipline doth not incurre pride.


MOre particulerly my Lord, how can I approue in your Lordship,General excep­tions to the Communion booke in the Intention. SECT. 2. that had power to help it, the continuance of the signe of the Crosse, which in popery was made an Idoll e­uen the transiant signe, & worshipped with Letrea, and still worshipped by euery Papist, with inward religious worshippe, considering how the brasen Serpent, being descended of more noble birth, of better vse to be continued, for the only bur­ning of Incense to it, not by all, but by some of the people vvas commendably demolished, and with contempt, and conside­ring how God cōmanded the vtter defasing of the Idolatrous things,Deut. 12.2. Numb, 33.52. & that not vpon Typical or personall, but vpon such morall & perpetuall respects (Deut. 7. least they should be­come a snar vnto his people) as reach vnto our selues in things of our owne deuise, & no necessary vse. And who can cōmend [Page 53] in your Lordships the placing of it so neare in situation and signification to the Sacrament, when God forbad a groue to be planted neere vnto his Altar:Deut▪ 16.2. and generally who can in conscience approoue the pressing of these things in controuer­sie, more then the great duties out of controuersie, without regard of charity toward the weake,Zanch. com. [...]. 14. de tradit. pag. 631. or scandall to the blind, and vnder farre sorer penalties then the breach of Gods commaundements, which Zanchius maketh a note of im­pious traditions: and finally my Lord, how can I approoue vnder my hand your course herein, that haue reinforced a needlesse warre about those things, which were almost at rest in the graue, and still hiding your owne selues vnder good words and seemings to pitie vs, and to wish the things were gone (if it pleased his Maiesty) to draw vpon his excellent Maiesty the vehement and general grieuance of the subiects, whose honour in the hearts of his deare seruants, it were fit­ter for vs to purchase with losse of our not honour alone, but liues if need required.


SEeing the principall cause of our departure from the Church of Rome, was that idolatrie which like a canker hath infected the best parts of their worship, we cannot but thinke it an accusation both vnreaso­nable and strange to lay this blemish vpon those that doe rule ouer vs, as if they meant (by retayning some ceremonies) to bring vs backe againe to the Idolatrous slauery of that Church. But first to thinke the oppo­sition ought necessarily to be so great betwixt them and vs, as that nothing were now lawfull for vs that were vsed by them were peraduenture to traduce to [Page 54] our posteritie without cause, as the corrupters of all religion in all parts, and to denie vnto our selues the iust furtherances of pietie and holines, onely because Idolatrie and superstition had corrupted those meanes amongst them, but if neither they esteeme so of the Crosse, that the transiant signe (as you call it) is to be worshipped with deuine worship, nor that we haue proportioned our selues in the same ceremonie to the supposed or manifest Idolatrie amongest them: The iniury must needes bee accounted greate vpon an o­pinion of zeale, to wound euen through the sides of her enemie, the vitall partes of that Church that doth giue vs life. Peter Martyr (from whence it see­meth you haue taken this accusation) saith that the Church of Rome teach,Part. 2. cap. 5. That the signe of the Crosse is to be worshipped with Latreia. Which surely by him was vnderstood not of the signe transiant, but of that verie crosse, whereon Christ suffered, which they make a relicke, we will not stand to examine their er­rour in this point,Non est dicendum imagines vllas adorari debere Latria. Bellar. Tom. 1. lib. 2. d [...] imag. cap. 22. onely let me put you in mind what Bellarmin saith, That it is not to be taught that any Images are to be worshipped Latreia. And to this end he allead­geth the authoritie of diuers councels. What then must wee say to your reason which is grounded vpon that which they say not? but we will suppose, seeing Peter Martyr doth ioyne with you that it was their opi­nion, although they haue reclaimed it at this day, must it therefore needs follow, that eyther it is so vsed by vs, or by vs not lawfull to be vsed at all? hath there beene any greater idolatrie in the Church of Rome, then that which they exhibiting to the bread in the Supper, vpon an opinion of Transsubstantiation haue therewith vn­hallowed [Page 56] and prophaned the blessed Sacrament, and yet may not wee (nay ought wee not) lawfully to retaine it as a thing holy? Nay, Peter Martyr himselfe confesseth, whom sundry times you alleadge as your patron in this cause, That the signe of the Crosse is worne by Princes vpon their crownes without super­stition, because by that signe, they onely testifie and professe that they honour and maintaine the reli­gion of Christ. But peraduenture you will say wee ought not to make it a significatiue ceremonie to ex­presse that warfare which wee vndertake when we are baptized:Loc. Com. part. 2. cap. 5.20 heare what he saith: If it bee lawfull for a man to beare in his armes the badge of his owne fami­mily: It is also lawful for him by the signe of the crosse to professe Christian Religion, there is some difference from them whilst we vse it in Baptisme which you giue vs occasion fitly to handle in another place, onely let me tell you, that if the Papists worship the Crosse more than they ought, must the Church of England neglect the vse thereof more then the ancient Chur­cher haue done, or then any moderate and wise Chri­stians would do, who glory in nothing so much as the crosse of Christ, which was not vnderstood of afflicti­ons (although wee may glory in them) but euen of the sufferings of Christ vpon that crosse whereon he died.See the Reue. Bish. of Winch. in his last boo [...]. Neither hath the crosse as it is vsed in our Church any proportion eyther with the brasen Serpent, when it was broken, or the groues forbidden, seeing the one continued vntill it was strangely prophaned by in­sence from their handes,Deut▪ 16.2 [...]. who were not allowed at any time to offer any, and the groues not simply forbidden, but when they were neare the altar. [Page 56] In this respect vertuously restraint hath beene made of the ouer frequent vse of that signe tending to I­dolatry, to auoid superstition, and yet a discreete ad­mission of some vse thereof, to eschew prophannesse. Neyther can we commend your vnwillingnesse to ap­proue the Reuerend Fathers of the Church for the continuance of these things, seeing they had power to helpe them, we will not examin their power (wee wish it were farre greater) we know their discretion and wisedome hath and shall infinitly beenefit the Church by the late Canons; and for those who per­aduenture allow the things as you speake, but ap­prooue not the commaunding of them, we must say as Saint Austin doth,Non est amicus recti quando si fieri posset mallet id quod rectum est non fieri. Aust. inps. 66. he is not a friend to the truth, who had rather if it were possible that that which is truth were not commaunded. Neyther is the warre about these things so needlesse as you thinke, seeing it is like that if euer there were out of milde patience strongly and vehe­mently (euen with much hypocrisie) importuned any truce, the Church hath receiued more hurt by that, then by all the seueritie which requiring obedience doth bring peace.


SO againe my Lord, admit that we may lawfully read that Apocripha, See the Kalen­der in the new edition of the booke. which is not corrupt, being so comman­ded can I allow in your Lordship, that care of keeping euen the parcels of those Chapters, some parts whereof we reiect as drosse, as if we must needs gather all the broken pieces of brasse into the treasurie of the Church of God, and leaue so many golden plates which beare for letters of credence [Page 57] the stampe of Gods Spirit sleeping in the decke, as if they were neither currant coyne nor good mettall. Yea (my Lord) who can with iudgement allow the ordayning of any Apocripha to be read in the congregation, in such sort as it is appointed, that is, at the same times with the Scriptures, vnder the name of Holy Scripture, as partes of the old Testament, and as parts of diuine seruice, and without any manner of diffe­rence or distinction, for when as the booke prescribing to say onely at the reading of the Lessons,Rubrick. Cano. 4. & 14. heere beginneth such a Chapter taken out of such a booke, and the 14. Canon for­biddeth any addition to this order in matter or for me. It is plaine, that we are not allowed to discypher the difference betwixt the base mettals and the Lords owne stamped coyne. Now my Reuerend Father, howsoeuer some of these bookes haue many godly and deuine sayings, yet seeing the sacred Scripture onely is principium [...],1. Pet 1.25. 2. Timoth. 3.16. Inspired of God, and therefore of sole power to commaund the conscience, and that Scripture is so large in volume, that we cannot often read it all, neuer do: so rich im matter, that we need not for a ground-worke any other, who can commend that order which is taken of reading some Apocripha oftener then any of the Canonicall, much of it twice, and as much of the Ca­nonicall not once, and that vpon high daies the Sonne of Sa­rah must giue place to Agars Sonne, The Canonicall to the Apocriphall Chapter,Rubrick. Eld. 2.62. whereas it s [...]emeth as fit to dismount the vsurper from that dignitie, as it seemed to Ezra to abandon from the priesthood all such as could not draw their pedegree from Aaron. And though in Ruffi­nus and Hieronus time,Cyril. Hieros. Chap. 4. Chrisost. in Mat. Homel. 38. Athanas. in Sy­nops. when they went safely vnder the name and knowledge of Ecclesiasticall or Apocriphall bookes, they were read for information of manners, yet seeing in those ancient times, some of the fathers did inhi­bit [Page 58] the reading of them, some say they were vsed by the Ca­techistes (as wee permitted base coyne to the Irish) some (euen Councels) forbad the reading of them, and seeing by their first more innocent then prudent admission of them to be read in assemblies,Three cōuersi­ons and [...]ther Papistes. they wonne (as appeareth in the third Councell of Carthage) the stile first of Canonicall Scrip­tures, and afterward the full dignity, and haue since iustled with the Canon as Ismael did with Isack for precedēce, and hauing wonne it by this stratagem do maintaine their stile from the s [...]me reason of being read, and that euen amongst vs, me thinks there was neuer so great cause of aduancing them so neare the Chayr of estate, as is now of teaching them to know their distances eyther by sylencing their voyces in the assemblies as most of the reformed Churches do, or else by teaching them to speake in a different time, as doe those Churches that read them while the cōgregation is gathering, not as parts to diuine seruice, or at least that euery Minister were ioyned to giue them their note of difference, that the people might know and discerne the voice of God, from the voice of good men.Veru eoque iugu­lante notauit. And if Hierom, translating some of them, did giue them a brand of difference, why should not we in the reading? Or if the elder brother suffer not the yonger to giue the armes of his house without a Crescent to distin­guish them, how will God (that is so Iealous of his Honour) put it vp, that wee put no sensible difference betwixt the children of his spirit, and the baser sonnes of men (though good men).Pag. 60. In which cause (my Lord) I am the more earnest, because I finde at the Conference Hierom taxed for calling them Apocripha; and there (though not truely, for Cyril did it before him) saide to bee the first that so termed them, and his exceptions called the old euils of the Iewes, and I find thē also tearmed Canonicall ad mores, as if any writing but [Page 59] Gods could be properly Canonical, which is co ipso canonica quo authentica, as D. Whitaker well saith, which make one feare, that which I am loth to feare or speake, must make me by so much the more afraid of allowing their admission, by how much they incroch vpon the prerogatiues royoll of the Scriptures, eyther in titles or in vsage.


THe custome of accusing the lawfull ordinances of this Church hath imboldened some men (aboue both dutie and reason) to continue still vehement in their first opposition, which peraduenture at the beginning was vndertaken without cause, this land as it neyther doth, nor I hope euer shall professe any other doctrine, but that which is sincere and true.The learned discourse of [...]. Our home aduersaries confessing, that for the substance of Religion it maintayneth the true and the holy faith, so for our publike Lyturgye which now is misliked by you, wee will first take the cen­sure of one as strickt as any that liued eyther since, or before him, and after (if wee be further vrged) en­ter into the particular defence of all that iustly can bee misliked in our Church, not that wee are wil­ling to giue any strength to this last errour, or to flatter for aduancement the eye or the hand of this time, (an infirmitie which we hope shall not cleaue vnto vs) but because wee are perswaded in consci­ence, that the holy Spirit hath directed the con­sultations of the fathers of our Church (euen then when first they banished superstition) to frame by the [Page 60] assistance of a Diuine power, a publike seruice of God in this land, purer for the matter, more effe­ctuall for vse, more chast for ceremonie, more pow­erfull to procure deuotion, then any Lyturgye pub­licklye established since the defection from the pri­mitiue Church:Deering against H [...]don in his booke call [...]d a sparing re­straint. Of which (as I promised) I must tell you what Maister Deering said, Looke if any line be blameable in our seruice, take holde of your aduan­tage, I thinke Maister Iewell will accept it for an article, our seruice is good and godly, euerie title grounded vpon holy Scriptures, and with what face doe you call it darknesse? But men are ashamed to seeme guiltie,Erubescit ali­qu [...]do s [...]ri reus, qui semper fue­rat Index. Chri­sost. who alwaies haue beene Iudges, or at least accusers. That then which you mislike in this place (for the rest wee shall indeuour to defend, when wee come vnto them) is the reseruation, euen of the par­cels of those Chapters, some parts whereof we reiect as drosse, that is, to summe vp your whole accusation in few words, that no Apocripha is publikely to be read in diuine seruice. The Church of Christ according to her authoritie receiued from him, hath warrant to ap­prooue the Scriptures,D. Whitaker. to acknowledge, to receiue, to publish and to commaund vnto her children: so then, that the Scriptures are true to vs, wee haue it from the Church, but that we beleeue them as true in them­selues, we haue it from the holy Ghost. By this power the Church hath severed those parcels of Scripture by the name of Apocripha from those, which vndoubtedly were penned from Gods Spirit. In this diuision, ney­ther hath the light nor the approbation beene all one, seeing euen some partes penned by the holy Ghost, (and so now generally approued both by the Church [Page 61] of Rome and vs) haue had some difficulty, not without great examination to be admitted into the Catalogue of Gods Canon. As the Epistle to the Hebrewes, of S. Iames, the second of Peter, the second and third of Iohn, the Epistle of Iude, and the Reuelation. And how­soeuer those that were neuer doubted of, may seeme to haue (in some sort) greater authoritie then those that were:Zanch. de Res. Ca. Hiero in praefat. in. lib. Salom. Cyp. in Simb. Con. Laodi. cap. 59. yet wee giue them (saith M. Zanchy) equall cre­dit with the rest, and to the Apocripha, the next place of all other to the holy Scripture. The Canonical on­ly wee allow for probation of the doctrine of Faith, but the other (being proued) for the confirmation ther­of: Nay, the Church of Rome confesseth (howsoeuer they and wee differ,Apocriphis non est dādus in Cano ne locus. Dryedo. lib. 4. cap. 1. de lib. Apocriphis. which are Canonicall) that the A­pocripha in the Canon are to haue no place.

Saint Austin calleth by a larger acceptation of the word Canonicall, euen those, which though they had not perfect and certaine authority, yet accustomably were read in the Church, to edefie the people: a cus­tome (as it seemeth) neither now, nor differing from the practise of our Church.Chatachumenis Pag. 27. Contro▪. 1. de scriptura. Athanasius allowed them to some men. The third Coūsel of Carthage not at al. Cyrill Bishoppe of Ierusalem reiectes them from beeing read in the Church, of whome Doctor Whitakers (whome you alledge) giueth this censure,Hiero. in praefat. in libros Salo. in this Cyrill (peraduēture) was ouer vehement which forbad these bookes to be read at all. For other Fathers, although they accounted them Apocripha, yet they permitted them to be read. And Saint Hierome speaketh of the booke of wisdome and of Ecclesiasticus (out of which two is more read in our seruice then out of al the Apo­cripha besides) that they may be reade to the edificati­on [Page 62] of the people not to confirme the authoritye of Ecclesiastical opinions or decrees, this (peraduenture) was not vnfit,Quodam simi­tudme Salo monis esse dicuntur Cō ­cil. Trudent. sissi. 4. de Scripturis. seeing antiquity thought as the counsel of Trent hath set downe, that by a kinde of similitude, they might seeme to bee Salomons. Wherein (notwith­standing) because there are thought to bee some errors according to the graue moderation of our dread Soue­raigne, whose wisdome appeared in this, like the wis­dome of Salomon, Conser. at Hamp. pag. 61. Lect 26.46 are le [...]t out. Nouemb 7.17. Harmonia Cons. Gallia. Belgia. wee reiect such parcels as are faultie, and retaine the rest. And yet those, which according to the example of the most reformed Churches (for you rule vs in all things by the tyranny of example) are retained amongst vs, are neither read nor esteemed as the rest of the holy scriptures, seing liberty is left to all men in their seuerall charges, to informe their people in the different valuation of these writings (which though the Canon forbid in the Lyturgy,Canon. 14. both be­cause our additions are vnseemly, and often vnsafe) yet it is lawfull in your Sermon, to instruct your pa [...]ish, what respect and authority is to bee giuen vnto these bookes: and therefore your feare (in my opinion) is needlesse, seeing the very naming of the booke from whence the lesson is taken, to the most of your hearers, will bee difference enough.Non [...]unt contē ­nenda quasi par. na sine quibus magna constare non [...]o [...]unt. Hierom. Epist. ad Laeta. S [...]pes [...]ect [...]t Hu­mililitas quoduce virtus po [...]uit s [...] ­per are nic ratio. Ambros. Let me aduise you there­fore, according to the counsell of Saint Hierom, not to contemne those things, as smal, without which things, that are greater cannot well stand. And therfore it is wisdom, to leaue both the reading and the often rea­ding of these bookes, to the wisdome and direction of those that doe rule ouer vs, and (I hope) humility will conquer you in this case, if neither vertue nor reason could ouercome, onely I must tell you before I [Page 63] end this point,By my Lords Grace that now is. Confer pag. 60. that if Saint Hierom were taxed at the conference, as the first that gaue them the name of A­pocripha, there wanted both duery and thankfulnesse in you, to interpose that clause (though not truely, for Cyrill did it before him),Chatech 4. in fine Hiero. omnium a [...]tissim [...] è Cano. reijcit. Whitak. pag. 25. contro. prima de Scrip. Seeing all men knowe that Hi­erom was the first, that of all other did openly tearme them by that name, & (without all exception) amōgst the Latine Fathers, for any thing that I knowe, was the first, neither was Cyrill his opinion equally sound to S. Hieroms in this case, seeing all men knowe, that by him B [...]ruch was accounted Canonicall, which worthyly is refused by our Church.Sisentis benefici­um, reddedebitū, si ac. [...]pis benig­n [...] tatem, redde charitatem. Hug, C [...]ntra rationem nemo sobrius, con­tra scripturam nemo Christia­nus, contra Eccle▪ nemo pacificus senserit. Aust. de Trinita. lib. 4. cap. 6. And therefore, if you acknow­ledge the benfit you haue receiued, discharge your debt, and hauing receiued fauour as at his hands, returne loue, as Hugo speaketh. For as S. Austin saith, none that is sober, will striue against reason, None that is a christian, a­gainst the Scripture, and none that loueth peace, will thinke contrary to that which the Church doth. And if beyond this, you will needes feare, it may argue your loue, but not your knowledge. Besides, what wisdome (euen in the greatest safety) can make a freedom from feare, in the mindes of some melancholy humours.


AGaine,Rubrick about Confirm. and at the Commu­nion. though we beare, and with the best, rather then likliest expositiōs, admit som speeches as we find in some Rubricks, Collects, or translations in the booke, being in shew dāgerous, or in sence idle, or (perhaps) false yet (my good Lord) who can with a good conscience, allow your part, I meane, the reuerend fathers therin,Collect on In­nocent day. Epiph. first Sond. in Lent. that in so many Impressions of the booke, could correct none of them, but rather still leaue them vpon improbable defences, then remooue [Page 64] them with ease, as who can Commend in your Lordshipps, still to call those peeces of Scripture Epistles which are taken out of Ieremye, [...]sayes, the Acts, and Reuelation, when the verye counsell of Trent that absurdit [...] in the M [...]sse booke. And though the eagernesse of some spirits, to innouate to ma­ny things, maye somewhat excuse your ten [...]citye of them, yet in yeilding to nothing you seeme to haue forgotten Augustus Leuell of hating equallye morositie and noueltie as equall faults,Cacozelos & Antquarios Sueto de Aug. yea, to forget how easie it may be in time for the papis [...]s to ingrosse our own speeches, as by name, that of confirmation, That it giueth strength against temptations to sinn &c. As the Gothes made the laws of the Romans to become theirs by a Gothish interpretation.C [...]i▪ in. Epist. ad Ranconem. And in all this stiffnes, what is more manif [...]st then the difficultye of denying our selues, and of ayming simplie at the glorie of God, when wee are once in­gaged and het in the quarrells of our owne.


SEeing it pleaseth you to repeat the same things, as new, which often heretofore haue beene answered, both by vs and others: It shall not bee (I hope) offen­siue to any If we say againe what (else where) wee haue vttered, which peraduenture hath not come vnto your vew. That because men are easily wearied in those duties that are best, and prayer making vs apt to fall into speculations concerning God, both that our wearines may be lesse, and our thoughts more sound and more agreable to the present busines, those wise men that haue beene before vs haue chosen lessōs for the church (fitting seuerall occasions) that as prayer make vs fitter to hear,Iust. Mart. 2. A­poleg. Tertul. in Apoc. 39. so the hearing of these may make [Page 65] vs fitter to pray. To read scriptures in the time of diuine seruice, wee hope being auncient and of such vse, their wisdom will not much mislike,Coloss. 4.16. 1. Thess. 5.27. Saint Austin in many places mentioneth this custome to be ancient, and vsuall. De ciuit. lib. 22. Ser. 236. Luke 4. Act. & if the name of epistle doe offend, you cannot but know that the originall of this (both for the name and the thing) was from Paule himselfe, commanding the same Epistle which he sent vnto the Collossians to be read in the Church of the Laodiceans, and of that to the Thessalonians (he saith) I charge you in the Lord that this Epistle be read vnto all the brethren the Saints▪ from which custome the Church hauing appoynted that portion of scrip­ture, whether out of the prophets, Acts of the Apostle, or Reuelation, which circumstances considered, was thought then fittest to be read vnto the people, as if it were sent directlye vnto them, thereby procuring their attention, is not vnfitly tearmed by the name of Epistle: to these as Saint Chrisostome noteth, the minister stood vp and cryed with a loude voyce. Let vs attend: this practise hath resemblance to the practise of the Iewes euen vntill this daye, amongst whome some thing is read euerye Sabboth out of Moses, or the prophets, be­sides these, if any thing offend through the seueritye of some expositions (as what scripture so holye that some expositions will not corrupt) wee desire more charitye at their hands, seing the cause wee defend is the Ho­nour of our church, the wisdome of our forefathers, the worship of God, and not our owne wils, for which onlye if our Reuerend fathers had been ingaged, they would (I doubt not long since) rather haue relinquished their owne right, then with so much preiudice haue ha­zarded the Churches peace: as for the Church of Rome, we are so farre from being vnwilling, that they should [Page 66] ingrosse our speeches, as that wee daily and heartily pray, that they would in all thinges both thinke and speake as wee do.

And if you, or any other (notwithstanding all this) shall labour to make the world beleeue, that the cou­rage of Bishops for defence of the Church, is but a stifnesse in their owne quarrels, wee must let the world vnderstand, which we know to be true, that greater moderation and patience ioyned with carefull thoughts of what was to be altered, hath by many degrees more appeared in them, then in the meanest of the Cleargie besides, wherewith if you cannot rest content, but de­sire them to followe the Counsell of Trent, in the alte­ration of these things,Propriètamen loquendo nulla Epistola est de ve­teri t [...]stamento, sed illae lectiones vocantur. Ste­phanus Durantus lib. 4 cap. 16. Sect. 6. wee are sory that out of loue to example, you will rather propound them then none, & to please you, wee can be content to say as Du [...]antus doth, that to speake properly, there is no Epistle out of the old Testament, but rather they are called Lessons.


Of the things subscribed vnto: And first of the Ly [...]urgy in ge­nerall. SECT. 3. Canon. 14.AND now my Lord, from the intention of subscription, which I dare not answere vntil I come vnto the things subscribed vnto. Wherin, I pray to haue cōsidered first the Li­turgy in general, & thē some particulers in it. In general (ac­knowledging the booke to be a good and godly booke: I take ex­ception at that new imposition of the Canons, which doth ab­solutely command against all exceptions the whole Lyturgy to be read euery Sabboth, and that at the vsuall houres. The Booke at the first, was ordained in part to supply the want of a learned ministery, and (vntill now) some parts might be omitted lawfully for a Sermon, as the Lord Cheefe Iustice of England iudged lately at Thetford in Norfolke in Tyl­neys [Page 67] case. And in this intention, who could condemne the Churches godly care of supplying some meanes of Gods ser­uice, where all could not bee at once prouided? But this in­tention is so changed, that by the Canons, no peece of the ser­uice must giue way to a Sermon, or any other respect, which computed with the accessorie occasions of Christinings, Bury­als, mariages, and Communions, which fall out all at some­times, some at all times in many congregations, doth necessa­rily pretend if not a purpose, yet a consequence of diuorsing Preaching and so not widowes houses, but Gods house, vn­der pretence of long prayers, while neither the time, nor the ministers strength, nor peoples patience can beare that taske of reading and preaching to, of which intention, if we be afraid, who can maruell, that either shall obserue my Lord of Londons motion at the conference, for a praying ministe­ry, as more needefull in a Church planted, then Preaching, as his speech since also haue professed,Pag. 53.54. or that shall marke how some Canons are planted against Lectures in market townes, whereby the light hath spred to many other darke places, and withall how skilfully all his Maiesties godly pur­poses against the ignorāt,Canon. 27. negligent & scandalous Ministers haue beene not so much delaid, as deluded, and the offen­dours couered (as the Flauians in the battell at Cremona by the rysing of the Moone at their backs,Tacit. Hist. lib. 3. cap. 6. which casting long shadowes vpon, which the blowes being spent, fell short of the bodies themselues) of which there remaines an indigne abuse to his Maiesty, a foule sinne to your Lordships, a heauy plague to the Church, and to the offenders intollerable insolencie, in stead of deserued shame. Now (my Lord) I that could well sub­scribe to the vse of the Lyturgy, as it was before intended, cannot doe so now, the intention not being somwhat shifted, but to the contrary point.


FEw things are likely to escape vnreproued, where the best things in our Church are reprehēded, there is no duty vpon earth, that concerneth man, with a greater nearnes then prayer doth;Mook. lib. 5. Sect. 23. which vsuallye ex­presseth euen all the seruice that wee owe vnto God; for in religiō (as one wisely noteth) there is no accepta­ble duty, which deuout inuocation of the name of God doth not either presuppose or inferre:Math. 21.13. neither can there be greater approbation of this action (being pub­lick) then that the Temple being appointed for this end: in this respect God vouchsafeth, it to be accounted his house, as if Sermons, Sacrifices, Sacraments, and all other seruices performed in that place, were but se­cond intentions for the building thereof, in respect of Prayer. Now for the better performance of this duty, the late Canons haue renewed that care which in all ages was found in the gouernours of Christes Church, that the strange desire of some few to heare themselues speake, might not banish from amongst vs an institu­tion of that vse, a dutie of so much profit, an or­dinance so holy, as if for feare to displace preaching, our Temples ought not now to be accounted a house of prayer. We must first for answere to their iniurious ac­cusation in this case, tell them that neuer any (sa­uing some few & meane persons) haue disliked a forme of publike prayer; those which mislike ours, euen with the greatest seueritie that eyther malice, or (at the best) the most scrupulous conscience could inuent, haue beene able, but to alleadge some few shadowes [Page 69] of faults, all which haue beene often heretofore an­swered, and if any in the feruencie of a zealous consci­ence remaine as yet vnsatisfied,Bucerus in cens [...] ­ra de primo libv. sacrorum. we will be bold to vse the words vnto him of Bishop Ridley (after his con­demnation) to Master Grindall then beyond the seas. (Alas) that our brother Knox could not beare with our booke of common prayer, in matters against which, although I grant a man (as he is) of wit and learning, may finde to make appa­rant reasons, but I suppose he cannot be able soundly to dis­proue by Gods word, the reason he maketh against the Lete­ny, and the fault per sanguinem & sudorem, he findeth in the same. I doe marueile how he can or dare auouch them before the learned men that be with you. As for priuate Bap­tisme, It is not prescribed in the booke, but where solemne Baptisme for lacke of time and danger of death cannot be had, what would he in that case should be done? Peraduen­ture he will say, it is better then to let them die without Bap­tisme: For this his (better) what word hath he in the scrip­ture? and if he haue none, why will hee not rather follow that, that the sentences of the old ancient writers doe more allow? from whom to dissent without warrant of Gods word, I cannot thinke it any godly wisedome. And as for purifica­tion of women; I ween the word purification is changed, and it is called thankesgiuing: surely Maister Knox in my mind is a man of much good learning, and of an earnest zeale, the Lord grant him to vse them to his glorie. Thus farre Bi­shop Ridley: Bishop of London, and a blessed Mar­tyr, with whom, we say of a great number, they are learned, they are zealous, the Lord grant them to vse them to his glorie, for wee will confesse as Maister Bucer doth, there are not some few things wanting in the Lyturgye of England, which if they be not chari­tably [Page 59] interpreted, may seeme to dissent from the word of God. But accessimus (as Maister Iewell con­fesseth) quantum maximè potuimus ad Ecclesiam Apo­stolorum & veterum Catholicorum Episcoporum & pa­trum, quam scimus adhuc suisse integram atque (vt Ter­tullianus ait) incorruptam vi [...]ginem, Ioel. Apoc. cap. [...]6. part. 16. nulla dum idolclatria nec errore graui ac publico contaminatam, nec tantùm doctrinam nostram, sed etiam sacramenta, praecumque publicarum formam ad illorum ritus & instituta direxi­mus. In al which, doubtlesse there is nothing wanting, which is requisite in a religious & reformed Church, sauing the charitable construction of our brethren, who will needs (eyther out of singularitie, or feare) bee our aduersaries in this cause. And when no­thing can bee said against the forme of that Ly­turgy which wee vse, they blame the orders of our Church which inioyne the whole Lyturgy to be read at the vsuall houres. And vnder pretence of long prayers to banish preaching out of the Church: I meruaile that any man will obiect it now, seing it was an vntrue imputation long since by Master Cartwright layd vpon this church (but as one telleth him) neither aduisedly nor truly spoken:T. C. lib. 3. pag. 184. wee will not compare two things of that nearenes and vse together, but if some mens discretion could haue tempered their Zeale so farr, that their owne paynes (which they call Sermons) might haue beene shorter, and the orderly prayers of the church wholly read, I doubt not, but the religion of the people would haue beene much greater: the worship of God more sound, and the vnseasonable contentions of the Church farr lesse, and if they con­tinew [Page 60] but (as some before them haue done to allow) an houre & half, according to the pattern of reformed Churches, for the whole Lyturgy or seruice (wee are perswaded) it will both bee time sufficient for per­forming the intention of the Canon,Canon. 14. which forbid­deth all diminshing, in regard of preaching; & yet no man shal haue iust cause (if he be willing to preach) to complaine that hee wants time, or that the length of prayers hath deuoured the Church, for by this means (hauing time, which the wisdom of authority thinketh sufficient for both) all extemporall inuention of vn­sounde prayer, shall bee vtterly banished out of christes Church, and in Preaching the shortnesse of time shall necessarily cut off all impertinent discour­ses, whilest they are sorced to comprize abundance of matter in few words.

But if any man thinke the Communion booke at first to be ordayned in part, to supply the want of a Learned ministry, which being obtayned, may beomitted either in part or in whole, as men please; It is an error great­ly mistaking the first vse; and ouermuch differing from the modesty and humility of auncient tymes; Wherein the Apostles came into the Sinagogue of the Iewes at Antioch and sat downe,Act. 13.14.15. and after the Lecture of the law, & the prophetts (which I take was their ordinary seruice) the rulers of the Sinagogues sent vnto them, saying: ye men and brethren: if ye haue any word of ex­hortation for the people, say on: read the ordinary marginall note vpon this place, and it will seeme that the Sermon expected the finishing of ordinary diuine seruice, as neither all waies necessarily following, when [Page 72] this was, nor at any time presuming to be (vpon the Sabbath) when this was not: nor if the vnhallowed boldnesse of some in our time, hath aduentured to thrust the graue, religious, discreete, deliberate, and iu­dicious prayers established by authoritie out of our Churches, and forced them (against all reason) to giue place to an vnlearned, vnorderly, and bould exhortation without wisedome or sobrietie (onely somewhat glory­ing in the show of a hote zeale) was it not a petition necessary and seasonable, humbly at the conference to intreat of his Maiestie for a praying ministery? From the contempt whereof haue directly proceeded the prophannesse, the Atheisme, and all the want of Re­ligion in this land, yet let no man thinke, that ey­ther the Canons or any of the Reuerend Fathers de­sire that preaching may be lesse, but rather that with all modesty God being honoured in our praiers as we ought, wee maye the better be able to profit by those lessons that sermons doe giue vnto vs. And therefore it is ouer greate boldnes of our aduersaryes in this, to accuse any man in authoritye in the church as an ad­uersarie to preaching,Read Can. &c. seing the whole scope of sundry of these late Canons prouideth better, for more and more learned Sermons, then any lawes heretofore concluded in this Kingdome; so that wee banish not prea­ching for prayers as you would make the world beleeue, but saye as our Sauiour doth in another case, this ought ye to haue done, but not to haue left the other vndone. For doubtles the children of God fynd continually an excellent vse of both,Math. 22.23. Orationibus mun. damur, lectioni­bus instruimur vtr [...]mque bo­ [...]um est si liccat, by prayer (saith Isiodore) wee are clensed, by reading and hearing wee are instructed: If both may be had, they are both good; If both cannot be [Page 73] had, it is better to pray. So then, to say lesse, then their vncharitable accusation deserueth in this cause, [...]i non liceat vtrumque, meli­us est orare. Hesiod. de suo bo­no. lib. 3. cap. 1 D. Bridges. Pag. 634. wee affirme that they surmise vs to seeke to haue preaching neglected, but wee know too wel, that praiers are con­temned by their meanes, from which at the last, with­out great care, the neglecting of preaching must needs follow, and therefore the restraynt of the one, with dis­cretion, to giue way to the other, is neither to delay, or delude the Kings purpose against an vnlearned and scanda­lous ministery;Tacit. lib. 3. cap. 6 or like the shadowe of the moone at the battell of Cremona, or an abuse to his Maiestie, a sinn to bishops, aplague to the Church, or to the offenders, Intollerable Insolencye in stead of deserued shame, but rather to speake truly, and as this wisdome deser­ueth in the vpright sinceritye of a good conscience, an execution of the Kings vertuous and religious care, an honour to his Princelye Maiestye, a holye discretion in the reuerend Bishops, a happines to the Church, & a brydle strayt enough to such as deserue shame, for now all may learne to be longer in prayers, and short­ter in Sermons, because speeches ouer much inlarged want vnderstanding (saith Saint Austen).Frequenter in longum protra­ctus sermo caret intelligentia. Aust. de doctr. Christi. Alteri ignoscito, tibi i [...]si nunquā. Senec. And you may be aduised heareafter to blame your selfe and to par­don others.


ANd thus from the generall, I descend to some parti­cular exceptions,Particuler ex­cept [...]ons in the Liturgy, and first of omission of the Canon. SECT. 4. as first, those about the Scriptures to be read which are three, 1. The omission of the Canon, 2. The appointing of some corrupt Apocripha: 3. The translations. It is manifest that 160. Chapters of the [Page 74] Canon, and therein some whole bookes, as the Chronicles, Canticles, and most of the Apocalipse are omitted in the Rubrick, as least to edifying. This I excused in my owne heart thus, that because most of these chapters omitted, were either obscure or obnoxius to euill hearts, if read without in­terpretation,Iuni [...]s Ar [...]t. in Bed [...] [...] lib. 1. cap. 9. the Church (in good discretion making a choyce of Scriptures which the learned allow) did omit them in the direction of the Kalender, but made no doubt, but any able Minister might read them, ouer and aboue the appoin­ted Lessons, with some exposition of their difficulties; or for a need exchange any of them for some other chapter. But now the Canon (inhibiting all addition and exchange) doth not onely sylence for euer those chapters omitted, but so many moe also in our Parochiall and country Churches, where our people will not come, but on holidaies, and where reading is most needfull in publick, because [...]ewe can, fewer do reade in priuate, as that a great part of the Bible shall neuer be read; which, as it crosseth the practise of the Iewes, and of all Chri­stian Churches, the end of the holy Scriptures, which are all written for our learning: so it directly crosseth the first in­tention of the booke, which proiected the reading of the olde Testament once,Act. 13.15. Iohn. 8.34. 2. Tim. 3.16. Rom. 15.4. Preface except cer [...]aine Chap­ter [...] and New thrise euery yeare, accounting of foure chapters in euery day, which takes place in Cathedrall Churches onely, not in Parochiall. Now how the Church may ordaine a course of drowning so much of the Canon, and be innocent, I doe not see.


IF the Church of England, for blessings the most happy, for learning the most sufficient, for sincerity of Religion the most reformed, and for Lawes and or­dinations that concerne piety, the most vpright (be it spoken without enuie) of all the Churches of Europe at this day, haue no greater blemish to staine her with, then the drowning of the Canonicall Scripture, which you impute vnto her. Wee are and will bee euer readie (although the meanest of many thousands that liue in her bosome) to proue her Innocent. Whereas, if shee haue wilfully silenced Gods truth, and vttered vnto the people vanity and Lyes in steade thereof, wee will mourne for the sinnes of our mother, with hearty sor­rowe, and not enter into the defence of so great a fault: for, God forbid, that any partiall affection to her (who whilest she is vpon earth, may erre) should make vs transgresse against our father in heauen, who is trueth it selfe, but if shee haue done nothing in this case, which well befitted not the wisdome and care of a mo­ther (howsoeuer it please others to mistake her mea­ning) then let her great wisdome bee iustified of her owne children: to reade in the Church of God, the Scriptures haue beene the honour of our Liturgy, the happynes of our people, and the true and readiest directions to a better life; but either to reade them all, or onely to reade them, our forefathers (in discretion) did not think safe; seeing the one might bee to small vse, the other not without great profit, and both most agreable to the wisdome and practise of former times: for if a hundred & threescore chapters of the Canon be omit­ted, as you say (for we can be content to take your ac­count [Page 76] in this case) and therein some whole bookes, as the Chronicles, Canticles, & most of the Apocalipse be left out, wee nether doe in this, without warrant what otherwise refuse, nor refuse to doe with war­rant, that which reasonably was practised by those that liued before, and yet are neither some things in all the bookes of Apocripha, nor all things in some of them, by authority permitted publicklye to bee read in our Church, and those which are (as often you haue been told) are not for confirming of faith, but to reform manners. And so (as Saint Austen speaketh) from the customary phrase of the Church wee retayne them and read them as parts of the ould Testamēt.Ad exempla vitae & forman [...]os▪ mores, non ad dogmata cofir­manda. All which (we confesse) inpropryat you of speech onlye to bee written by Moses, and by the prophets, but from the time of Ar­taxerxes, to the age, wherin Iosephus wrot, the want of prophets was supplied for the continuance of the Hi­storie of those times, by other men godly and zealous that were no Prophets, which was the true cause, that they were of lesse estimation, then all the rest of the Scriptures are; but if we show the reputation that the Apocripha had, & that (as Saint Cyprian speaketh) these anciently were accustomed to be read in the Church,Cyprian de symb. then neither doth this Church deuise any new custom, nor by the admission of these, can worthily be iudged to silence the holy Scripture: Saint Austin writing a­gainst some Pelagian Libertines of his time, alleadgeth a place out of the booke of Wisedom, wherunto excep­tion was taken, that this booke was not Canonicall; hereof thus Saint Hilary wrot vnto him: Illud testi­monium quod posuisti (raptus est ne malitia mutaret intel­lectum eius) tanquam non Canonicum definiunt omitten­dum: [Page 77] Vpon this occasion, amongst some other reasons, to iustifie his allegation, he sheweth fi [...]st, that excepta hu [...]us libri attestatione, August. de prae­dist cap 14. the thing that he proueth therby is otherwise manifest; then he saith, that many worthy men (such as Saint Cyprian was etiam temporibus A­postolorum proximis) alleadging, nihil se adhibere nisi di­uinum testimonium crediderunt: and againe, non debuit repudiari sententia libri Saptentiae, qui meruit in Ecclesia Christi tam longa amositate recitari, & ab omnibus Chri­stianis, ab Episcopis vsque ad extremos laicos fideles, poeni­tentes, Catechumenos, cum veneratione diuinae authorita­tis audiri: So that if in Saint Austins time, who liued not much aboue foure hundred yeares after Christ, some of these (which we call Apocripha) were of long continuance read in the Church, and of all (euen from the Bishops to the meanest layitie) heard with the at­tention and reuerence of diuine Scripture; how can we iustly be blamed to retaine them, or be thought in this so ancient and so warrantable a custome, wilfully to silence the Canon of holy Scripture? Saint Hierom (who of al other was most earnest to distinguish these books frō the Canonical,Hiero, in praefat. in Prouerb. yet) sheweth that they were anciently read: Sicut Iudith & Tobiae & Machabae­orum libros legit quidem Ecclesia, sed eos inter Canonicas scripturas non recipit: sic & haec duo volumina (intelligit Sapientiam & Ecclesiasticam) legit ad aedificationē plebis, non ad authoritatem Ecclesiasticorum dogmatum confirman­dam. But if Saint (Hierom who was most earnest against these bookes) cannot moue you to approue (as warran­table) their reading in our Church, the consent (perad­uenture) and the practise of the Churches reformed may.Harmo. Confess▪ Sect. 1. Confess. H [...]lum. In the harmony of confessions set out at Geneua [Page 78] this article of the Belgick confession is there approued. Differentiam porro constituimus inter libros istos sacros, & eos quos Apocriphos vocant, vtpote quod Apocriphi legi qui­dem in Ecclesia possunt, & fas sit ex illis eatenus etiam su­more documenta, quatenus cum libris Canonicis consonant: At neutiquam ea est ipsorum authoritas & firmitudo, vt ex illorum testimonio aliquod dogma de fide & religione Chri­stiana certo constitui possit, Articul in Synod 1562. Zanch. de Relig. cap. 1. art 4.5. Pellic. in praes. in Apocriph. Chenis. exam. Concil. Trid. de Script. Can. Kimedo. de scrip. vero. dei. lib. 6. cap. 9. tantum abest vt aliorum authori­tatem infringere vel munere valeant: Hereunto agreeth the confession of this Church Zanchy giueth them the next place to the Canonicall Scripture, and this (as himselfe confesseth) not without warrant both of the Greeke and the Latin Church, hereunto wee may add the testimonie of others, as of Pellican Chenitius and Kymedencius, all not ouer great fauourers of vs, and whom our aduersaries may not refuse in this case: all consent in this: Sciendum maioribus placuisse vt preter libros vere Canonicos ex quibus fidei nostrae assertiones con­stant, Ecclesiastici quoque ad plebis aedificationem publicè le­gerentur vt sunt liber Sapientiae, Ecclesiastici, libellus To­biae &c. From all antiquitie, it then appearing many thinges profitable to edification, to be read in the Church, both in the time of the Iewes before Christ, as also since, which the Church did not esteeme Ca­nonicall, how can it be a silencing of the Scripture in vs, who onely after the example of all antiquitie, read some writings which were called Ecclesiasticall, and more profitable to edification then some Scriptures, although not of equall authoritie for doctrine of faith, as the rest of the Scriptures are, neither was this cu­stome euer thought vntill now of late vnlawfull and idle,Hook. lib. 5. pag. 37. but lawfull, and of much vse, nor as one well no­teth, [Page 79] can it be reasonably thought, because vpon cer­taine solemne occasions some Lessons are chosen out of those bookes, and of Scripture it selfe, some Chap­ters not appointed to be read at all, that we therby do offer disgrace to the word of God, or lift vp the wri­tings of men aboue it. For in such choise (considering the intent of the Church) we do not thinke but that fit­nes of speech may be more respected then worthines. And therfore although for the peoples more plain instruc­tion (as the ancient vse hath bin) we read in our Chur­ches some Apocripha, besides the Scripture, yet as the scripture we read them not, all men know the differēce that the Church of England maketh in this point. But men shall easily fall into error when they once oppose their priuate iudgement against the Reuerend autho­rity of their owne Church, neither is their conclusion altogether sound, that seeing Moses amongst the Iewes was read euery Sabbath day in their Synagogues, that therefore such Scripture should be onely read, which had the same authority that the writings of Moses had, vnlesse they be able to proue that it was not lawfull for any bookes to be read of them, but the bookes of Moses, which if it were true (as all men know it is not) then eyther there was no Scripture, but the bookes of Moses, or elfe all partes of the Scripture was not read in the Iewish Synagogues. If they vrge vs further with the councell of Laodicea, which forbiddeth a­ny thing to be read, that is not Canonicall, we must tell them that the same councell accounteth that Canonicall which is not. Further, we must craue leaue of those who vrge so strictly the reading of the whole Scripture in Churches, in what part of [Page 80] the world; or in what tōgue the new testamēt was read in the purest times. Besides, if the authority of Saint Hierome (which you vrge against vs) may be accepted as sufficient in this case against you, he will tel you that some part of the beginning of Genesis,In praefat. in Ezech. the Canticles, the beginning of Ezechiel were not amongst the Iewes permitted to be read of any, vnlesse they were comne to the age of priesthood, which was thirtye, from whence (paraduenture) the gouernors of our Church haue re­strayned their voyces frō speaking (by bare reading) to the comon people, who either vnderstand them not at all (being so read) or else peruert them to their owne harme, this is not to sylence them (as you say) but ra­ther to reserue them to a better and safer vse, that those (who for soundnes of Iudgment & knowledge are able) maye reade and expound them at seasons, which are more conuenient. This, if it weare not by lawes strictly commaunded to be obserued of all, but should giue li­berty (as you seeme to desire) to some able ministers to doe otherwise, Ignorance (which is euer boldest) would take aduantage continually to be reading the obscurest chapters, whereby the church of necessity could not chuse, but receiue greate harme, & therfore the desires of a few (peraduenture) by reason of their sufficiency not hurtfull, ought to be no motiue why lawes should not be made or executed, which preuent that the worst disposed may not haue libertye to doe harme, or the weakest to receiue. The Chronicles (some part) the Canticles, the Apocalipse, the chapters of some Genealogyes (things wherin ignorant men haue beene euer most forward to deale) contain (in the iudg­ment of wise men) many things not so requisit for silly [Page 81] people to know, because they are not bound to giue an account of those things, & their imployment therein, doth not onely distract them, but make them vnable to know such Scriptures as are of more vse, and neare­nesse to their owne saluation.Prou. 20.3 I may say as Salo­mon doth in another case: It is modest humilitie to abstayne from these, but euerie foole will be med­ling: so that what safely peraduenture might be ad­mitted to able ministers (such as it may be you are) ought not to be a reason, either, why lawes should not be made at all, or why libertie for not vsage should bee granted to those that are able, seeing experi­ence telleth vs, that euerie man will be a Iudge to account himselfe able, and so exemptions (perhaps) reasonable from the strict obseruation of some Ca­nons granted to a few, shall become warrants for the intollerable boldnesse of others, and in the end bring a contempt to all vniformitie in order, from whence must needes follow a ruine and desolution to the go­uernment of the whole Church. And surely if men well considered eyther the generall weakenesse of many that take vpon them to expound, or the common ignorance of silly people mixt with a pron­nesse to euill, when such Scripture is read, hee must needes thinke the wisedome of our forefathers in this choyce of Scripture to be great, and esteeme the in­struction of the people to be the principall end that was propounded by them, this made the Vniuersitie of Cambridge to giue permission onely to such, to in­terpret Saint Paules Epistles, as were thought in diui­nitie fit to be admitted to the degree of Bachelers, because Saint Peter saith, that in them are many [Page 82] things hard to be vnderstood, which they (that are vn­learned and vnstable) wrest, as they doe all other Scrip­tures vnto their owne destruction,1. Pet, 3.16. and for the Canti­cles, which euery man now vndertaketh to expound: Aquinus being requested by the example of Saint Ber­nard, to write something vpon them, he gaue this an­swere, giue me the Spirit of Saint Bernard, and I will doe it, yet our Church goeth not so farre to forbid any (that is licenced to preach) to expound these, but only for reading vnto the people, admit in their roome (with out stopping their voyces in due season) other writings euer accounted Ecclesiastical to be read, not as better, but as better seruing for reformation of manners. Yet, howsoeuer, they haue wrongfully accused our Church, in this point, we are glad to see them now so earnest in­treaters, for reading the Scriptures in the Church, see­ing heretofore, the most of them haue beene content for a Sermon of small edification, but of great length, to omit the reading of many Chapters, which might haue beene done at that time, so that, in true vnder­standing, the silencing of the Scripture, was rather to be feared at their hands, who desired to haue it indiffe­rent, and left free for to read it at all.


Some supposed exceptions a­gainst some A­pocripha. SECT. 5.AS for the corrupt Apocripha appointed in the Ca­lender, it made to me no scruple of subscribing to the Booke, with reference to the Churches intention and doctrine, for, besides that our doctrine was, and is pure, touching the dignities of the Canon, the reformers of the booke, professing to haue ordered, that nothing should be [Page 83] read, but eyther the pure word, or that which is euidently grounded vpon the same, gaue me reason to thinke, that how­soeuer,Proem to the second Tome of Ho [...]elies. some vnmeet Chapters kept their old standing in the Calender, yet our Churchment not to vrge the reading of them, in which, I was the more confirmed by that prouision, which vnder the Queenes authority was published with the Homelies, that the minister might exchāge any one or other, lesse profitable Chap. of the old Testamēt, for any of the new testament more profitable,Abbots against Hill. Iunius annot. praef in Dany. & if (as Doctor Abbots saith) of the Canō, much more of the Apocripha. But now I perceiue by the Rubrick, that the tale of Susanna must be read to the last verse, which helps to manifest the falshood of the whole fable, as Ierom calles it: and I see by the order of the Canons, our former liberty of exchange,2. Pet. 1.16.19. Whitak. cont. 1. qu [...]st 1. cap. 11. Luther in his Almain Bible and pro [...]me to these Apo­cripha. & all [...]iberty of cēsure to be repealed. Now, how can I su [...]scribe to the reading of an vncertain tale in stead of the more sure word of the Prophets, which Peter biddeth vs attend and not to Iewish fables, such as is that of Iudith, for which no time can be found out to father it vpon: And that of Tobit, both which Luther (as I haue heard) thought to be pla [...]es at the first, and after made st [...]r [...]es. How can [...] for instruction of Gods people, read these fictions better then the popish Legends, or so well as Holinsheds or Eu­sebius Chronicles? for what ground is there for conscience to build vpon, when nothing can be certainly obserued for doctrine, where nothing is certainely knowne for truth? Finally, in the 13 of Daniell (as it is vnfitly called) is a repugnancy to the true story of Daniels age, and beginnings of honour. In the ninth of Iudith, a commendation of Sime­on and Leuies bloody act, as ordered and blessed of God, & vndertaken with praier, yea, euen of that most outragious cruelty,Deut. 14.16. in which for the offēce of one, they executed many in­nocēt & harmeles persons.Gen. And this womā blessed that zeale [Page 84] which Iacob cursed, and God plagued as a rage. And this exception our men tooke against Campian in the Tower. So in the 7. of Tobit, 3. the Angell maketh himselfe of the tribe of Nepthaly, in the 12. one of the seuen Angels, that offer vp the prayers of the Saints to God, in both, a lyar. And in the latter, a lying vsurper vpon that office, which none but the Angell of the couenant may meddle with. Now knowing that God hath no need of lyes, I dare not read (as a part of di­uine seruice) these tales, in his presence, and the presence of his Angels and people, much lesse allow the appointing of them to be read, especially, obseruing how idlely wee shall tell the common people of their basenesse, while yet we read them out of the Bible.


WE are glad to heare you confesse that the in­tention of our Church was, and is pure (and I hope euer shall be touching the dignitie of the Canon) which in my opinion ought to haue been a strong motiue both to you and others, neyther to haue dissented from the practise of the Church in rea­ding things,Whitak Pag. 37. de scriptur. ancient, profitable, and such as were cal­led by the fathers, Scripture, though not Canonicall, nor to haue quarrelled with these bookes, as if all that were in them, were thought by vs to be of an infallible & vndoubted truth: we say thē, first, cōcerning all these bookes, that neither doe wee, nor any in our Church retaine them, as Canonical truthes for doctrine, nor of equall authoritie with the other Scriptures, & yet per­aduenture we may giue some reasons, why these things misliked by you, are not of that moment, that thereby [Page 85] they ought to be accoūted of no better authority thē Hollinsheads or Eusebius Cronicles.Dani. 13. We confes that we read (by apointmēt) the Historie of Susanna to the last verse, but the last verse (which is the greatest exceptiō to the History) we read not: and the Church of Rome confesseth,Sextus Synens. Bibli. lib. 8. Her. 5. pag. 643. that it ought to belong to the beginning of the foureteenth Chapter. It is knowne that Africanus wrot to Saint Origen cōcerning the truth of this book: but what hee wrote, wee haue yet no warrant, neither can Origen or S. Hierom be iustly proued to bee aduer­saries to our opinion in this case, for hee that is most earnest against them (which was Saint Hierom) affir­meth as Doctor Whitakers collecteth, that this storie of Susanna, Vulgata & lect. passim suisse. Whitak. de Scrip. pag. 38. of Bell, and the Dragon, the Hymne of the three children was commonly read in the Church of God, which is al, for which we desire your allowāce as a thing not new or lately inuented, but auncient, war­rātable, & so practised by our Church. I could willing­ly enter into a defence of the trueth of this History, if our aduersaries of the Church of Rome were not ouer­apt to make this conclusion (which is not sound) that whatsoeuer was aunciently read in the Church, and is true, ought to bee esteemed as the Canonicall Scrip­ture; so that, they frō truth cōcluding scripture, we are forced against them, to accuse them of some faults: Whereas, if confessing them to bee no canoni­call Scriptures, they or others would haue giuen vs leaue to read thē in the Church, as profitable to man­ners, wee could (without violence) haue afforded them the reconcilement of other Scriptures, and (vndoub­tedly) haue proued them to be most true. But howso­euer, the Church of England requireth not the Sub­scription [Page 86] of you, or of any other to warrāt the falshood, and vntruth of any Iewish fable, but to approoue the forme of our Liturgy, so farre, that those books, which anciently were read in the Church, or at least, those parts which containe nothing contrary to faith, may still retaine their auncient place in the Church, for e­difying of manners, which was giuen them in the first and the purest times. In which (doubtlesse) the liber­ty of exchange, formerly left to the discretion of the minister, might haue continued stil, if men would haue tempered themselues from indiscret & causelesse neg­lect of publicke order: for, as Saint Austin well no­teth, That surely he hateth his country, who thinketh himself neuer well, except he trauell. So, little obedience or loue appeareth in those men, who account it their greatest perfection, to oppugne the Church. Now, if Luther thought Iudith and Tobith to be playes at first, and after made Stories, we must tell you, that wee are glad to heare you ascribe so much, to the thought of Luther, but sory to see you ascribe so little to the iudgement of our whole Church; and yet, it is no reason to esteeme them of lesse valew, except wee wil follow the steps of the Anabaptists, and reiect likewise the booke of Iob, seeing the Rabbins in their Talūd, haue taught them to account it as a Tragicall Comedy, and no true storie. Concerning the exception of Daniels age: answer first Bellermin and others, who hold that there were two Daniels, and then you may thinke your obiections stronger then as yet they are. It little concerneth vs to proue the Apocripha to bee true, who euer haue con­fessed that they are not Canonicall scripture, and ther­fore may be false: but howsoeuer they are, I must tell you in humility & loue, it was a bold & an vnreuerēd [Page 87] cōparison to make thē no better then Holinsheads, or Eu­sebius Chronicles, seeing their greatest enemies haue willingly cōfessed thus much:Aprocriphis qui in volumine­bibliorū haben­tur, primum post Canonicos locum tribuimus. Zanch. de Relig. cap. 1. Act. 4.5. that of all writings, that are, they haue, & ought to haue the next place of estimatiō to the Diuine Scriptures: & not only these, but all the rest tear­med by S. Cyprian E [...]clesiasticall: by S. Hierom Apocriphal: & by S. Austin Canonical, haue bin red in the Church, with the other parts of the old Testament; if not in the Apostls times,Ruff. yet euersince. If Ruffinus be not deceiued, they were approued as parts of the old Testamēt by the Apostles: for when S. Hierom writ so scornfully of the hi­story of Susanna, & the song of the three children, he chargeth him therin to haue robbed depositū sācti Spiri­tus, & instrumētū diuinū, quod Apostoli Ecclesiijs tradiderūt. & S. Hierom (who is not vsually slow to defend himself) leaueth that point vnanswered, pretending, that what he had spoken, was not as his own opiniō, but what the Iews obiected. And for his pains in trāslating the book of Iudith, Chemnisius in ex. Concil. Trident. de saer. Scrip. he giueth this reason: Quia hunc librū Synodus Nycenain numero sāctarū scripturraū legitur cōputasse. Chē ­nisius (a mā deseruing wel, of the religiō professed by our church) hauing proued against the counsel of Trent, these books (wherof we speak) not to be canonical, pro­poundeth vnto himself a question. Num quid igitur sim­pliciter abiiciendi & dānandi sunt libri isti? and he answe­reth, that we are not to cast them away, wher we thinke they haue some thing in them, which are not consonant to the Ca­nonical scriptures, but rather so to expound them, as that they may agree with them, therfore concerning the fact of Sy­meon & Leui, for which (as it seemeth) you are not wil­ling to read the book of Iudith, Iudith. 9.2, because she confesseth that GOD put a sworde into their handes to take vengeance of the straungers, blessing the zeale [Page 88] which Iacob cursed, and God plagued as a rage, wee must answere as others haue done, that the king of A­shur is called the staffe of the Lords wrath,Gen. and his hand was the rod of the Lords indignation,Es. 10.5.6. the Lord sent him to rob, spoyle, and tread downe his people like mire in the streetes. God, therefore put a sword in his hand, and armed him, and not him onely, but as ma­ny also as were stirred vp against any country, or Nati­on, or peculiar persons, good or badde, when it plea­sed the Lord, either to chastice his children for amend­ment and tryall, or to punish the wicked to their de­struction. Now then, the Sichamites without all con­trouersie had grieuously offended, and a heauie iudge­ment of GOD (for their offences) falleth vpon them; therefore may wee say, that the Lord did arme those instruments, by whome hee did execute his vengeance against them. And Master Caluin confesseth, that Vnius puellae stuprum horribili totius vrbis strage Deus vltus est. Calu. in vers 15 Gen. 34. And Musculus saith, voluit Deus insignem hanc contumeli­am, tam graui & insigni vindict a punire, vt euidentissimo exemplo monstraret, non fore impunes omnes eos qui contu­meliam, & ignominiam Israeli inferrent, modo corde erga se integro esse perseueraret: therefore against reason and the iudgemēt of learned men in our church, you seeme to deny that God did arme Simeon, by whom he did ex­ecute his punishment. Besides, Iudith doth not com­mend that which Iocob condemneth, or curseth; for, Iacob reproueth there the fact,Gen. 34. ver. 30. Gen. 49. for that they did exceed in anger and cruelty; but Iudith commendeth the zeale which they bare vnto the Lord and his lawe, for the villany that the Sichamites had committed, and yet, as concerning the fact of Simeon and Leui, such as were [Page 89] not ignorāt of that which Iacob doth vtter in both pla­ces, are bold to affirme thus: Non est nosirum, de hoc fac­to filiorum Iacob ferre sententiam, Musculus in cap. 34. Gen. haud enim secundùm ex­ternam faciam considerandum est, quem admodum in foro Ia­diciifieri solet, sed totum relinquend [...]m Iudicio Dei, qui du­bio procul hunc illius zelum, ad sumendum de reprobis vltio­nem indidit. Of like iudgement were some long since, that liued in the church, of whom Beda saith, alij dicunt hanc vindictam, quae facta est a Simeone, & Leui, domino non displicere, quod in hoc ostenditur, quia liberati sunt de manu inimicorum suorum: Siue quod Legem dei, & cir­cumcisionem vindicauerunt, eo quod vim fecit incircumci­sus super illam quae de Circumcisione fuerat. Lyra (writing vpon the ninth of Iudith) saith thus; hoc videtur falsum, nam Iacob reprehendit illud factum tanquam malum. Gen. 34.49. Dicendum quod in facto illo duo fuerunt, scilicet ze­lus vlciscendi s [...]uprum, & illud fuit licitum & iustum, quia non habebant Iudicem, qui vellet factum punire, cuius au­thor erat [...]rinceps ciuitatis, & populus eius fautor. Et sic lo­quitur hic Iudith,Iudith com­mend. in the fact. Aliud quod fuit ibi fuit modus vlc [...]scendi, qui fuit malus & proditorius, in quantum filii Iacob fregerūt pactum habitum cum Sychamites, & sic reprehendit illud Ia­cob. All which considered, with that which many o­ther Diuines haue written in this cause, you cannot but confesse that Iacob and Iudith (in diuerse respectes) might censure the same fact in a diuers manner,Iacob condem­neth the maner, and both truly. and yet both true. The next thing which you mislike; is, that in Toby, where the Angell maketh himselfe of the trybe of Nephthaly, and in another place, one of the seauen holy Angels that offer vp the prayers of the Saints to God;Tob. [...].3. Tob. 12.45 which it pleaseth you to censure thus, perhaps with greater zeale, then either discretion, or modesty (in both a lyer [Page 90] & in the latter, a lying Vsurper vpon that office, which none,Reuel 8.3.4. Heb. 8.2. but the Angell of the Couenant may meddle with.) Iunius is the first (to my knowledge) that findeth an vntruth in the first place, but so hard a iudgement (in wisdom) might haue been well spared, considering that he cōfesseth the place to be corrupt, which might haue moued him, either to acknowledge, that by reason therof, he is ignorant of the true sence of the place, or to allow of the interpretation of the learned, before him, that haue deliuered such sence as may be admitted without allowing any vntruth. Lyra saith, It is a figura­tiue speach, like that in Tob. 6. vers. 12. Wher Azarias is interpreted adiutor Dei, & so are the Angels: Ananias is interpreted gloria Dei, whose sons are the Angels. Now, if it be an vsurping vntruth, for the Angels to of­fer vp the prayers of the Church vnto God in the me­diation of his Son, we shal (peraduenture) depriue our selues of a great part of their ministery, & dissol [...]e that communion of Saints, which we professe to beleeue as an Article of Gods truth. We doubt not, but Christ maketh intercession for vs, and offereth our prayers in another manner, more powerfull & effectuall then An­gels can Zanchie concludeth thus:Zanch. de oper. lib. 3. cap. 22. Si hos non licet inuo­care, qui nos audiunt, nostraque spectant, & nos curant, quo­modo igitur dem [...]rtuos homines? And in the same booke, he alledgeth this place (not doubting that this was a true Angell,Zanch. de o [...]er. pag. 206. & lib. 3 cap. 20. Ignorantia Iudi­cis plerumqu [...] est calamitas inno­centis. [...]st. ta [...] perfecti, [...] [...]e [...]fectia [...] [...] dolores al [...]e. [...]. to whom you giue the lye) to proue that the Angels are both sent vnto vs, & yet haue their a­boad (especially) in the presēce of God himself: so that, these bookes (being in some sort innocent) haue tasted of much euil through the ignorance of such, as haue bin their iudges. But we cannot shew our charity bet­ter, then hartily to be sory for those, who wil needs erre. [Page 91] To conclude then this point, I must intreat you in the spirit of meeknesse, to take a second view of this your vnreuerend & vncharitable cēsure, both of his Angels in heauen, & his Church on earth: for if the Angel had made the same answere, which you alledge, that he was one of the seuen Angels, that offer vp the prayers of the saints to God, he had not bin a lying Vsurper (as it pleaseth you to tearme him): for saith P. Martir: If thou read in the scrip­tures (note that he calleth them Scriptures, and in the margent quoteth this place) that the Angels offer vp our prayers, Luc. Com part. 1 cap 13. Tob. 12.15. this is not done of them to instruct or teach God, but by discouering & laying them open, we our selues be the more earnestly bent to craue the helpe of God: And what discom­modity should arise, if we affirm this selfe same thing of An­gels? Thus far P. Martir, which was taken of S. Austin: so that, you see, there was smal reason to account those bles [...]ed spirit (the Angels) Lying vsurpers, hauing spo­ken no otherwi [...]e then truth may warrant: or else to what end were that speech of our sauiour:Lib. 15. de Trin. cap. 13. Se that ye dis­pise not one of these little ones, for I say vnto you, that in hea­uen, there Angels alwaies behold the face of my fath [...]r, which is in heauen. But you cannot with a safe conscience sub­scribe to a translation that vttereth so vsurping an vntruth. Math. 18. ver. 10. I doubt not, but you haue wel considered, that it is (as you say) or else, as in the doctrine you haue wronged the Angells: so, for the translation, you will be found, for to wrong the Church. You cānot be Ignorant, that the approued translation authorised by the church of England, is that which cometh nearest to the vulgar, and is commonly called the Bishops Bible, wherein according to the Latine, the words are onely read thus. I am Raphaell, one of the seauen Angels, which stand in the presence of GOD. I confesse the Geneua translation [Page 92] readeth it as you reproue, but it was a trāslation neuer for the notes or the text, publickly authorised in our Church, so that modesty and due consideration ought to haue examined accusations of this Nature, with greater care, least others rightly iudge, that the asser­tions of such cannot be sound, that wrongfully, with­out conscience, dare aduenture to accuse both the church, on earth, and the Angels in heauen.


TOuching the corrupt trāslations of the Psalmes, Epistles, or Gospels in the booke,Against false transla [...]ions. SECT. 6. they made before, no barre to my Subscription, because I supposed that our Subscription extē ­ded, but to the forme of Diuine seruice. In which, such por­tions of scripture were appointed to bee reade,A true supposi­tion. ledd thereto partly by the words of Subscription, wherein wee acknow­ledge in the booke, such a forme as may lawfully be vsed, and promise to vse the same; partly by the Doctrin of our Church, which iustly taxing the Papists,Iewell, Fulk. Whitak. & o­thers. for adhering to the vulgar Latine, and maintaining, that all translations ought to bee corrected by the Originall, made it to me vnprobable, that our Church would impose an allowance of any corrupt trans­lations, and chiefly by the practise of our Church in authori­sing another translation,The BB. Bible. of the Church Bible; by which I made no doubt, but any man might correct the translations in the Communion booke, where they obscured or crossed the sense. But you (my Lord) gaue me in this point another light, telling mee, that we must vse only, and subscribe to the trās­lations in the booke which I also vnderstood to be auouched, by some other of your brethren, and lately found out to be in­tended in the Canon for subscription, wherin it is said, that the booke of Common Prayer, containeth nothing in it contrary to the worde of GOD, and may [Page 93] lawfully (So) be vsed, so (a word now put in) as containing in it nothing contrarie to the word: and after, that I do ex a­nimo subscribe to all things contained in the three articles. Now my Lord, if Austin (vpon the credit of many Latin co­pies) would not admit one word (palam), where the sense ra­ther required, then receiued it, because it was not in the Greeke, how shall I approue vnder my hand a translation, which hath many omissions, many additions, which sometime obscureth, sometime peruerteth the sense, being sometime senselesse, sometimes contrarie; of which I pray your Lord­ship to take a tast in the last page of this booke, where I will muster them together.


IF you had continued in your former resolution, not to haue feared to subscribe, although some faultes were iustly to be found in the translation vsed, in our Church, you had neither opened a way to your owne wrong, hazarded for your curious disobedience, the Churches censure, nor procured our labour in defen­ding her at this time. It need not to be supposed by any, that the Church of England desireth to impose an al­lowance of any corrupt translation, neither are you, or any other, as we haue often told you, required to allow by subscription the translation, but onely to approue the forme of diuine seruice; and yet surely the care of this Church, since the light of the Gospell did shine in it, was neuer wanting to publish the scriptures, tran­slated as agreeable to the fountaines, as they could de­uise; and to this end, authoritie did commaund the al­lowance of that translation, which for their [...] [Page 94] and cost in it, is commonly cal [...]ed the Bishops Bible, from whence if you, or any man collect that, be­cause a new translation is authorised, and the pa­pistes iustly taxed by our men for adhering to the vul­gar,Iewel, Fulk whi­takers &c. that any man might correct the translations in the communion Booke, where they obscured or cros­sed the sense: we must tell you, that, first for the vul­gar translation,Ital translat. we disable not so farre, but that we are readie to confesse (whether you vnderstand the Italian, or that which goeth vnder the name of Saint Hierom) that they were vsed anciently in the Church, a thousand and three hundred yeares ago,Lib. 2. dedoct. chr. Cap. 15. in praefat In Non test. one of them (by Saint Austin) preferred before all the rest, the other highly commended by Beza, and that of the vulgar (though with Pagian and Dryedo) we thinke it were not Saint Hieroms, but mixt, yet we can be content to say as Isiodor doth of it,Lib. 6. Etimolog. cap. 7. Interpretatio eius ceteris antepo­nitur, his translation is to be preferred before others: but for all this, both you, & the Church of Rome must know, that these, neither are so pure, as the fountaines themselues (for no translation (whatsoeuer) is Authen­ticall Scripture) and that from hence,In praefat. in I [...]s. Tot esse apud la­tinos exemplaria quo [...] codices, cum quisque pro suo arb [...]irio vel ad­diderit, vel sub­traxerit quod ei videretur: Eccle­sia falli potest in locorum quorun­dam versione, vt interim non desi­nit esse vera Ec­clesia. Whitak cont. 1. de script. quest. 2. [...]ap. 7. euerie priuate man must not take libertie vnto himselfe, to correct and amend at his owne pleasure, least wee haue iust occasion to complaine, as Saint Hierome doth, that there be as many varieties of translations, as there be bookes, whilest euerie man (according to his fan­cie) addeth or detracteth as seemeth good to himselfe. Neyther can an error in translating, in any Church, be an argument sufficient to proue it to be no Church. And concerning the Church of England, it hath not wanted a care, and a religious care in this point, and therefore it were no reason for you, or any to reproue [Page 95] her, for that wherein she deserueth prayse, onely your patience is required, to forbeare all priuate corrections of translations, vntil authority from the diligent labors of learned men (wholly imployed in that busines) may establish a better & yet the faults in this, are not such, but they may be tollerated without offence, though (peraduēture) corrected with more benefit. And seeing there is no error in faith, contrarie to the doctrine of the Church, that can be in pretence confirmed, by any reading, which we allow, me thinks the article of sub­scription may wel say, that the book of common pray­er containeth nothing in it contrarie to the word of God, and that it may lawfully be so vsed. But say you, if Austin (whom I call Saint Austin) vpon the credit of many Latin copies, would not admit one word (palam) where the sense rather required, thē receiued it, because it was not in the Greeke, how shal I approue vnder my hand, a translation which hath many omissions, &c. If your moderation had beene like vnto Saint Austins in this case, we should haue little cause to mislike your do­ing, and yet the example, which you bring for your best warrant, being stretched so far, as you do, cannot iustly be reckond amōgst S. Austins vertues. For in that place which you alledge, he saith: Multa latina exemplaria sic habent (et pater tuus quividet in absconso, reddet tibi palam,) sed quia in Graecis quae priora sunt, non inuenimus (pa­lam) non putauimus huic aliquid disserendum esse. Now, I see not, what can be directly gathered from S. Au­stins example, for (palā) was not in some Greek copies, but I hope you know what [...] is, which some­times they trāslate in propatulo, somtimes palam, & if the old Latin translation want it, & the Greek haue it (as [Page 96] Doctor Whitakers noteth) Iudge whether you ought to imitate Saint Austin in this,De script. cont. 1. quest. 2 cap. 12 whom the Rhemistes fol­low, rather then the original which is followed by our Church, and therefore the blemishes in our transla­tion, which your zeale hath published, of omission, ad­dition, obscuritie, Ostendere hoc non pet [...]s quia iugeniū d [...]est, sed quia bona causa. Aust cont [...]e [...]il. lib. 2. cap. 98. peruerting as senselesse, contrary, and such like; we are willing to answer them, when we come to your obiections in the last page, whch wee know you cannot proue, not that you want wit, but because you are not assisted with a good cause.


Exceptions a­bout Baptisme. SECT. 7.FRom the exceptions concerning the Scriptures, I come to those which arise about the Sacramēts. And though there because to speake of priuat Communions, as on the Churches part, not so well ordained; yet I will insist vpon priuate Bap­tisme, and will draw vnto it that Rubrick, which saith (that it is certaine by Gods word, that Infantes baptised haue all things needfull to saluation, and are vndoubtedly saued. This speech I did interpret as spokē not simply, but ex hypo­thesi in opposition to the popish conceit of the necessity of con­firmation in this maner, that the child (hath al things necessa­ry) that is, all outward means, & needs no confirmation (& is vndoubtedly saued) that is as vndoubtedly, as if it were con­firmed. And vnto this construction the precedent part of the Rubrick directed me, & the sound doctrine of our Church against the simple necessity of Baptisme, and grace inseperably annexed therto, did set me in it, & then the speech seemed like that of Christ in the ninth of Iohn, where hee saith, (neither hath this man sinned nor his father) that is not in such sense as the question was asked, whether he or his father [Page 99] had sinned. As for priuate Baptisme by a lawfull minister, being acccompanied with such doctrine, as our Church hi­therto hath generally receiued about the same. I thought, it might be inexpe [...]tent, but not vnlawfull. But (my Lord) ob­seruing since in the booke of conference,Pag. 16.17. that my Lord of Londo [...] (leauing the state of the child vnbaptised, as vncer­taine) saith: that if it die baptised, there is an euident assu­rance, that it is saued (without any exception made of Gods eternall purpose) and further, that the place in the third of Iohn (Except a man be regenerate of water, and of the holy Ghost, &c.) must be vnderstord of the Sacra­ment of baptisme, which conceit (if we draw the text to in­fants) must necessarily thrust vs, as it di [...] Austin, and other Fathers, vpon the simple necessity of that Sacrament vnto saluation as the like words in the sixt of Iohn: Except ye eate the flesh, and drinke the bloud of the Sonne of man, ye cannot be saued: being vnderstood of the other Sacrament, A [...]st Epist. 23. & saepe. Ambros. de iis qui I [...]it. ca. 7.8. [...]. 1. e [...]. 95 apud August. drew on the Administration thereof to Infants: perceiuing (I say) the grounds laid in that conference, and by whom, and adding therunto that addition to the Catechisme, that there be two Sacraments, as generally necessary to sal [...]uation; and the sixtie ninth Canon, which vnder paine of suspension bindes the Minister (in case of necessity) to hast to the baptising of euery weake child (the very night not excep­ted): It seemeth to me, that our Churches doctrine, in this point, is declining to that opinion of the simple necessitie of that Sacrament, and grace annexed thereto, which we for­merly opposed.The second daies Confer. in the Tower, and all ou [...] wri­ters against the papistes. And if this be the present intention of our Church, I dare not subscribe to such an vse of priuate Bap­tisme, neither to the former Rubrick, which being capable of a good sense, may also be taken, and hereafter pleaded (vnder our subscriptions) in a bad one.


WE cannot but wish that the holy pretenders of zeale had so much discretion, that those things were iustly blameable, for which they are so willing to forsake the executiō of their deuine function, & so boldly without consciēce to transgresse the lawful ordinatiōs of a reli­gious King, whose cōmaundements, eyther to limit to their owne fancies, or to censure after those opinions, which they apprehēd to be vertuous & iust, were both to cōmit an act neuer warrantable in any age, and to v­surp vpon that throne, which they must not touch; all men that liue in the bosome of a Church, whose peace to thē ought to be dearer then 1000. liues, are to be ca­ried with that charity towards the doctrine & lawes, which it publikly professeth, or wherwith it is well go­uerned, that all indeuors of reconcilement, are to be bē ­ded to this scope, to make it seeme both to teach & to go­uern like the Church of Christ; for there is nothing of that euidēce in the word of god, nor euer was of that vse in the family of Gods house, which oppositiō vnbridled could not peruert, or vnhallowed boldnes misconster; there is nothing left vpō earth to the Church of grea­ter vse, then the Sacramēts; whose chiefest force, & ver­tue cōsisteth in this, that they are heauēly ceremonies, which God hath sāctified & ordained to be administred in his Church: first, as marks to know when God doth impart his vitall or sauing grace of Christ,Hook. lib. 9. pag. 126. vnto all that are capable therof: & secondly as means conditionall, which God requireth in thē, vnto whom he imparteth grace: for (as elswhere we haue noted) It must needs be a great vnthankfulnes,In the defence of master Hoo­ker. pag. 95. & easily breed contēpt, to ascribe only, that power to thē to be but as seales, and that they teach but the mind by other senses, as the word doth by hearing, which if it were al, what reasō hath the Church [Page 101] to bestow any Sacramēt vpō infants, who as yet for their years, are not capable of any instructiō: ther is therfore, of Sacramēts (vndoutedly) some more excellent & hea­uenly vse. Sacramēts (by reason of their mixt nature) are more diuersly interpreted, & disputed of, thē any other part of religiō besides, for that in so great store of pro­perties, belōging to the self same thing, as euery mans wit hath takē hold of some especial consideratiō, aboue the rest▪ so they haue accordingly giuē their censure of the vse & necessity of thē, for if respect be had to the du­ty which euery cōmunicant doth vndertake, we may cal thē truly bonds of our obedience to God, strict obliga­tions to the mutual exercise of christiā charity, prouo­catiōs to godlines, preseruations from Sin, memorials of the principall benefits of Christ. If we respect the time of their institution, they are annexed for euer vnto the new Testament, as other rites were before to the old: If we regard the weaknes that is in vs, they are warrāts for the more security of our beleefe: If we compare the re­ceiuers with those that receiue thē not, they are works of destinction to separate Gods own from strangers: & in those, that receiue thē as they ought, they are tokens of Gods gracious presence, wherby men are taught to know what they cannot see: for Christ & his holy spirit with all their blessed ef­fectes (though entring into the soule of man, we are not able to apprehend or expresse how) do notwith­standing giue notice of the times, when they vse to make their accesse, because it pleaseth Almighty God to cōmunicate (by sēsible means) those blessings which are incōprehensible; seeing therfore that grace is a cō ­sequent of Sacramēts; a thing which accōpanieth thē as their end: a benefit, which he that hath, receiueth from God himself, the author of Sacramēts, & not frō any other naturall or supernaturall quality in them. It [Page 102] may be hardly both vnderstood, that Sacraments are necessary, and that the manner of their necessitie to life supernaturall, is not in all respects, as meat, drink, and such like, vnto naturall life: because they containe in themselues no vitall force or efficacy, but they are duties of seruice and worship which vnlesse we per­forme, as the author of grace requireth, they are vnpro­fitable: For all receiue not the grace of God, which receiue the Sacraments of his grace, neither is it (ordi­narily) his wil, to bestow the grace of sacraments vpon any, but by the Sacraments: which grace also, they that receiue by Sacraments,Non enim ist▪ tribuunt quod per ipsa [...] Hugo de sacr. cap. 3. or with Sacraments, receiue it from him, and not from them: for (as Hugo saith) These do not giue, that which is giuen by these, and yet ordi­narily (as necessary) to receiue these, as those graces are necessary, which we receiue by these: so that, Baptisme, though it be not a cause of grace, yet the grace which is giuen by Baptisme, doth so farre depend vpon the very outward Sacrament, as that God will haue it im­braced, as a necessary means, whereby, we receiue the same: and howsoeuer we dare not iudge those, that in in some cases do want it, for the want of it, yet we may boldly gather, that he, whose mercy now vouchsafeth to bestow the means, hath also long since intended vs that, wherunto they lead: so that, we think in this discourse of yours concerning priuate, & the necessity of baptisme, that some things are misunderstood, some things mis­construed and some things false: misunderstood, where you make this to be the opinion of our Church, that all, who are Baptised, must necessarily be saued, or of the contrary: whereas, it is but vnderstood, as, eyther man hath euidence left to direct his iudgement, or the Church hath power, to admit into the house of [Page 103] GOD. And for others, who want this Sacrament, although wee cannot Iudge of the secret election of God, yet we haue reason to feare a denyall of that Grace,Hook. li. 5. where we see a manifestation of the want of the meanes, appointed for the obtaining of it: for (doubtlesse) as one noteth, the sacrament of Baptisme in respect of God, the author of the institution, may admit dispensation, but in regard of vs, who are tyed to obey, there is an absolute necessitie: for it is in the power of God, without these to saue, but it is not in the power of man, without these to come to saluation. And yet our Church holdeth constantly, and truely (notwithstanding your doubts) as well touching other beleeuers, as Martyrs, that Baptisme taken away by ne [...]necessity, taketh not away the necessity of Baptisme; but is supplyed by the desire thereof. For, as the visible signe may be without true holinesse; so, the inuisible sanctification (saith S Austin) may sometimes be with­out the visible signe,Lib. 3. Quest. vel Test. cap. 84. Canon. 69. and yet these are no reasons, either to debarre the Church from imposing priuate Bap­tisme, vpon great peril, from this necessitie: or to con­clude out of this care, that the Church declyneth to a necessitie, ouer rigorous, and such as formerly was op­pugned in our Church.

2 Misconstrued the speech of the most reuerend fa­ther, the now Lord Archbishoppe of Canterbury, who (as you say) made no exception of Gods eternall pur­pose.D. Barlow Deane of Chester. Confer pag. 16. It cannot bee ignorance, but want of charity, which maketh you to misconster him thus, seeing e­uen from that learned Deane, who penned the whole conference, you might haue collected what manner of necessitie, was vrged by him, his words are these: which word (Necessity) he so pressed not, as if God without Bap­tisme [Page 104] could not saue the childe; but the case put, that the state of the Infāt dying vnbaptized, being vncertain, & to God only knowne: but if it dy baptised, there is an euident assurāce, that it is saued. What could be more religious & agree­able to the doctrin of truth, or more necessary in these presūptuous times, wherin a Sacrament of so absolute necessity (by practise of some) is growen into such con­tempt: which necessity, if at any time wee haue denyed (dealing with those of the church of Rome), It is because ouerstrictly they bind (frō the act done) grace to the Sa­craments, as if none that receiue them, could want it, or none receiue that grace that do want them.Ioh. 3.6. Read our desēce of master Hoo­ker. pag. 110.

3 False; that the plac [...] of S. Iohn, is not vnderstood of the Sacramēt of Baptisme, which you seeking to shun, least you shold magnify Baptisme ouermuch, ought to take heed, least you run into the contēpt therof: the one be­ing that, wherūto al mē are inclined, & the other brin­ging lesse hurt to the church, by a necessity ouer abso­lute, which serueth but to make al men carefull, not to neglect a thing of such institutiō, & so great vse, whilst a fear to establish an absolute necessity, bredeth (by de­grees) a contēpt of that, which is the only ordinary way into the church of Christ in heauē, & the only way in­to the church vpō earth. And because the Iews had ma­ny rites, which in a larger acceptatiō, were called Sacra­mēts, but in a strict acceptation (as we) only two: to di­stinguish betwixt these & the other, it is added (not without cause) to the catechisme; that there be two sacra­mēts, as generally necessary to saluatiō: noting, that ours (succeeding two of theirs, Circūcision & the Passouer) retain a necessity as theirs, more & aboue the rest: so that, the in­tētion of our church, being neither differing frō it self, nor frō the doctrin of truth, in this point, you need nei­ther [Page 105] feare by subscription to giue your allowance, nor doubt least your subscriptiō might iustly be pleaded to a bad sence.Exceptions cō ­cerning inter­rogatories in Baptisme. SECT. 8.


MY secōd exceptiō, about the Sacramēts, is to the interro­gatories in Baptisme, made to the child, & answered by the suretyes, that this fashion was causlesly & needlesly trās­ferred frō those of years, & forerūners to Infāts free born in the church, I hold with Beza, Bullinger, Zepper, & others; yet thought it not vnlawful in this cōstruction; namely, that this professiō (made in the childs name) shold not import, either such a distinct faith in the child, which (saith Austin) were Insanus error: or that the faith of the sureties should auaile the Infāt, which the word reiecteth: or, that the sureties vndertook that the childe shal hereafter make good this profession, which were Insana presūptio: but that this profession was thus made by the mouthes of the Godfathers, partly to admonish the vnder­stāding congregation of that couenāt, which Baptisme really inioyneth to euery Christian, euen as the Prophet spake to the dead Altar, to admonish liuing Ieroboam, & the Prophets (as Chrisostom notes) spake to the vnreasonable creatures,1. King. 13.1. Homel. 3. de paenit. to teach reasonable men, how vnreasonable they were be­come: and secondly, to cast vpon the Godfathers, a kind of charge, & with it, an aduantage of calling vpon this childe, when he came to yeares to knowe & answere that stipulation of Baptisme, which they made profession of, as in his name, whē he was Baptized, to shew what he should haue done him­selfe, if he had bin of years: & in this sense, I thinke it lawfull though (perhaps) too obscure and vnnecessarie. But my Lord, if the Catechisme, which making Faith and Repentance (that is, the profession of Faith and Repentance) necessary to those that are to be baptyzed, proceeds to say, that Infants perform this faith, and repentance by their sureties. If (I say) this in­tend (as it doth insinuate) a necessitie of such a profession to [Page 106] be made in the childes name, before it might bee admitted to the Sacrament, as I reiect that conceipt as an error fauoring this Anabaptisticall opinion, that faith must fore-goe the Sa­crament of Baptisme: so, I dare not subscribe to the practise so inioyned, and intended, and would wish it changed into that course,Cons [...]r. cap. 14 that Bucer aduised.


IT seemeth, there is a curious desire of reprehension in those men, who are willing to reproue the practise of their owne Church, for that which is a custome an­cient, necessarie, and of much vse: wherein wee repre­hend not alone the disposition of such, but wee are ready to let the world see, that the things themselues are most innocent, which they doe reproue. Most of them are not yet come so farre, as to deny Baptisme to Infants (an arrour which may follow from their former opinions, if they suffer Scisme to growe in them, and humours to bee rules for conscience but they are rea­dy to professe, that there is no saith in the childe required to Baptisme, and that to bee borne of faith­full Parents, is as much for their admission into the Church, as the profession of the faith, which they make by the mouthes of others. This, as it is vnthank­full to spurne at the indulgence of the Church; so, it is a contempt of duety, which God requireth on our part: there is no attainment to life, but through the onely begotten sonne of God, nor by him otherwise, then being such for beleefe as wee ought: as if those Articles in the iudgement of God, were set downe for all men: first, to subscribe vnto whom, by Baptisme, [Page 107] the church receiueth into Christs schoole; and seeing no religion inioyeth sacraments, the signes of Gods loue, vnlesse it haue also that faith whereupon sacra­mēts are built, could there (as one well noteth) (which I am sory you obserued not before you stumbled at these doubts) be any thing more conuenient,Hooker lib. 5. Page 152. then that our first admittance to the actuall receipt of his grace in the sacrament of Baptisme, should be consecrated with profession of beleefe, which is to the kingdome of God as a key, the want whereof excludeth Infidels both from that, and from all other sauing grace; And howsoeuer we say with S. Austin that Infants haue not a present Actuall habit of faith yet they haue then the foundation of that wherupon afterward they build, the first ground whereof was laid by the sacrament of Baptisme; so that without any madd presumption (as you tearme it) we may say truly of infants, that they are then beleeuers, because in Baptisme they begin to be, which continuance of time doth afterwarde make perfect. For if we call them beleeuers for their out­ward profession sake who are much further from faith then infants, why may we not without madnes or pre­sumption, account infants to haue faith which haue that grace giuen them,Quem potue­runt illi nosse nec habere, isti potuerunt habere ante­quam nosse▪ Aust. which is the first and most effectual cause, out of which our beleeue groweth: and whilest others that know him beleeue not in him, these beleue in him before they know him. Now seeing then that Baptisme implyeth as Circumcision a couenant be­twixt God and his people, it is to be thought that as God in that sacrament bestoweth remission of sins & the holy Ghost, binding himself as it were to bestow all other graces requisite in time to come; so euery in­fant receiuing the same sacrament at the hands of god [Page 108] tyeth himselfe likewise for euer, to doe and beleeue what the Lord commaundeth. Now, who is there (considering this contract) that can blame either the interrogatories, or the suretyes which vndertake in this stipulation, seeing the thing is required, nay, inioyned with such necessity for the Church, to exclude infants, because they cannot by their owne tongues contract, were ouer rigorous: and not to take securitie at all, for those who cannot answere for themselues were to bee to carelesse; for the profession of faith, beeing ne­cessarie to a publike admittance into the house of God, what cause is there why suretyes may not law­fully doe it, seeing they know they are the children of fathfull Parents, and so consequently partakers of the promise, and that they are such as would make the same profession themselues, if they were of yeares, or that the Church should not require it, euen to put men in minde vpon what condition they admit them into the Church, and to manifest a reason, why they refuse others: so that for any thing I see alledged a­gainst it, as faith and repentance are necessarie to make the Sacraments effectuall, so this faith in this case is lawfully professed by the sureties, and effectuall for the infant, whome to accept into the Church without this, were to wrong the Sacrament, and not to receiue with this, were to wrong those infants, to whom the couenant belongeth by an euerlasting promise.Gen. 1 [...]


Of the Crosse in Baptisme. SECT. 9.THE last thing about Baptisme, is the signe of the Crosse which though I long held otherwise, yet of later yeares I held lawfull to bee vsed, taken in this construction that after the childe was incorporate into Christ and his Church [Page 109] by Baptisme; the congregation, by the mouth of the mini­ster, as their Agent in this and not Gods, as in Baptisme, should acknowledge their acceptance of him into their soci­etie▪ and signe him with the signe of the crosse, as with an auncient token of christian profession, in token of that which the congregation hereafter expected and hoped for at the hands of this childe newly made one of their fraternitie by Baptisme. In which vse, I held it no sygne from God to men, as bee the Sacraments: nor of men to God, as the bowing of the knee in prayer, but of men to men, as the Kisse of Loue, or the Ring in Mariage; no part of Gods worshippe, no part of the Sacrament, no consecrating or operatiue signe, no Symbolicall or Sacramentall sygne, no not so much as expli­catorie to set out the vertue of the Sacrament, as oyle, milke, hony, and other olde deuised, but wel reiected cerimonies did; but to bee a simple significatiue ryte, to expresse the congre­gations hope, and expectance of this childe. And in this haue defended it, not as well imposed, but as lawfull to be v­sed, at sundry meetings before and since my Subscription; and to perswade mee that our church intended it in this sense, I haue these reasons. First, because it followeth after the verie act of Baptisme finished. Secondly, because the words are in the plurall number (wee receiue this childe &c. Third­ly, in priuate Baptisme, where the company expecting pre­sent death, could not hope for such a christian profession to be, after made, that Sygne was omitted, which if it had intended any consecration or operatiue vertue, might and would then haue beene vsed; and lastly because the Godly fathers which reformed the book cast it out of the sacrament of the Supper, and all other vses where it assumed any superstitious purpo­ses, I beleeue they ment here to reduce it to the very first vse and only good vse which it had to make it a simple token of christian profession, and no more.


It litle auaileth in the consideration of wise men, ei­ther to publish our owne former true opinions which afterward we indeuour to disproue, or to afford iust excuses for the lawfull practise of that church, with which notwithstanding we are not willing to consent; It being either decept in vs to allowe what in consci­ence we think not to be good, or an vnexcusable weak­nes not to consent vnto that which we doe allow; In this respect of the practise of sundry men (who are willing to seeme and peraduenture in truth are vertu­ous) the church of England may iustly complaine as Saint Hierom doth ab, Hieronimus Epist. 133. aemulis nos frustra Lacerari, qui malunt videri contemnere praeclara quam discere: doubt­lesse the number is great (and yet a number deseruedly not of any great account) which will rather seeme to contemne,Maximum iu­dicium ma [...]oe mentis fluctua­tio. Senec. then to learne wholesome things. Morall wise men haue thought wauering to be the greatest signe of an euill minde. For wisedome cannot better appeare, then euer to will and to nill the same things; this being as one noteth the foundation of that truth, that the same thing cannot euer please, Non potest idem placere nisi rectum. Sen. if it be not iust. Let those thē that bee wise consider of your speach. You first for a long time held these Ceremonies not to bee lawfull (we take you first from the beginning of your resolu­tion in matters diuine) then after that lawfull; now vpon the third change vnlawfull, and paraduenture heareafter we shall haue better hope; I can in all hu­militie and charitie grant vnto you the same fauour, which vppon such inconstancie I would desire to bee granted to my selfe in the like case: but surely wise men not so easily mooued with the same passions that wee are, doe well discerne that it is not safe in matters of [Page 111] this nature, to relye vpon their fancies at all, whose opinions in things for which they contend with so much earnestnes, are continually subiect to so much change; reason euer by collection concluding thus, that whasoeuer hath bene may be, and those who haue thrise changed are not at all times when they seeme so guided by the truth which is euer the same, but rather may feare the imputation of a double minde, Iames 1.8. which as S. Iames faith, is vnstable in all his wayes. Yet notwith­standing, wee are willing and desirous to heare from you such speaches, as are arguments of that loue and obedience which all men ought to beare vnto that Church wherein they liue: we are content to allowe (although you haue not fully expressed the intention of the Church of England in this point) That to signe the Infant with the signe of the Crosse, was to signe him with an ancient token of Christian profession: that it is not a signe from God to men, nor of men to God, (and therefore no ido­latrous worship invented in our Church) but of men to men (as the Ring in marriage) no part of the Sacrament, no con­secrating or operatiue signe, no Symbolicall or sacramentall signe not so much as explicatory but a simple significatiue rite expres to the Cōgregations hope & expectation of that child; which no mā can doubt to be the vertuous & religious intention of our Church: both because (as you confes) It is after Baptisme, 2. It is saide, wee. 3. It is omitted in priuate Baptisme. 4. And lastly the signe is omitted in the Lords Supper, as not giuing either vertue to the Sacrament or holinesse to the action, which were (in these latter times) vnsufferable errors, superstitious­ly brought in by the Church of Rome: wherein all in­different men may see the moderation of our church, which hauing left the ordinary vse of the Crosse, in al [Page 112] actions at all times, (for which the practise of antiqui­tie might haue beene some warrant) haue onely admit­ted the same in Baptisme, as then chiefly requisite for a signification of that profession, which at that time the Infant vndertooke, and therein ment to continue for euer after. In this sence (which is the warrantable intention of our Church) if you haue held it lawfull heretofore, and now doe not, wee may say as S. Paule to the Galathians;Gal. 5.7 Ye did run well, who hath hindred you, that you did not obey the trueth? but wee will not cen­sure you, but rather hope better things of you, desiring all men to remember the Apostles peremptorie con­clusion; If any man teach otherwise & consenteth not to the wholsom words of the Lord Iesus Christ, & to the Doctrine which is according to godlinesse, 1. Tim. 6.3.4 he is puft vp and knoweth nothing, but doteth about questions & strife of words, wher­of commeth enuie, strife, railings, euill surmises, froward disputations of men of corrupt mindes, and destitute of the truth, which thinke that gaine is godlinesse.


BVt now my Lord obseruing duely the 30. Canon, made of purpose to explaine the lawfull vse of the crosse, to which we are now tyed,Canon. 140. as to the iudgement of the church (though for my reuerend opinion of that assemhly I could ea­sily beleeue that in this explication they haue bin vsed as were the good fathers at the counsel of Arimine, vnder great penalties;) I finde that our Church professeth to retaine it for the very remembrance of the Crosse, which is precious to all that truely beleeue in Christ, and in such vse as did the antique fathers and churches, and by name, that by that ceri­mony and honorable badge the infant is dedicated to the ser­uice [Page 113] of him that dyed vpon the crosse; In which construction I do not see how I can subscribe vnto it, as before I did; for confessing that I grudged the name of an honorable badge, re­membring to what dishonorable Idolatry, it serued of late and yet doth in Popery, and being therupon attainted by the Peares and neighbour Churches is not yet restored in blood, and think we may say of it, as Iacob of Reuben; Thou wast fair, but hast lost thy bewty by clyming vp vnto thy fa­thers bed. I protest against that memoratiue vse of it in the congregation and in the Sacrament, to call to minde the Crosse of Christ (whether thereby his sufferings, or his Altar be ment) as that which openeth a gappe to cros­sings in daily vse, and crosses and crucifixes, and so any I­magery in the church and worship of God; and think that this which hath bin abused with spirituall fornication, as a common harlot, may easily proue in that vse a cunning baud to solicite the vnstable hearts of men to their old super­stition, and therefore seemeth to me to be against the se­cond commaundement, which forbiddeth all prouocati­ons vnto Superstition, as well as the seauenth doth all incita­tions to Adultery.


FRom dislikes seeming as grieuous in shewe, & for a long time as vehemētly persued by a great number, we are now come at the last to that one point (the Crosse in Baptisme) wherein alone both antiquitie is thought to be too superstitious, and this present age, for following the same example, vnexcusable of a dan­gerous & vnsufferable idolatrie: but as the Church [Page 114] of England, hitherto hath not found it sa [...]e to follow the reformation of those men, who know no other means to purifie Churches, but to pull them downe; so in this shee esteemeth it safer and more vertuous, to free the signe of the Crosse from the staines of superstiti­ons, contracted in these later and corrupted times, ra­ther then altogether to reiect the more auncient and purer vse thereof, as men ashamed of that which was. Saint Pauls reioycing at the Crosse of Christ. Galat. 6, 14 Wee are not desirous in things of this nature, to satifie the Reader with empty words, b [...]. as farre as wee are able in truth, to let all men see, that both the Church hath reason to exact an obedience to that which it doeth lawfully command, and that their curiositie is with­out excuse, who either of singularitie or ignorance, seeme to pretend holy reasons to warrant them, in that which they doe refuse: and surely it must needes bee thought, an vnthankefull and ouer-bold accusation of those men, who dare aduenture to accuse a whole Church, a sincere and religious Church, a Church wherin they haue bin borne, nourished & brought vp; whose true doctrine hath bin the foundation of their-iudgements, if they haue any, rather then they will be thought to like others or in what things they refuse obedience to her Lawes, not to be warranted by Gods word, as the vnstained actions of a sanctified, groun­ded, & pure zeale: as if the Church of England, which in the true opinion of the world is more setled, more reformed, more vertuous, vnder the gouerment of so sincere and so religious a prince, had by an vniuersall consent conspired as it were to increase Idolatrie, and established constitutions for the vniust recalling of the iustly banished superstions of the Romish Church, [Page 115] and therfore obseruing duely the 30. Canon made of pur­pose to explaine the lawfull vse of the crosse, to which we are now tyed as to the Iudgement of the church, Can. 140. you do not see how you can possibly subscribe vnto it as before you did. We desire all that are indifferent to viewe the reasons and vses contained in that Canon, and we doubt not but it will appeare that their motiues were sufficient to ra­tifie the vse of the Crosse in the intention of our Church, and to free that learned and religious assem­bly from the imputation, you lay vpon them, by com­paring it to the Counsell of ARMINE; First, Iewish and heathenish blasphemie derided our fathers in the christian faith, for preaching & beleeuing in him, who was crucified vpon the crosse, by which all vertuous and pure both men and times were so farre from being discouraged in their profession, by the ignominie of the crosse, as that thereby they rather reioyced and try­umphed in it, yea, the holy Ghost so farre honored the dispised name of the crosse amongst the Iewes, that vnder it, was contained all the suffering, the merits, the fruites, and the comforts of Christs death. From hence proceedeth a reuerend vse and estimation of the signe of the crosse, in the Apostles time, signing hereby not onely themselues when they met with the Iewes, but their children which were baptised, to dedicate them by badge, as it were to his seruice, whose benefits be­stowed vpon them, were contained vnder that name, and procured vnto man by Christs death vpon the crosse. But time corrupting often with staines of su­perstition the best things (for if Christ tell Peter, If I wash thee not, Ioh, 13, 8, 9. thou shalt haue no part with mee; Peter will answere, Lord not my feete only, but my hands and my head) so apt are we to ouerdoe that which wee finde to bee pro­fitable [Page 116] vnto vs) The signe of the crosse in the more ignorant times of the church that followed after, became so loaden with a continuall and necessarie obseruation, full of superstitious Idolatry, as if it had beene for all occasions, a compleate armour to euery Christian, and that nothing could bee well, either begun, conti­nued, or ended, that was not first hallowed with this signe. From which ignorant opinion, blemishing a thing of vertuous and good vse, the Church of Eng­land desiring to free the signe of the Crosse, doth not commaund or allow the publick vse at any other time but in Baptisme, and that first, as no part of the sub­stance of that Sacrament, adding any thing to the ver­tue or perfection of Baptisme. Secondly, nor as a meanes of admitting of any into Christs flock, but as a lawfull outward ceremony, and honorable badge, whereby the Infant is dedicated to the seruice of him that dyed vpon the crosse. In respect whereof, the very name hath and shall bee honorable amongst all true christians to the worlds end: and therefore your com­parison, of those in the conuocation for making of this Canon, to them in the councell of ARMINE might haue beene well spared, seeing the perticulers of both beeing duely waighed, wise men may easily perceiue the beginnings, the proceedings, and the conclusion to bee farre vnlike: and therfore I must tel you, though not with so much seuerity as the cause deserueth, you could not with all your studie, haue found out a com­parison more vnbefitting this cause, & more presump­tuously iniurious to the King and the whole Church; which, that the reader may better vnderstand, wee will briefly set downe as others haue done, from the begining to the, end the proceeding of that councell. After [Page 117] CONSTANTINES death, whose wisdom supprest the greatest heresy, & whose vertue taught the whole world religion; CONSTANTIVS his sonne raigned, one ra­ther seeming not so euill as hee was, then beeing in trueth, so vertuous as hee seemed, whom to haue set­led in a right opinion in his Fathers time, had beene a duety of good seruice toward God, a meane of peace and quietnesse to the church of Christ, a labour easie, and peraduenture, as pleasing as the suggestion of those, who were the vnnaturall corruptions of a well disposed sonne, of so vertuous a father. CONSTANTI­VS, by the perswasion of the ARRIANS, deuised to as­semble all the Bishops of the whole world, about their great controuersie; but in two seue [...]all places: the Bishops of the West at ARIMINA in Italy; the Eastern at SELVCIA the same time; amongst them of the East there was no stoppe, they agreed without any great a­doe, gaue their sentence against heresie, excommu­nicated some cheefe maintainers thereof, and sent the Emperour word what was done: whom doubtlesse it much offended not, that an heresie of that nature could not from the authoritie of wisdome obtaine strength, which it is like had not beene so much fauoured by him, if hee had not esteemed the daunger in the word to bee little, whilest their meaning, as they pretended in sence, was all one; but I lay the grea­test part of the blame for this euill vpon AELIV [...] LEONTIVS Bishoppe of ANTIOCH, that fauoured the ARRIANS (for mildnesse and yeelding in some Bi­shops made the whole church bee troubled with that herisy) who scratching his head, white for age, said whē this snow is melted there will bee much durt;Sozo [...]. lib. 3 cap. 19. as if the bishops which were to succed him, would not suffer the [Page 118] same Hymnes (it is like of gloria patri) agreeable to the Nycen councel which he did, they had at Armine foure hundred which held the trueth, scarce of the aduerse part foure score.

But these obstinate, and the other wearie of conten­ding with them thereupon, by both it was resolued to send to the Emperour, such as might informe him of the cause, and declare what hindered their peaceable agreemēt;Ex parte nostra leguntur homi­nes adolescētes, parum docti & parum cauti [...]ab Arrianis autem miss [...]senes cal­lidi & ingen [...]o valentes veterno perfidiae imbuti, qui apud regem facile superiores extiterant, Sulp lib, 2, Sozom. lib, 3, cap, 18, Ruffin, lib, 10, cap, 2, Hiero, iu dialo, contr. Lucifer. there are chosen on the Catholick side such men as had in them nothing to be noted but boldnesse; neither grauitie, nor learning▪ nor wisdome. The Ar­rians for the credit of their faction, take the eldest, the best experienced, the most warie, and the longest pra­ctised Veterans they had amongst them: the Emperour coniecturing of the rest on either part, by the quality of them whom he saw, sent them speedily away, and with them a certaine confession of faith ambiguously and subtilly drawne by the Arrians, whereunto vnlesse they all subscribed, they should in no case bee suffered to depart from the place where they were; where­by many vexed with hunger, and violent detention, yeelded vp their conscience as captiue to those penal­ties that were vrged vpon them: yet as it seemeth by some others, what error soeuer was concluded in that councell, was rather from the obscurity of the Greek word, then from any penaltyes: of which Saint Hierom saith thus; Ingemuit totus orbis & se Arrianū esse miratus est. Now, what can there be in the late graue and re­uerend conuocation of the clergie of England answe­rable to this councell? First, for any thing that I know there was amongst them no faction▪ Secondly, they dealt not deceitfully with the king to obtaine an allow­ance of what they concluded. Thirdly, no mn was vr­ged [Page 119] by compulsion, or detained vpon penalties to giue his consent; onely in this one thing, peraduenture not vnlike, that the councell of Nyce had on her side foure hundred, whereas the Arrians (these inuentors of new opinions) had not foure score: besides I doubt not, but what was practised with the Emperour in this coun­cel, the contrarie was done with the King at the con­uocation, and so consequently you haue little rea­son to thinke that they were vsed as the good fathers at the councell of Armine, for all men see that such as the Catholicks made choyce of as Embassadors for their part, to the Emperour at that time, such the Scis­maticks selected as solicitours of their cause, and fol­lowers of those petitiōs which were deliuered vp: some in whome nothing was to be noted, but boldnesse, nei­ther grauitie, nor learning nor wisdome. Which if you confesse, and thereby would conclude your selues to haue the trueth, but to haue also the same euill choyce of Agents, as the catholickes at that time; we say this were to wrap his sacred Maiestie in the ouersight of Constantine, and for excusing of your selues, to lay an iniurious imputation vpon one of the grauest, the most religious, the most learned and vertuous conuocations that euer were assēbled in this church: wrong not your pretended sincerity & zeale ouer much in your vncha­ritable & vncomly cēsuring of that meeting frō which wee doubt not but holinesse and piety shall receiue strength and comfort,Signum domi­ni [...]m. Insigne Regni▪ Sym­bolum patien­nae, humilitatis, mortis Christi triumphi. Bucer. in censu. cap. 11. and the church very shortly shal be blessed with a consent and happie peace, striue not against the retaining of that which the auncientest fathers so much commend, called it the Lords sygne, the badge of Christs Kingdome, the note of patience, of humility, of the death of Christ, of his tryumph, from [Page 120] these beginnings men may not ignorantly proceede to become in the end direct enemies to the cros of Christ, this made master BVCER modestly to speake concer­ning the retaining of the sygne of the crosse in Bap­tisme in our church; Signum hoc non tam quod est vsus in Ecclesia antiquissimi, quam quod est admodum simplex, & presentis admonitionis crucis Christi, adhiberi nec indecens, nec in vtile existimo,Bucer in cer [...]. cap. 11,si adhiheatur, modo pure intellectum & religiose excipiatur, nulla nec superstitione adiuncta, nec elementi seruitute aut vulgari consuetudine: all which considerations are and haue beene obserued in our church, and therefore I cannot but maruell how you should compare it to Reuben ascending to his fathers bed, the one being an agent of much euill, for which hee lost his beauty, the other onely an innocent suffe­rance of some euill, by which, if any blemish were contracted to a thing faire, for you say, (Thou wast faire) It is more fit the spots to bee put to an euerlasting ba­nishment: and therefore discretion would haue for­borne those speaches, which follow, seeing wee must tell all the world, which often by others hath beene proued alreadie, That the Crosse in Baptisme as it is vsed in the Church of England was neuer either a spirituall harlot heretofore, or a band now, and consequently his vse no way forbidden by the first table, which will better per­aduenture appeare in that which followeth.


AGaine, if by it the childe bee dedicated vnto Christ, then is that done by it (at least externally) which was before done both effectually and solemnly by the Act of Baptisme it selfe, which must imbrace either the sacrament of insufficien­cie [Page 121] to the same point,Act. 15.28. 1. Cor. 14, 26, Gal. 4, 9 Bafil. de natali Chri. Zanch, Com. pend▪ Loc. de tradit, for this addition of idlenesse and super­stition in either, whereof it is made vnlawfull (at least in the imposers) and vpon as good ground to bee refused, as those o­ther ceremonie, which Popery drained from antiquitie, and all reformed Churches haue religiously cast out.


WHere men are willing to dissent from the an­cient lawfull practise of their owne church, either because they are desirous to bee like others, or because they cannot long indure to be like themselues, It is strange with what care they are subtilly cunning, to [...]inde out probable excuses wherby they may seeme to the common capacitie of man, for to erre with rea­son. If when wee admit into the church the Infant by Baptisme, wee than also signe him with the crosse, in token of that warfare which hee promiseth to vnder­take: shall wee therefore conceiue that either the Sa­crament is impeacht of insufficiencie in that point, or that this addition is idle and superfluous? It is ouer much confidence and rigour to conclude thus; wee de­rogate nothing from the sacrament of Baptisme, when wee call the crosse a token of our warfare for Christ. For there may bee many signes of one and the same thing, though notal alike excellēt. Baptisme is a Sacra­ment ordained of God, and a seale of his promise, tea­ching vs also that we are Christs soldiers & must fight vnder him, choosing a ceremony ordain'd by the church in the purest times, in signe and token also of the same warfare, and as it was not superfluous in the Lawe to declare one thing by many signes, as namely, mans vncleannesse by circumcision, purifying &c. So it must not bee accounted needlesse vnder the Gospell to [Page 122] make that plaine by words or signes, that at the first cannot so easily be vnderstood. Saint Austin saith that the whole action of our Redemption, is signified vnto vs by the day of the natiuity of Christ yearely celebra­ted, and also by the Sacrament of the supper, but after a diuerse sort:Aust. Epist. 190. ad lanuarium. for the day of the Natiuitie is onely a memoriall thereof, the other a Sacrament. The same may be said of crossing in Baptisme, and of baptisme it selfe; the one is a more externall & accidentall signe the other a substantiall Sacrament,Act 15.28, 1. Cor. 14, 26. Gal. 4, 9 neither is this signe in the numbe [...] of those vnnecessary things which are a burden, or not to edifying, or one of those beggerly rudiments which bring vs into bondage againe; or one of those which Popery drained from anti­quity and all reformed churches haue cast out: but a signe for vse of great antiquitie in the Sacrament of baptisme: now things that are significant are not all equally significant, for a sacrament saith Saint Austine, is when there is such a remembrance of the thing done, that there is also something signyfied which is holily to be receiued,Sacramentum est autem cum reigestae ita re­memoratio fit, vt aliqnid etiam significari intel­ligatur. Aug. so that howsoeuer ma­ny ceremonies are retained in the church significant for those ends, furtherances of piety whereunto they serue, yet we neither do, nor dare account them signi­ficant as the sacraments, which represent christ, and are rather to be receiued then done, the other rather to be done then to be receiued by vs. If this signe then of the crosse haue not beene drained from Popery, as you imagine, but of ancient and publike vse in Tertulli­ans time, who liued within lesse than a hundred yeares after Saint Iohn; If Bucer in his censure of our Lyturgy, P. Martyre, Hemingius, Beza, and diuerse others of the reformed Churches (as shall appeare hereafter) ac­count [Page 193] it to bee lawfull as it is vsed and retained in this Church; we cannot but tel you and the whole world, that the curiositie of some few, is no iust preiudice to antiquitie: nor these sleight occasions either warrant to your conscience for disobedience, or in the opinion of wise men, any great imputation to our Church.


IF by this signe the Infant be dedicated to Christ, then is this signe a meanes by which Christ is worshipped,Mat. 15, 9 Col. 1, 20, 22, Zach. de Rede. in precept. 2. P Mart. lo Co. Clast. cap. 9 Hos. de Origin. templor. lib. 4. cap. 1 & 2. and so will-worshippe is raised repugnant to the word; for this is plaine, that euery action referred to God, to set out any part of our deuotion and duetie to him, is worship. And againe, it is confessed by the learned, that in dedication of the Temple at Hielrusaem, mens houses, the Priests, the Altars, or whatsoeuer was dedicated [...] Gods seruice or protection, the very ceremonies, as being then built vpon a word of God, were parts of Gods worship, and concluded against the Popish dedicating ceremonies, that we now may vse no other means or rites of dedication then the word, Sacramēts thanksgiui [...]g and prayers, such as Constantine onely vsed at the dedica­tion of the Temple which he built at Hierusalem. Add here­to that the Papists which abound in significant ceremonies for dedication do hold them all to be meane; and parts of Gods worship: finally yet if he that dedicated an Altar to an Idol were,Lib. 6. de S. [...]om. as Austine saith, the worshipper of an Idol in that dedication: thē they that dedicate a child vnto God are in that dedication worshippers of God, and then the means of that dedication, must be the means of his worship, which for man to deuise de nouo and impose, is to teach for doctrine, mens traditions.


THere is no plea we so willingly heare, as that which striueth for the sincerity of Gods worship, for that being mans duety and happinesse, yet because easily corrupted, least of all permitted to mans liberty (God hauing prescribed an exact forme how hee will be ho­nored) wee ought all of vs, both to search out and to further those holy obseruations, which are free from superstition, & do serue vnto this end. To dedicate the infant by this signe to Christ, is to make this signe say you a meanes whereby Christ is worshipped, and so will-worshippe is raised repugnant to the word of GOD, a thing surely not fit either to bee commanded or performed by any that are vertuous in our Church.

It seemeth that in this more then ordinary curiosi­ty of zeale, you haue neither rightly waighed what it is to dedicate in that sense which the Church taketh it, nor how many, and of what nature are the parts of ex­ternall diuine worship. For euery action referred to God (of which kinde pearaduenture this is not) to set out a­ny part of our deuotion and duety to him, is not of necessity worship; for as in Baptisme wee are incor­porat into the death of christ, which was ignominious vpon the crosse: so by this signe we doe externally te­stifie to the world, that we haue cōmended our selues (for it doth not please you to say dedicated) vnto his ser­uice, of whose death, merit, and profession we are not, nor euer purpose to bee ashamed; all which wee testi­fie by signing this signe in the seat of shame, without a­ny proportion or resemblance with diuine worship. Only we acknowledge (as D. Whitakers noteth) that this is an anciēt ceremony from the first beginning almost of Religion,Whit. contra. Quest. 6 and the christian church; the reason wher­of, [Page 125] as hee noteth was this; Vt Christiani qui tum in­ter Ethnicos viuebant qui a fide alienissimi essent, sese omni ratione Christianos esse declararent, atque testa­rentur publice, That christians, who then liued a­mongst the Heathen, and such as were aliens from the faith, might publickly restifie and declare themselues that they were christians.

For with this signe (by reason of the contempt of the crosse which all others had) the christians were accustomed to marke and signe themselues, as with the ensigne of their owne profession; which be­ing the custome of those times (as Doctor Whitakers noteth) and no more then is performed at this day, wee cannot but wonder at the cauelling of such as make it any part of Diuine worshippe, and at the peeuishnesse of those who from hence would con­clude a will-worship inuented from humane reason.

All men may knowe that there was vnto the Iewes, and so is and shall bee in all Churches vntill the end of the world, besides the Sacraments in the exter­nall worshippe sacrifices, oblations, and such like, which are not the inuentions of men, but traditi­ons of the church which (in matters of this nature) hath authority to appoint daies, places, and things furtherances and parts, though not of the immedi­ate, yet in a large phrase, of the externall worshippe of God▪ of which external worship, some parts belong to obedience, doing and fulfilling the morall pre­cepts, some other to the obseruation of outward ceremonies, and yet euen these are not all of one nature, nor of equall nearnes to the principall parts of the outward worshippe: for the cere­moniall worshippe, which hath and shall bee in the [Page 122] Church in all ages, consisting in things and actions, is thus distinguished: into those wherein the worshippe consisteth, & into those which are annexed to it. These amongst the Iewes were Temples, Altars, Persons, Garments, Vessels, Times and such like, but with vs (as one noteth) they are for number fewer,Zanch, in Deca. pag. 41 [...]. for signifi­cation more famous, for vertue more excellent, for [...] obseruation more easie.Numero pauci­ora, significat [...]one Aug. [...]o [...]a v [...]rtute [...]rae [...]ātiora & obseruatu ta­ciliora, Aust. Zanch. And howsoeuer wee can bee content, to say and thinke, that it is not lawfull to wor­shippe God with any other externall and ceremoniall worshippe then is warranted in his word, by his owne allowance: yet if any thing bee varied, which is not commaunded of God, or added, not as essentiall, but accidentall, and not as necessarie, but as indifferent, pertaining to comelinesse, order, and edification, wee cannot thinke that there is any change in the worship commaunded, nor any new worship brought in with­out warrant. For example, Christ celebrated the Sup­per at e [...]ening, the Apostles and the Church after thē, in the morning; shall wee say therefore any thing is added or detracted in this Sacrament? no because Christ did not command that this should be celebra­ted in the euening as he did, but only that we should do that which hee did, not at that time wherein hee did it, so that the auncient Church (as wee may reade in Iu­stin Martyr) mingling and delaying the wine with wa­ter▪ did not therefore or thereby change the instituti­on of the Supper, whereof there may be a twofolde reason; one that the wine which Christ gaue to his dis­ciples, might be so allaid for any thing wee knowe, see­ing the Apostles haue set nothing downe to the con­trarie, and therefore probable that the ancient Church receiued it from them. Secondly, because the ancient [Page 123] Church did not adde [...]his in the Sacrament, as an essē ­tiall necessary thing pertaining to the substance of the Supper,Blood and wa­ter out of the side of Christ. but as accidentall to signifie a mysterie; the like may bee saide of many things in Baptisme, where either by adding or detracting to alter things other­wise not essentiall in Baptisme, and therein stil follow­ing the lawes and ceremonies of that Church where­in wee liue, is not to change either the sacrament of Christ, or to prophane it by addition of any wil-wor­ship; to ordaine then new diuine worshippe, is to adde vnto his word: which thing is not lawfull, seeing the word is necessarie, bindeth the conscience, deliuereth the substance of diuine worshippe, and hath nothing in it expressed indifferent. Now to adde hereunto is to ordaine somewhat, as a thing absolutely necessary, & pertaining to the essence of worshippe, and which so bindeth the conscience as the word it selfe, and there­fore they adde not to the word, which by the consent of the Church, do ordaine any ceremony in the exter­nall worship (obseruing the limitations of order, com­linesse, and edification) not as necessary, but as a thing indifferent and free, binding the conscience not out of the qualitie of the thing, but onely from hence, that it is commaunded: for as there are (as the schoolemen say) somethings which are mala quia prohibita, some­things which are prohibita quia mala, so there are some things mandata quia necessaria, some things necessaria quia mandata, of which kinde in Baptisme we account the crosse.

But as wee neither allowe vnmeete, nor purpose the stiffe defence of any vnnecessarie custome heretofore vsed in Baptisme, so wee knowe not yet any reason why infants should be the worse, if at their first admission [Page 128] into the Church of Christ, if at the time when they are deliuered as it were vnto Gods owne possession (for the Church and euery member thereof, as Master Zanchy noteth, ought first of all to offer it selfe to God) cere­monies fit to betoken such intents be vsuall with vs, as in the purest times they haue beene. Hereby putting the whole congregation in mind that the Infant thus admitted into the church, hath by the promise of his [...]ue [...]ties renounced all obedience to the enemies of God, & surrendered vp himselfe for euer vnto his seruice who suffered for his redemption vpon the cros. This being then our innouation, and the beginning of that profession wherein wee purpose to continew to our liues end, to haue either besides the thing, which is Baptisme, a significant signe which is the crosse, or to call it a dedication (seeing the Greeke word [...] is by the olde translatour of the Bible,Vnde Encoenia noualia. sometimes transla­ted dedico, sometimes initio or innouor (which Quintinus obserued at the fift canon of the councell of Gangren) cannot be, in my opinion, from the word Dedicate to make the crosse any part of diuine worship: for though our dedication bee not such as the dedication of the Temple was (and therefore the comparison vnfitly al­ledged in this place) yet godly men (as P. Martyr no­teth) are then visibly consecrated vnto God when they be washed in holy Baptisme, Loc. Com. part. 4. cap. 19. and hereof to haue a signe ex­ternally to signifie their intention, or this signe to bee the crosse cannot in any, reasonable construction bee the inuention of a wil-worship.

And if this signe bee lesse lawfull at this time, by the blemish it may seeme to receiue from Popery; It is not impossible, but that sometimes they may iudge as rightly, what is decent about such externall [Page 129] affaires of God, as in some greater things what is true.

The Hebrewes did dedicate and initiate their things not by simple and bare words, but by adding of out­ward rites, signes I meane, and tokens which might bee seene, not that they taught any holinesse or di­uine quality to bee in those things (for seeing it is in the soule, these are not capable of it) but so they thought because the rites beeing instituted by GOD (whose authoritie in this case the Church now hath) those things which were consecrated, might become instruments of the holy spirit,Loc. Com. lib▪ 4 19. lib. 4. cap by which the faith of men might bee stirred vp; this is the opinion of P. Martyr. Seeing then our dedication, as shall appeare afterward, is not as you imagine, wee conclude, that it is neither vnlawful for the church to adde ceremo­nies, significant in this kinde, as accidentall parts of the externall worshippe, nor (though wee yet graunt you not so much vnlawfull amongst those for to account the crosse, beeing neither by our church esteemed as a meanes) of diuine worshippe, nor imposed for Doctrine, being but the tradition of men.


IF the childe bee dedicated by this signe, then either ini­tiated as the [...] importeth or consecrated hereby as the worde [...];Chanack▪ Chadash. If the former then Baptisme is made void, if the latter, then the crosse is operatiue, and to say trueth, in vse of speach, to dedicate vnto holy vse, and to consecrate is all one; nor can it bee replyed that dedicated is as much, as declared to bee dedicated (though if it were so, this signe should come into a needles of­fice, [Page 146] yea into that for whih Baptisme was ordained) for beside that the phrase is not vsed, the verie words of the Canon do reiect that sense,Illir. Clauis. script. Bel▪ Ide cult. sanct. lib. 2, ca. 5 Martyr, lo. Co▪ Clas. 4, 9▪ Orig. Homil. 8. in diueri. Ter. de Co [...]o. mil. Cypr. Epist. 6. & ad Demet & test. advers 9. Iud. lib. z. cap. 1. Hier. epist. ad Demetriadem Amb. Ser. 49. & 90. Athanas. de In­car. vbi. Basil. de Sp. san. cap. 37. Aug. tract. in Ioh. 110. & others. Maashal of the Crosse. fol. 24. Bellar. de Imag. lib. 4. cap. 30. Confer. pag. 73.74. Rhem. Anno [...]. in [...]. Tim. 2, Stapt. prompt. part. 1 Belar. demis. lib, 2. cap. 15. Marshal of the crosse. Missase, in be­nedict▪ crucis. by confessing our Dedication by this signe to be such, as the ancient fathers before Popery did vse.

Now it is plaine, that sauing the verie point of adoration and worship, with which popery crowned this Idoll, there is nothing ascribed to the crosse, in or out of Baptisme, by the ranckest Papists, but the fathers are as deeply ingaged in the same. So, if we vse it as the fathers, wee hold it to be so ne­cessary for our defence, as was the bloud of the passouer vpon the Israelites posts, or as the marke on their foreheads in the ninth of Ezechiell without which none can be safe. For so did the fathers, and we take the soule to be fenced by the cros­sing of the body, and the crosse to haue vertue of consecra­ting the sacramēt or the childe: of driuing away diuels witch­craft and diseases, of strengthing against temptations. And if we will excuse the fathers by saying they spake thus rela­tiuè, with reference to the crosse of Christ and his death, nei­ther will all their speaches heare this releefe, nor haue we at all distanced them from the Papists, who say as much for themselues: and then what Popish superstition is that, from which we haue purged it? Specially if his maiestie were truely informed at the conference, that in Ba [...]tisme the Papists ne­uer ascribe any power or spirituall grace therto (as indeed he was not) witnesse their writers, and how either skilfully or negligently haue we vnder the faier name of the Primitiue and Apostolicall Churches, reduced it to that vse of holinesse and consecration, which in the name of the Papists could not haue beene borne: I confesse my Lord, I had rather thinke some committies to whom the penning of this Canon was be­trusted to haue failed therin then misdeeme all that reuerend assembly to haue intended such a meaning. But so long as this interpretation stands as the mi [...]de of our Church I shall [Page 131] feare it iustly, knowing how vnder the couert of phrases, the maine points of trueth haue beene surprised, and therefore may be againe. So I conclude, that as the Israelites bore that alter for a signe, which for Sacrificing they could not haue suffered, so for a simple significatiue signe, I could haue borne that of the crosse, which for an altar of dedication I cannot approoue.


WHILST some men, in the sincerity of an vpright minde, haue laboured with humili­ty to giue satisfaction to contentious spirits, both those persons runne more speedily from vs, whom wee de­sire to ouertake, and also a common enemie surpriseth vs with aduantage, making vs to seeme in the eye of the world to bee of their minde, because with greater moderation we abstain from that vehemēt zeale to re­formation, that others more rashly are trāsported with; so that in this case, the labour is neither easie nor safe. For to answere our brethren at home with that trueth and freedom, which both the cause and our loue to their persons doth chalenge from vs, is but to open the mouth of the common aduersarie, as if wee spake and thought as they doe, and out of this feare, to suppresse our answere, were with much weakenesse to betray the trueth.

This consideration, as it is not of small importance in the whole cause, so especially in this point con­cerning the crosse, where the diffence of a lawful ce­remony, may easily bee thought the erecting of that Idoll, whereunto the most superstitious in those later times haue beene corruptly perswaded to giue honor.

[Page 132]For mine owne pa [...]t in satisfaction to the Church of Christ (whereunto I owe the vttermost of that simple talent which GOD hath giuen mee) I Protest, that neither out of malice I oppugne our brethren at home, nor willingly would bee thought to Patronize the least errour of the Church of Rome; neither, I hope, hath any thing euer passed my pen with so sleight consideration since I was able to deale in this cause, whereof I cannot giue a suffici­ent reason that it is farre from the defence of any error of the Romish Church.

And therefore in my opinion, the late Au­thour of the Protestantes Apologie hath dealt somewhat vnkindly with mee and others, to al­ledge vs as witnesses for their side, but most in­considerately, to the disaduantage of his owne cause, who now in the latter end beeing driuen from Scriptures, Fathers, and Councelles, are compelled to support themselues with the wres­ted mistaken Testimonies of such as haue and are willing to fight against them, and yet if wee erre of what valewe are our errours to conuince a trueth?

The daunger of this euill, if it were fully con­sidered by our brethren that will needes striue with vs, would make them forbeare all fur­ther contention in this cause; and Ioyne with our Church in cerimonyes, as they doe in doctrine, that all like the children of the same wombe might bee readye as with one heart and one voyce, to resist their subtill and malicious attempts, who vnder colour of Religion, and the Catholike faith, seeke treacherously the ruine, and subuer­sion [Page 133] both of this Church, and this common­welth.

And therfore (in the Iudgment of all wise, and religious men) vnexcusable is their paynes, and trauell, who extend their witts to the vtter­most of that they are able, to deriue an enuye vpon that gouerment, (as Infected with Popish superstition) wherein, hitherto they haue lo­uingly peaceably and plentifully bene brought-vp.

It seemeth that the vse of the Crosse in Bap­tisme offendeth not so much, as that the Infant by this means is dedicated to Gods seruice; because (say you) If dedicated (at which word you take all your offence) then either Initiated or consecrated (for the words in the Hebrewe doe onely signifie one of these two) of which if we graunt the first, you peremp­torily conclude that Baptisme is made voyde, if the second that then this signe is operatiue and hath ver­tue in it: and yet (say you) in the true vse of speach, to dedicate and to consecrate is all one; I am sorry that in matters of this consequence for which men can perswade themselues that it is warrantable to forsake their flockes, that at the last, the conclusion being summed vp, it should bee onely a contention of wordes; yet I must tell you that to speake properly, and as men of Iudgment haue done before vs; to conse­crate is to make of prophane thinges holy; to dedicate is when they are appoynted to some cer­tayne GOD;P. Martir, loc. Com. Par. 4.9 fo [...] to dedicate or Initiate the Greekes called [...] and [...] but to consecrate [...] and to sanctifie [...], for to sanctifie as Peter, [Page 122] Martyr saith, is nothing else but to apply to diuine & religious vses, or to prepare himself to offer some thing to God.

Now if it may appeare (as doubtlesse it will) that not onely religious things were dedicated, but other things also, and that their dedication was in another kinde, without any worship diuine, but by first vsing; what in­conuenience wil follow, if in the whole action of bap­tisme, and those prayers that are vsed, the Infant be de­dicated, which in the canon is ascribed vnto the crosse, that being the onely externall cerimonie expressing the intention of the whole act? Thus Dauids house was dedicated, for which was made the thirtieth Psalme: the walles of a citie. Nehem. 12.27. were dedi­cated, which was nothing else, as P. Martyr saith, but that the wals of a citie being made vp, the people to­gether with the Leuites and Priests, and also the Princes went thither, and there gaue thanks vnto God, because the walle; were reedified, and prayed that the city might bee righteously vsed. This kinde of Dedication was called by the Hebrewes Canach. The other which was Chadash, was to consecrate things holy to God. Now, which of these you vnderstand to bee done by the crosse in Baptisme, it will not bee greatly material against vs, seeing the verie act of Dedication or conse­cration dependeth not vpon the signe of the crosse, but yet so said, because the crosse is an anciēt significant cō ­uenient signe of that act of dedication or consecration which is done in Baptisme, by the worde and prayer.

For our Dedication in Baptisme is as it were, a sur­rēdering of al that tight which our parēts, or our selues might haue in our selues into Gods hands: wherein as [Page 135] in the dedication both of the Temple and the Taber­nacle, God gaue a manifest signe that hee tooke posses­sion of both: so it standeth with reason, that on the In­fants behalfe, hereafter to put him in minde, and for the present to admonish those that are lookers on, that the minister signe him with that badge, which is the ensigne of his merit & victory, whom the child must serue. The ancient vse of the crosse at all other times was for infidels, but in Baptisme for the good of be­leeuers, which is intended still: but as they haue done in this, so they exclude the crosse in the dedication of Temples, as if it were all one to build a house to God, and a parlour or Kitchin to our selues; wherin though I allow not greatly, the superstitious number of twelue in the building of Churches: yet I am not altogether of their opinion, who hold crosses vnmeete at the de­dication of Temples, which if some corruptly haue v­sed to a false end, wee cannot but mislike their super­perstitious intention, and yet retaine that warrantable signe, which wel becommeth that place, which ought to be the religious Schoole-house of Christs death. If wee may credit antiquity in the storie of Iulian, when hee looked the intrals of beasts (for south-saying,Sozo [...]. pag, 108. Nazian, or [...] in Iul. 1. P. Diac. &c. inue­nit crucem coronatam, hee found a crosse with a crowne, from whence some collected Christian religion to be perpetuall, and that Iulian could not ouercome it, o­thers Angustias & quasi carceres crucis; but peraduēture more truely, to signifie an euerlasting Crowne pur­chased by his death, that suffered vpon the crosse; be­sides, in the garments of those Iewes which sought to reedifie the Temple at Iulians commaundement, there were imprinted crosses, as if that power that suffered ignominiously vpon the crosse, would testifie the [Page 126] strength of his arme, even in that which they most contemned, shall wee then bee ashamed of that badge? or bee vnwilling to dedicate our selues vnto his seruice by that sygne, which was the note of his fearefull power to such as resisted his right hand, and so farre honored by the holy ghost that it often expresseth the whole meritt of his passion, by the bloode of the Crosse, so that if strange conclusi­ons be not vrged vpon vs, It is neither to make Bap­tisme voyde, to say wee are dedicated by the Crosse, (ascribing that to the signe which is done in the whole act) nor to make it, or Baptisme operatiue in that sence, to say that by Baptisme and so ma­nifested by that signe, we are consecrated to gods seruice, and that consequently, our dedication by this signe, is such as the auncyent fathers before poperye did vse.

But least the Innocencye of the auncient tymes, should seeme to be a warrant for the simple vse of the Crosse among vs, (who thought it ever Honor and vertue enoughe to treade in the harme­les steppes of our forefathers) you laye an equall burthen for this corruption vpon them, as if nothing were ascribed to the Crosse, in or out of Baptisme by the rankest Papists (saving the very poynt of adorati­on) but the fathers are as deepely ingaged in the same; this If I had vttered, the Church of Rome would Iustly haue thought, that I had done them a great honor, in allowing their superstitious abuse of this signe, sauing onely in one poynt, to be the verye same [...]or vertue, and power, as the aun­cyenter fathers did ascribe vnto it; so that whilst you desire to make the Church of England as guilty [Page 137] of superstition in the vse of this signe, as they are now of the Church of Rome, you Inconsiderately and perhaps vntruely make the rankest papists no lesse Ignorant in that poynt, then the auncyentest and purest fathers haue bene before them: whatso­ever is capable of corruption (as the best thinges and actions wherein man concurreth, of necessity are) (for wee haue all corrupted our owne wayes) commeth not vpon the sodayne to that height of euill but that more evident markes of the former Integritye remaine, which in continuance of time, are not onely blemished, but whollye turned into another corrupt nature.

This is evident in that great and Antichris­tian defection of the trueth, which was not all eclipsed or ouershadowed at once; but Ig­norance breeding superstition; superstition never satisfying it selfe in the surmised acts of religion, but erring in the excesse, as prophanenes in the defect, hath added daylye to the first corrup­tions, that she is nowe as the heade of a smalle riuer, which sendeth forth but one streame, which cannot knowe her owne daughter in, continuance of time, being growne like vnto an Ocean, by the manyfold additions of sundrie and strainge wa­ters.

The Histories of former ages doe record vnto vs the beginning, the increase the perfecti­on of the grouth in the superstitious corrupti­ons of the Church of Rome; and howsoeuer all agree not, when this defection beganne, yet most men knowe, that there was a time in [Page 138] the priatiue age of our fathers, when few or none of the ceremonies of the Church were infected with such corruption as now they are. So that the seueritie of those is ouer great, who would wrap the fathers imme­diatly succeeding the Apostles time, with the same superstition (saue only in the point of adoration) wher­with the Papists are iustly accused to bee infected at this day: I confesse, when the Papists are charged by vs to haue corrupted the truth, by rehearsall of many false miracles done by the signe of the crosse, they al­ledge the testimonies of all fathers,Bellar. Marshall. saying (which you confesse, but I doe not) that they haue esteemed no o­therwise of the crosse then the fathers of the Church haue done before them. Wee then say for sa­tisfaction in this point, that it had beene equall and right in you, before the imputation of so much corrup­tion to the blessed memory of those holy men, to haue showed what the Papists ascribe vnto the crosse, what the fathers, and what wee; No man can deny, but that God, after the death of his sonne, manifested his power to the amazement of the world in this contemptible signe, which peraduenture gaue iust occasion, beeing the instrument of so many miracles, that corrupter times, as those that succeeded were, did ouerburden it with fables and worshippe, the one false, the other I­dolatrous, both seruing to poyson the after ages with dangerous superstition: the Church of Rome at this present, differeth from the ancient fathers, as we differ from them, in making the very crosse wherupon Christ died, to bee a relick, and all other crosses to be as Ima­ges: and lastly the vere figure made in the ayre, to haue a spirituall and diuine vertue, to cast out diuels and to worke miracles,Beller. lib. 2. de Imag. cap. 30. and as Bellermine saith Terret & fu­gat [Page 139] daemones, pellit morbos, & omnia mala; sanctificat ea quibus imprimitur; which vertues or some of which, if God manifested in the crosse in the dayes of our fore­fathers,Sanctit as acce­dit rebus cum signantium cru­ce. to ascribe the same vnto now, is not to say truly as they fathers did, but superstitiouslie to err with the church of Rome, as if the power of healing which followed annoynting in the primitiue church, might be a warrant either for the annointing vsed a­mongst papists at this day, or imbolden any man to say that nothing is ascribed by the rankest papist (for that is your phrase) to annointing, but the fathers are as deeply ingaged in the same; so that whilst our church professeth the vse hereof as the fathers did, they neither tie themselues to the example of all, nor can be iustly denyed to haue the warrant of the soun­dest fathers for the vse hereof. For the moderate vse as now it is retayned in the church of England seemeth to be an apostolicall constitution, being accounted as a thing auncyently & generally receiued in Tertulli­ans time, who was within two hundred yeares after Christ, and within lesse then a hundred yeares after, Saint Iohn, Conser. pag. 73 74. in which shortnes of time, it were Iniury to think, that a superstitious Idolatry, should gaine that honor, to be accounted an auncyent and a reuerēd sygne. And therefore in my opinion lesse excusable is their fault, who laye the imputation of false dealing with his maiestie by the Bishops at the conference, being informed (but as you say) (vntruly) that the papists neuer ascribe any power or spirituall grace in Baptisme vn­to the Crosse; surely wisedome must account it if not malice, yet great rashnes to giue the ly to those reuerend persons, in answere whereof I only say thus much; that what the Bishops had informed his maiestie in this [Page 140] point, his profound knowledge like the oracle of God,Rhem. Test. in 1. Tim. 4 Bellard. de miss. Lib. 215 Signum crucis est ceremonia omnium com­munissima et antiquissima Aust Tract. 118, in Iohan. addeth (and I finde it to be true); and questionlesse those places alledged in your margent, do not proue that in Baptisme the papists ascribe any power or spirituall grace vnto the crosse: but onely make it a most auncyent and most common cerimonie, with­out which no Sacraments can rightly be performed. Wherein if following Saint Austin they go to farr [...] yet it is iniury to charge them with that which is none of theirs; and for our selues we say, & I doubt not but shortly it wil be proued to all the world, we haue purged the crosse in baptisme from all that po­pi [...] superstition which did cleaue vnto it, and there­fore you need not excuse that reuerend assembly by laying the fault vpon some committyes, seing a little before you are not affraid to accuse them, for dealing with others, for the making of the Canons, as the fa­thers were vsed in the councill of Arimyne, and whom immediately in the words following, you iealously sus­spect, vnder the couert of phrases to surprise the truth; but as wisedome and iudgment is their honor, so reuerēce and obedience is our duety. So then to draw to a cō ­clusion in this point (leauing the full defence of the crosse to others of more Iudgment) we cannot but cō ­fesse that we haue read many things in the ecclesiasti­call histories, and the fathers in commendation of this signe, which at first peraduenture not euill gaue oc­casion of superstition to those that followed: many things we confesse to be fabulous & vntrue, sōethings perhaps counterfeited by Satan, other things true but not auaileable to warrant the blindnes of after times: some things which in those times might well be tollerated but not now: some things which euen in [Page 141] these times, & in our church may iustly warrant the vse of the crosse amongst vs:Hooker. Lib. 5. Sect. 65. Pag. 165.68. for) as one learnedly observeth (which may giue the indifferēt reader satisfaction in this cause) betweene the crosse which superstition honoreth as Christ, and that ceremonie of the crosse which serueth onely for a signe of remēbrance, there is as plaine & as great a differēce, as between those brasē Images which Salomon made to beare vp the cestern of the Tēple & (sith both were of like shape but of vn­like vse) that which the Israelites in the wildernes did adore▪ 2. Chro. 4.3. or betweene the altars which Iosias destroyed, because they were instruments of meere idolatry,Exod. 32 4. and that which the tribe of Rubē with others erected, near to the riuer of Iordan, for which also (as you do) they grew at the first into some dislike, & were by the rest of their brethren suspected yea hardly charged with opē breach of the law of God, accused of backwardnes in religion, vpbrayded bitterly with the fact of Peor, and the odious exāple of Achan▪ as if the building of their Altar in that place had giuē manifest shew of no bet­ter then intended Apostacy, till by a true declaration made in their owne defence, it appeared that such as misliked, misunderstood their enterprise, in as much as they had no intēt to build any altar for sacrifice which God would haue no where offered, sauing in Ierusalem only, but to a farr other end and purpose, which being opened satisfied all partes, and so deliuered them frō causeles blame: so likewise touching the signe & cere­mony of the crosse (which for a simple significatiue signe your selfe can allow) we no way finde our selues bound to relinquish it, neither because the first inuen­tors thereof were but mortall men, nor least the sence and signification (namely to dedicate) should burthen vs, as the authors of a new ghospell in the house of god [Page 142] nor in respect of some cause which the fathers had more then we haue to vse the same, nor finally for any such offence or scandall as heretofore it hath been subiect vnto by error now reformed in the minde of men.Of kneeling at the Communiō SECT. 9.


My last exception about the sacrament is about the knee­ling at the cōmunion, which for my owne part I neuer stuck at, as at a thing vnlawfull to be vsed, because it is admini­stred with a prayer ouer euerie receiuer, and for that it is not vnlawfull, nor (if superstition had not staynd it) vnfit to take such a token of Gods fauour (aswell as the fauours of a prince) vpon our knees. But my reuerend Lord this so ex­treame vrging of it, in the Canon as to make the only omiss­ion of it (in a poore man who of a tender conscience and in detestation of the late popish and Idolatrous vse thereof shall forbeare it) so deepe a cause of seperating a man from all part in Christs death, as that the minister himselfe shalbe suspended if he suffer him to cōmunicate, seemes a charge of more waight, then an indifferent cerimonie should beare, & such as thrusteth mē vpon a breach of gods commaundemēt,Math. 15.6. Zanch. compe. de Trad. Histor. Lib. 1. Cap. 11. either in doing against perswasion, or forbearing the Lords table. And this makes me dout how I can subscribe thereto, and calleth to mind Tacitus obseruation, that the mutuall hurtes of the men of Lyons and Vyenna were so often & cruell, that a man might easily see, they fought not alone for Nero and Galba.


Where the weaknes of man hath no other strēgth, and his soule by reason of sinn, no other meanes of sal­uation, but In and By the couenant betwixt God and him; there we are especially to make account of those duties, which are Signes, and meanes, of all that which religiously is to be performed on our partes: this the [Page 143] fathers haue expressed vnder this one name of Deuoti­on, which some of them not vnfitly tearme the marrow of our burnt sacrifices as if our burnt sacrifices with­out this,Medulla Hol [...] caustorum, Lib. 4. Orthodox. fid cap. 3 were like the offerings of Caine, without fat­nes. Now as man (as Damascen speaketh) is composed of two natures, Intellectuall and sensible; so he oweth and is to offer vnto god a two fold deuotion, the one spirituall, which consisteth in the inward minde, the other corporall in the outward humiliation of the bo­dy: this latter is rather for the furtherance of our selues & others,Iohn. 4. in the waies of piety, thē as a thing of it selfe acceptable to God, who being a spirit, is to be wor­shiped in spirit & truth: yet by this external gesture (the bowing of the knee) as by the manifest figure of our humility which corporally we performe: our inward affection cherefully is stirred vp, with alacrity & dili­gēce to discharge what belongeth to his inward wor­ship: the vse of bowing the knee, when we either begg or receiue any thing from Gods hand, hath beene ancy­ent and warrantable in Gods church, and it is no lesse comely & behooueful for vs vpō our knees, to beg that the cupp of his blood may profitably and effectually passe to vs,Luk. 23 then for our sauiour himselfe prostrate to in treat, that the cupp of his passion might passe frō him.

For seing all men in the time of that action, whilest the minister vttering the words in the administratiō of the sacrament praye, that they may be preserued in body and soule vnto eternall life, are then (vnlesse they be carelesse of so great a benefit) humbly pro­strate in their harts, and begging with all, the assistance of his grace to receiue it worthely: all other offices of religion may better wāt the bowing of our knees then this one, whereof by reason of our sinnes we may iust­ly [Page 144] feare to want the benefit, and wherein we hope to receiue our sauiour and all his merits, at whose name all knees are to bow both in heauen and earth; & there­fore our kneeling at the communion, as one well no­teth, is the gesture of piety,Mr. Hooker. Lib. 5 Doct. 68. Pag. 183. for if we did there present our selues but to make some show or dumb resemb­lance of a spirituall feast; it may be that sitting were the fitter ceremonie: but comming as receiuers of in­estimable grace at the hands of God, what doth better beseeme our bodies at that hower, then to be sensible witnesses of mindes vnfainedly humbled? and if the example of our sauiour ouersway any mans consci­ence in this case, we must tell them that the church hath varyed euen with allowance, both the time and the place from those which our sauiour vsed; and in this our Lord himselfe did that which custome and long vsage had made fit, we that which fitnesse and great decency hath made vsuall: which externall de­cent humility if any ignorantly haue stayned with su­perstition, it is not their voluntary seruice without warrant in doing more then they ought can priuiledg vs contrary to reason and the commaundement of our owne church to performe lesse then we should▪ For se­ing, all locall bodyes must haue some position in all that which they do or suffer, what could be thought of in this action more conuenient for both, then knee­ling, which fitly serueth to expresse our humility in re­ceiuing so vnspeakeable a fauour, and withall to set forth the offering vp of our thanks, which, prostrate v­pon our knees we desire god to accept in his owne sonne? wherein doubtles if all men had beene wel in­structed (nay if many had not been taught the contra­ry) without lawes euen reason it selfe would haue [Page 145] [...]ould them that nothing was better beseeming there uerence of this act, then hartely to begg & humbly to giue thāks, for so vnspeakable a benefit vpō their knees. And therefore you haue truly considered (waighing the thing it self) that it was neither vnlawfull nor vn­fit vpon our knees to take such a token of gods fauour, wherein how far euen at ordinary times, others in for­mer ages haue gone before the presumptuous stubbernes of our dayes,de viris Illust. in Iacobo, et epist 15, de laud, bu [...] Marcellae, Ter­tull, ad Scap, ce Lib, 3, ad Ver. Mark, cap, [...]8. Ille interior in uisibilis qui [...]o [...] fecit auge [...]ur ac per hoc [...]ordis affectus qui vt fierent illa precessa quia vt facta sunt cress­it quia facta sunt crescit Aust. de cura p [...]o mort, cap. 5 saint Hierom and others may wit­nesse. For howsoeuer the motions of the body cannot well be, vnlesse the minde before be prepared with the same affection, yet euen that inward inuisible humi­litie of the hart which gaue strength to this outwarde receiueth strength from it: and that which went be­fore that it might be done, receiueth increase from it in that it is done: which decent behauiour if any mislike because what the church thinketh fit to be done it punisheth sharply when it is not done, these take vnto themselues a libertie, that whilst the church censureth worthely the disobedience of such as heare not her voice, these ouer boldly censure the church in that her voice, is not guided by their tongues. And if the punishment of excommunication be thought by any ouer greeuous for the omission of so indifferent a ce­remonie (which in your opinion is a small offēce) you must know that wise men cannot account the offence small, where the disobedience is great; and the disobedience cannot be little, where there is a contempt of those lawes which the church doth make: nay as the seruants answered Nahaman the Syrian, if you had beene commaunded any great thing especially in the humility of our soules to [Page 146] receiue so great a benefit, ought we not to haue done it? and therefore howsoeuer we pitty their case, yet vn­excusable is the error of those men who chuse rather to want the food of their soule by this blessed sacra­ment, then to receiue the sacrament prostrate vpon their knees, as if an opiniō of that superstitiō wherwith some others had stayned it, could hurt him that knee­leth in obedience and humility, especially knowing his owne heart to be vpright in that point, and seeing no reason sinisterly to suspect the vertuous intentiō of this church which professeth an vtter abolishing of al superstitious ceremonies. And therefore if you thinke the reuerend fathers of the church to deale with you and others in vrging of these things, as the men of Lyons and Vyenna, whose hurts being often and cruell, shewed that they fought for some further end thē for Nero and Galba: it is but your want of charity and not their fault. Neither do I se how that act can be fitting to this purpose, seeing as the trāslatour of Tacitus doth tell you in the margent; the first inhabitans of Lyons had beene driuen by force out of Vyenna and therefore were iustly to hate them as vniust vsurpers of that which was theirs. Tacit. Histo. Lib. [...], cap. 11. Which in my small vnderstanding can beare no proportion betwixt the bishops and those which refuse subscription, against whome if seuerity be vsed (I date protest for some of them vpon my knowledg) it is with much griefe,Math.. 18. Excomunicatus hosti non datur quasi damnan­dus sed corri­gendus. Aqui­nas. and for no other end but for the vnitie & peace of this church. And if any man be ex­cōmunicated in this case, I dare not excuse him seeing our sauiour commaundeth vs to account him as a heathē that will not heare the church, who notwithstand­ing doth not giue him to Satan to condemne him but to correct him, & therefore I hope we may be bold [Page 147] to conclude as the church doth, that kneeling at the communion is a ceremonie lawfull, and fitly com­maunded to be vsed &c. and that those iustly are ex­communicate who refuse to doe it.


TO end,Of buriall. SECT. 11 my last exception is at those words in the order of Buriall, wherein we pronounce a sure and certaine hope of resurrection to eternall life ouer the departed, and pray to haue our perfect consummation and blisse with him. [...]was wont to defend the booke herein thus, that the church prouiding a generall order therin for her children, meant not to vrge the application thereof to euery person,Canon, 58 and in that sense subscribed thereto; But now I finde by the Canon that a minister is bound to bury euery corps, vnlesse the party stood excommunicate with the greater excommunication,Mathew. 16.1 [...] Iohn. 20.23 Canon, 26, & then to vse the forme prescribed in the booke: whence will issue that be a man neuer so haereticall or exorbitant, neuer so vile in life, or in death impenitent, vnlesse he stood ex­communicate &c. The minister who should discern betwixt the cleane and vncleane, whose power is to bynd & loose, who by an other Canon is tyed to suspend from the commu­nion euery notorious offendour, must pronounce an assured hope of this mans happynes,Esay, 5, 20 Prouerbs, 17, 13 and pray to be consummate & blessed with him, which is to speak good of euill; and (which god abhorreth) to iustifie the wicked.


AS in a great variety of Iewels, affection & iudg­ment do not easely agree which to valew and esteeme of most worth, so amongst al those vertues (the [Page 148] true ornaments of a Christian life) which seuerally are deuided vnto Christian men, all being excellent, it cannot easily be determined, which exceedeth; but leauing the rest, and following the blessed contention which Saint Paule maketh concerning Faith, Hope, and Charitie; wee say Abraham testifyeth for the first, who beleeued, and it was accounted vnto him for righteousnesse. Enoch taught the assurance of Hope, who religiously expecting a better life,Gen. 4.26. gaue begin­ning to the publicke inuocation of Gods name; Last­ly, the patterne of true Charitie was Christ himselfe, whole loue being stronger then death,Amor tenuit in Cruce, quē mors non tenuit in sepulchre. 1. Iohn. 4 held him vp­on the crosse whom Death was not able to hold in the graue; nay God maketh Loue, to be himselfe, in that hee maketh himselfe to bee loue, and who so abideth in loue, to abide in God, and God in him, and howsoeuer there can be no Christian life, where these three remayne not, Fayth, Hope, and Charitie, yet the greatest of these is Charitie.1. Cor. 13. For if we had all faith, so that wee could remooue mountaines; yet if wee wanted Charitie, we were nothing: Faith is the foundation of the Spirituall building of Gods house, [...] Charitie the roofe, without which the best are, but as houses vncouered that can­not long continue: there is no iust reason to denie our loue vnto our brethren of the same promise, (who are the sonnes and hoyres of the same life with vs) ex­cept sin: nay though they sinne, which wee ought not to loue in them, yet we are not warranted to leaue off our loue; thogh they leaue not sin. For euen out of this vertue of charitie we can afforde them a couering to make their sins in our opinion to seeme lesse,Charitas oberit multitudin [...]m peccatorum 1. Pet. 4.8. Charitie still directing vs in other mens falles for to hope the [Page 149] best. And therfore euen those whom wee ought to ex­communicate (if we had authoritie) we dare not pro­nounce as absolutely cut off from the attainement of euerlasting life; the one is the discipline of the Church, to cut off for a time that which is euill; the other is our peculiar charitie to hope that that may be good, which is cut off. And therefore such men who haue no other interest in their brethren, but to hope and to speake the best thing [...], can no way receiue preiudice, if (following the commaundement of the Church) they pronounce of all liuing within her bosome, a sure and certaine hope of resurrectio to e­ternall life. And pray to haue with them their per­fect consummation and blisse, not taking vnto them the exact iudgement of God himselfe, who onely knoweth such as belong vnto him, in which men may erre as well (though not so easily,In Ecclesia sunt [...]ulta lup [...], ex­tra ecclesiam sunt mul [...]a en [...] nor so often) in those of much outward holinesse, as in them that are openly prophane, and therefore in both we thinke and speake onely as we are warranted by Hope. Wherein if our charitie shall exceed the happinesse of any that so dy­eth, it shall be no hurt to our soule to pray to haue our perfect consummation and blisse with him, of whom charitie made vs so to hope and to speake, though he be not saued: this being the intention of our prayer, that all dying in the bosome of the Church shall haue part in the triumphant (with whom we desire from the communion of Saints to partake, not as they in Gods secret iudgement may bee, for so wee thinke it not lawfull to speake of the best that are, but as our charitie maketh vs to hope of them, and as the church teacheth vs to speak) with this our brother, and all other departed in the true faith of his holy [Page 150] name) for so we suppose him to be; for howsoeuer his sinnes may be manifest and publick in this life, yet we dare not esteem him in death impenitent; nei­ther can any authoritie belonging to vs, so warrant vs to distinguish betwixt the cleane, and the vncleane, but that in charity we may both hope and speake bet­ter then the secret iustice of god will permit: and yet neither speake good of euill, seing we thinke as we speake, nor iustifie the wicked seeing we acquitt but them, whome we haue no authority to condemne; following in all things a christian charity which there is litle feare should be ouermuch, especially in these dayes wherein it it is prophesied that it shall wax cold.


Of complaints & coniectures. SECT. 12THese are mine exceptions, for as for some incommodi­ous phrases and speeches, I hold it my duety to take them in the fairest sense, till cause be giuen to suspect a worse; and now (my Lord) I humbly beseech you to consi­der that I haue not reuoked my former subscriptions, but onely refused a new; that I had reason for that I did and that which I doe, that the interpretation of ambiguous things make them good or euill, that it is neither straunge nor vnfit, to chaunge the iudgment as the euidence chaun­geth. And if I can obtaine any thing of your Lordship, let me craue the repute of an honest man, how ignorant or deceiued soeuer you take me to be. And for the rest I will now speak as a dying man counting my selfe after twenty yeares mini­stery (painfully I thank god peaceably as his church knoweth, would god I could add fruitefully) spent in the churches ser­uice, vtterly cast out of seruice and of all me [...]s of main­tenance, [Page 151] charged with a wife, and ten children in a poore e­state.


THere are few cōsiderations that more effectually do moue pittie, then where the innocēt are wraped in a misery procured by the offence of others; and I confesse for my owne parte, I neuer heard or thought of the iust depriuation of any of tollerable desert, but I hartily lamented, that those things should seeme so greuous in their iudgment, as to defraude the church of God, of their best indeauours, and to sylence them­selues from the preaching of the gospell, that might be through a blessing so benificiall to many, & being imposed by a woe, could hardly be neclected without a curse. This hath made me earnestly and oftē to pray that the thirst of Innouation increased in many by the comming of his maiesty vnto this kingdome, did not inforce men through the euill counsell of some hypo­criticall brethren, Iealously to suspect, and malitious­ly to depraue the cerimonies and gouernment of the church, when they had least cause. And amongst those manifould misteries which accompanyed the King into this land, this is not the least, that when a strong continuance of a setled truth, dispersing all wandering opinions vnder a learned prince, was more then hope­fully assured to be the blessing of our Land, that then, euen then there should be an increase both of papists and puritans, as if both had discouered an extraordina­ry fauour, to be showed to either; but I can better satis­fie my selfe in those of the church of Rome, then in the other, for all men in afflictiō (which surely though [Page 152] not simply, yet comparatiuely was their case) are ouer apt to flatter themselues in all changes of a state, that some thing will ease them, but most especially then, when they see fauours and mercies almost not denied to any. But it is the distemper of euill humors that maketh false constructions, or collections from a mer­cifull Prince.

Now for your selfe and others, who inioyed your libertie, fauour, preferment, and all other benefits with, and beyond men of your owne time, and per­haps of your owne worth, yeelding your obedience and subscription to the gouernment and rites of this Church, in the daies of Queene Elizabeth of famous memorie: after a learned conference for satisfaction, wherein the best and most Iudiciall that desired refor­mation, yeelded: after exceeding care, and Zeale manifested in our dread Soueraigne, after the most re­ligious and sincere conuocation of the cleargie, that euer was in this Church: wherein the whole scope was a purer reformation of all that in manners and cere­monies wa [...] thought faultie: now I say, to refuse to subscribe, whereas before you had often done it, vpon some suspicious feare without cause, that the intenti­on of the Church was altered, I wish you could as wel satisfie others, and the whole flocke of Christ, then committed to your charge, as I can beleeue that you are perswaded that you satisfie your owne conscience. A wife and tenne children are strong motiues, but to flesh and bloud: thinke I pray you, and thinke serious­ly of Christs Church, how many of her children (as farre as in you lieth) are frustrate of nourishment by your meanes; and thinke that the ground of this losse eyther to your selfe, or to the family of Christ, is your [Page 153] owne want of conformitie, which more iustly is to be lamented, by how much more, God hath blessed you with excellent giftes, but I trust the Church shall neuer need their paines, that loue not her peace, nor desire them to speake, that haue not yet learned to har­ken vnto her voyce.


I Now beseech your Lordship to remember, that most of vs haue beene peaceable in Israell; and that if some mens rashnesse, draw reuenge vpon vs, Aemilius hath faulted, and Rutilius is beaten; one Mardochey hath not stouped, and all the Iewes must perish for it: And say we cannot con­forme in euerie poynt; you know who said, the varie­tie of Ceremonies did commend the vnitie of faith: and would God you would thinke that our labour in the Church might doe more good in one yeare, then the Ceremonies will while the world standeth: and though in your wise­domes you thinke the retayning of them to make vnto the Churches increase and benefit, is it vnpardonable that wee should thinke another course better? haue not our men sought Chyna by the North-east▪ and by the North-west passages? Doe not some Physitions set vpon the Chollicke by cold me­dicines, other by hotte, the one Sedando, the other Dis­cutiendo? Doe not maryners seeke the safety of the ship, by perswading some to hoyse sayle, others to strike it in a tem­pest? And what though now you haue great aduantage ouer your poore brethren, yet may it bee good Counsell which Hanno gaue vpon Hannibals victory, that it should be vsed as occasion of making the better peace,Leui. Deca. 3. lib. 3. with the Romanes, Cum pacem dare potius quam acci­pere possent. O my good Lord will it not bee enough [Page 154] to keepe safe and well fenced your iurisdictions and perso­all dignitie? not enough to deuide the honors to your selues, and labours to vs? Is their no feare that vpon the casting out not of Caananites, but borne Israelites at once, which this subscription will doe (for I know you are nothing neare the reckoning in your owne diocesse) wyld beasts should mul­tiply and deuoure the land? pardon me if I prophesy that when all is done,Curt. Holling. and the heat spent, your lordship will finde some want of vs as did Alexander of Pa [...]meno, King Hen­ry the eight of his Cromwell: and then perhaps either not a minde, or not meanes to remedy that which might haue easily beene preuented. In which your Lordships shall not be able to deuide eyther faults or comforts with vs, seeng we as the Lord knoweth, forbeare vpon the point of conscience, your Lordships seeme to stand vpon tearms of your pleasures, I say yours, as perswaded that his excellent Maiesty would deny you nothing that you should ioyntly and earnestly seeke, for the peace of the Church of God. The Lord God direct your Lordship and your brethren, as becommeth your great years, learnings and functions; as for me I shall pray alwaies for the Kings Maiestie, and the state, for you and the Church of God, and henceforth striue to liue as an honest and peaceable priuate member of that Church, in which I was not so happy as to stand a publike, though honest and peaceable minister.

Your Lordships alwaies to com­maund in the Lord IOHN BVRGES.


THere is no part of this whole Treatise, which so vnwillingly I answere as this last; wherein many things are vttered with so much passion, as eyther our seueritie in replying, must exceed the vsuall modera­tion which wee desire to hold, or else we may iustly be suspected, to betray the cause and the persons whom we should defend. And therefore without any other answere, we will only put you in minde of those harsh speeches, which may peraduenture in this discontent­ment be agreeable to your fancie, but are no way su­table to your cause, nor verie well beseeming a man of your place. First in these words: I now beseech your Lordship to remember that the most of vs haue beene peace­able in Israell, and that if some mens rashnes draw reuenge vpon vs, Aemelius hath faulted, and Rutilius is beaten; one Mardochey hath not stouped, and all the Iewes must perish for it. Can you beleeue that your depriuation is a reuenge which some mens rashnes hath drawn vpon you? Is the proceeding of the reuerend Fathers, for the vnitie of the Church, as if Aemilius had faulted, and Rutilius should be beaten? or can you in your own conscience compare it with the perishing of the Iewes, for the not stooping of one Mardochey? assure your selfe none of them are so transported with ambition, nor so incensed with any particuler contempt offe­red vnto themselues, which they could not easily haue remitted, if their remissenesse in this had not ha­zarded the Churches peace. And therefore doubt not but your selfe and others can well testifie that some of them haue dealt with your selfe, and diuers [Page 156] in your case like fathers with their owne children, lea­uing nothing vnattempted to reforme your opinion, before they proceeded to giue sentence. A dutie that lieth vpon their shoulders, with as much indispensable necessitie, as conformitie and obedience vpon ours. Like vnto this surmise, is that which followeth; And say wee cannot confirme in euerie point, you know who said, the varietie of ceremonies did commend the vnitie of faith: But doubtlesse it had beene much better for the Church: more warrantable for your selues: more pleasing to the state: more profitable to your owne families: to haue conformed your selues in e­uerie poynt, then by refusing to hinder the Church of that good, which by your owne confession might haue beene more in one yeare then all the Ceremonies will doe whilest the vvorld standeth. For if any thing be imposed by authoritie contrarie to the word of God, let some men take vpon them to prooue it; and farre be it from vs for any mans cause to main­taine an euicted errour; wee may bee deceiued, and haue our infirmities as other men, but wee are not vnwilling, who will needes bee our aduersa­ries, to account them our maisters, if there bee iust cause.

But if these ceremonies be onely vnlawfull to some men, for want of true resolution, and so contrarie to conscience (which yet is no warrant for disobe­dience) let them learne to know that in things not vnlawfull; It is better to obey, then to offer Sa­crifice. Amongest men of equall authoritie in place of freedome, diuersities of opinions may safely be published without offence, but where men want authority and place to aduise, and when Iawes haue set [Page 157] downe what is though fit, there, to thinke otherwise then the Church doth, it is, as if common passen­gers would sayle to Chyna, by the North-east, when the maisters and gouernours had determined to sayle by the North-west.

Wherein if both partes remayne equally stiffe in their owne opinions, a mutinie must fol­low for want of Discipline: sometimes I confesse va­rietie and alteration of cerimonies are thought fit; both to shew the authoritie of the Church, (for you selfe haue confessed when you read your articles that eue­rie particuler or nationall Church hath authoritie to or­dayne, Articles of 156. Artic. 34. change, and abolish ceremonies, or rites of the Church ordained onely by mans authoritie, so that all things bee done to aedifying.) Secondly, that they are but furthe­rances of deuotion, and no partes of diuine wor­ship.

But when they are established as thought fit for de­cencie, edification, and order, by such as haue au­thoritie from Christ to moderate those thinges: then by inferiour persons (such as wee are) eyther to bee oppugned, misconstrued, despised, or disobeyed, it is daungerouslye, to kindle a fyre of Rebellion in the principall parts of Gods house. But that which followeth, is much worse.

O my good Lord, will it not bee enough to keepe safe and well fenced your Iurisdictions and personall digni­ties? not enough to deuide the Honours to your selues, and labours to vs? Haue the last Canons no other end, but to fence the Iurisdictions, and personall digni­ties vnto the B B. Doubtlesse the diminishing of their honors, which could neuer haue been without wrong [Page 158] vnto the Church, was little to be feared (though the Canons had not beene) where so wise a King ruled ouer vs, who had throughly tasted the cala­mities and miseries of that Church, which placed the greatest part of their Zeale in suppressing of Bishops; and whilest they laboured that none might haue too much, they presently brought it so to passe that scarce any had what was reasonable enough: besides if you knew the vnwearied paines, the in­tollerable burthens, that diuers of the Reuerend Fa­thers, who watch ouer vs dayly, sustayne for the peace and the happinesse of this Church,Episcopi. you would plainely acknowledge preaching not to be the grea­test paines, and that it is a misdeeming of their care to thinke, That they haue deuided the honours to them­selues, and the labours to you. Surely there is no greater or more vehement exercise of faith amon­gest so many perils, then prayers for the publicke peace of the Church, and it is our parts to vnderstand those perils, and to iudge them to appertaine to our owne safeties.

Besides it is our dutie to ascribe to the Magis [...]rates, Wisedome and Iustice, that is, that wee doe not pre­ferre our priuate iudgements before the lawes, and decrees of the Church, but obey them: This ho­nour is most agreeable to publicke peace, not to ca­uill against the lawes, nor to interprete them with Iea­lousie or Enuie; but to couer, to excuse, and mitigate the ouer-sightes of Magistrates and lawes if there be any. This as it is in priuate the ornament of a Christian, so it is in publicke the honour of a good subiect.1, Cor. 13 Coloss. 3 Loue beareth all things: Loue is the bond of perfection, to pre­uent dissolutions of a Church or a commonwealth. [Page 159] And heerein if the requisite seueritie which the pal­sie of the Church exacteth from the Reuerend Fa­thers, draw them to punish, whom they desire to fa­uour, to aduance and cherish, it is not a casting out of borne Israelites (as you terme it) but a iust repre­hension, setting a marke vpon that sonne, that hath made no conscience to discouer the supposed naked­nesse of his owne father.Cha [...]. In whose place it any wild beasts (Papists you meane) shall multiply, I doubt not but their religious care, will be as readie to suppresse the one, as depriue the other: And if in the ende (as you prophesie) (which God forbid) vnfortunately it happen, that the Bishops shall want you, as King Henry did Cromewell, it shall be much safer to indure the hazard of those times, then to buy an aduan­tage at so deare a price. In the meane time beleeue (which it is fit for you to acknowledge) that if you for­beare vpon the poynt of Conscience, their Lordshipps haue better reasons for that they do, then to stand vpon termes of their owne pleasures. Now to conclude this vnpleasing worke, which wee laid aside, in hope to haue rested without trouble, vntill such time as we saw their bookes of this argument to increase still, and heard that as much of this as was then printed, was by them confuted; wee desire all men to think of vs, as of those that account the infirmities of our brethren our owne harmes, and the modest directions of men as meane as our selues, to be no blemish vnto vs, who propound not victory, A prayer. but truth, and the Churches peace. The God of all loue, and the giuer of all graces multiply his bles­sings vpon this land, let them be poured (O Lord) as an oyntment vpon the Kings head, strengthen the weake hands of the reuerend fathers, the chiefe buil­ders [Page 160] of his Temple; giue vnto vs all vnity and peace, as the bonds and sinewes of the communion of saints; make vs to thinke and to speake the same things; grant vnto you and others that refuse conformitie vpon conscience a better light: peace in your hearts▪ remorse for silencing your selues; comforts against all worldly afflictions: and if it so seeme good to his infinite wisedome (seeing our Church hath so many trayterous and seditious enemies without) that all within her owne bosome, may thinke, loue, desire, and behaue our selues in all things as be. commeth the Saints of God. Amen. Amen.


COurteous Reader I kindelie intreate thy patience and thy labour; the one to excuse, the other to correct the sencelesse faults com [...]mitted in the printing of this booke; I call them sencelesse not onely because those may seeme so that made them▪ but because the most being in the false pointing, they make the period often to bewith out sence▪ this we cannot now amende; some other faults it may please thee to correct thus.

Faultes Escaped.

Pag. 4. line. [...]. for. recantations▪ r. retractations. l. 28. for disiunction. r. distinction p 8, l. 8. for fellow [...]r. fault. p. 9. l. 7. for man. [...], manie. p. 16. l▪ 17. [...]or bring [...] being p. 24. l. 5. for who. r. leau [...] out who p. 47. l. 12. for. dispraises. r, dispraisers, p. 46▪ l, 4, for. admission, r, admonition, p, 52, l, 19, for Letrea, r, Latteia, p, 53, l, 14, for to [...], doe, p, 54, l, 15. for▪ teach, r, teacheth, p, 50, l, 25. for counsell, r, councell, p, 57, l, 29, for Hyeronus, r, Hieroms, p, 58, l, 1 [...], for ioyned, r, inioyned, l. 31, for euils, r, cauils. p. 64. l, 4, for T [...]entth [...], r, Trent hath reformed that▪ p, 7 [...], l, 2▪ for nor, [...]. nowe. p. 73, l. 3. for [...]at, r, that, p, 76. l. 4. for otherwise, r, others: l, 14, for impropriat you, r, in pro­prietie: p. 77, l. 9. for a nositate. r, annositate. l, 26. for ecclesiasticam: r▪ ecclesiasticum, p 78: l, [...]4: for chemtius: r, chemassius, p: 82, l, 5. fo [...], Aquinus. r, Aquinas [...] p. 89, l▪ 4, for [...]aciam. r: f [...]saciem. p. 89, l. 22, for [...]ch [...]mites, r, sychamitis, p. 91, l, 15, for taken of, r, ta [...]ken out of, p. 94. l. 15 for pagian, r. p [...]g [...]iue. p, 111, l, 23. for exPresse to, r, to expresse, p, 113. l, 23. for persued, r. piersed, p, 115. l. 11. for counsel. r. councell. l. 26. for by bage r, by a badge. p. 116. l, 14. for nor, r, no [...], p, 117, l. 10, for. corrupte [...]us, r. corrupters, p. [...] 8, l. 33, for m [...]. r, man, p, 119. l, 31, for called, r, calling, p, 120, l. 18, for to be put r▪ [...]o be clensed then p [...]t, l. 33, for imbrace, r, impeach, p. 121 l, 1, for, for, r, or▪ l, 26, for chosing, r, crossing, p, 122, l, 9, for more, r, m [...]ere, p, 123, l, 23, for yet r, that, p. [...] 6. l. 19, for here, r, beare. l, 33, for mi [...]d▪ r, mind. p, 131. l, 27 for, those, r, these. p, [...]38, l, r▪ for pria­eiue. r, primatiue, l, 31, for vere, r, verie, p. 139. l, 4, for vnto novv, r, vnto it novv. p 141. l: 7: for verasen: r: brasen: p: 157: l 9: for you: [...]: your: p: 156: l: 7: for confirme: r: con [...]rm [...].

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