THE Schoole of Horsmanship.

Wherein is disco­uered vvhat skill and knowledge is required in a good Horse­man, practised by perfect experience. And also how to reforme anie restie horse, of what nature and disposition so euer. Briefely touching the know­ledge of the Breeder, Sad­ler, Smith, and the Horseleach.

WITH A STRANGE AND rare inuention how to make a new kinde of racke, and how to teach a Horse to lie vpon his bellie vntill the Ri­der take his backe.

By Christ. Clifford. Gent.

¶ Imprinted at London for Thomas Cad­man, and are to be solde at his shop in Paules Churchyard, at the signe of the Bible.

1585.

TO THE RIGHT Worshipfull, Sir Philip Sidney, Knight.

SIR, I haue written of late, not by rea­ding, but on mine owne experience, a conference and discourse about the trai­ning of horses, and curing of their disea­ses, wherin albeit I dare professe to teach a readier & better waie in training horse for seruice & trauaile, than hath bene either yet set downe of anie, or put in practise by the delicate professors of this Art, yet my intention was not further then to serue the priuate vse of my priuate friends, till at the last I offered it to the cēsure of a certain honorable Gentleman, whose singular good iudgement & great experience in this mat­ter I haue euer esteemed aboue al others, who liked so wel of this my labour, that he not onlie thought good it should be printed for the common vse and profit of our Coun­try, but also vouchsaft by setting of his hand to testifie the same. Whervpon I haue consented to the printing of it, & so haue made it come to light vnder the good protection and countenance of your W. both because of your great knowledge and experience in Horsemanshippe, and in all other vertues, whereby ye draw to you the harts of euerie one that knowes you, and also for your speciall curtesie shewed vnto me: & therfore I haue thus far presumed, til occasiō of further seruice may occur to present you with other flowers or fruits of my experience, which is the onely compas, rule, and square of this discourse. Hum­bile requesting that yee excuse or pardon the homelie [Page] stile and tenor of this conference, either because that true experiēce do need no ornament of words, or other waies because I am vnlettered & haue not Rethoricke at com­maundement. Which if it please you to accept after the ordinarie of your countenance, I meane to enter further in other new and rare Ingins for warre, all of my owne inuention and experience. And thus I end, beseeching God to blesse your life with all increase of Honour.

Your most humble to commaund, Christopher Clifford.

To the Reader.

GEntle Reader, thou shalt find many things in this worke placed out of order, for that I haue lacked time and am vnlettered, neither haue bene able to kéepe anie ser­uant whom I might commaund to write when I would, which hath bene the cause that I haue left out many notable things in this worke, which thou shalt haue héereafter, God sparing me life & abilitie therevnto. Perhappes some curious riders may finde fault with my homelie kinde of teaching, for ye, I set not down how they shuld teach their horses to coruet, nor how to torment thē vainlie with a chain or cauisō, which is one of the principal causes that they make their horses restie runawaies, and hard mouthed, but my intent is not to teach anie of them which make their horses more fit to daunce on a carpet, then for anie other kinde of seruice, but onelie to teach those, whose noble mindes delights in armes, and to haue their horses made for seruice and tra­uaile, which is the thing wherevnto God hath ordained that beast. Clifford take héede what you doe, will you speake against the chaine and coruetting of horses? Mée thinke that shewes in you small skill in riding, sith they are both vsed throughout all Christendome. I know that this shall be the obiection of those, that either knowes not the difference betwéen the snaffle & the chaine, or else ye will know it for no other cause, but that they wil after an obstinate manner maintaine it to be good, because they would differ from others in order of riding, and the rea­son why it is naught, is, that being once buckled to the horses head, as they vsuallie doe, or drawne close, it doeth grieue the horse continuallie, as [...]ll when he doth well as when he doth erre, in such [...] that the horse not vn­derstanding the cause of his néedlesse griefe, falleth into a number of disorders. And ye first reason why it is naught to teach a horse to coruet, is, because it doth greatlie wea­ken [Page] his backe and loines. The second, it is a most cruell torment to a man in armes, for that a number of i [...]des be­ing giuen to coruet by nature, & vsed therevnto, will ma­nie times fall a coruetting when his rider woulde not haue him: and the third and last reason why it is naught, is, for that when you would encounter your enimie at hand strokes with your sword, these mistaught i [...]des wil fall a dancing, which is a thing verie dangerous, in figh­ting with one horse against another, for ye he neuer stan­deth surelie, and therfore is in perill to be throwen downe or else to giue the riders backe to the enimie; which is no lesse daunger than his life is worth: but gentle Reader, I haue not spoken this either of enuie or mallice against anie perticular person, for I protest before God and the world, that I haue euer bene of that opinion, that hée is vnworthie of credit either in ar [...] or common wealth, that is not so voide of enuie and mallice, that he shal take a thousand times more delight in pardoning of his eni­mies, than to be reuenged of them, and for proofe héereof, I doe not onelie giue frée leaue to all you to amend what so euer you find ami [...] in my worke without anie respect of me, but onelie in respect to profit this our Countrie, & also that you do reproue me either by your gentle admo­tions, or by your letters, of all such thinges as you shall finde by your owne experience to be amisse, and I will as­sure you that I shal receiue it thankfully at your hands.

Thus leauing to trouble thée anie longer (gentle [...] ­der) vntill better opportunitie he offered mée to accom­plish my promise aboue said, I bid thée most hartely fare­well.

C. Clifford.

Sir Iohn Tracie Knight, in commendation of this Booke.

IF Xenophon deserude immortall fame,
Or Grysons glorie from earth to skie did reach,
If Carociolus gainde a worthie princely name,
Whose Bookes the Art of Horsemanship doe teach:
Then Cliffords praise what pen or tongue can tell,
Whose paines herein, their works doth farre excell.
For who delight in gallant steeds doth take,
To gallop them, or how coruet they must,
Or he that seekes the fiercest colt to make,
In brauest sort, to stop, and manage iust,
By this thy Booke shall gaine his whole intent,
Adornde with Art and Skill most excellent.
His rare conceits in this his Booke he showes
How stubborne Iades reformed ought to be:
And all diseases, which by experience he knowes
How them to cure, you may both learne and see:
The Sadler, and the Smith of thee may find their skil,
So in their Art thou dost reforme their ill.
What honors then to Martiall mindes are due,
What recompence is made for worthie paines,
What thankes or gifts do Vertue stil ensue,
And what rewards both Art and Skill obtaines,
The same to thee for this thy good desart,
Both strangers, friends, and countrie will impart.
Iohn Tracie Knight.

The contents of this Booke.

AL the principall points belonging to a good horsman, most plainly taught, according to my true experience, which I haue wel approoued and tried by the space of 30. years, that is to saie, of the Breeder, the Rider, Keeper, and the Sadler, of the Horseleach and Smith. Where, in the be­ginning you shall finde certaine briefe notes necessarie to be obserued of the Breeder. In the first Booke you shal find the Art of Riding, with a treatise how to vse your hand vpon the bridle and cauison, so plainly taught, that it is not possible for anie man of reason that is willing to learne this Art, but that he may make any horse readie, of what nature or disposition soeuer he be, and after an easier maner than hath beene here­tofore taught by any man. The second Booke sheweth to re­forme al kinds of restie horses, or hard mouthed runawaies, both easly and plainely. The third Booke intreateth of the Kepers office, how to make your stable with a standing rack, that there may no dust fall, neither on the horses mane, nor on his head, a most rare inuention: Also it teacheth you how to diet your horse, both when you trauell and exercise him: And how to maister all those horses that will bite their Kee­pers, or leape on them with their forefeet, at such time as they leade them in their hands, or that the Rider would take their backes. The fourth Booke intreateth of the Sadlers office, how he should make his saddle, and what kinde of saddle is best, both for seruice and trauell: And also how euerie soul­dior may carrie both his headpeece, and pistoll, in such sort as it shall not trouble him any more than if he had nothing at al at his saddle: Also it teacheth how to make your headstall, to serue in steede of a collar, when you trauell anie iourney, or that you are in seruice, a thing verie necessarie to be lear­ned of al souldiers: It teacheth you also [...]ow to make your ca­uison, curb, & diuers other necessarie [...]tions very needful to be vsed of the Rider. The fift Booke teacheth how to cure your horse of so many diseases as I haue in al my life had ex­perience of. The sixt and last Booke sheweth howe you should shoo [...] your horse: and how to make that horse that hath euil feet, to haue good hoofes in very short space.

Cliffords experience and opinion of breeding of Coltes, and what Stalians and Mares are best to breed vp­on, and also what ground is best to breed an horse in.

Of the Stalian.

THe Stalian woulde be large of bodie, for that we sée most com­monly the Coltes to followe the Stalian in bignes, although they be begotten of little Mares, or of Mares a great deale lesse than the Stalian. Let him also be of good colour, of good courage, wel made: and aboue all things, sée he be sound, and well marked, and that he be gentle, and of an approoued durablenesse in trauel: and as touching his colour, there is none e­uill that hath all his outward partes blacke, that is to say, his legges, taile, and mane, tippes of eares, and his mouzel: nor none good that hath all his bodie of one colour, sa [...]e th [...] blacke and white: but the blacke is the best of the two [...]urs last named. And aboue al things sée he haue good hoofes, that is to say, that they be litle, and round, and hollow: for broade footed, long footed, and narrow héeled iades are nothing worth when they come to seruice or trauel: for in seruice the broade foote will neuer kéepe a sh [...] long, and in trauel they will all be lame. But if your m [...]re haue very good hoofs, then the Stalian with euill hoofes shall be more tolerable: And as touching his age, the yonger and lustier he is, the bet­ter: for I haue séene an horse of foure yéeres of age get so good a colt, as an horse that was eight yeares of age. I haue also ridd [...] [...]n horse of the Marshall Byrones, [Page] begotten of a Turkish Stalian that was 24. yéeres of age, and I neuer found in all my life a better horse both for trauel and seruice.

As touching your mares that you mind to bréed vpō, the larger they are, the better: but if you chaunce to haue any yong mares that you mind to breed vpon, take héed that you first make them to be ridde and handled the 3. yeare, and that you put not them to the horse til they be 4. yeres of age, and it shal be good to handle them gent­ly, and to let them haue daily erercise in some moderate trauel, for if you let them stand long stil, you shal great­ly weaken their bodies, and by sodaine & extreme tra­uelling of them after long rest, al fil them ful of disea­ses, so as they shall be verie vnprofitable for a race: for it is not possible to bréed sound colts, vpō vnsound mares and Stalians. Let them also be of good shape & colour: but the shape is much more to be taken héed of, than the colour, for that it is much holpen by the Stalian, & when you would put them to the horse, the best way is, in my iudgement, to let thē run togither at grasse for the space of a month at the least. And see that your mares haue no shooes on their hinder féet, for feare of hurting your Sta­lian, and let not your Stalian be too fat, and he woulde also be trauelled a iourney before you turne him out, to the end that he may be wearie, so shall he not ouer-heat himself at the first: and the best time of the daie to turne him out, is, in the morning fasting verie early before the heate of the daie, & afterward, when he hath heated himselfe, the warmnes of the Sun shal come, by means whereof he shall not take any cold: if he driue him selfe into any heat, it shal be good to cause a boy to folow him vp and downe, so as he may not rest till he be through­ly colde. It shall not be amisse before that you turne your mares and Stalian togither, to trie whether they wil stand still or not to the horse, by offering them some other nag or stoned iade, and if you sée they stand stil, thē [Page] are they not in horsing: yet haue I séene some iades, be­ing mad on horsing that would strike the Stalian, and yet after they had béene a little wearie, would stand still inough. But if you haue more such conuenient ground, than may you let your Stalian serue your mares, either in the hand, or else in some large barne or close court. But you must put them togither earely in the morning, and late at night, and sée ye your Stalian be not too ful for feare of hurting himself, & let him be well prouendred.

How to weane your Colts.

PVt them so farre from your mares as they cannot one heare another, into some warme groūd, wher there is good store of long and swéet grasse, and til they be two yeares of age it shall be good to féede them all the winter with fine haie abroad: for by kéeping your coltes at house in the winter, you shall marre them for lacke of exercise. For there is not anie one thing more enimie to health both for man and beast, whether he be yong or olde, than the lacke of such exercise as shall be most agréeing with the qualitie of his age and strength. But if it be in such part of England, as the snowe lieth vpon the grounde a moneth or sixe wéekes togither, it shal not be amisse to take thē into the house al the night to let them eate: but in the daie time I would haue you turne them abroad, euen from morning till night, but it were much better to make a house in the field, and place a double racke in the middle thereof: but sée that you paue such on house, or grauell it: for if you plancke it, it shall be verie dangerous for marring your colts, by sly­ding thereon: and if you paue it not, it shall be al myrie, which is verie naught for your colts hoofs and legs, for the drier that they go, & the harder that the ground is, the sounder shall your horse be. It shall be good also the first Summer that your colts be weined, that is to say, when they are a yeare olde and the vantage, that if you shal perceiue by going in good pasture ye they shal wax [Page] verie fat, then it shall not be amisse to eate the pasture shorter with more cattell, or else to put them in suche ground as they may trauel somthing more to fil their bellies. This order shal you obserue the first two yéers, but the third yeare it shall be good to put them in some such high ground and short pasture, that they may trauel almost the whole daie before they fill their bellies, and take héede that they haue trées or hedges to shadow them in in the heate of the daie, and also to defend them from the cold in winter: and when you perceiue them some­thing pinched with the cold, you may giue them straw & chaffe to eate vntill it be the beginning of March at the least, then it shal be good to take them into the house for the space of a moneth, or six wéeks, & giue them straw to eate, & chaffe, with a verie litle prouēder in it. But if you haue no chaffe, thē it shal be good to giue thē two parts of chopt straw, & but one part of oats, & whē you haue made them gētle to be drest, it shalbe good to leade them to the water, first with a double cloth girded with a surcingle, & after that they will go gently, you may saddle them, and leade them to the water, with the stirroppes loose, beating against their sides, but take héed ye al the while they stand in the stable, you lay litter inough vnder thē for feare of sliding: & after you haue made them gentle to go with the saddle, it shall be good to turne them abroad euery day when it is drie weather at 9. of the clock til 3. at afternoone into some field or large court nigh to the stable. If at any time after they are throughly acquain­ted with the stable, they come not home of thēselues, fetch thē not til through hunger they be glad to come. By this means you shal defend your horses when they are yong from sickenesse and diseases, through exercising them­selues on this wise, so as when they come to trauel, they shall be sound & durable horses: By this ye I haue said, I would haue said, that til your coltes b [...] 2. yeares of age, you neither let them suffer hunger nor cold, but that you [Page] so nourish thē as you sée good bréeders nourish their wea­ning calues, & the 3. & 4. Summer & winter, let thē fare somewhat harder than they did the 2. first yeres, & the 3. winter I wold haue you offer thē no hard meat, til they be glad to eat straw & chaffe, & that you giue thē no other thing ye yere nor ye 4. winter neither, til such time as you take thē vp: but it shall be good the 4. winter to exercise them sadled with a pole or long staffe, without anie man on his back, as shall be héereafter more plainly taught.

At what age it is best to take vp a colt to ride him, & at what time of the yeere I may take vp my horse to haue him most gentle, and also to make him a good stable horse, and to eate his hard meate well.

Clifford.

I Would not haue you to backe anie horse vntill he be 4. yéeres of age & eight moneths at the least, by ye that I haue told, I would haue told you that it is not good to take vp anie horse to ride, til he be ouer 4. yeres of age so far into the 5. Winter, ye he hath ben glad to eat straw and chaffe the space of one moneth at the least abroad be­fore you take him vp into the house, & also ye you perceiue him some thing to loose his flesh. And you shall not haue made this horse thus bred & of this age, when he comes to sixe yeares of age, not onelie so readie as if you had taken him vp at thrée & the vantage, or at foure, but also he shall be worth when you haue néed 15. of those horses that you shall backe at the former age.

Kingdon.

If I let mine horse be almost 5. yeares of age before I back him, he shall become so strong & stubburn as no mā shall bée able to handle him, & also if I let him go abroad till he be glad to féed vpon strawe & chaffe, he shall be­come leane, therefore I would thinke it much better to take vp mine horse in the beginning of Winter before he loose his flesh.

Clifford.

Where thou saist thy horse will become stubburne, [Page] thou art deceiued, for by trotting him sadled with a long pole the third and fourth winter, euerie second daie, so long as he shall stand in the stable, in such order as shal be héereafter taught, thou shalt make him so gentle as thou wouldest wish: & thou saiest he shall become leane, and that thou thinkest it better to take him vp at the be­ginning of winter, this is a dreame me thinkes indéed of an vnskilfull man, but I wil not féed thée with vaine things, but with experience grounded vpon reason: for if thou take vp thy horse in the beginning of winter, be­fore he haue tasted of anie hardnesse, thou shalt neuer make him a good stable horse, for whiles the grasse is better then haie, it is not possible that he should eat haie well, but after the substance of the grasse is gone, so that it nourishes so little as good strawe or chaffe, & that the horse will féed therevpon verie well, then it is time to take him vp & not before, for there is no other reason to be found why our horses shuld not eate straw, but that we take them vp while they are so greasie fat & idle by féeding them in déep pasturs where they may fill their bellies in two or thrée houres féeding, whereas in deed it were a great deale better after they be two yeres of age to let them go in such pasture, as they must trauaile al­most halfe the daie before they can fill their bellies. And whereas thou saiest they shall become leane, I warrant thée they shall become neuer a whit the worse therfore, for although thou ride him euerie second daie gentlie, so that he sweat not, thou shalt within one moneth af­ter he comes to the house, by féeding him with good straw and reasonable store of prouender haue fullie recouered the former losse, which shal redound to thy double gain, for that he shall euer after be a good stable horse, that if he lacke meate at anie time, ye shall sée him eate his lit­ter with greater appetite than our daintie dieted iades bred as we vsuallie doe héere in England, shall eate the best haie that you can giue them.

The first Chapter of this Booke, of the Schoole of Horsemanship, treateth how to backe a yong horse, at the first.

Kingdon.

I Pray you teach me in what order I shall saddle, bri­dle, and backe my horse at the first.

Clifford.

AS soone as he is gentle to be dressed, saddle him, and leade him to the water, and so being sadled, with the styrrops beating loose on his sides, and when hée will goe gently therewith, leade him to the Smithes, and shoe him before you doe anie thing with him. That being done, bridle him with a snaffle, brake, or trench, which would not be rough, and also without players, for feare of hurting his mouth. Then may you bring him to a blocke, and offer to take his backe, which if he refuse, then tye a long pole, staffe, or pike, faste to the [...]ies of your brake, which would haue a hole in the end for that purpose, make also a hole in the other ende, in the which you [...] put a strong péece of cord, for to holde him by. This being done, get thée in some good ground, and let a footeman or two, if n [...]de be, set handes in the cord, which you may make fast in the end of the foresaid staffe, which being done, let them stand stil, and let a footeman leade the horse close by the head, round a­bout the foresaid two footmen fiue or sixe times, first on the one hand, and then on the other, to the end you may [Page] marke out a ring vnto him, which you may do, by reason of the staffe, which will kéepe him of a iust distaunce from your foresaide two footemen, who must alwaies stand still without moouing out of their places. That be­ing done, let the footeman goe from him, and force him to trot, first on the one hand, and then on the other, vntil such time as he will be content to let you take his backe. Then shal you take his back if he be foure yeares and a halfe of age, if he be but foure, then shall you exercise him in this sorte twice in the wéeke, for the space of sixe mo­neths, without anie man on his backe: with the which exercise you shall not onelie make your horse strong, and disposed, but also, by raining him on the saddle bowe, and by tying two cordes to the buckles of his fore girt, and to the eies of his watring bit or brake, you shall make him raine well, and carrie his head steadie, and also trotte so brauely, as though he were ridden: by this meanes you shall make your horse to trot your ring, (your sixe moneths being expired) euen the first day that you backe him, so perfectly, as though he had béene ridden euerie daie: yea, and he shall be so well acquainted with this lesson, that you shall sée him gallop it, both pleasauntly and brauely, euen of him selfe, yea, and by that time your horse comes to be six yeares of age, you shall haue made him as readie as though you had begun to ride him at thrée yeares and the vauntage: and hée shall be better than thrée of those which shall be marred by riding them too young, for in th [...] world it is not pos­sible to finde a better horse than ours, if they were not marred by riding them to young, of the which thing, I haue had good experience, in a bay horse, which her Maiestie gaue to Mounsieur at his being in England, which horse I haue séene march from morning til night, with a man on his backe, with such courage and coun­tenaunce, that all the men of armes (the King of France [Page 2] being there) with their Turkie horses, Hungarians, Poles, Frisons, and Flaunders horses, and also with their Coursers, and Ienets, could neuer doe the like: which foresaid horse, I haue séene far to surpasse them all in anie trauaile or exercise ye he might be put vnto, which is not onlie my iudgement and opinion, but also I heard all the Captaines and Riders, to affirme the same, and they would oftentimes say vnto me, that we Englishmē knew not howe good our horses were: for if we did, we would neuer seeke horses of Spaine and Italie.

Kingdon.

Why shall I thus trot my horse with a pole, rather than with a corde?

Clifford.

Because that hée may hang him selfe by his legges sooner in the cord than in the pole, besides that, you can­not holde him from comming vpon you, nor guide him so right in his rings: yea, I haue diuers times trotted a young horse, in this order without any man on his back, til he hath béen so perfect, that at the first backing he hath trotted his ring so orderly, as though he had béene ridden halfe a yeare, by the which meanes I did much streng­then my horse, of the which thing thou must haue a spe­ciall care, if thou wilt be a good horseman, not to de­crease his strength, but rather increase the same.

Kingdon.

This by the way, but to the purpose, my horse being foure yéeres of age & a halfe, and I being mounted, what lesson shall I giue him first?

Clifford.

First you shal ride him forth right in some lane, or déep high way, so far as shal be agréeable wt his strēgth. And riding him once euerie daie in this sort, so long til he wil let you mount and descend gently, and also take his waie readily, which, when he will do, it shall be [Page] inough to ride him once in two daies, for the space of one moneth.

Kingdon.

Why shall I ride my horse foorth right, and not ra­ther in a ring?

Clifford.

For that your horse being faint and vnacquainted with trauell, your ring turne shall be too great a trauel for him at the first, and shal too too much weaken and dis­courage him, but after you haue exercised him as before, hée shall be become so strong therewith, that his ring turnes wil not be so gréeuous vnto him, as they would haue béene at the first by the one halfe.

The second Chapter trea­teth of the horses lessons, and at what time of the daie it is best to teach him.

Kingdon.

HAuing taught me to make my horse gentle, I woulde also haue you teach me at what time of the daie it is best to ride him, and also what les­sons he hath to learne.

Clifford.

As touching thy first demaund, I aunswere, that it is best to teach him in the morning before he drinke or eate his prouender, by meanes whereof, you shall auoid the danger of straining his winde, or filme breaking him. And also, for that you may haue leasure ynough before bed time to drie and dresse him. And as touching your second demaund, you shall first teach your horse to tread the great ring, both vppon pase and trotte: and sée as well in doing the same, as all other his lessons, that [Page] you make him raine wel, ca [...]rie his head steadie, and goe vpright in his turning: Secondarily, you shall teache your horse to stoppe and go backe: Thirdly, to aduance: Fourthly, to gallop the great ring, or field gallop: Fifth­ly, to turne readily on both handes: Sixtly, to make a sure and perfect manage: Seauenthly, and lastly, you shall learne him to take his gallop and caréer readilie.

Of trotting the great ring, and what order is to be obserued therein.

Kingdon.

SIthence you haue taught mée howe to make my horse gentle, it shal not be amisse to teach me what order I shall obserue in learning him to tread the great ring, for that I haue often times heard you saie, that by treading the great ring vpon his pase, trot and gallop, and by obseruing good order, time, and mea­sure therein, that it is not onelie sufficient to make him raine well, trot well, carrie his head steadie, and to beare light, but that the whole making of your horse depends vpon the orderly vsing of him, in this foresaide lesson.

Clifford.

As touching the order to be obserued therein, you shall enter first vppon a softe pase, giuing him eight or tenne turnes, on your right hand, and as manie on the left: you shall chaunge in this order from hand to hand, till you haue giuen him so many turnes, as shall be a­gréeable to his strength, which being done, ride him foorth right thirtie or fortie paces, where you must stop him by strayning your bridle hand, and by speaking vnto him gently with a soft voice, saying, hallow boy, hallow: looking that he stand right in his path or fur­rowe, which woulde be made for that purpose, in some [Page] hanging or falling ground. Hauing thus stopped your horse, let him stand stil a preatie while, at which time you must flatter and scratch him in and vnder his mane. It shall be good also to giue him a little grasse to eate, to light from his backe, and leade him home, doing no more with him that daie. Hauing thus acquainted your horse throughly with this lesson vpon his pase, then shall you offer him to trot the same by helping him with your voice and calues of legs onelie.

Kingdon.

But what if he will not goe with the helpe of my voice and calues of my legges.

Clifford.

Then it is too soone to trot him, for I woulde not ad­uise you to offer him his trot in anie case, nor yet from his trot to his gallop, before he do it willingly, with the least helpe that may be, without force or compulsion.

Kingdon.

What number of turnes shall I giue him vpon his trot, and also were it not good to giue him a plaine can­non and cauison? I pray you tell me.

Clifford.

Vnles his mouth be verie good, & you your self as good as euer Gryson was, or Xenophon, I would not coun­sell thée in anie case to vse anie other thing to teach him vpon, than a trench, brake, or snafle, till such time as he be a perfect readie horse, and as touching the number of thy turnes, that I must referre to thine owne iudge­ment, who shall knowe best thy horses strength.

Hovv to learne your horse to go backe. Chap. 3.

Clifford.
[Page 4]

AFter your horse can stoppe and kéepe his furrow or path iust, you shal learne him to goe backe, by straining your bridle hand, and by speaking vnto him, first with a soft voice, back, back: and if néed be, you may helpe him with the point of your rod vpon his knées, but if he will not goe backe with all these helpes, then you mu [...] vse a footeman, with a cudgell in his hand, who standing right before him, and threat­ning him, must also correct him on his fore legges, if néede be.

Kingdon.

How often shall I vse my horse in this order?

Clifford.

Vntil he do it both lightly and readily, and faile not, that at euerie time you stop him, to make him go backe fiue or six pases at the least, so withall, that you vse it not halfe so much to an horse of a good mouth, as to him that is hard mouthed.

Kingdon.

After my horse can tread his rings, both vpon pase and trot, and can both stop and go backe: then I pray you teache mée which is the best way to make him ad­uance, that I may not distemper his mouth, nor disorder him.

Clifford.

The best way that euer I found to make an horse ad­uaunce is this here following. After you haue put a ca­uison on his head, turne him about in his roome, and make the two cordes thereof fast to the two postes, then offer hym to aduaunce by striking him on the breast with a sharpe rodde, and by speaking vnto him with a chéerefull voice, saying, vp, vp boy, vp, which voice you must vse alwaies when you woulde haue your horse aduance: and likewise when you would haue [Page] him goe backe, alwaies vse this word: backe, backe, not altring your voice: and when you would haue him turne, to speake vnto him with a chéerefull voice, saying: turne boy, turne: yea, and though he lift vp but one of his féet, and offer, as though he would lift the other, flatter him, and make much of him, and giue him a litle grasse or pro­uender to eate, which being done, you may offer him his lesson againe by speaking vnto him as before, and tou­ching him with the rod a little at the first, noting, that when you haue gotten him to lift his féete both together, that you flatter and féede him as before, and do no more with him in one half houre at the least: in this order you shall most easily teach your horse to aduaunce.

Kingdon.

Yea, but this is in the stable without a man on his backe, and therefore when he comes without, he wil be as farre to séeke as euer he was.

Clifford.

Canst thou not remember him in some déep way with thy voice, and also by helping him with the calues of thy legs, and strike him with thy stirrops vpon the points of his shoulders, and with thy rod vpon the right shoul­der if néede require, and if he will not for all these, then vse a footeman standing before him, as thou hast beene taught before, and when he shall heare and sée the rodde comming towards his breast, he shall aduaunce with­out anie beating at all.

Kingdon.

But I haue founde some horses so stubborne, that they would not aduance, neither for spurre, nor rod, nor hand, neither for footeman nor rider.

Clifford.

Marke, that when you teach your horse any thing in the stable, you giue him litter ynough vnder his féete, for with one daungerous slippe or flide, you shal vtterly [Page 5] [...] his foolish kéeper, or anie other that [...] the horse, causing him to leape and cornet in his roome, yet the rider shall beare the blame. But to the purpose, your horse being tied, as before, in his roome, take [...] sticke of [...] yard or an ell long, with a shar [...]e pricke ther­in, which must [...] appeare aboue the length o [...] a wheat corne without the end of the cudgell, and pricke him in the breast therewith, so long, til he offer to lift his féete, which when he doth, make as much of him, as thoughe hée had aduanced, to the end that you may make him vn­derstand your mind, with as little correction as is pos­sible, and let him rest one halfe houre at the least: t [...]en shal you offer it him againe, as before, which if you find, he doth it but vntowardly, yet make much of him, and let him alone for that daie: for the next morning, his breast being sore, with yesterdaies pricking, you shall sée him aduance, euen the first time you offer him th [...] cudgell. In this sort I made an horse of [...]r Iohn Tra­cie [...] to aduaunce, which neither he, nor I could do by a­nie beating possible, nor whipping, vntil such time as I found out this inuention, which is most notable: for, since that time I haue tried it vpon diuers horses. Now, when you are mounted, it the horse refuse to aduance▪ then let the footeman remember him with the cudg [...] in some ditch or déepe high way with high [...]an [...]es [...] euery side, to holde him in such sort, that he can not start out, nor lea [...]e aside. This is a much better wai [...], than the straining of your hand, beating of your horse vpon the shoulders, or striking him with your spurres, for that to an horse of great courage, it is verie dangerous▪ for, you may thereby distemper his mouth, or cause him take some euill tache or other, yet I doe not denie, but that it is good to offer your horse to aduance by helping him with the calues of your legges, and with your stir­rops [Page] vpon the points of his shoulders, [...] with the rod on the right shoulder.

Hovve, and at what time you shal learne your horse to gallop the great ring. Chap. 4.

Kingdon.

AFter my horse can do al these lessons before taught, I would haue you to shew me in what order, and at what age it is best to learne him the field gallop.

Clifford.

First, as touching his age I would not haue you to gallop anie horse vntill he be fiue yeares olde, and the vantage, no nor vntill he be fixe, if it be possible, and as touching the maner that you must obserue in teach­ing him the same, when he can trot his ring perfectly, (as hath beene before taught:) then may ye offer to gal­lop him sometimes, a quarter, or halfe way about the ring, and in his gallop, you shall helpe him with your voice, and the casues of your legges, at which time you must [...]ear [...] your hand harder, than when you trotted him, to the end, you may make him lift his feete the bet­ter, and make him goe vpright in his gallop, which or­der obserued, you shall most easely teach your horse to gallop.

Kingdon.

But in what th [...]e may I touch him to gallop in [...]his sorte?

Clifford.

You shall most easily doe it in the space of two or three moneths.

Kingdon.
[Page 6]

But my horse will gallop of himselfe, being perfect in trotting the ring in the space of thirtie daies.

Clifford.

Yea, but if you put your horse to euery lesson, as so [...]e as he wil learne it, you shal vtterly sp [...]ile a yoūg horse: yea, and you shal also by that meanes greatly weaken anie olde horse: you must as well in this, as in a [...] o­ther your doings, haue patience, and take great leasure: for if thou wilt vse and obserue these rules, alreadie by me taught, and shall hereafter follow, thou shalt finde it but a play to make anie horse readie, in comparison of the great t [...]il [...] that our common riders do take, in ma­king of their horses, or rather, in marring of them.

Kingdon.

I pray you tel me what you meane by this patience.

Clifford.

I meane, thou shouldest spend one whole yeare to learne thy horse to rai [...] well, to carrie his head steadie, to beare light on the hand, to trot well, to stoppe, and to aduance.

Kingdon.

Wherefore should I spend a yeare in teaching him these lessons, [...]th I may teach him them in the space of three or foure moneths, although I ride mine horse but twice a wéeke.

Clifford.

I graunt: but one of these horses that thou shalt ta [...]e a yeares leasur [...] with, in teaching the foresaid les­sons, shall be more worth than fiue of those which thou shalt marre, with sodaine teaching them, yea, and h [...] shall be at s [...]t [...]en [...] yeares of age, a more lustie and seruiceable horse, than thine shall be of twelue.

Kingdon.

If I shall but onelie ride my horse twice in a wéeke, [Page] [...] [Page 6] [...] [Page] in the ring, he will become so lustie and perfecte in that lesson, that he will gallop whether I will, or not.

Clifford.

I neuer said vnto you, that you should ride your horse but twice a wéeke, but that you should rather ride him thrice a wéeke, [...]ing but verie fewe ring turnes, after he beginnes to be perfect, but rather ride him foorth right in some high way, a soft trot two or thrée miles at eue­rie time, by which meanes you shall make your horse, not onelie to raine well, beare light on the hand, and to trot well, but you shall also make him strong, and dispo­sed to do al lessons that you shall put him to, noting al­waies, that you giue not the horse such t [...]ell as may decrease his strength, but rather increase the same, as is before taught.

Kingdon.

By this accompt, you will haue me to take vppe my horse, at foure yeares and the [...]tage, and not teach him anie thing, vntill he be fiue yeares of age, and the vantage.

Clifford.

Nay, in saying so, you doe [...]e wrong, for I haue taught you how to make your horse to trot, and to gal­lop your ring and the field gallop, to stoppe, and to aduaunce, to goe backe, carrie his head steadie, & to raine wel, which is the chiefe principle and foundation of ma­king of your horse: for an horse which is perfect in these foresaid lessons vpon his trot you shall [...]astly make him a perfect readie horse within the [...]pace of foure or sixe moneths, if so be he be of age and strength agréeable.

Kingdon.

I can not denie, but that you haue t [...]ugh [...] [...]ne suffi­ciently howe to make my horse to do al these lessons vp­on the trot, but as touching his gallop, you haue taught [...]e nothing that I can remember.

Clifford.
[Page 7]

I graunt, but now I will teach you, vpon this con­dition, that you shall seldome or neuer gallop any horse till he be almost sixe yeares of age: & then, when you haue trotted your horse, as you shal thinke sufficient, you may gallop him two or thrée turnes vpon ech hand, and then ride foorth right in some furrow, if he be a young horse, & of good mouth: but if he be an olde horse, and harde of mouth, stop him in your ring, and make him go backe fiue or sixe paces, which done, light from him, flatter him, giue him grasse to eate, as is aforesaide, and do no more with him that day.

Kingdon.

I maruaile not a little, why you haue with such di­ligence taught mée all other lessons, and would séeme [...] hightly to passe ouer this, of learning my horse how to gallop.

Clifford.

It is néedelesse to teach you any more, for that euerie horse will take it too fast of himselfe, and I neuer sawe in my life, any rider that woulde not both gallop his horse too yong, and also too too much.

Hovve to teach an horse to turne readily on both handes. Chap. 5.

Kingdon.

H [...]ing alreadie taught my horse to raine wel, ca­rie his head steadie, beare light on the hand, trot, stoppe, goe backe, and tread his rings vppon pas [...], trot, and gallop, both orderly and iustly, [Page] and that he is of age and strength, sufficient to make a mannage, I would desire you to teach me, howe, and in what order I shall make my horse to turne readily on both hands, without straining his backe and loin [...]s, or o­therwise disordering or weakning him, for ye I haue hard you sa [...]e, that the furrow turnes, by Gryson taught, doth greatly weaken the backe and loines of anie horse, and also, that diuers horses thereby are vtterly marred and made restie. And also I haue often heard you sa [...]e, that you haue had good experience thereof, in a bay horse of sir Thomas Scots in Kent, and also in a roa [...]e horse of M. Gregorie Prises of Herefor [...], East: and likewise in a grey gelding of sir Iohn Tracies in Gloucester shire, and a dapple grey horse of Nassaws, base sonne to the prince of Orange. All which foure horses were disordered by turning them too short, and that you reformed these two last named, by causing them to make their mannage in a couple of large rings. And afterwards, hauing made them perfect therein, then you caused them to make their turnes in lesse and lesse roomes, in such sort, that they were throughly reformed, by meanes therof. Wherfore, I pray you to shew me in what order you did the same.

Clifford.

When thy horse is of age, and can do al those lessons, by thée aboue recited, then thou shalt vse him to one ring, and giuing him fiue or sixe turnes on the right hand vpon his trot, then shall you turne out of the fore­saide ring vpon your left hand, as though you woulde marke out an other ring: but you must not take one quarter so much compasse, as your ring is in greatnesse. And hauing brought your horse about, enter into your foresaid ring on the left hand, and hauing giuen him 6. turnes, then shall you ride out of your rin [...] and change hands as before: sée that always, whē you change hands, you turne him as short as may be: and also help him [Page 8] with your voice, and contrarie calue of legge, and with your [...] by l [...]tting the point fall towardes his con­trarie shoulder. And when your horse can in this sorte gallop the foresaide ring, and change from hand to hand in this order, then shall you treade out a ring some­thing lesser: And hauing made him perfect in the same, then shall you also make your third ring lesser than the second, and so shall you, by little and little, make your horse turne so readily and perfectly as is possible, with­out anie disorder, for by your changing from hand to hand, you shall teach him howe to make his mannaging turnes, so readily and short, as anie horse (taught in a furrow) did euer make, noting alwaies, that when you chaunge handes you helpe him in such sorte, that you make him to turne in verie short roome, and also with greater swiftnesse than when you gallop or trot aboute your ring. Also it is verie good to change hands within your ring, in this sort: hauing giuen your horse sixe turnes on your right hand, then shall you turne him so short vpon the same hand, that you may ride to the o­ther side of your ring, right through the middle thereof, where you shall cause your horse to turne on the left hād into the same ring: this is a good waie to change hands, but the former is much better, for that in the first, you turne your horse whole about in a verie narrow compas, and in this you giue him but a quarter of a turne, but it is verie good to make your horse perfect in them both.

Kingdon.

Hauing thus brought my horse to turne readily on both hands, both vpon pase, trot, and gallop, and that he wil change from hand to hand, alwaies kéeping his gallop in one selfe ring, which shall not exceede aboue the greatnesse of eight or ten paces about: then woulde I desire you to teach me howe to acquaint my horse first, wish his mannage without disordering him.

Clifford.
[Page]

When he is perfect in trotting and gallopping the foresaide little ring, then shall you make two rings of the selfe bignesse as before, which woulde be distant one from an other thirtie or fortie paces. That done, make a right furrow or path, betwéene them, entring into one end of the same, and ride to the other, where you shal make two turns on your right hand on the foresaid ring: that done, you shall ride back againe, in the self furrow, to the other ring, and giue him two turnes on your left hand: this being done, you shall ride againe to your right ring, and giue him two turnes, as at the first: then shall you ride him backe againe, almost to your left ring, where you must stoppe him. Thus shall you haue made foure turnes on your right hand, and but two on the left: which order you must obserue in al your doings, to beginne with the right hand, and ende with the same: this shall be inough for the first time, remem­bring, that in giuing your horse anie lesson, whatsoeuer, till such time, as he be a perfect readie horse, that you neuer offer him it, but that you acquaint him therewith, first on his pase, before you offer it him on his trot or galloppe: for by rash, bedlem, and brainsicke hastinesse, not onelie horses are disordered and marred, but mightie armies also haue béene thereby ouerthrown, and vtterly confounded. Note also, that when your horse hath done his lesson in this sorte, walke him halfe, an houre, at the least, in the selfe rings, and path, vppon a soft pase, obseruing the same order, in pasing that you did when you trotted him.

Kingdon.

But how, and when shall I teach my horse to gallop these foresaid mannaging rings?

Clifford.

When he is throughlie acquainted with this lesson [Page 9] vpon his trot, then shall you, when you haue trotted him once about, giue him the other turne vpon his gal­loppe. This being done, you shall ride to your other ring vppon a trot, and enter the same with a swif­ter trot than you did before, making him turne once vpon the same, and at the second gallop as before. Thus shall you chaunge from hand to hand, as often as you shall thinke requisite: And when he shal be verie perfect in this lesson, then may you put him to do it, all vppon his gallop, noting, that as he is perfect in the large ring, you cause him to treade out an other paire of rings, of two pases lesse compasse than your first. Thus shall you diminish the largenesse of your ring, by little and little, till you haue made him turne in so narrow roome as is possible for him to do, so that you will take good heede, that you chaunge not your horse from his mannaging rings of tenne pases about in largenesse, and thirtie pa­ses one from an other, till such time as he can manage in the same perfectlie, lightlie, and readilie, so pleasaunt­ly, and willingly, that you and he shall séeme as though you both had but one minde: and when your horse is in this sorte verie perfect, I woulde haue you walke him out right vppon a trot two or thrée miles without giuing him anie of these foresaid turnes, and then at the next time you ride him, giue him this lesson againe: yea, I haue euer vsed after my horse began to be perfect in these managing rings, to offer him the same but once in eight or tenne daies, and to ride him a little euerie other daie, to exercise and acquaint him with trauel, by which meanes I did not onlie keep my horse in strength, sound, and well disposed, but also that he did his lessons a great deal [...] more willing when I put him to do them: for con­tinuall beating your horse vpon one lesson, shall too too much confound and disorder him after such time as hée can do it willingly and perfectly, as is before said.

Kingdon.
[Page]

Then you wil haue me, when my horse can once ma­nage in these large rings, that then I shall bring him by lesse and lesse roome, by a litle at once, as I find him willing and apte to take the same, which I must néedes graunt to be a verie good waie, for that I shall hereby neither disorder nor straine my horses back and loines, nor in anie sorte distemper his mouth: but I pray you, is there no other waie to teach my horse to turne, but this?

Clifford.

Yes, there is a most vile waie to teach a horse to turne in a furrowe or ditch made of purpose, which I vsed by the space of tenne yeares in riding sir Ihon Pollardes horses of Deuon shire, sir Richard Green­uiles, sir Thomas Scots of Kent, and Maister Ba [...]narde Drakes, in all which time, I could neuer make anie horse, but that he would enterfure when he came to tra­uell, but for the space of twelue yeares that I haue ob­serued this order here by me taught, I haue not onely kept anie young horse from enterfuring, but also, I haue made diuers olde horses, whose backes and loines haue béene almost marred by sodaine and short stopping them vpon naughtie ground when they are extreame hot: at which time you must note, that your horse wants one quarter of the strength that he had when he was colde: and also, by causing him to beate his coruet, and by lear­ning him a womanlie or ta [...]ata goats leape, or else, by bounding aloft with all foure, as they terme it, which thing, howe vnfit it is for anie horse of seruice or trauel, I commend me to all those which are sou [...]iours or ri­ders of experience, who I am sure will confesse this not to be my opinion, but the thing which I haue well tried, of which I woulde haue you to haue a spe­ciall care, that as seldome as maie be, you driue your [Page 10] horse into any such heats. And if at anie time it chance thereby that your horse will not willingly do that that you woulde haue him, but that he will be stubborne, and do his lessons out of all order, then I woulde wish you to walke him with a man on his backe, in the same place by the space of one houre at the least, where you giue him his lesson, by meanes whereof you shall through­lie acquaint your horse therewith, and besides that you shall kéepe his legges exercised, till he be thorow colde, you shall also preuent the danger of marring your horse, by putting him in the stable where hée must stand still, without exercise, which thing I doe vtterlie disallowe, for that experience hath taught me (to my cost and shame when I was yong) that this is the onlie waie, as hath béene aforesaid, vtterlie to marre your horse, but by fol­lowing the foresaide order, to exercise him when hée is in anie such extreame heate, I haue founde it a great deale better, and a more sure way to preserue him than to bring him to the stable, although I had there two men to rub him with litter inough vnder him, and warme clothes to couer him, all which things shall not halfe so well preuent the making your horse stiffe in his legs, or ye hu­mors that shalbe then dissolued by the means of extreme heate, frō hauing leasure or place in the bodie, thus exerci­sed, to congeale through idlenes. This (gentle reader) I know well inough, doth not belong to the riders office, yet do I accompt him farre vnworthie of the name & au­thoritie, either of rider, kéeper, or owner that is ignorant how to vse his horse when he is ridden in anie sorte, whatsoeuer, whether it be to trauell him, or to giue him his lessons, running, gallopping, or moderatelie to ex­ercise him. This, by the waie of communication, but to our purp [...] there is an other waie to teach your horse to turne in this sorte, dig the earth out of the foresaide narrow rings, and make them thrée foote déeper in the [Page] middle than on the out sides, and caste all your fore­saide earth, cleane without your rings, and this shall be a verie good place to manage your horse in at anie time, and to teach him to turne: And when you will learn [...] your horse to turne verie narrowe and brauely, then enter into one of these foresaid places of stop and turne, where you shall turne your horse first vppon a soft pase in somewhat narrower compasse than you did before, and hauing so giuen him sixe or eight turnes, stop him and make him goe backe a little, then giue him as ma­ny turnes on your left hand without once going out of the foresaid place, and when your horse is thus perfect vpon his pase, then may you offer it him vpon his trot, and also change him from hand to hand sodainely with­out anie staying. And when you will gallop him, giue him but two turnes on an hand, and then stop him, and make much of him, which being done, giue him two on your left hand, and then returne to your right hand as before, and when he can do it verie perfectlie in this sorte, then maie you vppon his galloppe cause him to make two turnes on your right hand, and two on your left, which being done, yet giue him two more on your right hand, then stop him, and make him go backe, and light from him, euen in that place, without doing anie more with him that daie.

Kingdon.

Sithence you haue taught me howe to make my horse to mannage vppon large turnes, and also, to turne readily on bothe handes, as well on his gallop as trot, nowe would I desire you also to teach me how to make my horse to manage perfectly, in so braue and readie maner as is possible.

Clifford.

After he can turne, as before, vpon his gallop, you shal-begin but to giue him one turne on an hand, noting that you take not so much roome as when you gaue him [Page 11] two turnes, hauing a special regard, that you make him cloase his turne at your departure out of your place of stop and turne.

Kingdon.

What meane you by cloasing of his turne, and by taking lesse roome than when I gaue mine horse two turnes: I praie you teach me more plainlie, for I doe not vnderstand your meaning therein.

Clifford.

I meane by taking lesse roome, that you shoulde ride somewhat within the circle of your former ring, & that you should make your horse turne in lesse compasse or roome by one quarter than when you gaue him two turnes of an hand, which you must do by a litle at once, making him at euerie time you manage him to turne in something lesse roome, according as you finde the dis­position and aptenesse of your horse. But if you will fol­low my counsell, turne not your horse to short, nor giue him to many managing turnes, for that they wil great­ly weaken the back and loines of the horse, of the which thing you must haue a speciall care that you make him turne somewhat large, and also, when you manage him, giue him not aboue sixe or eight of these turnes on an hand at once, and as touching closing of his turne, I meane, that you shal not let him come out of the place that he turnes in till he haue brought his fore féete iust in the middle of the path by the which he did enter.

Kingdon.

What do you meane by turning of my horse some­what large?

Clifford.

I meane by turning your horse somewhat large, that you should giue him so much compasse in his turning, as the largenesse of a cart or wagon whéele is in roundnes, and that you make your path to come iust vpon the mi­dle of his foresaide round place of stop and turne, where [Page] you must cause your horse to stop & turne when you wil manage him, in forme as followeth: When you haue marked out two such round places of stop and turne, as hath béene before specified, then shall you enter at one end of the path or furrow, and ride to the other ende therof, and when you enter into the foresaid round place, to make a turne on your right hand, sée that you turne first on your left hand so much, as you may ride round about your circle before you come out of the foresaide place on your right hand: and hauing walked your horse fiue or sixe turnes, to acquaint him, or put him in re­membraunce what he shall doe. Then may you, com­ming out of the places of stop and turne, put your horse into a soft gallop, and ride therevppon to the other end, and when you come to enter your place of stop & turne, sée that you staie your horse somewhat more vpon the bit than before, to the ende you maie make him lift his féet the better, and go the vprighter in his turning. And in going about your foresaid circle, sée that you kéepe him in his gallop, and that you staie so much vpon the hand, that he maie not go halfe so fast in his turning, as when he gallops right forth: and that you help him with your voice, calues of your legs, with your rod vpon ye contra­ry shoulder, and with the contrary spurre also, if néed be: but I haue euer found the inside of my foote to be much better to strike him withal, than to giue him the spurre, when I haue managed my horse, for I will not giue a strawe for that manage that [...]he inside of the foote, and the sight of the rod, with the point toward the contrarie shoulder, is not sufficient to make him turne so readilie, and swiftly as is possible. And when your horse is tho­rowlie acquainted with his manage in this sorte, you shall see him beginne to turne, euen of him selfe, so short as if he had béen taught two yeares in a furrow or ditch. But in anie case, sée that you take such compasse in [Page 12] turning of him, as hath béen before taught, for feare of straining your horses backe and loines, when you shal chance to ride him vpon naughtie ground.

Kingdon.

And why, I praie you is this called a man­nage?

Clifford.

I knowe not whie it is called a ma [...]nage, but that it is vsuallie so called, that am I sure of, whensoeuer a horse doth vpon his gallop, stoppe, and turne, in two such narrow places, as hath béene before mentioned, being distant the one from the other thirtie or fortie pa­ses, as this figure doth most plainlie represent vnto you the right fashion, and true manner of the mannaging place, vsed of all the best horsemen in Christendome at this daie.

Kingdon.

Whereas you saie I must enter into one ende of my managing place, and when I come to the other, to giue mine horse a tu [...]ne on the right hand, I must first turne on my left, so much as I may ride ro [...]de about a cir­cle, in largenesse, and fashion of a cart or wagon wheele, and that I shal not enter within the compasse of the fore­saide whéele or péece of ground of that largenesse, but ride rounde about the same, surely I doe not perfectly vnderstand your meaning therein.

[woodcut, diagram]
Clifford.
[Page]

But this figure shal most plainly make thée vnder­stand my meaning herein, and how thou shouldest doe the same: for thou shalt finde the place where thou must enter first into the managing place marked with the figure of 1. and the furrowe also in the which thou shalt passe thy managing path marked with the same figure, and where thou shalt first stay thy horse vppon the bridle a little and turne something on thy left hand, thou shalt find it marked with the figure of 2. and where thou shalt beginne to turne on thy right hand it is mar­ked with the figure of 3. But thou hast to note, that thou maist not depart out of the foresaide circle til thou hast brought thy horses forefeete vpon the figure of 2. which I call cloasing of his turne, and when thou shalt come to the left place of stoppe and turne, thou shalt turne on thy right hand from the figure of 4. to the figure of 5. and obserue the selfe same order in all points, as thou diddest in the right place of stoppe and turne marked with the figure of 2. and 3. and the left is marked by the figures of 4. & 5. and the place by which thou must enter, and the mannaging path are marked with the fi­gure 1. as before. And the little péece of grounde which thou must ride about whē thou wilt giue thy horse some compasse in his turning, or ye hollow pit after the earth is digged out, as hath béene before taught, is marked with the figure of 6.

Kingdon.

Now I vnderstand perfectly by this figure, and by your wordes, what you meane by digging [...]waie the earth within my mannaging rings, and also what you meane by the compas of a cart whéele, for that I see most plainely this péece of ground marked with the figure of 6. and a circle drawen round about the same, within the which I must not enter when I manage my horse, [Page 13] as you sale, but I would desire you to shew me to what purpose I shall dig away the ground thrée foote déeper in the middle than vpon the out edges, sith I maie not turne my horse anie shorter, than before the earth was digged awaie.

Clifford.

As touching thy demaunde why thou shouldest digge awaie the ground, I aunswere, that thereby thy horse shall go a great deale the vprighter in his turning about a pit than vpon the plaine ground, and he shall be in lesse daunger to slide with his hinder féete, wherewith thou mightest marre thy horse, for that it is verie dange­rous to teach thy horse vppon anie slipperie or euen ground. And whereas thou saiest thou must not turne thy horse anie shorter than when thou gallopest him in the managing rings, herein thou art deceiued, for the managing rings would be eight or tenne paces about, which wil amount to fiftie foote in circuit or roundnesse, if thou allow to euerie pase fiue foote (as hath béene be­fore taught:) but when thou hast digged away the earth, and that thy horse can manage perfectly vppon his gal­lop, then I haue taught thée that thou shalt giue him no more roome than the compasse of a cart or wagon whéele, which will not amount to halfe so manie foote about. Moreouer, as touching the compasse that thou shalt giue him in his managing turnes, it is not onlie eas [...]e for the horse, but also it is verie sure when thou shalt turne vp­on slippie or naughtie grounde, and thereby thou shalt not halfe so soone disorder thy horse, as if thou shouldest turne him short: yea, I do assure thée, that vnlesse thou take héede to turne thy horse somewhat large, after hée beginnes to be verie perfect, to manage vpon his gallop, thou shalt be worse troubled with some horses, to make them turne large, for feare of falling vppon naughtie grounde, than thou wast at the first, with teaching them [Page] to turne short: for the surest and best kinde of turning, not onelie for anie horse, but also for the rider, when he shall come to seruice, is the large turne, as hath béene before taught: for thou shalt hardly finde anie horse, (af­ter he is throughly acquainted what he shal do) that wil not turne too short, euen of himselfe.

Kingdon.

I had almost forgotten two things, the first is howe to remedie that horse which wil not cloase his turne per­fectly at his departure out of his place of stop and turne: the second is, howe to remedie that horse, that in his tur­ning will prease too fast forward.

Clifford.

As touching thy first demaunde, thou maiest make thy horse cloase his turne perfectly, by giuing him two turnes on an hand, at euerie such time as he will not close his turne wel at his departure whē thou managest him vpon one turne: & as touching thy second demand, howe thou maiest remedie thy horse that will go too fast in his turning: force thine hand in all his doings in two sortes, the first is, as he is in his turning or gallopping, when he begins to force thy hand out of order, then thou must stop him, and make him go back, & euer as he pres­seth to goe forward of himselfe, make him goe backe so long till he will be glad to stand still with the reines loose vpon his necke, and when thou wilt put him for­ward to do anie lesson, do it verie gentlie vppon a soft pase at the first: and faile not at euerie time as he be­ginnes his disorder, to serue him as before. And for e­uerie turne ye thou giuest vpon his trot or gallop, it shal be good to giue him fiue vpon a soft pase. For I haue re­medied diuerse of these horses that haue béene also some­what hard of mouth, by kéeping them both from trot and gallop, & by pasing them an houre and an half, or two houres at a time, in a painefull ring made in a pit, or [Page 14] vpon an hil side, and by stopping them oft, and by ma­king them go backe in the selfe same ring as before. Thou maiest also remedie it by managing thine horse cloase by some wall, by making him make his last turne with his head iust against the wall at euerie time that thou wilt stop him, and let him stand stil a pretie while, and make him go backe.

Kingdon.

Here you put me in remembrance to demaund two questions of you: the first is of the pit on a hils side, & the other of the rings in the plaine ground, and the reasons why you teach some horses always in the plain ground, and others, in a pit or on a hils side.

Clifford.

As touching thy first demaund, I answere, that the horses which thou hast séene me ride vpon plaine ground as well in trotting the large Ring, pasing, or gal­lopping the same or anie other lesson or exercise whatsoeuer, were young horses of weake bodies, by meanes that they were vnacquainted with trauel, or else olde horses that were almost marred for lacke of exercise & reasonable trauel, and thereby were made weake of bo­die, and of short breath. All which horses must be hand­led gentlie, and be exercised according to their strength, and as they increase in breath and abilitie of bodie, thou maiest increase their trauaile accordingly, which thing if thou obserue orderly, thou shalt neither marre, or disorder anie young horse, nor thou shalt neuer finde anie olde horse of shorte breath for lacke of exercise, nor anie horse so disordered, but by exercising him accor­ding to his qualitie and abilitie of strength, thou shalt eastly recouer him: yea, I doe assure thée I haue vsed more diligence, and taken greater paines, in searching out the nature and disposition of euerie horse according vnto the diuersitie qualitie or bréede, [Page] and howe hée might with most ease, and best force bring anie horse to do his lessons in good order, and then in searching what hee shoulde doe, for in my iudge­ment, it is but a small matter to knowe what should be done, but it is a great matter to knowe howe it shoulde be done, so as thereby, thou in commaunding obserue this rule, to séeke a great deale more howe to commaund without offence: which shal be, when thou in commaun­ding the wise and expert, shalt intreate them as friends, and not commaund them as slaues, and with the igno­rant & rude sort, thou must intreate them as thou woul­dest do children or fooles, whome thou wouldest be loath to offend, not so much for the feare of that they may doe against thée, but in respect of the shame and discredit that may happen vnto thée, by abuse, where if thou haddest the true vse, thou shouldest not onelie kéepe them from discontentment, but also, thou thy selfe shouldest thereby be by them well serued: yea, I haue béene long of the opinion that he is farre vnworthie the credite to com­maund, ye hath not either by reason or experience, or else by learning the knowledge how to imploy the most vi­lest person to some profite: yea, and that with the least [...]ffence to him that is possible, and to the other sort that are so stubborne, that you must be forced to vse a bridle, to maister them withall, yet let it be so gentle, that af­ter they yéeld, for that there is no other remedie, that then they may perfectly knowe, that the cause why thou hast so ouermaistred them, is not of malice, but that they haue forced thee through the qualitie of their fault, and thou art rather sorie for their correction, than that thou doest it to take anie pleasure or delight to exercise this crueltie. If thou canst well ponder and consider these things, thou shalt vse so great diligēce, or to speak more plainly no such lightnesse, hastinesse, and brainsick bed­lemnesse, as thou maiest sée a number of madmen, mon­sters, [Page 15] diuels, or tormētors of horses vse in teaching their horses, & going about to bring them to some order, who are vtterly blinde or destitute of that most noble rule, I meane the true art of gouernment, without the which, though a number of ignorant men, chance to make some horses of good disposition readie inough, yet when they come to trauell, we finde them marred, by disordinate handling of them, and vnreasonable vsage: but as tou­ching the horses that are of disposition stubborne by na­ture, where they make one, they marre fiue: yea, I doe certainely beléeue, that all those that are ignorant in the nature and disposition of euerie horse that they shal pre­sume to teach, are but in sort a kinde of presumptuous mē, for in this knowledge aboue al other, doth the whole ground of the art of Riding consist. I confesse I haue béene somewhat tedious: But oh that thou diddest know what griefe it is to me, that I am not able here fulli [...] to make thée vnderstand my experience and opinion in this matter, for lack of learning to set downe ye thing in words orderly which I haue so perfectly attained to, by continuall vse & practise. But to our purpose, by that that I haue said I would haue said, ye thou shalt ride al those horses that are weake, either for lack of age, exercise, or through euil handling, in rings made vpon plaine and firme ground, & that thou therein vse such moderate tra­uell, that thy horse may daily increase his co [...]rage and strength, fully as much as he profits in learning of his le [...]ns. And as touching thy secōd demaund why I ride in a pit, or vpon a hils side, that haue I always found to be most excellent for any horse that is of great strength & courage, and also for such horses as are stubborne, of hard mouth, vnni [...]ible of foote, and that wil leane too much on one [...]ide in their turning, for the ring made in a pit or vpō a hils [...]de, is a thousand times better to make your horse go vpright in his turning, & to be ni [...]ble of [...]nto, [Page] [...] [Page 15] [...] [Page] than to spur thē, whip them, & heare so hard a hand vpon them, that many times they do more harme to the horses mouth in one houre, than they are able to recouer in one whole yere.

Kingdon.

Séeing this ring made in a pit, or vpon a hilles side, is so good to reforme anie horse that will leane on the one side in turning, or that is verie vnnimble of foote, I would desire you to shewe me (for my better vnder­standing) the figure or forme, not onlie of this ring, but also of all other rings and riding places, néedefull to be vsed to make a readie horse, with the largenesse, fa­shion, and vpon what ground is best.

Clifford.

The more I teach thée, the more vnskilful, I thinke, thou art. But bicause thou shalt not haue any excuse of ignorance in this art of riding, I will shewe thée ye true figure & largeues that is required in euerie riding place, euen from the first to the last, saue one, which is already most liuely expressed in the chapter of mannaging thy horse. And first of the rings in the plaine ground méete to be vsed for a young horse, at his first entring into his lessons, thou shalt make them in forme as followeth: as touching their largenes, let one of them be 50. pases a­bout at ye least, according as this figure doth most plainly shew thee: for thou shalt find thy entring place into ye end of thy mannaging furrow marked with the letter A, and the place where thou shalt stop thy horse marked with ye letter B in the self same furrow, where thou shalt stop thy horse when thou shalt haue made an end of thy ring turnes. And the right ring is marked with the letter C, and the left ring with the letter D, here most, plainly to be séen: & the place where thou shalt enter in­to ye right ring marked with this letter E, & where thou shalt depart ye same ring to stop thy horse wt this letter F, Whē he shal haue done this lessō of treding ye large ring.

[Page 16]
[woodcut, diagram]
Kingdon.

But shall I not turne my horse in this managing furrow when I haue stopped him?

Clifford.

No, thou shalt neuer turne thy horse in anie furrow, for that is the onelie waie to straine thy horses back and loines, to the vtter vndoing and marring of him, and al­so if the Rider lacke knowledge, and that he be not verie patient, he may quicklie make his horse so restie that he will neither turne nor yet go forward, and if thou wert not verie forgetfull, or else too too dull in vnderstanding I haue taught thée héeretofore plainlie enough how thou shouldest make thy horse first perfect in the great ring of fiftie pases about, vntill he can tred this same first vp­pon his pase, next vpon his trot, and last vppon his gal­lop, and that in all his doings that he raigne well, and that he beare light his head.

Kingdon.

How long time shall I vse my Horse to these large rings.

Clifford.

His age must be thy rule therein, for if hée bée but [Page] foure yeares of age, then it shall be good not to giue him anie other ring turne, in a whole yeare at the least, yea, if it were mine owne horse, I shoulde thinke him mar­red, to vse him to anie other narrow turne, before hée be fiue yeares and the vantage, by which vantage I meane sixe months.

Kingdon.

Then if I take vp my horse at foure yeares of age, would you haue me spend a yeare and an halfe in teach­ing him to treade the large rings onelie?

Clifford.

No, thou maiest also teach thy horse to stop well, to kéepe his furrowe iust and right, as well in stopping, as in going forward, thou maiest also teach him to go back, to aduance, and thou maiest acquaint him with trauell, by riding him right foorth euery second day an hall mile, after that thou hast (vpon his trot) giuen him so manie ring turnes, as shal be agreeable to his strength for the first halfe yeare, and the second halfe yeare you must ride him one mile, and the third halfe yeare, thou maiest ride him twice as much, if thou wilt take great héede, not to weary thy horse too much in treading these rings, this kinde of trauaile shall make thy horse, not onelie light, but also he shall be verie strong, and of a healthie and sound bodie: yea, this is the chiefest and princi­pallest waie, not onelie to make thy horse light, strong, sound, to raine well, to beare light on the hand, but also, that hée shall be a durable horse, both for trauaile and seruice.

Kingdon.

But if my horse be foure yeares of age and the van­tage, then woulde I knowe of you howe long time I shal take in learning him his lesson, and exercising him in this sort?

Clifford.
[Page 17]

Then one yeare shall be inough, if thou meanest by the vantage six moneths.

Kingdon.

I pray you teach me also how long time shall be suf­ficient, if my horse be fiue yeares of age before I giue him any lesson.

Clifford.

Then foure moneths shall be inough, and yet this horse may be made as readie when hee commies to sixe yeares of age, as he had béene begunne to be ridden at foure yeares of age, yea, and I had rather haue one of these horses of fiue yeares and an halfe of age, so that he be made gentle before, and his mouth vnspoiled, than foure of those Horses that shall be [...]aught to young, for that the one, when hee commes to be readie, will haue no abilitie or strength of bodie, to maintaine his doings, and the other shall be so strong, that before (with orderly handling) he become anie thing wearie, the rider shall not onelie haue a good stomacke to his breakefast, but hée shall be glad also to reste hym­selfe.

Kingdon.

But if so be I chaunce to finde a horse of sixe or sea­uen yeares of age, made gentle, and throughlie acquain­ted with trauaile, howe long time shall be sufficient to teach him to treade the foresaide large rings?

Clifford.

Then in two moneths thou maiest haue made him treade perfectly both vpon pase, trot, and gallop, and in foure moneths, thou maiest haue made him both a rea­die and a seruiceable horse: yea, I haue made diuers old horses that haue béene verie hard of mouth, and that ne­uer knew how to treade a ring vpon a trot, verie ser­uiceable horses within the space of sixe or eight moneths, and to beare so light on the hand as a man could desire, [Page] without vsing anie other bit, than a plaine Cannon, after I had perfectly reformed him vpon a trench in such order as hath béene before taught.

Kingdon.

Now vnderstand I perfectly howe to make my horse raine well, carrie his head steadie, and howe to treade his large rings perfectly, and of what fashion they should be made. But nowe woulde I haue you shewe mée the fashion of the one ring, by you before mentioned, in the which you woulde haue mée to teache my horse to turne readily by changing him from hand to hand in the selfe ring.

Clifford.

By this figure thou maiest vnderstand the true fa­shion of the one ring, and howe thou shalt change from hande to hande as well within as without the same ring.

[Page 18]

Howe to change hands within the ring.

The place where you must come foorth of your ring vvhen you chaunge handes vvithout the same.

The place by the vvhich you must enter againe into your ring vvhen you haue changed handes.

Howe to change hands within the ring.

The place by she vvhich you must enter againe into your [...]g vvhen you have changeed handes.

The place where you must come foorth of your ring vvhen you chaunge handes vvithout the [...]ame.

Kingdon.

Now I perceiue when I ride my horse in a ring, howe I must change handes without the same; by the little halfe round circle vppon the out side thereof, and how I shall change handes within the same ring, by the strike that goeth right ouer the middle thereof, but I woulde request you to teach mée howe long [Page] I shall ride my horse in the same?

Clifford.

Thou shalt ride thy horse in this ring in such order as hath beene before taught, till he will not onelie tread it perfectly both vpon pase, trot, and gallop, but also that he can change handes in verie short roome both without and within the same ring, still kéeping his gallop, and that he will both raine wel, carrie his head steadie, beare light on the hand, and go vpright in his turning. And when thy horse is perfect in this ring, in such sort as hath béene before taught, then shalt thou beginne to treade out an other ring a little lesser, and obserue the self same order as before: thus shalt thou decrease the greatnesse of the rings, by a little [...]f once, without anie disorder or straining of thy horse, till thou hast brought him to turne in so narrowe a roome as if thou haddest taught him in a furrowe, and that you had a footeman to thrust him about, as Pierce Plowman thrusteth his Dames mare to a blocke when she rides to the market, or if that thou haddest had one with a rod to strike him vpon his contrarie shoulder.

Kingdon.

But [...] well as in a furrow turne? you haue often­times persuaded me that it is much better.

Clifford.

Y [...], and I dare auouch the same, that it is a thou­sand times better than the furrow turne, for that anie man of reason may thereby make a readie horse without hurting or disordering of him, and I haue my selfe ne­uer hurt nor disordered anie horse by teaching him in this sort neither haue I euer taken in hand anie resti [...] or runawaie iades, but that I haue perfectly reformed them, whereas, if I had offered diuers of them to turne in a furrowe, it had béene vnpossible to remedie them▪ nay rather I should haue made them ten times worse: [Page 19] I crie you mercie, poore horses, for that I haue called you iades, which is a name more proper to those beasts which do so beastlie misuse you.

Kingdon.

Now do I vnderstand howe to make a horse of good disposition to turne readily on both handes by riding him in a ring, and changing him from hand to hand, within and without the same, and as hée is perfect in the large ring, to cause him to treade out an other a little lesser, and so still as he is perfect in the one, to cause him to make an other lesser, till I haue brought him to turne in so narrowe roome as is possible, the which I must néeds confesse to be the most excellentest waie of all other, for that hereby I shall neither hurt my horses mouth, nor haue anie néede to pull him about with the one raine, wherewith I might make him become weake necked, to runne backward, or to reare on end: yea, by turning my horse too short at the first, I may not onely disorder him, but also vtterly spoile his back, loines, and mouth: and besides, I may make him so restie, that he will not do anie thing: but it remaineth, that you shew me how I shall make my ring in a pit, or vppon a hilles side to reforme those horses that are strong of bodie, lustie, and wel able to endure trauaile, and those that are hard of mouth, and vnnimble of foote, and that will leane on the one side in their turning, and that are very stubborn and vntractable.

Clifford.

The ring which thou must make in a pit, or vpon a hilles side differeth nothing in fashion from the other ring, but in qualitie there is great difference, for that the one in fiue times more painful thā the other, bicause in treading the one halfe of this ring, you must ride vphill, and the other halfe your horse goeth downehill, which will make anie horse, were he neuer so hard of [Page] mouth, or vnnimble of foote, or subiect to leane on the one side in his turning, wonderfully mend his faults, by oftentimes pasing him in the same, and trotting him, and sometimes gallopping him thrée or foure times a­bout on a hand, and then stopping him, and making him goe backe, which being done, you must walke him in the selfe ring till he be in breath againe, and then giue him his lesson, as before, so often as shall be agréeable with his strength, and to take great héede that alwaies you giue him fiue times as manie turnes vpon his pase, as you do either vpon his trot or gallop, and when you chaunge handes, you must obserue the selfe same order as hath béene before taught in all points, and as touch­ing the ring in a pit, which is best of all other, if the pit be little inough you may make your ring round about vpon the bankes thereof, so high as your horse may get good footing: but if the pit be bigger than you would haue the ring, then may you tread it out vpon one side of the pit, and make one part of your ring so high vppon the banke or side of your foresaid pit as your horse can get good holde with his féete, and obserue the same order as in the ring vpon the hilles side: these two last rings are not onelie sufficient to reforme al the forenamed faults, but thou shalt also tenne times sooner haue made thy horse readie in these rings, than in the rings vpon plaine ground, besides that, when thy horse is made, he shall be so sure of foote, that thou shalt hardly euer haue occa­sion to ride him on such ground, but that vpon his gal­lop, he will kéepe his féete sure without anie danger of falling.

Kingdon.

It resteth that you shew m [...] the rest of the [...]ing places, with the vse thereof according [...] y [...] pr [...] made before.

Clifford.
[Page 20]

I haue shewed thée the best; but bicause I haue taken so much paines to teach thée, I would now for my cre­dits sake be verie sorie not to make thée a good horsman, in respect whereof I will shew thée another kind of ma­naging place, not vnproperly inuented and vsed of skil­full riders, and also I will shew thée an other fashion riding place, which is not amisse to be vsed at sometimes to recreate your horse with change of lessons, which ri­ding place I call a double S. which being ioined toge­ther, is not much vnlike the figure of eight. And the place where thou shalt first enter is marked with the fi­gure 1. and where thou shalt beginne to turne thy horse on the right hand marked with the figure 2. and where thou shalt beginne to turne on thy left hand mar­ked with the figure 3. here most plainly to be séene: and where thou shalt enter this managing place at the first is marked with the figure 4. and where thou shalt be­ginne to turne thy horse first vppon the right hand is marked with the figure 5. and where thou shalt cloase thy turne when thou hast ridden a [...] [...]ute the halfe circle is marked with the figure 6. and where thou must stop thy horse when he hath managed is marked with this figure 7.

[woodcut, diagram]

And when thou hast made a turne on thy right hand then maist thou ride to the other end and make an other on thy left, beginning thy turne at this figure 8. [Page] which shal be closed when thou commest to the figure 9. Then maiest thou ride againe through thy managing [...]urrow, and giue thy horse an other turne on his right hand, as at the first: thus maiest thou change from hand to hand so often as thou shalt thinke requisite. And when thy horse is perfect in managing in these two halfe circles vppon his gallop in such order as hath

[woodcut, diagram]

béene here taught: then maiest thou by a little a [...]nce ac­quaint him to beginne to turne about thy halfe circle the other waie, so that in processe of time you make him turne perfectly, both the one way and the other about the foresaide halfe circle. Friend Kingdon thy negligenc [...] or lacke of remembraunce to demaunde those things in their proper places hath béene cause of some disorder for that the large rings, which should haue béene in the be­ginning of this Booke in the chapter of treading the great ring are here placed out of al order.

Kingdon.

It is no matter in what order they be placed in the Booke, for the diligent reader that will take paines to reade the whole worke, shall here finde a most excellent order to make anie horse readie of what nature or dis­position soeuer he be, and also howe to reforme anie re­stife or run awaie horse perfectly.

Of the Bit and Cauison.

Kingdon.

HAuing made mine horse perfectly readie vppon the trench or brake with a mousroll and martin­gale, I would desire you to teach me what bit I shall giue at the first.

Clifford.

You shal giue him a plaine canon without any play­ing rings or roughnesse in his mouth and let the esses of your curbe be verie great, to the end that it may not gall the horses chin: for the small curbe shall gall him much sooner than the great, besides that, you may hold him tenne times better with the great curbe than with the small: Also take héede that you take the chéekes of your canon long rather than short: for with the long chéekes and great curbe you shall be able to holde your horse, not onelie from going away, but also from casting vp of his head, if you holde your bridle hand close vpon the mane: and as touching the hand vppon the bit, I woulde haue you beare it so light as is possible, so that you kéepe your horse from going away, and that he raine with his head in due place, without casting his head vp or ducking it downe: and I woulde haue you also take great héed that you neuer chocke your horse in the mouth therewith, nor pull your hand sodainely at anie time, but softly and leasurely for feare of making him to checke vpon the bit, which is a most vile vice, and commeth most commonly either by plucking your hand too so­dainely, or by letting the bit hang too side in his mouth, or for that the bit is too rough: it may come also by hol­ding too hard an hand vpon him, which is one of the worst properties that may be in anie horseman, for it [Page] is not good to let him hang vpon your hand or bridle, but also that you feede him with the bit, and oftentimes that you let it go so loose ye he may rest his necke and mouth.

Kingdon.

What meane you by holding his head in his due place?

Clifford.

I meane that he should carrie his head in such sorte that when you would make him stand against a wall, he may touch the same with his forehead and nose both iust togither.

Kingdon.

But by holding mine hand close vppon the mane, I shall not be able to féede my horse with the bit, nor giue him anie more libertie when he doth well, than when he doth ill.

Clifford.

By slacking your bridle hande, & holding the endes of the raines in your right hand you may let your rains go when he doth yéelde to the bit, and when he doth offer to cast vp his nose, or to go faster than you would haue him, then drawe the raines softlie through your left hand so much as shall be requisite. And as touching the cauison I would not haue you to put your cordes crosse wise through the rings thereof, in such sorte, that you may strain it straight to your horses head, least you be not able to let it looser when he doth well, than when hée doth offend, for that shall greatly discourage him: for both the godlie and wisest trauaile with greatest plea­sure where they gains glorie and praise, and so an horse where he findeth most ease after he doth vnderstād what he shall do vnder such a riders hands, can as wel, I say, consider these things, and vse them in time and order ac­cordingly. Thus you shal hardly euer sée or perceiue any contrarietie of wil betwixt these two bodies, although the one be reasonable and the other vnreasonable, but [Page 22] that a man would thinke when he shall sée such an horse man ride, that both they had but one wil and one mind. But to our purpose, you shall make fast a strap of lea­ther to the right ring of your cauison, and a buckle to the left ring thereof, in such sort, that you may buckle it so straight as you shall thinke méete, but I would ad­uise you to let it be rather an inch too wide, than one wheate corne length too straight: for there is not anye thing ye doth more disorder an horse than needlesse paine and correction, or rather as I may terme it, foolish tor­ment procéeding through ignorance of a more presump­tuous beast than the horse himselfe: for whatsoeuer he is that lacketh reason he differeth nothing from a beast but in name.

Kingdon.

Why shall I buckle my cauison with a strap of lea­ther, and not rather put the cordes through the rings thereof, with the which I may straine it close to his head, and also giue him ease inough by letting mine hand go, when he doth well.

Clifford.

As touching thy demaund, I answeare, that by meanes of the strap thou maiest make thy cauison serue thée to double vse, by putting thy martingall thereon it shall serue thée in steade of a musroll: and as touching that which thou saiest thou canst giue him ease inough, I answere, that that ease which thou shalt giue hym by letting thine hand goe, shall be no other than that thou giuest vnto thine owne legge, thy boote being too straight gartered by pulling vp thine hose with thine hand. But by the vse of the foresaid strappe and buckle it is farre otherwise, for that thereby thy cauison shall hang so loose, that it shall not gréeue thy horse at anie time, but when he doth offend onelie.

Kingdon.
[Page]

By this meanes my cauison shal hang so loose that it shall be readie to fal off my horses nose, and also when I would straine the raines thereof, it shal come vp so high behind, that it shall serue me to small purpose.

Clifford.

Thou maiest remedie it for hanging ouer his nose with a small strap of leather made fast at the one end to the middest thereof, and the other ende to the headstall betwirt his eares: and as touching that which thou sai­est it wil vse, it is easily remedied, by making a little short chaine fast to the two nether sides thereof, of such length as the cauison being on the horses head, and the chaine in his mouth, it may keep it in his due place.

Kingdon.

I must néedes confesse that this is the best waie to make a cauison for my horse that euer I did sée or heare of, for that it shall not gréeue him, but when he doth of­fend, nor shall be able to stirre out of his due place: but I woulde desire you to teach me how to vse mine hand vpon the same, & also whether it be good to ride an horse therewith or not.

Clifford.

As touching thy demaund, I answere that thou shalt take the left raine thereof so short in thy bridle hand, that thou maiest staie thine horse something more there­with than vpon the bit: then shalt thou take the right raine in thy right hand, and the end of the left also in such sort as thou maiest drawe the left raine with the right hand shorter at thy pleasure, without letting thy bridle raines go, or opening of either of thy handes, noting that thou straine thy right raine equally as much as the left: but I would aduise thée to carrie a maruelous temperate hand vpon thy cauison for feare of offending thy horse to [...] much therewith, vnlesse it be vpon great occasion: then shal it be tolerable to draw thy left rain shorter through [Page 23] thy hand, & also the raines of thy bit so short ye thou giue him no libertie to cast vp his head: but thou must vse such discretion therin, that thou stai [...] thy horse more vpon thy cauison then vpon thy bit, & hauing in this sort taken a due measure of thy raines, thou maist vpon anie occasi­on offered by thy horse, correct him by plucking thy right raine a little, slaking it againe so often as thou shalt thinke néedfull. And as touching thy demaund if the cauison be good, I answere that it is excellent good if it be in his handes ye vnderstandeth the true vse there­of, but otherwise it is most vile. By this that I haue sayd, I would saie that thou shouldest staie thy horse vpon thy cauison altogether, and notwithstanding thou must holde the raines of thy bit so short, that thou giue him no libertie to cast vp or ducke downe his head.

Kingdon.

What meane you by this occasion offered, and by plucking your raines a little, and then to let them goe, I sée no reason why I should not hold my right raine as hard as the left.

Clifford.

As touching the first demaund, I answere, that oc­casion is offered at anie such time as your horse will not goe backe nor kéep his ground, but will presse forward when you would haue him stand still, or when in his trotting or galloping he will go farther then you would haue him, or that when you stoppe him he will force too much vpon your hand: and also occasion is offered when he will not turne on your right or left hand in such sort as you would haue him. But you must note ye when he will not turne on your left hand, that you draw the raine on that side a good deale straighter then the raines of your bridle, for feare least that when you woulde straine your rains, you force him too much wt your right raines of the bit, which is a most notable error, and yet [Page] verie little considered of a number of vnskilfull men that doe not perceiue how that when they would bring their horse about on the left hand with the raine of their cauison, by pulling their hand on that side of his man [...] they straine the right raine of the bit so as the horse cannot turne with his head but begins to goe backe, to reare an end, or to fall into one disorder or other, and the rider not vnderstanding the cause doth fall to rating & correcting his horse, so long til he brings him home with such bloudy sides, his mouth so brokē, & his nose so man­gled, as would moue anie man of reason to pittie, to sée that most noble beast, of all other most commodious for the case of man, to be misused by him that hath so much reason as to ouer master him, but lackes that grace of temperance how to vse him, & thereby doth most shame­fullie abuse him. Thus much as touching your first de­mand, and to your second I answere, that you must hold your raines both a like straight, saue when you turne your horse short, then it shall be tollerable to holde your contrarie raine so short, that you giue him no libertie to turne with his head, & that you drawe the other so much that he may vnderstand that you would haue him turne on that side. But to ye purpose, I meane by pulling your hand or letting it goe that you should checke your horse vpon his nose, whē by temperate carrying of your hand you cannot rule him. But in this aboue al other things you must vse great temperaunce, which if you doe, it is excellent good. Also you must haue a speciall care when you holde your contrarie raine, that you giue the horse so much libertie therewith that he may turne: for by hol­ding it too straight you shall vtterlie disorder him. And furthermore, as touching the right raine of your bridle when you turne on the left hand, you may helpe him to turne as well with the bit as with the cauison, by put­ting your forefinger of the right hande ouer the right [Page 24] raine of your bit, and drawing it therewith two or thrée inches longer then the other raine which you must holde fast with the other raine of your cauison, without opening of either of your handes, and when you will turne on your right hand you may let the right raine of your cauison go, and take holde of your raines aboue your left hand, where you shall drawe your right raine some thing shorter then your left without opening your bridle hand, in which instant you must holde your right raine stiffe till you haue drawen it some thing shorter then the left, and then close your hand fast, and take hold on the right raine of your cauison and the end of it also, wherewith you maye drawe your contrarie raine so short as you shall thinke good, thus turning on your right hande, you may drawe the right raine of your cauison so much as shall bée néedfull to cause your horse to come about so often as you shall thinke méete, but sée that you doe it verie gentlie.

Kingdon.

You haue héere vsed one tearme that I vnderstand not, and that is, when you saie I shall not checke my horse in the mouth with his bit, & that on ye other side you saie, I may checke him with the cauison when anie such occasion is offered, as hath bene aboue by you recited: therfore I praie you teach me what you meane therby.

Clifford.

By checking with the bit, I meane that you should ne [...]er plucke your hand sodainly, but rather in all your doings draw it softly & leasurely as is possible, so that you may make your horse therby do your will, and pre­sentlie therevpon sée that [...] slake it a little to the end that he may finde ease when he doth well, which is the best meane to maintain [...] him in well dooing, and by checking him with the Cauison, I meane that you shoulde plucke your right raine in such sorte as [Page] you would plucke your friend by the cloake lap whom you are loth to offend, at such time as you would speak with him: And also you must note by the waie, that at such time as you would thus checks your horse with your right raine, you must holde the left raine so short, ye you cannot pluck your horses head aside: & if it chance at anie time that you finde it néedfull to checke your horse first with the one raine and then with the other, you must take great héede, that you let the raines of your bit go of such length that you checks him not with his bit in anie case, and take great care that you checke your horse in this sort so many times as shall bée néed­full to make him vnderstand your minde, and when he will yéeld in such sort as you would haue him, then let your hand goe, and torment him no more then you are forced of necessitie.

Kingdon.

You haue taught me that it is good to beare a tem­perate hand both vpon my bit and cauison, and also how much I should force him with the raines thereof, but there yet remaines two things that I had almost for­gotten, and the first is the due place of the bit; & the other is how and in what order I shall take the raines of my bit and cauison both in one hand at once, and also how I shall hold my hands vpon the raines of my bit when I ride without a cauison, & what you meane by draw­ing the raines of my bit softlie and letting it goe a­gaine.

Clifford.

To thy first demaund I answere, that the due place of the bit is, that it hang halfe a [...]ingers breadth higher then the tuskes of your horse, and to some horses it is not amisse to hang it an inch higher then the tuskes or fanges of his mouth, but the generall rule that thou shalt obserue héerein, is, that thou neuer let it hang so [Page 29] a side that it touch the fore named tuske, for if it doe touch his tuske, it shall cause him to checke vppon the bit and hurt his mouth so as it shall bleede. And as tou­ching thy second demaund, thou shalt first take both the raines of thy cauison in thy left hand so close vnder the neather part or roote of your thumbe, as you may holde him fast with your little finger and thumbe, then shall you take the end of your bridle raines in your right hand betwixt your bodie and your bridle hand, then shal you put your ring finger betwixt the raines of your bit without letting your little finger goe, which you must holde fast vppon your cauison raines, and the neather­most part of your thumbe also. Then shall you cloase your thrée fingers so close as you can, and hauing tur­ned your bridle raines with your right hande ouer the middle ioynt of the fore finger of your left hande, you shall holde your thumbe close vppon the Bri­dle raines, so as you giue them no libertie to slippe through your hande, hauing thus taken your bridle raines of a iust length and place, the raines of your cauison aboue or ouer them, I meane déeper in your fist then the raines of your bit, for that you holde the raines of your Cauison in your full fist, and the raines of your Bit but in the middle of thrée of your fingers. Then shall you let the end of your bridle raines fall out of your right hande, & take hold of the right raine of your cauison, and the end of the left also in your right hand, then if your left raine bée too long you may draw it shorter by holding your right hande fast, and sla­king your left hand a little to let the raines of your ca­uison passe til you haue drawen it of such length as you may holde him therewith in such order as hath bene be­fore taught.

Kingdon.

You teach mée héere how I should holde my right [Page] hande fast vpon the raines of my cauison, and howe I shall slacke my left hand till I haue let the raines passe through, so farre as they come to their iust length, which iust length is, when I may beare my horse altogether vppon the cauison, and yet holde the raines of my bit so short, that if I let slippe the lefte raine of my ca­uison but one inch, I must staie my horse altogether vppon the bit, but it resteth howe I shall drawe the raines of my cauison shorter at my pleasure, without loosing my right hand or letting the raines of my bridle goe.

Clifford.

If thou bée not more sencelesse then a beast, or more negligent then a Newter, that will take neither parte till such time as hée sées which of them will profit him most, I haue taught thée sufficientlie: But because thou shalt knowe that I had rather loose my life then take in hand anie matter of importaunce, and not bée able to ende or bring the same to perfection, though not for thy sake, who hath negligentlie lefte mining with thy penne, whiles the golden vaine of my ex­perience was most ripe and readie, by riding into Sommerset shéere to make good chéere, when in déede thou mightest haue béene tenne times better occupi­ed in writing of this woorke which I haue begonne with the same purpose of minde, that hath made mée patientlie to [...]eare all these troubles and miseries as thou maiest read in the tenth part of my life which shall héereafter followe (God willing) which minde and purpose in mée was, is, and I trust in Gods grace shall continue so long as the breath is in my bodie, one­lie to profit my Countrie, the true professours of Gods truth, and aduauncement of his holie lawe. But thou shalt nowe knowe that God whome I haue al­waies serued, according to the grace which I haue re­ceiued [Page 30] of him, without the which I am not able to thinke one good thought of my selfe, hath sent mée helpe where I least looked for it, that is to saie, by the meanes of that godlie man maister Anthonie Mooreland, and by that good and learned man Ioseph Hynxman, the one of them béeing Parson of Tortworth, the other Butler to Maister Throckmorton, (which is a verie lowe preferment for a Batcheler of Art in my iudgement) who besides his learning is also verie pa­tient in taking paines. Also little Anthonie Bowser I cannot héere forget, sithence hée hath stoode so manie daies with mée vpon the cold stones in Maister Throck­mortons Stable at Tortworth, to drawe out the first draught or coppie of this my worke, for the which mée thinkes hee deserues praise. But to our purpose, thou must drawe the raine of thy cauison through thy lefte hande without letting the raines of thy bit goe, by let­ting all thy foure fingers goe loose, and by holding thy bridle raines with the ende of thy thumbe and mid­dle of the fore finger, and then pulling thy right hand awaie from thy lefte hande, that is to saie, of greater distaunce in such sorte as thou séest a showmaker draw his thréede with his right hande when he holdes the left hand vppon the sh [...]e, which thou maiest imitate by holding thy lefte hand fast in his due place without mouing it, either when thou drawest thy raines shorter or let them goe longer.

Kingdon.

Which call you the due place of the Bridle hand.

Clifford.

The due place of thy bridle hande is ri [...] ouer thy horses crest, and so high aboue the saddle [...] thou maiest [Page] holde thy elbowe, almost as farre backe as the huckle bone, and holde it close against thy side without letting thy hand rest or staie vppon the saddle bowe: If thy Horse bee readie that hée can raine well and carrie his head steadie, this is the best waie, but if it be a young or olde horse that wil cast vp his head, then I haue taught thée before that thou shalt carrie thy hande close vppon thy horse his crest.

Kingdon.

Yet there resteth one thing that I would request at your hands, and that is, how I shoulde holde the raines of my bit in my hande when I ride without a caui­son, and also howe I shall vnderstand what you meane by drawing my hande softlie, and letting it goe a­gaine.

Clifford.

As touching thy first demaund, thou shalt holde thy raines in all pointes as thou doest when thou ridest with thy cauison, sauing that thou must put thy little finger and ring finger betwixt the raines, and then holde the ende thereof in thy right hande with thy rodde, so as thou mayest draw them shorter or let them longer as hath béen before taught. And as touching thy second demaund when thou wouldest stoppe thy horse, whether vppon pass, trot, galloppe, or c [...]riere, I would haue thée drawe thy hand softlie, till thou hast brought it so hard or straight as thou maiest stoppe thy Horse, and euen in the same instant that he is so stopped as thou wouldest haue him, and beginnes to aduance or yéeldes to the bit by going back, or other wise thou shalt present­lie let thy hand flacke a little and take so much againe as shall be requisite, yea, I would aduise thée to haue so great a care not to plucke thy hand sodainely, nor to drawe it too straight nor carrie it too hard in trauailing [Page 31] or otherwise exercising thy horse as thou wouldest haue to thine owne féete when thou passest on a narrow foote bridge which lieth ouer a déepe ditch or hollowe gulfe in rainie and foule weather.

Kingdon.

Séeing that you now giue me occasion to demaunde you a question of the rod, I desire you to shew me whe­ther it is better to carrie the point thereof forward right ouer my horses creast and eares, or to turne the point thereof backward towards my right shoulder.

Clifford.

It is much better to carrie thy rod with the point forward ouer thy horses creast than with the point vp­ward toward thy right shoulder: for when thou carriest the point forward thou holdest thy rod in thy ful fist rea­die to strike thy horse withall, and when thou carriest it with the point vpward towards thy right shoulder thou hast no more but thy forefinger ouer it, by meanes whereof thou canst not so readily helpe thy horse vppon his left shoulder, to the end that he shoulde do well, nor correct him when he doth offend.

Kingdon.

I can verie well both help and correct my horse vp­on the right and left shoulder, when I haue no cauison or false raines, but when I haue a cauison or false raines, then can I correct my horse vppon his left shoulder as before, but on his right shoulder I can doe no more but helpe him, vnlesse I will let the right raine of my caui­son fall out of my right hand.

Clifford.

But thou maiest correct him aswell, not onelie vp­on his right shoulder, but also vpon his right side or but­tock, without letting the right raine of thy cauison goe, if thou wilt but [...] the point of thy rod downe­ward.

Of Vices.

Kingdon.

SIthence you haue heretofore taught mée howe to make a horse of good disposition readie, I woulde also haue you to teach me howe to reforme those horses that are euill giuen to anie vice: and first of the horse that ducketh downe his head.

Clifford.

I neuer found anie horse hauing that vice, but that I could reforme him by striking him vpō the left shoul­der with the rod, not failing to answere him at euerie time at the same instant that hée doth offend, till hée leaue his fault, thou maiest also correct him with the bit, by chocking him therewith in the mouth, and by giuing him the spurre, but these two last corrections are not halfe so good as the first, for that if he be tender of mouth, by chocking him with the bit, thou shalt make him learn that vile vice of checking or casting vp his head, if he be hard of mouth, and light of spurre, thou shalt vtterly marre his mouth, and force him to runne awaie. Note, that in reforming all vicious horses, thou must haue a speciall care to search and to finde out the nature and dis­position of euerie of them, which when thou hast found, thou must vse that temperaunce that a wise captaine should in gouerning his souldiors, which consisteth not in forcing them to doe his wil, but with skill and order in making thē do as much therof as is possible for them to be brought vnto, without disorder or discontentment.

Kingdon.

It séemeth me your comparison is verie grosse, to compare the gouernement or [...]rance that shoulde be vsed vnto men, to horses.

Clifford.
[Page 32]

In respect of the beast I graunt, but if thou well consider what the reason of man is, and howe farre the vnderstanding of the brute beast is inferiour vnto him, thou shalt easily perceiue that it is more requisite for him, that shall take vpon him to teach a horse, to be far more patient and temperate for him than that gouerneth men, for that man doth far surpasse the beast in vnder­standing what is taught him: But in the rider it is re­quisite he haue patience and can well dissemble, which if he haue, and can vse in his due time and place, he shall hardly euer find anie horse of good disposition, but hée shall make him continue the same, or anie so euil, but that he shall easily reforme them in short space.

Hovv to remedie that horse that checketh and casteth vp his head.

Kingdon.

YOu haue giuen me good instructions alreadie, but yet by the waie I pray you shew me howe to re­forme that fault in a horse that checketh or casteth vp his head with the bit, when you offer to do any thing with him vpon the same.

Clifford.

First giue him a plaine canon without plaiers or water chaine in the mouth, then buckle it fast with two porchmouthes to the two rings of your cauison: that done, take a strappe of leather with a buckle vppon the same, put it through the foresaide two rings, then buckle it, and therewith straine the cauison some­thing [Page] close to the horse his head, then take away the curbe from the canon for the strap and porchmouths is sufficient to serue your turne as well as the curbe, and be farre more better in respect of the fault. I haue ma­nie times ridden with ye same a runawaie or hard mou­thed horse, and more easily haue gouerned him there­with than with the curbe, and also haue diuers times trotted young horses that haue béene tender or delicate of mouth in the same order, which if I had first giuen them the curbe, they woulde haue taken the vice of checking, or casting vp the head, but by obseruing this order and after by giuing them a curbe of double leather haue pre­uented the aforesaid vice.

Kingdon.

But if my cauison be long, it will holde the head of the bit so farre backeward, that the chéekes thereof can­not be brought to their due place, which will be verie troublesome and vnséemely, and the raines of the bit be­ing strained, the cauison wil be readie to fall down ouer the horses nose.

Clifford.

If thou be so ignorant that thou canst not make thy cauison of fit length for that purpose, and also putte a strappe of leather to the middle of the cauison, and make it fast to the headstall betwixt the horses eares in such order that the cauison cannot fall, then thou shalt shew [...] thy selfe to be more fitter to kéepe horses than come to me to learne to ride.

Hovve to correct a Horse that will reare and fall backe vpon a man.

Clifford.
[Page 33]

THat comes through the fault of the rider, for that he curbeth his horse too straight, or giues him too hard a bit, or stops him too sodainely, or by check­ing him with the bit, or by letting it hang too low in his mouth, or by bearing too hard a hand vpon him, or by giuing him too cruell correction in teaching him to aduaunce, or by putting him to too much trauell at one time.

Kingdon.

I graunt it may come by anie of all these foresaide ways or meanes: but I had rather you woulde teach me how to remedie it, then shew me how it comes.

Clifford.

I wil teach thée how it comes, to the ende that thou maiest take héede that thou commit not anie such fault by the which thou maiest bring thy horse to disorder. And as touching the remedie, first ride him without a curbe, as hath béene before taught, or else with a trench, mousroll, and martingale, and take héed you tie not your martingale too short at the first, and when you will ride him, leade him foorth of the stable into some déepe, mar­rish, or rotten ground, with a couple of footemen, each of them hauing a corde in his hand made fast to the brake: and when you are come into the foresaide place, raine your horse first to the saddle bowe, that done, let the two footemen offer to leade him foorth gently: and if he will not goe foorth, but offer to reare an end, then let the two footemen strike him on the fore legs with their cudgels, which they must carrie in their right hands for that pur­pose, holding the cordes in their left handes, it shall be requisite also to haue one behinde him that may at the same instant whip him wel vpon the two flanckes: and when you haue made him go gently, being rained on the saddle, then may the rider take his backe, and when he is vp, take awaie your two cords, and offer to put him [Page] forward, noting, that at the same instant that he offers to stand still to reare an end, you strike him on the fore legges, and let the footeman whip him on the flanks as before. And this order being obserued you shall within the space of fiftéene daies make him leaue his fault so cleane as though he had neuer had it: remembring al­waies, that when he beginnes to reare, you let your bridle go and take holde on his mane with your left hand, and when he goes without rearing, make much of him, and torment him not.

Kingdon.

With what shall I strike my horse on the fore legs, and why shall I ride him in a marish ground?

Clifford.

With a good cudgell, beating him therewith ouer the shinnes beneath his knées, it were better if thou haue store of rods, to take fiue or sixe vnder thy girdle, with their points hanging downeward, to the end, that when thou hast broken one, thou maiest draw out an other, for that he feareth a rod more than he doth a cudgell. And as touching the marrish ground, he shal haue more mind to saue himself from sincking in it, than to reare an end, in the which passing to and fro, you shal verie wel tame him, and acquaint him with the correction, by striking him sometimes on the legges. And afterward, being come to the firme ground, carrie your rod or cudgell al­waies in such sort that it may almost touch his knées, and you may also touch him a little therewith in going, by meanes whereof he shall haue more minde to knéele, than to reare.

Kingdon.

By riding my horse in a marrish or rotten ground, I shal not onlie tyre him, but also stand in doubt to leaue him behind me, as I haue known diuers ignorāt souldi­ors to do in Ireland, by means of their brainsick hastines.

Clifford.
[Page 34]

If thou be so ignorant that thou canst not choose thy ground of a reasonable déepnesse, and also to ride so few turnes therein, as thou maiest leaue thy horse both in strength and courage, it shall be more reason that thy Horse ride thée then thou him, note that when the horse is acquainted with this correction you may always afterward ride him on the hard ground the footeman fol­lowing him as before, and forget not to carrie your cud­gell also in the selfe sorte as you did at the first.

Hovve to correct that horse that will not go from the stable, or when he meets any other horses vpon the way wil sodainly stand stil, and not go from them, and also being in compa­ny with other horses wil not de­part the same.

Clifford.

I Haue diuers times holpen such a horse by riding him without spurres, with a short whip onelie, whipping him therewith vpon his cods, neuer ceasing til I haue made him to go forwarde, and also by striking him with the great end of my foresaide whip staffe betwéene his two eares, if néede so require, for this is a verie good correction, but verie dangerous for the poll [...]uill. I haue also ridden vpon a horse in Flaunders that had this fault, which being afore the [...]nie, & I vpon him, haue offered to play his pageant, so that not hauing leasure to t [...]k [...] my whip, I haue béene forced to strike him [...] the two eares with the pommell of my sword, wher [...] ­with I haue made him gallop more than foure English miles: you may also haue two footemen, the one with [...] [Page] whip, and the other with a go [...]de, and when he beginnes his pageant, let them come behinde him, and correct him in the tenderest places of his body, as hath béene be­fore taught.

Kingdon.

I haue séene some horses that would not stirre for a­nie correction.

Clifford.

But if thou do but onelie pricke him with the goade about his nose and mouth thou shalt quickly make him stirre, though he be neuer so vile of nature.

Kingdon.

How shall I remedie that horse I praie you, that wil lie downe when he is corrected.

Clifford.

Throw water vppon his head, and into his eares, then shalt thou quicklie sée him rise: thou maiest also cause a cloth to be cast vpon his head, and thrée or foure footmen to holde it down close about him, kéeping down his head till he be almost smothered to death, and when he riseth, let the footemen beate and rate him with a ter­rible noise, but sée that thou neither spur nor strike him, but let him go gently at his owne ease.

Hovve to correct that horse which is hard of mouth, and will run awaie with his rider.

Kingdon.

I Praie you before you depart, teach mée howe I shall reforme that horse which is hard of mouth, and will neither stop, nor do anie other lesson, but when it shal please himselfe.

Clifford.
[Page 35]

I euer thought so, that thou wouldest still trouble me with foolish questions, haue I not alreadie sufficientlie taught thée how to maister anie horse in such sort that he should obey, and not to tell me how the horse hath a wil of his owne.

Kingdon.

I graunt that you haue spoken some thing as con­cerning the same, but I praie you let it not be grie­uous vnto you to teach mée more exactlie, and that not onelie how to remedie it, but also what is the principall cause thereof.

Clifford.

First as touching the cause thereof, thou must note that some horses haue it by the imperfection of nature, for that their iawes are so narrow and their heads set so right forwards vpon their neckes, that it is not possible for them to r [...]ine well, but the most part of horses takes it through [...] the vnskilfulnesse of the rider, by bearing too hard a hand vppon them, by ouer riding them or by too sharp corrections out of due time before they make their horse to vnderstand what he should do, by meanes wher­of they make him so fearefull and timerous, that he be­comes desperate, and not knowing what to doe, he fal­leth to running awaie, to goe backward, or to reare an [...]nd, or else becomes so sencelesse that he will not go for anie beating, no, although you would kill him. This by the waie, but to the purpose. First put on your horse a ca [...]n without a curbe, but you must haue a speciall care that you carrie so temperate a hand vpon your ca­uison as may be, that you distemper not your horse by soo much tormenting him therwith. Also force him with the bit as little as is possible, hauing in this order bri­dled your horse, ride him faire and softlie in some faire or large ring a foote pase, and hauing walked him ten or [Page] twelue turnes vpon one hand, then stop him and make him goe backe, but if you cannot make him goe backe by gentle meanes, yet striue not with him in anie case, but giue him as many turnes on the other hande. Thus changing from hand to hand, you shall giue him so ma­ny turnes as you shall thinke conuenient, taking héede alwaies that to all such horses you vse no extremitie be­fore you haue sought to win him by all gentle meanes possible. Hauing in this sort throughlie acquainted your horse in this lesson, then you may begin to trot him, no­ting that vpon his trot you stop him often in the fore­said ring, and also make him goe backe if it may bée with gentlenesse, if not, yet flatter and speake him faire, to the end that you may encourage him not onelie to do that lesson, but anie other that you shall teach him in tune.

Kingdon.

But if my horse will not go backe, it shall be to small purpose to trot him in the ring, for that I haue heard you saie it is not possible to make a horse to stoppe well and to beare light vpon the hand, except you first teach him to goe backe, and that he will doe it both lightlie and readilie.

Clifford.

Haue I not taught thée before how to make a horse goe backe by riding him in a déepe waie, hauing high bankes on each side, & to vse the helpe of a footman with a cudgell in his hande, and by striking him on the fore legges, if you cannot by threatening make him goe backe.

Kingdon.

I graunt you haue taught m [...] but that [...] to [...] young horse and with a trench, but this is [...]o an old [...] horse with a bit and cauison, and therfore I thinke it to be verie hard to make him doe it vpon the cauison and [Page 36] bit, for that I haue séeme diuerse horses to be made de­sperate by tearing and pulling them too much with the cauison, and also the number is not small of those that I haue séene by teaching them vpon the bit, haue their mouths cleane marred therewith, but I neuer knewe anie horses mouth hurt with a trench or brake.

Clifford.

Ah, I con thée thankes for finding out so notable an errour as that is, for to confesse the truth, there was neuer young horse made so well mouthed by teaching him vppon the bit and cauison, but that he might haue bene made a great deale better vpon the trench or snaf­fle, or olde horse of anie fault so well reformed as with the same.

Kingdon.

Then woulde you haue mée to ride my horse till I had made him goe backe with the snaffle or brake onelie?

Clifford.

Not so, for I would not haue you ride him onlie ther­with, but also that you adde a musroll and martingale thereto, without the which you maye neuer ride anie horse with a brake, and also I woulde not onelie haue you to ride your horse therewith till he can goe backe, but also till he be perfectlie recouered of this fault or a­nie other whatsoeuer.

Kingdon.

But I haue séene some horse so wilfull that they would neither stop nor goe backe for anie of these helpes by you taught.

Clifford.

Nor I neuer found anie but that I could helpe by this correction héere following. At the same instant that he refuseth to goe backe for all those corrections or helps, take the one raine of your trench within a foot of your [Page] bit, lappe it about your hand, and pull his head so néere your knée, as it is not possible for him to goe awaie, spurre him on the contrarie shoulder, and whippe him well behinde your saddle also with your rodde, or short whippe, winding and turning him from hand to hande, so long till you make him gladde to doe your will, note that in anie case you holde your raines so short, that hée may not goe out of his place, and that you neuer vse this but in great extremitie and vpon good ground for feare of sliding or falling.

Kingdon.

Shall it be inough to serue my horse in this sort one time onelie?

Clifford.

If he offend but once, then hast thou no reason to torment him often, but it shall bée requisite at euerie time he doeth refuse stubburnlie to doe his lessons to serue him in like order, by meanes whereof thou shalt make him to doe all those thinges that thou desirest without once to bée so hardie as to offer to runne a­waie.

Kingdon.

But I haue knowen some horses so stubburne and craftie, that at what time you woulde pull him a side with the one raine, hée will holde his head out right with such strength, and also goe awaie so spéedelie, that it is not possible for anie man to staie him.

Clifford.

I must néedes confesse that thou hast set me hard, but thou shalt knowe that the God of Israel whom I serue, to whom all glorie is due, of all knowledge and inuen­tion hath giuen me grace with credit to performe what­soeuer I haue taken in hande, by meanes whereof if thou be able to demaund all the questions that is in this Art requisite, I haue no doubt but to answere thée, [Page 37] not with learning (for God he knowes I haue none, n [...] not so much as to read one line in anie language) but with true experience which I haue gotten by trauailing with great miserie in Ireland, England, Frannce, and Flaunders.

Kingdon.

In iniserie, what miserie haue you bene in? Call you ye miserie, to be in such great estimation with Monsieur Lanow at Englemester before he was taken prisoner, in such sort that a number of souldiers enuied your for­tune, or call you that miserie which happened vnto you by Monsieur Velleeres when the camp lay at Loo, who gaue you credit with cōmission to go to Nuport to make bridges to passe the armie vpon, in doing whereof your fame was so great, that happie was he that could be ac­quainted with you or sée your worke, and ten times hap­pier was the armie, lying shortlie after at Duncarke, to haue such bridges, or otherwise the Prince of Parma had ouerthrowen them which then lay scattered in thrée or foure villages, but ye espials warning Monsieur Vel­leeres of the Spaniards comming, by meanes whereof you were commanded to make experience of your brid­ges for that necessitie required, where you passed the ar­mie with such readinesse ouer the riuer of Duncarke, that the Prince of Parma came too late, and the armie was then in safetie by reason it was betwéene two ri­uers. Then call you that great estimation which you had of him that daie, miserie? or call you that miserie, to be made for your seruice Gentleman of the Artillerie, and also master of the Marshals horses, and from [...]tting among seruing men in England, to fit at so honourable a Table as he then kept, and hearing the matters of the armie debated, with such credit and estimation, that hap­pie was that man which could haue you speake in his cause, your estimation and credit was so great with the [Page] aforenamed marshall, and all other noble men of the armie which you did not at anie time decrease, but in­crease dailie, in such sort, that the campe lying at Rosen­dale, the foresaid marshal Veleers made you lieuetenant of the Artilleri [...], to the great admiration of all the noble Captaines that then sate at the Table with him. More­ouer he saide, we shall haue fiftéene Canons for the bat­terie of Wawe, which is a verie strong Castle, belonging to the Spaniardes, whereof Monsieur Possey shall bée lieuetenant of eight of the forenamed péeces, & I make you my lieuetenant of the other seuen, for ye the marshal Beeron shall bée m [...]ister of the one batterie, and I of the other, where with your seuen Canons you had made the first breach, by reason that the French men left their ap­pointed place, and therefore both vnconstantlie and foo­lishlie began to assaie the wall in two other places, and the marshal Beeron sent diuerse messengers to you to do the like, but you vtterly refused it, saying, that by con­stant following your determination you should vndou­tedlie obtaine your purpose, which came so to passe, to the great griefe of the French men and great reioycing of the English men, Scots, Flemings, and Wallons, of all which Nations you chose some for your Canon heires, vtterlie reiecting the French men, saying they were to tender and weake of bodies to endure so great trauaile as that required, which was well appro­ued, for that they had the honour to shoote first, which you wonne from them euen at the third shoot [...], & afterwards running into the batterie of the French men, you scor­ned them, saying: are yée the braue souldiers of France, and wil suffer a companie of dronken Flemings to take your honour from you, and within thrée times shooting to be afore ye in despite of yo? and afterward [...]eturning into your foresaid batterie, and encouraging your soul­diers, by telling them that the generall of the armie did [Page 38] greatlie commend them, with the which inuention you did make them so striue one against another for praise and glorie, that from morning till one of the clocke in ye after noone, you had shot in fiftéene Canons fiftéene hun­dred shot, for the which seruice marshall Beeron gaue you great commendations, thankes, and rewardes, yea, and afterwardes sent Captaine Hunter vnto you to lea [...]e Monsieur Velleers, & serue him, & set downe what paie you would and he would giue it, which he most ho­nourablie performed. Therefore I praie you call you this miserie?

Clifford.

I call not this miserie, but the meane by the which I did attaine to the same credit by you before recited, was great and extreame as euer anie man did escape, and afterward did make report of the same. First thou must note, that after I had passed thirtie yeares & odde in England & Ireland, in all the which time fortune was so peruerse vnto me, that I was neuer able in all that time to buie me one suite of new apparel, but if I shuld recite all the manner of miseries which I héere in my Countrie haue passed, and that they were all written, this booke should be too little to holde them, for which cause I minde to passe them ouer with silence, and brief­lie to touch some part of those which I passed beyond the seas, after I was preferred to the seruice of the right no­ble Prince Duke Cassemerus, by the right Worship­full Sir Philip Sidney, with which foresayd Duke I passed out of England, and béeing forced for lacke of winde to ride at the black [...] Nash in Fraunce, I went a land to Bolonia to sée the fortification thereof, and tarry­ing a land all night, the winde serued and the shipp [...] made saile, which I espying in the morning, ran alongst the sandes, thinking to recouer Callis before them, [Page] where I might get a bote for monie, but all in vaine, for before I came to Callis vnder a great chalke cléefe, ye tide had taken me that I could go no farther, nor yet be able to returne backward, nor to stand in safetie, for that the stones began to fall as the Sunne did rise, beeing fro­stie weather, and the Sunne shining caused the stones to fall, by meanes whereof I was forced to climbe so high as I could, and to leane my head into a hole, not once béeing so hardie as to set me downe. The tide bée­ing gone I came to Callis, where I met one maister Cradocke, a merchant of Stafford shéere, who tolde mée it was verie daungerous passing by Grauelin, for that Monsieur Lamoate was there gouernour, & mortal eni­mie to Duke Cassemerus, and would not let anie ser­uant of his passe, but I béeing not discouraged there­with, although my money was almost spent, nor béeing able to speake one worde of anie language beside mine owne, which I thinke you will occount for great mise­rie. Afterward béeing examined by Lamoate, I tolde him that I serued Maister Fouke Greyuell, who was come ouer to accompanie the Duke Cassemerus, and he examining an olde Irish spie which hée there had, and finding in déed maister Fouke Greyuell to be in the ship he let me goe without anie harme, and by that time I came to Antwerpe my monie was all gone. Then was I forced to ride a couple of runawaie iades, for the which I was so badlie paide, that I went manie times supperlesse to bed. It were too long héere to recite the iourney which I tooke in hand to serue the king of Por­tingale, and the great tempests which I endured on the seas by the space of xii. daies, riding then at the Downs, where I sawe a number of goodlie ships torne in péeces and the men all drowned, which I thinke you wil allow for miserie, for that I looked for death continually, which was worse then a thousand deaths, but afterward being [Page 39] returned into the hauen of Flushing, and séeing my hor­ses to be spoiled, I left off that iourney, and went to the Scottish men, who had then beaten Monsieur Mon­tanies folke out of Roselare, and hauing gotten enter­tainment vnder captaine Hammelton to serue as a com­mon souldiour, I was shortly after taken prisoner by the Wallons of Vnreue, where I was most misera­bly imprisoned and hardly dealt withall, for that they tooke my hose and doublet from me, leauing me nothing but a stincking shéepes skin about me, and the wooll on it, and my cloke, of the which I made a long gabberdine with sléeues, like an olde popish priest: which thing is well knowen to little captaine Lucar, who was then marshall of the Englishmen in Tourney, and the firste that I met withall of mine acquaintaunce, who did not a little maruell to sée me attired in that sort, and to sée me lame that I could scarcely go, by meanes of a wound which I had in my right thigh, when the said Wallons tooke me prisoner: then he brought me to the lodging of captaine Bowes, who was then Liefetenant to captaine Ihon Cotten, who was a verie braue souldiour, and then lay maimed in the gest house of Valentia, where he was prisoner. But to the purpose, I had not a pennie in my purse to pay for my supper, and the saide captaine Bowes sent me to one Browne a victualler of his compa­nie, or rather a hangman: I crie you mercie Maister Browne, I shoulde haue said, a Proforce with a Ser­g [...]nt, to commaunde him to let me haue victualls, but neither he, nor his wife woulde as much as bidde mée welcome out of prison, nor make me drinke in their house, nor suffer me to lodge there on the grounde, but afterward being brought to a lodging by the said Ser­geant, where I went supperlesse to bed. The next mor­ning I went out with the souldiors, where I got some­thing to eate, and vsing the same daily when they went [Page] out, one captaine Morris chaunced to méete me, and hauing compassion on me, séeing I went with such great paine to get my victualles, he staied me at the porte of the towne, and said I should not go further in such miserable sort, for that (quoth he) it is a shame that strangers should sée vs so carelesse, as to let anie man of our owne nation, ster [...]e with hunger, and for want of clothes to kéepe him from colde: and presently he went gathering so much money among the rest of the Cap­taines and Gentlemen as did apparell me: And the rest of the winter I passed with these foure vnfortunate ensignes (for so were they commonly called) that is to saie, captaine Floide, captaine Ellis, captaine Chatter­ton, and captaine Cotton. The spring of the yeare be­ing come, Monsieur Lanow assembled the armie, and went to besiege the castle of Englemester, where the ar­mie was ouerthrowne, and he taken prisoner, and I most cruelly burned with pouder, where I had not so much as a shirt left vppon me, nor one pennie of mo­ney, neither anie place to go vnto for my reléefe, which thou must account for great miserie, considering of that sodaine misfortune to happen vnto me the morrowe, ha­uing gotten my selfe into so great credite with Mounsieur Lanow euen the night before, and al the rest of my friendes and fellow souldiours spoiled, impriso­ned, slaine, or burned as my selfe was, then was I (by good fortune) brought to the most horrible Spittle­house of Gaunt, and lying there in great miserie, Coronell Cotton, as soone as hée heard thereof sent me foure and twentie Florence by a Gentleman with this worde, that if I lacked anie thing, I shoulde send him worde, and hée woulde most willingly sustaine my néede, but I well considering with my selfe the hardenesse of the man, and that hée sent the same by reason of the great estimation, which [Page 40] I had gotten with Monsieur Lanow, I doubting to trouble hym anye farther, made the messenger this an­sweare.

Tell thy Maister I can not lacke anie thing, for that hee hath giuen mee a kingdome: and so in déede this money was the onelie meane by the which GOD didde preserue mée, or otherwise the Surgeon woulde haue lette mée starus, as hée did a number of other Englishemen for want of dressing, but I gaue hym almost all my money presently, by meanes where­of hée tooke the greater care, and was the more di­ligent, but Oh, I woulde to God that thou haddest séene with what cruelnesse hée pulled awaie the coares of my burning before the fire was through­lie killed, onelie of purpose to make mée giue hym more money, to the end, hée might handle mée gent­lie, I hauing no more money, was forced to endure his tyrannie, till suche time as a Souldiour com­ming to sée howe I did, lent mée a crowne, which I gaue to an olde woman of the house, euerie night to steale mée some of the Surgeons medicines, by meanes whereof I had inough: and by diligent dres­sing my selfe therewith, I was soon [...] healed: Oh that thou haddest séene the miserie that I endured the first fiftéene dayes, for that my [...]raine was so troubled with the heate of the fire, that it séemed mée I sawe Lions, dogges, and Diuelles comming vppon my bedde to rende mée in péeces. Then beganne I as earnestly to praie as was possible for a wretched crea­ture to do in this sort. O Lord God I do confesse that I was not worthie of so great credite as thou haddest giuen mée with Monsieur Lanowe, therefore thou ha [...] punished mée in this, to the ende, that I shoulde knowe heereafter bothe howe to vse mine owne credite more mildely, and the néede of others. [Page] Also I beséech thée, O Lord God, to pardon me mine offences, & take not my senses from me vntil such time as I make testimonie to the world how I honor vertue, thée, and thy holie lawes, and howe heartily I loue thy people, and my natiue countrie. Béeing somewhat re­couered and importunating the people of the house for sower milke to eate, my inward heat and burning was so great, then an olde villaine threatned me therefore saying, he would knocke me on the head, and cast me in­to a pit, if I would not holde my peace: And vppon the same, an olde woman gaue me a messe of pottage with such hearbs in them, that it cast me into the bloudie flix, whereof I could not be healed in the space of three yéers after: yea, and with the same they killed a number of good souldiours. But in the end, I being strong and a­ble to go about the house, to sée how the rest of my fel­low souldiours did, which then lay there in great miserie, the olde villaine came to me againe, and threatned mée as before, if I woulde not kéepe my bedde, which grée­ued me more than all my other misfortunes, for that I being of sufficient strength, not onelie to walke about the house, but also to go to the armie, had not one cloth to couer my bodie withall, but afterward, one Powell a victualler came to sée how I and others did, I tolde to him my griefe and lacke, who caused presently clothes to be prouided for me. And afterwarde comming to the armie which laie within foure English miles of Gaunt, where my bloudy flixe tooke me so ertréemly, that I was glad to go to Antwarp to séeke remedie, where, hauing spent all the money that the souldiours of the armie had giuen me, I came to Coronell Cotten, who commanded my diet to be paid for, and also my physicke in his lod­ging, but a cruell scolde that was then hostesse of the same house (Coronell Cotten being gone) would not suf­fer me to tarrie there: then had I no succour, but to lie [Page 43] in Coronell Cottons stable vppon the strawe, where, hauing not a pennie to buie me meate, a poore skinner that dressed Spanish leather, and had leaue of the said Coronell Cotton to drie his leather in his yard, was to passe through, he when he sawe me lie in such great miserie, for Gods sake gaue me to eate, but it was so little and so bad, that I was within short time nei­ther able to go nor stand, as Maister Iohn Sentleger can well witnesse, who was then there, and talked with me. Then I desired the said skinner, that he woulde bring me to the gest house, where I lay tenne wéekes before I was able to go. Being recouered, I was faine to beg a paire of olde shooes, for that I had none to put on my feet. Thence I went vnto Bruxels, where, be­fore I could get entertainment among the Scottishmen, I was faine to laie my cloke to gage, to buy me meate: and afterward hauing gotten entertainment with one Captaine Tomson we came to Filford, where I passed the space of sixe moneths with great penurie, for that I was glad (being then winter) to sléepe on the colde ground without a cloake: And also I would stand for sintenel al the night for thrée halfepence a night: yea, so great was my necessitie, that I was forced to get olde iron, and sell it to the Marriners, which though I carried it manie times on my backe thrée or foure En­glish miles, yet profited I greatly thereby, for that I not onelie recouered my health, but also my strength, in such sorte, that there was not anie man in all Coronell Stewards regiment able to ouer goe me, nor take more paines in anie worke than I was: moreouer, ma­nie times I would breake or cleaue a whole waggons loade of house timber, to get my breakefast, and a pot of beere. With this extreame trauaile hauing recouered my selfe as before, I founde an inuention howe to make tenne or twelue waggon loades of woode or timber, as [Page] before to fléete downe a little brooke, which did driue the milles of the towne: by selling the foresaide timber to the victuallers, I got so much mony as loosed my cloke, and also bought me such olde apparell of the souldiors, as not onelie kept me from the colde, but also was rea­sonable decent. Hauing passed the winter in this most extreame miserie, I saide on a daie in the court of Gard openly before all the souldiours: Nowe Clifford be of goode héere, for before winter come againe, God shal not onlie deliuer thée of that neede to stand for sentenell, but also thou shalt vndoubtedly haue credite with the Ge­nerall of an armie, and also haue seruauntes to attend thee: which wordes of me were vttered so vehemently, that the officers and Gentlemen were thereat astonish­ed, saying: Surely thou hast deserued it for thy constant enduring of paines and miserie, which we neuer knewe anie man doe, with such patience. But one corporal Coy onelie scorned me, who afterward before Bargas had béene hanged for stealing of [...]ine if I would. But the Marshall sending me to sée who had committed the fact, I gallopping before the rest which he sent with mée, caused him to hide himselfe, by meanes whereof I not onelie saued a verie good and tall souldiour, but also got great good will among all the rest of the Scottishmen: Let not anie man therefore finde fault with this that I haue saide, vntill they haue tried the like that I haue d [...]ne: or else set penne to paper to amend the same:A most ex­cellent in­uention to holde anie runawa [...]e or harde mouthed hor [...]e vvith the strēgth of one of your fin­gers. which if they do, I shall most gladly embrace their doo­ings: for the only thing I seeke, is the profite of my countrie. Thus by the waie, as touching the tenth part of the miserie of my life.

But to the purpose, thou shalt take a ring of iron and make it fast to the one end of a strappe of strong leather which would be three foote of length, and two inches broade, [...]o kéepe the ring from turning▪ This done, [Page 42] make fast the other end of the strap to the point of your saddle trée behinde, which you shall easily doe in this sorte: take first a strappe of good leather, and naile it crossewise vnder the point of the foresaide trée. Hauing turned it ouer, and the ende forward, giue it an other naile on the out side of the trée. Then may you buckle your foresaid péece of leather, with a strong buckle there­on. That being done, make fast a little thong of lea­ther to the foresaide ring so long as may come from the fore point of the trée of your saddle, to the buckle of his breast plate, by this meanes the foresaide strap and ring shall hang so close vnder the couer of your saddle that a man shall hardly perceiue it: which being done, take a péece of a slippe or fine cord, make one ende there­of fast to the foresaide ring: and passe the other ende thereof through the great eie of your brake or bit: And then passe it through the ring where the end of it was first made fast. This being done, passe it yet once a­gaine through the eie of your trench, noting, that there [...]e no knottes in your corde, but that it run cleare, and make the end therof fast to your saddle bowe: That done, get your horse into some good ground as hath bene be­fore taught: if it be a verie fierre and furious horse, it shall not be amisse before you take his backe, to drawe the cord something straight, and make it fast to the sad­dle bowe: This being done, go from him, and speake to him, to the end he may trie himselfe, neither shall it be amisse to strike him with your rod, to the end that he may know himselfe to be throughly maistred by this in­uention. Hauing vsed him in this sorte so much as reason requireth, (to whose rule I woulde haue thée haue a speciall regarde in such extremities as those be) thou maiest somewhat slacke thy cordes in such sort, that thou straine not thy horses head therewith: Then take his backe, and offer him gently to tread out [Page] a ring in the selfe place: In doing whereof, I woulde haue you to speake him faire, flattering, and vsing him gently, to the ende he may finde ease in obeying your will, and also, that he may perceiue the better wheresore he is corrected. And afterwarde when hée shall offer to run awaie, or malitiously refuse to doe his lessons, let your bridle go, and drawe the ende of your corde so much as shall be requisite. By this meanes you may easily staie your horse from going a­waie, euen with the strength of one of your fingers: which being done, correct him sharpely with the spurr [...] on the contrarie shoulder, as before taught, and the rod also: that being done, slacke the corde, and offer hym his lesson againe, and faile not that at euerie time he doth erre, to correct him in this order, by meanes whereof you shall in shorte time haue him as obedient as euer was scholler to his schoolemaister.

Kingdon.

But were it not better to ride him in some déep way, and hauing footmen with staues, and burning strawe in the endes thereof to put it in his nose, or to runne him in the fielde till he be wearie?

Clifford.

It were verie good for a foole or madman.

Kingdon.

Wherfore? both learned & wisemen haue so taught me.

Clifford.

I graunt them to be both learned and wise, but in teaching such bables, they bewray their want of skill in this art, for consider, I praie thée, howe that horse is re­formed, that the rider can not commaunde when it shall please him without the helpe of anie footeman: but by this last remedie, by me taught, thou shalt maister anie horse without helpe, and make him that he shall not once dare offer to run awaie.

Hovv to remedie that Horse that will turne but on the one hand.

Clifford.

YOU shall remedie him in this sorte following, put a false raine on the side ye he wil not turne on, if you ride him with a bit, for if you ride him with a trench, you shall not néede of a false raine. This béeing done, turne him on that hand in some large ring and giue him at the least tenne or twelue turnes at a time, then giue him two or thrée on the other hand, afterwarde, turne him on the other hande againe as before, for in obseruing this order, and by holding your false or trench raine on that side so short, that he can haue no libertie with his head, you shall quicklie reme­die him if you giue him no short nor narow turnes till he be perfect in the large, and that you bring him not so­dainlie from a large ring to a little, but as he is perfect in the large ring, so euer must you make him tread his ring lesse & lesse by a little at once til you haue brought him to tread his rings in as small compasse as shall bée requisite.

Kingdon.

But I haue knowen some horses that when you would offer to turne them they will turne on the con­trarie side in despite of your téeth.

Clifford.

Haue I not taught thée in the last Chapter with a strap of leather to turne a runawaie horse, by the which thou maist remedie this fault easilie, if thou wilt take héede thou turne him not too short at the first, but order­lie and leasurelie as hath bene before taught?

Kingdon.
[Page]

But I haue séene you to a horse of maister Throck­mortons vse a more easier waie in my iudgement, and a farre more readier.

Clifford.

I praie you tell me in what order was that, for I haue now cleane forgotten it.

Kingdon.

I sawe you vnbuckle the raines of the brake & take the right raine thereof, and put it through a ring that was made fast to your saddle with a double péece of lea­ther that went twice about the fore point of your sad­dle trée, and hauing past it through the foresayde ring, you did also put it through the eie of your brake, where the other end thereof was first made fast, and I sawe you with drawing the end thereof holde your horse in such sort that he was not able to goe awaie, but onelie to turne on the right hande, notwithstanding you dyd breake your rodde on him and spurred him till he bled, and afterward hauing loosed the foresayd raine & buck­led it in his former place, & then offered him his lesson, which he did before stubburnlie refuse to do, I then saw him do it with such willingnesse, that in my iudgement the horse made a double amends for his former falt, yea, and though you did prouoke him by riding him till hée was almost wearie, yet did he not dare once offer to goe awaie, at the which I did not a little m [...]ruaile, know­ing him to be so stubburne a horse, and so notable a run­awaie, that in the space of halfe a [...]ere and more before your comming he stoode still because no man was wil­ling to ride him.

Clifford.

Thou sayest troth, thou maiest also in like manner take a cord of two fathome of length, nesse the two ends thereof first through the greate eye [...] of your bit or brake, and afterward passe them through the two pat­terell [Page 44] buckles of your saddle, and then make fast the side of the cord so the eie of your braue, and when your [...]rse doth offer to runne awa [...]e you may drawe one side of the foresayd cordes, by meanes whereof you shall most [...]astlie staie him as before, but in correcting him if hée turne so fast and many times that you cannot endure the same, then may you let that [...]aine goe and pull the other, by meanes whereof you shalt not onely correct your horse, but also be well able to endure his turning.

Hovve to remedie a horse that will lie downe in the water.

Clifford.

AT what instant he lies downe in the water, cause thrée or foure foot men to leaps [...]n his head and keepe: him downe vnder water till he be almost drowned.

Hovv to correct the horse that will not carrie his head right.

Clifford.

HOlde your spurre close in his side till hée looke that waie, which when he doth, take awaie your spurre and make much of him, as soone as he forgets that correction see that you remember him as before till he leaue his fault.

Kingdon.

I haue knowen diuerse of those horses verie well re­formed in their going, but afterward when you would giue them a managing turne, they will dowe their heads on the one side.

Clifford.
[Page]

Take a strap of leather with a button at each end [...]ut full of slits, to the end you may shorten and lengthen it at your pleasure, passe the one end therof through the eie of your cauison, bit, or brake, & the other end through the buckle of your fore girse, and make it of such length as your horse may haue no libertie to turne his head. This is much better than to holde the contrarie raine of your cauison fast, and a couple of these raines is the best remedie that euer I found for a weak necked horse.

Hovv to correct that horse that will not bring downe his mosell neither for bit nor musroll, and being tied in with the martingale will continuallie straine the same, and holde his nose fast on the musroll, and his mouth on the bit, and will not yeeld for anie of them.

Clifford.

YOu shall cléeue the end of your martingale, and hauing made two buttons thereon, button it fast to the two chéekes of your bit, and buckle it not too short at the first, but after when your horse is acquainted therewith, you may make it so short as shal be requisite to kéepe his head in his due place.

Kingdon.

To what place of the chéeks of my bit shall I make this martingale fast, for it seemeth me it were a greate deale better to make it fast in the great eies of my bit?

Clifford.

That shall neuer correct your horse, but as touching the making it fast, if your bit chéekes be turned at the ends, you may put it into the same, but if they be not [Page 45] turned at the ends, then make fast a ring to each chéeke thereof néere to the neather ends with a packe thréed or shoomakers end, by putting it through ye one ring half a doosen times, and about the chéeke of the bit, and through the other ring also, as before.

Kingdon.

It séemeth to me that a shoomakers end or pack-thréed should not holde my horse, and also I thinke this waie to be verie daungerous, for that my horse shall learne to checke vpon the bit by reason that the curbe shall pi [...]ch him to sore.

Clifford.

The doubt which thou hast for breaking thy thréed is more then néedeth, for that he shall neuer breake being tied in this order, nor ye strength of a good codpéece point, although he be verie hard of mouth. And as touching the vice of checking, I grant it to be verie daungerous if thou vse it to a horse that is verie tender of mouth, but thou must neuer vse it but whē all other remedies faile shée, for if thou vse it to a horse as before, it shall worke to most excellent effect.

For the horse that is verie tender of mouth.

GIue him a bit made with two smooth Oliues, or else in place of the Oliues, fill all the ieues with plaine smooth rings, and make him a curbe of lea­ther in this sort: Take away the thrée esses of the curbe from the rings thereof, then take a péece of lea­ther some thing more then twice the length of the fore­sayd Esses, then passe that foresayde péece of leather tho­rough the ring ye shal remaine at the hooke or long Ess, that is fastned on the right chéeke of the bit, then passe the other end thereof through one of the foresaide thrée rings, that you fasten the curbe with all vpon the hooke, [Page] and let the two ends of the foresaid péece of leather méet on the out side turning from the horses [...]hin on the mid­dle thereof, making it fast with a causiers end.

For the horse that is some thing hard of mouth.

GIue him a plaine scatch or else two millions ioyned with a péece, and put a whole barre or trench therein full of plaine rings.

Kingdon.

But what if my horse will not beare light vppon these two bits.

Clifford.

Then take your former cannon which would haue his chéekes long and his curbe great, for I haue séene di­uerse horses after they haue ben ridden with one of these foresayd bits one moneth, and afterward giuing them their Cannon they haue become a great deale lighter thereon then at the first.

Kingdon.

But diuerse skilfull horse men are of the opinion, that it is not good to chaunge a horses bridle if he be once well bitted.

Clifford.

I graunt, neither would I wish you to change your cannon in anie case so long as it is possible to gouerne your horse with him, but I haue found diuerse horses ye could hardlie be gouerned with the cannon by reason of the hardnesse of their mouths, but by changing them from the canon to one of the forsaid bits, and afterward to the canon, they become so light there vpon in processe of time, that I haue bene able to gouerne them vppon a canon so easilie, as though they had neuer béene harde mouthed.

Kingdon.

Then it should séeme that often chaunging a horses bit, is good to him that is hard of mouth.

Clifford.
[Page 46]

Yea, if thou chaunge him vpon one of the foresayde thrée bits, and that thou take héede thou giue him not a­nie other rough bit: thou maist also vse the scatch with ye vp [...]r mouth or the whole port with two round rowles which would not be rough nor great, and fill the rest of the ieue with smooth playing rings on the out side ther­of. These aforenamed bits are sufficient to frame anie horse, of what nature or disposition so euer he be of, not hauing his mouth marred before with euill riding and rough bits, if so be thou haue the true art of riding, in the which if thou be ignoraunt, neither shall all the dronken fashions which thou maist sée in Flaunders, nor the new sangles or light inuentions which thou mayest also sée in Paris, nor all the moderate fashions inuented by the discréet Italians profit thée anie thing.

The end of the second booke.

The third booke of the keepers Office. The first Chapter of the keepers Office.

Kingdon.

YOu haue taught me sufficiently as touch­ing the art of riding, now I praie you let it not be grieuous vnto you to teach mée after my horse is ridden, how and in what order I shal walke and dresse him, to the end that he may not take colde, for that I haue often heard you saie, that you account your horse halfe marred after that he hath once taken an ex­treame cold, for that he shall be the more subiect not on­lie to take that, but also most perillous diseases, & death may happen vnto him by [...] of extreme heat & cold.

Clifford.
[Page]

Thy horse being ridden, cause him to be walked in ye same place where thou geuest him some lesson in a great ring, or right forth, with a man on his back till he be tho­rough colde.

Kingdon.

Why shall I walke my horse with a man on his back, and not in my hand, and also why shal I walke him in a ring?

Clifford.

By walking him in a ring thou maiest sée him as ye ridest thy other horses by him. Also the man ye shall ride him being ignorant how to vse his hand vpon the bri­dle, shal then haue no néed to check him with ye bit, for he being well acquainted with that path, will goe himselfe: & as touching thy walking of him in thy hand, it is very dangerous, for ye the weather being verie cold ye aire wil vtterly spoile thy horse, which can haue no power on him so long as he is going with a man on his backe. Also if your horse be stubburne or giuen to reare on end, or leap on his kéeper with his fore féete, it shal be very perillous to walk such horses in your hand, not onely in respect of the kéeper, but also of ye horse, who hauing once beaten his kéeper or broken frō him, he shall therby become so stub­burne, ye no man shall be able to lead him without great danger: of the which horses I haue had good experience in Flanders with Monsieur Villiers, & with Monsieur De la Roshpo, one of them being marshal of ye camp as afore­said, & the other general of ye Infancie, ye army thē being at Eclow, ye Erle De la Roshpo had a bayhorse which slew two of his grooms, wherwith he became so cruell & fierc [...] not only in biting & striking, but with rearing on end, ye he would dash out their brains and break their bones whosoeuer he could take hold on. Also Monsieur Villiers had a bay horse named Souldier, which horse when I had ridden him one daie, & lighted to make much of him, (which hath alwaies [...]n my cōmon vse when my horse [Page 47] hath done wel) the horse did leape vpon me, & rend almost all my clothes of my backe, & bit off my fore finger, to my great griefe, & feare of the beholders, who all ran awaie for feare of the furie of the horse, which was so great, that not one of them was so hardie as once to help me.

Kingdon.

I pray you before I go anie further, teach me howe I may without perill kéepe or dresse any such horse, for that you told me Monsieur Villiers gaue two horses to Mōsieur de la Roshpo for the same horse, and afterward hauing doth the foresaide ill conditioned horses, vnder your hands, the space of thrée yeares you had neuer anie groome hurt, nor your selfe put in hazard with either of them, which can hardly sincke into my head, for that an horse beginning to bite and leape on his kéeper with his foreféete, is hardly or neuer to be reformed.

Clifford.

I graunt they are not to be reformed, but thou shalt easily maister them with these inuētions here folowing, in such sort, that a boy of sixtéene yeres of age, may dresse them, saddle them, bridle them, leade them in the hand, leape on them, and light from them, without anie perill, either to kéeper or rider. First, when you woulde bridle your horse, you must make fast a strong cord to the nose­ [...]and of his collar in this sort: Goe to the horse on the one side of the barre, and drawe his head to you so farre as the contrarie raine will giue you leaue, then make fast the forenamed cord, which you may easily do with­out anie daunger, then tie him therewith to the racke, and then you may bridle him with your watering bit, or false trench, which false trench is a most necessa­rie thing for such an horse, for that he being br [...]deled therewith, you may not onelie dresse your horse with­out danger, but also if occasion serue, you may put on your bridle without danger, and let the trench remaine [Page] on his head, noting, that you leaue the rains of the fore­said trench, so long as you may tie him therewith to the two postes of his roome being turned about.

Kingdon.

I graunt that I may thus kéepe mine horse from biting me, but what shal I do that he strike me not with his foreféete, whiles I thus bridle him?

Clifford.

If he be so froward that he will not let thée handle his head, then take a good whip and whip him well, and hauing so whipped him, offer to touch him, as before, which if he refuse, then whip him againe: obserue this order so long till he be glad to let you handle his mouth, which when he will doe, make much of him, and bridle him, in suffering whereof, sée that thou vse him gently, if he offer to bite thy hand, take a left hand gantlet and dash him in the mouth when he offers to bite thine hand: that being done, take a long rudgell, and begin to touch him therewith vpon his hinder legges, and if he strike, whip him, as before, so long till he endure to haue both his legges and féete easily rubbed and touched with the same: then begin to rubbe him gently with your hands, and after put foure pasturn [...] on his feete, and let a cord passe on ech side from the hind foot to the fore foot, which would be of a sufficient length: by this mo [...]ns may you dresse your horse, saddle, and bridle him without danger either of biting, or striking, and also your horse may both lie downe, & rise with the same so easily, as though he had nothing on: for I haue alwaies vsed in the camp, when I must make my stable in a [...]rne or great house, where I had no bars betwixt them to tie all their legs with side langalls made of great haie roapes, which I did alwaies carrie with me for that purpose.

Kingdon.

I pray you teach me what those side langals are, for I know not what you meane therby, for that I haue neuer [Page 48] séene any of them.

Clifford.

In the north part of England they are cōmon, & also in Scotland, and it is made in this sort: first take a péece of a cord of fiue foot of length, and make a knot on ech ende thereof, then passe the said knot through the two eies of your cord, which must be on ye ends of ye same for ye pur­pose: thē may you shift your knot backward or forward, so long til you make the two ends therof fit for your hor­ses féet: then put one on his hind foote, the other on his forefoot, noting, that daily you change the foresaid langal, putting it one daie on ye one side, & another day on the other for feare of galling him, it shal not be amis at the first to line it with cotton or cloth, & after he is acquain­ted therwith, he wil not hurt himselfe, though you make it of rough or hard cord. I haue also séene the Albanians vse a much more easier fashion, for ye euerie kéeper may make it himselfe: Cut a péece of cord of such length a [...] may come frō the hinder foot to ye forefoot of your horse, a knot being made on ech end therof: then take two péeces of smal cord, double thē, & make a great one, make knots vpon both ends thereof, & let it be of such length as it may méet iust about ye horses féet, as your pasturn doth: then with a great cudgel sharped at the end opē the fore­named great cord, & passe the small cord through the same behind the knot, and when you shal put it on your horse, wind the loup that wil remaine of your foresaide small double cord til you make ye end therof so strait, ye you can no more but passe ye forenamed knot: the turning wil kéep it so close, that it is not possible for your horse to vndo the same.

Kingdon.

I grant that this forenamed langall is very good to let mine horse that hée shall not strike his kéeper with his fore or hinder féete, nor to leape into his man­ger, nor hang himselfe in his halter, nor to strike any other horse: but yet I haue séene diuers horses will [Page] turne their tailes and dung in their fellows roome, by meanes whereof the other horse coulde not lie cleane, which is a filthie thing: therefore I pray you shewe m [...] what I shall do to kéepe him right in his roome.

Clifford.

Take the said langall from his foreféete, and tie a péece of cord therevnto: then make an hole in his taile tree, or else must you driue a stake into the ground, and make fast the langall thereto. This is not onelie good to holde your horse right in his roome, but also it is suffici­ent to kéepe him from striking his fellowes, and to let him from leaping into the manger, and hanging him­selfe in his halter.

Kingdon.

How shall I leade such a diuellish horse, when I shal bring him foorth to the rider, and how shall I take his backe, that he hurt neither him nor me?

Clifford.

Take a cudgell of thrée or foure foote of length, make an holow in each end thereof, then sowe a buckle vpon a péece of leather, a spanne long, with the which thou must buckle the one ende of thy staffe to the eie of thy bit, and passe a cord through the other end, and make it so fast as you may hold your horse therewith.

Kingdon.

I graunt that this is sufficient to holde anie horse if he be neuer so diuelish that he cannot bite me: but what shall I doe that hee leape not on me with his fore­f [...]ete?

Clifford.

Take a péece of strong leather hunger, two inches broad, two foote and a quarter of length, or two foote and an halfe, if your horse be verie great, then make fast to ech end thereof, a round ring of yron, so big as shall be requisite to serue the foresaide péece of leather, then [Page 49] cut two other péeces of leather hunger of like breadth, and let one of them be two foote of length, and the other two foote and an halfe, and make them fast at the one end in the foresaid ring, cut the points of the two foresaid péeces of leather so narrow, that you may set a stirrop leather buckle on the shorter, and that the other end may easily passe the foresaid buckle, whē it must be made fast. And when you would leade foorth your horse, put one of your foresaid péeces of leather about his foreleg, and then passe the point thereof through the great ring, and draw it close to his leg, and put the other end thereof about his hinder leg of the same side through the other ring, and drawe it close as before, which being done, buckle the two endes thereof fast with the saide buckle. Thus may you leade your horse with your staffe and side lan­gall, get vpon him, and light from him, and the rider be­ing vp, you may loose awaie your staffe, and also loosing your buckle of the foresaide side langall, it will flée all loose, without lifting vp one foot of the horse, either when you put it on or take it off. With this inuention haue I neuer failed to maister anie horse, how diuelish soeuer he was, and by continuall vsing of the same, I haue made them, that being in seruice, I might at my pleasure get vp or downe, hauing one to staie him by the head while I did alight on the one side, and make an other leape vp on the other side at the same instant. Thou maiest also make two holow péeces of leather, much like vnto two great bosses, to the which thou maiest fasten a litle strap of leather, of such length, that it being put ouer the hor­ses head, in the place of the headstall, the two fore­named bosses may fall iust ouer the horses eies. Then take an other peece of leather of such length as the horses forehead is of breadth, and make it fast to the fore part of the two forenamed bosses, and make other two straps fast, so that you buckle them vnder the horses iawes [Page] or throat, and before his rider get vppe, make the same fast that he can not see, and after he is mounted, take it away, and when he hath ridden him and wil alight, you must put it on as before, vntill such time as you haue brought him into the stable, and this is a very good way, but nothing comparable to the first, for that with the one he is but deceiued, but with the other he is ouer mai­stred.

Hovv to teach a horse to lie downe flat vpon his bellie, that he shal not rise till you bid him.

Kingdon.

I Haue forgotten one thing, which aboue all things I haue desired to learne, that is, to teach a horse to lie downe close vppon his bellie, for that it is not onelie good in seruice when a man is armed, but also it is excel­lent when you are hurt or maimed, and haue not anie bodie to helpe you vp, also it is good when you will lay horsemen in an ambuskado, I haue long desired that you should teach me the same, for that at sir Ihon Tra­cies in Gloucester shire you did once learne a horse to lie downe in the space of halfe an houre, and so that he neuer forgote the same, but woulde at all times doe it when his rider should take his backe verie gently, euen with the profering of your hand to his legges, by vsing this voice: Couch, couch.

Clifford.

You shall teach your horse to lie downe in this sort, first shake litter inough vnder him, and tread it down or beate it fast, so as the horse may not driue it vppon heapes with his féete, then put on his head a watring bit, and hauing tide him with two cordes to the postes [Page 54] of his roome, so low that he may easily put his head to the ground, then shall you put a paire of soft pasturnes, the one on his hinder foote, and the other on his fore foot on the further side, and let the cord go betwixt them of a sufficient length, to kéepe him that he shal not reare, then may you tie a long corde to the foote of your man­ger on the right side of your horse, and make the other end fast to the pasturne of his right hinder foot, then shal you put a third pasturne on his néere fore foote: and ha­uing passed a surcingle about his bodie, and through the foresaid pasturne, then shall you buckle vp his néere foote so neare his bellie as you shall thinke necessarie, & you must sée that the buckle lie néere to the midle of the horses backe, to the end that when he is laid downe, you may [...]astly loose ye surcingle: hauing thus tied your horse, you shall beginne to strike him faire and softly with a little cudgel vpon his right legge or shinne beneath his knée with your right hand, and leane your right shoul­der close to the horse his left shoulder, and with your left hand pull downe his head as hard as you can, speaking to him gently, saying to him, couch, couch, and if he pro­fer as though he would lie downe, make much of him, and let him rest a while, then beginne to beate him soft­ly againe till he lie downe. Thus may you teach anie young horse to lie downe in the space of thrée houres, so that with a little exercise the first and second day you shall make him so perfect, that he shal lie downe at the first time that you profer your red to his forelegs: But if you will teach an olde horse to lie downe that is stub­borne and froward of nature, then must you put a sharp pricke in the end of your foresaid cudgell, and let it not excéede the length of a wheate corne without the cudgel, and when with soft striking you can not make him lie downe, then may you pricke him in the legge with the foresaid pricke, and you shal see him presently fall down [Page] vpon his knées, you sée that he will not lie downe with his hinder partes, then holde the bridle fast, and hol [...] your shoulder close to the horse, then shal you strike him faire and softly vpon the elbow of his fore left legge, so long til you make him lie down with his hinder parts, which when he doth, vnbuckle your surcingle, take off his bridle, and giue him grasse or prouender to eate, and flatter him, and make much of him, but if he start vpp [...] sodainely, before you would haue him, then it shall be good to giue him two or thrée strokes with your rod, and presently to force him to lie downe, as at the first, but if he rise not till you woulde haue him, then make mar­uelous much of him, and giue him such things to eate as he most desireth, and when you haue made him rise, claw and rub him, and profer it him no more in the space of an houre. In this order haue I neuer failed to make anie horse lie down at my pleasure, of what age, nature, or disposition soeuer he was.

Kingdon.

But what if my horse wil start vp sodainely when I would take his backe in the field.

Clifford.

Then take him fast by the chéeke of the bridle with your left hand, and whip him wel with your right hand behind the saddle, and cause him to lie downe presently, and by this meanes you shal reforme him.

Of a horse that yarketh behinde in his gallopping.

AT euerie time he yarketh in his gallopping, whip him well behinde vpon his flancke, as néere his coddes as is possible, and so continue the correcti­on as often as the horse shall make this fault, thus you shall quickly recouer him.

Kingdon.
[Page]

But I did demaund of you in the beginning how I should dresse mine horse after that he was ridden, there­fore I praie you teach me what order I shall obserue therin.

Clifford.

That was wel remembred of thée, I giue thée thanks, for I had almost forgotten that, but now I shall most willinglie shew thée of all the waies that I tried which is best. Thine horse béeing walked as before till hée bée thorow colde, thou shalt shake litter inough vnder him, with the which thou must rub his legges well, and also betwixt his fore bowes and hinder legges, that béeing done, vnbridle him, and rubbe his head well, and also his necke and brest, then may you giue him some hay or strawe to eate.

Kingdon.

But were it not good to let him stand halfe an houre on the bit, and not to rubbe his legges till he be thorow colde and drie, and also to take off his saddle and to put a cloth on him, and also stuffe him rounde about with strawe?

Clifford.

As touching thy first demaund, I answere, not with opinion, but with experience, that it is much better, thy horse being colde, as hath béene before taught, to vnbri­dle him and let him eate his meate, than to stand still v [...]on the bit. And as touching thy second demand, I an­swere, it is naught to let thine horse stand vnrubbed, for that the mire drying on his legges, shall not onelie make him stiffe, but also cause his skinne to be so drie that it will chap, and bréede scabbie and mouldie héeles: yea, I doe assure thée I haue throughlie tried this waie, but I could neuer find anie so good, as to rub mine horse till he be drie, & as touching ye vnsadling of him, I haue [Page] also tried it by the space of tenne yeares together, in all which time I could neuer be without the horse léeches helpe, but in twelue yeares that I haue obserued this order héere following, I haue not had néed of the horse­leech to drench my horse at anie time for anie disease comming of colde, no nor seldome of anie other. Take had thou vnsaddle him not, nor so much as slacke one of his girses, but hauing rubbed him well, thou shalt couer him with a single cloth, making the corners ther­of fast vnder his girses, and take héede thou neuer giue him water nor prouender vntill such time as thou hast dined, although thou ride him earlie in the morning, but if it be in winter, put a good handfull of haie in it, to the end it may hinder him and make him drinke leasurelie, which also shall some thing abate the coldnesse of the water. And it shall not be amisse in colde and extreame wether to let thy horse drinke but halfe his fil, and often times to beate him awaie, suffering him to take but a little and a little at once, by meanes whereof he shall not sodainlie coole his stomacke wherwith he might fall into some extreame feauer, and when thou hast done, giue him his wet haie in the manger to eate.

Kingdon.

I shall marre my horse if I let him not drinke his fill?

Clifford.

Thou shalt not hurt him I warrant thée, for that at night thou mayest giue him inough without anie daunger.

Kingdon.

But at what time I praie you shall I vnsaddle him and dresse him.

Clifford.

By that that I haue sayd, I would haue taught thée ye after thou hast watered thy horse thou shalt first rub [Page 52] well his head, and then his bodie and legges, first with strawe and then with haire cloth, that done, combe his mane and put on his coller, which thou must alwayes take off when thou rubbest his head, ye béeing done, giue him his prouender, and vnsaddle him not till night that the doores & windowes of the stable be shut, then mayest thou currie and dresse him without anie danger: By ob­seruing this order & giuing my horse fenegreke in his Oates after his iourney, and not letting him rest, but by walking him abroad euerie daie or euerie other day ea­silie & softlie without heating him, I haue in thrée yeres and thrée moneths, wherein I had charge of Monsieur Villiers horses, not giuen one drench or medicine to so much as one of them for anie disease.

Kingdon.

But how long and how many daies shall I giue my horse his fenegreke, & shall it not be requisite for me to beate it into pouder?

Clifford.

No, but in the same sort that thou buiest it of the Po­thecarie, so giue it vnto thy horse, & let him eate thereof as often as thou giuest him prouender, for the space of fiftéene daies at the least.

Kingdon.

But I haue knowen some horses when you put fe­negreke in his Oates he will not eate it.

Clifford.

Thou mayst easilie remedie that by letting him fast till he be verie hungrie, and by giuing him a little at once till he be throughlie acquainted therewith, which when he is, and will eate it well, then mayest thou giue him thy handfull at a time as before.

VVhat vvater is best for an Horse to drinke.

Kingdon.

I Praie you teach me what water is best to giue min [...] horse to drinke, for that some are of opinion, that stan­ding water will fat a horse much more then the ri­uer or running water.

Clifford.

But if thou wouldest follow my counsell, thou shoul­dest leaue all their opinions and hearken vnto reason, which I am sure will teach thée, that the purer the wa­ter is, the more wholesome for thy horse it is, & the more healthier shall he be, yea, I would not aduise thée to giue thine horse at anie time anie such water as thou wouldest not willinglie drinke thy selfe: for by séeking to fat thy horse with filthie standing water, thou shalt bréede him full of diseases, of the which thing I haue had good experience at sir Iohn Tracies in Gloucester shéere, where watering my horses at a standing moate (for that the horse kéepers were so lazie that they would not goe to a faire brooke that dyd runne a little farther off) by meanes thereof I had alwayes some of my horses sicke or diseased.

Of the horses forrage and prouender.

Kingdon.

I Beséech you shew me what forrage and prouender is best for mine horse to eat, and what quantitie of pro­uender is sufficient.

Clifford.
[Page 53]

As touching thy first demaund, thou must giue him haie and all kinde of strawe that he will eate, séeing al­waies that they be swéete and not mouldie nor foistie, noting also, ye what forrage so euer you giue your horse, you dust it well with your handes or forke before you giue it vnto him, and that you giue it him in a small quantitie at once, to the end he may eate it cleane, for by filling your racke alwaies full of haie or strawe before your horse, you shall make him to loath the same, wher­as if you giue it him by handf [...]lles, he shall eate with greate appetite, and neither wast the forrage nor loath his stomacke.

Kingdon.

I graunt I may féede my horse thus all the daie, but what shall I doe at night?

Clifford.

Fill thy racke, and the next morrow so much as re­maines in it, pul it out and strawe it in the manger be­fore thy horses; if it be but a little, if it be much, take the most parte thereof awaie: bée sure thou make cleane thy racke once a daie in the same sorte, and also let thine horses stand two houres at the least, without anie meate before them. And as touching his prouen­der, twelue times as much Oates as you can take vp in your two handes is sufficient to giue him a daie, fée­ding him therewith in this sorte, foure after water in the morning, as many after dinner, & the rest at night.

Kingdon.

I haue séene diuerse men would giue their horses foure handfulls in the morning and eight at night.

Clifford.

I graunt that thou hast séene it, & so haue I, and also haue proued it, for I haue made mine horses therewith not vnlie take ye laske, but it hath passed whole through [Page] euen as they did eate it. And I haue also so cloied or glutted diuerse horses therewith, that they haue vtterly abhorred their prouender: Therefore I would wish you to giue your horse his prouender often, and by little at once.

Kingdon.

But I haue knowen diuerse worshipfull men in Eng­land giue their horses but eight handfulles a daie, that is to saie, foure in the morning and foure at night.

Clifford.

I graunt that diuerse doth so, and a number of hor­ses will like better therewith than if you gaue them twelue, but you must haue a speciall regard that when your horse eates good haie, you giue him a quarter the lesse prouender then when hée eates strawe, & also that you giue him more when hée is trauailed than when he standes still, for when hée rests, verie little prouender will serue, noting aboue all thinges, that what prouen­der so euer your horse eates, that you giue him rather halfe a pecke too little then one graine too much, for there is not a more vile thing then to giue an horse too much prouender. Beanes or peason mingled with bran is al­so verie good prouender.

Kingdon.

What saie you of horse bread?

Clifford.

That is good to trauaile with, but I neuer saw anie beyond the seas, neither could I finde anie man or wo­man there that could make it.

Kingdon.

How shall I prepare mine horse to trauaile a iour­ney, and what saddle and bridle is best, and also with what shooes shall I shooe mine horse?

Clifford.

First, as touching thy saddle and bridle, let it bée as [Page 54] light as may be, & as touching the shooes of thine horse, let them also be light, and verie narrow of webbe with two calcons, and sée that you make your shoo somewhat thicke in the toe and also strong, rising with a welt or creast, round in the edge thereof, and hollow your shooe verie little, and take heede that you make it somewhat straight so farre as your nailes goe, and from the talent naile backward let your shooe appeare a little without the houe, otherwise it will sinke into his héeles, that it shall not onelie lame your horse, but also spoile his héels that he shall therewith become flat footed. And as touch­ing the paring of his foote, cut awaie as little as is possible at the héeles, but pare him wel from the quarter or the talent naile forward to the tee, and that you also not onelie in paring fauour the héele of the fore foote so much as is possible, and the toe on the hinder foote, for I neuer sawe horse pricked at the toe on the fore foote, nor in the héele of the hinder foote.

Kingdon.

But how shall I diet and dresse mine horse in the morning?

Clifford.

Two houres or an houre and a halfe at the least be­fore you will ride, sée that you let him drinke, that done, let him eate hay the space of halfe an houre, then giue him his prouender, which being eaten, you may bridle him & let him stand till you be readie to take his backe, and take héede you ride him verie gentlie for the space of thrée or foure miles, in which time thy horses bellie and stomacke will beginne to be somewhat swaged, then maye you mende your pase, remembring al­waies that when you come to anie hill you light and leade him, for it is a great refreshing to your horse, and also to your owne legges, which a number of lazie lubbers doe little consider, such as doe hang [Page] on their horses backes both vp hill and downe hill till they be tired, and themselues when they alight, so be­nummed & crooked, that they can scarcelie stand. Thus much I haue digressed, but to the purpose. A mile before you come to your baiting place sée that you ride faire & softlie, to the end he may be colde when he comes to his baite, then when you come to the stable, the first thing you doe, shake litter inough vnder him, that being done, vnbridle him & giue him a bottle of haie to eate, which being eaten, you may giue him his prouender, and sée that you cause him to be wel rubbed, and especiallie be­twéene his fore legges for feare of plishing or galling, and it shall not be amisse if your horse begin to heat be­twéene his fore bowes, to wash him at his first com­ming into the stable with a paile ful of colde water, and when it is through drie, to grease it with salt butter, béeing first made scalding hot, and at night when you come to your lodging dresse your horse as before at your baite, and let him not drinke till he be through colde, & that he haue eaten haie one houre at the least, and if he be hot and verie fat, it shall be verie good to giue him his water at thrée or foure times, by which meanes you shal make him drinke inough without anie daunger. And see that you giue him not his prouender in half an hour [...] after he hath drunke, which would be foure times your two handfulls of Oates, or beanes and bran, or peason and bran, or bread, if it may be had, all which prouender is verie good, but bread is the best, & oates is the worst to trauaile withal, taking good héed, ye you giue his night prouender at twice, which is much better than to giue it him all at once, and in the morning giue him not so much as at night, and that you vnsaddle him not till hée be throughlie drie and wel dressed on all his bodie. But if you come in so late as your horse cannot be drie be­fore bed time, then may you after you haue supped, sée [Page 55] your horse well dressed, take off his saddle, and lay a cloth on him, which would not be too hote in anie case, nor too much straw suffer vnder it, for feare of kéeping your horse too hote, which shall almost doe him so much hurt as though he stoode without anie, and it shall take awaie his stomacke, and make him so faint that he can­not be able to eate his meate, nor to trauell, & being loo­sed out of that foresaid néedelesse heate, he shall be in great danger to take an extreame cold.

Kingdon.

Shal foure handfulls of prouender be inough to giue mine horse at night when I trauell?

Clifford.

Yea, you may giue him eight handfulles, but you must giue it him at twice, and that is sufficient for any horse for his night prouender, and to some it is a greate deale too much, therefore thou must take good héede, that thou know wel thy horses eating, before thou appoint what quantitie of prouender he shal haue, and then mea­sure him accordingly, for I haue found some horses that would not eate thrée handfulls, which I haue made to eate verie well in this order following. I haue giuen him but two handfulls a daie, that is to saie, one in the morning, and an other at night after his water, and al­so I haue caused his kéeper to ride him once a daie to the water, and afterward to ride him halfe an houre, some­times on his pase, and sometimes on his trot: with this exercise and sharp diet, I haue in short space made mine horse so strong of stomacke, that he woulde eate eight handfulles a daie, and more if he could haue had it, which thing thou must obserue as a generall rule, that thou giue him rather too little than too much, as hath béene before taught.

Of making of your Stable.

Kingdon.

SIth that now we haue in hand the kéeping of hor­ses, I woulde desire you first to shew me how I should make my stable.

Clifford.

As touching your stable, I woulde haue you build it in a good aire, and that the doores and windows be made in such sort as you may kéep your horses warme or cold at your pleasure, and as shall be néedefull for the season of the yeare. For you must note, that in a corrupt aire, neither man nor beast can long continue sound, neither in a colde aire, of the which thing you may haue a very familiar example in your selfe, and I woulde haue you diligently to note & well to consider héereof, as, what good your meate and drinke shall doe you, when you in eat­ing the same, and sléeping, shall suffer colde.

Kingdon.

How should my horses be too colde in an house, for you may sée that those horses that go abroad, neuer take harme, by meanes of the aire, and also if I kéepe mine horse warme, he shalbe the lesse able to indure cold when he comes abroad?

Clifford.

Thou hast made a strong reason: dost not thou know that the horse which goes abroad wil not rest 6. hours in 24. and that thereby he cannot take anie harme, for that he is continually exercised, and that moderately, and not being driuen into anie heate: but thy horse standing in the stable, is manie times driuen into extreame great heates, and at other times standeth stil without exercise, the lacke whereof is the reason that he can not endure the aire of his stable to be so colde by the tenth part, as if he went abroad, yea I neuer in all my life could kéepe [Page 56] my horses sound in a colde stable, yet I would aduise you to take good héed that it be not so warme on the other side that your horses therewith shal sweat, but that you vse the golden meane betwixt these two extremes which is, that your horse be not so hote to make him sweat, nor so cold that his haire stand vpright vpon his buttockes or stare, which is a most manifest signe of cold.

Kingdon.

I do confesse that it is good to kéep an horse in a tem­perate aire, but I would faine know how I shal make my racke and manger, and how I shall plancke my sta­ble, and diuide the roomes thereof.

Clifford.

First as touching your manger, you may make it of thrée fashions: the first is, as we commonly vse them in England, which serueth to no other vse, but for them to eate their prouender in, and the haie which they scat­ter or let fall when they eate out of the racke: the second fashion serueth both for prouender and forrage, for that it is made higher, déeper, and wider by a great deale than our common manger is, and also it is made with staues or laths, nailed on the bottome, in such sorte, that it may holde the forage, and let the dust fall through: and also you may make a manger for euerie couple of horses of thrée foote long, with a partition in the middle thereof placed iust betwixt your horses, so as they may bothe reach their prouender in the same, and let the partition thereof stand iust with the end of the barre that is be­twixt your horses, so as the one halfe may be in the one roome, and the other halfe in the other. Thus shal your horse haue place inough for his forrage, without being letted with the manger: note herewith, that all suche mangers as these be, must haue staues made faste at the one ende in the wall, or vppon the side of the manger nexte to the wall, and at the other ende [Page] you must make them fast to the outside of the manger, and let such staues be placed a foot and an halfe one from an other, to the end that your horse may easily reach his forrage, and yet not be able to cast it out of his man­ger, nor into his fellowes roome with his head. The third waie is to make it foure times as bigge as our common mangers are, so that the horse can do no more than reach easilie to the bottome, and this manger must be all plankes, as well in the bottome as on the sides, that the horse may both eate his prouender and forrage therein. This manger haue I often made in Flaunders, being in the campe, where I had no stables, but was forced to make my horses roomes in a barne or great house, in this sort: You must first at the one ende of the house or barne, where you meane that your manger shall stand, digge a pitte in the ground thrée foot and an halfe déepe, let it be fiue foote from the wall or end of the house, where your horse must stand, with his right or left side to it, and let the pitts be from the wall that shall be before your horses head, so as your man­ger may be two foote and an halfe wide in the bottome, and thrée foote wide in the toppe, then shall you put a post therein of such height as you will haue your man­ger, then may you make an other pit in the corner of the foresaid wall, and hauing nailed a strong planke at both endes to the foresaid postes, then may you make two holes in the wall, into the which you shall putte two small péeces of timber, and naile them at the other endes fast to the two foresaide postes, a foote beneath the neather edge of your plancke, then may you set a trough therevppon for the horse both to eate his forrage and prouender in: then may you set an other post in the ground behind your horse to hang your barre vpon, and the other ende thereof to your first post: in this sorte may you make all the rest of your roomes, with manger [Page 57] and barre betwixt your horses, very commodiously and quickly. And as touching your planckes, it is a thing not vsed beyond seas, and yet haue I kepte my horses there as sounde as euer I did in England vppon the planckes.

Kingdon.

How I pray you may that be? For if you should let them stand on the grounde, it will in short time become all mire: and if you paue your stable, it will be verie colde, and also weare your horses shooes, breake them and his hoofes, much more than vpon the planckes, and your horses also wil spend twice as much litter as vpon the plancks.

Clifford.

As touching that thou saiest the grounde will be all mire, thou art deceiued: for thou must first digge awaie the earth two or thrée foote déepe, and fill in vnder your horses, grauel, sand, and stones, if they may be had, but if thou canst haue nothing but stones, then must thou breake them with great hammers, and couer them with horse dung and litter vppon it for the space of tenne or twelue daies, that your stones may be well fastened with the dung and treading of your horse, and at the twelue daies end, hauing taken away your dung, you shall sée your grauel or stones so hard as a rocke: but you must note by the waie, that you leaue a gutter right vnder your horses bellies cleane through your stable a foote and an halfe déepe, and so wide as the breadth of the planck that you can get to couer the same fitly, and sée that you place that plancke somewhat lower than the [...]oore of your horses roome, so that if the horse pisse either behind or before, it may haue a dissent to the same, so as al the wet may passe into the foresaid gutter by meanes of awger holes, which should be made in the plancke for that purpose. This is one of the best fashions that euer [Page] I tried or saw in any place where soeuer I haue trauel­led. And whereas thou saiest stones weare thy horses shooes, breakes them and their hoofes, wastes more litter, and is more cold, I could neuer find my horse to like one whit worse on the stones than on the plancks, although something it weare their shooes more than plancks, and that he may also breake his hoof or shooe somthing more than vpon the plancks, & I grant also it wil waste som­thing the more litter, yet if thou wouldest well consider how many good horses are hurt and mischiefed in their legs, shoulders, and small of their backs, by dangerous slipping, sliding, falling, and hanging their legs therein, thou wouldst grant the floore made as before, and paue­ment to be ten times better than the plancks, yea, and they are made and maintained with lesse charges by an halfe than the planckes. But you must note that when you paue your stable, that you leaue a gutter through your horses roomes couered with a plancke, as before, & take héed that whether you plancke your stable, or paue, or make the floore with sand or grauell, that you make it not aboue 4. or 5. inches higher before than behinde: for by making it verie high before your horse, he shall stand vneasily, and if you shall mooue him neuer so little in the stable, he will be readie to fall, besides that, his lit­ter when he doth lie will all fall behinde him: and also if he chance to tumble or wallow himselfe in his roome, you shall sée him settle so farre backward that he cannot rise, for that his hinder legs wil be clean without ye posts of his roome, & he hangs so short by ye neck that it is not possible for hun to rise til you loose his collar, which is a thing verie dangerous, for vpon such planckes you may soone marre any horse.

Kingdon.

I grant this is a very good way to make my plancks, but I would desire you to tel me whether it be not good [Page 58] to raise my horses roome a foote higher than the grounde behind, to make my horses shew the better.

Clifford.

It were good for an horse courser to make his horses shew higher than they be indéed, but for ye ease of ye horse, it is stark naught, or if your horse chance at any time to treade behind his plancks he shal most cruelly strike his leg against the taile trée, & if he chance at anie time to wallow or [...]ide so farre back that his legs fall behind ye plancks, he shal not be able to rise, for that he can get no holde on the ground with his hind féete, which thinges considered, I would wish you to make ye ground behind your horses so high as the plancks.

Kingdon.

I grant it is good to make my plancks no higher thā the groūd behind my horses, but I would haue you teach me of what length I should make my plancks, & of what widenesse I shall make my roomes, also what height I shal set my manger from the ground, & also how high I should set my racke from the vpper edge of the manger, & also how wide I should set the staues the one from ye other, & of what length I should make my racke staues.

Clifford.

First as touching your roomes I would haue you a­low euerie horse 5. foot, & as touching the length of your plancks, I would haue you make it 8. foot & an halfe be­twixt ye wall vnder your manger, & the outside of your taile trée, then shal you make your manger frō ye planks to ye vpper edge therof 3. foot, & from ye vpper edge of your manger to ye nether side of your rack, make it 2. foot long, & let the stanes of your rack be 3. foot & an halfe long, & when you wil place your rack, set the nether side therof 4. inches frō the wall, & the vpper side no more but a foot & a half distāce frō ye wall, by this means your rack shall stand so vpright, ye there shal no dust fal into your horses [Page] mane at anie time, and although it be narrow, yet it wil be so déepe from the top to the bottome thereof, that it shall be able to holde haie inough for your horse, and also when you would shake vp the haie with your forke (which is verie good to be done often) for it will not on­lie well dust the haie, but it wil make the horse eate a great deale the better than when it shall be tied fast in bottels, or trodden in as I haue séene diuerse craftie ostlers vse, to the end that they should not eate half their bellies ful, and when you would thus shake your haie, you shall not so soone throwe it ouer this broad racke, as ouer those that be narrow, and by reason that it standes so vpright, the horses shall get their meate much more easily out of it than out of the narrow racke, for that you must place your narrow racke high, to the end it may be somewhat flat, otherwise it will hold nothing in effect, & if you should set it lowe and flat, that is to saie, to set the neather edge close to the wall, and the ouer edge two foote and an halfe from the wall, then shall your greate and high horses not be able to eate out of the same, and if you set it so high that they may well eate out of it, then shall it be too high for your nagges and lowe gel­dings, but in the broad racke it is not so, for if you set the nether edge therof so low, as the nose band of your great horses collar when he stands stil & eats not either out of racke or manger, which wil be fiue foot frō your planks, yet shall he most easily get out his haie, & it shal be lowe inough for anie nag, besides that, the narrow racke wil too too much marre your horses manes with dust.

Kingdon.

I grant that this broad rack thus set almost vpright, is much better than the narrow racke, for that I shal be able to keep mine horses manes cleane without dust, and also the least nag that is may reach his meate out of it easily, and the great horse also: but whereas you do saie [Page 59] I should set the n [...]ther edge thereof foure inches from the wall, I thinke it should not be good, for by that means ye hay shal fal through the bottome of the rack, & also the horses shal strike their heads against ye sharp edge therof.

Clifford.

Whereas thou saiest that haie shall fall out of the bottome of the racke, thou mayest easilie remedie it by laying a planke of sixe or seuen inches, broad in the bot­tome thereof, so as the inner side which must bee close against the wal may be a good deale higher then the nea­ther edge therof, which must ioyne those of the staues of the racke, and whereas thou sayest the horse shall strike their heads against the neather edge thereof, thou maist cut awaie the square and make it round on the out side after your rack staues are all in, and plaine it so smooth that he cannot hurt his head nor his face therevpon: thou maiest also make fast a planke of halfe a foote broad at the one edge, to the out side of your racke, and the nea­ther edge close to ye wal, this shal not onelie make your rack shew verie comlie, but also it will keepe your horse that he cannot strike his head to the neather edge there­of. But when you place your rack in this sort, you must make your manger so much larger as your racke stands distant from the wall at the neather edge.

Kingdon.

How shall I make this racke fast at the neather side séeing it may not touch the wall?

Clifford.

If thou build thy stable new thou must laie péeces of timber in the wal for that purpose, vpon the which thou maist set the bottome of the rack, and then driue a naile downward thorow the neather side thereof into the rind of the foresayde péece of timber: but if you will place your racke against an olde wall, then must you driue therein péeces of yron made for that purpose, with holes [Page] pearced through the out end thereof, so as you may nail [...] them to the bottome of your racke after they are fastned in the wall: you must also dig holes in the wall a little beneath the neather side of your racke, into the which you may make fast short péeces of timber, and you may naile them at the other ende to the rafter of your cham­ber, but you must let the vpper edge of your racke bée within these péeces of timber at the next side thereof without, so as you may make it fast with a little péece of yron which would be nailed at the one end vnder the neather side of the racks, and at the other ende to the péece of timber which you make fast in the wall. There is also another kinde of racke which doeth farre excell, not onelie this fashion, but also all other that hath bene practised.

How to make a racke that doeth farre excell all the racklike makers inuented by the discréete Italians, of those that are vsed by the souldier-like Germaines, by the braue French men, proude and disdainfull Spani­ards, by the cunning and skilfull Flemings, and by my Countrie men, whose Nature if I truelie paint out, I should but offend, for the Prouerbe sayth: It is an euill Birde that beraieth her owne neast: and if I should flatter them, all wise men would condemne me, and mine owne conscience accuse me, for the Lorde knowes & all those that haue made triall of me, that I am a thousand times better contented wt honest painful pouertie, then with the riches of India, where I cannot be liked without vse of flatterie, neither resembling the Parasite Gnato, nor yet the boasting Souldier Thraso. Thus much haue I dreamed, but nowe béeing awaked let vs go to our purpose, which is to make this rare and straunge kinde of racke which I first dreamed of when I serued sir Thomas Scot of Kent, to whom I am much bound, not onelie for that he gaue me a young horse to [Page 60] tri [...] my cunning vpon, being then a stranger to him, for the space of two yeares, wherein he vsed such wisdome and patience, that I must néeds commend him before all those that euer I haue serued in England, for although he could by his skill haue taught me, yet did he neither teach me contrarie, or find falt with anie thing, yet can­not I commend him halfe so much for this, as for that he gaue me leaue to beate downe the rackes of his stable, plankes and posts, and to paue the same and make the posts and barres according to mine owne small skill, but the thing wherfore he deserueth immortal praise is, ye when he sawe this rack then first by me inuented, not brought to anie perfection, though he had power to com­mand me to alter it to his former fashion, yet did hée wiselie winke thereat till such time as he sawe I had throughlie found the discommoditie thereof, and then he did gentlie perswade me to alter it if I thought good, by which his gentle and prudent doings he did not onelie make me yéeld willinglie to that he might haue forced me by his authoritie, by the which he did wonderfullie content me, but also till this daie, I cānot find anie man that (in my iudgement) doth deserue the commendations that he hath forced me to giue of him, & that all the Gna­toes that shall thinke that I haue said thus much by the way of flatterie, I doe thée to wit that I parted out of sir Thomas Scots house, not as a friend but as an enimie, but yet he paied me my wages so iustlie, that I cannot but yet once againe commend him, not for that I héereby séeke his friendship, yea I doe not thinke that in my life time I shal sée him or haue to do with him, yet am I tho­roughly perswaded that I shal highlie offend if I should defraud mine enimie of his right. But to our purpose. I neuer gaue ouer till I had brought my foresayde in­uention to his ful perfection at maister Barnard Drakes in Deuon shéere, who is both a wise and an honest [Page] Gentleman: And it is made in this sorte, you must first set your manger a foote and a halfe from the wall that is before your horses head, then maie you palac [...] vpon the inner edge of the manger at euerie flue foote distance a péece of timber of such length, as the other ends thereof be made fast to the floore that is ouer your hor­ses, then hauing made your racke in péeces of fiue foote and a halfe of length, then may you begin to set vp the first péece of your racke, make two holes wherein you must make fast the first two endes of your racke in the wall, and two tenans on the other two ends thereof, which must be ioyned fast into two mortices which should be made in the péeces of timber for that purpose. When you haue thus placed the first péece of racke, then shall you place another at the one end into the foresaid péece of timber on the other end with another péece of timber. Thus when you haue placed all the péeces of your racke, then shalt you plancke it close betwixt the bottome of your racke to the edge of the manger, in such sort as no man can perceiue the hollownesse which re­maines betwixt the wall and those plankes, then shall you take little péeces of timber and make them fast at one end into the neather side of your racke, and let the other ends leane against the wall, in such sort as you sée the rafters of the roofe of an house, then must you naile on them planks or laths, to the end that your forrage fall not downe behinde your plankes and manger, and this sloping pentice shal alwaies force your forrage to fall to­wards your racke, so as your horses may reach it at their pleasure out of this racke, there cannot fall anie dust vppon your horses heads, no nor so much as vppon their noses.

Kingdon.

This racke is verie good, but héereby I shall loose a foot and a halfe of my stable, for that the inner side of my [Page 61] manger must stand a foote and halfe from the wall.

Clifford.

But it shal saue the more litter thē the discommodi­tie therof shal counteruaile, by reason of the great roome that shall remaine behinde and vnder your manger, in such sort that you shall neuer sée your horses to be able to pawe out anie of their litter with their fore féete, and your racke being placed vpright, they shall be able to reach their forrage with a thousand times more ease then out of our ordinarie rackes.

Kingdon.

What meane you by setting your racke vpright?

Clifford.

I meane that thou shouldest set the vpper side and neather side thereof of like distance from the wall, and make the bottome thereof that must holde vp your for­rage to stand in such sort against the wall, as wee com­monlie sée a pentice ouer a shoppe windowe so as there may nothing staie vpon the same but that it shall all fall toward your vpright racke, whether you place this rack high or lowe, yet may your horse eas [...]lie get out his for­rage, if you place it not so high as hée cannot reach it.

Kingdon.

Whether is it good to make my stable doore right be­hinde my horses, or in the ende, and whether is it good to make a floore ouer my Stable or no?

Clifford.

As touching thy first demaund, it is an hundred times better to make the doore in the ende of the Sta­ble then in the side thereof, for by making it in the end of the Stable, the winde shall neuer haue full pow­er vppon anie of your horses, the doore béeing open, you may also turne your horses heades towardes your house or court, and make behinde them a doore or win­dow [...] [Page] to throw out your dung at, which shall be a great ease to your horse kéeper, and also it will not be hurtfull to your horses, for the lesse drudgerie you put your kée­per vnto, the better shall your horses be dressed, yea, you shall neuer sée where it is painful carrying out of dung, & fetching the water and forrage far off, anie good horse kéeper slaie long, but such drudges as cannot tell whe­ther to go, therfore mine opinion is, that they that will haue good horse kéepers and their horses well dressed, that they séeke no lesse the ease of their kéepers, than the commoditie of their horses, and wheras thou demandest whether it be good to haue a chamber or floore ouer the stable or no, my answere, I am sure shal not be liked of all, but so manie as haue grace to vse wit instead of wil, will vndoubtedlie account it méere follie to build a stable like a vaine pallace, which wil aske ten times a mans height of wall, with a roofe ouer it to kéep them drie, & when the raine comes there can no more be kept drie then can stand on a floore, vnder which roome hée might make fiue roomes, which would be as pleasant to nature, as vainelie to wast so much charges to so small purpose, nay rather to no purpose, for that such an house or stable as hath no chamber in it, in Winter is so ex­treame colde, that neither man nor beast may endure it, and in the Summer it is on the other side too hot, and be­sides, by making the kéeper wast halfe of his wages to finde him stockings and sh [...]es to fetch his forrage, thy horses thereby shall be euil dressed, and it shall wast thée more forrage in the space of seauen yeares then the buil­ding of a new stable would cost thee: yet sure I thinke him verie vnreasonable that will not graunt that it is better to raise the wall ten foote higher then the top of his racke, and to make a chamber, in the which he may lay forrage inough for his horses vnder one selfe same roofe, which is double commoditie and profit, then vaine­lie [Page 62] to goe wast so much money as to build another house to laie his forrage in, for the wearying of the kéepers, doth deceiue his horses of their dressing.

At vvhat time of the daie is it best to water a horse, and also whe­ther it be good to wash him or not.

THE best time to water your horses is in the mor­ning betwixt seauen and eight of the clocke, and betwéene foure and fiue in the after noone. And touching ye washing of an horse, it is verie good, as hath bene before taught, and it is also good in the Sum­mer when he eats grasse, as w [...]l as at anie other time, the weather béeing hot, to learne your horse to swim in some déepe water, with a [...]ie or a man vppon him, and a sursingle girded fast about his bodie, vpon ye which it shall be good to tie a couple of wad [...] made of straw [...] or haie, in such height, that the man being mounted, and bowing his legges backward, may holde himselfe fast by the said wispes with his calues or hams; this is a verie excellent waie, for that you may sit as fast almost as though you had a saddle, and take héede when you will swim your horse in this sort, that you br [...]e him with a watering bit or snaffle, or else wt a paire of false raines at his ordinarie bit, else in swimming if you should vse your ordinarie raines, you shall pull his head vnder the water. And note alwaies, that first when you woulde learne your horse to swimme, that you let him swim but a little waie at once, and then letting him stand stil and making much of him till he be in breath, you may swimme him againe as before: This is a verie neces­sarie thing for a souldiers horse or horse of seruice to learne him to swimme well.

Kingdon.
[Page]

I grant that it is good to learne an horse to swim, and also to wash him oftē in hot weather, so that he be not driuen into any heat before, for that were very dan­gerous, but my purpose was to know of you whether it be good to wash an horse after hée hath béene ridden, yea or no.

Clifford.

It is not amisse if thy horse be verie foule and mirie to ride him through some pond or watering place so fast as you can make him pase or trot without staying him or letting him to drinke, and take héed withall you ride him not too déepe, if hée be a verie fat horse and also hot.

Kingdon.

But diuerse good horse men are of opinion that it is not good to wash an horse when he is hot.

Clifford.

I graunt it is not good if your horse be extreame hot and also verie fat but if he be but reasonable hot either from comming from giuing him his lesson, or tra­uailing him you may boldlie wash his legges vppe to his bellie without anie daunger as before, taking good héed that you wash not your horses bellie, or as high as the skirtes of the saddle, as I haue sé [...]ne many vnex­pert horse kéepers doe, which thing in déed is verie dan­gerous to an horse that is hot: If your watring place bée verie nigh to your stable, then I woulde haue you ride your horse two or thrée turnes after you haue washed him vpon a good round trot, and as soone as you are ligh­ted to put him into the Stable, and not to wal [...]e him in the hand in anie case, for that the colde aire shall vt­terlie marre him.

Hovv, and at vvhat time it is best to let an horse bloud, and also by what signes you shal know when it is needefull.

Kingdon.

I Pray you shew me at what time of the yéere it is best to let mine horse bloud, for that some are of opinion, that it is good to let a horse bloud foure times a yéere, and some but twice a yéere, and other, but once in a yeere: and some would not haue him let bloud at all, except there be appearance of sickenesse.

Clifford.

Thou hast rightly termed those opinions, for indéede they are but vaine & opinionated men that woulde haue an horse being of good health to be let bloud at anie time of the yeare, vnlesse they be such geldings or horses as you will in the spring time turne to grasse: for experi­ence doth teach, that it is not amisse to let such horses bloud thrée or foure daies before you turne them out.

Kingdon.

But were it not best in the spring time to let anie horse bloud, for that I haue heard some of the opinion, that it is good, for that the horses of Polonia, as they sa [...], let themselues bloud once in the yeare, and that in the spring time?

Clifford.

I graunt they say so, but those that teach suche vn­truthes as these be, I may well compare them to the learned fooles which carrie their science in their sachels, and their wisedome in their lippes, speaking opinions, and what they haue heard, which is intollerable in such [Page] men to recount what they haue read, but to the good ri­der, souldior, kéeper, or farrier that will haue credite giuen to his wordes, hée must not recount what hée hath read, but what hée hath séene and done with his hands.

Kingdon.

This by the waie (but to our purpose:) I pray you teach me in what vaine it is best to let my horse bloud, and what order is to be obserued therein.

Clifford.

First, thou shalt let him bloud in the necke vaine, which goeth right to the middle of the horses heart, and spreadeth not abroad towards the necke and wythers, as some vaine horseleaches haue presumed to teach me, but I doubting their vnskilfull malapertnesse being at sir Thomas Scots in Kent, who is not onlie a verie good horseman, but also a singular wise man and a iust as e­uer I serued, I gaue a countrie man sixe pence, being on a cold frostie daie to shew me an horse that was dead, & as I do remember it was two or thrée miles distance frō Scots hall, which horse I cut vp in this order: First I beganne with the necke vaine at the horses head, and put a small straight wand into the same, when I had put my rod as farre into the vaine as I coulde with my knife, I opened the same to the point thereof, so long til I thrust my rod by the same conduct into the middest of the horses heart, and afterward returned to the ar­turie which lieth iust vnder the foresaide veine, and commeth into the middle of the heart also, and carrieth the vitall bloud to nourish the spirites withall, as the [...] saie, which I doe not denie, and that veine, they saie, carrieth the nutrimentall bloud, which if they woulde leaue rolling in their Rhetorike, and chopping of Logike, it were more proper in this arte to tearm [...] it the bloud which nourisheth the bodie, for that wé [...] [Page 64] ignorant groomes and horseleaches vnderstand no such horseleaches latine, nor eloquent termes, whereby they do not onelie séeke [...] deceiue vs, but a number of wise and learned Gentlemen, for the which I do not enuie them so much, as also for that they dare presume to saie that a horse hath a verie little braine or none at all: in the which two things, they do most notably lie as wel as in a number of other things which were héere too long to repeate.

Kingdon.

How much shall I let one of these horses bloud that is to be turned to grasse?

Clifford.

That must I referre to your owne iudgement, for that some horses may bléede more than others by a great deale, therefore thou must take héede first, knowe well thy horses qualitie and strength, and afterward let him bloud accordingly.

Kingdon.

I grant that this is good, but I pray you teach me by what signes I shall know when to let my horse bloud, to preuent sicknesse and preserue health, sithence you de­nie me to let my horse bloud in the spring time, which cannot sincke into my head, but to be good, for that the horses of Polonia let themselues bloud by the instinct of nature.

Clifford.

As touching the signes I answere, that thou shalte knowe it in this sort, by that thy horse rubbeth his taile and mane, bites his bodie, and that his veines swel and appeare greater than they were accustomed. And also the inside of his eies will be verie redde. And as tou­ching the horses of Polonia, they teach thée no other thing than as I haue before saide, which, if thou be not verie forgetfull, thou maiest remember that I told thée [Page] euen now, that it was not good to let thy horse bloude without appearance of sickenesse, which these horses of Polonia duely obserue, not onlie in the spring time, but all the whole yeare thorow, when they feele anie appée­rance of sicknesse, as before, of the which thing I haue had good triall, not onelie by foure of them which were in the Prince of Orange his stable, but also by foure other, which Monsieur Villiers had, I hauing thē charge of his horses, I did obserue in them, as before.

Kingdon.

I pray you shewe me in what place of their bodies, these horses let themselues bloud.

Clifford.

Vpon their shoulders most commonly so high, as is possible for them to reach towardes their withers, they will also let themselues bloud on their buttockes a little beneath the huckle bone, but this last they vse not halfe so cōmon as the first: note, that these horses will alwaies let themselues bloud so néere the place where the griefe or sickenesse is as is possible for them to reache wyth their mouthes.

At vvhat time it is best to purge with grasse or otherwise.

Kingdon.

I Pray you shew me at what time of the yere it is best to purge my horse, for that some are of opinion, that it is best to purge him in the spring time with grasse or otherwise.

Clifford.

Thou shalt neuer purge thy horse otherwise th [...]n [Page 65] with grasse or gréene corne, vnlesse the appearaunce of sicknesse, then shall it be tolerable both to let him bloud, and to purge him with a medicine which shall be héere­after taught in the Farriers office. And as touching pur­ging with grasse, the best waie is to giue it him in the spring time, whiles it is verie tender, or otherwise it wil purge little or nothing at all.

Kingdon.

How manie daies shall I let my horse eate grasse in this sort?

Clifford.

Euen as manie as is possible for thée to get it.

Kingdon.

What reason haue you, for that by continuall pur­ging my horse, I shall marre him?

Clifford.

But thy horse will not purge with grasse or gréene corne aboue the space of tenne daies at the most, no, nor so much, if thou giue him prouender, whereof he will eate more, and with better appetite than when he eates haie.

Kingdon.

Then, shall I giue my horse grasse but tenne daies onelie?

Clifford.

I tolde thée euen nowe, that thou shouldest giue it him so long as was possible to get it, for the longer hée eates it, the sounder shall he be, yea, I haue alwaies in Flaunders and Fraunce, when my horses haue failed to eate grasse once, in the sommer time, one moneth at the least, I haue alwaies had it for an infallible rule, that they haue béene a great deale more subiect to sickenesse the whole yeare folowing. But by letting my horse eate grasse or gréene corne at all times when I could get it, I haue kept them much sounder than by harde meate, [Page] and more lustie and disposed to trauell or do anie thing, yea I haue in my iourney, or otherwise at all times when I sawe my horse refuse his meate, immediat­ly sought to get him grasse, which is a verie present medicine to make him eate his meate at what time soe­uer he loathes the same, which comes of no other cause than of the glutting with prouender, or when his stomack is weake by meanes of extreame trauell: When hée shall haue taken anie colde, it is verie good to giue him grasse to eate, and venegréeke in his prouender, and to exercise him euerie daie once a little, in doing whereof, you must haue great care that you exercise him so mo­derately that in anie wise you make him not sweat. In this sort shall you rid anie horse of his colde, be it neuer so great, if you will haue care that you kéepe him not too hote at one time, and too colde at an other, and that you set him in a reasonable warme stable, for in a colde stable you shal neuer kéep your horse sound, but alwaies subiect to sickenesse.

Kingdon.

Then would you would make me beléeue that it is good to trauel mine horse with grasse, which al good horse men do denie, saying, it is too grosse and faint a féeding for an horse to trauell with, and being fed with grasse, he shall not be able to runne or to doe anie seruice, as well as when he is sedde with hard meate.

Clifford.

Good horsemen I grant them, but yet in this point for want of experience they erre much, for I haue neuer found my horse more disposed to trauel vpon any meate than with grasse, so that you obserue this order héere fo­lowing. As soone as your horse hath eaten grasse til his bellie be full, and that he beginnes to leaue it, then must you offer him hate, which you shall sée him eate so willingly as he did the grasse at the first. Thus by [Page] giuing him grasse at one time, and haie at another, and also his ordinarie prouender, you shall kéepe your horse in good state, sound, and disposed to anie trauell, but he shall be also very long winded, and able to doe anie seruice or trauell, that you shal put him vnto, so that you exercise him daily, for it is want of exercise, and not meat that maketh man and beast vnable to endure trauell.

Kingdon.

But were it not good to let my horse lie in his own [...] dung, & not to stir him so lōg as he purgeth with grasse?

Clifford.

No, it is naught, and contrarie to nature, as thou maiest well perceiue, if thou wilt but marke thy horses lying when he is in the fields, which I am assured thou wilt graunt, for thou neuer sawest anie horse lie in his own dung in the field, for that is proper onelie to swine, and they are all but swinish and hoggish horsemen that vse such beastlie fashions, for the cleaner thy horse is kept, the healthier and sounder shall he be.

Kingdon.

I haue séen you to let an horse of M. Throckmortons stand vpon his dung, & also throw water on the same.

Clifford.

It is true that thou sawest me let him stand vpon it, but that was to mend his hoofes, which were almost marred, by reason of an vnskilfull kéeper and far [...]ier, but thou did d [...]st neuer sée me suffer him to lie vpon it, for that the kéeper threw it awaie at night, and put it vn­der him in the morning presently when he was dressed.

Kingdon.

Then, would you haue me to dresse my horse so as I do when he is at hard meate?

Clifford.

Yea, in the same sort, wtout any difference, & also ride & exercise him daily, which is the best phisick to preserue [Page] anie horses health that euer I found, if thou wilt adde two simples more which is venegréeke in his oates, as hath béene before taught, at some times, which will pre­uent colde wormes, and a number of other diseases. The second simple is, good diet, and moderate féeding him with such forrage and prouender, as is cleane, swéete, and wholesome.

The end of the third booke.

The fourth Booke.

Certaine briefe notes ne­cessarie to bee knowen of euerie Gentleman, Souldier, Rider, and Keeper, teaching him howe he should make his cauison, his bridle, headstalles, and raines, and also howe hee shoulde make his sad­dle in such sort as he may carrie his head peece so commodiouslie, that although he be the Marshall of a campe, and that he haue pages to carrie it, yet shall he finde it a great deale more readie, and also it shall not trouble nor let him anie waie, not be able to fall off whether he gallop or runne, or what exercise so euer he doth on horse backe. Also how to make his pistoll fast to his saddle, that it shall be able neither to stirre, nor yet shall he be letted thereby anie more, either in getting vp or downe, then if hee had no p [...]stoll at all.

MAke your cauison of foure fashions, the first is all made of one péece, the second is made of two péeces ioyned in the mid­dle, or else of thrée péeces: the third fa­shion is made of foure péeces, each péece an inch and a quarter, being with an hole in each end thereof, and these foure péeces must bée [...]ast riuetted with small nailes to a péec [...] of thicke and strong leather so long as your ordinarie cauison, which must be couered with a péece of thin leather to hide the heads of your nailes that they cannot be séene, then may you make your two rings fast to the ends of the foresaid leather, as you doe to your cauison, this is a verie good waie for that it shall not haue anie yron to wring your [Page] horse vpon his chéekes, but on his nose onlie. The fourth fashion, thou must take sixe little clout or tacke nailes, with their heads some thing broade, then mayest thou driue them through a péece of thick leather, and let the [...] be distant one from another an inch, and hauing coue­red the said péece of leather with another péece that must be somewhat broader then the first, and stitcht it so néere the heads of your nailes as is possible, then may you make fast your ringes in such sorte as you did to your other cauison, and that being done, cut off al your nailes with a paire of sharpe pincers, so as they may appeare no more than a wheat corne length without the leather. These two last cauisons are excellent good for a horse that is harde of nose, if you make fast a strappe of lea­ther vnder his chinne, and a chaine in his mouth, as hath bene before taught, for if you shall slacke the one hand and drawe the other neuer so little, you shall make your horse more to obey you, and stand in greater awe of your cauison, then if you pulled him with the strength of two men at your cauison made all of one péece, and the reason is, for that these two cauisons will easilie bée made to runne ouer your horses nose, in such sort [...] as you drawe a Sawe ouer a péece of timber, when you cut it, & although this cauison may be thought too cruell of those that haue not tried it, yet I assure you that when you haue once prooued it so as is héere taught, you shall finde it farre to excell both the mousroul [...], chaine, and cauison, made of one péece for with these two cauisons you shall neuer néede to bruse your horses noses, so as they shall swell or make them rawe, no if a man haue knowledge and reason, & haue these two caui­sons vpon anie horse, you shall scarce euer perceiue vp-his nose that he hath ben touched with a cauison for that he shall be so light vppon the same after that he is tho­roughlie acquainted therewith, that you shall sée him [Page 68] goe backward a round trot with halfe the strength of your little finger.

Kingdon.

I graunt that these cauisons are good, but I would faine haue you to tell me which is the best.

Clifford.

That made of foure péeces of yron is best of all other that euer I tried.

Kingdon.

You haue taught me of what length I should make my péeces of yron, and also how I should make them fast, but I knowe not of what fashion I shoulde make them.

Clifford.

You must make them of such fashion as you do your cauison turned hollow, and filed with téeth, and turne it a little crooked, noting, that you make it not halfe so great as your ordinarie cauison, nor so hollowe by two partes.

Kingdon.

I haue often heard you saie, that while you were with Monsieur Villiers in Flaunders, you inuented how to make your headstall to serue for two purposes, that is to saie, both for a collar and for a headstal, which thing is verie commodious vpon great iourneis, and in a campe for souldiers, therefore I praie you teach me of what fa­shion I shall make the same.

Clifford.

This kinde of headstall is verie commodious in déed, for ye you shall not be troubled to carrie a collar at your saddle; [...] hauing néed to ride your horse with false raines you may make the raines therof with buttons, that you may both button it to your bit when you ride, & com­ming into the stable, you may bu [...] on the same to the [Page] rings of your headstall, yet I haue often in the camp [...] made one of my raines to serue me for a martingale, & the other of them for a paire of f [...]lse raines, by tying a knot on each end thereof, and cutting it full of slits. But to the purpose. Thou shalt onelie make thy throat band and thy nose band of thy headstall double, and put ther­on a couple of rings, and let these two ringes be made fast one to the other with a couple of linkes, two inches and a halfe or thrée inches long, and to the neathermost of those rings you may fasten your coller raines at such time as you will vnbridle your horse. Thus shall you haue no néede to take off your headstall, but onelie to vnbuckle the two porchmouths of your bit.

Kingdon.

This is a verie good waie for a souldier, but I think for a Gentleman it is verie vnséemelie to ride with a paire of yron rings at his headstall, and with one of his coller raines made in a martingale, and the other in a paire of false raines.

Clifford.

Whereas thou saiest it shall be vnséemelie for a Gen­tleman, I answere thée, it shall not be vnséemlie neither for Gentleman nor noble man, if thou wilt leaue vaine pride & foolishnesse a mome: For I haue séene Monsieur Villiers who is a noble gentleman, & also a man of great credit and authoritie, not to ride héere with onelie in the campe, but also both in Cities and townes, and I haue se [...]ne him ride therewith amongst all the braue French men that Monsieur had then in his armie when he was first Duke of Brabont and gouerneur of the low Coun­tries, yea, and he woulde often saie, that he woulde not chaunge his headstall for a waggen full of their ta [...]fata bridles: But for such as are better, thou maiest vn­buckle thy nose and throat hand and take off thy rings, which béeing done no man shall perceiue this heedstall [Page 69] to differ anie thing in fashion from our ordinarie he [...]d­stalls. And whereas thou sayest, it is vnséemelie to ride with thy coller raines made in a martingale and false raines, thou mayest cho [...]se whether thou wilt vse it so or no.

Kingdon

If I vse not my coller raines to a martingale and false raines, as is before taught, I shall be troubled with carrying them almost as badde as if I had a col­lar.

Clifford.

This shall not trouble halfe so much as a coller, for thou mayest make it fast vnder thy saddle couer or skirt, so as no man can perceiue it, for I haue made Monsieur Villiers often times carrie his raines in this sorte, and yet neither he nor anie other could perceiue it: You must doe it in this sorte, cut a thong of leather of two foote and a halfe of length, in which you must passe through the couer of the saddle fast by the edge of your hinder boulster, so high as you can reach with your hands to take holde of the pointes of the foresayd [...] thong, and hauing thus passed it through, make a knot in each ende thereof, then may you tie your raines fast in the one ende of the sayd thong, béeing first doubled a f [...]te long, then may you drawe the other end and make it fast to your girse, by meanes whereof your raines shall lie so high vnder the hinder boulster of your sad­dle, that no man can perceiue it, if your collar bée not [...]erie great, you maye also carrie it in this sort.

Kingdon.

I graunt that this is a good fashioned headstall, no [...] oneli [...] for souldiers in the campe, but also for Gentle­men wh [...]n they will ride anie great iourney, for that they shall not néede to charge their kéeper with a wal­let full of collars, nor haue them tyed at their saddles, [Page] which is a verie vnséemelie fashion, and also you shall bée sure that you shall not leaue your collar behinde. But now I would desire you to teach mée how I may make the raines of my bit in such sorte that I shall not haue néed with my sweord hand when I am in seruice, at anie time to touch the same, for that with our or­dinarie raines wee are much troubled when wée are for­ced to ride with our swordes drawen, or our launces in our right hands, by reason that if wée let our raines at anie time goe too long, or the one shorter then the other, wée haue no other remedie but to vse the helpe of our right hand and to redresse the same, which is not onelie dangerous in time of necessitie, but also it is vn­easie and incommodious in colde weather, for that wée must be forced to weare a gloue or a gauntlet with fin­gers, for that we cannot be able to hold our raines right and orderlie, either in mitten or plaine gauntlet, and if I shoulde for remedie héereof tie a knot on my bridl [...] raine, I should thereby not onelie holde my raines vne­uen, but it would be painfull to carrie such a great knot in my hande, wherefore I praie you heartelie to shew me if euer you haue found anie other fashion that is better.

Clifford.

Yes, I haue séene the Germaines vse a much better fashion in making of their bridle raines, and I haue also proued it farre to excell the fashion which we com­monlie vse, for that you may holde your raines right without the helpe of your right hande, and you may boldlie let them goe at your pleasure vppon anie oc­casion, and take them againe so right, without the helpe of your right hand as is possible, you may also [...] a mitten cuffe or close gauntlet, that it shall not let you anie thing at all, and the foresaide raines are made in [...]his order: First cut your two raines two f [...]t [...] and [...] [Page 70] quarter of length, and place therevpon a couple of buc­kles, then shall you cut another péece of leather of one foote and thrée quarters long, then shall you cut another péece halfe a foote long, and hauing marked iust the middle of the two foresayde péeces, and stitched them fast together through the two fore taken markes, then shall you at each and of your short péece of leather make a great button, and sée that those two buttons bée of one selfe distance from the ends of your long péece of leather, then must you double your péece of leather, and pearse holes in it for two buttons to the endes thereof, then shall you buckle your bit raines on the one ende of the foresayd péece, and the other raine to the other end there­of, and sée that you buckle them of like distaunce from your foresaid buttons, so that when you shall take hold [...] of the raines with your hand betwixt the two foresayde buttons, you may holde them of one iust length.

Kingdon.

But these raines will be so short that if the [...]kes of my bit bée long I shall not bée able easilie to put the raines ouer my horses head being brideled.

Clifford.

Canst thou not put thy raines first ouer thy horses head when thou wouldest bridle him, or else put them ouer before thy curbe of his bit, for when he is vncur­bed thou mayest easilie put them vp and take them downe.

Kingdon.

I doe verie well allowe of this headstall and raines, but I would faine if I might, craue so much at your hande, to tell me your opinion as touching the making of my saddle, and what saddle is best both for seruice and trauaile, and also whether the stoole saddle he good in ser [...] uice or no [...]

Clifford.
[Page]

As touching the making of thy saddle, the lighter it is, the better it is, and as touching the lightnesse there­of, the chiefest waie is, that you take héede that your trée be not too wide, for if your trée be large, your sad­dle will require so much stuffing, that it is not possible for it to bée light, and as touching the sitting of the trée to the horse backe, sée that it beare equallie, in all pla­ces lyke much, sauing on his backe bone, and as touch­ing the stuffing of his panell, the best stuffing ye euer I could find was buffe haire, or else fine hay, & flocks on it, but before you stuffe your saddle with flocks, you must first ride in it, & after ye the haie is setled some thing fast, then may you stuffe it with flockes vpon the haie, this is a good waie to stuffe anie saddle, for that it shall bée much lighter then if it were stuffed all with haire, yea I haue often when my saddle hath béene stuffed with buffe haire or flockes, after it hath béene somewhat set­led, taken out the panells and stuffed it in the contra­rie [...] with haie.

Kingdon.

I doe verie well like that my saddle shoulde be light, and also [...]ilde to the horses backe, for thereby it shall [...]it the faster, but I would haue you to teach me how I should make the hinder and forebolsters thereof.

Clifford.

As touching the height of thy bolsters, let them be fiue inches high at the least, so that they may saue your thigh from anie stroke of launce or other weapon: and as touching the length of your forebolster, make it not aboue twelue inches from the middle of your saddle, so that when you lay the other end of your measure to the nether point of the foresaide bolster, they shall be but twelue inches distance, as before, wherby your kn [...] may come a good deale lower than the bolster, by this meanes you shall staie your selfe verie wel by your knées, which [Page 71] is not possible for you to do by your bolsters being [...], and as touching your hinder bolster, I would haue you make the ende thereof of such length, as betwéene the o­ther, and the middle of the seate close to your hinder trée, it may be seauentéene inches and an halfe distance, and that you place those two bolsters so farre forward at the nether ends, as they may kéepe your thigh close to the point of your fore bolster, so as your thigh may haue no libertie to moue: and as touching the length of your seat, from the hinder frée to the [...]dside of the sore trée, let it be sixtéene inches, for if you make your saddle short i [...] the seate, it shall be verie dangerous when you leape or stirre your horse for [...]ne breaking of you; and it shall not be amisse to cause the vpper ende of your fore bolster to stand behinde the head of your saddle foure inches at the least, and that shall kéepe your thigh so farre backe­ward, that it shal not be possible for you [...] strike the ne­ [...] part of your bellie at [...] against the head of your saddle, & it is good to [...]n [...]ke the head of your saddle so as it may leane forward: for if it stand vpright, it shal be the more dangerous, not onelie for hurting of your bellie, but also in leaping being armed, you shal strike ye n [...]ther part of your armour, vpon your saddle bowe, so as it shal make you belieue your [...] are broken in péeces, be [...] that also it may breake the girdle of your armor, & l [...]se ye same, & when you wold break your lance vpon your enimie, you shal not be able to leane forward, which is a great disaduantage: for both best and surest riding when you would encounter your enimie is to leane for­ward so much as you may conueniently; either leaping [...] other exercise, being armed ye surest [...] is to leane forward, for feare of hurting the small of your [...], which thing I haue well approued by [...] experience in Flanders when the Prince of Par­ [...] [...] [...], and [...] armie, then lying [Page] afore [...]it, I then riding vppon a [...]aie horse of [...] ­sieur Vill [...]rs [...]ed Souldier in mine armour, I chaun­ced to put the horse sodainely in his gallop, which hée tooke with such furie, and leapt so sodainely forwarde that he had nigh broken my backe, that I being laide downe, coulde not rise but as I was lifted vppe for the space of fiftéene daies, which thing I might easily haue remedied with leaning forward a little.

Kingdon.

I grant it is verie good to make the hinder bolsters and the fore bolsters of the saddle in all points as you haue [...]ught [...], and also that it is good to l [...] for­ [...], not onelie when I encounter mine enimie with a [...], but also with anie weapon whatsoeuer, but the thing that troubleth me, is how I should holde mine hand close vpon the horses mane, which is not onelie good to kéepe in his mo [...]ell, so as he can not [...] it was but also it is verie good to let mine enimie, that h [...] can­not cut the [...]oines of the [...]

Clifford.

I do confesse that the saddle that leaueth much for­ward with his head, is something troublesome when you would holde your hand vpon your horses mane, but you may remedie it by making it somewhat higher [...] if it be of a reasonable height, that is to saie, that it be [...] in­ches betwixt the horses creast, and the neather side of the saddle head, it shall let you nothing at all.

Kingdon.

If I make the head of my saddle so high it will be very vncomelie▪

Clifford.

It shall be pouer a whit [...] if you make your forebolsters stand but one inch [...] from the nether side thereof, and it shall be [...] hundred times more c [...]dious than the vpright he [...]d, not only for the reasons before [...] but also for that it shall [Page 72] much [...]etter [...] you from any [...], [...] ­ther weapon that might [...] to be [...] against you, Besides that, the carrying the hand vpon the creast, is verie seldome to be [...]d, and whereas you said it shal be dangerous for cutting of your raines, you may remedie that by pulling dow [...] your hand when you perceiue your enimie to strike at your raines.

Kingdon.

You haue certified me as touching my saddle, raines & collar, but I pray tel me whether ye stéele saddle be good or not for a souldior for that they are very chargeable and troublesome to be kept.

Clifford.

They are not [...]o chargeable & troublesome to be kept, but they are twice as vaine and troublesome to serue in, yea, & also very vnprofitable for that in time of peace they rot, are eaten with worms, & the harnes consumed with rust, & in time of seruice they are not only heauy & charg­ [...]le for all horse to carie, but also in rain [...] weather they are most [...] thi [...] & painful to [...]e [...]pt clean, ye head wherof shal marre the handle of your sword, & the hinder parte thereof shal cut your scabberd in péeces: yea I neuer saw neither Monsieur la Now, nor Mōsieur Villiers, nor that most noble and braue souldiour, the marshall Biron euer to est [...]eme it, nor anie other souldiour of experience.

Kingdon.

What saddle then do you count best, both for trauell and for seruice▪

Clifford.

A light buffe saddle is the best for great horses and great trotting geldings, for that they are as good to serue [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [Page] strong s [...]le leather as wil couer the same, and hauing wet it, and nailed it vpon your mould, you must drie it in the sunne, or bake it in the ouen after the br [...]de is drawen, so as when you take it off the mould, it may kéepe his fashion like as you sée a pistoll case, then shal you close on a bottome with strong shoomakers thré [...]de, and on the middest you may close an other péece on the inside, also on the vnders [...]e you must leaue a hole as bigge as you may put in your hand, the which shall be a verie good place to put your money, shirts, or stoc­kings in, and if you haue no néede thereof, yet shal your saddle hereby be almost as light as a Scottish saddle, and the stiffe leather shall alwaies kéepe your bolster in a right fashion.

Kingdon.

This bolster wil be too hard?

Clifford.

You maie make it soft inough, by stuffing it an inch thicke betwixt the foresaide leather and your saddle couering vpon the inside toward your leg, and vpon the nether end.

Kingdon.

You haue fully certified me as touching the making of my saddle, bridle, and cauison, but if you do remember, you promised to teach me howe to carrie my headpéece, caske, or helmet, and pistoll, so as it should not trouble me anie thing at all, neither in mounting on horseback nor descending.

Clifford.

Whateuer I haue promised th [...]e I shal [...] performe, through Gods help [...] whose grace I [...] not of my selfable as much as to [...] one [...] but to our purpose. Thou shalt make thy pistoll in this [...]te, take a strappe of leather, with a buckle there­in, and put the p [...]int thereof downeward betwixt the [...] [Page 73] bolsters of your saddle, and hauing passed the point of the said péece of leather betwixt your trée and your pan­nel on the neare side, then shall you close by the trée six inches beneath the head of your saddle cutte a slitte of an inch long, through the which you shall passe the point of your foresaide péece of leather, so as you may buckle it about the fore bolster and forepoint of your saddle trée, and then when you will make fast your pistoll, drawe out your ordinarie strappe, and passe the foresaide strappe that shall remaine in your saddle for that purpose, and the point thereof through one of the loopes of your pistoll sheathe or case, then shall you buckle it fast: thus shal the head of your pistoll remain [...] lower than the head of your saddle, so as it shall not trouble you anie thing at all. And as touching the car­rieng of your headpéece, you must first iust in the midle of the crest thereof, pierce two holes, one an inch from an other, and hauing made fast a strong thing of leather hunger, or else a corde of silke, no longer than you maie get your finger vnderneath it, then shal you naile a little iron hooke vpon the out edge of the hinder can­tell of your saddle trée, fiue inches lower than the middle thereof, so as you maie hang your caske or headpéece thereon: then shall you marke where the crest of your headpéece falles, or hollowe place that goes about your necke, and iust against that place cut a slitte of an inch long through the couering of your saddle, close vnder the backeside of your hinder bolster, through the which you must passe a strong girdle or strap of leather, draw­ing it vnder the trée of your saddle, with the point back­wards towards your horses crupper: then shal you cut an other slitte in the couer of your saddle, close by the edge of the trée, and hauing passed the point of the foresaide péece of leather vpwardes, through the fore­named slitte you maie buckle your foresaide cask [...] so [Page] fast, that if two men had holde thereupon, they should so soone be able to take the saddle from your horse, or throwe him downe, as once be able to moue or stirr [...] your foresaid helmet. And when you woulde put it on your head, you haue no more to do but loose the foresaid buckle with your right hand, and lifting your caske vp it will come close of it selfe.

Kingdon.

There remaines yet thrée things which I doubt of, that is, on which side I should hang my pistoll: and on which side I should hang my caske: and also where I shall put my hat when I take my headpéece.

Clifford.

Thou troublest me much with vaine questions, but it is much better to demaunde curiously than to pre­sume through ignoraunce. But to the matter which wée haue in hande: Thou shalt hang thy pistoll on the néere side with a strappe of leather going vnder the fore point of thy faddle trée, and rounde about thy pistoll case, so as it shall not be able to stirre anie waie. And thy bridle hand lying ouer the head there­of shall not be able to fall out at anie time: and as touching thy caske, thou must carrie it on the right side behinde thy hinder bolster with the beauer there­of backewardes, and the creast vpwardes, so as, al­though thou march all night in the raine, yet shall it be drie when thou wouldest put it on thy head, this is a much better waie than to hang it at your saddle bowe, or to march with it vpon your head, which two waies are so troublesome and painfull, that a number of good souldiours thereby doe lacke their caskes when they come to seruice, which thing manie times is the cause that they leaue their liues behinde them, or else doe [Page 74] make them that they dare not doe so much as they might, hauing béene armed on their heads, yea, I ne­uer account him a good souldiour that will ride without his headpéece: nor him a wise Captaine of harquebu­ziers, that will lette his souldiours goe without their murri [...]s, swordes, and daggers. But to our pur­pose: you shall put your h [...]tte in your pocket, or else into your bréech in at your codpéece: or you may make a silke string fast to the inside of your hat with a great button vpon the same, and hauing putte the foresaide string vpon your saddle howe, you may drawe your button vp so close, that it is not possible for you to loose your hat.

The end of the fourth Booke.

The fift Booke. The first Chapter of Diseases.
Of the colde in the head.

THe signes to knowe it be these, thy horse [...] eies and countenance wil be very heauie, & he wil not hold by his head, not to eate his meate, and there will run at his eies and nose cléere water. The cure that I haue manie times vsed was in this sort: put on his head a beggarly biggen, and also purge his [Page] head with this medicine: take of vfor [...]iu [...] ha [...]an ounc [...] finelie beaten in powder, then mingle it well with halfe a pound of fresh butter: and then hauing annoin­ted the points of a couple of g [...]se or swannes feathers, thrust them into his nostrels, but first you must make fast to the two neather endes thereof two thréedes, so as you may tie them to the noseband of his bridle, in such sort, that they cannot fall out of his nose, then it shall not be amisse to walke him abroade, if it be warme wea­ther, but if the weather be colde, to walke him in the house, with a man on his backe an houre at the least: then maie you vnbridle him and take out the quilles, which being done, wipe cleane his nose, and putte his head into a bottomlesse bagge, hauing tied it fast ouer his eares, with [...] strappe or corde. And if it be too wide for his head, you maie double it in one side, and pinne it with a pinne of wood close to his head: then take a cha­singdish of coales, with frankencense therevpon helde in the foresaide bagge or sacke in such sorte, that the sume thereof maie enter into his nostrels, and hold it so for the space of one quarter of an houre: this is a verie good waie to purge anie horses head, yet would I wishe you to vse it verie seldome, and but vppon verie great oc­casion.

Of the cough comming of cold.

THe signes to knowe it be these, when thy horse drinkes he wil let the water runne out at his nose, and in his coughing he will voide filthie tough [...]eame at his mouth: to cure it, take of fenegréeke, of galin [...], of syn [...]mon, of saffron, of tunnericke, of long pepper, of Ani [...] séede, of licoras, of ech one of them a peny worth, beate al these things togither in a morter, [Page 75] and put them into thrée pintes of Ale or Béere, and adde therevnto halfe a pinte of hunnie, and hauing made it luke warme, giue it your horse to drinke when he is fa­sting in the morning, and let him not eate anie meate in sixe houres after. And it shall be good to walke him one halfe houre faire and softlie, so that you driue him not into anie sweat. When you haue brought him into the stable shake litter inough about him, and cloath him with a reasonable warme cloth, so that he sweate not. And take héede that you exercise him euerie daie once vpon a soft trot one houre or two at the least, but sée that your exercise be such as he sweate not, for that shal doe your horse more harme than good, yea, I haue many times cured my horse onelie with reasonable exercise, and giuing him grasse to eate, and Fenegréeke in his prouender, which is the surest kind of killing the cough aboue all other.

Another for the same.

TAke of Butter halfe a pound, of Fenegrée [...] as much, of Ellecompane sixe ounces. Hauing bea­ten your Ellecompane and Fenegréeke to small pouder in a morter with a rolling pinne for that purpose, mingle them all together, and hauing wrought thē well in this sort colde, if then it be not stiffe inough to make it in balls, then may you adde therevnto a lit­tle wheat flower, and make it in sixe or eight great bals, and when you will giue them to your horse, holde vp his head as high as you can. Then hauing taken out your horses tongue, with your left hand thrust one of the balls into his throate as farre as you can, & then let his tongue go till he haue swallowed it, thus may yo [...] [...]e him two or thrée of your bals at once, then may y [...] [...] ­dle him and let him stand one houre, then shall you g [...] [Page] him another third part of your medicine as before, and then shall you bridle him, and let him stand the seconde houre. Thus shall you giue your horse his medicine at thrée seuerall times without doing him anie harme, and the third part of the medicine being giuen, let your horse stand thrée houres more at the bare racke vpon the bit, which will be sixe houres in all, then may you vnbridle him & offer him some wet hay to eat, or grasse if it may be had, & let him not drinke before night, and let his wa­ter be warmed with a little grinded mault or wheate bran therein for the space of ten daies.

Of the drie cough.

THe signes to knowe it be these, he will cough [...]erie drilie, and often, without voiding anie thing either at nose or mouth. The cure: Take of oile of Baies halfe a pound, of Butter as much, then take of garlike one pound, beate it together vnpilled, and being well beaten with the end of a great cudgell in a dish, then adde your butter and oile to your garlike, then hauing made it in balls wt wheat flower, giue this medicine to your horse at sixe seuerall times, and let him not eae anie meat til it be night, nor drinke till the next morning, and let him drinke warme water for the space of xv. daies, nor anie drie meat if grasse may be had, but if you cannot haue grasse, then dust his haie well, and wet it in faire water, and let him not eat anie prouender without fenegréeke therein, but if at the xv. daies end his cough amend no­thing at all, then it shall be good to giue him the foresaid medicine againe, and to diet him as before xv. daies. I haue neuer dressed my horse with this medicine but ye he hath ben cured perfectlie, yet would I not wish you to be too busie in medicining your horse either with this or anie other, till such time as you find ye giuing him grasse to eate, fenegréeke in his prouender, & reasonable exer­cise, [Page 76] which is ye most excellēst medicine ye euer I found to heale my horse of all griefes cōming of colde, & is verie good to preserue him frō al other sicknesse if you vse him wt good diet & cleane féeding, as is before taught will not auaile.

Of the fretized, broken, and rotten lungs.

I Haue neuer séene anie of those horses cured, yet I thought good héere to declare mine owne experience héerein, for ye I haue by the space of thirtie yéeres and more sought with great diligence the causes of any sick­nesse or griefe, & also the signes how to know it, as well as how to cure ye same: for in my iudgement there is no disease perfectly knowen, neither is it possible to cure it vnles yt cause thereof be first found out, for otherwise in séeking to cure your horse of his disease, you maye giue him such medicines, exercise, & diet, as shall not decrease his griefe, but rather increase the same. The cause of this disease, wtout al doubt, cōmeth of extreme gallopping, so­daine running or leping, or by some other straine. It may come also by ye corruption of the aire, ye signes to know it be these, according to mine own experience, which I first obserued in a horse of M. Coles in Somerset shéere, which horse as they said, had the murning of the chyne a long time, & when I came to sée ye horse, which ran at ye nose with filthy stinking water, I iudged him to haue the said murning of the chine, & medicined him therfore with a drench ye I had learned for ye purpose, but after yt he had receiued his drench, he neuer eate or drunke anie more [...]ut did pant & blow continually for ye space of 3. daies, & then being dead, I cut him vp, & found the one quarter of his lungs rotten, & a great part therof consumed. After which time I held it for a generall rule, not to drench a­nie horse ye long time had had the murning of ye chine, or that continuallie had a stinking breath, but onelie to giue them Licorise beaten into pouder, and Annise [Page] séedes whole in his prouender, & giue him grasse or wet haie to eate, and to purge his head often with franken­sence, and sometimes with Euforbium ordered in such sort as is before taught in the Chapter of the colde of the head, but this is to be noted by the waie, that this horse did cough alwaies hollowlie and but seldome, I had experience also in another of those horses of maister Gregorie Prices at Hereford, which horse was ouer-rid­den by a man of his, and afterward hauing a continual cough, & did somtime runne at his nose, which was iud­ged to be nothing else but a colde taken by the foresaid ouer gallopping, but he being drenched to heale him of his foresaid colde, he neuer ceasing panting and blowing till he died, and I perceiued his breath to stinke, caused him to be cut vp, found his lungs rotten, as in the other horse. In a third horse also I haue had experience at M. Rothero Gwins in Carmarthen shéere, a gentleman of the Earle of Essex, I béeing then come out of Ireland, & lying at his house, one of his sonnes chaunced to haue a stoned nagge verie sicke, and when I looked on him I iudged him to haue the yellowes, for that both his eies, the inside of his lips, and vnder his tongue, was all dy­ed yellow, but as soone as I smelled to his breath & felt it stinke, I tolde him if he gaue him anie medicine hée would die, but he requested the the more instantlie to shew him what medicine were best for the yellowes, for (quoth he) I had rather haue him die vppon a medicine then vpon his sicknesse without anie triall of medicine, whervpon I taught him to giue his nagge Cūmin and hunnie, in such sort as you may reade in the Chapter of the Yellowes, but he neuer dranke anie more, and the second daie of his sicknesse all the inside of his tongue & lips became of the colour of a péece of tanned leather or drie oaken leaues, and all the white of his eies and in­side of his eie lids looked all verie redde, and his breath [Page 77] did stinke most horriblie, and the horse being dead I cut him vp, and found almost one halfe of his lungs rotten, but you must note by the waie, that this horse and ma­ster Gregorie Prices, both tooke their griefes with ex­tream & sodain galopping them, ye one in déep and mirie waies, and the other vpon high mountaines, as I dyd learne most certainlie, and the first liued halfe a yere af­ter his iourney, & the other but two moneths, all which time it was easie to perceiue that they had taken theyr bane, for ye they neuer prospered after. I haue also séene a soreld courser of sir Thomas Scots in Kent that was iudged to haue broken lungs, for that he did cough ve­rie often with great paine, and would also grone in his coughing, and it would séeme to a man that he had some thing in his throate, and also he would voide white sparkes of matter as big as a great pins head, and vn­der his left ei [...] his head did shrinke in, in such sort, that you might perceiue by the said setling and shrinking in of his head vnder his eie, that his eie did swell out ouer the said shrinking, but this horse liued as I doe remem­ber, aboue foure yeares after that his griefe was percei­ued, this horse died of a swelling in the cods, and after­ward I cut him vp, and his lungs were so faire & sound as euer I saw anie horse, his liuer was also very sound, but the grief of the horse was, for that the caule of fat ye is vpon the mawe, was growen fast to the ribs of the horse on the right side, for it was growen verie thicke & hard also, & it fastned it self at one end of the midrife, or that thin partition that parteth the bellie of the horse frō his hart, with the foresaid fat or spunges substance, by meanes whereof the horses mawe was alwaies tied to the horses sids, so that I haue euer held it for a generall rule, that that horse that hath a stinking breath, hath alwaies some impostume or other incurable rotten dis­ease in his lungs, and that he that groneth in his cough­ing, [Page] and voideth matter at the mouth, hath either his lungs, liuer, cawle, or stomacke so tied, that they cannot haue their due course and moouing. I thought good (gen­tle Reader) to recite this my small experience in this most cruell and perillous disease, to the end the learned and wise may search out how to cure the same.

Of the great swelling that comes by meanes of the hurt of an euill saddle.

IF you chaunce to perceiue it at your bait or at night, when you come to your lodging, then let your saddle stand fast girded vpon your horse till he bée through colde, and dresse all the other partes of his bodie, then shall you take off your saddle and binde a great deale of haie vpon the said swelling, and make it fast with a cloth, with two or thrée sussingles buckled on the same to holde it fast. Then cause your saddle to be amended that it wring him no more in that place, for the wet hay will put awaie the swelling, if the skinne be not bro­ken, and that you finde it the first daie that he begin­neth to gaule, but if the inflamation be great, and that it will not goe awaie by meanes of the wet haie, then shall you couer all the swollen place with Wine lées, & as you sée it drie, renue it wt fresh lées cōtinuallie vntill the swelling be quite gone, which will bée in a verie short space. This is a verie excellent medicine to cure anie griefe that may by anie meanes come through the saddle, if your wine lées be thin, then may you thicken them with wheate flower.

Another medicine for the same.

MAke a plaister of thicke barme so great as the sore, renuing it euerie daie vntill the swelling bée [Page 78] asswaged, and after the swelling is cleane gone, if there remaine anie corruption, thē slit it downe right through the middle thereof, and cut it so déepe in the neather side, that there may no matter stand in the hollow place, then shall you wash the foresaid place with vrine, béere, or ale, made scalding hot, or so hot as you can suffer your hand in it, that being done, drie the place by holding a great cloth fast vppon it, or a Spunge, vntill you haue cleane dried vp all the wet that shall there remaine, then couer all the foresaid place with the pouder of bur­ned Allome, dresse him in this sorte once a daie vntill the flesh bée growen vp so high as is néedfull, then shal you dresse him in this sorte but once in two or thrée daies, and if you sée him skin but slowlie, then maye you anoint him after that you haue washed him, and after the pouder is so dried, with Vnguentum album, round about the edges of the sore, which will cause the skin to come verie fast, but if you sée that with this sel­dome dressing and anointing him héerewith, there be­ginneth proude flesh to growe, then shall you take a dramme of Mercurie, and mingle it with an ounce of Vnguentum album and anoint all the sore place there­with once in two daies. This shall correct the proude flesh, and cause it to skinne, and heale [...]erie sodaine­lie.

Of the Nauell gall.

THis commeth by meanes of the crouppier buckle, for that the saddle is too wide behinde, and so it sitteth downe fast vppon the horses ridge, and causeth a swelling or bunch against the crouppier buc­kle of your saddle, and I thinke it taketh his name, Nauell gall, for that it is right against the nauell of the [Page] horse, but howsoeuer the name is deriued I knowe not, well I wot it is verie péeuish to cure, therefore must you take a sharpe knife and cut awaie all the cor­rupt flesh, and wash it and cast pouder on it, as is be­fore taught in the former Chapter.

Of the Farcion.

THis commeth of abundaunce of corrupt bloud, or by standing with other horses that hath the lyke disease, for it is verie infectious. The signes to knowe it be these: It beginneth alwayes vppon a veine, and it breaketh sorth into many little knottes or braunches, which wil breake out and run with matter verie filthie to beholde. The cure: Let him bloud the first daie on one side of his necke, and the seconde or third daie on the other side. After you haue let him bloud the first time, cut a slit in his forehead of an inch long, foure inches beneath the rootes of the haire of his fore toppe, so that the slit may bée iust in the middle of his forehead, that béeing done, with a Cornet, rase al the skinne from the horses forehead euen vppe to his foretoppe, then shall you put therin a docke roote of two or thrée inches long, béeing first made cleane and light­lie brused with a hammer or cudgell, and let it remaine in his head a moneth, and sée that you thrust out the matter once a daie, and take héede you thrust not out the roote, but if so be it will not tarrie in, then may you with a shoomakers thréed thrust through both sides of the slit, tie it so fast that ye roote cannot fal out, or els you may make fast the roote by putting the foresaid shooma­kers end, through the skin of his forehead, & through the [Page 80] middle of the roote an inch aboue the slitte, which being tied fast, will holde the roote that it can not fall out, and it is a much better waie than the other, for that the mat­ter may haue frée issue: you shall also burne with a hote yron round about al the sore places: then shal you burne all the foresaide buttons, with a blunt yron of the big­nesse of your little finger, so déepe vntill you sée sée the white matter spring out about the point of your yron: that being done, sharpe the point of the foresaid yron and crooke it a little an inch from the point, so that when you thrust it through the horses skinne, the point may al­waies turne outward from the flesh: then shall you take holde of the skinne with a paire of pinsors, and pull it cleane from the flesh, then passe the yron through, so that the holes made with the yron may be foure or fiue in­ches one from an other: that being done, annoint al the burnt places with sope, and dresse him no more for the space of foure or fiue daies: In which time, you must prepare a good quantitie of strong pisse; with the which you must wash him euerie daie, the pisse being first made scalding hote, sée that you rubbe him well vntill it be readie to bléede, then hauing dried all the sore places, throwe on the powder of vnslaked lime, or burnt allum, which will heale much better than lime. And if you sée that in anie of the sores, through negligent dressing, there riseth proude flesh so high that you can not correct it sufficiently with the foresaide powder, then may you burn anie such place so sore or sorer as you did at ye first, and dresse it as before, and take héed that you giue your horse nothing but strawe to eate, vntil he be whole, and let him haue so little rest as may be: for letting him bloud, then diet and reasonable exercise with the docke roote in his forehead, is sufficient to heale anie horse, if you dresse him in this sort at the first beginning of his disease, without purging or burning him, but if it be [Page] olde you must both purge and burne him, as hath béene before taught: I haue founde some horses that haue had this disease in one of their legges, and by euill dressing and long delaying, the humours haue had so great re­course, that when I haue healed his legge, as is before taught, in one place, it hath broken out in an other, which horse I haue cured in this sorte, I haue first cut a slit of an inch long through the skinne of his bellie. vnder the middle thereof, and rased the skinne round a­bout with a cornet from the flesh so farre as I coulde reach with the same. Then haue I put in a roll of lea­ther with a hole in the middle: And in like manner haue I made an issue vnder the point of the shoulder of the gréeued legge, which two issues with that on his forehead, I haue let runne continually til such time as he was healed: presently after that I had made the two last issues, I haue burned all his legge with long strikes from his bodie, euen downe to the houfes, distant no more one from an other, but the breadth of an inch: and take héede that your yrou, when you will burne a­nie horse in this sorte be not vpon the edge no thicker than the breadth of a strawe: and note, that in bur­ning anie horse, that you beginne alwaies aboue, and drawe your hand downeward with the haire, and that you burne him so déepe that you sée the skinne looke browne. In this sorte haue I cured a horse in Pa­ris of the Marshall Birons that all the best horseleaches that they coulde get, had burned him, purged him, dieted him, practised their medicines, and hanged there sorcerie writings or inchantments about his neck: thus did they torment the poore▪ beast for the space of one whole yeare, in suche sorte, that it woulde haue gréeued anie mannes heart to haue séene him, yea, and when they had giuen him ouer [...]: and tolde the Marshall, that it was vnpossible to cure him, hée [Page 80] willed mée to commaunde him to be carried out of the Cittie and be killed. But then I vndertooke my selfe to cure him, with no small enuie of all the dogge leaches of Paris, who often times did saie behinde my backe, that when I hadde healed that horse, they would loose their heades: But GOD to whome all glorie is due, so blessed me, that I healed him within the space of sixe moneths, which thing I did greately estéeme for my credites sake: yea, I was so carefull I woulde neuer let anie man dresse him, al­though I had two farriers at my commaundement, who woulde verie willingly haue dressed him, if I woulde: but my horse béeing cured perfectly of this disease, the dogge leaches beganne to triumph, say­ing: though you haue cured him yet you can not make his legge so small as it was, but I also stopped their mouthes, for I made his legge so small as euer it was, in this sorte héere following: I laide a plaister vppon his legge made of wine Lées, and wheate flo­wer, and rolled it with a long roll, of thrée fingers broade, of eight or tenne foote long, made of soft Cotten: In this sorte did I make his legge small in the space of foure moneths. During this cure I neuer failed my iourney, and trauelled the foresaide horse at my pleasure without anie trouble or hinderaunce, saue that I made his groome to carrie his roll and plaister in a little sacke made for that purpose, and also an oxe blad­der full of wine Lees, with the which I dressed him presently as soone as I came to my lodging, and so ta­king it awaie the next morning, I made the kéeper to rub his leg clean: with this medicine haue I healed di­uers horses that haue had great legs, but two of ye most notablest that euer I cured in England were, the one at M. Barnard Drakes in Deuon shire. The other was at [Page] Maister Henrie Pooles in Gloucester shire. The horse of Maister Barnard Drakes, after that he had béene tor­mented by cutting, burning, and mangling him, he had turned him out to pasture for a iade to get colts, by rea­son of his great leg, for that it was so stiffe, that he could not bow it. This Maister Barnard Drake can well re­member, for that it is not aboue tenne yeares past. And the horse that I he [...]ed of Maister Henrie Pooles, Sir Iohn Tracie, and Maister Throckmorton knoweth well of this cure, for that I did it in their houses, where I detained the horse with me aboue thrée quarters of a yeare, where diuers were of the opinion, that I should neuer cure him: yet I was not thereby discouraged, but the more they did doubt, the more diligent was I, and within the space before saide, I healed him beyond all expectation. This is not much aboue six yeres past, and the horse is yet liuing, which is to be séene without anie lamenesse or blemish in his legge: but after that I had made all the rest of his legge small that remained in the splint place vnder his knee, where his man had first dressed or medecined him, and other horseleaches which had him in hand before, left him with a bunch al­most as bigge as an egge, and as hard as anie splint or spauen, but I driue that awaie with this seare cloth héere vnder written: Take of virgin Wax half a pound, of Myrhe one pounde, of Reasins a pounde, of Galbanum halfe a pounde, of Costus sixe ounces, of Ar­moniacke sixe ounces, of Swines greace or Hogs morte two poundes, put your Hogs greace first in an earthen pot, and hauing placed it in a broade cauldron ful of wa­ter, then make a soft fire vnder it to the ende that your water may boile, and when you perceiue your Swines greace almost melted, then shall you putte in all your other simples saue the Costus: and when you perceiue them to be al molten, which wil aske fiue or sixe houres [Page 81] boiling at the least, then your Costus which is a white roote, being beaten into powder, you shall adde to the foresaide thinges after it is taken from the fire, and mingle them well together with the same sticke or in­strument that you stirred it withall, the whiles that the foresaide thinges are a melting: the [...] make a plai­ster thereof vpon a peece of shéepes leather something bigger than the sore: note, that one of these plaisters will serue thirtie daies wi [...]h a verie little refreshing the same sometimes, but you muste take it off e­uerie daie once [...], and rubbe his legge verie well, for feare least it itch, which may cause your horse to beate and stampe with his foote, bite and te [...]re in suche sorte as if shall cause the swelling to increase. Also you must take great héede, that you roll not nor tie his legge too straight, for by letting him stand too straight, tied sire houres, it may doe him more harme than your medicine hath done hym good in sixe wéekes before. And it shall be good once in fiue or sixe daies to ride him into the water, and walke him [...]n houre at the least. And as soone as hée comes in, and that his legge is well rubbed with strawe, and hauing first warmed your seare cloth ouer a fewe coales, which you must haue on a fire shoouell for that purpose, before you doe laie it vnto the sore, but if it chaunce the griefe be in such parte of the legge as your roll and plaister will alwaies settle downewardes, then must you make a long rounde roll of woollen cloth as bigge as a thumb rope, and you must sowe at eache ende thereof a péece of strong canuas a hand broade, and two foote long, and made sharpe at the two endes; and when you will roll his legge set one ende of the canuas vnder your foote, and then hauing rolled his legge somewhat aboue the vpper edge of his plaister, then shall you bring the two endes togither vppon the middle of the [Page] roll, so as you may tie them bothe togither, in s [...]he sorte, as the knotte may not touch the horses legge, for if you shoulde not tie the two endes togither, the roll woulde winde loose about his legge. This will holde your plaister in the due place, without being able to sincke or settle downe: and you may roll his legge a great deale more easier therewith than with anie o­ther.

Of the scabbe or manginesse in a horse.

THis cruell kinde of scabbe, scurffe, or itch, brée­ding ouer all the horses bodie, and most common­lye beginnes in his mane and taile, it commeth of a corrupt bloud, and n [...]deth no other signes. The cure: Let him bloud the first daie on one side of his ne [...]ke, and wash all his bodie with hote brine, or else with béefe bro [...]h, pisse, and salt mingled together, rubbing him with rough waddes of strawe till he be readie [...]o bléede: then shall you let him alone till the se­cond [...]nie, and then shall you let him bloud on the other side of his necke, which being done, and all his bodie rubbed with rough waddes and made cleane, you shall take of Swines greac [...] a pound, of blacke Sope as much, of Rape oile a pinte, of brimstone sixe ounces finely beaten into powder, and hauing first killed your Nuicke siluer, mingle all these thinges togither vppon a soft fire, without letting it boile, being so warme as you can suffer your hand in it, annoint all the sore pla­ces therewith, and rubbe and chas [...] it well with your handes to make it sincke into the ski [...]me. And if you sée the horse rubbe or bite him selfe in anie place of his bodie, you may wash it, as before, and annoint it with some of the foresaid medicine. I haue cured diuers horses [Page 82] herewith without ointing them th [...]ice, but you must (du [...]ing this cure) diet your horse veri [...] [...]rly, and let him haue so little rest as may be.

Of the griefe in the eies: and first of him that hath receiued a blowe.

IF your horse haue receiued a blowe in, or vppon his eie so that he can not holde open the same: and that there is no blemish nor white [...]lme doth appeare vp­on his eie, then shall you remedie him in this sorte. Take faire water and salt, and with your mouth sp [...]t his eie full thereof, and if his eie be not verie sore this shall remedie him, it is good also to wette a cloth there­in, so bigge as will fill the horses eare on the gréeued side: Then chasing it, thrust it in so fast as is possi­ble, you must tie his eare fast, so as the cloth may not fall out, and let it remain [...] therein the space of a whole daie at the least: honie also warmed a little, and put in his eie, is not onelie good to make him open hi [...] eie, but wil also preuent anie other gréefe that might bréede vpon the horses eie, by meanes if the foresaide stripe.

Of the white filme, pearle, or web that may breed on the sight of a horses eie.

TAke honie as before, and put it in his eie with a feather, if the filme be but thinne, that wil remedie him, or else take the iuice of Salandine, and put to a spoonefull thereof, halfe a spoonefull of womans milke, but if the filme be olde, so that it will not breake, then take the powder of burned Allume, being well burned and surely beaten, blowe a little [Page] thereof with a [...]ill into his eie, and take héede when you will dresse him in this sort, that you tie his head fast to some post, in such sorte, that hée can not stirre, for by dressing your horse when he is loose, hée may strike his eye vppon the ende of your quill, in such sorte that you shall doe him more harme in one moment than your medicine shall doe him good in a moneth, this is an approoued medicine, not onelie for the foresaide gréefe, but also for anie other that shall bréede in the horses eie: but if so be that your horse haue a filme ouer his eie so thicke, that it will not breake with blowing this powder in his eie, then must you cast your powder in, and fill his eie full thereof once a daie, and hauing fil­led it, let him [...]e still, holding his eie open with your two thumbs, by the space of one halfe houre, till the al­lume be melted, then let him rise and dresse him in this sort, but once a daie for the space of two or thrée daies, and then blowe it in his eie, as before. And if at anie time you sée the inside of his eie liddes to be red, then shall you dresse him with honie for the space of two or thrée daies, and then dresse him again with your allum til he be whole.

Of the canker in the eie.

TAke of Woodbine leaues, of Primrose leaues, of Sage leaues, of Violet leaues, and of Rosemarie, each one a handfull, and of Allume halfe a pound, boile all those things togither in thrée gallons of faire water, till two partes thereof be consumed, and when it is boiled inough; straine it through a cloth into a faire vessel, and adde thereunto half a pinte of honie, and then shall you boile it againe the space of one quarter of an houre vpon a softe fire: Then adde thereunto halfe a pinte of strong Vineger, The signes to knowe it be [Page 83] these, his eie will be redde, and round about the same it will be full of little knots or buttons, as bigge as the heads of pins, and also it wil runne of filthie & stinking matter. The cure: Let him bloud in the vaine beneath his eie, and also in his necke vaine on the gréeued side, and then wash him twice a daie with this water héere following, and with a fine linnen cloth dip it therin, it being first made bloud or milke warme.

Another for the same.

TAke Sage, Fennell, & Rosemarie, of each a hand­full, of Allome two ounces, boile all these things together in two gallons of faire water, till one halfe thereof be consumed, then straine it through a faire cloth, & being strained, adde therevnto sixe spoone­fulls of hunnie, and boile it a little vppon a soft fire, as hath béene before taught in the last Chapter, and wash his eie therewith twice a daie with a faire lynnen cloth.

The Canker in the nose.

THe signes to know it be these, his nose will stinke and runne with matter. The cure. Let him bloud in the necke vaine, the temple vaine, and in the vaine vnder his eie, then take the water, as it is in the last Chapter sauing one, and squirt it into his nose twice a daie, and take héede that your squirt bée long, for if it be but short, you shall not be able to reach the vppermost part of the sore therewith, and then shal it be vnpossible to cure him, and as touching the length, make it not aboue sixe or eight inches at the most.

Of the Canker in the mouth.

THe signes to know it be those, his tongue will bée all full of blisters, & within two or thrée daies when the blisters are broken, it will be full of hollow [...] déepe rawe pits, and also the inside of his lips for compa­nie will be rawe in like sort, & the outside of his mouth and lips will be full of little pimples. The cure: Take of Sage and Rosemarie, each one a handfull, of Allom [...] a quarter of a pound, boile all these together in a suffi­cient quātity of faire water, being almost boiled inough, adde therevnto halfe a pinte of honny, wash him there­with twice a daie, and giue him not anie thing to eate but cleane strawe, till he be whole, for there is not anie kinde of Canker, Fistula, great impostumation, farcion, scab, or mang [...]nesse, easilie cured, vnlesse that you first let bloud well, purge stronglie, and kéepe sharp diet, and that the same be verie cleane, swéete, and wolesome.

Of hurt in the tongue that may come with the bit.

CLeanse the wound with a faire cloth, and anoint it with honnie twice a daie, this will heale him, note that for anie griefe that may be in a horses mouth, after you haue dressed him, that you let him stand thrée or foure houres vppon the bit, and not eating.

Of the Staggards.

THis is a paine in the head and braines of the horse, the signes to [...]we it be these, the horse will refuse his meate and hang downe his head, and he will wink [...] with his eies almost close together, and many times you [Page 84] shall sée him hold his head close to the wall or manger. The cure. Let him bloud in the necke vaine, that being [...] cut a slit in his forehead, raise vp the skinne, and put a docke roote therein, as before taught in the Chap­ter of the Far [...]ion, and let it remaine therein the space of twentie daies at the least. This medicine will also heale the Yallowes, if it be taken at the first beginning of his sicknes, but if he be far gone therewith, it shall be néedfull to giue him the drench héereafter following in the Chapter of the Yeallowes.

Of the Yeallowes.

THis procéeds of abundance of cholar ouer-flowing the bladder of the gall, & so is turned into the vaines of the horse, and will in short space cause all his skinne to looke yeallow. The signes to knowe it be these, the horse will be faint, and in his trauailing he will sweat much more than he was accustomed, the whites of his eyes will be yeallow, and also the inside of his lips and tongue, and vnder his tongue will be died yeallowe al­so, and his taile will be yeallowe. The cure. Let him bloud in the neck vaine two or thrée quartes, or as much as you thinke he may well beare, which you shall best knowe by the strength of your horse, which thing must be your rule therein. Then you shall take a quart of ale or béere, and adde therevnto fiue or sixe spoonefulls of honnie, thrée or foure ounces of Cummin séede finelie beaten into pouder, then take a good handfull of time, chop it smal with a knife and beate it well in a morter, then put it vnto the foresayd things, and with a softe fire make it so hot, as your honnie may be throughlie moulten, but I woulde wish you to kéepe it hot in this [...] vpon a soft fire, the space of two houres at the least, without letting it [...]oile. Thē shal you straine it through [Page] a faire cloth into some vessell fit for that purpose, and ha­uing throwen awaie that shall remaine of your Cum­min & Time, then shall you giue your horse this drench being no more but luke warme, and let him drinke but a little thereof at once, for by giuing your horse greate hornes full or sodaine gulfing of it into him too hot, you may kill anie sicke horse: with this drench I haue hea­led aboue an hundred horses, that many of them haue bene thought vncurable, but one of the most notablest that euer I did cure, was at Lamspha at the Earle of Essex his house, that standeth next to Milford hauen in Wales, this horse was one Cuttles, seruaunt to the Lord Admirall, and then maister of the George, a ship of the Earle of Essex, then in the hauen of Milford, this Cuttle came to me one morning, where I was then riding, and made his moane that he had a great iourney to goe, and that his horse was like to die, for (quoth he) he hath ea­ten no meate this daie, neither can I find anie man that knowes his disease, for he will not sturre (quoth he) out of his place, nor being laide downe is able to rise, and whē you force him to go, he cannot go right forward but sidewaie, by reason he is not able to holde his necke right, but hanging it downe crooketh it towards his left side, and when I sawe him I perceiued by the yeallows of his eyes, and the inside of his lips and tongue, and by the féeble drawing of his legs after him, that he had the yeallowes, but I doubting what might make him holde his head on the one side, I first caused him to be raked & afterward I gaue him a glister made with whay and sallet Oile, and put a docke roote in his forehead, for that I thought he had the staggards, I did also let him bloud in both the necke vaines foure quartes, which was very much for anie horse, but in great extremitie extreame meanes are to be vsed, and afterward hauing giuen him this drench, I brideled him and let him stand at the r [...]ck [Page 85] sixe houres, & then offering him a little wet hay, he dyd eat as wel as euer he did in all his life, although he was so weak when he tooke his drench, that I was forced to make foure men holde him vp with two leauers vnder his bellie.

Of the foundred horse.

THis commeth by meanes of extreame colde vppon some great heate, either when you let your horse drinke in some shalow water, it may come also by let­ting him stand in the colde winde or in wet ground, or vpon colde pauement, when your horse is extreame hot, yea, I haue foundred an horse of mine owne in Bristow, trauailing no more then ordinarie iourney pase, by ta­king off my saddle to haue it stuft presently as I came into my lodging, through the negligence of my boy, whō I commaunded to lay my cloake vpon his backe whiles he got the saddle stuft, but he deceiued me, and I com­ming forth within the space of an halfe houre, hauing hast in my iourney, found my horse vnclothed, & also in that case that he would eate no meate, and demanding of the Ostler whether he would eate his meate at the first vnbrideling or no, he answered that he did eate it with great appetite, but after his saddle was taken off and he a little colde, he beganne to refuse his meate as though he had some gréeuous sicknesse, then I offered him bread and Oates, but he would not eate anie thing, I caused him presētlie, my saddle being stuft, to be made readie, and hauing him lead in the hand out of the Citie, I perceiued him at his first comming out of the stable, to complaine a little in one of his fore féete, then I dyd surelie perswade my selfe, as ignoraunt men doe in so­daine and vnknowen calamities, that surelie my horse was bewitched, for that though the weather were colde, [Page] yet I had trauailed but moderatlie & the horse nothing hot to account of, and also was leane and well acquain­ted with trauaile, for that I had ridden him vppon the selfe same iourney aboue thrée hundred miles, which was the reason that did perswade me that my horse could not be sicke of anie griefe, but by some extraordi­narie meanes, hauing then twelue miles to ride, and be­ing late withall, I forced him to goe, and after foure miles trauaile he left his halting being throughly war­med, and being come to my iourneis end, I caused him to be wel dressed, but he would not eate anie thing, and doubting what griefe hée had, for ye no man could per­swade me that it was possible to founder an horse on that sort, I would not let him drinke that night, and the next morning hauing watered him, and commaunding my boie to leade him out, I perceiued then that he was foundred, for that he did not halt on one leg onelie, but he was so grieued in all his legs that I had much to do to force him to go, then it repented me that I let him drinke, and I began my cure in forme following: I first let him bloud in the necke vaine two quartes, and re­seruing that bloud in a vessell for the purpose, I added thereto a pinte of strong vineger, and ten or twelue egs shells and all, and foure ounces of bole Armoniacke fine­lie beaten to pouder, & hauing mingled all these things together, I tooke so much wheate flower as did thicken the same, and hauing wrought it wel together cold with a sticke, I made two garters a foote and an halfe of length, and one hand broade, and hauing couered them well in the middle, of such length as might go round a­bout the horses leg with the aforesaid medicine, I bound them fast on the horses foure legs, hard aboue the knées, & let them remaine there twelue houres, then with the foresaid charge I charged all the horses loines, buttocks, hipp [...]s, backe, and shoulders against the haire, and ha­uing [Page 86] set him in the stable the space of 12. houres, then I loosed his garters and forced him to goe, & after he was walked one houre vpon the sand ground, I offered him a litle w [...]t hay, & gaue him no drink, in 24. houres repen­ting me not a litle that I had let him drink ye morning before I knew he was foundred, but the 24. houres be­ing expired, I gaue him to drinke, & also ye same daie I caused him to be dressed with an olde combe, and turned him to grasse, ye third morning going to sée my horse and two mo with me, we could scarcelie all thrée catch him, which was not a little strange to M. Trockmorton, who tolde me within foure daies riding in his parke, that the horse was so lustie that he began to runne and fling so as he thought meruailous straunge, for neither he nor anie other that saw him foure daies before would haue giuen me one shilling for him, and some would haue had a pennie therof abated, yet thought it an hard bargaine, note that I medecined this horse within 24. houres af­ter he was foūdred, yet because I wold haue no man to doubt to cure his horse with this medecine ye shall be a­boue 24. houres before he can haue him drest, I thought good to shew you what cure I did once vpon a horse of M. George Deuoraxes at Hereford East, which horse was first M. Vggans of Bulson by Milford hauen in Wales, who foundred the foresaid horse in his iourney he made to Hereford with M. George Deuorax, who finding mée there, demaunded of me whether I could cure ye foresaid gelding or no, for ye he was then fiue daies foundred, ly­ing on the ground not able to stand, & had beaten all the skin of both his huckle bones wt lying, not being able to stand or moue otherwise thā he was lifted with leauers put vnder his bellie. This M. G. Deuorax after he had giuē M. Vggans a pipe of white wine for ye horse, which was worth 12. pounds, I let him bloud ye 6. day 3. quarts in his neck vaine, & made my medicine, & dieted & exerci­sed [Page] him in the selfe same order, but I was longer curing this horse than the other of mine owne, for that it was 15. daies before he began to finde his féete, all the which time I caused him to bée exercised two houres in the morning, and as much at night, by walking him in a mans hand, and another following with a cudgell: thus did I cure this horse perfectlie beyond all expectation, where my selfe also doubted.

Of the bots or wormes in a horse.

THere be foure kindes of wormes that bréede in a horses belly, but the worst of them and most dan­gerous, is the trenchions or grubs, for so they are named in some parts of England, I call this kind worst, for that they most commonlie both in the maw & fundament of a horse will sticke fast like tiekes on a dogs eare, as I did once sée in a horse at sir Thomas Scots in Kent, that after he had béene drenched thrée seuerall times within the space of sixe daies, in all which time he did not eate anie meate, and after he was dead I pre­sentlie cut him vp, and found aboue fiue hundred tren­chions in the toppe of his stomacke, all knit together, and not one of them dead. Also in the end of the great gut that goeth from the stomacke to the horses bellie was full of the wormes. Also then I learned perfect­lie that the horse had had Sauine giuen him, Rewe, Brimstone, and baie Salt, all in a drench, and also strong lée made of ashes, with the which the horses sto­macke was almost full, and yet the cruell forenamed wormes dyd hang so fast in the toppe of his stomacke, that the medicine could doe them no harme, and they had not eaten anie holes either through mawe or guts, but what kindes of wormes so euer your Horse [Page 87] haue, you shal perfectly cure him as hereafter foloweth: the signes to knowe it be these: the horse will [...]iske and beate with his taile, he will also looke towardes his bellie, and strike at his bellie with his hinder foote: some horses will also lie downe and wallowe. The cure: Take of swéete Milke one quarte, and giue it your horse to drinke: and hauing letten him stand foure houres brideled, then shall you giue him this drench. Take of Ale or Béere two quartes, and put therein half a pound of Sope, as much Butter, Brimstone finely pounded or beaten into powder, a good handful of Salt, two or thrée spoonefulles of chimney Soote finely bea­ten into powder, or otherwise it will cause your horse to cough a long time: and hauing molten your Butter and Sope vpon a soft fire, and let your drench coole till it be no more than luke-warme, then shall you giue your horse a pinte thereof to drinke: then bridle your horse, and walke him a quarter of an houre. Thus shal you giue your horse his drinke at foure seuerall times without anie danger. But if your horse be extreame sicke, I woulde wish you to make the foresaide things in [...]alles with wheate flower, and giue it him at foure or fiue seuerall times, as before, this is much better than to drench your horse if he be extreame sicke.

Of the griefe in the legs of a horse: and first of the wrench in the shoulder.

THis commeth of some daungerous slipping or sli­ding, sodaine stopping, it may also come by fal­ling on the planckes, or on some slipperie ground: The signes to know it be these: the horse wil halt verie much, and in his going vpon rough ground you shall perceiue it best, for he will be forced to go on thrée legges, by reason that hée is not able to lift his [Page] legge, or to bring it forward, but wil bring it after him. The cure. Let him bloud in the breast veine. Then shall you with an yron of two foote of length, sharpe at the point, with a hole therein, like a drawing naile, passe a ruell of haire from the fore point of the shoulder vp euen to the top of his withers, and then passing it o­uerthwart the side of his wythers, or spade bone of the shoulder, you shall bring it downewarde by the hinder edge of his shoulder, euen to the vpper ioint of his forelegge, and there hauing put it out the space of two or thrée inches, you shal drawe it through forward till you come within two or thrée inches of your first place where you shal make the two endes thereof fast: in this sort shal you ruel your horses shoulder round a­bout, but you must at euerie eight inches or halfe foote leaue it two or thrée inches without the skinne, then must you stirre the ruel once a daie, and if the issue be­come so straight that you cannot thrust out the matter, you may with a lancet or point of a razor cut them vn­der. This being done, set a patten shoo on the sounde leg, which patten shoo would be turned round so as the horse can not stand on the same, but shall thereby be forced continually to stand vpon his fore legge, to let the corruption that it shal not be able to enter the ioint of his shoulder, & let him rest for the space of xv. or xx. daies with a paire of pasturnes vpon his foreféete, and litte vnder him, for feare least he slide vpon ye plancks, & at the xv. days end begin to walke him once a day, the space of halfe an houre faire and softly. And hauing ob­serued this order xv. daies more, then may you take off his patten shoo, and trie whether he go sound or not, and if he go not sound, it shall be good to set it on againe, & to erercise him as before, & stir the ruels euery day once, for the space of a moneth or sixe wéekes, then may you take out your ruel, if he go sound. I neuer sawe anie [Page 88] horse dressed in this sort, but that he hath béene cured perfectly of his griefe.

Of the shoulder pight.

THis commeth of some dāgerous slide or slip back­ward, so as the horses leg slips backward, and ther­by driues his shoulder cleane out of the ioint. The signes to know it be these. The bone wil sticke out on that shoulder a great deale farther than the other, and he will not be able to set it to the ground. The cure. Laie straw inough vnder him in his r [...]m [...], and put a paire of straight pasturnes on his foreféete, and another paire on his hindféet, then hauing throwne him downe, hang him vp from the ground with two ropes, to put the bone into his place, then hauing let him downe faire and softly, lose the fore pasturne of his [...]und legge, and with a cord before you [...]et him rise, tie the lame leg to the foot of the manger so short, as in his rising he shal be forced to holde his legge before him, for feare of put­ting his shoulder out of ioint, and let him stand so tied for the space of thrée daies, and presently when he is vp burne al the point of his shoulder with a hote yron che­ker-wise a ful foot square at the least, & let euerie stréeke be no more than one inch distant one from another: And hauing burned him well, charge all these burned places, and al the rest of his shoulder, with Pitch, Rozen, and Tar, m [...]lten togither, and laide on something hote, with a cudgels ende, and when you haue couered it ouer once, then clap presently vpon it Towe or Flaxe, being first chopped with a hatchet. Then charge him once more vpon the Towe, and at the thrée daies end lose his foote, and put a paire of pasturnes vpon his féete, and let him neither lie downe, nor stirre out of the stable for the space of sixteene or twentie daies, then [Page] may you leade him abroade, and sée whether he goe well or no, and if he goe not sound, you may let him rest as much more.

Of the spleeting in the shoulder, or renting the shoulder from the breast of the Horse.

THis commeth by meanes of some daungerous slide, either vpon the plankes or vpon the side of a banke, so as one of the horses legges slips awaie and rents his shoulder from his briscot, not on the skinne but on the slesh, so as the horse halteth. The signes to knowe it bée these: he will drawe his legge, and not be able to lifte or bring it forward, and he will sometime halt so little that you can scarce perceiue it, and at other times he wil be verie lame, but chieflie when you ride downe a hill, or vpon hard ground, then he will halt much more than vpon the soft or plaine ground. Also when yuu turne him in a little ring vpon the gréeued side, he will goe ve­rie lame. The cure. Put a paire of straight pasturnes vpon his fore féet during this cure, and hauing first let­ten him bloud in the great vaine on ye inside of his grie­ued legge, then shall you take of Oile of Baies, of Sallet Oile, butter, and Swines grease, of each halfe a pound, melt all these things together, and anoint all your hor­ses shoulder therwith, being so warme as you can scarce suffer your hand in it. Anoint also betwéene his fore legs, and euen vp to his withers, so as you leaue no part of his shoulder vnanointed, & dresse him euerie daie once in this sort, til your medicine be al spent, but within 2. or 3. daies you shal sée swelling appeare betwixt his legs, & all the rest of his breast & shoulder therabouts wil begin to swell, his fore leg also will swell, yea, I haue dressed diuers horses in this sort, ye their bellies swelled so great, [Page 89] that I haue béene forced to lay wet hay with a couple of sur [...]ingles, iust before the [...]hafte of the horse to defend the swelling from his coddes, and yet the swelling hath all gone awaie of it selfe without comming to a head or breaking. But if it chaunce to come to a head, you may slit it with a razor, and heale it, by thrusting a teint of flaxe or towe in it▪ being first dipped in this salue here following. Take of Turpentine, of Honie, of Hogsgreace, and of Waxe and shéeps Suet, of eache a like quantitie, melt all these things togither, and apply it as before. This is a verie good salue to heale anie wound that may happen on a horse, yea I haue cured my selfe diuers hurts therewith without anie other me­dicine, sauing warme white Wine to wash the wound withall. But to our purpose: Thou shalt let thy horse stand still, without once moouing him, for the space of three wéeks or a moneth, the longer the better, and at the first walking him abroad, take héede that hée be rough sh [...]d. And that you leade him not vpon anie s [...]ip­perie grounde for feare of hurting him. And although he go verie sound, yet would I not aduise you to stirre him in fiftéene daies more.

Of the wrenching or splint in the two shoulders of a horse.

I Haue in my life time séene but one of these horses, and he was one Master George Deuerishes, who then [...]aie at Lampha, and I being at his house, he instant­ly requested me to looke on the saide horse, and to sée whether I could cure him or not, but when I had enqui­red the cause thereof, they tolde me that they had yoked him in the head of a cart, with the which they did gather tything [...]orne. And the horse being vnacquainted with [Page] that kind of trauel, he, for lacke of vse, or else, through negligence of the gouernoures thereof, fell vppon the side of a bancke, and the horses drewe him a good waie vnder the carte, so as he was neither able to rise, nor stande, but being lifted vp, he would wrestle and fall on the one side or other, by reason he was not able to bring his legs forward, but I doubting whether his shoul­ders were wrenched out of ioint, or rend from his bris­cot, laide good store of strawe vnder him, and cast him therevppon, and with foure pasturnes pulled him vppe from the ground to put his shoulders in their iointes, which was a verie good waie, if they had béene out, but whether they had béene out or no, I haue tolde you both the cause and signes thereof truely. And the waie whereby I cured him perfectly here foloweth: I did first cutte a couple of holes through the skinne, foure inches vnder his toe, shoulder ioints, or points of shoulder, and with a quill I blewe vppe all the skinne of his shoulders full of winde, euen vppe to the withers: and hauing in this sorte blowen vp the skinne from the flesh, and thrust out all the winde a­gaine with my two handes, I then made two ruelles of the vpper leather of a shooe thrée inches broade, and hauing made them rounde, and cutte two holes in the middle thereof, I raised all the skinne from the flesh rounde about the two foresaide holes or slittes, and hauing put the said two péeces of leather therein I charged all his shoulder with Pitch, Tarre, and Ro­zen molten togither, and let him stand still with a paire of straight pasturnes vppon his féete, and good store of litter vnderneath him for the sp [...]ce of one mo­neth: then I caused him to be led foorth of the stable, and perceiuing him to go sound, I put on his pasturns and let him stand in the stable thrée wéekes more: and then hauing turned him to grasse till hée was well pin­ched [Page 90] with the srost: he euer after went sound.

Of the wrench in the wyther ioint.

THis commeth by treading his foote in some hole or in some rough or stonie waie: The signes to knowe it be these: The horse will halt, and his ioint will swell, so as you shall perceiue it to be bigger than the ioint of the other legge. The cure. Take héede you let no dogleaches let him bloud in the shackle veines, as I haue séene diuers of them doe, and striking him so often into the sinews and veines of the legge till they haue doubled his paines. The cure that I haue alwaies vsed is this. Take of blacke or gray Sope halfe a pound, and hauing made it hote in a panne, you shall take two or thrée good handfulles of of Towe, and dippe them in the Sope, you shall laie it hote to the horses ioint, and then hauing rolled all that ioint with a band of sixe foote long, and thrée in­ches broad, you shall let him stand one whole daie, and a night before you dresse him againe, and obserue this order euerie daie once till he be whole, and when you will roll your horse legge in this sorte, turne vp your roll rounde vppon a harde lump, as you sée the Sur­geons do: then shall you take the first end thereof, and put it vnder your foote, and hauing wrapped all the rest of the band about his legge, you may tie the two ends togither, so as you shall not wring your horses legge, I thought it good to teach you this much, for that I haue séene diuers Horseleaches, or rather Sowe­gelders, or butcherly tormentors that would laie a plai­ster with a clout vpon a horses legge, and afterwarde tie it so hard with a corde, that the medicine hath not done the horse halfe so much good as the corde hath done him harme: when I lacked Sope, I vsed Wine lées, [Page] and wheate flowar, whereof I made a p [...]ister, being warmed, which I haue found almost as good as the o­ther.

Of the Collicke.

I Coulde neuer finde by experience anie horse to haue this griefe, but when he did stand long idle in the stable, and I haue neuer vsed anie other cure than to trot him till hée was well warmed, which will cause him to breake winde, and remedie him till such time as you let him rest too long againe, which rest is the worst thing that may be for a horse that hath the Collick: the signes differeth nothing from the bottes, but that his [...]ellie will swel verie big. And if you stirre him but a little, he will winde backeward verie much.

Of the Curbe.

THis happeneth to yong horses by trauelling them too much, or by straining them otherwise, and it is a little swelling beneath the elbow of his hough on his hinder legge: it commeth by meanes that the backe or maister sinew is strained and retched too long: the signes to knowe it be these: the swelling wil be apparant to the eie, or the legge vnder his hough will séeme as though it were crooked or bowed too muche backeward, and the farther he goeth the lamer shall he be. The cure: Make an yron no thicker thā a litle straw breadth, then shall you burne him therewith, euen from the vpper ende of the swelling vnto the neather end thereof right downe the middle, and then burne on ech end of the foresaide strake two other strakes [...]n the selfe [...] so as your strakes may be no more [Page 91] but halfe [...]n inch one from another, and sée that you burne him well, but not so much on the two sides as in the middle, then shall you charge him with Pitch, Rosen, and Tarre, molten together, and flockes put vp­pon the same, & let him stand in the stable for the space of three wéeks or a moneth without stirring of him, and sée that you laie litter inough vnder him for feare of sliding.

Of the wing-gall in the hinder iointes of a Horse.

I Haue séene diuers [...] horses that with extreme trauaile would haue a soft swelling in ye inside of his hough, and it wil also goe through the hough, so as you may perceiue it on the out side of his hough, where if you thrust it or strike it but a little with your thumbe it wil be cleane gone, but it will come againe, and when you grope on the fore- side of his ioynt with your fingers, you shall féele a great soft swelling: this commeth by meanes of extreame trauaile, and your horse too young, it néedeth no other signes, for that you may [...]asilie per­ceiue it by the prescription aboue mentioned. The cure. Take vp the two master vaines on the inside of his leg both aboue and beneath his hough, and hauing tied your vaine fast on the vpper side, let him bléede well from be­lowe, and hauing made fast his vaines with a waxt thréed, then shall you [...]ouer all his hough with a thicke plaister made of Wine lées and wheate flower mingled together, and roule it with a long roule, dresse him in this sort once a daie till he be whole▪ I haue neuer vsed anie other medicine then this for anie straine or swel­ling that might happen in my horses hough or hinder ioynt, but if your wing-gall will not awaie for all this which maye happen, if it be olde and of long continu­ance, [Page] then shall you [...]it it from the neather side to the middle thereof, then hauing let the corruption out, you may heale vp the wound with the salue before recited in the Chapter of the splenting of the shulder, and when it is whole, it shall not be amisse to drawe thrée or foure stréekes with a hot yron downwardes with the haire, and to charge him thervpon, as is detlared in the Chap­ter going before, but I would not counsaile you to bée too busie in burning your horse for anie griefe that may otherwise be remodied, for the hot yron for some disea­ses or griefes is excellent, if it be vsed in time and place accordinglie, but if it be abused it is as hurtfull & dan­gerous, therefore I would not wish you to suffer anie man to burne your horse, but such as be of approued ex­perience and practise.

Of the horse that is cloied, pricked, or wrong with a naile.

THe horse is said to be wrong, when as the naile is driuen so néere the quicke, that it wringeth the horse and causeth him to halt, you may draw out the naile and powre in a little hot burning Tur­pentine, if the griefe be new, this will cure him. The horse is cloied when the naile is driuen in the quicke, & so cleanched, in this sort you shall so [...]ne perceiue by the high broching of the naile, or by striking a hammer vp­pon the clean [...]ches thereof, then if it be new done, you haue néede to doe no more then to drawe out the naile and powre in hot Turpen [...]ine as before, but if he halt as much when the naile is out, as he did before, then it shall bée good to take off the shooe and search the bot­tome of the sore, and make the hole some thing wide [Page 92] then, that the humours [...]aye haue fr [...] passage downe­wards, for otherwise it will breake out aboue, and dan­ger him to loose his hoofe, which shall not happen when the sore is wide inough at the first belowe. Hauing thus opened the hoofe and founde the bottom [...] of the sore, yée than stuffe it with [...]ine Towe or Flaxe dip­ped in Turpentine, and hogges grease moulten toge­ther once a daie if the griefe bée newe, but if it bée olde, stinking, and full of corruption, it shall bée good to dresse him twice a daie till hée bée whole. Hauing thus dressed him, make his shooe hollowe, and tack [...] it on with foure or fiue nailes, and it shall bée good to fill all the sole of his foote with Towe dipped in the foresaide medicine, and to cut a sole of the ouer lea­ther of a shooe for his foote, and make it fast with small stickes, cut them lyke splintes, and so that your shooe be made so hollowe that you may [...]astlie dresse your horse without taking off the shooe at euerie time, and during this [...]ure let him tread on no wet, but if the griefe burst out aboue the toppe of his hoofe, then it shall bée good to cut awaie the sole of his foote an inch broade alongst the side, so farre as you shall finde the horne loose from his foote, and to dresse him with spunge wet on the one side in the foresaide medicine, then shall you take two or thrée egges, yolkes and whites and all beaten together, and adde therevnto an ounce of bole Armo­niacke, and as much Beane or Wheate meale as will thicken the same, make a plaister thereof two fingers broade, and as long as will goe rounde on the toppe of the horses hoofe, binde it fast with a roule, and renue it once a daie, but belowe dresse him twice a daie vn­till hée be perfectlie whole. But if you chaunce at a­nie time to haue your horse through euill dressing so farre gone, that neither this binding charge aboue, nor the greate issue belowe will anie thing helpe him, [Page] but that his gri [...] [...]eth all [...] [...]or rather w [...]th worse and worse, then shal you perfectlie with adrawer begin to cut a slit euen at the top of the horne to the nea­ther edge thereof clean [...] through to the quick at the one end of the loose place, then at the other [...]d of the horne so loosed from his foo [...]e, there shall you begin to cut ano­ther slit, in such sort as you may plucke the loose péere cleane awaie, then may you sée whether there be proude flesh, high gristell, or little wartes or buttons of vitious and vile flesh, then may you cut them awaie with a ra­so [...], and laie on pouder of du [...]nt Allome, and a plaister made of the medicine before rec [...]ted in the Chapter of the shoulder splent, and make a doote for him till hée bée whole, thus may you heale your horse of anie such griefe of false quarter perfectlie without anie danger, the false quarter is no other thing but a clift or open right euen [...]om the top of the horses hoofe to the bottome thereof, and it will be so painfull, that it will cause the horse to halt, and it will bleede in the trauailing vppon harde ground, and néed [...]th no other cure but with a drawer to cut awaie the horne of each side thereof halfe an inch on euerie side of the slit, so as you may take awaie the ho [...]ne an inch broad euen from the toppe thereof to the bottome, by this meanes the horne shall growe downe whole and so [...]nd, thou must dresse him as before, & put a boote vpon his foote.

Of a pricke in the sole of the foote with a channell naile, rustie yron, stub, or sharpe stone.

THe cure Open the mouth of the sore, and hauing searched the bottome with a quill, then powre in Turpentine and hogs greas [...] together boiling hot, & put therin a little fine flaxe or cotton made of linn [...] [Page 93] clothes dresse him in this sorte twice a daie, and in a péece of leather, as before, that the medicine fall not out.

Of the Horse that is grauelled.

THis commeth by reason that grauel getteth in vn­der his shooe, and so fretteth the horne: the signes to knowe it be these: the horse will halt, and if you put your knife point betwixt his héele & the spring of his shooe, you shall straight perceiue the grauel which wil crash vpon your knife. The cure. Take off his shoo, pare his foote, picke out the grauell, and mend the shooe, and set it on againe, and put therein a little Turpen­tine, shéepes Suet, and Waxe molten together, and stuffe it well with a little Towe or Flaxe.

Of the Surbate.

THis seldome hapneth to a horse with a good hoofe, those that are flat footed are most subiect to this disease, it commeth by trauailing on hard wayes in the Summer time, or else by riding him vpon sto­nie and hard mountaines. The signes to knowe it bée these: the horse will halt much more vppon harde ground than vppon softe, I neuer had anie horse lame of this griefe but one, and that on one foote onlie, which horse I cured in this sorte: I roasted a couple of egges hard, & hauing first powred hot Sallet oile in my horses foote, I thrust the hot egges in also, and tyed them fast with a cloth ouer his foote, and letting him stande all night, I found him sound the next morning, and so con­tinued all my iourney, which was aboue thrée score French leagues.

Of the rotten or matering frush.

THis commeth for lacke of paring and cleane kée­ping of the foote. The signes to know it are these: the horses frogge or frush will runne of filthie and stinking water. The cure. Take off the shoo and pare his foote well, if you will wast your labour and charges, you may [...]aie anie other medicine vnto it, but I for my part neuer vsed anie other medicine than to pare my horses foote, as hath béene aforesaide, and to kéepe it cleane.

Of the manginesse in the taile and mane.

THis commeth commonlie by the meanes of dust fal­ling out of the racke, and for lacke of combing his mane, and for want of currying and rubbing him vn­der his mane fast by the rootes thereof. The cure. If it bée in the mane let him bloud on the necke, and cut awaie the haire a finger breadth cleane through the middle of his mane, euen from the wythers to the [...]ares, so as on what side so [...]uer you turne the mane no man can perceiue one haire thereof to bée cut, then shall you with a hotte yron so bigge as your little finger, burne all the place where you cut his haire euen from the one end to the other of his mane, then fill all that same burned place or surrowe full of blacke Sope, and if you would kéepe your horse from itch, it shall not bée amisse when that you perceiue the haire to come again, to burne him as before, and this will cause his mane to be a great deale the finer, and thereby shall be the lesse subiect to itch. If it be in the taile wash him with strong lée and Sope.

Of the falling of the creast.

THis commeth most commonlie when a fat horse falleth lea [...]e by sicknesse or trauaile, it néedeth no signes, for that you may easilie know it by meanes that the horses creast will hang all on one side, it was my fortune to finde one of these horses at Sir Hen­rie Cromwels in Huntington shéere. This was a blacke baie horse in the Quéenes Stable, named baie Storie, he had turned him to grasse for a Stallion, and hauing shewed him to me, and commended him for a meruai­lous readie and seruiceable horse, with all he tolde mée that if I would venture to dresse him according to the order set downe by that famous Marshall Martine Al­mon, that hée would venture his Horse, for (quoth hée) as he is, I estéeme him nothing at all, but in fine he read me his booke, shewed me the figure, and I burnt the horse accordinglie, but séeing him neuer a whit the bet­ter, but that in time I sawe his creast beganne to sattle downe as lowe as euer it did, I sitting vppon the barre by him one daie, I set my left hande on his mane, and pulled ouer his creast on the right side, and then fastning my right hande close vppon the skinne at the fore edge of his shoulder, a foot and some thing more beneath his creast, and then letting my left hande goe, and helping my right hande also with my left to holde the foresayd skinne, I therewith holde his creast so vp­right as euer it did stand in all his life, by which triall I founde that if that skinne coulde be so shrinked and kept vppe short, that it was the onelie waie to holde vppe his creast, but I founde that it was [Page] waxed so great, for that it had béene fallen foure yéeres, that if I had set it vp by the foresayd meanes, that then it would fall on the other side. I deuised with my selfe a great manie of daies what were best to doe, and I e­uer carrying so obstinate a minde, that I disdayned to haue begunne anie thing which I shoulde not bée able to performe, at the [...]ngth it came to my minde to dresse him as héere vnder followeth.

Hauing cast the horse vppon a softe dunghill, I with a long knife cut awaie the flesh on the hanging or vn­der side of the creast, euen from the sore end thereof to the hinder end, sixe inches broad, and two inches thick, and something more in the middle there [...]f, where it was thickest, & groping the creast with my two handes where it was thicke, I cut and pared it so long, till I made it iust of one thicknesse, then holding the horse stil fast bound, I couered all the place with great handfulls of Swines dung, which I caused to be holden fast with mens hands for the space of an houre, in which time the bloud was perfectlie stauncht, then I let the horse rise, led him into the stable, and tied him in such sorte, that hée could neither rubbe his necke nor lie downe, and the next morning betimes I thr [...]we good store of burnt Al­lome vppon all the sore place, and so I let him stande for the spa [...]e of two dayes, neuer touching the wound for feare of making it bléede, and at the two dayes end, I faire and softly bathed the place with a lynnen cloth dipped in warme pisse, and then hauing dryed the sore, I threwe on burnt Allome beaten into fine pou­der, and after I perceiued it to bée well fastned and thorough drie, I anointed him with Vnguentum al­bum, round about the edges of the sor [...] a quarter of an inch broade. In this sorte did I dresse him euerie daie once on that side of the creast that did fall, and howe I dressed the contrarie side héereafter followeth: [Page 95] I did first plat or trace all his mane on the contrarie side, and then I made fast with strong thongs or points of leather, a cudgel of a foote and an halfe long, to the ends of the foresaid plattings of the mane, then I didde hang to the middle of the foresaide cudgell, a péece of lead with a hole in it, of such waight as did poise his creast, and holde it vpright in his due place, then did I burne long strikes, beginning at his creast, and ending euer almost as lowe as the point of his shoulder of the same side as the weight did hang, and they were no more but an inch and an halfe one from an other, and I burned them also well with an yron halfe an inch thicke, but whereas I made but si [...]e great strikes, if I had made twelue verie small ones, it had béene much better, bicause that when he had béene healed, it would not haue béene halfe so much séene. But to conclude: I charged the burnt places with Pitch, Tarre, and Rozen molten togither, and let my weight hang vntill he was throughly healed in both sides of his necke, with this I set vp his crest so stiffe that it is not possible to stirre it, neither to the one side nor to the other, but it will pre­sently returne into his proper place againe, and so con­tinue.

Of the vpper taint.

THis is a swelling in the backe or maister sinew of the foreleg, and commeth by meanes that the horse striketh the sinew with the toe of his hinder foote, it néedeth no signes for that you may easily per­ceiue it by the halting of your horse, and by the long swelling that will remaine vppon the forenamed si­new, you shall cure it perfectly by dressing him euerie daie once with a plaister made of Wine lées and wheat [...]owar, as hash beene before taught, or else you may [Page] take blacke Sope and Bores grease of each like quanti­tie, sealding hote, make a plaister thereof, so long and broad as the swelling, with these two last named me­dicines, I haue neuer failed to cure my horse of any grief in his legges, that commeth either by straine or stroke, and if at any time you make your horse go sound with the foresaid medicines, and that some swelling remai­neth, or vile vitious sore, that you can with no salue or medicine heale it, then shall you burne all his leg with long strikes from the vpper part of the swelling vnto the neathermost parte thereof, drawing your strikes downeward with the haire, which order you must ob­serue in burning anie horse, that you drawe your hand so neare as you can with the haire, and that you make the edge of your yron very thin, and burne your strikes thicke, and also somewhat déepe, and after his burning annoint his leg with blacke Sope two or thrée times: but if it be a gelding, turne him to grasse, wherewith you shall finde him perfectly cured within a short space, but if it be such an horse as you can not turne to grasse, sée that you exercise him euerie daie twice at the least.

Of the paines, scratches, moulie heeles, or anie other scuruie scalles whatsoeuer, that may breede in a hor­ses legges or heeles, whether they come by meanes of euil humors, or for lacke of good dressing, or cleane keeping, whether they be matterie and filthie run­ning sores, or drie scabs, you shal cure them perfectly with this medicine.

TAke of Turpentine, Hogs grease, Honie, and blacke Sope, of ech like quantitie, and hauing molten them vpon a soft fire, take it off and put in a little bole Ar­moniacke finely beaten into powder, then worke all these things well togither with a sticke in your right [Page 96] hand, and a dish of wheate flowar by you, that with your left hand you may put it in a little at once til you haue made it thicke like an ointment or soft salue, then shall you make a plaister vpon canuas or linnen cloth, so bigge as the sore, and hauing first cut away the haire applie your plaister, and dresse him in this sort once a daie vntill he be whole.

Of the Fistula or anie hollow vlcer that may breede in anie part of your horses bodie, either by euil curing of a wound, or by bruise, stroke, or wringing with an e­uil saddle vpon his wythers.

THis is an hollow filthie mattering vlcer, and most commonly a great deale straiter at the mouth than within. The cure. First search the bottome ther­of with a Goose or Swannes quill, or with a small rod well couered with fine linnen cloth, and hauing found the bottom thereof, cut it so large with a razor, that the matter may haue frée passage downeward, for other­wise it shall be hard to cure it, by reason that the matter standing in the sore shall fret the good flesh, and make the wound daily greater. But take héede that in laun­cing it, you cut not anie master sinew, for a sinewe once cut will neuer growe togither againe: hauing stanched the bloud with Swines dung, you shall then take of honie one pinte, of Verdegréese one ounce, and boile these togither vpon a soft fire thrée quarters of an houre: then hauing cle [...]sed the wound or sore, by ty­ing a teint of [...]re or fine linnen cloth to the point of your quil, with a thréede drawe it softly into the wound, then cut off your quill or feather so long that you may take good holde in the neather end of the teint, that then shall come out at the bottome of your sore: then dippe an other teint in the foresaide salue or ointment, and [Page] then with a néedle and a thréede make fast your teint to your first clot at the vpper ende thereof, then drawe out your first teint downeward, so shal you draw your teint with the medicine eastly into the wound, and your first teint wil haue cleansed the sore very cleane: and if the matter do abound much, then it shall be good to dresse him twice a daie, but you must not dresse him with this medicine no more but one daie, and afterward you shal dresse him with this medicine folowing: Take of Tur­pentine and Swines grease, Honie, and shéeps Suet, of eche like quantitie, melt them togither, and make a salue thereof wherewith you shal dresse your horse foure daies for one daie that you dresse him with your former medicine made of Honie and Verdegréese, and take héed that you make your teint of verie soft linnen cloth, [...]or fine flaxe, and let not your teint be too bigge after the first two times dressing, but presently after the firste dressing ye must couer all the sore place, and rounde a­bout the same with this pultis here following. First take two gallons of faire water, and hauing boiled and scūmed it so long til you haue perfectly cleansed it of al corruption, then take two or thrée handfulles of Mal­lowes, and as much of Violet leaues, and two or thrée handfulles of Date meale, and hauing boiled all these thrée things well in your former prepared water, you shall adde thereto of Hogs mort, and fresh Butter, of each a pound, then shall you let it boile so long till it become thicke like Paste or Pappe, and then applie it hote to the sore so as hath béene before taught, and take great héede, that in opening this sore you let not anie one strike into it, and on the other side, that you kéepe it not too hote: and if it be in the horses withers, you must take héede that you tie his heed to the racke so as he may neither lie downe, nor put his head lower than his manger: for if you suffer him to féed on the ground, [Page 97] when he hath anie gréeuous sore in his wythers, if shal hardly be possible euer to cure him. But if you perceiue the wound to heale a pace, and that it matter but a lit­tle, then shall it be inough to dresse him once a daie, and also it shall be good to take great héede that you make not your teint too bigge, and sée that you vse your poultis till he be perfectly cured.

The sixt booke of the Smith.

Of paring and shooing.

OF the sound and good foote: I cal that a sound and good foot that is holow, round and vpright, so as the horse may treade almost as high at his héele, as at the to, and also this hoofe is something large at the héels, but yet vpright without tur­ning togither, or without spreading abroad.

How to pare the good foote.

YOu shall pare it verie little at the héele, that is to saie, no more but to plaine the seate of your shooe, but forward towards the toe you may pare it something more: also open his héeles well, and pare the sole of his foot something thinne, if it be in faire weather, but if in frostie weather and stonie waies, you must trauell, it shall not be good to pare your horse thinne vpon the sole of his foote for feare of laming him, and if he should chance to cast a shoo, he shall not be able to set his foote to the ground.

How to make the shooe for the sound hoofe.

FIrst make it of such yron as will not breake, and so light as is possible, so as it be strong ynough to beare your horse, and make it of a verie nar­row webbe, and let it be something bro [...]der in the toe than at the spunges or calcons: let it also be strong in the toe, and round about, and round about the in edge: let it also be something strong in the two spunges or calcons, which calcons are the best kinde of shooing for a sound and good hoofe: let the calcons also be but short, and blunt at the points, for feare least hee sette one foote vpon an other: and sée that you make it ful as straight as the horne, so farre as the nailes goeth, and pierce the holes so far from the edge, that when you would driue your nailes, you may set them right in the middle of the holes, and take good holde, for by piercing them too néere the edge of your shooe, you shall be forced to make it fit within the horne: for if you would make it large inough, then shal you be forced to set your nailes so néere vpon the in edge of the hole, that thereby you shal cleaue off the outside of your horses horne, which a number of ignorant Smiths do little consider, that they do vtterly spoile ye horses hoofe thereby. But to the mat­ter: you shall let your shooe from the two héele nailes backward lie the thicknes of your naile shanke without the horne, & giue this shoo 9. nailes, that is to say, foure on ech side, & one right in the middle of the toe, & let the spunges thereof sit a straw breadth behinde the corner of the offine, & let the heades of your nailes be so fit for ye holes that they may enter into the shoo, so as they may not stand aboue halfe a strawe breadth higher: for if the heades be high, and the holes strait on the outside, then shal they s [...]ne breake off, or else turne aside, and there­by breake the clause, the head of the naile, and the hole would be made in such sorte, that when you driue [Page 98] your naile in the shooe, you shall not be able to get it out againe: yea I would not wish you to let any such oxe shooers, shoo your horse, as to loose their nailes, and worke the holes of their shooes so wide on the inside as on the outside: for in the true knowledge of shooing I am sure it is required to make the holes so wide on the outside, as the head may iustly enter into the same, and on the in side so strait, as the shanke of the naile or necke may haue no libertie to moue to or fro. Also take heeds that you hollow your shooe verie little.

Of paring and shooing the hinder foote.

IN paring the hinder foote, cut but a verie little of the toe: also make your shooe a little stronger at the toe than behinde, and take héede that you driue not any naile in the toe of the hinder foote, nor take so much and so déep hold with your nailes, as that the héele for the chiefe strength of the hinder foote is at the héeles, and of the forefoote in the toe.

Of the splay or crooked foote.

THe hoofe is saide to be splaid or crooked when the one side is higher than the other, so as the hoofe séemeth to be a great deale larger on the one side than on the other. But it is much worse whē it is higher on the outside than on the inside: for therby it shal make the horse tread inward, & strike the one leg against the other, & lame himself: the remedie is to pare his larger side wel, and pare nothing on the other side, but onelie to euen the side of your shooe.

How to pare and shooe the flat foote.

THe foote is said to be slat when it is so high in the middle as on the outside, you shall p [...]re it as litle as is possible at the héeles, you may part it well at the toe, and on the sole verie little, holowe your shoo well, [Page] make it with a broad web strong about the in edge, and at the spunges, & take héede that you make no calcons for anie horse that hath a weake or straight foote, and let it lie at the héeles without the horne, and rounde a­bout full as long as the foot, and it will be good to pierce your holes somewhat farther from the edge, than you do for him that hath a perfect foote.

How to shoe a horse that ouer-reacheth.

MAke his shooe no longer before than the héele of his horne doth of necessitie require, and at the toe end of the hinder foote, set your shooe a full quarter of an inch shorter than the horne, which horne you must not cut, but let it hang ouer the shooe: this is the perfectest waie or remedie that euer I could find for him that ouer-reacheth.

For the horse that enterfeers.

THis commeth vndoubtedly through weakenesse of bodie, for that he is ridden too yong. The best remedie that euer I coulde finde is to pare the foote on the out side, and also to breake off the calcon on the outside of the shooe, and to leaue it a litle thicker on the inside than on the outside. Also you must cause the shooe to be made to lie within the horne, from the héele naile to the formost naile on the inside, but at the héele let it lie something without the horne, as well on the inside as on the outside: for otherwise the spunge shall sincke into his héele, and so consume the same, that it shall be lower than the outside, so that the shooe by consuming the héele on the one side, and the Smith paring him on the other side, shall cleane marre your horses foote.

For an horse that hath an eu [...]l hoofe.

LEt your horse stand vpon his owne d [...]g, and throw water vpon it good store, and euerie night take it a­waie till the next morning that he be dreast: this is verie good to recouer a horse hoofe that is euill through the negligence of his kéeper, but if so be your hors [...]s hoofe be reasonable good, and that you would kéepe the same and make it soft and tough, then annoint it euerie daie once with Turpentine, Hogs grease and Honie, and of each like quantitie molten together.

For the horse that hath naturallie an euill hoofe, or hath bene foundred, by meanes whereof his hoofe is so marred that he is not able to carrie a shooe.

FIrst shooe him in the new of the Moone with high shooes, vpon the second or third daie after ye change, then make him a paire of bootes in this sort: first cut a péece of strong leather a finger breadth larger then the horses foot, which is best done by laying the horse shooe vpon the leather, then shall you cut so much of the legge of an olde boote as will goe about the fore­named sole, then close it fast round about vpon the edge of your sole, and let it be sire inches long, and as wide aboue as belowe, then put it on the horses foote and marke it round about an inch aboue the horses hoofe, thē take it off againe and cut it full of long flits, so as you may passe a péece of leather of an inch broad with a buc­kle vpon the same, that you may make it fast vpon the horse foot, then shall you take Turpentine, Hogs grease, and Honnie, of each a like quantitie, melt them all to­gether, and being warme, anoint the horse foot therwith, then shall you dip a cloth therein, with the which you must stop the horses foote before you put on his boote, it [Page] shall be verie goo [...] to [...] a péece of soft cotton round a­bout the toppe [...] the horses foote, being first dipt in the foresaid medi [...]ne. T [...]al not onelie defend your hor­ses foote fro [...] galding with the girdle or boote, but the warmnes [...]e of the cloth shal wonderfullie cause the horse foote t [...] increase, it shall be good to take off his [...]oote euerie two daies once, and to let him stand foure houres at the least be­fore you dresse him, and put on his boote to the end he may rest his foote.

FINIS.

IMPRINTED AT London by Thomas East for Thomas Cadman, dwelling in Paules Churchyard at the signe of the Bible.

1585.

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